SR770 Manual - Stanford Research Systems

User’s Manual
Model SR770
FFT Network Analyzer
1290-D Reamwood Avenue
Sunnyvale, California 94089
Phone: (408) 744-9040 • Fax: (408) 744-9049
email: info@thinkSRS.com • www.thinkSRS.com
Copyright © 1992, 1993 by SRS, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Revision 1.7 (03/2006)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Safety and Preparation for Use
Specifications
Abridged Command List1-9
GETTING STARTED
Your First Measurement
Analyzing a Sine Wave
Second Measurement Example
Amplifier Noise Level
Using Triggers and the Time Record
Using the Disk Drive
Using Data Tables
Using Limit Tables
Using Trace Math
Using the Source
Sine
Two Tone
Noise
Chirp
Things to Watch Out For
ANALYZER BASICS
What is an FFT Spectrum Analyzer?
Frequency Spans
The Time Record
Measurement Basics
Display Type
Windowing
Averaging
Real Time Bandwidth and Overlap
Input Range
The Source
OPERATION
Front Panel
Power On/Off
Reset
Video Display
Soft Keys
Keypad
Spin Knob
Disk Drive
BNC Connectors
iii
v
viii
1-1
1-2
1-6
1-7
1-10
1-14
1-20
1-23
1-27
1-31
1-32
1-36
1-38
1-41
1-46
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-5
3-5
3-5
Keypad
Normal and Alternate Keys
Menu Keys
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-10
3-10
Rear Panel
Power Entry Module
IEEE-488 Connector
RS232 Connector
Parallel Printer Connector
PC Keyboard Connector
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-11
MENUS
Frequency Menu
Measure Menu
Display Menu
Marker Mode Menu
Input Menu
Scale Menu
Analyze Menu
Average Menu
Source Menu
System Menu
Store/Recall Menu
Default Settings
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
Screen Display
Data Display
Single/Dual Trace Displays
Marker Display
Menu Display
Status Indicators
Entry Keys
START and PAUSE/CONT
MARKER
ACTIVE TRACE
AUTO RANGE
AUTOSCALE
SPAN UP/DOWN
MARKER ENTRY
MARKER MODE
MARKER REF
MARKER CENTER
MARKER MAX/MIN
PRINT
HELP
LOCAL
PROGRAMMING
GPIB Communications
RS232 Communications
Status Indicators and Queues
Command Syntax
Interface Ready and Status
Detailed Command List
Frequency Commands
Measurement Commands
Display and Marker Commands
Scale Commands
Input Commands
Analysis Commands
Data Table Commands
Limit Table Commands
Averaging Commands
Source Commands
Print and Plot Commands
i
4-1
4-3
4-15
4-17
4-19
4-25
4-27
4-43
4-47
4-55
4-71
4-79
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
TABLE OF CONTENTS
System Setup Commands
Store and Recall Commands
Trace Math Commands
Front Panel Control Commands
Data Transfer Commands
Interface Commands
Status Reporting Commands
5-16
5-18
5-19
5-20
5-21
5-23
5-24
Status Byte Definitions
Serial Poll Status Byte
Serial Polls
Service Requests (SRQ)
Standard Event Status Byte
FFT Status Byte
Error Status Byte
5-25
5-25
5-25
5-26
5-26
5-27
5-27
Program Examples
Microsoft C, Nat'l Instruments GPIB
BASIC, Nat'l Instruments GPIB
5-28
5-31
TESTING
Introduction
Preset
Serial Number
Firmware Revision
General Installation
Necessary Equipment
If A Test Fails
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-3
6-3
Performance Tests
Self Tests
DC Offset
Common Mode Rejection
Amplitude Accuracy and Flatness
Amplitude Linearity
Anti-Alias Filter Attenuation
Frequency Accuracy
Phase Accuracy
Harmonic Distortion
Noise and Spurious Signals
Sine Source
6-4
6-5
6-7
6-8
6-11
6-13
6-14
6-15
6-17
6-19
6-21
Performance Test Record
6-23
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
Circuit Boards
Video Driver and CRT
Microprocessor System
Keypad Interface
Keyboard Interface
Spin Knob
Speaker
Clock/Calendar
Printer Interface
Video Graphics Interface
Disk Controller
GPIB Interface
RS232 Interface
Expansion Connector
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
Power Supply Board
Unregulated Power Supplies
Power Supply Regulators
7-4
7-4
DSP Logic Board
Overview
DSP Processors
Trigger
Timing Generator
I/O Interface
Source
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-6
7-6
7-6
Analog Input Board
Overview
Input Amplifier
Gain Stages and Attenuators
Anti-Alias Filter
A/D Converter
I/O Interface
Power
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-8
7-8
7-8
Parts Lists
CPU Board
Power Supply Board
DSP Logic Board
Analog Input Board
Chassis Assembly
Miscellaneous
Schematic Diagrams
CPU Board
Power Supply Board
DSP Logic Board
Analog Input Board
7-1
7-1
CPU Board
ii
7-9
7-13
7-16
7-20
7-28
7-30
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
SAFETY AND PREPARATION FOR USE
WARNING
Dangerous voltages, capable of causing injury or death, are present in this instrument. Use extreme
caution whenever the instrument covers are removed. Do not remove the covers while the unit is
plugged into a live outlet.
CAUTION
LINE FUSE
This instrument may be damaged if operated
with the LINE VOLTAGE SELECTOR set for the
wrong AC line voltage or if the wrong fuse is
installed.
Verify that the correct line fuse is installed before
connecting the line cord. For 100V/120V, use a 1
Amp fuse and for 220V/240V, use a 1/2 Amp fuse.
LINE CORD
LINE VOLTAGE SELECTION
The SR770 has a detachable, three-wire power
cord for connection to the power source and to a
protective ground. The exposed metal parts of the
instrument are connected to the outlet ground to
protect against electrical shock. Always use an
outlet which has a properly connected protective
ground.
The SR770 operates from a 100V, 120V, 220V, or
240V nominal AC power source having a line
frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. Before connecting the
power cord to a power source, verify that the LINE
VOLTAGE SELECTOR card, located in the rear
panel fuse holder, is set so that the correct AC
input voltage value is visible.
SERVICE
Conversion to other AC input voltages requires a
change in the fuse holder voltage card position
and fuse value. Disconnect the power cord, open
the fuse holder cover door and rotate the fuse-pull
lever to remove the fuse. Remove the small
printed circuit board and select the operating
voltage by orienting the printed circuit board so
that the desired voltage is visible when pushed
firmly into its slot. Rotate the fuse-pull lever back
into its normal position and insert the correct fuse
into the fuse holder.
Do not attempt to service or adjust this instrument
unless another person, capable of providing first
aid or resuscitation, is present.
Do not install substitute parts or perform any
unauthorized modifications to this instrument.
Contact the factory for instructions on how to
return the instrument for authorized service and
adjustment.
iii
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
iv
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
SPECIFICATIONS
FREQUENCY
Measurement Range
Spans
Center Frequency
Accuracy
Resolution
Window Functions
Real-time Bandwidth
SIGNAL INPUT
Number of Channels
Input
Input Impedance
Coupling
CMRR
Noise
AMPLITUDE
Full Scale Input Range
Dynamic Range
Harmonic Distortion
Spurious
Input Sampling
Accuracy
Averaging
TRIGGER INPUT
Modes
Internal
External
External TTL
Post-Trigger
Pre-Trigger
Phase Indeterminacy
476 µHz to 100 kHz, baseband and zoomed.
191 mHz to 100 kHz in a binary sequence.
Anywhere within the measurement range subject to span and range
limits.
25 ppm from 20°C to 40°C.
Span/400
Blackman-Harris, Hanning, Flattop and Uniform.
100 kHz
1
Single-ended or true differential
1 MΩ, 15 pf
AC or DC
90 dB at 1 kHz (Input Range < -6 dBV)
80 dB at 1 kHz (Input Range <14 dBV)
50 dB at 1 kHz (Input Range ≥ 14 dBV)
5 nVrms/√Hz at 1 kHz typical, 10 nVrms/√Hz max.
(-166 dBVrms/√Hz typ., -160 dBVrms/√Hz max.)
-60 dBV (1.0 mVpk) to +34 dBV (50 Vpk) in 2 dB steps.
90 dB typical
No greater than -80 dB from DC to 100 kHz. (Input Range ≤ 0 dBV)
Input range ≥ -50 dBV:
No greater than -85 dB below full scale below 200 Hz.
No greater than -90 dB below full scale to 100 kHz.
16 bit A/D at 256 kHz
± 0.3 dB ± 0.02% of full scale (excluding windowing effects).
RMS, Vector and Peak Hold.
Linear and exponential averaging up to 64k scans.
Continuous, internal, external, or external TTL.
Level: Adjustable to ±100% of input scale.
Positive or Negative slope.
Minimum Trigger Amplitude: 10% of input range.
Level: ±5V in 40 mV steps. Positive or Negative slope.
Impedance: 10 kΩ
Minimum Trigger Amplitude: 100 mV.
Requires TTL level to trigger (low<.7V, high>2V).
Measurement record is delayed by 1 to 65,000 samples (1/512 to 127
time records) after the trigger.
Delay resolution is 1 sample (1/512 of a record).
Measurement record starts up to 51.953 ms prior to the trigger.
Delay resolution is 3.9062 µs.
<2°
v
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
Display
Measurements
Analysis
Trace Math
Graphic Expand
MARKER FUNCTIONS
Harmonic Marker
Delta Marker
Next Peak/Harmonic
Data Tables
Limit Tables
SOURCE OUTPUT
Amplitude Range
Amplitude Resolution
DC Offset
Output Impedance
SINE
Amplitude Accuracy
Frequency Resolution
Harmonics, Sub-Harmonics,
Spurious Signals
TWO TONE
Amplitude Accuracy
Frequency Resolution
Harmonics, Sub-Harmonics
Spurious Signals
Real, imaginary, magnitude or phase spectrum.
Spectrum, power spectral density, time record and 1/3 octave.
Band, sideband, total harmonic distortion and trace math.
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide with a constant, ω (2πf), or another
trace. Log (base 10), square root, phase unwrap and d/dx functions.
Display expands up to 50x about any point in the display.
Displays up to 400 harmonics of the fundamental.
Reads amplitude and frequency relative to defined reference.
Locates nearest peak or harmonic to the left or right.
Lists Y values of up to 200 user defined X points.
Automatically detects data exceeding up to 100 user defined upper and
lower limit trace segments.
0.1 mVpk to 1.000 Vpk
1 mVpk (Output>100 mVpk); 0.1 mVpk (Output ≤ 100.0 mVpk)
<10.0 mV (typical)
< 5 Ω; ±50 mA peak output current.
±1% (0.09 dB) of setting, 0 Hz to 100 kHz, 0.1 Vpk to 1.0 Vpk,
high impedance load.
15.26 mHz (1 kHz/65536)
0.1 Vpk to 1 Vpk
0 to 10 kHz
<-80 dBc
10 kHz to 100 kHz <-70 dBc
<-100 dBV (typical, line frequency related)
±1% (0.09 dB) of setting, 0 Hz to 100 kHz, 0.1 Vpk to 0.5 Vpk,
high impedance load.
15.26 mHz (1 kHz/65536)
0.1 Vpk to 0.5 Vpk
0 to 10 kHz
<-80 dB below larger tone
10 kHz to 100 kHz <-70 dB below larger tone
<-100 dBV (typical, line frequency related)
WHITE NOISE
Flatness
Output is 0 Hz to 100 kHz at all measurement spans.
<0.25 dB pk-pk (typical), <1.0 dB pk-pk (max)
(5000 rms averaged spectra, Source Cal on).
PINK NOISE
Flatness
Output is 0 Hz to 100 kHz at all measurement spans.
<4.0 dB pk-pk, 20 Hz - 20 kHz
(measured using 1/3 octave analysis, Source Cal on).
CHIRP
Output is equal amplitude sine waves at each frequency bin of the
measurement span.
Measured spectra (all spans, Source Cal on)
<0.05 dB pk-pk (typical), <0.2 dB pk-pk (max), Amplitude=1.0 Vpk.
Auto Phase function calibrates to current phase spectrum.
Flatness
Phase
GENERAL
Monitor
Monochrome CRT. 640H by 480V resolution.
Adjustable brightness and screen position.
vi
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Interfaces
Hardcopy
Disk
Power
Dimensions
Weight
Warranty
IEEE-488, RS232 and Printer interfaces standard.
All instrument functions can be controlled through the IEEE-488 and
RS232 interfaces. A PC keyboard input is provided for additional
flexibility.
Screen dumps and table and setting listings to dot matrix and HP
LaserJet compatible printers. Data plots to HP-GL compatible plotters
(via RS232 or IEEE-488).
3.5 inch DOS compatible format, 720 kbyte capacity. Storage of data,
setups, data tables, and limit tables.
60 Watts, 100/120/220/240 VAC, 50/60 Hz.
17"W x 6.25"H x 18.5"D
36 lbs.
One year parts and labor on materials and workmanship.
vii
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
COMMAND LIST
VARIABLES
g
i,j
f
x,y
s
Trace0 (0), Trace1 (1), or Active Trace (-1)
Integers
Frequency (real)
Real Numbers
String
FREQUENCY
SPAN (?) {i}
STRF (?) {f}
CTRF (?) {f}
OTYP (?) {i}
OSTR (?) {i}
WTNG (?) {i}
page
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-4
description
Set (Query) the Frequency Span to 100 kHz (19) through 191 mHz (0).
Set (Query) the Start Frequency to f Hz.
Set (Query) the Center Frequency to f Hz.
Set (Query) the number of bands in Octave Analysis to 15 (0) or 30 (1).
Set (Query) the Starting Band in Octave Analysis to -2 ≤ i ≤ 35.
Set (Query) the Weighting in Octave Analysis to none (0) or A-weighting (1).
MEASUREMENT
MEAS (?) g {,i}
page
5-5
DISP (?) g {,i}
5-5
UNIT (?) g {,i}
5-5
VOEU (?) g {,i}
EULB (?) g {,s}
EUVT (?) g {,x}
WNDO (?) g {i}
5-5
5-5
5-5
5-5
description
Set (Query) the Measurement Type to Spectrum (0), PSD (1), Time (2), or
Octave (3).
Set (Query) the Display to LogMag (0),LinMag (1), Real (2), Imag (3), or Phase
(4).
Set (Query) the Units to Vpk or deg (0),Vrms or rads (1), dBV (2), or dBVrms
(3).
Set (Query) the Units to Volts (0), or EU (1).
Set (Query) the EU Label to string s.
Set (Query) the EU Value to x EU/Volt.
Set (Query) the Window to Uniform (0), Flattop (1), Hanning (2), or BMH (3).
DISPLAY and MARKER
ACTG (?) {i}
FMTS (?) g {,i}
GRID (?) g {,i}
FILS (?) g {,i}
MRKR (?) g {,i}
MRKW (?) g {,i}
MRKM (?) g {,i}
MRLK (?) {i}
MBIN g,i
MRKX?
MRKY?
MRPK
page
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
MRCN
5-6
MRRF
MROF (?) {i}
MROX (?) {x}
MROY (?) {x}
PKLF
PKRT
MSGS s
5-6
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-7
SCALE
TREF (?) g {,x}
BREF (?) g {,x}
YDIV (?) g {,x}
AUTS g
EXPD (?) g {,i}
page
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
ELFT (?) g {,i}
XAXS (?) g {,i}
5-8
5-8
description
Set (Query) the Active Trace to trace0 (0) or trace1 (1).
Set (Query) the Display Format to Single (0) or Dual (1) trace.
Set (Query) the Grid mode to Off (0), 8 (1), or 10 (2) divisions.
Set (Query) the Graph Style to Line (0) or Filled (1).
Set (Query) the Marker to Off (0), On (1) or Track (2).
Set (Query) the Marker Width to Norm (0), Wide (1), or Spot (2).
Set (Query) the Marker Seeks mode to Max (0), Min (1), or Mean (2).
Set (Query) the Linked Markers to Off (0) or On (1).
Move the marker region to bin i.
Query the Marker X position.
Query the Marker Y position.
Move the Marker to the on screen max or min. Same as [MARKER MAX/MIN]
key.
Make the Marker X position the center of the span. Same as [MARKER
CENTER] key.
Turns Marker Offset on and sets the offset equal to the marker position.
Set (Query) the Marker Offset to Off (0) or On (1).
Set (Query) the Marker Offset X value to x.
Set (Query) the Marker Offset Y value to x.
Move the marker to the next peak to the left.
Move the marker to the next peak to the right.
Display message s on the screen and sound an alarm.
description
Set (Query) the Top Reference to x.
Set (Query) the Bottom Reference to x.
Set (Query) the Vertical Scale (Y/Div) to x.
AutoScale graph g. Similar to the [AUTO SCALE] key.
Set (Query) the Horizontal Expand to no expand (5), 128, 64, 30, 15, or 8 bins
(4-0).
Set (Query) the Left Bin when expanded to bin i.
Set (Query) the X Axis scaling to Linear (0) or Log (1).
viii
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
INPUT
ISRC (?) {i}
IGND (?) {i}
ICPL (?) {i}
IRNG (?) {i}
ARNG (?) {i}
AOFF
AOFM (?) {i}
TMOD (?) {i}
page
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-9
TRLV (?) {x}
TDLY (?) {i}
ARMM (?) {i}
ARMS
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-9
ANALYSIS
ANAM (?) g {,i}
page
5-10
CALC? g,i
FUND (?) g {,f}
NHRM (?) g {,i}
NHLT
NHRT
SBCA (?) g {,f}
SBSE (?) g {,f}
NSBS (?) g {,i}
BSTR (?) g {,f}
BCTR (?) g {,f}
BWTH (?) g {,f}
TABL
DTBL (?) g {,i}{,f}
DINX (?) {i}
DINS
DIDT
DLTB
LIMT
TSTS (?) {i}
PASF?
LTBL (?) g {,i} {j,f1,f2,y1,y2}
LINX (?) {i}
LINS
LIDT
LLTB
LARM (?) {i}
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
description
Set (Query) the real time Analysis to None (0), Harmonic (1), Sideband (2), or
Band (3).
Query result i (0 or 1) of the latest real time analysis.
Set (Query) the Harmonic Fundamental to frequency f Hz.
Set (Query) the Number of Harmonics to 0 ≤ i ≤ 400.
Move the Marker or Center Frequency to the next harmonic to the left.
Move the Marker or Center Frequency to the next harmonic to the right.
Set (Query) the Sideband Carrier to frequency f Hz.
Set (Query) the Sideband Separation to f Hz.
Set (Query) the Number of Sidebands to 0 ≤ i ≤ 200.
Set (Query) the Band Start to frequency f Hz.
Set (Query) the Band Center to frequency f Hz.
Set (Query) the Band Width to f Hz.
Turn on Data Table display for the active trace.
Set (Query) Data Table line i to frequency f.
Set (Query) Data Table index to i.
Insert a new line in the data table.
Delete a line from the data table.
Delete the entire data table.
Turn on Limit Table display for the active trace.
Set (Query) the Limit Testing to Off (0) or On (1).
Query the results of the latest limit test. Pass=0 and Fail=1.
Set (Query) Limit Table line i to Xbegin (f1), Xend (f2), Y1 and Y2.
Set (Query) Limit Table index to i.
Insert a new line in the limit table.
Delete a line from the limit table.
Delete the entire limit table.
Set (Query) the Audio Limit Fail Alarm to Off (0) or On (1).
AVERAGING
AVGO (?) {i}
NAVG(?) {i}
AVGT (?) {i}
AVGM (?) {i}
OVLP (?) {x}
page
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-13
description
Set (Query) Averaging to Off (0) or On (1).
Set (Query) the Number of Averages to 2 ≤ i ≤ 32000.
Set (Query) the Averaging Type to RMS (0), Vector (1), or Peak Hold (2).
Set (Query) the Averaging Mode to Linear (0) or Exponential (1).
Set (Query) the Overlap to x percent. 0 ≤ x ≤ 100.0.
SOURCE
STYP (?) {i}
page
5-14
SLVL (?) i {,x}
SFRQ (?) i {,f}
NTYP (?) {i}
SCAL (?) {i}
APHS
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-14
description
Set (Query) Source Type to Off (0), SIne (1), 2-Tone (2), Noise (3) or
Chirp (4).
Set (Query) the Level of sine, tone 1, tone 2, noise, chirp (i=0..4) to x mV.
Set (Query) the Frequency of sine, tone 1, tone 2 (i=0..2) to f Hz..
Set (Query) the Noise Type to white (0) or pink (1).
Set (Query) Source Cal off (0) or on (1) (noise and chirp only).
Do Auto Phase (chirp source only).
PLOT AND PRINT
PLOT
PTRC
page
5-14
5-14
description
Plot the entire graph (or graphs).
Plot the trace (or traces) only.
description
Set (Query) the Input to A (0) or A-B (1).
Set (Query) the Input Grounding to Float (0) or Ground (1).
Set (Query) the Input Coupling to AC (0) or DC (1).
Set (Query) the Input Range to i dBV full scale. -60 ≤ i ≤ 34 and i is even.
Set (Query) the Auto Range mode to Manual (0) or Auto (1).
Perform Auto Offset calibration.
Set (Query) the Auto Offset Mode to Off (0) or On (1).
Set (Query) the Trigger Mode to Cont (0), Int (1), Ext (2), Ext TTL(3), or
source (4).
Set (Query) the Trigger Level to x percent. -100.0 ≤ x ≤ 99.22.
Set (Query) the Trigger Delay to i samples. -13300≤ i ≤ 65000.
Set (Query) the Arming Mode to Auto (0) or Manual (1).
Manually arm the trigger.
ix
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
PMRK
PTTL (?) {s}
PSTL (?) {s}
PRSC
PSET
PLIM
PDAT
5-14
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-14
Plot the marker (or markers) only.
Set (Query) the Plot Title to string s.
Set (Query) the Plot Subtitle to string s.
Print the screen. Same as the [PRINT] key.
Print the analyzer settings.
Print the Limit Table of the active graph.
Print the Data Table of the active graph.
SETUP
OUTP (?) {i}
OVRM (?) {i}
KCLK (?) {i}
ALRM (?) {i}
THRS (?) {i}
TMIN (?) {i}
TSEC (?) {i}
DMTH (?) {i}
DDAY (?) {i}
DYRS (?) {i}
PLTM (?) {i}
PLTB (?) {i}
page
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
PLTA (?) {i}
PLTS (?) {i}
PNTR (?) {i}
PNGD (?) {i}
PNAP (?) {i}
PNCR (?) {i}
PRNT (?) {i}
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-16
5-16
5-17
5-17
description
Set (Query) the Output Interface to RS232 (0) or GPIB (1).
Set (Query) the GPIB Overide Remote state to Off (0) or On (1).
Set (Query) the Key Click to Off (0) or On (1).
Set (Query) the Alarms to Off (0) or On (1).
Set (Query) the Hours to 0≤ i ≤ 23.
Set (Query) the Minutes to 0 ≤ i ≤ 59.
Set (Query) the Seconds to 0 ≤ i ≤ 59.
Set (Query) the Month to 1 ≤ 1 ≤ 12.
Set (Query) the Day to 1 ≤ 1 ≤ 31.
Set (Query) the Year to 0 ≤ 1 ≤ 99.
Set (Query) the Plotter Mode to RS232 (0) or GPIB (1).
Set (Query) the Plotter Baud Rate to 300 (0), 1200 (1), 2400 (2), 4800 (3),
9600 (4).
Set (Query) the Plotter GPIB Address to 0 ≤ i ≤ 30.
Set (Query) the Plot Speed to Fast (0) or Slow (1).
Set (Query) the Trace Pen Number to 1 ≤ i ≤ 6.
Set (Query) the Grid Pen Number to 1 ≤ i ≤ 6.
Set (Query) the Alphanumeric Pen Number to 1 ≤ i ≤ 6.
Set (Query) the Cursor Pen Number to 1 ≤ i ≤ 6.
Set (Query) the Printer Type to Epson (0) or HP (1).
STORE AND RECALL FILE
FNAM (?) {s}
SVTR
SVTA
SVST
RCTR
RCST
page
5-18
5-18
5-18
5-18
5-18
5-18
description
Set (Query) the current File Name to string.
Save the Active Trace Data to the file specified by FNAM.
Save the Active Trace Data to the file specified by FNAM as an ASCII file.
Save the Settings to the file specified by FNAM.
Recall the Trace Data from the file specified by FNAM to the active graph.
Recall the Settings from the file specified by FNAM.
MATH OPERATIONS
CSEL (?) {i}
COPR
CARG (?) {i}
CONS (?) {x}
CMRK
page
5-19
5-19
5-19
5-19
5-19
description
Set (Query) the Operation to +, -, x, /, log, √ (0-5).
Start the calculation.
Set (Query) the Argument type to Constant (0), w (1), or Other Graph (2).
Set (Query) the Constant Argument to x.
Set the Constant Argument to the Y value of the marker.
FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
STRT
STCO
PRSC
ACTG (?) {i}
page
5-20
5-20
5-20
5-20
ARNG (?) {i}
5-20
AUTS
5-20
description
Start data acquisition. Same as [START] key.
Pause or Continue data acquisition. Same as [PAUSE CONT] key.
Print the screen. Same as [PRINT] key.
Set (Query) the Active Trace to trace0 (0) or trace1 (1). Similar to [ACTIVE
TRACE] key.
Set (Query) the Auto Range mode to Manual (0) or Auto (1). Similar to [AUTO
RANGE] key.
AutoScale the graph. Same as the [AUTO SCALE] key.
DATA TRANSFER
SPEC? g {,i}
BVAL? g, i
SPEB? g
BDMP (?) g, {,i}
page
5-21
5-21
5-21
5-22
description
Query the Y value of bin 0 ≤ i ≤ 399.
Query the X value of bin 0 ≤ i ≤ 399.
Binary dump the entire trace g.
Set (Query) the auto binary dump mode for trace g.
INTERFACE
*RST
page
5-23
description
Reset the unit to its default configurations.
x
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
*IDN?
LOCL(?) {i}
5-23
5-23
OVRM (?) {i}
5-23
STATUS
*CLS
*ESE (?) {i} {,j}
page
5-24
5-24
*ESR? {i}
*SRE (?) {i} {,j}
*STB? {i}
*PSC (?) {i}
ERRE (?) {i} {,j}
ERRS? {i}
FFTE (?) {i} {,j}
FFTS? {i}
5-24
5-24
5-24
5-24
5-24
5-24
5-24
5-24
Read the SR770 device identification string.
Set (Query) the Local/Remote state to LOCAL (0), REMOTE (1), or LOCAL
LOCKOUT (2).
Set (Query) the GPIB Overide Remote state to Off (0) or On (1).
description
Clear all status bytes.
Set (Query) the Standard Status Byte Enable Register to the decimal value i
(0-255).
Query the Standard Status Byte. If i is included, only bit i is queried.
Set (Query) the Serial Poll Enable Register to the decimal value i (0-255).
Query the Serial Poll Status Byte. If i is included, only bit i is queried.
Set (Query) the Power On Status Clear bit to Set (1) or Clear (0).
Set (Query) the Error Status Enable Register to the decimal value i (0-255).
Query the Error Status Byte. If i is included, only bit i is queried.
Set (Query) the FFT Status Enable Register to the decimal value i (0-255).
Query the FFT Status Byte. If i is included, only bit i is queried.
STATUS BYTE DEFINITIONS
SERIAL POLL STATUS BYTE (5-25)
bit
0
1
2
3
4
5
name
SCN
IFC
ERR
FFT
MAV
ESB
6
7
SRQ
Unused
FFT STATUS BYTE (5-27)
usage
No measurements in progress
No command execution in progress
Unmasked bit in error status byte set
Unmasked bit in FFT status byte set
The interface output buffer is non-empty
Unmasked bit in standard status byte
set
SRQ (service request) has occurred
bit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
name
usage
Triggered
Set when a time record is triggered
Prn/Plt
Set when a printout or plot is completed
NewData 0 Set when new data is available for trace 0
NewData 1 Set when new data is available for trace 1
Avg
Set when a linear average is completed
AutoRng
Set when auto range changes the range
High Voltage Set when high voltagedetected at input
Settle
Set when settling is complete
ERROR STATUS BYTE (5-27)
STANDARD EVENT STATUS BYTE (5-26)
bit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
bit name
0 Prn/Plt Err
name
usage
INP
Set on input queue overflow
Limit Fail Set when a limit test fails
QRY
Set on output queue overflow
Unused
EXE
Set when command execution error
occurs
CMD
Set when an illegal command is
received
URQ
Set by any key press or knob rotation
PON
Set by power-on
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
xi
Math Error
RAM Error
Disk Error
ROM Error
A/D Error
DSP Error
Overload
usage
Set when an printing or plotting error
occurs
Set when an internal math error occurs
Set when RAM Memory test finds an error
Set when a disk error occurs
Set when ROM Memory test finds an error
Set when A/D test finds an error
Set when DSP test finds an error
Set when the signal input overloads
SR770 FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER
xii
GETTING STARTED
YOUR FIRST MEASUREMENT
This sample measurement is designed to acquaint
the first time user with the SR770 Network
Analyzer. Do not be concerned that your
measurement does not exactly agree with this
exercise. The focus of this measurement exercise
is to learn how to use the instrument.
The SR770 has a menu driven user interface. The 6
softkeys to the right of the video display have
different functions depending upon the information
displayed in the menu boxes at the right of the
video display. In general, the softkeys have two
uses. The first is to toggle a feature on and off or to
choose between settings. The second is to highlight
a parameter which is then changed using the knob
or numeric keypad. In both cases, the softkey
affects the parameter which is displayed adjacent to
it.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
Knob
The knob is used to adjust parameters which have
been highlighted using the softkeys. Most numeric
entry fields may be adjusted with the knob. In
addition, functions such as display zooming and
scrolling use the knob as well. In these cases, the
knob function is selected by the softkeys. The
[MARKER] key, which can be pressed at any time,
will set the knob function to scrolling the marker.
Hardkeys
The keypad consists of five groups of hardkeys. The
ENTRY keys are used to enter numeric parameters
which have been highlighted by a softkey. The
MENU keys select a menu of softkeys. Pressing a
menu key will change the menu boxes which are
displayed next to the softkeys. Each menu groups
together similar parameters and functions. The
CONTROL keys start and stop actual data
acquisition, select the marker and toggle the active
trace the display. These keys are not in a menu
since they are used frequently while displaying any
menu. The SYSTEM keys output the screen to a
printer and display help messages. These keys can
also be accessed from any menu. The MARKER
keys determine the marker mode and perform
various marker functions. The marker functions can
be accessed from any menu.
Example Measurement
This measurement is designed to investigate the
spectrum of a 1 kHz sine wave. You will need a
function generator capable of providing a 1 kHz sine
wave at a level of 100 mV to 1 V, such as the SRS
DS345. The actual settings of the generator are not
important since you will be using the SR770 to
measure and analyze its output. Choose a
generator which has some distortion (at least -70
dBc) or use a square or triangle wave.
Specifically, you will measure the spectrum of the
sine wave, measure its frequency, and measure its
harmonic distortion.
Softkeys
1-1
GETTING STARTED
ANALYZING A SINE WAVE
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
2.
Turn on the generator, set the frequency to
1 kHz and the amplitude to approximately 1
Vrms.
The input impedance of the analyzer is 1 M�. The
generator may require a terminator. Many
generators have either a 50 � or 600 � output
impedance. Use the appropriate feedthrough
termination if necessary. In general, not using a
terminator means that the output amplitude will not
agree with the generator setting and the distortion
may be greater than normal.
Connect the generator's output to the A input
of the analyzer.
3.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Since the signal amplitude may not be set
accurately, let the analyzer automatically set its
input range to agree with the actual generator
signal. Note that the range readout at the bottom of
the screen is displayed in inverse when the
autoranging is on.
4.
Press the <Span> softkey to highlight the
span. Use the knob to adjust the span to
6.25 kHz.
Set the span to display the 1 kHz signal and its
first few harmonics.
You can also use the numeric keypad to enter the
span. In this case, the span will be rounded to the
next largest allowable span.
You can also use the [SPAN UP] and
[SPAN DOWN] keys to adjust the span.
5.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
This centers the marker region around the largest
data point on the graph. The marker should now be
on the 1 kHz signal. The marker readout above the
graph displays the frequency and amplitude of the
signal.
The [MARKER MAX/MIN] key can also be
configured to search for the minimum point on the
graph.
6.
Use the knob to move the marker around.
Take a look at some of the harmonics.
7.
Let's measure the frequency exactly.
Pressing the [MARKER MAX/MIN] key also selects
the knob to adjust the marker position. The Span
Menu box becomes unhighlighted. A box is drawn
around the marker readout to indicate that the knob
will move the marker.
1-2
GETTING STARTED
Decrease the span to 1.56 kHz using the
<Span> key and knob, the [SPAN DOWN]
key or by entering the span numerically.
This isolates the 1 kHz fundamental frequency.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
Move the marker to the peak at 1 kHz.
Press [MARKER CENTER]
This sets the span center frequency to the marker
frequency. The signal will be at the center of the
span. Further adjustments to the span will keep the
center frequency fixed.
8.
Decrease the span to 97.5 Hz using the
<Span> key and knob, the [SPAN DOWN]
key or by entering the span numerically.
You may notice that the spectrum takes a while to
settle down at this last span. This is because the
frequency resolution is 1/400 of the span or
244 mHz. This resolution requires at least
4.096 seconds of time data. Note that the Settling
indicator at the lower left corner of the display will
stay on while the data settles.
9.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
This centers the marker more accurately. The
frequency of the signal can now be read with
244 mHz resolution.
10. Press [AUTO SCALE]
This key adjusts the graph scale and top reference
to display the entire range of the data. You can
press this key at any time to optimize the graph
display.
11. Press [ANALYZE]
Display the Analysis menu.
Press <Harmonic>
Select Harmonic analysis. The menu displays the
harmonic analysis menu. Notice that the
fundamental frequency (first menu box) has been
set to the frequency of the marker.
We used a narrow span to get an accurate reading
of the fundamental signal frequency. We will use
this measurement of the fundamental to accurately
locate the harmonics.
The harmonic measurement readout at the upper
left corner of the graph is under range because the
span is not wide enough to include any harmonics.
This centers the span around the second harmonic
(approx. 2 kHz). You are now making an accurate
measurement of the 2nd harmonic content of the
signal.
12. Press <Next Harmonic Right>
1-3
GETTING STARTED
With this narrow span, the harmonics should be
easily visible.
Use the <Next Harmonic Right> and
<Next Harmonic Left> keys to investigate the
harmonics of the signal.
Let's have the analyzer measure the distortion for
us. First return to full span by displaying the
frequency menu and choosing full span.
13. Press [FREQ]
Press <Full Span>
Return the graph to a scale where the fundamental
is on screen.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
This highlights the Start Frequency menu box. It
also fixes the start frequency when the span is
adjusted.
14. Press <Start Freq.>
Reduce the span to resolve the first few harmonics
of the signal.
Now adjust the span to 12.5 kHz using the
<Span> key and knob, the [SPAN DOWN]
key or by entering the span numerically.
Display the Analysis menu.
15. Press [ANALYZE]
Choose Harmonic analysis. (It should still be on
from before.) The fundamental frequency should still
be accurately set.
Press <Harmonic>
Highlight the number of harmonics menu box.
16. Press <# Harmonics>
Enter 11 for the number of harmonics.
Press [1] [1] <Enter>
Notice that harmonic markers (little triangles)
appear on top of all of the harmonic peaks. These
indicate which data points are used
in the
harmonic calculations.
The harmonic calculations are displayed in the
upper left corner of the graph. The top reading is the
harmonic level (absolute units) and the lower
reading is the distortion (harmonic level divided by
the fundamental level).
17. Now let's measure some harmonics using the
reference marker.
Press <Return>
Return the menu display to the main Analysis
menu.
Press <None>
Choose No analysis. This turns off the harmonic
indicators and calculations.
1-4
GETTING STARTED
This moves the marker to the fundamental peak.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
This sets the marker reference or offset to the
frequency and amplitude of the fundamental. The
marker readout above the graph now reads relative
to this offset. This is indicated by the � in front of
the marker readout. A small star shaped symbol is
located at the screen location of the reference.
Press [MARKER REF]
The [MARKER REF] key also allows the knob to
move the marker.
Use the knob to measure the harmonic levels
relative to the fundamental.
The marker readout is now relative to the reference
or fundamental level.
Pressing [MARKER REF] again removes the
marker offset.
18. Press [MARKER REF]
This concludes this measurement example. You
should have a good feeling for the basic operation of
the menus, knob and numeric entry, and marker
movement and measurements.
1-5
GETTING STARTED
SECOND MEASUREMENT EXAMPLE
This sample measurement is designed to further
acquaint the user with the SR770 Network
Analyzer. Do not be concerned that your
measurement does not exactly agree with this
exercise. The focus of this measurement exercise
is to learn how to use the instrument.
The Measurement
This measurement is designed to investigate the
noise of an audio amplifier. You will need an audio
frequency amplifier such as the SRS SR560. We
will use the SR770's source to provide the test
signal.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
Specifically, you will measure the output
signal/noise ratio of the amplifier and its input noise
level.
1-6
GETTING STARTED
MEASURING AMPLIFIER NOISE
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
2.
Turn on the amplifier and set its gain to at
least 20 dB.
Connect the amplifier output to the A input of
the analyzer.
The input impedance of the analyzer is 1 M�. The
amplifier output may require a terminator. Many
instruments have either a 50 � or 600 � output
impedance. Use the appropriate feedthrough
termination if necessary. In general, not using a
terminator means that the output amplitude will not
agree with the instrument setting and the distortion
may be greater than normal.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Sine>
Turn on the Sine output.
Press <Configure Source>
Display the sine configuration menu.
Press <Level>
Highlight the Sine
frequency at 1 kHz.
Press [1] [0] [0] <mV>
Enter 100 mV (pk).
Connect the SR770 Source output to the
amplifier input.
This should be a small enough signal for the
amplifier to handle. If not, simply lower the sine
output level to a suitable level.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Since the amplifier output amplitude may not be set
accurately, let the analyzer automatically set its
input range to the actual signal.
Press [FREQ]
Display the Frequency menu.
Press [SPAN DOWN] until the span is
6.25 kHz
Set the span to display the 1 kHz signal and its
first few harmonics.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
Set the graph scaling to display the entire range of
the data.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
Move the marker to the signal peak (1 kHz). The
marker should read an amplitude equal to the
source output level times the amplifier gain.
Press [MARKER REF]
This turns on the marker offset and sets the
reference marker to the current marker position.
From now on, the marker will now read relative to
3.
4.
1-7
Output
Level.
Leave
the
GETTING STARTED
the signal peak. A � is displayed before the marker
readout to indicate that the reading is relative. A
small star symbol is located on the graph at the
marker offset position.
Use the knob to move the marker to a region
that is representative of the noise floor.
The [MARKER REF] key automatically allows the
knob to adjust the marker position. The marker is
now providing a direct reading of the signal to noise
ratio. Remember, this is the S/N for the
source/amplifier combination.
Press [MARKER REF] again
5.
The [MARKER REF] key toggles the marker offset
on and off. We now want to turn the offset off.
Press [MEAS]
Display the Measure menu.
Press <Measure Menu>
Choose the Measurement type menu.
Press <PSD>
Select Power Spectral Density. The PSD
approximates the amplitude of the signal within a 1
Hz bandwidth located at each frequency bin. This
allows measurements taken with different
linewidths (spans) to be compared.
To get a better measurement of noise, a little
averaging can help.
6.
Press [AVERAGE]
Display the Average menu.
Press <Average Mode>
Select Exponential averaging.
Press <Number of Averages>
Highlight the Number of Averages menu box.
Press [2] [0] <Enter>
Enter 20 averages.
Press <Averaging>
7.
Turn averaging on. Notice how the noise floor
approaches a more stable value. We are using
RMS averaging to determine the actual noise floor.
See the section on Averaging for a discussion of
the different types of averaging.
Press [MARKER]
The [MARKER] key allows the knob to move the
marker.
Use the knob to move the marker to a region
representative of the noise floor.
The Marker reading should be in dBV/�Hz. This is
the output noise amplitude at the marker frequency,
normalized to a 1 Hz bandwidth. To generalize to
other bandwidths, multiply by the square root of the
bandwidth. This approximation only holds if the
noise is Gaussian in nature.
1-8
GETTING STARTED
Press [MEAS]
Display the Measure menu.
Press <Units Menu>
Choose the Units menu.
Press <Volts RMS>
Select Volts RMS as the display units.
The marker now reads in Volts RMS /�Hz. This is
a typical way of specifying amplifier input noise
levels.
8.
Disconnect the source output from the
amplifier. Leave the amplifier input terminated
(with 50 Ohms).
Now we are measuring the amplifier's output noise
with a shorted input. If you take the noise
measurement and divide by the amplifier gain, then
you will have the amplifier's input noise at the
frequency of the marker reading.
An FFT is a convenient tool for measuring amplifier
noise spectra since the noise at many frequencies
can be determined in a single measurement.
1-9
GETTING STARTED
USING TRIGGERS AND THE TIME RECORD
This sample measurement is designed to acquaint
the user with the triggering capabilities of the
SR770 Network Analyzer. Do not be concerned that
your measurement does not exactly agree with this
exercise. The focus of this measurement exercise
is to learn how to use the instrument.
The Measurement
This measurement is designed to investigate the
trigger and time record. You will need a function
generator capable of providing a 100 µs wide pulse
at 250 Hz with an amplitude of 1 V. The output
should have a DC level of 0V.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
Specifically, you will measure the output spectrum
when the signal is triggered. In addition, the trigger
delay will be used to delay the signal within the
time record.
Make sure that you have read "The Time Record" in
the Analyzer Basics section before trying this
exercise.
1-10
GETTING STARTED
TRIGGERING THE ANALYZER
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section of this manual for a complete listing of the
settings.
2.
Turn on the generator and choose a pulsed
output waveform. Set the frequency to
250 Hz, the pulse width to 100 µs and the
amplitude to approximately 1 V. Make sure
that the DC level of the output is near 0V.
The input impedance of the analyzer is 1 M�. The
generator may require a terminator. Many
generators have either a 50 � or 600 � output
impedance. Use the appropriate feedthrough
termination if necessary. In general, not using a
terminator only means that the output amplitude
will not agree with the generator setting and the
distortion may be greater than normal.
Connect the generator's output to the A input
of the analyzer.
3.
Press [INPUT]
Press <Coupling> to choose DC
Press <Input Range>
Press [4] <dBV>
4.
Press [DISPLAY]
Let's choose DC coupling and an input range that
doesn't overload.
Set the input range to 4 dBV. Adjust the pulse
amplitude so that no overloads occur.
Show two traces.
Press <Format> to choose Up/Dn
5.
Press [MEAS]
We will show the time record on the upper trace.
Press <Measure Menu>
Go to the Measure menu to choose Time Record.
Press <Time Record>
Press <Return>
Press <Display Menu>
Let's show the time record on a linear scale.
Press <Linear Mag.>
6.
Press [INPUT]
Now set up the trigger.
Press <Trigger Menu>
Press <Trigger> to select Internal
Trigger on the signal itself.
Press <Trigger Level>
The input is a 1 V pulse so set the trigger level to
1-11
GETTING STARTED
Press [.] [5] <Volts>
7.
0.5 V.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
The upper trace should display the pulse waveform
at the left edge. Auto scale will set the display
limits automatically. Remember that we are
displaying the magnitude of the signal. Any
negative portion of the signal will be folded back
around zero and appear as a positive magnitude.
Press [MEAS]
Press <Uniform>
Because the pulse is much shorter than the time
record, we need to use the Uniform window. The
other window functions taper to zero at the start
and end of the time record. Always be aware of the
effect windowing has on the FFT of the time record.
Press [ACTIVE TRACE]
There should now be a spectrum on the lower
trace. Use [AUTO SCALE] to set the display.
Press <Window Menu>
Press [AUTO SCALE]
8.
Press <Hanning>
9.
Press [INPUT]
Press <Trigger Menu>
Press <Trigger Delay>
Press [2] [5] [6] <Samples>
The spectrum you see is the sinx/x envelope of a
rectangular pulse. The zeroes in the spectrum
occur at the harmonics of 1/pulse width (1/100µs or
10 kHz).
Now choose the Hanning window. Notice how the
spectrum goes away. We can get the spectrum
back by delaying the time record relative to the
trigger so that the pulse is positioned in the center
of the time record.
Go back to the Trigger submenu.
Highlight the Trigger Delay menu box.
Enter 256 samples of delay. Because the pulse
repetition rate is 250 Hz, the period between pulses
is exactly equal to one time record. So setting the
delay to half of a time record will place the pulse at
the middle of the record.
Remember that the time record only displays the
first 400 points (out of 512) so that the middle of the
record is not the middle of the display trace.
The spectrum should reappear on the lower trace.
This is because windowing preserves the central
part of the time record.
1-12
GETTING STARTED
10. Press [4] [7] [5] <Samples>
Let's delay the signal some more. Now we've
delayed the time record by almost a full period. The
pulse is now near the end of the time record.
Notice how the spectrum is greatly attenuated. This
is the effect of the window function attenuating the
start of the timer record.
11. Press <Trigger> to select Continuous
12. Press [MEAS]
Press <Window>
Now if we go to continuous triggering, the time
record becomes unstable. The spectrum is also
unstable because of the windowing. Some time
records place the pulse at the middle, some at the
ends.
If we set the window back to Uniform, we find that
the spectrum does not vary with the position of the
pulse within the time record.
Press <Uniform>
1-13
GETTING STARTED
USING THE DISK DRIVE
The disk drive on the SR770 may be used to store 3
types of files.
1.
The Measurement
This measurement is designed to familiarize the
user with the disk drive. We will use the SR770
source to provide a test signal so that there is some
data to save and recall.
Data File
This includes the data in the active trace,
the measurement and display type, the
units and the graph scaling. In addition, the
associated data and limit tables are stored
in this file as well. Data files may be
recalled into either trace0 or trace1.
2.
ASCII Data File
This file saves the data in the active trace in
ASCII format. These files may not be
recalled to the display. This format is
convenient when transferring data to a PC
application.
3.
Settings File
This files stores the analyzer settings.
Recalling this file will change the analyzer
setup to that stored in the file.
Specifically, you will save and recall a data file and
a settings file.
The disk drive uses double-sided, high density
(DS/HD) 3.5" disks. The disk capacity is 1.44M.
The SR770 uses the DOS format. A disk which was
formatted on a PC or PS2 may also be used. Files
written by the SR770 may be copied or read on a
DOS computer.
Data files can store data in either binary or ascii
format. Binary format uses less disk space. Ascii
format allows trace data to be read by other
programs using a PC.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
1-14
GETTING STARTED
STORING AND RECALLING DATA
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Sine>
Turn on the Sine output. Leave the sine frequency
and level at the default settings (1 kHz and 1 Vpk).
3.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Let the analyzer automatically set its input range.
4.
Press [SPAN DOWN] until the span is
6.25 kHz
Set the span to display the 1 kHz signal.
5.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
Set the graph scaling to display the entire range of
the data.
6.
Press [PAUSE CONT]
Stop data acquisition. The graph on the screen is
the one we want to save. (You can actually save
graphs while the analyzer is running.)
7.
Put a blank double-sided, high density
(DS/HD)3.5" disk into the drive.
Use a blank if disk if possible, otherwise any disk
that you don't mind formatting will do. Make sure
the write protect tab is off.
Let's format this disk.
8.
9.
Press [STORE RECALL]
Display the Store and Recall menu.
Press <Disk Utilities>
Choose Disk Utilities.
Press <Format Disk>
Make sure that the disk does not contain any
information that you want. Formatting the disk
takes about a minute.
Press <Return>
Go back to the main Store and Recall menu.
Press <Save Data>
Display the Save Data menu.
1-15
GETTING STARTED
10. Press <File Name>
Now we need a file name.
Press [ALT]
[ALT] lets you enter the letter characters printed
below each key. The numbers and backspace
function as normal.
Press [D] [A] [T] [A] [1] <Enter>
Enter a file name such as DATA1 (or any legal
DOS file name).
11. Press <Save Data>
This saves the active trace data to disk using the
file name specified above.
12. Press <Catalog>
Display the disk catalog. This display lists all of the
files on the disk.
13. Press <File Name>
Save the data again using a new file name. This
way you can have multiple files in the disk catalog.
Press [ALT]
Press [D] [A] [T] [A] [2] <Enter>
Press <Save Data>
14. Press <Return>
Go back to the main Store and Recall menu.
Press [START]
Resume data acquisition. The graph should be live
again.
Remove the input signal cable.
Now we have a spectrum which is different from the
one we just saved. Recalling the data from disk will
restore the graph to what it was.
15. Press <Recall Data>
Press <Catalog>
Display the Recall Data menu.
Display the disk catalog. The 2 files which you just
saved should be listed.
16. Press [MARKER]
Pressing the [MARKER] key allows the knob to
adjust the marker. When the disk catalog is
displayed, the marker highlights a file. Use the
knob to choose a file to recall.
17. Press <Recall Data>
This recalls the data file from disk and displays it
on the active graph. Data acquisition is stopped so
that the graph is not updated. The file name is
1-16
GETTING STARTED
displayed below the graph.
The marker may be moved on the recalled graph to
read specific data points. The graph scaling may
also be changed.
18. Press [DISPLAY]
Show the Display menu.
Press <Format>
Choose the Up/Dn dual trace display format.
Press [ACTIVE TRACE]
Make trace1 active (the lower graph). The active
graph has a highlighted label at its upper right.
19. Press [START]
This restarts data acquisition, but only for the active
trace (trace1). The recalled trace on trace0 is still
displayed. To restart data acquisition on trace0,
press [ACTIVE TRACE] to make trace0 (upper
graph) active and then [START].
1-17
GETTING STARTED
STORING AND RECALLING SETTINGS
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
2.
Press [SPAN DOWN] a number of times to
change the span.
Change the analyzer setup so that we have a nondefault setup to save.
Press [INPUT]
Show the Input menu.
Press <Coupling>
Choose DC coupling.
Press [STORE RECALL]
Display the Store and Recall menu.
Press <Save Settings>
Choose the Save Settings menu.
Press <File Name>
Now we need a file name.
Press [ALT]
[ALT] lets you enter the letters printed below each
key. The numbers and backspace function as
normal.
Press [T] [E] [S] [T] [1] <Enter>
Enter a file name such as TEST1 (or any legal DOS
file name).
5.
Press <Save Settings>
Save the analyzer setup to disk using the file name
specified above.
6.
Press [SPAN UP] a number of times to
change the span.
Change the analyzer setup again.
Press [INPUT]
Show the Input menu.
Press <Coupling>
Choose AC coupling.
3.
4.
Now let's recall the analyzer setup that we just
saved.
7.
Press [STORE RECALL]
Display the Store and Recall menu.
Press <Recall Settings>
Choose the Recall Settings menu.
Press <Catalog>
Display the disk catalog listing. Note that data files
have the type DAT and setting files have the type
SET.
1-18
GETTING STARTED
8.
Press [MARKER]
Pressing the [MARKER] key allows the knob to
adjust the marker. When the disk catalog is
displayed, the marker highlights a file. Use the
knob to choose the file TEST1 to recall. (Or use the
<File Name> key to enter the file name.)
9.
Press <Recall Settings>
This recalls the settings from the file TEST1. The
analyzer settings are changed to those stored in
TEST1. The span and input coupling should be the
same as those in effect when you created the file.
Note that the STOP-Invld indicator is flashing at the
bottom of the screen. This means that the display
data does not match the analyzer settings or the
graph parameters. Remember, we just recalled the
settings which paused the data acquisition before
changing the settings. Pressing [START] will start
data acqusition with the new settings.
1-19
GETTING STARTED
USING DATA TABLES
The Measurement
This measurement is designed to familiarize the
user with the data tables. We will use the SR770
Source to provide a test signal so that there is
some data to report.
A data table reports the Y values for user listed Xaxis values. For example, the entries could be a set
of harmonic frequencies which need to be
measured. The data table is a convenient way to
measure the data values at various points without
moving the marker around and manually recording
the answers. To generate a printed report of the
measurement, the data table may be printed using
the Plot menu.
Specifically, you will generate a data table to
measure some harmonics as well as the noise
floor.
Each trace has its own data table though only the
table associated with the active trace is on and
displayed at any time.
Data tables are saved along with the trace data
when data is saved to disk.
Data tables are not stored in non-volatile memory
and are not retained when the power is turned off.
Remember that the values in the table do not have
units associated with them. An X location of 10 kHz
is stored as 10 k and a Y value of -20 dBV is
reported as simply -20. The Y values come directly
from the graph so it is important to use the proper
display units to get consistent data table readings.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
1-20
GETTING STARTED
DATA TABLES
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Sine>
Turn on the Sine output. Leave the sine frequency
and level at the default settings (1 kHz and 1 Vpk).
3.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Let the analyzer automatically set its input range.
4.
Press [SPAN DOWN] until the span is
6.25 kHz
Set the span to display the 1 kHz signal.
5.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
Set the graph scaling to display the entire range of
the data.
6.
Press [ANALYZE]
Display the Analysis menu.
Press <Data Table>
Select Data Table display. The display switches to
dual trace format with the spectrum on top and the
data table listed below.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
This moves the marker to the peak of the spectrum.
This should center the marker on the 1 kHz
fundamental frequency.
Press <X Value>
Highlight the X Value menu box.
Press [MARKER ENTRY]
This copies the marker X position into the X Value
menu box. The X value of data table line 0 is now
equal to the 1 kHz signal frequency. The Y value of
line 0 is updated each time the graph is updated.
7.
8.
Press <Table Index>
This highlights the Table Index menu box. Let's add
another line to the data table.
Press [1] <Enter>
Entering an index or line number beyond the end of
the table adds a new line to the end.
1-21
GETTING STARTED
9.
Press <X Value>
Press [2] <kHz>
Highlight the X Value menu box.
Enter the frequency of the 2nd harmonic into the
data table.
Line 1 now has the frequency of the 2nd harmonic.
Note how the Y values update with the graph.
In the Analysis menu, many of the frequencies or X
values may be entered by copying the X location of
the marker (using [MARKER ENTRY]) or by
entering the numerical value with the keypad.
Let's add another line to the table.
10. Press <Table Index>
Press [2] <Enter>
11. Press <X Value>
Press [2] [.] [5] [4] <kHz>
12. Press <Insert Item>
Highlight the X Value menu box.
Enter some frequency which is representative of the
noise floor of the signal.
We decided that we wanted another harmonic in
the table. This key inserts a new line before the
highlighted line.
We could enter an X value for this new line now.
But we changed our mind. Let's delete this line.
Press <Delete Item>
13. Press [SYSTEM]
Press <Print>
Display the System menu.
Display the Printing submenu.
If we have a printer attached, then the <Print Data>
function will print the data table, with updated Y
values.
Show the Display menu.
14. Press [DISPLAY]
Press <Format>
Choose the Single trace display format. This
removes the data table display and restores the
screen to a single trace display.
1-22
GETTING STARTED
USING LIMIT TABLES
A limit table lists the X,Y coordinates of the line
segments which define the trace test limits. When
trace data exceeds these limit segments, then the
test fails. The limit table is a convenient way to test
devices against a specification defined over a range
of frequencies. To generate a printed listing of a
limit table, use the Print Limits function in the Plot
menu.
The Measurement
This measurement is designed to familiarize the
user with the limit tables. We will use the SR770
Source to provide a test signal so that there is
some data to test.
Specifically, you will generate a limit table to test
the signal level as well as the noise floor.
Each trace has its own limit table though only the
table associated with the active trace is on and
displayed at any time.
Limit tables are saved along with the trace data
when data is saved to disk.
Limit tables are not stored in non-volatile memory
and are not retained when the power is turned off.
Remember that the values in the table do not have
units associated with them. An X location of 10 kHz
is stored as 10 k and a Y value of -20 dBV is simply
-20. The limit test compares the data on the graph
(in the display units) to the Y values in the table. It
is important to use the correct units in the display
to get consistent limit table tests.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
1-23
GETTING STARTED
LIMIT TABLES
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Sine>
Turn on the Sine output. Leave the sine frequency
and level at the default settings (1 kHz and 1 Vpk).
3.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Let the analyzer automatically set its input range.
4.
Press [SPAN DOWN] until the span is
6.25 kHz
Set the span to display the 1 kHz signal and its
first few harmonics.
5.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
Set the graph scaling to display the entire range of
the data.
6.
Press [ANALYZE]
Display the Analysis menu.
Press <Limit Table>
Select Limit Table display. The display switches to
dual trace format with the spectrum on top and the
limit table listed below.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
This moves the marker to the peak of the spectrum
and measures the fundamental frequency.
7.
Let's define an upper limit for the 1 kHz peak.
8.
Press <X Values>
Highlight the upper X Value menu field.
Press [9] [0] [0] <Hz>
Enter a frequency below the signal frequency.
Press <X Values> again
Highlight the lower X Value menu field.
Press [1] [.] [1] <kHz>
Enter a frequency higher than the signal frequency.
As with data tables, it is also possible to copy the
marker X location into the X value fields. But this
time we want frequencies above and below the
peak so we entered them numerically.
1-24
GETTING STARTED
Highlight the upper Y values menu field.
9.
Press <Y Values>
Enter a value somewhat less than the signal peak.
Press [-] [5] <Enter>
Highlight the lower Y values menu field.
Press <Y Values>
Enter a value somewhat less than the signal peak.
Press [-] [5] <Enter>
Notice that small line segment is drawn on the
display. This line starts at (Xbegin,Y1) and ends at
(Xend, Y2) and represents a limit segment. If the
data exceeds this limit (since it is an upper limit),
then the FAIL indicator will flash at the bottom of
the screen. The FAIL indicator should be flashing
now.
Display the second limits menu.
10. Press <More>
Press <Audio Alarm>
Press <Audio Alarm>
Set the audio alarm on. Now whenever a trace is
taken that exceeds the limit, an alarm sounds.
Set the audio alarm off. You're probably ready to
turn off the alarms by now anyway.
Go back to the main limits menu.
Press <Return>
Highlight the upper Y values menu field.
Press <Y Values>
Enter a value higher than the signal peak.
Press [2] <Enter>
Highlight the lower Y values menu field.
Press <Y Values>
Enter a value higher than the signal peak.
Press [2] <Enter>
The limit segment is now entirely above the signal
peak and the PASS indicator is on at the bottom of
the screen. Remember, this segment is an upper
limit.
Let's add another segment to this table.
Highlight the Table Index menu box.
11. Press <Table Index>
Press [1] <Enter>
Entering an index or line number beyond the end of
the table adds a new line to the end.
Notice how the new segment is a continuation of
the previous one. This makes building a continuous
limit much simpler. The starting point of the new
line equals the ending point of the previous one.
1-25
GETTING STARTED
The new segment's length along the X axis is the
same as the previous segment's. The only thing
you need to edit is the value of Y2 and your new
segment is finished.
But let's go on to define a noise floor limit.
12. Press <X Values> until the upper field is
highlighted.
Press [2] [.] [2] <kHz>
Enter a segment which is between harmonics. In
this case, between 2.2 and 2.8 kHz. This is
representative of the noise floor.
Press <X Values>
Press [2] [.] [8] <kHz>
13. Press <YValues> until the upper field is
highlighted.
Press [-] [9] [0] <Enter>
Press <Y Values>
Press [-] [9] [0] <Enter>
14. Press <Limit Type>
Define an upper limit a little above the noise floor.
In this case, we define an upper noise limit of 90 dB.
There should now be a horizontal segment above
the noise floor between 2.2 and 2.8 kHz. The limit
test should still PASS.
This switches the noise limit from an upper limit to
a lower limit. Since the data will now be below the
lower limit, the test will FAIL.
Display the second limits menu.
15. Press <More>
Press <Testing>
Set limit testing to OFF. It is possible to display
the limit table without testing taking place. This is
helpful when a lot of the X values on the graph have
defined limits. The testing can slow down the
response of the analyzer noticeably. It is simpler to
define the limits with testing off.
Show the Display menu.
14. Press [DISPLAY]
Press <Format>
Choose the Single trace display format. This
removes the limit table display and restores the
screen to a single trace display. No testing occurs
when the limit table is not displayed.
1-26
GETTING STARTED
USING TRACE MATH
The Calculator submenu allows the user to perform
arithmetic calculations with the trace data.
Operations are performed on the entire trace,
regardless of graphical expansion.
The Measurement
This measurement is designed to familiarize the
user with the trace math capabilities. We will use
the SR770 Source to provide a test signal.
Calculations treat the data as intrinsic values, either
Volts, Engineering Units or degrees. If a graph is
showing dB, then multiplying by 10 will raise the
graph by 20 dB and dividing by 10 will lower the
graph by 20 dB.
Specifically, you will ratio a spectrum with a
reference spectrum.
Performing a calculation on the active trace will set
the File Type to Calc to indicate that the trace is
not Live. This is shown by the "File=Calc" message
at the lower left of the graph. The analyzer
continues to run but the calculated trace will not be
updated. To return the trace to live mode, activate
the trace and press the [START] key. The File Type
will return to Live.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
1-27
GETTING STARTED
TRACE MATH
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Sine>
Turn on the Sine output.
Press <Configure Source>
Display the Sine frequency and level.
Press <Level>
Select the Sine output level.
Press [-] [3] <dBV>
Enter -3 dBV for the Sine output level. Note that the
Sine level can be entered in either mV (pk) or dBV
(pk).
3.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Let the analyzer automatically set its input range.
4.
Press [SPAN DOWN] until the span is
6.25 kHz
Set the span to display the 1 kHz signal and its
first few harmonics.
5.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
Set the graph scaling to display the entire range of
the data.
6.
Press [MEAS]
Display the Measure menu.
Press <Calculator Menu>
Select the Calculator menu.
Press <Do Calc>
This operation defaults to adding zero to the trace
data. The default operation is +, the default
argument is the constant zero. We're doing this so
that the trace does not update. This is now the
graph we will use as the reference data.
7.
Reference data normally comes from a disk file.
Recalling a stored file brings the data back to the
active graph but does not update it. See "Using the
Disk Drive" earlier in this section.
8.
Press [DISPLAY]
Bring up the Display menu.
1-28
GETTING STARTED
Press <Format>
Choose the Up/Dn dual trace format. The reference
graph will be the upper trace (Trace0) and the live
graph will be the lower trace (Trace1).
Press <Marker Width> twice to choose Spot
Marker.
Make the marker on the upper graph a spot marker.
Press [ACTIVE TRACE]
Press <Marker Width> twice to choose Spot
Marker.
9.
Press [MARKER MODE]
Press <Linked Markers>
Let's make the live graph the active trace.
Make the marker on the lower graph a spot marker.
Display the Marker Mode menu.
Link the two markers together. Now when the knob
moves one marker, they both move together. Since
they are both spot markers, the frequencies which
they read on both graphs are identical.
Move the markers to the signal peak (1 kHz).
Press [MAX/MIN]
10. Press [SOURCE]
Bring up the Source menu.
Display the Sine frequency and level menu.
Press <Configure Source>
Select the Sine output level.
Press <Level>
Enter -20 dBV.
Press [-] [2] [0] <dBV>
The reference amplitude may be read from the
marker readout of the upper graph. The live
amplitude may be read from the marker of the lower
graph.
Now we have 2 traces which differ in amplitude.
Let's take the ratio.
Go back to the Calculator menu.
11. Press [MEAS]
Press <Calculator Menu>
Press <Argument Type> twice to select
Other Graph.
Press <Operation> three times to select '/'
(divide).
12. Press <Do Calc>
We will divide the active graph (Trace1 Live) by the
inactive graph (Trace0 reference).
Select the divide operation.
Do the calculation. Since the graphs are displayed
in dBV, the ratio of the peaks should simply be the
difference in their amplitudes expressed in dBV.
Remember, the calculations work on the underlying
1-29
GETTING STARTED
data points (in Volts).
Press [AUTO SCALE]
The active graph now displays the ratio of the two
traces in dB.
The marker on the lower graph should read the
difference between the two peak amplitudes (17.0 dB). Clearly, only the frequencies which
correspond to the signal and its harmonics have
much meaning in this ratio. One noise floor divided
by another noise floor is going to be pretty noisy.
A better way to read these harmonic ratios is using
the data table. A data table can display the values
of selected frequencies in easy to read form. See
"Using Data Table" earlier in this section. The data
table would be defined for Trace1.
Other operations which may be performed are +, -,
x, /, square root, log, phase unwrap and d/dx. The
second argument may be a constant (for scaling or
offset), ω (2ðf to differentiate or integrate the
spectrum), or the other graph (reference trace from
disk).
1-30
GETTING STARTED
USING THE SOURCE
The SR770 has a built in signal source capable of
providing a variety of test signals.
The Measurement
This measurement is designed to familiarize the
user with the source capabilities. We will use the
SR770 Source to provide a test signal.
SINE
A low distortion sine wave for general purpose gain,
distortion and signal/noise measurements. The sine
source is synchronous with the FFT, i.e. sine waves
can be generated at exact bin frequencies of the
FFT. This can eliminate windowing effects in the
measured amplitude and phase.
Specifically, you will measure the spectrum of each
of the source types, taking advantage of the fact
that the built in source is synchronous with the
FFT.
TWO TONE
Two low distortion sine waves can be generated
simultaneously for intermodulation distortion tests
(IMD). Each tone has independent frequency and
amplitude settings.
NOISE
Broadband noise is useful for characterizing
circuits, mechanical systems or even the audio
response of an entire room. White noise provides
equal amplitude per root Hz from 0 to 100 kHz.
White noise is useful in electronic applications.
Pink noise rolls off at 3 dB/oct providing equal
amplitude per octave. Pink noise is preferred in
audio applications.
CHIRP
The Chirp source provides an equal amplitude sine
wave at each bin of the displayed spectrum. Since
there are 400 bins in a spectrum, the chirp is the
sum of 400 discrete sine waves. The phases of
each sine wave are arranged so that they do not
add in phase and the resulting output does not
peak. This source is useful for measuring transfer
functions quickly without having to make many
discrete measurements using a single sine wave.
There are two types of front panel keys which will
be referenced in this section. Hardkeys are those
keys with labels printed on them. Their function is
determined by the label and does not change.
Hardkeys are referenced by brackets like this [HARDKEY]. The softkeys are the six gray keys
along the right edge of the screen. Their function is
labelled by a menu box displayed on the screen
next to the key. Softkey functions change
depending upon the situation. Softkeys will be
referenced as the <Soft Key> or simply the Soft
Key.
1-31
GETTING STARTED
1-32
GETTING STARTED
USING THE SINE SOURCE
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
4.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Sine>
Turn on the Sine output.
Press <Configure Source>
Display the Sine frequency and level.
Press <Level>
Select the Sine output level.
Press [-] [3] <dBV>
Enter -3 dBV for the Sine output level. Note that the
Sine level can be entered in either mV (pk) or dBV
(pk).
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
Move the marker to the signal peak. The marker
should be centered at the 1 kHz signal and display
a level of -3 dBV.
Press <Frequency>
Select the Sine frequency.
Use the knob to adjust the frequency to
50.00 kHz.
When the knob is used to adjust the sine
frequency, the frequency resolution is equal to the
linewidth of the displayed spectrum. In this case,
since we are at full span, the linewidth is 250 Hz
(100 kHz/400). This always puts the sine exactly
on a frequency bin of the spectrum.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
Move the marker to the signal peak.
Press <Frequency>
Select the Sine frequency.
Press [5] [0] [.] [0] [1] <kHz>
The keypad allows random frequencies to be
entered. The fundamental frequency resolution of
the sine source is 15.26 mHz. The entered
frequency will be rounded to the nearest multiple of
15.26 mHz. In this case, 50.01 kHz is rounded to
50.0099945 kHz (only 5.5 mHz off).
Use the knob to adjust the frequency to
10 kHz.
When the knob is used again, the frequency
resolution returns to the linewidth and the frequency
immediately jumps to the nearest multiple of the
linewidth.
1-33
GETTING STARTED
Generally, the sine frequency should be an exact
bin frequency, this eliminates windowing effects
and allows for source triggering and vector
averaging.
5.
Press [AVERAGE]
Display the Averaging menu.
Press <Number of Averages>
Highlight the number of averages.
Press [2] [0] <Enter>
Change the number of averages to 20.
Press <Average Mode> to select
Exponential.
Select exponential averaging so the display is live.
Press <Averaging> to turn on averaging.
Turn averaging on.
Notice how the noise floor has averaged to a stable
value. RMS averaging averages the magnitude of
the signal and reduces the fluctuations in the data.
Note that harmonics may now be visible.
6.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
Press [MARKER REF]
Use the knob to move the marker to the
signal harmonics.
Press [MARKER REF]
7.
Press [INPUT]
Press <Trigger Menu>
Press <Trigger> 4 times to select Source.
Move the marker to the signal peak at 10 kHz.
This turns on the marker offset and sets the
reference marker to the current marker position.
From now on, the marker will read relative to the
signal peak. A � is displayed before the marker
readout to indicate that the reading is relative. A
small star symbol is located on the graph at the
marker offset position.
The ref marker gives a direct reading of the
harmonic levels relative the fundamental.
Pressing [MARKER REF] again turns off the
reference marker.
Display the Input menu.
Go to the Trigger menu.
Select Source Trigger. This is a special trigger
mode. The spectra are taken with no overlap (at all
spans) but without using the trigger circuits. When
each time record finishes, the next one begins
without delay. Any signal which is EXACTLY
periodic over a time record will be the same in
EVERY time record. For this type of signal, this
has the same effect as triggering.
If the source sine frequency is an exact multiple of
1-34
GETTING STARTED
the linewidth, then the source will appear triggered.
This only works with the SR770's own source since
it is clocked with the same crystal timebase as the
input time record. A separate sine generator will
invariably drift relative to the SR770's timebase and
the generator's sine frequency will drift away from
an exact bin frequency.
To see how this works, we need to vector average.
Go back to the Average menu.
8.
Press [AVERAGE]
Press <Average Type> to select Vector.
Vector averaging averages the complex FFT
spectrum. This reduces the level of signals which
are not phase coherent from time record to time
record, such as noise.
Notice that the noise floor is actually reduced but
the signal and its harmonics stay the same
amplitude. This is because the source (and its
harmonics) are at an exact bin frequency and are
EXACTLY the same in each time record.
Even though the signal has a stable phase within
each time record, the absolute phase of the signal
is arbitrary. This is because the SR770 does not
turn on and off the source synchronously with the
FFT.
Go back to the Source menu.
9.
Press [SOURCE]
Press <Configure Source>
Press <Frequency>
Press [1] [0] [.] [1] <kHz>
Display the Sine frequency and level.
Select the frequency.
Set the frequency to 10.1 kHz. This is NOT an
exact bin frequency. Note that the signal peak is
dramatically reduced. This is the effect of vector
averaging a non-coherent signal.
The signal peak is restored to its correct value once
the frequency is an exact bin frequency again.
Use the knob to set the frequency back to
10 kHz.
Go back to the Average menu.
Turn averaging off.
10. Press [AVERAGE]
Press <Averaging> to turn averaging off.
Display the Measure menu.
Choose the Window menu. Windowing is used to
turn a non-periodic time record into a periodic one.
1-35
GETTING STARTED
Press [MEAS]
Press <Window Menu>
Press <Uniform>
Read "Windowing" in the Analyzer Basics section
for more information. In this case, the source sine
is exactly periodic over a time record so windowing
is not required.
The uniform window is no window at all. The signal
peak is unchanged in amplitude but has no
frequency width. This is because the signal is
exactly on a frequency bin.
Note that this only works when the noise level is
very low. If the sine is noisy, then windowing will
still be required to achieve a clean spectrum.
Go back to the Source menu.
Display the Sine frequency and level.
11. Press [SOURCE]
Press <Configure Source>
Press <Frequency>
Press [1] [0] [.] [1] <kHz>
Select the frequency.
Set the frequency to 10.1 kHz. This is NOT an
exact bin frequency. Note that the signal peak is
dramatically affected in both amplitude and
frequency width. This is because this frequency is
not periodic in the time record. The end points of
the time record are not equal and represent a large
step discontinuity. The spectrum of this
discontinuity is spread over the entire spectrum.
Display the Measure menu.
Choose the Window menu.
Press [MEAS]
Press <Window Menu>
Press <BMH>
Choose a non-uniform window. The window function
allows the non-periodic signal to be analyzed. Note
that the signal peak frequency is reported as 10.00
kHz (even though the signal is at 10.1 kHz). This is
because the FFT only results in 400 discrete
frequency bins. The signal peak is also wider than
with the uniform window. Windows decrease the
selectivity of the spectrum by widening the signal
peaks. The amplitude of the peak is also wrong.
This is because window functions have amplitude
variations for signals between bins.
All in all, the sine source should be used with an
exact bin frequency whenever possible. This allows
source triggering (no jitter trigger, regardless of
signal to noise ratio) and vector averaging as well
as eliminating window effects.
1-36
GETTING STARTED
USING THE TWO TONE SOURCE
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
3.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <2-Tone>
Turn on the Sine output.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Let the analyzer select the input range
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
The spectrum has two equal signal peaks at 1 kHz
and 9 kHz. The two tone source is simply the sum
of two sine waves. Each tone has its own amplitude
and frequency which are adjusted in the same
manner as the single sine.
Press <Configure Source>
Display the frequency and level of each tone.
Press <Frequency 1>
Select the frequency of tone 1.
Use the knob to adjust the frequency to
10 kHz.
When the knob is used to adjust the tone
frequency, the frequency resolution is equal to the
linewidth of the displayed spectrum. In this case,
since we are at full span, the linewidth is 250 Hz
(100 kHz/400). This always puts the tone exactly
on a frequency bin of the spectrum.
The keypad allows random frequencies to be
entered. The fundamental frequency resolution of
the sine is 15.26 mHz. The entered frequency will
be rounded to the nearest multiple of 15.26 mHz.
Generally, the tone frequency should be an exact
bin frequency, this eliminates windowing effects
and allows for source triggering and vector
averaging.
4.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
Move the marker to the signal peak. The marker
picks the larger tone (they should be just about
equal).
Press [MARKER CENTER]
This narrows the span and puts the center of the
span on one of the tones.
1-37
GETTING STARTED
Press [AVERAGE]
Display the Average menu.
Press <Number of Averages>
Highlight the number of averages.
Press [2] [0] <Enter>
Enter 20 averages.
Press
<Average
Exponential.
Mode>
to
select
Press <Averaging> to turn averaging on.
Select exponential averaging so that the display is
live.
Turn averaging on.
Notice how the noise floor has averaged to a stable
value. RMS averaging averages the magnitude of
the signal and reduces the fluctuations in the data.
Note that distortion products may now be visible.
Intermodulation distortion (IMD) results in signal
sidebands separated by the difference frequency. In
this case, the two tones are at 9 and 10 kHz and
the difference is 1 kHz. Thus, IMD products will
show up at 8, 7, .. kHz and 11, 12, .. kHz.
5.
Press [MARKER MAX/MIN]
Press [MARKER REF]
Use the knob to measure the distortion
components.
Move the marker to the signal peak.
This turns on the marker offset and sets the
reference marker to the current marker position.
From now on, the marker will read relative to the
signal peak. A � is displayed before the marker
readout to indicate that the reading is relative. A
small star symbol is located on the graph at the
marker offset position.
Note that the distortion products are separated by 1
kHz increments from the two tone frequencies.
They should also be very small (<-80 dB) relative to
the tone amplitudes.
In this configuration, it is not possible to determine
whether the distortion exists at the source output or
the signal input. This measurement determines the
sensitivity of any IMD measurement made using
the two tone source.
1-38
GETTING STARTED
USING THE NOISE SOURCE
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Noise>
Turn on the Noise output.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Let the analyzer select the input range.
The spectrum is flat noise from 0 to 100 kHz at a
level of approximately -30 dBV. The input range has
auto-ranged to a much higher level, around 4 dBV.
This is because the peak output voltage is greater
than 1 V.
3.
Press <Configure Source>
Display the noise configuration menu.
Press <Noise Level>
Select the noise level. The noise level is
approximately the peak amplitude of the noise
output. There will be occasional voltage excursions
beyond this level. Because of the nature of noise,
the peak amplitude is not a well defined quantity.
Press [1] [0] [0] <mV>
Press [1] [0] [0] [0] <mV>
4.
Press [INPUT]
Press <Auto Offset> to select Off.
Press [AVERAGE]
Press <Number of Averages>
Press [4] [0] [0] [0]<Enter>
Press <Averaging> to turn averaging on.
Enter a noise level of 100 mV. This lowers the
noise spectrum by 20 dB.
Restore the noise level back to 1000 mV.
Display the Input menu.
Turn off Auto Offset before we start averaging.
Display the Average menu.
Highlight the number of averages.
Enter 4000 averages.
Turn averaging on and wait until the average is
complete. In Linear average mode, at the end of
4000 averages, the analyzer will stop.
Notice how the noise has averaged to a stable
1-39
GETTING STARTED
value. RMS averaging averages the magnitude of
the signal and reduces the fluctuations in the data.
Note that the noise spectrum is flat.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
Change the display scale so that the fluctuations in
the spectral flatness are visible.
The noise output spectrum covers 0 to 100 kHz,
regardless of the analysis span. The source is
digitally synthesized and passes through an output
reconstruction filter. The Source Cal feature adjusts
the input calibrations to compensate for this output
filter's ripple. The actual signal at the Source
Output is not affected. (The output ripple is
measured at the factory and is not adjustable by
the user.)
Source Cal only has an effect if the source is Noise
or Chirp. Source Cal can be turned off in the
Configure Noise or Chirp menu.
Never select Noise or Chirp source with Source
Cal On and use an external signal source! The
input calibrations are modified and will result
in measurement errors unless the SR770
internal source is used as the test signal!
Display the Measure menu.
5.
Press [MEAS]
Go to the Measure submenu.
Press <Measure Menu>
Select Power Spectral Density.
Press <PSD>
Auto scale the graph.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
The spectrum measures the amount of noise within
a linewidth of each frequency bin. Since the
linewidth is simply 1/400th of the span, the amount
of noise signal in each bin will decrease with the
span. Power Spectral Density (PSD) normalizes all
measurements to a 1 Hz bandwidth (instead of the
linewidth). Since white noise is Gaussian, it has a
constant noise density (V/�Hz). Measurements
with the same bandwidth will yield the same noise
level. Thus, PSD will measure the same noise at
any span.
Move the marker.
Press [MARKER]
Use the knob to center the marker at 50 kHz.
Read the PSD at 50 kHz. Remember this number.
Change the span to 25 kHz.
1-40
GETTING STARTED
Press [SPAN DOWN] twice to select a
25 kHz span.
Press [FREQ]
Press <Center Freq.>
Press [5] [0] <kHz>
Press [START]
Go to the Frequency menu.
Highlight the Center Frequency.
Enter 50 kHz.
Take another spectra.
The final PSD level should be the same as the
reading taken at full span at 50 kHz. (The reading is
not exactly the same of course. That would take an
infinite number of averages.)
Remember, the noise output covers the spectrum
from 0 to 100 kHz, regardless of the measurement
span. In this case, the measurement span extends
from 37.5-62.5 kHz while the noise output is still full
span.
The response of many systems is characterized
using noise as the input. White noise (equal noise
in equal bandwidth) is generally used in electronic
measurements. Pink noise (equal noise per
frequency octave) is preferred in acoustic systems,
such as the natural response of an enclosure or
speaker. White noise generates a flat Power
Spectral Density curve. Pink noise generates a flat
response in Octave Analysis.
1-41
GETTING STARTED
USING THE CHIRP SOURCE
1.
Turn the analyzer on while holding down the
[<-] (backspace) key. Wait until the power-on
tests are completed.
2.
Connect the SR770 Source output to the A
input.
When the power is turned on with the backspace
key depressed, the analyzer returns to its default
settings. See the Default Settings list in the Menu
section for a complete listing of the settings.
Press [SOURCE]
Display the Source menu.
Press <Chirp>
Turn on the Chirp output.
Press [AUTO RANGE]
Let the analyzer select the input range.
The Chirp source provides an equal amplitude sine
wave at each bin of the displayed spectrum. The
phases of each sine wave are arranged so that they
do not add in phase and the resulting output does
not peak. Because of cancellation, not all sine
waves are present during all portions of the time
record. Since the input time record is windowed,
some portions of the time record are attenuated,
This results in certain frequency ranges in the
spectra being attenuated. Hence the spectrum has
peaks and valleys and is generally not useful when
windowed.
3.
Press [MEAS]
Display the Measure menu.
Press <Window Menu>
Show the Window menu.
Press <Uniform>
Select a Uniform window (no windowing).
The spectrum becomes an almost flat line.
Since the chirp waveform consists of the 400
displayed bin frequencies, it is EXACTLY periodic
over a time record. Every time record is the same
(except for noise). An exactly periodic waveform
requires no window. In this case, the window
actually removes spectral information which we
need.
4.
Press [INPUT]
Display the Input menu.
Press <Trigger Menu>
Go to the Trigger menu.
Press <Trigger> 4 times to select Source.
Select Source Trigger. This is a special trigger
1-42
GETTING STARTED
mode. The spectra are taken with no overlap (at all
spans) but without using the trigger circuits. When
each time record finishes, the next one begins
without delay. Any signal which is EXACTLY
periodic over a time record will be the same in
EVERY time record. For this type of signal, this
has the same effect as triggering.
We need to use source triggering in order to get
phase information from this spectrum.
5.
Press <Return>
Go back to the main Input menu.
Press <Auto Offset> to select Off.
Turn off Auto Offset. In order to preserve the phase
information from source triggering, we need to turn
off Auto Offset calibration. The SR770 does not
synchronize phase when turning the source on and
off. Hence, the phase of the chirp components will
be stable but arbitrary. The Auto Offset calibration
interrupts the input and restarts data acquisition
without synchronization. Thus, the phases of the
components will change whenever Auto Offset
calibration occurs, disrupting our measurements.
Press [SCALE]
Press <Y/Div>
Turn the knob to change the vertical scale to
0.5 dB/div.
Show the Scale menu.
Highlight the Y (vertical) scale.
Zoom in so that the ripple in the spectrum is easily
visible. This spectrum has very little ripple. If this
source was the input to a device under test, the
output spectrum would be the amplitude transfer
function of the device.
The chirp source is digitally synthesized and
passes through an output reconstruction filter. The
Source Cal feature adjusts the input calibrations to
compensate for this output filter's ripple. The actual
signal at the Source Output is not affected. (The
output ripple is measured at the factory and is not
adjustable by the user.)
Source Cal only has an effect if the source is Noise
or Chirp. Source Cal can be turned off in the
Configure Noise or Chirp menu.
Never select Noise or Chirp source with Source
Cal On and use an external signal source! The
input calibrations are modified and will result
in measurement errors unless the SR770
internal source is used as the test signal!
The amplitude of each frequency component is
1-43
GETTING STARTED
roughly -32dB relative to the peak output. If the
individual frequency components were perfectly
random, then each would be 1/�400 (-26 dB) of the
peak. However, the chirp source is deterministic
and each frequency component has a fixed phase
relative to all the other components. This reduces
the amplitude of each component by another 6dB
(worsens the crest factor). Thus, the dynamic range
of the measurement is reduced when using the
chirp source.
Go to the Display menu.
5.
Press [DISPLAY]
Display two traces.
Press <Format> to select Up/Dn.
The active trace has its trace identifier (upper right
of graph) displayed in inverse. Make the lower trace
the active trace.
Press [ACTIVE TRACE] to select the lower
trace.
Go to the Measure menu.
Press <MEAS>
Show the Display submenu.
Press <Display Menu>
Display the phase of the spectrum on the lower
graph.
Press <Phase>
The phases of the frequency components of the
chirp are stable (but seemingly random). To
measure the phase response of a device under
test, we need to calibrate the phase of the source.
Go back to the Source menu.
Press [SOURCE]
Show the chirp output configuration menu.
Press <Configure Source>
The Auto Phase function measures the current
phase spectrum. This phase spectrum is stored in
memory and subtracted from subsequent phase
spectra to remove the phase of the chirp source.
Press <Auto Phase>
The phase spectrum now shows 0° at all
frequencies. If a device under test is inserted
between the source and the input, the lower graph
will show the phase response of the device.
Auto phase is removed when the span is changed
or the source type is changed.
Change the span.
Press [SPAN DOWN]
Back to 100 kHz span.
Press [SPAN UP]
The phase calibration is removed whenever the
1-44
GETTING STARTED
span is changed. Remember, if phase information
is desired, Auto Phase must be performed after
every span change. (Auto Offset also disrupts the
phase.)
Go to the Display menu.
6.
Press [DISPLAY]
Display the phase as a full screen graph.
Press <Format> to select Single.
The phase spectrum of the chirp is quite
complicated looking. The phase changes quite
quickly from -180 to +180 degrees. Many filters
exhibit similar large phase shifts. Sometimes it is
more informative to view the phase spectrum as
"unwrapped" phase. Unwrapping attempts to
display the phase as a continuous unbounded
curve instead of from -180 to +180 degrees.
Go to the Measure menu.
7.
Press [MEAS]
Select the Calculator menu.
Press <Calculator Menu>
Select the unwrap operation.
Press <Operation> 6 times to select unwrap.
Do the calculation.
Press <Do Calc.>
Scale the resulting graph. The phase curve is now a
much simpler curve varying between very large
phases. Unwrapping can make complicated phase
curves more understandable if there is a
relationship between adjacent frequency bins.
Press [Auto Scale]
8.
Press <Operation> to select d/dx.
Press <Do Calc.>
The derivative of the phase with respect to
frequency (x axis) is the group delay.
Do the derivative calculation. This brings up a
submenu to select the aperture. The aperture (as a
percentage of 400 bins) over which the derivative is
calculated needs to be selected.
Choose a narrow aperture.
Press <1.25%>
9.
Press <Operation> to select / (divide).
The resulting group delay curve shows a linear
group delay over several regions of the spectrum.
Group delay is actually dθ/dω where θ is in radians.
To convert the numerator to radians, multiply by
2ð/360. To convert from d/dx to d/dω divide the
curve by 2ð * linewidth. Altogether, we need to
divide the curve by 1/360*linewidth.
1-45
GETTING STARTED
Highlight the argument (denominator).
Press <Argument>
360 x 250 Hz = 90000 sec-1.
Press [9] [0] [0] [0] [0] <Enter>
Convert the curve to group delay (in seconds).
Press <Do Calc.>
The graph still reads out in degrees though the
actual units are now sec. The calculator does math
with numbers (not units). We need to remember the
appropriate units to assign to the marker. The
group delay varies between -1.9 ms to +1.9 ms.
Press [AUTO SCALE]
Using the chirp source, the SR770 can measure
amplitude and phase transfer curves for a device
under test. The amplitudes are calibrated using the
Source Cal mode. The phase spectrum can be
calibrated to zero at any time using the Auto Phase
function. Phases relative to the stored phase curve
are displayed live. This gives the SR770 the
functionality of a network analyzer with only a
single input channel.
1-46
GETTING STARTED
THINGS TO WATCH OUT FOR
If the analyzer is on but doesn't seem to be taking
data, there are a number of things to check.
1) Press the [START] key to make sure that
the indicator at the lower left of the screen
displays RUN instead of STOP.
2) Check if linear averaging is on. When the
analyzer finishes a linear average of N
spectra, the analyzer stops and the data is
no longer updated. Press [START] to take
another average.
3) Make sure the triggering mode is
CONTinuous. Otherwise, the analyzer may
be waiting for a trigger (as shown by the Trg
Wait indicator at the bottom of the screen).
4) If the unit is being triggered, check that the
arming mode is set to AUTO. If the arming
mode is MANUAL, then the analyzer will
only trigger once and then wait for the next
manual arming command.
5) Check that the data is on scale by using
[AUTORANGE] and [AUTOSCALE].
6) Make sure that the analyzer is not in the
REMOTE state where the computer
interfaces have locked out the front panel.
Press the LOCAL key (the [HELP] key) to
restore local control.
If the analyzer still seems to function improperly,
turn the power off and turn it back on while holding
down the [<-] (backspace) key. This will reset the
analyzer into the default configuration. The analyzer
should power on running and taking spectra.
1-47
ANALYZER BASICS
WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER?
The SR770 FFT Spectrum Analyzer takes a time
varying input signal, like you would see on an
oscilloscope trace, and computes its frequency
spectrum.
signal. In the SR770, sampling occurs at 256 kHz.
To make sure that Nyquist's theorem is satisfied,
the input signal passes through an analog filter
which attenuates all frequency components
above128 kHz by 90 dB. This is the anti-aliasing
filter. The resulting digital time record is then
mathematically transformed into a frequency
spectrum using an algorithm known as the Fast
Fourier Transform or FFT. The FFT is simply a
clever set of operations which implements Fourier's
basic theorem. The resulting spectrum shows the
frequency components of the input signal.
Fourier's basic theorem states that any waveform in
the time domain can be represented by the
weighted sum of pure sine waves of all frequencies.
If the signal in the time domain (as viewed on an
oscilloscope) is periodic, then its spectrum is
probably dominated by a single frequency
component. What the spectrum analyzer does is
represent the time domain signal by its component
frequencies.
Now here's the interesting part. The original digital
time record comes from discrete samples taken at
the sampling rate. The corresponding FFT yields a
spectrum with discrete frequency samples. In fact,
the spectrum has half as many frequency points as
there are time points. (Remember Nyquist's
theorem). Suppose that you take 1024 samples at
256 kHz. It takes 4 ms to take this time record. The
FFT of this record yields 512 frequency points, but
over what frequency range? The highest frequency
will be determined by the period of 2 time samples
or 128 kHz. The lowest frequency is just the period
of the entire record or 1/(4 ms) or 250 Hz.
Everything below 250 Hz is considered to be dc.
The output spectrum thus represents the frequency
range from dc to 128 kHz with points every 250 Hz.
Why look at a signal's spectrum?
For one thing, some measurements which are very
hard in the time domain are very easy in the
frequency domain. Take harmonic distortion. It's
hard to quantify the distortion by looking at a good
sine wave output from a function generator on an
oscilloscope. When the same signal is displayed
on a spectrum analyzer, the harmonic frequencies
and amplitudes are displayed with amazing clarity.
Another example is noise analysis. Looking at an
amplifier's output noise on an oscilloscope basically
measures just the total noise amplitude. On a
spectrum analyzer, the noise as a function of
frequency is displayed. It may be that the amplifier
has a problem only over certain frequency ranges.
In the time domain it would be very hard to tell.
Advantages and limitations
The advantage of this technique is its speed. The
entire spectrum takes only 4 ms to measure. The
limitation of this measurement is its resolution.
Because the time record is only 4 ms long, the
frequency resolution is only 250 Hz. Suppose the
signal has a frequency component at 260 Hz. The
FFT spectrum will detect this signal but place part
of it in the 250 Hz point and part in the 500 Hz
point. One way to measure this signal accurately is
to take a time record that is 1/260 or 3.846 ms long
with 1024 evenly spaced samples. Then the signal
would land all in one frequency bin. But this would
require changing the sampling rate based upon the
signal (which you haven't measured yet). Not a
good solution. In fact, the way to measure the
signal accurately is to lengthen the time record and
change the span of the spectrum.
Many of these types of measurements used to be
done using analog spectrum analyzers. In simple
terms, an analog filter was used to isolate
frequencies of interest. The remaining signal power
was measured to determine the signal strength in
certain frequency bands. By tuning the filters and
repeating the measurements, a reasonable
spectrum could be obtained.
The FFT Analyzer
An FFT spectrum analyzer works in an entirely
different way. The input signal is digitized at a high
sampling rate, similar to a digitizing oscilloscope.
Nyquist's theorem says that as long as the
sampling rate is greater than twice the highest
frequency component of the signal, then the
sampled data will accurately represent the input
2-1
ANALYZER BASICS
FREQUENCY SPANS
Before we continue, let's clarify a couple of points
about our frequency span. We just described how
we arrived at a dc to 128 kHz frequency span using
a 4 ms time record. Because the signal passes
through an anti-aliasing filter at the input, the entire
frequency span is not useable. The filter has a flat
response from dc to 100 kHz and then rolls off
steeply from 100 kHz to 128 kHz. No filter can
make a 90 dB transition instantly. The range
between 100 kHz and 128 kHz is therefore not
useable and the actual displayed frequency span
stops at 100 kHz. There is also a frequency bin
labelled 0 Hz (or dc). This bin actually covers the
range from 0 Hz to 250 Hz (the lowest measurable
frequency) and contains the signal components
whose period is longer than the time record (not
only dc). So our final displayed spectrum contains
400 frequency bins. The first covers 0 - 250 Hz, the
second 250 - 500 Hz, and the 400th covers 99.75 100.0 kHz.
points at 128 kHz or half of the input rate (256 kHz).
The net result is the digital filter outputs a time
record of 1024 points effectively sampled at 128
kHz to make up an 8 ms record. The FFT processor
operates on a constant number of points and the
resulting FFT will yield 400 points from dc to 50
kHz. The resolution or linewidth is 125 Hz.
This process of doubling the time record and halving
the span can be repeated by using multiple stages
of digital filtering. The SR770 can process spectra
with a span of only 191 mHz with a time record of
2098 seconds if you have the patience. However,
this filtering process only yields baseband
measurements (frequency spans which start at dc).
Starting the span somewhere other than dc
Besides being able to choose the span and
resolution of the spectrum, we would also like the
span to be able to start at frequencies other than
dc. It would be nice to center a narrow span around
any frequency below 100 kHz. Using digital filtering
alone requires that every span start at dc. What is
needed is heterodyning. Heterodyning is the
process of multiplying the incoming signal by a sine
wave. The resulting spectrum is shifted by the
frequency of the sine wave. If we incorporate
heterodyning with our digital filtering, we can shift
any frequency span so that it starts at dc. The
resulting FFT yields a spectrum offset by the
heterodyne frequency. When this spectrum is
displayed, the frequencies of the X axis are the
frequencies of the actual signal, not the
heterodyned frequencies.
Spans less than 100 kHz
So the length of the time record determines the
frequency span and resolution of our spectrum.
What happens if we make the time record 8 ms or
twice as long? Well we ought to get 2048 time
points (sampling at 256 kHz) yielding a spectrum
from dc to 100 kHz with 125 Hz resolution
containing 800 points. But the SR770 places some
limitations on this. One is memory. If we keep
increasing the time record, then we would need to
store more and more points. Another limitation is
processing time. The time it takes to calculate an
FFT with more points increases more than linearly.
The net result is that the SR770 always takes 1024
point FFT's to yield 400 point spectra.
Heterodyning allows the analyzer to compute
zoomed spectra (spans which start at frequencies
other than dc). The digital filter processor can filter
and heterodyne the input in real time to provide the
appropriate filtered time record at all spans and
center frequencies. Because the digital signal
processors in the SR770 are so fast, you won't
notice any calculation time while taking spectra.
The longest it can take to acquire a spectrum is the
length of the time record itself. But more about that
later.
Here's how it's done. The analyzer digitally filters
the incoming data samples (at 256 kHz) to limit the
bandwidth. This is similar to the anti-aliasing filter at
the input except the digital filter's cutoff frequency
can be changed. In the case of the 8 ms record, the
filter reduces the bandwidth to 64 kHz with a filter
cutoff of 50 kHz (the filter rolls off between 50 and
64 kHz). Remember that Nyquist only requires
samples at twice the frequency of the highest signal
frequency. Thus the digital filter only has to output
2-2
ANALYZER BASICS
THE TIME RECORD
Now that we've described the process in simple
terms, let's complicate it a little bit. The SR770
actually uses 512 point complex time records.
Each point is a complex value (with real and
imaginary parts) so the record actually has 1024
data points in it. But how does a real point get to be
complex?
understand is Linear Magnitude. Remember that
magnitudes are always positive. The negative parts
of the waveform will be folded around zero so that
they appear positive.
Because of the filtering and heterodyning, the time
waveform may not closely resemble the input
signal. For baseband measurements (when the
start frequency of the span is 0.0 Hz) the waveform
will resemble the signal waveform (with folding if
magnitude is displayed). The bandwidth will be
limited by the anti-alias filter and the digital filtering.
For zoomed measurements (when the span start is
not 0.0 Hz) the displayed waveform will not closely
resemble the input signal because of the
heterodyning.
As we described in the previous section, the input
samples are digitally filtered and heterodyned to
produce a time record with the appropriate
bandwidth and a constant number of samples.
What we need to add to this is that the
heterodyning is a complex operation. This means
that the input points are multiplied by both sine and
cosine to yield a real and imaginary part.
Why use the time record?
The time display can be useful in determining
whether the time record is triggered properly. If the
analyzer is triggered, either internally by the signal
or externally with another pulse, and the signal has
a large component synchronous with the trigger,
then the time record should appear stationary on
the display. If the signal triggers randomly, then the
time display will jitter back and forth.
So instead of using 1024 real points, we use 512
complex points. The time records have the same
duration so the complex record has half the
sampling rate of the real record. Thus at full span,
the real points would occur at 256 kHz and the
complex points at 128 kHz. You can think of the
complex record as two separate records, one real
and one imaginary, each with 64 kHz of bandwidth.
(1/2 of the sample rate). One covers 0 to +64 kHz
and the other covers -64 kHz to 0 for a total
bandwidth of 128 kHz (the same bandwidth as the
real record). What a negative frequency means is
beyond this discussion but suffice to say it works
the same.
The time record display
What do you see when you display the time
record? Clearly the time record is not as simple as
the raw digitized data points you would see if this
were a digital oscilloscope.
Watch out for windowing!
The time display is not windowed. This means the
time record which is displayed will be multiplied by
the window function before the FFT is taken (see
"Windowing" later in this section). Most window
functions taper off to zero at the start and end of the
time record. If the transient signal occurs at the
start of the time record, the corresponding FFT may
not show anything because the window function
reduces the transient to zero.
The analyzer stores the 512 point complex time
record described above. Because the display is
designed for 400 point spectra, only the first 400
points of the time record are displayed. You can
use the trigger delay to "translate" the time record
to see the part not normally displayed.
Either use a Uniform window with transients, or use
the trigger delay to position the transient at the
center of the time record. (Remember that the
display only shows the first 400 points of the
record. The center is always at the 256th sample,
which is not at the center of the display.)
The time record for every span has been digitally
filtered and heterodyned into a complex record. You
can display the magnitude, real or imaginary part as
well as the phase. Normally, the easiest display to
To repeat, the time record is not a snapshot of
the input signal. It is the output of the digital
filter and the input to the FFT processor.
2-3
ANALYZER BASICS
MEASUREMENT BASICS
Now that we know that the input to the FFT
processor is a complex time record, it should be no
surprise to find out that the resulting FFT spectrum
is also a complex quantity. This is because each
frequency component has a phase relative to the
start of the time record. If there is no triggering, then
the phase is random and we generally look at the
magnitude of the spectrum. If we use a
synchronous
trigger
then
each
frequency
component has a well defined phase.
spectrum changes with the frequency span. This is
because the linewidth changes so the frequency
bins have a different noise bandwidth. The PSD, on
the other hand, normalizes all measurements to a 1
Hz bandwidth and the noise spectrum becomes
independent of the span. This allows measurements
with different spans to be compared. If the noise is
Gaussian in nature, then the amount of noise
amplitude
in
other
bandwidths
may
be
approximated by scaling the PSD measurement by
the square root of the bandwidth. Thus the PSD is
displayed in units of V/�Hz or dBV/�Hz.
Spectrum
The spectrum is the basic measurement of an FFT
analyzer. It is simply the complex FFT. Normally,
the magnitude of the spectrum is displayed. The
magnitude is the square root of the FFT times its
complex conjugate. (Square root of the sum of the
real part squared and the imaginary part squared).
The magnitude is a real quantity and represents the
total signal amplitude in each frequency bin,
independent of phase.
Since the PSD uses the magnitude of the
spectrum, the PSD is a real quantity. There is no
real or imaginary part or phase.
Octave Analysis
The magnitude of the normal spectrum measures
the amplitudes within equally divided frequency
bins. Octave analysis computes the spectral
amplitude within 1/3 octave bands. The start and
stop frequencies of each frequency bin are in the
ratio of 1/3 of an octave (21/3). The octave analysis
If there is phase information in the spectrum, i.e.
the time record is triggered in phase with some
component of the signal, then the real or imaginary
part or the phase may be displayed. Remember,
the phase is simply the arctangent of the ratio of
the imaginary and real parts of each frequency
component. The phase is always relative to the
start of the triggered time record.
spectra will closely resemble data taken with older
analog type equipment commonly used in
acoustics and sound measurement.
To compute the amplitude of each band, the normal
FFT is taken. Those bins which fall within a single
band are rms summed together (square root of the
sum of the squared magnitudes). The resulting
amplitudes are real quantities and have no phase
information. They represent total signal amplitude
within each band.
Power Spectral Density or PSD
The PSD is simply the magnitude of the spectrum
normalized to a 1 Hz bandwidth. This measurement
approximates what the spectrum would look like if
each frequency component were really a 1 Hz wide
piece of the spectrum at each frequency bin.
We will have more about octave analysis later.
What good is this? When measuring broadband
signals such as noise, the amplitude of the
2-4
ANALYZER BASICS
DISPLAY TYPES
Spectrum
The most common measurement is the spectrum
and the most useful display is the Log Magnitude.
The Log Mag display graphs the magnitude of the
spectrum on a logarithmic scale using dBV as
units.
The phase is displayed in degrees or radians on a
linear scale from -180 (-ð) to +180 (+ð) degrees
(rads). There is no phase "unwrap".
The phase of a particular frequency bin is set to
zero if neither the real nor imaginary part of the FFT
is greater than 0.012% of full scale (-78 dB below
f.s.). This avoids the messy phase display
associated with the noise floor. (Remember, even if
a signal is small, its phase extends over the full 360
degrees.)
Why is the Log Mag display useful? Remember that
the SR770 has a dynamic range of 90 dB and a
display resolution of -114 dB below full scale.
Imagine what something 0.01% of full scale would
look like on a linear scale. If we wanted it to be 1
centimeter high on the graph, the top of the graph
would be 100 meters above the bottom. It turns out
that the log display is both easy to understand and
shows features which have very different amplitudes
clearly.
Watch Out For Phase Errors
The FFT can be thought of as 400 bandpass filters,
each centered on a frequency bin. The signal within
each filter shows up as the amplitude of each bin. If
a signal's frequency is between bins, the filters act
to attenuate the signal a little bit. This results in a
small amplitude error. The phase error, on the other
hand, can be quite large. Because these filters are
very steep and selective, they introduce very large
phase shifts for signals not exactly on a frequency
bin.
Of course the analyzer is capable of showing the
magnitude on a linear scale if you wish.
The real and imaginary parts are always displayed
on a linear scale. This avoids the problem of taking
the log of negative voltages.
The PSD and Octave analysis are real quantities
and thus may only be displayed as magnitudes. In
addition, the Octave analysis requires the display to
be Log Magnitude.
On full span, this is generally not a problem. The
bins are 250 Hz apart and most synthesized
sources have no problem generating a signal right
on a frequency bin. But when the span is narrowed,
the bins move much closer together and it becomes
very hard to place a signal exactly on a frequency
bin.
Phase
In general, phase measurements are only used
when the analyzer is triggered. The phase is relative
to the start of the time record.
2-5
ANALYZER BASICS
WINDOWING
What is windowing? Let's go back to the time
record. What happens if a signal is not exactly
periodic within the time record? We said that its
amplitude is divided into multiple adjacent frequency
bins. This is true but it's actually a bit worse than
that. If the time record does not start and stop with
the same data value, the signal can actually smear
across the entire spectrum. This smearing will also
change wildly between records because the amount
of mismatch between the starting value and ending
value changes with each record.
Uniform
The uniform window is actually no window at all.
The time record is used with no weighting. A signal
will appear as narrow as a single bin if its frequency
is exactly equal to a frequency bin. (It is exactly
periodic within the time record). If its frequency is
between bins, it will affect every bin of the
spectrum. These two cases also have a great deal
of amplitude variation between them (up to 4 dB).
In general, this window is only useful when looking
at transients which do not fill the entire time record.
Windows are functions defined across the time
record which are periodic in the time record. They
start and stop at zero and are smooth functions in
between. When the time record is windowed, its
points are multiplied by the window function, time
bin by time bin, and the resulting time record is by
definition periodic. It may not be identical from
record to record, but it will be periodic (zero at each
end).
Hanning
The Hanning window is the most commonly used
window. It has an amplitude variation of about
1.5 dB (for signals between bins) and provides
reasonable selectivity. Its filter rolloff is not
particularly steep. As a result, the Hanning window
can limit the performance of the analyzer when
looking at signals close together in frequency and
very different in amplitude.
In the frequency domain
In the frequency domain, a window acts like a filter.
The amplitude of each frequency bin is determined
by centering this filter on each bin and measuring
how much of the signal falls within the filter. If the
filter is narrow, then only frequencies near the bin
will contribute to the bin. A narrow filter is called a
selective window - it selects a small range of
frequencies around each bin. However, since the
filter is narrow, it falls off from center rapidly. This
means that even frequencies close to the bin may
be attenuated somewhat. If the filter is wide, then
frequencies far from the bin will contribute to the bin
amplitude but those close by will probably not be
attenuated much.
Flattop
The Flattop window improves on the amplitude
accuracy of the Hanning window. Its between-bin
amplitude variation is about .02 dB. However, the
selectivity is a little worse. Unlike the Hanning, the
Flattop window has a wide pass band and very
steep rolloff on either side. Thus, signals appear
wide but do not leak across the whole spectrum.
BMH
The BMH window is a very good window to use with
this analyzer. It has better amplitude accuracy
(about 0.7 dB) than the Hanning, very good
selectivity and the fastest filter rolloff. The filter is
steep and narrow and reaches a lower attenuation
than the other windows. This allows signals close
together in frequency to be distinguished, even
when their amplitudes are very different.
The net result of windowing is to reduce the amount
of smearing in the spectrum from signals not
exactly periodic with the time record. The different
types of windows trade off selectivity, amplitude
accuracy, and noise floor.
If a measurement requires the full dynamic range of
the analyzer, then the BMH window is probably the
best one to use.
The SR770 offers four types of window functions Uniform (none), Flattop, Hanning and BlackmanHarris (BMH).
2-6
ANALYZER BASICS
AVERAGING
The SR770 analyzer supports several types of
averaging. In general, averaging many spectra
together improves the accuracy and repeatability of
measurements.
magnitudes which occurred in the previous group of
spectra.
Peak Hold detects the peaks in the spectral
magnitudes and only applies to Spectrum, PSD,
and Octave Analysis measurements. However, the
peak magnitude values are stored in the original
complex form. If the real or imaginary part or phase
is being displayed for spectrum measurements, the
display shows the real or imaginary part or phase of
the complex peak value.
RMS Averaging
RMS averaging computes the weighted mean of the
sum of the squared magnitudes (FFT times its
complex conjugate). The weighting is either linear or
exponential.
RMS averaging reduces fluctuations in the data but
does not reduce the actual noise floor. With a
sufficient number of averages, a very good
approximation of the actual random noise floor can
be displayed.
Linear Averaging
Linear averaging combines N (number of averages)
spectra with equal weighting in either RMS, Vector
or Peak Hold fashion. When the number of averages
has been completed, the analyzer stops and a beep
is sounded. When linear averaging is in progress,
the number of averages completed is continuously
displayed below the Averaging indicator at the
bottom of the screen.
Since RMS averaging involves magnitudes only,
displaying the real or imaginary part or phase of an
RMS average has no meaning. The RMS average
has no complex information.
Vector Averaging
Vector averaging averages the complex FFT
spectrum. (The real part is averaged separately from
the imaginary part.) This can reduce the noise floor
for random signals since they are not phase
coherent from time record to time record.
Auto ranging is temporarily disabled when a linear
average is in progress. Be sure that you don't
change the input range manually either. Changing
the range during a linear average invalidates the
results.
Exponential Averaging
Exponential averaging weights new data more than
old data. Averaging takes place according to the
formula,
Vector averaging requires a trigger. The signal of
interest must be both periodic and phase
synchronous with the trigger. Otherwise, the real
and imaginary parts of the signal will not add in
phase and instead will cancel randomly.
AverageN = (New Spectrum • 1/N) +
(AverageN-1) • (N-1)/N
With vector averaging, the real and imaginary parts
as well as phase displays are correctly averaged
and displayed. This is because the complex
information is preserved.
where N is the number of averages.
Exponential averages "grow" for approximately the
first 5N spectra until the steady state values are
reached. Once in steady state, further changes in
the spectra are detected only if they last sufficiently
long. Make sure that the number of averages is not
so large as to eliminate the changes in the data
that might be important.
Peak Hold
Peak Hold is not really averaging, rather the new
spectral magnitudes are compared to the previous
data, and if the new data is larger, then the new
data is stored. This is done on a frequency bin by
bin basis. The resulting display shows the peak
2-7
ANALYZER BASICS
REAL TIME BANDWIDTH AND OVERLAP PROCESSING
What is real time bandwidth? Simply stated, it is
the frequency span whose corresponding time
record exceeds the time it takes to compute the
spectrum. At this span and below, it is possible to
compute the spectra for every time record with no
loss of data. The spectra are computed in "real
time". At larger spans, some data samples will be
lost while the FFT computations are in progress.
can wait until the next time record is complete
before computing the next FFT. The update rate
would be no faster than one spectra per time
record. With narrow spans, this could be quite slow.
And what is the processor doing while it waits?
Nothing. With overlap processing, the analyzer
does not wait for the next complete time record
before computing the next FFT. Instead it uses data
from the previous time record as well as data from
the current time record to compute the next FFT.
This speeds up the processing rate. Remember,
most window functions are zero at the start and end
of the time record. Thus, the points at the ends of
the time record do not contribute much to the FFT.
With overlap, these points are "re-used" and appear
as middle points in other time records. This is why
overlap effectively speeds up averaging and
smoothes out window variations.
For all frequency spans, the SR770 can compute
the FFT in less time than it takes to acquire the
time record. Thus, the real time bandwidth of the
SR770 is 100 kHz. This includes the real time
digital filtering and heterodyning, the FFT
processing, and averaging calculations. The SR770
employs two digital signal processors to
accomplish this. The first collects the input
samples, filters and heterodynes them, and stores
a time record. The second computes the FFT and
averages the spectra. Since both processors are
working simultaneously, no data is ever lost.
Typically, time records with 50% overlap provide
almost as much noise reduction as non-overlapping
time records when RMS averaging is used. When
RMS averaging narrow spans, this can reduce the
measurement time by 2.
Averaging speed
How can you take advantage of this?Consider
averaging. Other analyzers typically have a real
time bandwidth of around 4 kHz. This means that
even though the time record at 100 kHz span is
only 4 ms, the "effective" time record is 25 times
longer due to processing overhead. An analyzer
with 4 kHz of real time bandwidth can only process
about 10 spectra a second. When averaging is on,
this usually slows down to about 5 spectra per
second. At this rate it's going to take a couple of
minutes to do 500 averages.
Overlap percentage
The amount of overlap is specified as a percentage
of the time record. 0% is no overlap and 99.8% is
the maximum (511 out of 512 samples re-used).
The maximum overlap is determined by the amount
of time it takes to calculate an FFT and the length
of the time record and thus varies according to the
span.
The SR770, on the other hand, has a real time
bandwidth of 100 kHz. At a 100 kHz span, the
analyzer is capable of processing 250 spectra per
second. In fact, this is so fast, that the display can
not be updated for each new spectra. The display
only updates about 6 times a second. However,
when averaging is on, all of the computed spectra
will contribute to the average. The time it takes to
complete 500 averages is only a few seconds.
(Instead of a few minutes!)
The SR770 always tries to use the maximum
amount of overlap possible. This keeps the display
updating as fast as possible. Whenever a new
frequency span is selected, the overlap is set to the
maximum possible value for that span. If less
overlap is desired, then use the Average menu to
enter a smaller value. On the widest spans (25, 50
and 100 kHz), no overlap is allowed.
Triggering
If the measurement is triggered, then overlap is
ignored. Time records start with the trigger. The
analyzer must be in continuous trigger mode to use
overlap processing.
Overlap
What about narrow spans where the time record is
long compared to the processing time? The
analyzer computes one FFT per time record and
2-8
ANALYZER BASICS
INPUT RANGE
Manual Range
The input range can be specified in the Input menu
to be fixed at a certain value. Signals that exceed
the range will overload and become distorted.
Signals which fall to a small percentage of the
range will become hard to see.
The input range on the SR770 varies from a
maximum of 34 dBV full scale to a minimum of 60 dBV full scale. A signal which exceeds the
current input range will cause the OvrLoad message
to appear at the bottom of the screen. A signal
which exceeds the maximum safe range will turn on
the HI V indicator.
Auto Range
The input range can be set to automatically correct
for signal overloads. When autoranging is on and an
overload occurs, the input range is adjusted so that
the signal no longer overloads. If the signal
decreases, the input range is not adjusted. You
must take care to ensure that the signal does not
fall dramatically after pushing the input range to a
very insensitive setting.
The input range is displayed in dBV. The maximum
and minimum range equivalents are tabulated
below.
Max
34 dBVpk
31 dBVrms
50.1 Vpk
35.4 Vrms
Min
-60 dBVpk
-63 dBVrms
1.0 mVpk
0.7 mVrms
While the analyzer is performing linear averaging,
the input range is NOT changed even if the signal
overloads. The overload indicator will still light to
indicate an over range condition. Changing the
range during a linear average invalidates the
average.
2-9
ANALYZER BASICS
THE SOURCE
The SR770 source provides a variety of test signals
which allow the SR770 to measure the response of
electronic, mechanical and acoustic devices,
without the need for an external generator. In many
cases, the SR770 source is better than an external
source since it is synchronous with the input
sampling.
chirp waveform requires a uniform window to result
in a flat spectrum. This is because the individual
frequency components do not have a constant
amplitude over the time record. Windowing will
attenuate certain portions of the spectrum.
Source Trigger
The Sine, Two Tone, and Chirp sources can be
triggered to measure phase response and/or vector
average. The Source Trigger mode simply sets the
overlap to 0% so each time record follows
immediately after the previous one with no delay.
Sine
A low distortion sine wave for general purpose gain,
distortion and signal/noise measurements. The sine
source is synchronous with the FFT, i.e. sine waves
can be generated at exact bin frequencies of the
FFT. This can eliminate windowing effects in the
measured amplitude and phase.
For the chirp source, each time record will be
identical so the phase of each component will be
stable. The absolute phase of the record is arbitrary
since the source does not turn on and off
synchronously with the input time record. Turning
on and off the source, changing the span,
performing Auto Offset can all change the absolute
phase of the time record. The Auto Phase function
can be used to set all the phase of each component
to zero. Subsequent phase measurements will be
relative to zero.
Two Tone
Two low distortion sine waves can be generated
simultaneously for intermodulation distortion tests
(IMD). Each tone has independent frequency and
amplitude settings.
Chirp
The Chirp source provides an equal amplitude sine
wave at each bin of the displayed spectrum. Since
there are 400 bins in a spectrum, the chirp is the
sum of 400 discrete sine waves. The phases of
each sine wave are arranged so that they do not
add in phase and the resulting output does not
peak. This source is useful for measuring transfer
functions quickly without having to make many
discrete measurements using a single sine wave.
For sine and two tone, the source frequencies must
be set to a multiple of the linewidth in order for a
stable time records to be acquired. Random
frequencies are not exactly periodic over a time
record and do not result in a stable phase. Once
again, the absolute phase is arbitrary since the
source does not turn on synchronously with the
input time record.
The Source Cal mode compensates for the ripple in
the output filter by adjusting the input calibrations.
This results in a flat chirp spectrum. Inserting a
device under test will measure the device's
amplitude transfer curve.
Noise
Broadband noise is useful for characterizing
circuits, mechanical systems or even the audio
response of an entire room. White noise provides
equal amplitude per root Hz from 0 to 100 kHz,
regardless of the measurement span. White noise
is useful in electronic applications. Pink noise rolls
off at 3 dB/oct providing equal amplitude per octave.
Pink noise is preferred in audio applications.
Windowing
The Sine, Two Tone, and Chirp sources can be
used with or without a window function.
The sine and two tone frequencies can be set at
exact bin frequencies of the spectrum, hence they
can be exactly periodic in the time record. As long
as the signal to noise at the input if high, windowing
is not required.
Since the signal is noisy and random, windows are
always required when using the noise source.
Source triggering is not meaningful since there is no
stable phase information in the source.
The chirp waveform consists of 400 sine waves,
each one perfectly periodic in the time record. The
2-10
ANALYZER BASICS
2-11
OPERATION
FRONT PANEL OVERVIEW
POWER BUTTON
backspace [<-] key while the power is
turned on. The unit will use the default
settings. The default setup is listed in a
later chapter.
The SR770 is turned on by pushing in the POWER
button. The video display may take a few seconds
to warm up and become visible. Adjust the
brightness until the screen is easily readable.The
model, firmware version and serial number of the
unit are displayed when the power is turned on.
A series of internal tests are performed at this point.
Each test is described as it is performed and the
results are represented graphically as OK or NOT
OK. The tests are described below.
RAM
This test performs a read/write test to the
processor RAM. In addition, the nonvolatile
backup memory is tested. All instrument
settings are stored in nonvolatile memory
and are retained when the power is turned
off. If the memory check passes, then the
instrument returns to the settings in effect
when the power was last turned off. If there
is a memory error, then the stored settings
are lost and the default settings are used.
ROM
This test checks the processor ROM.
CLR
This test indicates whether the unit is being
reset. To reset the unit, hold down the
CLK
This test checks the CMOS clock and
calendar for a valid date and time. If the
there is an error, the time will be reset to a
default time. Change the clock settings
using the SYSTEM SETUP menu.
DSP
This test checks the digital
processors and fast memory.
A/D
This test checks the analog to digital
converter board.
signal
RESET
Holding down the backspace [<-] key while the
power is turned on resets the unit. The unit will use
the default settings as listed at the end of the
Menus section of the manual.
VIDEO DISPLAY
The monochrome video display is the user interface
for data display and front panel programming
operations. The resolution of the display is 640H by
3-1
OPERATION
480V. The brightness is adjusted using the
brightness control knob located at the upper left
corner. As with most video displays, do not set the
brightness higher than necessary. The display may
be adjusted left and right using the Setup Screen
function in the SYSTEM SETUP menu.
horizontal axis. The graph is continuously updated
while the unit is in the RUN mode.
The main area of the display is occupied by the
data trace display. Data is graphed as signal on the
vertical axis and frequency or time bin on the
knob. In addition, functions such as display
zooming and scrolling use the knob as well. In
these cases, the knob function is selected by the
soft keys. The [MARKER] key, which can be
pressed at any time, will set the knob function to
scrolling the marker.
A complete description of the screen display follows
in the next section.
SOFT KEYS
DISK DRIVE
The SR770 has a menu driven user interface. The 6
soft keys to the right of the video display have
different functions depending upon the information
displayed in the menu boxes at the right of the
video display. In general, the soft keys have two
uses. The first is to toggle a feature on and off or to
choose between settings. The second is to highlight
a parameter which is then changed using the spin
knob or numeric keypad. In both cases, the soft
keys affect the parameters which are displayed
adjacent to them.
The 3.5" disk drive is used to store data and
instrument settings. Double sided, double density
disks should be used. The disk capacity is 720k
bytes formatted. The disk format is DOS
compatible. Disks written by the SR770 may be
read by PC compatible computers equipped with a
3.5" drive and DOS 3.0 or higher.
Only use double sided double density (DS/DD)
disks. Do not use high density (DS/HD) disks.
KEYPAD
BNC CONNECTORS
The keypad consists of five groups of keys. The
ENTRY keys are used to enter numeric parameters
which have been highlighted by a soft key. The
MENU keys select a menu of soft keys. Pressing a
menu key will change the menu boxes which are
displayed next to the soft keys. Each menu
presents a group of similar parameters and
functions. The CONTROL keys start and stop
actual data acquisition, select the marker and
toggle the active trace. These keys are not in a
menu since they are used frequently and while
displaying any menu. The SYSTEM keys print the
screen to a printer and display help messages.
Once again, these keys can be accessed from any
menu. The MARKER keys determine the marker
mode and perform various marker functions. The
marker functions can be accessed from any menu.
TRIGGER
The rising or falling edge of the TRIGGER input
triggers a time record. The input impedance is 10
K� and the minimum pulse width is 10 ns. The
trigger level is adjustable from -5V to +5V with
either positive or negative slope. The minimum
pulse amplitude is 100 mV.
SIGNAL INPUTS
The input mode may be single-ended, A, or
differential, A-B. The A and B inputs are voltage
inputs with 1 M�, 15 pF input impedance. Their
connector shields are isolated from the chassis by
1 M� (float) or 50 � (ground). Do not apply more
than 50 V to either input. The shields should never
exceed 3V.
SOURCE OUTPUT
The source can output either sine, two tone, chirp
or noise waveforms. The output impedance is less
than 5 � and is capable of driving a 50 � load. The
output is ground referenced.
A complete description of the keys follows in the
next section.
SPIN KNOB
The spin knob is used to adjust parameters which
have been highlighted using the soft keys. Most
numeric entry fields may be adjusted using the
3-2
OPERATION
3-3
OPERATION
SCREEN DISPLAY
DATA DISPLAY
SINGLE and DUAL TRACE DISPLAYS
Data is graphed with signal on the Y axis and
frequency or time on the X axis. The physical size
of the graph remains constant while the vertical and
horizontal scales may be changed. The graph area
has a dotted grid for reference. There are 10
horizontal divisions and either 8 or 10 vertical
divisions. The frequency span consists of 400
frequency bins. The display normally shows all 400
bins. The X axis may be expanded and translated to
display less than 400 bins. This expansion does not
change the span or time record, it merely changes
the display of the data.
There are two data traces being acquired at all
times. The traces are labelled Trace0 and Trace1.
The traces may be different measurements, such
as spectrum and time record, or different displays,
such as magnitude and phase. When the two
traces are displaying live data, they have the same
signal input, frequency span, window function,
trigger, and averaging mode. If one of the traces is a
recalled file, then it can have a span and window
which differs from the live settings.
The display shown above is the SINGLE trace
format. The [ACTIVE TRACE] key toggles the
display between the two traces.
3-4
OPERATION
The dual trace or Up/Dn format is shown above. The
display format is selected in the DISPLAY menu.
Trace0 is always the upper trace. Each trace is
annotated the same way as the single trace.
scale is shown as the number of dB, Volts, or EU
per division. This value is changed whenever the
vertical scale is adjusted.
The Window Function for the displayed data is
shown below the graph. In the case of a recalled
graph, this window is the one used to calculate the
recalled graph, not the window used for live
calculations.
The left edge, center and right edge of the graph are
labelled directly below the graph. When displaying
spectral data with no horizontal expansion, these
values are the Start, Center and Stop
frequencies of the frequency span in use. When
displaying time records, these values are the Start,
Middle and End of the time record. These times
are always relative to the start of the time record,
they do not reflect any trigger delay which may be
programmed.
The File Type refers to the source of the data being
displayed. Live means that the data is real-time,
Calculated data is the result of Trace Math, and a
"filename" is data recalled from a disk file.
At the upper right, the measurement and display
type and trace number, 0 or 1, are shown. The
measurement type can be Spectrum, PSD (power
spectral density), Time record, or Octave analysis.
The display types are Log Magnitude, Linear
Magnitude, linear Real part, linear Imaginary part,
and Phase .
To expand a graph, use the SCALE menu. When
the display is expanded in the horizontal axis, the
labels reflect the displayed span and time, not the
actual acquisition span and time record. Expanded
traces have an EXPAND indicator below the right
hand edge of the graph as shown below.
The Top reference is the Y value of the upper edge
of the graph. The units can be Volts, dBVolts, or
EU (user defined engineering units). The Vertical
On the active trace, the measurement type and
trace number are highlighted in inverse.
3-5
OPERATION
MARKER DISPLAY
The Marker Region is the graph region between
the two heavy vertical dashed lines. The marker
region may be set to 1 division (wide), 1/2 division
(norm), or a single vertical line (spot). The marker
region does not change with horizontal scaling. The
Marker is a small square which seeks the
minimum, maximum, or mean of the data within the
marker region. When seeking min or max, the
marker is located at the position of the data point
which is the min or max. This allows peaks and
valleys in the data to be easily read out. When
seeking the mean, the X position of the marker is at
the center of the marker region and the Y position is
the mean of the data within the region. When a spot
marker region is used, the marker is confined to a
single frequency or time bin.
RUN/STOP/STOP-Invld
The RUN indicator is on whenever data is being
taken and spectra are being calculated. STOP
indicates that data is not being acquired and the
data display is not being updated. STOP-Invld
means that the data on the display may not match
the graph parameters or the analyzer settings. For
example, if the display is paused (using the
[PAUSE CONT] key or some other means), and the
span is changed, clearly the displayed data does
not reflect the new span. In this case, the STOPInvld indicator will turn on.
SETTLING
When changing between narrow frequency spans
with long acquisition times, the digital filter requires
some settling time before all of the data is replaced
with new data. This time is longer than the record
time. While this indicator is on, the filter is still
settling and the displayed spectrum may not be
accurate.
The Marker Position displays the X position
(frequency or time) and the Y data of the marker.
Pressing the [MARKER] key will draw a box around
the marker information. When the marker readout is
surrounded by this box, the spin knob adjusts the
position of the marker region. The marker region
moves in increments of one frequency or time bin.
Input Range
The input range is always displayed. If the range is
set manually, the display is in normal characters. If
Auto Range is on, then inverse characters are used.
MENU DISPLAY
The Soft Key menu boxes define the functions of
the 6 soft keys to the right of the screen. The menu
boxes are grouped into menus. Pressing each of
the ten Menu keys will display a different menu of
boxes. Related functions are grouped into a single
menu. In general, pressing a soft key does one of
two things. One is to toggle between 2 or 3 specific
choices. An example is the Display Format box
illustrated on the previous page. Pressing the first
soft key toggles the display between Single and
Up/Dn. The second soft key mode is to highlight an
entry field and knob function. An example would be
the Start Freq. Pressing the soft key will highlight
the Start Freq. value. The Start Freq. may then be
adjusted with the knob or entered as a value using
the numeric entry keys. Each menu is described at
length in a following section.
OvrLoad
This indicator turns on if the input signal overloads
the analog amplifier or A/D converter.
No Avg./Avrging
This indicates whether averaging is in effect.
Averaging affects both traces if they are live. If linear
averaging is on, then the number below the Avrging
indicator is the number of averages accumulated so
far. If averaging is off or exponential, then no number
is displayed.
Trigger/Trg Wait
If triggering is on, then the Trigger indicator flashes
on whenever a time record is triggered. Trg Wait
indicates that the unit is in triggered mode and is
waiting for a trigger to occur. Triggers received while
acquiring data from a previous trigger are ignored.
STATUS INDICATORS
Armed/Arm Wait
If triggering is on, the Armed indicator is on
whenever the unit is armed and awaiting a trigger.
Arm Wait means that the unit is in manual arming
In addition to the data display and menu boxes,
there are a number of status indicators which are
displayed at the bottom of the screen.
3-6
OPERATION
mode and awaiting an arm command, either from
the front panel or via the computer interfaces.
GPIB/RS232
Flashes when there is activity on the computer
interfaces. This does not flash for printer or plotter
activity.
SRQ
This indicator is on whenever a GPIB Service
Request is generated by the SR770. SRQ stays on
until a serial poll is completed.
HV
The High Voltage indicator turns on whenever an
input greater than 50 V is detected. The analyzer
immediately switches in an attenuator to protect the
input circuitry. Any attempt to set the input range to
a setting which would remove this attenuator will not
be allowed until the input signal is reduced to a safe
level.
REM
This indicator is on when the front panel is locked
out by a computer interface. No front panel
adjustments may be made. To return the unit to
local control (if allowed), press the [HELP] key.
Pass/Fail
This indicates whether a trace passes or fails a limit
table test.
ALT
Indicates that the ALTERNATE keypad is in use.
The ALTERNATE keypad uses the alphabetic
legends printed below each key. To enter the ALT
mode, press the [ALT] key once. Pressing the keys
will now enter alphabetic characters into the active
entry field. The [0]...[9], [.], [-], [<-] and [ALT] have
the same function in the ALTERNATE keypad. To
return to the normal keypad, press the [ALT] key
again.
ERR
Flashes whenever there is a computer interface
error such as illegal command or out of range
parameter is received. This does not flash for a
printer or plotter error.
3-7
OPERATION
KEYPAD
NORMAL AND ALTERNATE KEYS
quantity, units, window type, and
calculator.
The normal key definitions are printed on each key.
In addition, each key also has an alternate definition
printed below it. The [ALT] key toggles the keypad
between the two definitions. The ALT screen
indicator is on when the alternate definitions are in
use. The [0]...[9], [.], [-], [<-] and [ALT] keys have
the same definition in both modes. The alternate
keys should only be used when accessing files on
the disk drive or labelling plots.
[DISPLAY]
Sets the display format, marker
on/off, and grid modes.
[INPUT]
Configures the signal inputs, sets
the manual input range and trigger
setup.
[SCALE]
Sets the graph scaling and
expansion and selects linear or log
X axis.
[ANALYZE]
Turns on harmonic, sideband and
band analysis as well as data and
limit tables.
[AVERAGE]
Turns averaging on and off and
selects the averaging type.
[SOURCE]
Turns on and off and configures
built-in source.
[SYSTEM]
Configures the computer interfaces, sound, real time clock,
plotter,
printer,
and
screen
MENU KEYS
All operating parameters of the SR770 are grouped
into ten function menus. The ten menu keys select
which menu of parameters is displayed next to the
six soft keys. The soft keys then either toggle a
parameter, highlight a parameter entry field (for
numeric entry or knob adjustment), or display a
submenu. The menus are listed below.
[FREQ]
Sets the frequency span and start
and center frequencies.
[MEAS]
Displays submenus for selecting
the measurement type, displayed
3-8
OPERATION
location. The [TEST] submenu
tests
the
keypad,
external
keyboard, knob, RS232 interface,
printer interface, disk drive, video
screen, and memory. The [INFO]
submenu
displays
various
information screens.
] key will erase the last character. Pressing the
Escape soft key will abort the entry operation and
leave the value unchanged. When the entry string is
correct, press the kHz units soft key to change the
start frequency to the new value.
Entries may be made in exponential form using the
[EXP] key. The entry above may be made by
pressing [1] [2] [5] [EXP] [1] and then the Hz units
soft key.
[STORE RECALL]
This menu stores and recalls data
and settings to and from the disk.
Also contains a disk utilities
submenu.
In general, whenever a parameter entry field is
highlighted, the knob may also be used to adjust
the value. If the knob is turned while making a
numeric entry but before a units key has been
pressed, the knob will adjust the marker position
instead.
Detailed descriptions of each menu are provided in
a later chapter.
ENTRY KEYS
Some entry fields allow only knob adjustment or
only numeric entry.
The numeric entry keys can be used to directly
enter parameter values. Parameters may be entered
only if their menu box is displayed and their entry
field is highlighted. For example, if the FREQ menu
is displayed, the fifth soft key is next to the Start
Freq. box. Pressing this soft key will highlight the
entry field displaying the start frequency. The menu
box will appear as below.
START and PAUSE/CONT
The [START] and [PAUSE/CONT] keys are used to
start, pause and continue data acquisition. If the
unit is in the RUN mode acquiring and displaying
data, as indicated by the RUN indicator, then the
[PAUSE/CONT] key will halt data acquisition. The
RUN indicator switches to STOP and no new
spectra will be taken and the display will not be
updated. If averaging is off, then either the [START]
key or the [PAUSE/CONT] key will resume
acquisition. If averaging is on, the [START] key will
reset the average and restart acquisition.
[PAUSE/CONT], on the other hand, will continue
the average where it was paused. In the case of
linear averaging when the average is already
completed, the [PAUSE/CONT] does nothing since
there is no average to continue.
A new start frequency may now be entered using
the numeric keys. For example, to set the start to 1.25 kHz, press [1] [.] [2] [5]. As soon as the [1] is
pressed, the entry parameter is displayed in the
upper left hand corner of the screen as shown
below.
MARKER
Pressing the [MARKER] key highlights the marker
information field by drawing a box around it. The
knob will now scroll the marker region. The
highlighted marker field appears below.
Note that the frequency menu is
also replaced with a units menu.
This menu shows the available
units for the active entry field, in
this case mHz, Hz, or kHz.
The entry field displays the characters as the keys are pressed.
The '-' is the entry point. If an
error is made, the backspace [<-
3-9
OPERATION
Any previously highlighted parameter field will
become non-highlighted. Pressing a soft key to
highlight a new parameter field will let the knob
adjust the new parameter while the marker
becomes unselected.
[AUTOSCALE] only operates on the data which is
displayed on the graph. If the graph is expanded,
data corresponding to frequency or time bins which
are not shown do not figure in the autoscaling
calculations.
ACTIVE TRACE
SPAN UP and SPAN DOWN
Pressing [ACTIVE TRACE] toggles the active trace.
In the single trace display format, the graph
switches between Trace0 and Trace1. In the dual
screen display, [ACTIVE TRACE] switches which
trace is active as indicated by the highlighted trace
identification at the upper right of the graph. In both
cases, the active trace determines which trace's
parameters are displayed in the menus. For
example, activating Trace0 and then selecting the
Measure menu will allow you to select the
measurement for Trace0. Pressing [ACTIVE
TRACE] once allows you to select the
measurement for Trace1 using the same menu.
Only those parameters which are associated with
an individual trace have differing values between the
traces. Parameters such as input configuration,
frequency span and window function are the same
for any live trace.
The [SPAN UP] and [SPAN DOWN] keys
increment and decrement the frequency span by a
factor of 2. These keys provide a way of adjusting
the span when any menu is displayed. The span is
adjusted with either a fixed start or fixed center
frequency depending upon which frequency field
was most recently activated in the FREQ menu.
MARKER ENTRY
In the ANALYZE menu, pressing this key will enter
the marker frequency into the Fundamental
(Harmonic analysis), Carrier (sideband analysis),
Band Start and Center (band analysis) frequency
fields. This key also enters the marker frequency
into the X Value field of the Data and Limit Tables.
MARKER MODE
AUTO RANGE
The [MODE] key in the MARKER section of the
keypad brings up a menu. This menu selects linked
cursors in the dual trace display and allows marker
offsets to be entered manually. The Peak find
functions are also in this menu.
Pressing [AUTO RANGE] toggles the input ranging
mode between Manual and Auto. In Manual mode,
the input range is set within the INPUT menu. When
the mode is toggled to Auto, the input range is
stepped quickly from -60 dB towards +30 dB until
no overload is detected. Any overload in the signal
will cause the input scale to change to remove the
overload. If the signal decreases, the input scale is
not changed. The range can be autoranged at any
time by toggling the mode from Auto to Manual and
back to Auto. Switching back to Manual ranging
leaves the input range at the current setting.
MARKER REF
The [MARKER REF] key toggles the marker offset
or reference mode. Pressing this key once will turn
on the marker offset and set the X and Y offset to
the value of the current marker position.
Subsequent marker readings are relative to the
reference or offset values. The offset marker is
indicated by a � (delta symbol) preceding the
marker readout above the graph as shown below.
The [MARKER REF] key may be used in any
menu.
The Input Range indicator will be in inverse
characters if Auto Ranging is on.
AUTOSCALE
Pressing [AUTOSCALE] will automatically set the
vertical scale and translation to display the entire
range of the data. [AUTOSCALE] does not affect
the horizontal scaling.
The marker offset location on the graph is marked
by a small star shaped symbol.
[AUTOSCALE] may be pressed at any time during
or after data acquisition.
3-10
OPERATION
MARKER CENTER
SYSTEM SETUP menu before using [PRINT]. A
"Printing in Progress" message will appear on the
screen while printing occurs.
The [MARKER CENTER] key sets the span center
frequency to the marker frequency. If the span is
large so that this operation would require a span
which extends below 0 Hz or past 100 kHz, then
the span is decreased to the largest span which
allows the marker frequency to be the center.
Pressing [<-] (backspace) will abort the
printout. No other front panel operations may be
performed until printing is completed. If no printer is
attached or there is a printer error, then the print
operation is aborted after about 10 seconds. A
"Print Aborted!" message will appear briefly on the
screen.
In addition, the [MARKER CENTER] key has the
same effect as the [MARKER] key. The marker
display is highlighted and the knob will adjust the
marker position.
HELP
MARKER MAX/MIN
Pressing [MARKER MAX/MIN] will center the
marker region around the maximum or minimum
data value on the screen. The Marker Seeks mode
in the DISPLAY menu chooses whether this key
finds the on-screen max or min. If the marker seeks
the mean, then the [MARKER MAX/MIN] key finds
the maximum on-screen point. The marker will be
positioned at the Min, Max, or Mean of the data
within the region, depending upon the seeks mode.
The [MARKER MAX/MIN] key only searches the
data which is on the screen. If the max/min value
occurs at more than one location, then the one
closest to the left edge is found.
[HELP] provides on screen help with any key or soft
key. Pressing [HELP] followed by any key will
display information about the function or use of that
key. [HELP] with a soft key will describe the menu
item next to the soft key. Pressing another key will
exit the help screen.
The [PRINT] key is the one key for which no help is
available. Pressing [PRINT] at any time will print the
screen, including the help screens.
LOCAL
When a host computer places the unit in the
REMOTE state, no keypad or knob input is allowed.
To return to front panel operation, press the [HELP]
key.
PRINT
[PRINT] will print the currently displayed screen to a
printer attached to the rear panel parallel printer
port. The entire screen, including text and menus,
is printed. The time and date will also be printed.
The printer type needs to be configured in the
3-11
OPERATION
REAR PANEL
POWER ENTRY MODULE
Also, a serial plotter with HPGL compatible
graphics may be connected to the RS232 port. The
SR770 will drive the plotter to generate plots of the
screen graph. Use the SETUP PLOTTER menu to
configure the SR770 for use with a serial plotter.
The power entry module is used to fuse the AC line,
select the line voltage, and block high frequency
noise from entering or exiting the instrument. Refer
to the first page of this manual for instructions on
selecting the correct line voltage and fuse.
PARALLEL PRINTER CONNECTOR
IEEE-488 CONNECTOR
The [PRINT] key will print the screen to an Epson
compatible graphics printer or an HP LaserJet
compatible laser printer. Use a standard printer
cable to attach the printer to the printer port. Use
the SETUP PRINTER menu to choose the type of
printer.
The 24 pin IEEE-488 connector allows a computer
to control the SR770 via the IEEE-488 (GPIB)
instrument bus. The address of the instrument is
set in the SETUP GPIB menu.
Also, a GPIB plotter with HPGL compatible
graphics may be connected to the IEEE-488 port. In
this case, the SR770 will control the plotter to
generate plots of the screen graph. Use the SETUP
PLOTTER menu to configure the SR770 for use with
a GPIB plotter.
PC KEYBOARD CONNECTOR
An IBM PC or XT compatible keyboard may be
attached to the keyboard connector. An AT
keyboard may be in its PC or 8088 mode. Typing at
the attached keyboard is the same as entering
numbers and letters from the front panel keypad.
Highlighted parameter entry fields will accept
characters from the keyboard. Typing 'E' or 'e' is the
same as [EXP]. In general, the keyboard is only
useful for alphabetic fields such as file names or
plot labels.
RS232 CONNECTOR
The RS232 interface connector is configured as a
DCE (transmit on pin 3, receive on pin 2). The baud
rate, parity, and word length are programmed from
the SETUP RS232 menu. To connect the SR770 to
a PC serial adapter, which is usually a DTE, use a
straight thru serial cable.
3-12
OPERATION
3-13
FREQUENCY MENU
Frequency
The Frequency menu is used to set the frequency span and location for the
measurement.
Span
Pressing the Span key selects the frequency span as the active entry field. A
new span may be entered from the numeric keypad or the knob may be used
to adjust the span. The frequency span ranges from 191 mHz to 100 kHz in
factors of 2. A numerically entered span is rounded up to the next largest
allowable span.
If the new span is incompatible with the 0 to 100 kHz frequency range because
the start or center frequency is close to the limits of the range, then the start or
center frequency will be adjusted to accommodate the new span.
Changing the span will change the Linewidth (Span/400) and Acquisition Time
(400/Span).
Linewidth
The Linewidth key selects the linewidth as the active entry field. The linewidth
is defined as the span divided by 400. The linewidth ranges from .477 mHz to
250 Hz in factors of 2. A numerically entered linewidth is rounded up to the
next largest allowable linewidth.
Changing the linewidth will change the Span (Linewidth*400) and Acquisition
Time (1/Linewidth). If the new span is incompatible with the 0 to 100 kHz
frequency range because the start or center frequency is close to the limits of
the range, then the start or center frequency will be adjusted to accommodate
the new span.
Acquisition Time
The Acquisition Time key selects the acquisition time as the active entry field.
The acquisition time is defined as the reciprocal of the linewidth. The
4-1
FREQUENCY MENU
acquisition time ranges from 2097.1 s to 4.00 ms in factors of 2. A numerically
entered acquisition time is rounded down to the next fastest allowable
acquisition time.
Changing the acquisition time will change the Span (400/Acquisition Time) and
Linewidth (1/Acquisition Time). If the new span is incompatible with the 0 to
100 kHz frequency range because the start or center frequency is close to the
limits of the range, then the start or center frequency will be adjusted to
accommodate the new span.
Full Span
Pressing this key immediately sets the Span to 100 kHz, Linewidth to 250 Hz,
Acquisition Time to 4.00 ms, Start Frequency to 0.0 Hz, and Center Frequency
to 50.0 kHz.
Start Frequency
The Start Frequency key selects the start frequency of the span as the active
entry field. The knob adjusts the start frequency in steps equal to the linewidth.
A numerically entered frequency is rounded to the nearest frequency bin (exact
multiple of the linewidth). If the new start frequency is incompatible with the
span because of the 0 to 100 kHz range limits, then the start frequency will be
set to the closest allowable value.
Center Frequency
The Center Frequency key selects the center frequency of the span as the
active entry field. The knob adjusts the center frequency in steps equal to the
linewidth. A numerically entered frequency is rounded to the nearest frequency
bin (exact multiple of the linewidth). If the new center frequency is incompatible
with the span because of the 0 to 100 kHz range limits, then the center
frequency will be set to the closest allowable value.
Note:
Activating the Start or Center Frequency fields fixes the start or center
frequency for subsequent adjustments to the frequency span. Further
adjustments to the span leave the span start or center untouched, even when
the start or center frequency becomes de-activated as a menu choice. The
most recently activated of the Start or Center Frequency fields sets the span
adjustment mode.
Enlarging the frequency span may change the start and center frequencies.
This is because these frequencies are always exact frequency bins or
multiples of the linewidth. Larger spans have larger linewidths and thus the
start and stop frequencies may need to be rounded to the nearest allowable bin
of the new span.
4-2
MEASURE MENU
Measure
The Measure menu is used to select the measurement type, display type,
units and window function. The Measure menu also activates the calculator for
trace math.
Measure Keys
Each Measure Key activates a sub menu. Each sub menu is described in
detail in the following pages.
4-3
MEASURE MENU
Measure
The Measure sub menu selects the type of measurement for the active trace.
Spectrum
The SR770 filters the input data in real time to provide a time record with the
desired frequency span and then performs an FFT on this record. Pressing the
Spectrum key displays this FFT on the active trace.
PSD
The PSD or Power Spectral Density is the magnitude of the spectrum (the
square root of [the FFT times its complex conjugate]) normalized to a
bandwidth of 1 Hz. This measurement approximates the amplitude within a 1
Hz bandwidth located at each frequency bin. The actual linewidth and window
function are compensated for in this calculation. This allows measurements
taken with different spans or windows to be compared.
Note:
PSD measurements are typically used to measure noise or noise density. The
data values are read out in Volts/�Hz or dBV/�Hz. When measuring Gaussian
noise sources, the noise in bandwidths other than 1 Hz may be obtained by
multiplying the reading by the square root of the desired bandwidth. This is true
only for Gaussian noise.
When measuring PSD, the Display may only be set to Log Magnitude or
Linear Magnitude.
4-4
MEASURE MENU
Time Record
The Time Record is the minimum amount of filtered input data required to
generate an FFT with the desired span and linewidth. The SR770 filters the
input data in real time to provide a stream of data points with the correct
frequency span. The time record consists of 512 of these points, of which only
the first 400 are displayed.
When averaging is on, only spectra are averaged. The Time Record shows the
latest time record used to calculate a spectrum.
Note:
The SR770 is not a digital oscilloscope. The Time Record always shows
filtered data and does not resemble an oscilloscope trace of the same input.
The input data filter is a complex filter yielding complex outputs. Thus, the time
record has a real and imaginary part as well as phase associated with each
time bin.
Octave Analysis
Octave Analysis computes the spectral amplitude within 1/3 octave bands. The
analyzer computes a normal FFT, then calculates the rms sum of the
frequency components within each band. When Octave Analysis is on, only
the Log Magnitude may be displayed. Also, the display is always logarithmic
on the X axis, displaying evenly spaced octaves. The left and right most bands
are labelled on the graph by center frequency and band number. The marker
reads the center frequencies of the bands rounded to the nearest even
frequency. The actual band frequencies are exact according to the ANSI
standard.
Note:
When octave analysis is on for either trace, the FREQ menu will display the
band menu for both traces. This is because both traces must have the same
span. Thus, if one trace is measuring octave analysis, the other trace's span is
determined by the bands displayed in the octave analysis.
Furthermore, in order to perform 30 band analysis accurately, the SR770 must
combine spectra taken with two different overlapping spans. This is because
the frequency range of 30 bands requires more than 400 linearly spaced
frequency points. When 30 band analysis is chosen, the analyzer alternates
between two different spans. If one trace is displaying 30 band octaves, then
the other trace will show spectra taken with alternating frequency spans and is
not very useful. In general, when using octave analysis, only the trace showing
octaves is meaningful.
Only one trace may be measuring octave analysis at a time. The other trace
must be measuring spectrum, PSD or time record.
4-5
MEASURE MENU
To choose the number of bands displayed, the starting band and the weighting
function, use the FREQ menu. The FREQ menu will display the band selection
menu shown at the right whenever octave analysis is on.
Return
# Bands
The # Bands key toggles the octave analysis range between 15 and 30 bands.
The bands are always 1/3 octave.
Starting Band
Pressing this key activates the Starting Band number entry field. The SR770
can display bands -2 through 49. The starting band can range from -2 to 49
minus the number of bands (15 or 30).
Weighting
The Weighting key toggles between no weighting and A weighting. A weighting
compensates for auditory sensitivity and can provide data comparable to that
derived from analog analysis equipment.
The Return key will return to the main MEAS menu.
4-6
MEASURE MENU
Display
The Display sub menu allows the user to choose the displayed quantity for the
active trace.
Log Mag.
This key displays the magnitude of the measurement on a logarithmic scale.
Only the active trace display is affected. Both the Time Record (as defined in
this analyzer) and the corresponding FFT are complex quantities. The
magnitude is the square root of the product of the measurement data and its
complex conjugate.
Linear Mag.
This key displays the magnitude of the measurement on a linear scale. Only
the active trace display is affected. Both the Time Record (as defined in this
analyzer) and the corresponding FFT are complex quantities. The magnitude is
the square root of the product of the measurement data and its complex
conjugate.
Real Part
This key displays the real part of the measurement on a linear scale. Only the
active trace display is affected. Both the Time Record (as defined by the
SR770) and the corresponding Spectrum are complex quantities and thus have
a real part. PSD and Octave Analysis are not complex and only display
magnitudes.
Imag. Part
This key displays the imaginary part of the measurement on a linear scale.
Only the active trace display is affected. Both the Time Record (as defined by
the SR770) and the corresponding Spectrum are complex quantities and thus
4-7
MEASURE MENU
have an imaginary part. PSD and Octave Analysis are not complex and only
display magnitudes.
Phase
This key displays the phase of the measurement on a linear scale. Only the
active trace display is affected. Both the Time Record (as defined by the
SR770) and the corresponding Spectrum are complex quantities and thus have
phase. PSD and Octave Analysis are not complex and only display
magnitudes.
In general, phase measurements are only used when the analyzer is triggered.
The phase is relative to the start of the time record.
The phase is displayed in degrees or radians on a linear scale from -180 (-ð) to
+180 (+ð) degrees (rads). The phase may be "unwrapped" using the Calculator
in the Measure menu.
The phase is calculated starting with the left most bin. If neither the real nor
imaginary component of a bin is greater than 0.018% of full scale (-75 dB
below f.s.), then the phase is not calculated. In this case, the phase is set to
the phase of the most recent bin which exceeded 0.018% of full scale. This
avoids the messy phase display associated with the noise floor. (Remember,
even if a signal is small, its phase extends over the full 360 degrees.) This
display method also preserves cumulative phase rotation as a function of
frequency.
Return
The Return key will return to the main MEAS menu.
4-8
MEASURE MENU
Units
The Units sub menu allows the user to choose the display units for the active
trace.
Volts Pk (EU PK)
This key chooses units of Volts Peak or Engineering Units Peak for the active
trace.
Volts RMS (EU RMS)
This key chooses units of Volts RMS or Engineering Units RMS for the active
trace.
dBV (dBEU)
This key chooses units of dBVolts Peak or dBEngineering Units Peak for the
active trace.
dBVRMS (dBEURMS)
This key chooses units of dBVolts RMS or dBEngineering Units RMS for the
active trace.
dB units are not available when displaying Real or Imaginary parts of the
spectrum. This is because the data values may be negative.
Volts/EU
This key chooses whether the fundamental unit is Volts or user defined
Engineering Units (EU). Choosing EU will activate the EU definition menu
shown below.
4-9
MEASURE MENU
EU Label
Pressing this key activates the EU Label entry field. Use the ALT keys to enter
a name for the engineering units.
EU/Volt
Pressing this key activates the EU scaling entry field. Enter the number of
engineering units per Volt.
Return
This key returns to the Units sub menu.
When Phase is being displayed on the active trace, the Units menu appears as
shown to the left. Phase values are always between -180 and +180 degrees.
The analyzer does not "unwrap" phase.
The phase of a particular frequency bin is set to zero if neither the real nor
imaginary part of the FFT is greater than 0.012% of full scale (-78 dB below
f.s.). This avoids the messy phase display associated with the noise floor.
(Remember, even if a signal is small, its phase extends over the full 360
degrees.)
Degs
This key chooses degrees for the Phase display.
Rads
This key chooses radians for the Phase display.
Return
The Return key will return to the main MEAS menu.
Note:
The choice of units does not affect the display scaling, whether linear or
logarithmic. The Marker and data readouts reflect the choice of units but the
graph remains unchanged.
4-10
MEASURE MENU
Window
The Window submenu allows the user to choose the window function. Both
traces use the same window function. A trace may be recalled from disk with a
window different than the "live" window. This is the only case where the window
on the graph is other than the "live" window shown in this menu.
Uniform
This key selects no windowing (uniform or rectangular window function) of the
time record. This window provides high amplitude accuracy only for frequencies
exactly on a bin and poor frequency selectivity making it a poor choice for
continuous signals. It is primarily useful for analyzing impulses and transients
which are shorter than a time record.
Flattop
This key selects the Flattop window. This window has the least ripple and thus
the smallest amplitude errors for frequencies not exactly on a bin. It is most
useful for precise amplitude measurements.
Hanning
This key selects the Hanning window. The Hanning window has a relatively
narrow mainlobe and low sidelobes providing low leakage (spectral broadening)
and good selectivity.
BMH
This key selects the Blackman-Harris window. This window has the narrowest
mainlobe and the fastest roll-off for the best selectivity. This window is
especially useful in measurements requiring the more than 70 dB of dynamic
range since it has the lowest leakage and broadening of the skirts.
4-11
MEASURE MENU
Return
The Return key will return to the main MEAS menu.
4-12
MEASURE MENU
Calculator
The Calculator sub menu allows the user to perform arithmetic calculations
with the trace data. Operations are performed on the entire trace, regardless of
graphical expansion.
Calculations treat the data as intrinsic values, either Volts, EU or degrees
(radians). If a graph is showing dB, then multiplying by 10 will raise the graph
by 20 dB and dividing by 10 will lower the graph by 20 dB.
Performing a calculation on the active trace will set the File Type to Calc to
indicate that the trace is not Live. This is shown by the "File=Calc" message at
the lower left of the graph. The analyzer continues to run, but the calculated
trace will not be updated. To return the trace to live mode, activate the trace
and press the [START] key. The File Type will return to Live.
Operation
The Operation function selects the type of operation to be performed. The add,
subtract, multiply, and divide functions require a second argument which may
be a number, ω (2ðf), or the other trace. The log (base 10), square root, unwrap
and d/dx functions require no argument.
Unwrap attempts to display the phase as a continuous curve rather "wrapping"
around at ±180° (± ð rads). Phase response curves (as measured using the
chirp source) are generally more meaningful unwrapped.
The derivative function, d/dx, differentiates the curve with respect to the x axis
(in frequency bins). To convert to d/dω, divide the result by 2ð times the
linewidth.
4-13
MEASURE MENU
Do Calc
Pressing this key starts the actual calculation. The "Calculating" message
appears below the graph while calculations are in progress. The calculation
uses the operation specified by the Operation key and uses the argument
chosen by the Argument keys.
Note that many operations will require an AutoScale to display the result on
the graph.
When the operation is d/dx, a submenu will appear to select the aperture. The
aperture, expressed as a percentage of the span, is the how wide an area is
considered when calculating the derivative. If the curve is noisy, a wide aperture
may be required to yield meaningful results.
Argument Type
The Argument Type function selects between a constant argument, ω (2ðf),
and a second data trace. A constant argument adds or subtracts a constant,
or multiplies or divides by a constant. Choosing ω uses the argument
2ð•frequency for each frequency bin. The other graph option uses the other
(inactive) trace as the argument. There is no attempt to check whether the
spans are the same, or even whether the measurement data are of the same
type. In this case, calculations are performed on a bin by bin basis, i.e. bin #1
of one trace is added to bin #1 of the other trace, bin #2 is added to bin #2,
etc. In the case of divide, the active trace is divided by the inactive trace. A
disk file may be used as one of the traces by recalling a file into one of the
graphs.
If the Argument type is a constant, then the Argument and Marker to Argument
functions are displayed.
Argument
Pressing the Argument key activates the constant argument entry field. Use
the keypad to enter a numerical argument. Integer (-3), real (-3.0), or floating
point (-0.3E+1) formats are all allowed.
Marker to Arg.
The Marker to Argument will copy the data value of the marker to the constant
argument field above. This is convenient when subtracting a baseline or
normalizing to a data point.
Note:
This function takes the literal marker readout as shown above the graph and
copies it to the argument field. This is true even if the marker is reading in dBV
rather than Volts. The calculation will use the argument as if it were Volts and
result in meaningless data. Use linear units when using the Marker to Arg.
function to avoid this mistake.
Return
The Return key will return to the main MEAS menu.
4-14
MEASURE MENU
4-15
DISPLAY MENU
Display
The Display menu is used to change the graph parameters and marker type.
The settings for the active trace are displayed in this menu. Note that marker
movement is activated by the [MARKER] key and not by this menu.
Format
The Format key toggles between single and dual trace screen formats. The
[ACTIVE TRACE] key toggles the active trace. If a single graph is displayed,
the [ACTIVE TRACE] switches the graph between Trace0 and Trace1. If two
graphs are displayed, [ACTIVE TRACE] selects either the upper or lower trace
as active. When the format is switched back to Single, the active trace
becomes the single displayed trace.
Marker On/Off/Trk
This function turns the marker on and off or selects tracking mode. This
function only affects the active trace. Each trace has its own marker. It is
sometimes desirable to turn off the marker before printing the screen. When
the marker is set to Track, the marker automatically seeks the maximum or
minimum point of the trace (according to the Marker Seeks selection).
Marker Width
This function selects the width of the marker region defined by the vertical
dashed lines on the graph. Only the marker for the active trace is affected.
Normal width is 1/2 of a division, Wide is 1 division, and Spot is a single X
position on the screen (the marker is a single dashed line).
The marker region moves to the left and to the right a single bin at a time.
4-16
DISPLAY MENU
Marker Seeks
The marker searches the data points within the marker region for the maximum
or minimum data value, or calculates the mean of the region. This key toggles
between Max, Min, and Mean and only affects the active trace's marker.
When seeking minimum or maximum, the marker is located at the minimum or
maximum data point. This allows peaks and valleys in the data to be read
easily. When seeking mean, the X position of the marker is the center of the
marker region and the Y position is the mean of the data within the region.
Grid Div/Scrn
This function selects no grid or 8 or 10 vertical divisions per graph. The grid is
the set of dotted lines on the graph which mark each scale division. This
affects only the active trace graph.
Graph Fill
The active trace can be selected to display the spectrum as the envelope of
the X values (line), or to fill the solid region below the trace (fill).
4-17
MARKER MODE MENU
Marker Mode
The Marker Mode menu is activated with the Mode key in the Marker area of
the keypad. This menu is used to manually enter a marker offset as well as
searching for peaks in the data.
Linked Markers
This key links the markers on the two traces. When the dual trace display
format is used, linked markers means that the two markers are always at the
same location on the graph. This is true even if one of the traces is showing
the time record. This is strictly a graphical function. To move the markers,
activate either trace and use the [MARKER] key to move the markers with the
knob.
Marker Offset
This function turns on the marker offset. When marker offset is on, a small
delta (�) is displayed at the beginning of the marker readout above the graph.
The marker readout is now relative to the marker offset. The marker offset
location on the graph is marked with a small star shaped symbol.
The [MARKER REF] key toggles the marker offset on and off as well. When
the [MARKER REF] key turns on the offset, the X and Yoffsets are set to the
current marker position. Pressing the [MARKER REF] key again turns the
marker offset off.
X Offset
This key activates the marker X Offset entry field. This is the offset of the
marker along the X axis. Only numeric entry is permitted. The X offset is stored
as unitless number. When displaying spectra, the offset is interpreted as a
frequency. The X offset does not have to be a frequency which is within the
current span.
4-18
MARKER MODE MENU
Y Offset
This key activates the marker Y Offset entry field. This is the offset of the
marker along the Y axis. Only numeric entry is permitted. The offset is stored
as a unitless number. If the display units are changed, then the Y offset needs
to be changed. The Y offset does not have to be a value which is currently
within the vertical span of the graph.
Next Peak Left
This function moves the marker to the next peak to the left of the current
marker position.
Next Peak Right
This function moves the marker to the next peak to the right of the current
marker position.
4-19
INPUT MENU
Input
The Input menu is used to change the input configuration and input range. In
addition, the Trigger and Arming submenus set the triggering mode, level and
delay.
Input Source
The Input Source key selects the front end signal input configuration. The input
amplifier can be single-ended (A) or differential (A-B). In general, when looking
at very small signals, connect A to the signal source and B to the signal
source ground and use A-B. In this case, make sure that the two input cables
do not encompass any loop area (twist them together or run them side by
side).
Grounding
This key chooses the shield grounding configuration. The shields of the input
connectors (A and B) are not connected directly to the analyzer chassis
ground. In Float mode, the shields are connected by 1 M� to the chassis
ground. In Ground mode, the shields are connected by 50 � to the chassis
ground. In this mode, do not exceed 3V on the shields. The impedance
between the center conductor of each input and the shield is always 1 M�.
Note:
When the input source configuration is set to A-B, the grounding is
automatically set to Ground. This is because in the A-B case, the shields are
exactly that, shields, and do not carry signal.
Coupling
This key toggles the input coupling between AC and DC. The 3 dB bandwidth
of the AC setting is 0.16 Hz.
4-20
INPUT MENU
Input Range
This key activates the Input Range entry field. The input range can only be
adjusted using the knob. The displayed value is the full scale signal input just
before overload. The input range limits are -60 dBV to +34 dBV in 2 dBV steps.
If the input ranging mode is Manual (as toggled by the [AUTO RANGE] key
and displayed by the Man.Rng. indicator), then this field sets the input range. If
the input ranging mode is AutoRng, then this field displays the current range.
Adjusting the input range automatically toggles back to manual ranging mode.
Trigger Menu
This key displays the Trigger configuration menu as described on the following
page.
Auto Offset
This function enables Auto Offset calibration. When Auto Offset is On, the
analyzer will periodically perform an auto offset calibration. Auto Offset is
always set to On when the analyzer is turned on. Setting Auto Offset to Off
defeats the periodic offset calibration. Turning Auto Offset On immediately
performs an offset calibration and then every few minutes for the first half hour
and then less often after that.
The offset calibration takes about a 10 seconds. After offset calibration, the DC
frequency bin of any baseband measurement will be minimized.
To calibrate the offsets, the inputs are internally grounded and the amplifier
offsets are measured and stored. When making very narrow span
measurements, the analyzer will need to re-settle after a calibration. In these
cases, it may be best to leave the Auto Offset Off and perform the calibration
only when necessary.
4-21
INPUT MENU
Trigger
The Trigger submenu is used to set the trigger mode, level and delay. The
Arming submenu selects the arming mode.
Trigger
The Trigger key selects the trigger type.
Continuous is the same as free run. The analyzer takes time records
continuously.
Internal trigger means that time records are triggered by the input signal itself.
This is similar to an oscilloscope on internal trigger.
On External or TTL, the time records are triggered by the external trigger input
on the front panel. TTL triggers on a TTL level signal while Ext trigger has a
variable threshold.
Source trigger works with the sine, two tone and chirp sources. In this mode,
spectra are taken with no overlap (at all spans) but without using the trigger
circuits. When each time record finishes, the next one begins without delay.
Signals which are exactly identical in each time record will appear triggered
and have a stable phase. The sine and two tone sources will have stable phase
if the frequencies are multiples of the linewidth. The chirp source is defined in
this manner.
Remember that the source does not turn on and off synchronously with the
input time record. Thus, the phase of the source will be stable but arbitrary.
Beware that changing the span, changing the source type, or performing the
Auto Offset calibration can all change the absolute phase of the source.
4-22
INPUT MENU
Trigger Level
This key activates the Trigger Level entry field. The level may be entered in
Volts or in percent of the input range (for Int trigger) or percent of 5V (for Ext
trigger). The knob only adjusts the percent value. A Voltage entry outside of
the limits of -100.0% to +99.22% of the applicable range will set the level to the
limit. The Voltage reading below the entry field displays the trigger level in
Volts.
Note:
Remember that the trigger requires a minimum 100 mV pulse amplitude to
successfully trigger. When using the internal trigger, this means that the signal
must exceed roughly 8% of the input range (-22 dB below the input range).
Note:
When the unit is successfully triggered in Int, TTL or Ext mode, the Trigger
indicator will light. No indicator is present in the Continuous or Source trigger
mode.
When the analyzer is in Int, TTL, or Ext trigger mode, and no triggers are
received, the display will not update even though the RUN indicator is on.
When no triggers have been received after a couple of seconds, the Trg Wait
indicator will turn on as a reminder that the unit is awaiting a trigger.
In Int, TTL or Ext trigger mode, the unit will trigger only if the trigger is armed.
See the Arming menu.
Trigger Slope
This key toggles the Trigger Slope between rising edge and falling edge (Int,
TTL and Ext trigger modes only).
Trigger Delay
This key activates the Trigger Delay entry field (Int, TTL and Ext trigger modes
only). The delay may be entered numerically or adjusted using the knob. The
delay is set as a number of samples rather than time.
The Source trigger does not have an adjustable delay.
The triggered time record does not have to start with the trigger event. The time
record can start before the trigger (negative delay values) or after the trigger
(positive delay values). A delay of 0 starts the time record with the next sample
following the trigger.
When the delay is positive, the delay is set with a resolution of one sample or
1/512 of the time record. This is equal to the acquisition time divided by 512
(7.8125 µs at full span). The positive limit of the delay is 65000 samples.
When the delay is negative, the delay resolution is one sample of the A/D
conversion or 3.9062 µs. The limit of the negative delay is 13300 (51.95 ms)
samples.
The time readout below the entry field is the equivalent delay in units of time.
Remember, changing the frequency span will change the positive delay times
4-23
INPUT MENU
because the time record and sample times change. The negative delays are
not affected by the span.
When a large trigger delay is used, the display may update slower since the
acquisition time for each record is the length of the time record plus the trigger
delay (which can be noticeably long).
Arming Menu
This key displays the Arming configuration menu as described on the following
page.
Return
This key returns to the main Input menu.
4-24
INPUT MENU
Arming
The Arming submenu selects the arming mode.
Arming Mode
This key selects the Arming Mode. Triggers are ignored unless the trigger is
armed. Arming allows a single triggered time record to be isolated even when
using a repetitive trigger source.
Auto arming means that as soon as one triggered time record is processed,
the trigger is immediately re-armed. Time records are basically taken as fast
as the trigger delay and actual time record length permit.
With Manual arming, no time records are taken until the trigger is armed, either
from the front panel using the Arm Trigger softkey, or upon receipt of an arming
command from a computer interface. Once the trigger is armed, the next
trigger event will trigger a time record. The trigger is not automatically re-armed
but waits for an arming command or key.
Note:
If the trigger mode is continuous, the arming mode has no effect.
If the unit is in a triggered mode and arming is set to manual, then the Arm
Wait indicator will light if the unit is not armed after a few seconds. This is a
reminder that the unit is waiting. Once the unit is armed, the Armed indicator
will light. The Trg Wait and Trigger indicators will not turn on unless the unit is
armed.
Arm
This key manually arms the trigger. This function only appears if the arming
mode is manual.
4-25
INPUT MENU
Return
This key returns to the Trigger configuration submenu.
4-26
SCALE MENU
Scale
The Scale menu is used to change the graph X and Y scaling parameters for
the active trace.
Top Reference
This key activates the Top Reference entry field. The top reference is the Y
value of the top of the active trace graph. The top reference is expressed in the
same units as the display and marker as set in the Measure menu.
Bottom Reference
This key activates the Bottom Reference entry field. The bottom reference is
the Y value of the bottom of the active trace graph. The bottom reference is
expressed in the same units as the display and marker as set in the Measure
menu.
Y/Div
This key activates the Y/Division entry field. This value is the vertical scale of
the active trace graph. If the display is linear, then the vertical scale is
expressed in the displayed units. If the display is logarithmic, then the vertical
scale is always dB/division. Remember that the reference values and marker
readouts in this case are still shown in the previously selected units.
Using the knob adjusts the vertical scale in a 1-2-5-10 sequence. Knob
adjustments leave the marker at the center of the graph. The top and bottom
reference will be adjusted to make this happen. This gives the effect of vertical
zooming.
By using the numeric entry keys, almost any scale may be entered. In this
case, the top reference remains fixed while the bottom reference changes.
4-27
SCALE MENU
Auto Scale
Pressing this key will automatically set the vertical scale and top and bottom
reference of the active trace to display the entire range of the trace. Horizontal
scaling is not affected. AutoScale only operates on the data which is displayed
on the graph. If the graph is expanded, data corresponding to frequency or time
bins which are not shown do not figure in the autoscaling calculations.
This key is identical to the [AUTO SCALE] key.
Expand X
The Expand X key allows the active trace graph to be expanded and translated
in the X axis. This key activates knob control of translation (the left icon) and
expand (the right icon). Graph expansion is a convenient way of examining
closely spaced details of a spectrum without decreasing the span and
increasing the acquisition time.
Horizontal expansion displays 128, 64, 30, 15 or 8 bins across the graph.
Expansion is about the marker position unless the marker is too close the
edge of the span. In this case, expansion leaves one edge of the graph fixed.
Whenever a graph is expanded, the Expand at the bottom right of the graph is
on.
Horizontal translation is in increments of one bin.
No graphical expansion is allowed when the X-axis is logarithmic.
X-axis
This key selects the X-axis scaling for the active trace. Linear graphs are the
normal display for spectrum analyzers. The logarithmic graph is convenient for
certain types of filter or broadband noise measurements. The number of
frequency bins displayed is always 400 and they are linearly spaced. The log
axis merely displays these points differently. The first displayed point of a
baseband span (one that starts at DC) is the frequency of the first bin, not DC
or 0 Hz.
4-28
ANALYZE MENU
Analyze
The Analyze menu turns on real-time harmonic, sideband and band analysis
as well as Limit and Data tables for the active trace.
Note:
When real-time analysis functions or Limit tables are active, the trace update
rate may significantly slow down.
No harmonic, sideband or band analysis is available when measuring Time
Record or Octave Analysis, or when displaying Phase.
None
This key turns off any real-time harmonic, sideband or band analysis.
Harmonic
If no real-time analysis is on, then this key turns on harmonic analysis for the
active trace. The harmonic analysis submenu is displayed and the marker
frequency will be entered into the fundamental frequency entry field. If any realtime analysis is already on, then this key simply displays the harmonic
analysis submenu without change. The harmonic submenu is described in the
following pages.
When harmonic analysis is on, the harmonic level (rms sum of the magnitudes
of the harmonic frequency bins) and Total Harmonic Distortion or THD (the
harmonic level divided by the fundamental magnitude) are displayed in the
upper left corner of the graph. Only those harmonics which appear within the
frequency span figure into the calculations of harmonic power.
Sideband
If no real-time analysis is on, then this key turns on sideband analysis for the
active trace. The sideband analysis submenu is displayed and the marker
4-29
ANALYZE MENU
frequency will be entered into the carrier frequency entry field. If any real-time
analysis is already on, then this key simply displays the sideband analysis
submenu without change. The sideband submenu is described in the following
pages.
When sideband analysis is on, the sideband level (rms sum of the magnitudes
of the sideband frequency bins) and sideband level relative to carrier (in dBc)
are displayed in the upper left corner of the graph. Only those sidebands which
appear within the frequency span figure into the calculations of sideband
power.
Band
If no real-time analysis is on, then this key turns on band analysis for the
active trace. The band analysis submenu is displayed and the marker
frequency will be entered into the band center frequency entry field. The band
start will be adjusted consistent with the band width. If any real-time analysis
is already on, then this key simply displays the band analysis submenu
without change. The band submenu is described in the following pages.
When band analysis is on, the band level (rms sum of the magnitudes of all
frequency bins within the defined band) is displayed in the upper left corner of
the graph. Only the portion of the band which is within the frequency span
contributes to the calculation of band level.
Data Table
This key turns on the data table for the active trace and displays the data table
submenu which is described in the following pages. The screen format will
switch to the dual trace mode and the inactive trace is replaced with the data
table window. The data table reports the Y values for user entered X locations.
For example, the entries could be a set of harmonic frequencies which need to
be monitored. To generate a report of the measurement, the active trace's data
table may be printed out using the Plot menu. Each trace has its own data
table though only the table associated with the active trace is active and
displayed at any time. To remove the data table display, change the Format in
the Display menu back to Single.
If no data table is entered (or the data table has been deleted), and harmonic or
sideband analysis is turned on, then this key not only activates the data table
display, but also enters the harmonic or sideband locations into the table.
Limit Table
This key turns on the limit table for the active trace and displays the limit table
submenu which is described in the following pages. The screen format will
switch to the dual trace mode and the inactive trace is replaced with the limit
table window. The limit table lists the coordinates of the line segments which
define the trace limits. When trace data exceeds these limit segments, then
the Fail message appears and an audio alarm sounds. To generate a listing of
the active trace's limit table, use the Print Limits function in the Plot menu.
Each trace has its own limit table though only the table associated with the
active trace is active and displayed at any time. To remove the limit table
display, change the Format in the Display menu back to Single.
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ANALYZE MENU
Harmonic
The Harmonic analysis submenu turns on real-time harmonic analysis and
sets the fundamental frequency and number of harmonics. Functions also
automatically move the span center frequency to adjacent harmonics.
Fundamental
This key activates the fundamental frequency entry field. If no real-time
analysis was on when the harmonic submenu was entered, then this field is
automatically filled with the marker frequency. The [Marker Entry] key copies
the marker frequency into this field even when it is not activated. When this
field is activated, knob adjustments and numeric entry are permitted. Note that
marker entries and knob adjustments are done with the resolution of the
current frequency span. If the actual fundamental is not exactly equal to a
frequency bin, then higher harmonic frequencies will be more and more
inaccurate. In this case, the frequency should be entered numerically with as
much precision as necessary.
The harmonic frequency bins on the graph are identified by a small triangle
marker located at the Y positions of each harmonic bin. This is helpful in
determining whether the fundamental frequency is accurate enough to ensure
that all harmonics are correctly identified.
# Harmonics
This key activates the # of Harmonics entry field. Harmonics up to 400 may be
entered, though only those which are in the frequency span will enter into the
harmonic calculations and be identified on the graph. If 0 harmonics are
entered, the harmonic level readout will be zero.
Next Harmonic Left
This function moves the marker to the next harmonic to the left of the current
marker position if it is on the graph. If it is beyond the edge of the graph, the
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ANALYZE MENU
span center frequency is set to the frequency of the next harmonic (or as close
as the frequency range allows).
Next Harmonic Right
This function moves the marker to the next harmonic to the right of the current
marker position if it is on the graph. If it is beyond the edge of the graph, the
span center frequency is set to the frequency of the next harmonic (or as close
as the frequency range allows).
Return
This key returns to the main Analyze menu.
4-32
ANALYZE MENU
Sideband
The Sideband analysis submenu turns on real-time sideband analysis and sets
the carrier and separation frequencies and number of number of sidebands.
Sidebands are identified according to the formula
Sideband n = Carrier ± n•Separation
where n varies from 1 to the # of sidebands.
Carrier
This key activates the carrier frequency entry field. If no real-time analysis was
on when the sideband submenu was entered, then this field is automatically
filled with the marker frequency. The [Marker Entry] key copies the marker
frequency into this field even when it is not activated. When this field is
activated, knob adjustments and numeric entry are permitted. Note that marker
entries and knob adjustments are done with the resolution of the current
frequency span. If the actual carrier is not exactly equal to a frequency bin,
then higher order sideband frequencies will be more and more inaccurate. In
this case, enter the frequency numerically with as much precision as
necessary.
The sideband frequency bins on the graph are identified by small triangle
markers located at the Y positions of each sideband bin. This is helpful in
determining whether the carrier and separation frequencies are accurate
enough to ensure that all sidebands are correctly identified.
Separation
This key activates the separation frequency entry field. When this field is
activated, the knob adjusts the separation with the resolution of the current
frequency span. This resolution may lead to the higher order sideband
frequencies being more and more inaccurate. In this case, enter the frequency
numerically with as much precision as necessary.
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ANALYZE MENU
# Sidebands
This key activates the # of Sidebands entry field. Up to 200 sidebands may be
entered, though only those which are in the frequency span will enter into the
sideband calculations and be identified on the graph. If 0 sidebands are
entered, the sideband level readout will be zero.
Return
This key returns to the main Analyze menu.
4-34
ANALYZE MENU
Band
The Band analysis submenu turns on real-time Band analysis and sets the
band location. A band is a range of frequencies defined by the band start,
center and width.
The frequency band is identified by a horizontal bar at the bottom of the graph.
The bar covers the region of the band.
Band Start
This key activates the band start entry field. If no real-time analysis was on
when the band submenu was entered, then this field is automatically filled with
the marker frequency minus half of the band width (the band center is set to
the marker frequency). When this field is activated, knob adjustments and
numeric entry are permitted. Note that knob adjustments are done with the
resolution of the current frequency span. For increased precision, enter the
frequency numerically.
Band Center
This key activates the band center frequency entry field. If no real-time analysis
was on when the band submenu was entered, then this field is automatically
filled with the marker frequency. The [Marker Entry] key copies the marker
frequency into this field even when it is not activated. When this field is
activated, knob adjustments and numeric entry are permitted. Note that marker
entries and knob adjustments are done with the resolution of the current
frequency span. For increased precision, enter the frequency numerically.
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ANALYZE MENU
Band Width
This key activates the bandwidth entry field. When this field is activated, knob
adjustments and numeric entry are permitted. Note that knob adjustments are
done with the resolution of the current frequency span. For increased precision,
enter the frequency numerically.
Return
This key returns to the main Analyze menu.
4-36
ANALYZE MENU
Data Table
The data table reports the Y values for user entered X locations. For example,
the entries could be a set of harmonic frequencies which need to be monitored.
To generate a report of the measurement, the active trace's data table may be
printed out using the Plot menu. Each trace has its own data table though only
the table associated with the active trace is active and displayed at any time.
To remove the data table display, change the Format in the Display menu back
to Single.
Note:
If no data table is entered (or the data table has been deleted), and harmonic or
sideband analysis is on, then entering this submenu not only activates the
data table display, it also enters the harmonic or sideband locations into the
table.
Data tables are saved along with the trace data when data is saved to disk.
Data Tables are not stored in non-volatile memory and are not retained when
the power is turned off. Save data to disk to preserve the data tables!
4-37
ANALYZE MENU
A sample data table display is shown above. The table entries are n (table
index or line number), X (user defined X values), and Y (measured data values
corresponding to the X values). The Y value is actually for the frequency bin
which is closest to the entered X value (within one bin resolution). The Y values
shown in the table are in the units of the display. X values which are not in the
frequency span have the message OVRG for their Y values.
Table Index
This key activates the Table Index entry field. Knob adjustment and numeric
entry are both permitted. When using the knob, scrolling past the last index
will add a new line. If an index greater than the last index is entered, then a
new line is added after the end of the table.
If the table is longer than what can be displayed in the window, then the table
index can be used to scroll the window. Entering an index will always display
that line in the window for viewing or editing.
X Value
This key activates the X Value entry field. The X value of the highlighted line
may be entered using the numeric keypad. No knob adjustment is allowed.
When this field is active, the [MARKER ENTRY] key will copy the marker X
position into this field.
Insert Item
This function inserts a new line before the highlighted line. The new line
becomes highlighted and is ready for editing.
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ANALYZE MENU
Delete Item
This function deletes the highlighted line and highlights the following line.
Delete Table
This function deletes the entire table.
Return
This key returns to the main Analyze menu.
4-39
ANALYZE MENU
Limit Table
The limit table lists the X,Y coordinates of the line segments which define the
trace test limits. When trace data exceeds these limit segments, then the test
fails. To generate a listing of the active trace's limit table use the Print Limits
function in the Plot menu. Each trace has its own limit table though only the
table associated with the active trace is active and displayed at any time. To
remove the limit table display, change the Format in the Display menu back to
Single.
A limit segment is defined as the line segment between the pair of points
(Xbegin,Y1) and (Xend,Y2) as shown below. The segment values between the
endpoints are calculated for the displayed frequency span.
A segment may be defined as either an upper or lower limit. Trace data values
which are greater than an upper or less than a lower limit cause the test to fail.
Note:
Y values are entered without units. They are simply numbers. When the
display units are changed, the limit table is unaffected. and the limit tests will
compare the trace data in the new units with the old limit table values. Be
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ANALYZE MENU
careful to use the limit tables only when the entered Y values match the
displayed units.
Trace data is compared with the limits only over the range of X values or
frequencies for which limit segments have been defined. Segments do not have
to cover the entire span or be connected. The four segments shown below
comprise a legitimate limit table. Frequencies not included within any segment
are not tested. If both segments 2 and 4 are upper limits, then the lower limit
(segment 4) is tested.
Note:
Limit segments are graphed on the display.
In the case of logarithmic X axis, the segments are still displayed graphically
as a straight line. This graphical line is the limit. Thus, a given limit test may
give different results depending upon the type of X axis displayed.
The result of the limit test is shown by the Pass/Fail indicator at the bottom of
the screen. In addition, an audio alarm may be sounded. Each displayed trace
is tested. The limit testing may be turned off while in the Limit menu. It is
recommended that testing be turned off while entering a complex table since
live testing can slow the analyzer response.
Note:
Limit tables are saved along with the trace data when data is saved to disk.
Limit tables are not stored in non-volatile memory and are not retained when
the power is turned off. Always save data to disk to preserve the limit
tables.
4-41
ANALYZE MENU
A sample limit table display is shown above. The table entries are n (table
index or line number), type of limit (upper or lower, u or l), Xbegin, Xend and Y1
and Y2. For the purposes of testing, the limit segments are generated with the
assumption that frequency bin 0 extends from the start frequency to the start
frequency plus the linewidth and so on. A segment whose Xbegin value is
between bin frequencies would test the lower frequency bin's data value against
Y1. The rest of the segment is calculated on this basis. If more resolution is
required, then a narrower span is required.
Only segments or the portions of segments within the frequency span are
tested. Limits outside the span are ignored.
Table Index
This key activates the Table Index entry field. Knob adjustment and numeric
entry are both permitted. When using the knob, scrolling past the last index
will add a new line. If an index greater than the last index is entered, then a
new line is added after the end of the table.
New segments are generated with Xbegin equal to Xend of the previous
segment and the same X span. The Y values are set to the value of Y2 for the
previous segment. This simplifies the building of a continuous limit table.
4-42
ANALYZE MENU
If the table is longer than what can be displayed in the window, then the table
index can be used to scroll the window. Entering an index will always display
that line in the window for viewing or editing.
X Values
This key activates the selected X Value entry field. Pressing the key again
toggles to the other X value. The upper value is Xbegin and the lower value is
Xend. The X values of the highlighted line may be entered using the numeric
keypad. No knob adjustment is allowed. When this field is active, the
[MARKER ENTRY] key will copy the marker X position into this field.
Y Values
This key activates the selected Y Value entry field. Pressing the key again
toggles to the other Y value. The upper value is Y1 and the lower value is Y2.
The Y values of the highlighted line may be entered using the numeric keypad.
No knob adjustment is allowed. Remember, these values are simply numbers
and have no units. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that these values
correspond to the displayed units.
Limit Type
This function selects the type of limit, either upper or lower, for the highlighted
line.
More
This function displays a submenu for inserting or deleting lines, turning on the
audio alarm, and enabling testing. This submenu is described on the following
pages.
Return
This key returns to the main Analyze menu.
4-43
ANALYZE MENU
Limit Table More
This submenu allows limit table entries to be inserted and deleted, and audio
alarms and limit testing to be enabled.
Insert Item
This function inserts a new line before the highlighted line. The new line
becomes highlighted and is ready for editing.
Delete Item
This function deletes the highlighted line and highlights the following line.
Delete Table
This function deletes the entire table.
Audio Alarm On/Off
This function turns the audio alarm on and off. The audio alarm sounds
whenever a limit test fails.
Testing On/Off
This function turns limit testing on and off. Limit tests may be turned off while
entering a table. Limit testing is only active when the limit table is displayed,
regardless of this setting.
Return
This key returns to the main Limit Table menu.
4-44
AVERAGE MENU
Average
The Average menu selects trace averaging, number of averages, type of
averaging and amount of overlap. The averaging parameters apply to both
traces.
Note:
The [START] key starts an average. The [PAUSE/CONT] key will pause an
average in progress. Pressing [PAUSE/CONT] again will resume the average
where it was paused. Pressing the [START] key always resets the average
before restarting.
With wide frequency spans, the high real time bandwidth of the SR770 allows
many averages to be completed between each screen update. For small
numbers of averages, averaging is almost instantaneous.
Averaging On/Off
This key turns Averaging on and off. The Avrging/No Avg. indicator at the
bottom of the screen shows the state of this function.
Number of Averages
This key activates the Number of Averages entry field for both numeric entry
and knob adjustment. This is the number of spectra which are averaged
together in linear averaging and the weighting factor for exponential averaging.
The number of averages allowed ranges from 2 to 32,767.
Changing the number of averages while in the RUN mode resets the averages
and starts over. If the analyzer is stopped, then the average is not reset nor
restarted.
4-45
AVERAGE MENU
Average Type
This function selects the Averaging Type, either RMS, Vector or Peak Hold.
RMS Averaging
This averages the magnitude of the spectra in an RMS fashion. The displayed
data is the square root of the weighted mean of the sum of the magnitudes
squared (FFT times its complex conjugate). The weighting is either linear or
exponential.
RMS averaging reduces fluctuations in the data but does not reduce the actual
noise floor. With a sufficient number of averages, a very good approximation of
the actual random noise floor can be displayed.
Note:
Since the RMS averaging is done on magnitudes only, displaying the real or
imaginary part or phase of an RMS average has no meaning. The RMS average
has no complex information. If the real or imaginary part or phase is being
displayed, the display will not update when RMS averaging is on.
Vector Averaging
Vector averaging averages the complex spectrum. This can reduce the noise
floor for random signals since they are not phase coherent from time record to
time record.
Vector averaging requires a trigger. The input signal must be both periodic and
phase synchronous with the trigger. Otherwise, the real and imaginary parts of
the signal will not add in phase and instead will cancel randomly.
With vector averaging, the real and imaginary parts as well as phase displays
are correctly averaged and displayed. This is because the complex information
is preserved.
Peak Hold
Peak Hold is not really averaging, rather the new spectral magnitudes are
compared to the previous data, and if the new data is larger, then the new data
is used. This is done on a bin by bin basis. The resulting display shows the
peak magnitudes which occurred in the previous spectra. If linear averaging is
used, then only N spectra are compared. If exponential averaging is used, then
peak hold keeps comparing spectra indefinitely.
Peak Hold detects the peaks in the spectral magnitudes and only applies to
Spectrum, PSD, and Octave Analysis measurements. However, the peak
values are stored in the original complex form. If the real or imaginary part or
phase is being displayed for spectrum measurements, the display shows the
real or imaginary part or phase of the complex peak value.
Average Mode
This key selects either Linear or Exponential averaging.
Linear Averaging
Linear averaging combines N (number of averages) spectra with equal
weighting in either RMS, Vector or Peak Hold fashion. When the number of
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AVERAGE MENU
averages has been completed, the analyzer stops and an audio beep is
sounded. When linear averaging is in progress, the number of averages
completed so far is displayed below the Avrging indicator at the bottom of the
screen.
Auto ranging is temporarily disabled when a linear average is in progress. Be
sure not to change the input range manually either. Changing the range during
a linear average invalidates the results.
Exponential Averaging
Exponential averaging weights new data more than old data. Averaging takes
place according to the formula,
AverageN = (New Spectrum • 1/N) + (AverageN-1) • (N-1)/N
where N is the number of averages.
Exponential averaging continues indefinitely. To stop the averaging, use the
[PAUSE/CONT] key. When paused, the [PAUSE/CONT] key will resume the
averaging while the [START] key will reset the average before restarting.
Exponential averages "grow" for approximately the first 5N spectra until the
steady state values are reached. Once in steady state, further changes in the
spectra are detected only if they last sufficiently long. Make sure that the
number of averages is not so large as to eliminate the changes in the data that
might be important.
Overlap
This key activates the Overlap Percentage entry field.
For most frequency spans, the SR770 can compute the FFT in less time than
it takes to acquire the time record. With 0% overlap the analyzer computes
one FFT per time record and then waits until the next time record is complete
before computing the next FFT. The update rate is no faster than one spectra
per time record. With narrow spans, this can be quite slow.
With overlap processing, the analyzer does not wait for the next complete time
record before computing the next FFT. Instead it uses data from the previous
time record as well as data from the current time record to compute the next
FFT. This speeds up display updates as well as reduces the variations due to
windowing. Remember, most window functions are zero at the start and end of
the time record. Thus, the points at the ends of the time record do not
contribute much to the FFT. With overlap, these points are "re-used" and
appear as middle points in other time records. This is why overlap speeds up
averaging and smoothes out window variations. Typically, time records with
50% overlap provide as much noise reduction as non-overlapping time records
when RMS averaging. When RMS averaging narrow spans, this can reduce the
measurement time by a factor of 2.
The maximum overlap is determined by the amount of time it takes to calculate
an FFT and the length of the time record and thus varies according to the span.
Note:
4-47
AVERAGE MENU
The SR770 always tries to use the maximum amount of overlap possible.
Whenever a new frequency span is selected, the overlap is set to the
maximum possible value for that span. If less overlap is desired, then use this
key to program in a smaller value. On the widest spans (25, 50 and 100 kHz),
no overlap is allowed.
If the measurement is triggered, then overlap is ignored. Time records start with
the trigger. The analyzer must be in continuous trigger mode to use overlap
processing.
4-48
AVERAGE MENU
4-49
SOURCE MENU
Source
The Source menu selects source output waveform. The configure source menu
sets the source parameters such as amplitude and frequency.
Note:
The SR770 Source has an output impedance of less than 5 �. The source can
drive a 50 � load to full amplitude. The source is calibrated with a high
impedance load.
Source Off
This key turns the source off. The output is held at 0V.
Sine
This key sets the source output to sinewave. The output is a low distortion sine
wave for general purpose gain, distortion and signal/noise measurements. The
sinewave can be synchronous with the FFT, i.e. sine waves can be generated
at exact bin frequencies of the FFT. This can eliminate windowing effects in the
measured amplitude and phase. Press <Configure Source> to set the sine
parameters.
2-Tone
This key sets the source output to two tone. The output is the sum of two low
distortion sine waves for intermodulation distortion tests (IMD). Each tone has
independent frequency and amplitude settings. Press <Configure Source> to
set the two tone parameters.
Noise
This key sets the source output to noise. Broadband noise is useful for
characterizing circuits, mechanical systems or even the audio response of an
entire room. White noise provides equal amplitude per root Hz from 0 to 100
4-50
SOURCE MENU
kHz, regardless of the measurement span. White noise is useful in electronic
applications. Pink noise rolls off at 3 dB/oct providing equal amplitude per
octave. Pink noise is preferred in audio applications. Press <Configure
Source> to set the noise parameters.
Since the signal is noisy and random, windows are always required when using
the noise source.
Source triggering is not meaningful since there is no stable phase information
in the source.
Chirp
This key sets the source output to the chirp waveform. The Chirp waveform
provides an equal amplitude sine wave at each bin of the displayed spectrum.
Since there are 400 bins in a spectrum, the chirp is the sum of 400 discrete
sine waves. The phases of each sine wave are arranged so that they do not
add in phase and the resulting output does not peak. This source is useful for
measuring transfer functions quickly without having to make many discrete
measurements using a single sine wave. Press <Configure Source> to set the
chirp parameters.
Configure Source
Each source has a configuration menu which is accessed by selecting the
source type and then pressing the <Configure Source> key. Each type of
configuration menu is described in the following pages.
4-51
SOURCE MENU
Configure Sine
The Configure Sine submenu allows the frequency and amplitude of the
sinewave to be set.
Frequency
This key activates the sine frequency entry field. When the knob is used to
adjust the frequency, the resolution is equal to the linewidth of the
measurement span. The knob always sets the sine frequency to an exact
multiple of the linewidth.
The keypad allows random frequencies to be entered. The fundamental
frequency resolution of the sine source is 15.26 mHz (1 kHz/65536). The
entered frequency will be rounded to the nearest multiple of 15.26 mHz.
Remember, the output is periodic over the input time record only if the
frequency is a multiple of the linewidth. Source triggering will not result in a
stable phase for random frequencies.
Level
This key activates the sine level entry field. The output level is expressed in
mVpk. The level may be entered in either mVpk or dBVpk. The knob always
adjusts the level in mVpk. The resolution is 1 mV for levels greater than 100
mV, and 0.1 mV for levels less than 100 mV.
Return
This key returns the main source selection menu.
4-52
SOURCE MENU
Configure 2-Tone
The Configure 2-Tone submenu allows the frequencies and amplitudes of the
tones to be set.
Frequency 1, 2
These keys activate the frequency entry fields for tones 1 and 2. When the
knob is used to adjust the frequency, the resolution is equal to the linewidth of
the measurement span. The knob always sets the tone frequency to an exact
multiple of the linewidth.
The keypad allows random frequencies to be entered. The fundamental
frequency resolution of the tone is 15.26 mHz (1 kHz/65536). The entered
frequency will be rounded to the nearest multiple of 15.26 mHz.
Remember, the output is periodic over the input time record only if the
frequency is a multiple of the linewidth. Source triggering will not result in a
stable phase for random frequencies.
Level 1, 2
These keys activate the level entry fields for tones 1 and 2. The output level is
expressed in mVpk. The level may be entered in either mVpk or dBVpk. The
knob always adjusts the level in mVpk. The resolution is 1 mV for levels
greater than 100 mV, and 0.1 mV for levels less than 100 mV. The maximum
level for each tone is 500 mV.
Return
This key returns the main source selection menu.
4-53
SOURCE MENU
Configure Noise
The Configure Noise submenu allows the noise level and type to be set.
Noise Type
This key selects the noise type. White noise provides equal noise density
(Volts/�Hz) from 0 to 100 kHz (regardless of the measurement span). The
spectrum of white noise appears flat with constant power spectral density
(PSD). Pink noise rolls off at 3 dB/oct providing equal power per octave of
frequency. The spectrum of pink noise appears flat when measured using
octave analysis.
Since the signal is noise and random, windowing is required to achieve a
meaningful spectrum.
Source triggering is not useful since there is no stable phase information in the
source.
Noise Level
This key activates the noise level entry field. The output level is expressed in
mVpk. The level may be entered in either mVpk or dBVpk. The knob always
adjusts the level in mVpk. The resolution is 1 mV for levels greater than 100
mV, and 0.1 mV for levels less than 100 mV.
With white noise, the noise level is approximately the peak amplitude of the
noise output. There will be occasional voltage excursions beyond this level.
Because of the nature of noise, the peak amplitude is not a perfectly defined
quantity.
Pink noise is generated starting with white noise and then filtering it to achieve
a 3 dB/oct roll-off. This filtering means that the pink noise voltag amplitude is
much less than the white noise. The pink noise level is actually the white noise
4-54
SOURCE MENU
level before filtering. The actual pink noise output level is much smaller than the
pink noise level displayed in the menu. However, the menu still provides a
relative amplitude control.
Source Cal
This key turns the Source Cal on and off. The source is digitally synthesized
and passes through an output reconstruction filter. The spectrum of broadband
outputs, such as noise, exhibit the passband ripple of this filter. Source Cal
adjusts the input calibration to compensate for the output reconstruction filter
ripple. The spectrum of the white noise output will appear flat when Source Cal
is on. This is similar to a ratio measurement using a 2 channel analyzer except
that the output ripple is measured at the factory and is not adjustable by the
user.
Remember, the Source Cal mode compensates for variations in the output
spectrum by adjusting the input calibrations. The actual signal at the Source
Output is not affected.
Source Cal has NO effect unless the source is Chirp or Noise . Source Cal
can only be selected in the Configure Noise or Chirp submenu.
Do not select Source Cal On and use an external signal source. The
input calibrations are modified and will result in measurement errors
unless the SR770 internal source is used as the test signal!
Return
This key returns the main source selection menu.
4-55
SOURCE MENU
Configure Chirp
The Configure Noise submenu allows the chirp level to be set and Auto Phase
to be performed.
The Chirp source provides an equal amplitude sine wave at each bin of the
measurement span. The phases of each sine wave are arranged so that they
do not add in phase and the output does not peak. The chirp is EXACTLY
periodic over a time record and requires no window. Because of cancellation,
the amplitude of each sine wave is NOT constant over the time record.
Windowing the time record actually removes necessary spectral information.
USE THE UNIFORM WINDOW WITH THE CHIRP SOURCE.
Source triggering allows a stable phase curve to be measured at all spans.
Remember, the source does not turn on sychronously with the input time
record so the measured phase curve will be stable but with an arbitrary time
delay. Turn Auto Offset off in the INPUT menu to avoid interrupting the input
and changing the absolute phases.
Chirp Level
This key activates the chirp level entry field. The output level is expressed in
mV pk. The level may be entered in either mV or dBV. The knob always
adjusts the level in mV. The resolution is 1 mV for levels greater than 100 mV,
and 0.1 mV for levels less than 100 mV.
The peak output level is only approximate due to the ripple in the source output
reconstruction filter.
The amplitude of each frequency component is roughly -32dB relative to the
peak output. If the individual frequency components were perfectly random,
then each component would be 1/�400 (-26 dB) of the peak.
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SOURCE MENU
However, the chirp waveform is identical from time record to time record and
each component has a fixed phase relative all the other components. This
reduces the amplitude of each component by another 6dB (worsens the crest
factor). Thus, the dynamic range of the measurement is reduced when using
the chirp source.
Auto Phase
This key performs the Auto Phase function. When Source Triggering is on, the
measured phases of the frequency components of the chirp are stable (but
seemingly random). To measure the phase response of a device under test, a
calibrated source phase curve is required. The Auto Phase function measures
the current phase spectrum and stores it in memory. This reference phase
spectrum is then subtracted from subsequent phase spectra to remove the
phase of the chirp source. After Auto Phase, the phase spectrum will be 0°
across the entire span. If a device is inserted between the source and the
input, the phase spectrum will show the phase response curve of the device.
This is similar to a relative phase measurement using a 2 channel analyzer
except that the output reference phase is measured and stored.
Auto Phase is removed whenever the span is changed or the source type is
changed. Remember, Auto Offset will interrupt the input time records and
change the absolute phase. Turn Auto Offset off when measuring phase with
the source!
Do not use Auto Phase and measure the phase of another signal
source.
Source Cal
This key turns the Source Cal on and off. The source is digitally synthesized
and passes through an output reconstruction filter. The spectrum of broadband
outputs, such as chirp, exhibit the passband ripple of this filter. Source Cal
adjusts the input calibration to compensate for the output reconstruction filter
ripple. The spectrum of the chirp output will appear flat when Source Cal is on.
If a device is inserted between the source and the input, the spectrum will
show the amplitude transfer curve of the device. This is similar to a ratio
measurement using a 2 channel analyzer except that the output ripple is
measured at the factory and is not adjustable by the user.
Remember, the Source Cal mode compensates for variations in the output
spectrum by adjusting the input calibrations. The actual signal at the Source
Output is not affected.
Source Cal has NO effect unless the source is Chirp or Noise . Source Cal
can only be selected in the Configure Noise or Chirp submenu.
Do not select Source Cal On and use an external signal source. The
input calibrations are modified and will result in measurement errors
unless the SR770 internal source is used as the test signal!
Return
This key returns the main source selection menu.
4-57
SYSTEM MENU
System
The System menu is used to configure the printer, plotter and computer
interfaces, and to set the screen, sound and clock/calendar parameters. The
Test submenu accesses various hardware tests. The Info submenu displays
various information screens which may be useful to the user.
System Keys
The System menu consists of two menus, with each key activating a
submenu. Use the More and Return softkeys to toggle between the two
menus.
4-58
SYSTEM MENU
Setup Communications Communication parameters in this submenu should not be altered while the
computer interface is active.
Output to RS232/GPIB
The SR770 only outputs data to one interface at a time. Commands may be
received over both interfaces but responses are directed only to the interface
selected by this key. Make sure that the Output interface is set correctly
before attempting to program the SR770 from a computer.
4-59
SYSTEM MENU
Setup RS232
Setup GPIB
The Setup RS232 key activates the RS232 parameters sub menu. Baud rate,
word length, and parity may be configured in this sub menu.
Baud Rate
The Baud Rate key allows the knob to adjust the RS232
baud rate. The baud rate can be set to any standard value
from 300 to 19200 baud.
Word Length
This key toggles the character length. The RS232 character
length can be 7 or 8 bits. 8 bits is standard.
Parity
This key toggles the parity. The RS232 parity can be Even,
Odd, or None.
Return
The Return key will return to the Setup Communications
menu.
The Setup GPIB key activates the GPIB parameters sub menu. GPIB
instrument address and Remote Overide are set in this sub menu.
GPIB Address
This key activates the GPIB Address entry field for numeric
and knob entry. The instrument address can be set from 0 to
30.
Overide Remote ?
In general, every GPIB interface command will put the SR770
into the REMOTE state with the front panel inactivated. To
defeat this feature, set the Overide Remote ? to Yes. In this
mode, the front panel is not locked out when the unit is in
the REMOTE state.
If the SR770 is in the REMOTE state, the [HELP] key
returns the unit to local front panel control.
Return
The Return key will return to the Setup Communications
menu.
4-60
SYSTEM MENU
View Queue
The last 256 characters received or transmitted by the SR770 may be
displayed to help find programming errors. The View Queue key will display the
interface buffers at the time the key is pressed. This screen is updated
regularly to display new interface activity. The View Queue screen may slow
down the communications between the SR770 and a host computer. In
general, the View Queue screen should be displayed only when testing or
debugging a host program.
The most recent data is displayed at the right of the upper line of each queue
display. For example, in the screen below, the STRF?[lf] string was the most
recently received command. The [lf] character is a line-feed and is the string
delimiter. The most recently transmitted string is 1000.0[lf] in response to the
STRF? command. The earliest command received was *IDN? and the earliest
response was "Stanford Research Systems, SR770, s/n00001, ver007"[lf].
Unrecognized characters are ignored and not displayed. The terminator
character on the output queue is always shown as a [lf]. When the output is
directed to the RS232 interface, a carriage return [cr] is actually sent in place
of the [lf].
Press any key (except [PRINT]) to restore the screen to the graph mode.
Return
The Return key will return to the main Setup menu.
4-61
SYSTEM MENU
4-62
SYSTEM MENU
Setup Sound
The Setup Sound key activates the sound submenu. Key click and alarms are
enabled and disabled in this menu.
Key Click
This key turns the key click on and off.
Alarms
This key enables and disables the audible alarms. Alarms will sound whenever
a front panel programming error or interface error occurs. Alarms are also used
to draw the user's attention to a message.
Alarm Length
The alarm messages may be displayed for a variable length of time. Enter a
number from 1 (shortest length) to 10 (longest length).
Return
The Return key will return to the main System Setup menu.
4-63
SYSTEM MENU
Setup Time
The Setup Time key activates the clock/calendar sub menu. The time and date
are used to label all screen prints and plots as well as disk files. This menu is
used to check or change the time and date.
Time
The time is displayed as hours:minutes:seconds. A 24 hour format is used.
This key toggles the entry field from hours to minutes to seconds. A new entry
may be made using the keypad or knob. From the keypad, the clock is set
when the Enter softkey is pressed. When the knob is used, the clock is set
whenever the highlighted value is changed.
Date
The date is displayed as month:day:year. This key toggles the entry field from
months to days to years. A new entry may be made using the keypad or knob.
From the keypad, the calendar is set when the Enter Softkey is pressed.
When the knob is used, the calendar is set whenever the highlighted value is
changed.
Return
The Return key will return to the main System Setup menu.
4-64
SYSTEM MENU
Plot
The Plot menu is used to plot the screen display to an HPGL compatible
plotter. Use the Setup Plotter submenu to configure the plotter interface.
Plot All
The Plot All key generates a plot of the entire graph, including the scale and
marker information. In single trace display format only the active graph is
plotted. In dual trace mode both traces are plotted. Each feature uses the pen
assigned in the Setup Plotter submenu. The marker is plotted only if it is
presently displayed.
Plot Trace
The Plot Trace key plots only the data trace. This allows multiple data traces
to be plotted on a single sheet. Traces may be made in different colors by
changing pen definitions or pens between plots. In single trace display format,
only the active graph is plotted. In dual trace mode, both traces are plotted.
Plot Marker
The Plot Marker key plots the marker if the marker is presently displayed on
the screen. Use the Display menu to turn the marker display on and off. The
marker information is plotted next to the marker. This is useful when a trace
has multiple peaks which need to be marked on the plot. First Plot All with the
marker at one location, then move the marker and Plot Marker.
Title
This function activates the Title entry field for alphanumeric entry. The title is
added to the bottom of each plot. The title may be up to 40 characters long.
The knob scrolls the title within the entry window. Use the [ALT] key to access
the alphabetic keypad.
4-65
SYSTEM MENU
Subtitle
This function activates the Subtitle entry field for alphanumeric entry. The
subtitle is added to the bottom of each plot below the title. The subtitle may be
up to 40 characters long. The knob scrolls the subtitle within the entry window.
Use the [ALT] key to access the alphabetic keypad.
Setup Plotter Menu
This key displays the Setup Plotter submenu described on the following pages.
Use this menu to configure the plotter interface and pen selections. When
plotting is in progress, this function switches to Plot Abort.
Plot Abort
Pressing this key aborts the plot.
[SYSTEM]
Use the [SYSTEM] menu key to return to the main System menu.
4-66
SYSTEM MENU
Setup Plotter
The Setup Plotter sub menu configures the SR770 plotter driver. Interface, plot
speed, and pen definitions are set in this submenu.
Plot Mode
The SR770 can drive either an RS232 or GPIB interface plotter. The plotter
must be HP-GL compatible. This function selects which interface to use. The
plotter connects to the RS232 or GPIB connector on the rear panel.
Baud Rate
If the Plot Mode is RS232, then the Baud Rate for the plotter
may be selected. The baud rate is adjusted using the knob and
must match the baud rate of the plotter.
Plotter Addr
If the Plot Mode is GPIB, then the Plotter Address must be
set. The Plotter Address may be entered from the keypad or
by using the knob. The Plotter Address must agree with the
address of the plotter in use.
4-67
SYSTEM MENU
Plot Speed
This key toggles the Plot Speed. Normally, when plotting on paper, the Fast
Plot Speed is used. When plotting on transparencies or other nonstandard
media, the Slow plot speed may be better.
Define Pens
Many plotters have a multipen carousel. In this case, each part of the screen
may be plotted using a different color pen. The Define Pens key activates a
submenu in which each feature of the screen may be assigned a pen number.
The allowable pen numbers are from 1 to 6. When using a single pen plotter,
all features are plotted using the one pen regardless of the pen definitions.
Trace Pen
Grid Pen
This field assigns a pen number to the graph grid.
Alpha Pen
This field assigns a pen number to all of the alphanumeric
labels on the screen.
Marker Pen
This field assigns a pen number to the dashed marker region
lines and marker.
Return
Return
This field assigns a pen number to the data trace on the
screen.
This key returns to the Setup Plotter menu.
The Return key will return to the main System Setup menu.
4-68
SYSTEM MENU
Print
The Print submenu is used to print the SR770 settings, limit tables and data
tables to a printer. These printouts provide a convenient and accurate way to
document measurements. The PrinterType selects the type of printer. The
[PRINT] key prints the screen to the printer. If File is chosen as the printer
type, then [PRINT] will save the screen image as a PCX file on the disk.
Print Settings
The Print Settings key sends a listing the settings of the analyzer to the
printer. The settings listed are all those which are saved in non-volatile memory
and retained when power is turned off.
Print Limits
The Print Limits key sends a listing of the limit table for the active trace to the
printer. The listing is in the same format as the limit table display.
Print Data
The Print Data key sends a listing of the data table for the active trace to the
printer. The data table is first updated with the current Y values. The listing is in
the same format as the data table display.
Printer Type
This function toggles the Printer Type between Epson, HP and File. Epson is
used for any Epson compatible graphics dot matrix printer and HP is used for
an HP LaserJet laser printer or compatible. File is used to save the screen
image as a PCX file on the disk. The files are automatically named
SCRNXXXX.PCX. PCX files can be imported directly into many paint and draw
programs on a PC. This allows SR770 screens to be easily incorporated into
documents on a PC. Press the [PRINT] key to print the screen on the printer
or to a file. Settings, Limits and Data Tables may NOT be saved as a PCX file.
4-69
SYSTEM MENU
Return
This key returns to the System menu.
Setup Screen
The Setup Screen submenu is used to adjust the position of the display on the
screen. The display area may be moved left, right, up and down.
The screen position is stored in non-volatile memory and is retained when the
power is turned off. To restore the screen to the default position, power the unit
on with the [<-} (backspace) key pressed.
Move Right
This function moves the display to the right on the screen.
Move Left
This function moves the display to the left on the screen.
Move Up
This function moves the display up on the screen.
Move Down
This function moves the display down on the screen.
Return
The Return key will return to the main Setup menu.
4-70
SYSTEM MENU
4-71
SYSTEM MENU
Test Hardware
The Test submenu allows the user to test various features of the SR770 such
as the keypad, knob, screen, memory, etc. Use the More softkey to select the
second test menu screen.
Keypad Test
This key activates the keypad test screen. The keypad test screen displays a
map of the keypad with each key represented by a small square. Pressing
each key will highlight the corresponding square. When all squares are
highlighted, the test is complete.
Keyboard Test
This key activates the keyboard test screen. Characters typed on an attached
PC keyboard (in PC or 8088 mode) will be displayed on the test screen. If the
displayed characters are accurate, then the keyboard interface is functioning
and the keyboard is configured correctly. If not, check that the keyboard is in
the correct mode. Many keyboards have a switch on the bottom to select PC
(8088) or AT (80286) mode.
Knob Test
This key activates the knob test screen. A circle with a marker is displayed.
Select one of the 4 speeds displayed in the menu. Turning the knob will cause
the marker to move around the circle verifying knob action and direction. Using
speed 1 or 2 is best when checking direction of movement.
Disk Drive Test
Pressing this key activates the disk drive test screen. Continuing with this
test will destroy any data on the disk currently in the drive. Therefore
remove any disk containing data from the drive and insert a scratch disk. This
test will check the controller, format the disk, and read and write data to the
disk. The entire test takes approximately 2 minutes.
4-72
SYSTEM MENU
Use the Return function to skip this test and return to the previous menu.
RS-232 Test
Pressing this key activates the RS232 test screen. A special loop back
adapter is required to complete this test. The loop back adapter is simply a
mating connector with pins 2 and 3 connected so characters transmitted by
the interface will be received by the instrument.
Memory Test
The Memory Test key activates a memory test sub menu. Select the desired
memory test.
Main Memory
Pressing this key tests the program ROM and data RAM on
the CPU board. The data acquisition memory is not tested.
See the Test and Calibration section for more information on
testing the data acquisition hardware.
Video Memory
Pressing this key tests the video display RAM. A video pattern
will scroll through the display while the test is done.
Return
The Return key will return to the Test menu.
Screen Test
This key displays a test pattern on the screen.
Printer Test
The Printer Test key activates a sub menu.
Printer Type
The Printer Type key selects the type of printer attached to the
parallel printer port. Any Epson compatible graphics printer or
HP LaserJet compatible printer is supported.
Screen Dump
Pressing this key will print the graphics screen on the printer.
This action is the same as using the [PRINT] key.
Print String
Pressing this key prints a text string to the printer. If the Print
String test works but the Screen Dump test fails, then the
printer probably does not support the Epson or HP LaserJet
graphics mode.
Return
The Return key will return to the Test menu.
DSP Test
Pressing this key tests the two Digital Signal Processors and their data
memories.
Return
Pressing this key returns to the first Test submenu. Pressing Return again
displays the second System Setup menu.
4-73
SYSTEM MENU
4-74
SYSTEM MENU
Get Info
The Get Info submenu displays various information screens which may be
helpful to the user.
About the SR770
This key displays the SR770 specifications.
About SRS
This key displays information about Stanford Research Systems, Inc.
Operating Hints
This key displays information about the use of the SR770.
Command List
This key displays a list of the remote commands available.
Status Bytes
This key displays an explanation of the remote programming status bytes.
Fundamental Constants
This key displays a table of fundamental constants.
4-75
SYSTEM MENU
4-76
STORE RECALL MENU
Store Recall
The Store and Recall menu is used to save and recall data and settings to and
from disk. The Disk Utilities submenu can erase files and format blank disks.
Files are saved as DOS files and can be read by a DOS compatible computer
with a 3.5" disk drive. The file format is described in the Remote Programming
section.
Note:
The SR770 uses double sided, high density (DS/HD) disks.
The maximum number of files allowed on a disk is 224. This is the DOS
limitation on the number of directory entries in the root directory.
Store Recall Keys
Each softkey in this menu activates a submenu. The submenus are described
in detail on the following pages.
4-77
STORE RECALL MENU
Save Data
The Save Data submenu is used to save the active trace data and the
associated limit and data tables. The graph parameters, frequency span,
measurement, display, units and window are all saved with the data.
Save Data
Pressing this key will save the active trace data and
associated parameters to the file specified in the File Name
field.
Save ASCII Data
Pressing this key will save the active trace data in ASCII
format. Only the trace data is saved. The data is saved as
"0.00, 1.23, <cr> <lf> 1.00e3, 4.56, <cr> <lf> 2.00e3, 7.89,
<cr> <lf> ..." where "0.00,1.23" is the frequency (or time)
and data point for the first bin, "1.00e3, 4.56" is the
frequency (or time) and data point for the second bin, etc. for
a total of 400 bins (15 or 30 bins in octave analysis). The
data assumes the units of the current display.
The ASCII format is a convenient way to transfer data to
other programs on a PC. The file is a simple DOS text file.
File Name
This key activates the File Name entry field. File names are
entered using the keypad and alternate keypad. The [ALT]
key allows letters to be entered. DOS file name conventions
must be followed, i.e. file names are 8 characters or less
with an extension of up to 3 characters. "ABCDEFGH.XYZ" is a valid file name.
DOS sub-directories are not supported.
All files are saved to the root directory.
Catalog On/Off
This key toggles the file catalog display screen on and off.
The file catalog display lists all files currently in the root
directory. A sample catalog screen is shown below.
4-78
STORE RECALL MENU
The first file will be highlighted and the file name will appear in
the File Name field. Activating the cursor by pressing the
[MARKER] key allows the knob to scroll through the
directory. The highlighted file name will be copied into the
File Name field. If the Save Data key is now pressed, the
data will be saved under an existing file name and the
previous version of that file will be lost. To create a new file
name, use the File Name key.
Directory entries made by the SR770 also have a type field
shown in the catalog display. Files with type SET are
settings and type DAT are trace data. The file type is not an
extension but is information stored in the directory on the
disk. Only files created by the SR770 have a type. Files
created and saved on a DOS computer will not have a type
displayed. The file type is not necessary, it is only an aid to
identifying files.
Return
The Return key will return to the main Store/Recall menu.
Return also removes the catalog display screen and restores
the graph.
4-79
STORE RECALL MENU
Save Settings
The Save Settings submenu is used to save the analyzer settings to a disk file.
The settings include all parameters which are set with the menus.
Save Settings
Pressing this key will save the current analyzer settings to
the file specified in the File Name field.
File Name
This key activates the File Name entry field. File names are
entered using the keypad and alternate keypad. The [ALT]
key allows letters to be entered. DOS file name conventions
must be followed, i.e. file names are 8 characters or less
with an extension of up to 3 characters. "ABCDEFGH.XYZ"
is a valid file name. DOS sub-directories are not supported.
All files are saved to the root directory.
Catalog On/Off
This key toggles the file catalog display screen on and off.
The use of this key is identical to the Catalog On/Off function
in the Save Data submenu describe previously.
Return
The Return key will return to the main Store/Recall menu.
Return also removes the catalog display screen and restores
the graph.
4-80
STORE RECALL MENU
Recall Data
The Recall Data submenu is used to read data from a disk file onto the active
trace graph. Note that the graph parameters, measurement, display, units and
window are all recalled with the data and appear in the menus for the active
trace. The graph will be labelled with the recalled frequency span but the
Frequency menu will still display the "live" settings. The file name appears
below the graph. The Limit and Data tables are also recalled with the data.
Recall Data
Pressing this key will recall data and limit and data tables
from the file specified in the File Name field.
If the file specified is not on the disk or is not a data file, then
an error message will appear.
File Name
This key activates the File Name entry field. File names are
entered using the keypad and alternate keypad. The [ALT]
key allows letters to be entered. DOS file name conventions
must be followed, i.e. file names are 8 characters or less
with an extension of up to 3 characters. "ABCDEFGH.XYZ"
is a valid file name. DOS sub-directories are not supported.
All files are read from the root directory.
Catalog On/Off
This key toggles the file catalog display screen on and off.
The use of this key is identical to the Catalog On/Off function
in the Save Data submenu describe previously.
Return
The Return key will return to the main Store/Recall menu.
Return also removes the catalog display screen and restores
the graph.
4-81
STORE RECALL MENU
Recall Settings
The Recall Settings submenu is used to recall the analyzer settings from a
disk file. The settings include all parameters which are set with the menus.
Recall Settings
Pressing this key will read the settings information from the
file specified in the File Name field.
File Name
This key activates the File Name entry field. File names are
entered using the keypad and alternate keypad. The [ALT]
key allows letters to be entered. DOS file name conventions
must be followed, i.e. file names are 8 characters or less
with an extension of up to 3 characters. "ABCDEFGH.XYZ"
is a valid file name. DOS sub-directories are not supported.
All files are read from the root directory.
Catalog On/Off
This key toggles the file catalog display screen on and off.
The use of this key is identical to the Catalog On/Off function
in the Recall Trace sub menu above.
Return
The Return key will return to the main Store/Recall menu.
Return also removes the catalog display screen and restores
the graph.
4-82
STORE RECALL MENU
Disk Utilities
The Disk Utilities submenu contains the Format Disk and Erase File functions.
These functions should be used with care since disk data will be
erased. The catalog screen is displayed with this submenu if a formatted disk
is in the drive.
Format Disk
Pressing this key will format the disk. Formatting a disk
involves erasing all information on the disk and rewriting the
directory. Formatting a disk destroys all data presently
on the disk. Use caution when choosing this function.
Disk capacity is 1.44 MB formatted. The maximum number
of directory entries is 224. This is the DOS limitation on the
number of files allowed in the root directory.
Erase File
This function will erase the highlighted file. To select a file,
activate the cursor with the [MARKER] key and use the knob
to scroll the file entries. Make sure the selected file is the
correct file before pressing this key.
Return
The Return key will return to the main Store/Recall menu.
Return also removes the catalog display screen and restores
the graph.
4-83
STORE RECALL MENU
4-84
DEFAULT SETTINGS
If the [<-] (backspace) key is held down when the power is turned on, the analyzer settings will be set to the
defaults shown below rather than the settings that were in effect when the power was turned off.
The default settings may also be recalled using the *RST command over the computer interface. In this case,
the communications parameters and status registers are not changed.
ACTIVE TRACE
0
ANALYZER
Running
AUTO RANGE
Off (Manual Range)
FREQUENCY
Span
Linewidth
Acq. Time
Start Freq.
Center Freq.
100 kHz
250 Hz
4 ms
0.0 Hz
50.0 kHz
MEASURE
Measurement
Display
Units
Window
Calculator Operation
Argument Type
Argument
Spectrum
Log Mag.
dBVolts
BMH
+
Constant
0.0
DISPLAY
Format
Marker
Marker Width
Marker Seeks
Grid
Graph Style
Single
On
Norm
Max
8 divisions
Line
INPUT
Input Source
Grounding
Coupling
Input Range
Trigger
Trigger Level
Trigger Slope
Trigger Delay
Arming Mode
Auto Offset
A
Float
AC
0 dBV
Continuous
0.00 %
Positive
0
Auto
On
SCALE
Top Reference
Bottom Reference
Y/Div
Expand X
20
-140
20
None
X Axis
ANALYZE
Analysis Type
None
AVERAGE
Averaging
Number of Averages
Average Type
Average Mode
Overlap
Off
2
RMS
Linear
0.0 % (max for span)
SOURCE
Type
Sine Frequency
Sine Level
Tone Freq 1
Tone Level 1
Tone Freq 2
Tone Level 2
Noise Type
Noise Level
Chirp Level
Source Cal
4-85
Linear
Off
1.00 kHz
1000 mV
1.00 kHz
500 mV
9.00 kHz
500 mV
White
1000 mV
1000 mV
On (Chirp and Noise
only)
SYSTEM
Output To
RS-232 Baud Rate
RS-232 Word Length
RS-232 Parity
GPIB Address
Override Remote
Key Click
Alarms
Plot Mode
Plotter Baud Rate
Plotter GPIB Address
Plot Speed
Trace Pen
Grid Pen
Alpha Pen
Marker Pen
Printer Type
GPIB
9600
8 bits
None
10
No
On
On
RS-232
9600
1
Fast
1
1
1
1
Epson
STORE/RECALL
File Name
None
DEFAULT SETTINGS
STATUS ENABLE
REGISTERS
Cleared
4-86
DEFAULT SETTINGS
4-87
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
INTRODUCTION
To help find program errors, the SR770 can display
the interface buffers on the screen. This screen is
activated by the View Queue function in the Setup
Communications menu. The last 256 characters
received and transmitted by the SR770 are
displayed.
The SR770 FFT Spectrum Analyzer may be
remotely programmed via either the RS232 or GPIB
(IEEE-488) interfaces. Any computer supporting
one of these interfaces may be used to program the
SR770. Both interfaces are receiving at all times,
however, the SR770 will send responses only to
the interface specified in the System Setup
menu (Output To RS232/GPIB function). Use the
OUTP command at the beginning of every program
to direct the responses to the correct interface. All
front panel features (except power) may be
controlled.
COMMAND SYNTAX
Communications with the SR770 uses ASCII
characters. Commands may be in either UPPER or
lower case and may contain any number of
embedded space characters. A command to the
SR770 consists of a four character command
mnemonic, arguments if necessary, and a
command terminator. The terminator must be a
linefeed <lf> or carriage return <cr> on RS232, or a
linefeed <lf> or EOI on GPIB. No command
processing occurs until a command terminator is
received. Commands function identically on GPIB
and RS232 whenever possible. Command
mnemonics beginning with an asterisk "*" are IEEE488.2 (1987) defined common commands. These
commands also function identically on RS232.
Commands may require one or more parameters.
Multiple parameters are separated by commas (,).
COMMUNICATING WITH GPIB
The SR770 supports the IEEE-488.1 (1978)
interface standard. It also supports the required
common commands of the IEEE-488.2 (1987)
standard. Before attempting to communicate with
the SR770 over the GPIB interface, the SR770's
device address must be set. The address is set in
the Setup GPIB menu and may be set between 0
and 30.
COMMUNICATING WITH RS232
The SR770 is configured as a DCE ( transmit on pin
3, receive on pin 2) device and supports CTS/DTR
hardware handshaking. The CTS signal (pin 5) is an
output indicating that the SR770 is ready, while the
DTR signal (pin 20) is an input that is used to
control the SR770's data transmission. If desired,
the handshake pins may be ignored and a simple 3
wire interface (pins 2,3 and 7) may be used. The
RS232 interface baud rate, number of data bits, and
parity must be set. These are set in the Setup
RS232 menu.
Multiple commands may be sent on one command
line by separating them with semicolons (;). The
difference between sending several commands on
the same line and sending several independent
commands is that when a command line is parsed
and executed, the entire line is executed before any
other device action proceeds.
There is no need to wait between commands. The
SR770 has a 256 character input buffer and
processes commands in the order received. If the
buffer fills up, the SR770 will hold off handshaking
on the GPIB and attempt to hold off handshaking on
RS232. Similarly, the SR770 has a 256 character
output buffer to store output until the host computer
is ready to receive it. If either buffer overflows, both
buffers are cleared and an error reported.
STATUS INDICATORS AND QUEUES
To assist in programming, the SR770 has 4
interface status indicators which are displayed at
the bottom of the screen. The RS232/GPIB Activity
indicator flashes whenever a character is received or
transmitted over either interface. The ERR indicator
flashes when an error, such as an illegal command,
or parameter out of range, has been detected. The
REM indicator is on whenever the SR770 is in a
remote state (front panel locked out). The SRQ
indicator is on when the SR770 generates a service
request. SRQ stays on until a serial poll is
completed.
The present value of a particular parameter may be
determined by querying the SR770 for its value. A
query is formed by appending a question mark "?"
to the command mnemonic and omitting the
desired parameter from the command. Values
returned by the SR770 are sent as a string of ASCII
characters terminated by a carriage return <cr> on
RS232 and by a line-feed <lf> on GPIB. If multiple
5-1
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
queries are sent on one command line (separated
by semicolons, of course) the answers will be
returned individually, each with a terminator.
When using the GPIB interface, serial polling may
be used to check the Interface Ready bit in the
Serial Poll Byte while an operation is in progress.
After the Interface Ready bit becomes set,
signalling the completion of the command, then the
ERR bit may be checked to verify successful
completion of the command.
Examples of Command Formats
TRSL 0<lf>
CTRF 10E3 <lf>
*IDN? <lf>
STRT <lf>
DISP? -1 <lf>
Set trigger slope to positive
Set the center frequency to
10000 Hz (10 kHz)
Queries the device identification
Starts data acquisition (same
as [START] key)
Queries the display type of the
active trace
If the RS232 interface is used, or serial polling is
not available, then the *STB?, *ESR?, ERRS?, and
FFTE? status query commands may be used to
query the Status Bytes. Since the SR770
processes one command at a time, the status
query will not be processed until the previous
operation is finished. Thus a response to the status
query in itself signals that the previous command is
finished. The query response may then be checked
for various errors.
INTERFACE READY AND STATUS
For example, the command line SVTR;ERRS? <lf>
will save the data to disk and return the Error Status
Byte when finished. The Disk Error bit may be
checked to make sure that the Save Trace (SVTR)
command terminated without error. Since the Save
Trace command may take a long time to execute, it
is important that the host computer interface does
not time out while waiting for the response to the
ERRS? query. In the case where the host interface
times out before the ERRS? response, the host
program must wait before sending the ERRS?
query.
The Interface Ready bit in the Serial Poll Status
Byte signals that the SR770 is ready to receive and
execute a command. When a command is
received, this bit is cleared indicating that an
operation is in progress. While the operation is in
progress, no other commands will be processed.
Commands received during this time are stored in
the buffer to be processed later. Only GPIB serial
polling will generate a response while a command is
in progress. When the command execution
terminates, the Interface Ready bit is set again and
new commands will be processed. Since most
commands execute very quickly, the host computer
does not need to continually check the Interface
Ready bit. Commands may be sent one after
another and they will be processed immediately.
GET (GROUP EXECUTE TRIGGER)
The GPIB bus command GET will have the same
effect as a trigger. If the analyzer is in a triggered
mode and awaiting a trigger, and the trigger is
armed, then the GET bus command will trigger a
time record. If the trigger mode is continuous or the
trigger is not armed, then the GET command does
nothing. To setup the analyzer in an awaiting
trigger, simply choose external TTL trigger and
leave the trigger unconnected.
However, some commands, such as file commands
and math operations, may require a long time to
execute. In addition, the host program may need to
check that these operations executed without error.
In these cases, after the command is sent, the
Status Bytes should be queried.
5-2
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
DETAILED COMMAND LIST
The four letter mnemonic in each command sequence specifies the command. The rest of the sequence
consists of parameters. Multiple parameters are separated by commas. Parameters shown in { } are optional or
may be queried while those not in { } are required. Commands that may be queried have a question mark in
parentheses (?) after the mnemonic. Commands that may ONLY be queried have a ? after the mnemonic.
Commands that MAY NOT be queried have no ?. Do not send ( ) or { } as part of the command.
The variables are defined as follows.
g
trace number (0=Trace0, 1=Trace1, -1=Active Trace)
i, j
integers
x, y
real numbers
f
frequency
s
string
All numeric variables may be expressed in integer, floating point or exponential formats ( i.e., the number five
can be either 5, 5.0, or .5E1). Strings are sent as a sequence of ASCII characters.
NOTE:
All responses are directed to the interface selected in the Setup Communications Output To RS232/GPIB
function, regardless of which interface received the query. Use the OUTP command to select the correct
interface at the beginning of every program.
NOTE:
Any set command with a 'g' parameter equal to 0 or 1 will make trace0 or trace1 the active trace first, then set
the desired parameter. A query command will not switch the active trace.
For example, if the active trace is trace0, the MEAS 1,1 command will make trace1 the active graph and set its
measurement type to PSD. If the active trace is trace0, the MEAS?1 query will return the measurement type for
trace1 without changing the active trace.
5-3
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
FREQUENCY COMMANDS
The frequency and octave commands set or query the "live" settings. The span of a recalled or stopped-invalid
trace is not queried by these commands.
The frequency span commands, SPAN, STRF and CTRF should be used if the measurement type is not octave
analysis for either trace. If either trace is measuring octaves, then the frequency commands will result in an
error.
SPAN (?) {i}
The SPAN command sets or queries the frequency span. The parameter i
selects a span as shown below.
i
span
i
span
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
191 mHz
382 mHz
763 mHz
1.5 Hz
3.1 Hz
6.1 Hz
12.2 Hz
24.4 Hz
48.75 Hz
97.5 Hz
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
195 Hz
390 Hz
780 Hz
1.56 kHz
3.125 kHz
6.25 kHz
12.5 kHz
25 kHz
50 kHz
100 kHz
STRF (?) {f}
The STRF command sets or queries the start frequency of the span. The
parameter f is a frequency (real number of Hz). The value of f will be rounded
according to the resolution of the current span. Values of f which would cause
the span to exceed the 0 to 100 kHz range, are set to the allowable value
closest to f.
CTRF (?) {f}
The CTRF command sets or queries the center frequency of the span. The
parameter f is a frequency (real number of Hz). The value of f will be rounded
according to the resolution of the current span. Values of f which would cause
the span to exceed the 0 to 100 kHz range, are set to the allowable value
closest to f.
The octave commands, OTYP, OSTR and WTNG should be used if one of the traces is measuring octave
analysis. If neither trace is measuring octaves, then the octave commands will result in an error.
OTYP (?) {i}
The OTYP command sets or queries the type of octave analysis. The
parameter i=0 selects 15 bands and i=1 selects 30 bands.
OSTR (?) {i}
The OSTR command sets or queries the starting band for octave analysis. The
starting band may be programmed from -2 � i � 30 subject to the limit that the
starting band plus the number of bands (15 or 30) is less than 50. If the
parameter i exceeds these limits, then the value will be set to the maximum or
minimum allowed value.
WTNG (?) {i}
The WTNG command sets or queries the weighting function for octave
analysis. The parameter i=0 selects no weighting and i=1 selects A-weighting.
5-4
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
5-5
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
MEASUREMENT COMMANDS
When setting the trace type, set the measurement first, then the display type, then the units. This will change
the trace type regardless of the previous settings. This is because measurements take priority over the display
type.
MEAS (?) g {,i}
The MEAS command sets or queries the measurement type for trace g. The
parameter i selects Spectrum (i=0), PSD (i=1), Time Record (i=2), or Octave
Analysis (i=3). If the display type is incompatible with the new measurement,
then the display will be set to log magnitude.
DISP (?) g {,i}
The DISP command sets or queries the display type for trace g. The parameter
i selects Log Magnitude (i=0), Linear Magnitude (i=1), Real Part (i=2),
Imaginary Part (i=3), or Phase (i=4). Not all display types are available for all
measurement types. The table below lists which display types may be
programmed.
Measurement
Spectrum
PSD
Time Record
Octave
Possible Displays
All
Log Mag, Lin Mag
All
Log Mag
UNIT (?) g {,i}
The UNIT command sets or queries the display units for trace g. The parameter
i selects Volts Pk (i=0), Volts RMS (i=1), dBV (i=2), or dBVrms (i=3). If
Engineering Units are being used, then EU Pk, EU RMS, dBEU, and dBEUrms
are selected. If Phase is being displayed, then i selects Degrees (i=0) or
Radians (i=1).
VOEU (?) g {,i}
The VOEU command sets or queries the unit type for trace g. i=0 selects
Volts and i=1 selects EU's.
EULB (?) g {,s}
The EULB command sets or queries the EU label for trace g. The string s is a
string of up to 6 characters.
EUVT (?) g {,x}
The EUVT command sets or queries the EU scaling for trace g. The EUVT x
command sets the scaling to x EU's per Volt.
WNDO (?) g {i}
The WNDO command sets or queries the windowing function. The parameter i
selects Uniform (i=0), Flattop (i=1), Hanning (i=2), or Blackman-Harris (i=3).
When querying the window, the WNDO? g command queries the window of the
trace g. This may differ from the "live" window because the trace may be a
recalled file with its own window.
When setting the window, the WNDO g,i command sets the "live" window for
both traces. The parameter g is required but both "live" trace windows are
affected.
5-6
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
DISPLAY and MARKER COMMANDS
ACTG (?) {i}
The ACTG command sets or queries the active trace number. The parameter i
selects Trace0 (i=0) or Trace1 (i=1).
FMTS (?) i
The FMTS command sets or queries the display format. The parameter i
selects Single (i=0) or Up/Dn (i=1).
GRID (?) g {,i}
The GRID command sets or queries the grid on/off condition for trace g. The
parameter i selects Off (i=0), 8 (i=1) or 10 (i=2) divisions per screen.
FILS (?) g {,i}
The FILS command sets or queries the graph style for trace g. The parameter i
selects Line (i=0) or Fill (i=1).
MRKR (?) g {,i}
The MRKR command sets or queries the marker on/off/track state for trace g.
The parameter i selects Off (i=0), On (i=1) or Track (i=2).
MRKW (?) g {,i}
The MRKW command sets or queries the marker width for trace g. The
parameter i selects Norm (i=0), Wide (i=1), or Spot (i=2).
MRKM (?) g {,i}
The MRKM command sets or queries the marker seek mode for trace g. If i=0
the marker seeks the maximum, if i=1 the marker seeks the minimum, and if
i=2 the marker seeks the mean.
MRLK (?) {i}
The MRLK command sets or queries the marker linkage Off/On state. The
parameter i selects Off (i=0) or On (i=1).
MBIN g,i
The MBIN command moves the trace g marker region to bin i where 0 � i �
399. The marker region will be centered on bin i. The marker will seek the max,
min, or mean within the region as set by the marker seek mode.
MRKX ? g
The MRKX? command queries the trace g marker X position. The value
returned is the same as the marker readout on the screen.
MRKY ? g
The MRKY? command queries the trace g marker Y position. The value
returned is the same as the marker readout on the screen.
MRPK
The MRPK command performs the same function as pressing the [MARKER
MAX/MIN] key. The marker region will be centered around the maximum or
minimum data value on the screen depending upon the marker seeks mode.
Only the marker on the active graph is affected.
MRCN
The MRCN command performs the same function as pressing the [MARKER
CENTER] key. The center frequency of the span is set to the marker frequency
on the active graph. The span is decreased if necessary to accomplish this.
MRRF
The MRRF command sets the marker offset for the active graph equal to the
marker position (both X and Y) and turns the marker offset on (if it was off).
Similar to the [MARKER REF] key.
MROF (?) g {,i}
The MROF command sets or queries the marker offset Off/On state. The
parameter i selects Off (i=0) or On (i=1).
5-7
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
MROX (?) g {,x}
MROY (?) g {,x}
The MROX command sets or queries the marker X offset. The offset is a
unitless real number usually interpreted as a frequency.
The MROY command sets or queries the marker Y offset. The offset is a
unitless real number.
PKLF
The PKLF command moves the marker to the next peak to the left.
PKRT
The PKRT command moves the marker to the next peak to the right.
MSGS s
The MSGS s command displays string s in a message window on the screen.
An alarm is also sounded. The string s may be up to 30 characters long. All
characters are converted to upper case and spaces are ignored. To embed a
space in the string, use the HEX value 10H (16 decimal) or and underscore (_).
For example, the MSGSHELLO_USER command will display the message
HELLO_USER on the screen.
5-8
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
SCALE COMMANDS
AUTS g
The AUTS command performs the Auto Scale function on trace g. This function
is the same as pressing the [AUTO SCALE] key with trace g active. The AUTS
command affects the TREF, BREF and YDIV parameters below.
TREF (?) g {,x}
The TREF command sets or queries the top reference for trace g. The TREF
g,x command sets the top reference to x where x is a real number which is
assigned the units of the display. This command will also affect the bottom
reference.
BREF (?) g {,x}
The BREF command sets or queries the bottom reference for trace g. The
BREF g,x command sets the bottom reference to x where x is a real number
which is assigned the units of the display. This command will also affect the
top reference.
YDIV (?) g {,x}
The YDIV command sets or queries the vertical scale for trace g. The YDIV g,x
command sets the vertical scale to x/division where x is a real number which is
assigned the units of the display. This command will also affect the top and
bottom reference. The graph will be adjusted so that the marker Y position
stays in the center of the graph.
To set the graph to specific range, use the YDIV command first to set the
scale, then either TREF or BREF to set the location. This way, the final graph
does not depend upon the marker location.
EXPD (?) g {,i}
The EXPD command sets or queries the X expansion for trace g. The
parameter i selects no expansion (i=5), or 128 (i=4), 65 (i=3), 30(i=2), 15 (i=1)
or 8 (i=0) bins across the graph.
ELFT (?) g {,i}
The ELFT command sets or queries the left most displayed bin when X scale
expansion is on. The parameter 0 � i � 392 is the bin number of the left most
bin. The maximum value of i is determined by the expansion (number of bins
across the graph) and the highest bin number (399). If a value of i is sent which
is outside the allowed range, then the graph will either start at bin 0 or end at
bin 399.
XAXS (?) g {,i}
The XAXS command sets or queries the X axis scaling type. The parameter i
selects Linear (i=0) or Log (i=1).
5-9
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
INPUT COMMANDS
ISRC (?) {i}
The ISRC command sets or queries the input configuration. The parameter i
selects A (i=0) or A-B (i=1).
IGND (?) {i}
The IGND command sets or queries the input grounding configuration. The
parameter i selects Float (i=0) or Ground (i=1).
ICPL (?) {i}
The ICPL command sets or queries the input coupling configuration. The
parameter i selects AC (i=0) or DC (i=1).
IRNG (?) {i}
The IRNG command sets or queries the input range. The parameter i selects
the full scale input in dBV. The input range may be programmed in the range 60 � i � 34 where i is an even number. If auto ranging is on, the IRNG i
command sets the ranging to manual and sets the input range to i.
ARNG (?) {i}
The ARNG command sets or queries the ranging mode. The parameter i
selects Manual (i=0) or Auto (i=1). If i=1 and autorange was already on, then a
new autoranging is performed.
AOFM (?) {i}
The AOFM command sets or queries the auto offset enable mode. The
parameter i selects Off (no calibrations performed) (i=0) or On (calibrations
automatically performed) (i=1). In many remote interfacing situations, it may
desirable to turn the auto offset off since interface commands are held off while
a calibration is taking place.
AOFF
The AOFF command performs an offset calibration. This calibration takes
about 10 seconds. During this time, no commands should be sent. The status
bytes should be queried to determine when the command has finished
execution.
TMOD (?) {i}
The TMOD command sets or queries the triggering mode. The parameter i
selects Continuous (i=0), Internal (i=1), External (i=2), or External TTL (i=3), or
Source (i=4).
TRLV (?) {x}
The TRLV command sets or queries the trigger threshold level. The TRLV x
command sets the trigger level to x percent where -100.0 � x � 99.22. The
resolution is 0.78%. The value of x will be rounded to the nearest allowed value.
TRSL (?) {i}
The TRSL command sets or queries the trigger slope. The parameter i=0
selects positive or rising slope, while i=1 selects negative or falling slope.
TDLY (?) {i}
The TDLY command sets or queries the trigger delay. The TDLY i command
sets the trigger delay to i samples where -13300 � i � 65000. Negative values
of i translate into a delay of i•3.9062 µs. Positive values translate into a delay
ARMM (?) {i}
The ARMM command sets or queries the trigger arming mode. The parameter i
selects Auto Arming (i=0) or Manual Arming (i=1).
ARMS
The ARMS manually arms the trigger when the arming mode is manual.
5-10
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
5-11
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
ANALYSIS COMMANDS
ANAM (?) g {,i}
The ANAM command sets or queries the real time analysis mode for trace g.
The parameter i selects No Analysis (i=0), Harmonic Analysis (i=1), Sideband
Analysis (i=2) or Band Analysis (i=3).
CALC? g,i
The CALC? command queries the result of the last real time calculation for
trace g. The parameter i selects either the upper (i=0) or lower (i=1) result as
displayed on the graph. For harmonic analysis, CALC?g,0 returns the
harmonic level and CALC? g,1 returns the THD. When band analysis is on, i
must be 0.
The values returned are exactly as displayed on the graph. If the calculation is
UnderRange or OverRange, the value -1.23E-034 is returned.
The commands which duplicate the softkeys in the Harmonic, Sideband and Band analysis menus are available
even if the analysis is not on. The analysis parameters may be programmed before analysis is turned on. This is
not true for the Data and Limit table commands. Those commands have no effect if the appropriate table is not
active.
FUND (?) g {,f}
The FUND command sets or queries the harmonic fundamental frequency for
trace g. The parameter f is a real number of Hz. The value of f can be
programmed with more resolution than the span linewidth.
NHRM (?) g {,i}
The NHRM command sets or queries the number of harmonics for trace g to i
harmonics. The parameter i can range from 0 to 400.
NHLT
The NHLT command moves the marker to the next harmonic to the left of the
current marker position if it is on the graph. If it is beyond the edge of the
graph, the span center frequency is set to the frequency of the next harmonic
(or as close as the frequency range allows).
NHRT
The NHRT command moves the marker to the next harmonic to the right of the
current marker position if it is on the graph. If it is beyond the edge of the
graph, the span center frequency is set to the frequency of the next harmonic
(or as close as the frequency range allows).
SBCA (?) g {,f}
The SBCA command sets or queries the sideband carrier frequency for trace g.
The parameter f is a real number of Hz. The value of f can be programmed with
more resolution than the span linewidth.
SBSE (?) g {,f}
The SBSE command sets or queries the sideband separation frequency for
trace g. The parameter f is a real number of Hz. The value of f can be
programmed with more resolution than the span linewidth.
NSBS (?) g {,i}
The NSBS command sets or queries the number of sidebands for trace g to i
sidebands. The parameter i can range from 0 to 200.
BSTR (?) g {,f}
The BSTR command sets or queries the band start frequency for trace g. The
parameter f is a real number of Hz. The value of f can be programmed with
more resolution than the span linewidth.
5-12
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
BCTR (?) g {,f}
The BCTR command sets or queries the band center frequency for trace g. The
parameter f is a real number of Hz. The value of f can be programmed with
more resolution than the span linewidth.
BWTH (?) g {,f}
The BWTH command sets or queries the band width for trace g. The parameter
f is a real number of Hz. The value of f can be programmed with more resolution
than the span linewidth.
DATA TABLE COMMANDS
The Data Table commands listed below require that the data table display be active. The commands affect the
displayed table and thus the active trace only.
TABL
The TABL command activates the data table for the active trace. The screen
display changes to the data table display. To turn off the data table, set the
display back to single trace mode.
DTBL (?) {i} {,f}
The DTBL command sets or queries the data table.
The DTBL? command queries the entire table. The data is returned in the form
X1,Y1,X2,Y2,X3,Y3 [lf] where Xn,Yn are the table X and Y entries for line n. The
Y values are taken from the latest trace. Any Y value which corresponds to and
X value not within the span returns the value -1.23E-034.
The DTBL? i command queries the X and Y values for line i only. The data is
returned in the from X,Y [lf].
The DTBL i,f command sets the X value of line i to f. Remember that the X
values have no units. However, they are usually frequencies and as such, the
parameter f is a real number of Hz. If i is greater than the last line number in
the table, the new line is added to the end of the table.
DINX (?) {i}
The DINX command sets or queries the table index. The parameter i ranges
from 0 to 199. If i is greater than the last index in the table, then a new line is
added to the end of the table.
DINS
The DINS command inserts a new line before the table index (the highlighted
line). The new line becomes highlighted.
DIDT
The DIDT command deletes the table index (highlighted line).
DLTB
The DLTB command deletes the entire table.
5-13
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
LIMIT TABLE COMMANDS
The Limit Table commands listed below require that the limit table display be active. The commands affect the
displayed table and thus the active trace only.
LIMT
The LIMT command activates the limit table for the active trace. The screen
display changes to the limit table display. To turn off the limit table, set the
display back to single trace mode.
TSTS (?) {i}
The TSTS command sets or queries the limit testing on/off condition. The
parameter i selects limit testing Off (i=0) or On (i=1). This allows the limit table
to be displayed without testing taking place.
PASF?
The PASF? command queries the result of the latest limit test. If the test
passed, 0 is returned. If the test failed, 1 is returned.
LTBL (?) {i} {,j,f1,f2,y1,y2}
The LTBL command sets or queries the limit table. The parameter j selects
Upper (j=0) or Lower (j=1) limit. The parameters f1 and f2 are Xbegin and Xend.
f1 and f2 are real numbers of Hz. The parameters y1 and y2 are Y1 and Y2 and
real unitless numbers.
The LTBL? command queries the entire table. The data is returned in the form
j,f1,f2,y1,y2,j,f1,f2,y1,y2,j,f1,f2,y1,y2 [lf] where j,f1,f2,y1,y2 are the entries in a
single line. Line 0 is sent first.
The LTBL? i command queries the entries for line i only. The data is returned in
the form j,f1,f2,Y1,Y2 [lf].
The LTBL ,i j,f1,f2,y1,y2 command sets the entries of line i to j (0=upper,
1=lower), f1 (Xbegin), f2 (Xend), y1 (Y1) and y2 (Y2). If i is greater than the last
line number in the table, the new line will be added to the end of the table.
LINX (?) {i}
The LINX command sets or queries the table index (highlighted line number).
The parameter i ranges from 0 to 99. If i is greater than the last index in the
table, then a new line is added to the end of the table.
LINS
The LINS command inserts a new line before the table index (highlighted line).
The new line becomes highlighted.
LIDT
The LIDT command deletes the table index (highlighted line).
LLTB
The LLTB command deletes the entire table.
LARM (?) {i}
The LARM command sets or queries the audio limit fail alarm on/off condition.
The parameter i selects alarm Off (i=0) or Enabled (i=1).
5-14
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
AVERAGING COMMANDS
AVGO (?) {i}
The AVGO command sets or queries the averaging on/off condition. The
parameter i selects averaging Off (i=0) or On (i=1).
NAVG(?) {i}
The NAVG command sets or queries the number of averages. The parameter i
ranges from 2 to 32767.
AVGT (?) {i}
The AVGT command sets or queries the average type. The parameter i selects
RMS (i=0), Vector (i=1) or Peak Hold (i=2).
AVGM (?) {i}
The AVGM command sets or queries the averaging mode. The parameter i
selects Linear (i=0) or Exponential (i=1).
OVLP (?) {x}
The OVLP command sets or queries the overlap percentage. The OVLP x
command sets the overlap to x percent. The value of x ranges from 0 to 99.8. If
the programmed value exceeds the maximum allowable overlap for the span,
the overlap will be set to the maximum allowed.
5-15
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
SOURCE COMMANDS
STYP (?) {i}
The STYP command sets or queries the source type. The parameter i selects
Off (i=0), Sine (i=1), 2-Tone (i=2), Noise (i=3) or Chirp (i=4). The configuration
of each source may be set before the source is turned on.
SLVL (?) i {,x}
The SLVL command sets or queries the source level. The parameter i selects
Sine (i=0), Tone 1 (i=1), Tone 2 (i=2), Noise (i=3) or Chirp (i=4). The parameter
i is required. The SLVL i,x command sets source i level to x mV.
SFRQ (?) i, {,f}
The SFRQ command sets or queries the source frequency. The parameter i
selects Sine (i=0), Tone 1 (i=1), Tone 2 (i=2). The parameter i is required. The
SFRQ i,f command sets source i frequency to f Hz.
SCAL (?) {i}
The SCAL command sets or queries the Source Cal mode for noise and chirp
sources. The parameter i selects Source Cal Off (i=0) or On (i=1). This
command only has an effect when the source type is noise or chirp.
Source Cal has NO effect unless the source is Chirp or Noise.
Do not select Source Cal On and use an external signal source. The
input calibrations are modified and will result in measurement errors
unless the SR770 internal source is used as the test signal!
APHS
The APHS command performs the Auto Phase function. This command only
has an effect when the noise source is chirp.
NTYP (?) {i}
The NTYP command sets or queries the noise type. The i selects white noise
(i=0) or pink noise (i=1).
5-16
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
PRINT and PLOT COMMANDS
PLOT
The PLOT command generates a plot of the entire screen. Each feature uses
the pen assigned in the Setup Plotter menu. The marker is plotted only if the
marker is on.
PTRC
The PTRC command plots only the data trace(s).
PMRK
The PMRK command plots only the marker(s) if they are on. The marker
readout is plotted next to the marker.
PTTL (?) {s}
The PTTL command sets or queries the plot title. The string s is the title.
PSTL (?) {s}
The PSTL command sets or queries the plot subtitle. The string s is the
subtitle.
PRSC
The PRSC command will print the currently displayed screen to a printer
attached to the rear panel parallel printer port. This function is the same as the
[PRINT] key. The printer type needs to be configured before using the PRSC
command.
PSET
The PSET command will print the analyzer settings to a printer attached to the
rear panel parallel printer port. The printer type needs to be configured before
using the PSET command.
PLIM
The PLIM command will print the limit table for the active trace to a printer
attached to the rear panel parallel printer port. The printer type needs to be
configured before using the PLIM command.
PDAT
The PDAT command will print the data table for the active trace to a printer
attached to the rear panel parallel printer port. The printer type needs to be
configured before using the PDAT command.
5-17
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
SETUP COMMANDS
OUTP (?) {i}
The OUTP command sets the output interface to RS232 (i=0) or GPIB (i=1).
The OUTP i command should be sent before any query commands to direct
the responses to the interface in use.
OVRM (?) {i}
The OVRM command sets or queries the GPIB Overide Remote Yes/No
condition. The parameter i selects No (i=0) or Yes (i=1).
KCLK (?) {i}
The KCLK command sets or queries the key click On (i=1) or Off (i=0) state.
ALRM (?) {i}
The ALRM command sets or queries the alarm On (i=1) or Off (i=0) state.
THRS (?) {i}
The THRS command sets or queries the hours setting of the clock. The value
of i is in the range 0 � i �23.
TMIN (?) {i}
The TMIN command sets or queries the minutes setting of the clock. The value
of i is in the range 0 � i �59.
TSEC (?) {i}
The TSEC command sets or queries the seconds setting of the clock. The
value of i is in the range 0 � i �59.
DMTH (?) {i}
The DMTH command sets or queries the months setting of the calendar. The
value of i is in the range 1 � i �12.
DDAY (?) {i}
The DDAY command sets or queries the days setting of the calendar. The
value of i is in the range 1 � i �31.
DYRS (?) {i}
The DYRS command sets or queries the years setting of the calendar. The
value of i is in the range 0 � i �99.
PLTM (?) {i}
The PLTM command sets or queries the plotter mode. If i=0 plotting is directed
to the RS232 interface, if i=1 plotting is to the GPIB interface.
PLTB (?) {i}
The PLTB command sets or queries the RS232 plotter baud rate. The
parameter i ranges from 0 to 4 and selects baud rates of 300 (0),1200 (1), 2400
(2), 4800 (3), and 9600 (4). This baud rate should match the baud rate of the
plotter in use.
PLTA (?) {i}
The PLTA command sets or queries the GPIB plotter address. The parameter i
ranges from 0 to 30 and should agree with the address of the plotter in use.
PLTS (?) {i}
The PLTS command sets or queries the plot speed. If i=0 fast plot speed is
used, if i=1 slow plot speed is used.
PNTR (?) {i}
The PNTR command sets or queries the trace pen number. The pen number is
in the range of 1 to 6.
PNGD (?) {i}
The PNGD command sets or queries the grid pen number. The pen number is
in the range of 1 to 6.
5-18
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
PNAP (?) {i}
The PNAP command sets or queries the alphanumeric pen number. The pen
number is in the range of 1 to 6.
PNCR (?) {i}
The PNCR command sets or queries the marker pen number. The pen number
is in the range of 1 to 6.
PRNT (?) {i}
The PRNT command sets or queries the printer type. The printer type may be
EPSON (i=0) or HP (i=1).
5-19
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
STORE AND RECALL FILE COMMANDS
When using file commands, the status byte should be queried after the command is sent to check if the
command generated an error. Common sources of errors are file not on disk, no space on disk, and no disk in
drive. For example, the command line SVTR;ERRS? <lf> will save the data to disk and return the Error Status
Byte when finished. The Disk Error bit may be checked to make sure that the Save Trace command terminated
without error.
FNAM (?) {s}
The FNAM command sets or queries the active file name. All file operations
use the name specified by the FNAM command. Be sure to use the FNAM s
command before any file operation commands. For example, "FNAM
MYDATA.DAT" will set the active file name to MYDATA.DAT. DOS file name
conventions must be followed, i.e. file names are 8 characters or less with an
optional extension of up to 3 characters. Subdirectories are not supported. All
file access is to the root directory.
SVTR
The SVTR command saves the active trace data, display and measurement
settings, and scaling parameters to the file specified by the FNAM command.
The associated data and limit tables are also saved. The SVTR command
saves the data in binary form so that it may be recalled to the display.
SVTA
The SVTA command saves the active trace data in ASCII form to the file
specified by the FNAM command. See the Store and Recall menu secion for
more details on ASCII files.
SVST
The SVST command saves the analyzer settings to the file specified by the
FNAM command.
RCTR
The RCTR command recalls trace data, display and measurement settings,
and scaling parameters from the file specified by the FNAM command to the
active trace graph. Data and limit tables are also recalled.
RCST
The RCST command recalls the analyzer settings from the file specified by the
FNAM command.
5-20
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
TRACE MATH COMMANDS
When using the math command COPR, the status bytes should be queried after the command is sent to check
if the command generated an error. Common sources of errors are divide by zero, math overflow and underflow.
For example, the command line COPR;*ESR? <lf> will perform an operation and return the Standard Event
Status Byte when finished. The Execution Error bit may be checked to make sure that the FITS command
terminated without error.
CSEL (?) {i}
The CSEL command sets or queries the type of math operation selected. The
parameter i selects the operation.
i
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
COPR {i}
operation
+
x
/
√
log (base 10)
phase unwrap
d/dx
The COPR command starts the calculation selected by the CSEL command.
This may take some time. Use status byte query to detect when the
calculation is done. Make sure that CARG and CONS have been used to set
the argument value before using the COPR command.
The parameter I selects the aperture for the d/dx operation and is required if the
operation is d/dx. I may be omitted for all other operations. The aperture is
6.25% (I=0), 5.25% (I=1), 4.25% (I=2), 2.75% (I=1 or 1.25% (I=0).
CARG (?) {i}
The CARG command sets or queries the argument type. The parameter i
selects Constant (i=0), Other Graph (i=1), or ω or 2ðf (i=2).
CONS (?) {x}
The CONS command sets or queries the constant argument. The parameter x
is a real number.
CMRK
The CMRK command sets constant argument to the Y value of the marker.
5-21
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
STRT
The STRT command starts data acquisition. This function is the same as
pressing the [START] key. If the analyzer is already in the run mode, then any
average is reset.
STCO
The STCO command pauses or continues data acquisition. This function is the
same as pressing the [PAUSE CONT] key. If the analyzer is running, then the
STCO command pauses the analyzer. If the analyzer is paused, then STCO
resumes data acquisition without resetting any average. If the analyzer is
stopped after a completed linear average, the STCO will do nothing since there
is nothing to resume.
PRSC
The PRSC command will print the currently displayed screen to a printer
attached to the rear panel parallel printer port. This function is the same as the
[PRINT] key. The printer type needs to be confugured before using the PRSC
command.
ACTG (?) {i}
The ACTG command sets or queries the active trace number. The parameter i
selects Trace0 (i=0) or Trace1 (i=1). This is similar to the [ACTIVE TRACE]
key.
ARNG (?) {i}
The ARNG command sets or queries the ranging mode. The parameter i
selects Manual (i=0) or Auto (i=1). This is similar to the [AUTO RANGE] key. If
i=1 and autorange is already on, a new autorange is performed.
AUTS g
The AUTS command performs the Auto Scale function on trace g. This function
is the same as pressing the [AUTO SCALE] key when trace g is active. The
AUTS command affects the TREF, BREF and YDIV parameters below.
5-22
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
DATA TRANSFER COMMANDS
SPEC? g, {i}
The SPEC? command reads the trace data in ASCII format from trace g. If the
parameter i is included, only the value of the data in bin i is returned. The first
bin is i=0 and the last bin is i=399 (0 � i � 14 for 15 band octave analysis and
0� i
i is omitted, then the
entire trace is returned. In this case, data is sent continuously starting with bin
0 and ending with the bin 399 (bin 14 or bin 29 for 15 or 30 band octave
analysis). Each data point is separated by a comma and the last data point is
followed by a line-feed (GPIB) or carriage return (RS232). This format is
convenient when using DMA driven host interfaces. The data points are real
numbers.
If SPEC? is used to transfer the entire record over the RS232 interface, the
host computer interface should be interrupt driven or have fast data
communication routines since the data transmission is limited only by the
baud rate.
If SPEC? is used to transfer the entire trace, the returned data will be from the
latest trace.
BVAL? g, i
The BVAL g, i command queries the X value of bin i of trace g. The returned
value is either a frequency (spectra), a time (time record) or a band center
frequency (octave analysis). The first bin is i=0 and the last bin is i=399 (i=14
or i=29 for 15 or 30 band octave analysis).
SPEB? g
The SPEB? g command reads the Y values of the entire trace g data record in
binary format over the GPIB interface. The SPEB? g command is not available
over the RS232 interface.
SPEB? g returns the entire trace record, 2 bytes per bin starting with bin 0 and
continuing to bin 399 (bin 14 or bin 29 for 15 or 30 band octave analysis). There
is no separation between data points. No line-feed follows the last data point,
instead, EOI is asserted with the last byte. Each data point is sent low byte
first, then high byte. The 2 bytes represent the data point in 16 bit 2's
complement format.
The returned values are interpreted as follows:
(Volts, 180 deg, or ð
radians)
Linear data:
Data = (Value/32,768) x full scale
Log data:
Data = (3.0103 x Value)/512 - 114.3914 dB full scale
When using the SPEB? g command, the host interface must be capable of
binary transfer, i.e. accepting line feeds and carriage returns as data rather
than terminators. In addition, the host program must read exactly the correct
number of bytes (800 bytes plus the last line feed).
While a binary dump is in progress, the analyzer will not respond to any other
queries and the display will not update.
5-23
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
If the host program does not start reading the points within 1 second, or
pauses for 1 second while reading, the binary dump will be aborted.
BDMP (?) g {,i}
The BDMP command sets or queries the auto binary dump mode for trace g.
The parameter i selects binary dump off (i=0) or on (i=1).
When auto binary dump mode is on, whenever new data becomes available,
the data will be dumped in binary format over the GPIB interface (in the same
format as the response to the SPEB? command). Auto binary dump is not
available over the RS232 interface.
While a binary dump is in progress, the analyzer will not respond to any other
queries and the display will not update.
When using the BDMP g,1 command, the host interface must be capable of
binary transfer, i.e. accepting line feeds and carriage returns as data rather
than terminators. In addition, the host program must read exactly the correct
number of bytes (800 bytes for normal spectra, 30 or 60 bytes for 15 or 30
band octave analysis).
If the host program does not start reading the points within 1 second of
the data becoming available, or pauses for 1 second while reading, the
binary dump will be aborted and the auto binary dump mode will be
turned off.
5-24
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
INTERFACE COMMANDS
*RST
The *RST command resets the SR770 to its default configurations. The
communications setup is not changed. All other modes and settings are set to
their default conditions and values. This command takes some time to
complete.
*IDN?
The *IDN? query returns the SR770's device identification string. This string is
in the format "Stanford_Research_Systems,SR770,s/n00001,ver007". In this
example, the serial number is 00001 and the firmware version is 007.
LOCL (?) {i}
The LOCL command sets the RS232 local/remote function. If i=0 the SR770 is
LOCAL, if i=1 the SR770 will go REMOTE, and if i=2 the SR770 will go into
LOCAL LOCKOUT state. The states duplicate the GPIB local/remote states. In
the LOCAL state both command execution and keyboard input are allowed. In
the REMOTE state command execution is allowed but the keyboard and knob
are locked out except for the [HELP] key which returns the SR770 to the
LOCAL state. In the LOCAL LOCKOUT state all front panel operation is locked
out, including the [HELP] key.
OVRM (?) {i}
The OVRM command sets or queries the GPIB Overide Remote Yes/No
condition. The parameter i selects No (i=0) or Yes (i=1). When Overide Remote
is set to Yes, then the front panel is not locked out when the unit is in the
REMOTE state.
5-25
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
STATUS REPORTING COMMANDS
The Status Byte definitions follow this section.
*CLS
The *CLS command clears all status registers.
*ESE (?) {i} {,j}
The *ESE i command sets the standard status byte enable register to the
decimal value i (0-255). The *ESE i,j command sets bit i (0-7) to j (0 or 1). The
*ESE? command queries the value (0-255) of the status byte enable register.
The *ESE? i command queries the value (0 or 1) of bit i.
*ESR? {i}
The *ESR? command queries the value of the standard status byte. The value
is returned as a decimal number from 0 to 255. The *ESR? i command queries
the value (0 or 1) of bit i (0-7). Reading the entire byte will clear it while reading
bit i will clear just bit i.
*SRE (?) {i} {,j}
The *SRE i command sets the serial poll enable register to the decimal value i
(0-255). The *SRE i,j command sets bit i (0-7) to j (0 or 1).The *SRE?
command queries the value (0-255) of the serial poll enable register. The
*SRE? i command queries the value (0 or 1) of bit i.
*STB? {i}
The *STB? command queries the value of the serial poll byte. The value is
returned as a decimal number from 0 to 255. The *STB? i command queries
the value (0 or 1) of bit i (0-7). Reading this byte has no effect on its value.
*PSC (?) {i}
The *PSC command sets the value of the power-on status clear bit. If i=1 the
power-on status clear bit is set and all status registers and enable registers
are cleared on power up. If i=0 the bit is cleared and the status enable
registers maintain their values at power down. This allows a service request to
be generated at power up.
ERRE (?) {i} {,j}
The ERRE i command sets the error status enable register to the decimal
value i (0-255). The ERRE i,j command sets bit i (0-7) to j (0 or 1). The ERRE?
command queries the value (0-255) of the error status enable register. The
ERRE? i command queries the value (0 or 1) of bit i.
ERRS? {i}
The ERRS? command queries the value of the error status byte. The value is
returned as a decimal number from 0 to 255. The ERRS? i command queries
the value (0 or 1) of bit i (0-7). Reading the entire byte will clear it while reading
bit i will clear just bit i.
FFTE (?) {i} {,j}
The FFTE command sets the analyzer (FFT) status enable register to the
decimal value i (0-255). The FFTE i,j command sets bit i (0-7) to j (0 or 1).The
FFTE? command queries the value of the FFT status enable register.The
FFTE? i command queries the value (0 or 1) of bit i.
FFTS? {i}
The FFTS? command queries the value of the analyzer (FFT) status byte. The
value is returned as a decimal number from 0 to 255. The FFTS? i command
queries the value (0 or 1) of bit i (0-7). Reading the entire byte will clear it while
reading bit i will clear just bit i.
5-26
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
5-27
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
STATUS BYTE DEFINITIONS
The SR770 reports on its status by means of four status bytes: the serial poll status byte, the standard status
byte, the FFT status byte, and the error status byte.
Upon power-on, the SR770 may either clear all of its status enable registers or maintain them in the state they
were in on power-down. The *PSC command determines which action will be taken.
The status bits are set to 1 when the event or state described in the tables below has occurred or is present.
SERIAL POLL
STATUS BYTE
bit
name
usage
0
SCN
No measurements in progress
1
IFC
No command execution in progress
2
ERR
An unmasked bit in the error status byte has been set
3
FFT
An unmasked bit in the FFT status byte has been set
4
MAV
The interface output buffer is non-empty
5
ESB
An unmasked bit in the standard status byte has
been set
6
SRQ
SRQ (service request) has occurred
7
Unused
The ERR, FFT, and ESB bits are set whenever any bit in both their respective status bytes AND enable
registers is set. Use the *SRE, *ESE, ERRE and FFTE commands to set enable register bits. The ERR, FFT
and ESB bits are not cleared until ALL enabled status bits in the Error, FFT and Standard Event status bytes
are cleared (by reading the status bytes or using *CLS).
Using *STB? to read the Serial Poll Status Byte
A bit in the Serial Poll status byte is NOT cleared by reading the status byte using *STB?. The bit stays set as
long as the status condition exists. This is true even for SRQ. SRQ will be set whenever the same bit in the
serial poll status byte AND serial poll enable register is set. This is independent of whether a serial poll has
occurred to clear the service request.
Using SERIAL POLL
Except for SRQ, a bit in the Serial Poll status byte is NOT cleared by polling the status byte. When reading the
status byte using a serial poll, the SRQ bit signals that the SR770 is requesting service. The SRQ bit will be set
(1) the first time the SR770 is polled following a service request. The serial poll automatically clears the service
request. Subsequent serial polls will return SRQ cleared (0) until another service request occurs. Polling the
status byte and reading it with *STB? can return different values for SRQ. When polled, SRQ indicates a service
request has occurred. When read with *STB?, SRQ indicates that an enabled status bit is set.
5-28
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
SERVICE REQUESTS (SRQ)
A GPIB service request (SRQ) will be generated whenever a bit in both the Serial Poll Status byte AND Serial
Poll Enable register is set. Use *SRE to set bits in the Serial Poll Enable register. A service request is only
generated when an enabled Serial Poll Status bit becomes set (changes from 0 to 1). An enabled status bit
which becomes set and remains set will generate a single SRQ. If another service request from the same status
bit is desired, the requesting status bit must first be cleared. In the case of the ERR, FFT and ESB bits, this
means clearing the enabled bits in the ERR, FFT and ESB status bytes (by reading them). Multiple enabled bits
in these status bytes will generate a single SRQ. Another SRQ (from ERR, FFT or ESB) can only be generated
after clearing the ERR, FFT or ESB bits in the Serial Poll status byte. To clear these bits, ALL enabled bits in
the ERR, FFT or ESB status bytes must be cleared.
The controller should respond to the SRQ by performing a serial poll to read the Serial Poll status byte to
determine the requesting status bit. Bit 6 (SRQ) will be reset by the serial poll.
For example, to generate a service request when a TRIGGER occurs, bit 0 in the FFT Status Enable register
needs to be set (FFTE 1 command) and bit 3 in the Serial Poll Enable register must be set (*SRE 8 command).
When a trigger occurs, bit 0 in the FFT Status byte is set. Since bit 0 in the FFT Status byte AND Enable
register is set, this ALSO sets bit 3 (FFT) in the Serial Poll Status byte. Since bit 3 in the Serial Poll Status
byte AND Enable register is set, an SRQ is generated. Bit 6 (SRQ) in the Serial Poll Status byte is set. Further
triggering will not generate another SRQ until the TRIGGER status bit is cleared. The TRIGGER status bit is
cleared by reading the FFT Status byte (with FFTS?). Presumably, the controller is alerted to the trigger via the
SRQ, performs a serial poll to clear the SRQ, does something in response to the trigger (read data for example)
and then clears the TRIGGER status bit by reading the FFT status register. A subsequent trigger will then
generate another SRQ.
STANDARD EVENT
STATUS BYTE
bit
name
usage
0
INP
Set on input queue overflow (too many commands
received at once, queues cleared)
1
Limit Fail
Set when a limit test fails
2
QRY
Set on output queue overflow (too many responses
waiting to be transmitted, queues cleared)
3
Unused
4
EXE
Set when a command can not execute correctly or a
parameter is out of range
5
CMD
Set when an illegal command is received
6
URQ
Set by any key press or knob rotation
7
PON
Set by power-on
The Standard Event status byte is defined by IEEE-488.2 (1987) and is used primarily to report errors in
commands received over the communications interfaces. The bits in this register remain set until cleared by
reading them or by the *CLS command.
5-29
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
FFT STATUS BYTE
bit
name
usage
0
Triggered
Set when a time record is triggered
1
Prn/Plt Complete Set when a printout or plot is completed
2
New Data 0
Set when new data is available for trace 0
3
New Data 1
Set when new data is available for trace 1
4
Avg Complete
Set when a linear average is completed
5
AutoRng Change Set when auto range changes the range
6
High Voltage
Set when high voltage detected at input.
Input range may have been switched to
34 dBV.
7
Settle
Set when settling is complete
The MCS Status bits stay set until cleared by reading or by the *CLS command.
ERROR STATUS BYTE
bit
name
usage
0
Prn/Plt Error
Set when an error occurs during printing or plotting
1
Math Error
Set when an internal math error occurs
2
RAM Error
Set when the RAM Memory test finds an error
3
Disk Error
Set when an error occurs during a disk or file
operation
4
ROM Error
Set when the ROM Memory test finds an error
5
A/D Error
Set when the A/D test finds an error
6
DSP Error
Set when the DSP test finds an error
7
Overload
Set when the signal input exceeds the input range
The Error Status bits stay set until cleared by reading or by the *CLS command.
5-30
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
EXAMPLE PROGRAM 1
Using Microsoft C with the National Instruments GPIB card on the IBM PC.
To successfully interface the SR770 to a PC via the GPIB interface, the instrument, interface card, and interface
drivers must all be configured properly. To configure the SR770, the GPIB address must be set in the SETUP
menu. The default GPIB address is 10; use this address unless a conflict occurs with other instruments in your
system. The SR770 will be set to GPIB address 10 whenever a reset is performed (power on with the [<-] key
down).
Make sure that you follow all the instructions for installing the GPIB card. The National Instruments card cannot
be simply unpacked and put into your computer. To configure the card you must set jumpers and switches on
the card to set the I/O address and interrupt levels. You must run the program "IBCONF" to configure the
resident GPIB driver for you GPIB card. Please refer to the National Instruments manual for information. In this
example, the following options must be set with IBCONF:
Device name:
fft770
Device address:
10
EOS character:
0AH (linefeed)
Terminate Read on EOS:
Yes
Once all the hardware and GPIB drivers are configured, use "IBIC". This terminal emulation program allows you
to send commands to the SR770 directly from your computer's keyboard. If you cannot talk to the SR770 via
"IBIC", then your programs will not run.
Use the simple commands provided by National Instruments. Use "IBWRT" and "IBRD" to write and read from
the SR770. After you are familiar with these simple commands, you can explore more complex programming
commands.
/*******************************************************************************************************/
/* Example program using Microsoft C V5.1 and the National Instruments GPIB card */
/* This program assumes that the SR770 is installed as device "fft770" using IBCONF */
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
<stdio.h>
<dos.h>
<conio.h>
<stdlib.h>
<string.h>
#include "decl.h"
/* function prototypes */
void main(void);
int ibfind(char*);
void ibwrt(int,char *,int);
void ibrd(int,char *,int);
void ibrsp(int,char *);
void ibeos(int,int);
void txsr770(char *);
5-31
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
/* global variables */
int sr770;
int rxBuff[400];
double dbs[400];
/* device identifier for the sr770 */
/* buffer for binary data from sr770 */
/* double array of dB data */
void main(void)
{
int i,eos;
char serPol;
char tstr[30];
double full_scale;
if ((sr770=ibfind("fft770"))<0) {
printf("\nCannot Find FFFT Device\n\a");
exit(1);
}
txsr770("*RST");
txsr770("STOP");
/* return sr770 to default state */
/* stop data acquisition */
txsr770("NAVG1000");
txsr770("AVGO1");
/* set 1000 averages */
/* turn averaging on */
txsr770("STRT");
/* start the average */
do {
ibrsp(sr770,&serPol);
} while ((serPol&1)==0);
/* wait for the average to complete */
/* by polling for no scans in progress */
printf("\nScan Finished; Acquiring Spectrum\n");
/* now we turn off the 'terminate read on eos' to enable us
to use ibrd with the binary dump command. Note also that
we cannot use txsr770 with the SPEB command because
IFC RDY will not be set until >after< the spectrum
has been read. */
ibeos(sr770,0|'\n');
ibwrt(sr770,"SPEB?0",6);
ibrd(sr770,(char *)rxBuff,800);
ibeos(sr770,REOS|'n');
/* turn off terminate on EOS since binary data will be coming back
and a 10H may be one of the values */
/* binary dump graph 0 */
/* read 800 bytes of spectrum*/
/* restore terminate on EOS for future commands */
printf("\n%d Bytes Read; Calculating Y Values\n",ibcnt);
getch();
/* wait for keypress */
/*
To calculate db values from the binay data we use the
following formula:
dbFullScale = -114.3914 + n*3.0103/152
*/
for (i=0;i<400;i++) dbs[i] = -114.3914 + 3.0103 * (double) rxBuff[i] / 512.0 ;
5-32
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
/*
To calculate absolute dBV from dB relative to full
scale, we need to query the full scale input range.
*/
txsr770("IRNG?");
ibrd(sr770,tstr,30);
sscanf(tstr,"%ld",&full_scale);
/* full_scale = input range in dBV */
for (i=0;i<400;i++) {
dbs[i] += full_scale;
printf("%6d %f\n",i,dbs[i]);
}
getch();
/* wait for keypress */
/*
alternatively, we can read the spectrum point by
point using the ASCII SPEC?g,i command
*/
for (i=0;i<400;i++) {
sprintf(tstr,"SPEC?0,%d",i); /* construct each query string */
txsr770(tstr);
ibrd(sr770,tstr,30);
/* read each point back in ASCII */
sscanf(tstr,"%lf",&dbs[i]);
/* convert ASCII string to a value */
printf("%6d %f\n",i,dbs[i]);
}
}
/* end of main program */
void txsr770(char *str)
{
char serPol;
ibwrt(sr770,str,strlen(str));
do {
ibrsp(sr770,&serPol);
} while ((serPol&2)==0);
}
/* function to send a command to the sr770 */
/* now poll for IFC RDY to ensure completion of the command */
/* before returning */
5-33
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
EXAMPLE PROGRAM 2
Using BASIC with the National Instruments GPIB card on the IBM PC.
To successfully interface the SR770 to a PC via the GPIB interface, the instrument, interface card, and interface
drivers must all be configured properly. To configure the SR770, the GPIB address must be set in the SETUP
menu. The default GPIB address is 10; use this address unless a conflict occurs with other instruments in your
system. The SR770 will be set to GPIB address 10 whenever a reset is performed (power on with the [<-] key
down).
Make sure that you follow all the instructions for installing the GPIB card. The National Instruments card cannot
be simply unpacked and put into your computer. To configure the card you must set jumpers and switches on
the card to set the I/O address and interrupt levels. You must run the program "IBCONF" to configure the
resident GPIB driver for you GPIB card. Please refer to the National Instruments manual for information. In this
example, the following options must be set with IBCONF:
Device name:
Device address:
EOS character:
Terminate Read on EOS:
fft770
10
0AH (linefeed)
Yes
Once all the hardware and GPIB drivers are configured, use "IBIC". This terminal emulation program allows you
to send commands to the SR770 directly from your computer's keyboard. If you cannot talk to the SR770 via
"IBIC", then your programs will not run.
Use the simple commands provided by National Instruments. Use "IBWRT" and "IBRD" to write and read from
the SR770. After you are familiar with these simple commands, you can explore more complex programming
commands.
10 '***********************************************************************************************************************
100 'Example program using Microsoft GW BASIC and the National
110 'Instruments GPIB card. Program is equivalent to the C
120 'Example program. See the comments in the C program.
130 '
140 ' Use the file DECL.BAS provided by National Instruments
150 '
160 CLEAR ,60000! : IBINIT1=60000! : IBINIT2=IBINIT1+3 : BLOAD "bib.m",IBINIT1
170 CALL IBINIT1
(IBFIND,IBTRG,IBCLR,IBPCT,IBSIC,IBLOC,IBPPC,IBBNA,IBONL,IBRSC,IBSRE,IBRSV,IBPAD,IBSAD,IBIST,IB
DMA,IBEOS,IBTMO,IBEOT,IBRDF,IBWRTF,IBTRAP,IBDEV,IBLN)
180 CALL IBINIT2
(IBGTS,IBCAC,IBWAIT,IBPOKE,IBWRT,IBWRTA,IBCMD,IBCMDA,IBRD,IBRDA,IBSTOP,IBRPP,IBRSP,IBDIAG
,IBXTRC,IBRDI,IBWRTI,IBRDIA,IBWRTIA,IBSTA%,IBERR%,IBCNT%)
185 '
190 'Done with DECL.BAS, this is our program
200 '
210 BDNAME$="FFT770"
220 CALL IBFIND(BDNAME$,SR770%)
'find the sr770
230 IF SR770%<0 GOTO 770
240 '
250 WRT$="*rst"
'reset the fft analyzer
260 GOSUB 780
'this subroutine sends a command
270 WRT$="STOP"
5-34
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
280 GOSUB 780
'stop data acquisition in the sr770
290 WRT$="navg1000;avgo1"
'turn on 1000 averages
300 GOSUB 780
310 WRT$="strt"
'and start the average
320 GOSUB 780
330 '
340 CALL IBRSP(SR770%,SP%)
'poll until no data acquisition in progress (average done)
350 IF SP% MOD 2 = 0 GOTO 340
360 PRINT "Finished Acquiring Spectrum"
370 '
380 DIM BINARY%(400)
'dimension a 400 element integer array (800 bytes)
390 V% = &HA
'V% = 10H (linefeed)
400 CALL IBEOS(SR770%,V%)
'turn off "terminate on EOS" function so that we can read
binary data
410 WRT$="speb?0"
'send the binary read command
420 CNT%=800
'we want to read 800 bytes (400 points)
430 CALL IBWRT(SR770%,WRT$)
440 CALL IBRDI(SR770%,BINARY%(0),CNT%) 'ibrd automatically reads all 800 points for us
445 '
450 DIM DBS(400)
'dimension an array to hold the db data
460 FOR I=0 TO 399 STEP 1
470 DBS(I) = -114.3914! + 3.0103!*BINARY%(I)/512!
'convert the binary data into db full scale
480 PRINT I,DBS(I)
'and print it
490 NEXT I
500 '
510 INPUT I 'wait for keypress
520 '
530 ' now we query the input range to get absoulte dBVs
540 '
550 WRT$="IRNG?"
'query the input range
560 GOSUB 780
570 S$=SPACE$(20)
580 CALL IBRD(SR770%,S$)
'get the answer
590 IRNG=VAL(S$)
600 FOR I=0 TO 399 STEP 1
610 DBS(I) = DBS(I) + IRNG
'add the range to the dbfull scale values to get dBV
620 PRINT I,DBS(I)
630 NEXT I
640 INPUT I ' wait for keypress
650 '
660 ' alternatively, we can use the spec? command to obtain the spectrum in ascii form, 1 point at a time
670 '
680 FOR I = 0 TO 399 STEP 1
690 WRT$ = "spec?0,"+STR$(I)
'construct the command for each point
700 GOSUB 780
710 S$=SPACE$(20)
720 CALL IBRD(SR770%,S$)
'read the point
730 PRINT I,S$
740 NEXT I
750 STOP
770 PRINT "Cannot find the SR770!"
'gpib error
770 STOP
780 CALL IBWRT(SR770%,WRT$)
'send a command to the sr770
790 CALL IBRSP(SR770%,SP%)
'serial poll
5-35
REMOTE PROGRAMMING
800 IF (SP% AND 2) <> 2 GOTO 790
810 RETURN
'until interface is ready again (command finished)
5-36
PERFORMANCE TESTS
Introduction
entry fields may be adjusted using the knob. In
addition, functions such as display zooming and
scrolling use the knob as well. In these cases, the
knob function is selected by the softkeys. The
[MARKER] key, which can be pressed at any time,
will set the knob function to scrolling the marker.
The performance tests described in this section
are designed to verify with a high degree of
confidence that the unit is performing within the
specifications.
Preset
The results of each test may be recorded on the
test sheet at the end of this section.
Throughout this section, it will be necessary to
preset the analyzer into a known default state. To
do this, turn the power off. Turn the power back on
while holding down the [<-] (backspace) key. The
unit will perform power up tests and then assume
the default settings. Each test generally starts with
a preset. This procedure will be referred to as
{PRESET}.
[HARDKEYS]
The keypad consists of five groups of hardkeys.
The ENTRY keys are used to enter numeric
parameters which have been highlighted by a
softkey. The MENU keys select a menu of
softkeys. Pressing a menu key will change the
menu boxes which are displayed next to the
softkeys. Each menu groups together similar
parameters and functions. The CONTROL keys
start and stop actual data acquisition, select the
marker and toggle the active trace the display.
These keys are not in a menu since they are used
frequently and while displaying any menu. The
SYSTEM keys print the screen to a printer and
display help messages. Once again, these keys
can be accessed from any menu. The MARKER
keys determine the marker mode and perform
various marker functions. The marker functions
can be accessed from any menu.
Hardkeys are
[MARKER].
referenced
in
braces
Serial Number
If you need to contact Stanford Research
Systems, please have the serial number of your
unit available. The serial number is printed on a
label affixed to the rear panel. The serial number
is also displayed on the screen when the unit is
powered on.
The serial number can also be displayed by
pressing
[SYSTEM SETUP]
<More>
<Test Hardware>
<More>
<Screen Test>
like
<Softkeys>
Firmware Revision
The SR770 has a menu driven user interface. The
6 softkeys to the right of the video display have
different functions depending upon the information
displayed in the menu boxes along the right edge
of the screen. In general, the softkeys have two
uses. The first is to toggle a feature on and off or
to choose between settings. The second is to
highlight a parameter which is then changed using
the knob or numeric keypad. In both cases, the
softkeys affect the parameters which are
displayed adjacent to them.
The firmware revision code is displayed on the
screen when the unit is powered on. The revision
code is displayed along with the serial number in
the System Setup menu as described above.
General Installation
POWER
Make sure that the power entry module on the
rear panel is set for the AC line voltage in your
area and that the correct fuse is installed. The
selected AC voltage may be seen through the
window on the power entry module. Verify that the
line cord is plugged all the way into the power
entry module and that the power button on the
front panel is pressed in.
Softkeys are referenced in brackets like <Span>.
Knob
The knob is used to adjust parameters which have
been highlighted using the softkeys. Most numeric
6-1
PERFORMANCE TESTS
SCREEN BRIGHTNESS
If the screen is too dark or too bright, adjust the
brightness using the knob at the upper left of the
screen. Do not set the brightness higher than
necessary.
DISPLAY POSITION
Use the Setup Screen function in the SYSTEM
SETUP menu to position the display in the center
of the screen.
FAN
The fan in the SR770 is temperature controlled.
When the unit is cold, the fan is at half speed.
When the internal temperature reaches about
30° C, the fan speed increases. Do not block the
vents in the chassis or the unit may not operate
properly.
6-2
PERFORMANCE TESTS
Necessary Equipment
Warm Up
The following equipment is necessary to complete
the performance tests. The suggested equipment
or its equivalent should be used.
The analyzer should be turned on and allowed to
warm up for at least an hour before any tests are
performed. The self test does not require any
warm up period.
1. Frequency Synthesizer
Freq Range
1 Hz to 1 MHz
Freq Accuracy
better than 5 ppm
Amplitude Accuracy
0.2 dB from 1 Hz to
100 kHz
Harmonic Distortion
≤ -65 dBc
Spurious
≤ -55 dBc
Recommended
It is necessary to turn the unit off and on to preset
it. As long as the unit is powered on immediately,
this will not affect the test results.
The Auto Offset feature must be left enabled
(On). Disabling the Auto Offset may invalidate
the results of some tests.
SRS DS345
The Test Record
2. AC Calibrator
Freq Range
10 Hz to 100 kHz
Amplitude
1 mV to 10 V
Accuracy
0.1%
External phase locking capability
Recommended
Make a copy of the SR770 Performance Test
Record at the end of this section. Fill in the results
of the tests on this record. This record will allow
you to determine whether the tests pass or fail and
also preserve a record of the tests.
Fluke 5200A
If A Test Fails
3. Low Distortion Sine Oscillator
Freq Range
1 Hz to 100 kHz
Harmonic Distortion
≤ -90 dBc (< 20 kHz)
≤ -80 dBc (< 100 kHz)
Recommended
If a test fails, you should check the settings and
connections of any external equipment and, if
possible, verify its operation using a DVM, scope
or some other piece of test equipment.
Krohn-Hite 4400A
4. Feedthrough Terminations
Impedance
50 Ω
After checking the setup, repeat the test from the
beginning to make sure that the test was
performed correctly.
If the test continues to fail, contact Stanford
Research Systems for further instructions. Make
sure that you have the unit's serial number and
firmware revision code handy. Have the test
record on hand as well.
6-3
PERFORMANCE TESTS
1. Self Tests
The self tests check the analyzer hardware. These are functional tests and do not relate to the specifications.
These tests should be run before any of the performance tests.
Note that the Test menu offers more tests than are required here. Only those tests which require no
additional equipment are discussed in this section. The computer interface and disk drive tests are not
required but should be periodically checked. See the System Setup menu for more information about those
tests.
Setup
No external setup is required for this test.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn on the analyzer with the [<-] key pressed)
At power up, the RAM, ROM, DSP and A/D tests should all be OK.
2) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[SYSTEM SETUP]
<More>
<Test Hardware>
<Keypad Test>
Press all of the front panel keys until all of the boxes on the screen are filled in.
Rotate knob to exit this screen.
<Knob Test>
<Speed 2>
Rotate the knob to verify rotation and direction.
<Return>
<More>
<Memory Test>
<Main Mem>
<Begin Test>
All of the main memory chips should Pass.
<Return>
<Video Mem>
<Begin Test>
All of the video memory chips should Pass.
<Return>
<Return>
<DSP Test>
Both DSP chips should report 0 errors.
Press any key to exit this test.
3) This completes the functional hardware tests. Enter the results of this test in the test record at the
end of this section.
6-4
PERFORMANCE TESTS
2. DC Offset
This test measures the DC offset of the input.
Setup
Connect a 50Ω feedthrough termination to the A input. This shorts the input so the analyzer's own DC offset
will be measured.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[FREQ]
<Span>
[1] [.] [5] <kHz>
[DISPLAY]
<Marker Width>
Select Spot Marker
[MARKER]
Rotate the knob so that the marker is at DC. The marker readout above the graph should
read 0.0 kHz.
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
<Averaging>
Select On
[INPUT]
<Coupling>
Select DC
3) a) Press
<Input Range>
[-] [3] [0] <dBV>
[START]
[AUTO SCALE]
b) Record the marker Y reading for the -30 dB range.
c) Press
<Input Range>
[-] [6] [0] <dBV>
[START]
[AUTO SCALE]
d) Record the marker Y reading for the -60 dB range.
6-5
PERFORMANCE TESTS
4) This completes the DC measurement test. Enter the results of this test in the test record at the end of
this section.
6-6
PERFORMANCE TESTS
3. Common Mode Rejection
This test measures the common mode rejection of the analyzer.
Setup
We will use the frequency synthesizer to provide the signal.
Connect the output of the frequency synthesizer to both the A and B inputs of the analyzer. Use equal length
cables from A and B to a BNC TEE. Connect the cable from the synthesizer output to the TEE using the
appropriate feedthrough termination.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Set the frequency synthesizer to a frequency of 1 kHz and an amplitude of 446 mVrms.
3) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[FREQ]
<Span>
[1] [.] [5] <kHz>
<Center Freq.>
[1] <kHz>
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[-] [2] <dBV>
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
<Averaging>
Select On
[MARKER REF]
[INPUT]
<Input Source>
Select A-B
[START]
4) Record the marker Y reading. This is the CMRR (in dB) at 1 kHz.
5) This completes the CMRR measurement test. Enter the results of this test in the test record at the
end of this section.
6-7
PERFORMANCE TESTS
4. Amplitude Accuracy and Flatness
This test measures the amplitude accuracy and frequency response.
Setup
We will use the frequency synthesizer to provide an accurate frequency and the AC calibrator to provide a
sine wave with an exact amplitude.
Connect the output of the frequency synthesizer to the phase lock input of the calibrator. Connect the output
of the AC calibrator to the A input of the analyzer. Be sure to use the appropriate terminations where
required.
Set the Synthesizer to:
Function
Frequency
Amplitude
Offset
Sweep
Modulation
Set the AC Calibrator to:
Frequency
1 kHz
Amplitude
0.707 mVrms
Voltage
Off
Phase Lock
On
Sense
Internal
Sine
1 kHz
0.5 Vrms
off or 0V
off
none
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off and on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[MEAS]
<Window>
<Flattop>
[FREQ]
<Span>
[1] [.] [5] <kHz>
<Center Freq.>
[1] <kHz>
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
<Averaging>
Select On
3) Amplitude accuracy is verified at 1 kHz and various input ranges. For each range setting in the table
below, perform steps 3a through 3d.
Input Range (pk)
-46 dBV
-38 dBV
-30 dBV
-14 dBV
4 dBV
10 dBV
AC Calibrator Amplitude
2.509 mVrms
6.302 mVrms
15.830 mVrms
99.881 mVrms
0.7934 Vrms
1.5830 Vrms
a) Set the AC calibrator to the amplitude shown in the table.
6-8
PERFORMANCE TESTS
b) Press
[Input]
<Input Range>
Enter the range from the table.
c) Press
[START]
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
d) Record the marker Y reading for each range.
Frequency response is checked at frequencies above 1 kHz. The test frequencies are listed below.
The measurements are performed for two different input ranges.
Test Frequencies
24 kHz
48 kHz
76 kHz
99 kHz
a) Set the AC calibrator to 1 kHz and an amplitude of 99.881 mVrms.
b) Set the frequency synthesizer to 1 kHz.
c) Press
[FREQ]
<Center Freq.>
[1] <kHz>
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[-] [1] [4] <dBV>
[START]
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
The Y value of the marker should now read –17.0 dB (±0.30 dB)
d) Set the AC calibrator and frequency synthesizer to the frequency in the table.
e) Press
[FREQ]
<Center Freq.>
Enter the signal frequency.
[START]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
f) Record the marker Y reading. Repeat steps 4d and 4e for all of the frequencies listed.
6-9
PERFORMANCE TESTS
4) Now repeat the frequency response measurements at a different input range.
a) Set the AC calibrator to 1 kHz and an amplitude of 6.3021 Vrms.
b) Set the frequency synthesizer to 1 kHz.
c) Press
[FREQ]
<Center Freq.>
[1] <kHz>
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[2] [2] <dBV>
[START]
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
[MARKER REF]
The Y value of the marker should now read +19.0 dB (±0.30 dB)
d) Repeat steps 4d through 4f above.
5) This completes the amplitude accuracy and frequency response test. Enter the results of this test in
the test record at the end of this section.
6-10
PERFORMANCE TESTS
5. Amplitude Linearity
This test measures the amplitude linearity. This tests how accurately the analyzer measures a signal smaller
than full scale.
Setup
We will use the frequency synthesizer to provide an accurate frequency and the AC calibrator to provide a
sine wave with an exact amplitude.
Connect the output of the frequency synthesizer to the phase lock input of the calibrator. Connect the output
of the AC calibrator to the A input of the analyzer. Be sure to use the appropriate terminations where
required.
Set the Synthesizer to:
Function
Sine
Frequency
1 kHz
Amplitude
0.5 Vrms
Offset
off or 0V
Sweep
off
Modulation
none
Set the AC Calibrator to:
Frequency
1 kHz
Amplitude
6.3021 Vrms
Voltage
Off
Phase Lock
On
Sense
Internal
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[MEAS]
<Window>
<Flattop>
[FREQ]
<Span>
[1] [.] [5] <kHz>
<Center Freq.>
[1] <kHz>
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
<Averaging>
Select On
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[2] [2] <dBV>
[START]
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
3) For each of the amplitudes listed below, perform steps 3a through 3c.
6-11
PERFORMANCE TESTS
AC Calibrator Amplitudes
6.3021 Vrms
1.1207 Vrms
141.09 mVrms
22.361 mVrms
3.544 mVrms
a) Set the AC calibrator to the amplitude in the table.
b) Press [START]
c) Record the marker Y reading.
4) This completes the amplitude accuracy and frequency response test. Enter the results of this test in
the test record at the end of this section.
6-12
PERFORMANCE TESTS
6. Anti-alias Filter Attenuation
This test measures the attenuation of the anti-alias filter. This tests how well the analyzer rejects frequencies
outside the 100 kHz frequency range.
Setup
We will use the frequency synthesizer to provide the signal.
Connect the output of the frequency synthesizer to the A input of the analyzer. Be sure to use the appropriate
terminations where required.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Set the frequency synthesizer to a frequency of 99 kHz and an amplitude of 446 mVrms.
3) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[FREQ]
<Span>
[1] [.] [5] <kHz>
<Center Freq.>
[9] [9] <kHz>
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[-] [2] <dBV>
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
4) Adjust the synthesizer amplitude so that the marker Y value reads -4.0 dB ± 0.2 dB.
5) Press
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
<Averaging>
Select On
[MARKER REF]
6) Set the synthesizer frequency to 157 kHz.
7) Press
[START]
8) Record the marker Y reading.
9) This completes the anti-alias filter attenuation test. Enter the results of this test in the test record at
the end of this section.
6-13
PERFORMANCE TESTS
7. Frequency Accuracy
This test measures the frequency accuracy of the analyzer. This tests the accuracy of the fundamental
crystal timebase inside the unit.
Setup
We will use the frequency synthesizer to provide the signal.
Connect the output of the frequency synthesizer to the A input of the analyzer. Be sure to use the appropriate
terminations where required.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off and on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Set the frequency synthesizer to a frequency of 10 kHz and an amplitude of 400 mVrms.
3) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[FREQ]
<Span>
[1] [2] <Hz>
<Center Freq.>
[1] [0] <kHz>
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[-] [2] <dBV>
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
4) Wait for the spectrum to settle, then record the marker frequency reading.
3) This completes the frequency accuracy test. Enter the results of this test in the test record at the end
of this section.
6-14
PERFORMANCE TESTS
8. Phase Accuracy
This test measures the phase accuracy of the analyzer. This test measures the phase of a signal relative to
the trigger.
Setup
We will use the frequency synthesizer to provide the signal.
Connect the output of the frequency synthesizer to the A input of the analyzer. Be sure to use the appropriate
terminations where required.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Set the frequency synthesizer to a frequency of 10 kHz and an amplitude of 400 mVrms.
3) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[-] [2] <dBV>
<Trigger Menu>
<Trigger>
Select Internal Trigger
[AUTO SCALE]
[DISPLAY]
<Format>
Select Up/Dn
<Marker Width>
Select Spot
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
[ACTIVE TRACE]
[DISPLAY]
<Marker Width>
Select Spot
[MEAS]
<Display Menu>
<Phase>
[ACTIVE TRACE]
[MARKER MODE]
<Linked Markers>
Select On
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
6-15
PERFORMANCE TESTS
<Average Type>
Select Vector
<Averaging>
Select On
4) Record the marker Y reading for Trace1 (lower trace Y reading in degrees).
5) Press
[INPUT]
<Trigger Menu>
<Trigger Slope>
Select Falling Edge
[START]
6) Record the marker Y reading for Trace1 (in degrees)
7) This completes the phase accuracy test. Enter the results of this test in the test record at the end of
this section.
6-16
PERFORMANCE TESTS
9. Harmonic Distortion
This test measures the harmonic distortion of the analyzer.
Setup
We will use the low distortion oscillator to provide the signal.
Connect the output of the low distortion oscillator to the A input of the analyzer. Be sure to use the
appropriate termination.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Set the low distortion oscillator to a frequency of 24 kHz and an amplitude of 70 mVrms.
3) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[-] [1] [6] <dBV>
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
4) Adjust the oscillator frequency to 24.0 kHz.
Adjust the oscillator amplitude until the marker Y reading is -20.0 dBV ± 0.2 dBV.
5) Press
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
<Averaging>
Select On
[MARKER REF]
[ANALYZE]
<Harmonic>
6) Repeat steps 6a through 6 three times to measure the harmonics in the table below.
Fundamental
24.0 kHz
Harmonic #
2
3
4
Harmonic Frequency
48 kHz
72 kHz
96 kHz
a) Press <# Harmonics>
[2] <Enter>
b) Press <Next Harmonic ->> to move the marker to the next harmonic to the right.
c) Record the marker Y reading.
6-17
PERFORMANCE TESTS
7) Press
[MARKER]
8) Use the knob to move the marker to a region between the 2nd and 3rd harmonics. Make sure that
the marker is reading a point representative of the noise floor.
Note the marker Y value. If the noise floor is above -93 dB, then the harmonic distortion
measurements are invalid. A generator with a lower noise floor is required.
9) This completes the harmonic distortion test. Enter the results of this test in the test record at the end
of this section.
6-18
PERFORMANCE TESTS
10. Noise and Spurious Signals
This test measures the analyzer noise floor and checks for spurious signals.
Setup
Connect a 50Ω feedthrough termination to the A input. This grounds the input so the analyzer's own noise is
measured.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[FREQ]
<Span>
[5] [0] <kHz>
<Start Freq.>
[1] <kHz>
[INPUT]
<Input Range>
[-] [5] [0] <dBV>
[MEAS]
<Measure Menu>
<PSD>
<Return>
<Units Menu>
<dBVrms>
[SCALE]
<Top Ref.>
[-] [4] [0] <dBV/√Hz>
[AVERAGE]
<Number of Averages>
[2] [0] <Enter>
<Averaging>
Select On
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
3) Record the marker Y reading.
4) Press
[FREQ]
<Start Freq.>
[5] [0] <kHz>
[START]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
5) Record the marker Y reading.
6-19
PERFORMANCE TESTS
6) Press
[MEAS]
<Measure Menu>
<Spectrum>
<Return>
<Units Menu>
<dBV>
7) For each of the spans listed below, perform steps 7a and 7b.
Center Frequency
200 Hz
500 Hz
1 kHz
5 kHz
10 kHz
25 kHz
50 kHz
75 kHz
99 kHz
Span
390 Hz
390 Hz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
a) Press
[FREQ]
<Span>
Enter the span from the table
<Center Freq.>
Enter the center frequency from the table
Wait for the "Settling" message at the bottom left corner of the screen to go out after
changing the center frequency, then press
[START]
[AUTO SCALE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
b) Record the marker Y reading for each center frequency.
8) This completes the noise and spurious signal test. Enter the results of this test in the test record at
the end of this section.
6-20
PERFORMANCE TESTS
11. Sine Source
This test measures the source sine output.
Setup
Connect the Source output to the A input.
Procedure
1) {PRESET} (Turn the analyzer off, wait a few seconds, then back on with the [<-] key pressed)
2) Press the keys in the following sequence:
[SOURCE]
<Sine>
[AUTO RANGE]
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
3) Record the marker Y reading.
4) Press
[SOURCE]
<Configure Source>
<Level>
[-] [2] [0] <dBV>
5) Record the marker Y reading.
6) Press
[0] <dBV>
7) For each of the frequencies below, perform steps 7a and 7b.
Frequency
10 kHz
20 kHz
40 kHz
60 kHz
80 kHz
99 kHz
a) Press
<Frequency>
Enter the frequency from the table.
[MARKER MAX/MIN]
b) Record the marker Y reading.
8) This completes the source sine test. Enter the results of this test in the test record.
6-21
PERFORMANCE TESTS
6-22
PERFORMANCE TESTS
SR770 Performance Test Record
Serial Number
Firmware Revision
Tested By
Date
Equipment Used
1. Self Tests
Test
Power On Test
Keypad
Knob
Main Memory
Video Memory
DSP Test
Pass
____
____
____
____
____
____
Fail
____
____
____
____
____
____
Reading
_______
_______
Upper Limit
< -85 dBV
< -85 dBV
2. DC Offset
Input Range
-30 dBV
-60 dBV
3. Common Mode Rejection
Input Range
-2 dBV
Frequency
1.0 kHz
Reading
_______
Upper Limit
< -80 dB
4. Amplitude Accuracy and Flatness
Input Range
-46 dBV
-38 dBV
-30 dBV
-14 dBV
4 dBV
10 dBV
Calibrator Ampl.
2.509 mVrms
6.302 mVrms
15.830 mVrms
99.881 mVrms
0.7934 Vrms
1.5830 Vrms
Flatness relative to 1 kHz
Input Range
Frequency
-14 dBV
24 kHz
-14 dBV
48 kHz
-14 dBV
76 kHz
-14 dBV
99 kHz
Lower Limit
-49.20 dBV
-41.20 dBV
-33.20 dBV
-17.20 dBV
0.80 dBV
6.80 dBV
Reading
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Upper Limit
-48.80 dBV
-40.80 dBV
-32.80 dBV
-16.80 dBV
1.20 dBV
7.20 dBV
Lower Limit
-17.30 dBV
-17.30 dBV
-17.30 dBV
-17.30 dBV
Reading
_______
_______
_______
_______
Upper Limit
-16.70 dBV
-16.70 dBV
-16.70 dBV
-16.70 dBV
6-23
PERFORMANCE TESTS
SR770 Performance Test Record
4. Amplitude Accuracy and Flatness Continued
Flatness relative to 1 kHz
Input Range
Frequency
22 dBV
24 kHz
22 dBV
48 kHz
22 dBV
76 kHz
22 dBV
99 kHz
Lower Limit
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
Reading
_______
_______
_______
_______
Upper Limit
+0.3 dBV
+0.3 dBV
+0.3 dBV
+0.3 dBV
Lower Limit
18.80 dBV
3.80 dBV
-14.21 dBV
-30.82 dBV
-52.26 dBV
Reading
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Upper Limit
19.20 dBV
4.20 dBV
-13.80 dBV
-29.25 dBV
-42.40 dBV
5. Amplitude Linearity
Input Range
22 dBV
Calibrator Ampl.
6.3021 Vrms
1.1207 Vrms
141.09 mVrms
22.361 mVrms
3.544 mVrms
6. Anti-Alias Filter Attenuation
Input Frequency
157 kHz
Reading
_______
Upper Limit
< -95 dB
Lower Limit
9.9999 kHz
Reading
_______
Upper Limit
10.0001 kHz
Lower Limit
-3.0 deg
+177.0 deg
Reading
_______
_______
Upper Limit
+3.0 deg
-177.0 deg
Reading
_______
_______
_______
Upper Limit
< -80 dB
< -80 dB
< -80 dB
7. Frequency Accuracy
Input Frequency
10 kHz
8. Phase Accuracy
Frequency
10 kHz
Trigger Slope
Rising
Falling
9. Harmonic Distortion
Fundamental
24 kHz
Harmonic Frequency
48 kHz
72 kHz
96 kHz
6-24
PERFORMANCE TESTS
SR770 Performance Test Record
10. Noise and Spurious Signals
Noise floor
Start Frequency
500 Hz
50 kHz
Span
50 kHz
50 kHz
Reading
_______
_______
Upper Limit
-160 dBVrms/√Hz
-160 dBVrms/√Hz
* CRT retrace frequency (at approximately 15.6 kHz) and retrace frequency harmonics are excepted
from these limits.
Spurious signals
Center Frequency
200 Hz
500 Hz
1 kHz
5 kHz
10 kHz
25 kHz
50 kHz
75 kHz
99 kHz
Span
390 Hz
390 Hz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
1.56 kHz
Reading
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Upper Limit
-135 dBV
-140 dBV
-140 dBV
-140 dBV
-140 dBV
-140 dBV
-140 dBV
-140 dBV
-140 dBV
Amplitude
Frequency
1 kHz
1 kHz
Level
0 dBV
-20 dBV
Lower Limit
-0.3 dBV
-20.3 dBV
Reading
_______
_______
Upper Limit
0.3 dBV
-19.7 dBV
Amplitude Flatness
Frequency
10 kHz
20 kHz
40 kHz
60 kHz
80 kHz
99 kHz
Level
0 dBV
0 dBV
0 dBV
0 dBV
0 dBV
0 dBV
Lower Limit
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
-0.3 dBV
Reading
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Upper Limit
0.3 dBV
0.3 dBV
0.3 dBV
0.3 dBV
0.3 dBV
0.3 dBV
11. Sine Source
6-25
PERFORMANCE TESTS
6-26
PERFORMANCE TESTS
6-27
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
CAUTION
VIDEO DRIVER AND CRT
Always disconnect the power cord and wait at
least one minute before opening the unit.
Dangerous power supply voltages may be
present even after the unit has been
unplugged.
Potentially lethal voltages are present in this
circuit. Do not attempt to service the CRT and
Video Driver Board. Refer any service
problems to the factory.
CIRCUIT BOARDS
Check the LED at the front edge of the power
supply board. The unit is safe only if the LED is
OFF. If the LED is ON, then DO NOT attempt
any service on the unit.
The SR770 has four main printed circuit boards.
The four boards shown contain most of the active
circuitry of the unit. The CRT and video driver
boards are mounted inside the CRT shield
assembly. A front panel circuit board only has
keypad contacts printed on it and holds no active
components.
This unit is to be serviced by qualified service
personnel only. There are no user serviceable
parts inside.
7-1
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
CPU BOARD
selects the UART and -PCS3 selects the video
graphics controller. Whenever the video controller
is accessed, the ARDY line is asserted (U504A)
which puts the processor into a wait state. When
the video controller acknowledges the data
transfer by pulling -Video_Rdy low, the ARDY line
is de-asserted (U805A and U815D) and the
processor moves on to the next instruction.
The CPU board contains the microprocessor
system. All display, front panel, disk, and computer
interfaces are on this board.
MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEM
The microprocessor, U101, is an 80C186
microcontroller which integrates a fast 16 bit
processor, counter-timers, interrupt controller,
DMA controller, and I/O decoding into a single
component.
Interrupts generated by peripherals on the CPU
board are combined in U505 into a single
prioritized interrupt. The highest priority pending
interrupt will be encoded on U505's outputs and
read via the status port, U608. The UART directly
interrupts the processor since it can never be
masked.
The 80C186 uses a 24.00 MHz crystal, X101, as
its oscillator. The instruction clock cycle is 2
oscillator cycles or 12.0 MHz. The data and lower
16 bits of address are multiplexed on AD0-AD15.
U201, U202, U203 latch the address A0-A19 at the
beginning of each memory or I/O cycle. U204 and
U205 are bidirectional data bus drivers which are
active during the data read/write portion of each
memory or I/O cycle.
KEYPAD INTERFACE
The keypad is organized as 8 columns and 8 rows
of switch closures. The conductive rubber keys
provide the switch closures. U607 strobes the
columns and U606 detects the switch closure. The
diodes D601 - D608 prevent one column from
affecting another. All of the outputs from U607 are
set high and U606 is read periodically by the
processor. As long as 00H is read, no key is
pressed and the strobes are left on. When a nonzero byte is read, then the key strobes are
activated individually in order to decode which key
is down.
The 80C186 can address 1 Mbyte of memory and
64k of I/O space. The memory is mapped into 4
256kbyte blocks. Each block can actually have
64k, 128k, or 256k of physical memory. Each
block has 2 sockets, one for the low byte and one
for the high byte of data.
U301 and U302 are 128kbyte EPROMS holding
the program boot firmware. This memory is
mapped at E0000H to FFFFFH (128k). U303 and
U304 are 64kbyte data ROMS mapped at 80000H
to 9FFFFH (128k).
KEYBOARD INTERFACE
The PC keyboard interface uses U603 to convert
serial data from the keyboard into a parallel byte
for the processor to read. The data format from the
keyboard is a leading start bit followed by 8 data
bits. U603 is reset by a processor read. When a
key is pressed, the bits are shifted into U603.
When the start bit appears at the QH output, 7 bits
of the data byte are in U603. U601 is the 9th bit of
the shift register. When U601 clocks in the start
bit, U601 must have the 8 bits of the data. U601
then latches the serial data in U601 and interrupts
the processor.
U401 and U402 are 32kbyte CMOS static RAMs
mapped at 00000H to 0FFFFH (64k). This memory
is backed up by the battery. Q401 provides power
down RAM protection. This memory is system
memory.
U403 and U404 are also 32kbyte static RAMs.
They are mapped at 40000H to 4FFFFH (64k) and
are used as the display data memory. Up to 16k
data points may be stored in this memory. Data
stored in this memory may be graphed on the
screen.
Only keyboards which operate in the PC or 8088
mode will function with this interface.
4 of the 7 80C186's peripheral chip select strobes
are used by peripherals on the CPU board. -PCS0
is decoded into 16 I/O strobes which access the
clock, keypad, keyboard, knob, printer port, etc. PCS1 decodes the disk controller, the GPIB
controller, and DMA acknowledge strobes. -PCS2
7-2
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
SPIN KNOB
Memory is accessed twice during each display
cycle. The first access reads the 16 bits of video
data for the current display cycle. The second
access is used by the controller for drawing
purposes. During the drawing access, data at any
address may be read or written. This allows
drawing to take place as fast as possible.
The knob is an optical encoder buffered by U612.
Each transition of its outputs is clocked into U610
or U611 and generates an interrupt at the output of
U602A. The processor keeps track of the knob's
position continuously.
SPEAKER
The speaker is driven by a timer on the 80C186.
The timer outputs a square wave which is enabled
by U602B and drives the speaker through Q705.
Commands and data are sent from the 80C186 to
the HD63484 using a DMA channel. This allows
the HD63484 to process commands without
having to wait for the 80C186 to send them.
CLOCK/CALENDAR
DISK CONTROLLER
U702 is an MC146818 real time clock chip which
keeps track of time and date. The time base is a
32.768 kHz oscillator made by U706. Both U702
and U706 are battery backed up.
U907 is a DP8473 disk controller which integrates
all of the functions of the PC interface into a single
IC. All motor controls, read and write signals, and
data are all controlled by the DP8473. A DMA
channel is used to send and receive data from the
controller in order to satisfy the disk drive timing.
PRINTER INTERFACE
GPIB INTERFACE
The printer interface allows screen displays to be
printed to Epson compatible printers. Output data
is buffered by U703, an LS octal latch. Output
control bits are buffered by the open collector
driver U704, and input control bits are
discriminated by U705C and U705D.
The GPIB (IEEE-488) interface is provided by
U902, a TMS9914A controller. U903 and U904
buffer data I/O to the GPIB connector. U902 is
programmed to provide an interrupt to the
processor whenever there is bus activity
addressed to the unit.
VIDEO GRAPHICS INTERFACE
RS232 INTERFACE
The video graphics interface is centered around
U810, an HD63484 graphics controller. The
HD63484 generates the video sync signals,
controls the video memory, and draws graphic
primitives such as lines, circles, polygons,etc., and
other high level functions. The HD63484 relieves
the 80C186 from having to calculate each video
image and greatly increases display speed.
The SCN2641 UART, U905, provides all of the
UART functions as well as baud rate generation.
Standard baud rates up to 19.2k can be generated
from the 3.6864 MHz clock. U906 buffers the
outgoing data and control signals. Incoming
signals are received by U705A and U705B. If the
host computer asserts DTR, RS232 data output
from the unit will cease.
U813 and U814 are 32kbyte RAMs which make up
the 64k video memory. The video screen is 640H
by 480V and requires 38,400 bytes of memory.
The remaining memory is used to store patterns,
fonts, and other graphic objects. The data and
address are multiplexed and U811 and U182 are
the address latches.
The RS232 port is a DCE and may be connected
to a PC using a standard serial cable (not a "null
modem" cable).
EXPANSION CONNECTOR
All control of the data acquisition hardware is
through the signals on the 30 pin expansion
connector.
Data is read 16 bits at a time. When data is
required for the display, the 16 bits of data are
latched into U804 and U809 which are parallel to
serial converters. The video data is then shifted
out at 13.5 MHz and synchronized by U806B.
U803C blanks the video data except during active
display times.
7-3
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
POWER SUPPLY BOARD
CAUTION: Dangerous voltages are present on
this circuit board whenever the instrument is
attached to an AC power source and the front
panel power switch is "on".
There are 2 +5V supplies, one to power the CPU
board and disk drive (+5V_P), and one to power
the DSP Logic Board (+5V_I).
The following description refers to the +5V_P
supply but describes the +5V_I and -5V and
supplies as well.
Always disconnect the power cord and wait at
least one minute before opening the unit.
Check the LED at the front edge of the power
supply board. The unit is safe only if the LED is
OFF. If the LED is ON, then DO NOT attempt
any service on the unit.
The main pass transistor is Q5. The base of this
transistor is controlled so that the emitter will
provide a low impedance source of 5 VDC. The
current gain of Q5 remains large until the collectoremitter voltage drops to about 0.4 VDC, hence the
low drop-out voltage of the regulator. The base of
Q5 is driven by the emitter of Q6 which is driven by
the output of the op amp, U3B. By comparing the
output of the regulator to the 5.00V reference, the
op amp maintains the regulator's output at 5.00
VDC. The current output from the regulator is
measured by the 0.1 Ω resistor R10. If the current
exceeds about 2 Amps, then the output of U3A
turns on, pulling the sense input of U3B high,
thereby turning off the regulator's output.
UNREGULATED POWER SUPPLIES
A power entry module, with RF line filter, is used to
configure the unit for 100, 120, 220, or 240 VAC.
The line filter reduces noise from the instrument
and reduces the unit's susceptibility to line voltage
noise. R1 is an inrush limiter to limit the turn on
current and TS1 is a thermal switch which will
interrupt the AC line if the heat sink temperature
rises to 50°C.
Bridge rectifiers are used to provide unregulated
DC at ±22V, ±18V and ±8V. Schottky diodes are
used for all supplies to reduce rectifier losses.
U11 and U12 are regulators for ±15 VDC. U6, U7
and U18 are the ±12V regulators. Since these
supplies do not need to be accurate, output
sensing is not used.
Resistors provide a bleed current on all of the
unregulated supply filter capacitors. Because of
the large capacitances in this circuit, the time for
the voltages to bleed to zero is about a minute
after the power is turned off.
U9 and U10 provide ±18V sources which are not
referenced to the digital ground (as are all of the
supplies mentioned above). This allows the analog
inputs board to establish a ground at the signal
input without digital ground noise.
POWER SUPPLY REGULATORS
The voltage regulators provide outputs at +5V, 5V, ±15V, ±18V and ±12V. The ±5V regulators are
designed to operate with a very low drop-out
voltage.
U1 provides power-up and power-down reset.
The 24 VDC brushless fan runs from the –18V
unregulated supply.
U2 is a precision 5.00V reference which is used to
set ±5V output voltages. This provides very
accurate digital power supply outputs.
7-4
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
DSP LOGIC BOARD
OVERVIEW
99.8 kHz) and reduces the sampling rate of the
resulting data stream to reflect the bandwidth of
the selected frequency span. Recall that the
sampling rate must be at least twice that of the
frequency span. Data is received from the A/D
Converter via its dedicated serial receive port. The
results of the heterodyning, filtering and
downsampling are passed on to the second DSP
via the serial transmit port. Because data sent to
the second DSP is in complex form, there are
actually two data streams sent, one representing
real data and the other representing imaginary
data. U105 stores an output flag so that the
second DSP can distinguish "real" data points from
"imaginary" data points. U106 is a PAL which
provides some decoding logic for I/O strobes and
interrupt lines and also performs some
computations in hardware for the first DSP.
The DSP LOGIC BOARD takes a digital input from
the A/D Converter on the Analog Input Board and
performs all of the computations related to the
measurement before it is displayed on the screen.
This includes digital heterodyning (frequency
shifting), digital filtering and downsampling, Fast
Fourier Transforming, averaging, and output
display processing (scaling, magnitude calc, log,
sqrt, etc.) These functions are implemented within
a system comprised of four functional blocks: the
Digital Signal Processors (DSP's), the Trigger
Processor, the Timing Signal Generator and the
I/O Interface. Through the use of highly efficient
algorithms, the system is capable of real-time
heterodyning and filtering, and can compute a 512
point FFT in under 1.5 ms. FFT's can be computed
on the incoming data faster than the time it takes
to complete a time record. This is what accounts
for the extremely high 100 kHz real-time bandwidth
of the SR770.
The second DSP processor, U201, is responsible
for FFT computations, trigger computations,
averaging algorithms, and output display
processing. Data from the first DSP is received by
the second DSP via its serial receive port and
stored in a buffer. FFT's are performed on the data
in the buffer once the buffer is filled with a
sufficient number of points. After the FFT is
computed, phase corrections are made using
information from the trigger circuitry (if trigger is
enabled). The FFT is then averaged with previous
FFT spectra (if averaging is enabled). Lastly, the
spectra is prepared for display on the CRT screen.
Depending upon the user's request, scaling, log or
sqrt functions need to be performed on the FFT
spectra.
The fifth functional block is the source generator.
The source is synthesized, filtered and attenuated
before being passed to the output connector.
DSP PROCESSORS
The SR770 utilizes two Motorola 24-bit DSP56001
DSP Chips. The two DSP's are configured almost
identically, with minor differences reflecting the
specific function of each DSP. Each DSP contains
two external busses - a memory bus and a host
processor bus. The memory bus is connected to
32K of 24 bit Static RAM (SRAM) as well as some
decoding logic for access to I/O devices. The Host
processor bus is connected to the main CPU
Board via the I/O Interface on the DSP Logic
Board. The CPU Board acts as the "host"
processor to the DSP's and controls all of their
functions. DSP firmware and commands are
downloaded from the CPU Board to invoke
different operating modes. Each DSP also has two
dedicated serial ports: one for receiving, and one
for transmitting. These ports are used for
transferring partially processed data.
TRIGGER
The Trigger function of the SR770 allows the user
to control when the instrument will start taking data
for the FFT computation. For example, a user
wishes to examine the spectrum of a transient
induced by a hammer blow to a mechanical
structure. A transducer connected to the hammer
provides a pulse upon impact of the hammer. That
pulse can be used to "trigger" the start of data
collection by the SR770 so that the resulting
transient is captured in one FFT time record.
The first DSP processor, U101, is responsible for
frequency shifting the input signal from the A/D
converter, filtering and downsampling. In short, the
first DSP Processor extracts a select portion of the
frequency spectrum from the digitized input signal
(for example the spectrum from 99.7 kHz to
The Trigger input can be a TTL level signal or an
analog signal. T301 provides some common-mode
rejection for the trigger input. Relay K302 selects
TTL or Analog Level Trigger. Relay K301 allows
the trigger signal to come from the output
7-5
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
to latch the state of the timing generator when a
trigger signal is detected.
of the analog front-end amplifiers or the external
"TRIGGER" front panel BNC. Trigger signals pass
through the 74F86 XOR gate where it can be
inverted if falling edge trigger slope is selected.
TTL triggers proceed directly to the F86 XOR gate
via some input protection. Analog level signals are
first converted to a TTL signal via high-speed
comparator U303 and then proceed to the F86
XOR gate.
I/O INTERFACE TO CPU BOARD
The I/O interface provides the communication
pathway between the DSP Logic Board and the
main CPU Board. U601 and U602 are buffers for
the address and data bus connections. Both buffer
chips are enabled only when the CPU Board is
writing to the DSP Logic Board. This helps isolate
the activity on the CPU Board from affecting
circuitry on the DSP Logic Board. U603 and U604
are simple D-type latches used to hold
configuration data for the DSP Logic Board. U605
is the main decoder PAL and generates all of the
chip selects and strobes needed by the DSP Logic
Board.
At the heart of the trigger input is the analog highspeed comparator, U303 (LT1016). It's input is
buffered by U301A and protected by resistor
N301A and diodes D301 and D302. C301 provides
high-frequency hysteresis when the output latch
cannot respond fast enough, and U301B and
U302A provide low-frequency hysteresis. R304
and N301B determine the level of hysteresis. The
DC trigger level is set by the 8-bit DAC U513B.
U515 buffers the DAC output and provides a DC
offset to correct the offset from the anti-aliasing
filter. U304 guarantees that triggers occur on the
next rising edge of the output from XOR gate
U302B. Flip-Flops U304B and U305A synchronize
the trigger signal to the internal 30 MHz clock. FlipFlop U305 latches the trigger signal and stays high
until cleared. Flip-Flops U306A and U306B
synchronize the trigger signal to the A/D sampling
clock and DSP serial port.
SOURCE GENERATOR
The source generator has its own digital signal
processor, an ADSP-2105. The ADSP-2105 has
its own ROM and RAM and runs on its own.
Commands are passed to it via the 8 bit DAC data
latch (U517). The ADSP-2105 computes the
source waveforms, a point every 4 µs. The output
points are serially shifted to U506, a 16 bit serial
input DAC. The output frame sync is exactly the
same as the input frame sync to the input A/D
converter. Thus the source is synchronous with the
input sampling.
TIMING SIGNAL GENERATOR
The timing signal generator provides all timing
signals for the A/D Converter, Trigger Circuitry and
DSP processor serial ports. U608 is a PAL which
implements a 118 state 7-bit counter. U609 is also
a PAL and implements a 118 state state-machine
and generates all the timing signals needed on the
DSP Logic Board. U610 is a high-speed latch used
The output of U506 is buffered and filtered to
remove high frequency components. U513A is
used as an 8 bit attenuator and U502 is a divide by
10 or 100 attenuator. U514 is a high current output
buffer which provides the low output impedance.
7-6
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
ANALOG INPUT BOARD
OVERVIEW
selected, the offset and CMR are adjusted via
P102 and P101 respectively. When a gain of 2 is
selected, offset and CMR are adjusted via P104
and P103 respectively.
The Analog Input Board provides the very
important link between the user's input signal and
the DSP processor. From the front panel BNC, the
user's signal passes through a low distortion frontend amplifier, gain stages, attenuators, antialiasing filter, and finally an A/D Converter. Once
converted to digital form, the input signal is ready
to be processed by the Digital Signal Processors.
GAIN STAGES AND ATTENUATORS
Collectively, the front end amplifier, gain stages
and attenuators provide attenuation from -12dB to
0 dB and gain from +2dB to +60dB in 2dB steps.
This is accomplished through the front-end
amplifier, two gain stages and a resistive ladder
attenuator.
INPUT AMPLIFIER
The goal of any measurement instrument is to
perform some given measurement while affecting
the quantities to be measured as little as possible.
As such, the input amplifier is often the most
critical stage in the entire signal path. The design
of the front end input amplifier in the SR770 was
driven by an effort to provide optimum
performance in the following areas: input voltage
noise, input current noise, input capacitance,
harmonic distortion, and common mode rejection
(CMR). To provide such performance, a FET input
differential amplifier with common-mode feedback
architecture was chosen. The input signal is first
passed through a series of relays to select input
mode, input coupling and input attenuation. The 30 dB input attenuator formed by resistors R102R105 serves to attenuate very large signals that
enter the instrument but also serves a dual
purpose of providing protection to the input FETs
in the presence of very high voltages (> 75Vpk).
To prevent damage to the input FETs, the input
voltage is monitored by comparator U105. High
voltages cause the input attenuator to be
automatically engaged regardless of the user gain
setting at the front panel. Resistors R107 and
R108 provide some input protection to the input
FETs, with only a slight penalty in input voltage
noise. The input FETs U100A and U100B are
extremely low-noise matched FET's with a voltage
input noise of approximately 3.5 nv/√Hz. To
improve distortion performance, the input FETs
are cascoded to maintain a constant drain-source
voltage across each FET. This prevents
modulation of the drain-source voltage by the input
voltage. U104 senses the source voltage and
maintains the same voltage at the drain with some
DC offset determined by resistors R113-R116 and
R120-R123. U103 provides common-mode
feedback and maintains a constant drain current in
each FET. The gain of the front end is either 2 or
10 as selected by relay K107. When a gain of 10 is
The first gain stage is configurable as either a
+14dB or +20dB amplifier. The second stage
provides only one gain setting of +20dB. To
achieve the desired gain, the front end amplifier
and these two gain stages are cascaded together.
If any particular gain stage is not needed, it's input
is grounded. This maintains a cleaner power
supply, and reduces the ability of potentially large
signals in unused gain stages from interacting with
the input signal to cause harmonic distortion. U206
forms an analog multiplexer and selects one of the
three gain stage outputs or an attenuated front end
amplifier output. This enables several different
overall gains to be realized while utilizing a
minimum number of gain stages. The input signal
is never passed through a gain stage
unnecessarily. This improves the noise and
harmonic distortion performance of the overall
amplifier. Referenced to the input of the front end
amplifier, gains of -2dB, +6dB, +20dB, +34dB,
+40dB, +54dB and +60dB are realizable.
The
resistive
ladder
attenuator
provides
attenuation from 0dB to -12dB in 2 dB steps. This
improves the resolution with which gain can be
selected. At the output of the attenuator is U211,
which detects overloads.
ANTI-ALIASING FILTER
To prevent aliasing, the input signal passes
through a low-pass filter so that all frequency
components greater than half the sampling
frequency are attenuated by at least 96 dB. This is
accomplished with an 8-zero 9-pole elliptical low
pass filter. The pass band of this filter is DC to
100kHz with a ripple of 0.25 dB. The stopband
begins at 156 kHz. Stopband attenuation is
nominally 100 dB.
7-7
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
A/D CONVERTER
The architecture of the filter is based on a singly
terminated passive LC ladder filter. L's are
simulated with active gyrators formed by op-amp
pairs. Passive LC ladder filters have the special
characteristic of being very tolerant of variations in
component values. Because no section of the
ladder is completely isolated from the other, a
change in value of any single component affects
the entire ladder. The design of the LC ladder
however, is such that the characteristics of the rest
of the ladder will shift to account for the change in
such a way as to minimize its effect on the ladder.
Not only does this loosen the requirement for
extremely high accuracy resistors and capacitors,
but it also makes the filter extremely stable despite
wide temperature variations. As such, the antialiasing filter used in the SR770 does not ever
require calibration to meets its specifications.
The A/D Converter converts the final signal to a
digital data stream. Conversion takes place at a
rate of 256,000 samples per second. A Burr-Brown
PCM1750 18-bit A/D Converter is used for this
purpose.
I/O INTERFACE
The Analog Input Board communicates with the
CPU Board via its I/O Interface. IC's U504-U506
form a 24 bit shift register and latch. Data is shifted
in serially from the CPU Board and latched to
internal latches. The outputs of the latches are
used to control relays, switches, etc. U503 optoisolates the signals for the shift registers to prevent
DSP Logic Board Noise from entering the Analog
Input Board. Timing signals for the A/D Converter
are received via pulse transformers T501-T503
configured
as
common-mode
rejection
transformers to isolate the analog and digital
grounds.
Following the anti-aliasing filter is a gain stage to
buffer the output of the filter and to provide a small
amount of gain before going to the A/D Converter.
To minimize offset, 8-bit DAC U307 provides an
offset voltage to compensate for offsets
accumulated in the gain stages. U309 sends the
output of the filter to the DSP Logic Board for
internal triggering purposes. Diodes D301-D304
provide input protection for the A/D converter.
POWER
Several voltages are generated on the Analog
Input Board locally. ±15V is generated for most of
the analog IC's. A dedicated ±15V supply is also
generated for the front-end amplifier. ±5V is
generated for the A/D Converter as well as a digital
+5V for the digital IC's that provide timing signals
to the A/D. Lastly, another +5V supply is generated
for all other digital logic and +12V for relays.
7-8
PARTS LIST
CPU Board Parts List
REF.
BT701
C 101
C 102
C 103
C 501
C 601
C 602
C 603
C 701
C 704
C 705
C 706
C 801
C 802
C 803
C 804
C 805
C 806
C 807
C 808
C 810
C 811
C 901
C 902
C 903
C 904
C 905
C 906
C 907
C 908
C 909
C 910
C 1001
C 1002
C 1003
C 1004
C 1005
C 1006
C 1007
C 1008
C 1009
C 1010
C 1011
C 1012
C 1013
C 1014
C 1015
C 1016
C 1017
SRS PART#
6-00001-612
5-00177-501
5-00215-501
0-00772-000
5-00215-501
5-00033-520
5-00012-501
5-00012-501
5-00064-513
5-00012-501
5-00012-501
5-00061-513
5-00178-501
5-00178-501
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00023-529
5-00232-520
5-00003-501
5-00003-501
5-00061-513
5-00223-513
5-00068-513
5-00061-513
5-00012-501
5-00012-501
5-00178-501
5-00178-501
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
VALUE
BR-2/3A 2PIN PC
30P
20P
1.5" WIRE
20P
47U
330P
330P
.0047U
330P
330P
.001U
62P
62P
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
.1U
470U
10P
10P
.001U
.027U
.047U
.001U
330P
330P
62P
62P
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
DESCRIPTION
Battery
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Hardware, Misc.
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 16V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Mylar/Poly, 50V, 5%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Mylar/Poly, 50V, 5%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 16V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Mylar/Poly, 50V, 5%, Rad
Capacitor, Mylar/Poly, 50V, 5%, Rad
Capacitor, Mylar/Poly, 50V, 5%, Rad
Capacitor, Mylar/Poly, 50V, 5%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
7-9
PARTS LIST
REF.
C 1018
C 1019
C 1020
C 1021
C 1022
C 1023
C 1024
C 1025
C 1026
C 1027
C 1028
C 1029
C 1030
C 1031
C 1032
C 1033
C 1034
C 1035
C 1036
C 1037
C 1038
C 1039
C 1040
C 1041
C 1042
C 1043
C 1044
CU901
D 100
D 401
D 601
D 602
D 603
D 604
D 605
D 606
D 607
D 608
D 701
D 702
D 703
D 704
D 705
D 810
JP201
JP301
JP302
JP303
JP601
JP603
JP702
SRS PART#
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00114-501
3-00391-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00203-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00820-301
0-00772-000
0-00772-000
0-00772-000
0-00772-000
1-00113-100
0-00772-000
1-00083-130
VALUE
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
200P
MBR360
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N5711
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N4148
1N5228B
1.5" WIRE
1.5" WIRE
1.5" WIRE
1.5" WIRE
DIN 5
1.5" WIRE
26 PIN DIL
DESCRIPTION
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Connector, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Connector, Male
7-10
PARTS LIST
REF.
JP801
JP802
JP803
JP901A
JP901B
JP902
JP903
JP1000
JP1002
N 101
N 102
N 501
N 601
N 701
N 801
N 901
N 902
PC1
Q 401
Q 701
Q 702
Q 703
Q 705
Q 810
Q 811
R 401
R 402
R 502
R 601
R 602
R 701
R 702
R 703
R 704
R 705
R 706
R 707
R 710
R 711
R 712
R 713
R 714
R 801
R 802
R 808
R 809
R 810
R 811
R 812
R 813
R 814
SRS PART#
1-00035-130
0-00772-000
1-00086-130
1-00207-133
1-00209-133
1-00238-161
1-00016-160
1-00170-130
1-00039-116
4-00587-425
4-00334-425
4-00334-425
4-00227-425
4-00270-425
4-00334-425
4-00221-425
4-00244-421
7-00809-701
3-00026-325
3-00022-325
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00022-325
3-00022-325
3-00021-325
4-00034-401
4-00079-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00088-401
4-00021-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00063-401
4-00080-401
4-00080-401
4-00021-401
4-00056-401
4-00079-401
4-00022-401
4-00062-401
4-00060-401
4-00081-401
4-00031-401
4-00021-401
4-00021-401
4-00053-401
4-00038-401
VALUE
20 PIN DIL
1.5" WIRE
3 PIN SI
30 PIN DRA
34 PIN DRA
GPIB SHIELDED
RS232 25 PIN D
26 PIN ELH
5 PIN, WHITE
10KX7
10KX5
10KX5
22KX9
1.0KX5
10KX5
150X5
10KX4
003/015 CONTRLR
2N5210
2N3906
2N3904
2N3904
2N3906
2N3906
2N3904
10K
4.7K
10K
10K
10K
51K
1.0K
10K
10K
10K
10K
3.0K
47
47
1.0K
22
4.7K
1.0M
270
240
470
100
1.0K
1.0K
200
120
DESCRIPTION
Connector, Male
Hardware, Misc.
Connector, Male
Connector, Male, Right Angle
Connector, Male, Right Angle
Connector, IEEE488, Reverse, R/A, Female
Connector, D-Sub, Right Angle PC, Female
Connector, Male
Header, Amp, MTA-156
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Res. Network, SIP, 1/4W,2% (Isolated)
Printed Circuit Board
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
7-11
PARTS LIST
REF.
R 901
R 904
R 905
R 911
R 912
R 913
SO101
SO301
SO302
SO303
SO304
SO907
U 101
U 201
U 202
U 203
U 204
U 205
U 206
U 207
U 208
U 401
U 402
U 403
U 404
U 501
U 502
U 503
U 504
U 505
U 506
U 601
U 602
U 603
U 606
U 607
U 608
U 609
U 610
U 611
U 612
U 701
U 702
U 703
U 704
U 705
U 801
U 802
U 803
U 804
U 805
SRS PART#
4-00273-401
4-00090-401
4-00090-401
4-00022-401
4-00062-401
4-00021-401
1-00108-150
1-00156-150
1-00156-150
1-00156-150
1-00156-150
1-00232-150
3-00354-360
3-00340-340
3-00340-340
3-00340-340
3-00341-340
3-00341-340
3-00342-340
3-00343-340
3-00344-340
3-00299-341
3-00299-341
3-00299-341
3-00299-341
3-00342-340
3-00342-340
3-00342-340
3-00049-340
3-00347-340
3-00259-340
3-00049-340
3-00348-340
3-00265-340
3-00044-340
3-00046-340
3-00044-340
3-00046-340
3-00049-340
3-00049-340
3-00039-340
3-00051-340
3-00900-340
3-00300-340
3-00263-340
3-00110-340
3-00051-340
3-00171-340
3-00277-340
3-00351-340
3-00280-340
VALUE
5.6K
560
560
1.0M
270
1.0K
PLCC 68 TH
32 PIN 600 MIL
32 PIN 600 MIL
32 PIN 600 MIL
32 PIN 600 MIL
52 PLCC TH
80C186-12
74ALS373
74ALS373
74ALS373
74ALS245
74ALS245
74ALS138
74ALS32
74ALS08
32KX8-70L
32KX8-70L
32KX8-70L
32KX8-70L
74ALS138
74ALS138
74ALS138
74HC74
74LS148
74HCT373
74HC74
74HC20
74HC595
74HC244
74HC374
74HC244
74HC374
74HC74
74HC74
74HC14
74HCU04
DS12C887
74LS374
DS75451N
MC1489
74HCU04
74HC191
74HC11
74HCT299
74HC10
DESCRIPTION
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Integrated Circuit (Surface Mount Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
7-12
PARTS LIST
REF.
U 806
U 807
U 808
U 809
U 810
U 811
U 812
U 813
U 814
U 815
U 901
U 902
U 903
U 904
U 905
U 906
U 907
U 908
X 101
X 801
X 901
X 902
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
SRS PART#
3-00049-340
3-00274-340
3-00303-340
3-00351-340
3-00598-340
3-00046-340
3-00046-340
3-00299-341
3-00299-341
3-00262-340
3-00350-340
3-00645-340
3-00078-340
3-00079-340
3-00247-340
3-00109-340
3-00596-360
3-00040-340
6-00068-620
6-00069-620
6-00068-620
6-00037-620
0-00126-053
0-00479-055
1-00136-171
1-00137-165
VALUE
74HC74
74AC74
74HC164
74HCT299
63484P-98
74HC374
74HC374
32KX8-70L
32KX8-70L
74HC86
74ALS04
NAT9914BPD
DS75160A
DS75161A
SCN2641
MC1488
DP8473AV
74HC157
24.000 MHZ
13.5168 MHZ
24.000 MHZ
3.6864 MHZ
3-1/2" #24
1.5"X#30 ORA
26 COND
25 PIN IDC
DESCRIPTION
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Surface Mount Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Crystal
Crystal
Crystal
Crystal
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Wire, Other
Cable Assembly, Ribbon
Connector, D-Sub, Female
Power Supply Parts List
REF.
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C 10
C 11
C 12
C 13
C 16
C 17
C 18
C 19
C 20
C 21
C 23
C 24
SRS PART#
5-00124-526
5-00124-526
5-00228-526
5-00228-526
5-00230-550
5-00229-521
5-00023-529
5-00127-524
5-00038-509
5-00027-503
5-00002-501
5-00027-503
5-00002-501
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
5-00192-542
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
5-00192-542
5-00127-524
VALUE
5600U
5600U
15000U
15000U
47000U
15000U
.1U
2.2U
10U
.01U
100P
.01U
100P
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
22U MIN
2.2U
2.2U
22U MIN
2.2U
DESCRIPTION
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 10V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 50V, 20% Radial
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 50V, 20% Radial
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
7-13
PARTS LIST
REF.
C 26
C 27
C 28
C 29
C 30
C 31
C 32
C 33
C 34
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D 12
D 13
D 15
D 16
D 17
D 18
D 19
D 20
D 30
D 31
D 32
D 33
D 34
D 35
D 36
D 37
D 38
DS1
JP1
JP2
JP3
JP4
JP5
JP6
PC1
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8
R3
R4
R5
SRS PART#
5-00192-542
5-00127-524
5-00192-542
5-00127-524
5-00192-542
5-00127-524
5-00192-542
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
3-00391-301
3-00001-301
3-00001-301
3-00001-301
3-00001-301
3-00001-301
3-00479-301
3-00479-301
3-00479-301
3-00479-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00391-301
3-00001-301
3-00011-303
1-00039-116
1-00116-130
1-00119-116
1-00171-130
1-00086-130
1-00086-130
7-00354-701
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00257-329
3-00378-329
3-00378-329
3-00257-329
4-00034-401
4-00032-401
4-00034-401
VALUE
22U MIN
2.2U
22U MIN
2.2U
22U MIN
2.2U
22U MIN
2.2U
2.2U
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
1N4148
1N4148
MBR360
1N4001
1N4001
1N4001
1N4001
1N4001
MUR410
MUR410
MUR410
MUR410
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
MBR360
1N4001
RED
5 PIN, WHITE
4 PIN DI DISK
3 PIN, WHITE
34 PIN ELH
3 PIN SI
3 PIN SI
4
2N3904
2N3904
TIP41B
TIP102
TIP102
TIP41B
10K
100K
10K
DESCRIPTION
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 50V, 20% Radial
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 50V, 20% Radial
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 50V, 20% Radial
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 50V, 20% Radial
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
LED, T1 Package
Header, Amp, MTA-156
Connector, Male
Header, Amp, MTA-156
Connector, Male
Connector, Male
Connector, Male
Printed Circuit Board
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
7-14
PARTS LIST
REF.
R6
R7
R8
R9
R 10
R 11
R 12
R 13
R 14
R 15
R 16
R 17
R 18
R 19
R 20
R 21
R 30
R 31
R 32
R 33
R 34
R 35
R 36
R 37
R 38
R 39
R 40
T1
U1
U2
U3
U4
U5
U6
U7
U8
U9
U 10
U 11
U 12
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z1
SRS PART#
4-00046-401
4-00065-401
4-00021-401
4-00021-401
4-00436-409
4-00446-407
4-00054-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00021-401
4-00021-401
4-00436-409
4-00770-407
4-00054-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00360-401
4-00048-401
4-00360-401
4-00027-401
4-00027-401
4-00185-407
4-00185-407
4-00522-407
4-00517-407
4-00522-407
4-00517-407
1-00152-116
3-00039-340
3-00319-340
3-00088-340
3-00088-340
3-00119-329
3-00346-329
3-00346-329
3-00330-329
3-00149-329
3-00141-329
3-00114-329
3-00120-329
0-00089-033
0-00186-021
0-00187-021
0-00231-043
0-00246-043
0-00309-021
0-00316-003
1-00087-131
7-00285-721
0-00158-070
VALUE
2.0M
3.3K
1.0K
1.0K
0.1
47.5K
200K
10K
10K
1.0K
1.0K
0.1
38.3K
200K
10K
10K
430
2.2K
430
1.5K
1.5K
4.02K
4.02K
243
3.57K
243
3.57K
11 PIN, WHITE
74HC14
AD586JN
LF353
LF353
7905
7812
7812
7912
LM317T
LM337T
7815
7915
4"
6-32X1-3/8PP
4-40X1/4PP
1-32, #4 SHOULD
#8 X 1/16
8-32X1/4PP
PLTFM-28
2 PIN JUMPER
PLTFM-21
60MM 24V
DESCRIPTION
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Wire Wound
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Wire Wound
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Header, Amp, MTA-156
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Tie
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Washer, nylon
Washer, nylon
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Insulators
Connector, Female
Machined Part
Fans, & Hardware
7-15
PARTS LIST
DSP Logic Board Parts List
REF.
C 301
C 302
C 303
C 304
C 305
C 306
C 501
C 502
C 505
C 506
C 507
C 508
C 509
C 510
C 513
C 514
C 515
C 516
C 517
C 518
C 519
C 520
C 521
C 522
C 523
C 524
C 525
C 526
C 527
C 528
C 529
C 530
C 531
C 532
C 533
C 534
C 540
C 541
C 542
C 543
C 601
C 602
C 603
C 604
C 605
C 606
C 607
C 608
C 609
SRS PART#
5-00134-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
5-00134-529
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00003-501
5-00134-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00127-524
5-00134-529
5-00127-524
5-00134-529
5-00219-529
5-00134-529
5-00003-501
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
5-00127-524
5-00035-521
5-00035-521
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
VALUE
100P
.1U
.1U
2.2U
2.2U
100P
2.2U
2.2U
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
10P
100P
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
100P
2.2U
100P
.01U
100P
10P
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
47U
47U
.1U
.1U
.1U
DESCRIPTION
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
7-16
PARTS LIST
REF.
C 610
C 611
C 612
C 613
C 614
C 615
C 616
C 630
C 631
C 632
C 633
C 634
C 635
C 636
C 637
C 638
C 639
C 640
C 641
C 642
C 643
C 644
C 645
C 646
C 647
C 648
C 649
C 650
C 651
C 652
C 653
C 654
C 656
C 657
C 658
C 659
C 661
C 662
C 663
C 668
C 669
C 670
C 671
C 672
C 673
C 675
D 301
D 302
J 301
J 501
K 301
SRS PART#
5-00023-529
5-00127-524
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00127-524
5-00219-529
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00034-526
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
5-00225-548
3-00004-301
3-00004-301
0-00388-000
0-00388-000
3-00196-335
VALUE
.1U
2.2U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
100U
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
.1U AXIAL
1N4148
1N4148
RCA PHONO
RCA PHONO
HS-212S-5
DESCRIPTION
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 50V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Electrolytic, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Diode
Diode
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Relay
7-17
PARTS LIST
REF.
K 302
N 301
N 501
N 502
N 601
N 602
N 603
PC1
Q 301
Q 302
R 101
R 201
R 301
R 302
R 303
R 304
R 305
R 306
R 307
R 501
R 502
R 503
R 504
R 505
R 506
R 507
R 508
R 509
R 510
R 511
R 512
R 513
R 514
R 515
R 516
R 517
R 518
R 519
R 524
R 525
R 526
R 527
R 528
R 530
R 531
R 532
R 542
R 543
R 602
R 603
R 610
SRS PART#
3-00196-335
4-00284-421
4-00262-425
4-00262-425
4-00468-420
4-00255-421
4-00255-421
7-00351-701
3-00022-325
3-00022-325
4-00079-401
4-00079-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00034-401
4-00142-407
4-00034-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00772-402
4-00772-402
4-00177-407
4-00771-407
4-00163-407
4-00409-408
4-00409-408
4-00467-407
4-00193-407
4-00158-407
4-00409-408
4-00409-408
4-00746-407
4-00317-407
4-00652-407
4-00409-408
4-00409-408
4-00523-407
4-00177-407
4-00136-407
4-00048-401
4-00188-407
4-00161-407
4-00188-407
4-00654-407
4-00356-407
4-00031-401
4-00057-401
4-00782-448
4-00080-401
4-00080-401
4-00086-401
VALUE
HS-212S-5
1.0KX4
100X7
100X7
300X8
100X3
100X3
FFT DIGITAL
2N3906
2N3906
4.7K
4.7K
10K
10K
10K
100K
10K
10
10
33
33
3.48K
66.5
2.80K
1.210K
1.210K
2.43K
499
2.00K
1.210K
1.210K
2.05K
422
1.58K
1.210K
1.210K
649
3.48K
1.82K
2.2K
4.99K
2.49K
4.99K
182
20
100
220
54.9
47
47
51
DESCRIPTION
Relay
Res. Network, SIP, 1/4W,2% (Isolated)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network SIP 1/4W 2% (Common)
Resistor Network, DIP, 1/4W,2%,8 Ind
Res. Network, SIP, 1/4W,2% (Isolated)
Res. Network, SIP, 1/4W,2% (Isolated)
Printed Circuit Board
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1W, 1%,
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
7-18
PARTS LIST
REF.
R 611
SO501
SO504
T 301
T 501
TP301
TP302
TP502
TP503
TP505
TP601
TP602
U 101
U 102
U 103
U 104
U 105
U 106
U 108
U 201
U 202
U 203
U 204
U 207
U 301
U 302
U 303
U 304
U 305
U 306
U 501
U 502
U 503
U 506
U 507
U 508
U 509
U 510
U 511
U 512
U 513
U 514
U 515
U 516
U 517
U 518
U 519
U 520
U 521
U 601
U 602
SRS PART#
4-00086-401
1-00108-150
1-00026-150
6-00009-610
6-00137-601
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
3-00448-360
3-00366-341
3-00366-341
3-00366-341
3-00049-340
3-00476-343
3-00155-340
3-00448-360
3-00366-341
3-00366-341
3-00366-341
3-00472-343
3-00461-340
3-00364-340
3-00211-340
3-00238-340
3-00238-340
3-00238-340
3-00533-340
3-00366-341
3-00366-341
3-00531-340
3-00532-340
3-00130-340
3-00130-340
3-00130-340
3-00423-340
3-00130-340
3-01017-340
3-00383-340
3-00091-340
3-00116-325
3-00454-340
3-00440-340
3-00045-340
3-00371-340
3-00467-340
3-00440-340
3-00387-340
VALUE
51
PLCC 68 TH
28 PIN 600 MIL
T1-1-X65
15MH
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
DSP56001-FE27
32KX8-35
32KX8-35
32KX8-35
74HC74
U106 QCHECK
74HC04
DSP56001-FE27
32KX8-35
32KX8-35
32KX8-35
U207 DSP2DEC
OPA2604
74F86
LT1016
74F74
74F74
74F74
ADSP2105
32KX8-35
32KX8-35
AD766JN
AD744
5532A
5532A
5532A
5534
5532A
TLC7528CN
LM6321
LF412
78L05
74HC574
74HC573
74HC32
DG444
74HCT74
74HC573
74HC245
DESCRIPTION
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Transformer
Inductor
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Integrated Circuit (Surface Mount Pkg)
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
GAL/PAL, I.C.
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Surface Mount Pkg)
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
GAL/PAL, I.C.
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
STATIC RAM, I.C.
STATIC RAM, I.C.
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
7-19
PARTS LIST
REF.
U 603
U 604
U 605
U 606
U 607
U 608
U 609
U 610
U 611
U 612
U 613
U 614
Z0
SRS PART#
3-00454-340
3-00454-340
3-00475-343
6-00110-621
3-00364-340
3-00473-343
3-00474-343
3-00463-340
3-00117-325
3-00123-325
3-00190-340
6-00121-621
0-00373-000
VALUE
74HC574
74HC574
U605 PLTDECOD
30.208 MHZ
74F86
U608 COUNT118
U609 A /ADCONTR
74F574
78L12
79L12
10MHZ 25PPM
27.000 MHZ
CARD EJECTOR
DESCRIPTION
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
GAL/PAL, I.C.
Crystal Oscillator
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
GAL/PAL, I.C.
GAL/PAL, I.C.
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Crystal Oscillator
Hardware, Misc.
Analog Input Board Parts List
REF.
C 101
C 102
C 103
C 104
C 105
C 106
C 107
C 108
C 109
C 110
C 111
C 112
C 113
C 118
C 202
C 250
C 251
C 252
C 253
C 256
C 259
C 260
C 261
C 262
C 263
C 264
C 265
C 266
C 268
C 269
C 270
C 271
C 272
C 273
SRS PART#
5-00060-512
5-00060-512
5-00023-529
5-00100-517
5-00023-529
5-00159-501
5-00023-529
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00225-548
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
VALUE
1.0U
1.0U
.1U
2.2U
.1U
6.8P
.1U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
.1U AXIAL
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
DESCRIPTION
Cap, Stacked Metal Film 50V 5% -40/+85c
Cap, Stacked Metal Film 50V 5% -40/+85c
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
7-20
PARTS LIST
REF.
C 274
C 301
C 302
C 303
C 304
C 305
C 306
C 307
C 308
C 309
C 310
C 311
C 350
C 351
C 352
C 353
C 354
C 355
C 356
C 357
C 358
C 359
C 360
C 361
C 363
C 364
C 365
C 401
C 402
C 403
C 404
C 405
C 406
C 407
C 408
C 409
C 410
C 411
C 412
C 413
C 414
C 415
C 416
C 417
C 418
C 503
C 509
C 510
C 511
C 512
C 513
SRS PART#
5-00197-501
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00148-545
5-00100-517
5-00002-501
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00100-517
5-00100-517
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00219-529
5-00100-517
5-00172-544
5-00172-544
5-00023-529
5-00023-529
5-00100-517
VALUE
18P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
1000P
2.2U
100P
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
2.2U
.1U
.1U
2.2U
2.2U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.1U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
2.2U
.01U
2.2U
1000U
1000U
.1U
.1U
2.2U
DESCRIPTION
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Monolythic Ceramic, COG, 1%
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Ceramic Disc, 50V, 10%, SL
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Radial
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Radial
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
7-21
PARTS LIST
REF.
C 514
C 515
C 516
C 517
C 518
C 519
C 520
C 521
C 522
C 523
C 524
C 525
C 526
C 527
C 528
C 529
C 530
C 531
C 533
C 534
C 535
C 536
C 537
C 538
C 539
D 101
D 102
D 103
D 104
D 105
D 106
D 107
D 108
D 109
D 110
D 111
D 112
D 301
D 302
D 303
D 304
J 101
J 102
JP401
JP402
JP503
K 101
K 102
K 103
K 104
K 105
SRS PART#
VALUE
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00260-544
470U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00260-544
470U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00260-544
470U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00260-544
470U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00023-529
.1U
5-00225-548
.1U AXIAL
5-00225-548
.1U AXIAL
5-00225-548
.1U AXIAL
5-00225-548
.1U AXIAL
5-00100-517
2.2U
5-00100-517
2.2U
3-00457-301
1N5241B
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00004-301
1N4148
3-00293-301
1N5226B
3-00293-301
1N5226B
0-00388-000
RCA PHONO
0-00388-000
RCA PHONO
0-00772-000
1.5" WIRE
0-00772-000
1.5" WIRE
0-00772-000
1.5" WIRE
3-00239-335
HS-212-12
3-00239-335
HS-212-12
3-00239-335
HS-212-12
3-00239-335
HS-212-12
3-00239-335
HS-212-12
DESCRIPTION
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Radial
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Radial
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Radial
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Mini Electrolytic, 25V, 20%, Radial
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V,+80/-20% Z5U AX
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Capacitor, Tantalum, 35V, 20%, Rad
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Diode
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Relay
Relay
Relay
Relay
Relay
7-22
PARTS LIST
REF.
K 106
K 107
L 501
N 501
N 502
N 503
P 101
P 102
P 103
P 104
P 301
PC1
Q 101
Q 102
Q 103
Q 104
Q 105
Q 106
Q 107
Q 501
R 101
R 102
R 103
R 104
R 105
R 106
R 107
R 108
R 109
R 110
R 111
R 112
R 113
R 114
R 115
R 116
R 117
R 118
R 119
R 120
R 121
R 122
R 123
R 124
R 125
R 126
R 127
R 128
R 129
R 130
R 131
SRS PART#
3-00240-335
3-00240-335
6-00055-630
4-00265-421
4-00265-421
4-00468-420
4-00354-445
4-00231-445
4-00730-445
4-00015-445
4-00016-445
7-00352-701
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
3-00021-325
4-00616-453
4-00593-408
4-00259-408
4-00593-408
4-00259-408
4-00203-407
4-00580-407
4-00580-407
4-00544-407
4-00528-408
4-00528-408
4-00203-407
4-00138-407
4-00652-407
4-00652-407
4-00138-407
4-00217-408
4-00301-408
4-00142-407
4-00138-407
4-00652-407
4-00652-407
4-00138-407
4-00217-408
4-00234-407
4-00301-408
4-00142-407
4-00142-407
4-00234-407
4-00021-401
4-00192-407
VALUE
BS-211-DC12 GF
BS-211-DC12 GF
FB43-1801
100X4
100X4
300X8
20
50K
100
100K
10K
FFT ANALOG
2N3904
2N3904
2N3904
2N3904
2N3904
2N3904
2N3904
2N3904
49.9
965.0K
31.60K
965.0K
31.60K
75.0K
475
475
165
499
499
75.0K
10.0K
1.58K
1.58K
10.0K
1.000K
110
100K
10.0K
1.58K
1.58K
10.0K
1.000K
10
110
100K
100K
10
1.0K
49.9K
DESCRIPTION
Relay
Relay
Ferrite Beads
Res. Network, SIP, 1/4W,2% (Isolated)
Res. Network, SIP, 1/4W,2% (Isolated)
Resistor Network, DIP, 1/4W,2%,8 Ind
Pot, Multi-Turn, Side Adjust
Pot, Multi-Turn, Side Adjust
Pot, Multi-Turn, Side Adjust
Pot, Multi-Turn, Side Adjust
Pot, Multi-Turn, Side Adjust
Printed Circuit Board
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Resistor, 2W, 1%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
7-23
PARTS LIST
REF.
R 132
R 133
R 134
R 135
R 136
R 137
R 138
R 139
R 140
R 141
R 142
R 143
R 144
R 146
R 147
R 148
R 149
R 201
R 202
R 203
R 204
R 205
R 206
R 207
R 208
R 209
R 210
R 211
R 212
R 213
R 214
R 216
R 217
R 218
R 219
R 250
R 251
R 252
R 253
R 256
R 259
R 260
R 261
R 262
R 263
R 264
R 265
R 266
R 267
R 268
R 269
SRS PART#
4-00034-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00142-407
4-00619-408
4-00619-408
4-00234-407
4-00138-407
4-00411-407
4-00411-407
4-00138-407
4-00722-401
4-00042-401
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00196-407
4-00185-407
4-00206-407
4-00130-407
4-00130-407
4-00210-407
4-00130-407
4-00653-407
4-00737-407
4-00661-407
4-00665-407
4-00302-407
4-00736-407
4-00169-407
4-00138-407
4-00663-407
4-00663-407
4-00138-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
VALUE
10K
10
10
10
10
100K
909
909
10
10.0K
1.37K
1.37K
10.0K
43K
15K
100
100
6.04K
4.02K
8.06K
1.00K
1.00K
9.09K
1.00K
205
162
130
102
82.5
64.9
249
10.0K
576
576
10.0K
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
10
10
10
10
10
DESCRIPTION
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 0.1%, 25ppm
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
7-24
PARTS LIST
REF.
R 270
R 271
R 272
R 301
R 303
R 304
R 305
R 306
R 307
R 308
R 309
R 310
R 311
R 312
R 313
R 314
R 315
R 316
R 317
R 318
R 319
R 320
R 321
R 322
R 323
R 324
R 325
R 326
R 327
R 328
R 329
R 350
R 351
R 352
R 353
R 354
R 355
R 356
R 357
R 358
R 359
R 360
R 361
R 362
R 363
R 364
R 365
R 366
R 367
R 368
R 402
SRS PART#
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00162-407
4-00745-407
4-00417-407
4-00188-407
4-00188-407
4-00475-407
4-00235-407
4-00351-407
4-00188-407
4-00188-407
4-00348-407
4-00414-407
4-00601-407
4-00188-407
4-00188-407
4-00746-407
4-00747-407
4-00700-407
4-00188-407
4-00188-407
4-00655-407
4-00742-407
4-00188-407
4-00130-407
4-00048-401
4-00164-407
4-00161-407
4-00130-407
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00030-401
4-00030-401
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00141-407
4-00130-407
4-00136-407
4-00111-402
4-00111-402
4-00041-401
VALUE
10
10
10
2.67K
60.4
2.74K
4.99K
4.99K
2.61K
383
2.32K
4.99K
4.99K
2.21K
549
1.96K
4.99K
4.99K
2.05K
324
1.62K
4.99K
4.99K
665
1.47K
4.99K
1.00K
2.2K
20.0K
2.49K
1.00K
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
100
100
10
10
100
100
100
1.00K
1.82K
390
390
150
DESCRIPTION
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
7-25
PARTS LIST
REF.
R 403
R 501
R 502
R 503
R 504
R 505
R 506
R 507
R 508
R 509
R 510
R 511
R 512
SO100
SO101
T 505
TP101
TP102
TP103
TP201
TP202
TP203
TP204
TP205
TP206
TP301
TP302
TP303
TP401
TP402
TP403
TP404
TP405
TP406
TP407
TP408
TP501
TP502
TP503
TP504
TP505
TP506
TP507
TP508
TP511
TP512
TP513
TP514
TP515
TP516
TP517
SRS PART#
4-00041-401
4-00169-407
4-00163-407
4-00163-407
4-00169-407
4-00107-402
4-00107-402
4-00107-402
4-00107-402
4-00112-402
4-00112-402
4-00042-401
4-00084-401
1-00173-150
1-00173-150
6-00009-610
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
VALUE
150
249
2.80K
2.80K
249
10
10
10
10
47
47
15K
5.1K
8 PIN MACH
8 PIN MACH
T1-1-X65
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
DESCRIPTION
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Metal Film, 1/8W, 1%, 50PPM
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Comp, 1/2W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Resistor, Carbon Film, 1/4W, 5%
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Socket, THRU-HOLE
Transformer
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
7-26
PARTS LIST
REF.
TP518
TP519
TP520
TP521
U 100
U 101
U 102
U 103
U 104
U 105
U 201
U 202
U 203
U 204
U 205
U 206
U 207
U 208
U 209
U 210
U 211
U 212
U 213
U 301
U 302
U 303
U 304
U 305
U 306
U 307
U 308
U 309
U 401
U 501
U 504
U 505
U 506
U 507
U 509
U 510
U 511
U 512
U 513
U 514
U 515
U 516
U 517
U 518
U 519
Z0
Z0
SRS PART#
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
1-00143-101
3-00246-340
3-00817-340
3-00382-340
3-00471-340
3-00461-340
3-00087-340
3-00371-340
3-00155-340
3-00382-340
3-00371-340
3-00382-340
3-00371-340
3-00130-340
3-00371-340
3-00371-340
3-00423-340
3-00143-340
3-00037-340
3-00045-340
3-00130-340
3-00130-340
3-00130-340
3-00130-340
3-00423-340
3-00116-325
3-00059-340
3-00091-340
3-00130-340
3-00392-340
3-00049-340
3-00265-340
3-00265-340
3-00265-340
3-00039-340
3-00114-329
3-00120-329
3-00096-340
3-00100-340
3-00116-325
3-00117-325
3-00116-325
3-00123-325
3-00122-325
3-00112-329
3-00346-329
0-00012-007
0-00043-011
VALUE
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
TEST JACK
NPD5564
NPD5566
OP37
OP27GP
OPA2604
LF347
DG444
74HC04
OP37
DG444
OP37
DG444
5532A
DG444
DG444
5534
LM393
74HC138
74HC32
5532A
5532A
5532A
5532A
5534
78L05
7542
LF412
5532A
PCM1750P
74HC74
74HC595
74HC595
74HC595
74HC14
7815
7915
LM317L
LM337L
78L05
78L12
78L05
79L12
79L05
7805
7812
TO-220
4-40 KEP
DESCRIPTION
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Vertical Test Jack
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Integrated Circuit (Thru-hole Pkg)
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Transistor, TO-92 Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Voltage Reg., TO-220 (TAB) Package
Heat Sinks
Nut, Kep
7-27
PARTS LIST
REF.
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
SRS PART#
0-00209-021
0-00231-043
0-00243-003
0-00373-000
1-00087-131
VALUE
4-40X3/8PP
1-32, #4 SHOULD
TO-220
CARD EJECTOR
2 PIN JUMPER
DESCRIPTION
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Washer, nylon
Insulators
Hardware, Misc.
Connector, Female
Chassis Assembly Parts List
REF.
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
SRS PART#
0-00014-002
0-00043-011
0-00048-011
0-00079-031
0-00084-032
0-00089-033
0-00098-042
0-00108-054
0-00111-053
0-00112-053
0-00116-050
0-00122-053
0-00123-053
0-00149-020
0-00168-023
0-00187-021
0-00190-030
0-00209-021
0-00210-020
0-00212-021
0-00231-043
0-00241-021
0-00248-026
0-00256-043
0-00257-000
0-00259-021
0-00310-010
0-00330-050
0-00331-031
0-00335-000
0-00336-027
0-00337-027
0-00338-023
0-00340-016
0-00343-027
0-00350-053
0-00368-053
0-00369-053
0-00372-000
0-00377-004
0-00378-004
0-00382-000
VALUE
6J4
4-40 KEP
6-32 KEP
4-40X3/16 M/F
36154
4"
#6 LOCK
1" #26
1-3/4"#24B
1-3/4"#24R
11-3/4"#18
2-1/4" #24
21" #24
4-40X1/4PF
6-32X5/16R
4-40X1/4PP
#8X1"
4-40X3/8PP
4-40X5/16PF
6-32X2PP
1-32, #4 SHOULD
4-40X3/16PP
10-32X3/8TRUSSP
#6 SHOULDER
HANDLE3
4-40X1/2"PP
HEX 3/8-32
5-1/2" #18
4-40X5/8 F/F
FAN GUARD 2
#4X1/4PP-B
#4X3/8PP-B
2-56X1/4RP
F0204
#4X1/4PF-B
2-1/4" #24
21" #24
21" #24
BE CU / FFT
SR760/830/780
CAP 760/830/780
CARD GUIDE 4.5"
DESCRIPTION
Power Entry Hardware
Nut, Kep
Nut, Kep
Standoff
Termination
Tie
Washer, lock
Wire #26 UL1061
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Wire #18 UL1007 Stripped 3/8x3/8 No Tin
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Screw, Flathead Phillips
Screw, Roundhead Phillips
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Spacer
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Screw, Flathead Phillips
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Washer, nylon
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Screw, Black, All Types
Washer, nylon
Hardware, Misc.
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Nut, Hex
Wire #18 UL1007 Stripped 3/8x3/8 No Tin
Standoff
Hardware, Misc.
Screw, Sheet Metal
Screw, Sheet Metal
Screw, Roundhead Phillips
Power Button
Screw, Sheet Metal
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Wire #24 UL1007 Strip 1/4x1/4 Tin
Hardware, Misc.
Knobs
Knobs
Hardware, Misc.
7-28
PARTS LIST
REF.
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
SRS PART#
0-00389-000
0-00390-024
0-00391-010
0-00394-031
0-00415-031
0-00416-020
0-00417-057
0-00418-000
0-00443-000
0-00466-050
0-00467-050
0-00500-000
0-00521-048
0-00527-050
0-00893-026
1-00033-113
1-00073-120
1-00076-171
1-00110-130
1-00120-113
1-00131-171
1-00132-171
1-00138-130
1-00141-171
1-00153-113
1-00167-169
1-00168-169
1-00180-170
1-00183-171
2-00023-218
2-00034-220
2-00035-222
4-00541-435
4-00649-455
4-00681-436
5-00134-529
5-00219-529
6-00004-611
6-00076-600
6-00089-610
7-00124-720
7-00254-721
7-00270-735
7-00281-720
7-00284-720
7-00286-720
7-00287-721
7-00289-720
7-00292-720
7-00350-720
7-00392-720
VALUE
PHONO PLUG
1-72X1/4
1-72X5/32X3/64
6-32X13/16
4-40X1/2 M/F
8-32X1/4PF
GROMMET STRIP
CLIP, CABLE
SWITCH
23" #18 BLACK
23" #18 RED
554808-1
3" #18
13" #18
8-32X3/8PF
5 PIN, 18AWG/OR
INSL
4 PIN SIL
30 PIN DIL
3 PIN, 18AWG/OR
30 COND DIL
34 COND
5 PIN SI
5 PIN SIL
11 PIN,18AWG/OR
14/26 IDC-40 CE
34/60 CE TO IDC
9418
20 COND
DPDT
ENA1J-B20
SAS50B
130V/1200A
100K
SG240
100P
.01U
1A 3AG
2" SPKR
PLTFM II
TRANSCOVER2-MOD
PLTFM-4
PLTFM-7
PLTFM-18
PLTFM-20
7" CRT SCREEN
PLTFM-23
PLTFM-26
PLTFM-27
PLTFM-29
SR770-4
DESCRIPTION
Hardware, Misc.
Screw, Slotted
Nut, Hex
Standoff
Standoff
Screw, Flathead Phillips
Grommet
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Wire #18 UL1007 Stripped 3/8x3/8 No Tin
Wire #18 UL1007 Stripped 3/8x3/8 No Tin
Hardware, Misc.
Wire, #18 UL1015 Strip 3/8 x 3/8 No Tin
Wire #18 UL1007 Stripped 3/8x3/8 No Tin
Screw, Black, All Types
Connector, Amp, MTA-156
Connector, BNC
Cable Assembly, Ribbon
Connector, Male
Connector, Amp, MTA-156
Cable Assembly, Ribbon
Cable Assembly, Ribbon
Connector, Male
Cable Assembly, Ribbon
Connector, Amp, MTA-156
Cable Assembly, Custom
Cable Assembly, Custom
Cable Assembly, Multiconductor
Cable Assembly, Ribbon
Switch, Panel Mount, Power, Rocker
SOFTPOT
Thermostat
Varistor, Zinc Oxide Nonlinear Resistor
Trim Pot, Cond. Plastic, PC Mount
Thermistor, ICL (Inrush Current Limiter)
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Cap, Monolythic Ceramic, 50V, 20%, Z5U
Fuse
Misc. Components
Transformer
Fabricated Part
Machined Part
Injection Molded Plastic
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Machined Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
7-29
PARTS LIST
REF.
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
SRS PART#
7-00393-720
7-00396-701
7-00403-720
7-00404-720
7-00406-720
7-00407-720
7-00409-720
7-00414-720
7-00421-735
7-00431-720
7-00432-720
7-00433-720
7-00434-721
7-00435-720
7-00436-701
7-00437-701
7-00458-720
7-00459-720
7-00471-720
7-00473-720
7-00495-740
7-00519-709
7-00718-720
8-00034-850
8-00040-840
9-00267-917
VALUE
SR770-5
PLTFM FP
SR770-9
SR770-10
SR770-12
SR770-13
SR770-15 & 16
SR770-17
PLTFM-9 THRU 13
SR770-21/22
SR770-23
SR770-24
SR770-25
SR770-26
FFT/DSP LI
FFT/DSP LI
SR850-6
SR850-7
SCREEN
SR770-27/28/29
SR770S-1
FFT
SR770-33
FLOPPY
7" Z-AXIS
GENERIC
DESCRIPTION
Fabricated Part
Printed Circuit Board
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Injection Molded Plastic
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Machined Part
Fabricated Part
Printed Circuit Board
Printed Circuit Board
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Keypad, Conductive Rubber
Lexan Overlay
Fabricated Part
Disk Drive
CRT Display
Product Labels
Miscellaneous Parts List
REF.
U 301
U 302
U 303
U 304
U 504
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
Z0
SRS PART#
3-00450-342
3-00450-342
3-00345-342
3-00345-342
3-00345-342
0-00089-033
0-00159-000
0-00179-000
0-00180-000
0-00185-021
0-00187-021
0-00204-000
0-00223-029
0-00248-026
0-00259-021
0-00315-021
7-00147-720
7-00394-720
7-00395-720
7-00402-720
7-00405-720
VALUE
27C010-120
27C010-120
27C512-120
27C512-120
27C512-120
4"
FAN GUARD
RIGHT FOOT
LEFT FOOT
6-32X3/8PP
4-40X1/4PP
REAR FOOT
6-32X3/8TR PH
10-32X3/8TRUSSP
4-40X1/2"PP
6-32X7/16 PP
BAIL
SR770-6
SR770-7
SR770-8
SR770-11
DESCRIPTION
EPROM/PROM, I.C.
EPROM/PROM, I.C.
EPROM/PROM, I.C.
EPROM/PROM, I.C.
EPROM/PROM, I.C.
Tie
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Hardware, Misc.
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Hardware, Misc.
Screw, Truss Phillips
Screw, Black, All Types
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Screw, Panhead Phillips
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
Fabricated Part
7-30
PARTS LIST
REF.
Z0
SRS PART#
7-00408-720
VALUE
SR770-14
DESCRIPTION
Fabricated Part
7-31
PARTS LIST
7-32