OpenPowerNet User Manual

OpenPowerNet
User Manual
Institut für Bahntechnik GmbH
Branch Office Dresden
Document No. OPN/51/1.5.3
l:\opn\10_documents\20_program_documentation\20_user_manual\um_opn_51_01.05.03.docx
Author
Review
Release
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
Date
Date
Date
Martin Jacob
Harald Scheiner
Dr. Jörg von Lingen
Revision Record
Issue
Date
Change Reason
1.5.3
2014-11-05 Add some chapters to FAQ, e.g. modelling of running rails.
Also updated some chapters of the Tutorial section to new
software versions.
1.5.2
2014-05-08 Add some FAQ, sub chapters to Configuration of
OpenPowerNet.
1.5.1
2014-02-10 Add acceleration delay distribution, modify analysis chapter
due to Selection Editor modification.
1.5.0
2013-10-11 New auxiliary model, VLD & booster transformer & engine
energy storage tutorial, change structure, add Selection-File
1.4.4
2013-07-19 New Feature of Analysis Tool Inline Measurement described.
1.4.2
2013-02-12 Update versions and OpenTrack model constraints.
1.4.0
2012-05-07 Add simulation network wise time window, merge networks,
booster
transformer,
remove
attribute
“recordComputation2DB”, remove example files and refer to
Tutorial, update Project-File description, add VLD model.
1.3.2
2011-06-29 Update chapters 4.2.3.3, 4.3, 6.2.3.2, 7.6, 7.12 because of
new min recovery braking speed, new message recording,
new constant voltage engine instead of shortCircuit Engine
and matrix conditional number.
1.3.1
2010-05-17 Add Dongle ID configuration
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1.3.0
1.2.1
1.2.0
1.1.0
1.1
1.0
User Manual
Issue 2014-11-05
2010-03-31 Adding engine energy storage and overview of physical
variables, update Analysis.
2010-01-07 Adding chapters 4.2.2, 7.10.
2009-09-22 Adding tutorials and update to version 1.2.0.
2009-06-26 Update to OpenPowerNet version 1.1.0.
2008-11-24 Reworked.
2006-04-10 Created.
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Table of Contents
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2
2.1
Introduction ................................................................................................. 7
Overview ..................................................................................................... 7
Versions ...................................................................................................... 7
Acronyms and abbreviations ...................................................................... 7
How to read this Document ........................................................................ 8
Simulation Philosophy ................................................................................ 9
Model Specifics......................................................................................... 10
2.2
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Overview of physical variables.................................................................. 10
Application structure ................................................................................. 11
Graphical User Interface ........................................................................... 12
XML Editor ................................................................................................ 13
PSC Viewer .............................................................................................. 15
ODBC ....................................................................................................... 21
Database .................................................................................................. 22
Database tasks ......................................................................................... 22
Working directory ...................................................................................... 23
3.8
APserver ................................................................................................... 23
3.9
Advanced Train Model .............................................................................. 23
3.10
Power Supply Calculation ......................................................................... 30
3.11
Analysis Tool ............................................................................................ 32
4
OpenPowerNet handling ........................................................................... 33
4.1
Folder structure......................................................................................... 33
4.2
For the output data structure refer to chapter 3.7.Configuration of
OpenTrack ................................................................................................................. 33
4.3
Configuration of OpenPowerNet ............................................................... 34
4.3.1
General ..................................................................................................... 34
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
Analysis .................................................................................................... 36
APserver ................................................................................................... 38
ATM .......................................................................................................... 39
Debug ....................................................................................................... 40
OpenTrack ................................................................................................ 41
PSC .......................................................................................................... 41
4.3.8
4.3.9
4.4
Notification ................................................................................................ 42
PSC Viewer .............................................................................................. 44
Modelling .................................................................................................. 47
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4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7
4.4.8
4.5
Required technical data ............................................................................ 48
Model constraints...................................................................................... 49
Naming Conventions ................................................................................ 50
OpenTrack ................................................................................................ 51
Engine-File ............................................................................................... 52
TypeDefs-File ........................................................................................... 57
Project-File ............................................................................................... 57
Switch-File ................................................................................................ 77
Simulation ................................................................................................. 78
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
5
5.0
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
Visualisation.............................................................................................. 79
Prepared Excel Files ................................................................................. 79
User defined Excel Files ........................................................................... 80
Analysis .................................................................................................... 86
Tutorial.................................................................................................... 103
General ................................................................................................... 103
AC Network Tutorial................................................................................ 104
Configuration .......................................................................................... 104
Simulation ............................................................................................... 114
5.1.3
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.4
Analysis .................................................................................................. 115
AC Network with Booster Transformer Tutorial ...................................... 127
Configuration .......................................................................................... 127
Simulation ............................................................................................... 130
Analysis .................................................................................................. 130
2AC Network Tutorial.............................................................................. 132
Configuration .......................................................................................... 132
Simulation ............................................................................................... 134
Analysis .................................................................................................. 134
DC Network Tutorial ............................................................................... 140
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
Configuration .......................................................................................... 140
Simulation ............................................................................................... 142
Analysis .................................................................................................. 143
DC Network with Energy Storage Tutorial .............................................. 146
Configuration .......................................................................................... 146
Simulation ............................................................................................... 147
5.5.3
5.6
5.6.1
Analysis .................................................................................................. 147
DC Network with Voltage Limiting Device Tutorial .................................. 150
Configuration .......................................................................................... 150
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5.6.2
5.6.3
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
Simulation ............................................................................................... 151
Analysis .................................................................................................. 151
Engine Model Tutorials ........................................................................... 153
Power Factor Tutorial ............................................................................. 153
Tractive Effort Tutorial ............................................................................ 156
Tractive Current Limitation Tutorial ......................................................... 159
Regenerative Braking Tutorial ................................................................ 159
Brake Current Limitation Tutorial ............................................................ 161
Auxiliary Power Tutorial .......................................................................... 163
5.7.7
5.7.8
5.7.9
5.7.10
5.7.11
5.8
5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
Eddy Current Brake Tutorial ................................................................... 168
Mean Efficiency Model Tutorial ............................................................... 171
Efficiency Table Model Tutorial ............................................................... 171
Single Component Model Tutorial........................................................... 173
Engine Energy Storage Tutorial .............................................................. 177
Network Model Tutorials ......................................................................... 180
Substations Tutorial ................................................................................ 180
Neutral Zone Tutorial .............................................................................. 187
AC-DC Networks Tutorial ....................................................................... 193
5.8.4
5.8.5
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
Network with Multiple Lines, Points and Crossings Tutorial .................... 200
Turning Loops Tutorial ............................................................................ 211
FAQ ........................................................................................................ 224
How to deal with broken chainage? ........................................................ 224
Positive broken chainage ........................................................................ 224
Negative broken chainage ...................................................................... 225
How to organise the files and folders? .................................................... 226
How to calculate the equivalent radius? ................................................. 226
How to model running rails in AC simulation? ........................................ 226
How to model Earth Conductor? ............................................................. 229
6.6
How to model Conductor Switch or Isolator? .......................................... 229
6.7
How to model uncommon power supply systems? ................................. 229
6.8
How to draw a constant current? ............................................................ 230
6.9
How to simulate short circuits? ............................................................... 230
6.10
How to prevent the consideration of the achieved effort in OpenTrack
while using OpenPowerNet? ................................................................................... 231
6.11
How to calculate only a part of the operational infrastructure of OpenTrack
as electrical network in OpenPowerNet? ................................................................. 231
6.12
Where are the XML-Schemas?............................................................... 231
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6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
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Which XML-Schema for which XML-File? .............................................. 231
How to specify a specific license? .......................................................... 231
What is the reciprocal condition? ............................................................ 232
What is the Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (TRLPC)? ........................ 232
What is the mean voltage at pantograph (Umean useful)? ........................... 232
Any other questions? .............................................................................. 232
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1
1.1
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Introduction
Overview
The purpose of this document is to describe the usage of the OpenPowerNet software. It
explains how to configure the software, build the model, run and analyse simulations. This
document corresponds to OpenPowerNet release 1.5.3.
Some of the used package names are brand names registered by companies other than IFB.
Please refer to the license descriptions coming with that software packages.
1.2
Versions
OpenPowerNet requires the following versions of associated applications. Additionally the
OpenPowerNet software and documentation have their own version.
Applications / Documents
Analysis Tool
Installation Instruction
MariaDB
MySQL ODBC driver
OpenPowerNet
OpenTrack
OPN Database
RailML Rolling Stock Schema
1.3
Version
1.5.3
1.5.3
5.5.30
5.2.5
1.5.3
1.7.5 (2014-10-21)
18
1.03.OPN.3
Acronyms and abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used within this document:
Abbreviation
ATM
CD
CDF
DSN
GUI
HTML
OCS
ODBC
OPN
PSC
RailML
RMS
TRLPC
VLD
XML
Description
Advanced Train Model
Compact Disk
Cumulative Distribution Function
Data Source Name
Graphical User Interface
Hyper Text Markup Language
Overhead Catenary System
Open Database Connection
OpenPowerNet
Power Supply Calculation
Railway Markup Language
Root Mean Square
Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (see chapter 6.16)
Voltage Limiting Device
Extensible Markup Language
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1.4
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How to read this Document
This document uses snippets of XML. The XML is highlighted by the following text format
code:
XML marked in green has to correspond with data in OpenTrack.
XML marked in red is required by OpenPowerNet.
XML marked in light orange is optional.
XML marked in dark green is an id/reference between the TypeDefs- and Project-File.
XML evaluated by OpenPowerNet is marked in bold and may be mixed with the colours above.
The blue attributes are not required by OpenPowerNet but by the corresponding schema and have
no effect on the simulation.
Any other XML is just black.
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Simulation Philosophy
position,
effort, speed
effort
PSC
ATM
current
voltage, effort
OpenPowerNet
Figure 1 Overview of co-simulation.
The OpenTrack railway operation simulation is realised by a constant time step calculation.
OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet work together in a so called co-simulation. This means that
both programs are communicating and interacting with each other during the simulation.
Each program respective module has a clearly delimited task. OpenTrack simulates the
course operation control and the driving dynamics. The OpenPowerNet PSC module
simulates voltages of the electrical network in respect of the course current consumption and
position. The OpenPowerNet engine simulation module ATM simulates the requested current
and achieved effort in respect of the available line voltage at course position.
The sequence of simulation starts in OpenTrack. First a start request is sent to the other
modules and some initial tasks are organised. A matrix representing the electrical network is
set up and the voltages of the electrical network without load are calculated. After
initialisation the first requested tractive or braking effort of a course is sent from OpenTrack
to the PSC at time step 0. The line voltage of the course corresponding to course position
calculated in the initial phase is sent to ATM where the achieved effort is calculated and
returned to OpenTrack. If there is more than one course, the calculation of the other course
efforts follows the same principle.
Then the sequence for the time step 1 follows. The first effort request at time step 1 starts the
network calculation with all known courses from time step 0. Next the line voltage at course
position is forwarded to ATM and the achieved effort is calculated and sent to OpenTrack. All
other courses follow the same procedure as course 1 but no network calculation will take
place.
In general at the beginning of each time step the voltages of the electrical network with the
known course positions and requested efforts of the previous time step are calculated.
Iteration between ATM and PSC takes place and is terminated in case each node voltage
changes less as a configured threshold, e.g. 1V. ATM calculates the current according to the
line voltage simulated by PSC and PSC calculates the line voltage considering the currents
used by courses. Each course is handled as a current source in the electrical network.
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2.1
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Model Specifics
The following model specifics shall be considered during model configuration and analysis.
 The electromagnetic coupling for AC systems is calculated by the software
 Distributed engines within trains are modelled according to the train configuration in
OpenTrack, minimum OpenTrack version is 1.6.5 (2011-05-24).
 In case of two modelled rails for one track both rails will have the same voltage at each
engine. This shall consider the electrical connection of both rails via the engine axes.
2.2
Overview of physical variables
The constant time step simulation of driving dynamics and electrical network components
depends on a set of physical variables. These variables and their time of validity during the
calculation in OpenPowerNet are introduced in the table below.
Item
t
s
Description
time step
position on considered line and track
Unit
s
m
v
a
m
F
U
I
Z
P
E
ELoad
vehicle speed
vehicle acceleration
vehicle weight
vehicle effort
electrical voltage
electrical current
electrical impedance
mechanical and electrical power
mechanical and electrical energy
energy storage load
m/s
m/s²
kg
N
V
A
Ω
W
kWh
kWh
Time of validity
according to time step width
beginning of time step (vehicles)
constant (infrastructure)
beginning of time step
during time step
constant
during time step
during time step
during time step
during time step
during time step
end of time step
beginning of time step
Table 1 Overview of physical variables
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Application structure
OpenPowerNet is divided into three modules for simulation. Each is executable software, see
Figure 2. The module “Power Supply Calculation” (psc.exe) realises the electrical network
calculation, the “Advanced Train Model” (atm.exe) is responsible for the engine calculation
and the “APserver” (apserver.exe) is the communication interface among the
OpenPowerNet modules themselves and to OpenTrack.
The configuration of the three modules is done within the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
The simulation specific configuration data is stored in XML files and read at the beginning of
a simulation.
The GUI is used to control the simulation, to provide access to the analysis tools and to do
tasks related to the database. It also provides the PSC Viewer, a tool to create a graphical
representation of the electrical network.
The resulting data of a simulation is stored in a database. The visualisation and analysis of
simulation results use the data from the database in post processing.
Figure 2 OpenPowerNet workflow and application structure.
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Graphical User Interface
OpenPowerNet has a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to provide an easy to use interface to
the user. It provides a project explorer as a tree with folders and files. The user can start and
stop OpenPowerNet, do database tasks and start the analysis tools.
Furthermore the GUI provides the PSC Viewer. The PSC Viewer creates a graphical
representation of the electrical network configured in the Project-File.
All descriptions related to the GUI are available in the Help System. The Help System is
available by menu Help > Help Contents and contains GUI specific help topics under
Workbench User Guide.
Via the integrated update system available at menu Help > Software Updates … new
OpenPowerNet versions and additional plugins can be installed into the GUI. Please see the
integrated Help System for detailed information: Workbench User Guide > Tasks
Updating and installing software.
Figure 3 The OpenPowerNet perspective of the GUI.
The GUI includes an XML editor to edit the configuration files.
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Figure 4 The XML perspective of the GUI.
3.2
XML Editor
The OpenPowerNet included XML editor supports the editing. To use the editing support the
XML schema definition need to be specified in the XML-File. All OpenPowerNet schema files
are available in an XML Catalog. To create a new XML-File select a folder in the Project
Explorer and choose New -> Other... from the context menu. The new wizard opens,
select XML -> XML File, click next and give a file name, see Figure 5.
Figure 5 Create XML-File new wizard step one and two.
Then click next and choose “Create XML file from an XML schema file”, next and choose
“Select XML Catalog entry” and select a schema depending on the file you want to create,
see chapter 6.13 to see the listing of XML-File and corresponding XML-Schema.
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Figure 6 Create XML-File new wizard step three and four.
Click next, select the root element and if multiple namespace information are listed delete all
without location hint and click finish, see Figure 7.
Figure 7 Create XML-File new wizard last step.
The XML editor shows a tooltip when placing the mouse over an element or attribute and
shows a description and enumeration values if applicable. When editing an attribute with
enumeration the editor shows all available values in a context menu. The context menu
opens when pressing Ctrl+Space, see Figure 8. The editing support helps also to add
attributes by pressing Ctrl+Space.
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Figure 8 The OpenPowerNet included XML editor with editing support.
3.3
PSC Viewer
The PSC Viewer is a tool to display the electrical networks of OpenPowerNet project-files in
a graphical way. This tool is not able to edit project-files.
Icon
Record data
voltage
none
current & voltage
none
current & voltage
Description
node, a node connects conductors and connectors
conductor between two nodes
no power supply is available at this conductor
between two nodes
current & voltage conductor isolator between two nodes
current & voltage
standard close conductor switch with actual state
close
current
standard close conductor switch with actual state
open
current & voltage
standard open conductor switch with actual state
open
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Icon
User Manual
Record data
current
current & voltage
voltage
Issue 2014-11-05
Description
standard open conductor switch with actual state
close
connectors between two nodes
current & voltage
no power supply is available at this connector
between two nodes
current & voltage
standard close connector switch with actual state
close
none
standard close connector switch with actual state
open
current & voltage
standard open connector switch with actual state
open
none
standard open connector switch with actual state
close
current & voltage
substation with name "TSS_01" and nodes from
power supply
Table 2 PSC Viewer icon description.
The diagram generation is a multiple step process.
1 Select a OpenPowerNet Project-File in the "Project Explorer".
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2 Click the right mouse button and select "Convert OPN Project file for Viewer to
*.ui"
3 The Wizard opens, change the container and file name if necessary. If you
have configured a Switch-File it might be interesting to choose a specific
simulation time step. Click "Finish" to start the generation of the ui-file.
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4 A progress dialog with progress bar opens and more detailed information will
be displayed in a console view.
The information at the console will look something like this:
==== generate XMI for Viewer ====
input: D:\OPN\OPN_Projects\examples\Sample1\Sample_Network.xml
output:
D:\OPN\OPN_Projects\examples\Sample1\Sample_Network.xml.ui
working directory: D:\OPN_WorkingDir_Eclipse/
load PSC project file
"D:\OPN\OPN_Projects\examples\Sample1\Sample_Network.xml".
generate XML elements:
Network...
done 2
Substation...
done 5
Node...
done 562
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Switch...
done 20
Line...
done 2
Slice...
done 314
Conductor...
done 491
Track...
done 4
Connector...
done 410
generate references:
Line...
done
Slice...
done
Conductor...
done
Track...
done
Node...
done
Connector...
done
normalise: 3127 nodes skipped (84%)
======= done generate XMI =======
generating done in 3.391s
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5 Select the just generated ui-file click the right mouse button and select
"Initialize ui_diagram diagram file".
6 The dialog in the picture below will open, change the file name of the
ui_diagram-file
if
necessary
and
click
"Next
=>".
7 Select the network which you want to display in the diagram and click
"Finish". In case you want to see the other network as well repeat the
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previous steps, use another file name and select here another network.
8 This is the last step. After a moment the diagram will open in the editor view
and the ui_diagram-file will appear in the Project Explorer.
3.4
ODBC
OpenPowerNet uses Open Database Connection (ODBC) to connect to the database. Within
the ODBC Data Source Administrator the Data Source Names (DSN) are defined by the
system administrator or user. The DSN connects in any case to a specific computer and if
defined also to a specific schema, see Figure 9. The DSN “pscresults” defines always a
schema because this DSN is used by the prepared Excel-Files not having the option to
define the schema. Other DSN does not need to define the schema because the schema is
either defined in the Project-File or the Selection-File.
The ODBC Data Source Administrator is started via the GUI menu
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Figure 9 The use of ODBC by OpenPowerNet.
3.5
Database
A database is used to store the simulation results for later visualisation and analysis. The
detailed database documentation can be found in the Help System under OpenPowerNet
User Guide > Database.
It is possible to write the current of conductors and connectors as well as the voltage of
nodes to dump files. After the simulation is finished the user has to upload these dump files
to the database using the functionality provided by the GUI.
Note: The user has to upload the dump files before a new simulation starts!
Since version 1.5.1 the dump files does not speed up the simulation as the database data
recording was improved. Thus the use of dump files is not any longer recommended but the
recording directly into the database.
3.6
Database tasks
All simulation results are stored in a database. This database needs to be maintained by the
user. The following tasks are available via the GUI:


Create new database schema,
Upload dump files into database (only available in context menu at Project-File),

Export data from database (only from local host),

Import data into database,

Rename database,

Drop database and

Drop simulation from a database.
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The dialog for all database tasks is similar. The required parameter are the host, port and
user name, see Figure 10.
Figure 10 Create new database dialog.
3.7
Working directory
The folders and files in the working directory are created by OpenPowerNet during
simulation. Only the working directory itself needs to be created manually and specified in
OpenPowerNet preferences (Window > Preferences > OpenPowerNet).
Working directory structure:
.../OPN_WorkingDir
+- Project_Name
+- Network_NetworkName (Containing network matrices and model text
files)
+- data (Containing the dump files)
* ...
* ...
3.8
APserver
The APserver is the communication server of OpenPowerNet. This server is the interface to
railway simulation programs like OpenTrack. ATM and PSC do not communicate directly with
other programs. The APserver manages the iteration of electrical network and engine
simulation as well as the actual course status. It is also responsible for writing the course
data into the database and for calculating their energy consumption.
3.9
Advanced Train Model
The Advanced Train Model simulates the propulsion system of the engines. The
configuration data is stored in the Engine-File, which may act as a library for all simulations
similar to the rolling stock depot of OpenTrack, described in chapter 4.4.1. The model type
and other choices used by the simulation will be set in the Project-File, described in chapter
4.4.7.
The electrical propulsion system of an engine consists of the following main components:
 Transformer,
 Four quadrant chopper,
 Inverter,
 Motor and
 Gear.
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Power consumers are:
 Auxiliaries of engine and trailers,
 Eddy current brake,
 Engine energy storage and
 Traction power.
An engine can be modelled in different ways, in particular as the efficiency depends on the
chosen model type, see Figure 11 to Figure 13.
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Figure 11 Single component engine model with power flow and configuration options.
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Figure 12 Mean efficiency engine model with power flow and configuration options.
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Figure 13 Efficiency table engine model with power flow and configuration options.
Each component of the single component engine model is modelled with an accurate
efficiency value with dependencies. If one or more components do not exist in a specific
propulsion structure, the efficiency of these components can be set to 100% respectively the
model type in the Project-File can be set to none. In this case the component does not have
any effect while calculating the total efficiency. In this way engines can be modelled deviating
from the model structure of the ATM.
Braking energy is recovered if the demand of the auxiliary and eddy current brake power
consumption is exceeded. While braking, OpenPowerNet only calculates the braking effort
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achieved through energy recovery braking of the propulsion system and eddy current brake,
see Figure 14. If the calculated braking effort of the propulsion and eddy current brake is less
than the requested effort of the driving simulation, OpenTrack implies that the mechanical
brake is able to achieve the remaining brake effort and calculates the driving dynamics using
the total requested effort.
A current limitation can be configured for each propulsion system. The tractive current
limitation reduces the power consumption and the achievable effort which affects the driving
dynamics. The braking current limitation only limits the regenerated current into the electrical
network. Additionally a maximum recovery voltage can be configured that limits the energy
output while braking to respect this voltage.
500,00
450,00
400,00
350,00
kN
300,00
250,00
200,00
150,00
100,00
50,00
0,00
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
km/h
Braking Effort [kN]
Eddy Current Brake Effort [kN]
Total Braking Effort
Figure 14 Brake effort calculated with maximum recovery effort, maximum recovery power and eddy current
brake.
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In case that during braking the recovered energy exceeds the energy consumption of the
course the excessive energy is regenerated into the electrical network, see Figure 15.
8000
7000
6000
5000
kW
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
-1000
-2000
km/h
Drive Recovery [kW]
Eddy Power [kW]
Auxiliary Power [kW]
Total Recovery [kW]
Figure 15 Brake power calculation deducts power used by eddy current brake and auxiliary from recovered
power.
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3.10 Power Supply Calculation
The PSC calculates the load flows within the electrical network including voltages and
currents. The network calculation uses the current required by a course to model this course
as a current source. During simulation this current source is inserted at discrete positions
while driving along the line. These discrete positions are called slices, see Figure 16.
Slice 1
Slice 0
Slice 2
Node
Negative Feeder
OCS
Conductor
Rail
Earth
Connector
Section
Position
x0
x1
x2
Figure 16 Abstract electrical network model of PSC.
A reasonable slice distance should be about 50m up to 400m depending on the size of the
network, the length and number of conductors, and the typical speed of the courses. If the
applied slice distance is too large the network model gets inexact and if it is too small the
number of recorded data is high and demands long time for simulation and visualisation. One
possibility of keeping the network size low is to separate the network into several parts if
possible for the particular network structure. The structure of these smaller networks can be
calculated faster. During simulation all network parts can be used at the same time. Note that
the simulation does not have any retroactive effect between the networks!
PSC is designed, but not limited, to calculate 1AC, see Figure 17, as well as the 2AC, see
Figure 18, and DC power supply systems, see Figure 19.
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substation
sw
sw
Y
Y
ocs
Y
Y
rails
Figure 17 The 1AC power supply system.
substation
sw
sw
autotransformer
autotransformer
autotransformer
AT1
AT2
AT3
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
Y
sw
sw
Y
ocs
Y
rails
Y
Y
Y
negative
feeder
train NOT in section
train in section
Figure 18 The 2AC power supply system.
rectifier substation
rectifier substation
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
Y
Y
ocs
Y
Y
rails
Figure 19 The DC power supply system.
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The configuration data of an electrical network (see Figure 20) contains information about:
 Substations including
o
Transformers or rectifiers,
o
Busbars and
o
Switches,
 Conductors like rails, contact wire, messenger wire,
 Connectors connecting the conductors, e.g. the left and right rail,
 Section isolators within a conductor and,
 Switches within conductors and connectors.
The conductors are described with resistance at 20°C, temperature coefficient, temperature,
cross section layout and equivalent radius. The impedances of the conductors within a line
resulting from electromagnetic coupling are calculated by the PSC using the cross section
layout and the equivalent radius of the conductors. Note that all conductors of a line are
coupled, but no coupling is calculated between different lines and networks!
Transformer Substation
Three Winding Transformer 1
Three Winding Transformer 2
Isource
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Isource
Isource
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Isource
swtr_ocs
bus bars
swtr_rails
swtr_negative
swtr_negative
sw
feeder ocs
negative feeder
sw
Y
Y
rails
sw
feeder ocs
sw
feeder rails
OCS
swtr_ocs
swtr_rails
bus bar connectors
with switches
sw
negative feeder
sw
Y
sw
Y
Y
bus bars
feeder rails
Y
sw
Y
sw
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
negativeFeeder
Figure 20 Components of the electrical network.
At simulation start the network structure will be analysed and mapped to a matrix. Each
configuration of switch states during the simulation requires a separate matrix. Afterwards
the matrices are compressed and saved to the system. During simulation these compressed
matrices are used for the corresponding simulation time step.
3.11 Analysis Tool
OpenPowerNet has a comprehensive analysis tool to create Excel diagrams in an
easy, standardised and efficient way. This tool provides the automatic analysis of
voltages as well as currents and calculates the magnetic field as main functionality. A
detailed description is available in chapter 4.6.3.
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OpenPowerNet handling
The configuration of the runtime environment usually has to be done once using the GUI, see
the following chapter and the Help System for details. The general usage of OpenPowerNet
consists of three main tasks: configuration, simulation and visualisation, see Figure 2. First
the modelling files for the electrical network, engines and switch states have to be prepared
in correspondence with the operational files of OpenTrack. This is probably the most
extensive job. The second task is running the simulation in co-simulation with OpenTrack.
The third task is the visualisation and analysis of the resulting simulation data.
4.1
Folder structure
It is advised to always use the same folder structure for all simulations as it helps to keep
order. In principle each simulation has two kinds of data. One kind is the input & analysis
data and the other kind the output data.
Input and analysis data structure:
.../Project_Name
+- OPNAnalysis (output directory for the Analysis Tool)
* ...
+- OPNData (OpenPowerNet configuration data)
* Engine-File.xml
* TypeDefs-File.xml
* Project-File.xml
+- OTData (OpenTrack configuration data)
* Project_Name.depot
* Project_Name.courses
* Project_Name.dest
* Project_Name.stations
* Project_Name.timetable
* Project_Name.trains
+- OTDocuments (OpenTrack infrastructure)
* Project_Name.opentrack
+- OTOutput (OpenTrack output directory)
* ...
The folder and file structure above has to be prepared manually. For the output data
structure refer to chapter 3.7.
4.2
Configuration of OpenTrack
OpenTrack is the railway operation simulation program. It handles the driving dynamics
respecting the track alignment, the train characteristics, the signalling system and the
operation program. For the handling of OpenTrack please check the documentation
delivered with the program. For inter-process communication it is necessary to set some
special configurations in OpenTrack, see Figure 21.
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Figure 21 OpenPowerNet configuration dialog in OpenTrack (Menu: Info > OpenPowerNet Settings).
The dialog OpenPowerNet Settings is available at menu item Info if OpenTrack.exe
is started with parameter -opn. The following properties have to be set:
 OpenTrack Server Port, 9002 (default),
 OPN Server Port, 9004 (default),
 OPN Host, network IP of the computer running OpenPowerNet, e.g. 127.0.0.1 for
localhost for the same computer, do not use the string “localhost”
 Timeout in seconds, recommended 1800,
 Use OpenPowerNet (OPN), checked,
 Keep Connection, checked.
Increase the timeout if connection problems with OpenPowerNet appear during simulations
with a large amount of iteration steps, primarily for large networks if engines are allowed to
recover energy to the network but the substations must not recover energy to the national
power grid.
To be able to run OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet together it is necessary to respect the
constraints from chapter 4.4.2 besides the OpenPowerNet model constraints in chapter
4.3.1.
4.3
Configuration of OpenPowerNet
The configuration of OpenPowerNet is divided into two configuration tasks. One is the
general configuration done via the GUI Preferences (see chapter 4.3.1) and the other the
simulation specific configuration done via the Project-, Engine-, Switch- and TypeDefs-Files
(see chapter 4.4).
4.3.1 General
The general configuration is accessible via the GUI menu Window > Preferences.
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Figure 22 General configuration OpenPowerNet preferences page.
1 Choosing the GUI language, either English or Portuguese or Traditional
Chinese. This option is only editable if licensed.
2 The maximum number of lines in the message console.
3 The working directory used during the simulation and analysis to store
temporary files.
4 To define a specific dongle to be used by this OpenPowerNet installation. If
blank any suitable key found in the network is used.
5 Whether to shut down the modules (APserver, ATM, PSC) after the simulation
or not.
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4.3.2 Analysis
Figure 23 General configuration Analysis preferences page.
1 Defining the Excel to be used to open the prepared Excel tools for analysis.
2 The preset file to be used during the automatic analysis. If blank the default
preset is used.
3 The language of the default preset, either English or Portuguese or Traditional
Chinese. This option is only editable if licensed.
4 The logo file to be embedded into the right footer of the generated diagrams of
size 150px x 60px as GIF- or EMF-file.
5 The output directory of the automatic analysis. All generated files will be saved
in sub folders of the defined directory.
6 Whether to overwrite existing output files or not. If not selected the generated
files will append a time step string if a file with default name already exists.
7 The database data directory data storage type to select. The data directory is
defined in the database configuration file (my.ini) by parameter datadir. The
Analysis is optimised for storage type hard disc drive (HDD) and solid state
disc (SSD) to speed up the analysis process.
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Figure 24 General configuration Analysis Selection Editor preferences page.
These preferences define the default behaviour of the Selection-File editor, see also chapter
4.6.3.
1 Whether to show the earth conductor or not. Usually the earth conductor is far
away from the other conductors and not interesting when analysing the
magnetic field.
2 Whether to show the track name or not.
3 Whether to show a line between the track name and each conductor
belonging to the track.
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APserver
Figure 25 General configuration APserver preferences page.
1 The APserver IPv4 host. In OpenTrack this IP need to be configured as OPN
server, see Figure 21.
2 The port at which the APserver is listening for requests from OpenTrack. In
3
4
5
6
OpenTrack this port need to be configured as OPN port, see Figure 21.
Is the maximum queue size for requests, usually this value does not need to
be changed.
The maximum number of request from OpenTrack before the connection is
closed and reconnected. Temporary allocated memory is released once the
connection is closed. If the memory demand of APserver is too high reduce
the number.
The timeout for receiving a request from OpenTrack.
The timeout for sending an answer to OpenTrack.
7 The debug file name.
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4.3.4 ATM
Figure 26 General configuration ATM preferences page.
1 The ATM IPv4 host.
2 The port at which the ATM is listening for requests.
3 Is the maximum queue size for requests, usually this value does not need to
be changed.
4 The maximum number of request before the connection is closed and
reconnected. Temporary allocated memory is released once the connection is
closed.
5 The debug file name.
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Debug
Figure 27 General configuration Debug option preferences page.
1 Either to use debug message logging or not. Should not be used for
simulations as it slows down the simulation significantly. But may be used on
OpenPowerNet support request to enable the support to solve questions. The
following options are only enabled in case this checkbox is checked.
2 The level of debug messages to be saved to the debug files.
3 The debug file format.
4 Whether to write the debug messages also to the message console or only to
the debug file.
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4.3.6 OpenTrack
Figure 28 General configuration OpenTrack preferences page.
1 The OpenTrack IPv4 host.
2 The port at which OpenTrack is listening for requests.
4.3.7 PSC
Figure 29 General configuration PSC preferences page.
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1 The PSC IPv4 host.
2 The port at which the PSC is listening for requests.
3 Is the maximum queue size for requests, usually this value does not need to
be changed.
4 The maximum number of request before the connection is closed and
reconnected. Temporary allocated memory is released once the connection is
closed.
5 The debug file name.
6 The maximum RAM allocation of PSC. The limit is used to control the RAM
allocation by a buffer to store the calculated data before recording to the
database. A large buffer may speed up the simulation. A value of 0 means no
limit, 1000MB is recommended and the default is 25% of total RAM.
4.3.8 Notification
Figure 30 General configuration Notification preferences page.
The notification preference page allows you to get an email from a running simulation.
1 Whether to send an email notification or not.
2 Enable sending INFO messages (black messages in the console).
3 Enable sending WARNING messages (blue messages in the console).
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Enable sending ERROR messages (red messages in the console).
Maximum messages included in one email.
Maximum WARNING messages included in one email.
Maximum ERROR messages included in one email.
The SMTP host of your email account used to send emails.
The SMTP port of your email account.
Time to give up trying to connect to the SMTP server.
Time to give up waiting of response from SMTP server.
Whether the SMTP server needs an authentication or not.
13
14
15
16
17
The SMTP server (email account) user name (only enabled if 12. is selected).
The SMTP server password (only enabled if 12. is selected).
Your email address.
The recipients email address, multiple emails shall be separated by ";".
Sending a test email. Make sure to hit the Apply button after changing
parameter before sending the test email.
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4.3.9 PSC Viewer
Figure 31 General configuration of PSC Viewer.
1 Set the executable. Click at the "Browse..." button and select the "psc.exe"
from the installation directory. The "psc.exe" will be used to generate the uifile.
2 The PSC working directory. This directory is used by the application to save
several files.
3 Whether to force to show the console output while generating the ui-file or not.
In any case some information will be send to console with name "OPN".
4 Whether the xmi generation (ui-file) shall be normalised or not. A normalised
file contains only relevant nodes, e.g. a property of a conductor changed, a
node with a connector. A ui-file not normalised contains all nodes, this will
slow down the handling of the diagram.
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The PSC Viewer default layout is used to lay out the nodes of a network in the diagram.
These values are necessary because the OpenPowerNet project-file has no information
about layout. The details of each property are described below the picture.
Figure 32 PSC Viewer default layout configuration.
1 This is the horizontal offset in pixel of the upper left corner of the diagram.
2 This is the vertical offset in pixel of the upper left corner of the diagram.
3 The horizontal distance of the nodes is calculated by the position of the slice
to which the node belongs. This position contains the chainage in km. With
this property the scale in horizontal direction can be set. In the picture it is 1
pixel per m.
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4 In some cases the distance between nodes calculated by using 3. is two
close. Therefore this property specifies a minimum distance between the
nodes.
5 This property set the distance between two conductors of the same track.
6 This property set the distance between two tracks of the same line.
7 This property set the distance between two lines.
8 The distance of a substation above the upper most node connected with a
infeed of this substation.
9 The order of the conductors. The buttons "Up" and "Down" on the right side of
the table move the selected conductor type. The vertical position of
conductors is calculated using this order. In case some conductor types are
not used in a project-file than diagram the distance between two displayed
nodes will be more than specified in 5., e.g. if no NegativeFeeder is available
so the distance between Feeder and the next Conductor below (Messenger
Wire) will be 160pixel.The following properties set the colour definition of the
conductors and connectors according there resistance. Resistance between
minimum and maximum are interpolated between the specified values.
10 The minimum resistance at 20°C in mOhm/km of conductors. All lower
11
12
13
14
15
16
resistances will be coloured with the colour set in 14.
The maximum resistance at 20°C in mOhm/km of conductors. All higher
resistances will be coloured with the colour set in 15.
The minimum resistance in mOhm of connectors. All lower resistances will be
coloured with the colour set in 16.
The maximum resistance in mOhm of connectors. All higher resistances will
be coloured with the colour set in 17.
The colour of the property set in 10.
The colour of the property set in 11.
The colour of the property set in 12.
17 The colour of the property set in 13.
Example:
The picture below shows and example layout. The red numbers correspond to the numbers
of the properties described above.
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Figure 33 PSC Viewer example layout.
4.4
Modelling
XML-Files are used for modelling. Each such file belongs to a schema. A schema describes
the structure of an XML-File. The schema is specified in each XML-File at the root element
using the attribute xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation. See the example XML snippet
below:
<XML-Root-Elemen xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="/the/xml/schema.xsd">
</XML-Root-Elemen>
See chapter 3.2 for a detailed description how to create a new XML-File.
The project specific modelling files describe the engines, the used engine model, the
definition of power supply, the electrical network and optionally the switch states of the
electrical network.
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The project specific files that are used for simulation are configured in the root element of the
Project-File. The Project-File and these referenced files are read every time a simulation has
started. Hence it is not necessary to restart OpenPowerNet after changing the name or
content of a project specific file.
4.4.1 Required technical data
Track alignment and signalling
 Track layout,
 Chainage,
 Longitudinal declination (begin, end, gradient, sign),
 Begin and end of single or multiple track sections,
 Position of switches, crossings and junctions,
 Begin, end and radius of bending / curves,
 Begin and end of tunnels,
 Begin and end of different track types and rail profiles,
 Position and kind of signals and signalling sections,
Operational data
 Position of passenger stations and signal-related stopping points,
 Permissible speed profiles,
 Stopping times at stations, turning times at termini,
 Time-table of all line sections (including internal rides),
 Train types, train configuration and loading grade per section,
 Operation concept, incl. special operational scenarios,
Vehicle data
 Vehicle or train mass (empty, laden),
 Adhesion mass,
 Maximum speed,
 Driving resistance formula,
 Factor for rotating mass,
 Engine energy storage characteristic,
 Propulsion characteristics as follows:
 Traction force and braking force characteristics related to running speed;
 Information about voltage-related current or power limitation of the propulsion control,
 Maximum / average power consumption of the auxiliary systems (lighting, air condition,
heating),
 Maximum recuperation voltage.
Power supply system and conductor data
 Type of substation,
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









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Nominal voltage,
Position of substations (connection points to the power grid),
Feeding scheme (sectioning inclusive chainage),
Busbar voltage of the substations (line-side, no-load and nominal load),
Number, length and cross section of feeding and return current cables (from substation
to track or connections from track to track),
Position of feeding points and return current cable connection points to the power rails,
Type of catenary (number and cross section of single conductors),
Additional feeding conductors (connection points and cross section),
Switch state of the power rail system,
Position and cross section of rail and track bonds.
4.4.2 Model constraints
Besides the constraints derived from the OpenTrack model mentioned in chapter 4.4.4 the
model has to fulfil further constraints. Otherwise the simulation is not possible or the results
will be wrong!
The following constraints have to be fulfilled:
Auto-, Two Winding-, Three Winding and Booster Transformer:
 0  relativeShortCircuit Voltage  nomPower  noLoadLosses
2
2
2
 0  nomPrimaryVolta ge  noLoadCurrent  noLoadLosses
For AC networks the sums of all conductor currents of each section between two slices
within a line have to be 0. This means:
 It is not allowed to add connectors parallel to conductors,
 Feeder and return feeder from a substation to the line have to be connected at the
same slice and
 Lines shall not be connected in a triangular manner.
Furthermore:
 There has to be exactly one contact wire per track.
 There have to be exactly one or two rails per track. In case of two rails these two rails
will be shortened at engine position during the simulation.
 It is not possible to add a switch between the positive busbar and a rectifier as the
model already uses one that cannot be manipulated by the user. But you can still use
a switch in the feeder cable to the line or from the negative busbar to the rectifier.
The occurrence of engines inside the electrical network has to be realistic as each course
inside the network consumes at least its auxiliary power. If a course is created at the wrong
time step or behaves unrealistic, this has an effect inside the electrical network although the
operational simulation may not be affected. All courses that turn up inside the electrical
network during the target simulation time have to be modelled, even if they may only stand
on a station track (powered on). It is advised to check this in the train diagrams.
If parts of other lines are connected to the main line (e.g. powered by the same substations)
and the entire electrical situation shall be analysed, these parts and its course operations
also have to be modelled. This can be only omitted, when no load is on the connected parts.
2
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If there are engines with same OpenTrack input data but different electrical parameters for
the same catenary system, these engines have to be handled separately. A multi-system
traction unit can be handled as a single engine though.
To keep the number of nodes in the electrical network down, special track arrangements
should be kept simple. Example: Double track line, junction in track “Up” is located 2 m
before junction in track “Down”. In such a case both junctions should get the same position to
save one slice.
All configuration data has to use UTF-8 characters but note the restrictions in OpenTrack
especially for line ID, track ID and engine ID as they have to use ASCII. Leading or trailing
spaces in named elements should be avoided.
It is recommended to use 1s simulation time steps. Using e.g. 2s simulation time step may
challenge time glitches. OpenTrack uses equidistant time steps per course but
OpenPowerNet need global equidistant time steps. The glitch occurs when a departure time
is not in the 2s time step raster, e.g. departure time is at 01:00:01. It is also not
recommended to use time steps smaller than 1s.
4.4.3 Naming Conventions
Names used for model elements need to be unique within a specific scope. The table below
gives the overview of naming scopes.
Model element
2 winding transformer
3 winding transformer
Additional load in
substation
Autotransformer
Boostertransformer
Busbar
Unique Name
Scope
Substation
Substation
none
TwoWindingTransformer
TreeWindingTransformer
AdditionalLoad
XML
Attribute
name
name
name
Engine name
Project
Engine energy storage
Engine
Conductor
Connector
Connector between
negative feeder busbars
Connector between OCS
busbars
Connector between rails
busbars
Leakage
Line
Network
Rectifier
Slice
Track
none
none
Autotransformer
Boostertransformer
OCSBB, RailsBB,
NegativeFeederBB
Engine-File: vehicle
Project-File: Vehicle
Engine-File: storage
Project-File: Storage
StartPosition
Connector
NegativeFeederBBConnector
none
OCSBBConnector
name
none
RailsBBConnector
name
none
Network
Project
Substation
none
Leakage
Line
Network
Rectifier
ConnectorSlice
name
name
name
name
name
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Substation
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name
name
bbName
vehicleID
engineID
name
name
condName
name
name
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Model element
Storage
Substation
Switch
VLD
VLD Type
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Unique Name
Scope
Substation
Network
Project
Substation
VLDTypes
none
Distribution
Issue 2014-11-05
XML Element
Storage
Substation
Switch
Project-File: VLD
TypeDefs-File: VLDType
Merger
PiecewiseLinearDistribution
XML
Attribute
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
Table 3 The naming conventions of the model elements versus scope.
4.4.4 OpenTrack
During creation of the OpenTrack project the following constraints need to be considered:
 Direction of edges has to be continuous from lower to higher km point,
 Chainage has to be positive,
 Set km point of each double vertex,
 Set length of all edges matching the km points of the vertices,
 Set line ID of all edges,
 Set track ID of all edges,
 Specify power supply areas matching the electrical networks (not needed if there is
only one power supply system).
It is helpful to prevent unnecessary changes in chainage or line and track IDs during creation
of the OpenTrack model to simplify the electrical network model.
If there are engines with same OpenTrack input data but different electrical parameters for
the same catenary system, these engines have to be handled separately. A multi-system
traction unit can be handled as a single engine though.
Phase insulation gaps or voltage-free areas should get “power off” and “power on” signals in
OpenTrack.
The turnouts in OpenTrack have to use a 1m edge for each direction. This is to get a correct
match of the locations in the OpenTrack infrastructure model and the OpenPowerNet
electrical network model. The standard track occupation reserves the main and branch edge
together. As the constraint is to use a 1m edge the standard occupation is as in the upper
part of Figure 34. The occupation can be extended by merging elements. For this select the
edges to be merged and select “Merge Elements” from OpenTrack Menu “Functions”.
Figure 34 The modelling of turnouts in OpenTrack respecting a OpenPowerNet model constraint.
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Note: The use of moving block is not recommended when running OpenTrack with
OpenPowerNet. A course following a slow course requests alternating maximum brake effort
and maximum tractive effort over time and this spoil the load flow simulation. If courses do
not hinder each other the use of moving block is possible but the user needs to carefully
analyse the effort requests for each course! A warning message (APS-W-005) is generated
for each time alternating effort requests are detected. This may give the user a hint to look
for the course following a slower course.
Note: Check Use Curve Resistance in OpenTrack preferences to respect each curve in
your track layout. If this option is not set OpenTrack uses a mean radius to calculate driving
resistance.
4.4.5 Engine-File
This file acts as a library of engines and contains all information for a simulation. It has to
correspond with the OpenTrack engine data. The engine ID is used for mapping the engine
data between both programs. The XML file observes the RailML Rolling Stock Schema
1.03.OPN.3 provided in the XML Catalog with key http://www.openpowernet.de/
schemas/rollingstock.xsd. The schema specification documentation is available at
Help > Help Contents > OpenPowerNet User Guide.
Table 4 to Table 7 list the data processed by ATM, considering the engine models from
Figure 11 to Figure 13. The position where the data shall be inserted into the Engine-File is
described by X-Path which is similar to a path of the file system. XML-elements can be
understood as folders and XML-attributes as files containing the data. A path to an attribute
contains an ‘@’ as prefix of the attribute name.
Below is an example Engine-File with one engine equipped with one propulsion system. Note
the colour code is explained in chapter 1.4!
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<railml xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/rollingstock.xsd">
<rollingstock rollingstockID="" version="110">
<vehicles>
<vehicle length="25" bruttoWeight="75" vehicleID="Engine1" speed="250">
<engine>
<propulsion supply="AC 25kV 50Hz" transmission="electric" engine="electric"
power="5560" maxTractEffort="250" totalTractEfficiency="90" totalBrakeEfficiency="90">
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100"/>
</propulsion>
</engine>
</vehicle>
</vehicles>
</rollingstock>
</railml>
item
engine ID
engine type
transmission
supply
power angle
model
type/
choice
required
required
required
required
none
mean
X-Path to data from Engine-File
(/railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/…)
…/@vehicleID
…/engine/propulsion/@engine
..../engine/propulsion/@transmission
..../engine/propulsion/@supply
…/engine/propulsion/fourQuadrantChopper/@meanPhi
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item
tractive
current
limitation
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model
X-Path to data from Engine-File
type/
(/railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/…)
choice
curve
.../engine/propulsion/fourQuadrantChopper/phi/valueTable
none
curve
…/engine/propulsion/tractiveCurrentLimitation/valueTable
optional .../engine/propulsion/@zeroSpeedCurrentLimitation
brake current none
limitation
curve
-
use auxiliary
power
no
yes
regenerative
braking
none
max
…/engine/propulsion/auxSupply/@constPower
…/engine/propulsion/auxSupply/@constResistance
…/engine/propulsion/auxSupply/@constPowerBraking
…/engine/propulsion/auxSupply/@constResistanceBraking
Note: Auxiliary while braking is only active for engines during
regenerative braking!
…/engine/propulsion/@maxBrakePower
…/engine/propulsion/@maxBrakeEffort
…/engine/propulsion/@maxRecoveryVoltage
…/engine/propulsion/brakeEffort/valueTable
…/engine/propulsion/@maxRecoveryVoltage
…/engine/propulsion/@power
…/engine/propulsion/@maxTractEffort
…/engine/propulsion/tractiveEffort/valueTable
-
curve
tractive effort max
eddy current
brake
curve
none
max
…/engine/propulsion/brakeCurrentLimitation/valueTable
…/brakes/eddyCurrentBrake/@maxPower
…/brakes/eddyCurrentBrake/@maxEffort
…/brakes/eddyCurrentBrake/@minSpeed
-
energy
storage
no
energy
storage
efficiency
none
…/engine/storage/@name
…/engine/storage/@ImaxLoad_A
…/engine/storage/@ImaxUnload_A
…/engine/storage/@PmaxLoad_kW
…/engine/storage/@PmaxUnload_kW
…/engine/storage/@maxLoad_kWh
…/engine/storage/@efficiencyLoad_percent
…/engine/storage/@efficiencyUnload_percent
-
mean
…/engine/storage/@meanEfficiency_percent
curve
…/engine/storage/efficiency/valueTable
yes
Table 4 Common data used by ATM.
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type/
choice
transformer none
mean
curve
four
none
quadrant
mean
chopper
curve
traction
none
inverter
mean
curve
motor
none
mean
curve
gear
none
mean
curve
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X-Path to data from Engine-File
(/railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/engine/propulsion …)
item
…/transformer/@meanEfficiency
…/transformer/efficiency/valueTable
…/fourQuadrantChopper/@meanEfficiency
…/fourQuadrantChopper/efficiency/valueTable
…/tractionInverter/@meanEfficiency
…/tractionInverter/efficiency/valueTable
…/tractionMotor/@meanEfficiency
…/tractionMotor/efficiency/valueTable
…/gear/@meanEfficiency
…/gear/efficiency/valueTable
Table 5 “Single Component Model” specific data used by ATM.
X-Path to data from Engine-File
(/railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/engine/propulsion …)
…/@totalTractEfficiency
…/@totalBrakeEfficiency
Table 6 "Mean Efficiency Model" specific data used by ATM.
X-Path to data from Engine-File
(/railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/engine/propulsion …)
…/tractiveVehicleEfficiency/valueTable
…/brakeVehicleEfficiency/valueTable
Table 7 "Efficiency Table Model" specific data used by ATM.
Each engine has the option to configure multiple energy storages. The load and unload
model is configured in the Project-File. Table 8 shows a typical engine energy storage
configuration in the Engine-File.
ImaxLoad_A
ImaxUnload_A
PmaxLoad_kW
PmaxUnload_kW
efficiencyLoad_percent
efficiencyUnload_percent
maxLoad_kWh
meanEfficiency_percent
Engine Energy Storage
1000
1000
500
500
95
95
6
99
Table 8 Typical engine energy storage configuration
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4.4.5.1 Auxiliary Power
The modelling of the auxiliary power is available in OpenTrack as well as in OpenPowerNet.
In total 9 different models exist. These auxiliary power models are defined in:
 OpenTrack engine as:
o A constant factor of the mechanical power of a speed range,
o A constant value of a defined speed range,
 OpenTrack train as:
o A constant factor in kW/t (delta load factor) applied to the delta between the
current train mass and the weight of the train model,
o A constant power per trailer,
 OpenPowerNet Engine-File:
o Constant power,
o Constant power while braking,
o Constant resistance,
o Constant resistance while braking and
o Eddy current brake power consumption.
To model in OpenTrack the engine auxiliary open the Engines dialog (Tools
Engines...) and then edit the loss function, see Figure 35.
>
Figure 35 OpenTrack engine loss function definition.
The definition of the OpenTrack train contains the delta load factor (
in column
“P Loss Fac. [kW/t]”) definition and a constant auxiliary (“P Loss [kW]”) of the trailer. Each
trailer can be configured with a different constant auxiliary but only one delta load factor can
be defined per train even the editing is possible at trailer, see Figure 36.
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Figure 36 The OpenTrack train auxiliary definition.
The calculation of the delta load auxiliary is according to the following formula:
The current train mass (
) can be modified at each stop in the OpenTrack timetable
definition, see Figure 37. The delta load value changes always
based on the current
value. For instance the course in Figure 37 has a total mass (
) of 100t. In station
A the current mass changes to 120t (+20t) and in station B to 110t (-10t). So the current
mass from station A to B is 120t and from station B to station C 110t.
Figure 37 OpenTrack delta load configuration at timetable.
The auxiliary defined for a whole train (OpenTrack train) are equally distributed to all engines
of the train.
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Regarding the auxiliary definition in OpenPowerNet see Table 4 on page 53.
The calculated auxiliary values are recorded each simulation time step into the database
table engine_auxiliary_data. These values are related to an engine and auxiliary
model type (database table auxiliary_type).
4.4.6 TypeDefs-File
The TypeDefs-File is an XML file and defines model types, see Figure 38. The Project-File
will reference these types by an identifier. The TypeDefs-File observes the schema provided
in the XML Catalog with key http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/TypeDefs.xsd.
The schema specification documentation is available at Help > Help Contents >
OpenPowerNet User Guide.
The definition of the models in the TypeDefs-File is described in the chapters referencing the
models.
Figure 38 The main elements of the TypeDefs-File schema.
4.4.7 Project-File
The project specific file is an XML file. It has to correspond with the OpenTrack infrastructure
data. The Project-File observes the schema provided in the XML Catalog with key
http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd.
The
schema
specification documentation is available at Help > Help Contents > OpenPowerNet
User Guide.
Sample XML files are available in the Tutorial, see chapter 5 at page 103 to read how to get
these files.
The Project-File has four main parts:
 ATM configuration,
 PSC configuration,
 Distributions and
 Relations of courses to a Train Operating Company, see Figure 39.
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Figure 39 The main branches of the Project-File in schema view.
Figure 40 to Figure 61 show an example Project-File.
Figure 40 General configuration in OpenPowerNet Project-File.
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4.4.7.1 Engine Model
Figure 41 Example ATM configuration of one engine in the Project-File in Altova XMLSpy grid view.
This example uses a very detailed calculation with all propulsion components as efficiency
curves for the AC 25kV 50Hz propulsion system. The propulsion system for
AC 15kV 16 2/3Hz is configured with a minimum recovery braking speed of 5km/h. The
example engine has also an energy storage configured, see Figure 41.
It is possible to delay the acceleration of engines after energization, e.g. when line power
resumes after a failure, by a delay distribution to model the individual driver behaviour. The
delay is only active for engines with main switch on. The main switch is operated by
OpenTrack Power Signals. The delay duration is defined by a distribution, see chapter
4.4.7.11. The delay is enabled if attribute accelerationDelayAfterEnergization is
defined at element OpenPowerNet. The delay distribution of a simulation is visualized by the
prepared Excel File EngineDelay.xlsx.
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4.4.7.2 Engine Energy Storage
Each engine can be configured with multiple energy storages.
The engine energy storage has two models for loading:
 saver:
regenerated energy utilisation
energy storage saver model
10
P [kW]
8
6
resistor
4
catenary (max 4kW)
energy storage (max 2kW)
2
auxiliary (1kW)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Precovery [kW]
Figure 42 This figures shows the utilisation of the regenerated energy when using the 'saver' model of the engine
energy storage.
 recovery:
regenerated energy utilisation
energy storage recovery model
10
P [kW]
8
6
resistor
4
energy storage (max 2kW)
catenary (max 4kW)
2
auxiliary (1kW)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Precovery [kW]
Figure 43 This figures shows the utilisation of the regenerated energy when using the 'recovery' model of the
engine energy storage.
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The engine energy storage can be configured with one of five unloading models:
 panto_I_max:
I [A]
energy storage utilisation
panto_I_max model
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
I_storage [A]
I_panto [A] (max 70 A)
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
I_demand [A]
Figure 44 While using unload model 'panto_I_max' the energy storage is unloaded only when the maximum
allowed pantograph current is exeeded.
 storage_P_max:
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_max model
120
P [kW]
100
80
60
P_panto [kW]
40
P_storage [kW] (max 60 kW)
20
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P_engine [kW]
Figure 45 While using unload model 'storage_P_max' the energy storage is unloaded as soon as the recovered
energy is lower as the auxilliary power. If the power demand of the engine whether for auxilliary or traction is
higher than the maximum unload power of the energy storage the remaining power will be provided from the
catenary.
 storage_P_aux:
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_aux model
P_engine [kW]
200
150
P_aux_panto [kW]
100
P_storage [kW] (max 60
kW)
50
P_traction [kW] (50kW)
0
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P_aux [kW]
Figure 46 While using unload model 'storage_P_aux' the energy storage is unloaded as soon as the recovered
energy is lower as the auxilliary power. The provided power corresponds always with the auxilliary power demand
unless the auxilliary power is higher than the maximum energy storage unload power.
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 storage_P_traction:
P_engine [kW]
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_traction model
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
P_traction_panto [kW]
P_storage [kW] (max 60 kW)
P_aux [kW] (20kW)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P_traction [kW]
Figure 47 While using unload model 'storage_P_traction' the energy storage is unloaded as soon as the engine
consumes traction power until the maximum unload power of the energy storage is exeeded.
 storage_P_traction_ratio:
P_engine [kW]
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_traction_ratio model
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
P_traction_panto [kW]
P_storage [kW] (70%
P_traction, max 56kW)
P_aux [kW] (20kW)
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P_traction [kW]
Figure 48 While using unload model 'storage_P_traction_ratio' the energy storage is unloaded with the specified
fraction of the traction power as soon as the engine consumes traction power until the maximum unload power of
the energy storage is exeeded.
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4.4.7.3 Network Model
Figure 49 Example project configuration of TestNetwork 1 including Lines, Substations, Times, Earth node as well
as configuration of TestNetwork 2 which includes also the Mergers element, and general PSC options.
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Type
contact
wire
messenger
wire
feeder
User Manual
Name
Ri150
Ri120
Cu150
Cu120
Al 625
Al/St260/23
Rail (AC,
see chapter
6.4)
UIC60
third rail
Al 5100
Fe 7600
Description
150mm²
120mm²
150mm²
120mm²
625mm²
260mm² Al &
23mm² steel
UIC54
Al 5100mm²
7600mm² steel
Issue 2014-11-05
R20
[Ohm/km]
0,1185
0,1481
0,1185
0,1481
0,0459
0,1068
equivalent
radius [m]
0,0054
0,0048
0,00531
0,00468
0,01092
0,00733
temperature
coefficient
0,00393
0,00393
0,004
0,004
0,004
0,004
0,0306
(DC only)
0,0339
(DC only)
0,0064
0,0159
(see chapter
6.4)
(see chapter
6.4)
0,0314
0,0383
0,004
0,004
0,00382
0,005
Table 9 Typical conductor configuration values.
4.4.7.4 Power Supply models
Following power supply models are available:
 Two winding transformer (AC),
 Three winding transformer (2AC),
 Autotransformer (2AC),
 Booster transformer (AC / 2AC),
 Rectifier (DC) and
 Stationary energy storage.
All power supply models are configured in a child element of Substation (XPath:
/OpenPowerNet/PSC/Network/Substations/Substation).
The power supply models need to be connected to a busbar.
Two winding transformer, rectifier, and storage are connected to the busbars via child
elements “OCSBB” and “RailsBB”, see Figure 50.
Figure 50 Rectifier with busbar child elements.
Three winding and auto transformer are connected to the busbars via child elements
“OCSBB”, “RailsBB” and “NegativeFeederBB”, see Figure 51.
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Figure 51 Three winding transformer with child elements.
The booster transformer is connected to 4 busbars. The primary busbars are typically
connected to the catenary in parallel to an isolated section and the secondary busbars to the
return wire.
Figure 52 Booster transformer with child elements.
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Figure 53 Substation element of example network configuration with transformer, busbars and feeder with switch.
The tables below list some typical configuration data for power supplies.
Two Winding Transformer
nomPower_MVA
10
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
115
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
16.25
noLoadLosses_kW
6.5
loadLosses_kW
230
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
10.7
noLoadCurrent_A
0.06
Table 10 Typical two winding transformer configuration.
nomPower_MVA
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
Three Winding Transformer
85
150
53.8
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Three Winding Transformer
noLoadLosses_kW
38
loadLosses_kW
136
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
8.6
noLoadCurrent_A
1.43
Table 11 Typical three winding transformer configuration.
Auto Transformer
nomPower_MVA
20
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
55
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
27.5
noLoadLosses_kW
8
loadLosses_kW
17
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
1.76
noLoadCurrent_A
0.33
Table 12 Typical auto transformer configuration.
Booster Transformer
nomPower_MVA
0.158
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
0.316
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
0.316
noLoadLosses_kW
0.6
loadLosses_kW
2
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
11
noLoadCurrent_A
7
Table 13 Example configuration of an booster transformer.
internalResistance_Ohm
nomVoltage_kV
energyRecovery
Rectifier
0.015
0.750
false
Table 14 Typical rectifier configuration.
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4.4.7.5 Station Energy Storage
Figure 54 The model for the station energy storage (voltage stabilisation and energy saving) has two models
which are used depending on the conditions during the simulation. If the current is maximum the left model is
used and otherwise the right model. Ri is the parameter internalResistance_Ohm, Unom is nomVoltage_kV, Imax is
unloadImax_A respective loadImax_A and Zbb_conn the connectors to the busbars.
nomVoltage_kV
internalResistance_Ohm
loadImax_A
unloadImax_A
maxLoad_kWh
initialLoad_kWh
lossPower_kW
efficiencyLoad_percent
efficiencyUnload_percent
Station Energy Storage
0.580
0.015
100
300
10
5
0.1
90
90
Table 15 Typical voltage stabilisation station energy storage configuration for DC 600V with 600V no load voltage
at the rectifier.
nomVoltage_kV
internalResistance_Ohm
loadImax_A
unloadImax_A
maxLoad_kWh
initialLoad_kWh
lossPower_kW
efficiencyLoad_percent
efficiencyUnload_percent
Station Energy Storage
0.600
0.015
300
300
10
5
0.1
90
90
Table 16 Typical energy saving station energy storage configuration for DC 600V with 600V no load voltage at the
rectifier.
4.4.7.6 Voltage Limiting Device
According to EN 50526-2:2012 a Voltage Limiting Device (VLD) operates in a way as to
connect the track return circuit of DC railway systems to earth system or conductive parts
within the overhead contact line zone or current collector zone in order to:
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1 Prevent impermissible touch voltage caused by train traffic or short circuit;
and/or
2 Prevent impermissible touch voltages by reducing the fault circuit impedance
and thus causing tripping of the circuit breaker by over current.
The VLD model is not limited to DC only but can be used for AC railway power supply
systems as well as for DC systems.
Note: The DC model respects the current direction while the AC model uses the absolute
values. If the voltage shall be limited in any case for DC systems, e.g. touch voltage between
rail and earth, two VLD models need to be added to the network model. One VLD reference
shall be the rail busbar and for the other VLD the reference shall be the earth busbar.
The model is a recoverable VLD that recovers after triggering, depending of the defined
“Open Model”.
The VLD model is defined in the TypeDefs-File (see Figure 55) and the Project-File (see
Figure 56) references to the VLD model definition only by its type name.
Figure 55 Elements and attributes of the VLD model definition in the TypeDefs-File.
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Figure 56 Elements and attributes of the VLD model definition in the Project-File.
Defining the Model:
The VLD model is defined by a “Close Model” which describes the conditions for closing the
VLD and an “Open Model” which describes the conditions for opening. The VLD is closed
using a low resistance and open by using a high resistance between the reference and
measuring busbar.
The following “Close Models” are available:
 Voltage: The VLD closes as soon as the defined voltage would be exceeded.
 VoltageDuration: The VLD closes when the defined voltage level is exceeded for a
defined time interval.
The following “OpenModels” are available:
 Timer: To open the VLD after a specific time period. If the close condition is still valid
one time step with open VLD occur in the simulation results. Thus there will be one
time step with exceeding voltage.
 Voltage: To open the VLD as soon as the voltage at the closed VLD is less than
specified.
 VoltageDuration: To open the VLD when the defined voltage level is below the defined
value for a defined time interval.
 Current: Opens the VLD as soon as the current level is lower than the defined value.
 CurrentDuration: Opens the VLD when the current level was continuous lower than a
defined value.
Exactly one Open and one Close Model need to be defined.
The VLD has four different states:
 OPEN: This is the default state and uses the resistance defined in attribute
r_open_ohm.
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 CLOSE: When the VLD is close. This state is modelled with the resistance defined in
attribute r_close_ohm.
 WAIT_CLOSE: This occurs only for the Close Model VoltageDuration in case the
Voltage level is exceeded but the defined duration is not exceeded. During this state
the resistance defined in attribute r_open_ohm is used.
 WAIT_OPEN: This occurs only for the Open Model CurrentDuration and
VoltageDuration when the Current/Voltage is lower than defined but the defined
duration is not exceeded. During this state the resistance defined in attribute
r_close_ohm is used.
Here an example of a VLD as a XML snippet of the TypeDefs-File:
<VLDTypes>
<VLDType name="U/I" r_close_Ohm="0.001" r_open_Ohm="10000">
<CloseModels>
<Voltage voltage_V="120"/>
</CloseModels>
<OpenModels>
<Current current_A="0"/>
</OpenModels>
</VLDType>
</VLDTypes>
Using the Model:
The VLD is used within the Project-File at the substation and connected between two
busbars. There is no constraint to use a specific busbar type. The VLD model is defined in
the TypeDefs-File and referenced in the Project-File by the attribute type.
Following XML snippet of a Project-File corresponds with the example above:
<Substation name="16+000">
<VLD name="+" type="U/I" comment="for positive exceeding voltage">
<MeasuringBusbar bbName="E"/>
<ReferenceBusbar bbName="R"/>
</VLD>
<VLD name="-" type="U/I" comment="for negative exceeding voltage">
<MeasuringBusbar bbName="R"/>
<ReferenceBusbar bbName="E"/>
</VLD>
<Busbars>
<RailsBB bbName="E">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000"> The connector to earth conductor.
<Position km="16.000" trackID="h" condName="E" lineID="Linie 01"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<RailsBB bbName="R">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000"> The connector to a rail conductor.
<Position km="16.000" trackID="h" condName="RL" lineID="Linie 01"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
Voltage Limiting Device
r_close_Ohm
0.001
r_open_Ohm
10000
Close Model: Voltage (voltage_V)
120
Open Model: Current (current_A)
0
Table 17 Typical values for a voltage limiting device used to limit the touch voltage to maximum 120V by a
thyristor (opens when current is below 0A).
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4.4.7.7 Simulation Time window
Figure 57 Example configuration of two simulation time windows for the network from 00:00:00 to 00:10:00 and
from 00:20:00 to 00:30:00.
The simulation time window enables the user to specify the times the network shall be used
during the simulation. For instance the Project-File has multiple networks along a very long
route. The simulation runs five trains following each other. To minimize the calculation time
and amount of data each network should only be enabled if at least one train is in the
network, see the example in Figure 58.
Note: In case the network contains energy storages it is advised to use the network for the
whole simulation due to changing energy storage state of charge.
Figure 58 Example of reasonable simulation time windows per network. The red rectangles indicate the feeding
section per network and the simulation time window.
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4.4.7.8 Network Merge
Figure 59 This example shows how to merge two networks into one network.
The merge parameters provide the functionality to merge two networks of the project file into
one network. This merged network will be used during the whole simulation. This is for
example useful for simulation of failure scenarios, e.g. “Transformer1” in “TSS1” of Network
“TestNetwork 1” need to supply also the neighbour section in Network “TestNetwork 2” due
to switched off “Transformer2” in “TSS1”.
The example configuration in Figure 59 adds to network “TestNetwork 1” the following:
 the connection between “line1” and “line2”,
 the “line2”,
 the OCS busbar connection in “TSS1”,
 the substation “TSS2”,
 concatenate the merger name to the original network name  network name used for
simulation and analysis is “TestNetwork 1 + merge_nw2” and
 the network configuration of network “TestNetwork 2”.
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Figure 60 visualises the merged networks.
Figure 60 The merged “TestNetwork 1” and “TestNetwork 2”.
4.4.7.9 Train Operating Companies
Figure 61 Example configuration of Train Operating Companies.
For accumulation of energy consumption several courses can be grouped to so-called Train
Operating Companies. This feature can be used to attribute a portion of energy to different
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operators, type of trains or any arbitrary selection by using the courses specified in the
Project-File, see Figure 61. The attribute courseID corresponds with the course ID in
OpenTrack. The consumed energy of not specified courses is summarised for a Train
Operating Company with the name unknown. Therefore it is not advised to name a Train
Operating Company unknown!
4.4.7.10
Data Recording
Besides the configuration of the engine model, network and operating company it is
necessary to define recording of simulation results. To record data to the database the
connection properties need to be set. The configuration of recording is structured
hierarchical. The attributes in element OpenPowerNet are at the highest level and define the
general recording behaviour, see XML snippet below.
<OpenPowerNet
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial AC Network"
comment="failure scenario"
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
dbUser="opndbusr" (The database user name)
dbPasswd="xxxx" (The database user password if required)
odbcDsn="pscresults" (The DSN name, this is the name specified as ODBC data source name.)
record2DB="true" (Whether to record data to database or not, default is false.)
record2DB_Dump="false"
rstFile="Engine-File.xml" (The path to the referenced file may be absolute or relative.)
switchStateFile="Switch-File.xml">
To record engine data set the attribute /OpenPowerNet/ATM/Options/@record2DB to true.
The recording of currents and voltages for electrical networks is configured according to the
element hierarchy of the Project-File beginning at element /OpenPowerNet/PSC/Network
using the attributes recordCurrent and recordVoltage. These two attributes have three
allowed values:
- true: Record data of this element if higher hierarchy is not set to false+sub.
- true+sub: Record data of this and all lower elements.
- false+sub: Do not record data of this and all lower elements.
Example XML snippet with recording attributes:
<Network
name="A"
frequency_Hz="0"
voltage_kV="0.6"
recordCurrent="true" Record currents for this network.
recordVoltage="true"> Record voltages for this network.
<Lines> No recording attributes set therefore the default value (true) will be applied.
<Line
name="A"
recordCurrent="false+sub" Do not record currents for this line and all subordinate elements.
recordVoltage="false+sub"> Do not record voltages for this line and all subordinate elements.
...
</Line>
</Lines>
<Substations
recordCurrent="true" Record currents for all substations if not contrary defined for a
specific substation.
recordVoltage="true"> Record voltages for all substations if not contrary defined for a
specific substation.
<Substation
name="TSS_A"
recordCurrent="true" Record currents for this substation.
recordVoltage="true"> Record voltages for this substation.
...
</Substation>
<Substation
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name="BC"
recordCurrent="false+sub" Do not record currents for this substation.
recordVoltage="false+sub"> Do not record voltages for this substation.
...
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth lineID="A" trackID="up" km="0" condName="E"/>
</Network>
Please note that recording line voltages and currents increases the amount of written data
significantly and slows down the simulation as well as the analysis. Record values only
necessary for the desired visualisation!
4.4.7.11
Distribution
Distributions are defined either by a distribution histogram or cumulative distribution function
(CDF).
distribution
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
Histogram
50%
CDF
40%
30%
FirstBin
20%
10%
0%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Figure 62 A distribution defined by a histogram and cumulative distribution function.
All distributions are defined as children of Element /OpenPowerNet/Distributions.
The piecewise linear distribution can be defined either by a histogram or cumulative
distribution function. Below are the example definitions of both types.
Histogram definition:
<Histogram>
<FirstBin begin="25" width="5" probability="10" />
<Bin width="20" probability="80" />
<Bin width="10" probability="10" />
</Histogram>
Cumulative Distribution Function definition:
<CDF xValueName="delay" xValueUnit="s" yValueName="cumulated distribution" yValueUnit="%">
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="0" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="25">
<values yValue="0" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30">
<values yValue="10" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="50">
<values yValue="90" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="60">
<values yValue="100" />
</valueLine>
</CDF>
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To simulate different delay scenarios the attribute scenario of element
PiecewiseLinearDistribution should be altered. The simulations with same scenario
are repeatable and produce the same delays.
4.4.8 Switch-File
The optional switch state file is an XML file. The Project-File observes the schema provided
in the XML Catalog with key http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd. The
schema specific documentation is available at Help > Help Contents > OpenPowerNet
User Guide.
The Switch-File configures the state changes for each switch in the power supply network
during the simulation time. The default state of the switch is configured in the Project-File.
The Switch-File is only needed if switch states shall be changed during the simulation.
Figure 63 Switch configuration for network calculation. The switches are open for 10 minutes beginning at
01:00:00.
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Simulation
The OpenPowerNet GUI handles the start and stop of the three modules APserver, PSC and
ATM.
To start the modules,
has to be selected from context menu of the particular Project-File.
The OpenPowerNet settings in OpenTrack have to be configured to run co-simulations, see
chapter 4.2. The simulation can be started as usual with OpenTrack simulation panel.
Figure 64 Start OpenPowerNet modules by selecting the Project file and click "Start OpenPowerNet" from context
menu.
To shut down the three modules select
from menu.
During the simulation a number of messages will be displayed. These messages are
categorised in INFO, WARNING and ERROR. At the end of the simulation the number of
WARNING and ERROR messages is displayed if any occurred. All messages are saved to
the database and can be read after the simulation by using the Excel-File Message
(OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools > Messages).
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Visualisation
4.6.1 Prepared Excel Files
A number of prepared Excel Files for a quick analysis of the simulation data is available via
the GUI (OpenPowerNet > Excel tool > ). These files are opened in a write protected
mode to avoid unmeant overwrite but may be saved with a different name.
The prepared Excel files utilise the ODBC DSN “pscresults” to connect to a database. The
ODBC DSN is like an arrow pointing to a database schema. Via the configuration of the
“pscresults” DSN any desired database schema may be selected and analysed in Excel, see
chapter 3.4 as well as Figure 65 and Figure 66.
Figure 65 The ODBC datasource administrator.
To retrieve the data from the database select “update all” from the Excel “Data” ribbon or
press Ctrl+Alt+F5. Update multiple times to get the data for selection and data to be
displayed in the prepared diagrams.
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Figure 66 DSN configuration.
4.6.2 User defined Excel Files
All simulation results are stored in a database. For visualisation the data can be transferred
into a custom Excel table sheet via external data exchange, see and follow the instructions
below from Figure 67 to Figure 75.
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Figure 67 Create a new external data query.
Figure 68 Select pscresults* as external data source.
If no such DSN is available see document Installation Instruction to create a new DSN. You
can find the Installation Instruction in the Help System OpenPowerNet User Guide >
PDF-Documents.
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Figure 69 For this example select table sim, add the columns shown on the right to the query and click next.
Figure 70 Click next, do not filter any data.
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Figure 71 Select id in the upper combo box to sort by the column id of table sim.
Figure 72 Select the centre radio button and click finish.
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Figure 73 The results of the query are listed in the table. Select Return Data to Microsoft Excel from file
menu to insert the data into an Excel table. Please see the Excel documentation for further questions.
Figure 74 Click OK and the data will be inserted to the table at position $A$1.
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„Table Tools“ menu
Figure 75 Now the data in the table retrieved from database is ready for further evaluation and visualisation. For
easy handling of the external data source query it is recommended to use the “Table Tools” menu.
OpenPowerNet comes with Excel files already prepared for data analysis. These files are
accessible from the GUI at OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools >.
For example the Energy consumption by Train Operating Company visualises the
energy consumption of all courses in all networks of the simulation summarised by the Train
Operating Company, see Figure 61, and expressed as percentage of total energy
consumption of all courses, see Figure 76.
Figure 76 Proportional portioned energy consumption of Train Operating Companies (in this example named
0.1m/s^2, 0.3m/s^2 and 3m/s^2) expressed in percent of the total energy consumptions of all Train Operating
Companies.
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4.6.3 Analysis
The visualisation of the simulation results is configured in the Selection-File for a specific
simulation. This file uses the file extension “sel”. General Analysis configuration is done via
preferences, see chapter 4.3.1.
To create a new Selection-File use the context menu in the Project Explorer and select New
> Analysis Selection File and follow the wizard.
Figure 77 Create new Selection-File from context menu.
The Selection-File can be edited in offline and online mode. The offline mode uses a ProjectFile to create the model for selecting the output. For this select a Project-File via the
Browse... button in the offline mode group. The online mode uses an existing simulation to
create the model output selection. To select a simulation change the editing mode from
offline to online, select an ODBC DSN, then Schema name and then Simulation.
Figure 78 A new empty Selection-File after creation. The page name includes the number of selected items in
brakets.
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Once the model source is defined click on the Load button to create the model. While
loading the model messages are displayed on console OPN.
The analysis group defines general visualisation configuration. Start and end time define the
visualisation time window. The designation is used in the titles of the generated files and
should be an applicable description of the simulation (e.g. to fit a report). The default is taken
from the project name and comment defined in the Project-File. By ticking Vehicles and
Energy the relevant tables are generated. Further output is defined on pages Lines,
Connectors, Substations, Magnetic Field, Currents and Voltages. The description of these
pages follows in the next chapters.
In the output group the file type and pages as well as footer logo and watermark are
selectable. The footer logo file and preset file is displayed for reference but configured via
preferences, see Figure 23.
Note: The generation of output files is done using Microsoft Excel. Although this is done as a
background process without user interaction, it is possible that this process interferes with
other Excel sessions. Therefore it is advised not to open any new Excel instance during
generation of output files!
Setup separators: The decimal and thousands separator to be displayed in the output files
and used for the inter-process communication depend on a setting in Microsoft Excel. As this
setting affects the display of all Excel files for the user logged on, it is not adjusted
automatically by OpenPowerNet. It is necessary to change the setting Excel Options >
Advanced > Use system separators to disabled and define e.g. a “.” (dot) as
Decimal separator and a “,” (comma) as Thousands separator. It is possible to use
alternative settings by modifying the preset file, see 4.6.3.7.
Setup paper size: The paper size to be used by Microsoft Excel to create the output files
has to be configured for an available printer. It is recommended to set the paper size of
“Microsoft XPS Document Writer” to “A4” under Windows > Control Panel >
Printers > [Printername context menu] > Printing preferences >
Advanced. It is possible to use another printer or paper size by modifying the preset file, see
4.6.3.7.
4.6.3.1 Lines
The Lines page provides diagrams along the line. They include markers e.g. for voltage limits
or infeed positions. Additionally all stations defined in OpenTrack are displayed in the Line
Diagrams, see Figure 97, except station names beginning with “!”.
The selection dialog provides the following columns:
 Designation:
To override the default chart title. If set the default chart title will be replaced with the
given text. The designation will be added to the title and the subtitle with name of line
and tracks will still be used.
 Type:
The chart type (see below).
 Line xyz:
The name of a line grouping different tracks.
 Track xyz:
The name of a track grouping different conductors.
 Panto:
The item column to select the chart series for pantograph voltage of all engines
belonging to the track and line indicated in the rows above.
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 Conductor Name xyz:
The item column to select the chart series for the conductor with name xyz belonging
to the track and line indicated in the rows above. Partially defined conductors are
shown only once.
Figure 79 The dialog to configure the charts versus the line position.
The item columns visible on the right side depend on the selection in the tree on the left. For
a project consisting of multiple lines and tracks this function can be used to focus on the
items needed for the chart to define. In the example shown in Figure 79 all conductors for
line A are displayed.
Each row of the table defines a single output chart of the selected type containing a chart
series for each selected item. Selectable chart types are:
 U_Panto = f(s): The pantograph voltage of all courses along the line. If selected also
conductors of type ContactWire with reference to conductors of type Rail. Infeed
positions are marked.
 U_Rail-Earth = f(s): The voltage between conductors of type Rail and the conductor of
type Earth. Return feeder positions are marked.
 U_Conductors = f(s): The voltage between any conductors and a reference. As
reference any conductor is allowed but should be one per line or one for each track!
 I_Leakage = f(s): The current between any conductors and a reference in amps per
meter. As reference any conductor is allowed but should be one per line or one for
each track!
The table provides the following item cell selection:

^
: Only the maximum values of all time steps.

v
: Only the minimum values of all time steps.


^ v : The minimum and maximum values of all time steps as separate chart series.
Ø
: Only the average values (arithmetic mean) of all time steps.

v Ø : The minimum and average values of all time steps as separate chart series.

^ Ø : The maximum and average values of all time steps as separate chart series.


0
: The reference conductor.
n/a respectively blank: The item is not selected.
The button Delete Rows deletes the selected rows.
The button Autofill Rows suggests a selection for the visible items of the actual selected
rows according to its chart type. The first suitable reference item of the track or line will be
preselected.
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4.6.3.2 Connectors
The Connectors group provides charts for connectors specified in the Project-File under XML
element /OpenPowerNet/PSC/Network/Connectors.
Selectable chart types are:
 U,I = f(t):
The voltage between both ends of the connector and the current through the
connector versus time.
 U, I, I_sum = f(t):
Same as above plus the current sum of all selected connectors.
 I = TRLPC:
The current through the connector as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve
(see chapter 6.16).
 P = f(t):
The power consumed by the connector versus time.
 P, P_sum = f(t):
Same as above plus the sum of all selected connectors.
 P = TRLPC:
The power consumed by the connector as Time-Rated Load Periods.
Figure 80 The dialog to select connectors and to define different charts. The numbers in brakets in the tree on the
left side are the number of connectors.
The item columns displayed on the right side depend on the selection in the tree of the left
side.
4.6.3.3 Substations
The Substations page provides charts related to substations see Figure 81.
Figure 81 The dialog to select the substations and the charts to be generated.
On the left side all substations are available from a tree view. On the right side are the file
production chooser and the table with selected substation chart types.
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The file production mode controls the number of files and their content. This is useful for
large simulations to reduce the file size of a single file. The following modes are available:
 single: one single file per substation containing all charts
 busbar & device & overview: separate files for busbar/feeder, device and overview is
generated per substation
 by item: a separate file per item and substation is generated, an item is a single
busbar, a single device and overview
The chart types to generate for each substation may be selected using the checkboxes on
the right. The rows are hierarchical from project (blue row) via network (green row) to
individual substations.
The following chart types are available:
 Feeder
o I = f(t):
The feeder cable current versus time, one chart per busbar.
o I = TRLPC:
The feeder cable current as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (see chapter
6.16), one chart per busbar.
 Device:
o U,I = f(t):
The voltage and current versus time for each device within the substation.
o U,I = TRLPC:
The voltage and current as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve for each device
within the substation.
o P = f(t):
The power versus time for each device within the substation.
o P = TRLPC:
The power as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve for each device within the
substation.
o If any of the above device charts is selected the device specific output like
energy storage load or VLD statistics is generated.
 Overview:
Overview tables for RMS currents and losses of feeders and devices as well as
device specific overview tables.
 Aggregation:
o Chart
Aggregated power of the selected substations. Additionally VLD specific
statistic is generated.
o Overview
Aggregated Overview of the selected substations.
4.6.3.4 Magnetic Field
The Magnetic Field tool calculates the flux density (B-field) or field strength (H-field) at:
 a specific location for a specific time step as a single image or
 as a movie over a time period or
 the average values (arithmetic mean) over a time period as a single image.
The Magnetic Field page represents on the left a tree structure including project, network and
line. At line a chart definition has to be added by selecting a line and choose Add chart
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definition from context menu. At the chart definition one or many locations are created
by selecting a chart definition and choose Add chart location and time.
Figure 82 Creating chart definition and location for Magnetic Field.
Figure 83 Magnetic field chart definition details.
The chart definition specifies general settings of the diagram:
 Name: a text to distinguish multiple chart definitions, it’s not displayed at the generated
diagram,
 Style: diagram styles are available, see Figure 85 and Figure 86,
o ISO: lines to mark particular values (can be changed in preset, see chapter
4.6.3.7)
o shading: the colour varies constantly rather than in steps
 Value Limit: only enabled in shading style and defines the maximum legend colour
value,
 Colourmap: multiple colour schemata to display the field values,
 Field Type:
o B-Field: magnetic field flux density,
o H-Field magnetic field strength,
 Factor: a factor to multiply the calculated value, e.g. the timetable has first hour with
traffic and second hour without traffic  only the first hour is simulated  the
average shall be for two hours  the factor is 0.5,
 Grid [m]: the grid size in meters (smaller grid size generates a smoother and more
detailed image, but increases calculation time),
 x/y min/max [m]: the image size in meter.
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Figure 84 Magnetic Field location definition.
The location and time definition specifies details of the diagram by:
 Designation: if empty the designation from General page is used at the diagram,
 Position between slices [km]: defines the chainage used for the diagram, it’s always in
the middle between two slices,
 Time Start/End: the time window,
 Mean Values: if ticked generates the diagram of mean values for the defined time
window,
 Create Images: if ticked generates diagrams for each simulation time step for the
defined time window,
 Create Video: if ticked creates a video for the defined time window.
The lower part of the location and time definition is only for information but has no influence
on the generated diagram.
Generated diagrams consist of two plots. The upper plot is the field and the lower plot
indicates the measuring point and engines within the selected line. The lower plot is shown
by default but can be turned off in the AnalysisPreset-File, see chapter 4.6.3.7 for details.
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Figure 85 Example preview image of the flux density using "shading" style and color map “jet”.
Figure 86 Example preview image of the flux density using "iso" style.
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4.6.3.5 Currents
At the Currents page the charts for conductor currents are defined. The charts are defined
per location. A location is added as shown in Figure 87.
Figure 87 Add a chart location at Currents page.
The chart location defines the position, chart type and selected conductors. The conductor
selection is supported by type specific selection via buttons above the table.
Figure 88 The Currents page selection details.
Available chart types are:
 I = f(t): currents versus time, see Figure 89,
 I,I_sum = f(t): current and current total versus time,
 I_sum = f(t): current total versus time,
 I = TRLPC: current as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (see chapter 6.16, Figure 90),
 I,I_sum = TRLPC: current and current total as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve,
 I_sum = TRLPC: current total as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve.
Current total is grouped by conductor type:
 OCS: ContactWire, MessengerWire, Feeder,
 Rails: Rails, ReturnFeeder,
 other: all other conductor types.
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Conductor Current, Tutorial AC Network, default
Line A, km 5+500
300
250
Current [A]
200
150
100
50
0
01:00:00
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|I_1_CW|
|I_1_E|
|I_1_MW|
|I_1_RL|
|I_1_RR|
Figure 89 Example output of the conductor currents versus time.
Conductor Load, Tutorial AC Network, default
Line A, km 5+500
300
250
RMS-Current [A]
200
150
100
50
0
1
10
100
1000
Time [s]
I_1_CW_rms
I_1_E_rms
I_1_MW_rms
I_1_RL_rms
I_1_RR_rms
Figure 90 Example output of the conductor currents as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve.
4.6.3.6 Voltages
The voltage charts at a specific location are defined at page Voltages. A location is added in
the same way as at page Currents, see Figure 87.
The chart location defines the position, chart type and selected conductors. The conductor
selection is supported by type specific selection via buttons above the table.
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Figure 91 The Voltages selection details.
The voltage is calculated between a reference conductor ( 0 ) and a selected conductor
( x ).
Available chart types are:
 U = f(t): voltage versus time, see Figure 92
 U = TRLPC_min: minimum voltage as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (see chapter
6.16, see Figure 93)
 U = TRLPC_max: maximum voltage as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve
Conductor Voltage, Tutorial AC Network, default
Line A, km 5+000
80
70
60
Voltage [V]
50
40
30
20
10
0
01:00:00
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|U_1_RL-1_E|
|U_1_RR-1_E|
Figure 92 Example output of the touch voltage versus time.
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Conductor Voltage RMS, Tutorial AC Network, default
Line A, km 5+000
80
70
60
RMS-Voltage [V]
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
10
100
1000
Time [s]
U_1_RL-1_E_max_rms
U_1_RR-1_E_max_rms
Figure 93 Example output of the touch voltage as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve.
4.6.3.7 AnalysisPresets-File
The XML based AnalysisPresets-File contains the definitions of the chart types. A
customisable example file is available for download via GUI at Help > Help Contents >
OpenPowerNet
Analysis
User
Guide
>
AnalysisPresets.xml. The
corresponding XML schema documentation can be found at Help > Help Contents >
OpenPowerNet Analysis User Guide > AnalysisPresets-Schema.
The built-in default preset file will be used if no alternative is defined, see Figure 23. The
preset file may be modified by the user to adapt the layout as desired. In case the user wants
to use his own file he needs to set the property “Preset file” at the analysis setup (see
chapter 4.3.1).
By default the diagrams versus time are spitted into 3 hour diagrams, this can be changed for
individual diagrams at xAxis element attribute valueMax.
The file enables the user to modify properties of the following items:
 ChartTypes: chart layout (e.g. min/max axis values, curve colour/weight/style, etc.),
 TableTypes: layout of tables,
 ImageTypes: layout of magnetic field images
 Strings: Translation strings like substation, transformer etc.
 Settings: General settings for Excel etc.
Figure 94 shows the main elements of the file.
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Figure 94 The AnalysisPresets-File schema main elements.
The ChartType is defined per system, e.g. 25kV 50Hz, including the title and scaling of xaxis, y-axis, secondary y-axis and horizontal lines. Furthermore the chart type preset
includes the definition of the items, e.g. chart series or infeed and station markers. Shared
properties, which are equal for all systems, may be defined under element Common.
Figure 95 Elements of ChartType definition.
The XML snippet below shows an example defining the U_Panto = f(s) chart type for the
25kV 50Hz power supply system as seen in Figure 96.
<ChartType name="U_Panto = f(s)" title="Pantograph Voltage">
<Common>
<xAxis valueName="Position" valueUnit="km" title="Position" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0+000"/>
<yAxis valueName="Voltage" valueUnit="V" title="Voltage" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat=""/>
</Common>
<System supply="AC 25kV 50Hz">
<xAxis valueName="Position" valueUnit="km" title="Position" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0+000"/>
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<yAxis valueName="Voltage" valueUnit="V" title="Voltage" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="" valueMin="15000" valueMax="32000" valueStep="2500"/>
<hLine title="U_nom" yValue="25000" style="lineDash" weight="1" legend="true"
label="false"> The definition of the horizontal lines of the nominal voltage.
<Color name="dark_green"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="17500" style="lineDash" weight="1" legend="true"
label="false"> The definition of one of the tolerances defined in EN 50163.
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="19000" style="lineDash" weight="1" legend="false"
label="false"> The definition of another tolerance defined in EN 50163, note the
attribute legend is false to prevent duplicate entry for “U_tol (EN 50163)”.
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="27500" style="lineDash" weight="1" legend="false"
label="false">
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="29000" style="lineDash" weight="1" legend="false"
label="false">
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
</System>
<Item name="U_Panto_abs" title="|U%_function%%_lineID%%_trackID%_Panto|" style="line"
weight="1" legend="true" label="false"> The curve representing the pantograph voltage,
e.g. minimum, maximum or average.
<Color name="blue"/>
<Color name="dark_blue"/>
</Item>
<Item name="U_Conductor_abs" title="|U%_function%%_lineID%%_trackID%%_itemID%|" style="line"
weight="1" legend="true" label="false"> The curve representing the conductor voltage,
e.g. minimum, maximum or average.
<Color name="red"/>
<Color name="dark_red"/>
</Item>
<Item name="Infeed" title="Infeed" style="lineLongDash" weight="2" legend="true"
label="true"> The infeed at substation position.
<Color name="dark_gray"/>
</Item>
<Item name="Isolator" title="Isolator" style="lineLongDash" weight="1" legend="true"
label="false"> An isolator marker.
<Color name="red"/>
</Item>
<Item name="ConductorSwitch" title="Switch" style="lineLongDash" weight="1" legend="true"
label="false"> An marker of a switch of a conductor.
<Color name="red"/>
</Item>
<Item name="Station" title="Station" style="marker" weight="2.5" legend="false"
label="true"> The marker for stations.
<Color name="black"/>
<MarkerStyle name="square"/>
</Item>
</ChartType>
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Figure 96 Example output for chart type U_Panto = f(s) as defined in the XML snippet above.
Figure 97 The elements of the ImageType definition.
The following XML snippet defined the chart in Figure 85 at page 93.
<MagneticField>
<ImageType name="B_shading = f(t)"
title="Magnetic Flux Density, %_designation%"
subtitle="Line %_lineID%, km %_position%, %_time%"
titleFontSize="12" fontSize="10" style="normal" meanValues="false"
label="%_complexCurrent%" labelFontSize="6">
<xAxis valueName="Width" valueUnit="m" title="Lateral Distance" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0" valueMin="-15" valueMax="15"/>
<yAxis valueName="Height" valueUnit="m" title="Height" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0" valueMin="-2" valueMax="13"/>
<zAxis valueName="MagneticFluxDensity" valueUnit="µT" title="B_rms"
numberFormat="0" valueMin="0" valueMax="200" valueStep="0.1"/>
<PageSetup paperSize="A4" orientation="landscape"/>
<Chart2 use="true">
<xAxis valueName="Position" valueUnit="km" title="Position" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0" gridMajor="true"/>
<yAxis valueName="Current" valueUnit="A" title="Current" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0" valueMin="0" valueMax="100" gridMajor="true"/>
<Item name="Measuring_Point" title="Measuring point" use="true"
style="line" weight="3" legend="true" label="false">
<Color name="blue"/>
</Item>
<Item name="Engine_consuming" title="Consuming engine" use="true"
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style="line" weight="2" legend="true" label="false">
<Color name="red"/>
<MarkerStyle name="^"/>
</Item>
<Item name="Engine_recovering" title="Recovering engine" use="true"
style="line" weight="2" legend="true" label="false">
<Color name="dark_green"/>
<MarkerStyle name="o"/>
</Item>
</Chart2>
</ImageType>
<MagneticField>
The definition of attributes:
 title and
 subtitle
may use the following place holders (where applicable) to customise the dynamic item titles:
 %_designation%,
 %_function%,
 %_itemID%,
 %_lineID%,
 %_position%,
 %_refItemID%,
 %_refLineID%,
 %_refTrackID%,
 %_separator%,
 %_time%,
 %_timeEnd%,
 %_timeStart% and
 %_trackID%.
Depending on the context the place holders will be replaced with applicable values.
Note: If a place holder is defined but not suitable for the context the place holder will not be
replaced but appear in the generated chart. All suitable place holders are used in the default
preset file at the corresponding attributes. The user may take this as an example.
The preset file allows translation of some key words, e.g. Substation, Line, to a local
language or customer specific expression through an element string, see Figure 98 below.
Figure 98 The AnalysisPresets-File with highlighted String element to define key word translation.
The definition of decimal and thousands separator for the charts is done at the element
Excel, see Figure 99 below. The setting will be compared to the Excel setting at runtime. In
case of contradiction between the two settings a message popup will ask the user to modify
the corresponding settings in Microsoft Excel options. The desired printer name and paper
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size are also configured at this element. In case of contradiction a warning will be displayed
at runtime.
Figure 99 The AnalysisPresets-File with highlighted Excel element.
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5
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Tutorial
5.0
General
This tutorial shall be understood as a step by step description how to use OpenPowerNet. Its
handling is shown by means of a simple operational and electrical infrastructure. Each
chapter starts with the configuration tasks to be done, continues with the simulation itself and
shows some example output from the analysis. Please refer to chapter 4.1 for the preferred
folder structure!
If you would like to skip creation of the configuration files or the simulation, please head to
OpenPowerNet User Guide > PDF-Documents to download them and the database
backup from the Help System as zip-files. Please read chapter 3.6 for the description of the
database import.
Another option is to use the default workspace. This workspace contains all the project files
from the tutorial.
To be able to use the Tutorials AC, 2AC and DC with the ACADEMIC license the slice
distance is 1km. This results in curves with steps instead of smooth curves when using 200m
slice distance. But in principle the results are the same with 200m and 1km slice distance.
To achieve a correct simulation result it is necessary to have sufficient information about the
railway, electrical network and engines. For a detailed list of required technical information
please see chapter 4.4.1. The following list is a minimum of necessary information to create
the configuration data.
OpenTrack:
 Track layout (length, curves, gradients, points, crossings)
 Timetable
 Engine (effort-speed-diagram, weight, resistance formula values, auxiliary power)
 Signalling system
OpenPowerNet:




Electrical network (layout, conductor and connector characteristic)
Power supply (transformer or rectifier data, feeder cable characteristic)
Switch (position and default state)
Engine (effort-speed-diagram or maximum power & maximum effort, efficiency,
auxiliary power)
As editor for the XML-Files the OpenPowerNet included XML editor is recommended, see
chapter 3.2. Any other text editor can be used as well but for convenience it should be an
XML-Editor that can use an XML-Schema to evaluate the XML-File and gives editing
support.
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AC Network Tutorial
In this tutorial we will create the models of a single line to learn how to set up a simple
OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet co-simulation. These models will also be the basis for most
of the other tutorials.
The line shall have three stations and a 25kV 50Hz AC power supply system with two
substations. We will have two kinds of trains and a very simple timetable with four courses.
Never the less we will have an interesting simulation with OpenPowerNet and we will
compare the normal operation with a failure scenario.
5.1.1 Configuration
5.1.1.1 OpenTrack
The first step in OpenTrack is to create a new set of preferences. To do so first save the set
with a new name and then set the path and file names, see Figure 100 for details.
Figure 100 OpenTrack preferences
The next step is to create the track layout, signals, stations and power supply area.
The detailed track data is:
 Start at km 0 with home signal
 Station A at km 0+200
 Exit signal at km 0+400
 Gradient of 10‰ from km 1+400 to 2+400
 Gradient of 0‰ from km 2+400 to 6+750
 Gradient of -5‰ from km 6+750 to km 8+750
 Gradient of 0‰ from km 8+750 to the end of the line
 Home signal at km 9+650
 Turnout at km 9+750
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




Exit signals on both tracks at km 9+800
Station B at km 10+000 with two tracks
Exit signals on both tracks at km 10+200
Turnout at km 10+250
Home signal at km 10+350, set sight distance to 10000m to prevent braking of courses
while approaching the signal
 Exit signal at km 85+000
 Station C at km 85+200
 End of line and exit signal at km 85+400
 Line speed is 75km/h from km 0+000 to 10+350 and 200km/h until km 84+400
 Power supply area of AC 25kV 50 Hz
The line name is “A” and the track name is “1”. Only the siding in Station B has the track
name “2” but the same line name.
Group the station areas and create all routes, paths and itineraries. The courses shall run
from Station A via track “2” in Station B to Station C and from Station C via track “1” in
Station B to Station A.
Figure 101 The OpenTrack infrastructure including tracks, signals, stations and power supply area.
After the infrastructure is built we need to define an engine and trains before we can
configure the courses and a timetable.
Engine data:
 Name is “Engine1”
 Max effort is 250kN
 Max power is 5.56MW, => constant power is in the speed range from 80km/h with
250kN to 250km/h with 80kN
 Propulsion system is AC 25kV 50Hz
 For further details see Figure 102
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Figure 102 The properties of engine "Engine1" in OpenTrack.
Now we can define trains. We will use two types of trains, a short and a long train. The short
train only has one trailer and the long train has 14 trailers with 20t load, 25 m length and
30kW auxiliary power, see Figure 103.
Figure 103 The configuration data of train "Train short" in OpenTrack with one engine and one trailer.
As we now have trains we are able to define courses and their timetable. We will use four
courses, two from Station A to Station C and two from Station C to Station A.
Course and timetable details:
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 course “ABCl_01” from Station A to Station C via track 2 in Station
time, departure is 01:00:00 in A and 01:09:00 in B, Train long
 course “ABCs_02” from Station A to Station C via track 2 in Station
time, departure is 02:00:00 in A and 02:09:00 in B, Train short
 course “CBAl_01” from Station C to Station A via track 1 in Station
time, departure is 01:00:00 in C and 01:25:00 in B, Train long
 course “CBAs_02” from Station C to Station A via track 1 in Station
time, departure is 02:00:00 in C and 02:25:00 in B, Train short
Issue 2014-11-05
B with 60s wait
B with 60s wait
B with 60s wait
B with 60s wait
To get the departure and arrival times run the simulation and adjust the planned to the actual
data. After you have done so the train diagram should look like Figure 104.
Figure 104 The train diagram for all four trains from Station A to Station C.
5.1.1.2 OpenPowerNet
As described before we need to set the properties in the GUI to configure the OpenPowerNet
modules, for details see the GUI Help System. In our Tutorial we use the default properties
and do not need to change anything if your network address is 127.0.0.1 (localhost)
otherwise you need to adapt the property for the APserver (Window > Preferences >
OpenPowerNet > APserver > Host:) .
The following chapters describe in detail the configuration of the Engine-File, Project-File and
the Switch-File. As we do not use VLD we do not need to configure a TypeDefs-File.
5.1.1.2.1 Engine-File
First of all we need to create a new XML-File and to specify the schema. Read chapter 6.11
for how to get the schema directory.
The default Engine-File is:
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<railml xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/rollingstock.xsd">
<rollingstock rollingstockID="" version=""/>
</railml>
Now we need to configure the engine according to our needs and corresponding to
OpenTrack, see chapter 5.1.1.1. In addition to OpenTrack we need to configure the tractive
and braking efficiency as well as the engine auxiliary power.
<railml xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/rollingstock.xsd">
<rollingstock rollingstockID="" version="110">
<vehicles>
<vehicle length="25" bruttoWeight="75" vehicleID="Engine1" speed="250">
<engine>
<propulsion supply="AC 25kV 50Hz" transmission="electric" engine="electric"
power="5560" maxTractEffort="250" totalTractEfficiency="90" totalBrakeEfficiency="90">
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100"/>
</propulsion>
</engine>
</vehicle>
</vehicles>
</rollingstock>
</railml>
As we have a very simple model of the engine the Engine-File is very short.
5.1.1.2.2 Project-File
The Project-File of our example is a bit more complex as the Engine-File. As for any ProjectFile we will configure the Engine- and Switch-File used, the Engine model and the electrical
model.
At the beginning we will configure the general simulation data.
<OpenPowerNet
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial AC Network"
comment="This is a comment for a specific simulation."
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
record2DB_Dump="false"
simulationStart_s="3600"
rstFile=" Engine-File.xml">
Besides the name of the project and a comment set the allowed maximum iterations to 1000,
the allowed failed iterations to 100 so the simulation will not abort in case iterations for some
time steps fail. Time steps fail in case a network is overburden. As we want to write the
simulation data directly into the database we need to set a ODBC DSN, that we want to
record data but not into a dump file. The recording of the simulation results shall start with
the first course at 01:00 therefore we set the simulation start time to 3600 seconds.
Furthermore we need to set the Engine-File just configured in the previous chapter.
The next step is to configure the engine model.
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
engine="electric"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
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<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
<Options tolerance_A="0.1" maxIterations="1000" record2DB="true"/>
</ATM>
Note the green data has to correspond to OpenTrack and Engine-File. Our engine will not
use eddy current brake, has no tractive or brake current limitation, uses auxiliary power, has
no model for power factor as attribute fourQuadrantChopperPhi is set to none. The
engine also has no regenerative bake and the tractive effort model is defined by maximum
power and maximum tractive effort. The efficiency of the engine shall be modelled as mean
efficiency. As we want to record data to the database set the simulation option for module
ATM. For the internal ATM iteration we need to define the maximum allowed current
tolerance between the iteration steps and a maximum number of allowed iterations.
After the definition of engines we will define the electrical network. The electrical network
shall have two substations. One is at km 5+00 and the other at km 80+000. Each substation
has one transformer, one feeder from busbar to the contact wire and one to the rails for the
return current. We will define a messenger wire, a contact wire and two rails for each track.
The model shall also contain the connectors between the messenger wire and contact wire
as well as between the rails. Furthermore we will define a conductor modelling the earth. The
origin of the cross section ordinates is defined in the middle of track “1” at a height of the
rails.
Let’s start to define the network model step by step. First the network parameter:
<Network
name="A-C"
use="true"
voltage_kV="25"
frequency_Hz="50"
recordVoltage="true"
recordCurrent="true">
We have to set a network name and to tell OpenPowerNet that we want to use this network
in the simulation. As we want to record voltages and currents we have to set the last two
attributes of the above XML snippet to true.
Next is to define a line, explanations added as black bold text into the XML snippet:
<Lines>
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="1">
The line name has to correspond with our OpenTrack infrastructure and the maximum slice
distance shall be 1000m. While defining the electrical network consider the magnetic coupling
is always calculated only between conductors of the same line!
<Conductors>
Now conductors for track “1” follow.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0"/> This conductor starts at km 0+000.
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9"/>
The end of the conductor is at the end of the track at km 85+400. The equivalent radius,
resistance at 20°C and temperature coefficient shall be as defined. The messenger wire is
located in the middle of track “1” in a height of 6.9m.
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3"/>
Same as above except the height of the contact wire is set to 5.3m so we have a system height
of 1.6m.
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0"/> The left rail.
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0"/>
Note the horizontal (x) position and the equivalent radius of the rail.
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
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<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0"/> The right rail.
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0"/>
</Conductor>
Now conductors for track “2” follow.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9"/>
Note the start and end of the wire.
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3"/>
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0"/>
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0"/>
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Earth">
The earth is modelled as a virtual conductor far away from the tracks along the whole line.
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0"/>
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
Now we define all the connectors of the slices.
<ConnectorSlices>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4"
maxDistance_km="1">
This slice defines the connectors modelling the electrical connection between the messenger
and contact wire for track “1” every 1000m along the whole track.
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250"
maxDistance_km="0.5"> This slice defines the same as above for track “2”.
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4"
maxDistance_km="1"> As the rails are connected we define a slice with connectors between both
rails of track “1” every 1000m along the whole track.
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250"
maxDistance_km="0.5"> And the same as above for track “2”.
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
Now we have to define the leakage of the rails to earth.
<Leakages>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
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<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
To model the electrical connection between the two tracks we have two ways to do so. First
we could define a slice or second we could define connectors between lines or the same line.
In our example we will use the second way. The electrical model will be the same. These are
just two different ways to define the same connectors.
The following XML snippet defines the electrical connection between track “1” and “2”:
<Connectors>
The 4 connectors for messenger wire, contact wire and both rails at the BEGINNING of track “1”
follow.
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
The 4 connectors for messenger wire, contact wire and both rails at the END of track “1”
follow.
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
</Connectors>
Now we have already defined the electrical network along the line. In the next step we have
to define the substations, one at km 5+000 and one far away at km 80+000.
<Substations>
This is the substation at km 5+000.
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<TwoWindingTransformer The characteristic of the two winding transformer shall be as
defined by the attributes.
name="T1"
nomPower_MVA="10"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5"
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noLoadLosses_kW="6.5"
loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7"
noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"> The connection from the
transformer to the OSC busbar is defined with this element.
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/> This connection shall have a switch
to enable us to disconnect the transformer during the failure scenario.
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"> The connection to the rail
busbar including switch.
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
Below is the definition of the busbars and the feeder cables from the busbars to the line.
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
Below is the substation at km 80+000 same as the one at km 5+000.
<Substation name="TSS_80">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_80_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_80_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
Now only two things are left before we have completed the Project-File. One is to define the
earthing point and the other is to set some options for the PSC.
The definition of the earthing point is very simple:
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0"/>
And the options for module PSC are as well very simple:
<Options
tolerance_grad="0.001" The maximum allowed tolerance of the engine current angle between the
iteration inside the PSC.
maxCurrentAngleIteration="100" The maximum allowed iteration to achieve the value specified
above.
tolerance_V="0.1" The maximum allowed tolerance of the node voltage between the iteration of
ATM and PSC.
tolerance_A="0.1" The maximum allowed tolerance of the source currents between the iteration
of ATM and PSC.
maxIncreaseCount="500" The maximum allowed number of increasing voltage tolerance between ATM
and PSC iteration steps.
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discreteEngine="true"/> The engine should be inserted at the slices and the current shall not
be distributed to both neighbouring slices.
Now we have done the configuration of the Project-File. To check for failures and to visualise
what we have done we will use the PSC Viewer, see chapter 3.3. The PSC Viewer creates a
graphical representation of the electrical network using nodes, conductors, connectors and
substations. A diagram snippet is shown in Figure 105.
Figure 105 A snippet of the electrical network at Station B with siding in the PSC Viewer diagram.
5.1.1.2.3 Switch-File
As we later also want to simulate a failure scenario besides the default configuration we have
to prepare a Switch-File. This file enables us to disconnect a transformer at a specific time by
opening the switches between the transformer and the busbar.
For this example we define to disconnect the transformer in substation at km 80+000 from
01:05:00 until 01:22:00.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ADE xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd">
<TPD>
<SwitchSetting>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_T1_Rails"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_T1_Rails"/>
</SwitchSetting>
</TPD>
</ADE>
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5.1.2 Simulation
For the simulation it is advised to backup the database in case you want to keep old
simulation data and then to create a new empty database via the GUI, just select create
new database from the OpenPowerNet menu.
Next is to start the OpenPowerNet modules via the GUI. Select the Project-File and then
Start OpenPowerNet from the context menu, see Figure 106.
Figure 106 Start OpenPowerNet by selecting the Project-File and using the context menu.
When using the GUI for the first time, the OPN perspective is arranged in a way, that there
should be 3 separate console views on the bottom, one for each OPN module, and another
console view for GUI and Analysis output as well as progress and properties views right
above. These views may re-arranged as needed. To restore the default arrangement, simply
right-click on the perspective tab button labelled OPN found top right in the GUI and select
Reset.
For the default configuration we run the simulation using the files as described above. Start
all modules via the GUI, make sure the option to use OpenPowerNet in OpenTrack is set and
start the simulation with courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01.
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Figure 107 OpenTrack simulation panel settings.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.1.3 Analysis
5.1.3.1 Default configuration
For a quick overview we will use the delivered Excel-Files. To get a feeling of the minimum
voltage we will use the file EngineAll.xlsx. This file is available via menu OpenPowerNet >
Excel tools > All Engines. As the file is quite big be patient until the file is open and
then select the simulation and update the data from the database into the Excel-File, see
also Figure 75. You can see the line voltage and pantograph current versus the time in
Figure 108. We see the no load voltage is 27.5kV and the minimum line voltage at
pantograph position is about 26.4kV at 01:26:00. Furthermore we see the pantograph current
does not exceed 250A.
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U, I = f(t)
27600
300
27400
250
27200
200
150
I [A]
U [V]
27000
26800
100
26600
50
26400
26200
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
U [V]
00 01:40:00
0
00 02:00:00
00 01:50:00
I [A]
Figure 108 The line voltage and pantograph current versus time for all courses.
To see the location of the minimum line voltage at pantograph position we use the diagram in
sheet “U=f(s)”, see Figure 109. This diagram shows the minimum voltages at km 12+500 and
also very well the location of substation TSS_80 by the local voltage maxima at km 80+000.
U = f(s)
27600
27400
27200
U [V]
27000
26800
26600
26400
26200
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Figure 109 The line voltage at pantograph versus chainage for all courses.
Next we will use the Excel-File Engine.xlsx. This is available at menu OpenPowerNet >
Excel tools > One Engine. This file provides diagrams of the pantograph current and
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voltage versus time and location. Very interesting is also the tractive effort versus the
location. As an example we will use the course ABCl_01 and sheet F=f(s), see Figure 110.
F = f(s)
300
200
F [kN]
100
0
-100
-200
-300
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
F_requested [kN]
F_achieved [kN]
Figure 110 The requested and achieved effort of course ABCl_01 for the default configuration.
The achieved effort corresponds to the requested effort for positive effort requests. The
achieved effort while braking is 0.0kN because our engine has no recovery braking. We also
see the changes in effort requests caused be the varying gradients. From km 1+400 to km
2+400 the gradient is 10‰ which causes a raising effort and from km 6+750 to km 8+750 we
have the adverse effect for a gradient of -5‰.
Furthermore we may have a look at the mechanical and electrical power of the course
ABCl_01.
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P = f(t)
8,000
7,000
6,000
P [kW]
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
01:00:00
01:10:00
01:20:00
01:30:00
P_el [kW]
01:40:00
01:50:00
02:00:00
P_mech [kW]
Figure 111 The mechanical and electrical power of the course ABCl_01.
In this diagram the effect of the gradients can be seen again between 01:01:00 and 01:07:00.
The course is waiting for about 15min in Station B. We can see this in the diagram where the
mechanical power is 0kN. At this time we have only the auxiliary power demand of 520kW.
Besides the courses the substations are very interesting to analyse. For this we use ExcelFile PowerSupply.xlsx with the prepared diagrams for I=f(t), U=f(t), P=f(t) and E=f(t). This file
is available from the menu via OpenPowerNet > Excel tools > One Power Supply.
First we will analyse the substation TSS_5 at km 5+000. In the Excel-File we have to select
the substation, transformer, feeder and busbar voltages, see Figure 112 for details.
Simulation
1
Simulation Duration
001 2012-04-19110:32:34 Tutorial AC Network default
Time Step [s]
1
Network
A-C
1
1
Substation
TSS_5
1
1
Power Supply
T1
1
366
I in Feeder to
busbar OCS_BB2
1
Reference U
Rails_BB
2
2
Compared U
OCS_BB
1
Figure 112 The selection of power supply for substation TSS_5.
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I = f(t)
400
350
300
I [A]
250
200
150
100
50
0
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Figure 113 The current from transformer T1 to the OCS busbar in substation TSS_5.
In the diagram above we see that the current does not exceed 400A and we have no current
between 01:50:00 and 02:00:00 as we have no courses at this time.
U = f(t)
27600
27400
U [V]
27200
27000
26800
26600
26400
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Figure 114 The voltage between OCS and Rails busbar at TSS_5.
In this diagram we see the voltage between the OCS and Rails busbar. We see very well the
no load voltage of 27.5kV and voltage drops to about 26.58kV. This is still above the nominal
voltage of 25kV.
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S = f(t)
12.00
0.400
0.350
10.00
0.300
0.250
0.200
6.00
0.150
4.00
Q [MVar]
P [MW], S [MVA]
8.00
0.100
0.050
2.00
0.000
0.00
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
P [MW]
S [MVA]
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
-0.050
00 02:00:00
Q [MVAr]
Figure 115 Power demand of the transformer in substation TSS_5.
This diagram shows the power demand of transformer T1 in substation TSS_5 at km 5+000.
E = f(t)
2.500
2.000
E [MVAh]
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Figure 116 Provided energy by the transformer in substation TSS_5.
The diagram above shows the energy versus time.
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5.1.3.2 Short circuit
To analyse an electrical network it is interesting to calculate the short circuit currents. This is
done in OpenPowerNet with a special engine model. To evaluate the results we will use the
Excel-Files PowerSupply2.xlsx (OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools > Compare Two
Power Supplies) and Engine.xlsx (OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools > One Engine).
The first file provides diagrams for two substations versus time.
To match the time easily with a location we want to run the course with constant speed of
180km/h respective 50m/s. In this way it is easy to match the time with the location. In
OpenTrack we need to set the speed limit of all edges to 180km/h for speed type A. Then we
create a new course with name short circuit and the itinerary from Station A to Station
C via track “1”, set the speed type to A and the entry speed to 180km/h, see Figure 117. Now
we have a course with constant speed along the whole line from Station A to Station C.
Figure 117 Short circuit course configuration in OpenTrack.
In the OpenPowerNet Project-File we need to add a new attribute to the engine.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
constantVoltage_V="0" The new attribute to simulate short circuits. Other attributes will be
ignored by OpenPowerNet.
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
For the short circuit simulation we want the short circuit current at the substation for the
protection settings. In this tutorial we use only TSS_5 and power off TSS_80 by opening the
switches at transformer T1 in TSS_80. We only need to change the default state for the
switches TSS_80_T1_OCS and TSS_80_T1_Rails from close to open.
After we have done all the amendments in the Project-File for the short circuit simulation we
run again the simulation only with course short circuit.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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Figure 118 The short circuit current of substation TSS_5 at km 5+000 versus location. The red circle marks the
Station B with siding.
From the diagram above (Excel tool: “Short Circuit Current by Station Feeder, I=f(s)”) we can
see the minimum short circuit current between contact wire and rails of substation TSS_5 is
about 670A compared to a maximum engine current of 250A from the default scenario, see
Figure 108.
To check the minimum short circuit current we do the same simulation as before but with
both substations using Excel tool: “Short Circuit Current by two Station Feeders, I=f(s)”.
Therefore we need to set the default state for the switches TSS_80_T1_OCS and
TSS_80_T1_Rails to close and run the simulation again. The minimum current is about
2300A, see Figure 119.
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I = f(s)
4.500
4.000
3.500
3.000
I [kA]
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
I_connector_1 [kA]
I_connector_2 [kA]
I_total [kA]
I_engine [kA]
Figure 119 The short circuit current with both substations.
5.1.3.3 Constant current
To check the pantograph voltage in a network we want to draw a constant current along the
whole line. This can be done easily by OpenPowerNet. Just add one course in OpenTrack,
e.g. with name “constant current”, use the itinerary from Station A via track “1” in Station B to
Station C and add a timetable. As we have seen in the previous simulation the minimum
short circuit current is about 2300A so we will use a lower current of 2000A for this
simulation. Otherwise the network is overburden.
Then add one attribute to the Project-File:
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
constantCurrent_A="2000" This is the new attribute. Other attributes will be ignored by
OpenPowerNet.
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
and set a proper comment in the Project-File to identify this simulation while analysing the
data.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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Figure 120 The voltage and current along the line for the constant current of 2000A. The green arrows point to the
substation positions. The red circle is the Station B with siding. Therefore the voltage drop in this station is less
compared to the open line between the stations with only one track.
The diagram above is from the Excel tool “One Engine”. The current is of course constant
and has the value specified in the Project-File. The voltage is calculated according to the
electrical network.
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5.1.3.4 Failure scenario
As described in chapter 4.4.8 we want to disconnect the transformer in TSS_80 from
01:05:00 to 01:22:00 and have a power supply during that time only from TSS_5.
In OpenTrack we will use courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 from the default configuration. For
OpenPowerNet we need to adapt the project file slightly. We only need to specify the SwitchFile and to give the simulation a proper comment, see XML snippet below.
<OpenPowerNet xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial AC Network"
comment="failure scenario" This is a comment for the failure scenario.
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
record2DB_Dump="false"
rstFile="Engine-File.xml"
switchStateFile="Switch-File.xml" The added Switch-File.
simulationStart_s="3600">
Do not forget to change the constant current engine in the Project-File back to the default
configuration!
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
After the simulation has finished we should check substation TSS_80. For this we will use
PowerSupply2.xlsx (Excel tool: “Compare Two Power Supplies”) and Engine2.xlsx (Excel
tool: “Compare Two Engines”).
S = f(t)
7.00
6.00
5.00
S [MVA]
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Sim: 1; Network: A-C; Substation: TSS_80; Power Supply: T1; Ref erence U: Rails_BB; Compared U: OCS_BB
Sim: 5; Network: A-C; Substation: TSS_80; Power Supply: T1; Ref erence U: Rails_BB; Compared U: OCS_BB
Figure 121 The diagram compares the power supplies of the transformer in TSS_80 between the default
configuration (sim 1) and the failure scenario (sim 5).
In the diagram above we can see that the transformer in TSS_80 had been switched off from
01:05:00 to 01:22:00 as it was defined in the Switch-File.
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U = f(s)
28000
27500
27000
U [V]
26500
26000
25500
25000
24500
24000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Sim: 1; Course: CBAl_01
Sim: 5; Course: CBAl_01
Figure 122 This diagram compares the line voltage for course CBAl_01 of the default configuration (Sim 1) and
the failure scenario (Sim 5) versus the location.
We can see very well the difference of the line voltage at the pantograph for both
simulations.
I = f(s)
300
250
I [A]
200
150
100
50
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Sim: 1; Course: CBAl_01
Sim: 5; Course: CBAl_01
Figure 123 This diagram compares the current for course CBAl_01 of the default configuration (Sim 1) and the
failure scenario (Sim 5) versus the location.
The diagram above shows the power off effect of substation TSS_80 for the current used by
course CBAl_01. As the course uses the same power in both simulations the current rises
with dropping line voltage.
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5.2
User Manual
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AC Network with Booster Transformer Tutorial
In this tutorial we will learn how to model booster transformers. The basis shall be model
from chapter 0.
5.2.1 Configuration
5.2.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.2.1.2 OpenPowerNet
The Project-File from the AC Network tutorial shall be the basis. The booster transformer
system will have two booster transformer and a return feeder. One booster shall be at
72+000 and the other at 76+000. The feeder shall be from 70+000 to TSS_80 and be
connected to rails at 70+000, 74+000 and 78+000.
At each booster transformer an isolator shall be added to MessengerWire, ContactWire and
ReturnFeeder. Remember the current sum of the conductors has to be 0 as a model
constraint, see chapter 4.3.1. Therefore parallel conductors to the isolators have to be added
to the model, these are named CW_BT and RF_BT in Figure 124.
Figure 124 The booster transformer modelling including neccessary isolators and additional conductors.
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5.2.1.2.1 Engine-File
We will use the same engine as for AC Network tutorial and therefore we do not need to
change the Engine-File.
5.2.1.2.2 Project-File
At the beginning we add the additional conductors. First the 1m long conductors parallel to
the contact /messenger wire as feeder.
<Conductor type="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="CW_BT" trackID="1" km="72.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="72.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="-1" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="CW_BT" trackID="1" km="76.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="76.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="-1" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
Second the return feeder and parallel conductors at isolator position.
<Conductor type="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="RF" trackID="1" km="70" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="80.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-3" y_m="6.1" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="RF_BT" trackID="1" km="72.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="72.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="6.1" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="RF_BT" trackID="1" km="76.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="76.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4" y_m="6.1" />
</Conductor>
The return feeder has to be connected to the rails between the booster transformers and at
the beginning of the return feeder.
<ConnectorSlice name="bonging from return feeder to rail">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.01" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="RF" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="RL" />
</Connector>
<Position km="78" />
<Position km="74" />
<Position km="70" />
</ConnectorSlice>
Furthermore the additional conductors parallel to the isolators need to be connected.
<ConnectorSlice name="feeder connection from BT to CW; RF">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="CW_BT" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</Connector>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="RF_BT" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="RF" />
</Connector>
<Position km="72.001" />
<Position km="76.001" />
</ConnectorSlice>
The connection between Contact Wire and Messenger Wire shall be changed from
ConnectorSlice to leakage. The advantage of leakage is a connection at each slice instead of
defined locations.
 Delete the ConnectorSlices for the droppers of track 1 and track 2.
 Add leakage between Contact- and MessengerWire for track 1 and track 2.
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<Leakage name="dropper, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="1000"
yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage name="dropper, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="1000"
yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Leakage>
The isolators have to be added as a child to element the Line.
<Isolators>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="72" trackID="1"
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="72" trackID="1"
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="72" trackID="1"
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="76" trackID="1"
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="76" trackID="1"
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="76" trackID="1"
</ConductorIsolator>
</Isolators>
condName="CW" />
condName="MW" />
condName="RF" />
condName="CW" />
condName="MW" />
condName="RF" />
We will add two substations, each with one booster transformer.
<Substation name="BT 72+000">
<Boostertransformer name="BT"
loadLosses_kW="2"
noLoadCurrent_A="7.0"
noLoadLosses_kW="0.6"
nomPower_MVA="0.158"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="0.316"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="0.316"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="11">
<Primary1BB bbName="CW-" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
<Primary2BB bbName="CW+" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
<Secondary1BB bbName="RF-" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
<Secondary2BB bbName="RF+" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
</Boostertransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="CW+">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="CW_BT" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<OCSBB bbName="CW-">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="RF+">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="RF_BT" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<RailsBB bbName="RF-">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="RF" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
We copy the substation from above and change the chainage to 76+000.
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As the last step we have to add an additional connector from the Rails Busbar at TSS_80 to
the return feeder.
<Connector name="TSS_80_ReturnFeader_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80" />
</Connector>
5.2.2 Simulation
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time steps in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.2.3 Analysis
To see the effect of the booster we will compare the results of this tutorial with the results of
the AC Network tutorial described in chapter 0.
To compare the pantograph voltage we use the prepared Excel File Compare Two
Engines.
Figure 125 Comparing the pantograph voltage without (Sim 1) and with booster transformer (Sim 6).
In Figure 125 we see the voltages drop at the booster transformer chainages and then
constant from the return feeder – rail connection to the booster transformer. The evaluation
of the line impedance will show why the voltage behaves this way with booster transformers.
We will analyse the line impedance with the prepared Excel File Impedance, Z=f(s) after
CBAl_01 has terminated at Station A at 01:41:00 because for this analysis it must be only
one engine in the network to show the correct impedance. On the SELECTION sheet select
Engine ABCl_01, Substation TSS_80 and filter for time values bigger than 6060 s.
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Z_abs = f(s)
8.000
7.000
6.000
Z [Ohm]
5.000
4.000
3.000
2.000
1.000
0.000
60+000
65+000
70+000
75+000
s [km]
80+000
85+000
90+000
Figure 126 The line impedance of the AC network configuration without booster transformer seen from TSS_80.
Figure 127 The line impedance of the AC network configuration with booster transformer seen from TSS_80.
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5.3
User Manual
Issue 2014-11-05
2AC Network Tutorial
In this tutorial we will use the same OpenTrack infrastructure as for the AC Network tutorial
and change only the existing Project-File for a 2AC electrical network. To keep the file of the
previous tutorial we create a copy of the Project-File.
5.3.1 Configuration
5.3.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.3.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.3.1.2.1 Engine-File
We will use the same engine as for AC and therefore we do not need to change the EngineFile.
5.3.1.2.2 Project-File
For the 2AC system we change the transformer in TSS_5 to a three winding transformer and
change substation TSS_80 to autotransformer station ATS_80. For the negative phase we
add a negative feeder from km 5+000 to km 80+000.
First we add the negative feeder:
<Conductor type="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="NF" trackID="1" km="5"/>
The beginning of the negative feeder at km 5+000 and the name NF.
<ToProperty
toPos_km="80" The end of the negative feeder at km 80+000.
equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" Following the characteristic
r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4" and the cross section position.
y_m="9"/>
</Conductor>
Second we change the transformer in TSS_5 to a three winding transformer:
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<ThreeWindingTransformer This is the new three winding transformer.
name="T1"
nomPower_MVA="10"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="55"
noLoadLosses_kW="6.5"
loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7"
noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
The new negative feeder busbar.
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_NF" defaultState="close"/>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</ThreeWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
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</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB">
The new feeder for the negative feeder.
<Connector name="TSS_5_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
Third we change TSS_80 to ATS_80 with autotransformer and busbars for OCS, rails and
negative feeder:
<Substation name="ATS_80">
<Autotransformer This is the autotransformer.
name="T1"
nomPower_MVA="5"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="55"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5"
noLoadLosses_kW="5"
loadLosses_kW="10"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="1.8"
noLoadCurrent_A="0.2">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_80_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_80_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_80_T1_NF" defaultState="close"/>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Autotransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_80_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_80_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_80_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
After all this changes we check the new configuration using PSC Viewer and we will see the
added negative feeder as in Figure 128.
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Figure 128 A snippet of the 2AC network with TSS_5 and negative feeder.
5.3.1.2.3 Switch-File
We need to adapt the Switch-File of the failure scenario simulation. First we change the
switch names and second we add also the switches of the negative feeder.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ADE xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd">
<TPD>
<SwitchSetting>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="ATS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="ATS_80_T1_Rails"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="ATS_80_T1_NF"/>
The open time definition of the added negative feeder switch.
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="ATS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="ATS_80_T1_Rails"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="ATS_80_T1_NF"/>
The close time definition of the added negative feeder switch.
</SwitchSetting>
</TPD>
</ADE>
5.3.2 Simulation
For the description of the simulation see the AC network tutorial in chapter 0.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.3.3 Analysis
In the following chapter we will analyse the same network configuration as we did for the AC
network and compare the simulation results.
5.3.3.1 Default configuration
For the default configuration we want to compare some diagrams to see the difference
between the two systems.
First we want to compare the line voltage at the pantograph. Please see Figure 109 from AC
network and Figure 129 from 2AC network.
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U = f(s)
28000
27500
27000
U [V]
26500
26000
25500
25000
24500
24000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Figure 129 The line voltage at pantograph position for the default configuration of the 2AC network versus
chainage.
We can see that the line voltage at the pantograph is much lower than for the AC network but
still sufficient as the minimum is just below the nominal voltage.
F = f(s)
300.0
200.0
F [kN]
100.0
0.0
-100.0
-200.0
-300.0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
F_requested [kN] (Sim: 1; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_achieved [kN] (Sim: 1; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_requested [kN] (Sim: 7; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_achieved [kN] (Sim: 7; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
Figure 130 The requested and achieved effort for course ABCl_01 in AC network (sim 1) and 2AC network (sim
7).
All curves for our model are the same. Therefore there will be no difference in the operational
simulation in OpenTrack, see Figure 130.
As there is no difference in the effort therefore we may expect to have the same power
demand for TSS_5 in both configurations.
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Sum P, Q, S = f(t)
14.00
12.00
10.00
P, Q, |S|
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
P_total [MW]
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
Q_total [MVAr]
|S_total| [MVA]
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Figure 131 The power demand of substation TSS_5 for the 2AC network.
Now we will compare the power demand for the AC network in Figure 115 with Figure 131 for
the 2AC network using Excel-File PowerSupply2AC.xlsx. We see the power demand for the
2AC network is much higher than for the AC network. This is the case because for the AC
network we have two substations and for the 2AC network only one substation and one auto
transformer station. Therefore TSS_5 has to supply the total power and losses in the 2AC
network.
Another comparison can be done for the energy consumption. Figure 132 shows the energy
consumption of the AC network provided from both substations and Figure 133 for the 2AC
network provided only from TSS_5.
E = f(t)
3.000
2.500
E [MWh]
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Sim: 1; Network: A-C; Substation: TSS_5; Power Supply: T1; Ref erence U: Rails_BB; Compared U: OCS_BB
Sim: 1; Network: A-C; Substation: TSS_80; Power Supply: T1; Ref erence U: Rails_BB; Compared U: OCS_BB
Figure 132 Energy supply from both TSS of the AC network in default configuration.
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E = f(t)
6.000
5.000
E [MVAh]
4.000
3.000
2.000
1.000
0.000
-1.000
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Sim: 7; Network: A-C; Substation: TSS_5; Power Supply: T1; Ref erence U: Rails_BB; Compared U: NF_BB
Sim: 7; Network: A-C; Substation: TSS_5; Power Supply: T1; Ref erence U: Rails_BB; Compared U: OCS_BB
E_total_2 [MVAh]
Figure 133 Energy supply from TSS_5 of the 2AC network in default configuration.
The total energy consumption of the AC network is 4.73MVA, TSS_5 supplied 2.33MVA and
TSS_80 2.40MVA, compared to 4.80MVA of the 2AC network. The difference of about 1.5%
is caused by the auto transformer losses and the higher losses caused by the higher currents
due to lower line voltage.
5.3.3.2 Short circuit
For the short circuit simulation we modify the engine as described in the AC tutorial, use the
course “short circuit” and run the simulation.
I = f(s)
2.500
2.000
I [kA]
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
I_connector_1 [kA]
I_connector_2 [kA]
I_total [kA]
I_engine [kA]
Figure 134 The short circuit current of the 2AC network. The short circuit current is the total of TSS_5 and
ATS_80 current, use Excel tool: “Short Circuit Current by two Station Feeders, I=f(s)”.
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5.3.3.3 Constant current
From Figure 134 we can see that the minimum short circuit current is about 1200A.
Therefore we will use a constant current of 1000A for the constant current simulation. We
need to do the same configuration as for the AC tutorial except we have to set the current to
1000A. To be able to compare AC and 2AC configurations we will also run an additional
constant current simulation with 1000A for the AC network.
U = f(s)
30000
25000
U [V]
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Sim: 9; Course: constant current; Engine: 0-Engine1
Sim: 10; Course: constant current; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 135 The constant current with 1000A causes a voltage drop down to less than 10kV at the end of the line
in the 2AC network (sim 9). The AC network with a constant current of 1000A is from simulation 10.
As we can see in the diagram above the line voltage drops much more for this 2AC
configuration as it does for AC.
5.3.3.4 Failure scenario
For the failure scenario the same configuration tasks as for the AC network have to be done
but we need to specify the Switch-File from chapter 5.3.1.2.3.
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U = f(t)
30000
25000
U [V]
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
Sim: 5; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
Sim: 11; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 136 The failure scenario line voltage at pantograph for course CBAl_01 in AC (sim 5) and 2AC (sim 11)
network.
As expected we see a voltage drop between 01:05:00 and 01:22:00 because the TSS_80
respective the ATS_80 was powered off. It is also not surprising to see a lower voltage for
2AC as we have compared the line voltage for 1000A constant current in Figure 135 and
found that the lower curve belongs to the 2AC network.
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DC Network Tutorial
In this tutorial we will change the power supply to a 3kV DC system with two substations at
the same positions as before, km 5+000 and 80+000. The negative feeder of the 2AC
network will be used as line feeder and connected with the contact wire of track “1”every
1000m.
We will use the same engine with 5.56MW maximum tractive power as before. The
maximum power for the long train with 30kW auxiliary power per trailer and 100kW auxiliary
power of the engine is 6.08MW. At nominal voltage the current will be approximately 2000A.
We can expect that such a high current will cause a high voltage drop. Therefore we will use
the tractive current limitation to stabilise the pantograph voltage. The current limitation shall
be 0A at 0V, then linear to 2000A at 2.7kV (90% of nominal voltage) and then constant
2000A.
5.4.1 Configuration
5.4.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.4.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.4.1.2.1 Engine-File
We need to change the power supply system and add the current limitation.
As the power supply system specified for the infrastructure in OpenTrack is used to choose
the correct tractive-effort-curve of the engine and we do not want to change this curve we do
not need to change anything in OpenTrack but the supply system of the engine propulsion
system in OpenPowerNet.
<propulsion
supply="DC 3000V"
transmission="electric"
engine="electric"
power="5560"
maxTractEffort="250"
totalTractEfficiency="90"
totalBrakeEfficiency="90">
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100"/>
<tractiveCurrentLimitation>
Below is the table of the tractive current limitation. The table defines points and the yvalue will be calculated by a linear interpolation between the points. For x-values exceeding
the highest specified x-value the y-value for the maximum x-value is used during simulation.
The same behaviour applies to x-values lower than specified.
<valueTable xValueName="line voltage" xValueUnit="V" yValueName="current" yValueUnit="A">
<valueLine xValue="0"> The 0V, 0A point.
<values yValue="0"/>
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="2700"> The 2700V, 2000A point.
<values yValue="2000"/>
</valueLine>
</valueTable>
</tractiveCurrentLimitation>
</propulsion>
5.4.1.2.2 Project-File
As the base of this Project-File we will use the Project-File of the AC network and adapt it.
First we adapt the engine model by changing the supply and using the tractive current
limitation.
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="DC 3000V" Change the supply system to DC 3000V.
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)" Change this value from none to I=f(U).
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useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
Next we add the line feeder as a conductor with the same characteristics as the negative
feeder of the 2AC tutorial.
<Conductor type="Feeder"> Change the type of the conductor
<StartPosition condName="LF" trackID="1" km="5"/> and change the name to LF.
<ToProperty
toPos_km="80"
equivalentRadius_mm="8.4"
r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4"
y_m="9"/>
</Conductor>
Then we need to add the connectors every 1000m from the line feeder to the contact wire of
track “1”. The resistance per meter shall be the same as for the line feeder and the length
shall be approximately 5m. Therefore the connector resistance is 0.594mΩ
(0.1188Ω/km/1000*5m = 0.000594Ω).
<ConnectorSlice
name="line feeder to CW"
firstPos_km="5"
lastPos_km="80"
maxDistance_km="1.000">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000594" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
Now we configure the substation models with DC rectifier and we use switches in the
connectors from the busbars to the line. The switches will be used during the failure
scenario.
<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<Rectifier
name="R1"
internalResistance_Ohm="0.01" The internal resistance of the rectifier.
nomVoltage_kV="3.3"
The no load voltage of the rectifier shall be 10% higher than the system voltage of 3kV.
energyRecovery="false">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"/>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"/>
</Rectifier>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="TSS_5_LF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="LF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
<Substation name="TSS_80">
<Rectifier
name="R1"
internalResistance_Ohm="0.01"
nomVoltage_kV="3.3"
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energyRecovery="false">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"/>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"/>
</Rectifier>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_80_OCS"/>
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="TSS_80_LF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_80_LF"/>
<Position condName="LF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_80_Rails"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
5.4.1.2.3 Switch-File
We need to adapt the Switch-File of the AC tutorial for the failure scenario simulation. First
we change the switch names and second we add also the switches to the line feeder.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ADE xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd">
<TPD>
<SwitchSetting>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_OCS"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_Rails"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_LF"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_OCS"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_Rails"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_LF"/>
</SwitchSetting>
</TPD>
</ADE>
5.4.2 Simulation
For the description of the simulation see the AC network tutorial in chapter 0.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.4.3 Analysis
5.4.3.1 Default configuration
U, I = f(t)
3500
2500
3000
2000
2500
1500
I [A]
U [V]
2000
1500
1000
1000
500
500
0
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
U [V]
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
0
00 02:10:00
I [A]
Figure 137 The pantograph line voltage and current versus time for the DC network default configuration.
In the diagram above we can see the current limitation as the current drops as well as the
voltage.
U = f(s)
3500
3000
2500
U [V]
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Figure 138 The line voltage at pantograph versus chainage.
As we would expect the minimum of the pantograph line voltage is in the middle between the
two substations.
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F = f(s)
300
200
F [kN]
100
0
-100
-200
-300
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
F_requested [kN]
F_achieved [kN]
Figure 139 The requested and achieved effort of course ABCl_01 for the default configuration.
The diagram above shows the effect of the traction current limitation very clearly. If we
compare the travel time of course ABCl_01 in Figure 140 we will see the effect of the lower
achieved effort in a 14 minutes longer travel time of this course in the DC network.
v = f(t)
250
200
v [km/h]
150
100
50
0
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
Sim: 1; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
Sim: 12; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 140 The speed versus time for course ABCl_01 in the AC network (sim 1) and DC network (sim 12).
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5.4.3.2 Short circuit
I = f(s)
4.000
3.500
3.000
I [kA]
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
I_connector_1 [kA]
I_connector_2 [kA]
I_total [kA]
I_engine [kA]
Figure 141 The short circuit simulation of the DC network.
The simulation is done as for the AC network. The y-axis is limited to 4000A as the current at
the substation is very high and we are interested in the minimum short circuit current.
5.4.3.3 Constant current
As we can see in Figure 141 the minimum current is above 2500A. Therefore we will do the
constant current simulation with 1000A as in the previous tutorials.
U, I = f(s)
3500
1200
3000
1000
2500
800
600
I [A]
U [V]
2000
1500
400
1000
200
500
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
0
90+000
s [km]
U [V]
I [A]
Figure 142 The voltage versus chainage of constant current simulation.
5.4.3.4 Failure scenario
See chapter 5.1.3.4 to configure the Project-File and to run the simulation.
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U = f(s)
3500
3000
2500
U [V]
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Sim: 12; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Sim: 15; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 143 The line voltage for course CBAl_01 in default configuration (sim 12) and failure scenario (sim 15).
5.5
DC Network with Energy Storage Tutorial
In this tutorial we will add an energy storage to the DC network of the tutorial in chapter 0.
The DC tutorial analysis shows us a significant line voltage drop. With the storage we will
support the line voltage at the location with the lowest line voltage at km 45+000, see Figure
138. Furthermore we will analyse and compare two configurations of energy storage and use
the courses with short trains.
5.5.1 Configuration
5.5.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.5.1.2 OpenPowerNet
For OpenPowerNet we need to add a substation with energy storage at km45+000 to the
Project-File. The Engine-File does not need to be changed.
5.5.1.2.1 Engine-File
We will use the same engine as for DC Network tutorial and therefore we do not need to
change the Engine-File.
5.5.1.2.2 Project-File
As the base of this Project-File we will use the Project-File of the DC network and add a
substation with an energy storage at km 45+000.
We will define two kinds of energy storage. One with 400A and one with 200A load and
unload current limitation.
The energy storage shall have the following characteristic:
 Maximum load of 85kWh,
 Initial load of 85kWh,
 Losses of the energy storage of 100W,
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 Internal resistance of 5mΩ,
 Maximum load current is limited to 400A, resp. 200A,
 Maximum unload current is limited to 400A, resp. 200A and
 Nominal Voltage of 2800V.
See the XML snippet with the substation configuration.
<Substation name="SS_45">
<Storage
name="S1"
internalResistance_Ohm="0.005"
maxLoad_kWh="85"
nomVoltage_kV="2.8"
lossPower_kW="0.1"
initialLoad_kWh="85"
loadImax_A="200"
unloadImax_A="200">
<OCSBB z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0" bbName="OCS_BB" />
<RailsBB z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0" bbName="Rails_BB" />
</Storage>
<Busbars> The definitions of busbars and the connections to the line follow.
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="SS_45_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="SS_45_OCS" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="SS_45_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="SS_45_Rails" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
As we want to run the short trains only we should set the simulation start time to 2:00 in the
Project-File’s root element OpenPowerNet.
simulationStart_s="7200"
5.5.2 Simulation
We will run tree simulations only with the short train courses ABCs_01 and CBAs_01.
 First the DC network from DC Tutorial in chapter 0,
 One simulation shall be with the “Type_200A” energy storage and
 one with the “Type_400A” energy storage.
Give each simulation a meaningful comment.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.5.3 Analysis
First we will compare the DC network with and without energy storage with 200A current
limit. We use Engine2.xlsx from menu OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools > Compare Two
Engines.
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U = f(s)
3500
3000
2500
U [V]
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Sim: 16; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Sim: 17; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 144 The line voltage at pantograph for course ABCs_02 in the DC network without (Sim 16) and with (Sim
17) energy storage (200A).
Comparing the two different storage current limitations we can see the effect to the
pantograph voltage.
U = f(s)
3500
3000
2500
U [V]
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Sim: 17; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Sim: 18; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 145 The effect to the line voltage of course ABCs_01 with energy storage current limitation of 200A
(sim17) and 400A (sim18).
Using the prepared Excel tool: “Compare Two Station Energy Storages” we will compare the
effect of the different maximum load and unload current of the energy storages.
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U = f(t)
3400.0
3300.0
3200.0
3100.0
U [V]
3000.0
2900.0
2800.0
2700.0
2600.0
2500.0
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
00 02:20:00
00 02:30:00
00 02:40:00
00 02:50:00
U_real [V] (Sim: 18; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
U_real [V] (Sim: 17; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
U_0 [V] (Sim: 18; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
U_0 [V] (Sim: 17; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
Figure 146 The line voltage at the substation with the storage for both storage current limitations, in simulation 17
and simulation 18.
For the 200A current limitation we see that the voltage cannot be stabilised at 2800V. The
maximum load current limitation is visible at about 02:23 and 02:45.
I = f(t)
500
400
300
200
I [A]
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
00 02:20:00
00 02:30:00
00 02:40:00
00 02:50:00
I_real [A] (Sim: 18; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
I_real [A] (Sim: 17; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
I_load_max [A] (Sim: 18; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
I_load_max [A] (Sim: 17; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
I_unload_max [A] (Sim: 18; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
I_unload_max [A] (Sim: 17; Network: A-C; Substation: SS_45; Storage: S1)
Figure 147 The load and unload current of both simulations, simulation 18 with 400A and simulation 17 with 200A
load and unload current limitation.
The diagrams above clearly show the different current limitations as well as the load and
unload currents respecting their limitations.
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5.6
User Manual
Issue 2014-11-05
DC Network with Voltage Limiting Device Tutorial
In this tutorial we will add multiple Voltage Limiting Devices (VLD, see chapter 4.4.7.6) to the
DC network of the tutorial in chapter 0. We will see the effect of the VLD by comparing two
simulations, one without VLDs and the other with VLDs.
5.6.1 Configuration
5.6.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.6.1.2 OpenPowerNet
For OpenPowerNet we will add 5 substations each with two VLDs at km8+000, 9+000,
10+000, 11+000 and 12+000 to the Project-File. The Engine-File does not need to be
changed.
5.6.1.2.1 Engine-File
As the basis we will use the engines as for DC Network tutorial and but add the energy
recovery ability. Therefore we need to change the Engine-File but not the OpenTrack
configuration.
The following attributes shall be added to the Propulsion element:
maxBrakePower="5560" The maximum brake power value is same as for driving.
maxBrakeEffort="250" The maximum brake effort is also the same as for driving.
maxRecoveryVoltage="3600" The maximum recovery voltage need to be defined as well.
5.6.1.2.2 Project-File
After we have configured the concrete values for recovery braking in the Engine-File we have
to specify the recovery model also at the Propulsion element but in the Project-File.
The following attributes shall be added to the Propulsion element:
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
retryRecovery="true"
We will record all currents and voltages for later analysis. Therefore we have to remove the
recordCurrent and recordVoltage attributes from elements Lines and Connectors.
This is all we need to do with the Project-File for the first simulation without VLD.
We make a copy of the just edited Project-File and add the substations with VLDs.
The VLD is defined in the TypeDefs-File, chapter 5.6.1.2.3. These file need to be referenced
in the Project-File at the root element.
typedefsFile="TypeDefs-File.xml"
The definition of the substation at km 8+000 is as below:
<Substation name="VLD 8+000">
..<VLD name="+" type="type 5V"> The type is a reference to VLD defined in the TypeDefs-File.
....<MeasuringBusbar bbName="Rails_BB" /> VLD limiting the voltage from earth to rail.
....<ReferenceBusbar bbName="Earth_BB" />
..</VLD>
..<VLD name="-" type="type 5V"> VLD limiting the voltage from rail to earth.
....<MeasuringBusbar bbName="Earth_BB" />
....<ReferenceBusbar bbName="Rails_BB" />
..</VLD>
..<Busbars>
....<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
......<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
........<Position km="8" trackID="1" condName="RL" lineID="A" />
......</Connector>
....<RailsBB>
....<RailsBB bbName="Earth_BB">
......<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
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........<Position km="8" trackID="1" condName="E" lineID="A" />
......</Connector>
....</RailsBB>
..</Busbars>
</Substation>
Further substations at km 9+000, 10+000, 11+000 and 12+000 shall be added.
Give each Project-File a meaningful name and comment.
5.6.1.2.3 TypeDefs-File
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<TypeDefs xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/TypeDefs.xsd">
<VLDTypes>
<VLDType name="type 5V" r_close_Ohm="0.001" r_open_Ohm="1000000">
<CloseModels>
<Voltage voltage_V="5" />The VLD shall close if voltage exceeds 5 V.
</CloseModels>
<OpenModels>
<Current current_A="0" />The VLD shall open if current is below 0 A.
</OpenModels>
</VLDType>
</VLDTypes>
</TypeDefs>
5.6.2 Simulation
Run two simulations with the long train courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01.
 First without VLD and
 Then with VLD.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.6.3 Analysis
The objective of a VLD is to limit the voltage between two conductors. In this tutorial the VLD
shall limit the Rail-Earth potential. We use the automatic analysis to calculate the Rail-Earth
Potential of both simulations.
Rail-Earth Potential, Tutorial VLD, with VLD
Line A, km 0+000 to 85+400, 01:00:00.0 - 02:03:16.0
TSS_5
TSS_80
200
180
160
140
Voltage [V]
120
100
80
60
40
Station B
0
0+000
10+000
Station C
Station A
20
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
Position [km]
|U_max_1_RL|
|U_max_1_RR|
|U_max_2_RL|
|U_max_2_RR|
Return feeder
U_RE_max (EN 50122-1)
Figure 148 Rail-Earth Potential without VLD.
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Rail-Earth Potential, Tutorial VLD, with VLD
Line A, km 0+000 to 85+400, 01:00:00.0 - 02:03:16.0
180
TSS_80
VLD 8+000
VLD 9+000
VLD 10+000
VLD 11+000
VLD 12+000
TSS_5
200
160
140
Voltage [V]
120
100
80
60
40
Station B
0
0+000
10+000
Station C
Station A
20
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
Position [km]
|U_max_1_RL|
|U_max_1_RR|
|U_max_2_RL|
|U_max_2_RR|
Return feeder
U_RE_max (EN 50122-1)
Figure 149 Rail-Earth Potential with VLDs between 8+000 and 12+000.
The Automatic Analysis generates an aggregation of all substations (file name 000_Network
A-C.xlsx) and shows how often and how long the VLDs have been closed.
VLD Usage, Tutorial VLD, with VLD
Network A-C, Sum VLD, 01:00:00.0 - 02:03:16.0
10
9
8
7
Count
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
29
57
85
113
141
169
197
225
253
281
309
337
365
393
421
449
477
505
533
561
589
617
645
673
701
729
757
785
813
841
869
897
925
953
981
1009
1037
1065
1093
1121
1149
1177
1205
1233
1261
1289
1317
1345
1373
1401
1429
1457
1485
1513
1541
1569
1597
1625
1653
1681
1709
1737
1765
1793
0
Duration of closed state [s]
Count_closed
Figure 150 The histogram of the VLD closing.
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5.7
User Manual
Issue 2014-11-05
Engine Model Tutorials
In the following tutorials we will configure different engine models and analyse the calculated
simulation data. Each of following chapters describes one aspect of the engine model.
5.7.1 Power Factor Tutorial
In the AC tutorial with failure scenario we experienced a significant voltage drop down to
24175 V for course CBAl_01. Now we will configure a capacitive behaviour of the engine in
case of low voltage. Figure 151 describes the detailed behaviour and Figure 152 the values
of the power factor for the engine model.
C
IImag
I = a+jb
-10°
+10°
IReal
I = a-jb
L
Legend:
The behaviour of the engine wether capacitive (C) or inductor (L).
The value of the power factor in the engine model.
The resulting current of the engine at the pantograph while driving.
For braking the currents are turned by 180°.
Figure 151 The engine power factor association between engine behaviour and model parameter.
Figure 152 Power factor versus line voltage.
5.7.1.1 Configuration
5.7.1.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
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5.7.1.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.1.1.2.1 Engine-File
As the basis for the Engine-File we use the one from the AC tutorial. As we want to have a
power factor depending on the line voltage we need to specify the detailed curve, see the
XML snippet below.
<fourQuadrantChopper typeStr="FQC 1">
<phi>
<valueTable xValueName="LineVoltage" xValueUnit="V" yValueName="Phi" yValueUnit="Deg">
<valueLine xValue="0.0">
<values yValue="-5.0" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="24000.0"> <values yValue="-5.0" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="25000.0"> <values yValue="0.0" /> </valueLine>
</valueTable>
</phi>
</fourQuadrantChopper>
5.7.1.1.2.2 Project-File
We will amend the Project-File from AC tutorial in chapter 5.1.1.2.2. The four quadrant
chopper model has to be defined in the Project-File, see XML snippet below.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="Phi=f(u)" This value need to be set to use the power factor
depending on line voltage.
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Furthermore we need to set the Switch-File same as for the failure scenario in the AC
tutorial.
switchStateFile="Switch-File.xml"
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.1.2 Simulation
We will run the simulation only with the long trains to see the effect of the power factor
versus line voltage.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.1.3 Analysis
We will use Excel tool: “Compare Two Engines” and check to power factor of course
CBAl_01 and compare the pantograph voltage with the failure simulation of the AC tutorial.
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phi = f(s)
0.000
-0.500
phi [ ]
-1.000
-1.500
-2.000
-2.500
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Sim: 5; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Sim: 21; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 153 The pantograph current angle of course CBAl_01 versus location.
U = f(s)
28000
27500
27000
U [V]
26500
26000
25500
25000
24500
24000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
s [km]
Sim: 5; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Sim: 21; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 154 The pantograph position of course CBAl_01 with constant power factor of 0° (sim 5) and with power
factor depending on line voltage (sim 21).
We can see very clear the line voltage supporting behaviour of the capacitive engine model
used in this simulation.
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5.7.2 Tractive Effort Tutorial
In this tutorial we want to use a table for the tractive effort characteristic of the engine. In the
AC tutorial we used maximum power and maximum tractive effort to define the characteristic.
The engine model is more flexible when using the table, see Figure 155.
Figure 155 Possible characteristics of both available tractive effort models.
5.7.2.1 Configuration
5.7.2.1.1 OpenTrack
As the tractive effort characteristic curve in OpenTrack is always above the characteristic we
defined in OpenPowerNet we don’t need to change OpenTrack. The used tractive effort will
be limited to the value defined in OpenPowerNet. Therefore we will use the same OpenTrack
data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.7.2.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.2.1.2.1 Engine-File
As the basis we take the Engine-File from the AC tutorial and add the tractive effort versus
speed table. The XML snippet below has the detailed values.
<tractiveEffort>
<valueTable xValueName="Speed" xValueUnit="km/h" yValueName="Tractive Effort"
yValueUnit="kN">
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="250" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="10"> <values yValue="247" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="20"> <values yValue="244" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30"> <values yValue="241" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="40"> <values yValue="238" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="50"> <values yValue="237" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="60"> <values yValue="236" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="70"> <values yValue="235" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="80"> <values yValue="235" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="90"> <values yValue="202" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="100"> <values yValue="176" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="110"> <values yValue="155" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="120"> <values yValue="139" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="130"> <values yValue="125" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="140"> <values yValue="114" /> </valueLine>
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<valueLine xValue="150">
<valueLine xValue="160">
<valueLine xValue="170">
<valueLine xValue="180">
<valueLine xValue="190">
<valueLine xValue="200">
<valueLine xValue="210">
<valueLine xValue="220">
<valueLine xValue="230">
<valueLine xValue="240">
<valueLine xValue="250">
</valueTable>
</tractiveEffort>
User Manual
<values
<values
<values
<values
<values
<values
<values
<values
<values
<values
<values
yValue="104" />
yValue="95" />
yValue="88" />
yValue="82" />
yValue="76" />
yValue="71" />
yValue="61" />
yValue="53" />
yValue="47" />
yValue="41" />
yValue="36" />
Issue 2014-11-05
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
</valueLine>
5.7.2.1.2.2 Project-File
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="F=f(v)"> This value need to be set to use the table model.
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.2.2 Simulation
We need only to simulate the long trains to see effect of the changed tractive effort model of
the engine.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.2.3 Analysis
We use the Excel tool “Compare Two Engines” to compare course CBAl_01 of the AC
network default simulation with this simulation.
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F = f(v)
300.0
200.0
F [kN]
100.0
0.0
-100.0
-200.0
-300.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
v [km/h]
F_requested [kN] (Sim: 1; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_achieved [kN] (Sim: 1; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_requested [kN] (Sim: 22; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_achieved [kN] (Sim: 22; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
Figure 156 The tractive effort of course CBAl_01 from default AC network simulation (sim 1) and tractive effort
table model simulation (sim 22).
When we compare the diagrams in Figure 156 and Figure 155 there seems to be a
contradiction. The tractive effort between 65km/h and 80km/h is lower than expected.
This is because of the limited adhesion of the engine. We use the good adhesion used for
the simulation in OpenTrack, see Figure 157. The adhesion type can be set using the
Simulation panel of OpenTrack, see Figure 107.
Figure 157 Tractive effort versus speed characteristic in OpenTarck engine model.
For the speed below 65km/h and above 80km/h we can see clearly the effect of the used
table model compared with the maximum power / maximum effort model of the default AC
network simulation.
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5.7.3 Tractive Current Limitation Tutorial
Please see the DC tutorial in chapter 0 for an example of tractive current limitation.
5.7.4 Regenerative Braking Tutorial
In this tutorial we will learn how to configure the OpenPowerNet engine model to use
regenerative braking. The engine model shall be defined by maximum brake power and
maximum brake effort. The values shall be the same as for traction.
5.7.4.1 Configuration
5.7.4.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
5.7.4.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.4.1.2.1 Engine-File
As the basis we use the Engine-File from the AC tutorial. We need only to set the values for
max brake effort and max brake power, see the XML snippet below.
<vehicle length="25" bruttoWeight="75" vehicleID="Engine1" speed="250">
<engine>
<propulsion
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
transmission="electric"
engine="electric"
power="5560"
maxTractEffort="250"
totalTractEfficiency="90"
totalBrakeEfficiency="90"
maxBrakeEffort="250" .......These,
maxBrakePower="5560".........these and
....maxRecoveryVoltage="29000"> these values need to be set.
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100" />
</propulsion>
</engine>
</vehicle>
5.7.4.1.2.2 Project-File
As the basis we use the Project-File from the AC tutorial. The regenerative effort model has
to be specified. We want to use the maxPower/maxEffort model. A table same as for the
tractive effort described in chapter 0 is also available.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" These property need to be set.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.4.2 Simulation
We need only to simulate the long trains to see effect of the regenerative brake.
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Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.4.3 Analysis
The regenerative brake will only affect the simulation results during braking. In Figure 158 we
can see the times of braking. In Figure 159 we can see very well the higher pantograph
voltage from course ABCl_01 during the braking time of course ABCl_01 as well as course
CBAl_01.
v = f(t)
250
200
v [km/h]
150
100
50
0
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
Sim: 23; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Sim: 23; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 158 The speed versus time diagram of the courses in the regenerative brake simulation.
U = f(t)
28000
27800
27600
27400
U [V]
27200
27000
26800
26600
26400
26200
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
Sim: 1; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Sim: 23; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 159 The pantograph voltage of course ABCl_01 for the AC network (sim 1) and the regenerative braking
simulation (sim 23).
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I = f(t)
300
250
200
150
I [A]
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
Sim: 23; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
Sim: 23; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 160 The current of both courses during the regenerative braking simulation
5.7.5 Brake Current Limitation Tutorial
This tutorial describes the configuration of the brake current limitation and show the effect of
the simulations results.
5.7.5.1 Configuration
5.7.5.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
5.7.5.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.5.1.2.1 Engine-File
We will take the Engine-File from the regenerative braking tutorial of chapter 5.7.4 as the
basis. We only need to add the brake current limit to the engine propulsion, see the XML
snippet below.
<propulsion ...
<brakeCurrentLimitation>
<valueTable xValueName="Line Voltage" xValueUnit="V" yValueName="Current" yValueUnit="A">
<valueLine xValue="0.0"> <values yValue="50.0" /> </valueLine>
</valueTable>
</brakeCurrentLimitation>
</propulsion>
As the limit shall be 50A for any line voltage in this turorial, we only need to specify the 50A
by a single table value, e.g. at 0V. OpenPowerNet will automatically use the nearest valid
table value for voltage values out of range. It would be possible to create a voltage
dependent current limitation function here of course.
5.7.5.1.2.2 Project-File
We will take the Project-File from the regenerative braking tutorial of chapter 5.7.4 as the
basis. Only the brakeCurrentLimitation attribute need to be changed from none to
I=f(U), see the XML snipped below.
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<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)" These value need to be set.
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.5.2 Simulation
We need only to simulate the long trains to see effect of the brake current limitation.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.5.3 Analysis
We use Excel tool “Compare Two Engines” to compare the simulation results from tutorial
regenerative braking and this tutorial. Figure 161 shows the limited brake current to 50A.
I = f(t)
300
250
200
150
I [A]
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
Sim: 23; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
Sim: 24; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 161 The current of course CBAl_01 without (sim 23) and with (sim 24) brake current limitation to 50A.
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U = f(t)
28000
27800
27600
27400
U [V]
27200
27000
26800
26600
26400
26200
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
Sim: 23; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
Sim: 24; Course: CBAl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 162 The pantograph voltage of course CBAl_01 witout (sim 23) and with (sim 24) brake current limitation.
The pantograph voltage of course CBAl_01 is lower during the time of regenerative braking
because of the current limitation to 50A.
5.7.6 Auxiliary Power Tutorial
This tutorial describes the model of auxiliary power. The values of the auxiliary power are on
one hand specified in OpenTrack and on the other in OpenPowerNet, see also the legend of
Figure 13.
In OpenTrack the auxiliary power for each trailer of a train can be specified as a constant
power. This is possible in the Train - Edit dialog of OpenTrack. The trailer we defined in the
AC tutorial comes with 30 kW, which will be added to the definitions in OpenPowerNet below.
In OpenPowerNet we have 4 different auxiliary power models of an engine. It is possible to
combine all 4 models within one engine. The auxiliary models are:
 Constant power,
 Constant resistance,
 Constant power during braking and
 Constant resistance during braking.
As the auxiliary power while braking is only active for regenerative engines we define the
maximum regenerative brake power and maximum regenerative brake effort with the same
values as for traction.
The value of the auxiliary power shall be 100 kW. The resistance shall produce a power of
100 kW at a pantograph voltage of 27.4 kV and is therefore 7507.4 Ω, see the formulas
below.
R
U2
P
7507.6 
274002V 2
100000W
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To be able to compare the different auxiliary models we do 5 simulations. The first without
auxiliary power and then one by one the different models.
As the short trains have less auxiliary power of the trailers we will use only the short trains to
show clearly the effect of the engine auxiliary.
5.7.6.1 Configuration
5.7.6.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
Select only the course ABCs_02 and CBAs_02 with short trains.
5.7.6.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial as the basis.
5.7.6.1.2.1 Engine-File
In the Engine-File we need to specify the maximum braking power and effort as well as the 4
different available auxiliary models. In the XML snippet below we see the constant auxiliary
power and as comments the other three auxiliary power models. An XML comment is always
between <!-- and -->.
<vehicle length="25" bruttoWeight="75" vehicleID="Engine1" speed="250">
<engine>
<propulsion
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
transmission="electric"
engine="electric"
power="5560"
maxTractEffort="250"
totalTractEfficiency="90"
totalBrakeEfficiency="90"
maxBrakePower="5560"
We need to set the braking maximum power
maxBrakeEffort="250"
maximum brake effort and
....maxRecoveryVoltage="29000"> maximum recovery voltage.
<auxSupply typeStr="constant power" constPower="100" />
<!-- auxSupply typeStr="constant resistance" constResistance="7507.6" /-->
<!-- auxSupply typeStr="constant power while braking" constPowerBraking="100" /-->
<!-- auxSupply typeStr="constant resistance while braking"
constResistanceBraking="7507.6" /-->
/>
</propulsion>
</engine>
</vehicle>
For simulation 2 to 5 we use only one auxiliary power model and comment the others by
using XML comment syntax.
5.7.6.1.2.2 Project-File
As we use short trains only and they start at 2:00 we have to set the simulation start time to
7200s.
simulationStart_s="7200"
Then we need to set the regenerative brake option and set the use of the engine auxiliary to
false for the first simulation.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="false" Set this to false in the first simulation and to true for the other.
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fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" Set this to use the regenerative brake.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.6.2 Simulation
We will run the simulation only with short trains.
Run all simulation:
 Do everything as described above and run the simulation.
 Set useAuxPower in the Project-File, which controls usage of all auxiliaries, to true.
Give a meaningful comment and run the simulation.
 Comment the auxiliary with constant power in the Engine-File and uncomment the
constant resistance auxiliary, give a meaningful comment in the Project-File and run
the simulation.
 Comment the auxiliary with constant resistance in the Engine-File and uncomment
the constant power while braking auxiliary, give a meaningful comment in the
Project-File and run the simulation.
 Comment the auxiliary with constant power while braking in the Engine-File and
uncomment the constant resistance while braking auxiliary, give a meaningful
comment in the Project-File and run the simulation.
 Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.6.3 Analysis
We use Excel tool “Compare Two Engines” to compare the simulations.
P_aux = f(t)
140
120
100
P [kW]
80
60
40
20
0
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
00 02:20:00
Sim: 25; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 02:30:00
00 02:40:00
00 02:50:00
Sim: 26; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 163 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 without auxiliaries (sim 25) and with constant auxiliary power
(sim 26).
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In the diagram above we can see the auxiliary power of the trailers is 30kW and on top of this
are the 100 kW of the engine. This is in total 130 kW for course ABCs_02.
P_aux = f(t)
132
131
P [kW]
130
129
128
127
126
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
00 02:20:00
00 02:30:00
Sim: 26; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 02:40:00
00 02:50:00
Sim: 27; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 164 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 with constant engine auxiliary power (sim 26) and constant
auxiliary resistance (sim 27).
In Figure 164 we see the constant power and constant resistance auxiliary have about the
same values. But of course the constant resistance auxiliary has the auxiliary power as a
function of the pantograph voltage, compare to the pantograph voltage in Figure 165.
U = f(t)
27700
27600
27500
27400
U [V]
27300
27200
27100
27000
26900
26800
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
00 02:20:00
Sim: 26; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 02:30:00
00 02:40:00
00 02:50:00
Sim: 27; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 165 The pantograph voltage of course ABCs_02 with constant engine auxiliary power (sim 26) and
constant auxiliary resistance (sim 27).
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P_aux = f(t)
140
120
100
P [kW]
80
60
40
20
0
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
00 02:20:00
Sim: 25; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 02:30:00
00 02:40:00
00 02:50:00
Sim: 28; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 166 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 without engine auxiliary power (sim 25) and with constant
auxiliary power while braking (sim 28).
In simulation 25 the model with constant auxiliary power while braking is used. We can
identify the two time periods while braking and see the 100 kW additional to the 30 kW from
the trailer auxiliary power.
P_aux = f(t)
140
120
100
P [kW]
80
60
40
20
0
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
00 02:20:00
Sim: 27; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 02:30:00
00 02:40:00
00 02:50:00
Sim: 29; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 167 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 with constant engine auxiliary resistance (sim 27) and with
constant auxiliary resistance while braking (sim 29).
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In Figure 167 we see both resistance auxiliary models used for the simulations. During
braking both curves are exactly the same but during driving they are different.
5.7.7 Eddy Current Brake Tutorial
In this tutorial we use the eddy current brake together with regerative braking.
We define
 the maximum regenerative brake power to 400 kW and
 maximum regenerative brake effort to 30 kN.
The parameter for the eddy current brake shall be
 30 kN maximum effort,
 300 kW maximum power and
 10 km/h minimum speed.
As the short trains have less auxiliary power of the trailers we will use only the short trains to
show the effect of the eddy current brake.
To see the effect of the eddy current brake we do two simulations, one without and one with
eddy current brake.
5.7.7.1 Configuration
5.7.7.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
Select only the course ABCs_02 and CBAs_02 with short trains.
5.7.7.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial as the basis.
5.7.7.1.2.1 Engine-File
In the Engine-File we need to specify the maximum braking power and effort as well as the
eddy current brake parameter.
<vehicle length="25" bruttoWeight="75" vehicleID="Engine1" speed="250">
<engine>
<propulsion
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
transmission="electric"
engine="electric"
power="5560"
maxTractEffort="250"
totalTractEfficiency="90"
totalBrakeEfficiency="90"
maxBrakePower="400"
We need to set the braking maximum power,
maxBrakeEffort="30"
maximum brake effort and
....maxRecoveryVoltage="29000"> and maximum recovery voltage.
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100" />
</propulsion>
</engine>
<brakes>
<eddyCurrentBrake This is the eddy current brake and its parameters.
maxEffort="30"
maxPower="300"
minSpeed="10" />
</brakes>
</vehicle>
5.7.7.1.2.2 Project-File
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As we use short trains only and they start at 2:00 we have to set the simulation start time to
7200s.
simulationStart_s="7200"
Then we need to set the regenerative brake option and set the use of the eddy current brake
to true for the second simulation.
<Vehicle
eddyCurrentBrake="false" This need to be set to false for the first and to true for the second
simulation.
engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" Set this to use the regenerative brake.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.7.2 Simulation
We will run the simulation only with short trains.
Run both simulations:
 Do everything as described above and run the simulation.
 Change the attribute eddyCurrentBrake in the Project-File to true, give a
meaningful comment in the Project-File and run the simulation.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.7.3 Analysis
We use Excel tool “Compare Two Engines” to compare the simulation. As we are only
interested in the values while braking we filter the column with requested effort and select
only the values < 0. This has to be done for both SELECTION sheets.
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F = f(v)
0.0
-10.0
-20.0
F [kN]
-30.0
-40.0
-50.0
-60.0
-70.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
v [km/h]
F_requested [kN] (Sim: 30; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_achieved [kN] (Sim: 30; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_requested [kN] (Sim: 31; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1)
F_achieved [kN] (Sim: 31; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1)
Figure 168 The achived effort by the engine of course ABCs_02 without (sim 30) and with (sim 31) eddy current
brake.
As the achieved effort during braking only reflects the portion that is gained through
regenerative braking, we do not see any difference between both simulations here.
OpenTrack will always use the full requested brake effort for the train movement, the
remaining portion is assumed to be brought up by meachanical brakes or eddy current brake
in this case.
P_el = f(v)
400
300
200
P [kW]
100
0
-100
-200
-300
0
50
100
150
200
250
v [km/h]
Sim: 30; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Sim: 31; Course: ABCs_02; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 169 The electrical power by course ABCs_02 without (sim 30) and with (sim 31) eddy current brake.
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When looking at the electrical power in Figure 169, we can see a difference between the
simulations. The eddy current brake is treated as a special kind of auxiliary supply, active
during braking. Below 10 km/h the eddy current brake is inactive and results are identical
between the two simulations. We can see the 130 kW offset of our constant power auxiliary
supply.
Regenerative braking always has higher priority than the eddy current brake. As we see from
Figure 168, the achieved effort from regenerative braking reaches its maximum at 30 kN
below 50 km/h, but the difference to the requested effort is below 30 kN and can be brought
up by the eddy current brake, which does not need its full power.
Above 50 km/h the achieved effort by regerative braking is limited by the maximum brake
power of 400 kW. Therefore the difference to the requested effort gets bigger and the eddy
current brake has to work at its maximum power of 300 kW at speeds up to about 170 km/h.
Because of the eddy current brake we see the behaviour of the course ABCs_02 changed
from regenerative to consuming.
5.7.8 Mean Efficiency Model Tutorial
The mean efficiency model is used for all previous tutorials. Read the AC tutorial in chapter 0
for details.
5.7.9 Efficiency Table Model Tutorial
In this tutorial we use the efficiency table model of the engine to describe the efficiency
versus speed.
The engine shall use regenerative braking and the efficiencies for driving and braking shall
be the same.
5.7.9.1 Configuration
5.7.9.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
Select only the course ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 with long trains.
5.7.9.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial as the basis.
5.7.9.1.2.1 Engine-File
We need to add to the Engine-File the values for regenerative braking and the efficiency
values for traction and braking.
<vehicle length="25" bruttoWeight="75" vehicleID="Engine1" speed="250">
<engine>
<propulsion
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
transmission="electric"
engine="electric"
power="5560"
maxTractEffort="250"
totalTractEfficiency="90" This values will be ignored if we choose
totalBrakeEfficiency="90" efficiency table model in the Project-File.
maxBrakePower="5560"
maxBrakeEffort="250"
....maxRecoveryVoltage="29000">
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100" />
<tractiveVehicleEfficiency> The efficiency for traction.
<valueTable xValueName="Speed" xValueUnit="km/h" yValueName="Efficiency"
yValueUnit="%">
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="40" /> </valueLine>
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<valueLine xValue="10"> <values yValue="75" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30"> <values yValue="85" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="50"> <values yValue="88" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="80"> <values yValue="91" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="150"> <values yValue="91" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="250"> <values yValue="88" /> </valueLine>
</valueTable>
</tractiveVehicleEfficiency>
<brakeVehicleEfficiency> The efficiency for braking.
<valueTable xValueName="Speed" xValueUnit="km/h" yValueName="Efficiency"
yValueUnit="%">
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="40" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="10"> <values yValue="75" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30"> <values yValue="85" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="50"> <values yValue="88" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="80"> <values yValue="91" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="150"> <values yValue="91" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="250"> <values yValue="88" /> </valueLine>
</valueTable>
</brakeVehicleEfficiency>
</propulsion>
</engine>
</vehicle>
5.7.9.1.2.2 Project-File
In the Project-File we need to set only the regenerative brake and to specify the efficiency
model.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" Set this to use regenerative braking.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />Use this element to specify the efficiency model in the second
simulation by replacing this element with <EfficiencyTable />.
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.9.2 Simulation
We will do two simulations to be able to compare the mean efficiency with the table efficiency
model and using the long trains only.
Run both simulations:
 Do everything as described above and run the simulation.
 Replace <MeanEfficiency /> with <EfficiencyTable />, give a meaningful
comment in the Project-File and run the simulation.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.9.3 Analysis
We use Excel tool “Compare Two Engines” to compare the simulation.
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etha = f(v)
100%
80%
60%
40%
etha [%]
20%
0%
-20%
-40%
-60%
-80%
-100%
0
50
100
150
200
250
v [km/h]
etha_tract [%] (Sim: 32; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
etha_total [%] (Sim: 32; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
etha_tract [%] (Sim: 33; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
etha_total [%] (Sim: 33; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
Figure 170 The efficiencies of course ABCl_01 with mean efficiency (sim 32) and efficiency table model (sim 33).
5.7.10 Single Component Model Tutorial
This tutorial describes the handling of the single component model of the engine, see also
Figure 11. The components of the model are:
 Transformer,
 Four quadrant chopper,
 Traction inverter,
 Motor and
 Gear.
The efficiencies shall be as in Figure 171. Note that the transformer efficiency is versus
current and the others constant or versus speed. To see the effect of the transformer
efficiency we will run one simulation with a mean transformer efficiency of 98 % and one
simulation with the efficiency as in Figure 171.
We will use the courses with longs trains.
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Figure 171 The efficiencies of the engine components.
5.7.10.1
Configuration
5.7.10.1.1
OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
Select only the course ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 with long trains.
5.7.10.1.2
OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial as the basis.
5.7.10.1.2.1 Engine-File
In the Engine-File we need to define all the efficiencies of the engine model.
<vehicle length="25" bruttoWeight="75" vehicleID="Engine1" speed="250">
<engine>
<propulsion
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
transmission="electric"
engine="electric"
power="5560"
maxTractEffort="250"
totalTractEfficiency="90"
totalBrakeEfficiency="90">
<transformer typeStr="" meanEfficiency="98" count="1">
<efficiency>
<valueTable
xValueName="Current"
xValueUnit="A" The current and
yValueName="Efficiency"
yValueUnit="1"> the efficiency unit.
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="0.4" /> </valueLine>
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<valueLine xValue="30"> <values yValue="0.9" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="60"> <values yValue="0.93" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="105"> <values yValue="0.98" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="250"> <values yValue="0.93" /> </valueLine>
</valueTable>
</efficiency>
</transformer>
<fourQuadrantChopper typeStr="">
<efficiency>
<valueTable
xValueName="Speed"
xValueUnit="km/h" The speed and
yValueName="Efficiency"
yValueUnit="1"> the efficiency unit.
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="0.95" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30"> <values yValue="0.97" /> </valueLine>
</valueTable>
</efficiency>
</fourQuadrantChopper>
<tractionInverter typeStr="">
<efficiency>
<valueTable
xValueName="Speed"
xValueUnit="km/h" The speed and
yValueName="Efficiency"
yValueUnit="1"> the efficiency unit.
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="0.88" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30"> <values yValue="0.95" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="60"> <values yValue="0.99" /> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="250"> <values yValue="0.98" /> </valueLine>
</valueTable>
</efficiency>
</tractionInverter>
<tractionMotor typeStr="">
<efficiency>
<valueTable
xValueName="Speed"
xValueUnit="km/h" The speed,
yValueName="Efficiency"
yValueUnit="1"> the efficiency and
zValueName="Effort"
zValueUnit="kN"> the effort unit.
We want to use the same efficiency for any traction force therefore the values between 0 kN
and 250 kN are the same.
the column for 0 kN
and for 250 kN
<columnHeader zValue="0" /> <columnHeader zValue="250" />
<valueLine xValue="0"> <values yValue="0.6"/> <values yValue="0.6"/> </valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30"> <values yValue="0.92"/><values yValue="0.92"/></valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="60"> <values yValue="0.95"/><values yValue="0.95"/></valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="105"><values yValue="0.93"/><values yValue="0.93"/></valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="250"><values yValue="0.93"/><values yValue="0.93"/></valueLine>
</valueTable>
</efficiency>
</tractionMotor>
<gear typeStr="" ratio="1" meanEfficiency="97.5">
</gear>
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100" />
</propulsion>
</engine>
</vehicle>
5.7.10.1.2.2 Project-File
In the Project file we need to change the efficiency model to Single component.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
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regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<SingleComponent This element specifies the efficiency model.
transformer="meanEfficiency" The efficiencies are mean,
fourQuadrantChopperEfficiency="efficiency=f(v)" versus speed,
tractionInverter="efficiency=f(v)" versus speed,
gear="meanEfficiency" mean and
tractionMotor="efficiency=f(v, F)" /> versus speed and force.
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right Engine-File and don’t forget to set a meaningful project name and comment in
the project file!
5.7.10.2
Simulation
We will do two simulations to be able to compare two transformer efficiency models and
using the long trains only.
Run both simulations:
 Do everything as described above and run the simulation.
 Change the attribute transformer in the Project-File to efficiency=f(I), give a
meaningful comment in the Project-File and run the simulation.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.10.3
Analysis
We use Excel tool “One Engine” and “Compare Two Engines” to compare the simulations.
Please note that the curve for traction efficiency in these files is only valid for a given mean
transformer efficiency, as it is not written separately to the results database! We have to set it
in the SELECTION sheet to display the correct curves. The total efficiency is not affected.
etha Trafo
98,00%
Figure 172 The cell in the Excel sheet SELECTION to set the transformer efficiency.
etha = f(v)
100%
90%
80%
70%
etha [%]
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0
50
100
150
200
250
v [km/h]
etha_tract [%]
etha_total [%]
Figure 173 The tractive and total efficiency of course ABCl_01 versus speed in file Engine.xlsx.
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etha = f(v)
100%
80%
60%
40%
etha [%]
20%
0%
-20%
-40%
-60%
-80%
-100%
0
50
100
150
200
250
v [km/h]
etha_tract [%] (Sim: 34; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
etha_total [%] (Sim: 34; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
etha_tract [%] (Sim: 35; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
etha_total [%] (Sim: 35; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1)
Figure 174 The total efficiency of course ABCl_01 with mean (sim 34) and versus current (sim 35) transformer
efficiency in file Engine2.xlsx.
5.7.11 Engine Energy Storage Tutorial
This tutorial describes the configuration of an engine energy storage. To use engine energy
storage the engine needs to be modelled with regenerative braking because the storage is
only charged by the regenerative braking.
5.7.11.1
Configuration
5.7.11.1.1
OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
Select only the course ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 with long trains.
5.7.11.1.2
OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the DC tutorial in chapter 0 as the basis.
5.7.11.1.2.1 Engine-File
The engine model has to be extended by regeneration and the storage modelling.
<propulsion supply="DC 3000V" transmission="electric" engine="electric" power="5560"
maxTractEffort="250" totalTractEfficiency="90"
the following attributes are added:
totalBrakeEfficiency="90"
maxBrakePower="5560"
maxBrakeEffort="250"
maxRecoveryVoltage="3600">
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100" />
<tractiveCurrentLimitation>
<valueTable xValueName="line voltage" xValueUnit="V" yValueName="current" yValueUnit="A">
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="0" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="2700">
<values yValue="2000" />
</valueLine>
</valueTable>
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</tractiveCurrentLimitation>
</propulsion>
The definition of the energy storage:
<storage name="S"
ImaxUnload_A="1000"
maxLoad_kWh="50"
PmaxLoad_kW="4000"
PmaxUnload_kW="200"
ImaxLoad_A="1000"
efficiencyLoad_percent="90"
efficiencyUnload_percent="95"
meanEfficiency_percent="90">
</storage>
5.7.11.1.2.2 Project-File
The Project-File is copied from the DC tutorial and adapted for the engine propulsion model.
The engine energy storage shall be modelled for charging as saver (higher priority of
charging then recovering) and discharging as traction ratio. See chapter 4.4.7.2 on page 60
for the detailed description of engine energy storage.
<OpenPowerNet xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial Engine Storage" The project name should be changed as well as the
comment="saver 50kW" comment to distinguish this simulation.
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
record2DB_Dump="false"
rstFile="Engine-File.xml"
simulationStart_s="3600">
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="DC 3000V"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" This has to be changed!
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
retryRecovery="true" This and
recoveryMode="U_source"> this attributes are added.
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
<Storage The storage element is new.
use="true"
name="S" This references to the storage name “S” in Engine-File.
loadModel="saver"
efficiency="meanEfficiency"
shareLoad_percent="100"
shareUnload_percent="100"
unloadModel="storage_P_traction_ratio"
initialLoad_kWh="0"
tractionRatio="0.1" />
</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
5.7.11.2
Simulation
We will do one simulation using the long trains only.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.11.3
Analysis
We use Excel Tools “Compare two Engines” and “One Engine Energy Storage”.
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v = f(t)
250
200
v [km/h]
150
100
50
0
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
00 01:30:00
Sim: 12; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
00 01:40:00
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
Sim: 36; Course: ABCl_01; Engine: 0-Engine1
Figure 175 Comparing the speed of the courses with and without engine energy storage.
The speed of the course with energy storage is higher between 01:33 and 01:42 because the
limited current due to low voltage is compensated by discharging of the energy storage.
E = f(t)
100.00
80.00
60.00
E [kWh]
40.00
20.00
0.00
-20.00
-40.00
00 01:00:00
00 01:10:00
00 01:20:00
E_used [kWh]
00 01:30:00
00 01:40:00
E_stored [kWh]
00 01:50:00
00 02:00:00
00 02:10:00
E_losses [kWh]
Figure 176 The energy allocation of the energy storage.
The energy stored (E_stored) into the storage is consumed by losses (E_losses) and by
discharging (E_used). The not consumed energy is still available in the storage.
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5.8
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Network Model Tutorials
In the following tutorials we will focus on advanced network configuration.
5.8.1 Substations Tutorial
In this tutorial we will create a substation with two transformers. Each transformer shall have
a busbar and connectors between them. The substation shall be same as in Figure 177 but
with two winding transformers. The infeeds shall be at km 5+000 and km 6+000.
At 1:04:30 one transformer shall be disconnected and at 1:05:00 the other shall feed the left
and the right section.
Transformer Substation
Three Winding Transformer 1
Three Winding Transformer 2
Isource
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Isource
Isource
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Isource
swtr_ocs
bus bars
swtr_rails
swtr_negative
swtr_negative
sw
feeder ocs
negative feeder
sw
Y
Y
rails
sw
feeder ocs
sw
feeder rails
OCS
swtr_ocs
swtr_rails
bus bar connectors
with switches
sw
negative feeder
sw
Y
sw
Y
bus bars
feeder rails
Y
sw
Y
Y
sw
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
negativeFeeder
Figure 177 A substation with two transformers, busbars and busbar connection.
Figure 178 The wrong configuration of the feeder from substation to the line.
The sum of the conductor current will not be zero because connectors are parallel to
conductors and allow the current to bypass the conductor. See the constraints listed in
chapter 4.3.1.
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Figure 179 The correct configuration of the substation with all infeeds at the same slice.
To see the effect of the wrong and the correct configuration we run both simulations and
record all currents and voltages between km 0+000 and km 9+000.
5.8.1.1 Configuration
5.8.1.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
Select only the course ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 with long trains.
5.8.1.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial as the basis.
5.8.1.1.2.1 Engine-File
For this tutorial we don’t need to change the Engine-File.
5.8.1.1.2.2 Project-File
As there are two different configurations we will have two Project-Files. One Project-File with
the wrong configuration same as in Figure 178 and one Project-File with the correct
configuration same as in Figure 179.
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First we create the Project-File with the wrong configuration. The substation TSS_5 shall be
adapted and the network shall be split at km 5+100 by adding isolators in the messenger and
contact wire.
First we add the isolators to the line. The XML snippet below if nested in the element Line.
<Isolators>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="5.1" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="5.1" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
</Isolators>
Next is to add the second transformer to TSS_5 and to add the infeeds.
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB
bbName="OCS_BB_1" The new busbar name.
z_real_Ohm="0.001"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB
bbName="Rails_BB_1" The new busbar name.
z_real_Ohm="0.001"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer> This is the second transformer with the same properties as T1.
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T2" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T2_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T2_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1"> Change the name to make a unique busbar name.
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1"> Change the name to make a unique busbar name.
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder_6.0" ></Switch>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder_6.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
Here the busbar connectors including switches:
<OCSBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="OCS_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="OCS_BB_2" />
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<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_OCS_BB" />
</OCSBBConnector>
<RailsBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="Rails_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="Rails_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_Rails_BB" />
</RailsBBConnector>
</Substation>
To minimise the recorded data we will record voltages and currents only from km 0+000 to
km 9+000.
<Lines recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true"> Set both attributes to true.
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors> Split the ToProperty at km 9+000 and set the recording to false until the end
of the line.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
Set the recording option for the connector slices and leakage to false.
<ConnectorSlices recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false">
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...
<Leakages recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false">
After we finished the wrong configuration we will do the right configuration. Copy the just
created Project-File and add the following:
Add both Feeder and ReturnFeeder conductors left and right of the substation.
<Conductor type="Feeder"> The left feeder with the properties same as a rail.
<StartPosition condName="LF_l" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty
toPos_km="5.1"
equivalentRadius_mm="3.45"
r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4" Make sure to set the cross section for each conductor to a unique location.
y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Feeder"> The right feeder,
<StartPosition condName="LF_r" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="6" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.2" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ReturnFeeder"> left return feeder and
<StartPosition condName="RF_l" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.1" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ReturnFeeder"> right return feeder.
<StartPosition condName="RF_r" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="6" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Then we need to connect the new conductors with the contact wire and rail at km 5+000
respective km 6+000:
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6"
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6"
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
</Connector>
/>
/>
/>
/>
Finally all infeeds from the substation need to be connected at km 5+100 to the Feeder and
ReturnFeeder conductors.
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="LF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="LF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder_6.0"></Switch>
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</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder_6.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
5.8.1.2 Simulation
First we run the wrong and then the correct simulation with long trains only. Note the
message in OPN-PSC console at the beginning of the simulation. You can see which
number of currents and voltages are recorded to the database.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.1.3 Analysis
For analysis we will use the Excel tool “Current, I_total=f(s)” and “Voltage, U=f(s)”. In the
latter please set the option “Use Sign” to “NO”.
I_total = f(s)
60000.000
50000.000
I [A]
40000.000
30000.000
20000.000
10000.000
0.000
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
I_total_real [A]
5+000
s [km]
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
10+000
I_total_imag [A]
Figure 180 The sum of the conductor current for each section and all time steps with the wrong configuration.
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I_total = f(s)
0.600
0.500
I [A]
0.400
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
s [km]
I_total_real [A]
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
10+000
I_total_imag [A]
Figure 181 The sum of the conductor current for each section and all time steps with the correct configuration.
When we compare both diagrams above we can see the wrong configuration results in a
current sum much higher than 0 A. In Figure 181 the resulting current is almost 0 A. The
current is not exact 0 A due to numeric rounding during the calculation and analysis.
U = f(s)
60
250.000
50
200.000
40
I [A]
U [V]
150.000
30
100.000
20
50.000
10
0
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
0.000
9+000
s [km]
U_abs [V] (Track: 1; Conductor: E)
U_abs [V] (Track: 1; Conductor: RR)
Delta U_abs [V]
I_Courses [A]
Figure 182 The potential of the earth conductor and rail to the earth node and the touch voltage between the rail
RR and earth as result of the wrong configured network at 1:28:36. The right y-axis shows the current of the
course.
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U = f(s)
60
250.000
50
200.000
40
I [A]
U [V]
150.000
30
100.000
20
50.000
10
0
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
0.000
9+000
s [km]
U_abs [V] (Track: 1; Conductor: E)
U_abs [V] (Track: 1; Conductor: RR)
Delta U_abs [V]
I_Courses [A]
Figure 183 The potential of the earth conductor and rail to the earth node and the touch voltage between the rail
RR and earth as result of the correct configured network at 1:28:36. The right y-axis shows the current of the
course.
The two figures above show the resulting voltages of the earth conductor and rail RR at
1:28:36. At this time the course CBAl_01 is close to TSS_5. The rail RL has the same
voltage as RR because both are connected by very low resistances and therefore not shown.
The difference between both configurations is significant not only for the conductor voltages
but also for the touch voltage between them.
5.8.2 Neutral Zone Tutorial
In this tutorial a 2AC system with neutral zone will be created. The basic 2AC tutorial was
simpler without a neutral zone.
The neutral zone shall be at TSS_5 from km 4+800 to km 5+200 and it shall be possible to
feed from one feeding section via the neutral zone to the other feeding section. Furthermore
we add an autotransformer station at km 0+000, see Figure 184.
TSS_5
ATS_0
ATS_80
T2
T1
T1
sw
sw
sw
T1
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
ocs
neutral zone
rails
sw
sw
80+000
5+300
5+200
4+800
4+700
0+000
negative
feeder
Figure 184 The electrical network model.
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To fulfil the constraint that the current sum in each section is always 0 A the neutral zone
configuration shall look like in Figure 185.
Figure 185 The configuration of a neutral zone of a 2AC system.
5.8.2.1 Configuration
5.8.2.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial without changes.
Select only the course ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 with long trains.
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5.8.2.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and correct Project-File from the Substation tutorial in chapter 5.8.1
as the basis.
5.8.2.1.2.1 Engine-File
For this tutorial we don’t need to change the Engine-File.
5.8.2.1.2.2 Project-File
First of all we need to add the negative feeder from km 0+000 to km 84+500.
<Conductor type="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="NF" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty
toPos_km="9"
equivalentRadius_mm="8.4"
r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4"
y_m="9" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="80" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
Next we change the Feeder and ReturnFeeder and add the NegativeFeeder
conductors parallel to the neutral zone.
Note: The parallel conductors are from km 4+700 to km 5+000 and from km 5+000 to
km 5+300.
<Conductor type="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_5_F_l" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_5_F_r" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.3" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_5_RF_l" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_5_RF_r" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.3" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Following the two new negative feeder conductors.
<Conductor type="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_5_NF_l" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.2" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_5_NF_r" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.3" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.2" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The changed and added conductors need to be connected to the line. Therefore we need to
change and add new connectors.
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_5_F_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
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<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_5_F_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_5_RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_5_RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
</Connector>
These are the connectors to the new negative feeder.
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_5_NF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ConductorTo condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_5_NF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
<ConductorTo condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
</Connector>
Instead of isolators we now use conductor switches. Remove the Isolators and add the XMLsnippet below.
<Switches>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_4.8_CW"
<Position km="4.8" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_4.8_MW"
<Position km="4.8" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_4.8_NF"
<Position km="4.8" trackID="1" condName="NF" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_5.2_CW"
<Position km="5.2" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_5.2_MW"
<Position km="5.2" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_5.2_NF"
<Position km="5.2" trackID="1" condName="NF" />
</ConductorSwitch>
</Switches>
/>
/>
/>
/>
/>
/>
After we have done the line configuration we need to add and adapt the substations.
First we add the autotransformer station ATS_0 at km 0+000.
<Substation name="ATS_0">
<Autotransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="5" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="55"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="5" loadLosses_kW="10"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="1.8" noLoadCurrent_A="0.2">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_0_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_0_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_0_T1_NF" defaultState="close" />
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Autotransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_0_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
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<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_0_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_0_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
The TSS_80 shall be replaced by the ATS_80 with same parameter as ATS_0 but connected
to the line at km 80+000.
The TSS_5 get now two transformers, 6 busbars and 3 busbar connectors, see the XML
snippet below.
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<ThreeWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="55" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_NF" defaultState="close" />
</NegativeFeederBB>
</ThreeWindingTransformer>
<ThreeWindingTransformer name="T2" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="55" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T2_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T2_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T2_NF" defaultState="close" />
</NegativeFeederBB>
</ThreeWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_4.7_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_5_F_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_5.3_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_5_F_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_4.7_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_5_RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_5.3_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_5_RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_4.7_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_5_NF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_5.3_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
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<Position condName="TSS_5_NF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Busbars>
<OCSBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="OCS_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="OCS_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_OCS_BB" />
</OCSBBConnector>
<RailsBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="Rails_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="Rails_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_Rails_BB" />
</RailsBBConnector>
<NegativeFeederBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="NF_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="NF_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_5_NF_BB" />
</NegativeFeederBBConnector>
</Substation>
5.8.2.2 Simulation
Run the simulation using the long trains.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.2.3 Analysis
After the simulation we will check the total current sum at each section and for all time steps.
For this we use the Excel tool “Current, I_total=f(s)”. Furthermore we want to check the effect
of the neutral zone to the speed of the course.
I_total = f(s)
0.700
0.600
0.500
I [A]
0.400
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
I_total_real [A]
5+000
s [km]
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
10+000
I_total_imag [A]
Figure 186 The sum of the current per section of ther whole simulation period.
As we can see from Figure 186 the maximum total current sum is about 0.6 A in the area of
the neutral zone. This may look like a lot but as the simulation runs from 1:00:00 until 1:49:08
in time steps of 4s the number of time steps is 737. To get the average total current sum per
time step we divide 0.6 A by 737. The result is 0.8 mA and this is very close to 0 A in the
context of railway power supplies. Therefore the model of the neutral zone is correct.
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v = f(s)
250
200
v [km/h]
150
100
50
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
Figure 187 The speed versus location of course ABCl_01.
In the diagram above we can see the speed is slightly reduced in the area of the neutral zone
near km 5+000. This is because there is no power supply available in the neutral zone and
the train is coasting.
Usually the courses are powered off before and powered on after they have passed the
neutral zone. This power off and on may be modelled in OpenTrack using power signals.
Please see the OpenTrack documentation for details.
5.8.3 AC-DC Networks Tutorial
In this tutorial we will create a project file with two independent power supply areas. The
engines shall have two different propulsion systems. One propulsion system shall be for
25 kV 50 Hz and the other for 3 kV DC.
Engine Property
Fmax
Pmax
AC
250 kN
5.56 MW
DC
200 kN
3.89 MW
Table 18 The engine properties of the AC-DC tutorial.
Network Property
Substation
Chainage
AC
km 45+000
track “1” from km 9+750 to
km 85+400
Line feeder
none
DC
km 5+000
track “1” from km 0+000 to
km 9+750 and track “2” from
km 9+750 to km 10+250
yes from km 0+000 to
km 9+750
Table 19 The network properties of the AC-DC tutorial.
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5.8.3.1 Configuration
5.8.3.1.1 OpenTrack
The bases are the configuration files from the AC tutorial in chapter 0.
We need to:
 Change the propulsion system of the infrastructure (Figure 188) and
 Add the 3 kV DC propulsion system to “Engine1” (Figure 189).
Figure 188 The OpenTrack infrastructure indicating the AC (blue) and DC (orange) power supply system.
Figure 189 The engine configuration in OpenTrack with two propulsion systems.
5.8.3.1.2 OpenPowerNet
In OpenPowerNet we need also both propulsion systems in order to run the same engine on
both propulsion systems.
5.8.3.1.2.1 Engine-File
The basis shall be the Engine-File from the AC tutorial in chapter 0. To this engine file we
add the DC propulsion system with the properties listed in Table 18, see XML snippet below.
<propulsion
supply="DC 3000V"
transmission="electric"
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engine="electric"
power="3890"
maxTractEffort="200"
totalTractEfficiency="90"
totalBrakeEfficiency="90">
<auxSupply typeStr="all" constPower="100"/>
</propulsion>
5.8.3.1.2.2 Project-File
As the basis we will use the Project-File from the AC tutorial in chapter 0.
First we add the configuration of the DC propulsion system to the engine.
<Propulsion engine="electric" supply="DC 3000V" brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none" useAuxPower="true" fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none" tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
It is the same as for AC but the attribute supply has a different value.
Second is the configuration of the electrical networks.
The DC network:
<Network name="A-B" use="true"
voltage_kV="3" Set the voltage and
frequency_Hz="0" frequency for DC.
recordVoltage="true" recordCurrent="true">
<Lines recordCurrent="false+sub" recordVoltage="false+sub">
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors> First the conductors for track 1 from km 0+000 to km 9+750.
<Conductor type="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="LF" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor> Then the conductors for track 2 from km 9+750 to km 10+250.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
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<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor> Last but not least the earth wire.
<Conductor type="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices> The connectors between contact and messenger wire and
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice> line feeder to contact wire.
<ConnectorSlice name="line feeder to CW" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000594" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages> The leakages for both tracks.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines> These are the connectors from track 1 to track 2 conductors.
<Connectors recordCurrent="false+sub" recordVoltage="false+sub">
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
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<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_5"> The substation at km 5+000 with rectifier.
<Rectifier name="R1" internalResistance_Ohm="0.01" nomVoltage_kV="3.3"
energyRecovery="false">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0" />
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0" />
</Rectifier>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="TSS_5_LF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="LF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Network>
The AC network:
<Network name="B-C" use="true"
voltage_kV="25" The nominal voltage and
frequency_Hz="50" frequency for the AC network.
recordVoltage="true" recordCurrent="true">
<Lines recordCurrent="false+sub" recordVoltage="false+sub">
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors> The conductors for track 1 from km 9+750 to km 85+400.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices> The connectors between contact and messenger wire.
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<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages> The leakages for the track.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
<Substations> The substation at km 45+000 with two winding transformer.
<Substation name="TSS_45">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_45_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_45_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_45_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_45_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
</Network>
5.8.3.2 Simulation
Run the simulation with long trains only.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.3.3 Analysis
For analysis we use the Excel tool “All Engines” and “One Engine”.
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F = f(v)
300.0
200.0
F [kN]
100.0
0.0
-100.0
-200.0
-300.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
v [km/h]
F_requested [kN]
F_achieved [kN]
Figure 190 The achieved effort of the engines in the DC and AC network.
In the diagram above we can see the two different effort versus speed characteristics very
well. The upper curve belongs to the AC and the lower one to the DC propulsion system.
U, I = f(s)
30000
2000
1800
25000
1600
1400
20000
15000
1000
I [A]
U [V]
1200
800
10000
600
400
5000
200
0
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
0
90+000
s [km]
U [V]
I [A]
Figure 191 The line voltage and current at pantograph of course ABCl_01.
Figure 191 shows the curves for voltage and current in both electrical networks. The line
voltage of the two systems is significantly different and the location of the system change can
be seen.
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5.8.4 Network with Multiple Lines, Points and Crossings Tutorial
In This tutorial we will create an OpenTrack infrastructure with two lines and multiple points
and one crossing. For the simulation of the electrical power supply we create a network also
with two lines and 3 substations.
Figure 192 The OpenTrack infrastructure with chaininage, line and track names.
Property
Signal
Timetable
Value
km 29+600 track 2: set sight distance to 10000m
Course
Station A
Station B
Station C
Start
Stop 300s,
ABCl_0100
Terminate
01:00:00
track 2
Stop 600s,
Start
CBAl_0100
Terminate
track 1
01:00:00
Stop 60s,
DBAl_1000
Terminate
track 3
ABDl_0110
DBAl_1015
Start
01:10:00
Terminate
Stop 60s,
track 2
Stop 60s,
track 2
Station D
Start
01:00:00,
track 1
Terminate,
track 2
Start
01:15:00,
track 1
Table 20 OpenTrack infrastructure properties and timetable.
Property
Substation
Power system
Line A
km 5+000 & km 25+000
25 kV 50 Hz
Line B
km 25+000
Table 21 OpenPowerNet network properties.
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5.8.4.1 Configuration
5.8.4.1.1 OpenTrack
As the basis we take the data from the AC tutorial. The tracks to be added have no gradient
or radius for simplification.
Create the tracks and use the information from Figure 192.
Note: The track names of the crossing and the cross-over are the same as for the main line
tracks.
The electrical network model shall be simplified and the catenary for the crossing tracks and
the cross-over tracks shall not be modelled. Only the main tracks shall have a catenary
model. Therefore the positions within the crossing and cross-over have to be mapped to the
main tracks. A position is always the triplet of line name, track name and chainage.
Create all paths, routes and itineraries to run the trains as listed in Table 20.
Note: The courses drive on the right track by default!
5.8.4.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial as the basis.
5.8.4.1.2.1 Engine-File
For this tutorial we don’t need to change the Engine-File.
5.8.4.1.2.2 Project-File
From the AC tutorial we will used the engine model, substation configuration, the properties
of the conductors, connectors and connector slices. We need to change the beginning and
the end of the conductors and slices.
First the configuration of line A:
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors>
The conductor configuration for track 1.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The conductor configuration for track 2.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
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</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The conductor configuration for track 3.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="20" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="20" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="19.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="20.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The earth conductor.
<Conductor type="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices>
The dropper configuration for track 1.
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The dropper configuration for track 2.
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.000"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The dropper configuration for track 3.
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 3" firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.000"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="3" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="3" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The rail connector configuration for track 1.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The rail connector configuration for track 2.
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<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.000"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The rail connector configuration for track 3.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 3" firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.000"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="3" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="3" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages>
The leakage configuration for track 1.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
The leakage configuration for track 2.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.00" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.000" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
The leakage configuration for track 3.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.00" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="3" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.000" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="3" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
Configuration of line B:
<Line name="B" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors>
The conductor configuration for track 1.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The conductor configuration for track 2.
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<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The earth conductor.
<Conductor type="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices>
The dropper configuration for track 1.
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1" firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The dropper configuration for track 2.
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2" firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The rail connector configuration for track 1.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
The rail connector configuration for track 2.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages>
The leakage configuration for track 1.
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
The leakage configuration for track 2.
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
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<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
After the configuration of the conductors for both lines and all tracks the electrical connection
between the lines and tracks shall be configured.
The electrical connection of track 1 and 3 at km 9+650.
<Connectors>
<Connector name="MW track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
The electrical connection of track 1 and 2 at km 9+750.
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<!-- Connections of rails and ocs at change over from track 1 to 2 line A. -->
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<!-- Connections of rails and ocs at the crossing. -->
<Connector name="MW track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
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</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
</Connector>
<!-- Connections of rails and ocs at change over from track 1 to 2 line B. -->
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<!-- Connection between the lines. -->
<Connector name="MW track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="E track 1, Line A - B" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
Last but not least the configuration of the substations TSS_5, TSS_A_25 and TSS_B_25:
<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
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<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
<Substation name="TSS_A_25">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_A_25_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_A_25_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_A_25_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_A_25_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
<Substation name="TSS_B_25">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_B_25_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_B_25_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_B_25_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_B_25_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
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5.8.4.2 Simulation
To check the timetable and correct configuration of OpenTrack the first simulation run shall
be without OpenPowerNet. Go in OpenTrack to Info => OpenPowerNet Settings and
deselect Use OpenPowerNet.
The train graphs shall look like in Figure 193 and Figure 194.
Figure 193 The train graph from station A to C.
Figure 194 The train graph from station A to D.
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Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.4.3 Analysis
For analysis we will use Excel tool “One Engine”.
37
Simulation
037 2012-04-20
37 19:41:42 Tutorial lines points crossings 5 long trains, record all U & I
All
Line
1%
All
ABDl_1010
Course
ABDl_1010 2
68
Engine
0-Engine1 1
B
B
t [s]
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
B
lineID
trackID
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
B
time
B
s [km]
00 01:27:30
00 01:27:31
00 01:27:32
00 01:27:33
00 01:27:34
00 01:27:35
00 01:27:36
00 01:27:37
D
I [A]
19+942
19+963
19+984
20+004
20+025
20+046
20+067
20+088
D
U [V]
36.268
36.268
36.268
36.268
36.267
36.267
36.266
36.265
27392.951
27392.935
27392.935
27393.068
27393.657
27394.245
27394.832
27395.419
Figure 195 The positions of course ABDl_1010 with track change from line A to line B.
In Figure 195 we can see the change of course ABDl_1010 from line A to line B at 1:27:33.
For each location there is a voltage and current value. That means the positions in
OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet are the same. In case the position does not match than the
voltage is 0 V.
The coupling of the conductors is only calculated for each line and there is no coupling
between different lines. The difference for track 1 can be seen on the conductors of the left
track in Figure 196 and Figure 197. These figures where created using the Automatic
Analysis tool, please refer to chapter 4.6.3.4 for the handling instructions!
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Figure 196 The magnetic field at line A, km 19+950 at 01:17:32.
Figure 197 The magnetic field at line A km 20+125 at 01:17:32.
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5.8.5 Turning Loops Tutorial
In this tutorial we will compare the effect of a wrong and a correct configuration for turning
loops. Turning loops are typical for tram networks but also for other railway systems. They
have to be modelled as a virtual double track line. The wrong configuration may run, but will
produce incorrect results for OpenTrack and/or for OpenPowerNet.
We will use 25 kV 50 Hz power supply system with one substation at km 5+000. The line
shall be about 25km long and have 3 stations.
Two courses shall run as follow:
Course
ABCl_01
CBAl_01
Station A
Start 01:00:00,
track 1
Terminate track 1
loop via track 2
Station B
Stop 60s, track 2
Station C
Terminate
Stop 60s, track 1
Start 01:00:00
Table 22 Timetable of courses in the loops totorial.
5.8.5.1 Configuration
5.8.5.1.1 OpenTrack
As the basis for the infrastructure we take the data from the AC tutorial. We need to add the
loop and to change the chainage according to Figure 198 and Figure 199.
Figure 198 The wrong OpenTrack infrastructrue configuration of the loop tracks.
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Figure 199 The correct OpenTrack infrastructrue configuration of the loop tracks.
Next after configuration of the infrastructure create new paths, routs, itineraries and courses
according to Table 22.
5.8.5.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.8.5.1.2.1 Engine-File
The engine file is the same as in the AC tutorial.
5.8.5.1.2.2 Project-File
According to the infrastructure defined in OpenTrack we need to configure the electrical
network in OpenPowerNet.
Figure 200 The wrong OpenPowerNet network configuration.
Lets first configure the wrong electrical network.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<OpenPowerNet xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Network Tutorial - Loop"
comment="wrong"
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
record2DB_Dump="false"
rstFile="Engine-File.xml"
simulationStart_s="3600">
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion engine="electric" supply="AC 25kV 50Hz" brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none" useAuxPower="true" fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
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<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
<Options tolerance_A="0.1" maxIterations="1000" record2DB="true" />
</ATM>
<PSC>
<Network name="A-C" use="true" voltage_kV="25" frequency_Hz="50" recordVoltage="true"
recordCurrent="true">
<Lines>
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
The configuration of the conductors.
<Conductors>
The conductors for track 1,
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
for track2 in station A
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.450" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.450" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.450" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.450" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
and for station B.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
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<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
The definition of connector slices. To have more detailed recoding data the slice distance in
the station A shall be only 50m. Outside the stations A and B the slice distance shall be
200m. And track 2 in station B slice distance 100m.
<ConnectorSlices>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1, station A" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="1"
maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1, outside station A" firstPos_km="1.2"
lastPos_km="25.4" maxDistance_km="0.2">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2, station A" firstPos_km="0"
lastPos_km="0.450" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2, station B" firstPos_km="9.800"
lastPos_km="10.200" maxDistance_km="0.1">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, station A" firstPos_km="0"
lastPos_km="1" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, outside station A"
firstPos_km="1.2" lastPos_km="25.4" maxDistance_km="0.2">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station A" firstPos_km="0"
lastPos_km="0.450" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station B" firstPos_km="9.800"
lastPos_km="10.200" maxDistance_km="0.1">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
The definition of the leakage.
<Leakages>
Track 1
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<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Track 2 in station A
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="0.450" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="0.450" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Track 2 in station B.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
The connectors used to connect the conductors of the tracks.
<Connectors>
<Connector name="MW track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.450" />
</Connector>
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<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
The substation at km 5+000.
<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Network>
<Options tolerance_grad="0.001" tolerance_V="0.1" tolerance_A="0.1" maxIncreaseCount="500"
discreteEngine="true" maxCurrentAngleIteration="100" />
</PSC>
</OpenPowerNet>
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Figure 201 The correct OpenPowerNet network configuration.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<OpenPowerNet
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Network Tutorial - Loop"
comment="correct"
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
record2DB_Dump="false"
rstFile="Engine-File.xml"
simulationStart_s="3600">
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion engine="electric" supply="AC 25kV 50Hz" brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none" useAuxPower="true" fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
<Options tolerance_A="0.1" maxIterations="1000" record2DB="true" />
</ATM>
<PSC>
<Network name="A-C" use="true" voltage_kV="25" frequency_Hz="50" recordVoltage="true"
recordCurrent="true">
<Lines>
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
The configuration of the conductors.
<Conductors>
The conductors for track 1.
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<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The conductors for track 2 in station A.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The conductors for track 2 in station B.
<Conductor type="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="450000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0393"
temperature_GradCelsius="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-450.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
The definition of connector slices. To have more detailed recoding data the slice distance in
the station A shall be only 50m. Outside the stations A and B the slice distance shall be
200m. And track 2 in station B slice distance 100m.
<ConnectorSlices>
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<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1, station A" firstPos_km="0.2"
lastPos_km="1" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 1, outside station A" firstPos_km="1.2"
lastPos_km="25.4" maxDistance_km="0.2">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2, station A" firstPos_km="0.2"
lastPos_km="0.650" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="dropper, track 2, station B" firstPos_km="9.800"
lastPos_km="10.200" maxDistance_km="0.1">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000073" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, station A" firstPos_km="0.2"
lastPos_km="1" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, outside station A"
firstPos_km="1.2" lastPos_km="25.4" maxDistance_km="0.2">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station A" firstPos_km="0.2"
lastPos_km="0.650" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station B" firstPos_km="9.800"
lastPos_km="10.200" maxDistance_km="0.1">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
The configuration of the leakages.
<Leakages>
Leakage of track 1 in station A.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Leakage of track 2 in station A.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="0.650" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
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<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="0.650" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Leakage of track 2 in station B.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
The connectors used to connect the conductors of the tracks.
<Connectors>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
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<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
<Substations>
The substation at km 5+000.
<Substation name="TSS_5">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_5_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_5_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.2" /> Note the beginning of the earth
conductor at km 0+200!
</Network>
<Options tolerance_grad="0.001" tolerance_V="0.1" tolerance_A="0.1" maxIncreaseCount="500"
discreteEngine="true" maxCurrentAngleIteration="100" />
</PSC>
</OpenPowerNet>
5.8.5.2 Simulation
Run both simulations one after the other.
Note: When not using the FULL license set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.5.3 Analysis
For analysis we will use the Excel tool “One Engine” and “Current, I_total=f(s)” as well as the
Automatic Analysis tool. Please refer to chapter 4.6.3 for the handling instructions!
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Figure 202 The maximum rail-earth potential of the simulation with the wrong network configuration.
Figure 203 The maximum rail-earth potential of the simulation with the correct network configuration.
Figure 202 and Figure 203 show the maximum rail-earth potential for both simulations. For
the wrong simulation the rail-earth potential in station A is incorrect.
Figure 204 shows the values of the current sum of all conductors per section for the total
simulation time. Between km 0+405 and km 0+650 the value is not close to 0 A, this means
there is a connector parallel to conductors. This violates the model constraints listed in
chapter 4.3.1.
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I_total_real [A]I_total_imag [A]
s_from [km]
0.154
0.155
0.157
0.142
0.159
0.183
0.166
0.147
0.161
618.017
618.018
618.010
618.005
0.114
0.123
0.163
0.164
0.148
0.140
0.148
0.145
0.147
0.167
0.159
1127.759
1127.796
1127.774
1127.784
0.117
0.123
Issue 2014-11-05
s_to [km]
0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.700
s_centre [km]
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.700
0.750
0+025
0+075
0+125
0+175
0+225
0+275
0+325
0+375
0+425
0+475
0+525
0+575
0+625
0+675
0+725
Figure 204 The sum of sum currents per section over the total simulation time of the wrong simulation.
lineID
trackID
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
s [km]
0.829
0.808
0.787
0.766
0.745
0.724
0.704
0.683
0.662
0.641
0.200
0.179
0.158
0.137
0.116
0.095
0.075
0.054
0.033
0.012
I_real [A]
I_imag [A]
36.230
36.241
36.252
36.263
36.274
36.286
36.291
36.243
36.243
0.000
231.172
36.244
36.244
36.244
36.245
36.245
36.245
36.245
36.245
36.245
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
U_real [V]
27419.900
27411.291
27402.786
27393.778
27384.878
27375.471
27370.849
27410.135
27409.831
0.000
26761.868
27408.768
27408.629
27408.629
27408.515
27408.515
27408.427
27408.426
27408.426
27408.363
U_imag [V]
F_requested [kN]
F_achieved [kN]
v [km/h]
-312.718
-347.247
-381.112
-415.782
-449.771
-484.556
-501.594
-350.944
-351.690
0.000
-2217.235
-354.846
-355.269
-355.269
-355.622
-355.622
-355.906
-355.906
-355.906
-356.121
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
247.000
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
0.000
247.000
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
74.609
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
P_aux [kW]
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
0.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
time
00 01:15:40
00 01:15:41
00 01:15:42
00 01:15:43
00 01:15:44
00 01:15:45
00 01:15:46
00 01:15:47
00 01:15:48
00 01:15:49
00 01:15:51
00 01:15:52
00 01:15:53
00 01:15:54
00 01:15:55
00 01:15:56
00 01:15:57
00 01:15:58
00 01:15:59
00 01:16:00
Figure 205 The simulation values to course CBAl_01 for the wrong simulation with missing data at 1:15:50.
In Figure 205 the values of course CBAl_01 are incomplete because the configuration of
OpenTrack infrastructure is not correct respective does not match with the OpenPowerNet
positions. The course CBAl_01 is approaching station A and changing from track 1 to track 2
at km 0+650. OpenTrack determines the chainage by counting the distance from the last
vertex. Counting + or – depends on the direction of the edge and the direction of the course.
In our case the course pass vertex at km 0+650 and move to track 2. So the actual position
is the vertex at km 0+650 minus 9 m, this is km 0+641 at track 2. The solution may be to add
an additional vertex at the end of track 2 (km 0+450) with an edge length of 0 m to vertex
km 0+650 at track 1. This is a workaround for this problem but the electrical configuration is
still wrong.
This tutorial shows the very important constraint to always have a current sum of 0 A for all
conductors in the same section. This means it is not allowed to add connectors parallel to
conductors.
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6
6.1
User Manual
Issue 2014-11-05
FAQ
How to deal with broken chainage?
In general it is advised to avoid broken chainage!
There are two different kinds of broken chainage, a positive and a negative, see Figure 206.
distance
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
chainage
0+000
1+000 = 1+100
2+100 = 1+900
2+900
positive
broken chainage
(add 100m)
negative
broken chainage
(go back 200m)
Figure 206 The two kinds of broken chainage as example.
Each kind has to be handled different in OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet. See Figure 207 for
the PSC Viewer Diagram of the solution in OpenPowerNet. The detailed description follows
in the next chapters.
Figure 207 The positive and negative broken chainage modelled in OpenPowerNet.
6.1.1 Positive broken chainage
Positive is easier to model than the other one. According to the example in Figure 206 we
just need in OpenTrack to set km 1+000 at one side of the double vertex and km 1+100 at
the other side.
In OpenPowerNet we define conductors ending at km 1+000 and start new conductors at km
1+100. Then we have to connect the conductors with each other using low resistance
connectors, see the upper conductors in Figure 207. The Project-File XML snippet shows the
conductor and connector configuration of the example.
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.1" recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true">
<Conductors>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="0" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="1.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition km="0" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="1.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
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<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
</Line>
<Connectors>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="1.000" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="1.000" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
6.1.2 Negative broken chainage
The model in OpenTrack is the same as for positive broken chainage. Set km 2+100 at one
side of the double vertex and km 1+900 at the other and define a new line name for the
following edges. Always take care of the edge direction!
In OpenPowerNet we need to have two lines. In this example the line “A” from km 0+000 to
2+100 and line “A-“ from km1+900 to 3+000. Then we have to connect the conductors with
each other using low resistance connectors, see Figure 207. The Project-File XML snippet
shows the conductor and connector configuration of the example.
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.1" recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true">
<Conductors>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
</Line>
<Line name="A-" maxSliceDistance_km="0.1" recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true">
<Conductors>
<Conductor type="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="3.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor type="Rail">
<StartPosition km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="3.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_GradCelsius="40" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
</Line>
<Connectors>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="2.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A-" />
</Connector>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="2.100" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A-" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
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6.2
User Manual
Issue 2014-11-05
How to organise the files and folders?
See chapter 5.0.
6.3
How to calculate the equivalent radius?
First determine the cross section A of the given conductor and convert this value to radius
of a circular cross section with same area Acircle , see the formula below.
r
A  Acircle    r 2
r
A

Second the radius r of the circular cross section needs to be multiplied with factor a to get
the equivalent radius req .
req  a  r
a
conductor type
solid cylindrical
0.779
rail
0.7788
Al and Cu cables, 7 cores, 10-50mm²
0.726
Al and Cu cables, 19 cores, 70-120mm²
0.758
Al and Cu cables, 37 cores, 150-185mm²
0.768
Al and Cu cables, 61 cores, 240-500mm²
0.772
Al and Cu cables, 91 cores, 625-1000mm²
0.774
1 layer Al/Fe cables, 16/2.5 – 300/50mm²
0.55
1 layer Al/Fe cables, 44/32 – 120/70mm²
0.7
2 layers Al/Fe cables, 26 cores, 120/20 – 300/50mm²
0.809
2 layers Al/Fe cables, 30 cores, 125/30 – 210/50mm²
0.826
3 layers Al/Fe cables, 54 cores, 380/50 – 680/85mm²
0.810
Table 23 Factors to calculate equivalent radius from circular cross section radius. Source: H. Koettnitz, H. Pundt;
Berechnung Elektrischer Energieversorgungsnetze; Band I; VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie (1968);
Page 230.
6.4
How to model running rails in AC simulation?
Due to the relative permeability of running rails the relationship of the impedance and current
in AC simulations is nonlinear. Even in cases of fundamental frequencies of 16.7 Hz, 50 Hz
or 60 Hz the skin effect causes an increase of the running rail resistance compared to the
DC-resistance as well as an influence on the impedance. Because of the commonly
unknown B-H-curve of the rail-material the impedance can be estimated by choosing current
and frequency-dependant values for the inner parameters of the rails.
For the description of the current dependent running rail impedance components two
different data sources are available. The first data source is based on an analytical model.
The model describes the shape of the running rail as a cylinder and then calculates the
resistance and the reactance based on analytic mathematical functions (Bessel). Specific
values of this model are marked with the index S1 in the following figures. The second data
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source is based on measurements. The results are prepared by empirical formulas, which
are published e.g. in the book "Contact Lines for Electrical Railways. Planning, Design,
Implementation”. Specific values of this data source are marked with the index S2 in the
following figures. The values referring to the sources 1 and 2 are show in dependency of
current in the following figures.
Figure 208 Impedance components for inner values fo running rails, different models at 16.7 Hz.
Figure 209 Impedance components for inner values for running rails, different models at 50 Hz.
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Figure 210 Impedance components for inner values for running rails, different models at 60 Hz.
For the selection of the rail parameter the following way is suggested. In dependency of the
fundamental frequency the expected current shall be assumed. In case of rating purposes
the maximum values of the specific parameters shall be selected. In dependency of the
assumed current the parameters for the specific resistance and reactance can be selected.
The value of the specific resistance can be used as input parameter
for the rails directly.
Based on the selected reactance value the equivalent radius can be calculated as below.
req  1000  e

X'
1000 f   0
For different values of specific reactance and frequency the equivalent radius is given in
Table 24.
X ' in Ω/km
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
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req in mm,
req in mm,
req in mm,
16.7 Hz
148.67
92.31
57.32
35.59
22.10
13.72
8.52
5.29
3.29
50 Hz
60 Hz
279.92
238.74
203.61
173.65
148.10
126.31
107.73
91.88
78.36
346.10
303.11
265.46
232.49
203.61
178.32
156.17
136.77
119.78
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X ' in Ω/km
User Manual
Issue 2014-11-05
req in mm,
req in mm,
req in mm,
16.7 Hz
50 Hz
66.83
57.00
48.61
41.46
35.36
30.15
60 Hz
104.91
91.88
80.46
70.47
61.72
54.05
47.34
41.46
36.31
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
Table 24 Equivalent radius for a selected specific reactance and frequency.
6.5
How to model Earth Conductor?
The earth conductor model for DC networks is a very low resistance, e.g. 0.001Ohm/km.
For AC networks the earth conductor model depends on the nominal frequency
and
specific earth resistance
. The equivalent radius
, vertical position
and
resistance
are calculated as below.
if top of rail is 0m
Table 25 Example earth conductor parameter.
6.6
How to model Conductor Switch or Isolator?
Open ConductorSwitch and Isolator elements in OpenPowerNet are basically just conductors
with a fixed resistiance of 1 MOhm. Their wire length is 1 m starting at the given position.
Therefore, to create the closest connectors before and after a ConductorSwitch or Isolator,
these connectors have to be placed at the particular position and 1 m behind.
6.7
How to model uncommon power supply systems?
There are a number of default power supply systems but there may be the need to model
another system. This is possible by modifying 2 files.
Engine-File:
Modify the value at /railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/engine/propulsion/@supply and follow
the structure as of the default values.
Project-File:
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Modify the value at /OpenPowerNet/ATM/Vehicles/Vehicle/Propulsion/@supply and follow
the structure as of the default values. Use the same as for Engine-File.
Don’t forget to set the voltage and frequency of the network.
AnalysisPreset-File:
It is not necessary to modify the AnalysisPreset-File. But if you want to set preset parameter
for the diagrams and tables select the value other of attribute supply. For how to get the
AnalysisPreset-File please read chapter 4.6.3.7 on page 97.
Example: 30Hz 29kV AC
Engine-File:
/railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/engine/propulsion/@supply=”AC 29kV 30Hz”
Project-File:
/OpenPowerNet/ATM/Vehicles/Vehicle/Propulsion/@supply=”AC 29kV 30Hz”
AnalysisPreset-File:
e.g. Pantograph Voltage
/OpenPowerNet/Analysis/ChartTypes/Lines/ChartType/System/@supply=”other"
6.8
How to draw a constant current?
You need to define a course in OpenTrack and use it with an itinerary for the tracks you want
to check. In the OpenPowerNet Project-File you need to set the attribute
constantCurrent_A to the constant current value you want, see the XML snippet below.
<Propulsion
constantCurrent_A="2000" This attribute defines the constant current for the engine to 2000A.
You can change the value to whatever reasonable value you need. The following attributes will
be ignored once you set this attribute.
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
engine="electric"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
supply="DC 600V"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
useAuxPower="true">
<EfficiencyTable/>
</Propulsion>
6.9
How to simulate short circuits?
You need to define a course in OpenTrack and use it with an itinerary for the tracks you want
to check. In the OpenPowerNet Project-File you need to set the attribute
constantVoltage_V to 0, see the XML snippet below.
<Propulsion
constantVoltage_V="0" This attribute defines the engine as a short circuit between the contact
wire and the rail. The following attributes will be ignored once you set this attribute.
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
engine="electric"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
supply="DC 600V"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
useAuxPower="true">
<EfficiencyTable/>
</Propulsion>
By using the Excel-File Engine.xlsx the short circuit current versus time and position is
available.
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6.10 How to prevent the consideration of the achieved effort in OpenTrack
while using OpenPowerNet?
You need to set the attribute returnRequestedEffort to true. The requested effort will
be returned to OpenTrack but the courses using these engine will be calculated in the
network simulation as usually, see the XML snippet below.
<Propulsion
returnRequestedEffort="true" This attribute defines to return the requested effort.
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
engine="electric"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
supply="DC 600V"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
useAuxPower="true">
<EfficiencyTable/>
</Propulsion>
6.11 How to calculate only a part of the operational infrastructure of OpenTrack
as electrical network in OpenPowerNet?
Usually, if no electrical network can be found for an engine, it will achieve no traction effort
and stop its movement sooner or later. You will get an “outside of network” warning APS-W003 for those engines and they will be written to the results with voltage, current and
achieved effort 0. This should not occur if the electrical infrastructure in OpenPowerNet
matches the operational infrastructure in OpenTrack.
Only in case that it is required or sufficient to use an OpenPowerNet model that does not
offer a Line/Track/km for each position of the courses in the timetable, you could set the
global attribute ignoreTrainsOutside to true. Then all engines without electrical
network will achieve the full requested effort although they do not put load on any of the
networks, and there will be no warning.
6.12 Where are the XML-Schemas?
The schemas are available via the catalogue entry of the GUI XML editor. See Window >
Preferences > XML > XML Catalog. These catalogue entries are used to support the
editing in the XML editor as described in chapter 3.2.
The schema specification documentation is available at Help > Help Contents >
OpenPowerNet User Guide.
6.13 Which XML-Schema for which XML-File?
XML-File
AnalysisPresets-File
Engine-File
Project-File
Switch-File
TypeDefs-File
XML-Schema
AnalysisPresets.xsd
rollingstock.xsd
OpenPowerNet.xsd
ADE.xsd
TypeDefs.xsd
6.14 How to specify a specific license?
In case OpenPowerNet is used with different licenses it might be necessary to specify a
specific dongle. To find the dongle IDs insert all dongles to your PC and open the Sentinel
Admin
Control
Center
in
your
browser
(http://localhost:1947/_int_/devices.html).
The dongle configuration needs to be done via preferences, see chapter 4.3.1 at page 34.
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The following three options are available:
 Any dongle: => do not insert anything,
 One specific dongle: => enter one dongle ID and
 Multiple dongles => enter multiple IDs separated by “;”.
6.15 What is the reciprocal condition?
The reciprocal condition number describes the quality of the matrix used for network
calculation in module PSC. This number is calculated for each matrix created and displayed
in the OPN-PSC message console. An error respective a warning is displayed in case the
condition number is too bad. In general one can say the condition number gets better the
less the resistances in an electrical network deviate.
6.16 What is the Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (TRLPC)?
The Time-Rated Load Periods Curve shows the maximum or minimum of a set of varying
window-size averages where the window time duration is defined by the x-axis value.
6.17 What is the mean voltage at pantograph (Umean useful)?
The mean voltage at pantograph Umean useful, which may be found in the vehicle overview
output of OpenPowerNet as value Umu, is the mean value of all pantograph voltages found
during the simulation as specified in EN 50388:2012. It shall provide an “indication of the
quality of the power supply”. There is a value for a geographical zone, which can be found in
row Total. It is calculated out of all pantograph voltages found for the whole network during
the simulation time scope. To calculate per train the values, only timesteps with traction load
inside the network and simulation time scope are taken into account.
6.18 Any other questions?
For any other question
support@openpowernet.de.
please
contact
the
OpenPowerNet
support
team
via
END OF DOCUMENT
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