TANDBERG VIKING SERIES NAS APPLIANCE

TANDBERG
VIKING SERIES
NAS APPLIANCE
Storage Server Administration Manual
TANDBERG DATA ASIA
7 Tai Seng Drive #02-00
Singapore 535218
Phone +65 6593 4700
Telefax +65 6281 7358
© Tandberg Data Asia
Part No.
April
65 82 X2 - 02
2009
Related publications available from Tandberg Data Asia:
Part No.
Title
6582B7
Tandberg Viking FS-1600 NAS Hardware User
Manual
6582A7
Tandberg Viking FS-1500 NAS Hardware User
Manual
6582C7
Tandberg Viking FS-420U NAS Hardware User
Manual
This publication may describe designs for which patents are granted or pending. By publishing this information, Tandberg Data Asia conveys no license
under any patent or any other rights.
Every effort has been made to avoid errors in text and diagrams. However,
Tandberg Data Asia assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in this publication.
It is the policy of Tandberg Data Asia to improve products as new techniques
and components become available. Tandberg Data Asia therefore reserves
the right to change specifications at any time.
We would appreciate any comments on this publication.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
i
1.
1.1.
1.1.1.
1.2.
1.2.1.
1.2.2.
1.2.3.
1.2.4.
1.4.
1.4.1.
1.4.2.
1.4.3.
1.4.4.
1.5.
1.5.1.
1.5.2.
1.6.
1.6.1
1.6.2.
System Overview
Product Information
Product Manageability
Redundancy
Configuring RAID using 4 HDD (1U)
Configuring RAID using 16 HDD (3U)
System Volume (SV)
Data Volume (DV)
Deployment
File Server Consolidation
Multi-protocol Environments
Protocol and platform transitions
Remote office deployment
Environment scenarios
Workgroup
Domain
User Interfaces
Direct Attached Method
Using Windows Remote Desktop Console
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-7
2.
2.1.
2.1.1.
2.2.
2.2.1.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.2.1.
2.6.
2.7.
2.8.
2.9.
Setting Up & Administration
Using Windows Remote Desktop
Improper Closure of Remote Desktop
Telnet Server
Enabling Telnet Server
Setup Completion
Managing System Storage
Creating and Managing Users and Groups
Joining Workgroup & Domain
Creating and Managing File Shares
Running Microsoft Windows Update
Using Ethernet NIC Teaming
Installing 3rd Party Software Applications
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
3.
3.1.
3.1.1.
3.1.1.1.
3.1.1.2.
3.1.1.3.
3.1.2.
3.1.2.1.
3.1.2.2.
3.1.2.3.
3.1.3.
3.1.4.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
Storage & File Server Management
Storage Management Element
Physical Storage Element
Disk Array
Fault Tolerance
Online Spares (Hot-Spares)
Logical Storage Element
Logical Drives (LUNs)
Partitions
Volumes
File System Element
File Sharing Element
Volume Shadow Copy Service Overview
Using Storage Element
Network Adapter Teaming
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-5
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3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.
3.10.
3.10.1.
3.11.
3.11.1.
3.11.2.
3.12.
3.12.1.
3.12.2.
3.12.3.
3.12.4.
3.12.5.
Disk Management
Guidelines for Managing Disks & Volumes
RAID & Volume Management
Scheduling Defragmentation
Disk Quotas
Using Diskpart
Example of using Diskpart
Adding Storage
Expanding Storage
Extending Storage using Disk Management
File Services Features in Windows Storage Server 2003 R2
Storage Manager for SANs
Single Instance Storage
File Server Resource Manage
Windows SharePoint Services
Windows Storage Server Management Console
3-5
3-7
3-8
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-13
3-13
3-13
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-16
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
4.2.3.
4.2.4.
4.2.4.
4.2.5.
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.6.1.
4.6.2.
4.6.3.
4.6.4.
4.6.4.
4.7.
4.7.1.
4.7.2.
4.8.
4.8.1.
4.8.2.
4.8.3.
4.9.
4.10.
Volume Shadow Copy Service(VSS)
Volume Shadow Copy Service Overview
Planning for use of Shadow Copy
Identifying the Volume
Allocating Disk Space
Identifying the Storage Area
Determining Creation Frequency
Shadow Copies & Disk Defragmentation
Mounted Drives
Managing Shadow Copies
Shadow Copy Cache File
Enabling and Creating Shadow Copies
Viewing List of Shadow Copies
Scheduling Shadow Copies
Setting Shadow Copy Schedule
Deleting Shadow Copy Schedule
Viewing Properties of Shadow Copies
Redirecting Shadow Copies to Alternate Volume
Disabling Shadow Copies
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders
SMB Access to Shadow Copies
NFS Access to Shadow Copies
Recovery of Files and Folders
Recovering Deleted Files or Folders
Recovering Overwritten or Corrupted Files
Recovering Folders
Backup & Shadow Copies
Shadow Copy Transport
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-8
4-10
4-11
4-11
4-11
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-15
4-17
4-18
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-21
5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.3.1.
5.3.2.
5.4.
User & Group Management
Overview
Domain versus Workgroup Environments
User & Group Name Planning
Managing User Names
Managing Group Names
Workgroup User & Group Management
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
6.
Folder & Share Management
6-1
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6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.
6.3.3.
6.3.4.
6.3.5.
6.3.5.1.
6.3.6.
6.3.6.1.
6.3.6.2.
6.3.6.3.
6.4.
6.4.1.
6.4.2.
6.4.3.
6.4.4.
6.4.5.
6.4.6.
7.
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.3.1.
7.3.2.
7.4.
7.5.
7.5.1.
7.5.2.
7.5.3.
7.5.4.
7.5.5.
7.5.6.
7.5.7.
7.5.8.
7.5.9.
7.5.10.
7.6.
7.6.1.
Folder Management
Managing File Level Permissions
Share Management
Share Considerations
Defining Access Control Lists
Integrating Local File System Security into Windows Domain
Environments
Comparing Administrative & Standard Shares
Planning for Compatibility between File Sharing Protocols
NFS Compatibility Issues
Managing Shares
Creating a New Share
Stopping a Share
Modifying Share Properties
File Server Recourse Manager
Using the File Server Resource Manager Component
Opening File Server Resource Manager
Quota Management
File Screening Management
Storage Report Management
Using Command-Line Tools for File Server Resource Manager
7.6.2.
7.6.3.
7.6.4.
7.6.5.
Distributed File System (DFS)
Overview
DFS Namespaces
DFS Replication
DFS Replication Concept
DFS Initial Replication
DFS Management Snap-in
Deploying Namespace (Step-by-Step Guide)
Create a Namespace
Add a Namespace Server (Domain)
Delegate Management Permissions
Add Folders to Namespace
Change How Target are Ordered in Referrals
Rename and Move a Folder
Replicate a Folder in the Namespace Using DFS Replication
Create a Diagnostic Report
Browse the Namespace
Test Failover
Deploying DFS Replication (Step-by-Step Guide)
Create a Multipurpose Replication Group and Two Replicated
Folders
Add a New Member to Replication Group
Share and Publish Replicated Folders in a Namespace
Create a Replication Group for Collection Purposes
Create a Diagnostic Report
8.
8.1.
8.1.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.
Microsoft Services for Network File System (MSNFS)
MSNFS Features
UNIX Identity Management
Microsoft Services for NFS usage scenarios
Microsoft Services for NFS components
Microsoft Services for NFS administrative tools
iii
6-1
6-2
6-9
6-9
6-10
6-10
6-11
6-11
6-11
6-12
6-12
6-13
6-13
6-23
6-23
6-24
6-25
6-25
6-25
6-26
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-4
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-8
7-8
7-9
7-9
7-10
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-17
7-18
7-19
7-20
7-20
7-23
7-25
7-26
7-28
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-2
8-3
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Microsoft Services for NFS snap-in
8-3
Microsoft Services for NFS command-line tools
8-4
Test Scenario
8-5
Steps for Deploying and Testing Microsoft Services for NFS
8-5
Reviewing system requirements for Microsoft Services for NFS
8-5
Setting up the environment for Microsoft Services for NFS
8-6
Deploy computers
8-6
Create test user accounts
8-7
Installing Microsoft Services for NFS
8-7
Configuring NFS authentication
8-8
Configuring User Name Mapping
8-8
Specify where UNIX user and group information is stored
8-8
Edit the .maphosts file
8-10
Create a user map
8-11
Create a group map
8-12
Restart the User Name Mapping service
8-12
Specifying the User Name Mapping server
8-13
Creating an NFS shared folder
8-13
Specifying default permissions for new files and folders
8-15
Configuring Windows Firewall
8-15
Open ports
8-15
Add mapsvc.exe to the exception list
8-16
Enable file and printer sharing for administration tools
8-17
Testing your deployment
8-17
Test 1: On the computer running Client for NFS, map a drive
letter to a UNIX-based NFS shared resource.
8-17
8.6.11.2.
Test 2: On the computer running Client for NFS, create a test file
and verify its permissions.
8-18
8.6.11.3.
Test 3: On a UNIX client computer, mount the Windows NFS
shared resource.
8-18
8.6.11.4.
Test 4: On a UNIX client, create a test file and verify the file
permissions match, from both Windows and UNIX.
8-19
8.7.
Using Remote Desktop for MSNFS
8-20
8.7.1.
Using Remote Desktop
8-20
8.4.1.
8.4.2.
8.5.
8.6.
8.6.1.
8.6.2.
8.6.2.1.
8.6.3.
8.6.4.
8.6.5.
8.6.6.
8.6.6.1.
8.6.6.2.
8.6.6.3.
8.6.6.4.
8.6.6.5.
8.6.7.
8.6.8.
8.6.9.
8.6.10.
8.6.10.1.
8.6.10.2.
8.6.10.3.
8.6.11.
8.6.11.1.
9.
9.1.
9.1.1.
9.1.2.
9.1.3.
9.1.4.
9.1.5.
9.1.6.
9.1.7.
9.1.8.
9.2.
Using iSCSI Software Target
Microsoft iSCSI Software Target
Virtual Disk Storage
Snapshots
Wizards
Create iSCSI Target Wizard
Create Virtual Disk Wizard
Import Virtual Disk Wizard
Extend Virtual Disk Wizard
Schedule Snapshot Wizard
Hardware Providers
10.
10.1.
10.2.
Remote Access Methods & Monitoring
Remote Desktop
Telnet Server
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9-1
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-6
9-7
10-1
10-1
10-2
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1.
System Overview
1.1.
Product Information
The Tandberg Viking Series NAS appliance can be used in many types of
computing environments, from basic Microsoft Windows workgroups to
complicated multi-protocol domains using DFS, NFS, FTP, HTTP, and
Microsoft SMB. The corresponding varieties of clients that can be serviced
include any Windows, UNIX, Linux, Novell, or Macintosh variant.
This chapter provides an overview of these environments and deployments
and includes brief descriptions of the available user interfaces. The Viking
Series NAS appliance is the disk-based storage for remote office or small to
medium business class NAS solutions that provide reliable performance,
manageability, and fault tolerance.
The Viking Series NAS appliance provides performance gains over general
purpose servers by integrating optimized hardware components and
specialized operating software. Integrating NAS appliance into the network
improves the performance of existing servers because NAS appliances are
optimized for file serving tasks.
Notes
The Viking Series NAS appliance has been specifically designed to function as a
Network Attached Storage server. Except as specifically authorized by Tandberg
Data, you may not use the server software to support additional applications or
significant functionality other than system utilities or server resource management
or similar software that you may install and use solely for system administration,
system performance enhancement, and/or preventative maintenance of the
appliance.
Your Viking Series NAS appliance comes preinstalled with either the Windows®
Storage Server™ 2003 R2 operating system (32-bit version) or the Microsoft®
Windows® Unified Data Storage Server 2003, Enterprise x64 Edition operating
system.
Microsoft Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 extends the Windows Storage
Server 2003 operating system, providing a more efficient way to manage and
control access to local and remote resources. In addition, Windows Storage
Server 2003 R2 provides a scalable, security-enhanced Web platform for
simplified branch server management, improved identity and access
management, and more efficient
storage management.
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Notes
The Microsoft® Windows® Storage Server 2003 x64 Edition operating system is
designed to support 32–bit applications without modification; however, any 32–bit
applications that are run on this operating system should be thoroughly tested
before releasing the storage server to a production environment.
Microsoft® Windows® Unified Data Storage Server 2003, Enterprise x64 Edition
operating system provides unified storage server management capabilities,
simplified setup and management of storage and shared folders, and support for
Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.
Notes
For more information about Microsoft® Windows® Unified Data Storage Server
2003 operating system, see “Using iSCSI Software Target” on chapter 9.
1.1.1.
Product Manageability
The Viking Series NAS appliance ships with the following utilities and
features that ease the administration tasks associated with managing the
system:
•
The Recovery Disc (factory image) contains the preconfigured default
settings of either the Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 operating system
or the Microsoft® Windows® Unified Data Storage Server 2003 operating
system. This is a quick and easy way to setup or bring the Viking Series
NAS appliances back to the factory default configuration.
•
Using the Windows Remote Desktop client to establish
administrative session with the appliance without physically
connecting to it.
•
Ability to connect directly to the NAS appliance’s console.
1.2.
Redundancy
The Viking Series NAS appliance is specifically designed to perform file
serving tasks for networks, using industry standard components to ensure
reliability. Other industry standard features, such as redundant array of
independent drives (RAID) and remote manageability, further enhance the
overall dependability of the NAS appliance.
To ensure redundancy and reliability, it is recommended that the hard drives
installed in the Viking Series NAS appliance are configured so that a single
drive failure will not cause data loss or system failure.
Depending on the model of Viking Series NAS used, it is capable of support
from 4 HDD to 16 HDD in a single chassis:
1-2
•
Viking FS-412 supports up to 4 HDD (1U)
•
Viking FS-1600 / FS-1610 supports up to 16 HDD (3U)
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1.2.1.
Configuring RAID using 4 HDD (1U)
For the 1U appliance (FS-412) Tandberg Data recommends two logical
Volume sets consisting of System Volume (SV) and Data Volume (DV) to be
created within the RAID set. The RAID set is first created which comprises of
member HDD (number of HDD in a set). The two logical volumes (SV and
DV) are then allocated from aggregated capacity of the RAID set with the
desired RAID levels. The System Volume, installed with the host operating
system, is organized as RAID 0+1 and the Data Volume is organized as
RAID 5. This is to allow OS redundancy if more than one HDD fails. Please
see the Viking Series NAS Hardware User Manual for details.
The volume layout for the appliance is illustrated below.
RAID5
HDD 0
HDD 1
HDD 2
RAID0
HDD 3
RAID0
RAID1
System Volume
Data Volume
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1.2.2.
Configuring RAID using 16 HDD (3U)
The 3U appliance uses (FS-1600 / FS-1610) supports up to a maximum of
16 HDD. This provides greater degree of flexibility in RAID configurations:
•
Allow HDD to be grouped into multiple RAID sets with respect to
their usage role: System Volume, Data Volume(s) or RAW Volumes
(for iSCSI target volume provisioning). HDD of differing capacity can
also be grouped into similar RAID sets.
•
Assigning unused HDD as hot-spares.
•
Multiple RAID level support on Volume sets.
Depending on the number of HDD used and their capacity, the RAID Set
grouping and the RAID level of each Volume Set is easily customizable.
Below is a working example:
Using 16 HDD in which 4 is 750GB and 12 is 1,000GB in capacity. The HDD
can be grouped into their respective RAID Set:
RAID Set#00 is created to house the OS as well as a File-system for
sharing. Volume Set#00 is created with RAID level 0+1 which contains a
usable capacity of 200GB. The remaining RAID Set#00 capacity is sliced
into Volume Set#01 of RAID level 5 that yield a resultant capacity of
1,950GB. Volume Set#00 is the System Volume (SV) and Volume Set#01 is
the Data Volume (DV).
•
•
•
RAID Set#00 = 4 x 750GB
Volume Set#00 = 200GB (RAID 0+1) SV
Volume Set#01 = 1,950GB (RAID 5) DV
RAID Set#01 is created with iSCSI target LUN provisioning in mind. Ten (10)
of the 1,000GB HDD are grouped into RAID Set#01 and Volume Set#00 of
RAID level 6 is created out of it. This yields a usable capacity of 8,000GB
after the RAID 6 overhead.
•
•
RAID Set#01 = 10 x 1000GB
Volume Set#00 = 8,000GB (RAID 6)
The remaining two (2) of the 1,000GB HDD are set as hot-spares.
•
Hot-spare = 2 x 1,000GB
The hot-spare can be assigned to any degraded RAID Set for rebuilding in
event that one (or more) of its member disk have failed.
Notes
While assigning hot-spare to a degraded RAID Set, ensure that the capacity of the
hot-spare must be equal or greater than the lowest capacity of the member disk of
that RAID Set.
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1.2.3.
System Volume (SV)
This volume is organized as a RAID 0+1 volume. This volume includes the
operating system image. The minimum recommended size for this volume is
10 GB (default). The RAID level can be customized using the RAID
controller BIOS or web-based RAID manager. The web-based RAID
manager is only available after OS installation or recovery.
1.2.4.
Data Volume (DV)
The remaining hard drives space can be organized as the Data Volume
using RAID 5 or other RAID level definable by user. For a FS-412 NAS
appliance installed with four 250 GB hard drives, the data volume size can
be set to 735 GB using the recommended RAID and Volume settings.
1.4.
Deployment
Various deployment scenarios are possible. Typical application of NAS
appliances include:
1.4.1.
File Server Consolidation
As businesses continue to expand their information technology (IT)
infrastructures, they must find ways to manage larger environments without
a corresponding increase in IT staff. Consolidating many servers into a
single NAS appliance reduces the number of points of administration and
increases the availability and flexibility of storage space.
1.4.2.
Multi-protocol Environments
Some businesses require several types of computing systems to accomplish
various tasks. The multi-protocol support of the NAS appliance allows it to
support many types of client computers concurrently.
1.4.3.
Protocol and platform transitions
When a transition between platforms is being planned, the ability of the NAS
appliance to support most file sharing protocols allows companies to
continue to invest in file storage space without concerns about
obsolescence. For example, an administrator planning a future transition
from Windows to Linux can deploy the NAS appliance with confidence that it
can support both CIFS and NFS simultaneously, assuring not only a smooth
transition, but also a firm protection of their investment.
1.4.4.
Remote office deployment
Frequently, branch offices and other remote locations lack dedicated IT staff
members. An administrator located in a central location can use the
Microsoft Terminal Services, and other remote administration methods to
configure and administer all aspects of the NAS server.
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1.5.
Environment scenarios
The NAS appliance is deployed in one of two security modes:
•
Workgroup
•
Domain (Windows NT® Domain or Active Directory Domain)
The NAS appliance uses standard Windows user and group administration
methods in each of these environments. For procedural instructions on
managing users and groups, see Chapter 5 of this Manual.
Regardless of the deployment, the NAS appliance integrates easily into
multi-protocol environments, supporting a wide variety of clients. The
following protocols are supported:
•
Distributed File System (DFS)
•
Network File System (NFS)
•
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
•
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
•
Microsoft Server Message Block (SMB)
1.5.1.
Workgroup
In a workgroup environment, users and groups are stored and managed
separately, on each member server of the workgroup. Workgroups are
typical for very small deployments where little or no computing environment
planning is required.
1.5.2.
Domain
When operating in a Windows NT or Active Directory domain environment,
the NAS appliance is a member of the domain and the domain controller is
the repository of all account information. Client machines are also members
of the domain and users log on to the domain through their Windows based
client machines. The domain controller also administers user accounts and
appropriate access levels to resources that are a part of the domain.
Additional information about planning for domain environments can be found
at Microsoft web site.
The NAS appliance obtains user account information from the domain
controller when deployed in a domain environment. The NAS server itself
cannot act as a domain controller, backup domain controller, or the root of
an Active Directory tree as these functions are disabled in the operating
system.
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1.6.
User Interfaces
There are several user interfaces that administrators can use to access and
manage the Viking Series NAS appliance. Two of these interfaces are:
•
Using direct attached method
•
Using Windows Remote Desktop
Each interface contains the same or similar capabilities, but presents them in
a different manner. Each of these interfaces are illustrated in the following
sections.
1.6.1
Direct Attached Method
The Viking Series NAS appliance can be accessed directly be connecting a
keyboard, mouse, and monitor.
The default user name is “Administrator”. The default password is “1234”.
1.6.2.
Using Windows Remote Desktop Console
The NAS appliance desktop console can be accessed remotely using
Windows Remote Desktop. This requires the use of the Windows Remote
Desktop client on the machine it is accessing from.
Remote Desktop provides the ability for you to log onto and remotely
administer your server, giving you a method of managing it from any client.
Installed for remote administration, Remote Desktop allows only two
concurrent sessions. Leaving a session running takes up one license and
can affect other users. If two sessions are running, additional users will be
denied access.
To connect the storage server to a network using the Remote Desktop
method:
•
On the PC client, select Start > Run. At Open, type mstsc, then
click OK.
•
Type the IP address of the NAS appliance you will be connecting to
in the Computer box and click Connect.
•
Use the default user name “Administrator” and default password
“1234” to gain system access.
Notes
When using Remote Desktop to connect to the NAS appliance desktop do not use
the window close feature (X). Click on Start/Log Off Administrator to exit Remote
Desktop. See “Improper Closure of Remote Desktop” in Chapter 2.
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Remote Desktop provides two options when closing a client: you can either
disconnect or log off the system.
Disconnecting leaves the session running on the server. You can reconnect
to the server and resume the session. If you are performing a task on the
server, you can start the task and disconnect from the session. Later, you
can log back on the server, re-enter the session and either resume the task
or check results. This is especially helpful when operating over a remote
connection on a long-distance toll line.
Ending the session is known as logging off. Logging off ends the session
running on the server. Any applications running within the session are
closed, and unsaved changes made to open files will be lost. The next time
you log onto the server, a new session is created.
Remote Desktop requires that all connecting users be authenticated, which
is why users must log on each time they start a session.
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2.
Setting Up & Administration
Basic system administration functions are discussed in this chapter.
This chapter also continues the process of setting up the system that was
started using the Viking Series NAS Hardware User Manual by discussing
additional setup procedures and options.
Unless otherwise instructed, all procedures are performed using the
Windows Remote Desktop Interface.
Notes
The NAS appliance desktop can be accessed via a directly connected keyboard,
mouse, and monitor.
Unlike the Windows Storage Server 2003, Windows Storage Server 2003 R2
uses as new Windows Storage Server Management Console that configures
and manages shares, storage, quotas, various file sharing protocol as well
as print service. The Storage Server Management Console can only be
accessed using direct attached method or Windows Remote Desktop.
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2.1.
Using Windows Remote Desktop
Remote Desktop is provided to allow for additional remote system
administration and installation of approved third-party applications. Backup
software and antivirus programs are examples of approved applications.
To open a Remote Desktop session from a connecting machine using
Windows XP:
•
Select Start > Run. At Open, type mstsc, then click OK.
•
Type the IP address of the NAS appliance you will be connecting to
in the Computer box and click Connect.
•
Use the default user name “Administrator” and default password
“1234” to gain system access.
Notes
Two open sessions of Remote Desktop are allowed to operate at the same time.
After completing an application do not use the window close feature (X) to close that
session of Remote Desktop. Click Start then Log Off Administrator to exit Remote
Desktop.
2.1.1.
Improper Closure of Remote Desktop
Certain operations can leave the utilities running if the browser is closed
versus exiting from the program via the application menu or logging off the
Remote Desktop session. A maximum of two Remote Desktop sessions may
be used at any given time. Improper exit from a session can result in the
sessions becoming consumed. Sessions and processes can be terminated
using the Terminal Services Manager via Start > Programs >
Administrator Tools.
Note
The Terminal Services Manager must be accessed via the direct attached method.
2.2.
Telnet Server
Telnet Server is a utility that lets users connect to machines, log on, and
obtain a command prompt remotely. Telnet Server is preinstalled on the
storage server, but must be activated before use.
Notes
For security reasons, the Telnet Server is disabled by default. The service needs to
be modified to enable access to the storage server with Telnet.
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2.2.1.
Enabling Telnet Server
The Telnet Server service needs to be enabled prior to its access. The
service can be enabled by opening the services MMC:
1.
2.
3.
Select Start > Run, and then enter services.msc.
Locate and right-click the Telnet service and then select
Properties.
Choose one of the following:
o
For the Telnet service to start up automatically on every
reboot, in the Startup Type drop-down box, click Automatic,
and then click OK.
o
For the Telnet service to be started manually on every
reboot, in the Startup Type drop-down box, click Manual,
and then click OK.
On the storage server, access the command line interface, either by Remote
Desktop or a direct connection, and then enter the following command:
net start tlntsvr
The sessions screen provides the ability to view or terminate active
sessions.
2.3.
Setup Completion
After the NAS appliance is physically set up and the basic configuration is
established, additional setup steps must be completed. Depending on the
deployment scenario of the NAS appliance, these steps may vary.
Additional setup steps may include:
•
Managing system storage
•
Creating and managing users and groups
•
Creating and managing file shares
•
Running Microsoft Windows Update
•
Using Ethernet NIC teaming
•
Installing third-party software applications
Each of these setup steps is discussed in the following sections.
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2.4.
Managing System Storage
The NAS administrator uses Disk Management to manage volumes, and
Shadow Copies to manage snapshots. See the following chapters for more
detailed information on managing system storage:
•
Chapter 3 discusses storage and file server management
procedures
•
Chapter 4 discusses snapshot (shadow copy) management
procedures
•
Chapter 6 discusses folder and share management procedures
2.5.
Creating and Managing Users and Groups
User and group information and permissions determine whether a user can
access files. If the NAS appliance is deployed into a workgroup environment,
this user and group information is stored locally on the device. By contrast, if
the NAS device is deployed into a domain environment, user and group
information is stored on the domain usually the Primary Domain Controller.
To enter local user and group information, see Chapter 5.
2.2.1.
Joining Workgroup & Domain
These are the two system environments for users and groups. Because
users and groups in a domain environment are managed through standard
Windows or Active Directory domain administration methods, this document
discusses only local users and groups, which are stored and managed on
the storage server. For information on managing users and groups on a
domain, see the domain documentation available on the Microsoft web site.
2.6.
Creating and Managing File Shares
Files shares must be set up, granting and controlling file access to users and
groups. See Chapter 6 for complete information on managing file shares.
UNIX specific information is discussed in the “Microsoft Services for NFS”
chapter.
2.7.
Running Microsoft Windows Update
Tandberg Data highly recommends that you run Microsoft Windows updates
to identify, review, and install the latest, applicable, critical security updates
on the storage server. For recommendations, instructions, and
documentation to help manage the software update, hotfix, and security
patches process on the storage server, see documentation of Microsoft
Software Updates available on Microsoft web site.
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2.8.
Using Ethernet NIC Teaming
All Viking Series NAS appliances are equipped with an Intel or Broadcom
NIC Teaming utility. The utility allows administrators to configure and monitor
Ethernet network interface controller (NIC) teams in a Windows-based
operating system. These teams provide options for increasing fault tolerance
and throughput.
2.9.
Installing 3rd Party Software Applications
For example, these might include an antivirus or backup application that you
install.
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3.
Storage & File Server
Management
This chapter provides an overview of some of the component that make up
the storage structure of the Viking Series NAS appliance.
3.1.
Storage Management Element
Storage is divided into four major divisions:
•
Physical storage elements
•
Logical storage elements
•
File system elements
•
File sharing elements
Each of these elements is composed of the previous level's elements.
3.1.1.
Physical Storage Element
The lowest level of storage management occurs at the physical drive level.
Minimally, choosing the best disk carving strategy includes the following
policies:
•
Analyze current corporate and departmental structure.
•
Analyze the current file server structure and environment.
•
Plan properly to ensure the best configuration and use of storage.
•
3-1
o
Determine the desired priority
performance, and storage capacity.
of
fault
tolerance,
o
Use the determined priority of system characteristics to
determine the optimal striping policy and RAID level.
Include the appropriate number of physical drives in the arrays to
create logical storage elements of desired sizes.
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3.1.1.1.
Disk Array
With an array controller installed in the system, the capacity of several
physical drives can be logically combined into one or more logical units
called arrays. When this is done, the read/write heads of all the constituent
physical drives are active simultaneously, dramatically reducing the overall
time required for data transfer.
Notes
Depending on the storage server model, array configuration may not be possible or
necessary.
Because the read/write heads are simultaneously active, the same amount
of data is written to each drive during any given time interval. Each unit of
data is termed a block. The blocks form a set of data stripes over all the hard
drives in an array.
For data in the array to be readable, the data block sequence within each
stripe must be the same. This sequencing process is performed by the array
controller, which sends the data blocks to the drive write heads in the correct
order.
A natural consequence of the striping process is that each hard drive in a
given array contains the same number of data blocks.
Notes
If one hard drive has a larger capacity than other hard drives in the same array, the
extra capacity is wasted because it cannot be used by the array.
3.1.1.2.
Fault Tolerance
Drive failure, although rare, is potentially catastrophic. For example, using
simple striping with several HDD, failure of any hard drive leads to failure of
all logical drives in the same array, and hence to data loss.
To protect against data loss from hard drive failure, storage servers should
be configured with fault tolerance.
3.1.1.3.
Online Spares (Hot-Spares)
Further protection against data loss can be achieved by assigning an online
spare (or hot-spare) to any configuration except RAID 0. This hard drive
contains no data and is contained within the same storage subsystem as the
other drives in the array. When a hard drive in the array fails, the controller
can then automatically rebuild information that was originally on the failed
drive onto the online spare. This quickly restores the system to full RAID
level fault tolerance protection. However, unless RAID 6 is being used, which
can support two drive failures in an array, in the unlikely event that a third
drive in the array should fail while data is being rewritten to the spare, the
logical drive still fails.
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3.1.2.
Logical Storage Element
Logical storage elements consist of those components that translate the
physical storage elements to file system elements. The storage server uses
the Window Disk Management utility to manage the various types of disks
presented to the file system. There are two types of LUN presentation: basic
disk and dynamic disk. Each of these types of disk has special features that
enable different types of management.
3.1.2.1.
Logical Drives (LUNs)
While an array is a physical grouping of hard drives, a logical drive consists
of components that translate physical storage elements into file system
elements. It is important to note that a LUN may extend over (span) all
physical drives within a storage controller subsystem, but cannot span
multiple storage controller subsystems.
Through the use of basic disks, primary partitions or extended partitions can
be created. Partitions can only encompass one LUN. Through the use of
dynamic disks, volumes can be created that span multiple LUNs. The
Windows Disk Management utility can be used to convert disks to dynamic
and back to basic, and manage the volumes residing on dynamic disks.
Other options include the ability to delete, extend, mirror, and repair these
elements.
3.1.2.2.
Partitions
Partitions exist as either primary partitions or extended partitions and can be
composed of only one basic disk no larger than 2 TB. Basic disks can also
only contain up to four primary partitions, or three primary partitions and one
extended partition. In addition, the partitions on them cannot be extended
beyond the limits of a single LUN. Extended partitions allow the user to
create multiple logical drives. These partitions or logical disks can be
assigned drive letters or be used as mount points on existing disks. If mount
points are used, it should be noted that Services for UNIX (SFU) does not
support mount points at this time. The use of mount points in conjunction
with NFS shares is not supported.
3.1.2.3.
Volumes
When planning dynamic disks and volumes, there is a limit to the amount of
growth a single volume can undergo. Volumes are limited in size and can
have no more than 32 separate LUNs, with each LUN not exceeding 2
terabytes (TB), and volumes totaling no more than 64 TB of disk space.
The RAID level of the LUNs included in a volume must be considered. All of
the units that make up a volume should have the same high-availability
characteristics. In other words, the units should all be of the same RAID
level. For example, it would not be a good practice to include both a RAID
0+1 and a RAID 5 array in the same volume set. By keeping all the units the
same, the entire volume retains the same performance and high-availability
characteristics, making managing and maintaining the volume much easier.
If a dynamic disk goes offline, the entire volume dependent on the one or
more dynamic disks is unavailable. There could be a potential for data loss
depending on the nature of the failed LUN.
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Volumes are created out of the dynamic disks, and can be expanded on the
fly to extend over multiple dynamic disks if they are spanned volumes.
However, after a type of volume is selected, it cannot be altered. For
example, a spanning volume cannot be altered to a mirrored volume without
deleting and recreating the volume, unless it is a simple volume. Simple
volumes can be mirrored or converted to spanned volumes. Fault-tolerant
disks cannot be extended either. Therefore, selection of the volume type is
important. The same performance characteristics on numbers of reads and
writes apply when using fault-tolerant configurations, as is the case with
controller-based RAID. These volumes can also be assigned drive letters or
be mounted as mount points off existing drive letters.
The administrator should carefully consider how the volumes will be carved
up and what groups or applications will be using them. For example, putting
several storage-intensive applications or groups into the same dynamic disk
set would not be efficient. These applications or groups would be better
served by being divided up into separate dynamic disks, which could then
grow as their space requirements increased, within the allowable growth
limits.
3.1.3.
File System Element
File system elements are composed of the folders and subfolders that are
created under each logical storage element (partitions, logical disks, and
volumes). Folders are used to further subdivide the available file system,
providing another level of granularity for management of the information
space. Each of these folders can contain separate permissions and share
names that can be used for network access. Folders can be created for
individual users, groups, projects, and so on.
3.1.4.
File Sharing Element
The storage server supports several file sharing protocols, including
Distributed File System (DFS), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer
Protocol (FTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and Microsoft Server
Message Block (SMB). On each folder or logical storage element, different
file sharing protocols can be enabled using specific network names for
access across a network to a variety of clients. Permissions can then be
granted to those shares based on users or groups of users in each of the file
sharing protocols.
3.2.
Volume Shadow Copy Service Overview
The Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) provides an infrastructure for
creating point-in-time snapshots (shadow copies) of volumes. VSS supports
64 shadow copies per volume.
Shadow Copies of Shared Folders resides within this infrastructure, and
helps alleviate data loss by creating shadow copies of files or folders that are
stored on network file shares at pre-determined time intervals. In essence, a
shadow copy is a previous version of the file or folder at a specific point in
time.
By using shadow copies, a storage server can maintain a set of previous
versions of all files on the selected volumes. End users access the file or
folder by using a separate client add-on program, which enables them to
view the file in Windows Explorer.
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Shadow copies should not replace the current backup, archive, or business
recovery system, but they can help to simplify restore procedures. For
example, shadow copies cannot protect against data loss due to media
failures; however, recovering data from shadow copies can reduce the
number of times needed to restore data from tape.
3.3.
Using Storage Element
The last step in creating the element is determining its drive letter or mount
point and formatting the element. Each element created can exist as a drive
letter, assuming one is available and/or as mount points off of an existing
folder or drive letter. Either method is supported. However, mount points
cannot be used for shares that will be shared using Microsoft Services for
Unix. They can be set up with both but the use of the mount point in
conjunction with NFS shares causes instability with the NFS shares.
Formats consist of NTFS, FAT32, and FAT. All three types can be used on
the storage server. However, VSS can only use volumes that are NTFS
formatted. Also, quota management is possible only on NTFS.
3.4.
Network Adapter Teaming
Network adapter teaming is software-based technology used to increase a
server's network availability and performance. Teaming enables the logical
grouping of physical adapters in the same server (regardless of whether they
are embedded devices or Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
adapters) into a virtual adapter. This virtual adapter is seen by the network
and server-resident network-aware applications as a single network
connection.
3.5.
Disk Management
Disk Management can be accessed after administrator login using Remote
Desktop. Disk Management is accessed by right-clicking on the My
Computer icon on the Desktop and then selects Manage option or using the
Windows Storage Server Management Console.
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The Disk Management tool is a system utility for managing hard disks and
the volumes, or partitions that they contain. Disk Management is used to
initialize disks, create volumes, format volumes with the FAT, FAT32, or
NTFS file systems, and create fault-tolerant disk systems. Most disk-related
tasks can be preformed in Disk Management without restarting the system or
interrupting users; most configuration changes take effect immediately. A
complete online help facility is provided with the Disk Management Utility for
assistance in using the product
Note
When the Disk Management utility is accessed, the Remote Desktop connection
assumes a dedicated mode and can only be used to manage disks and volumes on
the server. Navigating to another page during an open session closes the session.
Note
It may take a few moments for the Remote Desktop Connection session to log off
when closing Disk Management.
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3.6.
Guidelines for Managing Disks & Volumes
When managing disks and volumes:
3-7
•
Read the online Disk Management Help found in the utility.
•
Do not alter the Operating System Disk labeled C:. This logical drive
is configured for the storage server operating system and should not
be altered in any manner, unless return to factory image is desired.
•
Tandberg Data does not recommend spanning arrays (volume set)
with dynamic volumes. The use of software RAID-based dynamic
volumes is not recommended. Use the array controller instead; it is
more efficient.
•
Use meaningful volume labels with the intended drive letter
embedded in the volume label, if possible. For example, volume F:
might be named “Disk F:.” Volume labels often serve as the only
means of identification.
•
Record all volume labels and drive letters in cases when OS
recovery is necessary.
•
When managing basic disks, only the last partition on the disk can
be extended unless the disk is changed to dynamic.
•
Basic disks can be converted to dynamic without bringing the
system offline or loss of data, but the volume will be unavailable
during the conversion. However, it cannot be converted back to
basic without deleting all data on the disk.
•
Basic disks can contain up to four primary partitions (or three
primary partitions and one extended partition).
•
Format drives with a 16 K allocation size for best support of
snapshots, performance, and defragmentation.
•
NTFS formatted drives are recommended since they provide the
greatest level of support for snapshots, encryption, and
compression.
•
Only basic disks can be formatted as FAT or FAT32.
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3.7.
RAID & Volume Management
The RAID and Volume set can be managed using web-based RAID
manager. It can be accessed using the following on your web browser:
http://<your NAS machine name or IP Address>:81/
The default user name is “admin”. The default password is “0000”.
The web-based RAID manager is use to administer further configurations i.e.
changing the RAID level on the System Volume or the Data Volume, and
monitor controllers as well as the RAID re-building progress.
The default password can be changed using the Modify Password field
located on the left column strip of the web-based RAID manager.
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Prior to using the web-based RAID manager, ensure that the web service of
RAID manager is started by accessing the Remote Desktop using Start >
Programs > Areca Technology Corp > archttppci > archttppci.
Closing the archttppci application during a web session with the array
controller will result in lost of unsaved information.
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3.8.
Scheduling Defragmentation
Defragmentation is the process of analyzing local volumes and consolidating
fragmented files and folders so that each occupies a single, contiguous
space on the volume. This improves file system performance. Because
defragmentation consolidates files and folders, it also consolidates the free
space on a volume. This reduces the likelihood that new files will be
fragmented.
Defragmentation for a volume can be scheduled to occur automatically at
convenient times. Defragmentation can also be done once, or on a recurring
basis.
Notes
Scheduling defragmentation to run no later than a specific time prevents the
defragmentation process from running later than that time. If the defragmentation
process is running when the time is reached, the process is stopped. This setting is
useful to ensure that the defragmentation process ends before the demand for
server access is likely to increase.
If defragmenting volumes on which shadow copies are enabled, use a
cluster (or allocation unit) size of 16 KB or larger during the format.
Otherwise defragmentation registers as a change by the Shadow Copy
process. This increase in the number of changes forces Shadow Copy to
delete snapshots as the limit for the cache file is reached.
Warning
Allocation unit size cannot be altered without reformatting the drive. Data on
a reformatted drive cannot be recovered.
Note
NTFS compression is supported only if the cluster size is 4 KB or smaller.
3.9.
Disk Quotas
Disk quotas track and control disk space use in volumes.
Note
To limit the size of a folder or share, see “Directory Quotas” in Chapter 6.
Configure the volumes on the server to perform the following tasks:
•
Prevent further disk space use and log an event when a user
exceeds a specified disk space limit.
•
Log an event when a user exceeds a specified disk space warning
level.
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When enabling disk quotas, it is possible to set both the disk quota limit and
the disk quota warning level. The disk quota limit specifies the amount of
disk space a user is allowed to use. The warning level specifies the point at
which a user is nearing his or her quota limit. For example, a user's disk
quota limit can be set to 50 megabytes (MB), and the disk quota warning
level to 45 MB. In this case, the user can store no more than 50 MB on the
volume. If the user stores more than 45 MB on the volume, the disk quota
system logs a system event.
In addition, it is possible to specify that users can exceed their quota limit.
Enabling quotas and not limiting disk space use is useful to still allow users
access to a volume, but track disk space use on a per-user basis. It is also
possible to specify whether or not to log an event when users exceed either
their quota warning level or their quota limit.
When enabling disk quotas for a volume, volume usage is automatically
tracked from that point forward, but existing volume users have no disk
quotas applied to them. Apply disk quotas to existing volume users by
adding new quota entries on the Quota Entries page.
Note
When enabling disk quotas on a volume, any users with write access to the volume
who have not exceeded their quota limit can store data on the volume. The first time
a user writes data to a quota-enabled volume, default values for disk space limit and
warning level are automatically assigned by the quota system.
3.10. Using Diskpart
Diskpart.exe is a text-mode command interpreter that enables the
administrator to manage disks, partitions, or volumes.
When using the list commands, an asterisk (*) appears next to the object
with focus. Select an object by its number or drive letter, such as disk 0,
partition 1, volume 3, or volume C.
When selecting an object, the focus remains on that object until a different
object is selected. For example, if the focus is set on disk 0 and volume 8 on
disk 2 is selected, the focus shifts from disk 0 to disk 2, volume 8. Some
commands automatically change the focus. For example, when creating a
new partition, the focus automatically switches to the new partition.
Focus can only be given to a partition on the selected disk. When a partition
has focus, the related volume (if any) also has focus. When a volume has
focus, the related disk and partition also have focus if the volume maps to a
single specific partition. If this is not the case, focus on the disk and partition
is lost.
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Some of the common Diskpart commands are:
•
add disk
Mirrors the simple volume with focus to the specified disk.
•
assign
Assigns a drive letter or mount point to the volume with focus.
•
convert basic
Converts an empty dynamic disk to a basic disk.
•
convert dynamic
Converts a basic disk into a dynamic disk. Any existing partitions on
the disk become simple volumes.
•
create volume simple
Creates a simple volume. After creating the volume, the focus
automatically shifts to the new volume.
•
exit
Exits the DiskPart command interpreter.
•
help
Displays a list of the available commands.
•
list disk
Displays a list of disks and information about them, such as their
size, amount of available free space, whether the disk is a basic or
dynamic disk, and whether the disk uses the master boot record
(MBR) or GUID partition table. The disk marked with an asterisk (*)
has focus.
•
list partition
Displays the partitions listed in the partition table of the current disk.
On dynamic disks these partitions may not correspond to the
dynamic volumes on the disk. This discrepancy occurs because
dynamic disks contain entries in the partition table for the system
volume or boot volume (if present on the disk). They also contain a
partition that occupies the remainder of the disk in order to reserve
the space for use by dynamic volumes.
•
list volume
Displays a list of basic and dynamic volumes on all disks.
•
rem
Provides a way to add comments to a script.
•
retain
Prepares an existing dynamic simple volume to be used as a boot or
system volume.
•
select disk
Selects the specified disk and shifts the focus to it.
For a complete list of Diskpart commands, go to the Windows Storage
Server 2003 R2 Desktop on the NAS appliance via Remote Desktop and
select Start > Help and Support, search on Diskpart.
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3.10.1. Example of using Diskpart
The following example shows how to configure a volume on the NAS server.
In the cmd window, type:
c:\>diskpart
DISKPART>rescan
DISKPART>select disk 1
DISKPART>convert dynamic
DISKPART>rem create a simple volume
DISKPART>create volume simple size=4000
DISKPART>rem assign drive letter F: to the volume
DISKPART>assign letter=F
DISKPART>list vol
DISKPART>exit
3.11. Adding Storage
Expansion is the process of adding physical disks to an array that has
already been configured. Extension is the process of adding new storage
space to an existing logical drive on the same array, usually after the array
has been expanded.
Storage growth may occur in three forms:
•
Extend unallocated space from the original logical disks or LUNs.
•
Alter LUNs to contain additional storage.
•
Add new LUNs to the system.
The additional space is then extended through a variety of means,
depending on which type of disk structure is in use.
NOTE:
This section addresses only single storage node configuration. If your server has
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition, see the Cluster Administration
chapter for expanding and extending storage in a cluster environment.
3.11.1. Expanding Storage
Expansion is the process of adding physical disks to an array that has
already been configured. The logical drives (or volumes) that exist in the
array before the expansion takes place are unchanged, because only the
amount of free space in the array changes. The expansion process is
entirely
independent of the operating system.
Notes
See your storage array hardware user documentation for further details about
expanding storage on the array.
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3.11.2. Extending Storage using Disk Management
The Disk Management snap-in provides management of hard disks, volumes
or partitions. It can be used to extend a dynamic volume only.
Notes
Disk Management cannot be used to extend basic disk partitions.
Guidelines for extending a dynamic volume:
•
Use the Disk Management utility.
•
You can extend a volume only if it does not have a file system or if it
is formatted NTFS.
•
You cannot extend volumes formatted using FAT or FAT32.
•
You cannot extend striped volumes, mirrored volumes, or RAID 5
volumes.
For more information, see the Disk Management online help.
3.12. File Services Features in Windows Storage
Server 2003 R2
This section begins by identifying file services in Windows Storage Server
2003 R2. The remainder of it describes the many tasks and utilities that play
a role in file server management.
3.12.1. Storage Manager for SANs
The Storage Manager for SANs (also called Simple SAN) snap-in enables
you to create and manage the LUNs that are used to allocate space on
storage arrays. Storage Manager for SANs can be used on SANs that
support Virtual Disk Server (VDS). It can be used in both Fibre Channel and
iSCSI environments.
For more information on Storage Manager for SANs, see the online help. A
Microsoft document titled Storage Management in Windows Storage Server
2003 R2: File Server Resource Manager and Storage Manager for Storage
Area Networks is available at:
http://download.microsoft.com/download/7/4/7/7472bf9b-3023-48b7-87bed2cedc38f15a/WS03R2_Storage_Management.doc .
Notes
Storage Manager for SANs is only available on Standard and Enterprise editions of
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2.
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3.12.2. Single Instance Storage
Single Instance Storage (SIS) provides a copy-on-write link between multiple
files. Disk space is recovered by reducing the amount of redundant data
stored on a server. If a user has two files sharing disk storage by using SIS,
and someone modifies one of the files, users of the other files do not see the
changes. The underlying shared disk storage that backs SIS links is
maintained by the system and is only deleted if all the SIS links pointing to it
are deleted. SIS automatically determines that two or more files have the
same content and links them together.
Notes
Single Instance Storage is only available on Standard and Enterprise editions of
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2.
3.12.3. File Server Resource Manage
File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools that allows administrators to
understand, control, and manage the quantity and type of data stored on
their servers. By using Storage Resource Manager, administrators can place
quotas on volumes, actively screen files and folders, and generate
comprehensive storage reports.
By using Storage Resource Manager, you can perform the following tasks:
•
Create quotas to limit the space allowed for a volume or folder and
to generate notifications when the quota limits are approached and
exceeded.
•
Create file screens to screen the files that users can save on
volumes and in folders and to send notifications when users attempt
to save blocked files
•
Schedule periodic storage reports that allow users to identify trends
in disk usage and to monitor attempts to save unauthorized files, or
generate the reports on demand.
3.12.4. Windows SharePoint Services
Windows SharePoint Services is an integrated set of collaboration and
communication services designed to connect people, information,
processes, and systems, both within and beyond the organization firewall.
NOTE:
Windows SharePoint Services is only available on Standard and Enterprise editions
of Windows Storage Server 2003 R2.
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3.12.5. Windows Storage Server Management Console
The Windows Storage Server Management Console is a user interface in
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 and Windows Unified Data Storage
Server 2003 that provides one place to manage files or print serving
components. The console is accessible using Remote Desktop or direct
attached method.
The Storage Management page provides a portal to:
•
File Server Resource Manager
•
DFS Management
•
Disk and Volume Management
•
Single Instance Storage
•
Indexing Service
•
MSNFS (under Share folder)
The Share Folder Management page provides a portal to Shared Folders,
consisting of:
•
Shares
•
Sessions
•
Open Files
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4.
Volume Shadow Copy
Service(VSS)
4.1.
Volume Shadow Copy Service Overview
The Volume Shadow Copy Service provides an infrastructure for creating
point-in-time snapshots (shadow copies) of volumes. Shadow Copy supports
64 shadow copies per volume under Windows® Storage Server 2003
environment.
A shadow copy contains previous versions of the files or folders contained
on a volume at a specific point in time. While the Shadow Copy mechanism
is managed at the Viking Series NAS appliance (see the “Managing Shadow
Copy” section in this chapter), previous versions of files and folders are only
available over the network from clients and are seen on a per folder or file
level and not as an entire volume.
The Shadow Copy feature works at the block level. As changes are made to
the file system, the Shadow Copy Service copies out the original blocks to a
special cache file, to maintain a consistent view of the file at a particular
point in time. Since the snapshot only contains a subset of the original
blocks, the cache file is typically smaller than the original volume. In the
snapshot’s original form, it takes up no space since blocks are not moved
until an update to the disk occurs.
By using shadow copies, the NAS appliance can maintain a set of previous
versions of all files on the selected volumes. End users access the file or
folder by using a separate client add-on program, which enables them to
view the file in Windows Explorer. Accessing previous versions of files, or
shadow copies, enables users to:
•
Recover files that were accidentally deleted. Previous versions can
be opened and copied to a safe location.
•
Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. A previous version of
that file can be accessed.
•
Compare several versions of a file while working. Use previous
versions to compare changes between two versions of a file.
Shadow copies cannot replace the current backup, archive, or business
recovery system, but they can help to simplify restore procedures. Since a
snapshot only contains a portion of the original data blocks, shadow copies
can not protect against data loss due to media failures. However the strength
of snapshots is the ability to instantly recover data from shadow copies,
reducing the number of times needed to restore data from tape.
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4.2.
Planning for use of Shadow Copy
Before Shadow Copy Service is initiated on the NAS appliance and the client
interface is made available to end users, consider the followings:
•
From what volume will shadow copies be taken?
•
How much disk space should be allocated for shadow copies?
•
Will separate disks be used to store shadow copies?
•
How frequently will shadow copies be made?
4.2.1.
Identifying the Volume
Shadow copies are taken for a complete volume, but not for a specific
directory. Shadow copies work best when the server stores user files, such
as documents, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, or database files.
Note
Shadow copies should not be used to provide access to previous versions of
application or e-mail databases.
Shadow copies are designed for volumes that store user data such as home
directories and My Documents folders that are redirected by using Group
Policy or other shared folders in which users store data.
Shadow copies work with compressed or encrypted files and retain whatever
permissions were set on the files when the shadow copies were taken. For
example, if a user is denied permission to read a file, that user would not be
able to restore a previous version of the file, or be able to read the file after it
has been restored.
Although shadow copies are taken for an entire volume, users must use
shared folders to access shadow copies. Administrators on the local server
(the NAS appliance) must also specify the \\nasname\sharename path to
access shadow copies. If administrators or end users want to access a
previous version of a file that does not reside in a shared folder, the
administrator must first share the folder.
Note
Shadow copies are available only on NTFS, not FAT or FAT32 volumes.
Files or folders that are recorded by using Shadow Copy appear static, even
though the original data is changing.
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4.2.2.
Allocating Disk Space
When shadow copies are enabled on a volume, the maximum amount of
volume space to be used for the shadow copies can be specified. The
default limit is 10 percent of the source volume (the volume being copied).
The limit for volumes in which users frequently change files should be
increased. Also, note that setting the limit too low causes the oldest shadow
copies to be deleted frequently, which defeats the purpose of shadow copies
and frustrates users.
If the frequency of changes to each file is greater than the amount of space
allocated to storing shadow copies, then no shadow copy is created.
Therefore, administrators should carefully consider the amount of disk space
they want to set aside for shadow copies, and keep in mind user
expectations of how many versions they will want to have available. End
users might expect only a single shadow copy to be available, or they might
expect three days or three weeks worth of shadow copies. The more
shadow copies users expect, the more storage space administrators must
allocate for storing them.
Setting the limit too low also affects Backup and other backup programs that
use shadow copy technology because these programs are also limited to
using the amount of disk space specified by administrators.
Note
Regardless of the volume space that is allocated for shadow copies, there is a
maximum of 64 shadow copies for any volume. When the 65th shadow copy is
taken, the oldest shadow copy is purged.
The minimum amount of storage space that can be specified is 100
megabytes (MB). The default storage size is 10% of the source volume (the
volume being copied). If the shadow copies are stored on a separate
volume, change the default to reflect the space available on the storage
volume instead of the source volume. Remember that when the storage limit
is reached, older versions of the shadow copies are deleted and cannot be
restored.
When determining the amount of space to allocate for storing shadow
copies, consider both the number and size of files that are being copied, as
well as the frequency of changes between copies. For example, 100 files
that only change monthly require less storage space than 10 files that
change daily.
To change the storage volume, shadow copies must be deleted. The existing
file change history that is kept on the original storage volume is lost. To
avoid this problem, verify that the storage volume that is initially selected is
large enough.
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When using a basic disk as a storage area for shadow copies and
converting the disk into a dynamic disk, it is important to take the following
precaution to avoid data loss:
•
If the disk is a non-boot volume and is a different volume from where
the original files reside, first dismount and take offline the volume
containing the original files before converting the disk containing
shadow copies to a dynamic disk.
•
The volume containing the original files must be brought back online
within 20 minutes, otherwise, the data stored in the existing shadow
copies is lost.
•
If the shadow copies are located on a boot volume, the disk to can
be converted to dynamic without losing shadow copies.
Note
Use the mountvol command with the /p option to dismount the volume and take it
offline. Mount the volume and bring it online using the mountvol command or the
Disk Management snap-in.
4.2.3.
Identifying the Storage Area
To store the shadow copies of another volume on the same NAS appliance,
a volume can be dedicated on separate disks. For example, if user files are
stored on H:\, another volume such as S:\ can be used to store the shadow
copies. Using a separate volume on separate disks provides better
performance and is recommended for heavily used NAS appliance.
If a separate volume will be used for the storage area (where shadow copies
are stored), the maximum size should be changed to No Limit to reflect the
space available on the storage area volume instead of the source volume
(where the user files are stored).
Disk space for shadow copies can be allocated on either the same volume
as the source files or a different volume. There is, however, a trade-off
between ease of use and maintenance versus performance and reliability
that the system administrator must consider.
For example, by keeping the shadow copy on the same volume, although
there is a potential gain in ease of setup and maintenance, there may be a
reduction in performance and reliability.
Caution
If shadow copies are stored on the same volume as the user files, note that a
burst of disk input/output (I/O) can cause all shadow copies to be deleted. If
the sudden deletion of shadow copies is unacceptable to administrators or
end users, it is best to use a separate volume on separate disks to store
shadow copies.
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4.2.4.
Determining Creation Frequency
The more frequently shadow copies are created, the more likely that end
users will get the version that they want. However, with a maximum of 64
shadow copies per volume, there is a trade-off between the frequency of
making shadow copies and the amount of time that the earlier files will be
available.
By default, the NAS appliance will create shadow copies at 0700 and 1200,
Monday through Friday when the feature is enabled for a volume. However,
these settings are easily modified by the administrator so that the shadow
copy schedule can better accommodate end user needs. To modify these
schedules see the section on “Shadow Copy Schedules” documented later
in this chapter.
Note
The more shadow copies are created, the more disk space the shadow copies can
consume, especially if files change frequently.
4.2.4.
Shadow Copies & Disk Defragmentation
When running Disk Defragmenter on a volume with shadow copies
activated, all or some of the shadow copies may be lost, starting with the
oldest shadow copies.
If defragmenting volumes on which shadow copies are enabled, use a
cluster (or allocation unit) size of 16 KB or larger. Utilizing this allocation unit
size reduces the number of copy outs occurring on the snapshot. Otherwise
the number of changes caused by the defragmentation process can cause
shadow copies to be deleted faster than expected. Note, however, that
NTFS compression is supported only if the cluster size is 4 KB or smaller.
Note
To check the cluster size of a volume, use the following text-mode command:
C:\>fsutil fsinfo ntfsinfo <volume pathname or drive letter>
To change the cluster size on a volume that contains data, backup the data on the
volume, reformat it using the new cluster size, and then restore the data.
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4.2.5.
Mounted Drives
A mounted drive is a local volume attached to an empty folder (called a
mount point) on an NTFS volume. When enabling shadow copies on a
volume that contains mounted drives, the mounted drives are not included
when shadow copies are taken. In addition, if a mounted drive is shared and
shadow copies are enabled on it, users cannot access the shadow copies if
they traverse from the host volume (where the mount point is stored) to the
mounted drive.
For example, assume there is a folder F:\data\users, and the Users folder is
a mount point for G:\. If shadow copies are enabled on both F:\ and G:\,
F:\data is shared as \\nas1\data, and G:\data\users is shared as
\\nas1\users. In this example, users can access previous versions of
\\nas1\data and \\nas1\users but not \\nas1\data\users.
4.3.
Managing Shadow Copies
The vssadmin tool provides a command line capability to create, list, resize,
and delete volume shadow copies.
The system administrator can make shadow copies available to end users
through a feature called “Shadow Copies for Shared Folders.” The
administrator uses the Properties menu (see below) to turn on the Shadow
Copies feature, select the volumes to be copied, and determine the
frequency with which shadow copies are made.
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4.3.1.
Shadow Copy Cache File
The default shadow copy settings allocate 10% of the source volume being
copied (with a minimum of 350 MB), and store the shadow copies on the
same volume as the original volume. See figure below. The cache file is
located in a hidden protected directory entitled “System Volume Information”
off of the root of each volume for which Shadow Copy is enabled.
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G:
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As mentioned previously, the cache file location can be altered to reside on a
dedicated volume separate from the volumes containing files shares. See
figure below.
F:
G:
H:
cache file
cache file
The main advantage to storing shadow copies on a separate volume is ease
of management and performance. Shadow copies on a source volume must
be continually monitored and can consume space designated for file sharing.
Setting the limit too high takes up valuable storage space. Setting the limit
too low can cause shadow copies to be purged too soon, or not created at
all. By storing shadow copies on a separate volume space for Shadow
Copies may be manage separately, limits can generally be set higher, or set
to No Limit. See the properties tab of the shadow copy page for a volume to
alter the cache file location, covered later in this chapter.
Caution
If the data on the separate volume H: is lost, the shadow copies cannot be
recovered.
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4.4.
Enabling and Creating Shadow Copies
Enabling shadow copies on a volume automatically results in several
actions:
•
Creates a shadow copy of the selected volume
•
Sets the maximum storage space for the shadow copies
•
Schedules shadow copies to be made at 7 A.M. and 12 noon on
weekdays.
Note
Creating a shadow copy only makes one copy of the volume; it does not create a
schedule.
To enable shadow copies on a volume:
1. Access Disk Management.
2. Select the volume of the logical drive which you want to enable
shadow copy service and right-click on it.
3. Select Properties.
4. Select Shadow Copies tab.
Note
After the first shadow copy is created, it cannot be relocated. Relocate the cache file
by altering the cache file location under Properties prior to enabling shadow copy.
See “Viewing Shadow Copy Properties” in this chapter.
5. Click Enable.
To create a shadow copy on a volume:
1. On Shadow Copies tab, click on the Create Now button.
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4.5.
Viewing List of Shadow Copies
The list of Shadow Copies can be view on a volume using the following
method:
1. Right-clicked on the volume or logical drive with shadow copy
service enabled and select Properties.
2. Click the Shadow Copies tab.
All shadow copies are listed, sorted by the date and time they were created.
Note
It is also possible to create new shadow copies or delete shadow copies from this
page.
4.6.
Scheduling Shadow Copies
Shadow Copy schedules control how frequently shadow copies of a volume
are made. There are a number of factors that can help determine the most
effective shadow copy schedule for an organization. These include the work
habits and locations of the users. For example, if users do not all live in the
same time zone, or they work on different schedules, it is possible to adjust
the daily shadow-copy schedule to allow for these differences.
It is recommended that shadow copies be scheduled not more frequently
than once per hour.
Notes
When deleting a shadow copy schedule, that action has no effect on existing
shadow copies (which have taken).
4.6.1.
Setting Shadow Copy Schedule
When the Shadow Copies service is enabled on a volume, it automatically
schedules shadow copies to be made each weekday at 7 A.M. and 12 noon.
To add or change a shadow copy schedule for a volume:
1. Right-clicked on the volume or logical drive with shadow copy
service enabled and select Properties.
2. Click the Shadow Copies tab.
3. Click on the Setting… button.
4. Click on the Schedule… button.
5. On the Shadow Copy Schedules page, click New.
6. Select a frequency: Once, Daily, Weekly, or Monthly.
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7. Use the Advance… controls to specify the recurrence pattern and
the starting date and time. The available controls change according
to the frequency selected.
8. Click OK.
4.6.2.
Deleting Shadow Copy Schedule
To delete a shadow copy schedule on a volume:
1. Right-clicked on the volume or logical drive with shadow copy
service enabled and select Properties.
2. Click the Shadow Copies tab.
3. Click on the Setting… button.
4. Click on the Schedule… button.
5. From the Schedule drop down box, select the schedule to be
deleted, and click Delete.
Note
When deleting a shadow copy schedule, that action has no effect on existing
shadow copies.
4.6.3.
Viewing Properties of Shadow Copies
To view shadow copy properties on a volume:
1. Right-clicked on the volume or logical drive with shadow copy
service enabled and select Properties.
2. Click the Shadow Copies tab.
3. The Shadow Copy Properties screen lists the number of copies, the
date and time the most recent shadow copy was made, and the
maximum size setting.
4. Click on the Setting… button.
The maximum size limit for all shadow copies cab be changed by
defining a new cache size in the box, or choose No limit.
For volumes where shadow copies do not exist currently, it is
possible to change the location of the cache file. See “The Shadow
Copy Cache File” earlier in this chapter. The list of available disks
and the space available on each is presented at the bottom of the
page. Managing the cache files on a separate disk is recommended.
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Note
If shadow copies have already been enabled, the cache file location is grayed out.
To change this location after shadow copies have been enabled, all shadow copies
must be deleted and cannot be recovered. Remember enabling Shadow Copies
creates a Shadow Copy by default.
5. Click OK to save changes, or click Cancel to discard changes.
Caution
Use caution when reducing the size limit for all shadow copies. When the size is set
to less than the total size currently used for all shadow copies, enough shadow
copies are deleted to reduce the total size to the new limit. A shadow copy cannot
be recovered after it has been deleted
4.6.4.
Redirecting Shadow Copies to Alternate Volume
IMPORTANT
Shadow copies must be initially disabled on the volume before redirecting to an
alternate volume. If shadow copies are enabled and you disable them, a message
appears informing you that all existing shadow copies on the volume will be
permanently deleted.
To redirect shadow copies to an alternate volume:
1. Right-clicked on the volume or logical drive with shadow copy
service enabled and select Properties.
2. Click the Shadow Copies tab.
3. Select the volume that you want to redirect shadow copies from and
ensure that shadow copies are disabled on that volume; if enabled,
click Disable.
4. Click on the Setting… button.
5. In the Located on this volume field, select an available alternate
volume from the list.
Notes
To change the default shadow copy schedule settings, click Schedule.
6. Click OK.
7. On the Shadow Copies tab, ensure that the volume is selected, and
then click Enable.
Shadow copies are now scheduled to be made on the alternate volume.
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4.6.4.
Disabling Shadow Copies
When shadow copies are disabled on a volume, all existing shadow copies
on the volume are deleted as well as the schedule for making new shadow
copies.
To disable shadow copies on a volume:
1. Right-clicked on the volume or logical drive with shadow copy
service enabled and select Properties.
2. Click the Shadow Copies tab.
3. Click Disable.
4. Click Yes to confirm.
Caution
When the Shadow Copies service is disabled, all shadow copies on the selected
volumes are deleted. Once deleted, shadow copies cannot be restored.
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4.7.
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders
Shadow Copies are accessed over the network by supported clients and
protocols. There are two sets of supported protocols, SMB and NFS. All
other protocols are not supported; this would include HTTP, FTP, AppleTalk,
and NetWare Shares. For SMB support a client side application denoted as
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders is required. The client side application is
currently only available for Windows XP and Windows 2000 SP3+.
No additional software is required to enable UNIX users to independently
retrieve previous versions of files stored on NFS shares.
Note
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders supports retrieval only of shadow copies of
network shares. It does not support retrieval of shadow copies of local folders.
Note
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders clients are not available for HTTP, FTP,
AppleTalk, or NetWare shares. Consequently, users of these protocols cannot use
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders to independently retrieve previous versions of
their files. However, administrators can take advantage of Shadow Copies for
Shared Folders to restore files on behalf of these users.
4.7.1.
SMB Access to Shadow Copies
Windows users can independently access previous versions of files stored
on SMB shares via the Shadow Copies for Shared Folders client. After the
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders client is installed on the user's computer,
the user can access shadow copies for a share by right-clicking on the share
to open its Properties dialog, selecting the Previous Versions tab, and then
selecting the desired shadow copy. Users can view, copy, and restore all
available shadow copies.
Shadow Copies for Shared Folders preserves the permissions set in the
access control list (ACL) of the original folders and files. Consequently, users
can only access shadow copies for shares to which they have access. In
other words, if a user does not have access to a share, he also does not
have access to the share's shadow copies.
The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders client pack installs a Previous
Versions tab in the Properties dialog box of files and folders on network
shares.
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Users access shadow copies with Windows Explorer by selecting View,
Copy, or Restore, from the Previous Versions tab. See figure below. Both
individual files and folders may be restored.
When users view a network folder hosted on the NAS appliance for which
shadow copies are enabled, old versions (prior to the snapshot) of a file or
directory are available. Viewing the properties of the file or folder presents
users with the folder or file history-a list of read-only, point-in-time copies of
the file or folder contents that users can then open and explore like any other
file or folder. Users can view files in the folder history, copy files from the
folder history, and so on.
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4.7.2.
NFS Access to Shadow Copies
UNIX users can independently access previous versions of files stored on
NFS shares via the NFS client; no additional software is required. Server for
NFS exposes each of a share's available shadow copies as a pseudosubdirectory of the share. Each of these pseudo-subdirectories is displayed
in exactly the same way as a regular subdirectory is displayed.
The name of each pseudo-subdirectory reflects the creation time of the
shadow copy, using the format.@GMT-YYYY.MM.DD-HH:MM:SS. Note that,
to prevent common tools from needlessly enumerating the pseudosubdirectories, the name of each pseudo-subdirectory begins with the dot
character, thus rendering it hidden.
The following example shows an NFS share named “NFSShare” with three
shadow copies, taken on April 27, 28, and 29 of 2003 at 4 a.m.
NFSShare
@ GMT-2003.04.27-04:00:00
@ GMT-2003.04.28-04:00:00
@ GMT-2003.04.29-04:00:00
Access to NFS shadow copy pseudo-subdirectories is governed by normal
access-control mechanisms using the permissions stored in the file system.
Users can access only those shadow copies to which they have read access
at the time the shadow copy is taken. To prevent users from modifying
shadow copies, all pseudo-subdirectories are marked read-only, regardless
of the user's ownership or access rights, or the permissions set on the
original files.
Server for NFS periodically polls the system for the arrival or removal of
shadow copies and updates the root directory view accordingly. Clients then
capture the updated view the next time they issue a directory read on the
root of the share.
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4.8.
Recovery of Files and Folders
There are three common situations that may require recovery of files or
folders:
•
Accidental file deletion, the most common situation.
•
Accidental file replacement, which may occur if a user selects Save
instead of Save As.
•
File corruption.
It is possible to recover from all of these scenarios by accessing shadow
copies. There are separate steps for accessing a file compared to accessing
a folder.
As documented previously, the use of the snapshots are from the network
and are based on shares created on the NAS appliance.
4.8.1.
Recovering Deleted Files or Folders
To recover a deleted file or folder within a folder:
1. Navigate to the folder where the deleted file was stored (on the NAS
appliance).
2. Position the cursor over a blank space in the folder. If the cursor
hovers over a file, that file will be selected.
3. Right-click the mouse and select Properties from the bottom of the
menu. Select the Previous Versions tab.
4. Select the version of the folder that contains the file before it was
deleted, and then click View.
5. View the folder and select the file or folder to recover. The view may
be navigated multiple folders deep.
6. Select Restore to restore the file or folder to its original location.
Selecting Copy… will allow the placement of the file or folder to a
new location.
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4.8.2.
Recovering Overwritten or Corrupted Files
Recovering an overwritten or corrupted file is easier than recovering a
deleted file because the file itself can be right-clicked instead of the folder.
To recover an overwritten or corrupted file use the following procedure:
1. Right-click the overwritten or corrupted file and click Properties.
2. Select Previous Versions.
3. To view the old version, click View. To copy the old version to
another location, click Copy... to replace the current version with the
older version, click Restore.
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4.8.3.
Recovering Folders
To recover a folder, use the following procedure:
1. Position the cursor so that it is over a blank space in the folder that
will be recovered. If the cursor hovers over a file, that file will be
selected.
2. Right-click the mouse, select Properties from the bottom of the
menu, then click the Previous Versions tab.
3. Choose either Copy or Restore.
4. Choosing Restore enables the user to recover everything in that
folder as well as all subfolders. Selecting Restore will not delete any
files.
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4.9.
Backup & Shadow Copies
As mentioned previously, Shadow Copies are only available on the network
via the client application and only at a file or folder level as opposed to the
entire volume. Hence the standard backup associated with a volume backup
will not work to back up the previous versions of the file system. To answer
this particular issue, Shadow Copies are available for back up in two
situations. If the backup software in question supports the use of Shadow
Copies and can communicate with underlying block device, it is supported
and the previous version of the file system will be listed in the backup
application as a complete file system snapshot. Lastly, if the built in backup
application NTbackup is utilized, the backup software forces a snapshot and
then uses the snapshot as the means for backup. The user is unaware of
this activity and it is not self evident although it does address the issue of
open files.
4.10. Shadow Copy Transport
Shadow Copy Transport provides the ability to transport data on a Storage
Area Network (SAN). With a storage array and a VSS-aware hardware
provider, it is possible to create a shadow copy on one server and import it
on another server. This process, essentially “virtual” transport, is
accomplished in a matter of minutes, regardless of the size of the data.
Notes
Shadow copy transport is supported only on Windows Server 2003 Enterprise
Edition, Windows Storage Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, and Windows Server
2003 Datacenter Edition. It is an advanced solution that works only if it has a
hardware provider on the storage array.
A shadow copy transport can be used for a number of purposes, including:
•
Tape backups
An alternative to traditional backup to tape processes is transport of
shadow copies from the production server onto a backup server,
where they can then be backed up to tape. Like the other two
alternatives, this option removes backup traffic from the production
server. While some backup applications might be designed with the
hardware provider software that enables transport, others are not.
The administrator should determine whether or not this functionality
is included in the backup application.
•
Data mining
The data in use by a particular production server is often useful to
different groups or departments within an organization. Rather than
add additional traffic to the production server, a shadow copy of the
data can be made available through transport to another server. The
shadow copy can then be processed for different purposes, without
any performance impact on the original server.
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The transport process is accomplished through a series of DISKRAID
command steps:
1. Create a shadow copy of the source data on the source server
(read-only).
2. Mask off (hide) the shadow copy from the source server.
3. Unmask the shadow copy to a target server.
4. Optionally, clear the read-only flags on the shadow copy.
The data is now ready to use.
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5.
User & Group Management
5.1.
Overview
There are two system environments for users and groups: workgroup and
domain. Because users and groups in a domain environment are managed
through standard Windows or Active Directory domain administration
methods, this document discusses only local users and groups, which are
stored and managed on the NAS appliance. For information on managing
users and groups on a domain, refer to the domain documentation available
on the Microsoft website.
5.2.
Domain versus Workgroup Environments
There are two system environments for users and groups: workgroup and
domain. Because users and groups
NAS appliances can be deployed in workgroup or domain environments.
When in a domain environment, the appliance is a member of the domain.
The domain controller is a repository of accounts and account access for the
NAS appliance. Client machines are also members of the domain, and users
log on to the domain through their Windows clients. The domain controller
also administers user accounts and appropriate access levels to resources
that are a part of the domain.
In a CIFS/SMB environment, when mapping a network drive or a client
machine, a user sends a logon credential to the NAS appliance. This
credential includes the username, password, and if appropriate, domain
information. Using the credential, the NAS appliance authenticates and
provides the corresponding access to the user.
When a NAS appliance is deployed into a workgroup environment, all user
and group account access permissions to file resources are stored locally on
the appliance.
In contrast, when a NAS appliance is deployed into a domain environment it
uses the account database from the domain controller, with user and group
accounts stored outside the appliance. The NAS appliance integrates with
the domain controller infrastructure.
Note
The NAS appliance cannot act as a domain controller for other servers on the
network. If user and group account information is stored locally, those accounts may
be used only to authenticate logons to the NAS appliance, resulting in a workgroup
configuration.
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Administering users and groups in a domain environment is similar in a
mechanical sense to administering them in a workgroup environment. If
using an Active Directory domain controller, the Computer Management tool
allows for adding, modifying, and removing users in the same context as in a
workgroup environment. The concepts, however, are very different.
Additional information about planning for domain environments can be found
at Microsoft® using the following URL:
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/technologies/directory/activedi
rectory/default.mspx
The configuration of the domain controller is reflected on the NAS appliance
because it obtains user account information from the domain controller when
deployed in a domain environment. As mentioned previously, the server
cannot act as a domain controller itself.
5.3.
User & Group Name Planning
Effective user and group management is dependent upon how well the user
and group names are organized. Administrators typically create a small
number of groups on the network and then assign users to the appropriate
group or groups. File system and share permissions can then be applied at
the group level, rather than at the user level. If the number of groups is
small, assigning the appropriate permissions to selected group, or groups, is
more efficient than assigning permissions to each user.
Although each organization has specific conventions, following general
guidelines makes administration simpler and more efficient. Because
CIFS/SMB is dependent on users and groups to grant appropriate access
levels to file shares, CIFS/SMB administration benefits from a consistent
user and group administration strategy.
5.3.1.
Managing User Names
Usernames should reflect a logical relationship between the username and
the person who uses the account. It is important that rules are established to
ensure that usernames are:
•
Systematic
•
Easy to follow and implement
•
Easy to remember
Using a combination of the user's first name, middle initial, and last name
results in systematic usernames for every member of a particular
organization. Common examples include:
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•
First initial followed by last name (jdoe for John Doe)
•
First initial followed by middle initial and last name (jqpublic for John
Q. Public)
•
First name followed by last name, separated by a period (john.smith
for John Smith)
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• Last name followed by first initial (doej for Jane Doe)
Guidelines must be in place for instances when two users have the same
initials or name. For example, a number can be added to the end of the
username (jdoe1 and jdoe2).
Other conventions can be applied. Just ensure that conventions are both
systematic and consistent.
5.3.2.
Managing Group Names
Group management follows many of the same principles as user
management.
It is recommended that group naming conventions be systematic and easy to
understand. Make the group name convey some logical information about
the function or purpose of the group. The following table provides examples
of group names.
Group Name
Description
Administrators
All designated administrators on the server
Users
All standard server users
Power users
All standard server users requiring advanced access
levels
Using tags is a helpful convention that indicates the specific access that a
particular user has to a network resource. For example, if there is a data
share on the device, the network administrator can create a “Data Users
ROnly” group and a “Data Users RWrite” group to contain users that have
read only or read write access on the share, respectively.
5.4.
Workgroup User & Group Management
In a workgroup environment, users and groups are managed through the
Microsoft Management Console of the NAS server. Within the Users option,
there are two choices:
•
Managing local users
•
Managing local groups
User and group administrative tasks include adding, deleting, and modifying
user and group information. Managing local users and managing local
groups.
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6.
Folder & Share Management
The Tandberg Viking Series NAS appliance supports several file sharing
protocols, including DFS, NFS, FTP, HTTP, and Microsoft SMB. This
chapter discusses overview information as well as procedural instructions for
the setup and management of the file shares for the supported protocols. In
addition, discussions on security at the file level and at the share level are
included in this chapter.
Abbreviated information on creating NFS file shares is included in this
chapter; for detailed information on setting up and managing NFS file
shares, see the “Microsoft Services for NFS” chapter.
More information about Windows file system security is available on the
Microsoft® website:
http://www.microsoft.com
All procedures in this chapter are documented using the WebUI. In addition
to this guide, you may use the WebUI online help.
6.1.
Folder Management
Volumes and folders on any system are used to organize data. Regardless
of system size, systematic structuring and naming conventions of volumes
and folders eases the administrative burden. Moving from volumes to folders
to shares increases the level of granularity of the types of data stored in the
unit and the level of security access allowed.
Although a variety of methods can be used to create and manage file folders
on the NAS appliance, this document discusses using the Windows Remote
Desktop or direct attached method interface.
Managing system volumes and file folders includes the following tasks:
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•
Navigating to a specific volume or folder
•
Creating a new folder
•
Deleting a folder
•
Modifying folder properties
•
Creating a new share for a volume or folder
•
Managing shares for a volume or folder
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6.2.
Managing File Level Permissions
Security at the file level is managed using Windows Explorer available from
the Desktop of the NAS appliance. To access the NAS server Desktop from
use either the direct attached method or Windows Remote Desktop.
File level security includes settings for permissions, ownership, and auditing
for individual files.
To enter file permissions:
1. Using Windows Explorer, navigate to the folder or file that needs to
be changed and then right-click the folder.
2. Select Properties, and then select the Security tab.
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3. Several options are available in the Security tab dialog box:
o
To add users and groups to the permissions list, click Add.
Then follow the dialog box instructions.
o
To remove users and groups from the permissions list,
highlight the desired user or group and then click Remove.
o
The center section of the Security tab provides a listing of
permission levels. When new users or groups are added to
the permissions list, select the appropriate boxes to
configure the common file access levels.
o
To modify ownership of files or to modify individual file
access level permissions, click Advanced.
4. Click Advanced. Figure below illustrates the properties available on
the Advanced Security Settings page.
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To modify specific permissions assigned to a particular user or group for a
selected file or folder in the Advanced screen:
1. Select the desired user or group.
2. Click Edit.
3. Check all the permissions that you want to enable, and clear the
permissions that you want to disable. Enable or disable permissions
by selecting the Allow box to enable permission or the Deny box to
disable permission. If neither box is selected, permission is
automatically disabled. Figure below illustrates the Edit screen and
some of the permissions.
4. Other functionality available in the Advanced Security Settings tab
includes:
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o
Add a new user or group. Click Add, and then follow the
dialog box instructions.
o
Remove a user or group. Click Remove.
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o
Replace permission entries on all child objects with
entries shown here that apply to child objects. This
allows all child folders and files to inherit the current folder
permissions by default.
5. Another area of the Advanced Security Settings is the Auditing
tab. Auditing allows you to set rules for the auditing of access, or
attempted access, to files or folders. Users or groups can be added,
deleted, viewed, or modified through the advanced Advanced
Security Settings Auditing tab. The Auditing tab dialog box is
illustrated below.
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6. Click Add to display the Select User or Group dialog box.
Note
Click Advanced to search for users or groups.
7. Select the user or group.
8. Click OK. Figure below illustrates the Auditing Entry screen that is
displayed.
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9. Select the desired Successful and Failed audits for the user or
group as shown in Figure 40.
10. Click OK.
Note
Auditing must be enabled to configure this information. Use the local Computer
Policy Editor to configure the audit policy on the NAS appliance.
11. The Owner tab allows for taking ownership of files. Typically,
administrators use this area to take ownership of files when the file
ACL is incomplete or corrupt. By taking ownership, you gain access
to the files and then manually apply the appropriate security
configurations. Figure below illustrates the Owner tab.
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12. The current owner of the file or folder is listed at the top of the
screen. To take ownership:
a. Select the appropriate user or group from the Change
owner to list.
b. If it is also necessary to take ownership of subfolders and
files, enable the Replace owner on subcontainers and
objects box.
c.
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Click OK to execute the commands.
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6.3.
Share Management
There are several ways to set up and manage shares. Methods include
using a command line interface, Windows Explorer, or NAS Management
Console.
As previously mentioned, the file sharing security model of the NAS
appliance is based on the NTFS file-level security model. Share security
seamlessly integrates with file security. In addition to discussing share
management, this section discusses share security. See “Managing File
Level Permissions” earlier in this chapter for information on file security.
Shares management topics include:
•
Share Considerations
•
Defining Access Control Lists
•
Integrating Local File System Security into Windows Domain
Environments
•
Comparing Administrative and Standard Shares
•
Planning for Compatibility between File-Sharing Protocols
•
Managing Shares
6.3.1.
Share Considerations
Planning the content, size, and distribution of shares on the NAS appliance
can improve performance, manageability, and ease of use.
The content of shares should be carefully chosen to avoid two common
pitfalls: either having too many shares of a very specific nature or of having
very few shares of a generic nature. For example, shares for general usage
are easier to set up in the beginning, but can cause problems later.
Frequently, a better approach is to create separate shares with a specific
purpose or group of users in mind. However, creating too many shares also
has its drawbacks. Take care to avoid creating shares unnecessarily. For
example, if it is sufficient to create a single share for user home directories,
create a “homes” share rather than creating separate shares for each user.
By keeping the number of shares and other resources low, the performance
of the NAS appliance is optimized. For example, instead of sharing out each
individual user's home directory as its own share, share out the top level
directory and let the users map personal drives to their own subdirectory.
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6.3.2.
Defining Access Control Lists
The Access Control List (ACL) contains the information that dictates which
users and groups have access to a share, as well as the type of access that
is permitted. Each share on an NTFS file system has one ACL with multiple
associated user permissions. For example, an ACL can define that User1
has read and write access to a share, User2 has read only access, and
User3 has no access to the share. The ACL also includes group access
information that applies to every user in a configured group. ACLs are also
referred to as permissions.
6.3.3.
Integrating Local File System Security into Windows
Domain Environments
ACLs include properties specific to users and groups from a particular
workgroup server or domain environment. In a multidomain environment,
user and group permissions from several domains can apply to files stored
on the same device. Users and groups local to the NAS appliance can be
given access permissions to shares managed by the device. The domain
name of the NAS appliance supplies the context in which the user or group
is understood. Permission configuration depends on the network and domain
infrastructure where the server resides.
File-sharing protocols (except NFS) supply a user and group context for all
connections over the network. (NFS supplies a machine based context.)
When new files are created by those users or machines, the appropriate
ACLs are applied.
Configuration tools provide the ability to share permissions out to clients.
These shared permissions are propagated into a file system ACL and when
new files are created over the network, the user creating the file becomes
the file owner. In cases where a specific subdirectory of a share has different
permissions from the share itself, the NTFS permissions on the subdirectory
apply instead. This method results in a hierarchical security model where the
network protocol permissions and the file permissions work together to
provide appropriate security for shares on the device.
Note
Share permissions and file level permissions are implemented separately. It is
possible for files on a file system to have different permissions from those applied to
a share. When this situation occurs, the file level permissions override the share
permissions.
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6.3.4.
Comparing Administrative & Standard Shares
CIFS supports both administrative shares and standard shares.
Administrative shares are shares with a last character of $. Administrative
shares are not included in the list of shares when a client browses for
available shares on a CIFS server. Standard shares are shares that do not
end in a $ character. Standard shares are listed whenever a CIFS client
browses for available shares on a CIFS server.
The NAS appliance supports both administrative and standard CIFS shares.
To create an administrative share, end the share name with the $ character
when setting up the share. Do not type a $ character at the end of the share
name when creating a standard share.
6.3.5.
Planning for Compatibility between File Sharing
Protocols
When planning for cross-platform share management on the NAS appliance,
it is important to understand the different protocols and their associated
constraints. Each additional protocol that is supported adds another level of
constraints and complexity.
6.3.5.1.
NFS Compatibility Issues
When planning to manage CIFS and NFS shares, consider two specific
requirements.
Note
Further information, including details about the NFS Service and the User Mapping
service, is available in the “UNIX File System Management” chapter.
•
NFS service does not support spaces in the names for NFS file
shares.
NFS translates any spaces in an export into an underscore
character. Additional translations can be set up for files. See the
“OEM Supplemental Help” chapter of the SFU help, found on the
NAS appliance. This feature is designed to ensure the greatest level
of compatibility with NFS clients, because some do not work with
NFS exports that contain a space in the export name.
If you plan to use the same name when sharing a folder through
CIFS, and then exporting it through NFS, do not put spaces in the
CIFS share name.
•
NFS service does not support exporting a child folder when its
parent folder has already been exported.
An NFS client can access a child folder by selecting the parent
folder and then navigating to the child folder. If strict cross-platform
compatibility is an administration goal, CIFS must be managed in the
same way. Do not share a folder through CIFS if the parent folder is
already shared.
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6.3.6.
Managing Shares
Shares can be managed through the Windows Storage Server Management
Console. Tasks include:
•
Creating a new share
•
Deleting a share
•
Modifying share properties
•
Publish in DFS (See “Publishing a new share in DFS”)
Each of these tasks is discussed in this section.
6.3.6.1.
Creating a New Share
To create a new share:
1. From Windows Storage Server Management console, drop down the
Share Folder Management. Select the Shares folder and then rightclick. From the pop-up menu, click on New Share.
2. Follow the Share a Folder Wizard to create share folder by
specifying the following information:
o
Share name
o
Share path
o
Client protocol types (SMB/CIFS and/or AppleTalk)
o
Access permission
3. At the end of the Wizard, click Close.
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6.3.6.2.
Stopping a Share
Caution
Before deleting a share, warn all users to exit that share and confirm that no
one is using the share.
To delete a share:
1. On the Windows Storage Server Management console, right-click on
the share that you want to stop sharing. Click Stop Sharing from the
pop-up menu.
2. Click Yes to confirm.
Notes
When a share is stopped, the physical folder is NOT deleted. Use the Windows
Explorer to manually delete the folder if desired.
6.3.6.3.
Modifying Share Properties
To change share settings:
1. On the Windows Storage Server Management console, right-click on
the share that you want to change settings. Click Properties from
the pop-up menu.
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2. The name and path of the selected share is displayed.
3. After all share information has been entered, click OK. The setting is
updated.
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Windows Sharing
From the Share Properties menu:
1. Enter a descriptive Comment, and the User limit (optional). See
figure below for an example of the screen display.
2. Select Offline settings.
3. Set the permissions. The Share Permissions tab lists the currently
approved users for this share.
o
To add a new user or group, click Add…. Specify the group
or user information and they will be added to the
Permissions box.
o
To remove access to a currently approved user or group,
select the user or group from the Permissions box and then
click Remove.
o
To indicate the type of access allowed for each user or
group, select them and specify the appropriate option.
4. After all Windows Sharing information is entered, click OK.
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UNIX Sharing
The UNIX (NFS) sharing need to be access using Windows Explorer:
1. Using the Windows Explorer, navigate to the share folder and rightclick. Select Properties. Go to the NFS Sharing tab.
2. Select the radio button Share this folder to enable UNIX sharing
(NFS). Define the share name, encoding.
3. At the Indicate the machines that will have access to this share.
Select the machine to include in the Select a group box or manually
enter the NFS client computer name or IP address. Then click Add.
4. Click the Permissions to define how users access the shared
folder.
From the NFS Share Permissions menu, define the type of access
on the drop down box. The types of access are:
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o
Read-only—Use this permission to restrict write access to
the share.
o
Read-write—Use this permission to allow clients to read or
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o
No access—Use this permission to restrict all access to the
share.
5. Select whether or not to allow root access by checking the box.
o
Read-only + Root—Use this permission to restrict write
access to the share. Use this permission to assign
administrative access to the share. This will allow the client
computer to have root access to the NFS share. Map the
UNIX root user to the Windows user Administrator. Also,
map the group that this UNIX root belongs to, to the
Windows group Administrator.
o
Read-write + Root—Use this permission to allow clients to
read or write to the share. Use this permission to assign
administrative access to the share. This will allow the client
computer to have root access to the NFS share. Map the
UNIX root user to the Windows user Administrator. Also,
map the group that this UNIX root belongs to, to the
Windows group Administrator.
6. After all UNIX sharing information is entered, click OK.
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Web Sharing (HTTP)
The HTTP sharing can be enabled using Windows Explorer:
1. Select Using the Windows Explorer, navigate to the share folder and
right-click. Select Properties. Go to the Web Sharing tab.
2. Select the radio button Share this folder to enable web sharing
(HTTP). Define the alias information.
3. Click OK.
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AFP (Appletalk) Sharing
AppleTalk shares can be set up only after AppleTalk Protocol and File
Services for Macintosh have been installed on the NAS appliance.
Note
AppleTalk shares should not be created on clustered resources as data loss can
occur due to local memory use.
Instaling the AppleTalk Protocol
To install the AppleTalk Protocol:
1. From the desktop of the NAS server, click Start, navigate to Control
Panel > Network Connections > Local Area Connection. Rightclick and select Properties from the pop-up menu, and then click on
Install….
2. Select Protocol and click Add….
3. Select AppleTalk Protocol and click OK.
4. Click Close to finish the installation.
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Instaling the File Services for Macintosh
To install the AppleTalk Protocol:
1. From the desktop of the NAS server, click Start, navigate to Control
Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Click on Add/Remove
Windows Components and navigate to the Other Network and
File and Print Services, and then click on Details….
2. Check the File Services for Macintosh.
3. Click OK.
4. Click Next.
5. Click Finish to exit Windows Component Wizard and commence
installation.
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Setting AppleTalk Protocol Properties
To set up AppleTalk shares:
1. From Windows Storage Server Management console, drop down the
Share Folder Management. Select the Shares folder and then rightclick. From the pop-up menu, click on New Share.
2. Step through the Share a Folder Wizard to create shares.
3. Type in the share name and share path.
4. Check Apple MacIntosh users checkbox and finish the share
creation process.
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To change AppleTalk settings:
1. On the Windows Storage Server Management console, right-click on
the AppleTalk share that you want to change settings. Click
Properties from the pop-up menu.
2. Enter a user limit.
3. Enter password information.
4. Indicate whether the share has read only permission or read write
permission by checking or un-checking the checkbox.
5. After all AppleTalk Sharing information is entered, click OK.
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6.4.
File Server Recourse Manager
With the increasing demand on storage resources, as organizations rely
more heavily on data than ever before, IT administrators face the challenge
of overseeing a larger and more complex storage infrastructure, while at the
same time, tracking the kind of information available in it. Today, managing
storage resources not only includes data size and availability but also the
enforcement of company policies and a very good understanding of how
existing storage is being used, allowing for sound strategic planning and
proper response to organizational changes.
File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools that allows administrators to
understand, control, and manage the quantity and type of data stored on
their servers. By using File Server Resource Manager, administrators can
place quotas on volumes, actively screen files and folders, and generate
comprehensive storage reports. This set of advanced instruments not only
helps the administrator to efficiently monitor existing storage resources, but it
also aids in the planning and implementation of future policy changes.
By using File Server Resource Manager, you can perform the following
tasks:
•
Create quotas to limit the space allowed for a volume or folder and
generate notifications when the quota limits are approached or
exceeded.
•
Automatically generate and apply quotas to all existing folders and
any new subfolders in a volume or folder.
•
Create file screens to control the type of files that users can save
and send notifications when users attempt to save blocked files.
•
Define quota and file screening templates that can be easily applied
to new volumes or folders and reused across an organization.
•
Schedule periodic storage reports that help identify trends in disk
usage.
•
Monitor attempts to save unauthorized files for all users or for a
selected group of users.
•
Generate storage reports instantly, on demand.
6.4.1.
Using the File Server Resource Manager
Component
This section tells you how to open and use File Server Resource Manager.
The following tasks are included:
•
Open File Server Resource Manager
•
Perform storage management tasks
•
Manage storage on a remote computer
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6.4.2.
Opening File Server Resource Manager
File Server Resource Manager is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
snap-in and is located in Administrative Tools on the Start menu.
To open File Server Resource Manager:
•
On the Start menu, click Programs, click Administrative Tools,
and then click File Server Resource Manager.
File Server Resource Manager contains three main nodes:
•
Quota Management. Use to create quotas that place size limits on
volumes and folders.
•
File Screening Management. Use to create file screens that block
files from volumes and folders.
•
Storage Reports Management. Use to schedule different types of
storage reports and to create reports on demand.
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The following is a list of tasks that you can perform from each respective
node in File Server Resource Manager:
6.4.3.
Quota Management
•
Create, manage, and obtain information about quotas, which are
used to set a space limit on a volume or folder. By defining
notification thresholds, you can send e-mail notifications, log an
event, run a command or script, or generate reports when users
approach or exceed a quota.
•
Create and manage quota templates to simplify quota management.
•
Create and manage auto quotas.
6.4.4.
File Screening Management
•
Create, manage, and obtain information about file screens, which
are used to block selected file types from a volume or folder.
•
Create file screening exceptions to override certain file screening
rules.
•
Create and manage file screen templates to simplify file screening
management.
•
Create and manage file groups. When used with file screens and file
screening exceptions, the file groups determine which files will be
blocked and which will be allowed. File groups also are used to
select files to include and exclude from the Files by File Group
Report and to sort file screens.
6.4.5.
Storage Report Management
•
Schedule and configure storage reports.
•
Generate storage reports on demand.
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6.4.6.
Using Command-Line Tools for File Server Resource
Manager
If you prefer to work from the command line, you can use the following tools:
•
Dirquota.exe. Use to create and manage quotas and quota
templates.
•
FileScrn.exe. Use to create and manage file screens, file
screening exceptions, and file groups.
•
StorRept.exe. Use to configure report parameters and generate
storage reports on demand. You can also create report tasks and
then
•
use Schtasks.exe to schedule the tasks.
The tools are added to the system path when you install File Server
Resource Manager and can be run from the command prompt. They can be
used to perform storage management tasks on remote computers that are
running the same operating system.
To learn the parameters for a specific tool, include the /? switch.
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7.
Distributed File System (DFS)
7.1.
Overview
One of the goals of information technology (IT) groups in medium and large
organizations is to manage file servers and their resources efficiently while
keeping them available and secure for users. As organizations expand to
include more users and servers—whether they are located in one site or in
geographically distributed sites—administrators find it increasingly difficult to
keep users connected to the files they need. On one hand, storing files on
distributed servers makes files available to more users and decreases
latency and bandwidth use when the servers are located near users. On the
other hand, as the number of distributed servers increases, users have
difficulty locating files they need, and operational costs increase.
Administrators who manage these distributed, remote servers need a
solution that helps them limit network traffic over slow WAN connections,
ensure the availability of files during WAN outages or server failures, and
ensure that branch servers are backed up correctly. The Distributed File
System solution in the Microsoft® Windows Server™ 2003 R2 operating
system helps administrators address these challenges by providing two
technologies, DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication, which, when used
together, offer simplified, fault-tolerant access to files, load sharing, and
WAN-friendly replication.
•
DFS Replication is a new state-based, multimaster replication
engine that supports replication scheduling and bandwidth throttling.
DFS Replication uses a new compression protocol called Remote
Differential Compression (RDC), which can be used to efficiently
update files over a limited-bandwidth network. RDC detects
insertions, removals, and re-arrangements of data in files, thereby
enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changes when files
are updated. Additionally, a function of RDC called cross-file RDC
can help reduce the amount of bandwidth required to replicate new
files.
•
DFS Namespaces, formerly known as Distributed File System,
allows administrators to group shared folders located on different
servers and present them to users as a virtual tree of folders known
as a namespace. A namespace provides numerous benefits,
including increased availability of data, load sharing, and simplified
data migration.
The following figure illustrates how DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication
work together. The processes marked 1 and 2 are described in more detail
following the figure.
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As the figure shows, when a user attempts to access a folder in the
namespace (1), the client computer contacts a namespace server. The
namespace server sends the client computer a referral that contains a list of
servers that host the shared folders (called folder targets) associated with
the folder. The client computer caches the referral and then contacts the first
server in the referral (2), typically a server in the client’s own site unless no
same-site servers exist or the administrator configures target priority.
The highlighted folder in the figure shows that it is hosted by shared folders
on two servers, one in New York and one in London, to provide users in
those sites with fast, reliable access to files. The shared folders are kept
synchronized by DFS Replication. The fact that multiple servers host the
folder is transparent to users, who see only a single folder in the namespace.
If one of the servers becomes unavailable, the client computer fails over to
the remaining server.
7.2.
DFS Namespaces
DFS Namespaces allows you to group shared folders located on different
servers by transparently connecting them to one or more namespaces. A
namespace is a virtual view of shared folders in an organization. When you
create a namespace, you select which shared folders to add to the
namespace, design the hierarchy in which those folders appear, and
determine the names that the shared folders show in the namespace. When
a user views the namespace, the folders appear to reside on a single, highcapacity hard disk. Users can navigate the namespace without needing to
know the server names or shared folders hosting the data.
The path to a namespace is similar to a Universal Naming Convention
(UNC) path of a shared folder, such as \\Server1\Public\Software\Tools. If
you are familiar with UNC paths, you know that in this example the shared
folder, Public, and its subfolders, Software and Tools, are all hosted on
Server1. Now, assume you want to give users a single place to locate data,
but you want to host data on different servers for availability and
performance purposes. To do this, you can deploy a namespace similar to
the one shown in the following figure. The elements of this namespace are
described after the figure.
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•
Namespace server. A namespace server hosts a namespace. The
namespace server can be a member server or a domain controller.
•
Namespace root. The root is the starting point of the namespace. In
the previous figure, the name of the root is Public, and the
namespace path is \\Contoso\Public. This type of namespace is
known as a domain-based namespace, because it begins with a
domain name (for example, Contoso) and its metadata is stored in
Active Directory. Although a single namespace server is shown in
the previous figure, a domain-based namespace can be hosted on
multiple namespace servers.
•
Folder. Folders help build the namespace hierarchy. Folders can
optionally have folder targets. When users browse a folder with
targets in the namespace, the client computer receives a referral
that directs the client computer to one of the folder targets.
•
Folder targets. A folder target is a UNC path of a shared folder or
another namespace that is associated with a folder in a namespace.
In the previous figure, the folder named Tools has two folder targets,
one in London and one in New York, and the folder named Training
Guides has a single folder target in New York. A user who browses
to \\Contoso\Public\Software\Tools is transparently redirected to the
shared folder \\LDN-SVR-01\Tools or \\NYC-SVR-01\Tools,
depending on which site the user is in.
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7.3.
DFS Replication
DFS Replication is the new state-based, multimaster replication engine in
Windows Server 2003 R2. Although some DFS Replication concepts and
processes are similar to the concepts and processes in File Replication
service (FRS), there are several important differences that you should be
aware of before you deploy DFS Replication.
7.3.1.
DFS Replication Concept
First, let’s review the basic concepts of DFS Replication. These concepts—
replication groups, connections, members, and replicated folders—are
illustrated in the following figure.
As this figure shows, a replication group is a set of servers, known as
members, that participates in the replication of one or more replicated
folders. A replicated folder is a folder that is kept synchronized on each
member. In the previous figure, there are two replicated folders, Projects and
Proposals. As data changes in each replicated folder, the changes are
replicated across connections between the members. The connections
between all members form the replication topology.
Creating multiple replicated folders in a single replication group simplifies the
process of deploying replicated folders, because the topology, schedule, and
bandwidth throttling for the replication group are applied to each replicated
folder. To deploy additional replicated folders, you can use a short wizard to
define the local path and permissions for the new replicated folder. Each
replicated folder also has its own settings, such as file and subfolder filters,
so that you can filter out different files and subfolders for each replicated
folder.
The replicated folders stored on each member can be located on different
volumes in the member, and the replicated folders do not need to be shared
folders or part of a namespace, though the DFS Management snap-in makes
it easy to share replicated folders and optionally publish them in an existing
namespace. You will do both in one of the tasks later in this guide.
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7.3.2.
DFS Initial Replication
When you first set up replication, you must choose a primary member.
Choose the member that has the most up-to-date files that you want
replicated to all other members of the replication group, because the primary
member's content is considered "authoritative." This means that during initial
replication, the primary member's files will always win the conflict resolution
that occurs when the receiving members have files that are older or newer
than the same files on the primary member.
The following explanations will help you better understand the initial
replication process:
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•
Initial replication does not begin immediately. The topology and DFS
Replication settings must be replicated to all domain controllers, and
each member in the replication group must poll its closest domain
controller to obtain these settings. The amount of time this takes
depends on Active Directory replication latency and the long polling
interval (60 minutes) on each member.
•
Initial replication always occurs between the primary member and
the receiving replication partners of the primary member. After a
member has received all files from the primary member, then that
member will replicate files to its receiving partners as well. In this
way, replication for a new replicated folder starts from the primary
member and then progresses out to the other members of the
replication group.
•
When receiving files from the primary member during initial
replication, the receiving members that contain files that are not
present on the primary member move those files to their respective
DfsrPrivate\PreExisting folder. If a file is identical to a file on the
primary member, the file is not replicated. If the version of a file on
the receiving member is different from the primary member’s
version, the receiving member's version is moved to the Conflict and
Deleted folder and remote differential compression (RDC) can be
used to download only the changed blocks.
•
To determine whether files are identical on the primary member and
receiving member, DFS Replication compares the files using a hash
algorithm. If the files are identical, only minimal metadata is
transferred.
•
After the initialization of the replicated folder, the "primary member"
designation is removed. Initialization takes place after all files that
exist before DFS Replication picks up the configuration are added to
the DFS Replication database. The member that was previously the
primary member is then treated like any other member and its files
are no longer considered authoritative over those of other members
that have completed initial replication. Any member that has
completed initial replication is considered authoritative over
members that have not completed initial replication.
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7.4.
DFS Management Snap-in
The DFS Management snap-in is the graphical user interface tool for
managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication. This snap-in is new and
differs from the Distributed File System snap-in in Windows Server 2003.
Therefore, before you begin using DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication,
you might want to review the components of this snap-in, which are shown in
the following figure and described in the sections that follow.
Console Tree
The console tree has two nodes, Namespaces and Replication, from which
you can manage namespaces and DFS Replication.
Namespaces node
The following figure shows the elements under the Namespaces node in the
console tree.
As the figure shows, the Namespaces node contains the namespaces you
create as well as any existing namespaces you add to the console display.
In the previous figure, one namespace is shown, \\Contoso.com\Public.
Under each namespace is a hierarchical view of folders. Folders that have
targets use a special icon to differentiate them from folders that do not have
targets.
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Notes
If you are not familiar with namespace terminology, see the section "DFS
Namespaces" earlier section.
Replication node
The following figure shows the elements under the Replication node in the
console tree.
As the figure shows, the Replication node contains the replication groups
you create as well as any existing replication groups that you add to the
console display. A replication group represents a group of servers that
participates in the replication of data. For more information about replication
groups, see "DFS Replication" section later in this chapter.
Details Pane
The contents of the details pane change according to what you have
selected in the console tree. For example, if you select a namespace in the
console tree, you see tabs named Namespace, Namespace Servers, and
Delegation in the details pane. If you select a replication group, you see tabs
named Memberships, Connections, Replicated Folders, and Delegation. You
can double-click objects in the details pane to view their properties.
Action Pane
The Action pane shows two types of tasks: common tasks and tasks that
apply to the selected object. If the Action pane is not visible, you can open it
using the following steps: click the View menu, click Customize, and then
click the Action pane option in the Customize View dialog box.
Each DFS namespace requires a root. A DFS root is a starting point of the
DFS namespace. The root is often used to refer to the namespace as a
whole. A root maps to one or more root targets, each of which corresponds
to a shared folder on a server. A root is implemented as a shared folder on
the DFS server.
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7.5.
Deploying Namespace (Step-by-Step
Guide)
The tasks in this section walk you through the process of deploying a
namespace that looks similar to the namespace shown in the figure that
appears in "DFS Namespaces" earlier in this chapter.
7.5.1.
Create a Namespace
To create a namespace:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Namespaces node, and then click New Namespace.
2. Follow the steps in the New Namespace Wizard and supply the
information described in the following:
o
Namespace Server - Enter the name of the server to host
the namespace. The server can be a domain controller or a
member server.
o
Namespace Name and Settings - In Name, type Public.
o
Namespace Type - If Active Directory is deployed in your
test lab and you are a member of the Domain Admins group
or have been delegated permission to create domain-based
namespaces,
choose
Domain-based
namespace.
Otherwise, choose Stand-alone namespace. To learn how
a member of the Domain Admins group can delegate
permission to create domain-based namespaces, see
"Security requirements for creating and managing
namespaces" in DFS Management Help.
o
Review Settings and Create Namespace - Click Create to
create the namespace.
o
Confirmation - Click Close to close the wizard.
When the wizard finishes, your new namespace will be added to the console
tree. Double-click the Namespaces node, if necessary, to view your
namespace, which should be similar to the following figure.
To browse the new namespace, type the following command in the Run
dialog box, substituting either the server name (if you created a stand-alone
namespace) or the domain name (if you created a domain-based
namespace) as appropriate:
\\server_or_domain\Public
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7.5.2.
Add a Namespace Server (Domain)
If you created a domain-based namespace, perform this task to specify an
additional server to host the namespace. Doing so increases the availability
of the namespace and allows you to place namespace servers in the same
sites as users. If you created a stand-alone namespace, you must skip this
task because stand-alone namespaces only support a single namespace
server.
To add a namespace server:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click
\\domain\Public, and then click Add Namespace Server.
2. In Namespace server, type the name of another server to host the
namespace, and then click OK.
After you finish this procedure, click the \\domain\Public namespace in the
console tree and review the contents of the Namespace Servers tab in the
details pane, which should look similar to the following figure. Notice that two
UNC paths are listed. The site of each namespace server is also displayed.
7.5.3.
Delegate Management Permissions
You can delegate management permissions so that users who are not
members of the Domain Admins group can create domain-based
namespaces, and you can delegate management permissions so that users
or groups can manage existing namespaces. In this section, you will
delegate permissions to manage the namespace you created in the previous
task.
To delegate permission to manage an existing namespace:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click
\\server_or_domain\Public, and then click Delegate Management
Permissions.
2. Type the name of a user or group that you want to manage the
namespace, and then click OK.
After you finish this procedure, review the contents of the Delegation tab in
the details pane. It should look similar to the following figure.
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Notice that the user or group you added shows "Explicit" in the How
Permission Is Granted column. "Explicit" means that you can remove the
user or group from the delegation list by right-clicking the user or group, and
then clicking Remove. Any users or groups that show "Inherited" have
inherited management permissions from Active Directory, and you cannot
remove them from the delegation list using the DFS Management snap-in.
Notes
To delegate the ability to create domain-based namespaces, see "Security
requirements for creating and managing namespaces" in DFS Management Help.
7.5.4.
Add Folders to Namespace
In this task, you add three folders to the namespace. Two of the folders will
have folder targets. The hierarchy of the folders you will add is shown in the
"Elements of a Namespace" figure earlier in this guide.
To create a folder named Software in the namespace:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click
\\server_or_domain\Public, and then click New Folder.
2. In Name, type Software, and then click OK.
Note that the previous procedure creates a new folder in the namespace to
build depth in the namespace hierarchy. You are not specifying the name of
an existing folder, nor will you store data in this folder. This folder will not
have folder targets that direct clients to other servers.
After you finish this procedure, the Software folder is added to the console
tree as shown in the following figure. (You might need to double-click the
\\server_or_domain\Public root to display the Software folder.
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Next, you add two folders with targets to the namespace. You create one
folder named Tools within the Software folder, and you create another folder
named Training Guides directly under the root named Public.
To create a folder named Tools in the namespace:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Software folder, and then click New Folder.
2. In Name, type Tools.
3. Click Add to add a folder target.
4. Click Browse to open the Browse for Shared Folders dialog box.
5. In Server, enter the name of the server that will host the Tools
shared folder.
6. Click New Shared Folder.
7. In the Create Share dialog box, in the Share name box, type Tools,
and then enter the local path where you want the shared folder to be
created. If the folder does not exist, you are prompted to create it.
Click OK to close all dialog boxes.
After you finish this procedure, the Tools folder is added to the console tree
as shown in the following figure. (You might need to double-click the
Software folder to display the Tools folder.) Notice the icon next to the Tools
folder and how it differs from the Software folder’s icon. This icon appears
next to all folders that have targets to differentiate them from folders that do
not have targets.
Now, select the Tools folder and review the contents of the Folder Targets
tab in the details pane. Notice there is a single path shown. This means that
only one server hosts the folder target that corresponds to the Tools folder. If
that server becomes unavailable, the shared folder is also unavailable.
To increase the availability of the Tools folder, you can add a second folder
target.
To add a second folder target to the Tools folder:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Tools folder, and then click Add Folder Target.
2. Click Browse to open the Browse for Shared Folders dialog box.
3. In Server, enter the name of another server that will host the Tools
shared folder. Be sure to enter a different server from the one you
specified in the previous procedure.
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4. Click New Shared Folder.
5. In the Create Share dialog box, in the Share name box, type Tools,
and then enter the local path where you want the shared folder to be
created. If the folder does not exist, you are prompted to create it.
Click OK to close all dialog boxes.
6. You are prompted to choose whether to create a replication group
for these folder targets. For now, click No. You will enable DFS
Replication on this folder in a later task.
To create a folder named Training Guides in the namespace:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click
\\server_or_domain\Public, and then click New Folder.
2. In Name, type Training Guides.
3. Click Add to add a folder target.
4. Click Browse to open the Browse for Shared Folders dialog box.
5. In Server, enter the name of the server that will host the Training
Guides shared folder.
6. Click New Shared Folder.
7. In the Create Share dialog box, in the Share name box, type
Training Guides, and then enter the local path where you want the
shared folder to be created. If the folder does not exist, you are
prompted to create it. Click OK to close all dialog boxes.
When you finish these procedures, your namespace will look like the
following figure.
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7.5.5.
Change How Target are Ordered in Referrals
In this task, you change settings that optimize how targets are ordered in
referrals. If you are not familiar with referrals, a referral is a list of targets that
a client computer receives from a domain controller or namespace server
when the user accesses a namespace root or folder with targets in the
namespace. The referral tells the client which servers host the associated
root target or folder target. So, for example, when a client navigates to
\\server_or_domain\Public, the client receives a root referral that contains a
list of root targets on the namespace servers. When the client then navigates
to the Tools folder, which has folder targets, the client receives a folder
referral that contains a list of folder targets that correspond to the Tools
folder.
When a client requests a referral, the Distributed File System service takes
into account the site of the client and the site of the target and provides a
referral with targets that are ordered according to the current referral
ordering method. By default, targets in a client’s site are listed first in a
referral in random order, followed by a list of targets outside of the client’s
site, sorted by lowest cost.
To fine-tune how targets outside of a client’s site are ordered, you can
change the ordering method for an entire namespace or for individual folders
with targets. Changing the ordering method is an important consideration in
namespaces whose targets span sites. For example, there might be
situations in which you want to prevent the client from accessing targets
outside of its own site. If so, you can configure the namespace root or folder
with targets so that clients receive referrals only for targets within their own
site.
To further optimize how targets are listed in referrals, you can set target
priority, which overrides the ordering method. For example, you can specify
that a target is always first or last in a referral, regardless of the client’s site,
or you can specify that a target is always first or last among the targets that
have the same connection cost. One common scenario for using target
priority is when you have a "hot standby" server that is considered the server
of last resort. In this scenario, you can specify that the standby server always
appears last in referrals, and clients will fail over to this server only if all the
other servers fail or become unavailable due to network outages.
In the following procedures, you verify the referral ordering method for the
namespace and choose target priority of a folder target.
To verify the referral ordering method for a namespace:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click
\\server_or_domain\Public, and then click Properties.
2. On the Referrals tab, in Ordering method, verify that Lowest cost
is selected.
In the lowest cost ordering method, also called least expensive target
selection or site costing in previous documentation, targets in a referral are
ordered as follows:
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1. Targets in the same site as the client are listed in random order at
the top of the referral.
2. Targets outside of the client’s site are listed in order of lowest cost to
highest cost. Referrals with the same cost are grouped together and
within each group the targets are listed in random order.
This method ensures that clients do not traverse expensive wide area
network (WAN) links to access targets when lower-cost targets are available.
This ordering method works in both stand-alone and domain-based
namespaces, as long as all namespace servers and all domain controllers
are running Windows Server 2003.
Notes
If you do not want clients to access folder targets outside of their site, you can
override the ordering method for individual folders. To do this, right-click a folder
with targets in the console tree, click Properties, click the Referrals tab, and then
click Exclude targets outside of the client’s site. Note that if no same-site targets
are available, the client fails to access the folder because no folder targets are
returned in the referral.
In the next procedure, you change the priority of one of the folder targets of
the Tools folder.
To change the priority of a folder target:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, click the Tools
folder.
2. In the details pane, on the Folder Targets tab, right-click one of the
folder targets, and then click Properties.
3. On the Advanced tab, click Override referral ordering, and then click
Last among all targets.
7.5.6.
Rename and Move a Folder
You can use the DFS Management snap-in to rename folders or move
folders to another location in the namespace. This is useful if you need to
change a folder name or restructure the namespace.
In this task, you rename the Training Guides folder to Training Demos and
move it to the Software folder. Currently, your namespace should look
similar to the following figure.
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To rename the Training Guides folder:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Training Guides folder, and then click Rename Folder.
2. In the Rename Folder dialog box, in New name, type Training
Demos.
To move the Training Demos folder:
•
In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, click the
Training Demos folder, and then drag it to the Software folder.
After you finish these procedures, your namespace should look like this:
7.5.7.
Replicate a Folder in the Namespace Using DFS
Replication
In this task, you enable DFS Replication on the Tools folder. If you recall
from "7.5.4 Add Folders to the Namespace," you created two folder targets
for the Tools folder. Because users can be directed to either one of the folder
targets, you need to ensure that the contents of the folders are kept
synchronized.
If you are familiar with File Replication service (FRS) in
Windows Server 2003, you know that FRS is only supported in domainbased namespaces. In Windows Server 2003 R2, you can use DFS
Replication in both stand-alone and domain-based namespaces. Therefore,
you can complete this task regardless of the type of namespace you created
in "7.5.1 Create a Namespace.”
IMPORTANT
To perform this task, you need to have Active Directory deployed in your test lab
environment, and you must be a member of the Domain Admins group or have
been delegated the ability to create replication groups to perform this task.
IMPORTANT
After you complete this task, replication does not begin immediately. The topology
and DFS Replication settings must be replicated to all domain controllers, and each
member in the replication group must poll its closest domain controller to obtain
these settings. The amount of time this takes depends on Active Directory
replication latency and the long polling interval (60 minutes) on each member.
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To enable DFS Replication on the Tools folder:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Tools folder, and then click Replicate Folder.
2. Follow the steps in the Replicate Folder Wizard and supply the
information in the following fields:
o
Replication Group and Replicated Folder Name - Accept
the defaults.
o
Replication Eligibility - Accept the defaults.
o
Primary Member - If the folder targets are empty, choose
either member. If both folder targets contain content, choose
the member that has the most up-to-date content.
o
Topology Selection - Select Full mesh.
o
Replication Group Schedule and Bandwidth - Select
Replicate continuously using the specified bandwidth.
o
Review Settings and Create Replication Group - Click
Create to create the replication group.
o
Confirmation - Click Close to close the wizard.
o
Replication Delay - Click OK to close the dialog box that
warns you about the delay in initial replication.
After you finish the previous procedure, navigate to the Replication node in
the console tree. Notice that a new replication group has been created, as
shown in the following figure.
If you are not familiar with DFS Replication terminology, a replication group
is a set of servers, known as members, that participates in the replication of
one or more replicated folders. A replicated folder is a folder that is kept
synchronized on each member. When you enable DFS Replication on a
folder with targets, the servers that host the folder targets become members
of the replication group, and the folder targets are associated with the
replicated folder. The name of the replication group matches the namespace
path (Contoso.com\Public\Software\Tools), and the name of the replicated
folder matches the folder name (Tools).
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From the Replication node, you can manage aspects of DFS Replication,
such as the schedule and bandwidth usage, file and subfolder filters, and the
topology (a framework of replication paths between members). On the
Replicated Folders tab in the details pane, you can also view the
namespace path that corresponds to the replicated folder, as shown in the
following figure.
If you navigate back to the Tools folder in the Namespaces node, notice
that the Replication tab in the details pane shows that the Tools folder is
being replicated using DFS Replication.
If one of the folders targets contained data when you enabled DFS
Replication, you can verify that replication has completed by clicking the
Folder Targets tab, right-clicking the folder target that initially held no data,
and then clicking Open in Explorer. After the initial replication delay, the
files in this folder target should match the files in the target that initially held
the data.
Another way to view the status of replication is to create a diagnostic report.
You will do this in the following task.
7.5.8.
Create a Diagnostic Report
In this task, you create a diagnostic report to check the status of replication.
The diagnostic report is an .html file that includes error and warning events,
replication statistics, backlogged files, and other information for each
member of the replication group.
To create a diagnostic report:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, under the
Replication node, right-click the \\domain\Public\Software\Tools
replication group, and then click Create Diagnostic Report.
2. Follow the steps in the Diagnostic Report Wizard and supply the
information in the following fields:
o
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Path and Name - Accept the defaults.
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Members to Include - Accept the defaults.
o
Options - Ensure that Yes, count backlogged files in this
report is selected, and also click the Count the replicated
files and their sizes on each member check box.
o
Review Settings and Create Report - Click Create to
create the diagnostic report.
o
Confirmation - The wizard closes automatically, and the
diagnostic report appears.
Review the diagnostic report created for the Tools replication group. In
particular, take a look at the following sections:
•
Note the DFS Replication efficiency savings. This savings will
change over time as files are added and changed.
•
Review any errors or warnings, if any, for the members. These are
typically event log errors that appear in the member's respective
DFS Replication event log.
•
In the informational section for each member, review the replicated
folder status (the status will be "Normal" after initial replication is
complete) and other information. Notice that the primary member will
show different statistics from the non-primary member; this is
because data originated from the primary member and replicated to
the non-primary member during initial replication.
7.5.9.
Browse the Namespace
In this task, you browse the namespace you created and view the referrals in
the client’s referral cache as you browse portions of the namespace. Viewing
referrals cached on the client is useful in troubleshooting scenarios. The
following procedures assume you are performing these tasks from a client
computer running Windows XP or Windows Server 2003.
To browse to the namespace root and view the root referral:
1. Click Start, click Run, type \\server_or_domain\Public, and then
click OK. Windows Explorer opens and your view of the namespace
looks similar to the following figure:
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2. In Windows Explorer, click the Folders button to display the Public
root in the folder tree.
3. In the folder tree, right-click Public, and then click Properties to
open the Properties dialog box.
4. On the DFS tab, review the paths listed under Referral list. These
are the root targets in the root referral that the client received when it
accessed \\server_or_domain\Public. These should match the root
targets you created earlier in this guide. The target marked Active is
the target currently connected to your client computer.
5. Click OK to close the dialog box.
To browse to the Tools and Training Demos folders and view their folder
referrals:
1. In Windows Explorer, double-click the Software folder. You should
see two folders, Tools and Training Demos.
2. Double-click the Tools folder to open it.
3. In the folder tree, right-click the Tools folder, and then click
Properties.
4. On the DFS tab, review the paths listed under Referral list. These
are the folder targets in the folder referral that the client received
when it accessed \\server_or_domain\Public\Software\Tools.
These should match the folder targets you created earlier in this
guide, and the target you marked as Last among all targets, when
you set the target priority, should be listed last. The target marked
Active is the target currently connected to your client computer.
5. Click OK to close the dialog box.
6. Click the Training Demos folder in the folder tree to open it.
7. Right-click the Training Demos folder in the folder tree, click
Properties, and then click the DFS tab. Notice that only one folder
target is listed in the referral list. Your client computer is currently
connected to this folder target.
7.5.10. Test Failover
In this task, disable the network card or turn off the server that hosts one of
the root targets for the \\domain\Public namespace. Do the same for a
server that hosts one of the folder targets for the Tools folder. After the
network cards are disabled or the servers are turned off, repeat the
procedures in "Task 9: Browse the Namespace." The procedures should
work because another server continues to host the \\domain\Public
namespace and the Tools folder.
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7.6.
Deploying DFS Replication (Step-by-Step
Guide)
The tasks in this section walk you through the process of deploying DFS
Replication, adding a member to a replication group, publishing a replicated
folder in a namespace, and creating a diagnostic report.
7.6.1.
Create a Multipurpose Replication Group and Two
Replicated Folders
To enable DFS Replication, you use the New Replication Group Wizard to
specify the members, topology, and default schedule and bandwidth for the
replication group. In this task, you create a replication group named Data
Distribution and two replicated folders named Antivirus Signatures and LOB
Data.
IMPORTANT
When you create a new replication group, replication does not begin immediately.
The topology and DFS Replication settings must be replicated to all domain
controllers, and each member in the replication group must poll its closest domain
controller to obtain these settings. The amount of time this takes depends on
Active Directory replication latency and each member's long polling interval (60
minutes).
Before you enable replication, you will create two folders on one of the
servers to be added to the replication group. You will then add files to the
folders.
Create folders named Antivirus Signatures and LOB Data:
1. On one server, create two separate (non-overlapping) folders named
Antivirus Signatures and LOB Data. Add some files to each folder
but do not exceed the recommended limits described in "DFS
Replication limits" in DFS Management Help.
2. Optionally, you can create the same folders on the second server.
You can add the same files or different files from the primary
member. If you add the same files, the files will be used for
prestaging and will not be re-replicated. If you add files that don’t
exist on the primary member, those files will be moved to the
PreExisting folder on the second member. (This folder is in the
DfsrPrivate folder under the replicated folder’s local path.) If you
want to observe how the primary member's content becomes
authoritative during initial replication, use updated versions of the
files you added to the primary member. These updated files will be
moved to the Conflict and Deleted folder on the non-primary
members.
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Next, create a replication group to replicate files between the two servers.
To create a replication group and two replicated folders:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Replication node, and then click New Replication Group.
2. Follow the steps in the New Replication Group Wizard and supply
the information in the following fields.
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o
Replication Group Type - Select Multipurpose replication
group.
o
Name and Domain - In Name of replication group, type
Data Distribution.
o
Replication Group Members - Click Add to select at least
two servers that will participate in replication. The servers
must have the DFS Replication Service installed.
o
Topology Selection - Select Full mesh.
o
Replication Group Schedule and Bandwidth - Select
Replicate continuously using the specified bandwidth.
o
Primary Member - Select the member that has the most upto-date content that you want to replicate to the other
member.
o
Folders to Replicate - Click Add to enter the local path of
the LOB Data folder you created earlier on the first server.
Use the name LOB Data for the replicated folder name.
Repeat this procedure and enter the local path of the
Antivirus Signatures folder.
o
Local Path of LOB Data on Other Members - On this
page, you specify the location of the LOB Data folder on the
other members of the replication group. To specify the path,
click Edit, and then on the Edit Local Path dialog box, click
Enabled, and then type the local path of the LOB Data
folder.
o
Local Path of Antivirus Signatures on Other Members On this page, you specify the location of the Antivirus
Signatures folder on the other members of the replication
group. To specify the path, click Edit, and then on the Edit
Local Path dialog box, click Enabled, and then type the
local path of the Antivirus Signatures folder.
o
Review Settings and Create Replication Group - Click
Create to create the replication group.
o
Confirmation - Click Close to close the wizard.
o
Replication Delay - Click OK to close the dialog box that
warns you about the delay in initial replication.
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After you finish the New Replication Group Wizard, click the new replication
group named Data Distribution located under the Replication node in the
console tree as shown in the following figure:
Notice the four tabs in the details pane: Memberships, Connections,
Replicated Folders, and Delegation. Each of these tabs displays different
details about the selected replication group, its members, and its replicated
folders. Review the following details about each tab.
•
On the Memberships tab, notice that entries on the tab are sorted
by replicated folder and that there are two replicated folders listed.
For example, the rows under the Replicated Folder: Antivirus
Signatures heading are the members that host the Antivirus
Signatures replicated folder. Double-click a member to view permember, per-replicated folder properties on the General,
Replicated Folder, and Advanced tabs. For example, on the
Advanced tab, you can view the location and size of the staging
folder and Conflict and Deleted folder on the selected member.
•
On the Connections tab, two connections are listed. Each
connection is a one-way replication path, so replication between two
members requires two connections that replicate data in the
opposite direction. Each connection has a schedule and other
settings, such as a check box for enabling or disabling remote
differential compression (RDC). Double-click a connection to view its
settings.
•
On the Replicated Folders tab, notice that two replicated folders
are listed and that they are not published in a namespace. Doubleclick a replicated folder to view its properties, such as file and
subfolder filters.
•
On the Delegation tab, review the default users and groups granted
permissions to manage the replication group. Any users or groups
shown as "Inherited" have inherited management permissions from
Active Directory, and you cannot remove them from the delegation
list using the DFS Management snap-in.
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7.6.2.
Add a New Member to Replication Group
In this task, you add a third server to the Data Distribution replication group
and specify where one of the two replicated folders, Antivirus Signatures, will
be stored on the new member. You'll use a new feature in DFS Replication
to specify that the LOB Data replicated folder is not replicated to the new
member. You also will create a custom schedule that applies only to the
connections to and from the new member.
IMPORTANT
Replication does not begin immediately on the new member. The DFS Replication
settings for the new member must be replicated to all domain controllers, and each
member in the replication group must poll its closest domain controller to obtain
these settings. The amount of time this takes depends on Active Directory
replication latency, the short polling interval (5 minutes) on the new member, and
the long polling interval (60 minutes) on existing members.
To add a new member to the Data Distribution replication group:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Data Distribution replication group, and then click New Member.
2. Follow the steps in the New Member Wizard and supply the
information in the following fields.
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o
New Member - Enter the name of the server to add to the
replication group. The server must have the DFS Replication
Service installed.
o
Local Path of Replicated Folders - Select the Antivirus
Signatures replicated folder, click Edit, click Enabled, and
then enter the local path of the replicated folder to be
created on the new member. When you close the Edit Local
Path dialog box, notice that the LOB Data replicated folder
shows <Disabled>, which means that this replicated folder
will not be replicated to the new member. Because you only
want the Antivirus Signatures folder to be replicated to the
new member, you can ignore the warning message that
appears.
o
Connections - Under Available members, click a member,
and then click Add. Repeat this step to add the second
member. The new member will replicate directly with both
existing members.
o
Replication Schedule - Select Custom connection
schedule, and then click Edit Schedule. In the Edit
Schedule dialog box, click Details to expand the schedule,
and then select the entry that begins Sunday 12:00 AM and
then click Edit. In the Edit Schedule dialog box, under
Bandwidth usage, click 128 Mbps.
o
Review Settings and Create Member - Click Create to add
the new member to the Data Distribution replication group.
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o
Confirmation - Click Close to close the wizard.
o
Replication Delay - Click OK to close the dialog box that
warns you about the delay in initial replication.
After you finish the wizard, click Data Distribution in the console tree, and
then review the contents of the Connections tab. It should look similar to the
following figure:
Notice that in the Schedule Type column, connections to and from the new
member show Custom Connection Schedule instead of Replication
Group Schedule. These show Custom Connection Schedule because
you chose a custom schedule when you added the new member. Creating
custom schedules for individual connections allows you to fine-tune the
replication interval and bandwidth used when replicating to specific
members. Although it isn’t obvious in the user interface, each connection
marked Custom Connection Schedule is a separate schedule. You can
modify one schedule marked Custom Connection Schedule, but the other
custom schedules are not affected.
Notes
To change how the items are grouped, click a column heading. For example, to
group the items by schedule type, click the Schedule Type heading.
Entries marked Replication Group Schedule use the default replication
schedule; this schedule is applied to all connections in the replication group
that do not have a custom schedule. To modify the default replication
schedule, right-click the Data Distribution replication group in the console
tree, click Properties, and then click Edit Schedule. To change a
connection schedule from a custom connection schedule to the replication
group schedule or vice versa, on the Connections tab in the details pane,
double-click the connection, click the Schedule tab, and then click
Replication group schedule or Custom connection schedule.
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7.6.3.
Share and Publish Replicated Folders in a
Namespace
When you created replicated folders in the previous tasks, you specified the
local path of a folder on each member of the replication group. Unless the
local path on each server was previously shared, users cannot access the
replicated folders after they are created. To make replicated folders available
to users, you must share them and, optionally, publish them in an existing
namespace.
In this task, you publish the LOB Data replicated folder in the
\\server_or_domain\Public namespace that you created in the DFS
Namespaces step-by-step section. If you did not complete the previous stepby-step section or do not have a namespace in your test lab, skip this
procedure.
To share the LOB Data replicated folder and publish it in a namespace:
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, under the
Replication node, click the Data Distribution replication group.
2. In the details pane, click the Replicated Folders tab, right-click the
LOB Data replicated folder, and then click Share and Publish in
Namespace.
3. Follow the steps in the Share and Publish Replicated Folder
Wizard and supply the information in the following fields.
o
Publishing Method - Select Share and publish the
replicated folder in a namespace.
o
Share Replicated Folders - For each member that shows
[Shared Folder Needed] in the Action column, select the
member, and then click Edit to create the new shared folder
and adjust shared folder permissions if necessary. If the
Action column shows Create shared folder: LOB Data or
Existing Shared Folder, you can click Next.
o
Namespace Path - In Parent folder in namespace, type
\\server_or_domain\Public\Software.
o
Review Settings and Share Replicated Folder - Click
Share to share the replicated folders and publish the LOB
Data replicated folder in the namespace.
o
Confirmation - Click Close to close the wizard.
After you finish the wizard, review the console tree and the Replicated
Folders tab in the details pane. First, notice in the console tree that an LOB
Data folder was added to the namespace and the folder icon indicates that
the folder is replicated, as shown in the following figure.
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Next, review the namespace path listed in the Replicated Folders tab,
which should look similar to the following figure.
You can see that the LOB Data replicated folder is published in a
namespace but the Antivirus Signatures replicated folder is not. To access
the LOB Data folder in the namespace, in the Run dialog box, type
\\server_or_domain\Public\Software\LOB Data.
Notes
If you want to stop publishing the LOB Data replicated folder in the namespace, you
can right-click the replicated folder and then click Remove from Namespace.
7.6.4.
Create a Replication Group for Collection Purposes
In this task, assume that you have a hub server in a central hub or data
center location and a branch server in a remote office. The branch server
contains folders named Projects and Proposals that are very important to the
branch office, but there is a concern that the backups performed at the
branch office are performed incorrectly. You want to back up the Projects
and Proposals folders from the data center to ensure that the backups are
successful.
To accomplish this goal, you will set up a replication group for data collection
purposes. This type of replication group consists of two members and one
replicated folder for each folder that you want to back up from the hub server
at the data center. The permissions that are set on the replicated folders on
the branch server will be applied to the replicated folders on the hub server.
You specify a single folder on the hub server under which subfolders for the
replicated folders will be created. This allows you to back up multiple
replicated folders from a single location on the hub server.
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IMPORTANT
When you create a new replication group, replication does not begin immediately.
The topology and DFS Replication settings must be replicated to all domain
controllers, and each member in the replication group must poll its closest domain
controller to obtain these settings. The amount of time this takes depends on
Active Directory replication latency and each member's long polling interval (60
minutes).
To create a replication group to replicate the Projects and Proposals folders
from a branch server to a hub server:
1. In Windows Explorer or from the command prompt, create a folder
named Projects and a folder named Proposals on a server that will
act as the branch server. The folders should be separate folders
(that is, not nested in one another).
2. Add some data to the Projects and Proposals folders on the branch
server.
3. In Windows Explorer or from the command prompt, create a folder
named Branch_Backups on a server that will act as the hub server.
Do not put data in this folder.
4. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, right-click the
Replication node, and then click New Replication Group.
5. Follow the steps in the New Replication Group Wizard and supply
the information in following fields.
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o
Replication Group Type - Select Replication group for
data collection.
o
Name and Domain - In Name of replication group, type
Branch Backups.
o
Branch Server - Type the name of a server that will act as
the branch server.
o
Replicated Folders - Click Add. In the Add Folder to
Replicate dialog box, type the local path of the Projects
folder you created in Step 1. Repeat this step for the local
path of the Proposals folder.
o
Hub Server - Type the name of a server that will act as the
hub server. This is the server where you can back up the
Projects and Proposals folders using backup software.
o
Target Folder on Hub Server - In Target folder, type the
path of the folder you created in Step 3.
o
Replication Group Schedule and Bandwidth - Select
Replicate continuously using the specified bandwidth.
o
Review Settings and Create Replication Group - Click
Create to create the replication group.
o
Confirmation - Click Close to close the wizard.
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o
Replication Delay - Click OK to close the dialog box that
warns you about the delay in initial replication.
After you finish the wizard, click the Branch Backups replication group in
the console tree and view the Memberships tab in the details pane. Notice
that two replicated folders were created, Projects and Proposals, as shown
in the following figure:
In the previous figure, notice that the path of the Projects and Proposals
replicated folders on server BO-08 (the hub server) are both within the
C:\Branch_Backups folder. This allows you to back up both replicated folders
from a single location on the hub.
7.6.5.
Create a Diagnostic Report
In this task, you create a diagnostic report to check the status of replication.
The diagnostic report is an .html file that includes error and warning events,
replication statistics, backlogged files, and so forth for each member of the
replication group.
To create a diagnostic report
1. In the console tree of the DFS Management snap-in, under the
Replication node, right-click the Branch Backups replication
group, and then click Create Diagnostic Report.
2. Follow the steps in the Diagnostic Report Wizard and supply the
information in the following fields.
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o
Path and Name - Accept the defaults.
o
Members to Include - Accept the defaults.
o
Options - Ensure that Yes, count backlogged files in this
report is selected, and also click the Count the replicated
files and their sizes on each member check box.
o
Review Settings and Create Report - Click Create to
create the diagnostic report.
o
Confirmation - The wizard closes automatically, and the
diagnostic report appears.
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Review the diagnostic report created for the Tools replication group. In
particular, take a look at the following sections:
•
Note the DFS Replication efficiency savings. This savings will
change over time as files are added and changed.
•
Review any errors or warnings, if any, for the members. These are
typically event log errors that appear in the member's respective
DFS Replication event log.
•
In the informational section for each member, review the replicated
folder status (the status will be "Normal" after initial replication is
complete) and other information. Notice that the primary member will
show different statistics from the non-primary member; this is
because data originated from the primary member and replicated to
the non-primary member during initial replication.
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8.
Microsoft Services for
Network File System (MSNFS)
Microsoft Services for Network File System is a comprehensive software
package designed to provide complete UNIX environment integration into a
Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows Storage Server 2003, or Active
Directory domain file server. Services for NFS manages tasks on both
Windows and UNIX platforms. Tasks include creating NFS exports from
Windows and administering user name mappings.
This chapter discusses networking features in Microsoft Services for
Network File System (MSNFS).
8.1.
MSNFS Features
MSNFS is an update to the NFS components that were previously available
in Services for UNIX 3.5.
MSNFS includes the following new features:
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•
Updated administration snap-in—MSNFS Administration
•
Active Directory Lookup—The Identity Management for UNIX Active
Directory schema extension, available in Microsoft Windows Server
2003 R2, includes UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier
(GID) fields, which enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to
look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from
Active Directory. Identity Management for UNIX simplifies Windowsto-UNIX user account mapping management in Active Directory.
•
Enhanced server performance—Microsoft Services for NFS includes
a file filter driver, which significantly reduces common server file
access latencies.
•
UNIX special device support—Microsoft Services for NFS supports
UNIX special devices (mknod).
•
Enhanced UNIX support—Microsoft Services for NFS now supports
the following versions of UNIX:
o
HewlettPackardHP-UXversion11i
o
IBMAIXversion 5L 5.2
o
RedHat Linux version9
o
Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9
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The following features that were previously available in Services for UNIX
3.5 are not included in MSNFS:
•
Gateway for NFS
•
Server for PCNFS
•
All PCNFS components of Client for NFS
8.1.1.
UNIX Identity Management
Identity Management for UNIX makes it easy to integrate users of Windows
operating systems into existing UNIX environments. It provides
manageability components that simplify network administration and account
management across both platforms.
With Identity Management for UNIX, the administrator can:
•
Manage user accounts and passwords on Windows and UNIX
systems using Network Information Service (NIS).
•
Automatically synchronize passwords between Windows and UNIX
operating systems.
UNIX Identity Management consists of the following components:
•
Administration components
•
Password synchronization
•
Server for NIS
The UNIX Identity Management component is not enabled by default on the
storage server. To install this component:
1. Access Add/Remove Programs.
2. Select Add/Remove Windows Components > Active Directory
Services > Details.
3. Install Identity Management for Windows.
8.2.
Microsoft Services for NFS usage scenarios
Microsoft Services for NFS enables you to support a mixed environment of
Windows-based and UNIX-based operating systems. With Microsoft
Services for NFS, you can also update your company's computers while
supporting older technology during the transition phase. The following
scenarios are examples of how enterprises can benefit from deploying
Microsoft Services for NFS.
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•
Enable UNIX-based client computers to access resources on
computers running Windows Server 2003 R2. Your company may
have UNIX clients accessing resources, such as files, on UNIX file
servers. To take advantage of new features in Windows
Server 2003 R2 such as Shadow Copies for Shared Folders, you
can move resources from your UNIX servers to computers running
Windows Server 2003 R2. You can then set up Microsoft Services
for NFS to enable UNIX clients that are running NFS software to
access these computers. All of your UNIX clients will be able to
access resources using the NFS protocol without additional
configuration.
•
Enable computers running Windows Server 2003 R2 to access
resources on UNIX file servers. Your company may have a mixed
Windows and UNIX environment with resources, such as files,
stored on UNIX file servers. You can use Microsoft Services for NFS
to enable computers running Windows Server 2003 R2 to access
these resources when the file servers are running NFS software.
8.3.
Microsoft Services for NFS components
Microsoft Services for NFS includes the following three main components:
•
User Name Mapping. User Name Mapping associates user
accounts between Windows and UNIX domains. In a heterogeneous
network, users have separate Windows and UNIX security accounts.
Historically, users had to provide a different set of credentials to
access files and other resources across system boundaries. To
address this issue, User Name Mapping associates Windows and
UNIX user names so users logged onto the UNIX domain can
access NFS shared resources on Windows Server 2003 R2 without
logging on separately to the Windows domain, and vice-versa.
•
Server for NFS. Normally, a UNIX-based computer cannot access
files on a Windows-based computer. A computer running
Windows Server 2003 R2 and Server for NFS, however, can act as
a file server for both Windows-based and UNIX-based computers.
•
Client for NFS. Normally, a Windows-based computer cannot
access files on a UNIX-based computer. A computer running
Windows Server 2003 R2 and Client for NFS, however, can access
files stored on a UNIX-based NFS server.
8.4.
Microsoft Services for NFS administrative
tools
Microsoft Services for NFS provides a Microsoft Management Console
(MMC) snap-in for administration, as well as several command-line tools.
8.4.1.
Microsoft Services for NFS snap-in
With the Microsoft Services for NFS snap-in, you can administer each
installed component of Microsoft Services for NFS. When you open the
snap-in, the components installed on the local computer are available to
administer.
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To open Microsoft Services for Network File System:
•
Click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and click Microsoft
Services for Network File System.
Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. If
the computer is joined to a domain, members of the Domain Admins group might be
able to perform this procedure. As a security best practice, consider using Run as to
perform this procedure. You can get help for an item in this snap-in by right-clicking
the item and then clicking Help.
8.4.2.
Microsoft Services for NFS command-line tools
Microsoft Services for NFS provides the following Windows command-line
administration tools. To run a tool, type its name at the command prompt.
For information about the available parameters, at the command prompt,
type toolname/?.
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•
mapadmin. Administers User Name Mapping.
•
mount. Mounts NFS network shares.
•
nfsadmin. Manages Server for NFS and Client for NFS.
•
nfsshare. Controls NFS shares.
•
nfsstat. Displays or resets counts of calls made to Server for NFS.
•
showmount. Displays mounted file systems exported by Server for
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•
8.5.
umount. Removes NFS-mounted drives.
Test Scenario
This test scenario requires you to deploy Microsoft Services for NFS in a lab
environment to assess how this technology would function if deployed in
your production environment. The instructions provided in this document will
help you:
•
Set up User Name Mapping to map Windows and UNIX user
accounts so that users can log on to either Windows or UNIX
domains and access resources in both environments.
•
Create an NFS shared resource on a computer running
Windows Server 2003 R2 and Server for NFS that can be mounted
and used by a UNIX computer.
•
Create an NFS shared resource on a UNIX file server that can be
mounted and used by a computer running Windows Server 2003 R2
and Client for NFS.
With the Microsoft Services for NFS snap-in, you can administer each
installed component of Microsoft Services for NFS. When you open the
snap-in, the components
8.6.
Steps for Deploying and Testing Microsoft
Services for NFS
This section describes how to set up a basic test environment for Microsoft
Services for NFS. It discusses how to install and configure the Microsoft
Services for NFS components and how to test the deployment.
8.6.1.
Reviewing system requirements for Microsoft
Services for NFS
Microsoft Services for NFS can be installed on computers running any
edition of Windows Server 2003 R2. The three main components of
Microsoft Services for NFS – User Name Mapping, Server for NFS, and
Client for NFS – can be installed on the same computer or on separate
computers.
IMPORTANT
Before installing Microsoft Services for NFS, you must remove any previously
installed NFS components, such as NFS components that were included with
Services for UNIX. We recommend that you back up or make a record of your
configuration before removing NFS components, so that you can restore the
configuration on Microsoft Services for NFS.
You can use Microsoft Services for NFS with UNIX computers which are
running NFS client or server software which complies with version 2 or
version 3 of the NFS protocol. NFS version 2 is defined in RFC 1094 and
NFS version 3 is definied in RFC 1813.
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Notes
By default, Server for NFS supports UNIX client computers using NFS version 2 or
version 3. You can override this, however, and configure Server for NFS to allow
access only to clients running NFS version 2. For instructions, see "Configuring
Server for NFS" in the Microsoft Services for NFS Help. Client for NFS supports
both versions, and this is not configurable.
8.6.2.
Setting up the environment for Microsoft Services
for NFS
The next step is to set up the environment for Microsoft Services for NFS by
deploying computers and creating user accounts for testing.
8.6.2.1.
Deploy computers
You need to deploy the following computers and connect them on a local
area network (LAN):
•
One or more computers running Windows Server 2003 R2 on which
you will install the three main Microsoft Services for NFS
components: User Name Mapping Server, Server for NFS, and
Client for NFS. You can install the components on the same
computer or on different computers. Installation instructions for
installing all Microsoft Services for NFS components are provided
later in this document.
•
One or more UNIX computers running NFS client and NFS server
software. The computer running the NFS client will access a
Windows NFS shared resource provided by Server for NFS. The
computer running NFS server will host a UNIX NFS shared
resource, which will be accessed by a computer running
Windows Server 2003 R2 and Client for NFS. You can install the
NFS client and NFS server software on the same computer or on
different computers.
•
A Windows Server 2003 domain controller running at the Windows
Server 2003 functional level. The domain controller will provide user
authentication information for the Windows environment. Or, if you
prefer, you can use local user accounts.
•
A Network Information Service (NIS) server to provide user
authentication information for the UNIX environment. Or, if you
prefer, you can use Password and Group files that are stored on the
computer running the User Name Mapping service.
The following diagram illustrates a simple test configuration for Microsoft
Services for NFS. It includes a single Windows Server 2003 domain
controller and a single NIS server. All Microsoft Services for NFS
components
are
installed
on
a
single
computer
running
Windows Server 2003 R2, and NFS client and NFS server software is
installed on a single UNIX computer.
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8.6.3.
Create test user accounts
For the purposes of this test, you can create several fictitious users. For
each user, you can create one Windows security account and one UNIX
security account, giving the two accounts different user names. You can later
use these accounts to test the advanced mapping feature of Microsoft
Services for NFS. Advanced mapping allows you to map a given user's
credentials between Windows and UNIX, even when the user name is
different.
Notes
The alternative to advanced mapping is simple mapping. You can use simple
mapping when Windows and UNIX user names for each user are the same. For
more information about simple maps, see User Name Mapping Administration in
Network File System help.
You can create the Windows user accounts on the Windows Server 2003 R2
domain controller. Or if you prefer, you can create local user accounts on
each Windows-based computer in the deployment. For instructions on
configuring
user
accounts,
see
your
Windows Server 2003 R2
documentation.
You can create the UNIX user accounts either on the NIS server or in UNIX
/etc/passwd and /etc/group files. For instructions on creating NIS user
accounts, see the documentation for your NIS server. For instructions on
creating /etc/passwd and /etc/group files, see the documentation for
your UNIX operating system.
8.6.4.
Installing Microsoft Services for NFS
You need to install Microsoft Services for NFS components on a computer
running Windows Server 2003 R2. These instructions assume that you are
installing all of the components on a single computer.
IMPORTANT
Before installing Microsoft Services for NFS, you must remove any previously
installed NFS components, such as NFS components that were included with
Services for UNIX. We recommend that you back up or make a record of your
configuration before removing NFS components so that you can restore your
settings on Microsoft Services for NFS.
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To install Microsoft Services for NFS:
1. On the computer on which you want to install Microsoft Services for
NFS, install Windows Server 2003 R2.
2. In Control Panel, double-click Add or Remove Programs.
3. Click Add/Remove Windows Components, click Other Network
File and Print Services, and then click Details.
4. Click Microsoft Services for NFS, and then click Details.
5. Select User Name Mapping, Server for NFS, or Client for NFS,
and then click OK.
Notes
When you select User Name Mapping, Server for NFS, or Client for NFS, the
Windows Component Wizard will also select the appropriate combination of
supporting subcomponents.
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. If
the computer is joined to a domain, members of the Domain Admins group might be
able to perform this procedure. As a security best practice, consider using Run as to
perform this procedure.
8.6.5.
Configuring NFS authentication
The required configuration for this test uses a Windows Server 2003 domain
controller or later running at the Windows Server 2003 functional level. For
security reasons, we recommend installing Windows Server 2003 Service
Pack 1 (SP1) and all the latest security updates.
8.6.6.
Configuring User Name Mapping
The next step is to configure User Name Mapping and set up mapping
between the Windows and UNIX user accounts that you created earlier. For
the purposes of this test, we will configure advanced mapping. You must use
advanced mapping when each user's account name in Windows is different
than his or her account name in UNIX. You may use simple mapping when
each user’s account name in Windows is the same as his or her account
name in UNIX.
8.6.6.1.
Specify where UNIX user and group information is stored
You need to specify where UNIX user and group information is stored, either
on a NIS server or in /etc/passwd and /etc/group files. If it is stored in
password and group files, you must copy the files to the computer running
User Name Mapping. For security reasons, you should only allow
administrators access to the files. You must also specify the location of the
files, so that User Name Mapping can access them.
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To specify where UNIX user and group information is stored:
1. On the computer running User Name Mapping, open Microsoft
Services for NFS. To open Microsoft Services for NFS, click Start,
point to Administrative Tools, and then click Microsoft Services
for Network File System.
2. Right-click User Name Mapping, and then click Properties.
3. On the UNIX User Source tab, select the method used for storing
UNIX user and group information: Use Network Information
Service (NIS) or Use Password and Group files.
4. If you selected User Password and Group files, do the following:
o
In Password file path and name, type the full path of the
/etc/passwd file.
o
In Group file path and name, type the full path of the
/etc/group file.
5. Specify the synchronization interval for User Name Mapping to
synchronize UNIX user and group information and click Apply.
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Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.
8.6.6.2.
Edit the .maphosts file
Next, you need to add entries to the .maphosts file, which is installed with
User Name Mapping. This file controls which computers on the network can
access User Name Mapping, so you need to add an entry for each computer
you are using in this test that is running either Server for NFS or Client for
NFS.
You can edit the .maphosts file in a text editor. The .maphosts file is
located in %windir%\msnfs on the computer running User Name Mapping.
The .maphosts file contains a list of one or more of the elements described
in the following table, each on a separate line. The order of the elements is
important because, when matching a computer making a request against the
list, User Name Mapping searches from the top down until it finds a match.
Element
Host
host –
+
–
Description
Specifies one or more computers that can access
User Name Mapping. The host can be specified
by an Internet Protocol (IP) address (IP version
4), or a host name that resolves to one or more
IP addresses.
Specifies one or more computers that are denied
access to User Name Mapping. The host can be
specified by an IP address (IP version 4), or a
host name that resolves to one or more IP
addresses. Note that there must be at least one
blank space between host and the dash (–).
Specifies that all computers can access User
Name Mapping unless disallowed by an earlier
entry in the list. All entries in the list following this
element are ignored.
Specifies that all computers are disallowed
access to User Name Mapping unless allowed by
an earlier entry in the list. All entries in the list
following this element are ignored.
Examples
A .maphosts file with the following contents allows access only by
computers named R2_host, UNIX_host, Windows_DC, and NIS_host:
R2_host
UNIX_host
Windows_DC
NIS_host
-
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A .maphosts file with the following contents allows access by all computers
except computers named rogue_host and malicious_wks:
rogue_host malicious_wks +
In the next example, rogue_host is denied access even though it appears in
the list without a minus sign (–) because it follows a minus sign on its own
line:
R2_host
UNIX_host
Windows_DC
NIS_host
rogue_host
8.6.6.3.
Create a user map
The next step in setting up User Name Mapping is to create a user map that
associates the Windows user name of each user to his or her UNIX user
name.
To create a user map:
1. On the computer running User Name Mapping, open Microsoft
Services for NFS. To open Microsoft Services for NFS, click Start,
point to Administrative Tools, and then click Microsoft Services
for Network File System.
2. In the console tree, expand User Name Mapping, right-click User
Maps, and then click Create Map.
3. In the Windows domain list, click the domain for which you want to
map user names, and then click List Windows Users.
4. If you are obtaining information about UNIX user names from an NIS
server, type the NIS domain name in NIS domain name. If the NIS
server is in a different subnet than the User Name Mapping server,
type the DNS name or IP address of the NIS server in NIS server
name. Otherwise, leave the NIS Server name box blank.
5. Click List UNIX Users.
6. In the Windows Users list, click the user name to map.
7. In the UNIX Users list, click the corresponding user name to map
and click Add.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for each user account to map and click Apply.
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Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.
Notes
You can only map one user name to another user name at a time. If you want to
map multiple user names with a single user name, you must repeat steps 6 and 7 in
this procedure for each additional user name to map.
8.6.6.4.
Create a group map
The last step in setting up a User Name Mapping server is to create a group
map that maps Windows groups to UNIX groups.
To create a group map:
1. On the computer running the User Name Mapping service, open
Microsoft Services for NFS. To open Microsoft Services for NFS,
click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Microsoft
Services for Network File System.
2. In the console tree, expand User Name Mapping, right-click Group
Maps, and then click Create Map.
3. In the Windows domain list, click the domain for which you want to
map groups, and then click List Windows Groups.
4. Click List UNIX Groups.
5. In the Windows Groups list, click the Windows group to map.
6. In the UNIX Groups list, click the UNIX group to map to, and then
click Add.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for each group to map and click Apply.
Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.
8.6.6.5.
Restart the User Name Mapping service
When you have finished all the steps to configure User Name Mapping that
are described in this section, you need to restart the User Name Mapping
service.
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To restart the User Name Mapping service:
1. On the computer running the User Name Mapping service, click
Start, point to Administrative Tools, and click Services.
2. In the list, right-click User Name Mapping, click Stop, wait for the
service to stop, and then click Start.
Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.
8.6.7.
Specifying the User Name Mapping server
On each computer running a component of Microsoft Services for NFS, you
need to specify the name of the computer running the User Name Mapping
service. This is necessary even in a simple installation where all Microsoft
Services for NFS components are installed on the same computer.
To specify the User Name Mapping server:
1. On a computer running one or more components of Microsoft
Services for NFS, open Microsoft Services for NFS. To open
Microsoft Services for NFS, click Start, point to Administrative
Tools, and then click Microsoft Services for Network File System.
2. In the console tree, right-click Microsoft Services for Network File
System and click Properties.
3. In User Name Mapping Server, type the name of the computer
running the User Name Mapping service, and then click OK.
4. Repeat these steps on each computer that is running one or more
components of Microsoft Services for NFS.
Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.
8.6.8.
Creating an NFS shared folder
The next step is to use NFS sharing to create an NFS shared folder on the
computer running Server for NFS. You can later mount this shared folder on
a UNIX client and create a test file on it.
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To create a shared folder using NFS sharing:
1. On the computer running Server for NFS, create a folder to use as
the NFS shared folder.
2. Right-click the folder you created and click NFS Sharing.
3. Select Share this folder.
4. If you want to allow anonymous access, select Allow anonymous
access.
5. Click Permissions, click Add, and then do either of the following:
o
In the Names list, click the clients and groups you want to
add and click Add.
o
In the Add Names box, type the names of clients or groups
you want to add, separating names in the list with a
semicolon (;).
6. In the Type of Access list, click the type of access you want to allow
the selected clients and groups.
7. Select Allow Root Access if you want a user identified as root to
have access other than as an anonymous user. By default, the user
identifier (UID) root user is coerced to the anonymous UID.
8. In the Encoding list, click the type of directory name and file name
encoding to be used for the selected clients and groups.
9. Click OK twice, and then click Apply.
Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.
Notes
To see a list of the members of a group, in the Names list, click a group, and then
click Members.
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8.6.9.
Specifying default permissions for new files and
folders
You can specify the default permissions that will be applied to any file or
folder created on an NFS shared resource by the computer running Client for
NFS. You can assign Read, Write, and Execute permissions to Owner,
Group, and Others.
•
Owner. The person creating the file. By default, Owner has Read,
Write, and Execute permissions.
•
Group. The primary group of the person creating the file. By default,
Group has Read and Execute permissions.
•
Others. Other file system users (equivalent to Everyone in
Windows). By default, Others have Read and Execute permissions.
To specify default file permissions:
1. On the computer running Client for NFS, open Microsoft Services for
NFS. To open Microsoft Services for NFS, click Start, point to
Administrative Tools, and then click Microsoft Services for
Network File System.
2. In the console tree, right-click Client for NFS and click Properties.
3. On the File Permissions tab, select the default file permissions to
apply to each new file and folder created by this computer, and then
click OK.
Notes
To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on
the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.
8.6.10. Configuring Windows Firewall
After you install Microsoft Services for NFS, you must configure Windows
Firewall to enable external computers to access the Microsoft Services for
NFS services.
8.6.10.1.
Open ports
On the computer(s) running User Name Mapping and Server for NFS, you
must open ports in Windows Firewall. On a computer and running only User
Name Mapping, you only need to open the portmapper port. On a computer
running Server for NFS, you must open all of the ports listed in the following
table.
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To open ports in Windows Firewall:
1. On a computer running the User Name Mapping service or Server
for NFS, click Start, click Run, type firewall.cpl, and then click
OK.
2. Click the Exceptions tab, and then click Add Port.
3. In Name, type the name of a port to open, as listed in the following
table.
4. In Port number, type the corresponding port number.
5. Select TCP or UDP and click OK.
6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 for each port to open, and then click OK
when finished
Notes
Depending on your requirements, you may need to open Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) ports, User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports, or both TCP ports and
UDP ports. For testing purposes, we recommend that you open both TCP and UDP
transports for all protocols.
Microsoft Services for
NFS component
Port to open
Protocol
Port
User Name Mapping
and Server for NFS
Portmapper
TCP, UDP
111
Server for NFS
Network Status Manager
TCP, UDP
1039
Server for NFS
Network Lock Manager
TCP, UDP
1047
Server for NFS
NFS Mount
TCP, UDP
1048
Server for NFS
Network File System
TCP, UDP
2049
8.6.10.2.
Add mapsvc.exe to the exception list
On the computer running User Name Mapping, you must add the
Mapsvc.exe program to the Windows Firewall exception list.
To add Mapsvc.exe to the exception list:
1. On the computer running the User Name Mapping service, click
Start, click Run, type firewall.cpl, and then click OK.
2. Click the Exceptions tab, and then click Add Program.
3. Click Browse, click mapsvc.exe, and then click Open. By default,
this file is located in %windir%\System32.
4. Fore testing purposes, click Change scope, select Any computer,
and then click OK.
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5. Click OK two times.
8.6.10.3.
Enable file and printer sharing for administration tools
On the computer hosting the Microsoft Services for NFS snap-in and
Microsoft Services for NFS command-line tools, you must enable file and
printer sharing in Windows Firewall.
To enable file and printer sharing:
1. On a computer running Microsoft Services for NFS, click Start, click
Run, type firewall.cpl, and then click OK.
2. Click the Exceptions tab, select the File and Printer Sharing check
box, and then click OK.
3. Repeat these steps on each computer running Microsoft Services for
NFS.
8.6.11. Testing your deployment
Now that everything is set up, you can test your deployment to verify its
functionality. The following are some suggested basic tests.
8.6.11.1.
Test 1: On the computer running Client for NFS, map a drive
letter to a UNIX-based NFS shared resource.
The test is successful if you can map the drive and view the test file on the
NFS shared resource from the computer running Client for NFS.
To map a drive letter to a UNIX-based NFS shared resource:
1. On a UNIX-based server running NFS software, create an NFS
shared resource. Create a test file on the shared resource.
2. Log on to the computer running Windows Server™ 2003 R2 and
Client for NFS with one of the Windows user accounts that you
created for this test.
3. Open Windows Explorer (My Computer) and on the Tools menu,
click Map Network Drive.
4. Type either the UNIX-style server and shared resource name
(hostname://sharedresourcename) or the Universal Naming
Convention (UNC) path of the NFS shared resource on the UNIX file
server, and then click OK.
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8.6.11.2.
Test 2: On the computer running Client for NFS, create a test
file and verify its permissions.
The test is successful if you can create a new document, and its ownership
and permission match the default file permissions that you had specified.
To create a test file and verify its permissions:
1. Log on to the computer running Client for NFS with one of the
Windows user accounts that you created for this test, and open the
NFS shared resource that you used in Test 1.
2. Right-click in the file list, point to New, and then click Text
Document.
3. Type a name for the file. Do not use spaces.
4. Right-click the file, click Properties, and then click NFS Attributes.
5. Verify that the NFS attributes match the default attributes that you
specified earlier, as described in "Specifying default permissions for
new files and folders." Also verify that the Owner UID and Group
UID are correct.
8.6.11.3.
Test 3: On a UNIX client computer, mount the Windows NFS
shared resource.
The test is successful if you can mount the NFS shared resource.
To mount the Windows NFS share:
•
In a command shell on a UNIX client running NFS client software,
type:
•
mount hostname or IP:/sharename mountpoint
Variable
Description
Hostname or IP
The name of the computer running Server for
NFS, on which you previously created an NFS
shared resourced, as described in "Creating an
NFS shared folder."
Sharename
The name of the NFS shared resource.
mountpoint
The point in the file system where the command
will mount the NFS shared resource, for
example, /home/username/testshare.
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8.6.11.4.
Test 4: On a UNIX client, create a test file and verify the file
permissions match, from both Windows and UNIX.
The test is successful if you can create the text file and the file permissions
match from both Windows and UNIX
To create a test file and verify the file permissions match from both Windows
and UNIX:
1. On the same UNIX client that you used in Test 3, create a text file by
using a simple text editor. Save the file to the NFS shared resource
that you mounted in Test 3.
2. On the computer running Server for NFS and hosting the NFS
shared resource, open My Computer and browse to the NFS shared
resource.
3. Right-click the file, click Properties, and then click Security.
4. Compare the file permissions reported through Windows with the file
permissions reported through the same UNIX client you used in Test
3.
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8.7.
Using Remote Desktop for MSNFS
Windows Remote Desktop is available for remote administration of Services
for UNIX. This service let users connect to machines, log on, and obtain
command prompts remotely. See the following Table for a list of commonly
used commands.
Caution
Two open sessions of Remote Desktop are allowed to operate at the same
time. After completing an application do not use the window close feature ()
to close that session of Remote Desktop. Click Start/Log Off Administrator to
exit Remote Desktop.
8.7.1.
Using Remote Desktop
Microsoft Remote Desktop can be used to remotely access the NAS
appliance desktop. This provides the administrator flexibility to automate
setups and other tasks. Services for NFS file-exporting tasks and other
Services for NFS administrative tasks can be accomplished using Remote
Desktop to access the Services for NFS user interface from the NAS
Desktop or from a command prompt.
The following Table describes some common Services for NFS commands.
Command
Function
nfsstat /?
Learn about viewing statistics by NFS operation type
showmount /?
View the format of the command to display NFS export
settings on NFS servers
showmount -a
View users who are connected and what they currently
have mounted
showmount -e
View exports from the server and their export permissions
rpcinfo /?
Learn how to display Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
settings and statistics
mapadmin /?
View how to add, delete, or change user name mappings
nfsshare /?
Learn how to display, add, and remove exported shares
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9.
Using iSCSI Software Target
Some Tandberg Viking Series NAS appliances use the Microsoft®
Windows® Unified Data Storage Server 2003 operating system. This
operating system provides unified storage server management capabilities,
simplified setup and management of storage and shared folders, and
support for Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. It is specially tuned to provide
optimal performance for network-attached storage and provides significant
enhancements in share and storage management scenarios, as well as
integration of storage server management components and functionality.
This chapter describes features of the Microsoft® Windows® Unified Data
Storage Server 2003 operating system.
Notes
Not all Viking Series NAS appliances use the Microsoft®Windows® Unified Data
Storage Server 2003, Enterprise x64 Edition operating system.
IMPORTANT
The Microsoft® Windows® Unified Data Storage Server 2003, Enterprise x64
Edition operating system is designed to support 32–bit applications without
modification; however, any 32–bit applications that are run on this operating system
should be thoroughly tested before releasing the storage server to a production
environment.
9.1.
Microsoft iSCSI Software Target
The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in is a standard feature of
Windows Unified Data Storage Server 2003. This snap-in makes it possible
not only for the storage server to connect to remote iSCSI targets, but also to
serve as an iSCSI target. With Microsoft iSCSI Software Target, you can
create and manage iSCSI targets, create and manage disks for storage, and
implement backup and recovery support using snapshots.
9.1.1.
Virtual Disk Storage
The disks you create using iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks,
which are files in the virtual hard disk (VHD) format. These virtual disks offer
flexible and effective storage. They are dynamically extendable to provide
extra capacity on demand, enable efficient storage utilization, and minimize
the time required to create new disks and the down time typically required to
install new disks.
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9.1.2.
Snapshots
To facilitate backup and recovery operations, you can schedule and create
snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks. A snapshot is a point-in-time, read-only
copy of an iSCSI virtual disk. Snapshots are typically used as interim copies
of data that has been modified since the most recent backup. Snapshots
offer the following advantages:
•
Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically.
•
Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies.
•
It is not necessary to close files or stop programs when creating
snapshots, so application servers
can continue servicing clients without disruption.
•
•
Each snapshot is typically created in less than one minute—
regardless of the amount of data.
•
Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes,
in case of accidental data
deletion by a user, overwritten data, or data corruption resulting from
a malicious program.
•
•
9.1.3.
Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup
and recovery operations.
Wizards
To support creation and management of iSCSI targets, virtual disks, and
snapshots, the iSCSI Software Target snap-in provides several wizards.
9.1.4.
Create iSCSI Target Wizard
This section describes how to create an iSCSI Target using the Create iSCSI
Target Wizard.
1. Log on to the storage server using an account with administrative
privileges.
2. Open the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target MMC snap-in by clicking
Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > Microsoft iSCSI
Software Target.
3. Click the iSCSI Targets node. On the details view (right pane), rightclick and select Create iSCSI Target.
4. Click Next on the Welcome page of the wizard.
5. On the iSCSI Target Identification page, type a name and
description for the iSCSI Target and then click Next.
6. On the iSCSI Initiators Identifiers page, type the iSCSI Qualified
Name (IQN) of the iSCSI initiator requesting access to the iSCSI
Target in the IQN identifier field. The IQN is found on the General
tab of the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator interface.
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7. To enter additional identifiers, or if you are using an identifier other
than an IQN (DNS domain name, IP address, or MAC address):
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o
Click Advanced.
o
On the Advanced Identifiers page, click Add.
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o
Select the identifier type from the Identifier Type list and
type the identifier in the Value field.
o
Repeat steps b and c for each identifier you want to add.
o
Click OK.
o
Click OK again to close the Advanced Identifiers page.
8. Click Next.
9. Click Finish to complete the wizard and create the iSCSI Target.
9.1.5.
Create Virtual Disk Wizard
This section describes how to create an iSCSI Virtual Disk using the Create
Virtual Disk Wizard.
Notes
In order to create iSCSI Virtual Disks, it is required that physical disks are formatted
as NTFS.
1. In the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target MMC snap-in, click the
Devices node.
2. On the details view (right pane) of the Devices node, right-click a
volume and select Create Virtual Disk.
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3. Click Next on the Welcome page of the wizard.
4. On the File page, specify the full path to use as the virtual disk and
click Next.
5. On the Size page, specify the size to use for the virtual disk and
click Next. If the file already exists, you cannot specify a new size.
6. Enter a description for the iSCSI virtual disk (optional) and click
Next.
7. On the Access page, click Add to assign the iSCSI virtual disk to an
iSCSI Target.
8. On the Add Targets dialog box, select a Target and click OK.
9. Click Finish to complete the wizard and create the iSCSI virtual disk.
Notes
If you delete a virtual disk, it is removed from the iSCSI Software Target MMC snapin, but the virtual disk file (.vhd) is not removed from the physical disk. In order to
permanently remove the virtual disk file, locate the file on the physical disk using
Windows Explorer and manually delete it.
9.1.6.
Import Virtual Disk Wizard
This section describes how to import a virtual disk using the Import Virtual
Disk Wizard.
1. In the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target MMC snap-in, click the
Devices node.
2. On the details view (right pane) of the Devices node, right-click a
volume and select Import Virtual Disk.
3. Click Next on the Welcome page of the wizard.
4. On the Files page, click Browse, navigate to the virtual disk file
(.vhd) you want to import, select it, and then click OK.
5. Repeat step 4 for each virtual disk you want to import.
6. Click Next and then click Finish to complete the wizard and import
the virtual disk(s).
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9.1.7.
Extend Virtual Disk Wizard
This section describes how to extend a virtual disk using the Extend Virtual
Disk Wizard.
1. In the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target MMC snap-in, click the
Devices node.
2. On the details view (right pane) of the Devices node, right-click a
virtual disk and select Extend Virtual Disk.
3. Click Next on the Welcome page of the wizard.
4. On the Size page, type the amount of space you want to add to the
virtual disk in the Additional virtual space capacity field and then
click Next.
5. Click Finish to complete the wizard and extend the virtual disk.
9.1.8.
Schedule Snapshot Wizard
This section describes how to schedule a snapshot using the Schedule
Snapshot Wizard.
1. In the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target MMC snap-in, expand the
Snapshots node.
2. Right-click Schedule and select Create Schedule.
3. Click Next on the Welcome page of the wizard.
4. On the Schedule Actions page, specify whether the snapshots
should be mounted locally or not.
5. On the Name page, type a name for the snapshot and then click
Next.
6. On the Virtual Disks page, specify the virtual disks to include in the
snapshot schedule.
7. On the Frequency page, select how often snapshots should be
taken.
8. On the Schedule page, specify snapshot details according to the
frequency selected on the previous page and then click Next.
9. Click Finish to complete the wizard and schedule snapshots.
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9.2.
Hardware Providers
To support advanced management of iSCSI virtual disks and snapshots, you
can use the following hardware providers, which come preinstalled on the
Viking Series NAS applaince:
•
Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Virtual Disk Service Hardware
Provider
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 introduced Virtual Disk Service (VDS), a set
of application programming interfaces (APIs) that provides a single interface
for managing disks. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing
storage hardware and disks, and for creating volumes on those disks. The
Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to
manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem.
You install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on
each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application
(such as Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to
manage storage.
•
Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service
Hardware Provider
iSCSI snapshots are created using Volume Shadow Copy Service and a
storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with Volume
Shadow Copy Service. A Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware
Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks
and create application consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators.
You install this hardware provider on the iSCSI initiator server and the server
that is to perform backups. The backup software you use must support
transporting snapshots.
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10.
Remote Access Methods &
Monitoring
The Tandberg Data Viking Series NAS appliance comes from the factory
with full remote manageability. Several methods of remote access are
provided. These options let administrators use interfaces with which they are
already familiar.
10.1. Remote Desktop
The NAS appliance supports Remote Desktop, with a license for two
concurrently running open sessions. Remote Desktop provides the same
capabilities as being physically present at the server console.
Use Remote Desktop to access:
•
The NAS appliance desktop
•
A command line interface
•
Backup software
•
Antivirus programs
•
Telnet Server
Use the following logon credential to access the system.
1. Default Login: Administrator
Default Password: 1234
2. RAID Storage Manager can be accessed using the following URL:
http://<your NAS machine name or IP address>:81/
Default Login: admin
Default Password: 0000
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10.2. Telnet Server
Telnet Server is a utility that lets users connect to machines, log on, and
obtain a command prompt remotely. Telnet Server is preinstalled on the
NAS server, but must be activated before use.
Caution
For security reasons, the Telnet Server service must be restarted each time
the server is restarted.
Telnet Server can be enabled by using a Remote Desktop session or direct
attached method to access a command line interface and enter the following
command:
net start tlntsvr
The Telnet Server service needs to be enabled prior to running this
command. The service can be enabled by opening the services MMC:
1. Select Start, Run, then type services.msc.
2. Locate the Telnet service, right-click on it, then select Properties.
3. In the startup type drop-down box, choose Manual, and click OK.
Note
The sessions screen provides the ability to view or terminate active sessions.
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