User Manual
Manual Version 1.10
Software Version 1.10
Contents
1
Device Functions and Major Features ...................................................................................................... 7
Kit Configuration ........................................................................................................................................................ 9
1.1
Single Meter ........................................................................................................................ 10
1.1.1
Jump Test ..................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.2
Tapping/Frequency Test .............................................................................................. 10
1.1.3
Reaction Test................................................................................................................ 10
1.2
Single Meter on Treadmill ................................................................................................... 11
1.2.1
1.3
Gait Analysis, Run Analysis ........................................................................................... 11
The Modular System ........................................................................................................... 12
1.3.1
Gait Test ....................................................................................................................... 12
1.3.2
Running Test................................................................................................................. 12
1.4
The Two-Dimensional System: OptoGait 2D ....................................................................... 13
1.5
The Gyko Inertial system ..................................................................................................... 17
1.5.1
Gyko to analyze walking, running and marching in place ........................................... 18
1.5.1.1
1.5.2
Gyko for jump analysis ................................................................................................. 20
1.5.3
Gyko for posture analysis ............................................................................................. 21
1.6
2
3
Dynamic Stability .................................................................................................. 19
Environmental Conditions and Disclaimers ........................................................................ 22
Software ............................................................................................................................................................. 24
2.1
Installation ........................................................................................................................... 24
2.2
Description .......................................................................................................................... 28
2.3
Patients ................................................................................................................................ 28
2.4
Test ...................................................................................................................................... 29
2.5
Results and Video Analysis .................................................................................................. 29
2.6
Report .................................................................................................................................. 29
OptoGait Driver and Hardware Installation ......................................................................................... 31
3.1
Driver Installation ................................................................................................................ 31
3.2
OptoGait Hardware Installation .......................................................................................... 31
3.3
Power Supply ....................................................................................................................... 35
3.3.1
3.4
OptoGait Battery life .................................................................................................... 39
OptoGait Electromyography Connector.............................................................................. 39
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4
Description of Functions .............................................................................................................................. 40
4.1
Patients ................................................................................................................................ 40
4.1.1
Insert / Edit Patients .................................................................................................... 40
4.1.1.1
Patient Data Input Mask ....................................................................................... 43
4.1.1.2
Importing and Exporting Patients’ Personal Data Excel ....................................... 44
4.1.1.3
RFID Tag management .......................................................................................... 45
4.1.2
Insert / Edit Group ....................................................................................................... 47
4.1.3
MediaGallery ................................................................................................................ 49
4.1.3.1
4.2
Test ...................................................................................................................................... 54
4.2.1
Execute ......................................................................................................................... 54
4.2.1.1
Execute Configuration .......................................................................................... 57
4.2.1.2
Video Feedback..................................................................................................... 59
4.2.1.3
Metronome ........................................................................................................... 64
4.2.2
Define / Edit Tests ........................................................................................................ 65
4.2.2.1
Main and Secondary Parameters ......................................................................... 66
4.2.2.2
Jump Test .............................................................................................................. 70
4.2.2.3
Reaction times ...................................................................................................... 71
4.2.2.4
Sprint and Gait Test .............................................................................................. 72
4.2.2.5
Treadmill Running Test ......................................................................................... 75
4.2.2.6
Treadmill Gait Test ................................................................................................ 76
4.2.2.7
Tapping Test.......................................................................................................... 77
4.2.2.8
Vertec Like Test..................................................................................................... 78
4.2.2.9
2D Gait Test .......................................................................................................... 79
4.2.2.10
Sway Test .............................................................................................................. 81
4.2.3
4.3
Acquisition from Webcam .................................................................................... 52
Define / Edit Protocols ................................................................................................. 83
Results ................................................................................................................................. 84
4.3.1
View.............................................................................................................................. 89
4.3.1.1
Configuration Panel .............................................................................................. 91
4.3.1.2
Charts .................................................................................................................... 93
4.3.1.3
Statistics Charts..................................................................................................... 95
4.3.1.4
Table with Numerical Data ................................................................................... 96
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4.3.1.5
Start Foot ............................................................................................................ 100
4.3.1.6
Video Preview Popup: First Step Preview .......................................................... 104
4.3.1.7
Viewing of the OptoGait Bars ............................................................................ 105
4.3.1.8
Print .................................................................................................................... 108
4.3.1.9
Save Analysis ....................................................................................................... 109
4.3.1.10
Analysis Notes ..................................................................................................... 109
4.3.1.11
Signature ............................................................................................................. 109
4.3.1.12
Parameters.......................................................................................................... 109
4.3.1.13
Using Markers ..................................................................................................... 111
4.3.2
Compare ..................................................................................................................... 112
4.3.2.1
Print, Analysis, Notes, Signature......................................................................... 113
4.3.3
History ........................................................................................................................ 114
4.3.4
Export ......................................................................................................................... 116
4.4
Utility ................................................................................................................................. 117
4.4.1
Basic Settings ............................................................................................................. 117
4.4.1.1
General ............................................................................................................... 117
4.4.1.2
Jump Test Configuration ..................................................................................... 117
4.4.1.3
Reaction Test Configuration ............................................................................... 118
4.4.1.4
Video ................................................................................................................... 118
4.4.1.5
Sprint/Gait Test Configuration ........................................................................... 120
4.4.1.6
Screen ................................................................................................................. 121
4.4.1.7
News & Events .................................................................................................... 121
4.4.1.8
EMG Activation ................................................................................................... 122
4.4.2
OptoGait HW Test ...................................................................................................... 123
4.4.3
Database .................................................................................................................... 124
4.4.3.1
Current Database ................................................................................................ 125
4.4.3.2
New ..................................................................................................................... 125
4.4.3.3
Select................................................................................................................... 126
4.4.3.4
Clear .................................................................................................................... 126
4.4.3.5
Export .................................................................................................................. 126
4.4.3.6
Import ................................................................................................................. 127
4.4.3.7
Save as ................................................................................................................ 130
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4.4.4
Devices ....................................................................................................................... 131
4.4.4.1
4.4.5
Heart-Rate Monitor.................................................................................................... 133
4.4.5.1
Installation and Setup ......................................................................................... 133
4.4.5.2
SportZone Setup ................................................................................................. 136
4.4.6
Check Update ............................................................................................................. 139
4.4.7
Reset to Default values .............................................................................................. 139
4.4.8
About .......................................................................................................................... 139
4.5
5
Witty Timer and Photocells ................................................................................ 131
BioFeedback ...................................................................................................................... 140
Operating Principles ................................................................................................................................... 145
5.1
Definition of Result Columns............................................................................................. 145
5.1.1
General information................................................................................................... 145
5.1.2
Jump and Reaction Test ............................................................................................. 146
5.1.2.1
5.1.3
Gyko .................................................................................................................... 147
Sprint/Gait Test .......................................................................................................... 151
5.1.3.1
Gyko .................................................................................................................... 153
5.1.4
Reference Indexes ...................................................................................................... 154
5.1.5
Imbalance Index ......................................................................................................... 155
5.1.6
GaitR IN And OUT Filter ............................................................................................. 157
5.1.7
Static Tests (Sway)...................................................................................................... 158
5.2
5.1.7.1
Area ..................................................................................................................... 160
5.1.7.2
Lengths ................................................................................................................ 162
5.1.7.3
Mean Distances .................................................................................................. 165
5.1.7.4
Root Mean Square (RMS) ................................................................................... 167
5.1.7.5
Mean Frequency ................................................................................................. 169
5.1.7.6
Velocity ............................................................................................................... 171
5.1.7.7
Total Power ......................................................................................................... 174
5.1.7.8
50% Power Frequency ........................................................................................ 176
5.1.7.9
95% Power Frequency ........................................................................................ 178
5.1.7.10
Centroidal Frequency ......................................................................................... 180
5.1.7.11
Frequency Dispersion ......................................................................................... 182
Gait Analysis Definition ..................................................................................................... 184
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6
5.3
Invalid Times Management ............................................................................................... 187
5.4
Video Analysis.................................................................................................................... 190
5.5
Managing Images .............................................................................................................. 192
Default Tests and Protocols ..................................................................................................................... 193
6.1
Drift Protocol ..................................................................................................................... 194
6.1.1
7
8
2D Drift Protocol ........................................................................................................ 197
6.2
Five Dot Drill Protocol ....................................................................................................... 198
6.3
'GG' Protocol...................................................................................................................... 202
6.4
Single Leg 3 Hops Protocol ................................................................................................ 205
6.4.1
2D Single Leg 3 Hops Protocol ................................................................................... 207
6.4.2
2D 4H3C and 4H3C Protocol ...................................................................................... 207
6.5
MIP (March in Place) Protocol........................................................................................... 208
6.6
VERTEC LIKE Test ............................................................................................................... 210
6.7
Ski Test............................................................................................................................... 211
6.8
Body Sway Protocol ........................................................................................................... 212
Technical Data .............................................................................................................................................. 213
7.1
Technical Data TX/RX Bars ................................................................................................ 213
7.2
PC Minimum Requirements .............................................................................................. 214
Table of Used Symbols ............................................................................................................................... 215
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1 DEVICE FUNCTIONS AND MAJOR FEATURES
OPTOGAIT is an innovative system for movement analysis and functional assessment of patients
with normal or pathological conditions. The system is equipped with optical sensors working at a
frequency of 1000 Hz and having an accuracy of 1 cm, detecting the relevant space and time
parameters for gait, running or other test types. The objective measurement of such data, combined
with an integrated video acquisition, allows to monitor a patient's condition on a constant basis,
detecting problem areas, assessing mechanical inefficiencies and rapidly verifying the existence of
asymmetries between the two legs. The software platform allows to easily store all tests carried
out and recall them instantly, if necessary. This allows to develop a customized patient recovery. It
is furthermore possible to compare very quickly and easily data of tests carried out at different
times, in order to assess the validity and the efficiency of the methodology applied.
OPTOGAIT allows to:

Assess objectively the patient's general physical conditions

Identify deficiencies, postural problems and asymmetries on the basis of data and videos

Develop and apply therapeutic-rehabilitation applications, rehab approaches and
orthopedic solutions on the basis of precise data

Prevention - thanks to immediate assessment of numerical values - of relapses,
complications and involutions of the pathological or post-accident condition due to wrong
evaluations or diagnosis

Periodically verify the results and the efficacy of treatment

Motivate patients giving them tangible proves of improvement

Compare post- and pre-accident values if available

Verify, in a dynamical situation, the efficacy of arch supports, insoles or functional tapes

Compare various shoes and their effect on the patient's gait
Optogait is a system for optical detection made of a transmitting and a receiving bar (henceforth
called TX and RX)." Each one contains 96 LEDs communicating on an infrared (890 nm) frequency
with the same number of LEDs on the opposite bar. Once positioned on the floor or on the treadmill,
the system detects the interruptions of the communication between the bars - caused by the
patient's movement - and calculates the duration and position. During the execution of a running,
gait or series of jumps test, the contact and flight times can be measured with an accuracy of 1
thousandth of a second and the position of the interrupted LEDs with a space resolution of 1.041
cm. Starting from these base data, the dedicated software measures in real-time a series of crucial
data for the movement analysis. Optogait acquires numerical parameters in real-time for gait,
running and jump tests, allowing to view them immediately.
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Thanks to the possibility to create an easy-to-read report in a few seconds, containing all main data,
asymmetries between the two legs are highlighted instantly.
Besides the below listed data, in each test average value, standard deviation, and variability
coefficient are stated for each leg, where available. In this case, a difference between the two legs
is shown in percentage
Gait/Run Gait Test on Run Test on
Test
Treadmill
Treadmill
Jump Test Tapping Test
Stance Time
X
X
Swing Time
X
X
Step Time
X
X
Gait Cycle
X
X
Single Support
X
X
Double Support
X
X
Loading Response
X
X
Pre-swing
X
X
Step Length
X
X
X
Stride Length
X
X
X
3 foot phase (contact, flat,
propulsive)
X
X
X
Cadence/Rhythm/Pace
X
X
X
X
X
Speed
X
Acceleration
X
Flight Time
X
X
X
X
Contact Time
X
X
X
X
Height
X
X
X
X
Stride Angle
X
X
Imbalance
X
X
X
X
Specific power
X
Jumping Point
X
Jumping Point Gap
X
Used Area
X
Cycle Time (Flight +
Contact)
Reaction
Test
X
X
X
Reaction Time
X
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KIT CONFIGURATION
OPTOGAIT is always sold in a KIT configuration comprising at least:

1 bar with interface RX

1 bar with interface TX

(Optional for linear multiple-meter systems): n additional RX bars

(Optional for linear multiple-meter systems): n additional TX bars

USB cable for PC connection, 5 m

Single Meter: 1 power supply certified for medical use + connection cable for second bar

Linear Systems: 2 power supplies certified for medical use for recharging and current supply

2 professional webcams

2 USB cable extension cords, 5 m

2 webcam tripods

Single-meter bag or trolley for 2-to-5-meter systems

Quick installation guide (hard copy)

USB stick containing software and user guide
Kits usually sold are:

Single-Meter Kit

Single-Meter Kit predisposed for the
addition of more meters

Additional Meter Kit

5-Meter Kit

10-Meter Kit
List of Accessories

Logitech Pro 9000 webcam

Digipod TR-257 tripod

220V FRIWO DT-50 (FW 7405M/24) power supply certified for medical use
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1.1 SINGLE METER
In this configuration Optogait allows already to carry out various test types:
1.1.1 JUMP TEST
A series of exercises (squat jump, counter movement jump, drop jump, continuous jumps, jumps on
one leg, etc.) and protocols ('Drift' for dynamic stability, '5 Dot Drill' for reactivity and endurance,
'Single Leg Three Hops' to verify the bending capacity and stability of the knee) are pre-configured.
At the same time, the user can easily create customized tests or protocols.
1.1.2 TAPPING/FREQUENCY TEST
This type of test is ideal for exercises where separate results are required for the left and right foot
(e.g. tapping/frequency test, side movement, walking on the spot, etc.)
1.1.3 REACTION TEST
This test detects the time between one optical/acoustic impulse and the patient's movement. It can
be used to measure simple reactions or more complex movements.
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1.2 SINGLE METER ON TREADMILL
1.2.1 GAIT ANALYSIS, RUN ANALYSIS
Positioned on the side bars of a treadmill, OptoGait becomes a real portable lab for small spaces
and with reduced costs. The system is compatible with the wide majority of treadmills and no
synchronization is necessary to start and carry out a test.
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1.3 THE MODULAR SYSTEM
In this configuration, OptoGait allows to carry out:
1.3.1 GAIT TEST
Gait tests can consist of simple exercises (moving from A to B), but also of more complex ones, such
as 'roundtrip' or walking backwards. They can be more complex, if needed, adding obstacles (e.g.
plastic cones) or actions to be carried out between the various gait phases (sitting down and getting
up before coming back, for example) or simultaneously.
1.3.2 RUNNING TEST
Running tests, just like gait tests, can be carried out either starting from a stand or running, to
analyse the various phases, how the incremental weariness acts on the patient at each round
installing the system on a track, measuring the time of a change of direction and the following
acceleration, and so on…
Thanks to the practical and innovative assembling system using caps, the modular system is
assembled in a few minutes and does not require cables to connect the bars or further net adapters.
The length goes from a minimum of 2 meters to a maximum of more than 10 meters.
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1.4 THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEM: OPTOGAIT 2D
Starting from version 1.7 of the OptoGait software it is possible to use a particular bar configuration
for obtaining a two-dimensional measurement area. To the classic bars (which we will call X) more
bars (Y) can be added to form a rectangle, where new information can be gathered for the gait tests:




Step width: distance between the middle support point of each foot
Walking Base: distance between the innermost foot support points (for superposed steps
this value can be negative)
Walking Points: middle points between the two support feet; their connection defines the
gait progress (Line of Progression); conventionally it is expressed in positive values if there
is a deviation towards left and negative with a rightward deviation
Walking Point Gap: progressive variation of the current walking point with respect to the
previous one
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The regular OptoGait bars have a maximum transmission/reception distance of 6 meters; with this
hardware you can use at the most 5 meters of 'X' bars and approx. 50 cm of room with the 'Y' bars.
Y
X
RX bars
RX bars
Normal TX bars
TX bars
MAX 6 mt. (eg. 5mt bars + 0,5mt x 2)
The regular closing Y TX bar is usually a bar WITHOUT interface drum. Updating the firmware of the
TX bar with drum (already included with all articles having a serial number higher than 00250) this
last hardware type can also be used. Therefore with a 5-meter modular system (Kit £OGA051) it is
for example possible to use the complete hardware building a 4-meter-long linear gait system. For
serial numbers lower than 00250 it is possible to ship the bar to Microgate or a distributor and
receive a free update (shipping costs for sending and receiving are excluded). It is also possible to
buy one or more additional single TX bars.
Y
RX bars
X
RX bars
Normal TX bars with Interface
ONLY with S/N >= 00250
TX bars
4 mt bars (Kit 5 mt)
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The maximum length of the 2D course can be increased up to 13 meters purchasing one or more
special Y TX bars called '2D-Boosted'. This kind of bar is equipped with stronger transmission LEDs
compared to the others and has a front aluminium cover instead of the transparent lenses, in order
to direct the narrow infrared LED beam. To help the Y bar alignment at great distances (especially
with not perfectly smooth ground), the 2D-Boosted bar is equipped with mechanical trimming
devices for applying micrometric elevation and inclination changes.
Y
X
RX bars
RX bars
2D-Boosted TX bars
TX bars
MAX 13 mt. (eg. 11mt bars + 1mt x 2)
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The bars situated on the perpendicular sides are connected using a variable-length cable (usually
1.5/2 m); this allows to distance the actual measurement area (the rectangle formed by the regular
bars and highlighted in grey in the following picture) of the Y bars; this area allows the patient to
leave the test area without having to jump over the bars or - more frequently - turn around by 180°
and go back. In fact, the software allows to carry out an undefined number of back/forth courses
recording a sufficient number of steps also in case of linear systems of only a few meters.
Y
X
RX bars
[Boosted] TX bars
TX bars
For those requiring fixed installations (which are also aesthetically appealing), a corner cover is
available (without LEDs, only for protection) to cover cables running on the ground (see first
picture).
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1.5 THE GYKO INERTIAL SYSTEM
Gyko is a new tool, developed by Microgate, which enables obtaining information on the kinematics
of any body segment while making a movement.
Gyko contains the latest generation components that are used for making accurate and repeatable
measurements of acceleration, angular velocity and magnetic field in three dimensions.



3D accelerometer, to measure the linear accelerations to which the device is subjected.
3D gyroscope, to measure the angular velocities of the device.
3D magnetometer, to measure the magnetic field to which the device is subjected.
Gyko is able to provide the measured data up to 1000 times per second guaranteeing an extremely
high temporal resolution of the data. The data can be transmitted to the PC via a Bluetooth
connection or be stored on a MicroSD card.
From the measured data, through advanced software algorithms, it is possible to describe the
kinematics of the body segment to which Gyko is fastened so as to provide the user with summary
information about the quality of the analyzed movement.
Gyko can be used in combination with the OptoGait systems or independently.
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1.5.1 GYKO TO ANALYZE WALKING, RUNNING AND MARCHING IN PLACE
Gait analysis is one of the most widely used methods to determine any disorders of the nervous
and/or musculoskeletal system. With OptoGait you can estimate the space-time parameters of the
gait and isolate individual phases of the step, then accurately describe the behaviour of the lower
body.
Gyko, placed in the area beneath the shoulder blade by using a special bib with a comfortable 3button fastening, enables naturally integrating the information measured on the ground with the
kinematics of the trunk in order to provide accurate information on the stability and coordination
of the upper body.
The movement of the trunk is analyzed in each phase of the step and, through advanced algorithms,
specific parameters of the analyzed test are estimated such as:





Antero-posterior and medio-lateral imbalance.
Main directions and breadth of the movement of the trunk.
Upper Phase Coordination Index (UPCI) that describes coordination in the rotation of the
trunk.
Phase difference between the lower body and the upper body.
RMS, Harmonic Ratio and Harmonicity index describing gait stability.
For details on the various columns see Sect. 5.1.3.1
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1.5.1.1 DYNAMIC STABILITY
In addition to graphics for Step, Stride, flight/contact times, etc. with Gyko there is another one
called Dynamic Stability that can be activated from the legend on the left.
The graphic is an ellipse whose size represents:


how far the trunk rotates along the Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medio-Lateral (ML)
directions; the larger the area of the ellipse the more the trunk rotates.
in which direction the movement is prevalent. If the ellipse is stretched towards AP or ML
the movement of the trunk is prevalent in that direction.
The two horizontal and vertical bars below and to the right of the ellipse represent respectively the
offset of the ML/AP movement. The green/orange/red colour depends on the Bad and Warning
thresholds set in the Configuration panel (Area Threshold affects the colours of the ellipse and the
shades above for the gauges)
Set the Mode to "Dynamic Stability", the number of data on which to calculate the averages and the
two pairs of thresholds (the first pair for the two gauges and the second pair for the ellipse).
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1.5.2 GYKO FOR JUMP ANALYSIS
Using field tests and in particular vertical jump analysis has always been a widely used method for
evaluating lower limb muscle strength. OptoGait is the instrument used to measure and objectify
the main features of a jump such as flight and contact time.
Gyko placed near the centre of mass with a special belt enables enriching the temporal data with a
variety of information regarding the dynamics of the jump. It is then possible to measure lower limb
strength directly and, using appropriate algorithms, accurately and repeatably provide data relating
both to the eccentric loading phase and to the concentric thrust phase.
The movement of the trunk during the flight and contact phase is analyzed and provides, among
other things, the following additional parameters (for all the others see Sect. 5.1.2.1):



Eccentric and concentric work and duration.
Force, Velocity and Maximum Power.
Rate of Force Development and Landing Rate.
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1.5.3 GYKO FOR POSTURE ANALYSIS
Postural analysis is frequently used to evaluate the stability and balance of a quiet standing subject.
Gyko, placed on the trunk or at the level of the centre of mass, provides important information
about the body sway of the subject and through appropriate protocols it enables evaluating the
relative contribution made by the various components of the postural system (visual, proprioceptive
of different origin, labyrinthine, etc.).
Gyko lets you simply and quickly obtain the best known indexes concerning the projection of the
body's centre of gravity on the ground.
The main indexes returned are:



Projection length and area.
Projection travel speed.
Sway frequency
In this case the graphic is a "projection" showing all the movements (the red dot indicates the
position at the end of the test) and an overlay of the ellipse already seen in Sect. 1.5.1.1. To the right
there are two graphs, one for the antero-posterior movements and the other for the medio-lateral
movements with the time being the abscissa and the movement in mm the ordinate.
The test can be done with a custom "Static Test" (Sect. 5.1.7) or with the default Body Sway protocol
(Sect. 6.8) For all the details shown in the Summary Data please see Sect. 5.1.7
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1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND DISCLAIMERS
The system is intended only for indoor use and at a height of max. 2000 m a.s.l. Operating
temperature 0°C ~ +35°C
As of the manufacturer's specifications only the intended use is allowed.
The estimated product life cycle is of 20 years.
Positioning of the bars on the ground
TX bars
RX bars
To avoid interferences between the patient and the bars, we advise a distance of at least one meter
between the bars and we advise to pay attention that bars don’t hinder the gait. Maximum distance
must not exceed 6 meters.
MIN 1 mt (suggested)
MAX 6 mt.
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Positioning of the bars on the treadmill
The bars must be positioned at the sides of the treadmill so that the minimal safety distance planned
by the producer is obeyed. We recommend fixing "L" stirrups outside the chassis.
When mounting the bars on the treadmill ensure that vibrations caused by walking/running do not
move or make the bars fall down or onto the mobile area.
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2 SOFTWARE
The interface with which the OptoGait system is managed is divided into three main sections:
Patients’ Personal Data, Tests and Results.
2.1 INSTALLATION
Start the OptoGait.exe. setup program in the usual way for Windows.
In the first installation window the user is asked where to save the files for the installation of
OptoGait. We advise you to leave the directory unchanged and to click on <Next> to continue.
Figure 1 – Installation wizard
In the first installation program window click on <Next>.
Figure 2 – Installation - welcome.
In the next window you can insert a folder where the software will be installed.
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If you want everyone with access to the computer to be able to use the product, select “Everyone”,
otherwise select “Just me”.
We advise you to leave the folder unchanged and select “Everyone”. Click on <Next> to continue.
Figure 3 – Installation – data insertion.
The next window offers to launch software installation. If all the data is correct, click on <Next>.
Figure 4 – Installation – confirm installation
The setup program will install the product on the PC, showing state of progress.
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During installation the OptoGait and Logitech webcam drivers will also be installed.
If for any reason this does not happen, please install the drivers separately. These are available on
the Microgate USB key supplied with the hardware or on the www.optogait.com website in the
support section.
Figure 5 – Driver Installation
Press <Next> to install the drivers and then <Finish> to complete installation.
Figure 6 – End of driver installation
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Figure 7 – Installation – completed.
By clicking on <Close> you exit the installation procedure.
During the entire installation procedure, it is possible to return to the previous window by clicking
on <Back>.
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2.2 DESCRIPTION
The welcome screen of the OptoGait software shows a horizontal bar with the most important menu
items and an area with News and Events, which are automatically updated from the web site
www.optogait.com in the appropriate language. In case of missing Internet connection, the
information will not be downloaded; it is also possible to deactivate the Internet connection with a
configuration parameter (see chap. 4.4.1.7). Click on a news title or an event to open the complete
description in a browser window.
Figure 8 – First page
The interface with which the OptoGait system is managed is divided into three main sections:
Patients, Tests and Results.
2.3 PATIENTS
This is the section where the patients' profiles are created and stored. A profile can contain all sorts
of information: personal data, notes, patient photo, etc. Each patient can be added to one or more
groups or subgroups. Therefore the Athletes' Personal Data can be fully customized and adapted to
the user's requirements, and imported and/or exported from/to other programs or formats (xml,
Excel, etc.).
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2.4 TEST
This section is the software’s nerve centre. It is accessed to devise and configure new tests (jump,
reaction, running, etc.) and to perform tests by choosing from the pre-defined tests or those created
by the user. It is furthermore possible to group several tests (protocols), if this is useful for
measuring particular capacities or conditions (some protocols are already pre-configured, e.g. for
measuring reactivity and dynamic stability).
During the test, the user receives three kinds of feedback in real-time: numerical, graphical and
video (from one or two webcams). If the starting foot has been previously selected, the results are
calculated assigning the values to the left or right leg. Once confirmed the test, all three types of
data are stored and are available for immediate editing or further use in future. The user can also
temporarily hide certain unnecessary information (e.g., if the video is of importance for the user,
the images can be viewed full-screen).
2.5 RESULTS AND VIDEO ANALYSIS
The tests carried out previously can be recalled at any moment accessing the Results area. Selecting
a test and clicking on 'View', (numerical or graphical) data can be compared with the images. The
video is of great help to the user to detect immediately postural or motor problems, and, more in
general, to carry out a qualitative analysis. In fact, thanks to the 'video memory', possible anomalies
of the numerical data can be easily identified and motivated.
The video images are synchronized with the data. This allows to verify with accuracy what has
happened at the time of acquisition of a certain value (e.g. if a contact time is extremely long, it is
possible to look for the cause viewing the images of the instant, when the value has been recorded).
Synchronization is carried out automatically by the software; no user action is necessary. The video
reproduction speed can be reduced down to a still image, to view the video frame-by-frame. A video
analysis utility is also provided, with traditional tools such as lines, arches, circles, text, ruler,
goniometer to measure angles and other.
In the Results section two or more tests can be compared ('Compare' option) using the video as well
as the data, having all necessary information at disposition. This allows to quickly and intuitively
carry out an analysis of quantitative and qualitative differences between tests carried out at a
different time (pre-/post- rehab, for example) or between different patients (healthy and rehab).
If more than two tests are to be compared, the 'History' function must be used, which allows to
select an infinite number of tests to verify the parameters (indicated when a patient's progress must
be measured constantly carrying out numerous tests).
All data, numerical and graphical, can be printed or exported to the most common formats).
2.6 REPORT
After having carried out and saved a test, two reports are immediately available:
Gait/Run Report – specific report for gait or running tests, with average values, standard deviation
and variability coefficient of all typical parameters (*) for the left and right leg. Furthermore, any
possible asymmetries and imbalances between the legs can be spotted instantly.
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The same report type is available when selecting two tests, allowing for a quick comparison thanks
to a graphically intuitive and clear interface.
Gait/Run reports show also if the patient's parameters are within the normal range of values.
Extended Report – contains all numerical and graphical data, stored step by step during the test.
In both report types it is possible to add screenshots taken with the video utility available in the
'View' option, as well as in the 'Compare' option.
The Software is currently available in 7 languages (Italian, English, German, French, Spanish,
Japanese and Chinese), with translation in progress for others.
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3 OPTOGAIT DRIVER AND HARDWARE INSTALLATION
3.1 DRIVER INSTALLATION
For correct functioning of the program, the respective drivers for the OptoGait hardware and the
webcam must be installed.
The OptoGait software installation file already contains the required drivers.
With regard to the Vista operating system it has been found that if the installation program is not
run as ‘Administrator’, the drivers are not installed. In this case, install the two drivers separately.
These are available on the Microgate USB key supplied with the hardware or on the site
www.optogait.com in the 'Support' section.
To verify that the drivers have been installed, connect the two devices (OptoGait hardware and
webcam). If installation has not taken place, the operating system will signal an error. If this occurs,
disconnect the hardware, reinstall the drivers and reconnect the hardware.
3.2 OPTOGAIT HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Attention must be paid when installing the OptoGait bars, particularly when inserting the caps for
connecting the bars.
A distinction must be made between the Tx and Rx bars and additionally between bars with interface
(silver drum at start of bar) and without interface. Only the interfaces have an OFF switch.
ON/OFF switch
Lemo connector EMG
Power Supply
Jack sockets for external events
USB socket



Normally closed (blue)
Normally open (green)
Grounding (black)
Figure 9 - Interface "drum"
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Below is the step-by-step procedure for bar installation:
Switch off the OptoGait device
Place the two OptoGait Rx and Tx bars facing each other at a minimum distance of one
meter (maximum 6 meters)
Figure 10 – Maximum distance
If a number of bars connected together are used, pay attention to the insertion of the caps
(see figures below). Check that the caps are firmly inserted. If insertion is incorrect, the
software may not function correctly.
Figure 11
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Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
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To mount the connection cap, insert the cap in the dedicated slots and apply light pressure on both
sides until it has been completely inserted (make sure it is parallel with the two bars; the two
connectors should slot in simultaneously).
The cap can only be inserted one way round. If you find that the cap will not go in, turn it 180°.
DO NOT force the cap if insertion is difficult: you run the risk of bending the connection pins.
Figure 15 – Cap mounting
Figure 16 – Inserting with light pressure
To remove the cap, grip the two side tabs and pull upwards symmetrically. Alternatively, you can
firmly hold one of the 2 bars down and carefully lift the other until the cap comes off.
Figure 17 – Cap removal
Figure 18 – Alternative method for removing the cap
Do not touch simultaneously the additional bars connectors (or the bars) and the patient
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Connect the USB cable from interface Rx to the computer USB port. The USB port on the
computer is marked with the symbol
.
Figure 19 - PC connection
If more than three OptoGait meters are used (three Tx bars and three Rx bars), we
recommend you use the adaptor.
Switch on the OptoGait device
Check that the bars are correctly positioned (Tx LED green)
Status indicator LED:
 Green: no LED interrupted
 Red: at least one LED interrupted
Figure 20 – Led indicator
If the software is being installed for the first time or being re-installed, the operating system will
load the correct driver (see section above).
At this point, the OptoGait device is ready for use.
If other bars are connected, remember to switch the device off and switch it back on.
If you notice that the device is not working correctly, perform an OptoGait bars Test (see chap. 4.4.2
OptoGait HW Test).
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NB: Do not mix RX and TX bars. The bars are clearly marked and distinguishable.
Figure 21 - RX bar
Figure 22 - TX bar
3.3 POWER SUPPLY
OptoGait runs on batteries with a life dependent on the number of bars connected. The blinking
LED next to the adaptor connector shows the battery charge status:
Green-blinking = battery sufficiently charged
Red-blinking = low battery; the bars must be connected to the mains supply
Orange-blinking = battery being recharged
Figure 23- Battery charge status LED
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To recharge the battery, connect the adaptor plug to the dedicated socket on the drum.
Use only one power supply and the cable connecting the supply adapter with the second bar to
recharge the Single Meter (TX bar and RX with interface)
Figure 24- Adapter and cable for second bar
For the current supply and for recharging multiple meter linear systems, use two power supplies:
one for the TX bar and one for the RX bar. The power supply is certified for medical use
Figure 25- Two power supplies for multiple-meter systems
The supplied power plug is specific for the customer's country (EU, USA, UK, Japan)
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Figure 26 - Power cables for various countries
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When using an external power supply, the device is disconnected from the power source
pulling the plug.
In order to avoid an electrical shock, the device must be exclusively connected to grounded
power sources.
DO NOT use power supplies other than the one supplied with the product.
OptoGait contains rechargeable Li-Ion batteries (1800 mAh). Battery substitution must
exclusively be carried out by authorized personnel.
DO NOT directly connect the cable to the 3-pole socket on the drum.
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3.3.1 OPTOGAIT BATTERY LIFE
Battery life expressed in hours:
Bars
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Theoreti
cal Tx96
11.54
5.88
3.93
2.88
2.27
1.86
1.57
1.34
1.14
1.02
Theoreti
cal Rx96
14.40
7.89
5.39
4.11
3.25
2.69
2.28
2.00
1.74
1.55
3.4 OPTOGAIT ELECTROMYOGRAPHY CONNECTOR
OptoGait can be used as a simple and non-invasive support for connection to EMG
(Electromyography) devices. The OptoGait digital outputs (or alternatively analogue) can be used as
“virtual footswitches”, completely eliminating the need for contact sensors on the sole of the
patient's foot.
This is a significant leap forward in terms of patient preparation speed and data reliability. The
correlation of EMG data with the Gait Analysis data supplied by OptoGait provides a complete
picture of the patient very quickly, on any natural surface or treadmill.
The OptoGait interface is equipped with a specific connection to enable the link with the EMG
device. The default connector on the connecting cable is a LEMO connector on the interface side
and a 3 poles 3.5mm Mini Jack on the EMG side. If you need another connector, please contact
Microgate.
Please note that the transmission of the impulses has a fixed delay of 300 milliseconds. To ensure
data accuracy, your EMG software will need to take this delay into account.
Also note that the OptoGait software must be run regularly even if the user does not need it. In
example, if the user wants to perform an EMG on a treadmill, the OptoGait software will need to be
set to perform a test on a treadmill (of the desired duration) and the test will need to be started and
stopped regularly to ensure that the impulses are assigned to the correct feet and that the error
filters are working properly. This of course also enables to perform EMG and gait analysis at the
same time.
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Figure 27 - EMG Lemo Connector
Figure 28 - Cable Lemo-Jack 3.5mm
4 DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONS
In this chapter all the functions of every menu of the OptoGait program will be described, starting
with the functions of the main menu.
4.1 PATIENTS
4.1.1 INSERT / EDIT PATIENTS
In this section all the patients stored are displayed.
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Figure 29 – Edit Patients
Click on the names of the columns (Last name, Name, Date of Birth) to order the list according to
that field; clicking on the same column again reverses the order (A…Z, Z…A).
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To search for a particular patient or to filter data (e.g. search for all patients beginning with “Ros”),
insert the text in the box at the top left and press <Search>. To remove the filter press <Delete
filter>.
Pressing the button <New Patient> opens a new panel in which the new patient’s data must be
inserted. Last name is the only compulsory field. Also, the weight (given in kg or pounds depending
on the unit of measurement chosen in Basic Configuration) is necessary if you wish to use the tests
to determine the value for total power or total energy.
Figure 30 - Patient Data input mask
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The function for associating each athlete with a photo is useful, especially for trainers and coaches
with many athletes to assess. This can be taken from a file previously saved on disk (in .jpg or .bmp
format), or taken 'on the spot' with a previously connected webcam. In the first case click on <From
File> and select the desired photo from a folder; in the second case, click on <From Video>, wait for
the Live image to appear, frame the patient and press <Acquire>.
4.1.1.1 PATIENT DATA INPUT MASK
To edit the data of a stored patient, select the entry with the mouse and
press <Edit Patient>: within the patient data input mask, fields can be edited
and saved (or cancelled, returning to the list).
Furthermore, three buttons allow the user to view tests, protocols, and
analyses of the current patient (actually a filter is created as explained in
section 4.3.1)
The command <Capture foot> measures the foot in cm (i.e. in 'number of
LEDs’, which are then converted into centimetres or inches according to the
unit of measurement used). Click the button, position one foot inside the
bars (parallel to them) and click <Confirm>. After a few seconds the
measurement is displayed and can be confirmed or repeated.
The measurement is essential for the treadmill tests; the value is saved in
the database associated with the patient and is displayed in the mask; the
editable field 'foot' is only for personal data and can be used to write the
Figure 31- Commands in the Edit panel
measurement in any unit (e.g. 41 EUR, 7 ½ US, 8 UK, etc.).
In the patients list the following commands are available: To eliminate him/her, press <Delete
Patient> (WARNING: When deleting a patient, all his/her tests, protocols, and analyses will be
deleted without any possibility to restore them).
To insert a patient into a group, select from the list, press <Add to a group>, select the group to
insert him/her in (possibly using the right arrow to select a dependent subgroup) and press <Add to
a group> again. Press <Back> to return to the patients’ list.
For the management of groups and other ways of associating with groups, we suggest you read the
next section.
By pressing <Export>, patients’ personal data can be exported to a file with the extension 'xml',
which can be used with Excel (Excel versions XP, 2003, 2007 and 2010) or with other programs.
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4.1.1.2 IMPORTING AND EXPORTING PATIENTS’ PERSONAL DATA EXCEL
Once compiled in OptoGait, the Patients’ Personal Data can be exported
into an Excel-compatible format (XML Spreadsheet 2003). Press <Export
List> and specify the name and location of the XML file. If you have
Microsoft Excel installed on your computer, double-click on the file icon
to launch the program and view the columns with all relevant patients'
data.
If you already have a patients' list created with another
software, it can be imported with OptoGait Next
preparing a normal Excel file with the same format as
the export file (number, location, column headers and format 'XML Spreadsheet 2003'). It is
recommended to export an empty personal database to create a file template and then to fill it with
the desired information. Attention must be paid to the birth date format (DD/MM/YYYY) and the
'Gender' field (M or F). The pre-configured fields 'Sort' and 'Discipline' can only be one of those
available from the drop-down menu. Possible errors during the import are listed in a log window at
the end of the import (if the error is not blocking, the patient is added anyway, but with any possible
wrong fields empty).
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4.1.1.3 RFID TAG MANAGEMENT
Witty·RFID is an automatic athlete/patient detection system that makes the trainer/therapist's work
easier by not having to enter the name of the person about to perform a test in the software.
The reader used on the field or in the lab is also used via the OptoGait software to write the RFID
tags (yellow bracelets) with the subject's identification number (that we will call the "bib" number).
When a batch of bracelets is acquired, these are in fact sold without numbers, and it is the task of
the “registry” to prepare the RFID tags (both “digitally” entering the bib number in it, as well as
indicating the number in the provided white space using a marker pen or an adhesive number).
To program an RFID tag, switch on the Witty·RFID device and connect it to the PC via the supplied
USB cable.




Access the card of an athlete (new or already stored)
Make sure that the bib number field is filled out correctly
Press the button <Write RFID Tag>
Bring the bracelet near until the LEDs on the reader turn green
The tag has now been correctly written as indicated by the dialogue box.
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4.1.2 INSERT / EDIT GROUP
In this section infinite groups and subgroups can be created, making it easy to manage the patients’
personal data.
Figure 32 – Managing groups
As a default there is always a group called ‘Patients’ which is the Parent group of the ones we will
subsequently create. All the patients we insert are automatically added to this group.
To create a subgroup, choose the parent group, press <New Group>, key in the name and confirm
(e.g. if you want to create 'Group D' as a 2nd level group, select 'Patients' and press <New Group>,
whereas if you want to create a 4th level group under 'Subgroup C', make sure to select it before
pressing <New>).
When a group is selected, the grid below will show the patients belonging to the group chosen and
its 'relationship'.
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To add one or more patients to a group there are two other possibilities:
Select the group to which you want to add a patient and press <Add to a Group>, select one
or more patients by checking them in the grid and press <Confirm>. It is possible to use
<Select All> or <Deselect All> to speed up checking operations. Press <Cancel> to exit this
function without adding patients.
Select the root group 'Patients' (which contains all patients), select one or two patients by
clicking on them (see below) and drag them with the mouse (the classic drag ‘n drop
function) to the destination group. The message 'Done' will confirm that the operation has
been successfully completed. To make multiple selections, use the SHIFT keys to select a
range of patients (from… to…) or the CTRL key for selections that are not adjacent.
Selecting a range. Click on 'Finesse', keep SHIFT pressed,
click on 'Rossini'
Selecting a number of non-adjacent patients: keep CTRL
pressed and click on the patients
It is also possible to move patients from one group to another with these two methods:

Select the source group of a patient you want to move, select one or more patients,
press <Move into a Group>, select a destination group and press <Confirm move>.
Press <Cancel> to cancel the operation in progress.

Select the subgroup from which to transfer the patient or patients and perform the
same drag ‘n drop operations described above. The difference between operating from
the root group “Patients” or from others is that in the first case the patients are always
copied. When moved from one subgroup to another, they are transferred without
copying.
With <Delete Group> the group selected and its dependent subgroups are eliminated (but not the
patients that formed it), while with <Edit Group> its name can be changed.
With <Remove from Group> the patient selected in the grid is removed; the patient is not eliminated
from the database. The button is disabled when no patient is selected or when the first level group
“Patients” is displayed.
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4.1.3 MEDIAGALLERY
The patient panel can be used to access the "MediaGallery" module: the aim of this section is to
archive images and videos of postural situations without needing to carry out a test with the bars.
You can take photographs, record videos and capture stills, making the patient assume various
poses which are useful for evaluating his/her anthropometric measurements, posture or
pathologies. The photos or still images can be processed with editing tools as described in chapter
5.4
Files of images already taken and downloaded to PC (jpg, png, bmp) can either be imported or
recorded with the webcam used for normal tests. Here's how:
Enter the Personal Data panel of a patient and click the <MediaGallery> button.
To import existing photos, click the <Add media file> button, select 1 or more photograph files from
the disk. The photos will be imported and displayed as thumbnails at the bottom of the screen,
complete with entry date and time, while the full screen display shows the photo currently selected
(marked with the orange border).
To view a photo, click its thumbnail; to scroll through the carousel of thumbnails use the right/left
arrows on screen or on the keyboard. A title and description can be assigned to each photo simply
by entering the information in the relevant fields (the information is saved automatically on exiting
the fields).
Figure 33 - MediaGallery module
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If we want to see two photos side by side (to make a comparison, for example), click the thumbnail
while pressing the CTRL key.
Figure 34 - Comparing two photos
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When we are viewing a single image (or a still taken from a video), we can double-click - directly
on the photo and not the thumbnail - to open the image editor with its various design tools,
angles, etc. If we click Save, the image is saved with our annotations.
Figure 35 - Photograph edited in the Still Image Analysis tool
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4.1.3.1 ACQUISITION FROM WEBCAM
If no photographs have been taken and are ready to import, we can make use of the installed
webcam (perhaps setting it to the maximum resolution as described in chapter 4.4.1.4.2). Click
<Record from Video>. The webcam frame preview will be displayed. Click <Photo acquisition> to
take a photograph which will be automatically added to the carousel. Press <Start Video Recording>
to begin recording; the button (which has become <Stop Video Recording>) flashes to indicate
recording is in progress. When we click to stop the recording, the video is saved and added to the
carousel.
Figure 36 - Record Video from Webcam
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Once the video has been saved, its title and description can be edited by clicking on the thumbnail,
while clicking on the video itself begins playback, with the following buttons appearing underneath:







Slider for slow-motion playback (from 10% to 100%)
Go to first frame
Back one frame
Play/Stop
Forward one frame
Go to last frame
Save current still image
To delete a photo, video or still image, select it and click <Delete Selected>.
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4.2 TEST
4.2.1 EXECUTE
In this section the pre-defined tests or protocols are carried out. To define a test or protocol, see
the sections below. In addition, before performing a test, at least one patient must be inserted in
the database.
Data insert direction
Figure 37 - Execute
To perform a trial it is advisable (but not obligatory) to follow the direction of the operations
indicated by the red arrow at least the first time you enter this section.
The basic flow is





select the patient
select the test type (using tests or protocols)
optionally configure some viewing parameters
press Execute and have the patient perform the jump test or the running/gait test
Save, Cancel or Repeat the test
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Let’s look at an example:
1.
Choose one or more patients by pressing the orange <Select> button under the ‘Patients’
box, then tick one or more patients in the grid and press <Confirm>.
Shortcuts are possible using the <Select All> and <Deselect All> buttons, whereas if the
patient database has been organized in groups and subgroups, a group can be selected with
<Select Group>. When there is the Witty·RFID system, instead of manual selection, simply
move the patient's bracelet to the reader and his/her name will automatically be selected.
2.
Select one or more tests by pressing the green <Select> button under the ‘Test’ box; then
tick one or more tests in the grid and press <Confirm>.
2a.
As an alternative to the selection of a number of tests, it is possible to select a pre-defined
protocol. Click the green <Select> button under the 'Protocols' box, select the macrotypology and click on one of the protocols followed by the <Confirm> button. It is not
possible to select more than one protocol at once. When the protocol has been chosen, the
test list is compiled with the tests that define the protocol.
3.
Check the configuration by pressing <Configure> (see chap. 4.2.1.1 Execute Configuration).
4.
Execute the test by pressing <Execute> (or <Repeat> if a test has already been performed).
5.
Wait for activation of the Webcam (if installed) and the sound signal that gives the ‘all clear’
to perform the chosen test.
6.
Follow the instructions at the bottom left which, depending on the test definition, will tell
you to ‘enter’ or ‘exit’ the test area (i.e. the space between the bars).
7.
Save the test performed with <Save>, watch the video again with <Review> or cancel the
test with <Cancel>. Press <Repeat> to have the patient repeat the test without moving to
the next test (or the next patient). If <Repeat> is pressed before saving, the test will be
deleted. Press <Insert Note> to add a note to the test that has just been completed.
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Test cycle
We have seen that it is possible to select more than one patient and/or trials, using multiple
selections or choosing a protocol, (a pre-defined sequence of pre-defined tests), and therefore have
a ‘cycle’ of tests performed. In this case the
arrows will appear in the respective boxes for
moving the selected data.
Let’s suppose we select two patients ('Rossi' and 'Smith') and two tests ('Squat jump', 'Stiffness').
Depending on how the parameter 'Rotation based on…' is set, the following types of sequence can
be set:
Rotation based on a Test
Rotation based on Patients
Rossi/Stiffness
Rossi/Stiffness
Rossi/Squat jump
Smith/Stiffness
Smith/Stiffness
Rossi/Squat jump
Smith/Squat jump
Smith/Squat jump
TIP: When patient, test or protocol selection is made, it is possible to double-click with the mouse
on the line of the grid to select the single data item and confirm automatically.
The videos are always acquired in size 640 x 480, even if they are displayed small.
The test acquisition can be simulated even if the OptoGait hardware device is not connected. The
keys that simulate the device are:
F8 – when pressed simulates the status “inside the measurement area”, when released
simulates the status “out of the measurement area”
F4 – every time it is pressed, it simulates an external impulse (e.g. photocell, etc.)
Note: the only function that cannot be simulated is the acquisition of a Sprint/Gait test: it is not
possible to know the length of steps. While this type of test is allowed, it will finish without the
acquisition of steps.
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4.2.1.1 EXECUTE CONFIGURATION
Figure 38 – Execute Configuration
Test data viewing can be configured by the user. The parameters are:
Execution
o Rotation based on: if more than one test or patient is selected, this indicates the
chosen mode
 Test: after each performance, the next test begins for the same patient
 Patient: after each test performance this goes on to the next patient doing
the same test
o Automatic acquisition: if this parameter is set to Yes, it is possible to skip the
manual saving phase at the end of each test; when the patient finishes a test, it is
saved, then, after a few seconds (as configured in the parameter ‘Acquisition
Pause’) the next test begins automatically (performed by the same patient or by
another, depending on the settings).
o Acquisition Pause: indicates the pause time between one test and another, which
are acquired automatically. Used only if Automatic Acquisition = YES
o Output 2nd monitor and Save Test Data: see chap. 4.2.1.2 on Video Feedback
o Metronome: see chap. 4.2.1.3
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Chart
o Chart: shows/hides the chart during the execution; if ‘show’ is chosen, it is possible
to choose which values to display (Flight times, Contact times, Height, Power, Pace,
etc.) and how (bars or lines).
o Grid: shows/hides the white-dotted lines forming a grid on the chart.
o Labels: displays/hides the labels for the numerical values on each spot of the chart.
o View: displays the last N-number of acquired data.
o Statistics Charts: shows/hides the statistical pie chart based on warning and bad
thresholds (see chap. 0).
Data
o Data: shows/hides the numerical data table with its lines and columns.
Video
o Video: shows/hides the videos acquired by the webcam.
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4.2.1.2 VIDEO FEEDBACK
The main idea of this new feature is to show the patient directly some main parameters of the test
he/she is carrying out. This allows to request real-time 'corrections' of some trial anomalies, making
the test become an exercise, not only a diagnosis. Particular attention is paid to the concept of
asymmetry, i.e. the difference between right and left foot (expressed in %) with respect to a
particular parameter.
A classic example is a treadmill gait test, where the patient has a monitor in front of him/her (better
if a large-screen TV), where the operator can choose which parameter among those available to
display, depending on the pathology or rehabilitation.
During the gait test, the patient receives a numerical/graphical feedback (in the form of
green/orange/red colours and up/down arrow symbols) indicating what is not 'working' and how to
correct it (e.g. making the left gait longer or increasing the rhythm, etc.).
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The new feature (available from version 1.7) is found in Test Module > Execute > Configure, with
the two parameters 'Output second monitor' and 'Save Test Data'.
When the 'Output Second Monitor' option is selected, a window is created on the second monitor
(or on the same monitor, when the second one is not physically present), where the displaying of
the absolute value or the test parameter asymmetry can be configured (e.g. the step length for a
gait test) both as a numerical value and as a graphical bar display.
Instead the 'Save Test Data' parameter is used (if set on No) when, as previously described, the
patient must 'exercise' and it is not necessary to save the test at the end of the trial. In this case no
data 'sampling' and, most of all, no webcam video sampling is carried out, thus reducing the used
disk space (temporary video files and memory swap files) as well as CPU use.
The parameter to be displayed is configured in the main window on a side panel bar, which can be
minimized (>> key). The panel appears when the type of test and the patient performing it are
selected, because the values associated with the patient-test type pair are saved so that they can
be recalled exactly as they are whenever the test is repeated.
The parameters, which can be set, are the following:


Mode: select 'Absolute Value' (the values for the 'type' selected in the drop-down menu
below are shown) or 'Asymmetry' (the two right and left values and the delta values are
shown).
Type: the parameter to be displayed (changes depending on the test type carried out; e.g.
for a tapping test, the flight and contact times, rhythm, etc., for run tests, speed,
acceleration, etc., whereas for gait tests, regular gait analysis parameters, such as stance,
swing, single support, step length, etc.).
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





Data Window: the amount of data used for calculating the asymmetry (the last N are
used); the higher the data, the better the 'average' and the more real the value, but it will
be more difficult for the patient to try and correct his/her asymmetry.
Reference Value: only appears when Mode = Absolute Value and is the value taken as a
reference when calculating the thresholds. Obviously it should be set in line with the type
of measurement selected (e.g. 30 cm for height, 0.5 s for flight time, 70 cm for step length,
etc.).
Warning Threshold: if the asymmetry is lower than this percentage, the value is displayed
on a green background, and if it is higher, the background colour is orange.
Bad Threshold: if the asymmetry is lower than this percentage, the value is displayed on an
orange background, and if it is higher, the background colour is red. Setting for example
the warning threshold at 5% and the bad threshold at 10% the following background
colours will be used:
- 0 <= value < 5 = green
- 5 <= value <10 = orange
- >= 10 = red
Trend: only appears if Mode = Asymmetry; if the asymmetry value exceeds the warning
threshold, an indication for the patient is displayed with an arrow on the value bar. The
indication can be to increase the lower value or to decrease the higher value.
View Type: choose between 'normal' (below) or 'Opto 4 Kids' (see next chapter).
Figure 39 - Example Output 2nd monitor with Asymmetry on the Step Length, normal view
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4.2.1.2.1 Opto 4 Kids
The special view 'Opto 4 Kids' is aimed at making tests fun for children, as they often get bored
(especially during long tests on the treadmill) and their interest is not engaged.
Instead of showing numeric values or histograms, which can be difficult for them to understand, we
have designed an animated cartoon-style background and a character who has to climb a mountain
(a baby dragon in this first version, but in future versions it will be possible to select a favourite
avatar).
The position and expression of the dragon indicate whether the exercise is being performed
correctly: a sad dragon at the foot of the mountain means high asymmetry or absolute values far
from the set reference values, while a happy dragon on top of the mountain means the target is
being reached.
The type of measurement and the current value appear in the top left-hand corner (useful
information for the adult operator running the exercise).
The operator (physiotherapist, doctor or technician) is responsible for encouraging the little patient
to reach the top of the mountain by giving the necessary instructions (e.g. "try to take longer steps
with your left leg", "try to speed up a bit"); the child will therefore be driven from a play perspective
and should find the motivation to improve his/her condition and have fun while exercising.
Figure 40 - Test Start
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Figure 41 - Two phases of the Opto 4 Kids video feedback
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4.2.1.3 METRONOME
While performing certain exercises (gait, walking on the spot, jumps), some patients find it easier to
maintain a cadence if they are able to follow a constant rhythmic sound. OptoGait has a virtual
'metronome' function which can be used to set the cadence in bpm (beats per minute) and the tone
(single or double).
In this software version, the sound is generated and reproduced by the PC sound card, as a reference
for the patient only; future releases should record metronome beats in addition to the test data,
correlating it with various events (e.g. step cadence, jump, etc.) which take place.
To activate the metronome during a test, go to Test > Execute > Configuration and select the YES
setting.
Once this option is activated, a small panel in the bottom left-hand corner will appear with each
test:
To generate the sounds, click the ACTIVE check box (this function. The OK button flashes at the set
rhythm.
The number of beats can be changed (between 10 and 200, in steps of 5) using the corresponding
slider or by entering the figure directly and confirming with OK.
In Utility > Basic Settings it is possible to set a single or two-tone sound.
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4.2.2 DEFINE / EDIT TESTS
In this section, the definitions of the tests to be performed can be defined or edited.
You can view the list of tests pre-defined by Microgate (in italic) or those you have added yourself
in the grid (in the example below ‘MY treadmill gait test’ is a test added by the user).
Figure 42 - Define Edit Test
If the mouse is pointed on a test, its characteristics (which are those that will be used to define a
new one) will be displayed.
By pressing <New Test>, the section for defining a test is opened.
The fields necessary for defining a test are the following:
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



Name: name identifying the test type (e.g. ‘left foot monopodalic’ or ‘continuous jumps 30
seconds’, etc.)
Test Type: this type indication is very important and conditions the fields below, which
appear dynamically only after the type has been chosen from this drop-down menu:
o Jump Test: type of test that measures flight time (and consequently height), as well
as contact time during a series of jumps (in the former version this was called
Contact/Flight time)
o Reaction Times: measures the reaction time to a visual or sound stimulus
o Sprint and Gait Test: test for the analysis of a run or walk; in addition to flight and
contact times, step or stride length, other indicative parameters are also registered
(in the former version this was called Walkjump)
o Treadmill Running Test: test analysing running to be used on a treadmill (in the
former version this was called Rolljump).
o Treadmill Gait Test: test analysing gait to be used on a treadmill.
o Tapping Test: frequency test registering separate data for each foot.
Notes: Mnemonic general notes on the test definition.
Example movie: with the webcam connected it is possible to acquire a movie clip that can
be viewed in the future as a reminder. Press <Acquire> to acquire the movie and <Play> to
view it.
4.2.2.1 MAIN AND SECONDARY PARAMETERS
The parameters of a given test type are divided into Main Parameters and Secondary Parameters.
To switch from one mask to another, press the corresponding button on the right.
Secondary parameters are the same in the Utility menu under Basic Settings (chap.4.4.1.2, 4.4.1.3
and 4.4.1.5). When creating a new test definition, the values of these parameters are retrieved from
the general data. It is possible to edit them for a specific test for particular needs. All tests of that
type will then have the modified parameter. It is also possible to change one of these parameters in
a SINGLE test (the test of Mario Rossi on April 12th), without influencing the test definition itself.
Therefore it is important to understand how the secondary parameters have a hierarchical structure
and a sort of parent/child relation.
Basic Configuration Parameter
↓
Test Definition Parameter
↓
Single Test Parameter
For example:
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Under Utility/Basic Configuration set the ‘Minimum contact time’ to 60 ms. From this moment,
every time new types of ‘Jump Test’ are created, they will have a default value of 60 ms. If this value
is acceptable, no further changes have to be performed in ‘Secondary Parameters’.
Figure 43 - Basic Configuration Parameters
Let’s suppose that for special needs a new test type is needed (e.g., ‘Three Jumps’) with a different
value (e.g., 80 ms). Open <Secondary Parameters>, change the value, and save the test definition.
Figure 44 – Test Definition Parameters
Next, have the patient perform the test ‘Three Jumps’. The single test, having inherited the values
from its type, has the parameter 80 ms. Opening View Test (chap. 4.3.1) and pressing <Settings>,
the following window is displayed:
Figure 45 – Single Test Definition Settings
However it might be necessary to change the parameter ONLY for this single test. Insert for example
75 ms and press <OK> or <Apply>. After all values have been recalculated, the data in the table with
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the numeric results and the charts will change. If the results are acceptable, confirm by pressing
<OK> and answer <YES> when asked to save the data (the difference between OK and Apply is that
<OK> asks to confirm saving the new parameters and closes the function, whereas <Apply> does
not close and allows to further adjust the parameters).
If now the correct value proves to be 75 ms (all future tests should have this value), the parameter
has to be changed in the test definition.
Figure 46 – Parameter editing in a Test Definition, when tests have already been performed with this definition.
TIP: With respect to Figure 44 the button is called <Apply> and not <Save>.
Now it is possible to decide whether this change should be applied to future tests (press <NO>) or
if the change should be applied to all tests performed with this type (overwriting possible custom
values set in the single tests); in the latter case, press <YES>.
Figure 47 – Confirming the parameter application to tests that have already been performed
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4.2.2.1.1 Parameter Template
The 'Template' field allows setting of secondary test parameters (in the definition but also at test
level) following common usage cases. Let's suppose, for example, that a gait test is carried out on a
modular system, with the athlete performing very short strides (typical of people who have had an
injury), or shuffling the tip of the advancing foot. Instead of trying to change the parameters striving
to find the best filter setting, you can choose one of the existing templates (i.e. 'shuffling gait') with
parameters set automatically on the basis of our experience.
At present the templates apply only to the run/gait tests with modular systems, but in the future
the concept will be extended to all test types and it will be possible to extend the template library
via software upgrades.
The parameters changed by these first templates are those highlighted in the figure below.
Figure 48 –Parameters Template
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The available fields for the different test types are the following:
4.2.2.2 JUMP TEST
Main Parameters






Start type: indicates if the start of the test must take place with a ‘status change’ (i.e.
entering or exiting the bars) or with an ‘external impulse’ coming from the jack sockets (start
button, signal light, etc.).
Start: indicates if at the beginning of the test the patient must be ‘inside the area’ of the bars
or ‘outside the area’.
Stop Type: as for the start, the end of the test can take place because of a ‘Status change’ or
an ‘external impulse’, or (in the case of time tests) the end of the test time (e.g. a test “Jumps
15 seconds” will have the Stop type = ‘End of Time’).
Finish: for the Stop type = ‘Status change’ it is necessary to specify if, at the end of the test,
the patient must be ‘inside the area’ of the bars or ‘outside the area’; in the other two Stop
type cases this field does not appear.
Number of Jumps: appears only if the Stop type = ‘Status change’ and specifies how many
times the patient must jump (1 to 99).
Test Length: appears only if Stop type = ‘End of Time’ and specifies how many
minutes:seconds the test must last (from 00:01 to 09:59).
Secondary Parameters




Minimum contact time [ms]: allows you to set a minimum contact time in milliseconds; if
the system registers a contact time shorter than this value, it is considered incorrect and
added to the associated flight time (usually the previous one). This control can be
enabled/disabled by inserting the value 0.
Minimum flight time [ms]: allows you to set a minimum flight time in milliseconds; if the
system registers a flight time shorter than this value, it is considered incorrect and added to
the associated contact time. This control can be enabled/disabled by inserting the value 0.
Maximum flight time [ms]: allows you to set a maximum flight time in milliseconds; if the
flight time is higher, it is considered incorrect; if the system registers a flight time longer than
this value, the time is not considered.
Starting foot: if known, the foot with which the test starts (“right” or “left”) can be indicated,
otherwise leave as “not defined”.
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4.2.2.3 REACTION TIMES
Main Parameters
Start type: Indicates what type of reaction the test must assess, that is:
o “Visual stimulus”: on the PC screen a red circle becomes green after a random
period of time; the patient must ‘react’ to this stimulus (e.g., by jumping)
o “Acoustic stimulus”: the reaction stimulus is a sound emitted by the PC (using
either an internal loudspeaker or a sound board) after a random period of time.
o “Visual-Acoustic stimulus”: the visual (red/green circle) and the acoustic stimuli
(beep from the PC) alternate randomly
o “External impulse”: the start to calculate the reaction time is given by a device
(e.g. a start horn or a start button) connected to the jack sockets
Start: indicates if at the beginning of the test the patient must be ‘inside the area’ of the
bars or ‘outside the area’
Minimum pause: minimum pause time in minutes:seconds between one test and another
(the pause will have this minimum value, but, being random, it will almost always be longer)
Number of repetitions: indicates how many repetitions (from 1 to 99) the test must consist
of
Sequence type: the sequence can be ‘Automatic’ (the test repetitions follow each other
automatically) or ‘Manual’ (at the end of each repetition the start of the next test must be
confirmed)
Stop type: this can only happen by ‘Status change’
Secondary Parameters
Minimum contact time [ms]: see above
Minimum flight time [ms]: see above
Maximum flight time [ms]: see above
Reaction time range [ms]: indicates the time frame in milliseconds within which the
reaction signal must be given randomly.
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4.2.2.4 SPRINT AND GAIT TEST
Main Parameters








Start type: indicates if the start of the test must take place with a ‘status change’ (i.e.
entering or exiting the bars) or with an ‘external impulse’ coming from the jack sockets
Start: indicates if at the beginning of the test the patient must be ‘inside the area’ of the bars
or ‘outside the area’
Staring foot: if known, the foot with which the test starts (“right” or “left”) can be indicated,
otherwise leave as “not defined”
Stop type: indicates how the end of the test must be interpreted, (i.e. as ‘External impulse’
like a photocell at the end of the lane) or as ‘timeout’ (the number of milliseconds of Test
timeout can be customized in Utility – Basic Settings)
Finish: for the Stop type = ‘Timeout’ it is necessary to specify if, at the end of the test, the
patient must be ‘inside the area’ of the bars or ‘outside the area’
Test Length: appears only if Stop type = ‘End of Time’ and specifies how many
minutes:seconds the test must last (from 00:01 to 09:59)
Number of intermediate times: indicates how many intermediate times are inserted
between the start and the stop (0 to 99)
Template: see chap. 4.2.2.1.1
Secondary Parameters









Minimum contact time [ms]: see above
Minimum flight time [ms]: see above
Maximum flight time [ms]: see above
External signal hold off [ms]: is the hold off time between two consecutive external signals.
Caution has to be applied for this value, because it may depend on the type of test being
carried out.
Entry point: allows you to indicate if the entry point of the Sprint/Gait test is on the ‘interface
side’ (drum) or the ‘opposite side’. If ‘automatic’ is chosen, OptoGait automatically calculates
the direction, considering the LED nearest the centre of the foot as the beginning of the LEDs.
Step length calculation: allows you to choose whether to calculate step length as the
distance between the tips of two following feet or as the distance between the heels of two
following feet (see also Figure Figure 99).
Minimum gap between feet [cm]: is the minimum gap between the tiptoe of one foot and
the heel of the next foot.
Minimum foot length [cm]: is the minimum foot length in centimetres (or inches), used to
filter possible incorrect acquisitions.
Split 1 or 2 at distance [cm]: insert at how many cm from the start the first or second split
time will be taken; leave 0 to disable split times.
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





Test Timeout [ms]: this is the end of test timeout in milliseconds; if during a Sprint/Gait test
with ‘Timeout’ stop type no input or output signal is received from the measurement area
by the OptoGait device for a period longer than or equal to the time set here, the test is
considered completed.
3rd/6th/9th step speed reference: insert the reference speed for the 3rd/6th/9th step in
m/s; this option can be disabled by inserting the value 0.
Discard first step: discard the first N steps (N=input value) when entering the area; this
parameter (and the following) are useful when we want only consider the central part of the
test and we do not want enter&exit (usually with lower speed) to affect the average.
Discard last steps: discards the last N steps (N=input value) when exiting the area.
Foot filter at start/end of system: if set to YES does not consider the steps in and out of the
system if there are at least 2 obscured LEDs; in this way you avoid fingerprints half in and
half out of the measurement area.
Filter GaitR IN and Filter GaitR OUT [LED]: the two parameters expressed in number of
sensors (LEDs) indicate the minimum number of sensors interrupted by the gait and
triggering the start of the foot contact time (GaitR IN) and the end of the same time (GaitR
OUT). See also chap. 5.1.6
For this test type the structure of the system has to be defined as well, (i.e., how many bars the
system is composed of and whether there are gaps between the bars).
In the field ‘Number of bars’, the number of connected bars must be inserted. This field is necessary
for correct test acquisition. If the inserted number of bars differs from the number of bars actually
installed, the software will signal this error suspending the test currently in progress.
Example: A system is made of 20 meters of OptoGait bars, all connected, without gaps. The settings
to make are the following:
The and buttons are respectively for removing or adding blocks of OptoGait bars. This function
can be used, for example, in hurdle jumping, where between one hurdle and the next one
interruptions are made connecting bars with a flat cable.
The ‘Distance’ field is for indicating the distance between the blocks in centimetres. The first
‘Distance’ (D0) corresponds to the distance between the patient’s initial position and the first block.
For example, in athletics, if the start is from the blocks, the distance from the springboard to the
first block must be calculated. The other distances (D 1, D2, etc.) indicate the distance between the
last lens of a bar and the first lens of the following bar (end and beginning of the two half moons).
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Figure 49– Example: bars with gap
A practical configuration example of a system of 30 m could be the following:
Starting block—50 cm – 13 meters OJ – hurdle – 8 meters – hurdle – 8 meters – hurdle – 1 meter
Figure 50 – Configuration of bar blocks
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4.2.2.5 TREADMILL RUNNING TEST
Main Parameters






Start type: this can only be ‘Software command’ or ‘External Impulse’
Stop type: this can be ‘Software command’, 'End of Time' or ‘External Impulse’
Starting foot: see above
Test length: appears only if Stop type = ‘End of Time’ and specifies how many
minutes:seconds the test must last (from 00:01 to 59:59)
Treadmill speed: indicates the speed in km/h the treadmill is set at; the setting range is 0.120.0 km/h with steps of 0.1.
Direction: indicates if the walking direction is 'Interface side' or 'Opposite side'. Therefore, if
the interface drums are at the end of the treadmill choose 'Opposite Side', or vice versa.
Figure 51 - Direction: OPPOSITE Side
Figure 52 - Direction: IINTERFACE Side
Secondary Parameters







Minimum contact time [ms]: see above
Minimum flight time [ms]: see above
Maximum flight time [ms]: see above
Step length calculation: see above
Minimum gap between feet [cm]: see above
Minimum foot length [cm]: see above
Filter GaitR IN and Filter GaitR OUT [LED]: see above
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4.2.2.6 TREADMILL GAIT TEST
Main Parameters





Start type: this can only be ‘Software command’ or ‘External Impulse’
Stop type: this can be ‘Software command’, 'End of Time' or ‘External Impulse’
Test length: appears only if Stop type = ‘End of Time’ and specifies how many
minutes:seconds the test must last (from 00:01 to 59:59)
Treadmill speed: indicates the speed in km/h the treadmill is set at; the setting range is 0.120.0 km/h with steps of 0.1.
Direction: Indicates if the walking direction is 'Interface side' or 'Opposite side'. Therefore, if
the interface drums are at the end of the treadmill choose 'Opposite Side', or vice versa.
Secondary Parameters








Minimum contact time [ms]: see above
Minimum flight time [ms]: see above
Maximum flight time [ms]: see above
Step length calculation: see above
Minimum gap between feet [cm]: see above
Minimum foot length [cm]: see above
Filter GaitR IN and Filter GaitR OUT [LED]: see above
Automatic Data Filter: from 10% to 90% (default = deactivated); activating this parameter,
the user can check if the values for flight time, contact time, gait time, swing time, and step
length are within the average value +/- the chosen percentage. If one of these data is out
of range, the table line will be deleted from the calculation of average values and the
values on the grid will appear in strike-through format (e.g. average = 0.8, filter = 20%, all
values above 0.96 and below 0.64 will be deleted).
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4.2.2.7 TAPPING TEST
Main Parameters





Start type: indicates if the start of the test must take place with a ‘status change’ (i.e.
entering or exiting the bars) or with an ‘external impulse’ coming from the jack sockets
Start: can only be ‘inside the area’
Staring foot: if known, the foot with which the test starts (“right” or “left”) can be indicated,
otherwise leave as “not defined”
Stop type: indicates how the end of the test must be interpreted, (i.e., as ‘External impulse’
like a photocell at the end of the lane) or as ‘Timeout’
Test Length: appears only if Stop type = ‘End of Time’ and specifies how many
minutes:seconds the test must last (from 00:01 to 09:59)
Secondary Parameters





Minimum contact time [ms]: see above
Minimum flight time [ms]: see above
Maximum flight time [ms]: see above
Minimum gap between feet [cm]: see above
Minimum foot length [cm]: see above
In order to perform a Tapping Test, it is important that the patient’s feet are vertical to the OptoGait
bars.
Figure 53 – Correct execution of a Tapping Test
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4.2.2.8 VERTEC LIKE TEST
Main Parameters






Start type: indicates if the start of the test must take place with a ‘status change’ (i.e.
entering or exiting the bars) or with an ‘external impulse’ coming from the jack sockets (start
button, signal light, etc.).
Start: indicates if at the beginning of the test the athlete must be ‘inside the area’ of the bars
or ‘outside the area’.
Stop type: as for the start, the end of the test can take place because of a ‘Status change’ or
an ‘external impulse’, or (in the case of time tests) the end of the test time (e.g. a test “Jumps
15 seconds” will have the Stop type = ‘End of Time’).
Finish: for the Stop type = ‘Status change’ it is necessary to specify if, at the end of the test,
the athlete must be ‘inside the area’ of the bars or ‘outside the area’; in the other two Stop
type cases this field does not appear
Number of Jumps: specifies how many times the athlete must jump (from 1 to 99)
Direction: the only possible option is 'opposite side', i.e. the drums of the bars must be
positioned
in
the
lower
part
Secondary Parameters



Minimum contact time [ms]: see above
Minimum flight time [ms]: see above
Maximum flight time [ms]: see above
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4.2.2.9 2D GAIT TEST
A new test type called '2D Gait Test' has been added from version 1.7 or higher. With this new type
it is NOT necessary to specify the number of bars connected (X and Y), as this is detected
automatically by the software (the only limitation is that the number of X bars must be >= Y bars).
As highlighted, the measurement area is always the area covered by the X bars and not by the whole
rectangle; this is very important with respect to the 'Start' parameter; if the athlete starts inside the
rectangle, but in any case before the beginning of the X bars, this must be defined as 'OUTSIDE the
Area'.
The 'Starting Foot' field contains only the Automatic option and therefore it is no longer necessary
to define beforehand if the gait begins with the right or left foot, as the Y bars detect it automatically.
For certain situations it is in any case still possible to change the starting foot during
the test phase (Results > View) using previous methods (right click on the grid and
'Change Starting Foot' context menu) or via a new function with two buttons in the
Gait Report section. Just press the icon of the required foot to set it as starting foot
(the one currently used is coloured, whereas the other is greyed out).
The 'Template' field, which previously contained various gait types besides the
normal one (shuffling gait, short steps, short steps tip-tip, etc.) has been considerably simplified;
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thanks to the greatly improved algorithms for the automatic recognition of various patterns, it has
been possible to reduce the various types to only two, i.e. 'Normal' and 'Superposed Feet'.
Similarly to the foot change, a rapid method has been added for changing the template directly from
the Gait Report using the relevant button.
In the Secondary Parameters of the 2D Gait Test there are 4 new parameters, which can already be
applied during test definition or during the trial analysis (<Parameters> button).



Minimum Distance Between Feet: parameter required
by the filter algorithms for specific cases
Minimum Foot Width: similar to the minimum foot
length; smaller measures are skipped, because they
are considered spurious
GaitR In and Out Filter: the two parameters expressed
in number of sensors (LEDs) indicate the minimum
number of sensors interrupted by the gait and
triggering the start of the foot contact time (GaitR IN)
and the end of the same time (GaitR OUT). See also
chap. 5.1.6
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4.2.2.10
SWAY TEST
Static (Sway) tests are the only ones that do not need OptoGait bars but only the Gyko inertial
sensor.
The sensor is typically placed behind the patient's shoulder blades and measures the subject's
antero-posterior and medio-lateral movements during the exercise (which can be bending on one
foot, a squat, etc.)
Main Parameters



Start type: this can only be "Software command"
Stop type: Indicates how to interpret the end of the test: with "External Pulse", "End of Time"
or "Software Command"
Test length: appears only if Stop type = "End of Time" and specifies how many
minutes:seconds the test must last (from 00:01 to 09:59)
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After inserting the data, remember to press <Save> and return to the list of defined tests.
To review the parameters of a defined test, pass over them with the mouse, or double-click on them
(this is equivalent to pressing <Edit Test>).
Editing a test definition is only possible if no tests using this definition have already been performed.
The secondary parameters, on the other hand, can always be edited.
To delete a test definition, select it from the list and press <Delete Test>; all the tests connected to
this definition will be deleted!
To duplicate a test definition (useful, for example, if a left-foot test has been defined and the same
shall be applied to the right foot, or vice versa), select the test from the list and press <Duplicate
Test>. This creates a copy of the test, which can then be renamed and fully edited.
The buttons <Import Test> and <Export Test> are for copying the definition of a test from one
database to another. Press <Export Test> and save the XML file on your hard drive. Open another
database (or create a new one) and press <Import Test> choosing the file previously saved.
The tests preconfigured by Microgate can be duplicated, but not edited or eliminated.
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4.2.3 DEFINE / EDIT PROTOCOLS
In this section, the protocols to be performed can be defined or edited. The protocols can be
considered as a pre-defined series of tests to be performed in sequence (e.g., one ‘Squat jump’ +
one ‘CMJ’ + one ‘Jumps 15 seconds’).
To create a new protocol, ; select one of the three test macro-typologies (Performance, Gait
Analysis, Rehab) and press <New Protocol>. Insert a mnemonic name and optionally general notes.
Select the tests (in the desired order) that will make up this protocol, using the symbol
If a mistake has been made or a test has to be removed from the protocol, use the symbol
Figure 54 – Creation of a protocol
If you do not remember the parameters of a test definition, place the mouse cursor on it and its
characteristics will be displayed.
After inserting the data, press <Save> and return to the previous section.
The command <Edit Protocol> allows you to edit its name and notes and change its
composition.<Delete Protocol> deletes its definition. Unlike the deletion of a test definition, the
deletion of a protocol does not cause the chain-effect deletion of all correlated tests but only the
connection they had with the protocol. After its deletion, the tests performed by the patients will
be found again as ‘single tests’, no longer related to the protocol.
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4.3 RESULTS
Figure 55 – Results
In the Results section, the performed tests or protocols are displayed. For better understanding,
these three terms are defined as follows:
Test is a single test (e.g. 15” jumps) performed on a certain date by a single patient.
Protocol: is a pre-defined list of tests to perform in sequence.
Analysis: when a single test is displayed or when two tests are compared, certain configuration
parameters may be set for the video, the table with numerical data, charts, reports, printouts, etc.
It is furthermore possible to draw on still pictures, insert notes, ‘sign’, delete incorrect data, etc. All
these operations can be saved in an Analysis (using a mnemonic name), which can then be recalled
without having to reset all parameters.
The RESULTS window is divided into 3 parts (from left to right):



FILTERS: panel for looking for a single test or for filtering according to various parameters
TEST LIST: contains all the tests made, possibly filtered by your parameters; the same
window also displays the list of saved analyses
TEST ANALYSIS: contains the tests/analyses manually selected for viewing, comparing,
printing, or exporting.
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Filters Panel
With the ‘Data’ radio button, select whether single tests, protocols or analyses should be viewed.
In the latter case, with the
and
icons expand or collapse the tests contained in the protocols.
Figure 56 – Expanded Protocols List
Choosing 'Analyses’, all saved analyses will be viewed with the saving date (which can be much later
than the execution of the analysed tests).
Figure 57 – Saved Analyses
To look for a patient or a test/protocol, the data can be inserted manually into the search boxes
(e.g., key in ‘Rossi’ in the Patient field or ‘CMJ’ in the Test field) or press to display a list of patients
or tests to choose from. Similarly, it is possible to filter by data by inserting a range of data with the
calendar control.
The 'Test type filter' radio button can be used to apply an automatic filter to the test type: for
example, if 'Jumps 15 seconds' is selected for test analysis, the list on the left-hand side will only
show 'Jump Test' types and all others (gait, run, tapping, etc.) will be hidden. This makes it easier to
select other tests of the same type for comparison or history purposes. If, on the other hand, you
do not want to use this automatic filter (for example, when selecting a variety of tests to export),
set the filter to 'Disabled'.
To view all the tests and reset the various filters, press <Delete filter>.
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Test List
Figure 58 – Test List Components
Click on the column names (Patient, Test, Data) to display the list in order according to that field.
Press again to reverse the order (A…Z, Z…A).
To delete a test, press the symbol on the corresponding line of the chosen test; to delete all
displayed tests press
on the table heading.
To select a test to analyse, press the symbol on the corresponding line (or double-click with the
mouse): the test will be moved from the LIST table to the ANALYSIS table and a filter will
automatically be set on the type of test (e.g., if a ‘Squatjump’ test is chosen, the Test List is filtered
in order to contain only ‘Jump tests’; this allows you to choose only tests of the same type to submit
to ‘Comparison’).
To add all displayed tests, press
on the table heading.
To make multiple selections, use the SHIFT key to select a range of patients (from… to…) or the CTRL
key for selections that are not adjacent, as explained in section. 4.1.2. Pressing will move only
the selected tests, while pressing will delete those lines.
Figure 59 – Multiple selection
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From the test list, it is possible to perform two operations by RIGHT-CLICKING on one test line. More
precisely:


Change person: allows you to associate a test with another person, if the wrong association
was made during execution; select the command and choose a patient from the displayed
mask; press <Confirm> to choose the new person. This function is also available on the
protocol list.
Edit note: allows you to view/edit the note inserted immediately after test completion; the
note will be printed on the report in the General Data section on the first page of the test.
Figure 60 – Context menu under a single test
Conversely, right-clicking on the list of saved analyses provides the following options:


Rename: allows you to change the name of the analysis
Analysis Notes: allows you to view/edit the note that has been entered; this note is printed
at the bottom of the report
Figure 61 – Context menu under the saved analysis
If the Gyko inertial sensor was also used during the test, a special icon will signal it:
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Test Analysis
To view a single test, select the corresponding line in the ‘TEST ANALYSIS’ table and press the button
<View> (or double-click with the mouse). See chap. 4.3.1 View.
To compare two tests, enter the relevant tests in the ‘TEST ANALYSIS’ table and press <Compare>.
See chap. 4.3.2 Compare. The button is disabled if the number of tests in the window is not two.
To remove a test from the analysis, press the
symbol on the corresponding line in the 'TEST
ANALYSIS' table. To delete all the tests displayed, press on the table heading.
To analyse the history, insert two or more tests in the ‘TEST ANALYSIS’ table and press the button
<History>. See chap. 4.3.3 History.
To export the data to Excel, add at least one test to the ‘TEST ANALYSIS’ table and press <Export>.
A dialog box asks if the extended version (for each data line the test heading and patient’s data are
repeated) or the simple version (only numerical test data) should be displayed.
Pressing <Print>, n-number of reports (to be printed directly or saved in PDF format) are generated;
the number corresponds to the number of tests shown in the ‘Test analysis’ window. Before
generating the output, the output directory for the above files must be selected.
Figure 62 – Test list to analyse
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4.3.1 VIEW
In this section the test selected is displayed.
Figure 63 – View
The items on the left from top to bottom are the following:






name of the patient
test type and execution date
VCR player with slider and commands for managing the acquired video(s)
command buttons for activating various functions
<Back> button to close the mask View and go back to the Test list
total test data
On the right there are 4 types of information regarding the current test; each set of information can
be shown/hidden using the configuration commands.
The items from top to bottom are the following:




Videos acquired by (one or two) webcam(s); if the webcams are not connected when the
test is performed, a fixed image with the Microgate logo will appear
Charts displaying the results: it is possible to choose the chart type (lines or bars) and the
measurement to be displayed (times, heights, powers, etc.)
Table of numerical data: a grid with various lines and columns displays actually acquired
data and calculated data; at the bottom of the table statistical and aggregated data are
displayed (average, minimum, maximum, etc.)
OptoGait bars: displays the n-number of bars connected at the time the test is carried out
and which LEDs turn on during the test
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The table shows the list of all the external, flight and contact times acquired during the test. The
data has been processed to obtain further information such as jump heights, energy, developed
power, etc. See chap.5.1 Definition of Result Columns.
In the case of Sprint/Gait test, step length, speed, and acceleration are also displayed.
By checking the various rows, invalid flight and/or contact times can be deleted. See chap. 5.3.
In the bottom left area total test data is displayed, such as:
Effective time [mm:ss.dd]: actual time of the test in the format minutes, seconds and
milliseconds; this is the difference between the actual start of the test, calculated from the
first event (e.g. the first take-off from the ground), and the end of the test.
Total time [mm:ss.dd]: total time of the test in the format minutes, seconds and
hundredths of a second; this is the difference between the start of the test, signalled by the
acoustic signal, and the end of the test. If, for example, 10 seconds pass between the two
start beeps and the end of the test, and the patient begins to jump 3 seconds after the first
beep, the two values will be Total time = 10 and Effective time = 7.
Specific energy [J/kg]: specific energy produced during the test calculated with the
following formula:
∑ ℎ ∙ 
Specific power [W/kg]: specific power produced during the test calculated with the
following formula:
2 ∙ ∑  ∙ ( ∑  + ∑  )
4 ∙ °  ∙ ∑ 
Where Tf= Flight Time, Tc= Contact Time
Patient's weight [kg or lb]: patient's weight in kg or pounds
Total energy [J]: if the patient’s weight is available, this field contains the total energy
expressed by the patient during the test (SpecificEnergy * PatientWeight)
Total power [W]: if the patient’s weight is available, this field contains the total power
expressed by the patient during the test (SpecificPower * PatientWeight)
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At the top left (see figure below) is the command panel for checking test progress.
Figure 64 – Command panel
From left to right the commands available are:
Back to the start of the test
Back one frame
Play/Stop
Forward one frame
Forward to the end of the test
Move the progress bar (slider) by moving the cursor with the mouse.
Instead of the buttons Back/Next, the right and left arrow keys on the keyboard can be used to move
forward/backward by single frames. The CTRL+Right Arrow and CTRL+Left Arrow can be used to
move by a thousandth of a second.
4.3.1.1 CONFIGURATION PANEL
Pressing <Configure> displays the choices available.
Figure 65 – Configuration Panel for the View test function
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The <Set Start>, <Set Stop> buttons are for defining the start and end respectively of the part of
interest. Place the cursor at the start and finish points of the desired movie clip and press <Set Start>
and then <Set Stop>. Thus a part of the movie clip is isolated, deleting the uninteresting ‘dead’
periods.
Press <Reset> to cancel the ‘Start’ and ‘Stop’ references and restore them to their initial values.
Double-clicking anywhere on the timeline, the positioning time can be entered. The value must be
in milliseconds (i.e. for example 1871 to reach 18”.71).
With <Search Parameters>, it is possible to look for a parameter selected from the 'Parameter' dropdown menu; e.g. select 'first flight time' and press Search Parameter: you will see the film clip and
the slider used to move forward to the frame corresponding to the patient's first take-off from the
ground. By using ‘Next T.Flight’, you will go forward to the next corresponding event. This function
is very useful when comparing two tests.
The display of test data can be configured by the user:
Chart
o
o
o
o
Chart: shows/hides the chart
Grid: shows/hides the dotted lines forming a grid on the chart
Labels: shows/hides the labels for the numerical values on the times on the chart
View: shows all the data acquired or only certain data; in this case, a scrollbar
allows you to move to the right and left inside the chart
o Data Window: the table of numerical data displays the n-number of data based on
the window in blue shown in the chart. To move the window, right-click it with the
mouse and drag it onto the chart.
Figure 66 – Display 10 events at a time and take 3 of them into consideration (blue window)
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Data
o
o
Video
o
o
o
Data: shows/hides the grid with numerical data
Bars: shows/hides the OptoGait bars
Video: shows/hides the acquired video
Play: you can play ‘Single’ (only once) or ‘Continuous’ (looping the test)
Overlay: using graphical tools draw on a still picture and save this image as an
overlay ( ); use this flag to show or hide it
o Video choice: allows you to choose whether to show or hide one of the two videos
o Speed: normal (1x) or slowed down by a factor from 0.1x to 0.9x
The Configuration panel can be closed (i.e., minimized) using the button << in the upper left corner.
Only the video commands (play, stop, ff-fw, rew, etc.) are available, allowing you to view the test.
Use >> to open the panel again.
Figure 67 – Open Configuration panel
Figure 68 – Closed Configuration panel
4.3.1.2 CHARTS
In OptoGait charts there are various viewing options. (for example, in Figure Figure 69 'Stance' and
'Swing' are displayed). To change view type, left-click with the mouse on another option (such as
‘Power’ or ‘Height’). The buttons have the same colours as the chart bars/lines and are therefore
used as legend.
In addition, if you place your cursor on one of the buttons, the displayed chart type will appear on
the right. It can be lines (
symbol.
) or bars (
). To change the chart type, left-click on the corresponding
By pressing the symbols under ‘Zoom’ you can increase (
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Figure 69 – Chart options
If a setting is not available, it is displayed in black. e.g. if no second webcam is connected, the option
'View video#2' is disabled).
The OptoGait software has a graphic tool for analysing images acquired by webcams. To enter this
section, just double-click with the mouse on the still picture to process (see chap. 5.4 Video
Analysis).
Press <Menu >> > to close the Configuration panel.
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4.3.1.3 STATISTICS CHARTS
Both during a test and in the subsequent data viewing and analysis, instead of the charts described
in the previous chapter, it is possible to view a pie chart depicting the division of time elapsed
between specific thresholds defined previously.
The same panel used to configure the second monitor (see chap. 4.2.1.2) can also be used to indicate
which value is to be taken into consideration (Stance, Swing, Step Length, Jump Height, etc.) and
which warning threshold and bad threshold values are to be set.
The mode (Asymmetry or Absolute Value) is obviously the most important parameter to be set on
the basis of what is to be monitored.
In the example below we want to see how asymmetric (right/left) the patient is during a treadmill
gait test in terms of step length, in relation to the thresholds set:
The statistics chart shows that in a total of approximately 30 seconds testing, 26% (7.8 s) showed
asymmetry under 5%, 65% of the time (19.3 s) it was between 5% and 10%, and just 9% of the time
(2.6 s) asymmetry was over 10%.
The Data Window allows us to decide every how many events a calculation to work out which of the
three bands the patient falls into; e.g. by setting 5 DATA, every 5 steps (or jumps) the average of the
selected measurement is calculated, compared with the reference value and the established
thresholds and assigned to the good, warning or bad category.
In this second example, however, we see the use of 'Absolute Value' mode where, in a 'Jumps 60
seconds' test, the Height value is compared with a reference value of 30 cm: 31% of the time the
patient jumped over 27 cm (30 cm – 10% of the warning threshold), 26% of the time he/she jumped
between 24 and 27 cm, and 43% of the time he/she jumped under 24 cm.
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4.3.1.4 TABLE WITH NUMERICAL DATA
In ‘Jump Tests’ or ‘Reaction Tests’, the numerical data to display are few and therefore almost
always fit into one screen.
On the contrary, in Sprint/Gait tests (regular or with treadmill), the table of numerical data has many
columns (a horizontal scroll bar is shown); it was therefore decided to divide them into two pages,
the first containing typical Run Data and the second containing Gait Data.
To switch from one screen to another, click on the link on the top left corner of the table.
Figure 70 - Run & Gait Data
There is also a third type of data depiction called 'Gait Report', which can be zoomed with the +
and – button
.
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In the Run Test (on a modular system or on a treadmill) there is another possibility, i.e. to view a
dynamic report (Run Report) focusing on the asymmetry between the right and the left foot. Of
course, the report can be viewed also under Results and in the print report. To view the report, click
on the link highlighted in the upper left corner to toggle between Run Data, Gait Data, and Run
Report.
Figure 71 - Run Report
In Tapping Tests, four pages may be scrolled:




Left and right foot results
Left foot results
Right foot results
Comparison between right and left foot
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At the bottom of the data, some statistical data are calculated:





Minimum Value
Maximum Value
Average (µ)
Standard Deviation (σ)
Coefficient of Variation (CV: ratio of the standard deviation to the mean)
In some test types, values are calculated for each foot (left & right)
Figure 72 – Calculated statistical data
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4.3.1.4.1 Row Management Menu
When RIGHT-clicking on a table row a context menu appears with the following items:
Figure 73 – Data row management menu






Restore row: allows you to reset a previously deleted row or a row connected to the row
above or below as valid
Delete row: deletes the selected row – deleted rows are not considered in the calculation of
averages and of total values for the test; they are displayed in strikethrough
Delete TCont.: deletes a contact time from the selected row; as a consequence the
associated contact and flight times are added to the flight time in the row above
Delete TFlight: deletes the flight time from the line row; as a consequence associated flight
and contact times are added to the contact time in the row below
Show marked rows: allows you to show/hide deleted rows or rows with deleted flight or
contact time
Change starting foot: allows you to set the right foot or the left foot as starting foot. It is
very useful to use the video to discern with which foot the patient has started. If you do not
have video recordings and you do not remember the foot, specify ‘Undefined’.
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4.3.1.5 START FOOT
The Starting Foot can be defined during the creation of a test (see 'Define / Modify Test'), or
afterward - keeping it as 'not defined' - during the analysis.
Sprint and Gait Test on modular systems:
-
Starting outside the test area: the starting foot is the first one to touch the ground inside the
area;
Starting inside the test area: the starting foot is the one with the first contact after the
beginning of the test.
Assigning the starting foot after a test has been carried out is done in the 'Results' area. From 'View',
open the 'Configure' menu, select 'First Contact Time' from 'Parameter Research' and, viewing the
first contact time from the 'Data' window, right-click on the relevant line. At this point, select
'Change starting foot' from the displayed menu and make your choice.
E.g. In the following picture the athlete enters the Optojump test area with his RIGHT foot (as you
can see in the video) and then, using the menu, it is possible to assign that foot (confirmed by the
green footprint below).
Figure 74 – Sprint and Gait Test: assigning the starting foot
Should you realize that the assigned starting foot is wrong, just follow the above-stated procedure
and switch the selection.
Treadmill Running Test and Treadmill Gait Test.
In this case the foot touching the ground after the START command is assigned as starting foot.
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If the START is assigned during a double support, as occurs quite often in Gait Tests, the starting foot
is the one in front on the Treadmill.
Figure 75 - Defining the starting foot = right foot, pressing START at this moment
Assigning the starting foot before the test is of utmost importance when using OptoGait together
with a surface electromyography, in which case, the EMG software needs to know the starting foot
beforehand.
CAUTION
See chap. 1.5 for correct positioning of the bars on the treadmill.
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Of course it is possible to do this afterwards using the same method described above for the Sprint
and Gait Tests on modular systems (even as regards possible foot assigning errors).
Figure 76 - Treadmill Running Test: assigning the starting foot
Figure 77 - Treadmill Gait Test: assigning the starting foot (double support)
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The starting foot of run and gait tests with modular systems can
be change several times. In a round-trip test, for example, it can
be useful to change the foot with which the athlete has entered
the area after having changed direction. By positioning the mouse
on the footprint to be changed and pressing the right button
'Invert foot' is viewed. Choosing this option, all following feet of the chosen foot are changed (e.g.
clicking on the footprint #7, the 7,8,9, etc. are inverted.).
In the round-trip used in modular systems, assigning a maximum flight time lower than the time it
takes the athlete to turn around in the test area, the ‘there’ footprints are deleted and substituted
with the ‘back’ footprints. Therefore, set the maximum flight time based upon one's needs (i.e. if
the ‘there’ and ‘back’ footprints are to be left superposed as shown in the figure, or the previous
ones deleted).
Figure 78 - There’ and ‘Back’ footprints
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4.3.1.6 VIDEO PREVIEW POPUP: FIRST STEP PREVIEW
While in the new '2D Gait' test the starting foot recognition (first step) is automatic, in other test
types, such as Sprint and Gait (run and gait on linear systems), treadmill gait and treadmill running,
the operator must decide which foot is the one that began the test.
In order to help the user in this operation, which is sometimes difficult because the patient is far
away, a new feature called 'video preview popup' has been added, displaying a popup window for N
seconds (you can set N as you like), where the first frame of the trial is viewed, allowing the operator
to understand if the entering foot is the one specified or if it is the opposite foot.
During these N seconds, by watching the preview of the two webcams it is possible to confirm or
change the foot of the first step simply clicking on the right or left foot icon (or wait until the popup
closes automatically confirming the choice).
In the example below, the patient enters with the left foot, whereas the test was set differently (or
could have been set as 'undefined'). Clicking on the red icon of the left foot, the setting is
immediately inverted, therefore it does not need to be done afterwards from the Results Module.
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4.3.1.7 VIEWING OF THE OPTOGAIT BARS
The OptoGait bars allow you to view afterwards the LEDs that have been interrupted (in red) and, if
a starting foot has been set, to view the footfall thanks to the graphical footprints. The footprint
length is directly proportional to the number of interrupted LEDs.
Similarly, the labels of the numerical data chart and row values always display which foot they are
referring to.
Figure 79 – Indicating the foot on charts, tables and bars
When watching a run/gait video of a modular system composed of many meters, as the time
progresses, the bars scroll in synchronization with the video and the charts, allowing the user to
follow the LEDs interrupted during the test.
Bar scrolling can be disabled by clicking on the lock icon in the bottom right corner. The button has
a toggle function, so when clicked scrolling is enabled again.
From this view, a 'Measuring Ruler' can been used to see how many centimetres (or inches) there
are between a series of lit LEDs (or between two points). Double-click on the first LED and then on
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the second LED to view the measure (the markers are green and red for the first and second point).
Click anywhere on the bars and ESC to delete the measure.
Figure 80 - Measure in cm or inches of the distance between two points
In this view you can also temporarily delete a series of LEDs for a certain period of time. Unlike the
command <LED Filter> (see chap. 4.4.2), which excludes a series of LEDs for the entire test, this
allows you to also work during the test analysis and exclude a series of contiguous LEDs (or one
single LED) for a certain number of thousandths of seconds. Let us suppose, for example, that during
a treadmill gait test you realise that the patient has shuffled his/her foot by mistake and you want
to delete that series of LEDs for those 2 seconds: press and hold the CTRL key, click on the first
incorrect LED and (without releasing the CTRL key and the mouse button) drag the selection as far
as the second LED in your segment (a red-coloured area will indicate the part to be cancelled).
Confirm by pressing YES when prompted, if you want to delete the LEDs, and indicate the number
of thousandths of seconds for which the change is to be applied (in this example 2000), and the
numeric data table will be displayed. If you want to save the data, press <OK> in the upper left
corner. Otherwise, press <CANCEL>.
Figure 81 – Deleting LEDs for a certain amount of time
If you want to delete the whole series of LEDs (a complete footprint) for the entire test, press
CTRL+right mouse click on any red LED of the footprint and then confirm the deletion by pressing
YES. See also this article of our Knowledge Base for all the operations available in this view.
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Zoom and Config Buttons on the Bars
Clicking on the "+" icon at the beginning of the displayed bars, the latter can be zoomed. Click on
the "-" icon to go back to normal view.
Using the Configure Bars button (useful mainly for run or gait tests) the information to be displayed
can be set. Partial and progressive distances between one step and another have been added.
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4.3.1.8 PRINT
When <Print> is pressed, a multi-page report is printed with the patient’s data, summarizing
(average) test data, numerical test data (times, heights, power, etc.) and all the charts of the
previous window.
A box containing the index with the pages allows you (by clicking on each page) to rapidly select the
desired section.
Figure 82 – Report Print
The radio buttons on the left allow you to show or hide particular sections of the report for both
Data and Charts. Press <Apply> after changing any of the parameters to view the changes to the
report.
The command toolbar above the report allows you to perform the following operations:
Figure 83 – Print Report Command Toolbar







Print the report on the printer set in the dialog box
Refresh the data
Show/Hide the page index
Go to first page
Go to previous page
Go to next page
Go to last page
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



Go to page No.
Close the report
Search
Zoom
The buttons <Change logo> and <Change footer> allow you to customize the report adding your
logo and your personal data (respectively printed in the top right corner and on the bottom line).
Press <Export> on the left to export the report in PDF, Excel, Word or Html format.
Choose the desired format from the drop-down menu, select the position, name the file, and press
‘Save’.
Figure 84 – Dialog box for saving a report
The functionality of Report creation, printing and saving are offered by the external Crystal Report
component. If this does not work correctly, we advise you to check whether you have installed
different versions or editions of this software. If you have, uninstall the old versions and re-install
the OptoGait packet.
4.3.1.9 SAVE ANALYSIS
This function allows you to give the current settings configuration a mnemonic name, so that it can
be recalled from the list of saved analyses for future use.
4.3.1.10
ANALYSIS NOTES
This function allows you to add a note, which will be saved with the analysis. This note (DIFFERENT
from a note added immediately after completing the test) will be printed on the bottom line of the
report in the provided section, whereas the ‘test note’ is printed on the first page with the General
Data. Warning: the analysis note is saved with the analysis; by not storing it you will lose it.
4.3.1.11
SIGNATURE
The signature works in a way similar to the notes (e.g. ‘Mario Rossi, orthopedic specialist’). The
signature is printed on the bottom line of the report and saved with the analysis.
4.3.1.12
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PARAMETERS
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As explained in chap.4.2.2.1, secondary parameters can be customized for each test based on
specific needs.
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4.3.1.13
USING MARKERS
In a test analysis, other markers besides Set Start and Set Stop can be
added in certain spots of the video associating them to a note or a
comment. The marker list (which can be created, edited and deleted
freely) is also printed in the report showing minutes and comments.
Press the <Markers> button from the menu to the left of the screen.
Set the video to the required frame (using the arrow or CTRL+arrow
keys) and press the button <New Marker>; in the pop-up, add a note
or a comment for the instant marked by the marker.
In the list below a new record with minutes and the added note is
created.
Figure 85 - Creation of a new marker
N markers can be created and managed from the list containing them; in particular you can:



Double-click on one of them to skip to the marker time frame;
Click on the first icon (Edit) to edit the note;
Click on the second icon (Delete) to delete the marker (must be confirmed).
The list is printed in an appropriate Report section.
Figure 86 – Marker options
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Figure 87 – Report print
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4.3.2 COMPARE
In this section two selected tests are compared. The display structure is similar to the one presented
in the previous section. Due to lack of space it is not possible to simulate the bars with the LEDs,
which is possible when viewing a single test.
To compare two tests, bring them together in the TEST ANALYSIS table and press <Compare>.
Figure 88 – Compare
Pressing <Play> on the command panel at the top, the two tests (in this example ‘Blue Test’ and
‘Red Test’ because of the colour of the two sliders below the video) will start running, allowing visual
comparison.
The <Configure> button opens an options panel very similar to the one in the previous section
(therefore only differences will be described).
The Search Parameter button, allowing you to spot a common point (e.g. the first take-off from the
ground, called First T.Flight) of the two tests, is very important.
Besides the above-described commands <Set Start>, <Set Stop>, and <Reset>, there is also the
<Synchro> command. Press this button to set the point on which the two tests should be
synchronized.
For example: search for the First T.Flight with the command <Search Parameter> and press
<Synchro>. Move the cursor of both tests slightly backward and press <Set Start>.Move it slightly
forward (after the yellow Synchro marker) and press <Set Stop>.
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A range to be analysed has been set and the two tests will be synchronized on the point of the
yellow marker (i.e., when the two patients begin the test).
Another use of the <Synchro> button is to synchronize the two tests on a precise instant (e.g. 10
seconds after the beginning of the test). Set the yellow marker at 10 seconds for both tests; set the
start (with <Set Start>) of the Red Test at 6 seconds and of the Blue Test at 8 seconds. Pressing the
play button will play the Red Test only until the 8 seconds are over. At that moment the Blue Test
will start and the two tests will play in synchronization until the end (or possibly until the point
chosen with <Set Stop>).
NB: when you press <Synchro>, <Set Start> or <Set Stop>, make sure you have correctly positioned
the two tests at the time chosen, as these actions are applied simultaneously to the two tests.
Figure 89 –Synchro, Start, and Stop Settings
Test data viewing can be configured by the user. These settings are similar to those explained in the
previous section, except for:
Chart
o View: data can be viewed horizontally (as in Figure Figure 88) or vertically. In this
case the numerical values are scrolled horizontally.
o Bars: synchronization of the bars means that if, for example, the Blue Test time
slider is moved, the red bar for the Red Test time is automatically moved, too. If ‘No
Synchro’ is chosen, the two scroll bars are disconnected and can be moved
independently from each other.
Video
o Video choice: if two movie clips have been acquired (i.e., two webcams are
connected) for each test it is possible to choose which movie clip to view, ‘Video#1’
or ‘Video#2’. It is not possible to view the Video taken by Webcam#1 for the Blue
Test and the video taken by Webcam#2 for the Red Test (or vice versa).
4.3.2.1 PRINT, ANALYSIS, NOTES, SIGNATURE
The options are mainly the same as those in the ‘View’ section. Printed data is obviously from the
comparison between the two tests. Therefore the name of the test, the values, and charts referred
to are always displayed at the top.
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4.3.3 HISTORY
The History section allows you to analyse a patient’s progress by graphically and numerically
analysing a series of tests. Alternatively it can be used to analyse the members of a patient group
by comparing them in a test of the same type.
Select two or more tests (generally of the same type or uniform in order to ensure plausible data)
and press <History>. It is possible to first decide the sequence with which to view the progress in
(usually chronological) by clicking on one of the column headers (e.g. Date) and then clicking on the
<History> button.
Figure 90 –History analysis of three tests ordered by data
Pressing <Configure> allows you to choose which value to consider for progress analysis: it is
possible to select one of the N jumps or he average, best, worst or standard deviation value.
If the tests had a defined starting foot, it is possible to view the data and progress graphs for only
one foot or the difference of both feet.
Clicking on the column headers, data are ordered by measure and the graph is updated; this is very
useful, for example, to order the team members from the worst to the best value of any parameter.
It is possible to use the History module also on a single test (usually a run/gait test where the starting
foot has been set), where it is possible to spot asymmetries between the right and left foot using
the option 'Diff%'.
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Figure 91 – History
Figure 92 – Team analysis; tests ordered by contact time, from the best to the worst
Figure 93 - History of a single test for right/left asymmetries
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The <Print> option allows you to create a report to be printed or exported in pdf, Excel, Word or
Html format.
4.3.4 EXPORT
To export data of one or more tests to Excel, add at least one test to the ‘TEST ANALYSIS’ table and
press <Export>. You will be asked whether you want the extended version (for each row of data the
test heading and the patient’s data is repeated – this is useful for pivot tables) or the simple version
(only numerical data for the test).
Figure 94 –Export result in Excel with the Extended version
It is also possible to export ONLY the selected tests in OJN format (a compressed file containing the
database as well as video and images).Choose the required tests, press the Export button, and
choose the option OJN.
Figure 95 - Export Formats
It is now possible to export a single protocol in Excel format. In addition to the classic feature of
exporting data of single tests, now (in a second Excel worksheet) also core protocol data (a Drift Test
in the example) is exported.
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4.4 UTILITY
4.4.1 BASIC SETTINGS
The Basic Configuration section includes the following items:
4.4.1.1 GENERAL
Language: the language can be changed at any moment during the execution of the
program. Select the desired language from the drop-down menu and press <Save>.
Unit of measurement: allows you to set the unit of measurement type for viewing test
output values. In particular:
Table 1 - Units of Measurement
Type
International
US/UK
Height
cm
inch.decimal
Power
W
W
Specific power
W/kg
W/kg
Steps
cm
ft, inch.decimal
Speed
m/s
ft/s
Acceleration
m/s^2
ft/s^2
Weight
kg
lb
Energy
J
J
Specific energy
J/kg
J/kg
Distances
cm
yards, ft, inch.decimal
Step & Stride
cm
ft, inch.decimal
4.4.1.2 JUMP TEST CONFIGURATION
The flight and contact time configurations include (see 5.3 Invalid Times Management on page 187
for further information on how to use these values):


Minimum contact time [ms]: allows you to set a minimum contact time in milliseconds; if
the system registers a contact time shorter than this value, it is considered incorrect and
added to the associated flight time (usually the previous one). This control can be
enabled/disabled by inserting the value 0.
Minimum flight [ms]: allows you to set a minimum flight time in milliseconds; if the system
registers a flight time shorter than this value, it is considered incorrect and added to the
associated contact time. This control can be enabled/disabled by inserting the value 0.
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
Maximum flight time [ms]: allows you to set a maximum flight time in milliseconds; if the
flight time is higher, it is considered incorrect. This is, for example, useful for a ‘round trip’
test, where the patient exits the measurement area, turns around and enters it again. The
time for changing direction would be considered an abnormal flight time; this parameter
allows you to prevent this.
4.4.1.3 REACTION TEST CONFIGURATION
Reaction time configurations include:


Reaction time range [ms]: indicates the time frame in milliseconds within which the reaction
signal must be given randomly.
Acoustic signal type: allows you to choose whether to generate the acoustic signal using the
sound card, which may not be present, or the internal loudspeaker, generally always
available in personal computers.
4.4.1.4 VIDEO
After connecting the webcam(s) to the PC USB port and installing the drivers, the video camera can
be tested. Under the heading ‘Video’, select a Logitech webcam from those available and press
<Test>. The choice of webcams has been limited only to high-range Logitech webcams to prevent
synchronization problems between OptoGait and video data. Webcams by other manufacturers are
displayed in grey.
Figure 96 - Webcam choice
4.4.1.4.1 Video Test
After pressing <Test> the webcam configuration panel in basic mode with the commands for
changing gain and exposure (shutter time) is displayed. For better quality and fluidity of videos we
recommend using a brief exposure time, such as 1/100 or 1/200, and then adapting gain to obtain
the correct image exposure (neither too bright nor too dark). We recommend not setting ‘Auto’
which could slow down the movie clip acquisition.
With <Device> you can recall the control panel of the webcam’s standard driver.<Default> sets the
standard value pre-defined by the manufacturer.
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Figure 97– Basic Panel for Webcam configuration
Press the <Advanced> button to display other commands:




Zoom allows you to apply a digital zoom via software.
Contrast, Brightness, Saturation, Sharpness allows you to adapt the image; it is advisable to
move the corresponding cursor to test the effects of the command.
White Balancing is useful when working in closed rooms with very warm lights (e.g.,
tungsten, which gives a yellowish hue) or very cold lights (e.g., neon, which gives a bluish
hue). You should something neutral (e.g., a sheet of paper) and then remove any dominant
colours using the cursor.
Focus allows you to focus manually in those rare cases when the autofocus does not work.
Figure 98– Advanced Panel for Webcam configuration
Remember to save changes by pressing <Confirm>.
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4.4.1.4.2 Other video-related configurations
 End of time video acquisition [s]: this is the time between the end of the test and the end
of video acquisition (i.e., a certain number of extra seconds are recorded after the end of
the test).
 Acquisition Format: allows you to choose the format for saving videos, which can be in ASF
(more compact and compatible with Windows Media Player), AVI (also compatible with
other players but less efficient compression) MJPEG or H.264 (the more compressed and
efficient). Plus, depending on the webcam connected, it allows selection of different
sampling resolutions (from the lowest 320x240 up to fullHD 1920x1080).


Preview First Step: If enabled, the Gait Test required a visual confirmation, via a pop-up of
the starting foot (see chap. 4.3.1.6).
Preview Time [sec.]: After this number of seconds the preview window is closed
automatically.
4.4.1.5 SPRINT/GAIT TEST CONFIGURATION
The configurations of this test type include:




Direction of entry: allows you to indicate if the Running/Gait entry direction is from the
‘interface side’ (drum) or from the ‘opposite side’. If ‘automatic’ is chosen, OptoGait
automatically calculates the direction, considering the LED nearest the centre of the foot as
the beginning of the LEDs.
Test Timeout [ms]: this is the test end timeout in milliseconds; if during a test with ‘Timeout’
stop type no input or output signal is received from the measurement area by the OptoGait
device for a period longer than or equal to the time set here, the test is considered
completed.
External signal hold off [ms]: is the hold off time between two consecutive external signals.
Caution has to be applied for this value, because it may depend on the type of test being
carried out.
Step length calculation: allows you to choose whether to calculate step length as the
distance between the tips of two successive feet or as the distance between the heels of two
successive feet.
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Figure 99 - Tip to Tip or Heel to Heel Step Length




Minimum gap between feet [cm or ft]: is the minimum gap between tiptoe and the heel of
the next feet.
3rd/6th/9th step speed reference: insert the reference speed for the 3rd/6th/9th step in
m/s; this option can be disabled by inserting the value 0.
Split 1/2 at distance [cm or ft]: insert at how many cm from the start the first or second split
time will be taken; leave 0 to disable split times.
Minimum foot length [cm or in]: is the minimum foot length in centimetres (or inches), used
to filter possible incorrect acquisitions.
4.4.1.6 SCREEN
The OptoGait software works on most desktop PCs and notebooks of the most recent generation,
usually with a resolution of 1024x768 (the minimum recommended resolution). For users who
desire to use computers with lower resolutions (e.g., netbooks which often have 1024x600) or
computers with lower performance, we recommend that you select the ‘Reduced’ Screen option;
this will apply the following changes:



In the tables with numerical data and the data lists, a smaller font is used in order to fit as
much information as possible in the allotted space.
In the Test|Execute module, the webcam, though connected, is not displayed in real-time
during acquisition. In any case, the video is saved and can be played in the module ‘Results’.
In the module Results|View or Compare Test it is not possible to view charts and the table
with numerical data simultaneously (either one or the other); furthermore, the bar display
is disabled. In the configuration panel, the VCR Player control for the video is hidden.
4.4.1.7 NEWS & EVENTS
As described in chap. 2.2, when the software is launched, a series of news and events are displayed
on the homepage, which are updated in real-time via the website www.optogait.com. If the
computer is not connected to the Internet, the detection of missing connectivity may take a few
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seconds. For PCs that are permanently disconnected from the Internet (e.g. fixed stations on the
training field without Internet) it is useful to disable the updating of news and events, to prevent
the updating timeout.
4.4.1.8 EMG ACTIVATION
If enabled, the output impulse is transmitted (with a fixed delay of 300 ms) through the LEMO
connector (see chap. 3.4).
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4.4.2 OPTOGAIT HW TEST
In this section, the connected hardware (OptoGait bars and/or webcam) can be checked. Opening
the function, if the webcam(s) is (are) connected, the live image should be displayed. If one or both
images do not appear, check that they have been selected in the Basic Configurations | Video (chap.
4.4.1.4) or that the drivers have been installed correctly.
To check the connection with OptoGait bars, press <Execute> to start the test. The test continues
until <STOP> is pressed.
If there are no interrupted LEDs, the test ends with a positive result.
The test can now be repeated by pressing <Execute> and interrupting the LEDs manually (e.g., by
placing your foot between the bars). Please note that some LEDs turn red, indicating interruption of
the signal caused by entry of the foot. If <End> is pressed, the software will show the interrupted
LEDs in the table below, indicating that the test has not had a positive result, because of this
intentional interruption.
This test is also very useful to check (mainly in case of outdoor installations of long bar combinations)
if there are obstacles, like leaves, stones, hills, etc. between the transmitting and the receiving bar.
If the obstacles cannot be removed, it is possible to exclude them via the software: in this case, all
interruptions of those LEDs will not be taken into consideration for the test. The figure below shows,
for example, LED no. 24 on Bar #1, which has been interrupted with the request to exclude it from
acquisition.
Figure 100 - Excluding an interrupted LED
If you reply YES, next time when using this function , the excluded LED will be BLUE and the button
in the lower right corner, <Active LED filter>, will indicate that one or more LEDs have been excluded
from the acquisition (the same button appears every time a new test is performed). Pressing the
button, the filter can be removed and all LEDs of this bar can be taken into consideration again.
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4.4.3 DATABASE
OptoGait stores all data (patients, tests, results, settings, etc.) in a database file (Sql Server CE format
with the extension .SDF). Most users can use a single file to store all information, which by default
will be called ‘OptoGait.sdf’, located in the following directory:
Documents\Microgate\OptoGait
The name of this directory changes depending on the operating system used and the language, but
typing it in the address bar of an Explorer window will open the correct folder. Some examples
follow (<YourUserName> is the user name for logging into Windows):
Windows XP in Italian: C:\Documents and Settings\<YourUserName>\Documenti\Microgate\OptoGait
Windows XP in English: C:\Documents and Settings\<YourUserName>\My Documents\Microgate\OptoGait
Windows VISTA/7: C:\Users\<YourUserName>\Documents\Microgate\OptoGait
etc..
Figure 101 - Folder where by default all database, settings, video, and image files are located
The subdirectory VIDEO contains the videos (in .asf or .avi format depending on your choice in
4.4.1.4) acquired by the webcam. The subdirectory IMAGE stores all still pictures (.bmp files with
possible graphical notes) and saves them via the Video Analysis module .
The name of the videos is formed using the following pattern:
VideoX_DD_MM_YYYY_HH_MM_SS_ZZZZZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZZZZZZZZ.EEE
Where
X: webcam No. 1 or No. 2
DD_MM_YYYY: day, month and year of acquisition
HH_MM_SS: hour, minutes and seconds of acquisition
ZZZZZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZZZZZZZZZ series of univocal characters to avoid duplicates
EEE_video format (ASF or AVI)
Example:
Video1_02_04_2009_12_32_16_1f74d384-4a7f-4c5b-a94c-1772fb608736.asf
Meaning:
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Video taken by webcam No. 1 on 2/4/2009 at 12:32:16 in ASF format
The images (analysed still frames) saved using the command ‘Save images in report’ are located in
the subdirectory Images and have the following similar format:
Image_DD_MM_YYYY_HH_MM_SS_ZZZZZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZ-ZZZZZZZZZZZ.EEE
If there is an error when loading the database, OptoGait will notify you of it at program startup,
suggesting you look for the database or continue. In the latter case, OptoGait will create a new
empty database.
The software makes it possible to handle more databases (one at a time) for particular needs. For
example, the trainer of a team can separate the tests of one season from another (warning: in this
case he will not be able to do any comparisons or analyse the history). Also a free-lance professional,
who does tests for various customers, can create a database for every team to be tested.
It is also possible to export database data in a compact format (one single file containing database,
videos, and images) in order to transfer them from one PC to another or to hand them to the
customer to review. Free software downloads are available at www.optogait.com.
The commands used for these purposes are the following:
4.4.3.1 CURRENT DATABASE
The path indicates which database is used; the commands below, <New> and <Select>, allow you
to edit the directory and the file to use.
4.4.3.2 NEW
Creates an EMPTY database and sets it as current; you will be asked in which folder to place it.
To organize the still images of a database it is useful to create an empty subdirectory (folder) for the
database.
Example:
Create a folder called MyTests on your hard disk (in the root directory or under
Documents\Microgate\OptoGait ).
Then create a folder for each new (empty) database inside this folder. Now each database will be
stored in a separate folder with its video and image files.
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Figure 102 - Database organization example
4.4.3.3 SELECT
If more than one database has been created, you can choose (browsing on the hard disk) which
database is ACTIVE.
4.4.3.4 CLEAR
Empties the current database of all Patients, Groups, Test Definitions, and Tests (tests, protocols,
analyses) data. You will be asked which of the four tables to empty and further confirm (this
operation is IRREVERSIBLE).
4.4.3.5 EXPORT
Exports the CURRENT database together with all videos and still pictures processed in a single
compressed file with the extension .OGN; you will be asked in which directory (or on which drive,
for example a USB stick with sufficient space) to create and store the file and how to name it. It is
possible to export only the database, without videos and images, choosing ‘Database (*.sdf)’ from
the File Type dropdown menu.
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Figure 103 - Saving the OGN file
4.4.3.6 IMPORT
Imports an .OGN file previously exported to another PC or to the same PC, in case of data deletion
or removal (restore). ). This command can also be used to merge two databases into one database.
This operation is carried out in THREE steps:



You will be asked if you want to import into a new database (Import) or the current one
(Merge)
The first dialog box asks you to locate the file with the extension .OGN to import
The second dialog box (only if you clicked YES in the first message window) asks in which
folder to extract the .OGN file and as a consequence to store the database file (.sdf) and its
subdirectories Video and Images. It is recommended to use the suggested default
destination directory, which is the local Documents folder.
Example: You want to import an .OGN export file saved on a USB stick extracting its files to the
folder ‘C:\My OptoGait Test’:
Press <Import>, browse to the drive of the USB stick (in the following example J: ) and select the file
Test_TeamXYZ.OGN double clicking on it:
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Figure 104 - Choosing the OGN file to import
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Now choose the directory for the import; if not present, create it using <Make New Folder>.
The selected folder will contain the extracted files.
The database is automatically set as current, as you can see in the relevant field:
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4.4.3.7 SAVE AS
This command allows you to DUPLICATE the CURRENT database. This can be useful for backups or
to have a copy of the database in which you keep the data of Patients and Groups, but where you
do not want test data (e.g., when beginning a new season). You will be asked in which directory to
store the file and to name it. WARNING: only the SDF file is saved, not the videos or still images.
WARNING: unlike the command Export Database (*.sdf), ‘Save as’ saves the sdf file and the videos
and still images.
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4.4.4 DEVICES
The Utility>Devices menu allows to manage various PC external devices (one being of course the
OptoJump bars).
USB connected devices (at the moment OptoJump bars, Microgate Witty timer and variable speed
Woodway treadmill) are automatically recognized and set as "active".
Wireless devices connected to the PC via USB/Bluetooth stick must be searched for, possibly named
with a mnemonic name and finally set as active one at a time (see the following paragraph for a
concrete example with a heart-rate monitor).
4.4.4.1 WITTY TIMER AND PHOTOCELLS
OptoJump Next may be used in combination with the wireless timer and photocell kit called Witty.
The photocells have the purpose of giving the external start impulse and to stop the test, as well as
recording intermediate times during the sprint/run test with modular systems, if needed.
Let’s look at a concrete example:
Timing a 30-m sprint with start and finish photocells, as well as intermediate times at 10 and 20 m.
Just set up the photocells at the required positions and connect the Witty timer to the PC with the
OptoGait software.
The photocells will transmit the impulse, which will then interact with the software.
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START
LAP1
LAP2
STOP
Wireless Radio Transmission
Max 150 mt.
USB
USB
The test has to be set up as start and stop test = "External impulse" (which is given by the Witty
timer when the athlete passes the photocells), with a number of intermediate times equal to the
number of intermediate photocells of the system.
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4.4.5 HEART-RATE MONITOR
Some of the first wireless devices handled are the Polar and ANT+ cardio wraps (Garmin, Suunto,
etc.).
If the patient wears the cardio wrap during the test, his/her heart rate will be recorded and
temporarily associated with the events of the test itself (e.g. with a jump, a step, etc.).
Starting from version 1.8, the OptoGait software can handle a series of external devices, among
which heart-rate monitors.
At present the following manufacturers and technologies are supported:
Polar WindLink:
USB stick using Polar W.I.N.D. technology 2.4 GHz for transmission; compatible wraps


Polar H2 (Hybrid 5kHz e 2,5Ghz)
WearLink®+ W.I.N.D.
ANT+
USB stick with ANT+ receiver (type ANTUBS2 or ANTUSB-m) developed by the ANT Consortium
An example for a manufacturer using this technology is Garmin (with direct distribution of the stick
under the name of USB ANT Stick™, compatible with the Garmin Premium Heart-Rate Monitor
wrap).
Our software supports all products of all members of the ANT+Alliance.
4.4.5.1 INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Insert the stick into a USB port and wait until the relevant manufacturer drivers have been installed.
Ask the athlete to put on the wrap following the manufacturer's instructions (e.g. moisten the part
touching the chest).
From the Utility menu press the <Devices> button and from the Wireless Devices selection press
<New Search>. If installed correctly, the device will be identified by our software with its internal
code.
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To recognize it later and find it among other chest wraps, it is advisable to name it using a mnemonic
name (e.g. “AthelteName Garmin Wrap” or “Polar#42” if you have numbered the wraps
progressively, etc.) using the <Assign Name> function.
Repeat for all the devices that you want to use; the icon near the name indicates if the device is
currently connected or not.
During the test session it is possible to ACTIVATE only one registered heart-rate monitor at a time.
To do so, select the device and press the <Activate> button. The device will move to the top of the
list and is ready for use.
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4.4.5.2 SPORTZONE SETUP
From the Utility menu you can configure how the so-called "SportZone" will be displayed on graphs
of executed tests. There are 3 possible settings:



5 coloured bands (with customizable names), each one being a percentage of the athlete's
Maximum Heart Rate
5 coloured bands (with customizable names), each one being a percentage of the athlete's
Resting Heart Rate
3 coloured bands (with customizable names), respectively below, within and above the set
bottom and top limits
The percentages of the various bands of course refer to the frequency of every single athlete and
must be entered in the relevant fields of each athlete's card.
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Open an athlete's card, press <Next>>> in the lower right corner to go to the second page of the
card and edit the 4 required values. Press <Save> to confirm the changes.
The correct configuration and assigning of a heart-rate monitor is shown in the Test > Execute
section.
Selecting any test and pressing Execute, in the lower section a pulsing heart icon and the current
heart rate are displayed. Furthermore, the label HRM is added to the legend of values displayed in
the graphs. Similar to others, it can be turned off and on again by clicking on it and changed from
bar to line view (only in single display mode, if other measures are displayed, the graph always
shows lines).
Of course the coloured band viewing mode is the configuration function of the above-mentioned
"SportZone" configuration. Changing the mode, the band values, colours and any customized labels
change.
The athlete's max/min frequency values refer to the moment of the text execution. If the values on
the athlete's card are changed, only future tests will be affected and not those already executed.
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Figure 105 - Viewing only the heart rate with SportZone %FcMax
Figure 106 - Viewing the HRM with bottom and top SportZone FC
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4.4.6 CHECK UPDATE
This checks if the installed version is the most recent one. If not, OptoGait suggests you download
the newest version from the site.
NB: before pressing <Check Update> check that the Internet connection is active.
4.4.7 RESET TO DEFAULT VALUES
By pressing this button, all the Basic Configuration parameters are reset to the default values, which
are the ones we would find in a new database.
4.4.8 ABOUT
This section displays respectively:



Hardware and software characteristics of the computer
Version of the OptoGait software and the video component
Version of the OptoGait bars, LED definition (10 mm or 30 mm) and system structure
(number of bars in X and Y)
If our Support Team asks you to provide this data, select the whole field with the cursor, right-click
on it and select COPY. Then send an e-mail in which you PASTE the copied data.
Figure 107 - About window showing the technical data for the Support Department
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4.5 BIOFEEDBACK
The BioFeedback module (available as of version 1.10) was inspired by the “Video Feedback” feature
(Sect. 4.2.1.2) where the user can see some basic test parameters in real time on a second monitor
(usually a large TV or a screen/tablet placed in front of the treadmill).
By trying to optimize these parameters while performing the test, for example by minimizing
asymmetries or lengthening the stride, the patient "trains" and uses the system as a working tool
instead of as an instrument of diagnosis.
The main difference compared to the normal tests described in the previous sections is that data
are NOT saved in the BioFeedback module and are NOT paired with any user; it is just a very fast
"start & run" module with a minimal user interface, designed also to be used directly by the end
patient instead of by the technician/operator.
First you are asked which of the three types of currently available tests you want to perform: clicking
on one of the three buttons on the second monitor (or on a new window if you have only one
monitor) shows the BioFeedback user interface.
At top centre we see the parameter that we want to monitor, by clicking on the triangle to its right
we can change it with one of those available (the parameters vary depending on the type of test
we chose).
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By clicking on the Menu command
, we can decide whether to work in Asymmetry or Absolute
Values Mode, whether the data are updated with a window containing few data or longer (the
changes will then be "slower") and whether we want to view the standard user interface
(red/green/orange bars) or the one for children Opto4Kids (Sect. 4.2.1.2.1).
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Clicking on the black triangle to the left opens the "Thresholds" panel, that is, you can set the Bad
Threshold (red) and the Warning Threshold (orange) percentages by dragging the dividing border
up or down.
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Whereas, clicking on the black triangle to the right opens another panel with which we can set
other parameters. From top to bottom, we have:


If we have chosen "Absolute Value" mode, here we can set the "Reference Value" that we
need to follow. Obviously its should be set in line with the type of measurement selected
(e.g. 30 cm for height, 0.5 s for flight time, 70 cm for step length, etc.).
Feet: since, as in normal tests, you are not asked for the starting foot, with this mini-tool
we can easily pair the correct foot that is walking, running or marching in place. You can act
in two ways: during this test you will see the right or left foot icon which will illuminate
according to the pulse that comes from the Optogait bars; if it matches what the patient is
actually doing you do not have to do anything, but if the wrong foot lights up (right instead
of left or vice versa) then just click on the "Swap Feet" icon


.
A second alternative way is to turn on an audible flag with the specific command ; the
PC will emit a sound when the patient has to put down the RIGHT foot.
Treadmill Speed: set the same speed that we set on the treadmill on which we are running
or walking.
Metronome: click on the number of beats per minute (bpm) to turn the virtual metronome
on/off; click on the + and – icons to change the value of bpm in steps of 5 beats.
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To start a test press the <NEW> button, wait if Gyko or other devices need to initialize and press
the <START> button
Depending on the mode (Asymmetry or Absolute Value) we will see one or two bars with the
values and colours depending upon how far they are from the set thresholds and/or reference
values.
To end the test, press <STOP>
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5 OPERATING PRINCIPLES
5.1 DEFINITION OF RESULT COLUMNS
5.1.1 GENERAL INFORMATION
Column #: contains information on the various row types. The following values are possible
o External: row with a time generated by an external or end of test signal with a
timeout or end of time.
o 1,2,….no. (progressive number): valid row. Each row represents a jump and can
contain a contact + flight/step time or only flight/step time.
o Averages: average values for the various columns. The average is not calculated for
all columns; it is calculated using only the times of valid rows (indicated with a
progressive number).
o Std: standard deviation of the column compared to the average, the standard
deviation is not calculated for all columns.
o Interrupted: if a test is interrupted prematurely by the user, the test finishes with
this warning message.
o Error: in a reaction test, if single repetition fails this is signalled with Error.
o Deleted: row with contact and/or flight/step times deleted from displays and
calculation of average and total values (see Management of invalid times for more
details).
o Tc not valid: row with invalid contact time; contact + flight/step times for this row
are therefore added to the flight/step time of the row above (see Management of
invalid times for more details).
o Tf not valid: row with invalid flight time; contact and/or flight/step times for this
row are therefore added to the contact time of the line below (see Management of
invalid times for more details).
o No step: in a running/gait test, when the number of steps acquired is lower than
the number of rows with contact + flight times, excessive rows are signalled like
this.
o Suspended: indicates that a treadmill type test was suspended for a certain time
and then resumed.
o Split: time passed from the Start to the reception of an external split signal, valid
only for running/gait tests.
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5.1.2 JUMP AND REACTION TEST



TCont. [s]: Contact times
TFlight [s]: Flight times
Height [cm or in]: Height of jumps calculated with the following formula
2 ∙ 
ℎ=
8

Power [W/kg]: Expressed power calculated with the following formula
 = 2 ∙  ∙
( +  )
4 ∙ 
g = gravity acceleration, Tf = Flight Time, Tc = Contact Time





Rhythm [p/sec]: Rhythm expressed in jumps (or steps) per second
RSI[m/s]: Reactive Strength Index, defined as Height (in m) / Contact T.
Jumping Point [cm]: This is the distance between the beginning of the bar (drum) and the
middle support point. In the case of jumps with both feet perpendicular to the bars, it will
show where the centre of gravity is.
Jumping Point Gap [cm]: Distance between the current centroid and the previous centroid,
i.e. how much the centroid is displaced with respect to the previous jump. A value = 0
indicates the perfect repeatability of a jump (useful mainly for one-leg jumps), negative
values indicate a displacement towards the drum (to the left for example), positive values
indicate displacements in the opposite direction (to the right in this figure); in jumps with
feet parallel to the bars indicate forward/back displacements.
User area [cm]: Difference in cm between the first and the last activated LED; indicates how
much the legs are apart.
Figure 108 –Jumping point (C), Jumping point Gap (D), and User Area (A)
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5.1.2.1 GYKO
If the jump test was performed using the Gyko inertial sensor as well (usually at the height of the
belt), other columns are added to the previous values.
The most important ones are those highlighted in the figure below:
By clicking on the >> button you can view additional columns:
Let's take as an example a Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) where we can divide the jump into two
phases: Pre-Jump (Blue Area) and Landing (Green Area)
Figure 109 - Stages of a jump
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5.1.2.1.1 Pre-Jump
= Eccentric Phase, Loading
= Concentric Phase, Thrust
#
Parameter
Description
1
Concentric phase duration
The duration from the moment when the speed becomes > 0 until
the moment of separation
DurationConc [s]
2
Eccentric phase duration
DurationEcc [s]
3
Maximum force
The duration from the start of the movement to the instant before
that when the speed becomes > 0
The peak in Force before separating from the ground
Fmax [N/kg]
4
Maximum velocity
The peak in Velocity before separating from the ground
Vmax [m/s]
5
Time to maximum Force
Time2Fmax [s]
6
Rate of Force Development
RFD [N/kg/s]
Version 1.10
The time it takes to reach peak force starting from the moment of
the beginning of the concentric phase
This is the ratio between the maximum Force and the time taken to
reach it starting from the beginning of the concentric phase. The
higher it is the more explosive I am. RFD is a significant parameter
for the Squat Jump
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#
Parameter
Description
1
Maximum power
The peak in Power before separating from the ground (Force/kg *
Velocity)
Pmax [W/Kg]
2
3
Concentric Work
Area of the concentric part of the power curve.
WorkConc [J/Kg]
Similar to P * deltaT
Eccentric Work
Area of the eccentric part of the power curve.
WorkEcc [J/Kg]
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5.1.2.1.2 Landing
#
Parameter
Description
1
Maximum landing force
The peak in Force at impact, expressed as BodyWeight. 2BW is
equivalent to 2 times body weight
Fmax Land [BW]
2
Time to Maximum Landing Force
Time2Fmax Land [J/Kg]
3
Loading Rate
Loading Rate [BW/s]
Version 1.10
The time it takes to reach peak force starting from the moment of
contact after jumping
The ratio between the maximum Force and time to reach it. Similar
to RFD at separation. It indicates shock-absorbing capacity. The
higher it is the lower the capacity to absorb shock.
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5.1.3 SPRINT/GAIT TEST
The following are some useful definitions to explain the values displayed on the table with numerical
data.
Step: the distance between the tip (toe) of two subsequent feet or the distance between the heel
of two subsequent feet depending on the settings in the parameter ‘Step length calculation’ (see
chap. 4.4.1.5).
Figure 110 - Step definition
Stride: the distance between the tip of two subsequent footprints of the same foot or the distance
between the heel of two subsequent footprints of the same foot depending on the settings in the
parameter ‘Step length calculation’ (see chap. 4.4.1.5).
Figure 111 - Stride definition
Speed: is the relation between the distance between the two feet and the sum of the first Contact
time (Tc) and the Flight time (Tf).
Tv
=
Tc

 + 
L
Figure 112 - Speed calculation
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Acceleration: is calculated as the relation between speed delta of the two steps and the sum of the
contact and flight time.
Tv1
Tv2
Tc2
Tc1
L1
L2
Figure 113 - Acceleration calculation
=
2 − 1
1 + 1 + 2 + 2
Stride Angle: This is the angle of the parable tangent deriving from the movement of a stride
(L=stride length, h=height to which the foot is risen).
h
Right
a
Left
L
Figure 114 - Stride angle
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5.1.3.1 GYKO
If the test was performed using the Gyko inertial sensor as well (usually at the height of the shoulder
blade), there are the following in addition to the previous values:




Area [cm2]: The Area parameter provides a dimension of how much the subject moves his/her
trunk. The greater it is and the broader are the antero-posterior and medio-lateral rotations. In
numerical terms it represents the area of the ellipse of confidence (95%), which is the ellipse
that contains approximately 95% of the points of the trajectory.
Ant/Post [mm]: Antero-posterior displacement (positive values = anterior, negative ones =
posterior)
LH/RH [mm]: Medio-lateral displacement (positive values = to the right, negative ones = to the
left)
Control strategy: AP, ML or NEUTRAL depending on the values mentioned above (AP if the axis
of the Ant/Post ellipsoid is greater than the medio-lateral one; ML, vice versa. If the axes are
equal the strategy is called "neutral")
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5.1.4 REFERENCE INDEXES
In the Sprint and Gait Test parameters (chap. 4.4.1.5) the speed of an 'ideal' athlete (the so-called
'super athlete') during the 3rd, 6th, and 9th step can be indicated. These are in fact the three most
interesting moments of a sprint; important studies have proven that:



the speed of the 3rd stride is strongly related with the use of burst power
the 6th-stride speed depends on the phase of transition between the burst power and
elastic recovery
the 9th-stride speed depends more on pure elasticity
Therefore the following indexes have been created and calculated as follows:
Burst index: real speed at 3rd step / ideal reference speed at 3rd step * 100
Transition index: real speed at 6th step / ideal reference speed at 6th step * 100
Elasticity index: real speed at 9th step / ideal reference speed at 9th step * 100
Example: supposing that the three speeds of reference have been set at 6, 8, and 9 m/s, the athlete's
sprint is taken into consideration and his indexes are shown:
Figure 115 - The three reference indexes in the lower left part
Of course it is possible to change the three speeds of reference - as for any other secondary
parameter - in any single test of a certain type or in general (see chap. 4.2.2.1).
Figure 116 - Input of 3 speeds of reference
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5.1.5 IMBALANCE INDEX
The Imbalance Index column (Imb%) in sprint tests (Run Data) is an indicator of running 'asymmetry'
between the right and the left.
At first a linear interpolation of two supports the same type can be assumed.
Consequently, the contact time of an ideal athlete's support would be halfway between the previous
and the following; whereas in a real run there will always be a certain difference, the deviation
between two times indicating asymmetry.
After having calculated the difference between ideal and real time, the relation between the
difference and the ideal time (expressed in %) can be defined as imbalance index.
Figure 117 - Definition of imbalance index
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Figure 118 - Example of imbalance index in Run Data
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5.1.6 GAITR IN AND OUT FILTER
Because of the particular configuration of the OptoGait hardware bars with sensors for detecting
interruptions set at a few millimetres from the ground, in some cases the results will not correspond
or match the power and/or pressure blocks, which by default are set at ground level.
In fact, when the heel of the foot touches ground during the Load Response phase, the LED is
interrupted a few milliseconds before contact with the ground and similarly, when the toe is lifted
from the ground during the Pre-Swing phase, interruption is postponed.
If this feature is necessary (e.g. for validation and comparison tests) use this parameter, which
increases the MINIMUM number of LEDs to be interrupted for triggering the contact event.
Setting, for example, the parameter at 3 LEDs, only when 4 consecutive LEDs are interrupted (and
not only 1, as by default), the support is considered valid. The gap between the lighting of N LEDs
instead of only one allows to decrease (or eliminate, if possible) the discrepancies with the
measurement on blocks.
The parameter can be set in the test definition or in the parameters of the single trial in the Results
module.
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5.1.7 STATIC TESTS (SWAY)
In the Test Data columns we find these values:



Time [s]: Progressive time
LH/RH [mm]: Medio-lateral displacement (positive values = to the right, negative ones = to
the left)
Ant/Post [mm]: Antero-posterior displacement (positive values = anterior, negative ones =
posterior)
Clicking on the Test Data link takes you to the Summary Data section where the data are displayed
that we also find in the default Body Sway Protocol (see Sect.6.8). Click on the Summary Data link
to return to the previous data.
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Let's take as an example a trajectory of a Posture (Sway) test. The graph is slightly different to the
one used in the software but it gives us a better understanding of the data (the colour scale that
describes the density of points by area – blue = low density, red = high density – is not present in
the software).
On the x there is the medio-lateral trajectory (left/right) and on the y the antero-posterior trajectory
(forwards/backwards).
[ref. Prieto et al, Measure of Postural Steadiness, Transaction on Biomedical Engineer, 1996]
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5.1.7.1 AREA
Area [mm2]:
Version 1.10
Area of the ellipse of confidence (95%): the
95% ellipse of confidence is the ellipse that
contains approximately 95% of the points of
the trajectory. The output parameter is the
area of the ellipse.
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Convex Hull Area [mm2]:
The Convex Hull is the smallest polygon that
contains all the points of the trajectory.
Compared to the ellipse, it is more strongly
affected by the presence of outliers.
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5.1.7.2 LENGTHS
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
Length [mm]:
This is the total length of the trajectory obtained as
the sum of the distances from one point to the next.
(The sum of the points on the curve in the figure)
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
AP length [mm]:
The AP length is the total distance in the anteroposterior direction given as the sum of the absolute
distances between two consecutive points in the AP
direction (the sum of the points on the curve in the
figure)
ML - medio-lateral
ML length [mm]:
The ML length is the total distance in the mediolateral direction given as the sum of the absolute
distances between two consecutive points in the ML
direction. (The sum of the points on the curve in the
figure)
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Trajectories
M - modulus -
Version 1.10
Distances
DM - Modulus
AP – antero-posterior
DAP – antero-posterior
ML - medio-lateral
DML – medio-lateral
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5.1.7.3 MEAN DISTANCES
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
Mean Distance [mm]:
This is the mean distance from the midpoint
of the trajectory. It is the average of the
curve in the figure.
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
Mean AP Distance [mm]:
This is the mean distance from the midpoint
of the antero-posterior trajectory. It is the
average of the curve in the figure
ML - medio-lateral
Mean ML Distance [mm]:
This is the mean distance from the midpoint
of the medio-lateral trajectory. It is the
average of the curve in the figure
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5.1.7.4 ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS)
DM - Modulus
Version 1.10
RMS [mm]:
This is the dispersion of the distance (root
mean square). In this case, as the points are
centred on the mean, it is equivalent to the
Standard Deviation
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Version 1.10
DAP - antero-posterior
AP RMS [mm]:
This is the mean distance from the midpoint
of the antero-posterior trajectory. It is the
average of the curve in the figure
DML - medio-lateral
ML RMS [mm]:
This is the mean distance from the midpoint
of the medio-lateral trajectory. It is the
average of the curve in the figure
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5.1.7.5 MEAN FREQUENCY
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
Mean Frequency
[Hz]:
The mean frequency is the frequency of rotation of the centre of
pressure (COP) considering as if the COP had travelled the total
length of the trajectory on a circle whose radius is the mean
distance
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
Mean AP
Frequency [Hz]:
This is the frequency of a sinusoidal oscillation of mean value
equal to the mean AP distance and total length equal to the AP
length
ML - medio-lateral
Mean ML
Frequency [Hz]:
This is the frequency of a sinusoidal oscillation of mean value
equal to the mean ML distance and total length equal to the ML
length
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5.1.7.6 VELOCITY
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
Mean Velocity [mm/s]:
This is the mean travel velocity of the
trajectory.
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
Mean AP Velocity
[mm/s]:
This is the mean travel velocity of the
trajectory in the antero-posterior direction
ML - medio-lateral
Mean ML Velocity
[mm/s]:
This is the mean travel velocity of the
trajectory in the medio-lateral direction
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Trajectories
Power spectrum (PSD)
FM - Modulus
M - modulus -
AP – antero-posterior
FAP – antero-posterior
FFT
The tests are analyzed in the frequency
range 0.15 Hz to 5 Hz
ML - medio-lateral
Version 1.10
FML – medio-lateral
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5.1.7.7 TOTAL POWER
We define for the modulus, AP and ML:
the power spectrum at the frequency f[m] (power spectral density)
the discrete increase in frequency in fft
the spectral moment
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
Total Power [mm2]:
This is the area of the power spectrum in the
range 0.15 - 5Hz.
Also equal to 
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
Total AP Power [mm2]:
This is the area of the power spectrum in the
range 0.15 - 5Hz of the AP trajectory.
Also equal to 
ML - medio-lateral
Total ML Power [mm2]:
This is the area of the power spectrum in the
range 0.15 - 5Hz of the ML trajectory
Also equal to 
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5.1.7.8 50% POWER FREQUENCY
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
50% Power
Frequency [Hz]:
The frequency below which 50% of the total signal power is
contained
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
50% AP Power
Frequency [Hz]:
The frequency below which 50% of the total AP signal
power is contained
ML - medio-lateral
50% ML Power
Frequency [Hz]:
The frequency below which 50% of the total ML signal
power is contained
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5.1.7.9 95% POWER FREQUENCY
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
95% Power
Frequency [Hz]:
The frequency below which 95% of the total signal power is
contained
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
95% AP Power
Frequency [Hz]:
The frequency below which 95% of the total AP signal power
is contained
ML - medio-lateral
95% ML Power
Frequency [Hz]:
The frequency below which 50% of the total signal power is
contained
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5.1.7.10
CENTROIDAL FREQUENCY
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
Centroidal Frequency
[Hz]:
This is the frequency at which the "spectral
mass" is concentrated
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
AP Centroidal Frequency
[Hz]:
This is the frequency at which the "spectral
mass" in the AP direction is concentrated
ML - medio-lateral
ML Centroidal Frequency
[Hz]:
This is the frequency at which the "spectral
mass" in the ML direction is concentrated
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5.1.7.11
FREQUENCY DISPERSION
M - Modulus
Version 1.10
Frequency Dispersion
This is a measurement between 0 and 1 of
the content variability in frequency of the
power spectrum
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Version 1.10
AP - antero-posterior
AP Frequency Dispersion
This is a measurement between 0 and 1 of
the content variability in frequency of the
power spectrum in the AP direction
ML - medio-lateral
ML Frequency Dispersion
This is a measurement between 0 and 1 of
the content variability in frequency of the
power spectrum in the ML direction
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5.2 GAIT ANALYSIS DEFINITION
Note: The names of these measurements are used in English, because the English terms are standard technical
Gait Analysis terminology. Terms such as Single Support, Double Support, Stance, Swing, etc. are well known
among professional; therefore these terms are not translated in any language.
The following are some useful definitions to explain the values displayed on the table with numerical
data.
Figure 119 - Gait analysis terminology
The Gait Cycle begins when the heel of one foot touches the ground and ends when the same foot,
after having executed one step, is set down. The cycle begins with the Stance phase (the heel-totoe contact sequence of the foot) and continues with a Swing phase, where the foot is suspended
and proceeds in the air (on average the stance phase accounts for 60% and the swing phase for
40%).
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Figure 120 - Gait Cycle: Stance & Swing
Each Gait cycle consists of two phases, where both feet are in contact with the ground, called Double
Support: the first Double Support (DS1 in Figure Figure 119 referring to the right foot) is also called
“Load Response”, whereas the second (DS2) is called “Pre Swing”. When only one foot is in contact
with the ground, this is called Single Support.
Figure 121 - Stance and Swing Phases
The definitions of Step and Stride correspond respectively to those of Step and Stride explained in
the section above.
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Run Data Columns


















TExt. [s]: External time: available only for external impulse. This is the time between the
event (start/stop) of the impulse and the entry/exit into/from the OptoGait bars; it can also
comprise split times
Time [s]: progressive time (split) from the test beginning
Distance [cm]: progressive distance walked/run by a patient
TCont. [s]: Contact times
TFlight [s]: Flight times
Height [cm or in]: Variation of the centre of gravity height during the execution of
jumps/runs
Speed [m/s or ft/s]: Average speed of a single step (see Fig. Figure 112)
Accelerations [m/s2 or ft/s2]: Speed variations of the two preceding steps
Steps [cm or ft]: Step length (see definition above)
Stride [cm]: Stride length (see definition above)
Pace [step/s]: Rhythm expressed in steps per second
Stride Angle [deg]: Alpha angle of the stride parable
Imb. [%]: imbalance indices of the run between right and left step
Double Sup [s.]: Double Support: Period of time when both feet touch the ground
Step Times [s]: time between the first contact of one foot and the first contact of the
opposite foot
Contact Phase [s | %]: the time between the first contact of the heel and the complete
support of the foot; the percentage indicates the value with respect to the total contact time
Foot Flat [s | %]: the time the foot completely touches the ground; the percentage indicates
the value with respect to the total contact time
Propulsive phase [s | %]: the time between the lifting of the heel to the complete set off of
the tip of the foot; the percentage indicates the value with respect to the total contact time
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Gait Data Columns
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













TExt. [s]: External time: available only for external impulse. This is the time between the
event (start/stop) of the impulse and the entry/exit into/from the OptoGait bars; it can also
comprise split times
Stance phase [s | %]: The stance phase is the weight phase supporting phase of each gait
cycle. It begins with the contact of the heel and finishes with the set off of the tip of the same
foot. It is therefore the time between the first and the last contact of two consecutive
supports of the same foot. It is also presented as a percentage of the total gait cycle.
Swing Phase [s | %]: The swing phase begins when the tip of the foot leaves the ground and
finishes with the contact of the heel. It is therefore the time between the last contact of the
first support of the foot and the first contact of the following support. It is expressed in
seconds (sec) and as a percentage of the gait cycle of the same foot. The swing time of one
foot corresponds to the single support time of the other foot.
Single Sup. [s | %]: Single Support: This is the time between the last contact of the current
support and the first contact of the following support of the same foot (i.e., the time when
only one foot touches the ground). The single support corresponds to the swing time of the
opposite foot. It is expressed in seconds and as a percentage of the total gait cycle time.
Total Double Sup [s | %]: This is the sum of two partial double supports, defined DS1 and
DS2 in Figure 119
Step Time [s | %]: This is the time between the first contact of a foot and the first contact of
the opposite foot (it corresponds to the Step Time in the Run Data)
Load Response [s | %]: This is the first Double Support Time (DS1 in Figure 119)
Pre Swing [s | %]: This is the second Double Support Time (DS2 in Figure 119)
Step Length [cm]: Step length (see definition above)
Gait cycle [s]: This is the time between the first contact of two consecutive steps of the same
foot
Stride Length [cm]: Stride length (see definition above)
Speed [m/s]: Average speed of a single step (see Figure 112)
Accel. [m/s2]: Speed variations of the two preceding steps (see Figure 113)
Cadence [step/s]: Rhythm expressed in steps per second
Total dist. [cm]: Progressive distance walked/run by a patient
Contact Phase [s | %]: The time between the first contact of the heel and the complete
support of the foot; the percentage indicates the value with respect to the total contact time
Foot Flat [s | %]: The time the foot completely touches the ground; the percentage indicates
the value with respect to the total contact time
Propulsive phase [s | %]: The time between the lifting of the heel to the complete set off of
the tip of the foot; the percentage indicates the value with respect to the total contact time
5.3 INVALID TIMES MANAGEMENT
There are cases where during a test the program may acquire invalid times. The main cases are:
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The OptoGait device is not installed correctly: if during a performance of a test, the
OptoGait device is badly positioned on the ground, or the ground is particularly uneven,
invalid flight or contact times may occur;
The patient knocks against the device: if during the test the patient knocks against the
device without causing it to lose its alignment, this may only temporarily generate some
invalid times;
The patient exits the measurement area: in very long tests, the patient may exit the
measurement area for one jump and then re-enter the area.
In these cases it may be convenient to keep the test and make a manual/automatic correction to
times rather than repeat the test itself.
In fact, the OptoGait program contains an automatic and manual system for managing spurious
times acquired during a test. Checking for spurious times is only done on flight, step, and contact
times, with any external times always considered as valid.
The basic criterion is that acquired times are always coupled with (contact time) + (flight time or
step time). Flight or step times without a corresponding contact, flight or step time are only possible
at the beginning or end of a test contact (because of the start or finish type set in the test).
In the case of a very brief contact, flight or step time, there is an automatic procedure that identifies
any invalid times, (i.e., below a certain threshold). This threshold can be set or deactivated (see
chap. 4.4.1.2 Jump Test Configuration).
If there are other errors that are not automatically deleted, it is possible to manually correct them:
select the row with the invalid contact, flight or step time and delete the entire row (and thus the
contact-flight time couple). As a result, such values will not be considered in the calculation of
average values and will not appear in the charts.
In these cases add the contact-flight time couple to the flight time of the previous contact-flight
time couple, if it is the contact time that is not average, or add the contact-flight time couple to the
contact time of the following contact-flight time couple, if it is the flight time that is not average.
The following chart clarifies this concept:
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Invalid contact time (delete contact time):
Cont. time
Flight time is
Cont. time
Flight time
0.35
0.43
0.35
0.43
0.30
0.15
0.30
0.45 (0.15+0.05+0.25)
0.05 (inval.)
0.25
0.32
0.41
0.32
0.41
Invalid flight time (delete flight time):
Cont. time
Flight time is
Cont. time
Flight time
0.35
0.43
0.35
0.43
0.10
0.05 (inval.)
0.15
0.42
0.30(0.10+0.05+0.15)
0.42
0.32
0.41
0.32
0.41
The command ‘Show marked rows’, accessible from the Row Management Menu (see chap.) allows
you to remove the deleted rows from the view (and only from the view) in order to analyse only the
data of interest.
Note: if the OptoGait device is not installed correctly and consequently generates spurious times
during a test, it is better for the user to correct the installation of the device to eliminate spurious
times beforehand rather than to filter invalid times afterwards. Correct installation can be checked
using the OptoGait bars Test (see chap. 4.4.2 OptoGait HW Test).
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5.4 VIDEO ANALYSIS
Figure 122 – Video Analysis
To analyse a still video picture, double-click with the mouse on the video window. In a Compare
analysis or in a test, where two webcams are used, use CTRL+double-click to edit the two images.
Available commands are the following, from top to bottom:
From left:

Delete all

Load an image stored on disk

Save the image on disk in .BMP format

Save the image in the report; you will be asked to name the image, which will be
appended at the end of the report

Save the added graphical elements (grids, rows, angles, texts, etc.) as overlay in the
video

Delete the items added with the previous command as overlay of the video

Select items To select more than one item keep CTRL pressed

Pan: Moves all added items

Move: Moves the selected item

Undo

Redo

Set the current colour

Set the font and other text features

Draw a grid with the set features on the image

Sample ruler: allows to set a known length (e.g. the height of a step)

Draw single line

Draw connected lines (ESC to close the drawing)

Draw circumference through two points

Draw centre-radius circumference
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
Draw two-point arc

Draw centre-radius arc

Draw three-point arc (Start / End / Include)

Draw three-point arc (Start / End / Include)

Draw lines viewing internal angle

Draw lines viewing external angle

Text tool

Line with measure: draw a line with length indication calculated after having used
the tool Measurement Ruler. WARNING: the measurement must be taken on the
same level as the item measured previously. E.g. have the patient stand sideways to
a step of a known height, use the tool ‘Sample Ruler’ to measure the step, then
measure the patient with this tool.
To exit press the EXIT symbol at the end of the tool bar.
Figure 123 - Toolbar and double image under analysis
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5.5 MANAGING IMAGES
When saving an image (or two images in the case of video frames of a
test comparison) it is possible to add a caption (i.e. a short name used as
title) and a note (a larger field for an image description).
Images are managed (caption and note editing, changing of order of
appearance and possible deletion) using the button <Images> in the
Print section (chap. 4.3.1.8).
In this area there is a list of images added to the report in chronological
order, each one having two icons - edit and delete - for editing captions
and notes, and for deleting images from the report.
The order of appearance can be changed selecting the photo to be
moved (a selected picture has a black frame) and clicking <Move up> or
<Move down> in the left button bar.
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6 DEFAULT TESTS AND PROTOCOLS
Most tests are well-known standard tests (such as Squat Jump, Stiffness, Counter movement Jump)
for which it is enough to follow the instructions on the screen (enter/exit test area, carry out a given
number of jumps, wait for sound signal at the end of the test etc.).
In this section you will find default tests and protocols which might raise some doubts as regards
their initial setup and execution.
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6.1 DRIFT PROTOCOL
The Drift Protocol is a test developed for verifying an athlete's or a
patient's 'dynamic stability' by having him/her carry out 4 tests one
after another on one leg measuring his/her displacement (drift) on
the vertical and horizontal axis.
Go to Test > Execute, choose an athlete and from the protocol list
select 'Drift Protocol'.
In the Test field the following sequence is automatically filled-in:




5 jumps with RIGHT leg and feet PARALLEL to the OptoJump
bars
5 jumps with LEFT leg and feet PARALLEL to the OptoJump
bars
5 jumps with RIGHT leg and feet PERPENDICULAR to the
OptoJump bars
5 jumps with LEFT leg and feet PERPENDICULAR to the
Figure 124 - Choosing a protocol
OptoJump bars
Figure 125 - Drift Protocol sequence
Carry out the 4 tests reminding to press SAVE at the end of each test before moving on to the
following test.
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At the end of the protocol go to Results, select the option 'Protocols' from Display>Data and choose
the protocol which has just been executed, with the symbol
Figure 126 - Selecting a protocol to be printed
Double-click on the protocol to be analysed (or click the button <Display>); a report will be displayed
showing the average jump values divided into right and left leg and, what's even more important,
two graphs allowing to quantify very rapidly the displacements and their direction.
Each jump is displayed as a yellow dot (if you can not see 10 dots per leg some might be superposed);
the two large red and green dots (left and right) represent the athlete's tendency to move into a
certain direction (e.g. upwards to the right), whereas the dotted triangle indicates the 'stability
area'.
The position of the red and green dots with reference to the origin of the two Cartesian axes gives
a first indication of the athlete's average landing point compared to the starting point. As these
represent an average, their position could be misleading: for example, given the absurd assumption
that an athlete carries out a perfectly central jump, two completely to the right and two completely
to the left with two displacements of exactly the same entity, the dot will be placed exactly in the
centre giving the impression that the athlete always jumped perfectly.
But in this case the rectangle with the dotted area representing the standard deviation of jumps
can be helpful. The larger the displayed area, more has the athlete drifted (moving away from the
point of origin) when landing, and as a consequence his dynamic stability is lower.
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Figure 127 - Drift protocol report output
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6.1.1 2D DRIFT PROTOCOL
With its two-dimensional system (even the minimum 1 x 1 meter will suffice), the protocol can be
significantly simplified by making the patient perform just 10 jumps (5 with the right and 5 with the
left).
It is recommended to use this direction always in order to have correctly-oriented axes and
therefore a correct interpretation of the concepts of Forward/Backward and Left/Right
If you notice you have not performed the test in this way, you can rotate the acquisition through
180°: view one (or both) of the tests comprising the Protocol (Right or Left Leg)
Click with the right mouse button on the bar area and select "Rotate Acquisition 180°"
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6.2 FIVE DOT DRILL PROTOCOL
The Five Dot Drill protocol (exercise with 5 circles) is a very well-known and popular test in the
United States for improving ones agility and rapidity.
Draw a rectangle of 60x90 cm (2x3 ft) and place five circles of 10 cm (4”) each inside it, as shown in
the picture. Alternatively you can buy a nonskid mat from the famous chain BFS Bigger Fast Stronger,
developed especially for this test and contributing to its standardization.
Place the two OptoJump Next bars outside the longer side of the rectangle with the drum at the test
entrance.
Figure 128 - 5 Dot Drill circuit and positioning of bars
The protocol is made of 5 different exercises to be carried out 6 times WITHOUT PAUSES. The main
test output is the TOTAL time of all 5 exercises and this is why they must be executed as fast as
possible.
The 5 tests are carried out as follows (a video explaining the exercise is available on our website):
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Up & Back
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Start with feet on A and B
Jump rapidly with both feet on C
Jump putting one foot on D and one on E
Jump back to the starting point
Repeat 5 times (6 times in total)
Right Foot
1.
2.
3.
4.
Your feet are now on A and B
Jump on C with your right foot
Jump with your right foot on D, E, C, A, B
Repeat 5 times (6 times in total)
Left Foot
1.
2.
3.
4.
The previous exercise ends with your right foot on B
Now jump on C with your left foot
Jump with your right foot on D, E, C, A, B
Repeat 5 times (6 times in total)
Both Feet
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The previous exercise ends with your left foot on B
Jump with both feet on C
Jump with your left foot on D, E, C, A, B
Jump back to the starting point
Repeat 5 times (6 times in total)
Turn Around
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The previous exercise ends with both feet on B
Jump with both feet on C
Jump putting one foot on D and one on E, just like in exercise #1
Turn around clockwise 180° (your feet will still be on E and E)
Jump on C with both feet and then with one on A and one on B
Turn again around to the left (anti-clockwise) 180° and start again
Repeat 5 times (6 times in total)
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Even though this is a single test, it must be carried out as PROTOCOL,
because this allows to have a particular print report showing the
'level' based on the following table:
DOT DRILL STANDARDS
Less than 50 seconds
Super Quick
50-60 seconds
Great
60-70 seconds
Average
70-80 seconds
Need work
Over 80 seconds
Slow
Figure 129 - 5 Dot Drill protocol
The test ends when you stay outside the test area for more than 3 seconds.
To display the test results go to Results, select the option 'Protocols' from Display>Data and choose
the protocol with the symbol and double-click or use <Display> from the Test Analysis list.
Figure 130 - Selecting a protocol to be printed
The printed report includes total time and result, as well as average flight and contact times of all 5
tests, total time deviation as percentage and fatigability index.
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Figure 131 - 5 Dot Drill report output
The parameter '% Compared average' is calculated as difference between the average of all 5 tests
and the average value of each single test.
E.g. for Up & Back: (8.328 – 8.565) / 8.328
The fatigability index is calculated using the average of the first 6 contact time values and
compared to the average value of the last 6 contact times.
 =
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Avg_Last_6_Ct − Avg_First_6_Ct
Avg_First_6_Ct
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6.3 'GG' PROTOCOL
This protocol (whose name is based on the initials of its inventors) is made of the following test
series with the object of an initial athlete evaluation to be used during scouting phase.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Treadmill Gait Test at 5 kmh (usually for 30 seconds)
Squat Jump with both legs (5 jumps)
Squat Jump with the right leg (5 jumps)
Squat Jump with the left leg (5 jumps)
Ski Test 15 seconds
Sound reaction test with the left leg (3 times)
Sound reaction test with the right leg (3 times)
At the end of the protocol a report summarizes the main test data highlighting possible asymmetry
and differences between the right and left leg.
Figure 132 - Output of the Report
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The 'Knee angle' parameter is an index which can be derived 'manually' from a video still image.
Once the parameter with had been defined using the dedicated graphic tools, the value can be
entered to the 'Indexes' section and will be showing in your print.
Example:
Expand the GG protocol, find the 'SquatJump 2 Legs' test and display it as a single test
Find the desired spot in the video, double-click on the video and enter Video Analysis. With the 'Line
Angle Right' tool draw two lines and read the value of the angle measure.
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Press the 'Indexes' button and enter the measured value:
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6.4 SINGLE LEG 3 HOPS PROTOCOL
This protocol allows evaluation of the functionality of the anterior cruciate ligament with two oneleg jumps consisting of 3 forward jumps each (possibly after post-injury rehabilitation) as regards
power, as well as stabilization.
Have the athlete carry out 3 forward hops (starting slightly out of the test area on the interface
drum side) first with the left leg and then with the right leg.
Figure 133 - Single Leg 3 Hops Protocol – Execution mode
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At the end of the test, a report can be viewed under 'Results', showing the main values divided by
leg and differences in %.
Figure 134 - Single Leg 3 Hops Protocol Report
Of course, it is possible to see the details of a test by expanding the protocol and selecting 'View' in
a test or 'Compare' to compare two tests.
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6.4.1 2D SINGLE LEG 3 HOPS PROTOCOL
If performed with a two-dimensional bar system, the report also provides information relating to
side movement.
6.4.2 2D 4H3C AND 4H3C PROTOCOL
The two protocols are the same as the previous ones, but require 4 jumps forward instead of 3 (4H3c
= 4 Hops, 3 Contacts).
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6.5 MIP (MARCH IN PLACE) PROTOCOL
The MIP protocol consists of two tests in which the patient must march on the spot for 30 seconds,
the first time with his/her eyes open and the second with his/her eyes closed.
The test is defined with a starting point INSIDE the area and the right foot as the starting foot (the
patient should therefore begin the test BY LIFTIING the right foot first).
Using a two-dimensional system, the report will provide information relating to both forwardbackward and middle-side movement for the two tests (obviously with a linear system we would
only have one of these measurements).
Under the figures, we can see the data relating to the last point (end of test), or rather the forwardbackward movement, middle-side movement, distance and Alpha angle measured as described
later on.
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The Alpha angle is normally defined as follows:
0°
-90°
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6.6 VERTEC LIKE TEST
This test allows simulating the use of the famous VERTEC tool to analyse vertical jumps with one
arm extended. A meter (or two meters for athletes jumping higher than 100 cm) can be attached to
a wall with double-sided adhesive tape or mounted on a tripod with fixing clamps. It is important
that the interface drums are positioned in the lower part and at the right height depending on the
athlete's jump elevation.
At the beginning of the test, the software prompts to extend one arm upwards closing the bar
contacts (red led) to measure the athlete's height; it is recommended to carry out the measuring
holding the hand near one of the two bars. If the test must be repeated several times (with the same
bar setup) it is useful to save the measurement; of course, if the bar height changes, the measure
must be changed.
Then the athlete can jump from a standing position (e.g. touching the wall with the attached bars)
or with run-up through the virtual portal created by OptoJump (maybe simulating a complex athletic
gesture like for example a volleyball spike).
The software displays the jump height as difference between the two measures.
Figure 136 - How to carry out a
height measurement
Figure 135 - VERTEC LIKE test setup
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6.7 SKI TEST
This test must be carried out with both feet parallel to the bars jumping sideways from one foot to
the other (usually for 15 seconds). The main objective is to compare the contact and flight times, as
well as the power of the right and left foot.
Figure 137 - Ski Test: side jumps from one foot to the other
Figure 138 - Ski Test results with separate times for right and left foot
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6.8 BODY SWAY PROTOCOL
The "Body Sway" protocol consists of two static (Sway) tests in which the patient must stand as
motionless as possible for 30 seconds, in the first test with eyes open and in the second one with
eyes closed.
There is no need for the OptoGait bars, but only the Gyko inertial sensor.
At the end of the protocol you can view a report that gives all the data described in par. 5.1.7
comparing the eyes open test with the eyes closed test.
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7 TECHNICAL DATA
7.1 TECHNICAL DATA TX/RX BARS
Internal power supply (range of measurement from 1 to 5 m)
Rechargeable Li-ion battery 7.4V 1800mAh
External power supply (range of measurement from 1 to 10 m)
24VDC ±5%
Infrared wave length
Number of optical sensors
Space resolution
Sensor height (from the optical centre of the sensor to the
lower edge)
890 nm
96 per meter
1.041mm
3mm
Time accuracy
1 millisecond
Operational temperature
0°C ~ +35°C
Storage temperature
Max. distance between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx)
-25°C ~ +70°C
6m
Dimensions of TX - RX with integrated interface
1100mm x 100mm x 100mm (W x D x H)
Dimensions of Tx - Rx
1000mm x 100mm x 45mm (W x D x H)
Dimensions of Tx - Rx with integrated interface
Weight of additional Tx and Rx bars
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2kg
1.5kg
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7.2 PC MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
A 'regular' desktop or notebook PC with Microsoft Windows XP Sp3, Vista Sp2, or Windows 7 is
usually enough for running the OptoGait software without any problems. We recommend to
perform a Windows Update before setting up the software.
Minimum hardware requirements:
MINIMUM
SUGGESTED
Microsoft XP SP3
Vista/7 (32 or 64 bit)
CPU
Atom/Centrino
i5/ i7
RAM
2 GB
4 GB
Hard Disk
40 GB
160 GB
Integrated
Dedicated
Operating System
Graphic Board
(512 Mb or higher)
Display resolution
1024x600
1600x900
or higher
USB Ports
1
3
(OptoGait + 2 webcam)
On lower-performance PCs or not particularly powerful PCs (e.g. netbooks) it is anyhow possible to
run the software, but refraining from using real-time viewing via the webcam (the video is recorded
and saved anyhow, and can be viewed later)
OptoGait requires the installation of Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 (installed automatically during
the setup, if not found)
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8 TABLE OF USED SYMBOLS
CAUTION symbol
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Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by Microgate S.r.l.
All rights reserved
No part of this document or of any of the single manuals may be copied or reproduced without
previous written authorization by Microgate s.r.l.
All trademarks or names of products mentioned in this document or in the single manuals are or
may be registered trademarks belonging to the relevant companies.
Microgate, REI2, RaceTime2 and MiSpeaker are registered trademarks of Microgate s.r.l. Windows
is a registered trademark of Microsoft co.
Microgate s.r.l. reserves the right to modify the products described in this document and/or in the
relative manuals without notice.
The software and manuals are available in the following languages: Italian, English, German, French
and Spanish.
Microgate S.r.l.
Via Stradivari, 4
I-39100 Bolzano
ITALY
Tel. +39 0471 501532 - Fax +39 0471 501524
info@microgate.it
http://www.microgate.it
http://www.optogait.com
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