IBM XIV Storage System: Copy Services and - e

Front cover
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SG24-7759-01
IBM XIV Storage System:
Copy Services and Migration
Learn details of the Copy Services and
Migration functions
Explore practical scenarios for
Snapshot and Mirroring
Review Host Platform
Specific Considerations
Bert Dufrasne
Roger Eriksson
Wilhelm Gardt
Jana Jamsek
Nils Nause
Markus Oscheka
Carlo Saba
ibm.com/redbooks
Eugene Tsypin
Kip Wagner
Alexander Warmuth
Axel Westphal
Ralf Wohlfarth
Draft Document for Review January 23, 2011 12:42 pm
7759edno.fm
International Technical Support Organization
IBM XIV Storage System: Copy Services and Migration
August 2010
SG24-7759-01
7759edno.fm
Draft Document for Review January 23, 2011 12:42 pm
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on
page xi.
Second Edition (August 2010)
This edition applies to Version 10.2.2 of the IBM XIV Storage System Software and Version 2.5 of the IBM XIV
Storage System Hardware.
This document created or updated on January 23, 2011.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2010. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
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IBM XIV Storage System: Copy Services and Migration
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Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
The team who wrote this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Now you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Stay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Chapter 1. Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Snapshots architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Snapshot handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.1 Creating a snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.2 Viewing snapshot details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.3 Deletion priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.4 Restore a snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.5 Overwriting snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.6 Unlocking a snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.7 Locking a snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.2.8 Deleting a snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.2.9 Automatic deletion of a snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.3 Snapshots consistency group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.3.1 Creating a consistency group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.3.2 Creating a snapshot using consistency groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3.3 Managing a consistency group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.3.4 Deleting a consistency group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.4 Snapshot with remote mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.5 MySQL database backup example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.6 Snapshot example for a DB2 database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Chapter 2. Volume copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Volume copy architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Performing a volume copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Creating an OS image with volume copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3. Remote Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 XIV Remote Mirroring overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 XIV Remote Mirror terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 XIV Remote Mirroring modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Mirroring schemes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Peer designations and roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Operational procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Mirroring status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 XIV Remote Mirroring usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 XIV Remote Mirroring actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Defining the XIV mirroring target. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Setting the maximum initialization and synchronization rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 Connecting XIV mirroring ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.4 Defining the XIV mirror coupling and peers: volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.4.5 Activating an XIV mirror coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
3.4.6 Adding volume mirror coupling to consistency group mirror coupling. . . . . . . . . . 75
3.4.7 Normal operation: volume mirror coupling and CG mirror coupling . . . . . . . . . . . 76
3.4.8 Deactivating XIV mirror coupling: change recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.4.9 Changing role of slave volume or CG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.4.10 Changing role of master volume or CG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3.4.11 Mirror reactivation and resynchronization: normal direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.4.12 Reactivation, resynchronization, and reverse direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.4.13 Switching roles of mirrored volumes or CGs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.4.14 Adding a mirrored volume to a mirrored consistency group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.4.15 Removing a mirrored volume from a mirrored consistency group . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.4.16 Deleting mirror coupling definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.5 Best practice usage scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.5.1 Failure at primary site: switch production to secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.5.2 Complete destruction of XIV 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.5.3 Using an extra copy for DR tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.5.4 Creating application-consistent data at both local and the remote sites . . . . . . . . 87
3.5.5 Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.5.6 Adding data corruption protection to disaster recovery protection . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.5.7 Communication failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.5.8 Temporary deactivation and reactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.6 Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.7 Advantages of XIV mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.8 Mirroring events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.9 Mirroring statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.10 Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.11 Using the GUI or XCLI for Remote Mirroring actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.11.1 Initial setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.11.2 Remote mirror target configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.11.3 XCLI examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.12 Configuring Remote Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Chapter 4. Synchronous Remote Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Synchronous mirroring configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Volume mirroring setup and activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Consistency group setup and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Coupling activation, deactivation, and deletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Disaster recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Role reversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Switching roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Change role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Resynchronization after link failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Last consistent snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2 Last consistent snapshot timestamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Synchronous mirror step-by-step scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 Phase 1: setup and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 Phase 2: disaster at primary site. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.3 Phase 3: recovery of the primary site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4 Phase 4: switching production back to the primary site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 5. Asynchronous remote mirroring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.1 Asynchronous mirroring configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.1.1 Volume mirroring setup and activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
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5.1.2 Consistency group configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 Coupling activation, deactivation, and deletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Role reversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Resynchronization after link failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Disaster recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Mirroring process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1 Initialization process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Ongoing mirroring operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3 Mirroring consistency groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.4 Ad-hoc snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.5 Mirroring special snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 Detailed asynchronous mirroring process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7 Asynchronous mirror step-by-step illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1 Mirror initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2 Remote backup scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3 DR testing scenario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 Pool space depletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 6. Open Systems considerations for Copy Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1 AIX specifics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 AIX and Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 AIX and Remote Mirroring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Copy Services using VERITAS Volume Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 HP-UX and Copy Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 HP-UX and XIV snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 HP-UX with XIV Remote Mirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 VMware Virtual Infrastructure and Copy Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 Virtual machine considerations regarding Copy Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 7. IBM i considerations for Copy Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 IBM i functions and XIV as external storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 IBM i structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2 Single-level storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3 Auxiliary storage pools (ASPs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Boot from SAN and cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Setup of our implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Snapshots with IBM i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 Solution benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.2 Disk capacity for the snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.3 Power-down IBM i method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.4 Quiescing IBM i and using snapshot consistency group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.5 Automation of the solution with snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 Synchronous Remote Mirroring with IBM i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 Solution benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 Planning the bandwidth for Remote Mirroring links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3 Setup of synchronous Remote Mirroring for IBM i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.4 Scenario for planned outages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.5 Scenario for unplanned outages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 Asynchronous Remote Mirroring with IBM i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1 Benefits of asynchronous Remote Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.2 Setup of asynchronous Remote Mirroring for IBM i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.3 Scenario for planned outages and disasters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Handling I/O requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Data migration steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1 Initial connection setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2 Creating a data migration volume on XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.3 Activate a data migration on XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.4 Define the host on XIV and bring host online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.5 Complete the data migration on XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Command-line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1 Using XCLI scripts or batch files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2 Sample scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Manually creating the migration volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6 Changing and monitoring the progress of a migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.1 Changing the synchronization rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.2 Monitoring migration speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.3 Monitoring migration via the XIV event log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.4 Monitoring migration speed via the fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.5 Monitoring migration speed via the non-XIV storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 Thick-to-thin migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8 Resizing the XIV volume after migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.1 Target connectivity fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.2 Remote volume LUN is unavailable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.3 Local volume is not formatted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.4 Host server cannot access the XIV migration volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.5 Remote volume cannot be read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.6 LUN is out of range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10 Backing out of a data migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10.1 Back-out prior to migration being defined on the XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10.2 Back-out after a data migration has been defined but not activated . . . . . . . . .
8.10.3 Back-out after a data migration has been activated but is not complete. . . . . .
8.10.4 Back-out after a data migration has reached the synchronised state . . . . . . . .
8.11 Migration checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12 Device-specific considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12.1 EMC CLARiiON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12.2 EMC Symmetrix and DMX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12.3 HDS TagmaStore USP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12.4 HP EVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12.5 IBM DS3000/DS4000/DS5000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12.6 IBM ESS E20/F20/800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.12.7 IBM DS6000 and DS8000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.13 Sample migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 9. SVC migration with XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1 Steps to take when using SVC migration with XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 XIV and SVC interoperability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1 Firmware versions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2 Copy functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.3 TPC with XIV and SVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Zoning setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1 Capacity on demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.2 Determining XIV WWPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.3 Hardware dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9.3.4 Sharing an XIV with another SVC cluster or non-SVC hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.5 Zoning rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4 Volume size considerations for XIV with SVC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1 SCSI queue depth considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.2 XIV volume sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.3 Creating XIV volumes that are exactly the same size as SVC VDisks . . . . . . . .
9.4.4 SVC 2TB volume limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.5 MDisk group creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.6 SVC MDisk group extent sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5 Using an XIV for SVC quorum disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6 Configuring an XIV for attachment to SVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.1 XIV setup steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.2 SVC setup steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7 Data movement strategy overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.1 Using SVC migration to move data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.2 Using VDisk mirroring to move the data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.3 Using SVC migration with image mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8 Using SVC migration to move data to XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8.1 Determine the required extent size and VDisk candidates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8.2 Create the MDisk group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8.3 Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9 Using VDisk mirroring to move the data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.1 Determine the required extent size and VDisk candidates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.2 Create the MDisk group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.3 Set up the IO group for mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.4 Create the mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.5 Validating a VDisk copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.6 Removing the VDisk copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10 Using SVC migration with image mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.1 Create image mode destination volumes on the XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.2 Migrate the VDisk to image mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.3 Outage step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.4 Bring the VDisk online. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.5 Migration from image mode to managed mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.6 Remove image mode MDisks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.7 Use transitional space as managed space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.8 Remove non-XIV MDisks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.11 Future configuration tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.11.1 Adding additional capacity to the XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.11.2 Using additional XIV host ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.12 Understanding the SVC controller path values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.13 SVC with XIV implementation checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbooks publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to get IBM Redbooks publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
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Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult
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program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does not
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PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR
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COPYRIGHT LICENSE:
This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrate programming
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cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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Trademarks
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marked on their first occurrence in this information with the appropriate symbol (® or ™), indicating US
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The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,
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Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.
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Preface
This IBM® Redbooks® publication provides a practical understanding of the XIV® Storage
System copy and migration functions. The XIV Storage System has a rich set of copy
functions suited for various data protection scenarios, which enables clients to enhance their
business continuance, data migration, and online backup solutions. These functions allow
point-in-time copies, known as snapshots and full volume copies, and also include remote
copy capabilities in either synchronous or asynchronous mode. These functions are included
in the XIV software and all their features are available at no additional charge.
The various copy functions are reviewed under separate chapters that include detailed
information about usage, as well as practical illustrations.
This book also explains the XIV built-in migration capability, and presents migration
alternatives based on the San Volume Controller (SVC).
Note: GUI and XCLI illustrations included in this book were created with an early version of
the 10.2.2 code, as available at the time of writing. There could be minor differences with
the XIV 10.2.2 code that is publicly released.
This book is intended for anyone who needs a detailed and practical understanding of the XIV
copy functions.
The team who wrote this book
This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the
International Technical Support Organization, San Jose Center.
Bertrand Dufrasne is an IBM Certified Consulting I/T Specialist and Project Leader for
System Storage™ disk products at the International Technical Support Organization, San
Jose Center. He has worked at IBM in various I/T areas. He has authored many IBM
Redbooks publications and has also developed and taught technical workshops. Before
joining the ITSO, he worked for IBM Global Services as an Application Architect. He holds a
Masters degree in Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic Faculty of Mons (Belgium).
Roger Eriksson is a STG Lab Services consultant, based in Stockholm, Sweden and
working for the European Storage Competence Center in Mainz, Germany. He is a Senior
Accredited IBM Product Service Professional. Roger has over 20 years experience working
on IBM servers and storage, including Enterprise and Midrange disk, NAS, SAN, System x®,
System p® and Bladecenters. He has been working with consulting, proof of concepts and
education mainly with XIV product line since December 2008, working with both clients and
various IBM teams worldwide. He holds a Technical Collage Graduation in Mechanical
Engineering.
Wilhelm Gardt holds a degree in Computer Sciences from the University of Kaiserslautern,
Germany. He worked as a software developer and subsequently as an IT specialist designing
and implementing heterogeneous IT environments (SAP®, Oracle®, AIX®, HP-UX, SAN
etc.). In 2001 he joined the IBM TotalStorage® Interoperability Centre (now Systems Lab
Europe) in Mainz where he performed customer briefings and proof of concepts on IBM
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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storage products. Since September 2004 he is a member of the Technical Pre-Sales Support
team for IBM Storage (Advanced Technical Support).
Jana Jamsek is an IT Specialist for IBM Slovenia. She works in Storage Advanced Technical
Support for Europe as a specialist for IBM Storage Systems and the IBM i (i5/OS®) operating
system. Jana has eight years of experience in working with the IBM System i® platform and
its predecessor models, as well as eight years of experience in working with storage. She has
a master degree in computer science and a degree in mathematics from the University of
Ljubljana in Slovenia.
Nils Nause is a Storage Support Specialist for IBM XIV Storage Systems and is located at
IBM Mainz, Germany. Nils joined IBM is summer 2005, responsible for Proof of Concepts
(PoCs) and delivering briefings for several IBM products. In July 2008 he started working for
the XIV post sales support, with the special focus on Oracle Solaris attachment, as well as
overall security aspects of the XIV Storage System. He holds a degree in computer science
from the university of applied science in Wernigerode, Germany.
Markus Oscheka is an IT Specialist for Proof of Concepts and Benchmarks in the Disk
Solution Europe team in Mainz, Germany. His areas of expertise include setup and
demonstration of IBM System Storage and TotalStorage solutions in various environments
like AIX, Linux®, Windows®, VMware ESX and Solaris. He has worked at IBM for nine years.
He has performed many Proof of Concepts with Copy Services on DS6000/DS8000/XIV, as
well as Performance-Benchmarks with DS4000/DS6000/DS8000/XIV. He has written
extensively in various IBM Redbooks and act also as the co-project lead for these Redbooks,
including DS6000/DS8000® Architecture and Implementation, DS6000/DS8000 Copy
Services, and IBM XIV Storage System: Concepts, Architecture and Usage. He holds a
degree in Electrical Engineering from the Technical University in Darmstadt.
Carlo Saba iis a Test Engineer for XIV in Tucson, AZ. He has been working with the product
since shortly after its introduction and is a Certified XIV Administrator. Carlo graduated from
the University of Arizona in 2007 with a BSBA in MIS and minor in Spanish.
Eugene Tsypin is an IT Specialist who currently works for IBM STG Storage Systems Sales
in Russia. Eugene has over 15 years of experience in the IT field, ranging from systems
administration to enterprise storage architecture. He is working as Field Technical Sales
Support for storage systems. His areas of expertise include performance analysis and
disaster recovery solutions in enterprises utilizing the unique capabilities and features of the
IBM XIV Storage System and others IBM storage, server and software products.
Kip Wagner is an Advisory Product Engineer for XIV in Tucson, Arizona. He has more than
24 years experience in field support and systems engineering and is a Certified XIV Engineer
and Administrator. Kip was a member of the initial IBM XIV product launch team who helped
design and implement a world wide support structure specifically for XIV. He also helped
develop training material and service documentation used in the support organization. He is
currently the team leader for XIV product field engineering supporting customers in North and
South America. He also works with a team of engineers from around the world to provide field
experience feedback into the development process to help improve product quality, reliability
and serviceability.
Alexander Warmuth is a Senior IT Specialist in IBM's European Storage Competence
Center. Working in technical sales support, he designs and promotes new and complex
storage solutions, drives the introduction of new products and provides advice to customers,
business partners and sales. His main areas of expertise are: high end storage solutions,
business resiliency, Linux and storage. He joined IBM in 1993 and is working in technical
sales support since 2001. Alexander holds a diploma in Electrical Engineering from the
University of Erlangen, Germany.
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Axel Westphal is working as an IT Specialist for Workshops and Proof of Concepts at the
IBM European Storage Competence Center (ESCC) in Mainz, Germany. He joined IBM in
1996, working for Global Services as a System Engineer. His areas of expertise include setup
and demonstration of IBM System Storage products and solutions in various environments.
Since 2004 he is responsible for stroage solutions and Proof of Concepts conducted at the
ESSC with DS8000, SAN Volume Controller and XIV. He has been a contributing author to
several DS6000™ and DS8000 related IBM Redbooks publications.
Ralf Wohlfarth is an IT Specialist in the IBM European Storage Competence Center in
Mainz, working in technical sales support with focus on the IBM XIV Storage System. In 1998
he joined IBM and has been working in last level product support for IBM System Storage and
Software since 2004. He had the lead for post sales education during a product launch of an
IBM Storage Subsystem and resolved complex customer situations. During an assignment in
the US he acted as liaison into development and has been driving product improvements into
hardware and software development. Ralf holds a master degree in Electrical Engineering,
with main subject telecommunication from the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.
Thanks to the authors of the previous edition: Aubrey Applewhaite, David Denny, Jawed Iqbal,
Christina Lara, Lisa Martinez, Rosemary McCutchen, Hank Sautter, Stephen Solewin,
Anthony Vandewerdt, Ron Verbeek, Pete Wendler, Roland Wolf.
Special thanks to Rami Elron for his help with and advice on many of the topics covered in
this book.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
John Bynum, Iddo Jacobi, Aviad Offer, Moriel Lechtman, Jim Segdwick, Brian Sherman, Juan
Yanes
Now you can become a published author, too!
Here's an opportunity to spotlight your skills, grow your career, and become a published
author - all at the same time! Join an ITSO residency project and help write a book in your
area of expertise, while honing your experience using leading-edge technologies. Your efforts
will help to increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction, as you expand your
network of technical contacts and relationships. Residencies run from two to six weeks in
length, and you can participate either in person or as a remote resident working from your
home base.
Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at:
ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.html
Preface
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Comments welcome
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1
Chapter 1.
Snapshots
The XIV Storage System has a rich set of copy functions suited for various data protection
scenarios, which enables clients to enhance their business continuance, data migration, and
online backup solutions. This chapter provides an overview of the snapshot function for the
XIV product.
A snapshot is a point-in-time copy of a volume’s data. The XIV snapshot is based on several
innovative technologies to ensure minimal degradation of or impact on system performance.
Snapshots make use of pointers and do not necessarily copy all the data to the second
instance of a volume. They efficiently share cache for common data, effectively working as a
larger cache than would be the case with full data copies.
A volume copy is an exact copy of a system volume and differs in approach to a snapshot in
that a full data copy is performed in the background.
With these definitions in mind, we explore the architecture and functions of snapshots within
the XIV Storage System.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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1.1 Snapshots architecture
Before we begin discussing snapshots we provide a short review of XIV’s architecture. For
more information refer to IBM XIV Storage System: Architecture, Implementation, and Usage,
SG24-7659.
The XIV system consists of several servers with 12 disk drives each and memory that acts as
cache. All the servers are connected to each other and certain servers act as interface
servers to the SAN and the host servers (Figure 1-1).
Server
Network (FC/Ethernet)
Module 4
Module 5
Module 6
Module 7
Module 8
Module 9
Ethernet
Switch 1
Switch 2
Module 1
Module 2
Module 15
Module 3
Module 10 Module 11 Module 12 Module 13 Module 14
Figure 1-1 XIV architecture: modules and disk drives
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When a logical volume or LUN is created on an XIV system, the volume’s data is divided into
pieces 1 MB in size, called partitions. Each partition is duplicated for data protection and the
two copies are stored on disks of different modules. All partitions of a volume are
pseudo-randomly distributed across the modules and disk drives, as shown in Figure 1-2.
XIV Architecture
• Split volume data in 1MB
partitions
• Maintain a copy of each
partition
• Store both copies in
different modules
• Spread data of a volume
across all disk drives
pseudo randomly
Volume
D ata Module 1
Da ta M odule 2
D ata Module 3
Figure 1-2 XIV architecture: distribution of data
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A logical volume is represented by pointers to partitions that make up the volume. If a
snapshot is taken of a volume, the pointers are just copied to form the snapshot volume, as
shown in Figure 1-3. No space is consumed for the snapshot volume up to now.
Vol
• Logical volume and its
partitions: Partitions
are spread across all
disk drives and
actually each partition
exists two times (not
shown here)
Vol
snap
Vol
snap
• A snapshot of a
volume is taken.
Pointers point to the
same partitions as the
original volume
• There is an update of
a data partition of the
original volume. The
updated partition is
written to a new
location.
Figure 1-3 XIV architecture: snapshots
When an update is performed on the original data, the update is stored in a new position and
a pointer of the original volume now points to the new partition, whereas the snapshot volume
still points to the old partition. Now we use up more space for the original volume and its
snapshot and it has the size of a partition (1 MB). This method is called redirect-on-write.
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It is important to note that data on a volume comprises two fundamental building blocks.
Metadata is information about how the data is stored on the physical volume and the data
itself in the blocks. Metadata management is the key to rapid snapshot performance. A
snapshot points to the partitions of its master volume for all unchanged partitions. When the
data is modified, a new partition is allocated for the modified data. In other words, the XIV
Storage System manages a set of pointers based on the volume and the snapshot. Those
pointers are modified when changes are made to the user data. Managing pointers to data
enables XIV to instantly create snapshots, as opposed to physically copying the data into a
new partition. Refer to Figure 1-4.
Data layout before modification
Empty
Empty
Snapshot Pointer
to Partition
Volume A
Volume Pointer
to Partition
Host modifies data in Volume A
Empty
Volume A
Snapshot Pointer
to Partition
Snapshot of A
Volume Pointer
to Partition
Figure 1-4 Example of a redirect-on-write operation
The actual metadata overhead for a snapshot is small. When the snapshot is created, the
system does not require new pointers because the volume and snapshot are exactly the
same, which means that the time to create the snapshot is independent of the size or number
of snapshots present in the system. As data is modified, new metadata is created to track the
changes to the data.
Note: The XIV system minimizes the impact to the host for write operations by performing
a redirect-on-write operation. As the host writes data to a volume with a snapshot
relationship, the incoming information is placed into a newly allocated partition. Then the
pointer to the data for the master volume is modified to point at the new partition. The
snapshot volume continues to point at the original data partition.
Because the XIV Storage System tracks the snapshot changes on a partition basis, data is
only copied when a transfer is less than the size of a partition. For example, a host writes
4 KB of data to a volume with a snapshot relationship. The 4 KB is written to a new partition,
but in order for the partition to be complete, the remaining data must be copied from the
original partition to the newly allocated partition.
The alternative to redirect-on-write is the copy on write function. Most other systems do not
move the location of the volume data. Instead, when the disk subsystem receives a change, it
copies the volume’s data to a new location for the point-in-time copy. When the copy is
complete, the disk system commits the newly modified data. Therefore, each individual
modification takes longer to complete, as the entire block must be copied before the change
can be made.
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Storage Pools and Consistency Groups
A storage pool is a logical entity that represents storage capacity. Volumes are created in a
storage pool and snapshots of a volume are within the same storage pool. Because
snapshots require capacity as the source and the snapshot volume differ over time, space for
snapshots must be set aside when defining a storage pool (Figure 1-6). A minimum of 34GB
of snapshot space should be allocated. A value of 80% of the volume space is recommended.
A storage pool can be resized as needed as long as there is enough free capacity in the XIV
Storage System.
Terminology
Storage Pool
• Storage Pool
– Administrative construct
for controlling usage of
data capacity
Consistency Group
• Volume
– Data capacity spreads
across all disks in IBM
XIV system
Volume
Volume
• Snapshot
– Point in time image
– Same storage pool as
source
• Consistency group
– Multiple volumes that
require consistent
snapshot creation
– All in same storage pool
• Snapshot group
– Group of consistent
snapshots
Figure 1-5 XIV terminology
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Figure 1-6 Creating a storage pool with capacity for snapshots
An application can utilize many volumes on the XIV Storage System. For example, a
database application can span several volumes for application data and transaction logs. In
this case, the snapshot for the volumes must occur at the same moment in time so that the
data and logs are consistent. The consistency group allows the user to perform the snapshot
on all the volumes assigned to the group at the same moment in time, therefore enforcing
data consistency.
The XIV Storage System creates a special snapshot related to the remote mirroring
functionality. During the recovery process of lost links, the system creates a snapshot of all
the volumes in the system. This snapshot is used if the synchronization process fails. The
data can be restored to a point of known consistency. A special value of the deletion priority is
used to prevent the snapshot from being automatically deleted. Refer to 1.4, “Snapshot with
remote mirror” on page 30, for an example of this snapshot.
Automatic snapshot deletion
If the storage assigned to the snapshot is completely utilized, the XIV Storage System
implements a deletion mechanism to protect itself from overutilizing the set pool space.
Manual deletion of snapshots is further explained in 1.2.8, “Deleting a snapshot” on page 18.
If you know in advance that an automatic deletion is possible, a pool can be expanded to
accommodate additional snapshots. This function requires that there is available space on
the system for the storage pool. See Figure 1-7.
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Snapshot space on a single disk
Snapshot free partition
Snapshot 2
Utilization before a
new allocation
Snapshot 1
Snapshot 3
Snapshot 3
Snapshot 2
Snapshot 1
Snapshot 3
Snapshot 3 allocates
a partition and
Snapshot 1 is
deleted, because
there must always
be at least one free
partition for any
subsequent snapshot.
Snapshot 2
Snapshot free partition
Figure 1-7 Diagram of automatic snapshot deletion
Each snapshot has a deletion priority property that is set by the user. There are four priorities,
with 1 being the highest priority and 4 being the lowest priority. The system uses this priority
to determine which snapshot to delete first. The lowest priority becomes the first candidate for
deletion. If there are multiple snapshots with the same deletion priority, the XIV system
deletes the snapshot that was created first. Refer to 1.2.3, “Deletion priority” on page 12 for
an example of working with deletion priorities.
XIV Asynchronous Mirroring leverages snapshots technology. First a snapshot of the original
volume is created on the primary site (Master). Then the data is replicated to the volume on
the secondary site (Slave). After an initialization phase the differences between the Master
snapshot and a snapshot reflecting the initialization state are calculated. A synchronization
process is established that replicates the differences only from the Master to the Slave. Refer
to Chapter 5, “Asynchronous remote mirroring” on page 127 for details on XIV Asynchronous
Mirroring.
The snapshots that are created by the Asynchronous Mirroring process are protected from
manual deletion by setting the priority to 0. Nevertheless the automatic deletion mechanism
that frees up space upon space depletion in a pool will proceed with these protected
snapshots if there is still insufficient space after the deletion of unprotected snapshots. In this
case the mirroring between the involved volumes is deactivated before the snapshot is
deleted.
Unlocking a snapshot
A snapshot also has a unique ability to be unlocked. By default, a snapshot is locked on
creation and is only readable. Unlocking a snapshot allows the user to modify the data in the
snapshot for post-processing.
When unlocked, the snapshot takes on the properties of a volume and can be resized or
modified. As soon as the snapshot has been unlocked, the modified property is set. The
modified property cannot be reset after a snapshot is unlocked, even if the snapshot is
relocked without modification.
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In certain cases, it might be important to duplicate a snapshot. When duplicating a snapshot,
the duplicate snapshot points to the original data and has the same creation date as the
original snapshot, if the first snapshot has not been unlocked. This feature can be beneficial
when the user wants to have one copy for a backup and another copy for testing purposes.
If the first snapshot is unlocked and the duplicate snapshot already exists, the creation time
for the duplicate snapshot does not change. The duplicate snapshot points to the original
snapshot. If a duplicate snapshot is created from the unlocked snapshot, the creation date is
the time of duplication and the duplicate snapshot points at the original snapshot.
1.2 Snapshot handling
The creation and management of snapshots with the XIV Storage System is simple and easy
to perform. This section guides you through the life cycle of a snapshot, providing examples of
how to interact with the snapshots using the GUI. This section also discusses duplicate
snapshots and the automatic deletion of snapshots.
1.2.1 Creating a snapshot
Snapshot™ creation is a simple and easy task to accomplish. Using the Volumes and
Snapshots view, right-click the volume and select Create Snapshot. Figure 1-8 depicts how
to make a snapshot of the ITSO_Volume volume.
Figure 1-8 Creating a snapshot
The new snapshot is displayed in Figure 1-9. The XIV Storage System uses a specific naming
convention. The first part is the name of the volume followed by the word snapshot and then a
number or count of snapshots for the volume. The snapshot is the same size as the master
volume. However, it does not display how much space has been used by the snapshot.
Figure 1-9 View of a new snapshot
From this view shown in Figure 1-9, there are other details:
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 First is the locked property of the snapshot. By default, a snapshot is locked, which means
the it is write inhibited at the time of creation.
 Secondly, the modified property is displayed to the right of the locked property. In this
example, the snapshot has not been modified.
You may want to create a duplicate snapshot, for example, if you want to keep this snapshot
as is and modify another snapshot.
The duplicate has the same creation date as the first snapshot, and it also has a similar
creation process. From the Volumes and Snapshots view, right-click the snapshot to
duplicate. Select Duplicate from the menu to create a new duplicate snapshot. Figure 1-10
provides an example of duplicating the snapshot ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001.
Figure 1-10 Creating a duplicate snapshot
After selecting Duplicate from the menu, the duplicate snapshot is displayed directly under
the original snapshot.
Note: The creation date of the duplicate snapshot in Figure 1-11 is the same creation date
as the original snapshot. The duplicate snapshot points to the master volume, not the
original snapshot.
Figure 1-11 View of the new duplicate snapshot
Example 1-1 provides an example of creating a snapshot and a duplicate snapshot with the
Extended Command Line Interface (XCLI).
In the following examples we use the XIV Session XCLI. You could also use the XCLI
command. In this case, however, specify the configuration file or the IP address of the XIV
that you are talking to as well as the user ID and password. Use the XCLI command to
automate tasks with batch jobs. For simplicity, we used the XIV Session XCLI in our
examples.
Example 1-1 Creating a snapshot and a duplicate with the XCLI Session
snapshot_create vol=ITSO_Volume
snapshot_duplicate snapshot=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001
After the snapshot is created, it must be mapped to a host in order to access the data. This
action is performed in the same way as mapping a normal volume.
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Important: A snapshot is an exact replica of the original volume. Certain hosts do not
properly handle having two volumes with the same exact metadata describing them. In
these cases, you must map the snapshot to a different host to prevent failures.
Creation of a snapshot is only done in the volume’s storage pool. A snapshot cannot be
created in a storage pool other than the one that owns the volume. If a volume is moved to
another storage pool, the snapshots are moved with the volume to the new storage pool
(provided that there is enough space).
1.2.2 Viewing snapshot details
After creating the snapshots, you might want to view the details of the snapshot for creation
date, deletion priority, and whether the volume has been modified. Using the GUI, select
Snapshot Tree from the Volumes menu, as shown in Figure 1-12.
Figure 1-12 Selecting the Snapshot Tree view
The GUI displays all the volumes in a list.
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Scroll down to the snapshot of interest and select the snapshot by clicking its name. Details of
the snapshot are displayed in the upper right panel. Looking at the volume ITSO_Volume, it
contains a snapshot 00001 and a duplicate snapshot 00002. The snapshot and the duplicate
snapshot have the same creation date of 2010-10-06 11:42:00, as shown in Figure 1-13. In
addition, the snapshot is locked, has not been modified, and has a deletion priority of 1 (which
is the highest priority, so it will be deleted last).
Figure 1-13 Viewing the snapshot details
Along with these properties, the tree view shows a hierarchal structure of the snapshots. This
structure provides details about restoration and overwriting snapshots. Any snapshot can be
overwritten by any parent snapshot, and any child snapshot can restore a parent snapshot or
a volume in the tree structure.
In Figure 1-13, the duplicate snapshot is a child of the original snapshot, or in other words,
the original snapshot is the parent of the duplicate snapshot. This structure does not refer to
the way the XIV Storage System manages the pointers with the snapshots, but is intended to
provide an organizational flow for snapshots.
Example 1-2 shows the snapshot data output in the XCLI Session. Due to space limitations,
only a small portion of the data is displayed from the output.
Example 1-2 Viewing the snapshots with XCLI session
snapshot_list vol=ITSO_Volume
Name
ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001
ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00002
Size (GB)
17
17
Master Name
ITSO_Volume
ITSO_Volume
Consistency Group
Pool
itso
itso
1.2.3 Deletion priority
Deletion priority enables the user to rank the importance of the snapshots within a pool. For
the current example, the duplicate snapshot ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00002 is not as
important as the original snapshot ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001. Therefore, the deletion
priority is reduced.
If the snapshot space is full, the duplicate snapshot is deleted first even though the original
snapshot is older.
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To modify the deletion priority, right-click the snapshot in the Volumes and snapshots view
and select Change Deletion Priority, as shown in Figure 1-14.
Figure 1-14 Changing the deletion priority
After clicking Change Deletion Priority, select the desired deletion priority from the dialog
window and accept the change by clicking OK. Figure 1-15 shows the four options that are
available for setting the deletion priority. The lowest priority setting is 4, which causes the
snapshot to be deleted first. The highest priority setting is 1, and these snapshots are deleted
last. All snapshots have a default deletion priority of 1, if not specified on creation.
Figure 1-15 Lowering the priority for a snapshot
Figure 1-16 confirms that the duplicate snapshot has had its deletion priority lowered to 4. As
shown in the upper right panel, the delete priority is reporting a 4 for snapshot
ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00002.
Figure 1-16 Confirming the modification to the deletion priority
To change the deletion priority for the XCLI Session, specify the snapshot and new deletion
priority, as illustrated in Example 1-3.
Example 1-3 Changing the deletion priority for a snapshot
snapshot_change_priority snapshot=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00002 delete_priority=4
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The GUI also lets you specify the deletion priority when you create the snapshot. Instead of
selecting Create Snapshot, you select Create Snapshot (Advanced), as shown in
Figure 1-17).
Figure 1-17 Create Snapshot Advanced
A panel is presented that allows you to specify the deletion priority, but it also allows you to
use your own volume name for the snapshot.
Figure 1-18 Advanced snapshot options
1.2.4 Restore a snapshot
The XIV Storage System provides the ability to restore the data from a snapshot back to the
master volume, which can be helpful for operations where data was modified incorrectly and
you want to restore the data. From the Volumes and Snapshots view, right-click the volume
and select Restore. This action opens a dialog box where you can select which snapshot is
to be used to restore the volume. Click OK to perform the restoration.
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Figure 1-19 illustrates selecting the Restore action on the ITSO_Volume volume.
Figure 1-19 Snapshot volume restore
After you perform the restore action, you return to the Volumes and Snapshots panel. The
process is instantaneous, and none of the properties (creation date, deletion priority, modified
properties, or locked properties) of the snapshot or the volume have changed.
Specifically, the process modifies the pointers to the master volume so that they are
equivalent to the snapshot pointer. This change only occurs for partitions that have been
modified. On modification, the XIV Storage System stores the data in a new partition and
modifies the master volume’s pointer to the new partition. The snapshot pointer does not
change and remains pointing at the original data. The restoration process restores the pointer
back to the original data and frees the modified partition space.
If a snapshot is taken and the original volume later increases in size, you can still do a restore
operation. The snapshot still has the original volume size and will restore the original volume
accordingly.
The XCLI Session (or XCLI command) provides more options for restoration than the GUI.
With the XCLI, you can restore a snapshot to a parent snapshot (Example 1-4).
Example 1-4 Restoring a snapshot to another snapshot
snapshot_restore snapshot=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00002
target_snapshot=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001
1.2.5 Overwriting snapshots
For your regular backup jobs you can decide whether you always want to create new
snapshots (and let the system delete the old ones) or whether you prefer to overwrite the
existing snapshots with the latest changes to the data. For instance, a backup application
requires the latest copy of the data to perform its backup operation. This overwrite operation
modifies the pointers to the snapshot data to be reset to the master volume. Therefore, all
pointers to the original data are lost, and the snapshot appears as new. Storage that was
allocated for the data changes between the volume and its snapshot is released.
From either the Volumes and Snapshots view or the Snapshots Tree view, right-click the
snapshot to overwrite. Select Overwrite from the menu and a dialog box opens. Click OK to
validate the overwriting of the snapshot. Figure 1-20 illustrates overwriting the snapshot
named ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001.
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Figure 1-20 Overwriting a snapshot
It is important to note that the overwrite process modifies the snapshot properties and
pointers when involving duplicates. Figure 1-21 shows two changes to the properties. The
snapshot named ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001 has a new creation date. The duplicate
snapshot still has the original creation date. However, it no longer points to the original
snapshot. Instead, it points to the master volume according to the snapshot tree, which
prevents a restoration of the duplicate to the original snapshot. If the overwrite occurs on the
duplicate snapshot, the duplicate creation date is changed, and the duplicate is now pointing
to the master volume.
Figure 1-21 Snapshot tree after the overwrite process has occurred
The XCLI performs the overwrite operation through the snapshot_create command. There is
an optional parameter in the command to specify which snapshot to overwrite. If the optional
parameter is not used, a new snapshot volume is created.
Example 1-5 Overwriting a snapshot
snapshot_create vol=ITSO_Volume overwrite=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001
1.2.6 Unlocking a snapshot
At certain times, it may be beneficial to modify the data in a snapshot. This feature is useful
for performing tests on a set of data or performing other types of data-mining activities.
There are two scenarios that you must investigate when unlocking snapshots. The first
scenario is to unlock a duplicate. By unlocking the duplicate, none of the snapshot properties
are modified, and the structure remains the same. This method is straightforward and
provides a backup of the master volume along with a working copy for modification. To unlock
the snapshot, simply right-click the snapshot and select Unlock, as shown in Figure 1-22.
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Figure 1-22 Unlocking a snapshot
The results in the Snapshots Tree window show that the locked property is off and the
modified property is on for ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00002. Even if the volume is relocked or
overwritten with the original master volume, the modified property remains on. Also note that
in Figure 1-23 the structure is unchanged. If an error occurs in the modified duplicate
snapshot, the duplicate snapshot can be deleted, and the original snapshot duplicated a
second time to restore the information.
Figure 1-23 Unlocked duplicate snapshot
For the second scenario, the original snapshot is unlocked and not the duplicate. Figure 1-24
shows the new property settings for ITSO_Volume.snapshot.00001. At this point, the duplicate
snapshot mirrors the unlocked snapshot, because both snapshots still point to the original
data. While the unlocked snapshot is modified, the duplicate snapshot references the original
data. If the unlocked snapshot is deleted, the duplicate snapshot remains, and its parent
becomes the master volume.
Figure 1-24 Unlocked original snapshot
Because the hierarchal snapshot structure was unmodified, the duplicate snapshot can be
overwritten by the original snapshot. The duplicate snapshot can be restored to the master
volume. Based on the results, this process does not differ from the first scenario. There is still
a backup and a working copy of the data.
Unlocking a snapshot is the same as unlocking a volume (Example 1-6).
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Example 1-6 Unlocking a snapshot with the XCLI Session commands
vol_unlock vol=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001
1.2.7 Locking a snapshot
If the changes made to a snapshot must be preserved, you can lock an unlocked snapshot.
Figure 1-25 shows locking the snapshot named ITSO_Volume.snapshot.00001. From the
Volumes and Snapshots panel, right-click the snapshot to lock and select Lock.
Figure 1-25 Locking a snapshot
The locking process completes immediately, preventing further modification to the snapshot.
In Figure 1-26, the ITSO_Volume.00001 snapshot shows that both the lock property is on and
the modified property is on.
Even though there has not been a change to the snapshot, the system does not remove the
modified property.
Figure 1-26 Validating that the snapshot is locked
The XCLI lock command (vol_lock), which is shown in Example 1-7, is almost a mirror
operation of the unlock command. Only the actual command changes, but the same
operating parameters are used when issuing the command.
Example 1-7 Locking a snapshot
vol_lock vol=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001
1.2.8 Deleting a snapshot
When a snapshot is no longer needed, you can delete it. Figure 1-27 illustrates how to delete
a snapshot. In this case, the modified snapshot ITSO_Volume.snapshot.00001 is no longer
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needed. To delete the snapshot, right-click it and select Delete from the menu. A dialog box
appears requesting that you validate the operation.
Figure 1-27 Deleting a snapshot
Figure 1-28 no longer displays the snapshot ITSO_Volume.snapshot.00001. Note that the
volume and the duplicate snapshot are unaffected by the removal of this snapshot. In fact, the
duplicate becomes the child of the master volume. The XIV Storage System provides the
ability to restore the duplicate snapshot to the master volume or to overwrite the duplicate
snapshot from the master volume even after deleting the original snapshot.
Figure 1-28 Validating the snapshot is removed
The delete snapshot command (snapshot_delete) operates the same as the creation
snapshot. Refer to Example 1-8.
Example 1-8 Deleting a snapshot
snapshot_delete snapshot=ITSO_Volume.snapshot_00001
Important: If you delete a volume, all snapshots associated with the volume are also
deleted.
1.2.9 Automatic deletion of a snapshot
The XIV Storage System has a feature in place to protect a storage pool from becoming full. If
the space allocated for snapshots becomes full, the XIV Storage System automatically
deletes a snapshot. Figure 1-29 shows a storage pool with a single 17 GB volume labeled
XIV_ORIG_VOL. The host connected to this volume is sequentially writing to a file that is stored
on this volume. While the data is written, a snapshot called XIV_ORIG_VOL.snapshot.00006 is
created, and one minute later, a second snapshot is taken (not a duplicate), which is called
XIV_ORIG_VOL.snapshot.00007.
Figure 1-29 Snapshot before the automatic deletion
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With this scenario, a duplicate does not cause the automatic deletion to occur. Because a
duplicate is a mirror copy of the original snapshot, the duplicate does not create the additional
allocations in the storage pool.
Approximately one minute later, the oldest snapshot (XIV_ORIG_VOL.snapshot_00006) is
removed from the display. The storage pool is 51 GB in size, with a snapshot size of 34 GB,
which is enough for one snapshot. If the master volume is unmodified, many snapshots can
exist within the pool, and the automatic deletion does not occur. If there were two snapshots
and two volumes, it might take longer to cause the deletion, because the volumes utilize
different portions of the disks, and the snapshots might not have immediately overlapped.
To examine the details of the scenario at the point where the second snapshot is taken, a
partition is in the process of being modified. The first snapshot caused a redirect on write, and
a partition was allocated from the snapshot area in the storage pool. Because the second
snapshot occurs at a different time, this action generates a second partition allocation in the
storage pool space. This second allocation does not have available space, and the oldest
snapshot is deleted. Figure 1-30 shows that the master volume XIV_ORIG_VOL and the newest
snapshot XIV_ORIG_VOL.snapshot.00007 are present. The oldest snapshot
XIV_ORIG_VOL.snapshot.00006 was removed.
Figure 1-30 Snapshot after automatic deletion
To determine the cause of removal, you must go to the Events panel under the Monitor
menu. As shown on Figure 1-31, the event “SNAPSHOT_DELETED_DUE_TO_POOL_EXHAUSTION” is
logged. The snapshot name XIV_ORIG_VOL.snapshot.00006 and timestamp 2010-10-06
16:59:21 are also logged for future reference.
Figure 1-31 Record of automatic deletion
1.3 Snapshots consistency group
A consistency group comprises multiple volumes so that a snapshot can be taken of all the
volumes at the same moment in time. This action creates a synchronized snapshot of all the
volumes and is ideal for applications that span multiple volumes, for example, a database
application that stores its data files on multiple volumes. When creating a backup of the
database, it is important to synchronize the data so that it is consistent.
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1.3.1 Creating a consistency group
There are two methods of creating a consistency group. The first method is to create the
consistency group and add the volumes in one step. The second method creates the
consistency group and then adds the volumes in a subsequent step. If you also use
consistency groups to manage remote mirroring, you must first create an empty consistency
group, mirror it, and later add mirrored volumes to the consistency group.
Restriction: Volumes in a consistency group must be in the same storage pool. A
consistency group cannot include volumes from different pools.
Starting at the Volumes and Snapshots view, select the volume that is to be added to the
consistency group. To select multiple volumes, hold down the Shift key or the Ctrl key to
select/deselect individual volumes. After the volumes are selected, right-click a selected
volume to bring up an operations menu. From there, click Create a Consistency Group With
Selected Volumes. Refer to Figure 1-32 for an example of this operation.
Figure 1-32 Creating a consistency group with selected volumes
After selecting the Create option from the menu, a dialog window appears. Enter the name of
the consistency group. Because the volumes are added during creation, it is not possible to
change the pool name. Figure 1-33 shows the process of creating a consistency group. After
the name is entered, click Create.
Figure 1-33 Naming the consistency group
The volume consistency group ownership can be seen under Volumes and Snapshots. As
in Figure 1-34, the three volumes contained in the itso pool are now owned by the ITSO_CG
consistency group. The volumes are displayed in alphabetical order and do not reflect a
preference or internal ordering.
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Figure 1-34 Viewing the volumes after creating a consistency group
In order to obtain details about the consistency group, the GUI provides a panel to view the
information. Under the Volumes menu, select Consistency Groups. Figure 1-35 illustrates
how to access this panel.
Figure 1-35 Accessing the consistency group view
This selection sorts the information by consistency group. The panel allows you to expand the
consistency group and see all the volumes owned by that consistency group. In Figure 1-36,
there are three volumes owned or contained by the ITSO_CG consistency group. In this
example, a snapshot of the volumes has not been created.
Figure 1-36 Consistency Groups view
From the consistency group view, you can create a consistency group without adding
volumes. On the menu bar at the top of the window, there is an icon to add a new consistency
group. By clicking the Add consistency group icon shown in Figure 1-37, a creation dialog box
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appears, as shown in Figure 1-33 on page 21. Then provide a name and the storage pool for
the consistency group.
Figure 1-37 Adding a new consistency group
When created, the consistency group appears in the Consistency Groups view of the GUI
(Figure 1-38). The new group does not have any volumes associated with it. A new
consistency group named ITSO_CG2 is created. The consistency group cannot be expanded
yet, because there are no volumes contained in the consistency group ITSO_CG2.
Figure 1-38 Validating new consistency group
Using the Volumes view in the GUI, select the volumes to add to the consistency group. After
selecting the desired volumes, right-click the volumes and select Add To Consistency
Group. Figure 1-39 shows two volumes being added to a consistency group:
 itso_volume_4
 itso_volume_5
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Figure 1-39 Adding volumes to a consistency group
After selecting the volumes to add, a dialog box opens asking for the consistency group to
which to add the volumes. Figure 1-40 adds the volumes to the ITSO_CG consistency group.
Clicking OK completes the operation.
Figure 1-40 Selecting a consistency group for adding volumes
Using the XCLI Session (or XCLI command), the process must be done in two steps. First,
create the consistency group, then add the volumes. Example 1-9 provides an example of
setting up a consistency group and adding volumes using the XCLI.
Example 1-9 Creating consistency groups and adding volumes with the XCLI
cg_create cg=ITSO_CG pool=itso
cg_add_vol cg=ITSO_CG vol=itso_volume_01
cg_add_vol cg=ITSO_CG vol=itso_volume_02
1.3.2 Creating a snapshot using consistency groups
When the consistency group is created and the volumes added, snapshots can be created.
From the consistency group view on the GUI, select the consistency group to copy. As in
Figure 1-41, right-click the group and select Create Snapshot Group from the menu. The
system immediately creates a snapshot group.
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Figure 1-41 Creating a snapshot using consistency groups
The new snapshots are created and displayed beneath the volumes in the Consistency
Groups view (Figure 1-42). These snapshots have the same creation date and time. Each
snapshot is locked on creation and has the same defaults as a regular snapshot. The
snapshots are contained in a group structure (called a snapshot group) that allows all the
snapshots to be managed by a single operation.
Figure 1-42 Validating the new snapshots in the consistency group
Adding volumes to a consistency group does not prevent you from creating a single volume
snapshot. If a single volume snapshot is created, it is not displayed in the consistency group
view. The single volume snapshot is also not consistent across multiple volumes. However,
the single volume snapshot does work according to all the rules defined previously in 1.2,
“Snapshot handling” on page 9.
With the XCLI, when the consistency group is set up, it is simple to create the snapshot. One
command creates all the snapshots within the group at the same moment in time.
Example 1-10 Creating a snapshot group
cg_snapshots_create cg=ITSO_CG
1.3.3 Managing a consistency group
After the snapshots are created within a consistency group, you have several options
available. The same management options for a snapshot are available to a consistency
group. Specifically, the deletion priority is modifiable, and the snapshot or group can be
unlocked and locked, and the group can be restored or overwritten. Refer to 1.2, “Snapshot
handling” on page 9, for specific details about performing these operations.
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In addition to the snapshot functions, you can remove a volume from the consistency group.
By right-clicking the volume, a menu opens. Click Remove From Consistency Group and
validate the removal on the dialog window that opens. Figure 1-43 provides an example of
removing the itso_volume_1 volume from the consistency group.
Figure 1-43 Removing a volume from a consistency group
Removing a volume from a consistency group after a snapshot is performed prevents
restoration of any snapshots in the group. If the volume is added back into the group, the
group can be restored.
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To obtain details about a consistency group, you can select Snapshots Group Tree from the
Volumes menu. Figure 1-44 shows where to find the group view.
Figure 1-44 Selecting the Snapshot Group Tree
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From the Snapshots Group Tree view, you can see many details. Select the group to view on
the left panel by clicking the group snapshot. The right panes provide more in-depth
information about the creation time, the associated pool, and the size of the snapshots. In
addition, the consistency group view points out the individual snapshots present in the group.
Refer to Figure 1-45 for an example of the data that is contained in a consistency group.
Figure 1-45 Snapshots Group Tree view
To display all the consistency groups in the system, issue the XCLI cg_list command.
Example 1-11 Listing the consistency groups
cg_list
Name
itso_esx_cg
itso_mirror_cg
nn_cg_residency
db2_cg
sync_rm
ITSO_i_Mirror
itso_srm_cg
Team01_CG
ITSO_CG
ITSO_CG2
Pool Name
itso
itso
Residency_nils
itso
1_Sales_Pool
ITSO_IBM_i
ITSO_SRM
Team01_RP
itso
itso
More details are available by viewing all the consistency groups within the system that have
snapshots. The groups can be unlocked or locked, restored, or overwritten. All the operations
discussed in the snapshot section are available with the snap_group operations.
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Example 1-12 illustrates the snap_group_list command.
Example 1-12 Listing all the consistency groups with snapshots
snap_group_list
Name
db2_cg.snap_group_00001
ITSO_CG.snap_group_00001
ITSO_CG.snap_group_00002
last-replicated-ITSO_i_Mirror
most-recent-ITSO_i_Mirror
CG
db2_cg
ITSO_CG
ITSO_CG
ITSO_i_Mirror
ITSO_i_Mirror
Snapshot Time
2010-09-30 13:26:21
2010-10-12 11:24:54
2010-10-12 11:44:02
2010-10-12 13:21:41
2010-10-12 13:22:00
Deletion Priority
1
1
1
1
1
1.3.4 Deleting a consistency group
Before a consistency group can be deleted, the associated volumes must be removed from
the consistency group. On deletion of a consistency group, the snapshots become
independent snapshots and remain tied to their volume. To delete the consistency group,
right-click the group and select Delete. Validate the operation by clicking OK. Figure 1-46
provides an example of deleting the consistency group called ITSO_CG2.
Figure 1-46 Deleting a consistency group
In order to delete a consistency group with the XCLI, you must first remove all the volumes
one at a time. As in Example 1-13, each volume in the consistency group is removed first.
Then the consistency group is available for deletion. Deletion of the consistency group does
not delete the individual snapshots. They are tied to the volumes and are removed from the
consistency group when you remove the volumes.
Example 1-13 Deleting a consistency group
cg_remove_vol vol=itso_volume_1
cg_remove_vol vol=itso_volume_2
cg_remove_vol vol=isto_volume_3
cg_delete cg=ITSO_CG
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1.4 Snapshot with remote mirror
XIV has a special snapshot (shown in Figure 1-47) that is automatically created by the
system. During the recovery phase of a remote mirror, the system creates a snapshot on the
target to ensure a consistent copy.
Important: This snapshot has a special deletion priority and is not deleted automatically if
the snapshot space becomes fully utilized.
When the synchronization is complete, the snapshot is removed by the system because it is
no longer needed. The following list describes the sequence of events to trigger the creation
of the special snapshot. Note that if a write does not occur while the links are broken, the
system does not create the special snapshot. The events are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remote mirror is synchronized.
Loss of connectivity to remote system occurs.
Writes continue to the primary XIV Storage System.
Mirror paths are reestablished (here the snapshot is created) and synchronization starts.
Figure 1-47 Special snapshot during remote mirror synchronization operation
For more details about remote mirror refer to Chapter 4, “Synchronous Remote Mirroring” on
page 103.
Important: The special snapshot is created regardless of the amount of pool space on the
target pool. If the snapshot causes the pool to be overutilized, the mirror remains inactive.
The pool must be expanded to accommodate the snapshot, then the mirror can be
reestablished.
1.5 MySQL database backup example
MySQL is an open source database application that is used by many web programs. For
more information go to:
http://www.mysql.com
The database has several important files:
 The database data
 The log data
 The backup data
The MySQL database stores the data in a set directory and cannot be separated. The backup
data, when captured, can be moved to a separate system. The following scenario shows an
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incremental backup of a database and then uses snapshots to restore the database to verify
that the database is valid.
The first step is to back up the database. For simplicity, a script is created to perform the
backup and take the snapshot. Two volumes are assigned to a Linux host (Figure 1-48). The
first volume contains the database and the second volume holds the incremental backups in
case of a failure.
Figure 1-48 XIV view of the volumes
On the Linux host, the two volumes are mapped onto separate file systems. The first file
system xiv_pfe_1 maps to volume redbook_markus_09, and the second file system xiv_pfe_2
maps to volume redbook_markus_10. These volumes belong to the consistency group MySQL
Group so that when the snapshot is taken, snapshots of both volumes are taken at the same
moment.
To perform the backup you must configure the following items:
 The XIV XCLI must be installed on the server. This way, the backup script can invoke the
snapshot instead of relying on human intervention.
 Secondly, the database must have the incremental backups enabled. To enable the
incremental backup feature, MySQL must be started with the --log-bin feature
(Example 1-14). This feature enables the binary logging and allows database restorations.
Example 1-14 Starting MySQL
./bin/mysqld_safe --no-defaults --log-bin=backup
The database is installed on /xiv_pfe_1. However, a pointer in /usr/local is made, which
allows all the default settings to coexist, and yet the database is stored on the XIV volume. To
create the pointer, use the command in Example 1-15. Note that the source directory must be
changed for your particular installation. You can also install the MySQL application on a local
disk and change the default data directory to be on the XIV volume.
Example 1-15 MySQL setup
cd /usr/local
ln -s /xiv_pfe_1/mysql-5.0.51a-linux-i686-glibc23 mysql
The backup script is simple, and depending on the implementation of your database, the
following script might be too simple. However, the following script (Example 1-16) does force
an incremental backup and copies the data to the second XIV volume. Then the script locks
the tables so that no more data can be modified. When the tables are locked, the script
initiates a snapshot, which saves everything for later use. Finally, the tables are unlocked.
Example 1-16 Script to perform backup
# Report the time of backing up
date
# First flush the tables this can be done while running and
# creates an incremental backup of the DB at a set point in time.
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -h localhost -u root -p password < ~/SQL_BACKUP
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# Since the mysql daemon was run specifying the binary log name
# of backup the files can be copied to the backup directory on another disk
cp /usr/local/mysql/data/backup* /xiv_pfe_2
# Secondly lock the tables so a Snapshot can be performed.
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -h localhost -u root -p password < ~/SQL_LOCK
# XCLI command to perform the backup
# ****** NOTE User ID and Password are set in the user profile *****
/root/XIVGUI/xcli -c xiv_pfe cg_Snapshots_create cg="MySQL Group"
# Unlock the tables so that the database can continue in operation.
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -h localhost -u root -p password < ~/SQL_UNLOCK
When issuing commands to the MySQL database, the password for the root user is stored in
an environment variable (not in the script, as was done in Example 1-16 for simplicity).
Storing the password in an environment variable allows the script to perform the action
without requiring user intervention. For the script to invoke the MySQL database, the SQL
statements are stored in separate files and piped into the MySQL application. Example 1-17
provides the three SQL statements that are issued to perform the backup operation.
Example 1-17 SQL commands to perform backup operation
SQL_BACKUP
FLUSH TABLES
SQL_LOCK
FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
SQL_UNLOCK
UNLOCK TABLES
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Before running the backup script, a test database, which is called redbook, is created. The
database has one table, which is called chapter, which contains the chapter name, author,
and pages. The table has two rows of data that define information about the chapters in the
redbook. Figure 1-49 shows the information in the table before the backup is performed.
Figure 1-49 Data in database before backup
Now that the database is ready, the backup script is run. Example 1-18 is the output from the
script. Then the snapshots are displayed to show that the system now contains a backup of
the data.
Example 1-18 Output from the backup process
[root@x345-tic-30 ~]# ./mysql_backup
Mon Aug 11 09:12:21 CEST 2008
Command executed successfully.
[root@x345-tic-30 ~]# /root/XIVGUI/xcli -c xiv_pfe snap_group_list cg="MySQLGroup"
Name
CG
Snapshot Time
Deletion Priority
MySQL Group.snap_group_00006 MySQL Group 2008-08-11 15:14:24 1
[root@x345-tic-30 ~]# /root/XIVGUI/xcli -c xiv_pfe time_list
Time
Date
Time Zone
Daylight Saving Time
15:17:04 2008-08-11 Europe/Berlin yes
[root@x345-tic-30 ~]#
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To show that the restore operation is working, the database is dropped (Figure 1-50) and all
the data is lost. After the drop operation is complete, the database is permanently removed
from MySQL. It is possible to perform a restore action from the incremental backup. For this
example, the snapshot function is used to restore the entire database.
Figure 1-50 Dropping the database
The restore script, shown in Example 1-19, stops the MySQL daemon and unmounts the
Linux file systems. Then the script restores the snapshot and finally remounts and starts
MySQL.
Example 1-19 Restore script
[root@x345-tic-30 ~]# cat mysql_restore
# This resotration just overwrites all in the database and puts the
# data back to when the snapshot was taken. It is also possible to do
# a restore based on the incremental data; this script does not handle
# that condition.
# Report the time of backing up
date
# First shutdown mysql
mysqladmin -u root -p password shutdown
# Unmount the filesystems
umount /xiv_pfe_1
umount /xiv_pfe_2
#List all the snap groups
/root/XIVGUI/xcli -c xiv_pfe snap_group_list cg="MySQL Group"
#Prompt for the group to restore
echo "Enter Snapshot group to restore: "
read -e snap_group
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# XCLI command to perform the backup
# ****** NOTE User ID and Password are set in the user profile *****
/root/XIVGUI/xcli -c xiv_pfe snap_group_restore snap_group="$snap_group"
# Mount the FS
mount /dev/dm-2 /xiv_pfe_1
mount /dev/dm-3 /xiv_pfe_2
# Start the MySQL server
cd /usr/local/mysql
./configure
Example 1-20 shows the output from the restore action.
Example 1-20 Output from the restore script
[root@x345-tic-30 ~]# ./mysql_restore
Mon Aug 11 09:27:31 CEST 2008
STOPPING server from pid file
/usr/local/mysql/data/x345-tic-30.mainz.de.ibm.com.pid
080811 09:27:33 mysqld ended
Name
CG
Snapshot Time
Deletion Priority
MySQL Group.snap_group_00006 MySQL Group 2008-08-11 15:14:24 1
Enter Snapshot group to restore:
MySQL Group.snap_group_00006
Command executed successfully.
NOTE: This is a MySQL binary distribution. It's ready to run, you don't
need to configure it!
To help you a bit, I am now going to create the needed MySQL databases
and start the MySQL server for you. If you run into any trouble, please
consult the MySQL manual, that you can find in the Docs directory.
Installing MySQL system tables...
OK
Filling help tables...
OK
To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system
PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THE MySQL root USER !
To do so, start the server, then issue the following commands:
./bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password'
./bin/mysqladmin -u root -h x345-tic-30.mainz.de.ibm.com password 'new-password'
Alternatively you can run:
./bin/mysql_secure_installation
which also gives the option of removing the test
databases and anonymous user created by default.
strongly recommended for production servers.
This is
See the manual for more instructions.
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You can start the MySQL daemon with:
cd . ; ./bin/mysqld_safe &
You can test the MySQL daemon with mysql-test-run.pl
cd mysql-test ; perl mysql-test-run.pl
Please report any problems with the ./bin/mysqlbug script!
The latest information about MySQL is available on the Web at
http://www.mysql.com
Support MySQL by buying support/licenses at http://shop.mysql.com
Starting the mysqld server. You can test that it is up and running
with the command:
./bin/mysqladmin version
[root@x345-tic-30 ~]# Starting mysqld daemon with databases from
/usr/local/mysql/data
When complete, the data is restored and the redbook database is available, as shown in
Figure 1-51.
Figure 1-51 Database after restore operation
1.6 Snapshot example for a DB2 database
Guidelines and recommendations on how to use the IBM XIV Storage System in database
application environments are given in the IBM Redbook IBM XIV Storage System: Host
Attachment and Interoperability, SG24-7904-00.
The following example scenario illustrates how to prepare a DB2® database on an AIX
operation system for storage-based snapshot backup and then perform snapshot backup and
restores.
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IBM offers the Tivoli® Storage FlashCopy® Manager software product to automate creation
and restore of consistent database snapshots backups and to off load the data from the
snapshot backups to an external backup/restore system like Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM).
The above mentioned IBM Redbook includes an overview chapter about Tivoli Storage
FlashCopy Manager. For more details visit these IBM Internet pages:
http://www.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-flashcopy-mgr
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tsminfo/v6
XIV storage system and AIX OS environments
In this example, the database is named XIV and stored in the file system /db2/XIV/db2xiv. The
file system /db2/XIV/log_dir is intended to be used for the database log files. Figure 1-52 and
Example 1-21 show the XIV volumes and the AIX file systems that were created for the
database.
Figure 1-52 XIV volume mapping for the DB2 database server
Example 1-21 AIX volume groups and file systems created for the DB2 database
$ lsvg
rootvg
db2datavg
db2logvg
$ df -g
Filesystem
GB blocks
/dev/hd4
2.31
/dev/hd2
1.75
/dev/hd9var
0.16
/dev/hd3
5.06
/dev/hd1
1.00
/dev/hd11admin
0.12
/proc
/dev/hd10opt
1.69
/dev/livedump
0.25
/dev/db2loglv
47.50
/dev/db2datalv
47.50
Free %Used
0.58
75%
0.14
92%
0.08
46%
2.04
60%
0.53
48%
0.12
1%
1.52
10%
0.25
1%
47.49
1%
47.31
1%
Iused %Iused Mounted on
19508
12% /
38377
46% /usr
4573
19% /var
7418
2% /tmp
26
1% /home
5
1% /admin
- /proc
2712
1% /opt
4
1% /var/adm/ras/livedump
4
1% /db2/XIV/log_dir
56
1% /db2/XIV/db2xiv
Preparing the database for recovery
All databases have logs associated with them. These logs keep records of database
changes. When a new DB2 database is created, circular logging is the default behavior which
means DB2 uses a set of transaction log files in round-robin mode. With this type of logging,
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only full, offline backups of the database are allowed. In order to perform an online backup of
the database, the logging method must be changed to archive. See Example 1-22
This DB2 configuration change enables consistent XIV snapshot creation of the XIV volumes
(that the database is stored on) while the database is online, restore of the database using
snapshots and a roll forward of the database changes to a desired point in time.
Example 1-22 Changing DB2 logging method
Connect to DB2 as a database administrator to change the database configuration.
$ db2 connect to XIV
Database Connection Information
Database server
= DB2/AIX64 9.7.0
SQL authorization ID = DB2XIV
Local database alias = XIV
$ db2 update db cfg using LOGARCHMETH1 LOGRETAIN
$ db2 update db cfg using NEWLOGPATH /db2/XIV/log_dir
After the archive logging method has been enabled, DB2 requests a database backup.
$ db2 connect reset
$ db2 backup db XIV to /tmp
$ db2 connect to XIV
Note: Before the snapshot creation ensure that the snapshot includes all file systems relevant
for the database backup. If in doubt, the dbpath view shows this information. See
Example 1-23. The output only shows the relevant lines for better readability.
Example 1-23 DB2 dbpath view
$ db2 select path from sysibmadm.dbpaths
/db2/XIV/log_dir/NODE0000/
/db2/XIV/db2xiv/
/db2/XIV/db2xiv/db2xiv/NODE0000/sqldbdir/
/db2/XIV/db2xiv/db2xiv/NODE0000/SQL00001/
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The AIX commands df and lsvg (with the -l and -p options) identify the related AIX file
systems and device files (hdisks). The XIV utility xiv_devlist shows the AIX hdisk names and
the names of the associated XIV volumes.
Using XIV snapshots for database backup
The following procedure creates a snapshot of a primary database for use as a backup
image. This procedure can be used instead of performing backup database operations on the
primary database.
Step 1: Suspend write I/O on the database
$ db2 set write suspend for database
Step 2: Create XIV snapshots
While the database I/O is suspended, generate a snapshot of the XIV volume(s) the database
is stored on. A snapshot of the log file is not created to be able to recover to a certain
point-in-time instead just going back to the to the last consistent snapshot image after
database corruption occurs.
Example 1-24 shows the xcli commands the create a consistent snapshot.
Example 1-24 XCLI commands to create a consistent XIV snapshot
XIV LAB 3 1300203>>cg_create cg=db2_cg pool=itso
Command executed successfully.
XIV LAB 3 1300203>>cg_add_vol vol=p550_lpar1_db2_1 cg=db2_cg
Command executed successfully.
XIV LAB 3 1300203>>cg_snapshots_create cg=db2_cg
Command executed successfully.
Step 3: Resume database write I/O
After the snapshot has been created, database write I/O can be resumed.
$ db2 set write resume for db
Figure 1-53 shows the newly created snapshot on the XIV graphical user interface.
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Figure 1-53 XIV snapshot of the DB2 database volume
Restoring the database from the XIV snapshot
If a failure occurs on the primary system, or data is corrupted requiring a restore from backup,
follow the steps outlined below to bring the database to the state before the corruption
occurred. In a productive environment a forward recovery to a certain point-in-time might be
required. In this case the DB2 recover command requires other options, but the following
process to handle XIV storage system and operating system is still valid.
Step 1: Terminate database connections and stop the database
$ db2 connect reset
$ db2stop
Step 2: On the AIX system un-mount the file system(s) the database resides in and
deactivate the volume group(s)
# umount /db2/XIV/db2xiv
# varyoffvg db2datavg
Step 3: Restore the data volume(s) from the XIV snapshot
Example 1-25 CLI command to restore a XIV snapshot
XIV LAB 3 1300203>>snap_group_restore snap_group=db2_cg.snap_group_00001
Warning:
ARE_YOU_SURE_YOU_WANT_TO_RESTORE_SNAPGROUP y/n:
Command executed successfully.
Step 4: On the AIX system activate the volume group(s) and mount the file system(s) the
database resides in
# varyonvg db2datavg
# mount /db2/XIV/db2xiv
Step 5: Start the database instance:
$ db2start
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Step 6: Initialize the database
From the DB2 view the XIV snapshot of the database volume(s) creates a split mirror
database environment. The database was in write suspend mode when the snapshot was
taken. Thus the restored database is still in this state and the split mirror must be used as a
backup image to restore the primary database. The DB2 command db2inidb must to run to
initialize a mirrored database before the split mirror can be used.
$ db2inidb XIV as mirror
DBT1000I The tool completed successfully.
Step 7: Roll forward the database to the end of the logs and check if a database connect
works
$ db2 rollforward db XIV complete
$ db2 connect to XIV
Database Connection Information
Database server
= DB2/AIX64 9.7.0
SQL authorization ID = DB2XIV
Local database alias = XIV
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2
Chapter 2.
Volume copy
The XIV Storage System provides the ability to copy a volume into another volume. This
valuable feature, known as volume copy, is best used for duplicating an image of the volume
when the data residency is extremely long and the information diverges after the copy is
complete.
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2.1 Volume copy architecture
The volume copy feature provides an instantaneous copy of data from one volume to another
volume. By utilizing the same functionality of the snapshot, the system modifies the target
volume to point at the source volume’s data. After the pointers are modified, the host has full
access to the data on the volume.
After the XIV Storage System completes the setup of the pointers to the source data, a
background copy of the data is performed. The data is copied from the source volume to a
new area on the disk, and the pointers of the target volume are then updated to use this new
space. The copy operation is done in such a way as to minimize the impact to the system. If
the host performs an update before the background copy is complete, a redirect on write
occurs, which allows the volume to be readable and writable before the volume copy
completes.
2.2 Performing a volume copy
Performing a volume copy is a simple task. The only requirements are that the target volume
must be created and formatted before the copy can occur.
If the sizes of the volumes differ, the size of the target volume is modified to match the source
volume when the copy is initiated. The resize operation does not require user intervention.
Figure 2-1 illustrates making a copy of volume xiv_vol_1. The target volume for this example
is xiv_vol_2. By right-clicking the source volume, a menu appears and you can then select
Copy this Volume. This action causes a dialog box to open.
Figure 2-1 Initiating a copy volume process
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From the dialog box, select xiv_vol_2 and click OK. The system then asks you to validate the
copy action.
The XIV Storage System instantly performs the update process and displays a completion
message. When the copy process is complete, the volume is available for use.
Figure 2-2 provides an example of the volume selection.
Figure 2-2 Target volume selection
To create a volume copy with the XCLI, the source and target volumes must be specified in
the command. In addition, the -y parameter must be specified to provide an affirmative
response to the validation questions. See Example 2-1.
Example 2-1 Performing a volume copy
xcli -c “XIV LAB 01 EBC”-y vol_copy vol_src=xiv_vol_1 vol_trg=xiv_vol_2
2.3 Creating an OS image with volume copy
This section describes another usage of the volume copy feature. In certain cases, you might
want to install another operating system (OS) image. By using volume copy, the installation
can be done immediately. Usage of VMware simplified the need for SAN boot. However, this
example can be applied to any OS installation in which the hardware configuration is similar.
VMware allows the resources of a server to be separated into logical virtual systems, each
containing its own OS and resources. When creating the configuration, it is extremely
important to have the hard disk assigned to the virtual machine to be a mapped raw LUN. If
the hard disk is a VMware File System (VMFS), the volume copy fails because there are
duplicate file systems in VMware. In Figure 2-3, the mapped raw LUN is the XIV volume that
was mapped to the VMware server.
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Figure 2-3 Configuration of the virtual machine in VMware
To perform the volume copy:
1. Validate the configuration for your host. With VMware, ensure that the hard disk assigned
to the virtual machine is a mapped raw LUN. For a disk directly attached to a server, the
SAN boot must be enabled and the target server must have the XIV volume discovered.
2. Shut down the source server or OS. If the source remains active, there might be data in
memory that is not synchronized to the disk. If this step is skipped, unexpected results can
occur.
3. Perform volume copy from the source volume to the target volume.
4. Power on the new system.
A demonstration of the process is simple using VMware. Starting with the VMware resource
window, power off the virtual machines for both the source and the target. The summary
described in Figure 2-4 shows that both XIV Source VM (1), the source, and XIV Source VM
(2), the target, are powered off.
Figure 2-4 VMware virtual machine summary
Looking at the XIV Storage System before the copy (Figure 2-5), xiv_vmware_1 is mapped to
the XIV Source VM (1) in VMware and has utilized 1 GB of space. This information shows that
the OS is installed and operational. The second volume, xiv_vmware_2, is the target volume
for the copy and is mapped to XIV Source VM (2) and is 0 in size. At this point, the OS has not
been installed on the virtual machine and thus the OS is not usable.
Figure 2-5 The XIV volumes before the copy
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Because the virtual machines are powered off, simply initiate the copy process as just
described.
Selecting xiv_vmware_1 as the source, copy the volume to the target xiv_vmware_2. The
copy completes immediately and is available for usage.
To verify that the copy is complete, the used area of the volumes must match, as shown in
Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-6 The XIV volumes after the copy
After the copy is complete, power up the new virtual machine to use the new operating
system. Both servers usually boot up normally with only minor modifications to the host. In
this example, the server name we had to changed because there were two servers on the
network with the same name. Refer to Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7 VMware summary showing both virtual machines powered on
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Figure 2-8 shows the second virtual machine console with the Windows operating system
powered on.
Figure 2-8 Booted Windows server
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3
Chapter 3.
Remote Mirroring
The Remote Mirroring function of the XIV Storage System provides a real-time copy between
two or more storage systems supported over Fibre Channel (FC) or iSCSI links. This feature
provides a method to protect data from site failures.
Remote Mirroring can be a synchronous copy solution where write operations are completed
on both copies (local and remote sites) before they are considered to be complete (see
Chapter 4, “Synchronous Remote Mirroring” on page 103). This type of remote mirroring is
normally used for short distances to minimize the effect of I/O delays inherent to the distance
to the remote site.
Remote Mirroring can also be an asynchronous solution were consistent sets of data are
copied to the remote location at specified intervals and host I/O operations are complete after
writing to the primary (see Chapter 5, “Asynchronous remote mirroring” on page 127). This is
typically used for long distances between sites.
Note: For asynchronous mirroring over iSCSI links, a reliable, dedicated network must be
available. It requires consistent network bandwidth and a non-shared link.
Unless otherwise noted, this chapter describes the basic concepts, functions, and terms that
are common to both XIV synchronous and asynchronous mirroring.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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3.1 XIV Remote Mirroring overview
The purpose of mirroring is to create a set of consistent data that can be used by production
applications in the event of problems with production volumes or for other purposes.
XIV remote mirroring is application and operating system independent, and does not require
server processor cycle usage.
3.1.1 XIV Remote Mirror terminology
It is worth going through and becoming familiar with several terms used throughout the next
chapters involving remote mirroring. A number of terms, meanings, and usage with regards to
XIV and synchronous remote mirroring are noted below:
 Local site: This site is made up of the primary storage and the servers running
applications with the XIV Storage System.
 Remote site: This site holds the mirror copy of the data on another XIV Storage System
and usually standby servers as well. In this case, the remote site is capable of becoming
the active production site with consistent data available in the event of a failure at the local
site.
 Primary: This denotes the XIV designated under normal conditions to serve hosts and
have its data replicated to a secondary XIV for disaster recovery purposes.
 Secondary. This denotes the XIV designated under normal conditions to act as the mirror
(backup) for the primary, and that could be set to replace the primary if the primary fails.
 Consistency groups (CG): A consistency group is a set of related volumes on the same
XIV Storage System that are treated as a single consistent unit. Consistency groups are
supported within Remote Mirroring.
 Coupling: This is the pairing of volumes or consistency groups (CGs) to form a mirror
relationship between the source of the replication (master) and the target (slave).
 Peer : This is one side of a coupling. It can either be a volume or a consistency group.
However, peers must be of the same type (that is, both volumes or CGs). Whenever a
coupling is defined, a role is specified for each peer. One peer is designated as the master
and the other peer is designated as the slave.
 Role: This denotes the actual role that the peer is fulfilling:
– Master : A role that indicates that the peer serves host requests and acts as the source
for replication. Changing a peer’s role to master from slave may be warranted after a
disruption of the current master’s service either due to a disaster or to planned service
maintenance.
– Slave: A role that indicates that the peer does not serve host requests and acts as the
target for replication. Changing a peer’s role to slave from master may be warranted
after the peer is recovered from a site/system/link failure or disruption that led to the
promotion of the other peer from slave to master. Changing roles can also be done in
preparation for supporting a planned service maintenance.
 Sync job: This applies to async mirroring only. It denotes a synchronization procedure run
by the master at specified user-configured intervals corresponding to the asynchronous
mirroring definition or upon manual execution of a dedicated XCLI command (the related
command is mirror_create_snapshot). The resulting job is dubbed snapshot mirror sync
job or ad-hoc sync job, or manual sync job in contrast with a scheduled sync job. The sync
job entails synchronization of data updates recorded on the master since the creation time
of the most recent snapshot that was successfully synchronized.
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 Asynchronous schedule interval: This applies to asynchronous mirroring only. It
represents, per given coupling, how often the master automatically runs a new sync job.
For example, if the pertinent mirroring configuration parameter specifies a 60-minute
interval, then during a period of 1 day, 24 sync jobs will be created.
 Recovery Point Objective (RPO): The RPO is a setting that is only applicable to
asynchronous mirroring. It represents an objective set by the user implying the maximal
currency difference considered acceptable between the mirror peers (the actual difference
between mirror peers can be shorter or longer than the RPO set).
An RPO of zero indicates that no currency difference between the mirror peers is
acceptable. An RPO that is greater than zero indicates that the replicated volume is less
current or lags somewhat behind the master volume, and that there is a potential for
certain transactions that have been run against the production volume to be rerun when
applications come up on the replicated volume.
For XIV asynchronous mirroring, the required RPO is user-specified. The XIV system then
reports effective RPO and compares it to the required RPO.
Connectivity, bandwidth, and distance between the XIV system that contains the
production volume and the XIV system that contains the replicated copy directly impact
RPO. More connectivity, greater bandwidth, and less distance typically enable a lower
RPO.
3.1.2 XIV Remote Mirroring modes
As mentioned in our introduction, XIV supports both synchronous mirroring and
asynchronous mirroring:
 XIV synchronous mirroring
XIV synchronous mirroring is designed to accommodate a requirement for zero RPO.
To ensure that data is also written to the Secondary XIV (slave role), an acknowledgement
of the write operation to the host is only issued after the data has been written to both XIV
systems. This ensures the consistency of mirroring peers. A write acknowledgement is
sent to the host once the write data has been cached into two separate XIV modules at
each site. This is depicted in Figure 3-1.
Host Server
1
2
4
1. Host Write to Master XIV
(data placed in cache of 2
Modules)
2. Master replicates to Slave
XIV (data placed in cache of
2 Modules)
3
Local XIV
(Master)
Remote XIV
(Slave)
3. Slave acknowledges write
complete to Master
4. Master acknowledges write
complete to application
Figure 3-1 XIV synchronous mirroring
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Host read operations are performed from the Primary XIV (master role), whereas writing is
performed at the primary (master role) and replicated to the Secondary XIV systems.
Refer to 4.5, “Synchronous mirror step-by-step scenario” on page 115, for more details.
 XIV asynchronous mirroring
XIV asynchronous mirroring is designed to provide a consistent replica of data on a target
peer through timely replication of data changes recorded on a source peer.
XIV Asynchronous mirroring exploits the XIV snapshot function, which creates a
point-in-time (PiT) image. In XIV asynchronous mirroring, successive snapshots
(point-in-time images) are made and used to create consistent data on the slave peers.
The system sync job copies the data corresponding to the differences between two
designated snapshots on the master (most_recent and last_replicated).
For XIV asynchronous mirroring, acknowledgement of write complete is returned to the
application as soon as the write data has been received at the local XIV system, as shown
in Figure 3-2. Refer to 5.6, “Detailed asynchronous mirroring process” on page 155, for
details.
Application Server
1
3
2
1. Host Write to Master XIV
(data placed in cache of 2
Modules))
2. Master acknowledges write
complete to application
4
Local XIV
(Master)
3. Master replicates to Slave
4. Slave acknowledges write
complete
Figure 3-2 XIV asynchronous mirroring
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3.2 Mirroring schemes
Mirroring, whether synchronous or asynchronous, requires two or more XIV systems. The
source and target of the asynchronous mirroring can reside on the same site and form a local
mirroring or they can reside on different sites and enable a disaster recovery plan. Figure 3-3
shows how peers can be spread across multiple storage systems and sites.
Replication Scheme
XIV System E
XIV System B
XIV System A
Mirrored CG
Master
Mirrored
Mirrored CG
Master
Mirrored Vol
Master
Storage
Pool
Mirrored CG
Slave
XIV System D
XIV System C
Mirrored Vol
Slave
Mirrored Vol
Slave
Mirrored Vol
Master
Mirrored CG
Slave
Storage
Pool
Storage
Pool
Figure 3-3 Mirroring replication schemes
Up to 16 targets can be referenced by a single system. A system can host replication sources
and separate replication targets simultaneously.
In a bi-directional configuration, an XIV system concurrently functions as the replication
source (master) for one or more couplings, and as the replication target (slave) for other
couplings. If production applications are eventually running at both sides, the applications at
each site are independent from each other to ensure data consistency in case of a site failure.
Figure 3-3 illustrates possible schemes for how mirroring can be configured.
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Figure 3-4 shows remote mirror connections as shown in the XIV GUI.
Figure 3-4 XIV GUI showing the remote mirror connections
3.2.1 Peer designations and roles
A peer (volume or consistency group) is assigned either a master or a slave role when the
mirror is defined. By default, in a new mirror definition, the location of the master designates
the primary system, and the slave designates the secondary system. A mirror must have
exactly one primary and exactly one secondary. The actual function of the peer is determined
based on the peer role (see below).
Important: A single XIV can contain both master volumes and CGs (mirroring to another
XIV) and slave volumes and CGs (mirroring from another XIV). Peers in a master role and
peers in a slave role on the same XIV system must belong to different mirror couplings.
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The various mirroring role status options are:
 Designations:
– Primary: the designation of the source peer, which is initially assigned the master role
– Secondary: the designation of the target peer, which initially plays the slave role
 Role status:
– Master: denotes the peer with the source data in a mirror coupling. Such peers serve
host requests and are the source for synchronization updates to the slave peer. In
synchronous mirroring, slave and master roles can be switched (switch_role
command) if the status is synchronized). For both synchronous and asynchronous
mirroring, the master can be changed (change_role command) to a slave if the status is
inactive.
– Slave: denotes the active target peer in a mirror. Such peers do not serve host
requests and accept synchronization updates from a corresponding master. A slave
LUN could be accessed in read-only mode by a host. In synchronous mirroring, slave
and master roles can be switched (switch_role command) if the status is
synchronized. For both synchronous and asynchronous mirroring, a slave can be
changed (change_role command) to a master regardless of the synchronization state.
As a master the LUN accepts write I/Os. The change_role and switch_role commands
are relevant to disaster recovery situations and failover scenarios.
Consistency group
With mirroring (synchronous or asynchronous), the major reason for consistency groups is to
handle a large number of mirror pairs as a group (mirrored volumes are consistent). Instead
of dealing with many volume remote mirror pairs individually, consistency groups simplify the
handling of many pairs considerably.
Important: If your mirrored volumes are in a mirrored consistency group you cannot do
mirroring operations like deactivate or change_role on a single volume basis. If you want to
do this, you must remove the volume from the consistency group (refer to “Removing a
volume from a mirrored consistency group” on page 110 or “Removing a volume from a
mirrored consistency group” on page 137).
Consistency groups also play an important role in the recovery process. If mirroring was
suspended (for example, due to complete link failure), data on different slave volumes at the
remote XIV are consistent. However, when the links are up again and resynchronization is
started, data spread across several slave volumes is not consistent until the master state is
synchronized. To preserve the consistent state of the slave volumes, the XIV system
automatically creates a snapshot of each slave volume and keeps it until the remote mirror
volume pair is synchronized (the snapshot is kept until all pairs are synchronized in order to
enable restoration to the same consistent point in time). If the remote mirror pairs are in a
consistency group, then the snapshot is taken for the whole group of slave volumes and the
snapshots are preserved until all pairs are synchronized. Then the snapshot is deleted
automatically.
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3.2.2 Operational procedures
Mirroring operations involve configuration, initialization, ongoing operation, handling of
communication failures, and role switching activities.
The following list defines the mirroring operation activities:
 Configuration
Local and remote replication peers are defined by an administrator who specifies the
master and slave peers roles. These peers can be volumes or consistency groups. The
secondary peer provides a backup of the primary.
 Initialization
Mirroring operations begin with a master volume that contains data and a formatted slave
volume. The first step is to copy the data from the master volume (or CG) to the slave
volume (or CG). This process is called initialization. Initialization is performed once in the
lifetime of a mirror. After it is performed, both volumes or CGs are considered to be
synchronized to a specific point in time. The completion of initialization marks the first
point-in-time that a consistent master replica on the slave is available. Details of the
process differ depending on the mirroring mode (synchronous or asynchronous). Refer to
4.5, “Synchronous mirror step-by-step scenario” on page 115, for synchronous mirroring
and 5.6, “Detailed asynchronous mirroring process” on page 155, for asynchronous
mirroring.
 Ongoing operation
After the initialization process is complete, mirroring ensues.
In synchronous mirroring, normal ongoing operation means that all data written to the
primary volume or CG is first mirrored to the slave volume or CG. At any point in time, the
master and slave volumes or CGs will be identical except for any unacknowledged
(pending) writes.
In asynchronous mirroring, ongoing operation means that data is written to the master
volume or CG and then replicated on the slave volume or CG at specified intervals.
 Monitoring
The XIV System effectively monitors the mirror activity and places events in the event log
for error conditions. Alerts can be set up to notify the administrator of such conditions. You
must have set up SNMP trap monitoring tools or e-mail notification to be informed about
abnormal mirroring situations.
 Handling of communication failures
From time to time the communication between the sites might break down. The master
continues to serve host requests, yet mirroring will only resume once the link is restored.
Events will be generated for link failures.
 Role switching (synchronous mirroring only)
If required, mirror peer roles of slave and master can be switched. A role switching is
always initiated at the master site. Usually, this is done for certain maintenance operations
or because of a drill that tests the disaster recovery procedures.
 Role change
In case of a disaster at the primary site, the master peer might fail. To allow read/write
access to the volumes at the remote site, the volume’s role must be changed from slave to
master. A role change only changes the role of the XIV volumes or CGs to which the
command was addressed. Remote mirror peer volumes or CGs are not changed
automatically. That is why changing roles on both mirror sides if mirroring is to be restored
is imperative (if possible).
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3.2.3 Mirroring status
The status of a mirror is affected by a number of factors such as the links between the XIVs or
the initialization state.
Link status
The link status reflects the connection from the master to the slave volume or CG. A link has
a direction (from local site to remote or vice versa). A failed link or a failed secondary system
both result in a link error status. The link state is one of the factors determining the mirror
operational status. Link states are as follows:
 OK: link is up and functioning
 Error: link is down
Figure 3-5 and Figure 3-6 depict how the link status is reflected in the XIV GUI, respectively.
Figure 3-5 Link up
Figure 3-6 Link down
If there are several links (at least two) in one direction and one link fails, this usually does not
affect mirroring as long as the bandwidth of the remaining link is high enough to keep up with
the data traffic.
Monitoring the link utilization
The mirroring bandwidth of the links must be high enough to cope with the data traffic caused
by the changes on the master volumes. During the planning phase, before setting up
mirroring, monitor the write activity to the local volumes. The bandwidth of the links for
mirroring must be as large as the peak write workload.
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After mirroring has been implemented, from time to time monitor the utilization of the links.
The XIV statistics panels allow you to select targets to show the data traffic to remote XIV
Systems, as shown in Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-7 Monitoring link utilization
Mirror operational status
Mirror operational status is defined as either operational or non_operational.
 Mirroring is operational if:
–
–
–
–
The activation state is active.
The link is UP.
Both peers have different roles (master or slave).
The mirror is active.
 Mirroring is non_operational if:
– The mirror is inactive.
– The link is in an error state or deactivated (link down).
Synchronous mirroring states
Note: This section only applies to synchronous mirroring.
The synchronization status reflects the consistency of the data between the master and slave
volumes. Because the purpose of the remote mirroring feature is to ensure that the slave
volumes are an identical copy of the master volumes, this status indicates whether this
objective is currently being achieved.
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The following states or statuses are possible.
 Initializing
The first step in remote mirroring is to create a copy of all the data from the master volume
or CG to the slave volume or CG. During this initial copy phase, the status remains
initializing.
 Synchronized (master volume or CG only)/consistent (slave volume or CG only)
This status indicates that all data that has been written to the master volume or CG has
also been written to the slave volume or CG. Ideally, the master and slave volumes or CGs
must always be synchronized. However, this does not always indicate that the two
volumes are absolutely identical in case of a disaster because there are situations when
there might be a limited amount of data that was written to one volume, but that was not
yet written to its peer volume. This means that the write operations have not yet been
acknowledged. These are also known as pending writes or data in flight.
 Unsynchronized (master volume only)/inconsistent (slave volume only)
After a volume or CG has completed the initializing stage and achieved the synchronized
status it can become unsynchronized (master) or inconsistent (slave). This occurs when it
is not known whether all the data that has been written to the master volume has also
been written to the slave volume. This status can occur in the following cases:
– The communications link is down and as a result certain data might have been written
to the master volume, but was not yet written to the slave volume.
– Secondary XIV is down. This is similar to communication link errors because in this
state, the Primary XIV is updated, whereas the secondary is not.
– Remote mirroring is deactivated. As a result, certain data might have been written to
the master volume and not to the secondary volume.
The XIV keeps track of the partitions that have been modified on the master volumes and
when the link is operational again or the remote mirroring is reactivated. These changed
partitions can be sent to the remote XIV and applied to the slave volumes there.
Asynchronous mirroring states
Note: This section only applies to asynchronous mirroring.
The mirror states can be one of the following:
 Inactive: The synchronization process is disabled. It is possible to delete a mirror.
 Initializing: The initial copy is not done yet. Synchronization does not start until the
initialization completes.
 When initialization is complete, the synchronization process is enabled. It is possible to
run sync jobs and copy data between master and slave. The possible synchronization
states are:
–
RPO_OK: Synchronization has completed within the specified sync job interval time
(RPO).
–
RPO_Lagging: Synchronization has completed but took longer that the specified
interval time (RPO).
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3.3 XIV Remote Mirroring usage
Remote Mirroring solutions can be used to address multiple types of failures and planned
outages, from events affecting a single XIV system or its components, to events affecting an
entire data center or campus, or events affecting an entire geographical region. When the
production XIV system and the disaster recovery (DR) XIV system are separated by
increasing distance, disaster recovery protection for more levels of failures is possible, as
illustrated in Figure 3-8. A global distance disaster recovery solution protects from
single-system failures, local disasters, and regional disasters.
Remote Mirroring
Single System Failure
• Component failures
• Single system failures
High Availability
Local Disaster
• Terrorist Attacks
• Human Error
• HVAC failures
• Power failures
• Building Fire
• Architectural failures
• Planned Maintenance
Regional Disasters
• Electric grid failures
• Natural disasters
- Floods
- Hurricanes
- Earthquakes
Metro Distance Recovery Global Distance Recovery
IBM System StorageTM
© 2009 IBM Corporation
3
Figure 3-8 Disaster recovery protection levels
Several configurations are possible:
 Single-site high-availability XIV Remote Mirroring configuration
Protection for the event of a failure or planned outage of an XIV system (single-system
failure) can be provided by a zero-distance high-availability (HA) solution including another
XIV system in the same location (zero distance). Typical usage of this configuration is an
XIV synchronous mirroring solution that is part of a high-availability clustering solution
including both servers and XIV storage systems. Figure 3-9 shows a single-site
high-availability configuration (where both XIV systems are in the same data center).
Figure 3-9 Single site HA configuration
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 Metro region XIV Remote Mirroring configuration
Protection for the event of a failure or planned outage of an entire location (local disaster)
can be provided by a metro distance disaster recovery solution, including another XIV
system in a different location within a metro region. The two XIV systems may be in
different buildings on a corporate campus or in different buildings within the same city
(typically up to approximately 100 km apart). Typical usage of this configuration is an XIV
synchronous mirroring solution. Figure 3-10 shows a metro region disaster recovery
configuration.
Figure 3-10 Metro region disaster recovery configuration
 Out-of-region XIV Remote Mirroring configuration
Protection for the event of a failure or planned outage of an entire geographic region
(regional disaster) can be provided by a global distance disaster recovery solution
including another XIV system in a different location outside the metro region. (The two
locations may be separated by up to a global distance.) Typical usage of this configuration
is an XIV asynchronous mirroring solution. Figure 3-11 shows an out-of-region disaster
recovery configuration.
Figure 3-11 Out-of-region disaster recovery configuration
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 Metro region plus out-of-region XIV mirroring configuration
Certain volumes may be protected by a metro distance disaster recovery configuration,
and other volumes may be protected by a global distance disaster recovery configuration,
as shown in the configuration in Figure 3-12. Typical usage of this configuration is an XIV
synchronous Mirroring solution for a set of volumes with a requirement for zero RPO, and
an XIV asynchronous mirroring solution for a set of volumes with a requirement for a low,
but non-zero RPO. Figure 3-12 shows a metro region plus out-of-region configuration.
Figure 3-12 Metro region plus out-of-region configuration
Using snapshots
Snapshots can be used with Remote Mirroring to provide copies of production data for
business or IT purposes. Moreover, when used with Remote Mirroring, snapshots provide
protection against data corruption.
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Like any continuous or near-continuous remote mirroring solution, XIV Remote Mirroring
cannot protect against software data corruption because the corrupted data will be copied as
part of the remote mirroring solution. However, the XIV snapshot function provides a
point-in-time image that may be used for rapid restore in the event of software data corruption
(that occurred after the snapshot was taken), and XIV snapshot may be used in combination
with XIV Remote Mirroring, as illustrated in Figure 3-13.
Remote Mirroring
Point in Time
Copy
Local Disaster
Data Corruption
Single System Failure
• Component failures
• Single system failures
Point In Time
Disk Backup,
Extra Copies
High Availability
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Regional Disasters
Terrorist Attacks
Human Error
HVAC failures
Power failures
Building Fire
Architectural failures
Planned Maintenance
• Electric grid failures
• Natural disasters
- Floods
- Hurricanes
- Earthquakes
Metro Distance Recovery Global Distance Recovery
IBMS stemStorageTM
8
Figure 3-13 Combining snapshots with Remote Mirroring
Note that recovery using a snapshot warrants deletion and recreation of the mirror.
 XIV snapshot (within a single XIV system)
Protection for the event of software data corruption can be provided by a point-in-time
backup solution using the XIV snapshot function within the XIV system that contains the
production volumes. Figure 3-14 shows a single-system point-in-time online backup
configuration.
IBM System StorageTM
© 2009 IBM Corporation
9
Figure 3-14 Point-in-time online backup configuration
 XIV local snapshot plus Remote Mirroring configuration
An XIV snapshot of the production (local) volume may be used in addition to XIV Remote
Mirroring of the production volume when protection from logical data corruption is required
in addition to protection against failures and disasters. The additional XIV snapshot of the
production volume provides a quick restore to recover from data corruption. An additional
Snapshot of the production (local) volume may also be used for other business or IT
purposes (for example, reporting, data mining, development and test, and so on).
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Figure 3-15 shows an XIV local snapshot plus Remote Mirroring configuration.
Figure 3-15 Local snapshot plus Remote Mirroring configuration
 XIV remote snapshot plus Remote Mirroring configuration
An XIV snapshot of the consistent replicated data at the remote site may be used in
addition to XIV Remote Mirroring to provide an additional consistent copy of data that can
be used for business purposes such as data mining, reporting, and for IT purposes, such
as remote backup to tape or development, test, and quality assurance. Figure 3-16 shows
an XIV remote snapshot plus Remote Mirroring configuration.
Figure 3-16 XIV remote snapshot plus Remote Mirroring configuration
3.4 XIV Remote Mirroring actions
These XIV Remote Mirroring actions are the fundamental building blocks of XIV Remote
Mirroring solutions and usage scenarios.
3.4.1 Defining the XIV mirroring target
In order to connect two XIV systems for remote mirroring, each system must be defined to be
a mirroring target of the other. An XIV mirroring target is an XIV system with volumes that
receive data copied through XIV remote mirroring. Defining an XIV mirroring target for an XIV
system simply involves giving the target a name and specifying whether Fibre Channel or
iSCSI protocol will be used to copy the data. For a practical illustration refer to 3.11.2,
“Remote mirror target configuration” on page 96.
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XIV Remote Mirroring copies data from a peer on one XIV system to a peer on another XIV
system (the mirroring target system). Whereas the basic underlying mirroring relationship is a
one-to-one relationship between two peers, XIV systems may be connected in several
different ways:
 XIV target configuration: one-to-one
The most typical XIV Remote Mirroring configuration is a one-to-one relationship between
a local XIV system (production system) and a remote XIV system (DR system), as shown
in Figure 3-17. This configuration is typical where there is a single production site and a
single disaster recovery (DR) site.
Target
S
M
Figure 3-17 One-to-one target configuration
During normal remote mirroring operation, one XIV system (at the DR site) will be active
as a mirroring target. The other XIV system (at the local production site) will be active as a
mirroring target only when it becomes available again after an outage and switch of
production to the DR site. Changes made while production was running at the DR site are
copied back to the original production site, as shown in Figure 3-18.
Target
S
M
Figure 3-18 Copying changes back to production
In a configuration with two identically provisioned sites, production may be periodically
switched from one site to another as part of normal operation, and the XIV system that is
the active mirroring target will be switched at the same time. (The mirror_switch_roles
command allows for switching roles in both synchronous and asynchronous mirroring.
Note that there are special requirements for doing so with asynchronous mirroring.)
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 XIV target configuration: synchronous and asynchronous one-to-one
XIV supports both synchronous and asynchronous mirroring (for different peers) on the
same XIV system, so a single local XIV system could have certain volumes synchronously
mirrored to a remote XIV system, whereas other peers are asynchronously mirrored to the
same remote XIV system as shown in Figure 3-19. Highly response-time-sensitive
volumes could be asynchronously mirrored and less response-time-sensitive volumes
could be synchronously mirrored to a single remote XIV.
Figure 3-19 Synchronous and asynchronous peers
 XIV target configuration: fan-out
A single local (production) XIV system may be connected to two remote (DR) XIV systems
in a fan-out configuration, as shown in Figure 3-20. Both remote XIV systems could be at
the same location, or each of the two target systems could be at a different location.
Certain volumes on the local XIV system are copied to one remote XIV system, and other
volumes on the same local XIV system are copied to a different remote XIV system. This
configuration may be used when each XIV system at the DR site has less available
capacity than the XIV system at the local site.
Target
Target
Figure 3-20 Fan-out target configuration
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 XIV target configuration: synchronous and asynchronous fan-out
XIV supports both synchronous and asynchronous mirroring (for different peers) on the
same XIV system, so a single local XIV system could have certain peers synchronously
mirrored to a remote XIV system at a metro distance, whereas other peers are
asynchronously mirrored to a remote XIV system at a global distance, as shown in
Figure 3-21. This configuration may be used when higher priority data is synchronously
mirrored to another XIV system within the metro area, and lower priority data is
asynchronously mirrored to an XIV system within or outside the metro area.
Target
Target
Figure 3-21 Synchronous and asynchronous fan-out
 XIV target configuration: fan-in
Two (or more) local XIV systems may have peers mirrored to a single remote XIV system
in a fan-in configuration, as shown in Figure 3-22. This configuration must be evaluated
carefully and used with caution because it includes the risk of overloading the single
remote XIV system. The performance capability of the single remote XIV system must be
carefully reviewed before implementing a fan-in configuration.
This configuration may be used in situations where there is a single disaster recovery data
center supporting multiple production data centers, or when multiple XIV systems are
mirrored to a single XIV system at a service provider.
Target
Figure 3-22 Fan-in configuration
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 XIV target configuration: bi-directional
Two different XIV systems may have different volumes mirrored in a bi-directional
configuration, as shown in Figure 3-23. This configuration may be used for situations
where there are two active production sites and each site provides a DR solution for the
other. Each XIV system is active as a production system for certain peers and as a
mirroring target for other peers.
S
Target
Target
M
Figure 3-23 Bi-directional configuration
3.4.2 Setting the maximum initialization and synchronization rates
The XIV system allows a user-specifiable maximum rate (in MBps) for remote mirroring
coupling initialization, and a different user-specifiable maximum rate for re-synchronization.
The initialization rate and resynchronization rate are specified for each mirroring target using
the XCLI command target_config_sync_rates. As such, if different rates are required for
different volumes for a single remote target XIV system, multiple logical targets may be
defined for the single physical remote XIV system. The actual effective initialization or
synchronization rate will also be dependent on the number and speed of connections
between the XIV systems. The maximum initialization rate must be less than or equal to the
maximum sync job rate (asynchronous mirroring only), which must be less than or equal to
the maximum resynchronization rate. The defaults are:
 Maximum initialization rate: 100 MBps
 Maximum sync job: 300 MBps
 Maximum resync rate: 300 MBps
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3.4.3 Connecting XIV mirroring ports
After defining remote mirroring targets, one-to-one connections must be made between ports
on each XIV system. For an illustration of these actions using the GUI or the XCLI, refer to
3.11, “Using the GUI or XCLI for Remote Mirroring actions” on page 91.
 FC ports
For XIV Fibre Channel (FC) ports, connections are unidirectional—from an initiator port
(port 4 is configured as a Fibre Channel initiator by default) on the source XIV system to a
target port (typically port 2) on the target XIV system. Use a minimum of four connections
(two connections in each direction, from ports in two different modules, using a total of
eight ports) to provide availability protection. Refer to Figure 3-24.
9
8
7
6
Data,
5 ,
Mgt
4
Data,
,
FC SAN
FC SAN
Mgt
9
8
7
6
Data,
5 ,
Mgt
4
Data,
,
Mgt
Figure 3-24 Connecting XIV mirroring ports (FC connections)
In Figure 3-24, the solid lines represent mirroring connections used during normal
operation (the mirroring target system is on the right), and the dotted lines represent
mirroring connections used when production is running at the disaster recovery site and
changes are being copied back to the original production site (mirroring target is on the
left.)
XIV Fibre Channel ports may be easily and dynamically configured as initiator or target
ports.
 iSCSI ports
For iSCSI ports, connections are bi-directional.
Use a minimum of two connections (with each of these ports in a different module) using a
total of four ports to provide availability protection. In Figure 3-25 on page 70, the solid
lines represent data flow during normal operation and the dotted lines represent data flow
when production is running at the disaster recovery site and changes are being copied
back to the original production site.
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9
8
7
Data, ,
DMatgat , ,
Mgt
IP Network
IP Network
9
8
7
Data, ,
DMatgat , ,
Mgt
Figure 3-25 Connecting XIV mirroring ports (iSCSI connections)
Note: For asynchronous mirroring over iSCSI links, a reliable, dedicated network must
be available. It requires consistent network bandwidth and a non-shared link.
3.4.4 Defining the XIV mirror coupling and peers: volume
After the mirroring targets have been defined, a coupling or mirror may be defined, creating a
mirroring relationship between two peers.
Before discussing actions involved in creating mirroring pairs, we must introduce the basic
XIV concepts used in the discussion.
Storage pools, volumes, and consistency groups
An XIV storage pool is a purely administrative construct used to manage XIV logical and
physical capacity allocation.
An XIV volume is a logical volume that is presented to an external server as a logical unit
number (LUN). An XIV volume is allocated from logical and physical capacity within a single
XIV storage pool. The physical capacity on which data for an XIV volume is stored is always
spread across all available disk drives in the XIV system
The XIV system is data aware. It monitors and reports the amount of physical data written to
a logical volume and does not copy any part of the volume that has not been used yet to store
any actual data.
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In Figure 3-26, seven logical volumes have been allocated from a storage pool with 40 TB of
capacity. Remember that the capacity assigned to a storage pool and its volumes is spread
across all available physical disk drives in the XIV system.
40TB
Storage
Pool
Figure 3-26 Storage pool with seven volumes
With Remote Mirroring, the concept of consistency group represents a logical container for a
group of volumes, allowing them to be managed as a single unit. Instead of dealing with many
volume remote mirror pairs individually, consistency groups simplify the handling of many
pairs considerably.
An XIV consistency group exists within the boundary of an XIV storage pool in a single XIV
system (in other words, you can have different CGs in different storage pools within an XIV
storage system, but a CG cannot span multiple storage pools). All volumes in a particular
consistency group are in the same XIV storage pool.
In Figure 3-27, an XIV storage pool with 40 TB capacity contains seven logical volumes. One
consistency group has been defined for the XIV storage pool, but no volumes have been
added to or created in the consistency group.
40TB
Storage
Pool
CG
Figure 3-27 Consistency group defined
Volumes may be easily and dynamically (that is, without stopping mirroring or application
I/Os) added to a consistency group.
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In Figure 3-28, five of the seven existing volumes in the storage pool have been added to the
consistency group in the storage pool. One or more additional volumes may be dynamically
added to the consistency group at any time. Also, volumes may be dynamically moved from
another storage pool to the storage pool containing the consistency group, and then added to
the consistency group.
40TB
Storage
Pool
CG
Figure 3-28 Volumes added to the consistency group
Volumes may also be easily and dynamically removed from an XIV consistency group. In
Figure 3-29, one of the five volumes has been removed from the consistency group, leaving
four volumes remaining in the consistency group. It is also possible to remove all volumes
from a consistency group.
40TB
Storage
Pool
CG
Figure 3-29 Volume removed from the consistency group
Dependent write consistency
XIV Remote Mirroring provides dependent write consistency, preserving the order of
dependent writes in the mirrored data. Dependent write consistency is also referred to as
crash consistency or power-loss consistency, and applications and databases are developed
to be able to perform a fast restart from volumes that are consistent in terms of dependent
writes.
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Dependent writes: normal operation
Applications or databases often manage dependent write consistency using a 3-step process
such as the sequence of three writes shown in Figure 3-30. Even when the writes are
directed at different logical volumes, the application ensures that the writes are committed in
order during normal operation.
2) Update Record
DB
1) Intend to update DB
Log
3) DB updated
Figure 3-30 Dependent writes: normal operation
Dependent writes: failure scenario
In the event of a failure, applications or databases manage dependent writes, as shown in
Figure 3-31. If the database record is not updated (step 2), the application does not allow DB
updated (step 3) to be written to the log.
x
2) Update Record
DB
1) Intend to update DB
3) DB updated
Log
Figure 3-31 Dependent writes: failure scenario
Just as the application or database manages dependent write consistency for the production
volumes, the XIV system must manage dependent write consistency for the mirror target
volumes.
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If multiple volumes will have dependent write activity, they may be put into a single storage
pool in the XIV system and then added to an XIV consistency group to be managed as a
single unit for remote mirroring. Any mirroring actions are taken simultaneously against the
mirrored consistency group as a whole, preserving dependent write consistency. Mirroring
actions cannot be taken against an individual volume pair while it is part of a mirrored CG.
However, an individual volume pair may be dynamically removed from the mirrored
consistency group.
XIV also supports creation of application-consistent data in the remote mirroring target
volumes, as discussed 3.5.4, “Creating application-consistent data at both local and the
remote sites” on page 87.
Defining mirror coupling and peers
After the remote mirroring targets have been defined, a coupling or mirror may be defined,
creating a mirroring relationship between two peers.
The two peers in the mirror coupling may be either two volumes (volume peers) or two
consistency groups (CG peers), as shown in Figure 3-32.
SITE 1
SITE 2
Production
DR Test/Recovery Servers
M
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Defined
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Defined
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Defined
P/M
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Defined
M
Volume Peer
Designated
Primary
Consistency Group Peer
Primary Designation (P)
Master Role (M)
M
S
S
Volume Peer
Designated
Secondary
S
S/S
Consistency Group Peer
Secondary Designation (S)
Slave Role (S)
Figure 3-32 Defining mirror coupling
Each of the two peers in the mirroring relationship is given a designation and a role. The
designation indicates the original or normal function of each of the two peers—either primary
or secondary. The peer designation does not change with operational actions or commands.
(If necessary, the peer designation may be changed by explicit user command or action.)
The role of a peer indicates its current (perhaps temporary) operational function (either
master or slave). The operational role of a peer may change as the result of user commands
or actions. Peer roles typically change during DR testing or a true disaster recovery and
production site switch.
When a mirror coupling is created, the first peer specified (for example, the volumes or CG at
site 1, as shown in Figure 3-32) is the source for data to be replicated to the target system, so
it is given the primary designation and the master role.
The second peer specified (or automatically created by the XIV system) when the mirroring
coupling is created is the target of data replication, so it is given the secondary designation
and the slave role.
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When a mirror coupling relationship is first created, no data movement occurs.
3.4.5 Activating an XIV mirror coupling
When an XIV mirror coupling is first activated, all actual data existing on the master is copied
to the slave. This process is referred to as initialization. XIV Remote Mirroring copies volume
identification information (that is, physical volume ID/PVID) and any actual data on the
volumes. Space that has not been used is not copied.
Initialization may take a significant amount of time if a large amount of data exists on the
master when a mirror coupling is activated. As discussed earlier, the rate for this initial copy of
data can be specified by the user. The speed of this initial copy of data will also be affected by
the connectivity and bandwidth (number of links and link speed) between the XIV primary and
secondary systems.
As an option to remove the impact of distance on initialization, XIV mirroring may be initialized
with the target system installed locally, and the target system may be disconnected after
initialization, shipped to the remote site and reconnected, and mirroring reactivated.
If a remote mirroring configuration is set up when a volume is first created (that is, before any
application data has been written to the volume), initialization will be very quick.
When an XIV consistency group mirror coupling is created, the CG must be empty so there is
no data movement and the initialization process is extremely fast.
The mirror coupling status at the end of initialization differs for XIV synchronous mirroring and
XIV asynchronous mirroring (see “Synchronous mirroring states” on page 58 and “Storage
pools, volumes, and consistency groups” on page 70), but in either case, when initialization is
complete, a consistent set of data exists at the remote site. See Figure 3-33.
SITE 1
SITE 2
Production
DR Test/Recovery Servers
M
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
P/M
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Active
M
Volume Peer
Designated
Primary
Consistency Group Peer
Primary Designation (P)
Master Role (M)
M
S
S
Volume Peer
Designated
Secondary
S
S/S
Consistency Group Peer
Secondary Designation (S)
Slave Role (S)
Figure 3-33 Active mirror coupling
3.4.6 Adding volume mirror coupling to consistency group mirror coupling
Once a volume mirror coupling has completed initialization, the master volume may be added
to a mirrored consistency group in the same storage pool (note that with each mirroring type
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there are certain additional constraints, such as same role, target, schedule, and so on). The
slave volume is automatically added to the consistency group on the remote XIV system.
In Figure 3-34, three active volume couplings that have completed initialization have been
moved into the active mirrored consistency group.
SITE 1
SITE 2
Production
DR Test/Recovery Servers
P/M
Consistency Group Peer
Primary Designation (P)
Master Role (M)
S/S
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Consistency Group Peer
Secondary Designation (S)
Slave Role (S)
Figure 3-34 Consistency group mirror coupling
One or more additional mirrored volumes may be added to a mirrored consistency group at a
later time in the same way.
It is also important to realize that in a CG all volumes have the same role. Also, consistency
groups are handled as a single entity and, for example, in asynchronous mirroring, a delay in
replicating a single volume affects the status of the entire CG.
3.4.7 Normal operation: volume mirror coupling and CG mirror coupling
XIV mirroring normal operation begins after initialization has completed successfully and all
actual data on the master volume at the time of activation has been copied to the slave
volume. During normal operation, a consistent set of data is available on the slave volumes.
Normal operation, statuses, and reporting differ for XIV synchronous mirroring and XIV
asynchronous mirroring. Refer to Chapter 4, “Synchronous Remote Mirroring” on page 103,
and Chapter 5, “Asynchronous remote mirroring” on page 127, for details.
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During normal operation, a single XIV system may contain one or more mirrors of volume
peers as well as one or more mirrors of CG peers, as shown in Figure 3-35.
Site 1
Site 2
Production Servers
DR Test/Recovery Servers
Target
XIV 2
XIV 1
Volume Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
M
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Volume Peer
Designated Secondary
Slave Role
S
CG
Coupling/Mirror
CG Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
CG Peer
Designated Secondary
Slave Role
Active
M
S
Figure 3-35 Normal operations: volume mirror coupling and CG mirror coupling
3.4.8 Deactivating XIV mirror coupling: change recording
An XIV mirror coupling may be deactivated by a user command. In this case, the mirror
transitions to standby mode, as shown in Figure 3-36.
Site 1
Site 2
Production Servers
DR Test/Recovery Servers
Volume Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
CG Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
M
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Standby
Volume Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
S
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Standby
M
S
CG Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
Figure 3-36 Deactivating XIV mirror coupling: change recording
During standby mode, a consistent set of data is available at the remote site (site 2, in our
example). The currency of the consistent data ages in comparison to the master volumes,
and the gap increases while mirroring is in standby mode.
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In synchronous mirroring, during standby mode, XIV metadata is used to note which parts of
a master volume have changed but have not yet been replicated to the slave volume
(because mirroring is not currently active). The actual changed data is not retained in cache,
so there is no danger of exhausting cache while mirroring is in standby mode.
When synchronous mirroring is reactivated by a user command or communication is restored,
the metadata is used to resynchronize changes from the master volumes to the slave
volumes. XIV mirroring records changes for master volumes only. If it is desirable to record
changes to both peer volumes while mirroring is in standby mode, the slave volume must be
changed to a master volume.
Note that in asynchronous mirroring, metadata is not used and the comparison between the
most_recent and last_replicated snapshots indicates the data that must be replicated.
Planned deactivation of XIV remote mirroring may be done to suspend remote mirroring
during a planned network outage or DR test, or to reduce bandwidth during a period of peak
load.
3.4.9 Changing role of slave volume or CG
When XIV mirroring is active, the slave volume or CG is locked and write access is prohibited.
To allow write access to a slave peer, in case of failure or unavailability of the master, the
slave volume role must be changed to the master role. Refer to Figure 3-37.
Site 1
Site 2
Production Servers
Volume Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
CG Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
DR Test/Recovery Servers
M
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Standby
M
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Standby
M
M
Volume Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
CG Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
Figure 3-37 Changing role of slave volume or CG
Changing the role of a volume from slave to master allows the volume to be accessed. In
synchronous mirroring, changing the role also starts metadata recording for any changes
made to the volume. This metadata may be used for resynchronization (if the new master
volume remains the master when remote mirroring is reactivated). In asynchronous mirroring,
changing a peer's role automatically reverts the peer to its last_replicated snapshot.
When mirroring is in standby mode, both volumes may have the master role, as shown in the
following section. When changing roles, both peer roles must be changed if possible (the
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exception being a site disaster or complete system failure). Changing the role of a slave
volume or CG is typical during a true disaster recovery and production site switch.
3.4.10 Changing role of master volume or CG
During a true disaster recovery, to resume production at the remote site a slave must have its
role changed to the master role.
In synchronous mirroring, changing a peer role from master to slave allows the slave to
accept mirrored data from the master and cause deletion of metadata that was used to record
any changes while the peer had the master role.
In asynchronous mirroring, changing a peer's role automatically reverts the peer to its
last_replicated snapshot. If at any point in time the command is run on the slave (changing
the slave to a master), the former master must first be changed to the slave role (upon
recovery of the primary site) before changing the secondary role back from master to slave.
Both peers may temporarily have the master role when a failure at site 1 has resulted in a true
disaster recovery production site switch from site 1 to site 2. When site 1 becomes available
again and there is a requirement to switch production back to site 1, the production changes
made to the volumes at site 2 must be resynchronized to the volumes at site 1. In order to do
this, the peers at site 1 must change their role from master to slave, as shown in Figure 3-38.
Site 1
Site 2
Production Servers
DR Test/Recovery Servers
Volume Peer
Designated Primary
Slave Role
CG Peer
Designated Primary
Slave Role
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
S
Standby
M
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Standby
S
M
Volume Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
CG Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
Figure 3-38 Changing role to slave volume and CG
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3.4.11 Mirror reactivation and resynchronization: normal direction
In synchronous mirroring, when mirroring has been in standby mode, any changes to
volumes with the master role were recorded in metadata. Then when mirroring is reactivated,
changes recorded in metadata for the current master volumes are resynchronized to the
current slave volumes. Refer to Figure 3-39.
Site 1
Site 2
Production Servers
DR Test/Recovery Servers
Target
XIV 2
XIV 1
Volume Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
CG Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
M
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Volume Peer
Designated Secondary
Slave Role
S
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Active
M
S
CG Peer
Designated Secondary
Slave Role
Figure 3-39 Mirror reactivation and resynchronization: normal direction
The rate for this resynchronization of changes can be specified by the user in MBps using the
XCLI target_config_sync_rates command.
When XIV mirroring is reactivated in the normal direction, changes recorded at the primary
peers are copied to the secondary peers.
Examples of mirror deactivation and reactivation in the same direction are:
 Remote mirroring is temporarily inactivated due to communication failure and then
automatically reactivated by the XIV system when communication is restored.
 Remote mirroring is temporarily inactivated to create an extra copy of consistent data at
the secondary.
 Remote mirroring is temporarily inactivated via user action during peak load in an
environment with constrained network bandwidth.
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3.4.12 Reactivation, resynchronization, and reverse direction
When XIV mirroring is reactivated in the reverse direction, as shown in the previous section,
changes recorded at the secondary peers are copied to the primary peers. The primary peers
must change the role from master to slave before mirroring can be reactivated in the reverse
direction. See Figure 3-40.
SITE 1
SITE 2
Production Servers
DR Test/Recovery Servers
Remote Target
Volume Peer
Designated Primary
Slave Role
CG Peer
Designated Primary
Slave Role
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
S
Volume Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
M
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Active
S
M
CG Peer
Designated Secondary
Master Role
Figure 3-40 Reactivation and resynchronization
A typical usage example of this scenario is when returning to the primary site after a true
disaster recovery with production switched to the secondary peers at the remote site.
3.4.13 Switching roles of mirrored volumes or CGs
When mirroring is active and synchronized (consistent), the master and slave roles of
mirrored volumes or consistency groups may be switched simultaneously. Role switching is
typical for returning mirroring to the normal direction after changes have been mirrored in the
reverse direction after a production site switch. Role switching is also typical for any planned
production site switch. Host server write activity and replication activity must be paused very
briefly before and during the role switch.
3.4.14 Adding a mirrored volume to a mirrored consistency group
First make sure that the following constraints are respected:
 Volume and CG must be associated with the same pool
 Volume is not already part of a CG
 Command must be issued only on the master CG
 Command must not be run during initialization of volume or CG
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 The volume mirroring settings must be identical to those of the CG:
–
–
–
–
–
Mirroring type
Mirroring role
Mirroring status
Mirroring target
Target pool
 Both volume synchronization status and mirrored CG synchronization status is either RPO
OK for asynchronous mirroring or Synchronized for synchronous mirroring.
To add a volume mirror to a mirrored consistency group (for instance, when an application
needs additional capacity):
1. Define XIV volume mirror coupling from the additional master volume at XIV 1 to the slave
volume at XIV 2.
2. Activate XIV remote mirroring from the additional master volume at XIV 1 to the slave
volume at XIV 2.
3. Monitor initialization until it is complete. Volume coupling initialization must be complete
before the coupling can be moved to a mirrored CG.
4. Add the additional master volume at XIV 1 to the master consistency group at XIV 1. (The
additional slave volume at XIV 2 will be automatically added to the slave consistency
group at XIV 2.)
In Figure 3-41, one volume has been added to the mirrored XIV consistency group. The
volumes must be in a volume peer relationship and must have completed initialization
SITE 1
SITE 2
Production
DR Test/Recovery Servers
M/P
S/S
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Consistency Group Peer
Primary Designation (P)
Master Role (M)
Consistency Group Peer
Secondary Designation (S)
Slave Role (S)
Figure 3-41 Adding a mirrored volume to a mirrored consistency group
Refer also to 3.4.4, “Defining the XIV mirror coupling and peers: volume” on page 70, and
3.4.6, “Adding volume mirror coupling to consistency group mirror coupling” on page 75, for
additional details.
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3.4.15 Removing a mirrored volume from a mirrored consistency group
If a volume in a mirrored consistency group is no longer being used by an application or if
actions must be taken against the individual volume, it can be dynamically removed from the
consistency group.
To remove a volume mirror from a mirrored consistency group:
1. Remove the master volume from the master consistency group at site 1. (The slave
volume at site 2 will be automatically removed from the slave CG.)
2. When a mirrored volume is removed from a mirrored CG, it retains its mirroring status and
settings and continues remote mirroring until deactivated.
In Figure 3-42, one volume has been removed from the example mirrored XIV consistency
group with three volumes. After being removed from the mirrored CG, a volume will continue
to be mirrored as part of a volume peer relationship.
Site 1
Site 2
Production
DR Test/Recovery Servers
P/M
P/M
P/M
Consistency Group Peer
Primary Designation (P)
Master Role (M)
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
CG
Coupling/Mirror
Active
S/S
S/S
S/S
Consistency Group Peer
Secondary Designation (S)
Slave Role (S)
Figure 3-42 Removing a mirrored volume from a mirrored CG
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3.4.16 Deleting mirror coupling definitions
When an XIV mirror coupling is deleted, all metadata and mirroring definitions are deleted,
and the peers do not have any relationship at all (Figure 3-43). However, any volumes and
consistency groups mirroring snapshots remain on the local and remote XIV systems. In
order to restart XIV mirroring, a full copy of data is required.
Site 1
Production Servers
Site 2
DR Test/Recovery Servers
Figure 3-43 Deleting mirror coupling definitions
Typical usage of mirror deletion is a one-time data migration using remote mirroring. This
includes deleting the XIV mirror couplings after the migration is complete.
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3.5 Best practice usage scenarios
The following best practice usage scenarios begin with the normal operation remote
mirroring environment shown in Figure 3-44.
Site 1
Site 2
Production Servers
DR Test/Recovery Servers
Target
XIV 2
XIV 1
Volume Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
CG Peer
Designated Primary
Master Role
M
Volume
Coupling/Mirror
Active
Volume Peer
Designated Secondary
Slave Role
S
CG
Coupling/Mirror
CG Peer
Designated Secondary
Slave Role
Active
M
S
Figure 3-44 Remote Mirroring environment for scenarios
3.5.1 Failure at primary site: switch production to secondary
This scenario begins with normal operation of XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1 to XIV 2,
followed by a failure at XIV 1 with the assumption that the data already existing on the XIV
system at XIV 1 will be available for resynchronization when XIV 1 is repaired and returned to
operation.
1. XIV remote mirroring may have been deactivated by the failure.
2. Change the role of the peer at XIV 2 from slave to master. This allows the peer to be
accessed for writes from a host server, and also causes recording of any changes in
metadata for synchronous mirroring. For asynchronous mirroring, changing the role from
slave to master causes the last replicated snapshot to be restored to the volume. Now
both XIV 1 and XIV 2 peers have the master role.
3. Map the master (secondary) peers at XIV 2 to the DR servers.
4. Bring the XIV 2 peers (now with the master role) online to the DR servers to begin
production workload at XIV 2.
5. When the failure at XIV 1 has been corrected and XIV 1 is available, deactivate mirrors at
XIV 1 if they are not already inactive.
6. Unmap XIV 1 peers from servers if necessary.
7. Change the role of the peer at XIV 1 from master to slave.
8. Activate remote mirroring from the master peers at XIV 2 to the slave peers at XIV 1. This
starts resynchronization of production changes from XIV 2 to XIV 1.
9. Monitor the progress to ensure that resynchronization is complete.
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10.Quiesce production applications at XIV 2 to ensure that application-consistent data is
copied to XIV 1.
11.Unmap master peers at XIV 2 from DR servers.
12.For asynchronous mirroring, monitor completion of sync job and change the replication
interval to never.
13.Monitor to ensure that no more data is flowing from XIV 2 to XIV 1.
14.Switch roles of master and slave. XIV 1 peers now have the master role and XIV 2 peers
now have the slave role.
15.For asynchronous mirroring, change the replication schedule to the desired interval.
16.Map master peers at XIV 1 to the production servers.
17.Bring master peers online to XIV 1 production servers.
3.5.2 Complete destruction of XIV 1
This scenario begins with normal operation of XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1 to XIV 2,
followed by complete destruction of XIV 1.
1. Change the role of the peer at XIV 2 from slave to master. This allows the peer to be
accessed for writes from a host server.
2. Map the new master peer at XIV 2 to the DR servers at XIV 2.
3. Bring the XIV 2 peer (now with a master role) online to XIV 2 DR servers to begin
production workload at XIV 2.
4. Deactivate XIV remote mirroring from the master peer at XIV 2 if necessary. (It may have
already been deactivated by the XIV 1 failure.)
5. Delete XIV remote mirroring from the master peer at XIV 2.
6. Rebuild XIV 1, including configuration of the new XIV system at XIV 1, the definition of
remote targets for both XIV 1 and XIV 2, and the definition of connectivity between XIV 1
and XIV 2.
7. Define XIV remote mirroring from the master peer at XIV 2 to the slave peer at XIV 1.
8. Activate XIV remote mirroring from the master peer at XIV 2 to the slave peer at XIV 1.
This causes a full copy of all actual data on the master peer at XIV 2 to the slave volume at
XIV 1.
9. Monitor initialization until it is complete.
10.Quiesce the production applications at XIV 2 to ensure that all application-consistent data
is copied to XIV 1.
11.Unmap master peers at XIV 2 from DR servers.
12.For asynchronous mirroring, monitor completion of the sync job and change the replication
interval to never.
13.Monitor to ensure that no more data is flowing from XIV 2 to XIV 1.
14.You can do a switch roles, which simultaneously changes the role of the peers at XIV 1
from slave to master and changes the role of the peers at XIV 2 from master to slave.
15.For asynchronous mirroring, change the replication schedule to the desired interval.
16.Map master peers at XIV 1 to the production servers.
17.Bring master peers online to XIV 1 production servers.
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18.Change the designation of the master peer at XIV 1 to primary.
19.Change the designation of the slave peer at XIV 2 to secondary.
3.5.3 Using an extra copy for DR tests
This scenario begins with normal operation of XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1 to XIV 2.
1. Create a Snapshot or volume copy of the consistent data at XIV 2. (The procedure is
slightly different for XIV synchronous mirroring and XIV asynchronous mirroring. For
asynchronous mirroring, consistent data is on the last replicated snapshot.)
2. Unlock the snapshot or volume copy.
3. Map the snapshot/volume copy to DR servers at XIV 2.
4. Bring the snapshot/volume copy at XIV 2 online to DR servers to begin disaster recovery
testing at XIV 2.
5. When DR testing is complete, unmap the snapshot/volume copy from XIV 2 DR servers.
6. Delete the snapshot/volume copy if desired.
3.5.4 Creating application-consistent data at both local and the remote sites
This scenario begins with normal operation of XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1 to XIV 2. This
scenario may be used when the fastest possible application restart is required.
1. No actions are taken to change XIV remote mirroring.
2. Briefly quiesce the application at XIV 1 or place the database into hot backup mode.
3. Ensure that all data has been copied from the master peer at XIV 1 to the slave peer at
XIV 2.
4. Issue Create Mirrored Snapshot at the master peer. This creates an additional snapshot
at the master and slave.
5. Resume normal operation of the application or database at XIV 1.
6. Unlock the snapshot or volume copy.
7. Map the snapshot/volume copy to DR servers at XIV 2.
8. Bring the snapshot or volume copy at XIV 2 online to XIV 2 servers to begin disaster
recovery testing or other functions at XIV 2.
9. When DR testing or other use is complete, unmap the snapshot/volume copy from XIV 2
DR servers.
10.Delete the snapshot/volume copy if desired.
3.5.5 Migration
A migration scenario involves a one-time movement of data from one XIV system to another
(for example, migration to new XIV hardware.) This scenario begins with existing connectivity
between XIV 1 and XIV 2.
1. Define XIV remote mirroring from the master volume at XIV 1 to the slave volume at XIV 2.
2. Activate XIV remote mirroring from the master volume at XIV 1 to the slave volume at XIV
2.
3. Monitor initialization until it is complete.
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4. Deactivate XIV remote mirroring from the master volume at XIV 1 to the slave volume at
XIV 2.
5. Delete XIV remote mirroring from the master volume at XIV 1 to the slave volume at XIV 2.
6. Remove connectivity between the XIV systems at XIV 1 and XIV 2.
7. Redeploy the XIV system at XIV 1 if desired.
3.5.6 Adding data corruption protection to disaster recovery protection
This scenario begins with normal operation of XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1 to XIV 2
followed by creation of an additional snapshot of the master volume at XIV 1 to be used in the
event of application data corruption. To create a dependent-write consistent snapshot, no
changes are required to XIV remote mirroring.
1. Periodically issue Create Mirrored Snapshot at the master peer. This creates an additional
snapshot at the master and slave.
2. When production data corruption is discovered, quiesce the application and take any
steps necessary to prepare the application to be restored.
3. Deactivate and delete mirroring.
4. Restore production volumes from the appropriate snapshots.
5. Bring production volumes online and begin production access.
6. Remove remote volumes from the consistency group.
7. Delete or format remote volumes.
8. Delete any mirroring snapshots existing at the production site.
9. Remove production volumes from the consistency group.
10.Define and activate mirroring. Initialization results in a full copy of data.
If an application-consistent snapshot is desired, the following alternative procedure is used:
1. Periodically quiesce the application (or place into hot backup mode).
2. Create a snapshot of the production data at XIV 1. (The procedure may be slightly
different for XIV synchronous mirroring and XIV asynchronous mirroring. For
asynchronous mirroring, a duplicate snapshot or a volume copy of the last replicated
snapshot may be used.)
3. As soon as the snapshot or volume copy relationship has been created, resume normal
operation of the application.
4. When production data corruption is discovered, deactivate mirroring.
5. Remove master peers from the consistency group at XIV 1 if necessary. (Slave peers will
be automatically removed from the consistency group at XIV 2.)
6. Delete mirroring.
7. Restore the production volume from the snapshot or volume copy at XIV 1.
8. Delete any remaining mirroring-related snapshots or snapshot groups at XIV 1.
9. Delete secondary volumes at XIV 2.
10.Remove XIV 1 volumes (primary) from the consistency group.
11.Define remote mirroring peers from XIV 1 to XIV 2.
12.Activate remote mirroring peers from XIV 1 to XIV 2 (full copy is required).
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3.5.7 Communication failure
This scenario begins with normal operation of XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1 to XIV 2
followed by a failure in the communication network used for XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1
to XIV 2.
1. No action is required to change XIV remote mirroring.
2. When communication between the two XIV systems is not available, XIV remote mirroring
is automatically deactivated and changes to the master volume are recorded in metadata.
3. When communication between the XIV systems at XIV 1 and XIV 2 is restored, XIV
mirroring is automatically reactivated, resynchronizing changes from the master at XIV 1
to the slave at XIV 2.
3.5.8 Temporary deactivation and reactivation
This scenario begins with normal operation of XIV remote mirroring from XIV 1 to XIV 2,
followed by user deactivation of XIV remote mirroring for a period of time. This scenario may
be used to temporarily suspend XIV remote mirroring during a period of peak activity if there
is not enough bandwidth to handle the peak load or if the response time impact during peak
activity is unacceptable.
1. Deactivate XIV remote mirroring from the master volume at XIV 1 to the slave volume at
XIV 2. Changes to the master volume at XIV 1 will be recorded in metadata for
synchronous mirroring.
2. Wait until it is acceptable to reactivate mirroring.
3. Reactivate XIV remote mirroring from the master volume at XIV 1 to the slave volume at
XIV 2.
3.6 Planning
The most important planning considerations for XIV Remote Mirroring are those related to
ensuring availability and performance of the mirroring connections between XIV systems, as
well as the performance of the XIV systems. Planning for snapshot capacity usage is also
extremely important.
To optimize availability, XIV remote mirroring connections must be spread across multiple
ports on different adapter cards in different modules, and must be connected to different
networks.
To optimize capacity usage, the number and frequency of snapshots (both those required for
asynchronous replication and any additional user-initiated snapshots) and the workload
change rates must be carefully reviewed. If not enough information is available, a snapshot
area that is 30% of the pool size may be used as a starting point. Storage pool snapshot
usage thresholds must be set to trigger notification (for example, SNMP, e-mail, SMS) when
the snapshot area capacity reaches 50%, and snapshot usage must be monitored continually
to understand long-term snapshot capacity requirements.
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3.7 Advantages of XIV mirroring
XIV remote mirroring provides all the functions typical of remote mirroring solutions in addition
to the following advantages:
 Both synchronous and asynchronous mirroring are supported on a single XIV system.
 XIV mirroring is supported for consistency groups and individual volumes and mirrored
volumes may be dynamically moved into and out of mirrored consistency groups.
 XIV mirroring is data aware. Only actual data is replicated.
 Synchronous mirroring automatically resynchronizes couplings when a connection
recovers after a network failure.
 Both FC and iSCSI protocols are supported, and both may be used to connect between
the same XIV systems.
 XIV mirroring provides an option to automatically create slave volumes.
 XIV allows user specification of initialization and resynchronization speed.
3.8 Mirroring events
The XIV system generates events for user actions, failures, and changes in mirroring status.
These events can be used to trigger SNMP traps and send e-mails or text messages.
Thresholds for RPO and for link disruption may be specified by the user and trigger an event
when the threshold is reached.
3.9 Mirroring statistics
The XIV system provides Remote Mirroring performance statistics via both the graphical user
interface (GUI) and the command-line interface (XCLI) using the mirror_statistics_get
command.
Performance statistics from the FC or IP network components are also extremely useful.
3.10 Boundaries
With Version 10.2, the XIV Storage System has the following boundaries or limits:
 Maximum remote systems: The maximum number of remote systems that can be
attached to a single primary is 16.
 Number of remote mirrors: The combined number of master and slave volumes (including
in mirrored CG) cannot exceed 512.
 Distance: Distance is only limited by the response time of the medium used. Use
asynchronous mirroring when the distance causes unacceptable delays to the host I/O in
synchronous mode.
 Consistency groups are supported within Remote Mirroring. The maximum number of
consistency groups is 256.
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 Snapshots: Snapshots are allowed with either the primary or secondary volumes without
stopping the mirror. There are also special-purpose snapshots used in the mirroring
process. Space must be available in the storage pool for snapshots.
 Master and slave peers cannot be the target of a copy operation and cannot be restored
from a snapshot. Peers cannot be deleted or formatted without deleting the coupling first.
 Master volumes cannot be resized or renamed if the link is operational.
3.11 Using the GUI or XCLI for Remote Mirroring actions
This section illustrates Remote Mirroring definition actions through the GUI or XCLI.
3.11.1 Initial setup
When preparing to set up Remote Mirroring, take the following questions into consideration:
 Will the paths be configured via SAN or direct attach, FC or iSCSI?
 Is the desired port configured as an initiator or a target?
– The port 4 default configuration an initiator.
– Port 2 is suggested as the target port for remote mirror links.
– Ports can be changed if needed.
 How many pairs will be copied?
This is related to the bandwidth needed between sites.
 How many secondary machines will be used for a single primary?
Remote Mirroring can be set up on paths that are either direct or SAN attached via FC or
iSCSI protocols. For most disaster recovery solutions, the secondary system will be located at
a geographically remote site. The sites will be connected using either SAN connectivity with
Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) or Ethernet with iSCSI. In certain cases, using direct connect
might be the option of choice if the machines are located near each other and could be used
for initialization before the target XIV Storage System is moved to the remote site.
Bandwidth considerations must be taken into account when planning the infrastructure to
support the Remote Mirroring implementation. Knowing when the peak write rate occurs for
systems attached to the storage will help with the planning for the number of paths needed to
support the Remote Mirroring function and any future growth plans.
When the protocol has been selected, it is time to determine which ports on the XIV Storage
System will be used. The port settings are easily displayed using the XCLI Session
environment and the command fc_port_list for Fibre Channel or ipinterface_list for
iSCSI.
There must always be a minimum of two paths configured within Remote Mirroring for FCP
connections, and these paths must be dedicated to Remote Mirroring. These two paths must
be considered a set. Use port 4 and port 2 in the selected interface module for this purpose.
For redundancy, additional sets of paths must be configured in different interface modules.
Fibre Channel paths for Remote Mirroring have slightly more requirements for setup, and we
look at this interface first.
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As seen in Example 3-1, in the Role column each Fibre Channel port is identified as either a
target or an initiator. Simply put, a target in a Remote Mirror configuration is the port that will
be receiving data from the other system, whereas an initiator is the port that will be doing the
sending of data. In this example, there are three initiators configured. Initiators, by default, are
configured on FC:X:4 (X is the module number). In this highlighted example, port 4 in module
6 is configured as the initiator.
Example 3-1 The fc_port_list output command
>> fc_port_list
Component ID Status
1:FC_Port:4:1 OK
1:FC_Port:4:2 OK
1:FC_Port:4:3 OK
1:FC_Port:4:4 OK
1:FC_Port:5:1 OK
1:FC_Port:5:2 OK
1:FC_Port:5:3 OK
1:FC_Port:5:4 OK
1:FC_Port:6:1 OK
1:FC_Port:6:2 OK
1:FC_Port:6:3 OK
1:FC_Port:6:4 OK
1:FC_Port:9:1 OK
1:FC_Port:9:2 OK
1:FC_Port:9:3 OK
1:FC_Port:9:4 OK
1:FC_Port:8:1 OK
1:FC_Port:8:2 OK
1:FC_Port:8:3 OK
1:FC_Port:8:4 OK
1:FC_Port:7:1 OK
1:FC_Port:7:2 OK
1:FC_Port:7:3 OK
1:FC_Port:7:4 OK
>>
Currently Functioning
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
WWPN
5001738000130140
5001738000130141
5001738000130142
5001738000130143
5001738000130150
5001738000130151
5001738000130152
5001738000130153
5001738000130160
5001738000130161
5001738000130162
5001738000130163
5001738000130190
5001738000130191
5001738000130192
5001738000130193
5001738000130180
5001738000130181
5001738000130182
5001738000130183
5001738000130170
5001738000130171
5001738000130172
5001738000130173
Port ID
00030A00
0075002E
00750029
00750027
00611000
0075001F
00021D00
00000000
00070A00
006D0713
00000000
0075002F
00DDEE02
00FFFFFF
00021700
00021600
00060219
00021C00
002D0027
002D0026
006B0F00
00681813
00021F00
00021E00
Role
Target
Target
Target
Initiator
Target
Target
Target
Initiator
Target
Target
Target
Initiator
Target
Target
Target
Initiator
Target
Target
Target
Initiator
Target
Target
Target
Initiator
The iSCSI connections are shown in Example 3-2 using the command ipinterface_list.
The output has been truncated to show just the iSCSI connections in which we are interested
here. The command also displays all Ethernet connections and settings. In this example we
have two connections displayed for iSCSI—one connection in module 7 and one connection
in module 8.
Example 3-2 The ipinterface_list command
>> ipinterface_list
Name
Type
IP Address Network Mask
itso_m8_p1
iSCSI 9.11.237.156 255.255.254.0
itso_m7_p1
iSCSI 9.11.237.155 255.255.254.0
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Default Gateway MTU
9.11.236.1
4500
9.11.236.1
4500
Module
1:Module:8
1:Module:7
Ports
1
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Alternatively, a single port can be queried by selecting a system in the GUI, followed by
selecting Mirror Connectivity (Figure 3-45).
Figure 3-45 Selecting Mirror Connectivity
Click the connecting links between the systems of interest to view the ports.
Right-click a specific port and select Properties, the output of which is shown in Figure 3-46.
This particular port is configured as a target.
Figure 3-46 Port properties displayed with GUI
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Another way to query the port configuration is to select the desired system, click the curved
arrow (at the bottom right of the window) to display the ports on the back of the system, and
hover the mouse over a port, as shown in Figure 3-47. This view displays all the information
that is shown in Figure 3-46 on page 93.
Figure 3-47 Port information from the patch panel view
Similar information can be displayed for the iSCSI connections using the GUI, as shown in
Figure 3-48. This view can be seen either by right-clicking the Ethernet port (similar to the
Fibre Channel port shown in Figure 3-48) or by selecting the system, then selecting Hosts
and LUNs  iSCSI Connectivity. This sequence displays the same two iSCSI definitions
that are shown with the XCLI command.
Figure 3-48 iSCSI connectivity
By default, Fibre Channel ports 2 and 4 (target and initiator, respectively) from every module
are designed to be used for Remote Mirroring. For example, port 4 module 8 (initiator) on the
local machine is connected to port 2 module 8 (target) on the remote machine. When setting
up a new system, it is best to plan for any Remote Mirroring and reserve these ports for that
purpose. However different ports could be used as needed.
In the event that a port role does need to be changed, you can change the port role with both
the XCLI and the GUI. Use the XCLI fc_port_config command to change a port, as shown in
Example 3-3. Using the output from fc_port_list, we can get the fc_port name to be used in
the command, changing the port role to be either initiator or target, as needed.
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Example 3-3 XCLI command to configure a port
fc_port_config fc_port=1:FC_Port:4:3 role=initiator
Command completed successfully
fc_port_list
Component ID Status
1:FC_Port:4:3 OK
Currently Functioning
yes
WWPN
Port ID Role
5001738000130142 00750029 Initiator
To perform the same function with the GUI, select the primary system, open the patch panel
view, and right-click the port, as shown in Figure 3-49.
Figure 3-49 Configure ports
Selecting Configure opens a configuration window, as shown in Figure 3-50, which allows
the port to be enabled (or disabled), its role defined as target or initiator, and, finally, the
speed for the port configured (Auto, 1 Gbps, 2 Gbps, or 10 Gbps).
Figure 3-50 Configure port with GUI
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Planning for Remote Mirroring is important when determining how many copy pairs will exist.
All volumes defined in the system can be mirrored. A single primary system is limited to a
maximum of 16 secondary systems. Volumes cannot be part of an XIV data migration and a
remote mirror volume at the same time. Data migration information can be found in Chapter 8,
“Data migration” on page 215.
3.11.2 Remote mirror target configuration
The connections to the target (secondary) XIV system must be defined. We assume that the
physical connections and zoning have been set up. Target configuration is done from the
mirror connectivity menu. The first step is to add the target system. To do this right-click the
system image and select Create Target, as shown in Figure 3-51.
Figure 3-51 Create target
Then define the type of mirroring to be used (mirroring or migration) and the type of
connection (iSCSI or FC), as shown in Figure 3-52.
Figure 3-52 Target type and protocol
Next, as shown in Figure 3-53 on page 97, connections are defined by clicking the line
between the two XIV systems to display the link status detail screen.
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Figure 3-53 Define connections
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Connections are easily defined by clicking Show Auto Detected Connections. This shows
the possible connections and provides an Approve button to define the detected connections.
Remember that for FCP ports an initiator must be connected to a target and the proper zoning
must be established for the connections to be successful. The possible connections are
shown in light grey, as depicted in Figure 3-54.
Figure 3-54 Show possible connections
Connections can also be defined by clicking a port on the primary system and dragging the
the corresponding port on the target system. This is shown as a blue line in Figure 3-55.
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Figure 3-55 Graphically define a connection
Releasing the mouse button initiates the connection and then the status can be displayed, as
shown in Figure 3-56.
Figure 3-56 Define connection and view status
Right-click a path and you have options to Activate, Deactivate, and Delete the selected path,
as shown in Figure 3-57.
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Figure 3-57 Paths actions menu
To delete the connections between two XIV systems you have to delete all paths between the
two systems and afterwards in the Mirroring Connectivity display delete the target system as
shown in Figure 3-58.
Figure 3-58 Delete Target XIV
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3.11.3 XCLI examples
XCLI commands can be used to configure connectivity between the primary XIV system and
the target or secondary XIV system (Figure 3-59).
target_define target="WSC_1300331" protocol=FC xiv_features=yes
target_mirroring_allow target="WSC_1300331"
target_define target="WSC_6000639" system_id=639 protocol=FC xiv_features=yes
target_mirroring_allow target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380014B0183 target="WSC_1300331"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380027F0180 target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380014B0193 target="WSC_1300331"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380027F0190 target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380027F0183 target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380014B0181 target="WSC_1300331"
target_connectivity_define local_port="1:FC_Port:8:4"
fcaddress=50017380014B0181 target="WSC_1300331"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380027F0193 target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_add fcaddress=50017380014B0191 target="WSC_1300331"
target_connectivity_define local_port="1:FC_Port:9:4"
fcaddress=50017380014B0191 target="WSC_1300331"
target_connectivity_define target="WSC_6000639" local_port="1:FC_Port:8:4"
fcaddress="50017380027F0180"
target_connectivity_define target="WSC_6000639" local_port="1:FC_Port:9:4"
fcaddress="50017380027F0190"
Figure 3-59 Define target XCLI commands
XCLI commands can also be used to delete the connectivity between the primary XIV System
and the secondary XIV system (Figure 3-60).
target_connectivity_delete local_port="1:FC_Port:8:4"
fcaddress=50017380014B0181 target="WSC_1300331"
target_port_delete fcaddress=50017380014B0181 target="WSC_1300331"
target_connectivity_delete local_port="1:FC_Port:8:4"
fcaddress=50017380027F0180 target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_delete fcaddress=50017380027F0180 target="WSC_6000639"
target_connectivity_delete local_port="1:FC_Port:9:4"
fcaddress=50017380014B0191 target="WSC_1300331"
target_port_delete fcaddress=50017380014B0191 target="WSC_1300331"
target_connectivity_delete local_port="1:FC_Port:9:4"
fcaddress=50017380027F0190 target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_delete fcaddress=50017380027F0190 target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_delete target="WSC_6000639" fcaddress="50017380027F0183"
target_port_delete target="WSC_6000639" fcaddress="50017380027F0193"
target_delete target="WSC_6000639"
target_port_delete target="WSC_1300331" fcaddress="50017380014B0183"
target_port_delete target="WSC_1300331" fcaddress="50017380014B0193"
target_delete target="WSC_1300331"
Figure 3-60 Delete target XCLI commands
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3.12 Configuring Remote Mirroring
Configuration tasks differ depending on the nature of the coupling. Synchronous and
asynchronous mirroring are the two types of coupling supported. Refer to Chapter 4,
“Synchronous Remote Mirroring” on page 103, for specific configuration tasks related to
synchronous mirroring and Chapter 5, “Asynchronous remote mirroring” on page 127, for
specific configuration tasks related to asynchronous mirroring.
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4
Chapter 4.
Synchronous Remote Mirroring
This chapter describes the features of synchronous remote mirroring, the options that are
available, and procedures for setting it up and recovering from a disaster.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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4.1 Synchronous mirroring configuration
The mirroring configuration process involves configuring volumes or consistency groups
(CGs). When a pair of volumes/CGs point to each other, it is referred to as a coupling.
We assume that the links between the local and remote XIV storage systems have already
been established, as discussed in 3.11.2, “Remote mirror target configuration” on page 96.
4.1.1 Volume mirroring setup and activation
Volumes/CGs that participate in mirror operations are configured in pairs. These pairs are
called peers. One peer is the source of the data to be replicated and the other is the target.
The source has the role of master and is the controlling entity in the mirror. The target has the
role of slave, which is controlled by operations performed by the master.
When initially configured, one volume is considered the source (master role and resides at
the primary system) and the other is the target (slave role and resides at the secondary
system). This designation is associated with the volume and its XIV system and does not
change. During various operations the role may change (master or slave), but one system is
always the primary and the other is always the secondary.
To create a mirror you can use the XIV GUI or the XCLI.
Using the GUI for volume mirroring setup
In the GUI select the primary XIV and select Mirroring in the GUI, as shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1 Selecting Remote Mirroring
To create a mirror:
1. Select Create Mirror, as shown in Figure 4-2, and specify the source volume or master for
the mirror pair (Figure 4-3 on page 105).
Figure 4-2 Selecting Create Mirror
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There are other ways to create a mirror pair from within the GUI. If you are in the Volumes
and Snapshots list panel you can right-click a volume and select Create Mirror from there.
The Create Mirror dialogue box is displayed (Figure 4-3).
Figure 4-3 Create Mirror parameters
2. Complete the following information:
– Sync Type
Select Sync as the sync type for synchronous mirroring. (We discuss asynchronous
mirroring in Chapter 5, “Asynchronous remote mirroring” on page 127.)
– Master CG / Volume
This is the volume/CG at the primary site to be mirrored. You can select the volume/CG
from a list. The consistency groups are shown in bold and they are at the end of the list.
– Target System
This is the XIV at the secondary site that will contain the slave or target volumes. You
can select the secondary system from a list of known targets.
– Create slave
If selected, the slave volume will be created automatically. If left unselected you must
create the volume manually.
If you have not yet created the target volumes on the secondary XIV, you can check
mark the Create Slave option. In this case you must also select the storage pool in
which the volume will be created on the target XIV. This pool must already exit on the
target XIV. The secondary XIV system will automatically create a target volume of the
same size as the source volume.
If you specified a consistency group instead of a volume, this option is not available. A
slave consistency group must already exist at the remote site.
– Slave Pool
This is the storage pool on the secondary XIV system that will contain the mirrored
slave volumes. This pool must already exit. This option is only available if you check
marked the Create Slave option.
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– Slave CG / Volume
This is the name of the slave volume/CG. If you selected the Create Slave option, the
default is to use the same name as the source, but this can be changed. If you did not
check mark the Create Slave option, you can select the target volume or a consistency
group from a list.
If a target volume already exists on the secondary XIV, it must have exactly the same
size as the source volume, otherwise a mirror cannot be set up. In this case use the
Resize function of the XIV to adjust the capacity of the target volume to match the
capacity of the source volume.
Once mirroring is active, you can resize the source volume and the target volume will
be automatically resized to match the source volume.
3. Once all the appropriate entries have been completed, click Create.
A coupling is created and is in standby (inactive) mode, as shown in Figure 4-4. In this
state data is not yet copied from the source to the target volume.
Figure 4-4 Coupling on the primary XIV in standby (Inactive) mode
A corresponding coupling is automatically created on the secondary XIV, and it is also in
standby (Inactive) mode, as shown in Figure 4-5.
Figure 4-5 Coupling on the secondary XIV in standby (Inactive) mode
Repeat steps 1–3 to create additional couplings.
Using XCLI for volume mirroring setup
Tip: When working with the XCLI session or the XCLI from a command line, the windows
look similar and you could inadvertently address the wrong XIV system with your
command. Therefore, it is a good idea to issue a config_get command to verify that you
are addressing the intended XIV system.
To do this:
1. Open an XCLI session on the XIV at the local site (primary XIV) and run the
mirror_create command (Example 4-1).
Example 4-1 Create remote mirror coupling
>> mirror_create target="XIV MN00035" vol="itso_win2008_vol2"
slave_vol="itso_win2008_vol2" remote_pool="test_pool" create_slave=yes
Command executed successfully.
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2. To list the couplings on the primary XIV, run the mirror_list command (Example 4-2).
Note the status of Initializing is used when the coupling is in standby (inactive) or is
initializing.
Example 4-2 Listing mirror couplings
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Role
Master
Master
Remote System
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
Active
no
no
Status
Initializing
Initializing
Link Up
yes
yes
3. To list the couplings on the secondary XIV, run the mirror_list command, as shown in
Example 4-3. Note that the status of Initializing is used when the coupling is in standby
(inactive) or initializing.
Example 4-3 Newly created slave volumes
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Role
Slave
Slave
Remote System
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
Active
no
no
Status
Initializing
Initializing
Link Up
yes
yes
Repeat steps 1–3 to create additional mirror couplings.
Activating the remote mirror coupling using the GUI
To activate the mirror, proceed as follows:
1. On the primary XIV, go the Remote Mirroring menu and highlight all the couplings that you
want to activate, right-click, and select Activate, as shown in Figure 4-6.
Figure 4-6 Activating a mirror coupling
Figure 4-7 shows the coupling in the Initialization state.
Figure 4-7 Remote mirroring status on the primary XIV
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2. On the secondary XIV, go to the Remote Mirroring menu to see the status of the couplings
(Figure 4-8). Note that due to the time lapse between Figure 4-7 on page 107 and
Figure 4-8 being taken they do show different statuses.
Figure 4-8 Remote mirroring statuses on the secondary XIV
3. Repeat steps 1–2 until all required couplings are activated and are
synchronized/consistent.
Activating the remote mirror coupling using the XCLI
Proceed as follows:
1. On the primary XIV, run the mirror_activate command (Example 4-4).
Example 4-4 Activating the mirror coupling
>> mirror_activate vol=itso_win2008_vol3
Command executed successfully.
2. On the primary XIV, run the mirror_list command to see the status of the couplings
(Example 4-5).
Example 4-5 List remote mirror statuses on the primary XIV
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Master
Master
Master
Remote System
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
yes
yes
yes
Status
Synchronized
Synchronized
Synchronized
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
3. On the secondary XIV, run the mirror_list command to see the status of the couplings
(Example 4-6).
Example 4-6 List remote mirror statuses on the secondary XIV
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Slave
Slave
Slave
Remote System
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
yes
yes
yes
Status
Consistent
Consistent
Consistent
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
4. Repeat steps 1–3 to activate additional couplings.
4.1.2 Consistency group setup and configuration
IBM XIV Storage System leverages its consistency group capability to allow for mirroring
numerous volumes at once.
Setting a consistency group to be mirrored is done by first creating a consistency group, then
setting it to be mirrored, and only then populating it with volumes. A consistency group must
be created at the primary XIV and a corresponding consistency group at the secondary XIV.
The names of the consistency groups can be different. When creating a consistency group,
you also must specify the storage pool.
To create a mirrored consistency group first create a CG on the primary and secondary XIV
Storage System. Then select the CG at the primary and specify Create Mirror, as shown in
Figure 4-9.
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Figure 4-9 Create Mirror CG
The Create Mirror dialog shown in Figure 4-10 is displayed. Be sure to specify the mirroring
parameters that match the volumes that will be part of that CG.
Figure 4-10 Sync mirrored CG
Now you can add mirrored volumes to this consistency group.
All volumes that you are going to add to the consistency group must be in that pool on the
primary XIV and in one pool on the secondary XIV. Adding a new volume pair to a mirrored
consistency group requires the volumes to be mirrored exactly as the other volumes within
this consistency group.
Important: All volumes that you want to add to a mirroring consistency group must be
defined in the same pool at the primary site and must be in one pool at the secondary site.
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Adding a mirrored volume to a mirrored CG
Adding a volume to a CG requires that:
 The volume is on the same system as the consistency group.
 The volume belongs to the same storage pool as the consistency group.
 The command must be issued only on the master CG.
 The command must not be run during initialization of volume or CG.
 The volume mirroring settings must be identical to those of the CG:
– Mirroring type
– Mirroring role
– Mirroring status
– Mirroring target
– Target pool
Also, mirrors for volumes must be activated before volumes can be added to a mirrored
consistency group.
It is possible to add a mirrored volume to a non-mirrored consistency group and have this
volume retain its mirroring settings.
Removing a volume from a mirrored consistency group
When removing a volume from a mirrored consistency group on the primary system, the
corresponding peer volume will be removed from the peer consistency group on the
secondary system. Mirroring is retained with the same configuration as the consistency group
from which it was removed.
Synchronous mirroring and snapshot consistency group
A volume can be in only one consistency group. Because consistency groups can be used for
snapshot (see 1.3, “Snapshots consistency group” on page 20) and Remote Mirroring,
confusion can arise. Define separate and specific CG for snapshot and Remote Mirroring.
4.1.3 Coupling activation, deactivation, and deletion
Mirroring can be manually activated and deactivated per volume or CG pair. When it is
activated, the mirror is in active mode. When it is deactivated, the mirror is in inactive mode.
These modes have the following functions:
 Active
Mirroring is functioning. Data written to the primary system is propagated to the secondary
system.
 Inactive
Mirroring is deactivated. The data is not being written to the slave peer, but writes to the
master volume are being recorded and can later be synchronized with the slave volume.
Inactive mode is used mainly when maintenance is performed at the secondary site or on
the secondary XIV. In this mode, the slave volumes do not generate alerts that the
mirroring has failed.
The mirror has the following characteristics:
 When a mirror is created, it is always initially in inactive mode.
 A mirror can only be deleted when its is in inactive mode.
 A Consistency Group can only be deleted if it does not contain any volumes
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 Transitions between the two states can only be performed from the XIV that contains the
master.
 In a DR situation, a role change changes the slave peers (at the secondary system) to a
master role (so that production can resume at the secondary). When the primary site is
recovered, and before the link is resumed, the master must be changed to a slave
(change_role).
Deletion
When a mirror pair (volume/CG) is inactive, the mirror relationship can be deleted. When a
mirror relationship has been deleted, the XIV forgets everything about the relationship. If you
want to set up the mirror again, the XIV must copy the entire volume from the source to the
target.
Note that when the mirror is deleted, the slave volume becomes a normal volume again, but
the volume is locked, which means that it is write protected. To enable writing to the volume
go to the Volumes list panel. Right-click the volume and select Unlock.
The slave volume must also be formatted before it can be part of a new mirror. Formatting
also requires that all snapshots of that volume be deleted.
4.2 Disaster recovery
There are two broad categories of disaster, one that destroys the primary site or the data
there and one that makes the primary site or the data there unavailable but that leaves the
data intact. However, within these broad categories there are a number of situations that may
exist. Some of these and the recovery procedures are considered below:
 A disaster that makes the XIV at the primary site unavailable but the site itself and the
servers there are still available
In this scenario the volumes/CG on the XIV at the secondary site can be switched to
master volumes/CG, servers at the primary site can be redirected to the XIV at the
secondary site, and normal operations can start again. When the XIV at the primary site is
recovered, the data can be mirrored from the secondary site back to the primary site.
When the volume/CG synchronization is complete, the peer roles can be switched back to
the master at the primary site, the slave at the secondary site and the servers redirected
back to the primary site.
 A disaster that makes the entire primary site and data unavailable
In this scenario, the standby (inactive) servers at the secondary site (if implemented) are
activated and attached to the secondary XIV to continue normal operations. This requires
changing the role of the slave peers to become master peers.
After the primary site is recovered, the data at the secondary site can be mirrored back to
the primary site to become synchronized once again. If desired, a planned site switch can
then take place to resume production activities at the primary site. See 4.3, “Role reversal”
on page 112, for details related to this process.
 A disaster that breaks all links between the two sites but both site remain running
In this scenario the primary site continues to operate as normal. When the links are
reestablished the data at the primary site can be resynchronized with the secondary site.
See 4.4, “Resynchronization after link failure” on page 114, for more details.
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4.3 Role reversal
With synchronous mirroring, roles can be modified by either switching or changing roles.
Switching roles must be initiated on the master volume/CG when remote mirroring is
operational. As the task name implies, it switches the master role to the slave role and at the
same time the slave role to the master role.
Changing roles can be performed at any time (when a pair is active or inactive) for the slave,
and for the master when the coupling is inactive. A change role reverts only the role of that
peer.
4.3.1 Switching roles
Switching roles exchanges the roles of master and slave volumes or CGs. It can be
performed after the remote mirroring function is in operation and the pair is synchronized.
After switching roles, the master volume or CG becomes the slave volume or CG and vice
versa. There are two typical reasons for switching roles. These are:
 Drills/DR tests
Drills can be performed to test the functionality of the secondary site. In a drill, an
administrator simulates a disaster and tests that all procedures are operating smoothly
and that documentation is accurate.
 Scheduled maintenance
To perform maintenance at the primary site, operations can be switched to the secondary
site prior to the maintenance. This switchover cannot be performed if the master and slave
volumes or CG are not synchronized/consistent.
Normally, switching the roles requires shutting down the servers at the primary site first,
changing SAN zoning and XIV LUN masking to allow access to the secondary site volumes,
and then restarting the servers with access to the secondary XIV. However, in certain
clustered environments, this takeover could be automated.
4.3.2 Change role
In a disaster at the primary site, a role change at the secondary site is the normal recovery
action.
Assuming that the primary site is down and the secondary site will become the main
production site, changing roles is performed at the secondary (now production) site first.
Later, when the primary site is up again and communication is reestablished you also change
the role at the primary site to a slave to be able to establish remote mirroring from the
secondary site back to the normal production primary site. Once data has been synchronized
from the secondary site to the primary site, you can perform a switch role to once again make
the primary site the master copy.
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Changing the slave peer role
The role of the slave volume/CG can be changed to the master role, as shown in Figure 4-11.
After this changeover, the following is true:
 The slave volume/CG is now the master.
 The coupling has the status of unsynchronized.
 The coupling remains inactive, meaning that the remote mirroring is deactivated. This
ensures an orderly activation when the role of the peer on the other site is changed.
Figure 4-11 Change role of a slave consistency group
The new master volume/CG (at the secondary site) starts to accept write commands from
local hosts. Because coupling is not active, in the same way as for any master volume,
metadata maintains a record of which write operations must be sent to the slave volume when
communication resumes.
After changing the slave to the master, an administrator must change the original master to
the slave role before communication resumes. If both peers are left with the same role
(master), mirroring cannot be restarted.
Slave peer consistency
When the user is changing the slave volume/CG to a master volume or master consistency
group and a snapshot of the last consistent state exists that was produced during the process
of resynchronizing (as a result of a broken link, for instance), the system reverts the slave to
the last consistent snapshot. See 4.4.1, “Last consistent snapshot” on page 114 for more
information on last consistent snapshots.
Changing the master peer role
When coupling is inactive, the master volume/CG can change roles. After such a change the
master volume/CG becomes the slave volume/CG.
Unsynchronized master becoming a slave volume or consistency group
When a master volume/CG is inactive, it is also in an unsynchronized state, and it might have
a backlog of uncommitted data. The uncommitted changes will potentially be lost when the
volume/CG becomes a slave volume/CG, as this data must be reverted to match the data on
the peer volume, which is now the new master volume. In this case, an event is created,
summarizing the size of the changes that were lost. The uncommitted data has now switched
its semantics, and instead of representing updates that the primary peer (former master, now
slave) needs to update on the secondary peer (old slave, new master), metadata now
represents updates that must be replicated from the secondary to the primary.
Upon re-establishing the connection, the primary volume/CG (current slave volume/CG)
updates the secondary volume/CG (new master volume/CG) with this uncommitted data, and
it is the responsibility of the secondary peer to synchronize these updates to the primary peer.
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Reconnection when both sides have the same role
Situations where both sides are configured to the same role can only occur when one side
was changed. The roles must be changed to have one master and one slave (volume/CG).
Change the volume roles as appropriate on both sides before the link is resumed.
If the link is resumed and both sides have the same role, the coupling will not become
operational. To solve this problem, the user must use the change role function on one of the
volumes and then activate the coupling.
4.4 Resynchronization after link failure
When synchronization between the peers has been interrupted, for example, by a failure of all
links or the pairs have been suspended by a command, you probably want to resume the
mirroring after the problems are resolved.
Resynchronization can be performed in any direction given that one peer has the master role
and the other the slave role. When there is a temporary failure of all links from the primary XIV
to the secondary XIV, you re-establish the mirroring in the original direction after the links are
up again.
Also, if you suspended mirroring for a disaster recovery test at the secondary site, you might
want to reset the changes made to the secondary site during the tests and re-establish
mirroring from the primary to the secondary site.
If there was a disaster and production is now running on the secondary XIV, re-establish
mirroring first from the secondary XIV to the primary XIV and later on switch mirroring to the
original direction from the primary XIV to the secondary XIV.
In any case, the slave peers usually are in a consistent state up to the moment when
resynchronization starts. During the resynchronization process, the peers (volume/CG) are
inconsistent. To preserve consistency, the XIV at the slave side automatically creates a
snapshot of the involved volumes or, in case of a consistency group, a snapshot of the entire
consistency group before transmitting any data to the slave volumes.
4.4.1 Last consistent snapshot
Before a resynchronization process is initiated, the system creates a snapshot of the slave
volume/CG. A snapshot is created to ensure the usability of the slave volume/CG in case of a
primary site disaster during the resynchronization process. If the master volume/CG is
destroyed before resynchronization is completed, the slave volume/CG might be inconsistent
because it might have been only partially updated with the changes that were made to the
master volume. To handle this situation, the secondary XIV always creates a snapshot of the
last consistent slave volume/CG after reconnecting to the primary XIV and before starting the
resynchronization process. No snapshot is created for couplings that are in the initialization
state. The snapshot is preserved until a volume pair is synchronized again, or in case of
remote mirror consistency groups, until all volumes of the consistency group are
synchronized.
4.4.2 Last consistent snapshot timestamp
A timestamp is taken when the coupling between the master and slave volume/CG becomes
non-operational. This timestamp specifies the last time that the slave volume/CG was
consistent with the master (Figure 4-12).
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If there is a disaster at the primary (master) site, the snapshot taken at the secondary (slave)
site can be used to restore the slave volumes to a consistent state, ready for production.
Important: You must delete the mirror relation at the secondary site before you can restore
the last consistent snapshot to the target volumes.
Figure 4-12 Snapshot during a resync
4.5 Synchronous mirror step-by-step scenario
In 4.1, “Synchronous mirroring configuration” on page 104, we explained the steps required to
set up, operate, and deactivate the mirror.
In this section, we go through a scenario to demonstrate synchronous mirroring. We assume
that all configuration has taken place for us to start configuring the remote mirroring
couplings. In particular, we assume that:
 A host server exists and has volumes assigned at the primary site.
 Two XIV systems have been connected to each other over FC or iSCSI.
 A standby server exists at the secondary site.
Note: When using the XCLI commands quotation marks (“ “) must be used to enclose
names that include spaces. If they are used for names without spaces the command still
works. The examples in this scenario contain a mixture of commands with and without
quotation marks.
This scenario discusses the following phases:
 Setup and configuration
Perform initial setup, activate coupling, write data to three volumes, and prove that the
data has been written and that the volumes are synchronized.
 Simulating a disaster at the primary site
The link is broken between the two sites to simulate that the primary site is unavailable,
the slave volumes are changed to master volumes, the standby server at the secondary
site has LUNs mapped to the XIV at the secondary site, and new data is written.
 The primary site recovery
The old master volumes at the primary site are changed to slave volumes and data is
mirrored back from the secondary site to the primary site.
 Failback to the primary site
When the data is synchronized the volume roles are switched back to the original roles
(that is, master volumes at the primary site and slave volumes at the secondary site) and
the original production server (at the primary site) is used.
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4.5.1 Phase 1: setup and configuration
In our sample scenario, we have a Windows 2008 server with three LUNs at the primary site
and communication has been configured between the XIVs at the primary and secondary
sites.
After the couplings have been created and activated, as explained under 4.1, “Synchronous
mirroring configuration” on page 104, the environment will be as illustrated in Figure 4-13.
Primary
Site
Active
Inactive
Data Flow
Production
W indows 2008
Server
Secondary
Site
Standby
W indows 2008
Server
FC Link
FC Link
Data Mirroring
FC Link
Primary
XIV
Figure 4-13 Environment with remote mirroring activated
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4.5.2 Phase 2: disaster at primary site
In this phase of the scenario we simulate a disaster at the primary site. All communication has
been lost between the primary and secondary sites due to a complete power failure or a
disaster. This is depicted in Figure 4-14.
Primary
Site
Standby
Windows 2008
Server
Data Flow
Production
Windows 2008
Server
Secondary
Site
FC Link
FC Link
Primary
XIV
Secondary
XIV
Figure 4-14 Primary site disaster
Role changeover at the secondary site using the GUI
We now change roles for the slave volumes at the secondary site and make them master
volumes so that the standby server can write to them.
1. On the secondary XIV go to the Remote Mirroring menu and right-click a coupling and
select Change Role (Figure 4-15).
Figure 4-15 Remote mirror change role
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Figure 4-15 on page 117 shows that the synchronization status is still consistent for the
couplings that are yet to be changed. This is because this is the last known state. When
the role is changed the coupling is automatically deactivated.
Role changeover at the secondary site using the XCLI
We now change roles for the slave volumes at the secondary site and make them master
volumes so that the standby server can write to them.
1. On the secondary XIV open an XCLI session and run the mirror_change_role command
(Example 4-7).
Example 4-7 Remote mirror change role
>> mirror_change_role vol=itso_win2008_vol2 new_role=master
Warning:
ARE_YOU_SURE_YOU_WANT_TO_CHANGE_THE_PEER_ROLE_TO_MASTER Y/N: Y
Command executed successfully.
2. To view the status of the coupling run the mirror_list command, as shown in
Example 4-8.
Example 4-8 List mirror couplings
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Master
Master
Slave
Remote System
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
no
no
yes
Status
Unsynchronized
Unsynchronized
Consistent
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
Example 4-8 shows that the synchronization status is still consistent for one of the
couplings that is yet to be changed. This is because this reflects the last known state.
When the role is changed, the coupling is automatically deactivated.
3. Repeat steps 1–2 to change roles on other volumes.
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Map volumes on standby server and continue working
At this point we map the relevant mirrored volumes to the standby server. For details on how
to do this mapping refer to IBM XIV Storage System: Architecture, Implementation, and
Usage, SG24-7659. Once the volumes are mapped, we continue working as normal. This is
simulated by adding additional data to the server, as illustrated in Figure 4-16.
Figure 4-16 Additional data added to the standby server
Environment with production now at the secondary site
Figure 4-17 illustrates production at the secondary site.
Primary
Site
Production
Windows 2008
Server
Secondary
Site
Standby
Windows 2008
Server
FC Link
Primary
XIV
Data Flow
Data Flow
Active
FC Link
Secondary
XIV
Figure 4-17 Production at secondary site
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4.5.3 Phase 3: recovery of the primary site
In this phase the primary site is recovered and communication between the primary and
secondary sites is restored. We assume that it was not totally damaged and that the data at
the primary site is still there (so we can do a resync). Data is being written from the standby
server to the secondary XIV. At the primary site the original Windows 2008 production server
is now switched off, as illustrated in Figure 4-18.
Primary
Site
Standby
Windows 2008
Server
Active
Down
FC Link
FC Link
Data Flow
Production
Windows 2008
Server
Secondary
Site
Mirroring Inactive
FC Link
Primary
XIV
Secondary
XIV
Figure 4-18 Primary site recovery
Role changeover at the primary site using the GUI
We are now going to change roles for the master volumes at the primary site and make them
slave volumes. Before doing this, ensure that the original production server is shut down.
1. On the primary XIV go to the Remote Mirroring menu. The synchronization status will
probably be inactive. Select one coupling (if you select several couplings, you cannot
change the role), right-click, and select Change Role, as shown in Figure 4-19.
Figure 4-19 Change master volumes to slave volumes on the primary XIV
2. You will be prompted to confirm the role change. Select OK to confirm (Figure 4-20).
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Figure 4-20 Roll change confirmation
Once you have confirmed, the role is changed to slave, as shown in Figure 4-21.
Figure 4-21 New role as slave volume
3. Repeat steps 1–2 for all the volumes that must be changed.
Role changeover at the primary site using the XCLI
We now change roles for the master volumes at the primary site with the XCLI and make
them slave volumes. Before doing this, ensure that the original production server is shut
down.
1. On the primary XIV open an XCLI session and run the mirror_change_role command
(Example 4-9).
Example 4-9 Change master volumes to slave volumes on the primary XIV
>> mirror_change_role vol=itso_win2008_vol2
Warning:
ARE_YOU_SURE_YOU_WANT_TO_CHANGE_THE_PEER_ROLE_TO_SLAVE Y/N: Y
Command executed successfully.
2. To view the status of the coupling run the mirror_list command, as shown in
Example 4-10.
Example 4-10 List mirror couplings
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Slave
Slave
Master
Remote System
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
no
no
no
Status
Inconsistent
Inconsistent
Unsynchronized
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
3. Repeat steps 1–2 to change other couplings.
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Reactivating the remote mirror coupling using the GUI
To reactivate the remote mirror coupling using the GUI:
1. On the secondary XIV go the Remote Mirroring menu and highlight all the couplings that
you want to activate. Right-click and select Activate, as illustrated in Figure 4-22 and
Figure 4-23.
Figure 4-22 Reactivating a mirror coupling
Figure 4-23 Synchronization status
2. On the primary XIV go to the Remote Mirroring menu to check the statuses of the
couplings (Figure 4-24). Note that due to the time lapse between Figure 4-23 and
Figure 4-24 being taken they do show different statuses.
Figure 4-24 Remote mirroring statuses on the secondary (local) XIV
3. Repeat steps 1–2 until all required couplings are reactivated and synchronized.
Reactivating the remote mirror coupling using the XCLI
To reactivate the remote mirror coupling using the XCLI:
1. On the secondary XIV run the mirror_activate command, as shown in Example 4-11.
Example 4-11 Reactivating the mirror coupling
>> mirror_activate
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Command executed successfully.
2. On the secondary XIV run the mirror_list command to see the status of the couplings,
as illustrated in Example 4-12.
Example 4-12 List remote mirror statuses on the secondary XIV
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Master
Master
Master
Remote System
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
yes
yes
no
Status
Synchronized
Synchronized
Unsynchronized
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
3. On the primary XIV run the mirror_list command to see the status of the couplings, as
shown in Example 4-13.
Example 4-13 List remote mirror statuses on the primary XIV
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Slave
Slave
Master
Remote System
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
yes
yes
no
Status
Consistent
Consistent
Unsynchronized
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
4. Repeat steps 1–3 to activate additional couplings.
Environment with remote mirroring reactivated
Figure 4-25 illustrates production at the secondary site.
Primary
Site
Standby
Windows 2008
Server
Active
Down
FC Link
FC Link
Data Flow
Production
Windows 2008
Server
Secondary
Site
Data Mirroring
FC Link
Primary
XIV
Secondary
XIV
Figure 4-25 Mirroring reactivated
4.5.4 Phase 4: switching production back to the primary site
At this stage we have mirroring reactivated with production at the secondary site. We now
want to switch production back to the primary site. This involves doing the following:
 Shut down the servers.
 Switch peer roles.
 Switch from the standby server to the original production server.
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Role switchover using the GUI
To switch over the role using the GUI:
1. At the secondary site, ensure that all the volumes for the standby server are synchronized
and shut down the servers.
2. On the secondary XIV go to the Remote Mirroring menu, highlight the required coupling,
and select Switch Roles (Figure 4-26).
Figure 4-26 Switch roles
3. You are prompted for confirmation. Select OK. Refer to Figure 4-27 and Figure 4-28 on
page 124.
Figure 4-27 Switch role confirmation
Figure 4-28 Switch role to slave volume on the secondary XIV
4. Go to the Remote Mirroring menu on the primary XIV and check the status of the coupling.
It must show the peer volume as a master volume (Figure 4-29).
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Figure 4-29 Switch role to master volume on the primary XIV
5. Reassign volumes back to the production server at the primary site and power it on again.
Continue to work as normal. Figure 4-30 on page 126 shows that all the new data is now
back at the primary site.
Role switchover using the XCLI
To switch over the role using the XCLI:
1. At the secondary site, ensure that all the volumes for the standby server are synchronized
and shut down the servers.
2. On the secondary XIV open an XCLI session and run the mirror_switch_roles command,
as shown in Example 4-14.
Example 4-14 Switch from master volume to slave volume on secondary XIV
>> mirror_switch_roles vol=itso_win2008_vol2
Command executed successfully.
3. On the secondary XIV, to list the mirror coupling run the mirror_list command
(Example 4-15).
Example 4-15 Mirror statuses on the secondary XIV
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Slave
Slave
Master
Remote System
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
XIV MN00019
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
yes
yes
no
Status
Consistent
Consistent
Unsynchronized
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
4. On the primary XIV run the mirror_list command to list the mirror couplings, as shown
in Example 4-16.
Example 4-16 Mirror statuses on the primary XIV
>> mirror_list
Name
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Mirror Type
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
sync_best_effort
Mirror Object
Volume
Volume
Volume
Role
Master
Master
Master
Remote System
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
XIV MN00035
Remote Peer
itso_win2008_vol1
itso_win2008_vol2
itso_win2008_vol3
Active
yes
yes
no
Status
Synchronized
Synchronized
Unsynchronized
Link Up
yes
yes
yes
5. Reassign volumes back to the production server at the primary site and power it on again.
Continue to work as normal. Figure 4-30 shows that all the new data in now back at the
primary site.
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Figure 4-30 Production server with mirrored data reassigned at the local site
Environment back to its production state
The environment is now back to its production state with mirroring from the primary site to the
secondary site, as shown in Figure 4-31.
P rim a ry
S ite
A ctive
In active
Data Flow
P ro d uctio n
W in do w s 20 0 8
S e rve r
S e co nd ary
S ite
S tan db y
W ind ow s 20 08
S e rve r
FC Link
F C L ink
D a ta M irrorin g
F C Link
P rim ary
X IV
Figure 4-31 Environment back to production state
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5
Chapter 5.
Asynchronous remote mirroring
This chapter describes the basic characteristics, options, and available interfaces for
asynchronous remote mirroring. It also includes step-by-step procedures for setting up and
removing the mirror.
Asynchronous mirroring is the volume or consistency group synchronization attained through
a periodic, recurring activity that takes a snapshot of a designated source and updates a
designated target with differences between that snapshot and the last replicated version of
the source. Unlike other implementations, XIV asynchronous mirroring supports multiple
consistency groups with different recovery point objectives. XIV asynchronous mirroring
supports multiple targets, 512 mirrored pairs, scheduling, event reporting, and statistics
collection.
Asynchronous mirroring enables replication between two XIV volumes or consistency groups
(CG) that does not suffer from the latency inherent to synchronous mirroring, thereby yielding
better system responsiveness and offering greater flexibility for implementing disaster
recovery solutions.
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5.1 Asynchronous mirroring configuration
The mirroring configuration process involves configuring volumes and CGs. When a pair of
volumes or consistency groups point to each other, it is referred to as a mirror.
We assume that the links between the local and remote XIV storage systems have already
been established, as discussed in 3.11.2, “Remote mirror target configuration” on page 96.
5.1.1 Volume mirroring setup and activation
Volumes or consistency groups that participate in mirror operations are configured in pairs.
These pairs are called peers. One peer is the source of the data to be replicated and the other
is the target. The source has the role of master and is the controlling entity in the mirror. The
target has the role of slave, which is controlled by operations performed by the master.
When initially configured, one volume is considered the source (resides at the primary
system) and the other is the target (resides at the secondary system). This designation is
associated with the volume and its XIV system and does not change. During various
operations the role may change (master or slave) but one system is always the primary and
the other is always the secondary.
Asynchronous mirroring is initiated at defined intervals. This is the sync job schedule. A sync
job entails synchronization of data updates recorded on the master since the last successful
synchronization. The sync job schedule will be defined for both the primary and secondary
system peers in the mirror. This provides a schedule for each peer and will be used when the
peer takes on the role of master. The purpose of the schedule specification on the slave is to
set a default schedule for an automated failover scenario.
The system suppports the following schedule intervals: 20s (min_interval), 30s, 1m, 2m, 5m,
10m, 15m, 30m, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 8h, 12h, 24h. Consult your IBM representative to set the
optimum schedule interval based on your RPO requirements.
A schedule set as NEVER means that no sync jobs will be automatically scheduled. See 5.6,
“Detailed asynchronous mirroring process” on page 155. In addition to schedule-based
snapshots, a dedicated command to run a mirror snapshot can be issued manually. These
ad-hoc snapshots are issued from the master and initiate a sync job that is queued behind
outstanding sync jobs. See 5.5.4, “Ad-hoc snapshots” on page 152.
The XIV GUI automatically creates schedules based on the RPO selected for the mirror being
created. The interval can be set in the mirror properties panel or must be explicitly specified
through the XCLI.
Tip: XIV allows you to set a specific RPO and schedule interval for each mirror coupling.
Slave volumes must be formatted before they are configured as part of a mirror. This means
that the volume must not have any snapshots and must be unlocked.
To create a mirror you can use the XIV GUI or the XCLI. Both methods are illustrated in the
following sections.
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Using the GUI for volume mirror setup
To create a mirror select the master peer (volume or CG) and select Create Mirror
(Figure 5-1).
Figure 5-1 Select volume to be mirrored
Then specify Sync Type as Async, select the slave peer (volume or CG), and specify an RPO
value. Set the Schedule Management field to XIV Internal to create automatic synchronization
using scheduled sync jobs, as shown in Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2 Create Mirror
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The slave volume must be unlocked and created as formatted, which also means that it
cannot have any Snapshots.
When creating a mirror, the slave peer (volume or CG) can also be created automatically on
the target XIV System. To do this, select Create Slave and specify the slave pool name and
the slave volume or CG name, as shown in Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3 Create Mirror and slave volume
If schedule type External is selected when creating a mirror, no sync jobs will run for this
mirror and the interval will be set to Never, as illustrated in Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-4 Mirror with external schedule
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When volumes are to be placed in a consistency group, they must all have the same mirroring
properties. Using the Mirror Properties panel, the Never interval can be changed to match the
other volumes created (Figure 5-5).
Figure 5-5 Mirror Properties
The Mirroring panel shows the current status of the mirrors. The synchronization of the mirror
must be initiated manually using the Activate action, as seen in Figure 5-7 on page 133.
In Figure 5-6, notice that the selected RPO is displayed for the mirror created.
Figure 5-6 Mirroring status inactive
Note that sync type mirrors do not have an RPO value.
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Using XCLI for volume mirroring setup
Tip: When working with the XCLI session or the XCLI command, the windows look similar
and you could address the wrong XIV system with your command. Therefore, it might be
helpful to always first issue a config_get command to verify that you are working with the
right XIV system.
Example 5-1 illustrates the use of XCLI commands to set up a mirror volume.
Example 5-1 XCLI commands for mirror volume setup
-- Mirror itso_volume_1 (select slave volume)
schedule_create schedule=forty_sec interval=00:00:40
schedule_create schedule=forty_sec interval=00:00:40 (on target system)
mirror_create vol=itso_volume_1 slave_vol=itso_volume_1 type=async_interval
target="XIV LAB 3 1300203" schedule=forty_sec remote_schedule=forty_sec rpo=90
remote_rpo=90
-- Mirror itso_volume_2 (create slave volume)
mirror_create vol=itso_volume_2 create_slave=yes remote_pool=itso
slave_vol=itso_volume_2 type=async_interval target="XIV LAB 3 1300203"
schedule=forty_sec remote_schedule=forty_sec rpo=90 remote_rpo=90
-- Mirror itso_volume_3 (never schedule)
mirror_create vol=itso_volume_3 create_slave=yes remote_pool=itso
slave_vol=itso_volume_3 type=async_interval target="XIV LAB 3 1300203"
schedule=never remote_schedule=never rpo=90 remote_rpo=90
-- Mirror itso_volume_4 (sync)
mirror_create vol=itso_volume_4 create_slave=yes remote_pool=itso
slave_vol=itso_volume target="XIV LAB 3 1300203"
-- Change schedule itso_volume_3 (master)
schedule_create schedule=thirty_sec interval=00:00:30
mirror_change_schedule vol=itso_volume_3 schedule=thirty_sec
-- Change schedule itso_volume_3 (slave)
schedule_create schedule=thirty_sec interval=00:00:30
mirror_change_schedule vol=itso_volume_3 schedule=thirty_sec
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Activating the remote mirror coupling using the GUI
To activate the mirror, on the primary XIV go the Remote Mirroring menu and highlight all the
couplings that you want to activate, right-click, and select Activate, as shown in Figure 5-7.
Figure 5-7 Activate mirror
As seen in Figure 5-8, the Mirroring panel now shows the status of the active mirrors as RPO
OK. All the async mirrors have the same mirroring status. Note that Sync Mirrors show the
status as synchronized.
Figure 5-8 Mirror status active
5.1.2 Consistency group configuration
IBM XIV Storage System leverages its consistency group capability to allow for mirroring
numerous volumes at once. The system creates snapshots of the master consistency groups
at user-configured intervals and synchronizes these point-in-time snapshots with the slave.
Setting the consistency group to be mirrored is done by first creating a consistency group,
then setting it to be mirrored, and only then populating it with volumes. A consistency group
must be created at the primary XIV and a corresponding consistency group at the secondary
XIV. The names of the consistency groups can be different. When creating a consistency
group, you also must specify the storage pool.
All volumes that you are going to add to the consistency group must be in that pool on the
primary XIV and in one pool at the secondary XIV. Adding a new volume pair to a mirrored
consistency group requires the volumes to be mirrored exactly as the other volumes within
this consistency group. Volume pairs with different mirroring paramters will be modified to
match those of the CG when attempting to add them to the CG with the GUI.
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Important: All volumes that you want to add to a mirroring consistency group must be
defined in the same pool at the primary XIV and must be in one pool at the secondary XIV.
It is possible to add a mirrored volume to a non-mirrored consistency group and have this
volume retain its mirroring settings.
To create a mirrored consistency group first create a CG on the primary and secondary XIV
Storage System. Then select the primary CG and specify Create Mirror (Figure 5-9).
Figure 5-9 Create mirrored CG
The consistency group must not contain any volume when you create the mirror, and be sure
to specify mirroring parameters that match the volumes that will be part of this CG, as shown
in Figure 5-10. The status of the new mirrored CG is now displayed in the Mirroring panel.
Figure 5-10 Async mirrored CG
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Adding a mirrored volume to a mirrored consistency group
The mirrored volume and the mirrored consistency group must have the following attributes:
 The volume is on the same system as the consistency group.
 The volume belongs to the same storage pool as the consistency group.
 Both the volume and the consistency group do not have outstanding sync jobs, either
scheduled or manual.
 The volume and consistency group have the same synchronization status.
 The volume’s and consistency group’s special snapshot (known as last-replicated
snapshot) have identical timestamps. This means that the volumes must have the same
schedule and at least one interval has passed since the creation of the mirrors.
For more information about asynchronous mirroring special snapshots refer to 5.5.5,
“Mirroring special snapshots” on page 154.
Also, mirrors for volumes must be activated before volumes can be added to a mirrored
consistency group. This activation results in the initial copy being completed and sync jobs
being run to create the special last-replicated snapshots (refer to Figure 5-7 on page 133).
As seen in Figure 5-11, the Mirror panel now shows the status of the active mirrors as RPO OK.
All the async mirrors and the mirrored CG have the same mirroring status. Note that sync
mirrors shows the status as synchronized.
Figure 5-11 Mirror status active
To add volumes to the mirrored CG, the mirroring parameters must be identical, including the
last-replicated timestamps. The RPO and schedule will be changed to match the values set
for the mirrored consistency group. The volumes must have the same status (RPO OK). It is
possible that during the process the status may change or the last-replicated timestamp may
not yet be updated. If an error occurs, verify the status and repeat the operation.
Go to the Mirroring panel and verify the RPO and status for the volumes to be added to the
CG. Select each volume and specify to Add To Consistency Group (Figure 5-12).
Figure 5-12 Volumes and snapshots
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Then specify the mirrored consistency group, as shown in Figure 5-13.
Figure 5-13 Select Mirrored CG
The Mirroring panel now shows the consistency group as a group of volumes, all with the
same status for both the master CG (Figure 5-14) and the slave CG (Figure 5-15 on
page 136).
Figure 5-14 Master CG status
Figure 5-15 Slave CG status
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The Consistency Groups panel shows the last-replicated snapshots, and if the sync job is
currently running there will be a most-recent snapshot, as can be seen in Figure 5-16.
Figure 5-16 Mirrored CG: most-recent snapshot
Removing a volume from a mirrored consistency group
When removing a volume from a mirrored consistency group, the corresponding peer volume
will be removed from the peer consistency group. Mirroring is retained with the same
configuration as the consistency group from which it was removed. All ongoing consistency
groups’ sync jobs keep running.
Asynchronous mirroring and snapshot consistency groups
A volume can be in only one consistency group. Because consistency groups can be used for
snapshot and remote mirroring, confusion can arise. Define separate and specific CG for
snapshot and remote mirroring.
XCLI commands for consistency group configuration
Example 5-2 illustrates the use of XCLI commands for configuring consistency groups.
Example 5-2 XCLI commands for CG configuration
-- Activate async mirrors
mirror_activate vol=itso_volume_1
mirror_activate vol=itso_volume_2
mirror_activate vol=itso_volume_3
-- Activate mirror CG
mirror_activate cg=itso_volume_cg
-- add volume to CG with changing RPO
mirror_change_schedule vol=itso_volume_1 schedule=forty_sec
schedule_delete schedule=xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480863781
mirror_change_remote_schedule vol=itso_volume_1 schedule=forty_sec
mirror_change_rpo vol=itso_volume_1 rpo=90 remote_rpo=90
cg_add_vol cg=itso_volume_cg vol=itso_volume_1
-- Primary Mirror Status
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>> mirror_list -t
local_peer_name,sync_type,current_role,target_name,remote_peer_name,active,sync_state,sched
ule_name,last_replicated_snapshot_time,specified_rpo
Name
Mirror Type
Role Remote System
Remote Peer
Active Status
Schedule Name
Last Replicated
RPO
itso_volume_1
async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203 itso_volume_1
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640 2010-10-19 14:17:20 0:01:30
itso_volume_2
async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203 itso_volume_2
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640 2010-10-19 14:17:20 0:01:30
itso_volume_3
async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203 itso_volume_3
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640 2010-10-19 14:17:20 0:01:30
itso_volume_4
sync_best_effort Master XIV LAB 3 1300203 itso_volume_4
yes
Synchronized
itso_volume_cg
async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203 itso_volume_cg
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640
2010-10-19 14:17:20
0:01:30
-- Secondary Mirror Status
>> mirror_list -t
local_peer_name,sync_type,current_role,target_name,remote_peer_name,active,sync_state,sched
ule_name,last_replicated_snapshot_time,specified_rpo
Name
Mirror Type
Role Remote System
Remote Peer
Active Status
Schedule Name
Last Replicated
RPO
itso_volume_1
async_interval
Slave XIV LAB 01 EBC itso_volume_1
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640 2010-10-19 14:22:00 0:01:30
itso_volume_2
async_interval
Slave XIV LAB 01 EBC itso_volume_2
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640 2010-10-19 14:22:00 0:01:30
itso_volume_3
async_interval
Slave XIV LAB 01 EBC itso_volume_3
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640 2010-10-19 14:22:00 0:01:30
itso_volume_4
sync_best_effort Slave XIV LAB 01 EBC itso_volume_4
yes
Consistent
itso_volume_cg
async_interval
Slave XIV LAB 01 EBC itso_volume_cg
yes
RPO OK
xiv_gui_schedule_40_1287480917640 2010-10-19 14:22:00 0:01:30
>> sync_job_list
Job Object
Local Peer
Source
State
Part of CG
Job Type
Volume
itso_volume_1
last-replicated-itso_volume_1
active yes
scheduled
Volume
itso_volume_2
last-replicated-itso_volume_2
active yes
scheduled
Volume
itso_volume_3
last-replicated-itso_volume_3
active yes
scheduled
CG
itso_volume_cg last-replicated-itso_volume_cg
active no
scheduled
-- Remove from mirrored consistency group
cg_remove_vol vol=itso_volume_1
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most-recent-itso_volume_1
most-recent-itso_volume_2
most-recent-itso_volume_3
most-recent-itso_volume_cg
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5.1.3 Coupling activation, deactivation, and deletion
Mirroring can be manually activated and deactivated per volume or CG pair. When it is
activated, the mirror is in active mode. When it is deactivated, the mirror is in inactive mode.
These modes have the following functions:
 Active
Mirroring is functioning and the data is being written to the master and copied to the slave
peers at regular intervals.
 Inactive
Mirroring is deactivated. The data is not being replicated to the slave peer, but writes to the
master peer are being recorded and can later be replicated to the slave volume. Inactive
mode is used mainly when maintenance is performed on the secondary XIV system.
The mirror has the following characteristics:
 When a mirror is created, it is always initially in inactive mode.
 A mirror can only be deleted when its is in inactive mode.
 Transitions between the two states can only be performed from the XIV with the master.
 In a DR situation a role change changes the slave peers (at the secondary system) to a
master role (so that production can resume at the secondary). However, until the primary
site is recovered, the role of its volumes cannot be changed from master to slave. In this
case, both sides have the same role. When the primary site is recovered and before the
link is resumed, you must first change the role from master to slave at the primary (see
also 5.3, “Resynchronization after link failure” on page 149, and 5.4, “Disaster recovery”
on page 149).
The mirroring is terminated by deactivating the mirror and is required for the following actions:
 Terminating or deleting the mirroring
 Stopping the mirroring process
– For a planned network outage
– To reduce network bandwidth
– For a planned recovery test
The deactivation pauses a running sync job and no new sync jobs will be created as long as
the active state of the mirroring is not restored. However, the deactivation does not cancel the
status check by the master and the slave. The synchronization status of the deactivated
mirror is calculated as though the mirror was active.
Deactivating a mirror results in the synchronization status becoming RPO_Lagging via XCLI
when the specified RPO time is exceeded. This means that the last-replicated snapshot is
older than the specified RPO. The GUI will show the mirror as Inactive.
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Change RPO and interval
The required RPO can be changed as illustrated in Figure 5-17 and the GUI selects a new
interval for the schedule. For example, as shown in Figure 5-18, the RPO was changed to 2
minutes (00:02:00). The schedule selected is min_interval (00:00:20). This schedule can then
be changed from the Properties panel. There is a selection list of available intervals, as
shown in Figure 5-19 on page 141.
Figure 5-17 Change RPO
Figure 5-18 New RPO value
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Figure 5-19 Change CG interval
Using XCLI commands to change RPO and schedule interval
Example 5-3 illustrates the use of XCLI commands to change the RPO and schedule interval.
Example 5-3 XCLI commands for changing RPO and schedule interval
-- change RPO to 2 min and adjust schedule time interval
mirror_change_rpo cg=itso_volume_cg rpo=120 remote_rpo=120
schedule_change schedule=forty_sec interval=00:00:50 -y
schedule_rename schedule=forty_sec new_name=fifty_sec
---- on secondary
schedule_create schedule=fifty_sec interval=00:00:50
mirror_change_schedule cg=itso_volume_cg schedule=fifty_sec
schedule_delete schedule=forty_sec
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Deactivation on the master
To deactivate a mirror select Deactivate, as shown in Figure 5-20.
Figure 5-20 Mirror CG deactivate
The activation state changes to inactive, as shown in Figure 5-21. Subsequently, the
replication pauses (and records where it paused). Upon activation, the replication resumes.
Note that an ongoing sync job resumes upon activation. No new sync job will be created until
the next interval.
Figure 5-21 Mirror CG inactive
Deactivation on the slave
Deactivation on the slave is not available, regardless of the state of the mirror. However, the
peer role can be changed to master, which sets the status to inactive.
Note that for consistency group mirroring, deactivation pauses all running sync jobs
pertaining to the consistency group.
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Using XCLI commands for deactivation and activation
Example 5-4 shows XCLI commands for CG deactivation and activation.
Example 5-4 XCLI commands for CG deactivation and activation
-- Deactivate mirrored CG
mirror_deactivate cg=itso_volume_cg
-- Activate mirrored CG
mirror_activate cg=itso_volume_cg
Deletion
When a mirror pair (volume pairs or a consistency group) is inactive, the mirror relationship
can be deleted. When the mirror is deleted, the XIV forgets everything about the mirror. If you
want to set up the mirror again, the XIV must do an initial copy again from the source to the
target volume.
When the mirror is part of a consistency group, the mirror must first be removed from the
mirrored CG. For a CG, the last-replicated snapgroup for the master and the slave CG must
be deleted or disbanded (making all snapshots directly accessible) after deactivation and
mirror deletion. This CG snapgroup is recreated with only the current volumes after the next
interval completes. The last-replicated snapshots for the mirror can now be deleted, allowing
a new mirror to be created. All existing volumes in the CG need to be removed before a new
mirrored CG can be created.
Note that when the mirror is deleted, the slave volume becomes a normal volume again, but
the volume is locked, which means that it is write protected. To enable writing to the volume
go to the Volumes list panel, select the volume, right-click it, and select Unlock.
The slave volume must also be formatted before it can be part of a new mirror. Formatting
also requires all snapshots of that volume to be deleted.
XCLI commands for mirror deletion
Example 5-5 illustrates the use of XCLI commands for mirror deletion.
Example 5-5 XCLI commands for mirror deletion
-- Delete mirror
cg_remove_vol vol=itso_volume_3 -y
mirror_deactivate vol=itso_volume_3 -y
mirror_delete vol=itso_volume_3 -y
-- Format slave volume
snap_group_disband snap_group=last-replicated-itso_volume_cg
snapshot_delete snapshot=last-replicated-itso_volume_3
vol_unlock vol=itso_volume_3
vol_format vol=itso_volume_3
-- Delete snapshots on Master
snap_group_disband snap_group=last-replicated-itso_volume_cg
snapshot_delete snapshot=last-replicated-itso_volume_3
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5.2 Role reversal
Changing roles can be performed at any time (when a pair is active or inactive) for the slave,
and for the master when the mirror is inactive. A change role reverts only the role of that peer.
The single operation to switch roles is only available for the master peer when both the
master and slave XIV systems are accessible. However, the direction of the mirror can be
reversed by following a process of multiple change role operations.
Change role
In a disaster at the primary site, a role change at the secondary site is the normal recovery
action.
Assuming that the primary site is down and that the secondary site will become the main
production site, changing roles is performed at the secondary (now production) site first.
Later, when the primary site is up again and communication is re-established, you also
change the role at the primary site to slave to be able to establish mirroring from the
secondary site back to the primary site. This completes a switch role operation.
Changing the slave peer role
The role of the slave volume or consistency group can be changed to the master role, as
shown in Figure 5-22.
Figure 5-22 Change role of a slave consistency group
As shown in Figure 5-23 on page 145, you are then prompted to confirm the role change (role
reverse).
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Figure 5-23 Verify change role
After this changeover, the following is true:
 The slave volume or consistency group is now the master.
 The last-replicated snapshot is restored to the volumes
 The coupling has the status of inactive (Figure 5-24).
Figure 5-24 Slave becomes master
 The coupling remains in inactive mode (Figure 5-25). This means that remote mirroring is
deactivated. This ensures an orderly activation when the role of the peer on the other site
is changed.
Figure 5-25 Original master becomes inactive
The new master volume or consistency group starts to accept write commands from local
hosts. Since coupling is not active in the same way as for any master volume, a log is
maintained of which write operations must be sent to the slave volume when communication
resumes.
After changing the slave to the master, an administrator must also change the original master
to the slave role before communication resumes (Figure 5-26). If both peers are left in the
same role (master), mirroring cannot be restarted.
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Figure 5-26 Change role of a master consistency group
Slave peer consistency
When the user is changing the slave volume or consistency group to a master volume or
master consistency group, they may not be in a consistent state. Therefore, the volumes are
automatically restored to the last-replicated snapshot.
Changing the master peer role
When a peer role is changed from slave to master, then the mirror automatically becomes
inactive because both volumes are a master (Figure 5-25 on page 145). When coupling is
inactive, the master volume or consistency group can change roles. After such a change the
master volume or consistency group becomes the slave volume or consistency group
(Figure 5-27).
Figure 5-27 Original master becomes slave
Unsynchronized master becoming a slave volume or consistency group
When a master volume (or consistency group) is inactive, it is also not consistent with the
previous slave. Any changes made after the last replicated snapshot time will be lost when
the volume (CG) becomes a slave volume (CG). The data will be restored to the last
replicated snapshot to match the data on the peer volume, which is now the new master
volume.
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Upon re-establishing the connection, the primary volume or consistency group (current slave
volume/CG) is updated from the secondary volume/CG (new master volume/CG) with data
that was written to the secondary volume after the last replicated snapshot timestamp.
Reconnection when both sides have the same role
Situations where both sides are configured to the same role can only occur when one side
was changed. The roles must be changed to have one master and one slave (volume or
consistency group). Change the volume roles as appropriate on both sides before the link is
resumed.
If the link is resumed and both sides have the same role, the coupling does not become
operational. The user must use the change role function on one of the volumes and then
activate the mirroring.
Peer reverts to last-replicated snapshot. See 5.5.5, “Mirroring special snapshots” on
page 154.
Switch roles
Switch roles is a useful command when performing a planned site switch by reversing
replication direction. It is only available when both the master and slave XIV systems are
accessible. Mirroring needs to be active and synchronized (RPO OK) in order to issue the
command via the GUI.
The command to switch roles may only be issued for a master volume or CG as shown in
Figure 5-28.
Figure 5-28 Switch roles of a master consistency group
As shown in Figure 5-29 on page 148 you are then prompted to confirm the switch roles. In
our example, the async mirrored itso_volume_cg has now returned to its original state and
remains Active and RPO OK (Figure 5-30 on page 148).
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Figure 5-29 Verify switch roles
Figure 5-30 Original master back with initial role
Using XCLI commands to change and switch roles
Figure 5-31 shows an example of using XCLI commands to change and switch roles.
-- Slave change role
mirror_change_role cg=itso_volume_cg -y
-- Master change role
mirror_change_role cg=itso_volume_cg -y
-- Master switch role
mirror_switch_roles cg=itso_volume_cg -y
-- Activate new Master
mirror_activate cg=itso_volume_cg
Figure 5-31 XCLI change and switch roles
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5.3 Resynchronization after link failure
When a link failure occurs, the primary system must start tracking changes to the mirror
source volumes so that these changes can be copied to the secondary once recovered.
When recovering from a link failure, the following steps are taken to synchronize the data:
 Asynchronous mirroring sync jobs proceed as scheduled. Sync jobs are restarted and a
new most-recent snapshot is taken. See 5.5.5, “Mirroring special snapshots” on page 154.
 The primary system copies the changed data to the secondary volume. Depending on
how much data must be copied, this operation could take a long time, and the status
remains RPO_Lagging.
5.4 Disaster recovery
There are two broad categories of disaster:
 One that destroys the primary site or destroys the data there
 One that makes the primary site or the data there unavailable, but leaves the data intact
However, within these broad categories there are a number of situations that may exist. Some
of these and the recovery procedures are considered below:
 A disaster that makes the XIV at the primary site unavailable, but leaves the site itself and
the servers there still available
In this scenario the volumes/CG on the XIV at the secondary site can be switched to
master volumes/CG, servers at the primary site can be redirected to the XIV at the
secondary site, and normal operations can start again. When the XIV at the primary site is
recovered the data can be mirrored from the secondary site back to the primary site. A full
initialization of the data is usually not needed.
Only changes that take place at the secondary site are transferred to the primary site. If
desired, a planned site switch can then take place to resume production activities at the
primary site. See 5.2, “Role reversal” on page 144, for details related to this process.
 A disaster that makes both the primary site and data unavailable.
In this scenario, the standby (inactive) servers at the secondary site are activated and
attached to the secondary XIV to continue normal operations. This requires changing the
role of the slave peers to become master peers.
After the primary site is recovered, the data at the secondary site can be mirrored back to
the primary site. This most likely requires a full initialization of the primary site because the
local volumes may not contain any data. See 5.1, “Asynchronous mirroring configuration”
on page 128, for details related to this process.
When initialization completes the peer roles can be switched back to master at the primary
site and the slave at secondary site. The servers are then redirected back to the primary
site. See 5.2, “Role reversal” on page 144, for details related to this process.
 A disaster that breaks all links between the two sites but both sites remain running
In this scenario the primary site continues to operate as normal. When the links are
reestablished the data at the primary site can be resynchronized with the secondary site.
Only the changes since the previous last-replicated snapshot are sent to the secondary
site.
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5.5 Mirroring process
This section explains the overall asynchronous mirroring process, from initialization to
outgoing operations. The asynchronous mirroring process generates snapshots of the master
at user-configured intervals and synchronizes these snapshots with the slave (see “Snapshot
life-cycle” on page 155).
5.5.1 Initialization process
The mirroring process starts with an initialization phase:
1. Read requests are served from the master. Upon each write operation to the master, the
master writes the data locally (primary site) and acknowledges the write operation.
2. Before any actual synchronization of a master can commence, a most-recent snapshot of
the master is created. This snapshot determines the scope of replication for the
initialization phase and the data to be replicated can be determined.
3. The most-recent data is copied to the slave and a last-replicated snapshot of the slave is
taken (Figure 5-32).
Initialization Job completes
Initialization Sync Job
Master peer
Slave peer
most-recent
last-replicated
Data to be replicated
Primary
site
Figure 5-32 Initialization process completes
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4. The most-recent snapshot on the master is renamed to last-replicated. This snapshot is
identical to the data in the last-replicated snapshot on the slave (Figure 5-33).
Master’s last-replicated snapshot created
Initialization phase ends
Master peer
Slave peer
most-recent > last-replicated
ast-replicated
last-replicated
Secondary site
Primary site
Figure 5-33 Ready for ongoing operation
5. Sync jobs can now be run to create periodic consistent copies of the master volumes or
consistency groups on the slave system. See 5.6, “Detailed asynchronous mirroring
process” on page 155.
5.5.2 Ongoing mirroring operation
Following the completion of the initialization phase, the master examines the synchronization
status at scheduled intervals and determines the scope of the synchronization. The following
process occurs whenever a synchronization is started:
1. A snapshot of the master is created.
2. The master calculates the differences between the master snapshot and the most recent
master snapshot that is synchronized with the slave.
3. The master establishes a synchronization process called a sync job that replicates the
differences from the master to the slave. Only data differences are replicated.
Details of this process can be found in 5.6, “Detailed asynchronous mirroring process” on
page 155.
5.5.3 Mirroring consistency groups
The synchronization status of the consistency group is determined by the status of all
volumes pertaining to this consistency group.
 The activation and deactivation of a consistency group affects all of its volumes.
 Role updates concerning a consistency group affect all of its volumes.
 It is impossible to directly activate, deactivate, or update the role of a given volume within a
consistency group.
 It is not possible to directly change the schedule of an individual volume within a
consistency group.
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5.5.4 Ad-hoc snapshots
In addition to using the schedule-based option, you can manually issue a dedicated
command on the master system to run a mirror snapshot. These are called ad-hoc
snapshots. They can be issued regardless of whether the mirror pairing has a schedule or
not. The action initiates a sync job that is queued behind exisitng outstanding sync jobs and
creates an adhoc snapshot on the master and slave system.
The mirror snapshot:
 Accommodates a need for adding manual replication points to a scheduled replication
process.
 Creates application-consistent replicas (in cases where consistency is not achieved via
the scheduled replication).
The following characteristics apply to the manual initiation of the asynchronous mirroring
process:
 Multiple mirror snapshot commands can be issued – there is no maximum limit, aside from
space limitations, on the number of mirror snapshots that can be issued manually.
 A mirror snapshot running when a new interval arrives delays the start of the next
interval-based mirror scheduled to run, but does not cancel the creation of this sync job.
 The interval-based mirror snapshot will be cancelled only if the running snapshot mirror
(ad-hoc) has never finished.
Other than these differences, the manually initiated sync job is identical to a regular
interval-based sync job.
GUI steps to create an ad-hoc snapshot
To create an ad-hoc snapshot using the XIV GUI, highlight the desired async mirrored volume
or CG, right-click and select Create Mirrored Snapshot as seen in Figure 5-34. Figure 5-35
on page 153 shows the window that appears to name the ad-hoc snapshot. Enter the desired
snapshot name and click Sync.
Figure 5-34 Create Mirrored Snapshot
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Figure 5-35 Snap and Sync - Naming the ad-hoc snapshot
For this example, you can now verify the ad-hoc snapshot group has been created on the
master and slave system by looking under the Consistency Groups window of the GUI as
shown in Figure 5-36 and Figure 5-37 on page 153 respectively.
Figure 5-36 Verify ad-hoc snapshot creation on master
Figure 5-37 Verify ad-hoc snapshot creation on slave
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XCLI commands for ad-hoc snapshots
Figure 5-38 illustrates some XCLI commands for ad-hoc snapshots.
-- Create ad-hoc snapshot
mirror_create_snapshot cg=itso_volume_cg name=itso_volume_cg.mirror_snapshot_1
slave_name=itso_volume_cg.mirror_snapshot_1
-- List current and pending sync jobs
sync_job_list
-- Cancel all snapshot mirrors (ad-hoc sync jobs)
mirror_cancel_snapshot cg=itso_volume_cg -y
-- List statistics on past sync jobs
mirror_statistics_get cg=itso_volume_cg
Created
Started
2010-10-25 21:04:10 2010-10-25 21:04:10
2010-10-25 21:05:00 2010-10-25 21:05:00
2010-10-25 21:05:50 2010-10-25 21:05:50
...
Finished
Job Size (MB)
2010-10-25 21:04:10 0
2010-10-25 21:05:01 0
2010-10-25 21:05:50 0
Figure 5-38 XCLI ad-hoc snapshot commands
5.5.5 Mirroring special snapshots
The status of the synchronization process and the scope of the sync job are determined
through the use of the following two special snapshots:
 most-recent snapshot
This snapshot is the most recent taken of the master system, either a volume or
consistency group. This snapshot is taken prior to the creation of a new sync job. This
entity is maintained on the master system only.
 last-replicated snapshot
This is the most recent snapshot that has been fully synchronized with the slave system.
This snapshot is duplicated from the most-recent snapshot after the sync job is complete.
This entity is maintained on both the master and the slave systems.
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Snapshot life-cycle
Throughout the sync job life cycle, the most-recent and last-replicated snapshots are created
and deleted to denote the completion of significant mirroring stages.
This mechanism bears the following characteristics and limitations:
 The last-replicated snapshots have two available time stamps:
– On the master system: the time that the last-replicated snapshot is copied from the
most-recent snapshot
– On the slave system: the time that the last-replicated snapshot is copied from the
master system
 No snapshot is created during the initialization phase.
 Snapshots are deleted only after newer snapshots are created.
 A failure in creating a last-replicated snapshot caused by space depletion is handled in a
designated process. See 5.8, “Pool space depletion” on page 164, for additional
information.
 Ad-hoc sync job snapshots that are created by the Create Mirrored Snapshot operation
are identical to the last-replicated snapshot until a new sync job runs.
Table 5-1 indicates which snapshot is created for a given sync job phase.
Table 5-1 Snapshots and sync job phases
Sync job
phase
most-recent
snapshot
last-replicated
snapshot
Details
1
New interval
starts.
Created on
the master
system
2
Calculate the
differences.
3
The sync job is
complete.
Created on the
slave system
The last-replicated snapshot on the
slave system is created from the
snapshot that has just been mirrored.
4
Following the
creation of the
last-replicated
snapshot.
Created on the
master system
The last-replicated snapshot on the
master system is created from the
most-recent snapshot.
The most-recent snapshot is created
only if there is no sync job running.
The difference between the
most-recent snapshot and the
last-replicated snapshot is transferred
from the master system to the slave
system.
5.6 Detailed asynchronous mirroring process
After initialization is complete, sync job schedules become active (unless schedule=never or
Type=external is specified for the mirror). This starts a specific process that replicates a
consistent set of data from the master to the slave. This process uses special snapshots to
preserve the state of the master and slave during the synchronization process. This allows
the changed data to be quantified and provides synchronous data points that can be used for
disaster recovery. See 5.5.5, “Mirroring special snapshots” on page 154.
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The sync job runs and the mirror status is maintained at the master system. If a previous sync
job is running, a new sync job will not start. The following actions are taken at the beginning of
each interval:
1. most-recent snapshot is taken of the volume or consistency group:
a. Host I/O is halted.
b. The snapshot is taken to provide a consistent set of data to be replicated.
c. Host I/O resumes.
2. Changed data is copied to the slave:
a. The difference between the most-recent and last-replicated snapshots is determined.
b. This changed data is replicated to the slave.
Refer to Figure 5-39.
Sync job starts
The sync job data is
being replicated
Sync Job
Master peer
most-recent
Slave peer
last-replicated
last-replicated
Data to be replicated
Primary
site
Figure 5-39 Sync job starts
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3. A new last-replicated snapshot is created on the slave. This snapshot preserves the
consistent data for later recovery actions if needed. Refer to Figure 5-40.
Sync Job completed
…and a new last-replicated
snapshot is created that
represents the updated slave
peer’s state.
Master peer
most-recent
Slave peer
last-replicated
last-replicated
Secondary
site
Primary
site
Figure 5-40 Sync job completes
4. The most recent-snapshot is renamed on the master (Figure 5-41):
a. The most recent data is now equivalent to the data on the slave.
b. Previous snapshots are deleted.
c. The most-recent snapshot is renamed to last-replicated.
New master last-replicated snapshot created
In one transaction - the master first deletes the current
last-replicated snapshot
and then creates a new last-replicated snapshot from the
most-recent snapshot.
Interval sync process is now complete
The master and slave peers have an identical ‘restore
time point ‘ to which they can be reverted. This
facilitates, among other things, mirror peer switching.
most-recent > last-replicated
Master peer
Slave peer
last-replicated
last-replicated
Primary
site
Secondary
site
Figure 5-41 New master’s last replicated snapshot
The next sync job can now be run at the next defined interval.
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Mirror synchronization status
Synchronization status is checked periodically and is independent of the mirroring process of
scheduling sync jobs. Refer to Figure 5-42 for a view of the synchronization states.
Example: RPO = Interval
Sync Job starts and
replicates to Slave the
Master state at t0
Master
Slave
Interval
t0
t0’
Interval
Interval
t1
t2
RPO_OK
t1’
Interval
t3
RPO_Lagging
If RPO is equal to or lower than the
difference between the current time
(when the check is run) and the
timestamp of the
last_replicated_snapshot, then the
status will be set to RPO_OK
Interval
Interval
t4
tn
RPO_OK
If RPO is higher than the difference
between the current time (when the
check is calculated) and the timestamp of
the last_replicated_snapshot, then the
status will be set to RPO_LAGGING
Figure 5-42 Synchronization states
The possible synchronization states are:
 Initialization
Synchronization does not start until the initialization completes.
 RPO_OK
Synchronization has completed within the specified sync job interval time (RPO).
 RPO_Lagging
Synchronization has completed but took longer than the specified interval time (RPO).
5.7 Asynchronous mirror step-by-step illustration
In the previous sections, the steps taken to set up, synchronize, and remove mirroring,
utilizing both the GUI and the XCLI were explained. In this section we provide an
asynchronous mirror step-by-step illustration.
5.7.1 Mirror initialization
At this point, we are continuing after the setup illustrated in 5.1, “Asynchronous mirroring
configuration” on page 128, which assumes that the Fibre Channel ports have been properly
defined as source and targets, the Ethernet switch has been updated to jumbo frames, and all
the physical paths are in place.
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Mirrored volumes have been placed into a mirrored consistency group and the mirror has
been initialized and has a status of RPO OK. See Figure 5-43 and Figure 5-44.
Figure 5-43 Master status after setup
Figure 5-44 Slave status after setup
5.7.2 Remote backup scenario
One possible scenario related to the secondary site is to provide a consistent copy of data
that is used as a periodic backup. This backup copy could be copied to tape or used for
data-mining activities that do not require the most current data.
This is accomplished by creating a duplicate of the last_replicated snapshot of the slave
consistency group. This new snapshot can then be mounted to hosts and backed up to tape
or used for other purposes.
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GUI steps to duplicate a snapshot group
From the Consistency Groups panel select Duplicate, as shown in Figure 5-45.
Figure 5-45 Duplicate last-replicated snapshot
A new snapshot is created with the same timestamp as the last-replicated snapshot
(Figure 5-46).
Figure 5-46 Duplicate snapshot
XCLI command to duplicate a snapshot group
Figure 5-47 illustrates the snap_group_duplicate command.
-- Duplicate last-replicated
snap_group_duplicate snap_group=last-replicated-itso_volume_cg
Figure 5-47 XCLI to duplicate a snapshot group
5.7.3 DR testing scenario
It is important to verify disaster recovery procedures. This can be accomplished by using the
remote volumes with hosts at the recovery site to verify that the data is consistent and that no
data is missing (due to volumes not being mirrored). This process is partly related to making
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slave volumes available to the hosts, but it also includes processes external to the XIV system
commands. For example, the software available on the remote hosts and user access to
those hosts must also be verified. This example only covers the XIV system commands.
GUI steps for DR testing
The process begins by changing the role of the slave volumes to master volumes. This results
in the mirror being deactivated. The remote hosts can now access the remote volumes. See
Figure 5-48, Figure 5-49, and Figure 5-50 on page 161.
Figure 5-48 Change slave role to master
Figure 5-49 Verify change role
Figure 5-50 New master volumes
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After the testing is complete the remote volumes are returned to their previous slave role See
Figure 5-51, Figure 5-52, and Figure 5-53 on page 162.
Figure 5-51 Change role back to slave
Figure 5-52 Verify change role
Figure 5-53 Slave role restored
Any changes made during the testing are removed by restoring the last-replicated snapshot,
and new updates from the primary site will be transferred to the secondary site when the
mirror is activated again (Figure 5-54 through Figure 5-56).
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Figure 5-54 Activate mirror at primary site
Figure 5-55 Master active
Figure 5-56 Slave active
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XCLI commands for DR testing
Figure 5-57 shows the steps and the corresponding XCLI commands required for DR testing.
-- Change slave to master
mirror_change_role cg=itso_volume_cg
>> mirror_list -t local_peer_name,sync_type,current_role,target_name,active
Name
Mirror Type
Role
Remote System
Active
itso_volume_4
sync_best_effort Master XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_cg async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_1
async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_2
async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_3
async_interval
Master XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
-- Change back to slave
mirror_change_role cg=itso_volume_cg
>> mirror_list -t local_peer_name,sync_type,current_role,target_name,active
Name
Mirror Type
Role
Remote System
Active
itso_volume_4
sync_best_effort Master XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_cg async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
no
itso_volume_1
async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
no
itso_volume_2
async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
no
itso_volume_3
async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
no
-- Activate master on local site
mirror_activate cg=itso_volume_cg
>> mirror_list -t local_peer_name,sync_type,current_role,target_name,active
Name
Mirror Type
Role
Remote System
Active
itso_volume_4
sync_best_effort Master XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_cg async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_1
async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_2
async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
itso_volume_3
async_interval
Slave
XIV LAB 3 1300203
yes
Figure 5-57 XCLI commands for DR testing
5.8 Pool space depletion
The asynchronous mirroring process relies on special snapshots (most-recent,
last-replicated) that require and consume space from the pool snapshot reserve. An
adequate amount of snapshot space depends on the workload characteristics and the
intervals that you set for sync jobs. Observing your application over time allows you to
eventually fine tune the percentage of pool space to reserve for snapshots.
Tip: Set appropriate pool alert thresholds to be warned ahead of time and be able to take
proactive measures to avoid any serious pool space depletion situations.
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The XIV system has a sophisticated built-in multi-step process to cope with pool space
depletion on the slave or on the master before it eventually deactivates the mirror. If a pool
does not have enough free space to accommodate the storage requirements warranted by a
new host write, the system progressively deletes snapshots within that pool until enough
space is made available for successful completion of the write request.
The multi-step process is outlined below; the system will proceed to the next step only if there
is still insufficient space to support the write request after execution of the current step. Upon
depletion of space in a pool with mirroring, the following takes place:
STEP 1: deletion of unprotected (*) snapshots of (1) non-mirrored volumes; (2) completed
and outstanding Snapshot Mirrors (a.k.a. ad-hoc sync jobs)
STEP 2: deletion of the snapshot of any outstanding (pending) scheduled sync job
STEP 3: automatic deactivation of mirroring and deletion of the snapshot designated the
most_recent snapshot (except for the special case described in step 5 below)
STEP 4: deletion of the last_replicated snapshot.
STEP 5: deletion of the most_recent snapshot created when activating the mirroring in
Change Tracking state.
STEP 6: deletion of protected (*) snapshots (new step for v10.2.2)
(*)The XIV system introduces the concept of protected snapshots. With the command
pool_config_snapshots a special parameter is introduced that sets a protected priority value
for snapshots in a specified pool. Pool snapshots with a delete priority value smaller than this
parameter value are treated as 'protected snapshots' and will generally be only deleted after
unprotected snapshots are (with the only exception being a snapshot mirror (ad-hoc)
snapshot when its corresponding job is in progress). Notably, two mirroring related snapshots
will never be deleted: the last-consistent snapshot (synchronous mirroring) and the
last-replicated snapshot on the Slave (asynchronous mirroring).
Note: The deletion priority of mirroring-related snapshots is set implicitly by the system
and cannot be customized by the user.
 The deletion priority of the asynchronous mirroring last-replicated and most-recent
snapshots on the master is set to 1.
 The deletion priority of the asynchronous mirroring last-replicated snapshot on the
slave and the synchronous mirroring last-consistent snapshot is set to 0.
 By default the parameter protected_snapshot_priority in pool_config_snapshots is 0.
 Non-mirrored snapshots are created by default with a deletion priority 1.
Important: If the protected_snapshot_priority in pool_config_snapshots is changed, then
the system and user created snapshots with a deletion priority nominally equal or lower
than the protected setting will be deleted only after the internal mirroring snapshots are.
This means that if the protected_snapshot_priority in pool_config_snapshots is changed to
1, then all system and user created snapshots with deletion priority 1 (which includes ALL
snapshots created by the user if their deletion priority was not changed) will be protected
and will be deleted only after internal mirroring snapshots are if pool space is depleted and
the system needs to free space.
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Pool space depletion on the slave
Pool space depletion on the slave means that there is no room available for the
last_replicated snapshot. In this case, the mirroring is deactivated.
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6
Chapter 6.
Open Systems considerations
for Copy Services
In this chapter, we describe the basic tasks that you should perform on the individual host
systems when using the XIV Copy Services.
We explain how to bring Snapshot target volumes online to the same host as well as to a
second host. This chapter covers various UNIX® platforms and VMware.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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6.1 AIX specifics
In this section we describe the steps needed to use volumes created by the XIV Copy
Services on AIX hosts.
6.1.1 AIX and Snapshots
The snapshot functionality is to copy the pointers of a source volume and create a snapshot
volume. If the source volume is defined to the AIX Logical Volume Manager (LVM), all of its
data structures and identifiers are copied to the snapshot as well. This includes the Volume
Group Descriptor Area (VGDA), which contains the Physical Volume Identifier (PVID) and
Volume Group Identifier (VGID).
For AIX LVM, it is currently not possible to activate a Volume Group with a physical volume
that contains a VGID and a PVID that is already used in a Volume Group existing on the same
server. The restriction still applies even if the hdisk PVID is cleared and reassigned with the
two commands listed in Example 6-1.
Example 6-1 Clearing PVIDs
#chdev -l <hdisk#> -a pv=clear
#chdev -l <hdisk#> -a pv=yes
Therefore, it is necessary to redefine the Volume Group information about the snapshot
volumes using special procedures or the recreatevg command. This will alter the PVIDs and
VGIDs in all the VGDAs of the snapshot volumes, so that there are no conflicts with existing
PVIDs and VGIDs on existing Volume Groups that reside on the source volumes. If you do not
redefine the Volume Group information prior to importing the Volume Group, then the
importvg command will fail.
Accessing a Snapshot volume from another AIX host
The following procedure makes the data of the snapshot volume available to another AIX host
that has no prior definitions of the snapshot volume in its configuration database (ODM). This
host that is receiving the snapshot volumes can manage the access to these devices in the
following way:
If the host is using LVM or MPIO definitions that work with hdisks only, follow these steps:
1. The snapshot volume (hdisk) is new to AIX, and therefore the Configuration Manager
should be run on the specific Fibre Channel adapter:
#cfgmgr -l <fcs#>
2. Find out which of the physical volumes is your snapshot volume:
#lsdev -C |grep 2107
3. Certify that all PVIDs in all hdisks that will belong to the new Volume Group were set.
Check this information using the lspv command. If they were not set, run the following
command for each one to avoid the importvg command failing:
#chdev -l <hdisk#> -a pv=yes
4. Import the snapshot Volume Group:
#importvg -y <volume_group_name> <hdisk#>
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5. Vary on the Volume Group (the importvg command should vary on the Volume Group):
#varyonvg <volume_group_name>
6. Verify consistency of all file systems on the snapshot volumes:
#fsck -y <filesystem_name>
7. Mount all the snapshot file systems:
#mount <filesystem_name>
The data is now available. You can, for example, back up the data residing on the snapshot
volume to a tape device.
The disks containing the snapshot volumes may have been previously defined to an AIX
system, for example, if you periodically create backups using the same set of volumes. In this
case, there are two possible scenarios:
 If no Volume Group, file system, or logical volume structure changes were made, then use
procedure 1 (“Procedure 1” on page 169) to access the snapshot volumes from the target
system.
 If some modifications to the structure of the Volume Group were made, such as changing
the file system size or the modification of logical volumes (LV), then it is recommended to
use procedure 2 (“Procedure 2” on page 169) and not procedure 1.
Procedure 1
For this procedure, follow these steps:
1. Unmount all the source file systems:
#umount <source_filesystem>
2. Unmount all the snapshot file systems:
#umount <snapshot_filesystem>
3. Deactivate the snapshot Volume Group:
#varyoffvg <snapshot_volume_group_name>
4. Create the snapshots on the XIV.
5. Mount all the source file systems:
#mount <source_filesystem>
6. Activate the snapshot Volume Group:
#varyonvg <snapshot_volume_group_name>
7. Perform a file system consistency check on the file systems:
#fsck -y <snapshot_file_system_name>
8. Mount all the file systems:
#mount <snapshot_filesystem>
Procedure 2
For this procedure, follow these steps:
1. Unmount all the snapshot file systems:
#umount <snapshot_filesystem>
2. Deactivate the snapshot Volume Group:
#varyoffvg <snapshot_volume_group_name>
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3. Export the snapshot Volume Group:
#exportvg <snapshot_volume_group_name>
4. Create the snapshots on the XIV.
5. Import the snapshot Volume Group:
#importvg -y <snapshot_volume_group_name> <hdisk#>
6. Perform a file system consistency check on snapshot file systems:
#fsck -y <snapshot_file_system_name>
7. Mount all the target file systems:
#mount <snapshot_filesystem>
Accessing the Snapshot volume from the same AIX host
In this section we describe a method of accessing the snapshot volume on a single AIX host
while the source volume is still active on the same server. The procedure is intended to be
used as a guide and may not cover all scenarios.
If you are using the same host to work with source and target volumes, you have to use the
recreatevg command.
The recreatevg command overcomes the problem of duplicated LVM data structures and
identifiers caused by a disk duplication process such as snapshot. It is used to recreate an
AIX Volume Group (VG) on a set of target volumes that are copied from a set of source
volumes belonging to a specific VG. The command will allocate new physical volume
identifiers (PVIDs) for the member disks and a new Volume Group identifier (VGID) to the
Volume Group. The command also provides options to rename the logical volumes with a
prefix you specify, and options to rename labels to specify different mount points for file
systems.
Accessing Snapshot volumes using the recreatevg command
In this example, we have a Volume Group containing two physical volumes (hdisks) and wish
to create snapshot volumes for the purpose of creating a backup.
The source volume group is src_snap_vg, containing hdisk2 and hdisk3.
The target volume group will be tgt_snap_vg, containing the snapshots of hdisk2 and hdisk3.
Perform these tasks to make the snapshot volumes available to AIX:
1. Stop all I/O activities and applications that access the source volumes.
2. Create the snapshot on the XIV for hdisk2 and hdisk3 with the GUI or xcli.
3. Restart applications that access the source volumes.
4. The snapshots will now have the same volume group data structures as the source
volumes hdisk2 and hdisk3. Clear the PVIDs from the target hdisks to allow a new Volume
Group to be made:
#chdev -l hdisk4 -a pv=clear
#chdev -l hdisk5 -a pv=clear
The output of lspv command shows the result in Example 6-2.
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Example 6-2 lspv output before recreating the volume group
# lspv
hdisk2
hdisk3
hdisk4
hdisk5
00cb7f2ee8111734
00cb7f2ee8111824
none
none
src_snap_vg
src_snap_vg
None
None
active
active
5. Create the target volume group and prefix all file system path names with /backup, and
prefix all AIX logical volumes with bkup:
recreatevg -y tgt_flash_vg -L /backup -Y bkup vpath4 vpath5
You must specify the hdisk names of all disk volumes participating in the volume group.
The output from lspv, shown in Example 6-3, illustrates the new volume group definition.
Example 6-3 lspv output after recreating the volume group
# lspv
hdisk2
hdisk3
hdisk4
hdisk5
00cb7f2ee8111734
00cb7f2ee8111824
00cb7f2ee819f5c6
00cb7f2ee819f788
src_snap_vg
src_snap_vg
tgt_snap_vg
tgt_snap_vg
active
active
active
active
An extract from /etc/filesystems in Example 6-4 shows how recreatevg generates a new
file system stanza. The file system named /prodfs in the source Volume Group is renamed
to /bkp/prodfs in the target volume group. Also, the directory /bkp/prodfs is created. Notice
also that the logical volume and JFS log logical volume have been renamed. The
remainder of the stanza is the same as the stanza for /prodfs.
Example 6-4 Target file system stanza
/bkp/prodfs:
dev
vfs
log
mount
check
options
account
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
/dev/bkupfslv01
jfs2
/dev/bkuploglv00
false
false
rw
false
6. Perform a file system consistency check for all target file systems:
#fsck -y <target_file_system_name>
7. Mount the new file systems belonging to the target volume group to make them
accessible.
6.1.2 AIX and Remote Mirroring
When you have the primary and secondary volumes in a Remote Mirror relationship, it is not
possible to read the secondary volumes, unless the roles are changed from slave to master.
To be able to read the secondary volumes, they must also be synchronized. Therefore, if you
are configuring the secondary volumes on the target server, it is necessary to terminate the
copy pair relationship.
When the volumes are in the consistent state, the secondary volumes can be configured
(cfgmgr) into the target system’s customized device class (CuDv) of the ODM. This will bring
in the secondary volumes as hdisks and will contain the same physical volume IDs (PVID) as
the primary volumes. Because these volumes are new to the system, there is no conflict with
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existing PVIDs. The Volume Group on the secondary volumes containing the logical volume
(LV) and file system information can now be imported into the Object Data Manager (ODM)
and the /etc/filesystems file using the importvg command.
If the secondary volumes were previously defined on the target AIX system, but the original
Volume Group was removed from the primary volumes, the old volume group and disk
definitions must be removed (exportvg and rmdev) from the target volumes and redefined
(cfgmgr) before running importvg again to get the new volume group definitions. If this is not
done first, importvg will import the volume group improperly. The volume group data
structures (PVIDs and VGID) in ODM will differ from the data structures in the VGDAs and
disk volume super blocks. The file systems will not be accessible.
Making updates to the LVM information
When performing Remote Mirroring between primary and secondary volumes, the primary
AIX host may create/modify or delete existing LVM information from a Volume Group.
However, because the secondary volume is not accessible when in a Remote Mirroring
relationship, the LVM information in the secondary AIX host would be out-of-date. Therefore,
scheduled periods should be allotted where write I/Os to the primary Remote Mirroring
volume can be quiesced and file systems unmounted. At this point, the copy pair relationship
can be terminated and the secondary AIX host can perform a learn on the volume group
(importvg -L).
When the updates have been imported into the secondary AIX host’s ODM, you can establish
the Remote Mirror and Copy pair again. As soon as the Remote Mirroring pair has been
established, immediately suspend the Remote Mirroring. Because there was no write I/O to
the primary volumes, both the primary and secondary are consistent.
The following example shows two systems, host1 and host2, where host1 has the primary
volume hdisk5 and host2 has the secondary volume hdisk16. Both systems have had their
ODMs populated with the volume group itsovg from their respective Remote Mirror and Copy
volumes and, prior to any modifications, both systems’ ODM have the same time stamp, as
shown in Example 6-5.
Example 6-5 Original time stamp
root@host1:/> getlvodm -T itsovg
4cc6d7ee09109a5e
root@host2:/> getlvodm -T itsovg
4cc6d7ee09109a5e
Volumes hdisk5 and hdisk16 are in the synchronized state, and the volume group itsovg on
host1 is updated with a new logical volume. The time stamp on the VGDA of the volumes gets
updated and so does the ODM on host1, but not on host2.
To update the ODM on the secondary server, it is advisable to suspend the Remote Mirror
and Copy pair prior to performing the importvg -L command to avoid any conflicts from LVM
actions occurring on the primary server. When the importvg -L command has completed,
you can reestablish the Remote Mirror.
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6.2 Copy Services using VERITAS Volume Manager
In the following section we describe special considerations for Snapshots and Remote
Mirroring on Solaris systems with VERITAS Volume Manager (VxVM) support.
Snapshots with VERITAS Volume Manager
In many cases, a user will make a copy of a volume so that the data can be used by a different
machine. In other cases, a user may want to make the copy available to the same machine.
VERITAS Volume Manager assigns each disk a unique global identifier. If the volumes are on
different machines, this does not present a problem. However, if they are on the same
machine, you have to take some precautions. For this reason, the steps that you should take
are different for the two cases.
Snapshot to a different server
One common method for making a Snapshot of a VxVM volume is to first freeze the I/O to the
source volume, issue the snapshot, and import the new snapshot onto a second server. In
general, the steps for performing this process are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Unmount the target volume on Server B.
Freeze the I/O to the source volume on Server A.
Create a snapshot.
Thaw the I/O to the source volume on Server A.
Mount the target volume on Server B.
Snapshot to the same server
The simplest way to make the copy available to the source machine is to export and offline
the source volumes. In Example 6-6, volume lvol is contained in Disk Group vgsnap. This
Disk Group consists of two devices (xiv0_4 and xiv0_5). When that disks are taken offline, the
snapshot target becomes available to the source volume, and can be imported.
Example 6-6 Making a snapshot available by exporting the source volume
#halt I/O on the source by unmounting the volume
umount /vol1
#create snapshot, unlock the created snapshot and map to the host here
#discover newly available disks
vxdctl enable
#deport the source volume group
vxdg deport vgsnap
#offline the source disk
vxdisk offline xiv0_4 xiv0_5
#now only the target disk is online
#import the volume again
vxdg import vgsnap
#recover the copy
vxrecover -g vgsnap -s lvol
#re-mount the volume
mount /dev/vx/dsk/vgsnap/lvol
If you want to make both the source and target available to the machine at the same time, it is
necessary to change the private region of the disk, so that VERITAS Volume Manager allows
the target to be accessed as a different disk. Here we explain how to simultaneously mount
snapshot source and target volumes to the same host without exporting the source volumes
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when using VERITAS Volume Manager. Check with VERITAS and IBM on the supportability
of this method before using it.
It is assumed that the sources are constantly mounted to the SUN host, the snapshot is
performed, and the goal is to mount the copy without unmounting the source or rebooting.
After the target volumes have been assigned, then issue vdctl enable command.
The following procedure refers to these names:
 vgsnap2: The name of the diskgroup that is being created.
 vgsnap: The name of original disk group .
Use the following procedure to mount the targets to the same host:
1. Discover newly available disk issue the command vxdctl enable
# vxdctl enable
2. Check that the new disk are available using command vxdisk the new disk shoul be
presented in output as s only disk with mismatch uids.
# vxdisk list
3. Import available disk onto the host in new disk group issue the command vxdg
# vxdg -n <name for the new disk group> -o useclonedev=on,updateid -C import
name of the original disk group>
4. Apply the journal log to the volume located into the disk group
#vxrecover -g <name of new disk group> -s <name of the volume>
5. Mount the file system located in disk groups
# mount /dev/vx/dsk/<name of new disk group/<name of the volume> /<mount point>
The process looks like it shown in Example 6-7.
Example 6-7 Importing the snapshot on same host simultaneously with using of original disk group
# vxdctl enable
# vxdisk list
DEVICE
TYPE
DISK
GROUP
STATUS
xiv0_0
auto:cdsdisk
vgxiv02
vgxiv
online
xiv0_4
auto:cdsdisk
vgsnap01
vgsnap
online
xiv0_5
auto:cdsdisk
vgsnap02
vgsnap
online
xiv0_8
auto:cdsdisk
online udid_mismatch
xiv0_9
auto:cdsdisk
online udid_mismatch
xiv1_0
auto:cdsdisk
vgxiv01
vgxiv
online
# vxdg -n vgsnap2 -o useclonedev=on,updateid -C import vgsnap
VxVM vxdg WARNING V-5-1-1328 Volume lvol: Temporarily renumbered due to conflict
# vxrecover -g vgsnap2 -s lvol
# mount /dev/vx/dsk/vgsnap2/lvol /test
# ls /test
VRTS_SF_HA_Solutions_5.1_Solaris_SPARC.tar
VRTSaslapm_Solaris_5.1.001.200.tar
VRTSibmxiv-5.0-SunOS-SPARC-v1_307934.tar.Z
lost+found
# vxdisk list
DEVICE
TYPE
DISK
GROUP
STATUS
xiv0_0
auto:cdsdisk
vgxiv02
vgxiv
online
xiv0_4
auto:cdsdisk
vgsnap01
vgsnap
online
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xiv0_5
xiv0_8
xiv0_9
xiv1_0
auto:cdsdisk
auto:cdsdisk
auto:cdsdisk
auto:cdsdisk
vgsnap02
vgsnap01
vgsnap02
vgxiv01
vgsnap
vgsnap2
vgsnap2
vgxiv
online
online clone_disk
online clone_disk
online
Remote Mirroring with VERITAS Volume Manager
In the previous section we described how to perform a snapshot and mount the source and
target file system on the same server. Here we describe the steps necessary to mount a
Remote Mirrored secondary volume onto a server that does not have sight of the primary
volume. It assumes that the Remote Mirroring pair has been terminated prior to carrying out
the procedure.
After the secondary volumes have been assigned, it is necessary to reboot the Solaris server
using reboot -- -r or, if a reboot is not immediately possible, then issue devfsadm. However,
a reboot is recommended for guaranteed results.
Use the following procedure to mount the secondary volumes to another host:
1. Scan devices in the operating system device tree:
#vxdctl enable
2. List all known disk groups on the system:
#vxdisk -o alldgs list
3. Import the Remote Mirror disk group information:
#vxdg -C import <disk_group_name>
4. Check the status of volumes in all disk groups:
#vxprint -Ath
5. Bring the disk group online:
#vxvol -g <disk_group_name> startall
or
#vxrecover -g <disk_group_name> -sb
6. Perform a consistency check on the file systems in the disk group:
#fsck -V vxfs /dev/vx/dsk/<disk_group_name>/<volume_name>
7. Mount the file system for use:
#mount -V vxfs /dev/vx/dsk/<disk_group_name>/<volume_name> /<mount_point>
When you have finished with the mirrored volume, we recommend that you perform the
following tasks:
1. Unmount the file systems in the disk group:
#umount /<mount_point>
2. Take the volumes in the disk group offline:
#vxvol -g <disk_group_name> stopall
3. Export disk group information from the system:
#vxdg deport <disk_group_name>
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6.3 HP-UX and Copy Services
The following section describes the interaction between XIV Copy Services and Logical
Volume Manager (LVM) on HP-UX. Write access to the Copy Services target volumes is
either allowed for XIV Copy Services or for HP-UX. LVM commands must be used to disable
host access to a volume before XIV Copy Services take control of the associated target
volumes. After Copy Services have been terminated for the target volumes LVM commands
can be used to enable host access.
6.3.1 HP-UX and XIV snapshot
The following procedure must be followed to permit access to the snapshot source and target
volumes simultaneously on an HP-UX host. It could be used to make an additional copy of a
development database for testing or to permit concurrent development, to create a database
copy for data mining that will be accessed from the same server as the OLTP data, or to
create a point-in-time copy of a database for archiving to tape from the same server.
This procedure must be repeated each time you perform a snapshot and want to use the
target physical volume on the same host where the snapshot source volumes are present in
the Logical Volume Manager configuration. The procedure can also be used to access the
target volumes on another HP-UX host.
Target preparation
In order to prepare the target system, carry out the following steps:
1. If you did not use the default Logical Volume Names (lvolnn) when they were created,
create a map file of your source volume group using the vgexport command using the
preview (-p) option:
#vgexport -p -m <map file name> -p /dev/<source_vg_name>
Tip: If the target volumes are accessed by a secondary (or target) host, this map file
needs to be copied to the target host.
2. If the target volume group exists, remove it using the vgexport command. The target
volumes cannot be members of a Volume Group when the vgimport command is run:
#vgexport /dev/<target_vg_name>
3. Shut down or quiesce any applications that are accessing the snapshot source.
Snapshot execution
To execute the procedure, you must carry out the following steps:
1. Quiesce or shut down the source HP-UX application(s) to cease any updates to the
primary volumes.
2. Perform the XIV snapshot.
3. When the snapshot is finished, change the Volume Group ID on each DS Volume in the
snapshot target. The volume ID for each volume in the snapshot target volume group must
be modified on the same command line. Failure to do this will result in a mismatch of
Volume Group IDs within the Volume Group. The only way to resolve this issue is to
perform the snapshot again and reassign the Volume Group IDs using the same
command line:
vgchgid -f </dev/rdsk/c#t#d#_1>...</dev/rdsk/c#t#d#_n>
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Note: This step is not needed if another host is used to access the target devices.
4. Create the Volume Group for the snapshot target volumes:
#mkdir /dev/<target_vg_name>
#mknod /dev/<target_vg_name>/group c <lvm_major_no> <next_available_minor_no>
Use the lsdev -C lvm command to determine what the major device number should be for
Logical Volume Manager objects. To determine the next available minor number, examine
the minor number of the group file in each volume group directory using the ls -l
command.
5. Import the snapshot target volumes into the newly created volume group using the
vgimport command:
#vgimport -m <map file name> -v /dev/<target_vg_name>
</dev/dsk/c#t#d#_1>...</dev/dsk/c#t#d#_n>
6. Activate the new volume group:
#vgchange -a y /dev/<target_vg_name>
7. Perform a full file system check on the logical volumes in the target volume group. This is
necessary in order to apply any changes in the JFS intent log to the file system and mark
the file system as clean.
#fsck -F vxfs -o full -y /dev/<target_vg_name>/<logical volume name>
8. If the logical volume contains a VxFS file system, mount the target logical volumes on the
server:
#mount -F vxfs /dev/<target_vg_name>/<logical volume name> <mount point>
When access to the snapshot target volume(s) is no longer required, unmount the file
systems and deactivate (vary off) the volume group:
#vgchange -a n /dev/<target_vg_name>
If no changes are made to the source volume group prior to the subsequent snapshot, then all
that is needed is to activate (vary on) the volume group and perform a full file system
consistency check, as shown in steps 7 to 8.
6.3.2 HP-UX with XIV Remote Mirror
When using Remote Mirror with HP-UX, LVM handling is similar to using snapshots, apart
from the fact that the volume group should be unique to the target server, so there should not
be a need to perform the vgchgid command to change the physical volume to volume group
association. Here is the procedure to bring Remote Mirror target volumes online to secondary
HP-UX hosts:
1. Quiesce the source HP-UX application to cease any updates to the primary volumes.
2. Change the role of the secondary volumes to master in order to enable host access.
3. Rescan for hardware configuration changes using the ioscan -fnC disk command. Check
that the disks are CLAIMED using ioscan -funC disk. The reason for doing this is that the
volume group may have been extended to include more physical volumes.
4. Create the Volume Group for the Remote Mirror secondary. Use the lsdev -C lvm
command to determine what the major device number should be for Logical Volume
Manager objects. To determine the next available minor number, examine the minor
number of the group file in each volume group directory using the ls -l command.
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5. Import the Remote Mirror secondary volumes into the newly created volume group using
the vgimport command.
6. Activate the new volume group using the vgchange command with the -a y option.
7. Perform a full file system check on the logical volumes in the target volume group. This is
necessary in order to apply any changes in the JFS intent log to the file system and mark
the file system as clean.
8. If the logical volume contains a VxFS file system, mount the target logical volumes on the
server.
If changes are made to the source volume group, they should be reflected in the /etc/lvmtab
of the target server. Therefore, it is recommended that periodic updates be made to make the
lvmtab on both source and target machines consistent.
Use the above standard procedure but include the following steps before activating the
volume group:
a. On the source HP-UX host export the source volume group information into a map file
using the preview option:
#vgexport -p -m <map file name>
b. Copy the map file to the target HP-UX host.
c. On the target HP-UX host export the volume group.
d. Recreate the volume group using the HP-UX mkdir and mknod commands.
e. Import the Remote Mirror target volumes into the newly created volume group using
the vgimport command.
When access to the Remote Mirror target volume(s) is no longer required, unmount the file
systems and deactivate (vary off) the volume group:
#vgchange -a n /dev/<target_vg_name>
Where appropriate reactivate the XIV Remote Mirror in normal or reverse direction. If copy
direction is reversed, the master and slave roles and thus the source and target volumes are
also reversed.
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6.4 VMware Virtual Infrastructure and Copy Services
The section is not intended to cover every possible use of Copy Services with VMware; rather,
it is intended to provide hints and tips that will be useful in many different Copy Services
scenarios.
When using Copy Services with the guest operating systems, the restrictions of the guest
operating system still apply. In some cases, using Copy Services in a VMware environment
may impose additional restrictions.
6.4.1 Virtual machine considerations regarding Copy Services
Before creating snapshot, it is important to prepare both the source and target machines to be
copied. For the source machine, this typically means quiescing the applications, unmounting
the source volumes, and/or flushing memory buffers to disk. See the appropriate sections for
your operating systems for more information about this topic.
For the target machine, typically the target volumes must be unmounted. This prevents the
operating system from accidentally corrupting the target volumes with buffered writes, as well
as preventing users from accessing the target LUNs until the snapshot is logically complete.
With VMware, there is an additional restriction that the target virtual machine must be shut
down before issuing the snapshot. VMware also performs caching, in addition to any caching
the guest operating system might do. To be able to use the FlashCopy target volumes with
ESX Server, you need to make sure, that the ESX Server can see the target volumes. Beside
checking the SAN zoning and the host attachment within the XIV, you may need a SAN
rescan issued by the Virtual Center.
If the Snapshoted LUNs contain a VMFS file system, the ESX host will detect this on the
target LUNs and add them as a new datastore to its inventory. The VMs stored on this
datastore can then be opened on the ESX host. To assign the existing virtual disks to new
VMs, in the Add Hardware Wizard panel, select Use an existing virtual disk and choose the
.vmdk file you want to use. See Figure 6-1.
If the Snapshoted LUNs were assigned as RDMs, the target LUNs can be assigned to a VM
by creating a new RDM for this VM. In the Add Hardware Wizard panel, select Raw Device
Mapping and use the same parameters as on the source VM.
Note: If you do not shut down the source VM, reservations may prevent you from using the
target LUNs.
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Figure 6-1 Adding an existing virtual disk to a VM
VMware ESX server and Snapshots
In general there are two different ways Snapshots can be used within VMware Virtual
Infrastructure: Either on raw LUNs that are attached via RDM to a host or on LUNs that are
used to build up VMFS datastores which store VMs and virtual disks.
Snapshots on LUNs used for VMFS datastores
Since version 3 all files a virtual machine is made up from, are stored on VMFS partitions
(that is usually: configuration, BIOS and one or more virtual disks). Therefore the whole VM is
most commonly stored in one single location. Since snapshot operations are always done on
a whole volume this provides an easy way to create point in time backups of whole virtual
machines. Nevertheless you have to make sure that the data on the VMFS volume is
consistent. Therefore the VMs located on this datastore must be shut down before initiating
the snapshot on XIV.
Since a VMFS datastore can contain more than one LUN, the user has to make sure all
participating LUNs are mirrored using snapshot to get a complete copy of the datastore.
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Figure 6-2 shows an ESX host with 2 virtual machines, using each one virtual disk. The ESX
host has one VMFS datastore consisting of 2 XIV LUNs “1” and “2”. In order to get a complete
copy of the VMFS datastore, both LUNs must be placed into consistency group and then a
snapshot is taken. By using snapshots on VMFS LUNs, it is easy to create backups of whole
VMs.
Figure 6-2 Using Snapshot on VMFS volumes
Snapshot on LUNs used for RDM
Raw device mappings (RDM) can be done in two ways:
 In physical mode, the LUN is mostly treated as any other physical LUN. In virtual mode the
virtualization layer provides features like snapshots that are normally only available for
virtual disks.
 In virtual compatibility mode you have to make sure that the LUN you are going to copy is
in a consistent state. Depending on the disk mode and current usage you may have to
append the redo-log first to get a usable copy of the disk. If persistent or nonpersistent
mode is used, the LUN can be handled like a RDM in physical compatibility mode.
For details and restrictions, check the SAN Configuration Guide, at:
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vi_pubs.html
The following paragraphs are valid for both compatibility modes. However, keep in mind that
extra work on the ESX host and/or VMs might be required for the virtual compatibility mode.
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Using Snapshot within a virtual machine
In Figure 6-3, a LUN, which is assigned to a VM via RDM, is copied using snapshot on a IBM
XIV Storage System. The target LUN is then assigned to the same VM by creating a second
RDM. After issuing the snapshot job HDD1 and HDD2 have the same content.
For virtual disks, this can simply be achieved by copying the .vmdk files on the VMFS
datastore. However, the copy is not available instantly as with snapshot; instead you will have
to wait until the copy job has finished duplicating the whole .vmdk file.
Figure 6-3 Using Snapshot within a VM - HDD1 is the source for target HDD2
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Using Snapshot between two virtual machines
This works in the same way as using snapshot within a virtual machine, but the target disks
are assigned to another VM this time. This might be useful to create clones of a VM.
After issuing the snapshot job, LUN 1’ can be assigned to a second VM, which then can work
with a copy of VM1's HDD1. (See Figure 6-4).
Figure 6-4 Using snapshot between two different VMs - VM1's HDD1 is the source for HDD2 in VM2
Using snapshot between ESX Server hosts
This scenario shows how to use the target LUNs on a different ESX Server host. This is
especially useful for disaster recovery if one ESX Server host fails for any reason. If LUNs
with VMFS are duplicated using snapshot, it is possible to create a copy of the whole virtual
environment of one ESX Server host that can be migrated to another physical host with only
few efforts.
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To be able to do this, both ESX Server hosts must be able to access the same snapshot LUN.
(See Figure 6-5.)
Figure 6-5 Snapshot between 2 ESX hosts
In Figure 6-5 we are using snapshot on consistency group which are include 2 volumes. LUN
1 is used for a VMFS datastore while LUN 2 is assigned to VM2 as a RDM. These two LUNs
are then copied with snapshot and attached to another ESX Server host. In ESX host 2 we
now assign the vdisk that is stored on the VMFS partition on LUN 1' to VM3 and attach LUN
2' via RDM to VM4. By doing this we can create a copy of ESX host 1's virtual environment
and use it on ESX host 2.
Note: If you use snapshot on VMFS volumes and assign them to the same ESX Server
host, the server doesn't allow the target to be used since the VMFS volume identifiers have
been duplicated. To circumvent this, VMware ESX server provides the possibility of VMFS
Volume Resignaturing. For details about resignaturing, check page 112 and the following
pages in the SAN Configuration Guide, available at:
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vi_pubs.html
ESX and Remote Mirroring
It is possible to use Remote Mirror with all three types of disks. However, in most
environments, raw System LUNs in physical compatibility mode are preferred.
As with snapshots, using VMware with Remote Mirror contains all the advantages and
limitations of the guest operating system. See the individual guest operating system sections
for relevant information.
However, it may be possible to use raw System LUNs in physical compatibility mode. Check
with IBM on the supportability of this procedure.
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At a high level, the steps for creating a Remote Mirror are as follows:
1. Shut down the guest operating system on the target ESX Server.
2. Establish remote mirroring from the source volumes to the target volumes.
3. When the initial copy has completed and the volumes are now is syncronized, suspend or
remove the Remote Mirroring relationships.
4. Issue the Rescan command on the target ESX Server.
5. If not already assigned to the target virtual machine, assign the mirrored volumes to the
target virtual machine. Virtual disks on VMFS volumes should be assigned as existing
volumes, while raw volumes should be assigned as RDMs using the same parameters as
on the source host.
6. Start the virtual machine and, if necessary, mount the target volumes.
In Figure 6-6 we have a similar scenario as in Figure 6-5, but now the source and target
volumes are located on two different XIV. This setup can be used for disaster recovery
solutions where ESX host 2 would be located in the backup data center.
Figure 6-6 Using Remote Mirror and Copy functions
In addition, we support integration of VMware Site Recovery Manager with IBM XIV Storage
System over IBM XIV Site Replication Adapter for VMware SRM.
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7
Chapter 7.
IBM i considerations for Copy
Services
In this chapter, we describe the basic tasks that you should perform on IBM i systems when
using the XIV Copy Services.
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7.1 IBM i functions and XIV as external storage
To better understand solutions using IBM i and XIV, it is necessary to have basic knowledge
of IBM i functions and features that enable external storage implementation and usage.
The following functions are discussed in this section:
 IBM i structure
 Single level storage
7.1.1 IBM i structure
IBM i is the newest generation of operating system previously known as AS/400® or I5/OS. It
runs in a partition of POWER servers or Blade servers, as well on System i and some System
p models.
A partition of POWER server can host one of the following operating systems: IBM i, Linux, or
AIX that are configured and managed through a Hardware Management Console (HMC) that
is connected to the IBM i via an Ethernet connection.
In the remaining of this chapter, we refer to an IBM i partition in POWER server or Blade
server, simply as partition.
7.1.2 Single-level storage
IBM i uses single-level storage architecturel. This means that the IBM i sees all disk space
and the main memory as one storage area, and uses the same set of virtual addresses to
cover both main memory and disk space.
Paging in this virtual address space is performed in 4-KB pages. Single-level storage is
graphically depicted in Figure 7-1.
I5/OS Partition
Single-Level Storage
Main Memory
Figure 7-1 Single level storage
When the application performs an input output (IO) operation, the portion of the program that
contains read or write instructions is first brought into main memory where the instructions
are then executing.
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With the read request, the virtual addresses of the needed record are resolved and for each
page needed, storage management first checks if it is in the main memory. If the page is
there, it is used for resolving the read request. But if the corresponding page is not in the main
memory, it must be retrieved from disk (page fault). When a page is retrieved, it replaces a
page that was recently not used; the replaced page is swapped to disk.
Similarly, writing a new record or updating an existing record is done in main memory, and the
affected pages are marked as changed. A changed page remains in main memory until it is
swapped to disk as a result of a page fault. Pages are also written to disk when a file is closed
or when write to disk is forced by a user through commands and parameters. Also, database
journals are written to the disk.
A subject in IBM i is anything that exists and occupies space in storage and on which
operations can be performed. For example, a library, a database file, a user profile, a
program, are objects in IBM i.
7.1.3 Auxiliary storage pools (ASPs)
IBM i has a rich storage management heritage. From the start, the System i platform made
managing storage simple through the use of disk pools. For most customers, this meant a
single pool of disks called the System Auxiliary Storage Pools (ASPs). Automatic use of newly
added disk units, RAID protection, and automatic data spreading, load balancing, and
performance management makes this single disk pool concept the right choice.
However, for many years, customers have found needs for additional storage granularity,
including the need to sometimes isolate data into a separate disk pool. This is possible with
User ASPs. User ASPs provide the same automation and ease-of-use benefits as the System
ASP, but provide additional storage isolation when needed. With software level Version 5,
IBM i takes this storage granularity option a huge step forward with the availability of
Independent Auxiliary Storage Pools (IASPs).
7.2 Boot from SAN and cloning
Traditionally, System i hosts have required the use of an internal disk as a boot drive or Load
Source unit (LSU or LS). The Boot from SAN support has been available since i5/OS
V5R3M5. IBM i Boot from SAN is supported on all types of external storage that attach to IBM
i (natively or with Virtual I/O Server), this includes XIV storage.
For requirements for IBM i Boot from SAN with XIV refer to the Redpaper™ IBM XIV Storage
System with the Virtual I/O Server and IBM i, REDP-4598-00.
Boot from SAN support enables IBM i customers to take advantage of Copy services
functions in XIV. These functions allow them to perform an instantaneous copy of the data
held on XIV logical volumes. Therefore, when they have a system that only has external LUNs
with no internal drives, they are able to create a clone of their IBM i system.
Important: When we refer to a clone, we are referring to a copy of an IBM i system that
only uses external LUNs. Boot (or IPL) from SAN is therefore a prerequisite for this
function.
Why consider cloning
By using the cloning capability, you can create a complete copy of your entire system in
minutes. You can then use this copy in any way you want, for example, you could potentially
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use it to minimize your backup windows, or protect yourself from a failure during an upgrade,
maybe even use it as a fast way to provide yourself with a backup or test system. You can use
the remote copy of volumes for disaster recovery of your production system in case of failure
e or disaster on primary site.
When you use cloning
 You need enough free capacity on your external storage unit to accommodate the clone. In
case Remote Mirroring is used you need enough bandwidth on the links between the XIV
at primary site and the XIV at the secondary site.
 The clone of a production system runs in a separate logical partition (LPAR) in POWER or
Blade server , and therefore you need enough resources to accommodate it. In case of
Remote Mirroring you need an LPAR in POWER server or Blade at the remote site where
you will implement the clone.
 You should not attach a clone to your network until you have resolved any potential
conflicts that the clone has with the parent system.
Note: Besides cloning, IBM i provides yet another way of using Copy Services on external
storage: copying of an Independent Auxiliary Storage Pool (IASP) in a cluster.
Implementations with IASP are not supported on XIV.
7.3 Setup of our implementation
In our illustration of XIV Copy functions with IBM i , we use the following setup:
 System p6 model 570
– Two partitions with VIOS V2.2.0
– An LPAR with IBM i V7.1 is connected to both VIOS with Virtual SCSI (VSCSI)
adapters
 IBM XIV model 2810 connected to both VIOS with two 8 Gbps Fibre Channel adapters in
each VIOS
 Each connection between XIV and VIOS is done through one host ports in XIV, each host
port via a separate Storage Area Network (SAN)
Note: It is advised to connect multiple host ports in XIV to each adapter in the host server,
however for the purpose of our example, we only connected one port in XIV to each VIOS.
 IBM i disk capacity in XIV:
– 8 * 137.4 GB volumes are connected to both VIOS
Note: The volume capacity stated above is the net capacity available to IBM i. For more
information about the XIV usable capacity for IBM i refer to the Redpaper IBM XIV
Storage System with the Virtual I/O Server and IBM i, REDP-4598-00.
– The corresponding disk units in each VIOS are mapped to the VSCSI adapter
assigned to IBM i partition
– Since the volumes are connected to IBM i via two VIOS, IBM i Multipath was
automatically established for those volumes. As can be seen in Figure 7-2 the IBM i
resource name for the XIV volumes starts with DPM which denotes that the disk units
are in Multipath.
– IBM i Boot from SAN is implemented on XIV
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Figure 7-2 shows the Display Disk Configuration Status screen in IBM i System Service Tools
(SST).
Display Disk Configuration Status
ASP Unit
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Serial
Number
Resource
Type Model Name
Y37DQDZREGE6
Y33PKSV4ZE6A
YQ2MN79SN934
YGAZV3SLRQCM
YS9NR8ZRT74M
YH733AETK3YL
Y8NMB8T2W85D
YS7L4Z75EUEW
6B22
6B22
6B22
6B22
6B22
6B22
6B22
6B22
050
050
050
050
050
050
050
050
DMP002
DMP003
DMP015
DMP014
DMP007
DMP005
DMP012
DMP010
Status
Unprotected
Configured
Configured
Configured
Configured
Configured
Configured
Configured
Configured
Hot Spare
Protection
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
Press Enter to continue.
F3=Exit
F5=Refresh
F11=Disk configuration capacity
F9=Display disk unit details
F12=Cancel
Figure 7-2 XIV volumes in IBM i Multipath
 Configuration for snapshots:
For the purpose of our experimentation, we used one IBM i LPAR for both production and
backup. The LPAR was connected with two VIO Servers. Before IPLing the IBM i clone
from snapshots we un-mapped the virtual disks from the production IBM i, and we
mapped the corresponding snapshot hdisks to the same IBM i LPAR, in each VIOS.
Obviously, in real situations, you should use two IBM i LPARs (production LPAR and
backup LPAR). The same two VIOS can be used to connect each production and backup
LPAR. In each VIOS, the snapshots of production volumes will be mapped to the backup
IBM i LPAR.
 Configuration for Remote Mirroring
For the purpose of our experimentation, we used one IBM i LPAR for both production and
Disaster Recovery. Before IPL ing the IBM i clone from the Remote Mirror secondary
volumes we un-mapped the virtual disks of production IBM i, and we mapped the hdisks of
mirrored secondary volumes to the same IBM i LPAR, in each VIOS.
Again, in real situations, you should use two IBM i LPARs (production LPAR and Disaster
recovery LPAR), each of them in a different POWER server or blade server, each of them
connected with two different VIOS.
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7.4 Snapshots with IBM i
Cloning of system from the snapshots can be employed in IBM i backup solutions. Saving of
application libraries, objects or an entire IBM i system to tape, is done from the clone of a
production system that resides in a separate logical partition in the POWER server: It is called
a backup partition (LPAR). This solution brings many benefits, the main ones are described
in the next section.
As is discussed in “Single-level storage” on page 188, IBM i data is kept in the main memory
until t swapped to disk as a result of page fault. Before cloning the system with snapshots it is
necessary to make sure that the data was flushed from memory to disk. Otherwise the
backup system that is then IPLed from snapshots wouldn’t be consistent (up-to-date) with the
production system; even more important, the backup system wouldn’t use consistent data
which can cause the failure of IPL.
Some IBM i customers prefer to power-down their systems before creating or overwriting the
snapshots, to make sure that the data is flushed to disk. Or, they force IBM i system to
restricted state before creating snapshots.
However, in many IBM i centers it is difficult or impossible to power-down the production
system every day before taking backups from the snapshots. Instead, one may use the IBM i
quiesce function provided in V6.1 and later. The function writes all pending changes to disk
and suspends database activity within an auxiliary storage pool (ASP). The database activity
remains suspended until a Resume is issued. This is known as quiescing the ASP.
When cloning the IBM i, you should use this function to quiesce the sysbas which means
quiescing all ASPs except independent ASPs. If there are Independent ASPs in your system
they should be varied-off before cloning. When using this function, it is better to setup the XIV
volumes in a consistency group.
Further in this section we describe both approaches: power-down IBM i, and with consistency
groups and quiescing the system ASP.
7.4.1 Solution benefits
Taking IBM i backups form the separate LPAR provides the following benefits to an IBM i
center:
 The production application downtime is only is as long as it takes to power down the
production partition, take a snapshot or overwrite the snapshot of the production volumes,
and IPL the production partition (IPL is normal). Usually, this time is much shorter than the
downtime experienced when saving to tape without a Save While Active function.
Note: Save While Active function allows to save IBM i objects to tape without the need to
stop updates on these objects.
Save to tape is usually a part of batch job the duration of which is critical for an IT center.
This makes it even more important to minimize the production downtime during the save.
 The performance impact on the production application during the save to tape operation is
minimal since it does not depend on IBM i resources in the production system.
 This solution can be implemented together with Backup, Recovery, and Media Services for
iSeries® (BRMS), an IBM i software for saving application data to tape.
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7.4.2 Disk capacity for the snapshots
If the storage pool is about to become full because of redirect-on-write operations, the XIV
Storage System automatically deletes a snapshot. IBM i deletion of a snapshot while the
backup partition is running, would cause crash of the backup system. To avoid such situation
consider allocating enough space to the storage pool to accommodate snapshots for the time
your backup LPAR is running.
Snapshot must have at least 34 GB allocated. Since the space neded depends on the size of
LUNs and the locality of write operations, we recommend to allocate initialy a very
conservative estimation about 80% of the source capacity to the snapshots. Then monitor
how snapshot space is growing during the backup. If snapshots don't use all the of
theallocated capacity, you can adjust the snapshot capacity to a lower value.
For an explanation on how to monitor the snapshot capacity, refer to the IBM Redbooks
publication, IBM XIV Storage System: Architecture, Implementation, and Usage,
SG24-7659-01.
7.4.3 Power-down IBM i method
To clone IBM i using XIV snapshots, perform the following steps:
1. Power-down IBM i production system
To power-down IBM i system use the PWRDWNSYS command. Specify to end the system
using a controlld end time delay.
In the scenario with Snapshots you don’t want IBM i to restart immediately after shutdown,
so you specify Restart option *NO.
The PWRDWNSYS command is shown in Figure 7-3
Power Down System (PWRDWNSYS)
Type choices, press Enter.
How to end . . . . . . . .
Controlled end delay time
Restart options:
Restart after power down
Restart type . . . . . .
IPL source . . . . . . . .
. . .
. . .
*CNTRLD
10
*CNTRLD, *IMMED
Seconds, *NOLIMIT
. . .
. . .
. . .
*NO
*IPLA
*PANEL
*NO, *YES
*IPLA, *SYS, *FULL
*PANEL, A, B, D, *IMGCLG
F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh
F13=How to use this display
F10=Additional parameters
F24=More keys
Bottom
F12=Cancel
Figure 7-3 Power-down IBM i
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After you confirm to Power-down the system, IBM i starts to shutdown; you can follow the
progress by observing SRC codes in the Hierarchical Management Console (HMC) of the
POWER server or, as in our example, of the System p server.
Once shut-down the system shows as Not Activated in the HMC, as can be seen in
Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-4 IBM i LPAR Not Activated
2. Create snapshots of IBM i volumes
You create the snapshot only the first time you execute this scenario. For subsequent
executions, you may just use overwrite the snapshot.
In the XIV GUI expand Volumes -> Volumes and Snapshots, as can be seen in Figure 7-5.
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Figure 7-5 XIV GUI Volumes and Snapshots
In the Volumes and Snapshots windown, right click on each IBM i volume and click Create
Snapshot, The snapshot volume is immediately created and it shows in the XIV GUI.
Notice that the snapshot volume has the same name as the original volume with suffix
“snapshot” appended to it. The GUI also shows the date and time the snapshot was
created. For details on how to create snapshots, refer 1.2.1, “Creating a snapshot” on
page 9.
In every day usage it is a good idea to overwrite the snapshots: you create the snapshot
only the first time, then you overwrite it every time you need to take a new backup.
Overwrite operation modifies the pointers to the snapshot data, therefore the snapshot
appears as new. Storage that was allocated for the data changes between the volume and
its snapshot is released.
For details on how to overwrite snapshots, refer 1.2.5, “Overwriting snapshots” on page 15
3. Unlock the snapshots
This action is needed only after you create snapshots. The created snapshots are locked,
which means that a host server can only read data from them, but their data an not be
modified. For IBM i backup purposes the data on snapshots must be available for reads
and writes so it is necessary to unlock the volumes before using them for cloning IBM i. To
unlock the snapshots use the Volumes and Snapshots windoe in XIV GUI, right-click on
each volume you want to unlock, and click on Unlock.
Note that ffter overwriting the snapshotsm you don’t need to unlock them again.
For details on how to create snapshots, refer 1.2.5, “Overwriting snapshots” on page 15
4. Connect the snapshots to the backup IBM i LPAR
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You map the snapshot volumes to VIO Systems and map the corresponding virtual disks
to IBM i adapters only the first time you use this aproach. For subsequent executions, the
existing mappings are used, and you just have to rediscover the devices in each VIOS with
the cfgdev command. In each VIOS map the disk devices to the Virtual SCSI Server
adapter to which the IBM i client adapter is assigned, by using command mkvdev:
mkvdev -vdev hdisk16 -vadapter vhost0
Once the relevant disk devices are mapped VSCSI adapters that connect to IBM i, they
become part of the hardware configuration IBM i LPAR.I
5. IPL the IBM i backup system from snapshots.
In the HMC of POWER server IPL IBM i backup partition, by selecting the LPAR and
choosing Operations -> Activate from the pop-up menu, as can be seen in Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6 IPL of IBM i backup LPAR
The backup LPAR now hosts the clone of the production IBM i. Before using it for the backups
make sure that it is not connected to the same IP addresses and network attributes as the
production system. For more information, refer to the IBM Redbooks publication, IBM i and
IBM System Storage: A Guide to Implementing External Disks on IBM i, SG24-7120-01.
7.4.4 Quiescing IBM i and using snapshot consistency group
To clone IBM i with using XIV Snapshots with consistency group and the IBM i quiesce
function, perform the following steps:
1. Create a consistency group and add IBM i volumes to it.
For details on how to create the consistency group, refer to 1.3, “Snapshots consistency
group” on page 20.
The consistency group Diastolic used in our example is shown in Figure 7-7.
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Figure 7-7 Volumes in consistency group
2. Quiesce the sysbas in IBM i and suspend transactions
To quiesce IBM i data to disk use the IBM i command CHGASPACT *SUSPEND. In this
command, we recommend to set the parameter Suspend Timeout to 30 seconds and
Suspend Timeout Action to *END, as can be seen in Figure 7-8.
When executing this command IBM i flushes as much as possible transaction data from
memory to disk, then it waits for the specified time-out to get all current transactions to
their next commit boundary and does not let them continue past that commit-boundary. If
the command succeeded after the time-out, the non-transaction operations are
suspended and data that is non-pinned in the memory is flushed to disk.
For detailed information about quescing data to disk with CHGASPACT refer to the Redbook
IBM i and IBM System Storage: A Guide to Implementing External Disks on IBM
i,SG24-7120-01, and the Redpaper DS8000 Copy Services for IBM i with VIOS,
REDP-4584-00 and the Redbook Implementing PowerHA for IBM i,SG24-7405-00.
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Change ASP Activity (CHGASPACT)
Type choices, press Enter.
ASP device . . . . . .
Option . . . . . . . .
Suspend timeout . . .
Suspend timeout action
F3=Exit F4=Prompt
F24=More keys
.
.
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. > *SYSBAS
. > *SUSPEND
.
30
.
*end
F5=Refresh
F12=Cancel
Name, *SYSBAS
*SUSPEND, *RESUME, *FRCWRT
Number
*CONT, *END
Bottom
F13=How to use this display
Figure 7-8 Quiesce data to disk
After the command CHGASPACT is successfully performed IBM issues the message
indicating that the access to sysbas is suspended, see Figure 7-9.
MAIN
IBM i Main Menu
System:
T00C6DE1
Select one of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
User tasks
Office tasks
General system tasks
Files, libraries, and folders
Programming
Communications
Define or change the system
Problem handling
Display a menu
Information Assistant options
IBM i Access tasks
90. Sign off
Selection or command
===>
F3=Exit F4=Prompt F9=Retrieve F12=Cancel
F23=Set initial menu
Access to ASP *SYSBAS is suspended.
Figure 7-9 Access to sysbas suspended
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3. Create snapshots of IBM i volumes in the consistency group
You create the snapshot only the first time this scenario is executed. AFor subsequent
executions, you may just use overwrite the snapsho.
In the Volumes and Snapshots windown, right click on each IBM i volume and click Create
Snapshot, The snapshot volume is immediately created and it shows in the XIV GUI.
Notice that the snapshot volume has the same name as the original volume with suffix
“snapshot” appended to it. The GUI also shows the date and time the snapshot was
created. For details on how to create snapshots, refer 1.2.1, “Creating a snapshot” on
page 9.
In every day usage it is a good idea to overwrite the snapshots: you create the snapshot
only the first time, then you overwrite it every time you need to take a new backup.
Overwrite operation modifies the pointers to the snapshot data, therefore the snapshot
appears as new. Storage that was allocated for the data changes between the volume and
its snapshot is released.
For details on how to overwrite snapshots, refer 1.2.5, “Overwriting snapshots” on page 15
4. Resume transactions in IBM i
After snapshots are created resume the transactions in IBM i with command CHGASPACT
with option *RESUME, which is shown in Figure 7-10.
Change ASP Activity (CHGASPACT)
Type choices, press Enter.
ASP device . . . . . . . . . . .
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*sysbas
*resume
F3=Exit F4=Prompt
F24=More keys
F12=Cancel
F5=Refresh
Name, *SYSBAS
*SUSPEND, *RESUME, *FRCWRT
Bottom
F13=How to use this display
Figure 7-10 Resume transactions in IBM i
Look for the IBM i message Access to ASP *SYSBAS successfully resumed, to be sure
that the command was successfully performed.
5. Unlock the snapshots in the consistency group
This action is needed only after you create snapshots. The created snapshots are locked,
which means that a host server can only read data from them, but their data an not be
modified. Before IPL-ing IBM i from the snapshots you have to unlock them to make them
accessible for writes as well. For this, use the Consistency Groups screen in XIV GUI,
right-click on the snapshot group and select Unlock form the pop-up menu.
Note that ffter overwriting the snapshotsm you don’t need to unlock them again.
For details on how to create snapshots, refer 1.2.5, “Overwriting snapshots” on page 15
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6. Connect the snapshots to Backup LPAR
You map the snapshot volumes to VIO Systems and map the corresponding virtual disks
to IBM i adapters only the first time you use his solution. All the next times the exiting
mappings are used, you just have to rediscover the devices in each VIOS by cfgdev
command.
Perform the following steps to connect the snapshots in the snapshot group to backup
partition:
a. In the Consistency Groups screen select the snapshots in the snapshot group, right
click to any of them and select Map selected volumes, as is shown in Figure 7-11.
Figure 7-11 Map the snapshot group
b. In the next GUI window select the host or cluster of hosts to map the snapshots to. In
our example we map them to the two VIO Systems that connect to IBM i LPAR.
Note: Here the term cluster refers just to the host names and their WWPNs in XIV, it
doesn’t mean that VIO Systems would be in an AIX cluster.
In each VIOS rediscover the mapped volumes and map the corresponding devices to
the VSCSI adapters in IBM i.
7. IPL IBM i backup system from snapshots
IPL backup LPAR as is described in step 5 on page 196.
Note: when you power-down production system before taking snapshots the IPL of backup
system shows previous system end as normal, while with quiescing data to disk before
taking snapshots the IPL of backup LPAR shows previous system end as abnormal, as
can be seen in Figure 7-12.
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Operating System IPL in Progress
10/01/10
IPL:
Type . . . . . . . .
Start date and time .
Previous system end .
Current step / total
Reference code detail
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.
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:
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12:57:24
Attended
10/01/10 12:56:17
Abnormal
35
49
C900 2AA3 20 AC 0400
IPL step
Commit recovery
Journal recovery - 2
> Database recovery - 2
Damage notification end - 2
Spool initialization - 2
Time Elapsed
00:00:05
00:00:00
00:00:00
Time Remaining
Figure 7-12 Abnormal IPL after quiesce data
7.4.5 Automation of the solution with snapshots
Many IBM i environments require their backup soluiton with shapshots to be fully automated,
so that they can runit with a sinlge command, or even schedule it for a certain time in day.
Automation for such scenario can be provided in an AIX or Linux system, using XCLI scripts
to manage snapshots, and Secure Shell (SSH) commands to IBM i LPAR and the HMC.
Note: IBM i must be setup for receiving SSH commands. For instructions how to set it up refer
to the Redpaper Securing Communications with OpenSSH on IBM i5/OS which can be
obtained from the following web page:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpapers/pdfs/redp4163.pdf
In our example, we use the AIX script that performs the following actions:
1. Send SSH command
CHGASPACT ASPDEV(*SYSBAS) OPTION(*SUSPEND) SSPTIMO(30)
to produciton IBM i to suspend transactions and quiesce Sysbas data to disk
2. Send XCLI command to overrite the snapshot group, or create a new one if there isn’t one.
We use XCLI commands
cg_snapshots_create cg=CG_NAME snap_group=SNAP_NAME and
cg_snapshots_create cg=CG_NAME overwrite=SNAP_NAME
3. Unlock the snapshot group by XCLI command
snap_group_unlock snap_group=SNAP_NAME
4. Send the command
CHGASPACT ASPDEV(*SYSBAS) OPTION(*RESUME)
to production IBM i to resume suspended transactions
5. Send the SSH command
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ioscli cfgdev
to each VIOS to re-discover the snapshot devices
6. Send the SSH command
chsysstate -m hmc_ibmi_hw -r lpar -o on -n hmc_ibmi_name -f hmc_ibmi_prof
to POWER® HMC to start the backup LPAR that is connected to snapshot volumes
The script for our example is shown in the Example 7-1.
Example 7-1
#!/bin/ksh
ssh_ibmi=qsecofr@1.2.3.5
XCLI=/usr/local/XIVGUI/xcli
XCLIUSER=itso
XCLIPASS=password
XIVIP=1.2.3.4
CG_NAME=ITSO_i_CG
SNAP_NAME=ITSO_jj_snap
ssh_hmc=hscroot@1.2.3.4
hmc_ibmi_name=IBMI_BACKUP
hmc_ibmi_prof=default_profile
hmc_ibmi_hw=power570
ssh_vios1=padmin@1.2.3.6
ssh_vios2=padmin@1.2.3.7
# Suspend IO activity
ssh ${ssh_ibmi} 'system "CHGASPACT ASPDEV(*SYSBAS) OPTION(*SUSPEND) SSPTIMO(30)"'
# Check, whether snapshot already exists and can be overwritten
# otherwise create a new one and unlock it (it's locked by default)
${XCLI} -u ${XCLIUSER} -p ${XCLIPASS} -m ${XIVIP} -s snap_group_list
snap_group=${SNAP_NAME} >/dev/null 2>&1
RET=$?
# is there a snapshot for this cg?
if [ $RET -ne 0 ]; then
# there is none, create one
${XCLI} -u ${XCLIUSER} -p ${XCLIPASS} -m ${XIVIP} cg_snapshots_create
cg=${CG_NAME} snap_group=${SNAP_NAME}
# and unlock it
${XCLI} -u ${XCLIUSER} -p ${XCLIPASS} -m ${XIVIP} snap_group_unlock
snap_group=${SNAP_NAME}
fi
# overwrite snapshot
${XCLI} -u ${XCLIUSER} -p ${XCLIPASS} -m ${XIVIP} cg_snapshots_create
cg=${CG_NAME} overwrite=${SNAP_NAME}
# resume IO activity
ssh ${ssh_ibmi} 'system "CHGASPACT ASPDEV(*SYSBAS) OPTION(*RESUME)"'
# rediscover devices
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ssh ${ssh_vios1} 'ioscli cfgdev'
ssh ${ssh_vios2} 'ioscli cfgdev'
# start the backup partition
ssh ${ssh_hmc} "chsysstate -m ${hmc_ibmi_hw} -r lpar -o on -n ${hmc_ibmi_name} -f
${hmc_ibmi_prof}"
Note: In the backup IBM i LPAT it is necessary to change the IP addresses and newtork
attributes so that they don’t collide with the ones in the production LPAR. For this you may use
the startup CL program that in backup IBM i; example of such program can be found in the
IBM Redbooks publication: IBM i and IBM System Storage: A Guide to Implementing External
Disks on IBM i, SG24-7120-01.
You may also want to automate the saving to tape in BRMS, by scheduling the save in BRMS.
After the save the library QUSRBRM must be transferred to the production system.
7.5 Synchronous Remote Mirroring with IBM i
Synchronous remote mirroring used with IBM i boot from SAN provides the functionality for
cloning a production IBM i system at a remote site. The remote clone is used to continue
production workload in case of planned outages, or disaster at the local site, and therefore
provides a Disaster Recovery (DR) solution for an IBM i center.
A stand-by IBM i LPAR is needed at the DR site. After the switchover of mirrored volumes
during planned or un-planned outages, perform an IPL of the stand-by partition from the
mirrored volumes at the DR site. This ensures continuation of the the production workload in
the clone.
Typically, synchronous mirroring is used for DR sites located at shorter distances, and for IBM
i centers that require a near zero Recovery Point Objective (RPO). On the other hand, clients
that use DR centers located at long distance and who can cope with a little longer RPO would
rather implement Asynchronous Remote Mirroring.
It is recommended to use consistency groups with synchronous mirroring for IBM i in order to
simplify management of the solution and to provide consistent data at the DR site after
re-snychronization following a link failure.
7.5.1 Solution benefits
Synchronous Remote Mirroring with IBM i offers the following major benefits:
 It can be implemented without any updates or changes to the production IBM i.
 The solution does not require any special maintenance on the production or stand-by
system partition. Practically, the only required task is to set up the synchronous mirroring
for all the volumes making up the partition entire disk space. Once done, no further actions
are required.
 Since synchronous mirroring is completely handled by the XIV system, this scenario does
not use any processor or memory resources from either the production or remote IBM i
partitiona. This is different from other IBM i replication solutions, which require some CPU
resources from the production and recovery partitions.
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7.5.2 Planning the bandwidth for Remote Mirroring links
In addition to the points specified in 3.6, “Planning” on page 89, it is very important to provide
enough bandwidth for the connection links between the primary and secondary XIV used for
for IBM i mirroring. Proceed as follows to determine the needed bandwidth (MB/sec):
1. Collect IBM i performance data. Do the collection over at least a one-week period, and if
applicable, during heavy workload such as when running end-of-month jobs.
For more information about IBM performance data collection refer to the IBM Redbooks
publication, IBM i and IBM System Storage: A Guide to Implementing External Disks on
IBM i, SG24-7120.
2. Multiply the writes/sec by the reported transfer size to get the write rate (MB/sec) for the
entire period over which performance data was collected.
3. Look for the highest reported write rate. Size the Remote mirroring connection so that the
bandwidth can accommodate the highest write rate.
7.5.3 Setup of synchronous Remote Mirroring for IBM i
The following steps are needed to setup the synchronous remote mirroring with consistency
group for IBM i volumes
1. Configure Remote Mirroring as described in “Using the GUI or XCLI for Remote Mirroring
actions” on page 91
2. Establish and activate synchronous mirroring for IBM i volumes as is described in 3.12,
“Configuring Remote Mirroring” on page 102.
3. Activate the mirroring pairs as is described in “Synchronous mirroring configuration” on
page 104.
Figure 7-13 shows the IBM i mirroring pairs used in our scenario during the initial
synchronization: Some of the mirroring pairs are already in synchronized status while
some of them are still in Initialization state with reported percentage synchronized volume.
Figure 7-13 Synchronizing of IBM i mirrored pairs
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4. Create mirror consistency group and activate mirroring for the CG on both primary and
secondary XIV systems.
Setting a consistency group to be mirrored is done by first creating a consistency group,
then setting it to be mirrored, and only then populating it with volumes. A consistency
group must be created at the primary XIV and a corresponding consistency group at the
secondary XIV. The names of the consistency groups can be different.
To activate the mirror for the CG, in the XIV GUI Consistency Groups for the primary XIV,
right-click on the created consistency group and select Create Mirror.
For details, refer to 4.1.2, “Consistency group setup and configuration” on page 108.
5. Add the mirrored volumes to the consistency group
Note: When adding the mirrored volumes to the consistency group all volumes and the
CG must have the same status. So the mirrored volumes should be synchronized
before you add them to the consistency group, and the CG should be activated, so that
all of them have status Synchronized
In primary XIV system select the IBM i mirrored volumes, right-click and select Add to
Consistency Group,.
Figure 7-14 shows the consistency group in synchronized status for our scenario.
Figure 7-14 CG in synchronized status
7.5.4 Scenario for planned outages
Many IBM i IT centers minimize the downtime during planned outages (such as for server
hardware maintenance or installing program fixes) by switching their production workload to
the DR site during the outage.
Note: The switching mirroring roles scenario is suitable for planned outages during which
the IBM i system is powered-down. For planned outages with IBM i running, consider
changing the mirroring roles scenario.
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With synchronous mirroring, perform the following steps to switch to the DR site for planned
outages:
1. Power-down the production IBM i system as is described in 1., “Power-down IBM i
production system” on page 193.
2. Switch the XIV volumes mirroring roles
To switch the roles of mirrored XIV volumes, use the GUI for the primary XIV, and in the
Mirroring window right-click on the consistency group that has the IBM i mirrored volumes,
then select Switch Roles, as is shown in Figure 7-15.
Figure 7-15 Switch the roles of mirrored volumes for IBM i
Confirm to switch the roles in your consistency group by clicking OK in the Switch Roles
pop-up dialog. Once the switch is performed, the roles of mirrored volumes are reversed:
the IBM i mirroring consistency group on the primary XIV is now Slave and the
consistency group on the secondary XIV is now Master. This is shown in Figure 7-16
where you can also , observet hat the status of CG at the primary site is now Consistent,
and at the secondary site, it is Synchronized.
Figure 7-16 Mirrored CG after switching the roles
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3. Make the mirrored secondary volumes available to the stand-by IBM i
Note: You may want to have the secondary volumes mapped to the adapters in VIO
Servers, and their corresponding hdisks mapped to virtual adapters in sthe tand-by IBM i
at all times. In such a case you need to do this setup only the first time you recover from
mirrored volumes; from then on. the devices will be mapped so you just have to
re-discover them.
We assume that the following steps are done at DR site:
– The physical connection of XIV to the adapters in VIO Servers
– The hosts and optionally clusters are defined in XIV
– The ports of adapters in VIO Servers are added to the hosts in XIV
To connect the mirrored volumes to DR IBM i system perform the following steps:
a. Map the secondary volumes to the WWPNs of adapters as is described in 6., “Connect
the snapshots to Backup LPAR” on page 200.
b. In each VIOS discover the mapped volumes by using the cfgdev command
c. In each VIOS, map the devices (hdisks) that correspond to the secondary volumes, to
the virtual adapters in the stand-by IBM i, as is described in 4., “Connect the snapshots
to the backup IBM i LPAR” on page 195.
4. IPL stand-by IBM i LPAR
Perform IPL of the disaster recovery IBM i LPAR as described in 5., “IPL the IBM i backup
system from snapshots.” on page 196. Since the production IBM i was powered-down the,
IPL of its clone at the DR site is normal (Previous system shutdown was normal).
If both production and DR IBM i are in the same IP network, it is necessary to change the
IP addresses and network attributes of the clone att the DR site. For more information
about this refer to the IBM Redbooks publication IBM i and IBM System Storage: A Guide
to Implementing External Disks on IBM i, SG24-7120-01
After the production site is available again, you can switch back to the regular production site,
by executing the following steps:
1. Power-down the DR IBM i system as is described in 1., “Power-down IBM i production
system” on page 193.
2. Switch the mirroring roles of XIV volumes as is described in 2., “Switch the XIV volumes
mirroring roles” on page 206.
Note: when switching back to the production site you must initiate the role switching on the
secondary (DR) XIV, since role switching must be done on the master peer.
3. In each VIOS at the primary site, rediscover the mirrored primary volumes by performing
the cfgdev command
4. Perform an IPL of the production IBM i LPAR as is described in 5., “IPL the IBM i backup
system from snapshots.” on page 196. Since the DR IBM i was powered-down, the IPL of
its clone in production site is now normal (Previous system shutdown was normal)
7.5.5 Scenario for unplanned outages
In case of failure at the production IBM i, caused by any unplanned outage od the primary XIV
system or disaster, recover your IBM i at the DR site from mirrored secondary volumes.
For our scenario, we simulated the failure of production IBM i by un-mapping the virtual disks
from IBM i virtual adapter in each VIOS, so that IBM i missed the disks and entered the DASD
attention status. The SRC code showing this status can be seen in Figure 7-17.
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Figure 7-17 IBM i DASD attention status at disaster
Follow these steps:
1. Change the peer roles at the secondary site
To change the roles of secondary mirrored volumes from slave to master perform the
following steps:
a. In the GUI of the secondary XIV, select Remote -> Mirroring
b. Right-click on the mirroring consistency group that contains the IBM i volumes and
select Change Role. Confirm to change the role of the slave peer to master.
Changing of the roles stops mirroring. Its status is shown as Inactive on the secondary
site, and the secondary peer becomes master. The primary peer keeps the master role
too, and the mirroring status on the primary site shows as synchronized. This can be seen
in Figure 7-18 which shows the secondary IBM i consistency group after changing the
roles, and in Figure 7-19 showing the primary peer.
Figure 7-18 Secondary peer after changing the role
Figure 7-19 Primary peer after changing the role
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2. Make the secondary volumes available to the stand-by IBM i
We assume that the physical connections from XIV to the POWER server at the DR site
are already established.
The following steps are required to make the secondary mirrored volumes available to
IBM i at the DR site:
a. In the secondary XIV, map the mirrored IBM i volumes to the adapters in VIOS, as is
described in 4., “Connect the snapshots to the backup IBM i LPAR” on page 195.
b. In each VIOS in POWER serverat the DR site, use the cfgdev command to re-discover
the secondary mirrored volumes.
c. In each VIOS, map the devices that correspond to XIV secondary volumes to virtual
host adapters for IBM i, as is described in 4., “Connect the snapshots to the backup
IBM i LPAR” on page 195.
You may want to keep the mappings of secondary volumes in XIV and in VIOS. In this
case the only needed step is to re-discover the volumes in VIOS with cfgdev.
3. IPL IBM i at the DR site
IPL the stand-by IBM i LPAR on DR site, as is described in 5., “IPL the IBM i backup
system from snapshots.” on page 196. IPL is abnormal (Previous system termination was
abnormal) as can be seen in Figure 7-20. After recovery there might be damaged objects
in the IBM i, since the production system suffered a disaster. They are reported by
operator messages and can be usually fixed by appropriate procedures in IBM i. The
message about Damaged object in our example, is shown in Figure 7-21.
Licensed Internal Code IPL in Progress
10/11/10
IPL:
Type . . . . . . . .
Start date and time .
Previous system end .
Current step / total
Reference code detail
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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:
:
:
:
:
IPL step
Journal Recovery
IFS Initialization
>Data Base Recovery
Journal Synchronization
Commit Recovery
12:09:53
Attended
10/11/10 12:09:43
Abnormal
10
16
C6004057
Time Elapsed
00:00:01
00:00:01
Time Remaining
00:00:00
00:00:00
Item:
Current / Total . . . . . . :
Sub Item:
Identifier . . . . . . . . :
Current / Total . . . . . . :
Figure 7-20 IPL of stand-by LPAR after disaster
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Display Messages
Queue . . . . . :
Library . . . :
Severity . . . :
QSYSOPR
QSYS
60
System:
Program . . . . :
Library . . . :
Delivery . . . :
T00C6DE1
*DSPMSG
*BREAK
Type reply (if required), press Enter.
Subsystem QBASE active when system ended.
Subsystem QSYSWRK active when system ended.
Subsystem QSERVER active when system ended.
Subsystem QUSRWRK active when system ended.
Subsystem QSPL active when system ended.
Subsystem QHTTPSVR active when system ended.
455.61M of 490.66M for shared pool *INTERACT allocated.
Damaged object found.
Bottom
F3=Exit
F13=Remove all
F11=Remove a message
F16=Remove all except unanswered
F12=Cancel
F24=More keys
Figure 7-21 Damaged object in IBM i after disaster recovery
If both production and DR IBM i are in the same IP network it is necessary to change the
IP addresses and network attributes of the clone at the DR site. For more information
about this refer to the IBM Redbooks publication, IBM i and IBM System Storage: A Guide
to Implementing External Disks on IBM i, SG24-7120-01.
Once the production site is back, failover to the normal production system as follows:
1. Change the role of primary peer to slave
On primary XIV, select Remote -> Mirroring in the GUI, right-click on the consistency
group of IBM i volumes, and select Deactivate from the pop-up menu, then right-click
again and select Change Role. Confirm to change the peer role from master to slave.
Now the mirroring is still inactive, and the primary peer became slave, so the scenario is
prepared for mirroring from DR site to production site. The primary peer status is shown in
Figure 7-22.
Figure 7-22 Primary peer after changing the roles
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2. Activate the mirroring
In the GUI of the secondary XIV, select Remote -> Mirroring, right-click on the consistency
group for IBM i volumes, and select Activate. Now the mirroring started in the direction
from secondary to primary peer. At this point only the changes made on the DR IBM i
system during the outage need to be synchronized, and the mirror synchronization
typically takes very little time.
Once the mirroring is synchronized:
3. Power-down the DR IBM i
Power-down the IBM i on DR site, as is described in 1., “Power-down the production IBM i
system as is described in 1., “Power-down IBM i production system” on page 193.” on
page 206.
4. Switch peer roles
On teh secondary XIV, switch the mirroring roles of volumes as is described in 2., “Switch
the mirroring roles of XIV volumes as is described in 2., “Switch the XIV volumes mirroring
roles” on page 206.” on page 207.
5. Re-discover primary volumes in VIOS
In each VIOS on primary site rediscover the mirrored primary volumes by issuing a cfgdev
command.
6. IPL production IBM i
Perform IPL of production IBM i LPAR as is described in 5., “IPL the IBM i backup system
from snapshots.” on page 196
7.6 Asynchronous Remote Mirroring with IBM i
In this section we describe Asynchronous Remote Mirroring of the local IBM i partition disk
space. This solution provides continuous availability with a recovery site located at a long
distance while minimizing performance impact on production.
In this solution, the entire disk space of production IBM i LPAR resides on the XIV, to allow
boot from SAN. Asynchronous Remote Mirroring for all XIV volumes belonging to the
production partition is established with another XIV located at the remote site.
In case of an outage at the production site a remote stand-by IBM i LPAR takes over the
production workload with the capability to IPL from Asynchronous Remote Mirroring
secondary volumes.
Thanks to the XIV Asynchronous Remote Mirroring design, the impact on production
performance is minimal; on the other hand the recovered data at the remote site is typically
lagging production data, due to the asynchronous natutre, although usually just slighltly
behind. For more information about the XIV Asynchronous Remote Mirroring design and
implementation, refer to “Remote Mirroring” on page 49.
7.6.1 Benefits of asynchronous Remote Mirroring
Solutions with asynchronous mirroring provide significant benefits to and IBM i center, some
of them are as follows:
 The solution provides replication of production data over long distances while minimizing
production performance impact.
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 The solution does not require any special maintenance on the production or standby
partition. Practically, the only required task is to set up Asynchronous mirroring for the
entire IBM i disk space.
 Since Asynchronous mirroring is entirely driven by the XIV storage systems, this solution
does not use any processor or memory resources from the IBM i production and remote
partition. This is different from other IBM i replication solutions, which use some of the
production and recovery partitions resources
7.6.2 Setup of asynchronous Remote Mirroring for IBM i
The following steps are needed to setup asynchronous remote mirroring with consistency
group for IBM i volumes
1. Configure Remote Mirroring as is described in “Using the GUI or XCLI for Remote
Mirroring actions” on page 91
2. Establish and activate asynchronous mirroring for IBM i volumes.
To establish the asynchronous mirroring on IBM i volumes use the GUI on primary XIV,
select Volumes -> Volumes and Snapshots. Right-click on each volumes to mirror and
select Create Mirror from the pop-up menu. In the Create Mirror window, specify Synch
Type Asynch, specify the target XIV system and the slave volume to mirror to, desired
RPO and schedule management XIV Internal.
For more information about establishing Asynchronous mirroring refer to “Asynchronous
mirroring configuration” on page 128.
To activate asynchronous mirroring on IBM i volumes use the GUI on primary XIV, select
Remote -> Mirroring, highlight the volumes to mirror and select Activate from the pop-up
window. After activating, the initial synchronization of mirroring is performed.
Figure 7-23 shows the IBM i volumes during initial synchronization, some of them already
in the status RPO OK, one in RPO lagging status, and some not yet synchronized.
Figure 7-23 Initial synchronization of Asynchronous mirroring for IBM i volumes
3. Create a consistency group for mirroring on both primary and secondary XIV system, and
activate mirroring on the CG, as is described in 4., “Create mirror consistency group and
activate mirroring for the CG on both primary and secondary XIV systems.” on page 205.
Note that when activating the asynchronous mirroring for the CG, you must select the
same options as selected when activating the mirroring for the volumes.
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Before adding the volumes to the consistency group, the mirroring on all CG and the
volumes must be in the same status. Figure 7-24 shows the mirrored volumes and the CG,
before adding the volumes to CG in our example. The status of all of them is RPO OK.
Figure 7-24 Status before adding volumes to CG
4. Add the mirrored IBM i volumes to the consistency group as is described in 5., “Add the
mirrored volumes to the consistency group” on page 205.
7.6.3 Scenario for planned outages and disasters
For our scenario, we simulated the failure of production IBM i by un-mapping the virtual disks
from IBM i virtual adapter in each VIOS, so that IBM i missed the disks and entered the DASD
attention status.
When you need to switch to the DR site for planned outages or as a result of a disaster,
perform the following steps:
1. Change the role of secondary peer from slave to master
Select Remote -> Mirroring in the GUI for the secondary XIV. Right click on the mirrored
consistency group and select Change Role. Confirm to change the role of the slave peer
to master.
2. Make the mirrored secondary volumes available to the stand-by IBM i
We assume that the physical connections from XIV to POWER server on DR site are
already established at this point. Re-discover the XIV volumes in each VIOS with
command cfgdev, then map them to the virtual adapter of IBM i, as is described in 3.,
“Make the mirrored secondary volumes available to the stand-by IBM i” on page 207.
3. IPL IBM i and continue production workload at the DR site as is described in 3., “IPL IBM i
at the DR site” on page 209
After the primary site is available again:
1. Change the role of primary peer from master to slave
On primary XIV, select Remote -> Mirroring in the GUI, right-click on the consistency
group of IBM i volumes, and select Deactivate from the pop-up menu, then right-click
again and select Change Role. Confirm to change the peer role from master to slave.
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2. Re-activate the asynchronous mirroring from secondary peer to primary peer
In the GUI of the secondary XIV go to Remote -> Mirroring, right-click on the consistency
group for IBM i volumes, and select Activate. Now the mirroring started in the direction
from secondary to primary peer. At this point only the changes made on DR IBM i system
during the outage need to be synchronized, so the synchronization of mirroring typically
takes very little time.
In case the primary mirrored volumes don’t exist anymore after the primary site is
available again, you have to delete the mirroring in XIV on DR site. Then, establish the
mirroring anew with the primary peer on DR site, and activate it.
3. Power-down DR IBM i
Once the mirroring is synchronized and before switching back to production site
power-down DR IBM i LPAR so that all data are flushed to disk on DR site. Power-down
DR IBM i as is described in 1., “Power-down IBM i production system” on page 193
4. Change the role of the primary peer from slave to master
5. Change the role of the secondary peer from master to slave
6. Activate mirroring
7. IPL production IBM i and continue production workload
IPL production IBM i LPAR as is described in 7., “IPL IBM i backup system from
snapshots” on page 200. Once the system is up and running the production workload can
resume on primary site
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8
Chapter 8.
Data migration
This chapter introduces the XIV Storage System embedded data migration function, which is
used to migrate data from a non-XIV storage system to the XIV Storage System. The XIV
data migration function is included in the base XIV software and is very easy to deploy. This
chapter includes usage examples and troubleshooting information.
At a very high level, the steps to migrate to XIV using the XIV Data Migration function are:
1. Establish connectivity between source device and XIV. The source storage device must
have Fibre Channel or iSCSI connectivity with the XIV.
2. Collect configuration. Detail the configuration of the LUNs to be migrated.
3. Perform data migration:
– Stop/unconfigure all I/O from source-original LUNs.
– Start data migration in XIV.
– Map new LUNs to host and discover new LUNs through XIV.
– Start all I/O on new XIV LUNs.
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8.1 Overview
Whatever the reason for your data migration, it is always desirable to avoid or minimize
disruption to your business applications. Whereas there are many options available for
migrating data from one storage system to another, the XIV Storage System includes a data
migration feature that enables the easy movement of data from an existing storage system to
the XIV Storage System. This feature enables the production environment to continue
functioning during the data transfer with only one brief period of downtime for your business
applications. Figure 8-1 illustrates a high-level view of what the data migration environment
could look like.
Figure 8-1 Data migration simple view
The IBM XIV Data Migration solution offers a smooth data transfer, because it:
 Requires only a single short outage to switch LUN ownership. This enables the immediate
connection of a host server to the XIV Storage System, providing the user with direct
access to all the data before it has been copied to the XIV Storage System.
 Synchronizes data between the two storage systems using transparent copying to the XIV
Storage System as a background process with minimal performance impact.
 Supports data migration from practically all storage vendors.
 Can be using Fibre Channel or iSCSI.
 Can be used to migrate SAN boot volumes.
The XIV Storage System manages the data migration by simulating host behavior. When
connected to the storage device containing the source data, XIV looks and behaves like a
SCSI initiator, which in common terms means that it acts like a host server. After the
connection is established, the storage device containing the source data believes that it is
receiving read or write requests from a host, when in fact it is the XIV Storage System doing a
block-by-block copy of the data, which the XIV is then writing onto an XIV volume.
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During the background copy process, the host server is connected to the XIV Storage
System. The XIV Storage System handles all read and write requests from the host server,
even if the data is not resident on the XIV Storage System. In other words, during the data
migration, the data transfer is transparent to the host and the data is available for immediate
access.
It is important that the connections between the two storage systems remain intact during the
entire migration process. If at any time during the migration process the communication
between the storage systems fails, the process also fails. In addition, if communication fails
after the migration reaches synchronised status, writes from the host will fail if the source
updating option was chosen. The situation is further explained in the 8.2, “Handling I/O
requests” on page 217. The process of migrating data is performed at a volume level, as a
background process.
The data migration facility in XIV firmware revisions 10.1 and later supports the following:
 Up to four migration targets can be configured on an XIV (where a target is either one
controller in an active/passive storage device or one active/active storage device). XIV
firmware revision 10.2.2 increased the number of targets to 8. The target definitions are
used for both Remote Mirroring (RM) and data migration (DM). Both DM and RM functions
can be active at the same time. An active/passive storage device with two controllers can
use two target definitions unless only one of the controllers is used for the migration.
 The XIV can communicate with host LUN IDs ranging from 0 to 512 (in decimal). This
does not necessarily mean that the non-XIV disk system can provide LUN IDs in that
range. You may be restricted by the ability of the non-XIV storage controller to use only 16
or 256 LUN IDs depending on hardware vendor and device.
 Up to 4000 LUNs can be concurrently migrated.
Important: During the discussion in this chapter, the source system in a data migration
scenario is referred to as a target when setting up paths between the XIV Storage System
and the donor storage (the non-XIV storage). This terminology is also used in Remote
Mirroring, and both functions share the same terminology for setting up paths for
transferring data.
8.2 Handling I/O requests
The XIV Storage System handles all I/O requests for the host server during the data migration
process. All read requests are handled based on where the data currently resides. For
example, if the data has already been migrated to the XIV Storage System, it is read from that
location. However, if the data has not yet been migrated to the IBM XIV storage, the read
request comes from the host to the XIV Storage System, which in turn retrieves the data from
the source storage device and provides it to the host server.
The XIV Storage System handles all host server write requests and the non-XIV disk system
is now transparent to the host. All write requests are handled using one of two user-selectable
methods, chosen when defining the data migration. The two methods are known as source
updating and no source updating.
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An example of selecting which method to use is shown in Figure 8-2. The check box must be
selected to enable source updating, shown here as Keep Source Updated. Without this box
checked, changed data from write operations is only written to the XIV.
Figure 8-2 Keep Source Updated check box
Source updating
This method for handling write requests ensures that both storage systems (XIV and non-XIV
storage) are updated when a write I/O is issued to the LUN being migrated. By doing this the
source system remains updated during the migration process, and the two storage systems
remain in sync after the background copy process completes. Similar to synchronous Remote
Mirroring, the write commands are only acknowledged by the XIV Storage System to the host
after writing the new data to the local XIV volume, then writing to the source storage device,
and then receiving an acknowledgement from the non-XIV storage device.
An important aspect of selecting this option is that if there is a communication failure between
the target and the source storage systems or any other error that causes a write to fail to the
source system, the XIV Storage System also fails the write operation to the host. By failing
the update, the systems are guaranteed to remain consistent. Change management
requirements determine whether you choose to use this option.
No source updating
This method for handling write requests ensures that only the XIV volume is updated when a
write I/O is issued to the LUN being migrated. This method for handling write requests
decreases the latency of write I/O operations because write requests are only written to the
XIV volume and are not written to the non-XIV storage system. It must be clearly understood
that this limits your ability to back out a migration, unless you have another way of recovering
updates that were written to the volume being migrated after migration began. If the host is
being shutdown for the duration of the migration then this risk is mitigated.
Note: It is not recommended to ‘Keep source updated’ if migrating a boot LUN. This is so
you can quickly back out of a migration of the boot device if a failure occurs.
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Multi-pathing with data migrations
There are essentially two types of enterprise storage systems when it comes to multi-pathing:
 Active/active: These are storage systems where volumes can be active on all of the
storage system controllers at the same time (whether there are two controllers or more).
These systems support IO activity to any given volume down two or more paths. These
types of systems typically support load balancing capabilities between the paths with path
failover and recovery in the event of a path failure. The XIV is such a device and can utilize
this technology during data migrations. Examples of IBM products that are active/active
storage servers are the DS6000, DS8000, ESS F20, ESS 800, and SVC. Note that the
DS6000 and SVC are examples of storage servers that have preferred controllers on a
LUN-by-LUN basis, but that if attached hosts ignore this preference, a potential
consequence is the risk of a small performance penalty.
If your non-XIV disk system supports active/active then you can carefully configure
multiple paths from XIV to non-XIV disk. The XIV load balances the migration traffic across
those paths and it automatically handles path failures.
 Active/passive: These are storage platforms where any given volume can be active on
only one controller at a time. These storage devices do not support I/O activity to any
given volume down multiple paths at the same time. Most support active volumes on one
or more controllers at the same time, but any given volume can only be active on one
controller at a time. An example of an IBM product that is an active/passive storage device
is the DS4700.
Migrating from an active/active storage device
If your non-XIV disk system supports active/active LUN access then you can configure
multiple paths from XIV to the non-XIV disk system. The XIV load balances the migration
traffic across these paths. This may lead to the temptation to configure more than two
connections or to increase the initialization speed to a very large value to speed up the
migration. However, the XIV only synchronizes one volume at a time per target (with four
targets, this means that four volumes could be being migrated at once). This means that the
speed of the migration from each target is determined by the ability of the non-XIV storage
device to read from the LUN currently being migrated. Unless the non-XIV storage device has
striped the volume across multiple RAID arrays, the migration speed is unlikely to exceed
250–300 MBps (and could be much less), but this is totally dependant on the non-XIV storage
device.
Important: If multiple paths are created between an XIV and an active/active storage
device, the same SCSI LUN IDs must be used for each LUN on each path, or data
corruption may occur. It is also recommended that a maximum of two paths per target is
configured. Defining more paths will not increase througput. With some storage arrays
defining more paths adds complexity and increase the chances to configuration issues and
corruption.
Migrating from an active/passive storage device
Because of the active/active nature of XIV, special considerations must be made when
migrating data from an active/passive storage device to XIV. A single path is configured
between any given non-XIV storage device controller and the XIV system. Many users decide
to perform migrations with the host applications offline, due to the single path.
 Define the target to the XIV per non-XIV storage controller (controller, not port). Define at
least one path from that controller to the XIV. All volumes active on the controller can be
migrated using the defined target for that controller. For example, suppose the non-XIV
storage device contains two controllers (A and B):
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– Define one target (called, for example, ctrl-A) with at least one path between the XIV
and one controller on the non-XIV storage device (for example, controller A). All
volumes active on this controller can be migrated by using this target. When defining
the XIV initiator to the controller, be sure to define it as not supporting fail-over if the
option is available on the non-XIV storage array. By doing so, volumes that are passive
on the A controller are not presented to the XIV. Check your non-XIV storage device
documentation for how to do this.
– Define another target (called, for example, ctrl-B) with at least one path between the
XIV and controller B. All volumes active on controller B can be migrated to the XIV by
using this target. When defining the XIV initiator to the controller, be sure to define it as
not supporting failover if this an option. By doing so, volumes that are passive on
controller B are not presented to the XIV. Check your non-XIV storage device
documentation for how to do this.
Figure 8-3 Active/Passive as multiple targets
Note: If your controller have two target ports (DS4700 for example) both can be defined as
links for that controller target. Make sure that the two target links are connected to separate
XIV modules.It will then make you redundant in case of a module failure.
Note: Certain examples shown in this chapter are from a DS4000® active/passive
migration with each DS4000 controller defined independently as a target to the XIV
Storage System. If you define a DS4000 controller as a target do not define the alternate
controller as a second port on the first target. Doing so causes unexpected issues such as
migration failure, preferred path errors on the DS4000, or very slow migration progress.
8.3 Data migration steps
The high-level steps required when migrating a volume from a non-XIV system to the IBM XIV
Storage System are:
1. Initial connection setup:
– Zone or cable the XIV to the non-XIV storage device.
– Define XIV to a non-XIV storage device (as a host).
– Define non-XIV storage device to XIV (as a migration device).
2. Create a data migration volume on XIV.
– Perform pre-migration tasks for the host being migrated:
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Perform point-in-time copy of original non-XIV volume if available.
•
Unzone host from non-XIV storage.
– Define and test the data migration volume.
•
On non-XIV storage, map volumes away from host and map them instead to XIV.
•
On XIV, create data migration and test it.
3. Activate data migration on XIV.
– On XIV, activate data migration.
4. Define the host on XIV and bring host online.
– Zone host to XIV.
– On XIV, map volumes to host.
– Bring the host online
•
Update host hba drivers and firmwares.
•
Install Host Attachment Kit and detect volumes.
5. Complete the data migration on XIV.
– On XIV, monitor the migration.
– On XIV, delete the migration.
Each step is further explained in the sections that follow.
8.3.1 Initial connection setup
For the initial connection setup, start by zoning or cabling XIV to the system being migrated.
Zone or cable the XIV to the non-XIV storage device
Because the non-XIV storage device views the XIV as a host, the XIV must connect to the
non-XIV storage system as a SCSI initiator. Therefore, the physical connection from the XIV
must be from initiator ports on the XIV (which by default for Fibre Channel is port 4 on each
active interface module). The initiator ports on the XIV must be fabric attached (in which case
they will need to be zoned to the non-XIV storage system). Two physical connections from two
separate modules on two separate fabrics are recommended for redundancy (although
redundant pathing will not be possible on active/passive controllers).
It is also possible that the host may be attached via one medium (such as iSCSI), whereas
the migration occurs via the other (such as Fibre Channel). The host-to-XIV connection
method and the data migration connection method are independent of each other.
Depending on the non-XIV storage device vendor and device, it may be easier to zone the
XIV to the ports where the volumes being migrated are already present. In this manner no
reconfiguration of the non-XIV storage device may be required. For example, in EMC
Symmetrix/DMX environments, it is easier to zone the fiber adapters (FAs) to the XIV where
the volumes are already mapped.
At the completion of this step you will have:
1. Run cables from port 4 on each selected XIV interface module to a fabric switch
2. Zoned the XIV initiator ports (whose WWPNs end in 3) to the selected non-XIV storage
device host ports using single initiator zoning (each zone contains one initiator port and
one target port).
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Figure 8-4 depicts a fabric-attached configuration. It shows that module 4 port 4 is zoned to a
port on the non-XIV storage via fabric A. Module 7 port 4 is zoned to a port on the non-XIV
storage via fabric B.
Figure 8-4 Fabric attached
Define XIV to the non-XIV storage device (as a host)
Once the physical connection between the XIV and non-XIV storage device is complete, the
XIV initiator (WWPN) must be defined on the non-XIV storage device. The process to achieve
this is vendor and device dependent because you must use the non-XIV storage device
management interface. Therefore, refer to the non-XIV storage vendor’s documentation on
how to configure hosts to the non XIV storage device, since the XIV is seen as a host to the
non-XIV storage.
If you have already zoned the XIV to the non-XIV storage device, then the WWPNs of the XIV
initiator ports (that end in the number 3) will appear in the WWPN drop-down list. This is
depending on the non-XIV storage device and storage management software. If they are not
there then you must manually add them (this might imply that you need to map a LUN0, or
that the SAN zoning has not been done correctly).
The XIV must be defined as a Linux or Windows host to the non-XIV storage device. If the
non-XIV device offers several variants of Linux, you can choose SuSE Linux or RedHat Linux
or Linux x86. This defines the correct SCSI protocol flags for communication between the XIV
and non-XIV storage device. The principal criterion is that the host type must start LUN
numbering with LUN ID 0. If the non-XIV storage device is active/passive, check to see
whether the host type selected affects LUN failover between controllers, such as DS4000
(see 8.12.5, “IBM DS3000/DS4000/DS5000” on page 258, for more details).
There may also be other vendor-dependant settings. Section 8.12, “Device-specific
considerations” on page 254, contains additional information.
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Define non-XIV storage device to XIV (as a migration target)
Once the physical connectivity is made and the XIV has been defined to the non-XIV storage
storage device, the non-XIV storage device must be defined on the XIV. This includes defining
the storage device object, defining the WWPN ports on the non-XIV storage device, and
defining the connectivity between the XIV and the non-XIV storage device.
1. In the XIV GUI go to the Remote  Migration Connectivity panel.
2. Click Create Target, which brings up the menu shown in Figure 8-6. The choices that
must be configured are:
– Target Name: Type in a name of your own choice.
– Target Protocol: Choose FC from the pull-down menu.
Click Define.
Figure 8-5 Create target for the non-XIV device
Note: If Create Target is greyed out and can not be clicked you have reached maximum
amount of targets, targets are both migration targtes and mirror targets.
Figure 8-6 Defining the non-XIV storage device
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Tip: The data migration target is represented by an image of a generic rack. If you must
delete or rename the migration device do so by right-clicking the image of that rack.
3. Click on the gray line to get to the Migration connectivity From DS4700-ctrl-B view
(Figure 8-7).
Figure 8-7 Click on the grey line
4. On the dark box that is part of the defined target, right-click and choose Add Port
(Figure 8-8).
Figure 8-8 Defining the target port
a. Enter the WWPN of the first (fabric A) port on the non-XIV storage device zoned to the
XIV. There is no drop-down menu of WWPNs, so you must manually type or paste in
the correct WWPN. Be careful not to make a mistake. It is not necessary to use full
colons to separate every second number. It makes no difference if you enter a WWPN
as 10:00:00:c9:12:34:56:78 or 100000c912345678.
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b. Click Add.
5. Enter another port (repeating step 3) for those storage devices that support active/active
multi-pathing. This could be the WWPN that is zoned to the XIV on a separate fabric.
6. Connect the XIV and non-XIV storage ports that are zoned to one another. This is done by
clicking and dragging from port 4 on the XIV to the port (WWPN) on the non-XIV storage
device to where the XIV is zoned. In Figure 8-9 the mouse started at module 9 port 4 and
has nearly reached the target port. The connection is currently colored blue and turns red
when the mouse connects to port 1 on the target.
Figure 8-9 Dragging a connection between XIV and migration target
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In Figure 8-10 the connection from module 9 port 4 to port 1 on the non-XIV storage device is
currently active, as noted by the green color of the connecting line. This means that the
non-XIV storage system and XIV are connected and communicating (indicating that SAN
zoning was done correctly. The correct XIV initiator port was selected. The correct target
WWPN was entered and selected, and LUN 0 was detected on the target device). If there is
an issue with the path, the connection line is red.
Figure 8-10 Non-XIV storage device defined
Tip: Depending on the storage controller, ensuring that LUN0 is visible on the non-XIV
storage device down the controller path that you are defining helps ensure proper
connectivity between the non-XIV storage device and the XIV. Connections from XIV to
DS4000 or EMC DMX or Hitachi HDS devices require a real disk device to be mapped as
LUN0. However, the IBM ESS 800, for instance, does not need a LUN to be allocated to
the XIV for the connection to become active (turn green in the GUI). The same is true for
EMC CLARiiON.
8.3.2 Creating a data migration volume on XIV
Perform the steps explained below.
Perform pre-migration tasks for the host being migrated
To perform pre-migration tasks:
1. Back up the volumes being migrated.
A full restorable backup must be created prior to any data migration activity. It is a best
practice to verify the backup and to verify that all the data is restorable and that there are
no backup media errors.
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2. Shut down the application/host.
Before the actual migration can begin the application must be quiesced. This ensures that
the application data is in a consistent state. Because the host may need to be rebooted a
number of times prior to the application data being available again, also consider the
following steps:
– Set applications to not automatically start when the host operating system restarts.
– Stop file systems from being automatically remounted on boot. For UNIX-based
operating systems consider commenting out all affected file system mount points in the
fstab or vfstab.
Note: In clustered environments you could work with only one node until the migration
is complete, so consider shutting down all other nodes in the cluster.
3. Perform a point-in-time copy of the volume on the non-XIV storage device (if that function
is available on the non-XIV storage). This point-in-time copy is a gold copy of the data that
is quiesced prior to starting the data migration process. Do this before changing any host
drivers or installing new host software, particularly if you are going to migrate boot from
SAN volumes.
4. Unzone host from non-XIV storage.The host must no longer access the non-XIV storage
system once the data migration is activated. The host must perform all I/O through the XIV.
Define and test data migration volume
To do this:
1. Allocate the non-XIV volume to XIV.
The volumes being migrated to the XIV must be allocated via LUN mapping to the XIV.
The LUN ID presented to the XIV must be a decimal value from 0 to 512. If it uses
hexadecimal LUN numbers then the LUN IDs can range from 0x0 to 0x200, but must be
converted to decimal when entered into the XIV GUI. The XIV does not recognize a host
LUN ID above 512 (decimal). Figure 8-11 shows LUN mapping using a DS4700. It depicts
the XIV as a host called XIV_Migration_Host with four DS4700 logical drives mapped to
the XIV as LUN IDs 0 to 3.
Figure 8-11 Non-XIV LUNs defined to XIV
When mapping volumes to the XIV it is very important to note the LUN IDs allocated by
the non-XIV storage. The methodology to do this varies by vendor and device and is
documented in greater detail in 8.12, “Device-specific considerations” on page 254.
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Important: You must unmap the volumes away from the host during this step, even if
you plan to power the host off during the migration. The non-XIV storage only presents
the migration LUNs to the XIV. Do not allow a possibility for the host to detect the LUNs
from both the XIV and the non-XIV storage.
2. Define data migration object/volume.
Once the volume being migrated to the XIV is allocated to the XIV, a new data migration
(DM) volume can be defined. The source volume from the non-XIV storage system and
XIV volume must be exactly the same size, therefore most of the cases its easiest to let
XIV create the target LUN for you, discussed in the following section.
Important: You cannot use the XIV data migration function to migrate data to a source
volume in an XIV remote mirror pair. If you need to do this, migrate the data first and
then create the remote mirror after the migration is completed.
If you want to manually create the volumes on the XIV, consult 8.5, “Manually creating the
migration volume” on page 238. Preferably, instead continue with the next step.
XIV volume automatically created
The XIV has the ability to determine the size of the non-XIV volume and create the XIV
volume quickly when the data migration object is defined. This method is easy, which helps
avoid potential issues when manually calculating the real block size of a volume.
1. In the XIV GUI go to the floating menu Remote  Migration.
2. Right-click and choose Define Data Migration. This brings up a panel like that shown in
Figure 8-12.
– Destination Pool: Choose the pool from the drop-down menu where the volume will be
created.
– Destination Name: Enter a user-defined name. This will be the name of the local XIV
volume.
– Source Target System: Choose the already defined non-XIV storage device from the
drop-down menu.
Important: If the non-XIV device is active/passive, then the source target system
must represent the controller (or service processor) on the non-XIV device that
currently owns the source LUN being migrated. This means that you must check,
from the non-XIV storage, which controller is presenting the LUN to the XIV.
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Figure 8-12 Define Data Migration object/volume
– Source LUN: Enter the decimal value of the host LUN ID as presented to the XIV from
the non-XIV storage system. Certain storage devices present the LUN ID as hex. The
number in this field must be the decimal equivalent. Ensure that you do not accidentally
use internal identifiers that you may also see on the source storage systems
management panels. In Figure 8-11 on page 227, the correct values to use are in the
LUN column (numbered 0 to 3).
– Keep Source Updated: Check this if the non-XIV storage system source volume is to
be updated with writes from the host. In this manner all writes from the host will be
written to the XIV volume, as well as the non-XIV source volume, until the data
migration object is deleted.
Note: It i not recommended to ‘Keep Source Updated’ if migrating the boot LUN. This is so
you can quickly back out of a migration of the boot device if a failure occurs.
Click Define and the migration appears as shown in Figure 8-13.
Figure 8-13 Defined data migration object/volume
Note: Define Data Migration will query the configuration of the non-XIV storage system
and create an equal sized volume on XIV, to check if you can read from the non-XIV source
volume you need to Test Data Migration. On some active/passive non-XIV storage systems
the configuration can be read over the passive controller, but Test Data Migration will fail.
3. Test the data migration object. Right-click to select the created data migration object and
choose Test Data Migration. If there are any issues with the data migration object the test
fails, reporting the issue found. See Figure 8-14.
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Figure 8-14 Test Data Migration
Tip: If you are migrating volumes from an Microsoft® Cluster Server (MSCS) that is still
active, then testing a migration may fail due to the reservations placed on the source LUN
by MSCS. You must bring the cluster down properly to get the test to succeed. If the cluster
is not brought down properly, errors will occur either during the test or when activated. The
scsi reservation must then be cleared in order for the migration to succeed.
8.3.3 Activate a data migration on XIV
Once the data migration volume has been tested the process of the actual data migration can
begin. When data migration is initiated, the data is copied sequentially in the background from
the non-XIV storage system volume to the XIV. The host reads and writes data to the XIV
storage system without being aware of the background I/O being performed.
Note: Once activated, the data migration can be deactivated, but after deactivating the
data migration the host is no longer able to read or write to the migration volume and all
host I/O stops. Do not deactivate the migration with host I/O running. If you want to
abandon the data migration prior to completion consult the back-out process described in
section 8.10, “Backing out of a data migration” on page 250.
Activate the data migration.
Right-click to select the data migration object/volume and choose Activate. This begins
the data migration process where data is copied in the background from the non-XIV
storage system to the XIV. Activate all volumes being migrated so that they can be
accessed by the host. The host has read and write access to all volumes, but the
background copy occurs serially volume by volume. If two targets (such as non-XIV1 and
non-XIV2) are defined with four volumes each, two volumes are actively copied in the
background—one volume from non-XIV1 and another from non-XIV2. All eight volumes
are accessible by the hosts.
Figure 8-15 shows the menu choices when right-clicking the data migration. Note the Test
Data Migration, Delete Data Migration, and Activate menu items, as these are the
most-used commands.
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Figure 8-15 Activate data migration
8.3.4 Define the host on XIV and bring host online
Zone host to XIV
Zone the host to XIV. The host must be directed (via SAN fabric zoning) to the XIV instead of
the non-XIV storage system. This is because the XIV is acting as a proxy between the host
and the non-XIV storage system. The host must no longer access the non-XIV storage
system once the data migration is activated. The host must perform all I/O through the XIV.
Define the host being migrated to the XIV
Prior to performing data migrations and allocating the volumes to the hosts, the host must be
defined on the XIV. Volumes are then mapped to the hosts or clusters. If the host is to be a
member of a cluster, then the cluster must be defined first. However, a host can be moved
easily from or added to a cluster at any time. This also requires that the host be zoned to your
XIV target ports via the SAN fabric.
1. To define a cluster (optional):
a. In the XIV GUI go to the floating menu Host and Clusters  Host and Clusters.
b. Choose Add Cluster from the top menu bar.
c. Name: Enter a cluster name in the provided space.
d. Click OK.
2. To define a host:
a. In the XIV GUI go to the floating menu Host and Clusters  Hosts and Clusters.
b. Choose Add Host from the top menu bar.
i. Name: Enter a host name.
ii. Cluster: If the host is part of a cluster, choose the cluster from the drop-down menu.
iii. Click Add.
iv. Select the host and right-click to bring up a menu, from which you choose Add
Port.
i. Port Type: Choose FC from the drop-down menu.
ii. Port Name: This is a drop-down menu of WWPNs that are logged into the XIV but
that have not been assigned to a host. WWPNs can be chosen from the drop-down
menu or entered manually.
iii. Click Add.
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iv. Repeat the above steps to add all the HBAs of the host being defined.
Map volumes to host on XIV.
Once the data migration has been started, you can use the XIV GUI or XCLI to map the
migration volumes to the host. When mapping volumes to hosts on the XIV, LUN ID 0 is
reserved for XIV in-band communication. This means that the first LUN ID that you
normally use is LUN ID 1. This includes boot-from-SAN hosts. You may also choose to use
the same LUN IDs as were used on the non-XIV storage, but this is not mandatory.
Important: The host cannot read the data on the non-XIV volume until the data
migration has been activated. The XIV does not pass through (proxy) I/O for a migration
that is inactive. If you use the XCLI dm_list command to display the migrations, ensure
that the word Yes appears in the Active column for every migration.
Bring the host online.
Once the volumes have been mapped to the host server, the host can be brought online.
Perform host administrative procedures. The host must be configured using the XIV host
attachment procedures. These include removing any existing/non-XIV multi-pathing software
and installing the native multi-pathing drivers, recommended patches and XIV Host
attachment Kit as stated in the XIV Host Attachment Guides. Install the most current HBA
driver and firmware at this time. One or more reboots may be required. Documentation and
other software can be found here:
http://www.ibm.com/support/search.wss?q=ssg1*&tc=STJTAG+HW3E0&rs=1319&dc=D400&dtm
When volume visibility has been verified, the application can be brought up and operations
verified.
Note: In clustered environments, it is usually recommended that only one node of the
cluster be initially brought online after the migration is started, and that all other nodes
be offline until the migration is complete. Once complete, update all other nodes (driver,
host attachment package, and so on), as the primary node was during the initial outage
(see step 5 in “Perform pre-migration tasks for the host being migrated” on page 226).
8.3.5 Complete the data migration on XIV
Figure 8-16 Data migration progress
To complete the data migration, perform the following sequence of steps:
Data migration progress.
Figure 8-16 shows the progress of the data migrations. The status bar can be toggled
between GB remaining, percent complete, and hours/minutes remaining. Figure 8-16
shows four data migrations, one of which has started background copy and three of which
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have not. Only one migrations is being copied at this same time because there is only one
target (DS4700_Ctrl_B).
After all of a volume’s data has been copied, the data migration achieves synchronization
status. After synchronization is achieved, all read requests are served by the XIV Storage
System. If source updating was selected the XIV will continue to write data to both itself
and the outgoing storage system until the data migration is deleted. Figure 8-17 shows a
completed migration.
Figure 8-17 Data migration complete
Delete data migration
Once the synchronization has been achieved, the data migration object can be safely deleted
without host interruption.
Important: If this is an online migration, do not deactivate the data migration prior to
deletion, as this causes host I/O to stop and possibly causes data corruption.
Right-click to select the data migration volume and choose Delete Data Migration, as
shown in Figure 8-18. This can be done without host/server interruption.
Figure 8-18 Delete Data Migration
Note: For safety purposes, you cannot delete an inactive or unsynchronized data migration
from the Data Migration panel. An unfinished data migration can only be deleted by
deleting the relevant volume from the Volumes  Volumes & Snapshots section in the XIV
GUI.
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8.4 Command-line interface
All of the XIV GUI operation steps can be performed using the XIV command-line interface
(XCLI) either through direct command execution or through batch files containing numerous
commands. This is especially helpful in migration scenarios involving numerous LUNs. This
section lists the XCLI command equivalent of the GUI steps shown above. A full description of
all the XCLI commands can be found in the XCLI Users Guide available at the following IBM
Web site:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/ibmxiv/r2/topic/com.ibm.help.xiv.doc/docs
/GC27-2213-02.pdf
Every command issued in the XIV GUI is logged in a text file with the correct syntax. This is
very helpful for creating scripts. If you are running the XIV GUI under Microsoft Windows, look
for a file titled guicommands_< todays date >.txt, which will be found in the following folder:
C:\Documents and Settings\ < Windows user ID >\Application Data\XIV\GUI10\logs
All of the commands given on the next few pages are effectively in the order in which you
must execute them, starting with the commands to list all current definitions (which will also
be needed when you start to delete migrations).
 List targets.
Syntax
target_list
 List target ports.
Syntax
target_port_list
 List target connectivity.
Syntax
target_connectivity_list
 List clusters.
Syntax
cluster_list
 List hosts.
Syntax
host_list
 List volumes.
Syntax
vol_list
 List data migrations.
Syntax
dm_list
 Define target (Fibre Channel only).
Syntax
target_define target=<Name> protocol=FC xiv_features=no
Example
target_define target=DMX605 protocol=FC xiv_features=no
 Define target port (Fibre Channel only).
Syntax
target_port_add fcaddress=<non-XIV storage WWPN>
target=<Name>
Example
target_port_add fcaddress=0123456789012345 target=DMX605
 Define target connectivity (Fibre Channel only).
Syntax
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target_connectivity_define
local_port=1:FC_Port:<Module:Port> fcaddress=<non-XIV
storage WWPN> target=<Name>
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Example
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target_connectivity_define local_port=1:FC_Port:5:4
fcaddress=0123456789012345 target=DMX605
 Define cluster (optional).
Syntax
cluster_create cluster=<Name>
Example
cluster_create cluster=Exch01
 Define host (if adding host to a cluster).
Syntax
host_define host=<Host Name> cluster=<Cluster Name>
Example
host_define host=Exch01N1 cluster=Exch01
 Define host (if not using cluster definition).
Syntax
host_define host=<Name>
Example
host_define host=Exch01
 Define host port (Fibre Channel host bus adapter port).
Syntax
host_add_port host=<Host Name> fcaddress=<HBA WWPN>
Example
host_add_port host=Exch01 fcaddress=123456789abcdef1
 Create XIV volume using decimal GB volume size.
Syntax
vol_create vol=<Vol name> size=<Size> pool=<Pool Name>
Example
vol_create vol=Exch01_sg01_db size=17 pool=Exchange
 Create XIV volume using 512 byte blocks.
Syntax
vol_create vol=<Vol name> size_blocks=<Size in blocks>
pool=<Pool Name>
Example
vol_create vol=Exch01_sg01_db size_blocks=32768
pool=Exchange
 Define data migration.
If you want the local volume to be automatically created:
Syntax
dm_define target=<Target> vol=<Volume Name> lun=<Host LUN
ID as presented to XIV> source_updating=<yes|no>
create_vol=yes pool=<XIV Pool Name>
Example
dm_define target=DMX605 vol=Exch01_sg01_db lun=5
source_updating=no create_vol=yes pool=Exchange
If the local volume was pre-created:
Syntax
dm_define target=<Target> vol=<Pre-created Volume Name>
lun=<Host LUN ID as presented to XIV>
source_updating=<yes|no>
Example
dm_define target=DMX605 vol=Exch01_sg01_db lun=5
source_updating=no
 Test data migration object.
Syntax
dm_test vol=<DM Name>
Example
dm_test vol=Exch_sg01_db
 Activate data migration object.
Syntax
dm_activate vol=<DM Name>
Example
dm_activate vol=Exch_sg01_db
 Map volume to host/cluster.
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– Map to host:
Syntax
map_vol host=<Host Name> vol=<Vol Name> lun=<LUN ID>
Example
map_vol host=Exch01 vol=Exch01_sg01_db lun=1
– Map to cluster:
Syntax
map_vol host=<Cluster Name> vol=<Vol Name> lun=<LUN ID>
Example
map_vol host=Exch01 vol=Exch01_sg01_db lun=1
 Delete data migration object.
If the data migration is synchronized and thus completed:
Syntax
dm_delete vol=<DM Volume name>
Example
dm_delete vol=Exch01_sg01_db
If the data migration is not complete it must be deleted by removing the corresponding
volume from the Volume and Snapshot menu (or via the vol_delete command below).
 Delete volume (not normally needed).
Challenged volume delete (cannot be done via a script, as this command must be
acknowledged):
Syntax
vol_delete vol=<Vol Name>
Example
vol_delete vol=Exch_sg01_db
If you want to perform an unchallenged volume deletion:
Syntax
vol_delete -y vol=<Vol Name>
Example
vol_delete -y vol=Exch_sg01_db
 Delete target connectivity.
Syntax
target_connectivity_delete
local_port=1:FC_Port:<Module:Port> fcaddress=<non-XIV
storage device WWPN> target=<Name>
Example
target_connectivity_delete local_port=1:FC_Port:5:4
fcaddress=0123456789012345 target=DMX605
 Delete target port.
Fibre Channel
Syntax
target_port_delete fcaddress=<non-XIV WWPN> target=<Name>
Example
target_port_delete fcaddress=0123456789012345 target=DMX605
 Delete target.
Syntax
target_delete target=<Target Name>
Example
target_delete target=DMX605
 Change Migration Sync Rate
236
Syntax
target_config_sync_rates target=<Target Name>
max_initialization_rate=<Rate in MB>
Example
target_config_sync_rates target=DMX605
max_initialization_rate=100
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8.4.1 Using XCLI scripts or batch files
In order to execute a XCLI batch job, it is best to use the XCLI (versus the XCLI Session).
Setting environment variables in Windows
You can remove the need to specify user and password information for every command by
making that information an environment variable. Example 8-1 shows how this is done using
a Windows command prompt. First the XIV_XCLIUSER variable is set to admin, then the
XIV_XCLIPASSWORD is set to adminadmin. Then both variables are confirmed as set. If
necessary, change the user ID and password to suit your setup.
Example 8-1 Setting environment variables in Microsoft Windows
C:\>set XIV_XCLIUSER=admin
C:\>set XIV_XCLIPASSWORD=adminadmin
C:\>set | find "XIV"
XIV_XCLIPASSWORD=adminadmin
XIV_XCLIUSER=admin
To make these changes permanent:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Right-click the My Computer icon and select Properties.
Click the Advanced tab.
Click Environment Variables.
Click New for a new system variable.
Create the XIV_XCLIUSER variable with the relevant user name.
Click New again to create the XIV_XCLIPASSWORD variable with the relevant password.
Setting environment variables in UNIX
If your are using a UNIX-based operating system export the environment variables as shown
in Example 8-2 (which in this example is AIX). In this example the user and password
variables are set to admin and adminadmin and then confirmed as being set.
Example 8-2 Setting environment variables in UNIX
root@dolly:/tmp/XIVGUI# export XIV_XCLIUSER=admin
root@dolly:/tmp/XIVGUI# export XIV_XCLIPASSWORD=adminadmin
root@dolly:/tmp/XIVGUI# env | grep XIV
XIV_XCLIPASSWORD=adminadmin
XIV_XCLIUSER=admin
To make these changes permanent update the relevant profile, making sure that you export
the variables to make them environment variables.
Note: It is also possible to run XCLI cmd’s without setting environment variables with the -u
and -p switches.
8.4.2 Sample scripts
With the environment variables set, a script or batch file like the one in Example 8-3 can be
run from the shell or command prompt in order to define the data migration pairings.
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Example 8-3 Data migration definition batch file
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
xcli -m 10.10.0.10
source_updating=no
dm_define vol=MigVol_1 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=4
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_2 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=5
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_3 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=7
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_4 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=9
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_5 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=11
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_6 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=13
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_7 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=15
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_8 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=17
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_9 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=19
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
dm_define vol=MigVol_10 target=DS4200_CTRL_A lun=21
create_vol=yes pool=test_pool
With the data migration defined via the script or batch job above, an equivalent script or batch
job to execute the data migrations then must be run, as shown in Example 8-4.
Example 8-4 Activate data migration batch file
xcli
xcli
xcli
xcli
xcli
xcli
xcli
xcli
xcli
xcli
-m
-m
-m
-m
-m
-m
-m
-m
-m
-m
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
10.10.0.10
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
dm_activate
vol=MigVol_1
vol=MigVol_2
vol=MigVol_3
vol=MigVol_4
vol=MigVol_5
vol=MigVol_6
vol=MigVol_7
vol=MigVol_8
vol=MigVol_9
vol=MigVol_10
8.5 Manually creating the migration volume
The local XIV volume can be pre-created before defining the data migration object. This is not
the recommended option due to it being prone to manual calculation errors. This requires the
size of the source volume on the non-XIV storage device to be known in 512 byte blocks, as
the two volumes (source and XIV volume) must be exactly the same size. Finding the actual
size of a volume in blocks or bytes can be difficult, as certain storage devices do not show the
exact volume size. This may require you to rely on the host operating system to provide the
real volume size, but this is also not always reliable.
For an example of the process to determine exact volume size, consider ESS 800 volume
00F-FCA33 depicted in Figure 8-26 on page 248. The size reported by the ESS 800 Web GUI
is 10 GB, which suggests that the volume is 10,000,000,000 bytes in size (because the ESS
800 displays volume sizes using decimal counting). The AIX bootinfo -s hdisk2 command
reports the volume as 9,536 GiB, which is 9,999,220,736 bytes (because there are
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1,073,741,824 bytes per GiB). Both of these values are too small. When the volume
properties are viewed on the volume information panel of the ESS 800 Copy Services GUI, it
correctly reports the volume as being 19,531,264 sectors, which is 10,000,007,168 bytes
(because there are 512 bytes per sector). If we created a volume that is 19,531,264 blocks in
size this will be correct. When the XIV automatically created a volume to migrate the contents
of 00F-FCA33 it did create it as 19,531,264 blocks. Of the three information sources that were
considered to manually calculate volume size, only one of them must have been correct.
Using the automatic volume creation eliminates this uncertainty.
If you are confident that you have determined the exact size, then when creating the XIV
volume, choose the Blocks option from the Volume Size drop-down menu and enter the size
of the XIV volume in blocks. If your sizing calculation was correct, this creates an XIV volume
that is the same size as the source (non-XIV storage device) volume. Then you can define a
migration:
1. In the XIV GUI go to the floating menu Remote  Migration.
2. Right-click and choose Define Data Migration (Figure 8-12 on page 229).
– Destination Pool: Choose the pool from the drop-down menu where the volume was
created.
– Destination Name: Chose the pre-created volume from the drop-down menu.
– Source Target System: Choose the already defined non-XIV storage device from the
drop-down menu.
Important: If the non-XIV device is active/passive, the source target system must
represent the controller (or service processor) on the non-XIV device that currently
owns the source LUN being migrated. This means that you must check from the
non-XIV storage, which controller is presenting the LUN to the XIV.
– Source LUN: Enter the decimal value of the LUN as presented to the XIV from the
non-XIV storage system. Certain storage devices present the LUN ID as hex. The
number in this field must be the decimal equivalent.
– Keep Source Updated: Check this if the non-XIV storage system source volume is to
be updated with writes from the host. In this manner all writes from the host will be
written to the XIV volume, as well as the non-XIV source volume until the data
migration object is deleted.
Click Define.
3. Test the data migration object. Right-click to select the created data migration volume and
choose Test Data Migration. If there are any issues with the data migration object the test
fails reporting the issue that was found. See Figure 8-14 on page 230 for an example of
the panel.
If the volume that you created is too small or too large you will receive an error message when
you do a test data migration, as shown in Figure 8-19. If you try and activate the migration you
will get the same error message. You must delete the volume that you manually created on
the XIV and create a new correctly sized one. This is because you cannot resize a volume
that is in a data migration pair, and you cannot delete a data migration pair unless it has
completed the background copy. Delete the volume and then investigate why your size
calculation was wrong. Then create a new volume and a new migration and test it again.
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Figure 8-19 XIV volume wrong size for migration
8.6 Changing and monitoring the progress of a migration
It is possible to speed up or slow down the migration process, as well as monitor its rate.
8.6.1 Changing the synchronization rate
There is only one tunable parameter that determines the speed at which migration data is
transferred between the XIV and defined targets. There are two other tunable parameters that
apply to XIV Remote Mirroring (RM):
 max_initialization_rate
The rate (in MBps) at which data is transferred between the XIV and defined targets. The
default rate is 100 MBps and can be configured on a per-target basis. In other words, one
target can be set to 100 MBps while another is set to 50 MBps. In this example a total of
150 MBps (100+50) transfer rate is possible. If the transfer rate that you are seeing is
lower than the initialization rate, this may indicate that you are exceeding the capabilities of
the non-XIV disk system to operate at that rate. If the migration is not being done with
attached hosts off-line, consider dropping the initialization rate to a very low number
initially to ensure that there that the volume of migration I/O does not interfere with other
hosts using the non-XIV disk system. Then slowly increase the number while checking to
ensure that response times are not affected on other attached hosts. If you set the
max_initialization_rate to zero, then you will stop the background copy, but hosts will still
be able to access all activated migration volumes.
 max_syncjob_rate
This parameter (which is in MBps) is used in XIV remote mirroring for synchronizing
mirrored snapshots. It is not normally relevant to data migrations. However, the
max_initialization_rate cannot be greater than the max_syncjob_rate, which in turn cannot
be greater than the max_resync_rate. In general, there is no reason to ever increase this
rate.
 max_resync_rate
This parameter (which is in MBps) is again used for XIV remote mirroring only. It is not
normally relevant to data migrations. This parameter defines the resync rate for mirrored
pairs. Once remotely mirrored volumes are synchronized, a resync is required if the
replication is stopped for any reason. It is this resync where only the changes are sent
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across the link that this parameter affects. The default rate is 300 MBps. There is no
minimum or maximum rate. However, setting the value to 400 or more in a 4 Gbps
environment does not show any increase in throughput. In general, there is no reason to
ever increase this rate.
Increasing the max_initialization_rate parameter may decrease the time required to migrate
the data. However, doing so may impact existing production servers on the non-XIV storage
device. By increasing the rate parameters, more outgoing disk resources will be used to serve
migrations and less for existing production I/O. Be aware of how these parameters affect
migrations as well as production. You could always choose to only set this to a higher value
during off-peak production periods.
The rate parameters can only be set using XCLI, not via the XIV GUI. The current rate
settings are displayed by using the -x parameter, so run the target_list -x command. If the
setting is changed, the change takes place on the fly with immediate effect so there is no
need to deactivate/activate the migrations (doing so blocks host I/O). In Example 8-5 we first
display the target list and then confirm the current rates using the -x parameter. The example
shows that the initialization rate is still set to the default value (100 MBps). We then increase
the initialization rate to 200 MBps. We could then observe the completion rate, as shown in
Figure 8-16 on page 232, to see whether it has improved.
Example 8-5 Displaying and changing the maximum initialization rate
>> target_list
Name
SCSI Type
Connected
Nextrazap ITSO ESS800
FC
yes
>> target_list -x target="Nextrazap ITSO ESS800"
<XCLIRETURN STATUS="SUCCESS" COMMAND_LINE="target_list -x target=&quot;Nextrazap ITSO
ESS800&quot;">
<OUTPUT>
<target id="4502445">
<id value="4502445"/>
<creator value="xiv_maintenance"/>
<creator_category value="xiv_maintenance"/>
<name value="Nextrazap ITSO ESS800"/>
<scsi_type value="FC"/>
<xiv_target value="no"/>
<iscsi_name value=""/>
<connected value="yes"/>
<port_list value="5005076300C90C21,5005076300CF0C21"/>
<num_ports value="2"/>
<system_id value="0"/>
<max_initialization_rate value="100"/>
<max_resync_rate value="300"/>
<max_syncjob_rate value="300"/>
<connectivity_lost_event_threshold value="30"/>
<xscsi value="no"/>
</target>
</OUTPUT>
</XCLIRETURN>
>> target_config_sync_rates target="Nextrazap ITSO ESS800" max_initialization_rate=200
Command executed successfully.
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Important: Just because the initialization rate has been increased does not mean that the
actual speed of the copy increases. The outgoing disk system or the SAN fabric may well
be the limiting factor. In addition, you may cause host system impact by over-committing
too much bandwidth to migration I/O.
8.6.2 Monitoring migration speed
If you want to monitor the speed of the migration you can use the Data Migration panel, as
shown in Figure 8-16 on page 232. The status bar can be toggled between GB remaining,
percent complete, or hours/minutes remaining. However, if you wish to monitor the actual
MBps, you must use an external tool. This is because the performance statistics displayed
using the XIV GUI or using XIV Top do not include data migration I/O (the back end copy).
They do, however, show incoming I/O rates from hosts using LUNs that are being migrated.
8.6.3 Monitoring migration via the XIV event log
The XIV event log can be used to confirm when a migration started and finished. From the
XIV GUI go to Monitor  Events. On the Events panel use the Type drop-down menu to
select dm and then click Filter. In Figure 8-20 the events for a single migration are displayed.
In this example the events must be read from bottom to top. You can sort the events by date
and time by clicking the Date column in the Events panel.
Figure 8-20 XIV Event GUI
8.6.4 Monitoring migration speed via the fabric
If you have a Brocade-based SAN, use the portperfshow command and verify the throughput
rate of the initiator ports on the XIV. If you have two fabrics you may need to connect to two
different switches. If multiple paths are defined between XIV and non-XIV disk system, the
XIV load balances across those ports. This means that you must aggregate the throughput
numbers from each initiator port to see total throughput. Example 8-6 shows the output of the
portperfshow command. The values shown are the combined send and receive throughput in
MBps for each port. In this example port 0 is the XIV Initiator port and port 1 is a DS4800 host
port. The max_initialization_rate was set to 50 MBps.
Example 8-6 Brocade portperfshow command
FB1_RC6_PDC:admin> portperfshow
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15 Total
======================================================================================
50m 50m 14m 14m 2.4m 848k 108k 34k
0 937k 0
27m 3.0m
0 949k 3.0m 125m
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If you have a Cisco-based SAN, start Device Manager for the relevant switch and then select
Interface  Monitor  FC Enabled.
8.6.5 Monitoring migration speed via the non-XIV storage
The ability to display migration throughput varies by non-XIV storage device. For example, if
you are migrating from a DS4000 you could use the performance monitoring panels in the
DS4000 System Manager to monitor the throughput. In the DS4000 System Manager GUI, go
to Storage Subsystem  Monitor Performance. Display the volumes being migrated and
the throughput for the relevant controllers. You can then determine what percentage of I/O is
being generated by the migration process. In Figure 8-21 you can see that one volume is
being migrated using a max_initialization_rate of 50 MBps. This represents the bulk of the I/O
being serviced by the DS4000 in this example.
Figure 8-21 Monitoring a DS4000 migration
8.7 Thick-to-thin migration
When the XIV migrates data from a LUN on a non-XIV disk system to an XIV volume, it reads
every block of the source LUN, regardless of contents. However, when it comes to writing this
data into the XIV volume, the XIV only writes blocks that contain data. Blocks that contain only
zeroes are not written and do not take any space on the XIV. This is called a thick-to-thin
migration, and it occurs regardless of whether you are migrating the data into a thin
provisioning pool or a regular pool.
While the migration background copy is being processed, the value displayed in the Used
column of the Volumes and Snapshots panel drops every time that empty blocks are
detected. When the migration is completed, you can check this column to determine how
much real data was actually written into the XIV volume. In Figure 8-22 the used space on the
Windows2003_D volume is 4 GB. However, the Windows file system using this disk shown in
Figure 8-24 on page 245 shows only 1.4 GB of data. This could lead you to conclude wrongly
that the thick-to-thin capabilities of the XIV do not work.
Figure 8-22 Thick-to-thin results
The reason that this has occurred is that when file deletions occur at a file-system level, the
data is not removed. The file system re-uses this effectively free space but does not write
zeros over the old data (as doing so generates a large amount of unnecessary I/O). The end
result is that the XIV effectively copies old and deleted data during the migration. It must be
clearly understood that this makes no difference to the speed of the migration, as these
blocks have to be read into the XIV cache regardless of what they contain.
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If you are not planning to use the thin provisioning capability of the XIV, this is not an issue.
Only be concerned if your migration plan specifically requires you to be adopting thin
provisioning.
Writing zeros to recover space
One way to recover space before you start a migration is to use a utility to write zeros across
all free space. In a UNIX environment you could use a simple script like the one shown in
Example 8-7 to write large empty files across your file system. You may need to run these
commands many times to use all the empty space.
Example 8-7 Writing zeros across your file system
# The next command will write a 1 GB mytestfile.out
dd if=/dev/zero of=mytestfile.out bs=1000 count=1000000
# The next command will free the file allocation space
rm mytestfile.out
In a Windows environment you can use a Microsoft tool known as sdelete to write zeros
across deleted files. You can find this tool in the sysinternals section of Microsoft Technet.
Here is the current URL:
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897443.aspx
If you instead choose to write zeros to recover space after the migration, you must initially
generate large amounts of empty files, which may initially appear to be counter-productive. It
takes several days for the used space value to decrease after the script or application is run.
This is because recovery of empty space runs as a background task.
8.8 Resizing the XIV volume after migration
Because of the way that XIV distributes data, the XIV allocates space in 17 GB portions
(which are exactly 17,179,869,184 bytes or 16 GiB). When creating volumes using the XIV
GUI this aspect of the XIV design becomes readily apparent when you enter a volume size
and it gets rounded up to the next 17 GB cutoff.
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If you chose to allow the XIV to determine the size of the migration volume, then you may find
that a small amount of extra space is consumed for every volume that was created. Unless
the volume sizes being used on the non-XIV storage device were created in multiples of
16 GiB, then it is likely that the volumes automatically created by the XIV will reserve more
XIV disk space than is actually made available to the volume. An example of the XIV volume
properties of such an automatically created volume is shown in Figure 8-23. In this example
the Windows2003_D drive is 53 GB in size, but the size on disk is 68 GB on the XIV.
Figure 8-23 Properties of a migrated volume
What this means is that we can resize that volume to 68 GB (as shown in the XIV GUI) and
make the volume 15 GB larger without effectively consuming any more space on the XIV. In
Figure 8-24 we can see that the migrated Windows2003_D drive is 53 GB in size
(53,678,141,440 bytes).
Figure 8-24 Windows D drive at 53 GB
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To resize a volume go to the Volumes  Volumes & Snapshots panel, right-click to select
the volume, then choose the Resize option. Change the sizing method drop-down from
Blocks to GB and the volume size is automatically moved to the next multiple of 17 GB. We
can also use XCLI commands, as shown in Example 8-8.
Example 8-8 Resize the D drive using XCLI
>> vol_resize vol=Windows2003_D size=68
Warning:
ARE_YOU_SURE_YOU_WANT_TO_ENLARGE_VOLUME Y/N: Y
Command executed successfully.
Because this example is for a Microsoft Windows 2003 basic NTFS disk, we can use the
diskpart utility to extend the volume, as shown in Example 8-9.
Example 8-9 Expanding a Windows volume
C:\>diskpart
DISKPART> list volume
Volume ###
---------Volume 0
Volume 4
Ltr
--C
D
Label
----------Windows2003
Fs
----NTFS
NTFS
Type
---------Partition
Partition
Size
------34 GB
64 GB
Status
--------Healthy
Healthy
Info
-------System
DISKPART> select volume 4
Volume 4 is the selected volume.
DISKPART> extend
DiskPart successfully extended the volume
We can now confirm that the volume has indeed grown by displaying the volume properties.
In Figure 8-25 we can see that the disk is now 68 GB (68,713,955,328 bytes).
Figure 8-25 Windows 2003 D drive has grown to 64 GB
In terms of when to do the re-size, a volume cannot be resized while it is part of a data
migration. This means that the migration process must have completed and the migration for
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that volume must have been deleted before the volume can be resized. For this reason you
may choose to defer the resize until after the migration of all relevant volumes has been
completed. This also separates the resize change from the migration change. Depending on
the operating system using that volume, you may not get any benefit from doing this re-size.
8.9 Troubleshooting
This section lists common errors that are encountered during data migrations using the XIV
data migration facility.
8.9.1 Target connectivity fails
The connections (link line) between the XIV and non-XIV disks system on the migration
connectivity panel remain colored red or the link shows as down. There are several reasons
this can happen:
 On the Migration Connectivity panel, verify that the status of the XIV initiator port is OK
(Online). If not, check the connections between the XIV and the SAN switch.
 Verify that the Fibre Channel ports on the non-XIV storage device are set to target,
enabled and online.
 Check whether SAN zoning is incorrect or incomplete. Verify that SAN fabric zoning
configuration for XIV and non-XIV storage device are active.
 Check SAN switch nameserver that both XIV ports and non-XIV storage ports has logged
in correct. Verify that XIV and non-XIV has logged into the switch with right speed.
 Perhaps the XIV WWPN is not properly defined to the non-XIV storage device target port.
The XIV WWPN must be defined as a Linux or Windows host.
– If the XIV initiator port is defined as a Linux host to the non-XIV storage device, change
the definition to a Windows host. Delete the link (line connections) between the XIV
and non-XIV storage device ports and redefine the link. This is storage device
dependent and is caused by how the non-XIV storage device presents a pseudo
LUN-0 if a real volume is not presented as LUN 0.
– If the XIV initiator port is defined as a Windows host to the non-XIV storage device,
change the definition to a Linux host. Delete the link (line connections) between the
XIV and non-XIV storage device ports and redefine the link. This is storage device
dependent and is caused by how the non-XIV storage device presents a pseudo
LUN-0 if a real volume is not presented as LUN 0.
– If the above two attempts are not successful, assign a real disk/volume to LUN 0 and
present to the XIV. The volume assigned to LUN-0 can be a very small unused volume
or a real volume that will be migrated.
 Offline/Online the XIV Fiber channel port: Go to the Migration Connectivity panel, expand
the connectivity of the target by clicking on the link between XIV and the target system,
and highlight the port in question, right-click, and choose Configure. Choose No in the
second row drop-down menu (Enabled) and click Configure. Repeat the process,
choosing Yes for Enabled.
 Change the port type from Initiator to Target and then back to Initiator. This forces the port
to completely reset and reload. Go to the Migration Connectivity panel, expand the
connectivity of the target by clicking on the link between the XIV and target system,
highlight the port in question, right-click, and choose Configure. Choose Target in the third
row drop-down menu (Role) and click Configure. Repeat the process, choosing Initiator for
the role.
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8.9.2 Remote volume LUN is unavailable
This error typically occurs when defining a DM and the LUN ID specified in the Source LUN
field is not responding to the XIV. This can occur for several reasons:
 The LUN ID (host LUN ID or SCSI ID) specified is not allocated to the XIV on the ports
identified in the target definition (using the Migration Connectivity panel). You must log on
to the non-XIV storage device to confirm.
 The LUN ID is not allocated to the XIV on all ports specified in the target definition. For
example, if the target definition has two links from the non-XIV storage device to the XIV,
the volume must be allocated down both paths using the same LUN ID. The XIV looks for
the LUN ID specified on the first defined path. If it does not have access to the LUN it will
fail even if the LUN is allocated down the second path. The LUN must be allocated down
all paths as defined in the target definition. If two links are defined from the target
(non-XIV) storage device to the XIV, then the LUN must be allocated down both paths.
 Incorrect LUN ID: Do not confuse a non-XIV storage device's internal LUN ID with the
SCSI LUN ID (host LUN ID) that is presented to the XIV. This is a very common oversight.
The source LUN must be the LUN ID (decimal) as presented to the XIV.
 The Source LUN ID field is expecting a decimal number. Certain vendors present the LUN
ID in hex. This must be translated to decimal. Therefore, if LUN ID 10 is on a vendor that
displays its IDs in hex, the LUN ID in the DM define is 16 (hex 10). An example of a
hexadecimal LUN number is shown in Figure 8-26, taken from an ESS 800. In this
example you can see LUN 000E, 000F, and 0010. These are entered into the XIV data
migration definitions as LUNs 14, 15, and 16, respectively. See 8.12, “Device-specific
considerations” on page 254, for more details.
 The LUN ID allocated to the XIV has been allocated to an incorrect XIV WWPN. Make
sure that the proper volume is allocated to the correct XIV WWPNs.
 If multiple DM targets are defined, the wrong target may have been chosen when the DM
was defined.
 Sometimes when volumes are added after the initial connectivity is defined the volume is
not available. Go to the Migration Connectivity panel and delete the links between the XIV
and non-XIV storage device. Only delete the links. There is no need to delete anything
else. Once all links are deleted, recreate the links. Go back to the DM panel and recreate
the DM. (See item 5 under in “Define non-XIV storage device to XIV (as a migration
target)” on page 223).
Figure 8-26 ESS 800 LUN numbers
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 The volume on the source non-XIV storage device may not have been initialized or
low-level formatted. If the volume has data on it then this is not the case. However, if you
are assigning new volumes from the non-XIV storage device then perhaps these new
volumes have not completed the initialization process. On ESS 800 storage the
initialization process can be displayed from the Modify Volume Assignments panel. In
Figure 8-26 on page 248 the volumes are still 0% background formatted, so they will not
be accessible by the XIV. So for ESS 800, keep clicking Refresh Status on the ESS 800
Web GUI until the formatting message disappears.
8.9.3 Local volume is not formatted
This error occurs when a volume that already exists is chosen as the destination name and
has already been written either from a host or a previous DM process that has since been
removed from the DM panel. To get around this error do one of the following tasks:
 Use another volume as a migration destination.
 Delete the volume that you are trying to migrate to and then create it again.
 Go to the Volumes  Volumes and Snapshots panel. Right-click to select the volume
and choose Format. Warning: This deletes all data currently on the volume without
recovery. A warning message is displayed to challenge the request.
8.9.4 Host server cannot access the XIV migration volume
This error occurs if you attempt to read the contents of a volume on a non-XIV storage device
via an XIV data migration without activating the data migration. This happens if the migration
is performed without following the correct order of steps. The server should not attempt to
access the XIV volume being migrated until the XIV shows that the migration is initializing and
active (even if the progress percentage only shows 0%) or fully synchronized.
Note: This may also happen in a cluster environment where the XIV is holding a scsi
reservation. Make sure all nodes of a cluster are shutdown prior to starting a migration.
The XCLI command reservation_list will list all scsi reservations held by the XIV. Should
a volume be found with reservations where all nodes are offline, the reservations may be
removed using the xcli command reservation_clear. See xcli documentation for further
details.
8.9.5 Remote volume cannot be read
This error occurs when a volume is defined down the passive path on an active/passive
multi-pathing storage device. This can occur in several cases:
 Two paths were defined on a target (non-XIV storage device) that only supports
active/passive multi-pathing. XIV is an active/active storage device. Defining two paths on
any given target from an active/passive multi-pathing storage device is not supported.
Redefine the target with only one path. Another target can be defined with one connection
to the other controller. For example, if the non-XIV storage device has two controllers, but
the volume can only be active on one at time, controller A can be defined as one target on
the XIV and controller B can be defined as a different target. In this manner, all volumes
that are active on controller A can be migrated down the XIV A target and all volumes
active on the B controller can be migrated down the XIV B target.
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 When defining the XIV initiator to an active/passive multi-pathing non-XIV storage device,
certain storage devices allow the initiator to be defined as not supporting failover. The XIV
initiator should be configured to the non-XIV storage device in this manner. When
configured as such, the volume on the passive controller is not presented to the initiator
(XIV). The volume is only presented down the active controller.
Refer to “Multi-pathing with data migrations” on page 219 and 8.12, “Device-specific
considerations” on page 254, for additional information.
8.9.6 LUN is out of range
XIV currently supports migrating data from LUNs with a LUN ID less than 513 (decimal). This
is usually not an issue, as most non-XIV storage devices, by default, present volumes on an
initiator basis. For example, if there are three hosts connected to the same port on a non-XIV
storage device, each host can be allocated volumes starting at the same LUN ID. So for
migration purposes you must either map one host at a time (and then re-use the LUN IDs for
the next host) or use different sequential LUN numbers for migration. For example, if three
hosts each have three LUNs mapped using LUN IDs 20, 21, and 22, for migration purposes,
migrate them as LUN IDs 30, 31, 32 (first host); 33, 34, 35 (second host); and 36, 37, 38 (third
host). Then from the XIV you can again map them to each host as LUN IDs 20, 21, and 22 (as
they were from the non-XIV storage).
If migrating from an EMC Symmetrix or DMX there are special considerations. Refer to
8.12.2, “EMC Symmetrix and DMX” on page 256.
8.10 Backing out of a data migration
For change management purposes, you may be required to document a back-out procedure.
There are four possible points in the migration process where a back-out may occur.
8.10.1 Back-out prior to migration being defined on the XIV
If a data migration definition does not exist yet, then no action must be taken on the XIV. You
can simply zone the host server back to the non-XIV storage system and un-map the host
server’s LUNs away from the XIV and back to the host server, taking care to ensure that the
correct LUN order is preserved.
8.10.2 Back-out after a data migration has been defined but not activated
If the data migration definition exists but has not been activated, then you can follow the same
steps as described in 8.10.1, “Back-out prior to migration being defined on the XIV” on
page 250. To remove the inactive migration from the migration list you must delete the XIV
volume that was going to receive the migrated data.
8.10.3 Back-out after a data migration has been activated but is not complete
If the data migration shows in the GUI with a status of initialization or the XCLI shows it as
active=yes, then the background copy process has been started. If you deactivate the
migration in this state you will block any I/O passing through the XIV from the host server to
the migration LUN on the XIV and to the LUN on the non-XIV disk system. You must shut
down the host server or its applications first. After doing this you can deactivate the data
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migration and then if desired you can delete the XIV data migration volume. Then restore the
original LUN masking and SAN fabric zoning and bring your host back up.
Important: If you chose to not allow source updating and write I/O has occurred after the
migration started, then the contents of the LUN on the non-XIV storage device will not
contain the changes from those writes. Understanding the implications of this is important
in a back-out plan.
8.10.4 Back-out after a data migration has reached the synchronised state
If the data migration shows in the GUI as having a status of synchronised, then the
background copy has completed. In this case back-out can still occur because the data
migration is not destructive to the source LUN on the non-XIV storage device. Simply reverse
the process by shutting down the host server or applications and restore the original LUN
masking and switch zoning settings. You may need to also reinstall the relevant host server
multi-path software for access to the non-XIV storage device.
Important: If you chose to not allow source updating and write I/O has occurred during the
migration or after it has completed, then the contents of the LUN on the non-XIV storage
device do not contain the changes from those writes. Understanding the implications of this
is important in a back-out plan.
8.11 Migration checklist
There are three separate stages to a migration cut over. First, prepare the environment for the
implementation of the XIV. Second, cut over your hosts. Finally, remove any old devices and
definitions as part of a clean up stage.
For site setup, the high-level process is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Install XIV and cable it into the SAN.
Pre-populate SAN zones in switches.
Pre-populate the host/cluster definitions in the XIV.
Define XIV to non-XIV disk as a host.
Define non-XIV disk to XIV as a migration target and confirm paths.
Then for each host the high-level process is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Update host drivers, install Host Attachment Kit and then shut down the host.
Disconnect/un-zone the host from non-XIV storage and then zone the host to XIV.
Map the host LUNs away from the host instead of mapping them to the XIV.
Create XIV data migration (DM).
Map XIV DM volumes to the host.
Bring up the host.
When all data on the non-XIV disk system has been migrated, perform site clean up:
1. Delete all SAN zones related to the non-XIV disk.
2. Delete all LUNs on non-XIV disk and remove it from the site.
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Table 8-1 shows the site setup checklist.
Table 8-1 Physical site setup
Task
Number
Completed
Where to
perform
Task
1
Site
Install XIV.
2
Site
Run fiber cables from SAN switches to XIV for host connections
and migration connections.
3
Non-XIV storage
Select host ports on the non-XIV storage to be used for migration
traffic. These ports do not have to be dedicated ports. Run new
cables if necessary.
4
Fabric switches
Create switch aliases for each XIV Fibre Channel port and any
new non-XIV ports added to the fabric.
5
Fabric switches
Define SAN zones to connect hosts to XIV (but do not activate the
zones). You can do this by cloning the existing zones from host to
non-XIV disk and swapping non-XIV aliases for new XIV aliases.
6
Fabric switches
Define and activate SAN zones to connect non-XIV storage to XIV
initiator ports (unless direct connected).
7
Non-XIV storage
If necessary, create a small LUN to be used as LUN0 to allocate
to the XIV.
8
Non-XIV storage
Define the XIV on the non-XIV storage device, mapping LUN0 to
test the link.
9
XIV
Define non-XIV storage to the XIV as a migration target and add
ports. Confirm that links are green and working.
10
XIV
Change the max_initialization_rate depending on the non-XIV
disk. You may want to start at a smaller value and increase it if no
issues are seen.
11
XIV
Define all the host servers to the XIV (cluster first if using clustered
hosts). Use a host listing from the non-XIV disk to get the WWPNs
for each host.
12
XIV
Create storage pools as required. Ensure that there is enough
pool space for all the non-XIV disk LUNs being migrated.
Once the site setup is complete, the host migrations can begin. Table 8-2 shows the host
migration check list. Repeat this check list for every host. Task numbers that are colored red
must be performed with the host application offline.
Table 8-2 Host Migration to XIV task list
Task
number
Where to
perform
Task
1
Host
From the host, determine the volumes to be migrated and their relevant LUN
IDs and hardware serial numbers or identifiers.
2
Host
If the host is remote from your location, confirm that you can power the host
back on after shutting it down (using tools such as an RSA card or
BladeCenter® manager).
3
Non-XIV
Storage
Get the LUN IDs of the LUNs to be migrated from non-XIV storage device.
Convert from hex to decimal if necessary.
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Task
number
Completed?
Where to
perform
Task
4
Host
Shut down the application.
5
Host
Set the application to not start automatically at reboot. This helps when
performing administrative functions on the server (upgrades of drivers, patches,
and so on).
6
Host
UNIX servers: Comment out disk mount points on affected disks in the mount
configuration file. This helps with system reboots while configuring for XIV.
7
Host
Shut down affected servers.
8
Fabric
Change the active zoneset to exclude the SAN zone that connects the host
server to non-XIV storage and include the SAN zone for the host server to XIV
storage. The new zone should have been created during site setup.
9
Non-XIV
storage
Unmap source volumes from the host server.
10
Non-XIV
storage
Map source volumes to the XIV host definition (created during site setup).
11
XIV
Create data migration pairing (XIV volumes created on the fly).
12
XIV
Test XIV migration for each volume.
13
XIV
Start XIV migration and verify it. If you want, wait for migration to finish.
14
Host
Boot the server. (Be sure that the server is not attached to any storage.)
15
Host
Co-existence of non-XIV and XIV multi-pathing software is supported with an
approved SCORE(RPQ) only. Remove any unapproved multi-pathing software
16
Host
Install patches, update drivers, and HBA firmware as necessary.
17
Host
Install the XIV Host Attachment Kit. (Be sure to note prerequisites.)
18
Host
At this point you may need to reboot (depending on operating system)
19
XIV
Map XIV volumes to the host server. (Use original LUN IDs.)
20
Host
21
Host
Verify that the LUNs are available and that pathing is correct.
22
Host
Unix Servers: Update mount points for new disks in the mount configuration file
if they have changed. Mount the file systems.
23
Host
Start the application.
24
Host
Set the application to start automatically if this was previously changed.
25
XIV
Monitor the migration if it is not already completed.
26
XIV
When the volume is synchronized delete the data migration (do not deactivate
the migration).
27
Non-XIV
Storage
Un-map migration volumes away from XIV if you must free up LUN IDs.
28
XIV
Consider re-sizing the migrated volumes to the next 17 GB boundary if the host
operating system is able to use new space on a re-sized volume.
29
Host
If XIV volume was re-sized, use host procedures to utilize the extra space.
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Task
number
Completed?
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Where to
perform
Task
Host
If non-XIV storage device drivers and other supporting software were not
removed earlier, remove them when convenient.
When all the hosts and volumes have been migrated there are two site clean up tasks left, as
shown in Table 8-3.
Table 8-3 Site cleanup check list
Task number
Completed?
Where to perform
Task
1
XIV
Delete migration paths
and targets.
2
Fabric
Delete all zones
related to non-XIV
storage including the
zone for XIV migration.
3
Non-XIV storage
Delete all LUNs and
perform secure data
destruction if required.
8.12 Device-specific considerations
The XIV supports migration from practically any SCSI storage device that has Fibre Channel
interfaces. This section contains device-specific information, but it is not an exhaustive list.
Ensure that the following requirements are understood for your storage device:
LUN0
Do we need to specifically map a LUN to LUN ID zero? This
determines whether you will have a problem defining the paths.
LUN numbering
Does the storage device GUI or CLI use decimal or hexadecimal LUN
numbering? This determines whether you must do a conversion when
entering LUN numbers into the XIV GUI.
Multipathing
Is the device active/active or active/passive? This determines whether
you define the storage device as a single target or as one target per
internal controller or service processor.
Definitions
Does the device have specific requirements when defining hosts?
Converting hexadecimal LUN IDs to decimal LUN IDs
When mapping volumes to the XIV it is very important to note the LUN IDs allocated by the
non-XIV storage. The methodology to do this varies by vendor and device. If the device uses
hexadecimal LUN numbering then it is also important to understand how to convert
hexadecimal numbers into decimal numbers, to enter into the XIV GUI.
Using a spreadsheet to convert hex to decimal
Microsoft Excel and Open Office both have a spreadsheet formula known as hex2dec. If, for
example, you enter a hexadecimal value into spreadsheet cell location A4, then the formula to
convert the contents of that cell to decimal is =hex2dec(A4). If this formula does not appear to
work in Excel then add the Analysis ToolPak (within Excel go to the Tools menu  Add
ins  Select Analysis ToolPak).
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Using Microsoft calculator to convert hex to decimal
Start the calculator with the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Selecting Program Files  Programs  Accessories  Calculator.
From the View drop-down menu change from Standard to Scientific.
Select Hex.
Enter a hexadecimal number and then select Dec.
The hexadecimal number will have been converted to decimal.
Given that the XIV supports migration from almost any storage device, it is impossible to list
the methodology to get LUN IDs from each one.
8.12.1 EMC CLARiiON
The following considerations were identified specifically for EMC CLARiiON:
 LUN0
There is no requirement to map a LUN to LUN ID 0 for the CLARiiON to communicate with
the XIV.
 LUN numbering
The EMC CLARiiON uses decimal LUN numbers for both the CLARiiON ID and the host
ID (LUN number).
 Multipathing
The EMC CLARiiON is an active/passive storage device. This means that each storage
processor (SP-A and SP-B) must be defined as a separate target to the XIV. You could
choose to move LUN ownership of all the LUNs that you are migrating to a specific SP and
simply define only that SP as a target. But the recommendation is to define separate XIV
targets for each SP. Moving a LUN from one SP to another is known as trespassing.
Note: Some of the newer Clariions (CX3, CX4) use ALUA when presenting LUNS to the
host and therefore appear to be an active/active storage device. ALUA is effectively
masking which SP owns a LUN on the backend of the Clariion. Though this appears as an
active/active storage device, ALUA could cause performance issues with XIV migrations if
configured using active/active storage device best practices (i.e. two paths for each target).
This is because LUN ownership could be switching from one SP to another in succession
during the migration with each switch taking CPU and IO cycles.
Note: You may configure two paths to the SAME SP to two different XIV interface modules
for some of redundancy. This will not protect against a trespass, but may protect from a XIV
hardware or SAN path failure.
 Requirements when defining the XIV
If migrating from an EMC CLARiiON use the settings shown in Table 8-4 to define the XIV
to the CLARiiON. Ensure that Auto-trespass is disabled for every XIV initiator port
(WWPN) registered to the Clariion.
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Table 8-4 Defining an XIV to the EMC CLARiiON
Initiator information
Recommended setting
Initiator type
CLARiiON Open
HBA type
Host
Array CommPath
Enabled
Failover mode
0
Unit serial number
Array
8.12.2 EMC Symmetrix and DMX
The considerations discussed in this section were identified specifically for EMC Symmetrix
and DMX.
LUN0
There is a requirement for the EMC Symmetrix or DMX to present a LUN ID 0 to the XIV in
order for the XIV Storage System to communicate with the EMC Symmetrix or DMX. In many
installations, the VCM device is allocated to LUN-0 on all FAs and is automatically presented
to all hosts. In these cases, the XIV connects to the DMX with no issues. However, in newer
installations, the VCM device is no longer presented to all hosts and therefore a real LUN-0 is
required to be presented to the XIV in order for the XIV to connect to the DMX. This LUN-0
can be a dummy device of any size that will not be migrated or an actual device that will be
migrated.
LUN numbering
The EMC Symmetrix and DMX, by default, does not present volumes in the range of 0 to 512
decimal. The Symmetrix/DMX presents volumes based on the LUN ID that was given the
volume when the volume was placed on the FA port. If a volume was placed on the FA with a
LUN ID of 90, this is how it is presented to the host by default. The Symmetrix/DMX also
presents the LUN IDs in hex. Thus, LUN ID 201 equates to decimal 513, which is greater than
512 and is outside of the XIV's range. There are two disciplines for migrating data from a
Symmetrix/DMX where the LUN ID is greater than 512 (decimal).
Re-map the volume
One way to migrate a volume with a LUN ID higher than 512 is to re-map the volume in one of
two ways:
 Map the volume to a free FA or an FA that has available LUN ID slots less than hex 200
(decimal 512). In most cases this can be done without interruption to the production
server. The XIV is zoned and the target defined to the FA port with the lower LUN ID.
 Re-map the volume to a lower LUN ID, one that is less than 200 hex. However, this
requires that the host be shut down while the change is taking place and is therefore not
the best option.
LUN-Offset
With EMC Symmetrix Enginuity code 68 - 71 code, there is an EMC method of presenting
LUN IDs to hosts other than the LUN ID given to the volume when placed on the FA. In the
Symmetrix/DMX world, a volume is given a unique LUN ID when configured on an FA. Each
volume on an FA must have a unique LUN ID. The default method (and a best practice of
presenting volumes to a host) is to use the LUN ID given to the volume when placed on the
FA. In other words, if 'vol1' was placed on an FA with an ID of 7A (hex (0x07a) decimal 122),
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this is the LUN ID that is presented to the host. Using the lunoffset option of the symmask
command, a volume can be presented to a host (WWPN initiator) with a different LUN ID than
was assigned the volume when placed on the FA. Because it is done at the initiator level, the
production server can keep the high LUNs (above 128) while being allocated to the XIV using
lower LUN IDs (below 512 decimal).
Migrating volumes that were used by HP-UX
For HP-UX hosts attached to EMC Symmetrix there is a setting known as
Volume_Set_Addressing that can be enabled on a per-FA basis. This is required for HP-UX
host connectivity but is not compatible with any other host types (including XIV). If
Volume_Set_Addressing (also referred to as the V bit setting) is enabled on an FA, then the
XIV will not be able to access anything but LUN 0 on that FA. To avoid this issue, map the
HP-UX host volumes to a different FA that is not configured specifically for HP-UX. Then zone
the XIV migration port to this FA instead of the FA being used by HP-UX. in most cases, EMC
symmetrix/DMX volumes can be mapped to an additional FA without interruption.
Multipathing
The EMC Symmetrix and DMX are active/active storage devices.
8.12.3 HDS TagmaStore USP
In this section we discuss HDS TagmaStore USP.
LUN0
There is a requirement for the HDS TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform (USP) to present
a LUN ID 0 to the XIV in order for the XIV Storage System to communicate with the HDS
device.
LUN numbering
The HDS USP uses hexadecimal LUN numbers.
Multipathing
The HDS USP is an active/active storage device.
8.12.4 HP EVA
The following requirements were determined after migration from a HP EVA 4400 and 8400.
LUN0
There is no requirement to map a LUN to LUN ID 0 for the HP EVA to communicate with the
XIV. This is because by default the HP EVA presents a special LUN known as the Console
LUN as LUN ID 0.
LUN numbering
The HP EVA uses decimal LUN numbers.
Multipathing
The HP EVA 4000/6000/8000 are active/active storage devices. For HP EVA 3000/5000, the
initial firmware release was active/passive, but a firmware upgrade to VCS Version 4.004
made it active/active capable. For more details see the following Web site:
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http://h21007.www2.hp.com/portal/site/dspp/menuitem.863c3e4cbcdc3f3515b49c108973a8
01?ciid=aa08d8a0b5f02110d8a0b5f02110275d6e10RCRD
Requirements when connecting to XIV
Define the XIV as a Linux host.
To check the LUN IDs assigned to a specific host:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Log in into Command View EVA.h.
Select the storage on which you are working.
Click the Hosts icon.
Select the specific host.
Click the Presentation tab.
Here you will see the LUN name and the LUN ID presented.
To present EVA LUNs to XIV:
1. Create the host alias for XIV and add the XIV initiator ports that are zoned to EVA.
2. From the Command View EVA, select the active Vdisk that must be presented to XIV.
3. Click the Presentation tab.
4. Click Present.
5. Select the XIV host Alias created.
6. Click the Assign LUN button on top.
7. Specify the LUN ID that you want to specify for XIV. Usually this is the same as was
presented to the host when it was accessing the EVA.
8.12.5 IBM DS3000/DS4000/DS5000
The following considerations were identified specifically for DS4000 but apply for all models of
D3000, DS4000, and DS5000 (for purposes of migration they are functionally all the same).
For ease of reading, only the DS4000 is referenced.
LUN0
There is a requirement for the DS4000 to present a LUN on LUN ID 0 to the XIV to allow the
XIV to communicate with the DS4000. It may be easier to create a new 1 GB LUN on the
DS4000 just to satisfy this requirement. This LUN does not need to have any data on it.
LUN numbering
For all DS4000 models, the LUN ID used in mapping is a decimal value between 0 to 15 or 0
to 255 (depending on model). This means that no hex-to-decimal conversion is necessary.
Figure 8-11 on page 227 shows an example of how to display the LUN IDs.
Defining the DS4000 to the XIV as a target
The DS4000 is an active/passive storage device. This means that each controller on the
DS4000 must be defined as a separate target to the XIV. You must take note of which
volumes are currently using which controllers as the active controller.
Preferred path errors
The following issues can occur if you have misconfigured a migration from a DS4000. You
may initially notice that the progress of the migration is very slow. The DS4000 event log may
contain errors, such as the one shown in Figure 8-27. If you see the migration volume fail
between the A and B controllers, this means that the XIV is defined to the DS4000 as a host
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that supports ADT/RDAC (which you should immediately correct) and that either the XIV
target definitions have paths to both controllers or that you are migrating from the wrong
controller.
Figure 8-27 DS4000 LUN fail over
In Example 8-10 the XCLI commands show that the target called ITSO_DS4700 has two ports,
one from controller A (201800A0B82647EA) and one from controller B (201900A0B82647EA).
This is not the correct configuration and should not be used.
Example 8-10 Incorrect definition, as target has ports to both controllers
>> target_list
Name
ITSO_DS4700
SCSI Type
FC
Connected
yes
>> target_port_list target=ITSO_DS4700
Target Name
Port Type
Active
ITSO_DS4700
FC
yes
ITSO_DS4700
FC
yes
WWPN
201800A0B82647EA
201900A0B82647EA
iSCSI Address
iSCSI Port
0
0
Instead, two targets should have been defined, as shown in Example 8-11. In this example,
two separate targets have been defined, each target having only one port for the relevant
controller.
Example 8-11 Correct definitions for a DS4700
> target_list
Name
DS4700-ctrl-A
DS4700-ctrl-B
SCSI Type
FC
FC
Connected
yes
yes
>> target_port_list target=DS4700-Ctrl-A
Target Name
Port Type
Active
DS4700-ctrl-A
FC
yes
WWPN
201800A0B82647EA
iSCSI Address
iSCSI Port
0
>> target_port_list target=DS4700-Ctrl-B
Target Name
Port Type
Active
DS4700-ctrl-B
FC
yes
WWPN
201900A0B82647EA
iSCSI Address
iSCSI Port
0
Note: Some of the DS4000 storage devices (ex. DS4700) have multiple target ports on
each controller, it will not help you to attach more target ports from the same controller, as
XIV don't have multipathing capabilities. Only one path per controller should be attached.
Defining the XIV to the DS4000 as a host
Use the DS Storage Manager to check the profile of the DS4000 and select a host type for
which ADT is disabled or failover mode is RDAC. To display the profile from the DS Storage
Manager choose Storage Subsystem  View  Profile  All. Then go to the bottom of the
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Profile panel. The profile may vary according to NVRAM version. In Example 8-12 select the
host type for which ADT status is disabled (Windows 2000).
Example 8-12 Earlier NVRAM versions
HOST TYPE
Linux
Windows 2000/Server 2003/Server 2008 Non-Clustered
ADT STATUS
Enabled
Disabled
In Example 8-13 choose the host type that specifies RDAC (Windows 2000).
Example 8-13 Later NVRAM versions
HOST TYPE
Linux
Windows 2000/Server 2003/Server 2008 Non-Clustered
FAILOVER MODE
ADT
RDAC
You can now create a host definition on the DS4000 for the XIV. If you have zoned the XIV to
both DS4000 controllers you can add both XIV initiator ports to the host definition. This
means that the host properties should look similar to Figure 8-28. After mapping your
volumes to the XIV migration host, you must take note of which controller each volume is
owned by. When you define the data migrations on the XIV, the migration should point to the
target that matches the controller that owns the volume being migrated.
Figure 8-28 XIV defined to the DS4000 as a host
8.12.6 IBM ESS E20/F20/800
The following considerations were identified for ESS 800.
LUN0
There is no requirement to map a LUN to LUN ID 0 for the ESS to communicate with the XIV.
LUN numbering
The LUN IDs used by the ESS are in hexadecimal, so they must be converted to decimal
when entered as XIV data migrations. It is not possible to specifically request certain LUN
IDs. In Example 8-14 there are 18 LUNs allocated by an ESS 800 to an XIV host called
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4. You can clearly see that the LUN IDs are hex. The LUN IDs given in
the right-hand column were added to the output to show the hex-to-decimal conversion
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needed for use with XIV. An example of how to view LUN IDs using the ESS 800 Web GUI is
shown in Figure 8-26 on page 248.
Restriction: The ESS can only allocate LUN IDs in the range 0 to 255 (hex 00 to FF). This
means that only 256 LUNs can be migrated at one time on a per target bases. In other
words more than 256 LUNs may be migrated if more than one target is used.
Example 8-14 Listing ESS 800 LUN IDs using ESSCLI
C:\esscli -s 10.10.1.10 -u storwatch -p specialist list volumeaccess -d
"host=NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4"
Tue Nov 03 07:20:36 EST 2009 IBM ESSCLI 2.4.0
Volume
-----100e
100f
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
101a
101b
101c
101d
101e
101f
LUN
---0000
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008
0009
000a
000b
000c
000d
000e
000f
0010
0011
Size(GB)
-------10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
Initiator
---------------5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
5001738000230153
Host
------------------NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
NextraZap_ITSO_M5P4
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
(LUN
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
ID
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
0)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
Multipathing
The ESS 800 is an active/active storage device. You can define multiple paths from the XIV to
the ESS 800 for migration. Ideally, connect to more than one host bay in the ESS 800.
Because each XIV host port is defined as a separate host system, ensure that the LUN ID
used for each volume is the same. There is a check box on the Modify Volume Assignments
panel titled “Use same ID/LUN in source and target” that will assist you. Figure 8-31 on
page 267 shows a good example of two XIV host ports with the same LUN IDs.
Requirements when defining the XIV
Define each XIV host port to the ESS 800 as a Linux x86 host.
8.12.7 IBM DS6000 and DS8000
The following considerations were identified for DS6000 and DS8000.
LUN0
There is no requirement to map a LUN to LUN ID 0 for a DS6000 or DS8000 to communicate
with the XIV.
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LUN numbering
The DS6000 and DS8000 use hexadecimal LUN IDs. These can be displayed using DSCLI
with the showvolgrp -lunmap xxx command, where xxx is the volume group created to assign
volumes to the XIV for data migration. Do not use the Web GUI to display LUN IDs.
Multipathing with DS6000
The DS6000 is an active/active storage device, but each controller has dedicated host ports,
whereas each LUN has a preferred controller. If I/O for a particular LUN is sent to host ports
of the non-preferred controller, the LUN will not fail over, but that I/O may experience a small
performance penalty. This may lead you to consider migrating volumes with even LSS
numbers (such as volumes 0000 and 0200) from the upper controller and volumes with odd
LSS numbers (such as volumes 0100 and 0300) from the lower controller. However, this is not
a robust solution. Define the DS6000 as a single target with one path to each controller.
Multipathing with DS8000
The DS8000 is an active/active storage device. You can define multiple paths from the XIV to
the DS8000 for migration. Ideally, connect to more than one I/O bay in the DS8000.
Requirements when defining the XIV
In Example 8-15 a volume group is created used a type of SCSI Map 256, which is the correct
type for a RedHat Linux host type. A starting LUN ID of 8 is chosen to show how hexadecimal
numbering is used. The range of valid LUN IDs for this volume group are 0 to FF (0 to 255 in
decimal). An extra LUN is then added to the volume group to show how specific LUN IDs can
be selected by volume. Two host connections are then created using the Red Hat Linux host
type. By using the same volume group ID for both connections, we ensure that the LUN
numbering used by each defined path will be the same.
Example 8-15 Listing DS6000 and DS8000 LUN IDs
dscli> mkvolgrp -type scsimap256 -volume 0200-0204 -LUN 8 migrVG
CMUC00030I mkvolgrp: Volume group V18 successfully created.
dscli> chvolgrp -action add -volume 0205 -lun 0E V18
CMUC00031I chvolgrp: Volume group V18 successfully modified.
dscli> showvolgrp -lunmap V18
Name migrVG
ID
V18
Type SCSI Map 256
Vols 0200 0201 0202 0203 0204 0205
==============LUN Mapping===============
vol lun
========
0200 08
(comment: use decimal value 08 in XIV GUI)
0201 09
(comment: use decimal value 09 in XIV GUI)
0202 0A
(comment: use decimal value 10 in XIV GUI)
0203 0B
(comment: use decimal value 11 in XIV GUI)
0204 0C
(comment: use decimal value 12 in XIV GUI)
0D
0205 0E
(comment: use decimal value 14 in XIV GUI)
dscli> mkhostconnect -wwname 5001738000230153 -hosttype LinuxRHEL -volgrp V18 XIV_M5P4
CMUC00012I mkhostconnect: Host connection 0020 successfully created.
dscli> mkhostconnect -wwname 5001738000230173 -hosttype LinuxRHEL -volgrp V18 XIV_M7P4
CMUC00012I mkhostconnect: Host connection 0021 successfully created.
dscli> lshostconnect
Name
ID
WWPN
HostType Profile
portgrp volgrpID
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===========================================================================================
XIV_M5P4
0020 5001738000230153 LinuxRHEL Intel - Linux RHEL
0 V18
XIV_M7P4
0021 5001738000230173 LinuxRHEL Intel - Linux RHEL
0 V18
8.13 Sample migration
Here is a specific example migration.
Using XIV DM to migrate an AIX file system from ESS 800 to XIV
In this example we migrate a file system on an AIX host using ESS 800 disks to XIV. First we
select a volume group to migrate. In Example 8-16 we select a volume group called
ESS_VG1. The lsvg command shows that this volume group has one file system mounted on
/mnt/redbk. The df -k command shows that the file system is 20 GiB in size and is 46%
used.
Example 8-16 Selecting a file system
root@dolly:/mnt/redbk# lsvg -l ESS_VG1
ESS_VG1:
LV NAME
TYPE
LPs
PPs
loglv00
jfs2log
1
1
fslv00
jfs2
20
20
root@dolly:/mnt/redbk# df -k
Filesystem
1024-blocks
Free %Used
/dev/fslv00
20971520 11352580
46%
PVs
1
3
LV STATE
open/syncd
open/syncd
MOUNT POINT
N/A
/mnt/redbk
Iused %Iused Mounted on
17
1% /mnt/redbk
We now determine which physical disks must be migrated. In Example 8-17 we use the lspv
commands to determine that hdisk3, hdisk4, and hdisk5 are the relevant disks for this VG.
The lsdev -Cc disk command confirms that they are located on an IBM ESS 2105. We then
use the lscfg command to determine the hardware serial numbers of the disks involved.
Example 8-17 Determine the migration disks
root@dolly:/mnt/redbk# lspv
hdisk1
0000d3af10b4a189
rootvg
hdisk3
0000d3afbec33645
ESS_VG1
hdisk4
0000d3afbec337b5
ESS_VG1
hdisk5
0000d3afbec33922
ESS_VG1
root@dolly:~/sddpcm# lsdev -Cc disk
hdisk0 Available 11-08-00-2,0 Other SCSI Disk Drive
hdisk1 Available 11-08-00-4,0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
hdisk2 Available 11-08-00-4,1 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
hdisk3 Available 17-08-02
IBM MPIO FC 2105
hdisk4 Available 17-08-02
IBM MPIO FC 2105
hdisk5 Available 17-08-02
IBM MPIO FC 2105
active
active
active
active
root@dolly:/mnt# lscfg -vpl hdisk3 | egrep "Model|Serial"
Machine Type and Model......2105800
Serial Number...............00FFCA33
root@dolly:/mnt# lscfg -vpl hdisk4 | egrep "Model|Serial"
Machine Type and Model......2105800
Serial Number...............010FCA33
root@dolly:/mnt# lscfg -vpl hdisk5 | egrep "Model|Serial"
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Machine Type and Model......2105800
Serial Number...............011FCA33
These volumes are currently allocated from an IBM ESS 800. In Figure 8-29 we use the ESS
Web GUI to confirm that the volume serial numbers match with those determined in
Example 8-17 on page 263. Note that the LUN IDs here are those used by ESS 800 with AIX
hosts (IDs 500F, 5010, and 5011). They are not correct for the XIV and will be changed when
we re-map them to the XIV.
Figure 8-29 LUNs allocated to AIX from the ESS 800
Because we now know the source hardware we can create connections between the ESS
800 and the XIV and the XIV and Dolly (our host server). First, in Example 8-18 we identify
the existing zones that connect Dolly to the ESS 800. We have two zones, one for each AIX
HBA. Each zone contains the same two ESS 800 HBA ports.
Example 8-18 Existing zoning on the SAN Fabric
zone:
ESS800_dolly_fcs0
10:00:00:00:c9:53:da:b3
50:05:07:63:00:c9:0c:21
50:05:07:63:00:cd:0c:21
zone: ESS800_dolly_fcs0
10:00:00:00:c9:53:da:b2
50:05:07:63:00:c9:0c:21
50:05:07:63:00:cd:0c:21
We now create two new zones. The first zone connects the initiator ports on the XIV to the
ESS 800. The second and third zones connects the target ports on the XIV to Dolly (for use
after the migration). These are shown in Example 8-19. All six ports on the XIV clearly must
have been cabled into the SAN fabric.
Example 8-19 New zoning on the SAN Fabric
zone:
ESS800_nextrazap
50:05:07:63:00:c9:0c:21
50:05:07:63:00:cd:0c:21
50:01:73:80:00:23:01:53
50:01:73:80:00:23:01:73
zone: nextrazap_dolly_fcs0
10:00:00:00:c9:53:da:b3
50:01:73:80:00:23:01:41
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50:01:73:80:00:23:01:51
nextrazap_dolly_fcs1
10:00:00:00:c9:53:da:b2
50:01:73:80:00:23:01:61
50:01:73:80:00:23:01:71
We then create the migration connections between the XIV and the ESS 800. An example of
using the XIV GUI to do this was shown in “Define target connectivity (Fibre Channel only).”
on page 234. In Example 8-20 we use the XCLI to define a target, then the ports on that
target, then the connections between XIV and the target (ESS 800). Finally, we check that the
links are active=yes and up=yes. We can use two ports on the ESS 800 because it is an
active/active storage device.
Example 8-20 Connecting ESS 800 to XIV for migration using XCLI
>> target_define protocol=FC target=ESS800 xiv_features=no
Command executed successfully.
>> target_port_add fcaddress=50:05:07:63:00:c9:0c:21 target=ESS800
Command executed successfully.
>> target_port_add fcaddress=50:05:07:63:00:cd:0c:21 target=ESS800
Command executed successfully.
>> target_connectivity_define local_port=1:FC_Port:5:4
fcaddress=50:05:07:63:00:c9:0c:21 target=ESS800
Command executed successfully.
>> target_connectivity_define local_port=1:FC_Port:7:4
fcaddress=50:05:07:63:00:cd:0c:21 target=ESS800
Command executed successfully.
>> target_connectivity_list
Target Name
Remote Port
FC Port
IP Interface
Active
ESS800
5005076300C90C21
1:FC_Port:5:4
yes
ESS800
5005076300CD0C21
1:FC_Port:7:4
yes
Up
yes
yes
We now define the XIV as a host to the ESS 800. In Figure 8-30 we have defined the two
initiator ports on the XIV (with WWPNs that end in 53 and 73) as Linux (x86) hosts called
Nextra_Zap_5_4 and NextraZap_7_4.
Figure 8-30 Define the XIV to the ESS 800 as a host
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Finally, we can define the AIX host to the XIV as a host using the XIV GUI or XCLI. In
Example 8-21 we use the XCLI to define the host and then add two HBA ports to that host.
Example 8-21 Define Dolly to the XIV using XCLI
>> host_define host=dolly
Command executed successfully.
>> host_add_port fcaddress=10:00:00:00:c9:53:da:b3 host=dolly
Command executed successfully.
>> host_add_port fcaddress=10:00:00:00:c9:53:da:b2 host=dolly
Command executed successfully.
Once the zoning changes have been done and connectivity and correct definitions confirmed
between XIV to ESS and XIV to AIX host, we take an outage on the volume group and related
file systems that are going to be migrated. In Example 8-22 we unmount the file system, vary
off the volume group, and then export the volume group. Finally, we rmdev the hdisk devices.
Example 8-22 Removing the non-XIV file system
root@dolly:/# umount /mnt/redbk
root@dolly:/# varyoffvg ESS_VG1
root@dolly:/# exportvg ESS_VG1
root@dolly:/# rmdev -dl hdisk3
hdisk3 deleted
root@dolly:/# rmdev -dl hdisk4
hdisk4 deleted
root@dolly:/# rmdev -dl hdisk5
hdisk5 deleted
If the Dolly host no longer needs access to any LUNs on the ESS 800 we remove the SAN
zoning that connects Dolly to the ESS 800. In Example 8-18 on page 264 this was the zone
called ESS800_dolly_fcs0.
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We now allocate the ESS 800 LUNS to the XIV, as shown in Figure 8-31, where volume
serials 00FFCA33, 010FCA33, and 011FCA33 have been unmapped from the host called
Dolly and remapped to the XIV definitions called NextraZap_5_4 and NextraZap_7_4. We do
not allow the volumes to be presented to both the host and the XIV. Note that the LUN IDs in
the Host Port column are correct for use with XIV because they start with zero and are the
same for both NextraZap Initiator ports.
Figure 8-31 LUNs allocated to the XIV
We now create the DMs and run a test on each LUN. The XIV GUI or XCLI could be used. In
Example 8-23 the commands to create, test, and activate one of the three migrations is
shown. We must run each command for hdisk3 and hdisk4 also.
Example 8-23 Creating one migration
> dm_define target="ESS800" vol=”dolly_hdisk3” lun=0 source_updating=yes create_vol=yes pool=AIX
Command executed successfully.
> dm_test vol=”dolly_hdisk3”
Command executed successfully.
> dm_activate vol=”dolly_hdisk3”
Command executed successfully.
After we create and activate all three migrations, the Migration panel in the XIV GUI looks as
shown in Figure 8-32. Note that the remote LUN IDs are 0, 1, and 2, which must match the
LUN numbers seen in Figure 8-31.
Figure 8-32 Migration has started
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Now that the migration has been started we can map the volumes to the AIX host definition
on the XIV, as shown in Figure 8-33, where the AIX host is called Dolly.
Figure 8-33 Map the XIV volumes to the host
Now we can bring the volume group back online. Because this AIX host was already using
SDDPCM, we can install the XIVPCM (the AIX host attachment kit) at any time prior to the
change. In Example 8-24 we confirm that SDDPCM is in use and that the XIV definition file
set is installed. We then run cfgmgr to detect the new disks. We then confirm that the disks
are visible using the lsdev -Cc disk command.
Example 8-24 Rediscovering the disks
root@dolly:~# lslpp -L | grep -i sdd
devices.sddpcm.53.rte
2.2.0.4
C
F
IBM SDD PCM for AIX V53
root@dolly:/# lslpp -L | grep 2810
disk.fcp.2810.rte
1.1.0.1
C
F
IBM 2810XIV ODM definitions
root@dolly:/# cfgmgr -l fcs0
root@dolly:/# cfgmgr -l fcs1
root@dolly:/# lsdev -Cc disk
hdisk1 Available 11-08-00-4,0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
hdisk2 Available 11-08-00-4,1 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
hdisk3 Available 17-08-02
IBM 2810XIV Fibre Channel Disk
hdisk4 Available 17-08-02
IBM 2810XIV Fibre Channel Disk
hdisk5 Available 17-08-02
IBM 2810XIV Fibre Channel Disk
A final check before bringing the volume group back ensures that the Fibre Channel pathing
from the host to the XIV is set up correctly. We can use the AIX lspath command against
each hdisk, as shown in Example 8-25. Note that in this example the host can connect to
port 2 on each of the XIV modules 4, 5, 6, and 7 (which is confirmed by checking the last two
digits of the WWPN).
Example 8-25 Using the lspath command
root@dolly:~/# lspath -l hdisk5 -s available -F"connection:parent:path_status:status"
5001738000230161,3000000000000:fscsi1:Available:Enabled
5001738000230171,3000000000000:fscsi1:Available:Enabled
5001738000230141,3000000000000:fscsi0:Available:Enabled
5001738000230151,3000000000000:fscsi0:Available:Enabled
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We can also use a script provided by the XIV Host Attachment Kit for AIX, called xiv_devlist.
An example of the output is shown in Example 8-26.
Example 8-26 Using xiv_devlist
root@dolly:~# xiv_devlist
XIV devices
===========
Device
Vol Name
XIV Host
Size
Paths XIV ID
Vol ID
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------hdisk3
dolly_hdisk3 dolly
10.0GB 4/4
MN00023 8940
hdisk4
dolly_hdisk4 dolly
10.0GB 4/4
MN00023 8941
hdisk5
dolly_hdisk5 dolly
10.0GB 4/4
MN00023 8942
Non-XIV devices
===============
Device
Size
Paths
----------------------------------hdisk1
N/A
1/1
hdisk2
N/A
1/1
We can also use the XIV GUI to confirm connectivity by going to the Hosts and Clusters 
Host Connectivity panel. An example is shown in Figure 8-34, where the connections match
those seen in Example 8-25 on page 268.
Figure 8-34 Host connectivity panel
Having confirmed that the disks have been detected and that the paths are good, we can now
bring the volume group back online. In Example 8-27 we import the VG, confirm that the
PVIDs match those seen in Example 8-17 on page 263, and then mount the file system.
Example 8-27 Bring the VG back online
root@dolly:/# /usr/sbin/importvg -y'ESS_VG1' hdisk3
ESS_VG1
root@dolly:/# lsvg -l ESS_VG1
ESS_VG1:
LV NAME
TYPE
LPs
PPs
PVs LV STATE
MOUNT POINT
loglv00
jfs2log
1
1
1
closed/syncd N/A
fslv00
jfs2
20
20
3
closed/syncd /mnt/redbk
root@dolly:/# lspv
hdisk1
0000d3af10b4a189
rootvg
active
hdisk3
0000d3afbec33645
ESS_VG1
active
hdisk4
0000d3afbec337b5
ESS_VG1
active
hdisk5
0000d3afbec33922
ESS_VG1
active
root@dolly:/# mount /mnt/redbk
root@dolly:/mnt/redbk# df -k
Filesystem
1024-blocks
Free %Used
Iused %Iused Mounted on
/dev/fslv00
20971520 11352580
46%
17
1% /mnt/redbk
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Once the sync is complete it is time to delete the migrations. Do not leave the migrations in
place any longer than they need to be. We can use multiple selection to perform the deletion,
as shown in Figure 8-35, taking care to delete and not deactivate the migration.
Figure 8-35 Deletion of the synchronized data migration
Now at the ESS 800 Web GUI we can un-map the three ESS 800 LUNs from the Nextra_Zap
host definitions. This frees up the LUN IDs to be reused for the next volume group migration.
After the migrations are deleted, a final suggested task is to re-size the volumes on the XIV to
the next 17 GB cutoff. In this example we migrate ESS LUNs that are 10 GB in size. However,
the XIV commits 17 GB of disk space because all space is allocated in 17 GB portions. For
this reason it is better to resize the volume on the XIV GUI from 10 GB to 17 GB so that all the
allocated space on the XIV is available to the operating system. This presumes that the
operating system can tolerate a LUN size growing, which in the case of AIX is true.
We must unmount any file systems and vary off the volume group before we start. Then we
go to the volumes section of the XIV GUI, right-click to select the 10 GB volume, and select
the Resize option. The current size appears. In Figure 8-36 the size is shown in 512 byte
blocks because the volume was automatically created by the XIV based on the size of the
source LUN on the ESS 800. If we multiply 19531264 by 512 bytes we get 10,000,007,168
bytes, which is 10 GB.
Figure 8-36 Starting volume size in blocks
We change the sizing methodology to GB and the size immediately changes to 17 GB, as
shown in Figure 8-37. If the volume was already larger than 17 GB, then it will change to the
next interval of 17 GB. For example, a 20 GB volume shows as 34 GB.
Figure 8-37 Size changed to GB
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We then get a warning message. The volume is increasing in size. Click OK to continue.
Now the volume is really 17 GB and no space is being wasted on the XIV. The new size is
shown in Figure 8-38.
Figure 8-38 Resized volumes
Vary on the VG again to update AIX that the volume size has changed. In Example 8-28 we
import the VG, which detects that the source disks have grown in size. We then run the chvg
-g command to grow the volume group, then confirm that the file system can still be used.
Example 8-28 Importing larger disks
root@dolly:~# /usr/sbin/importvg -y'ESS_VG1' hdisk3
0516-1434 varyonvg: Following physical volumes appear to be grown in size.
Run chvg command to activate the new space.
hdisk3
hdisk4
hdisk5
ESS_VG1
root@dolly:~# chvg -g ESS_VG1
root@dolly:~# mount /mnt/redbk
root@dolly:/mnt/redbk# df -k
Filesystem
1024-blocks
Free %Used
Iused %Iused Mounted on
/dev/fslv00
20971520 11352580
46%
17
1% /mnt/redbk
We can now resize the file system to take advantage of the extra space. In Example 8-29 the
original size of the file system in 512 byte blocks is shown.
Example 8-29 Displaying the current size of the file system
Change/Show Characteristics of an Enhanced Journaled File System
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
File system name
NEW mount point
SIZE of file system
Unit Size
Number of units
[Entry Fields]
/mnt/redbk
[/mnt/redbk]
512bytes
[41943040]
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We change the number of 512 byte units to 83886080 because this is 40 GB in size, as
shown in Example 8-30.
Example 8-30 Growing the file system
SIZE of file system
Unit Size
+
Number of units
512bytes
[83886080]
The file system has now grown. In Example 8-31 we can see the file system has grown from
20 GB to 40 GB.
Example 8-31 Displaying the enlarged file system
root@dolly:~# df -k
/dev/fslv00
41943040
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1% /mnt/redbk
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9
Chapter 9.
SVC migration with XIV
This chapter discusses data migration considerations for the XIV Storage System when used
in combination with the IBM SAN Volume Controller (SVC). It presumes that you have an
existing SVC and that you are replacing back-end disk controllers with a new XIV or simply
adding an XIV as a new managed disk controller.
The combination of SVC and XIV allows a client to benefit from the high-performance grid
architecture of the XIV while retaining the business benefits delivered by the SVC (such as
higher performance via disk aggregation, multivendor and multi-device copy services, and
data migration functions).
The order of the sections in this chapter address each of the requirements of an
implementation plan in the order in which they arise. This chapter does not, however, discuss
physical implementation requirements (such as power requirements), as they are already
addressed in the book IBM XIV Storage System: Architecture, Implementation, and Usage,
SG24-76599, found here:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/Redbooks.nsf/RedbookAbstracts/sg247659.html?Open
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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9.1 Steps to take when using SVC migration with XIV
There are six considerations when placing a new XIV behind an SVC:






“XIV and SVC interoperability” on page 274
“Zoning setup” on page 275
“Volume size considerations for XIV with SVC” on page 278
“Using an XIV for SVC quorum disks” on page 283
“Configuring an XIV for attachment to SVC” on page 285
“Data movement strategy overview” on page 289
9.2 XIV and SVC interoperability
Because SVC-attached hosts do not communicate directly with the XIV, there are only two
interoperability considerations:
 9.2.1, “Firmware versions” on page 274
 9.2.2, “Copy functions” on page 275
9.2.1 Firmware versions
The SVC and XIV both have minimum firmware requirements. Whereas the versions given
here are current at the time of writing, they may have since changed. Confirm them by visiting
the IBM Systems Storage Interoperation Center (SSIC) at:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/support/storage/config/ssic/index.jsp
SVC firmware
The first SVC firmware version that supported XIV was 4.3.0.1. However, the SVC cluster
should be on at least SVC firmware Version 4.3.1.4 or more preferably the most recent level
available from IBM. You can display the SVC firmware version by viewing the cluster
properties in the SVC GUI or by using the svcinfo lscluster command specifying the name
of the cluster. The SVC in Example 9-1 is on SVC code level 4.3.1.5.
Example 9-1 Displaying the SVC cluster code level using SVC CLI
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin> svcinfo lscluster SVCSTGDEMO
code_level 4.3.1.5 (build 9.16.0903130000)
XIV firmware
The XIV should be on at least XIV firmware Version 10.0.0.a. The XIV firmware version is
shown on the All Systems front page of the XIV GUI. The XIV in Figure 9-1 is on version
10.0.1.b (circled on the upper right in red).
Figure 9-1 Figure 9-1Version 10.0.1.b
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The XIV firmware version can also be displayed by using an XCLI command as shown in
Example 9-2, where the example machine is on XIV firmware Version 10.0.1.b.
Example 9-2 Displaying the XIV firmware version
xcli -m 10.0.0.1 -u admin -p adminadmin version_get
Version
10.0.1.b
Note that an upgrade from XIV 10.0.x.x code levels to 10.1.x.x code levels is not concurrent
(meaning that the XIV is unavailable for I/O during the upgrade).
9.2.2 Copy functions
The XIV has many advanced copy and remote mirror capabilities, but for XIV volumes being
used as SVC MDisks (including image mode VDisk/MDisks), none of these functions can be
used. If copy and mirror functions are needed, they should be performed using the equivalent
functional capabilities in the SVC (such as SVC FlashCopy and SVC Metro and Global
Mirror). This is because XIV copy functions are not aware of un-destaged write cache data
resident in the SVC cache. Whereas it is possible to disable SVC write-cache (when creating
VDisks), this method is not supported by IBM for VDisks resident on XIV.
9.2.3 TPC with XIV and SVC
XIV code levels 10.1.0.a and later support the use of Tivoli Storage Productivity Center (TPC)
via an embedded SMI-S agent in the XIV. Subsequently, if you want to use TPC in conjunction
with XIV then you your XIV must be code level 10.1.0.a (or later). TPC itself must be Version
4.1 (or later). Refer to the “Recommended Software Levels for SAN Volume Controller”
documentation for your SVC code level to identify the latest recommended TPC for Disk
software version via the following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/storage/support/2145
9.3 Zoning setup
One of the first tasks when implementing XIV is to add the XIV to the SAN fabric so that the
SVC cluster can communicate with the XIV over the Fibre Channel. The XIV can have up to
24 Fibre Channel host ports. Each XIV reports a single World Wide Node Name (WWNN)
that is the same for every XIV Fibre Channel host port. Each port also has a unique and
persistent World Wide Port Name (WWPN), which means that we can potentially zone 24
unique WWPNS from an XIV to an SVC cluster. However, the current SVC firmware has a
requirement that one SVC cluster cannot detect more than 16 WWPNs per WWNN, so at this
time there is no value in zoning more than 16 ports to the SVC. Because the XIV can have up
to six interface modules with four ports per module, it is better to use just two ports on each
module (allowing up to 12 ports total).
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When a partially populated XIV has a hardware upgrade to add usable capacity, more data
modules are added. At particular points in the upgrade path, the XIV will get more usable
Fibre Channel ports. In each case, we use half the available ports to communicate with an
SVC cluster (we do this to facilitate growth as modules are added). Depending on the total
usable capacity of the XIV, not all interface modules have active Fibre Channel ports.
Table 9-1 shows which modules will have active ports as capacity grows. You can also see
how many XIV ports we zone to the SVC as capacity grows.
Table 9-1 XIV host ports as capacity grows
XIV modules
Total usable
capacity (TB)
Total XIV
host ports
XIV host
ports to zone
to an SVC
cluster
Active
interface
modules
Inactive
interface
modules
6
27.26
8
4
4:5
6
9
43.09
16
8
4:5:7:8
6:9
10
50.29
16
8
4:5:7:8
6:9
11
54.65
20
10
4:5:7:8:9
6
12
61.74
20
10
4:5:7:8:9
6
13
66.16
24
12
4:5:6:7:8:9
14
73.24
24
12
4:5:6:7:8:9
15
79.11
24
12
4:5:6:7:8:9
Another way to view the activation state of the XIV interface modules is shown in Table 9-2.
As additional capacity is added to an XIV, additional XIV host ports become available. Where
a module is shown as inactive, this refers only to the host ports, not the data disks.
Table 9-2 XIV host ports as capacity grows
Module
27 TB
43 TB
50 TB
54 TB
61 TB
66 TB
73 TB
79 TB
Module 9
host ports
Not present
Inactive
Inactive
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Module 8
host ports
Not present
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Module 7
host ports
Not present
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Module 6
host ports
Inactive
Inactive
Inactive
Inactive
Inactive
Active
Active
Active
Module 5
host ports
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Module 4
host ports
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
Active
9.3.1 Capacity on demand
If the XIV has the Capacity on Demand (CoD) feature, then all Fibre Channel interface ports
are present and active (usable) at the time of install, regardless of how much usable capacity
has been purchased.
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9.3.2 Determining XIV WWPNs
XIV WWPNs are in the format 50:01:73:8x:xx:xx:RR:MP which break out as follows:
5
0:01:73:8
x:xx:xx
RR
M
P
The WWPN format (1, 2, or 5, where XIV is always format 5)
The IEEE OID for IBM (formerly registered to XIV)
Determined by IBM manufacturing and unique for every XIV rack
Rack ID (starts at 01)
Module ID (ranges from 4 to 9)
Port ID (0 to 3, although port numbers are 1–4)
91
93
90
92
91
81
93
83
90
80
92
82
71
73
70
72
61
63
60
62
91
51
93
53
90
50
92
52
41
43
40
42
 Module 9
 Module 8
 Module 7
 Module 6
 Module 5
 Module 4
Port 2
Port 4
Port 1
Port 3
Figure 9-2 XIV WWPN determination
In Figure 9-2, the MP value (module/port, which make up the last two digits of the WWPN) is
shown in each small box. The diagram represents the patch panel found at the rear of the XIV
rack.
To display the XIV WWPNs use the back view on the XIV GUI or the XCLI fc_port_list
command.
In the output example shown in Example 9-3 the four ports in module 4 are listed.
Example 9-3 Listing XIV Fibre Channel host ports
fc_port_list
Component ID
1:FC_Port:4:4
1:FC_Port:4:3
1:FC_Port:4:2
1:FC_Port:4:1
Status
OK
OK
OK
OK
Currently Functioning
yes
yes
yes
yes
WWPN
5001738000350143
5001738000350142
5001738000350141
5001738000350140
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9.3.3 Hardware dependencies
There are two Fibre Channel HBAs in each XIV interface module. From a physical
perspective:
 Ports 1 and 2 are on the left-hand HBA (viewed from the rear).
 Ports 3 and 4 are on the right-hand HBA (viewed from the rear).
From a configuration perspective:
 Ports 1, 2, and 3 are in SCSI target mode by default.
 Port 4 is set to SCSI initiator mode by default (for XIV replication and data migration).
For availability and performance use ports 1 and 3 for SVC and general host traffic. If you
have two fabrics, place port 1 in the first fabric and port 3 in the second fabric.
9.3.4 Sharing an XIV with another SVC cluster or non-SVC hosts
It is possible to share XIV host ports between an SVC cluster and non-SVC hosts, or between
two different SVC clusters. Simply zone the XIV host ports 1 and 3 on each XIV module to
both SVC and non-SVC hosts as required.
You can instead choose to use ports 2 and 4, although in principle these are reserved for data
migration and remote mirroring. For that reason port 4 on each module is by default in initiator
mode. If you want to change the mode of port 4 to target mode, you can do so easily from the
XIV GUI or XCLI. However, you may also need an RPQ from IBM. Contact your IBM XIV
representative to discuss this.
9.3.5 Zoning rules
The XIV-to-SVC zone should simply contain all the XIV ports in that fabric and all the SVC
ports in that fabric. In other words one big zone. This recommendation is relatively unique to
SVC. If you zone individual hosts directly to the XIV (instead of via SVC), then you should
always use single-initiator zones where each switch zone contains just one host (initiator)
HBA WWPN and up to six XIV host port WWPNs.
For SVC, ensure that the following rules are followed:
 With current SVC firmware levels, no more than 16 WWPNs from a single WWNN should
be zoned to an SVC cluster. Because the XIV has only one WWNN, this means that no
more than 16 XIV host ports should be zoned to a specific SVC cluster. If you use the
recommendations in Table 9-1 on page 276 this restriction should not be an issue.
 All nodes in an SVC cluster must be able to see the same set of XIV host ports. Operation
in a mode where two nodes see a different set of host ports on the same XIV will result in
the controller showing on the SVC as degraded and the system error log will request a
repair action. If the one big zone per fabric rule is followed, then this requirement is met.
9.4 Volume size considerations for XIV with SVC
There are several considerations when migrating data onto XIV using SVC. Volume sizes is
clearly an important one.
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9.4.1 SCSI queue depth considerations
The SVC uses one XIV host port as a preferred port for each MDisk (assigning them in a
round-robin fashion). A best practice is to therefore configure sufficient volumes on the XIV to
ensure that:
 Each XIV host port will receive closely matching I/O levels.
 The SVC will utilize the deep queue depth of each XIV host port.
Ideally, the number of MDisks presented by the XIV to the SVC should be a multiple of the
number of XIV host ports, from one to four. However, there is good math to support this.
The XIV can handle a queue depth of 1400 per Fibre Channel host port and a queue depth of
256 per mapped volume per host port:target port:volume tuple. However, the SVC sets the
following internal limits:
 The maximum queue depth per MDisk is 60.
 The maximum queue depth per target host port on an XIV is 1000.
Based on this knowledge, we can determine an ideal number of XIV volumes to map to the
SVC for use as MDisks by using this algorithm:
Q = ((P x C) / N) / M
This breaks out as follows:
Q
The calculated queue depth for each MDisk
P
The number of XIV host ports (unique WWPNs) visible to the SVC
cluster (should be 4, 8, 10, or 12 depending on the number of modules
in the XIV)
N
The number of nodes in the SVC cluster (2, 4, 6, or 8)
M
The number of volumes from the XIV to the SVC cluster (detected as
MDisks)
C
1000 (which is the maximum SCSI queue depth that an SVC will use
for each XIV host port)
If a 2-node SVC cluster is being used with 12 ports on IBM XIV System and 48 MDisks, this
yields a queue depth that as follows:
Q = ((12 ports*1000)/2 nodes)/48 MDisks = 125
Because 125 is greater than 60, the SVC uses a queue depth of 60 per MDisk. If a 4-node
SVC cluster is being used with 12 host ports on the IBM XIV System and 48 MDisks, this
yields a queue depth that as follows:
Q = ((12 ports*1000)/4 nodes)/48 MDisks = 62
Because 62 is greater than 60, the SVC uses a queue depth of 60 per MDisk.
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This leads to the following recommended volume sizes and quantities for 2-node and 4-node
SVC clusters.
Table 9-3 XIV volume size and quantity recommendation
Modules
Total usable
capacity
(TB)
XIV
host
ports
Volume
size
(GB)
Volume
quantity
Ratio of
volumes
to XIV host
ports
Approximate
left
over space
(TB)
6
27.26
4
1632
16
4
1.14
9
43.09
8
1632
26
3.3
0.65
10
50.29
8
1632
30
3.7
1.32
11
54.65
10
1632
33
3.3
0.79
12
61.74
10
1632
37
3.7
1.35
13
66.16
12
1632
40
3.3
0.87
14
73.24
12
1632
44
3.7
1.42
15
79.11
12
1632
48
4.0
0.76
If you have a 6-node or 8-node cluster, the formula suggests that you must use much larger
XIV volumes. However, currently available SVC firmware does not support an MDisk larger
than 2 TB, so it is simpler to continue to use the 1632 GB volume size. When using 1632 GB
volumes, there is leftover space. That space could be used for testing or for non-SVC
direct-attach hosts. If you map the remaining space to the SVC as an odd sized volume then
VDisk striping is not balanced, meaning that I/O is not be evenly striped across all XIV host
ports.
Tip: If you only provision part of the usable space of the XIV to be allocated to the SVC,
then the calculations above no longer work. You should instead size your MDisks to ensure
that at least two (and up to four) MDisks are created for each host port on the XIV.
9.4.2 XIV volume sizes
All volume sizes shown on the XIV GUI use decimal counting (109), meaning that 1 GB =
1,000,000,000 bytes. However, a GB using binary counting (using 230 bytes, more accurately
referred to as a GiB) counts 1 GiB as 1,073,741,824 bytes (ideally called a GiB to differentiate
it from a GB where size is calculated using decimal counting).
 By default the SVC uses MiB and GiB (binary counting method) when displaying MDisk
and VDisk sizes. However, the SVC still uses the term MB in the SVC GUI and MB or GB
in the SVC CLI output when displaying volume and disk sizes (the SVC CLI displays
capacity in whatever unit it decides is the most human readable).
 By default the XIV uses GB (decimal counting method) in the XIV GUI and CLI output
when displaying volume sizes.
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It also must be clearly understood that a volume created on an XIV is created in 17 GB
increments, which are not exactly 17 GB. In fact, the size of an XIV 17 GB volume can be
described in four ways:
GB
17 GB (decimal), as shown in the XIV GUI, but actually rounded down
to the nearest GB (see the number of bytes below).
GiB
16 GiB (binary counting where 1 GiB = 230 bytes). This is exactly 16
GiB.
Bytes
17,179,869,184 bytes.
Blocks
33,554,432 blocks (each block being 512 bytes).
Thus, XIV is using binary sizing when creating volumes, but displaying it in decimal and then
rounding it down.
The recommended volume size for XIV volumes presented to the SVC is 1632 GB (as viewed
on the XIV GUI). There is nothing special about this volume size, it simply divides nicely to
create on average four XIV volumes per XIV host port (for queue depth purposes).
The size of a 1632 GB volume (as viewed on the XIV GUI) can be stated in four ways:
GB
1632 GB (decimal), as shown in the XIV GUI, but rounded down to the
nearest GB (see the number of bytes below).
GiB
1520 GiB (binary counting where 1 GiB = 230 bytes). This is exactly
1520 GiB.
Bytes
1,632,087,572,480 bytes.
Blocks
3,187,671,040 blocks (each block being 512 bytes).
Note that the SVC reports each MDisk presented by XIV as 1520 GiB. Figure 9-3 shows what
the XIV reports.
Figure 9-3 An XIV volume sized for use with SVC
If you right-click the volume in the XIV GUI and display properties, you will be able to see that
this volume is 3,187,671,040 blocks. If you multiply 3,187,671,040 by 512 (because there are
512 bytes in a SCSI block) you will get 1,632,087,572,480 bytes. If you divide that by
1,073,741,824 (the number of bytes in a binary GiB), then you will get 1520 GiB, which is
exactly what the SVC reports for the same volume (MDisk), as shown in Example 9-4.
Example 9-4 An XIV volume mapped to the SVC
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -bytes
id name
status mode
capacity
ctrl_LUN_#
9
mdisk9 online unmanaged 1632087572480
0000000000000007
controller_name
XIV
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk
id name
status mode
capacity
9
mdisk9 online unmanaged 1520.0GB
controller_name
XIV
ctrl_LUN_#
0000000000000007
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9.4.3 Creating XIV volumes that are exactly the same size as SVC VDisks
To create an XIV volume that is exactly the same size as an existing SVC VDisk you can use
the process documented in 9.10.1, “Create image mode destination volumes on the XIV” on
page 297. This is only for a transition to or from image mode.
9.4.4 SVC 2TB volume limit
The XIV can create volumes of any size up to the entire capacity of the XIV. However, in the
current release of SVC firmware (including release 5.1), the largest MDisk that an SVC can
detect is 2 TiB in size (which is 2048 GiB). To create this volume on the XIV, create a volume
sized 2199 GB (because 2199 GB = 2048 GiB). However, the recommended volume size for
SVC is 1632 GB (1520 GiB).
In Figure 9-4 there are three volumes that will be mapped to the SVC. The first volume is
2199 GB (2 TiB), but the other two are larger than that.
Figure 9-4 XIV volumes larger than 2 TiB
When presented to the SVC, the SVC reports all three as being 2 TiB (2048 GiB), as shown
in Example 9-5.
Example 9-5 2 TiB volume size limit on SVC
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk
id
name
status
9
mdisk9
online
10
mdisk10
online
11
mdisk11
online
mode
unmanaged
unmanaged
unmanaged
capacity
2048.0GB
2048.0GB
2048.0GB
Because there was no benefit in using larger volume sizes do not follow this example. Always
ensure that volumes presented by the XIV to the SVC are 2199 GB or smaller (when viewed
on the XIV GUI or XCLI).
9.4.5 MDisk group creation
All volumes presented by the XIV to the SVC are represented on the SVC as MDisks and
should be placed into one managed disk group. All VDisks created in this managed disk
group should be created as striped and striped across all MDisks in the group. This ensures
that we stripe SVC host I/O evenly across all the XIV host ports.
9.4.6 SVC MDisk group extent sizes
SVC MDisk groups have a fixed extent size. This extent size affects the maximum size of an
SVC cluster. When migrating SVC data from other disk technology to XIV, change the extent
size at the same time. This not only allows for larger sized SVC clusters, but also ensures that
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the data from each extent best utilizes the striping mechanism in the XIV. Because the XIV
divides each volume into 1 MB partitions, the MDisk group extent size in MB should exceed
the maximum number of disks that are likely to exist in a single XIV footprint. For many
customers this means that an extent size of 256 MB is acceptable (because 256 MB covers
256 disks where a single XIV rack has only 180 disks). However, strongly consider using an
extent size of 1024 MB because this covers the possibility of a 5-rack XIV with 900 disks.
In terms of the available SVC extent sizes and the effect on maximum SVC cluster size, see
Table 9-4.
Table 9-4 SVC extent size and cluster size
MDisk group
extent size
Maximum SVC
cluster size
16 MB
64 TB
32 MB
128 TB
64 MB
256 TB
128 MB
512 TB
256 MB
1024 TB
512 MB
2048 TB
1024 MB
4096 TB
2048 MB
8192 TB
9.5 Using an XIV for SVC quorum disks
The SVC cluster uses three MDisks as quorum disks. It uses a small area on each of these
MDisks to store important SVC cluster management information. If you are replacing non-XIV
disk storage with XIV, ensure that you relocate the quorum disks before removing the MDisks.
Review the tip at the following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1003311
To determine whether removing a managed disk controller requires quorum disk relocation,
run a script to find the MDisks that are being used as quorum disks, as shown in
Example 9-6. This script can be run safely without modification. Example 9-6 shows two
MDisks on the DS6800 and one MDisk on the DS4700.
Example 9-6 Identifying the quorum disks
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -nohdr | while read id name status mode
mdisk_grp_id mdisk_grp_name capacity ctrl_LUN controller_name mdisk_UID; do
svcinfo lsmdisk $id | while read key value; do if [ "$key" == "quorum_index" ];
then if [ "$value" != "" ]; then echo "Quorum index $value : mdisk $id ($name),
status=$status, controller=$controller_name"; fi; fi; done; done
Quorum index 0 : mdisk 0 (mdisk0), status=online, controller=DS6800_1
Quorum index 1 : mdisk 1 (mdisk1), status=online, controller=DS6800_1
Quorum index 2 : mdisk 2 (mdisk2), status=online, controller=DS4700
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If your SVC uses firmware Version 5.1 or later, we simply use the svcinfo lsquorum
command, as shown in Example 9-7.
Example 9-7 Using the svcinfo lsquorum command on SVC code level 5.1 and later
IBM_2145:mycluster:admin>svcinfo lsquorum
quorum_index
status
id
name
controller_id
0
online
0
mdisk0
0
1
online
1
mdisk1
1
2
online
2
mdisk2
2
controller_name
DS6800_1
DS6800_1
DS4700
active
yes
no
no
To move the quorum disk function, we specify three MDisks that will become quorum disks.
Depending on your MDisk group extent size, each selected MDisk must have between 272
MB and 1024 MB of free space. Execute the svctask setquorum commands before you start
migration. If all available MDisk space has been allocated to VDisks then you will not be able
to use that MDisk as a quorum disk. Table 9-5 shows the amount of space needed on each
MDisk.
Table 9-5 Quorum disk space requirements for each of the three quorum MDisks
Extent size (in MB)
Number of extents
needed by quorum
Amount of space per MDisk
needed by quorum
16
17
272 MB
32
9
288 MB
64
5
320 MB
128
3
384 MB
256
2
512 MB
1024
1
1024 MB
2048
1
2048 MB
In Example 9-8 there are three free MDisks. They are 1520 GiB in size (1632 GB).
Example 9-8 New XIV MDisks detected by SVC
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mode=unmanaged
id
name
status
mode
capacity
9
mdisk9
online
unmanaged
1520.0 GB
10
mdisk10
online
unmanaged
1520.0 GB
11
mdisk11
online
unmanaged
1520.0 GB
In Example 9-9 the MDisk group is created using an extent size of 1024 MB.
Example 9-9 Creating an MDIsk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask mkmdiskgrp -name XIV -mdisk 9:10:11 -ext 1024
MDisk Group, id [4], successfully created
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In Example 9-10 the MDisk group has 4,896,262,717,440 free bytes (1520 GiB x 3).
Example 9-10 Listing the free capacity of the MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskgrp -bytes 4
free_capacity 4896262717440
All three MDisks are set to be quorum disks, as shown in Example 9-11.
Example 9-11 Setting XIV MDisks as quorum disks
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask setquorum -quorum 0 mdisk9
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask setquorum -quorum 1 mdisk10
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask setquorum -quorum 2 mdisk11
The MDisk group has now lost free space, as shown in Example 9-12.
Example 9-12 Listing free space in the MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskgrp -bytes 4
free_capacity 4893041491968
This means that free capacity fell by 3,221,225,472 bytes, which is 3 GiB or 1 GiB per quorum
MDisk.
Note: In this example all three quorum disks were placed on a single XIV. This may not be
an ideal configuration. The Web tip referred to at the start of this section has more details
about best practice, but in short you should try and use more than one managed disk
controller if possible.
9.6 Configuring an XIV for attachment to SVC
First we must configure the XIV.
9.6.1 XIV setup steps
The XIV GUI is remarkably easy to use, so we do not reproduce a series of XIV GUI images.
This section provides the setup steps using the XIV XCLI. They are reproduced mainly to
show the flow of commands rather than to indicate a preference for XCLI over the XIV GUI.
1. Define the SVC cluster to the XIV as in Example 9-13. An SVC cluster consists of several
nodes, with each SVC node being defined as a separate host.
Example 9-13 Define the SVC Cluster to the XIV
cluster_create cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
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2. Define the SVC nodes to the XIV (as members of the cluster), as shown in Example 9-14.
By defining each node as a separate host, we can get more information about individual
SVC nodes from the XIV performance statistics display.
Example 9-14 Define the SVC nodes to the XIV
host_define host="SVC_Node1" cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
host_define host="SVC_Node2" cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
3. Add the SVC host ports to the host definition of the first SVC node, as shown in
Example 9-15.
Example 9-15 Define the WWPNs of the first SVC node
host_add_port
host_add_port
host_add_port
host_add_port
host="SVC_Node1"
host="SVC_Node1"
host="SVC_Node1"
host="SVC_Node1"
fcaddress="5005076801101234"
fcaddress="5005076801201234"
fcaddress="5005076801301234"
fcaddress="5005076801401234"
4. Add the SVC host ports to the host definition of the second SVC node, as shown in
Example 9-16.
Example 9-16 Define the WWPNs of the second SVC node
host_add_port
host_add_port
host_add_port
host_add_port
host="SVC_Node2"
host="SVC_Node2"
host="SVC_Node2"
host="SVC_Node2"
fcaddress="5005076801105678"
fcaddress="5005076801205678"
fcaddress="5005076801305678"
fcaddress="5005076801405678"
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each SVC I/O group. If you only have two nodes then you only
have one I/O group.
6. Create a storage pool. In Example 9-17 the command shown creates a pool with 8160 GB
of space and no snapshot space. The total size of the pool is determined by the volume
size that you choose to use. We do not need snapshot space because we cannot use XIV
snapshots with SVC MDisks.
Example 9-17 Create a pool on the XIV
pool_create pool="SVCDemo" size=8160 snapshot_size=0
Important: You must not use XIV thin provisioning pools with SVC. You must only use
regular pools. The command shown in Example 9-17 creates a regular pool (where the
soft size is the same as the hard size. This does not stop you from using thin
provisioned VDisks on the SVC.
7. Create the volumes in the pool, as shown in Example 9-18.
Example 9-18 Create XIV volumes for use by the SVC
vol_create
vol_create
vol_create
vol_create
vol_create
286
size=1632
size=1632
size=1632
size=1632
size=1632
pool="SVCDemo"
pool="SVCDemo"
pool="SVCDemo"
pool="SVCDemo"
pool="SVCDemo"
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vol="SVCDemo_2"
vol="SVCDemo_3"
vol="SVCDemo_4"
vol="SVCDemo_5"
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8. Map the volumes to the SVC cluster using available LUN IDs (starting at zero), as shown
in Example 9-19.
Example 9-19 Map XIV volumes to the SVC cluster
map_vol
map_vol
map_vol
map_vol
map_vol
cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
cluster="SVC_Cluster1"
vol="SVCDemo_1"
vol="SVCDemo_2"
vol="SVCDemo_3"
vol="SVCDemo_4"
vol="SVCDemo_5"
lun="0"
lun="1"
lun="2"
lun="3"
lun="4"
Important: Only map volumes to the SVC cluster (not to individual nodes in the
cluster). This ensures that each SVC node sees the same LUNs with the same LUN
IDs. You must not allow a situation where two nodes in the same SVC cluster have
different LUN mappings.
Tip: The XIV GUI normally reserves LUN ID 0 for in-band management. The SVC
cannot take advantage of this, but is not affected either way. In Example 9-19 we
started the mapping with LUN ID 0, but if you used the GUI you will find that by default
you start with LUN ID 1.
9. If necessary, change the system name for XIV so that it matches the controller name used
on the SVC. In Example 9-20 we use the config_get command to determine the machine
type and serial number. Then we use the config_set command to set the system_name.
Whereas the XIV allows a long name with spaces, SVC can only use 15 characters with
no spaces.
Example 9-20 Setting the XIV system name
>> config_get
machine_serial_number=6000081
machine_type=2810
system_name=XIV 6000081
timezone=-39600
ups_control=yes
>> config_set name=system_name value="XIV_28106000081"
The XIV configuration tasks are now complete.
9.6.2 SVC setup steps
Assuming that the SVC is zoned to the XIV, we now switch to the SVC and run the following
SVC CLI commands:
1. Detect the XIV volumes:
svctask detectmdisk
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2. List the newly detected MDisks, as shown in Example 9-21, where there are five free
MDisks. They are 1520 GiB in size (1632 GB).
Example 9-21 New XIV MDisks detected by SVC
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk
id name
status mode
capacity
9 mdisk9
online unmanaged 1520.0GB
10 mdisk10
online unmanaged 1520.0GB
11 mdisk11
online unmanaged 1520.0GB
12 mdisk12
online unmanaged 1520.0GB
13 mdisk13
online unmanaged 1520.0GB
-filtervalue mode=unmanaged
ctrl_LUN_#
controller_name
0000000000000000 controller2
0000000000000001 controller2
0000000000000002 controller2
0000000000000003 controller2
0000000000000004 controller2
3. Create an MDisk group, as shown in Example 9-22, where an MDisk group is created
using an extent size of 1024 MB.
Example 9-22 Create the MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask mkmdiskgrp -name XIV -mdisk 9:10:11:12:13 -ext 1024
MDisk Group, id [4], successfully created
Important: Adding a new managed disk group to the SVC may result in the SVC
reporting that you have exceeded the virtualization license limit. Whereas this does not
affect operation of the SVC, you continue to receive this error message until the
situation is corrected (by either removing the MDisk Group or increasing the
virtualization license). If the non-XIV disk is not being replaced by the XIV then ensure
that an additional license has been purchased. Then increase the virtualization limit
using the svctask chlicense -virtualization xx command (where xx specifies the
new limit in TB).
4. Relocate quorum disks if required as documented in “Using an XIV for SVC quorum disks”
on page 283.
5. Rename the controller from its default name. A managed disk controller is given a name
by the SVC such as controller0 or controller1 (depending on how many controllers have
already been detected). Because the XIV can have a system name defined for it, aim to
closely match the two names. Note, however, that the controller name used by SVC
cannot have spaces and cannot be more than 15 characters long. In Example 9-23
controller number 2 is renamed to match the system name used by the XIV itself (which
was set in Example 9-20 on page 287).
Example 9-23 Rename the XIV controller definition at the SVC
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lscontroller
id
controller_name ctrl_s/n
vendor_id
product_id_low
0
controller0
13008300000 IBM
1750500
1
controller1
NETAPP
LUN
2
controller2
IBM
2810XIV-
product_id_high
LUN-0
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask chcontroller -name "XIV_28106000081" 2
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6. Rename all the SVC MDisks from their default names (such as mdisk9 and mdisk10) to
match the volume names used on the XIV. An example of this is shown in Example 9-24
(limited to just two MDisks). You can match the ctrl_LUN_# value to the LUN ID assigned
when mapping the volume to the SVC (for reference also see Example 9-18 on page 286).
Be aware that the ctrl_LUN field displays LUN IDs using hexadecimal numbering, whereas
the XIV displays them using decimal numbering. This means that XIV LUN ID 10 displays
as ctrl_LUN ID A.
Example 9-24 Rename the MDisks
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=4
id name
status mode
mdisk_grp_id
capacity ctrl_LUN_#
9 mdisk9
online managed
4
1520.0GB 0000000000000000
10 mdisk10
online managed
4
1520.0GB 0000000000000001
controller_name
XIV_28106000081
XIV_28106000081
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask chmdisk -name SVCDemo_1 mdisk9
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask chmdisk -name SVCDemo_2 mdisk10
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=4
id name
status mode
mdisk_grp_id
capacity ctrl_LUN_#
9 SVCDemo_1 online managed
4
1520.0GB 0000000000000000
10 SVCDemo_2 online managed
4
1520.0GB 0000000000000001
controller_name
XIV_28106000081
XIV_28106000081
Now we must follow one of the migration strategies, as described in the 9.7, “Data movement
strategy overview” on page 289.
9.7 Data movement strategy overview
There are three possible data movement strategies that we detail in this section and in
subsequent sections.
9.7.1 Using SVC migration to move data
You can use standard SVC migration to move data from MDisks presented by a non-XIV disk
controller to MDisks resident on the XIV. This process does not require a host outage, but
does not allow the MDisk group extent size to be changed. At a high level, the process is as
follows:
1. We start with existing VDisks in an existing MDisk Group. We must confirm the extent size
of that MDisk group. We call this the source MDisk group.
2. We create 1632 GB sized volumes on the XIV and map these to the SVC.
3. We detect these new MDisks and use them to create an MDisk group. We call this the
target Mdisk group. The target MDisk group must use the same extent size as the source
MDisk group.
4. We migrate each VDisk from the source MDisk group to the target MDisk group.
5. When all the VDisks are migrated we can choose to delete the source MDisks and the
source MDisk group (in preparation for removing the non-XIV storage).
We discuss this method in greater depth in 9.8, “Using SVC migration to move data to XIV” on
page 291.
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9.7.2 Using VDisk mirroring to move the data
We can use the VDisk copy (mirror) function introduced in SVC firmware Version 4.3 to create
two copies of the data, one in the source MDisk group and one in the target MDisk group. We
then remove the VDisk copy in the source MDisk group and retain the VDisk copy present in
the target MDisk group. This process does not require a host outage and allows us to move to
a larger MDisk group extent size. However, it also uses additional SVC cluster memory and
CPU while the multiple copies are managed by the SVC.
At a high level the process is as follows:
1. We start with existing VDisks in an existing MDisk Group. The extent size of that MDisk
group is not relevant. We call this MDisk group the source MDisk group.
2. We create 1632 GB sized volumes on the XIV and map these to the SVC.
3. We detect these XIV MDisks and create an MDisk group using an extent size of 1024 MB.
We call this MDisk group the target Mdisk group.
4. For each VDisk in the source MDisk group, we create a VDisk copy in the target MDisk
group.
5. When the two copies are in sync we remove the VDisk copy that exists in the source
MDisk group (which is normally copy 0 since it existed first, as opposed to copy 1, which
we created for migration purposes).
6. When all the VDisks have been successfully copied from the source MDisk group to the
target MDisk group, we can choose to delete the source MDisks and the source MDisk
group (in preparation for removing the non-XIV storage) or split the VDisk copies and
retain copy 0 for as long as necessary.
We discuss this method in greater depth in 9.9, “Using VDisk mirroring to move the data” on
page 293.
9.7.3 Using SVC migration with image mode
This migration method is used when:
 The extent size must be changed but VDisk mirroring cannot be used, perhaps because
the SVC nodes are already constrained for CPU and memory. Because the SVC must be
on 4.3 code to support XIV (SVC code level 4.3 being the level that brought in VDisk
mirroring), having downlevel SVC firmware is not a valid reason.
 We want to move the VDisks from one SVC cluster to a different one.
 We want to move the data away from the SVC without using XIV migration.
In these cases we can migrate the VDisks to image mode and take an outage to do the
relocation and extent re-size. There will be a host outage, although it can kept very short
(potentially in the order of seconds or minutes).
At a high level the process is as follows:
1. We start with existing VDisks in an existing MDisk group. Possibly the extent size of this
MDisk group is small (say 16 MB). We call this the source MDisk group.
2. We create XIV volumes that are the same size (or larger) than the existing VDisks. This
may need extra steps, as the XIV volumes must be created using 512 byte blocks. We
map these specially sized volumes to the SVC.
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3. We migrate each VDisk to image mode using these new volumes (presented as
unmanaged MDisks). The new volumes move into the source MDisk group as image
mode MDisks and the VDisks become image mode VDisks.
4. We can now remove all the Image Mode MDisks from the source MDisk group. This is the
disruptive part of this process. They are now unmanaged MDisks, but the data on these
volumes is intact. We could at this point map these volumes to a different SVC cluster or
we could remove them from the SVC altogether (in which case the process is complete).
5. We create a new managed disk group that contains only the image mode VDisks, but
using the recommended extent size (1024 MB) and present the VDisks back to the hosts.
We call this the transition MDisk group. The host downtime is now over.
6. We create another new managed disk group using free space on the XIV, using the same
large extent size (1024 MB). We call this the target MDisk group.
7. We migrate the image mode VDisks to managed mode VDisks, moving the data from the
transition MDisk group created in step 5 to the target MDisk Group created in step 6. The
MDisks themselves are already on the XIV.
8. When the process is complete, we can delete the source MDisks and the source MDisk
group (which represent space on the non-XIV storage controller) and the transitional XIV
volumes (which represent space on the XIV).
9. We can then use the transitional volume space on the XIV to create more 1632 GB
volumes to present to the SVC. These can be added into the existing MDisk group or used
to create a new one.
This method is detailed in greater depth in 9.10, “Using SVC migration with image mode” on
page 297.
9.8 Using SVC migration to move data to XIV
This process migrates data from a source MDisk Group to a target Mdisk group using the
same Mdisk group extent size. These is no interruption to host I/O.
9.8.1 Determine the required extent size and VDisk candidates
We must determine the extent size of the source MDisk group. In Example 9-25 MDisk Group
ID 1 is the source group and has an extent size of 256.
Example 9-25 Listing MDisk groups
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskgrp
id name
status mdisk_count vdisk_count capacity extent_size free_capacity
0 MDG_DS6800 online 2
0
399.5GB 16
399.5GB
1 Source_GRP online 1
1
50.0GB
256
45.0GB
We then must identify the VDisks that we are migrating. We can filter by MDisk Group ID, as
shown in Example 9-26, where there is only one VDisk that must be migrated.
Example 9-26 Listing VDisks filtered by MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=1
id name
status mdisk_grp_id mdisk_grp_name capacity type
5 migrateme
online 1
Source_GRP
5.00GB
striped
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9.8.2 Create the MDisk group
We must create volumes on the XIV and map them to the SVC cluster. Presuming that we
have done this, we then detect them on the SVC, as shown in Example 9-27.
Example 9-27 Detecting new MDisks
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask detectmdisk
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskcandidate
id
9
10
11
12
13
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mode=unmanaged
id name
status mode
capacity ctrl_LUN_#
controller_name
9 mdisk9
online unmanaged 1520.0GB 0000000000000007 XIV
10 mdisk10 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 0000000000000008 XIV
11 mdisk11 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 0000000000000009 XIV
12 mdisk12 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 000000000000000A XIV
13 mdisk13 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 000000000000000B XIV
We then create an Mdisk group called XIV_Target using the new XIV MDisks, with the same
extent size as the source group. In Example 9-28 it is 256.
Example 9-28 Creating an MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask mkmdiskgrp -name XIV_Target -mdisk 9:10:11:12:13 -ext 256
MDisk Group, id [2], successfully created
We confirm the new MDisk group is present. In Example 9-29 we are filtering by using the
new ID of 2.
Example 9-29 Checking the newly created MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskgrp -filtervalue id=2
id name
status mdisk_count vdisk_count capacity extent_size
2
XIV_Target online 5
1
7600.0GB 256
free_capacity
7600.0GB
9.8.3 Migration
Now we are ready to migrate the VDisks. In Example 9-30 we migrate VDisk 5 into MDisk
group 2 and then confirm that the migration is running.
Example 9-30 Migrating a VDisk
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask migratevdisk -mdiskgrp 2 -vdisk 5
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmigrate
migrate_type MDisk_Group_Migration
progress 0
migrate_source_vdisk_index 5
migrate_target_mdisk_grp 2
max_thread_count 4
migrate_source_vdisk_copy_id 0
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When the lsmigrate command returns no output, the migration is complete. Once all Vdisks
have been migrated out of the Mdisk group, we can remove the source MDisks and then
remove the source Mdisk group, as shown in Example 9-31.
Example 9-31 Removing non-XIV MDisks and MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=1
id name
status mode
capacity ctrl_LUN_#
controller_name
8 mdisk8
online managed
50.0GB
00000000000000070 DS6800_1
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask rmmdisk -mdisk 8 1
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask rmmdiskgrp 1
Important: Scripts that use VDisk names or IDs will not be affected by the use of VDisk
migration, as the VDisk names and IDs do not change.
9.9 Using VDisk mirroring to move the data
This process mirrors data from a source MDisk group to a target Mdisk group using a different
extent size and with no interruption to the host.
9.9.1 Determine the required extent size and VDisk candidates
We must determine the source MDisk group. In Example 9-32 MDisk group ID 1 is the
source.
Example 9-32 Listing the MDisk groups
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskgrp
id name
status mdisk_count vdisk_count capacity
0 MDG_DS68 online 2
0
399.5GB
1 Source
online 1
1
50.0GB
extent_size
16
256
free_capacity
399.5GB
45.0GB
We then must identify the VDisks that we are migrating. In Example 9-33 we filter by ID.
Example 9-33 Filter VDisks by MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=1
id name
status mdisk_grp_id mdisk_grp_name capacity type
5 migrateme
online 1
Source_GRP
5.00GB
striped
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9.9.2 Create the MDisk group
We must create volumes on the XIV and map them to the SVC cluster. Presuming that we
have done this, we then detect them on the SVC, as shown in Example 9-34.
Example 9-34 Detecting new MDisks and creating an MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask detectmdisk
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskcandidate
id
9
10
11
12
13
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mode=unmanaged
id name
status mode
capacity ctrl_LUN_#
controller_name
9 mdisk9
online unmanaged 1520.0GB 0000000000000007 XIV
10 mdisk10 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 0000000000000008 XIV
11 mdisk11 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 0000000000000009 XIV
12 mdisk12 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 000000000000000A XIV
13 mdisk13 online unmanaged 1520.0GB 000000000000000B XIV
We then create an MDisk group called XIV_Target using the new XIV MDisks (with the same
extent size as the source group, in this example 256), as shown in Example 9-35.
Example 9-35 Creating an MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask mkmdiskgrp -name XIV_Target -mdisk 9:10:11:12:13 -ext 256
MDisk Group, id [2], successfully created
We confirm that the new MDisk group is present. In Example 9-36 we are filtering by using
the new ID of 2.
Example 9-36 Checking the newly created MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdiskgrp -filtervalue id=2
id name
status mdisk_count vdisk_count capacity extent_size
2
XIV_Target online 5
1
7600.0GB 256
free_capacity
7600.0GB
9.9.3 Set up the IO group for mirroring
The IO group requires reserved memory for mirroring. First check to see whether this has
been done. In Example 9-37 it has not been setup yet on I/O group 0.
Example 9-37 Checking the I/O group for mirroring
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsiogrp 0
id 0
name io_grp0
node_count 2
vdisk_count 6
host_count 2
flash_copy_total_memory 20.0MB
flash_copy_free_memory 20.0MB
remote_copy_total_memory 20.0MB
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remote_copy_free_memory 20.0MB
mirroring_total_memory 0.0MB
mirroring_free_memory 0.0MB
We must assign space for mirroring. Assigning 20 MB will support 40 TB of mirrors. In
Example 9-38 we do this on I/O group 0 and confirm that it is done.
Example 9-38 Setting up the I/O group for VDisk mirroring
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask chiogrp -size 20 -feature mirror 0
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsiogrp 0
id 0
name io_grp0
node_count 2
vdisk_count 6
host_count 2
flash_copy_total_memory 20.0MB
flash_copy_free_memory 20.0MB
remote_copy_total_memory 20.0MB
remote_copy_free_memory 20.0MB
mirroring_total_memory 20.0MB
mirroring_free_memory 20.0MB
9.9.4 Create the mirror
Now we create the mirror. In Example 9-39 we create a mirror copy of VDisk 5 into MDisk
group 2. Remember Mdisk group 2 has a different extent size than Mdisk group 1.
Example 9-39 Creating the VDisk mirror
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask addvdiskcopy -mdiskgrp 2 5
Vdisk [5] copy [1] successfully created
In Example 9-40 we can see the two copies (and also that they are not yet in sync).
Example 9-40 Monitoring mirroring progress
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdiskcopy 5
vdisk_id vdisk_name copy_id status sync primary mdisk_grp_id mdisk_grp_name capacity
5
migrateme
0
online yes
yes
1
SOURCE_GRP
5.00GB
5
migrateme
1
online no
no
2
XIV_Target
5.00GB
In Example 9-41 we display the progress percentage for a specific VDisk.
Example 9-41 Checking the VDisk sync
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisksyncprogress 5
vdisk_id
vdisk_name
copy_id
progress estimated_completion_time
5
migrateme
0
100
5
migrateme
1
30
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In Example 9-42 we display the progress of all out-of-sync mirrors. If a mirror has reached
100% it is not listed unless we specify that particular VDisk.
Example 9-42 Displaying all VDisk mirrors
IBM_2145:SVCCLUSTER_DC1:admin>svcinfo lsvdisksyncprogress
vdisk_id
vdisk_name
copy_id
progress
21
arielle_8
1
42
24
mitchell_17
1
83
32
sharon_1
1
3
estimated_completion_time
091105193656
091105185432
091106083130
If copying is going too slowly, you could choose set a higher syncrate when you create the
copy.
You can also increase the syncrate from the default value of 50 (which equals 2 MBps) to 100
(which equals 64 MBps). This change affects the VDisk itself and isvalid for any future copies.
Example 9-43 shows the syntax.
Example 9-43 Changing the VDisk sync rate
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask chvdisk -syncrate 100 5
Once the estimated completion time passes, we can confirm that the copy process is
complete for VDisk 5. In Example 9-44 the sync is complete.
Example 9-44 VDisk sync completed
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisksyncprogress 5
vdisk_id
vdisk_name
copy_id
progress
estimated_completion_time
5
migrateme
0
100
5
migrateme
1
100
9.9.5 Validating a VDisk copy
If you want to confirm that the data between the two VDisk copies is the same, you can run a
validate. This compares the two copies. The command itself completes immediately, but the
validate runs in the background. In Example 9-45 a validate against VDisk 5 is started and
then monitored until it is complete. This validation step is not mandatory and is normally only
needed if an event occurred that makes you doubt the validity of the mirror. It is documented
here in case you want to add an extra layer of certainty to your change.
Example 9-45 Validating a VDisk mirror
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask repairvdiskcopy -validate 5
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsrepairvdiskcopyprogress 5
vdisk_id
vdisk_name
copy_id
task
5
migrateme
0
validate
5
migrateme
1
validate
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsrepairvdiskcopyprogress 5
vdisk_id
vdisk_name
copy_id
task
5
migrateme
0
5
migrateme
1
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9.9.6 Removing the VDisk copy
Now that the sync is complete, we can remove copy 0 from the VDisk so that the VDisk
continues to use only copy 1 (which should be on the XIV). We have two methods of
achieving this. We can either split the copies or we can just remove one copy.
Removing a VDisk copy
In Example 9-46, we remove copy 0 from VDisk 5. This effectively discards the VDisk copy on
the source MDisk group. This is simple and quick but has one disadvantage, which is that you
must mirror the data back if you decide to back out the change.
Example 9-46 Removing VDisk copy
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask rmvdiskcopy -copy 0 5
Splitting the VDisk copies
In Example 9-47 we split the VDisk copies, moving copy 0 (which is on the source MDisk
group) to become a new unmapped VDisk. This means that copy 1 (which is on the target XIV
MDisk group) continues to be accessed by the host as VDisk 5. The advantage of doing this
is that the original VDisk copy remains available if we decide to back out (although it may no
longer be in sync once we split the copies). An additional step is needed to discreetly delete
the new VDisk that was created when we performed the split.
Example 9-47 Splitting the VDisk copies
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask splitvdiskcopy -copy 0 -name mgrate_old 5
Virtual Disk, id [6], successfully created
Important: Scripts that use VDisk names or IDs should not be affected by the use of VDisk
mirroring, as the VDisk names and IDs do not change. However, if you choose to split the
VDisk copies and continue to use copy 0, it will be a totally new VDisk with a new name
and a new ID.
9.10 Using SVC migration with image mode
This process converts VDisks on non-XIV storage to image mode MDisks on the XIV that can
then be reassigned to a different SVC or released from the SVC altogether. Because of this
extra step, the XIV requires sufficient space to hold both transitional volumes (for image mode
MDisks) and the final destination volumes (for managed mode MDisks).
9.10.1 Create image mode destination volumes on the XIV
On the XIV we must create one new volume for each SVC VDisk that we are migrating (which
must be the same size as the source VDisk, or larger). These are to allow transition of the
VDisk to image mode. To do this, we must determine the size of the VDisk so that we can
create a matching XIV volume.
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When an SVC volume is created we normally specify a size in GiB (binary GB). For instance,
Example 9-48 creates a 10 GiB Vdisk in Mdisk group 1.
Example 9-48 Create a transitional VDisk
svctask mkvdisk -mdiskgrp 1 -iogrp 0 -name migrateme -size 10 -unit gb
Now to make a matching XIV volume we can either make an XIV volume that is larger than
the source VDisk or one that is exactly the same size. The easy solution is to create a larger
volume. Because the XIV creates volumes in 16 GiB portions (that display in the GUI as
rounded decimal 17 GB chunks), we could create a 17 GB LUN using the XIV and then map
it to the SVC (in this example the SVC host is defined by the XIV as svcstgdemo) and use the
next free LUN ID, which in Example 9-49 is LUN ID 12 (it is different every time).
Example 9-49 XIV commands to create transitional volumes
vol_create size=17 pool="SVC_MigratePool" vol="ImageMode"
map_vol host="svcstgdemo" vol="ImageMode" lun="12"
The drawback of using a larger volume size is that we eventually end up using extra space.
So it is better to create a volume that is exactly the same size. To do this we must know the
size of the VDisk in bytes (by default the SVC shows the VDisk size in GiB, even though it
says GB). In Example 9-50 we first choose to display the size of the VDisk in GB.
Example 9-50 Displaying a VDisk size in GB
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=1
id
name
status
mdisk_grp_id
mdisk_grp_name
capacity
6
migrateme
online
1
MGR_MDSK_GRP
10.00GB
Example 9-51 displays the size of the same VDisk in bytes.
Example 9-51 Displaying a VDisk size in bytes
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=1 -bytes
id
name
status
mdisk_grp_id
mdisk_grp_name
capacity
6
migrateme
online
1
MGR_MDSK_GRP
10737418240
Now that we know the size of the source VDisk in bytes, we can divide this by 512 to get the
size in blocks (there are always 512 bytes in a standard SCSI block). 10,737,418,240 bytes
divided by 512 bytes per block is 20,971,520 blocks. This is the size that we use on the XIV to
create our image mode transitional volume.
Example 9-52 shows an XCLI command run on an XIV to create a volume using blocks.
Example 9-52 Create an XIV volume using blocks
vol_create size_blocks=20971520 pool="SVC_MigratePool" vol="ImageBlocks"
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The XIV GUI volume creation panel is shown in Figure 9-5. (We must change the GB
drop-down to blocks.)
Figure 9-5 Creating an XIV volume using blocks
Having created the volume, on the XIV we now map it to the SVC (using the XIV GUI or
XCLI).
Then, on the SVC, we can detect it as an unmanaged MDisk using the svctask detectmdisk
command.
9.10.2 Migrate the VDisk to image mode
We now migrate the source VDisk to image mode using the MDisk that we created for
transition. These examples show an MDisk that is 16 GiB (17 GB on the XIV GUI). This
example also shows what will eventually happen if you do not exactly match sizes.
In Example 9-53 we first identify the source VDisk number (by listing VDisks per MDisk
group) and then identify the candidate MDisk (by looking for unmanaged MDisks).
Example 9-53 Identifying candidates
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisk -filtervalue mdisk_grp_id=1
id
name
status
mdisk_grp_id
mdisk_grp_name
5
migrateme
online
1
MGR_MDSK_GRP
capacity
10.00GB
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mode=unmanaged
id
name
status mode
capacity
ctrl_LUN_#
controller_name
9
mdisk9
online unmanaged
16.0GB
00000000000000C XIV
In Example 9-53 we identified a source VDisk(5) sized 10 GiB and a target MDisk(9) sized
16 GiB.
Now we migrate the VDisk into image mode without changing MDisk groups (we stay in
group 1, which is where the source VDisk is currently located). The target MDisk must be
unmanaged to be able to do this. If we migrate to a different MDisk group, the extent size of
the target group must be the same as the source group. The advantage of using the same
group is simplicity, but it does mean that the MDisk group contains MDisks from two different
controllers (which is not the best option for normal operations). Example 9-54 shows the
command to start the migration.
Example 9-54 Migrate a VDisk to image mode
svctask migratetoimage -vdisk 5 -mdisk 9 -mdiskgrp 1
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In Example 9-55, we monitor the migration and wait for it to complete (no response means
that it is complete). We then confirm that the MDisk shows as in image mode and the VDisk
shows as image type.
Example 9-55 Monitoring the migration
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmigrate
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk
id
name
status mode
mdisk_grp_id
mdisk_grp_name
capacity
9
mdisk9 online image
1
MGR_MDSK_GRP
16.0GB
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisk
id name
status
mdisk_grp_id mdisk_grp_name
capacity
5
migrateme online
1
MGR_MDSK_GRP
10.00GB
type
image
We must confirm that the VDisk is in image mode or data loss will occur in the next step. At
this point we must take an outage.
9.10.3 Outage step
At the SVC we un-map the volume (which disrupts the host) and then remove the VDisk. At
the host we must have unmounted the volume (or shut down the host) to ensure that any data
cached at the host has been flushed to the SVC. However, at the SVC itself, if there is still
write data in cache for this VDisk, then you will get a not empty message. You can check
whether this is the case by displaying the fast_write_state for the VDisk with an svcinfo
lsvdisk command. You must wait for the data to flush out of cache, which may take several
minutes.
The commands shown in Example 9-56 apply to a host whose Host ID is 2 and the VDisk ID
is 5.
Example 9-56 Removing the source VDisk
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask rmvdiskhostmap -host 2 5
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask rmvdisk 5
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk
id
name
status mode
mdisk_grp_id
mdisk_grp_name
9
mdisk9 online unmanaged
capacity
16.0GB
The MDisk is now unmanaged (even though it contains customer data) and could be mapped
to a different SVC cluster or simply mapped directly to a non-SVC host.
9.10.4 Bring the VDisk online
We now create a new managed disk group with an extent size of 1024, but no MDisks. We
could have done this earlier, but it is a very quick step. In Example 9-57 we create MDisk
group 2.
Example 9-57 Creating a new MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask mkmdiskgrp -name image1024 -ext 1024
MDisk Group, id [2], successfully created
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We now use the unmanaged MDisk to create an image mode VDisk in the new MDisk group
and map it to the relevant host. Notice in Example 9-58 that the host ID is 2 and the VDisk
number changed to 10.
Example 9-58 Creating the image mode VDisk
IBM_2145:SVC:admin>svctask mkvdisk -mdiskgrp 2 -iogrp 0 -vtype image -mdisk 9 -name migrated
Virtual Disk, id [10], successfully created
IBM_2145:SVC:admin>svctask mkvdiskhostmap -host 2 10
Virtual Disk to Host map, id [2], successfully created
We can now reboot the host (or scan for new disks) and the LUN will return with data intact.
Important: The VDisk ID and VDisk names were both changed in this example. Scripts
that use the VDisk name or ID (such as those used to automatically create flashcopies)
must be changed to reflect the new name and ID.
9.10.5 Migration from image mode to managed mode
We now must migrate the VDisks from image mode on individual image mode MDisks to
striped mode VDisks in a managed mode MDisk group.
First we create a new managed disk group using volumes on the XIV intended to be used as
the final destination. In Example 9-59, five volumes, each 1632 GB, were created on the XIV
and mapped to the SVC. These are detected as 1520 GiB (because 1632 GB on the XIV GUI
equals 1520 GiB on the SVC GUI). At a certain point the MDisks must also be renamed from
the default names given by the SVC using the svctask chmdisk -name command.
Example 9-59 Listing free MDisks
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmdisk -filtervalue mode=unmanaged
id
name
status
mode
capacity
ctrl_LUN_#
14
mdisk14 online
unmanaged
1520.0GB
0000000000000007
15
mdisk15 online
unmanaged
1520.0GB
0000000000000008
16
mdisk16 online
unmanaged
1520.0GB
0000000000000009
17
mdisk17 online
unmanaged
1520.0GB
000000000000000A
18
mdisk18 online
unmanaged
1520.0GB
000000000000000B
controller
XIV
XIV
XIV
XIV
XIV
We create a MDisk group using an extent size of 1024 MB with the five free MDisks. In
Example 9-60 MDisk group 3 is created.
Example 9-60 Creating target MDisk group
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask mkmdiskgrp -name XIV_Target -mdisk 14:15:16:17:18 -ext 1024
MDisk Group, id [3], successfully created
We then migrate the image mode VDisk (in our case VDisk 5) into the new MDisk group (in
our case group 3), as shown in Example 9-61.
Example 9-61 Migrating the VDisk
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask migratevdisk -mdiskgrp 3 -vdisk 5
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The VDisk moves from being in image mode in MDisk group 1 to being in managed mode in
MDisk group 3. Notice in Example 9-62 that it is now 16 GB instead of 10 GB. This is because
we migrated it initially onto a 16 GB image mode MDisk. We should have created a 10 GB
image mode MDisk.
Example 9-62 VDisk space usage
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsvdisk
id
name
status
mdisk_grp_id
5
migrated
online
3
mdisk_grp_name
XIV_Target
capacity
16.00GB
In Example 9-63, we monitor the migration and wait for it to complete (no response means
that it is complete).
Example 9-63 Checking that the migrate is complete
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svcinfo lsmigrate
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>
We can clean up the transitional MDisk (which should now be unmanaged), as shown in
Example 9-64.
Example 9-64 Removing the transitional MDisks and MDisk groups
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask rmmdisk -mdisk 9 2
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin>svctask rmmdiskgrp 2
9.10.6 Remove image mode MDisks
We can then unmap and delete the transition volume on the XIV to free up the space and
reuse that space for other migrations. The XCLI commands shown in Example 9-65 are run
on the XIV (you can also use the XIV GUI).
Example 9-65 Unmapping and deleting the transitional volume
unmap_vol host="svcstgdemo" vol="ImageMode"
vol_delete vol="ImageMode"
9.10.7 Use transitional space as managed space
Provided that all volumes are migrated from non-XIV disk to XIV disks, we can now take the
space on the XIV that was reserved for the transitional image mode MDisks and create new
1632 GB volumes to assign to the SVC. These volumes can be put into the existing MDisk
group or a new MDisk group.
9.10.8 Remove non-XIV MDisks
The non-XIV disk controllers MDisks still exist. We can remove these MDisks and their MDisk
group. Then using the non-XIV disk interface we can un-map these LUNS from the SVC and
reuse or remove the non-XIV disk controller.
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9.11 Future configuration tasks
The section documents additional tasks that may be necessary after installation and
migration is complete.
9.11.1 Adding additional capacity to the XIV
If and when additional capacity is added to a partially populated XIV, take the following steps:
1. IBM adds the additional modules as a hardware upgrade (known as an MES). The
additional capacity appears as free space once the IBM Service Representative has
completed the process to equip these modules.
Note: If the XIV has the Capacity on Demand (CoD) feature, then no hardware change
or license key is necessary to use available capacity that has not yet been purchased.
The customer simply starts using additional capacity as required until all available
usable space is allocated. The billing process to purchase this capacity occurs
afterwards.
2. From the Pools section of the XIV GUI, right-click the relevant pool and resize it depending
on how the new capacity will be split between any pools. If all the space on the XIV is
dedicated to a single SVC then there must be only one pool.
3. From the Volumes by Pools section of the XIV GUI, add new volumes of 1632 GB until no
more volumes can be created. (There will be space left over, which can be used as scratch
space for testing and for non-SVC hosts.)
4. From the Host section of the XIV GUI, map these new volumes to the relevant SVC
cluster. This completes the XIV portion of the upgrade.
5. From the SVC, detect and then add the new MDisks to the existing managed disk group.
Alternatively, a new managed disk group could be created. Remember that every MDisk
uses a different XIV host port, so a new MDisk group ideally contains several MDisks to
spread the Fibre Channel traffic.
6. If new volumes are added to an existing managed disk group, it may be desirable to
rebalance the existing extents across the new space.
To explain why an extent rebalance may be desirable, the SVC uses one XIV host port as a
preferred port for each MDisk. If a VDisk is striped across eight MDisks, then I/O from that
VDisk will be potentially striped across eight separate I/O ports on the XIV. If the space on
these eight MDisks is fully allocated, then when new capacity is added to the MDisk group,
new VDisks will only be striped across the new MDisks. If additional capacity supplying only
two new MDisks is added, then I/O for VDisks striped across just those two MDisks is only
directed to two host ports on the XIV. This means that the performance characteristics of
these VDisks may be slightly different, despite the fact that all XIV volumes effectively have
the same back end disk performance. The extent rebalance script is located here:
http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/svctools
9.11.2 Using additional XIV host ports
If additional XIV host ports are zoned to an SVC, then the SVC automatically rebalances its
preferences across all available XIV host ports (provided that we do not exceed the current
SVC limit of 16 WWPNs per WWNN). Depending on the number of modules in an XIV, not all
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the additional Fibre Channel ports are active. However, they are enabled as more modules
are added.
The suggested host port to capacity ratios are shown in Table 9-6.
Table 9-6 XIV host port ratio as capacity grows
Total XIV modules
Capacity allocated
to one SVC cluster (TB)
XIV host ports
zoned to one SVC cluster
6
27
4
9
43
8
10
50
8
11
54
10
12
61
10
13
66
12
14
73
12
15
79
12
To use additional XIV host ports, run a cable from the SAN switch to the XIV and attach to the
relevant port on the XIV patch panel. Then zone the new XIV host port to the SVC cluster via
the SAN switch. No commands must be run on the XIV.
9.12 Understanding the SVC controller path values
If you display the detailed description of a controller as seen by SVC, for each controller host
port you will see a path value. Because each MDisk has a preferred XIV host port, the
path_count is the number of MDisks using that port multiplied by the number of SVC nodes
(commonly 2 or 4). In Example 9-66 the SVC cluster has two nodes and can access six XIV
volumes (MDisks), so 6 volumes times 2 nodes means 12 paths. These 12 paths will be
distributed in a round-robin fashion across all accessible XIV host ports. Because in this
example there are six XIV ports zoned to the SVC, there will be two paths per port.
We can confirm is that the SVC is utilizing all six XIV interface modules. In Example 9-66 XIV
interface modules 4 through 9 are all clearly zoned to the SVC (because the WWPN ending in
71 is from XIV module 7, the module with WWPN ending in 61 is from XIV module 6, and so
on. To decode the WWPNs use the process described in 9.3.2, “Determining XIV WWPNs”
on page 277.
Example 9-66 Path count as seen by SVC
IBM_2145:SVCSTGDEMO:admin> svcinfo lscontroller 2
id 2
controller_name XIV
WWNN 5001738000510000
mdisk_link_count 6
max_mdisk_link_count 12
degraded no
vendor_id IBM
product_id_low 2810XIVproduct_id_high LUN-0
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product_revision 10.0
ctrl_s/n
allow_quorum yes
WWPN 5001738000510171
path_count 2
max_path_count 2
WWPN 5001738000510161
path_count 2
max_path_count 2
WWPN 5001738000510182
path_count 2
max_path_count 2
WWPN 5001738000510151
path_count 2
max_path_count 2
WWPN 5001738000510141
path_count 2
max_path_count 2
WWPN 5001738000510191
path_count 2
max_path_count 2
9.13 SVC with XIV implementation checklist
Table 9-7 contains a checklist that can be used when implementing XIV behind SVC. It
presumes that the XIV has already been installed by the IBM Service Representative.
Table 9-7 XIV implementation checklist
Task
number
Completed?
Where to
perform
Task
1
SVC
Increase SVC virtualization license if required.
2
XIV
Get XIV WWPNs.
3
SVC
Get SVC WWPNs.
4
Fabric
Zone XIV to SVC (one big zone).
5
XIV
Define the SVC cluster as a cluster.
6
XIV
Define the SVC nodes as hosts.
7
XIV
Add the SVC ports to the hosts.
8
XIV
Create a storage pool.
9
XIV
Create 1632 GB volumes in the pool.
10
XIV
Map the volumes to the SVC cluster.
11
XIV
Rename the XIV.
12
SVC
Detect the MDisk.
13
SVC
Rename the XIV controller.
14
SVC
Rename the XIV MDisks.
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Task
number
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Completed?
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Where to
perform
Task
15
SVC
Create an MDisk group.
16
SVC
Relocate the quorum disks if necessary.
17
SVC
Identify VDisks to migrate.
18
SVC
Mirror or migrate your data to XIV.
19
SVC
Monitor migration.
20
SVC
Remove non-XIV MDisks.
21
SVC
Remove non-XIV MDisk group.
22
Non-XIV
Storage
Unmap LUNs from SVC.
23
SAN
Remove zone that connects SVC to non-XIV
disk.
24
SVC
Clear 1630 error that will have been generated
by task 23 (unzoning non-XIV disk from SVC).
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Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
discussion of the topics covered in this book.
IBM Redbooks publications
For information about ordering this publication, refer to “How to get IBM Redbooks
publications” on page 307. This document might be available in softcopy only:
 IBM XIV Storage System: Architecture, Implementation, and Usage, SG24-7659
Other publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
 IBM XIV Storage System Application Programming Interface, GA32-0788
 IBM XIV Storage System User Manual, GC27-2213
 IBM XIV Storage System: Product Overview, GA32-0791
 IBM XIV Storage System Planning Guide, GA32-0770
 IBM XIV Storage System Pre-Installation Network Planning Guide for Customer
Configuration, GC52-1328-01
Online resources
These Web sites are also relevant as further information sources:
 IBM XIV Storage System Information Center:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/ibmxiv/r2/index.jsp
 IBM XIV Storage Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/storage/disk/xiv/index.html
 System Storage Interoperability Center (SSIC):
http://www.ibm.com/systems/support/storage/config/ssic/index.jsp
How to get IBM Redbooks publications
You can search for, view, or download IBM Redbooks publications, Redpapers, Technotes,
draft publications and Additional materials, as well as order hardcopy IBM Redbooks
publications, at this Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
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Help from IBM
IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support
IBM Global Services
ibm.com/services
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Index
Symbols
_Define_Target_(Legacy 223
_Pre-Data_Migration_Steps 226
_Toc227991967 221
_Toc227991968 221
_Toc227991969 222
_Toc227991970 223
_Toc227991971 226
_Toc227991972 226
_Toc227991973 226
_Toc227991974 227
_Toc227991975 230
_Toc227991976 232
_Toc227991977 232
A
activation states 59
Active/Active
219
active/active 217, 219, 225, 249, 254
active/cctive 219
Active/Passive 219
active/passive 217, 219, 221, 249, 254
ADT 259–260
AIX 171
FlashCopy 168
application-consistent data 86–87
ASP
quiescing 192
Asynchronous mirroring 49–53, 105, 127–128, 135, 137,
149–150
asynchronous mirroring 212
automatic deletion 7, 9, 19–20
changing role 205
cluster 230–232
communication failure 89
config_get 106
Consistency Group 20
consistency group 7, 21, 55, 70, 151
add volume 71, 81, 110
configuration 133
create 21
delete 29
expand 22
given volume 151
maximum number 90
new snapshots 25
other volumes 133
remove volume 72, 83, 110, 137
setup 108
Storage Pool 21, 23
synchronization status 135, 151
consistency group (CG) 7, 20–22, 24, 50, 54–55, 71,
104–105, 108–110, 127, 205
consistent state 108
copy functions xiii, 1
copy on write 5
copy pairs 96
Copy Services 176
HP-UX 176
using VERITAS Volume Manager
SUN Solaris 173
coupling 50, 104
crash consistency 72
Create Mirror 104
Create Slave 105
D
B
background copy 44, 217–218, 230, 239
backup xiii, 1, 9–10
backup script 31, 33
Backup, Recovery, and Media Services for iSeries
(BRMS) 192
BRMS 192
C
cache 243
candidate MDisk 299
Capacity on Demand (CoD 276
cctive/passive 219
cfgdev 196, 207, 211
cfgmgr 171
CG 50
cg_list 28
change role 55, 78, 112, 114, 120, 144
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2010. All rights reserved.
D3000 258
Damaged object 209
data corruption protection 88
Data Migration 215–217, 224
target 217
data migration xiii, 1, 96, 215–217
back-out 230, 250–251
checklist 251
monitoring 240
object 228–230, 238
steps 220, 232, 250
synchronization 233
Data Migration (DM) volume 228
deactivation 89
define connections 97
delete snapshot 8, 18
deletion priority 7–8, 11–13
dependent writes 72
designation 55
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Destination Name 228, 239
Destination Pool 229, 239
detectmdisk 287, 292, 294
Device Manager 243
Disaster Recovery 111, 149
Disaster Recovery (DR) 50, 53, 55, 111, 114, 127, 155,
160
Disaster Recovery protection 88
diskpart 246
dm_list 232, 234
DR test 78, 87, 112
DR testing
GUI steps 161
DS4000 220, 222, 226, 258
DS5000 258
DS6000 219, 261–262
DS8000 219, 261–262
duplicate 9–10
Duplicate Snapshot 9–10, 88
duplicate snapshot 9–10, 12
creation date 9–10, 12
creation time 9
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host_add_port host 286
HP-UX 176–177
I
IBM XIV
data migration solution 216
storage 217
image mode 275, 282, 290, 297
Migration 301
SVC migration 297
importvg 172
initialization 56, 75
initialization rate 68, 240–241
initializing state 107
initiator 91–92, 94, 216, 220–221
interval 51
IO group 294
ipinterface_list 91–92
iSCSI 91
iSCSI ports 69
K
E
environment variables 237
ESS 219, 226, 238, 260
Ethernet 91
Ethernet switch 158
event log 242, 258
exportvg 172
extent size 282–284
new managed disk group 291
F
fail-over 219–220, 250
failure 50
fan-in 67
fan-out 67
fc_port_config 94–95
fc_port_list 91, 94
Fibre Channel 91
Fibre Channel (FC) 49, 64, 69
Fibre Channel ports 69, 94, 158
FlashCopy 176, 189
HP-UX 176
G
GiB 280–282
Graphical User Interface
Remote Mirroring performance statistics 90
Graphical User Interface (GUI) 9, 11, 69, 91
GUI example 158
GUI step 160
H
Host Attachment Procedure 232
host server 216–217, 232
I/O requests 217
310
KB 5
Keep Source Updated 218, 229, 239
L
last consistent snapshot 114
timestamp 114
last_consistent 113
last_replicated 78
last_replicated snapshot 78–79, 135, 145–146, 154
license 288, 303, 305
link
failure 114
link failure 149
link status 57
link utilization 57
Linux x86 222, 261
local site 50, 57, 66, 105–106, 111, 144, 149, 162
Master volumes 115
old Master volumes 115
lock Snapshot 32
Logical Unit Number (LUN) 55, 70
LUN ID 217, 227, 229, 232
LUN mapping 227
LUN numbering 222, 254
LUN0 222, 226, 252, 254
LUNs 189
LVM 172
M
managed mode 297, 301–302
map_vol host 298
Master 50, 55
Master peer 56, 85–87, 111, 129, 146
master peer
actual data 86
Deactivate XIV remote mirroring 86
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remote mirroring 86
XIV remote mirroring 86
Master role 52, 54–55, 74, 104, 111–112, 114, 139, 144
Master volume 5, 10, 15–16, 51, 56, 59, 79, 110,
112–114, 145–146
periodic consistent copies 151
master volume 5, 9, 14
actual data 76
additional Snapshot 88
Changing role 79
Deactivate XIV remote mirroring 88–89
duplicate snapshot 10, 19
identical copy 58
Reactivate XIV remote mirroring 89
XIV remote mirroring 82
max_initialization_rate 240–242
max_resync_rate 240–241
max_syncjob_rate 240–241
MDisk 279, 281
MDisk group 282–284
free capacity 285
image mode VDisk 301
MDisks 275, 279–280
metadata 5, 11, 78
Microsoft Excel 254
migration
speed 219, 240
Mirror
initialization 56
ongoing operation 56
mirror
activation 75
delete 84
reactivation 80
resynchronization 80
Mirror coupling 70, 74
deactivate 77
mirror coupling 75
mirror_activate 122
mirror_change_role 118
mirror_create_snapshot 50
mirror_lis 107
mirror_list 123, 125
mirror_list command 107–108
mirror_statistics_get 90
mirrored Cg
mirrored volume 83
Mirrored consistency group
mirrored volume 82
Mirroring
statistics 90
status 57
mirroring
activation 104
setup 104
target 64
mirroring schemes 53
most_recent 78
most_recent Snapshot 137, 149–150, 154
MSCS Cluster 230
Multipathing 254–255, 257, 261
MySQL 30
N
naming convention 9
no source updating 217–218
normal operation 65, 69, 111, 149
data flow 69
O
OK button 13–14
ongoing operation 56
Open Office 254
open systems
AIX and FlashCopy 168
AIX and Remote Mirror and Copy 171
Copy Services using VERITAS Volume Manager,
SUN Solaris 173
HP-UX and Copy Services 176
HP-UX and FlashCopy 176
HP-UX with Remote Mirror and Copy 177
SUN Solaris and Copy Services 173
Windows and Remote Mirror and Copy 173
operating system (OS) 45, 47–48
original snapshot 9–10, 12
duplicate snapshot points 9
mirror copy 20
outage
unplanned 207
overwrite 194, 199
P
page fault 189
peer 50, 54
designations 55
role 55
pointer 5, 15, 31
Point-in-Time (PIT) 52
Point-in-Time (PiT) 52
point-in-time copy 227
port configuration 94
port role 94
portperfshow 242
ports 94, 158
power loss consistency 72
Primary 50, 55, 74
Primary site
Failure 85
primary site 56, 79, 81, 85, 109, 111, 134, 139, 144, 149
full initialization 149
Master volumes 120–121
Master volumes/CG, servers 149
production activities 149
production server 125
Role changeover 120–121
primary system 92, 95
source volumes 149
Primary XIV 52, 59, 101, 133
Index
311
7759IX.fm
primary XIV
Master volume 125
Mirror statuses 108, 123
original direction 114
Remote Mirroring menu 124
Slave volumes 120–121
Q
queue depth 279, 281
R
RDAC 259–260
reactivation 89
Recovery Point Objective (RPO) 51, 127
recreatevg 170
Redbooks Web site
Contact us xv
RedHat 222, 262
redirect on write 5, 20, 44
Remote Mirror 30, 49–50, 91–92
activate 122
Remote Mirror and Copy 171, 177
HP-UX 177
remote mirror pair 228
Remote Mirroring 7, 21, 49–51, 58, 103–104, 107, 110,
137
actions 64
activate 133
delete 143
function 91
implementation 91
planning 89
usage 60
remote mirroring 94
consistency groups 50, 90
Fibre channel paths 91
first step 59
single unit 74
synchronous 103
XIV systems 64
remote site 49–50, 56, 105, 111, 115, 144, 149, 159, 162
secondary peers 81
Slave volumes 115
standby server 115
resize 91, 239, 245–246
resize operation 44
Resynchronization 80, 85, 114
resynchronization 114, 149
role 50, 54–55, 78
change 56
changing 205
switching 56, 205
role reversal 144
RPO 51, 131, 140
RPO_Lagging 59, 139
RPO_OK 59
312
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S
SAN boot 45, 216
SAN connectivit 91
SAN LUNs 189
Save While Active 192
schedule 128, 140
schedule interval 51
Schedule Management 129
schedule_create schedule 132, 141
SCSI initiator 221
SDDPCM 268
Secondary 50, 55
secondary site 109–113, 134, 144, 149
mirror relation 115
remote mirroring 112
Role changeover 117–118
secondary XIV 50–51, 59, 106, 114, 133, 139
corresponding consistency group 133
Mirror statuses 108, 123
Slave volume 124
single XIV
footprint 283
rack 283
Storage Pool 70
system 60, 63, 67
single-level storage 188
Slave 50, 55
Slave peer 52, 78, 110–111, 114, 129–130, 139
slave peer
consistent data 52
Slave Pool 105
Slave role 51, 74, 104, 112–114, 145, 161–162
Slave volume 54–57, 59, 105, 107, 110–111, 128, 130
Changing role 78
consistent state 55
whole group 55
snap_group 28, 34
snap_group_duplicate 160
Snapshot
automatic deletion 7, 9, 20
creation 9, 28
deletion priority 8, 12–13
details 28
duplicate 9–10
last_consistent 113
last_replicated 154
lock 32
most_recent 154
restore 34–35
size 28
snapshot 1, 7
delete 8, 18
duplicate 9–10
last consistent 114
locked 8, 10
naming convention 9
snapshot group 25, 27
snapshot volume 4–6, 16
snapshot_delete 19
Snapshot/volume copy 87
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SNMP traps 90
Source LUN 229, 239, 248
source MDisk group
extent size 289
Image Mode MDisks 291
Source Target System 228, 239
source updating 217–218, 233, 251
source updating option 217
SRC codes 194
standby 106
state 55
consistent 108
initializing 107
Storage Pool 7, 11, 19
additional allocations 20
Storage pool
consistency group 72
different CG 71
existing volumes 72
storage pool 71, 105, 108, 110, 133, 135, 305
storage system 111, 149, 215–216, 218
SUN Solaris
Copy Services 173
Remote Mirror and Copy with VERITAS Volume Manager 175
SuSE 222
SVC 273–275
firmware version 274, 284, 290
MDisk group 282, 289, 291
mirror 275, 295
quorum disk 283
zone 275
zoning 275
SVC cluster 274–276
svcinfo lsmdisk 281–283
svctask 284–285, 287
svctask chlicense 288
switch role 112
switch roles 81
switch_role 55
switching role 205
sync job 50–52, 128–129, 137, 139
most_recent snapshot 154
schedule 128
Sync Type 105
Synchronised 217
synchronization 233, 240
rate 68
status 58
Synchronized 108
synchronized 236, 240
synchronous 49
synchronous mirroring 51
syncrate 296
System i
Disk Pool 189
System i5
external storage 188
Hardware Management Console (HMC) 188
structure 188
subject 189
T
target 64, 92–93, 217–219, 226
Target System 105
target volume 44, 46, 105–106, 115, 143
target_config_sync_rates 68
target_config_sync_rates. 80
target_list 234, 241
Test Data Migration 229–230, 235, 239
the 85
thick to thin migration 243
thin provisioning 243–244
TPC (Tivoli Storage Productivity Centre) 275
transfer rate 240
U
unplanned outage 207
V
VDisk 275, 280, 282
progress percentage 295
striping 280
VDisk 5
copy 0 297
VDisk copy 290, 296
VDisks 275, 282, 284
virtualization license 288
virtualization license limit 288, 303, 305
VMware 45–46
VMware File System (VMFS) 45
vol_copy 45
vol_lock 18
volume
resize 91
Volume Copy 43, 45
OS image 45
volume copy 1, 44–45, 87
volume mirror
coupling 75–77, 82
setup 129
W
Windows 173
write access 78
WWPN 222, 224, 226, 234, 247, 275, 277
X
XCLI 10, 12–13, 68–69, 90–91, 94, 104, 106, 108, 128,
132, 137
XCLI command 50, 80, 95, 106, 132, 160, 275, 277, 298
XCLI example 101
XCLI session 10, 12, 15, 106, 118, 121, 132
XIV 1, 5, 49–51, 127–129, 273–275
end disk controllers 273
XIV 1 82, 86
additional Master Volume 82
Index
313
7759IX.fm
available, deactivate mirrors 85
Complete destruction 86
complete destruction 86
Deactivate mirror 85
Map Master peers 86
Master consistency group 82
Master peer 87
production data 88
remote mirroring peers 88
remote targets 86
Slave peer 86
Slave volume 86
volume copy 88
XIV remote mirroring 86–87
XIV system 85, 88
XIV systems 88–89
XIV 2 82, 85
additional Slave volume 82
consistency group 82
Disaster Recovery testing 87
DR servers 86
other functions 87
production applications 86
production changes 85
production workload 85–86
Slave peer 87
Slave volume 82, 87, 89
Unmap Master peers 86
XIV asynchronous mirroring 52, 61–62, 75–76, 127
XIV Command Line Interface (XCLI) 234
XIV GUI 54, 57, 104, 128, 274, 277–278
Host section 303
Pools section 303
XIV host port 278–279, 281
XIV mirroring 62, 64, 69–70, 76, 78, 80
Advantages 90
XIV remote mirroring 60–61, 63
normal operation 85–87
Planned deactivation 78
user deactivation 89
XIV Storage
System xiii, 1, 5, 7, 49, 91, 215–216, 273
XIV Storage System 43–45, 50, 71, 90
XIV subsystem 5, 8
XIV system 2, 51–53, 128, 130, 132
available disk drives 70
available physical disk drives 71
mirroring connections 89
planned outage 60
single Storage Pool 74
XIV mirroring target 64
XIV Snapshot function 63
XIV volume 45–46, 56, 70, 82, 127, 280–282
xiv_devlist 269
XIVPCM 268
Z
zoning 221–222, 231, 247
314
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(0.5” spine)
0.475”<->0.873”
250 <-> 459 pages
(1.0” spine)
0.875”<->1.498”
460 <-> 788 pages
(1.5” spine)
1.5”<-> 1.998”
789 <->1051 pages
7759spine.fm
315
To determine the spine width of a book, you divide the paper PPI into the number of pages in the book. An example is a 250 page book using Plainfield opaque 50# smooth which has a PPI of 526. Divided
250 by 526 which equals a spine width of .4752". In this case, you would use the .5” spine. Now select the Spine width for the book and hide the others: Special>Conditional
Text>Show/Hide>SpineSize(-->Hide:)>Set . Move the changed Conditional text settings to all files in your book by opening the book file with the spine.fm still open and File>Import>Formats the
Conditional Text Settings (ONLY!) to the book files.
Draft Document for Review January 23, 2011 12:42 pm
IBM XIV Storage System: Copy
Services and Migration
IBM XIV Storage System: Copy
Services and Migration
IBM XIV Storage System: Copy Services and Migration
IBM XIV Storage System: Copy Services and Migration
(0.2”spine)
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90<->249 pages
(0.1”spine)
0.1”<->0.169”
53<->89 pages
Conditional Text Settings (ONLY!) to the book files.
316
(2.5” spine)
2.5”<->nnn.n”
1315<-> nnnn pages
7759spine.fm
To determine the spine width of a book, you divide the paper PPI into the number of pages in the book. An example is a 250 page book using Plainfield opaque 50# smooth which has a PPI of 526. Divided
250 by 526 which equals a spine width of .4752". In this case, you would use the .5” spine. Now select the Spine width for the book and hide the others: Special>Conditional
Text>Show/Hide>SpineSize(-->Hide:)>Set . Move the changed Conditional text settings to all files in your book by opening the book file with the spine.fm still open and File>Import>Formats the
Draft Document for Review January 23, 2011 12:42 pm
IBM XIV Storage System: Copy
Services and Migration
IBM XIV Storage System: Copy
Services and Migration
(2.0” spine)
2.0” <-> 2.498”
1052 <-> 1314 pages
Draft Document for Review January 23, 2011 12:43 pm
Back cover
®
IBM XIV Storage System:
Copy Services and
Migration
Learn details of the
Copy Services and
Migration functions
Explore practical
scenarios for
Snapshot and
Mirroring
Review Host Platform
Specific
Considerations
This IBM® Redpaper Redbooks® publication provides a practical
understanding of the XIV® Storage System copy and migration
functions. The XIV Storage System has a rich set of copy functions
suited for various data protection scenarios, which enables clients to
enhance their business continuance, data migration, and online
backup solutions. These functions allow point-in-time copies, known
as snapshots and full volume copies, and also include remote copy
capabilities in either synchronous or asynchronous mode. These
functions are included in the XIV software and all their features are
available at no additional charge.
The various copy functions are reviewed under separate chapters that
include detailed information about usage, as well as practical
illustrations.
This book also explains the XIV built-in migration capability, and
presents migration alternatives based on the San Volume Controller
(SVC).
®
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
IBM Redbooks are developed
by the IBM International
Technical Support
Organization. Experts from
IBM, Customers and Partners
from around the world create
timely technical information
based on realistic scenarios.
Specific recommendations
are provided to help you
implement IT solutions more
effectively in your
environment.
For more information:
ibm.com/redbooks
SG24-7759-01
ISBN 0738434221