Macformat Lion - Learning on the Loop

OS X LION
Words: Ian Osborne and Ben Harvell
OS X 10.7 is here, and it’s
looking good. We take a look
at Apple’s new operating
system, how to get your
Mac ready for Lion, and
how to use its key features
Ne ver los e yo ur wo rk
wi th Au to Save!
T
he eighth release of OS X is packed with over
250 new features, many of which were inspired
by iOS. With Lion, Apple takes note of lessons
learned developing the engine that powers the iPad,
iPhone and iPod touch, and brings them to the Mac.
Take LaunchPad. You can tell at a glance Lion’s new app
launcher is based on the iOS home screen. Lion brings fullscreen apps to OS X too. At the push of a button, your
application fills the screen, offering the same distractionfree usability you get with an iOS device. Mail, Apple’s
respected email client, also benefits from qualities and
features developed for the small screen.
But it’s not all about features gleaned from iOS; OS X has
also learned a few new tricks of its own. Mission Control brings
together OS X’s Spaces, Dashboard and Exposé in one easy-touse bird’s-eye view showing everything that’s currently running
on your computer. AirDrop lets you share files over Wi-Fi, and
Resume starts up your Mac in exactly the same state it was in
when you shut down. With all these fine features on offer, and an
asking price of just £21, most Mac owners are keen to upgrade.
Over the next few pages, we show you how to get your Mac
ready for Lion, and how to use some of its key functions.
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Fa ster app laun ch ing
w it h Laun ch pad
OS X LION
Re sume:
st art up as yo u
le ft of f
Intro ducing Miss ion
Cont rol
Share files
with AirDrop
New mul ti-t ouch
ge st ures
Full-screen apps
and new-look
Mail
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The many innovations
of iOS are coming soon
to a Mac near you.
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OS X LION
THE LION LICENCE / OS X 10.7 for home, education and business
iStockPhoto
Lion is downloaded from the Mac App Store, and it
follows the same licencing rules as other Mac apps
bought from Apple’s online downloads shop. This
means if you have more than one Mac, you can
install the new operating system on all of them at no
extra charge. Apple has also announced volume
licencing deals for business and education users.
Business customers can buy Lion or Lion Server
directly from Apple or by using the Business Store
found at http://store.apple.com/uk-business.
Business volume licences cost $29.99 each or
$49.99 for maintenance contracts, and a minimum
Business users of Lion can take advantage of volume
licencing deals offered by Apple at its online store.
version of OS X; Snow Leopard for the
App Store, then Lion. Not that this is a
huge expense. Snow Leopard sells for
just £26, and Lion is even more
affordable at a penny shy of £21. As
older versions of OS X cost £89 for a
single-user licence, the combined
cost of Lion and Snow Leopard is not
much more than half the price.
With Lion, Apple makes a complete
break from PowerPC Macs by
abandoning Rosetta, the dynamic
translator used to run applications
written for PowerPC processors on
Intel machines. Snow Leopard
downgraded it to an optional install,
but it’s been removed from Lion
triangle to its left, if it’s not already
open. Highlight Applications and click
on the Kind column header at the top
of the window to sort your apps
according to their type. Intel or
Universal applications run fine in Lion,
but PowerPC apps must be updated
or replaced; they cannot be used with
the new operating system.
Lion greatly expands the range of
multi-touch gestures available to Mac
users. The new OS adds a fourfingered pinch to open Lion’s
Launchpad feature, an iOS-like
application launcher. Unpinching with
four fingers takes you back to the
desktop, or if you’re already there,
“A three-fingered upward flick summons
Mission Control, Lion’s combined Exposé,
Dashboard and Spaces feature“
completely. This means PowerPC
applications cannot run on Macs using
the new operating system.
Apple famously described Rosetta
as ‘the most amazing software you’ll
never see’. It works so well you don’t
notice it’s there, so it’s worth checking
if you’re running applications you’ve
long since forgotten were written for
the PowerPC architecture. From the 
menu, select About This Mac. In the
window that opens, press the More
Info button at the bottom to open the
System Profiler, showing even more
about your Mac. In the left-hand
column (labelled ‘Contents’), open the
Software list by clicking on the
of 20 licences must be purchased. Education users
can volume-licence the Apple Software Collection,
consisting of Lion, iLife and iWork, through the
Education Store or by contacting their Apple
Education Account Representative. Prices start at
$39, with a minimum order of 25 licences.
Volume-licence customers receive a single App
Store code for each transaction; after using this code
to download Lion, the installer is downloaded to
your Applications folder, from where you can
retrieve it and copy it to an external drive, optical
disc or network location. You can then use it to
install Lion on all Macs for which you have licences.
Updates to the new OS come through Software
Update, so there’s no need to enter an Apple ID.
hides all windows. A three-fingered
upward flick summons Mission
Control, Lion’s combined Exposé,
Dashboard and Spaces feature, and
flicking three fingers downwards
gives a single-app Exposé. Another
gesture carried over from iOS is Tap to
Zoom. With your pointer on a specific
part of a web page, tapping with two
fingers zooms in on it to give a clearer
view. You can also enlarge and shrink
web pages using pinch and unpinch.
These extra gestures will certainly
be welcomed by Apple notebook
users, and if you own a desktop Mac,
it might be time to buy a Magic
Trackpad. Apple’s standalone device
features the same multi-touch
controls and glass finish as the
trackpads built into the MacBook Pro
range, but it’s almost 80% larger.
Like the Magic Mouse and wireless
keyboard, it connects to your Mac
over Bluetooth. If you’re planning on
buying a new iMac or Mac Pro from
Apple’s online store, you can opt for a
Magic Trackpad instead of (or indeed
as well as) a Magic Mouse, or you can
buy one from your local Apple Store
or reseller for £60.
So how do you go about upgrading?
After purchasing from the Mac App
Store, the new OS downloads and
installs automatically. The download
is around 4GB, and after buying it
once, you can install it on all your
personally authorised Macs. This is
generous given previous versions of
OS X were also sold as ‘family packs’,
with licences for up to five machines.
If you’ve already bought Lion and
want to install it on another Mac,
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If you’re planning to
upgrade to Lion, you need to
update or abandon all your
PowerPC applications.
DID YOU
KNOW THIS?
If you bought a new Mac
from Apple or an
authorised reseller
between 6 June and OS X
10.7’s release, you might
qualify for a free upgrade
to Lion through Apple’s Up
To Date programme. See
http://bit.ly/loVdmr for
more details.
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OS X LION
Getting ready for Lion
Find out if your Mac is set to run OS X 10.7, and what to do if it isn’t
Y
DID YOU
KNOW THIS?
Lion includes its own
drivers for most popular
printers. If your printer
works with Snow Leopard,
it will probably work with
Lion. If you use the
manufacturer’s own
software, though, it might
be worth contacting their
support departments and
asking about specific OS X
Lion compatibility.
With gestures becoming an
ever more integral part of OS X,
it’s a great time for desktop Mac
owners to buy a Magic Trackpad.
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ou know you want it. After
several months of tantalising
previews, excited blogs and
leaks from registered developers,
you’re just dying to get your hands
on Lion. But can you run it? Is your
trusty old machine prepared for this
latest version of OS X, and if it isn’t,
what can you do? It’s time to get your
Mac ready for the upgrade.
If you’re going to install OS X 10.7
Lion, your Mac must meet the
operating system’s minimum system
specs. Naturally, you need an Intel
processor. Support for PowerPCbased Macs was dropped with OS X
10.6: Snow Leopard, so an Intel-only
Lion was inevitable. Also inevitably,
Lion makes greater demands on your
computer than its predecessor. Snow
Leopard could be installed on any
Intel Mac, but with Lion, you must
have a Core 2 Duo, Core-i series or
Xeon processor. Intel Macs with Core
Duo chips cannot run it. So if you own
a PowerPC or a very early Intel model,
you need to buy a new Mac.
Lion also needs more RAM than
Snow Leopard – 2GB against its
predecessor’s 1GB. Thankfully,
upgrading your computer’s memory is
a fairly painless task, and as long as
you buy from a third-party vendor, it
doesn’t have to cost a fortune. To
check how much RAM is currently
Lion is sold and installed
through Snow Leopard’s
Mac App Store.
installed and what processor you
have, go to the  pull-down menu in
the top-left corner of your screen,
and select About This Mac.
Instructions for fitting more memory
can be found in your user manual or
Store is now an integral part of Snow
Leopard, but isn’t compatible with
older versions of OS X. This means if
you’re still running Leopard, or even
Tiger, you must upgrade to Snow
Leopard before you can install Lion.
“Is your trusty old machine prepared for this
latest version of OS X, and if it isn’t, what can
you do? It’s time to get your Mac ready…“
on Apple’s support site.
Make sure you follow
the correct instructions
for your model of Mac.
Previous versions of
Mac OS X installed from
optical discs, or in the
case of the recent
MacBook Airs, flash
drives. Lion takes a new
approach. Instead of
delivering the operating
system on physical
media, you download it
from the Mac App Store.
Launched in January to
great success, the App
The Mac App Store was introduced to
Snow Leopard with the 10.6.6
upgrade, and Apple has now made
available for download 10.6.8, which
gets your Mac ready for Lion by
‘enhancing the Mac App Store’ – be
sure to update. You can then purchase,
download and install Lion direct from
the App Store, which can be launched
from the Dock, your Applications
folder or from the  pull-down menu.
As Snow Leopard was so cheap, we
doubt there are many Macs capable of
running Lion that are still using Tiger
or Leopard. But if you’re in this
situation, you need to buy two
operating systems to run the latest
August 2011
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OS X LION
Master
Mission
Control
01 Desktop disaster
This is what you would expect to see
after working for a while and not closing any
windows. Several different apps, multiple
Safari windows as well as Finder windows are
cluttering the display. So it’s time to swipe three
fingers upward on your trackpad…
Organise
apps with
Launchpad
01 We have lift off
Just like on iOS devices you can swipe
between multiple screens of apps and click on
an apps’ icon to launch it. The number of
screens available are denoted by small dots
below the list of app icons. Click and drag an
icon to move it to a new position in Launchpad.
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M
ission Control might sound like a
pretty grand title to give an OS
feature, but the power and
efficiency it offers lives up to the name.
With a simple swipe of your trackpad or
click of the mouse, this enhanced form of
Exposé, crossbred with Spaces,
transforms your desktop. Not only are all
of your open windows shown but they’re
grouped into the apps they relate to and
02 And boom!
Mission Control fires open windows into
organised piles surrounding a pulled-back view
of the desktop. From here you can select
windows and drag them to other desktops at
the top of the screen, or create new desktops
by clicking the plus button at the top-right.
D
03 The search is over
Click on any window to bring it to the
forefront of your screen or drag it to a new
position. Click on one of the images at the top of
the screen to jump to a new desktop from
within Mission Control. To exit, click a window
or drag three fingers down the trackpad. ●
o you use an iOS device? Then
you’ll be familiar with the way
Launchpad works. Available by
clicking the Dock icon or pinching a thumb
and three fingers on your trackpad,
Launchpad brings up a view of all of your
applications as icons, just like an iPad
home screen. You can even drag icons on
top of one another to create folders as
you would in iOS. Also like Apple’s mobile
02 Get into folders
Again, as found in iOS, apps can be
organised into folders and given specific names
within Launchpad. Click a folder to open it; apps
can be launched and moved in the same way by
clicking and dragging. To rename a folder, click
on its title when open and type a new one.
you can also see a view of all other
desktops you may be using. Windows can
be dragged between different desktops
to help organise your screen, or you can
simply click on a specific window to bring
it to the front. Mission Control is a
powerful feature that will surely speed
up the way you work and help those with
smaller screens cope with multiple
applications and Finder windows.
platform, holding the å key while using
Launchpad sets your app icons wiggling
and allows you to click the X next to them
to delete them. If you have more apps
than can fit on the screen at one time,
Launchpad spreads them over multiple
screens that you can browse using a
swipe or the arrow keys. Launchpad is a
brilliant way to access your apps in Lion
and also makes it easier to remove them.
03 Create your own
To create a folder within Launchpad all
you need to do is drag one app icon onto
another. The folder is named after the genre of
one or both of the apps based on their Mac App
Store category. You can rename the folder and
also add apps to it by dragging and dropping. ●
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OS X LION
Focus on
full-screen
apps
01 Getting bigger
Here’s Safari in its standard form. Click
the two arrows at the top-right of the screen
and the app grows to fill the screen and move
across to its own separate space on the righthand side of the desktop. All other windows
and menu bars will also move out of the way.
C
ontinuing the iOS theme, Lion also
offers full-screen applications that
can quickly be switched between
with a simple swipe. Most apps offer a
full-screen option but some third-party
apps will need an update to work in this
way. Of course, Apple’s apps are already
designed to work perfectly at full-screen
size and actually benefit from the larger
space. Mail, iCal and Safari can all be
02 Back and forth
When working in full-screen an app
positions itself next to the desktop in its own
space. To move back to the desktop, swipe three
fingers to the right on the trackpad. You can
pick up a file or folder from the desktop and
drag it back to a full-screen app.
quickly sent full-screen by clicking on a
small button at the corner of each
interface. Once an application is in fullscreen mode it takes up its own space to
the right of your desktop, and you can
jump between apps by swiping three
fingers to the left and right on a
trackpad. And don’t worry – you can
access the menu bar simply by moving
the mouse to the top of the screen.
03 Multiple apps
If you have more than one app open in
full-screen mode, you can jump between them
using a three-finger swipe on the trackpad.
Apps are added to a new space to the right of
the active space and can be reordered
using Mission Control. ●
Restart
& Resume
S
uch a simple feature, you wonder why
Resume hasn’t been included with Mac
OS X from day one. When you shut down
or restart your Mac running Lion, it will ask you
if you want to ‘Reopen windows when logging
back in’ from the restart dialog box. If you click
the check box next to this message, every
application and window you had open at the
point of restarting will be restored and
positioned in exactly the same way when your
Mac boots up again. This is a brilliant timesaver
for when you shut down your Mac from a day
of work and need to remember what you were
doing when you start it up again. Using
Resume also does away with the need to set
applications to launch at login, for the most
part, which can become annoying.
With Lion’s Resume
feature, you can
boot right back in to
where you left off.
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OS X LION
Keep work
safe with
Auto Save
01 The new menu
Here’s a document we’ve been working
on in TextEdit. It has been saved already and
also has a downward-pointing arrow next to
that name which, when clicked, shows the
Auto Save menu. Selecting Lock will prevent
further changes to the saved file.
Fall back to
previous
Versions
01 File folly
You’ve realised that the version of the
document you want isn’t the one currently
loaded. The correct version may even have
been overwritten by the one you’re working on.
Select Review All Versions from the dropdown menu next to the document’s title.
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H
ow often have you accidentally
overwritten a document you were
working on or lost it completely?
The benefits of a Time Machine backup
have always come in handy for the latter
scenario, but saving over your work
normally means it’s back to the drawing
board. Not anymore, however, as Lion
introduces the impressive new Auto Save
feature that enables you to prevent the
02 Doubling up
From the same menu, there’s also the
option to duplicate your current document from
within your chosen app. Normally this would
require returning to the Finder to do, but
instead, another identical document opens with
the word ‘Copy’ added to its title.
W
03 Stepping back
You do a quick word count and realise
that before your last save, you deleted a whole
passage of your document. Simply access the
Auto Save menu and revert the document to
the last saved version. Your document is full
again and you can stop pulling your hair out. ●
e mentioned Time Machine
earlier and, while it does remain
in OS X Lion, it now has a
younger sibling for your files that is just as
handy. Versions lets you look back through
the history of a document to find the
exact version you are after. It looks much
the same as Time Machine and includes
the same sidebar to help you navigate
through different times in order to
02 Step back in time
Well isn’t this familiar? No, it’s not Time
Machine but, it’s Versions showing you every
iteration of the document you were working on
since it was created. Use the bar on the right to
move back and forth through minutes, hours
and even days to view all of the saved files.
worst happening as you work on
documents in the likes of iWork apps and
TextEdit. By clicking next to the title of
your document in an app’s menu bar
you’re shown a list of available functions
including Lock, Duplicate and Browse All
Versions. When saving or editing, apps
also ask whether you want to make a
duplicate in order to avoid accidental
overwrites. This could be a lifesaver.
pinpoint the file you’re after. Once you
find it, click on it and hit the Restore
button. The beauty of Versions is that it
can be invoked from within an app such as
the Auto Save features, so you can look
for the precise document you’re working
on quickly and easily. Versions is an
exciting new feature in Lion and one that
we’re sure everybody will use, especially
as it doesn’t require an external drive.
03 Bring it back
Once you’ve located your document,
select it in Versions and click the large Restore
button to make it the current version. Once
done, it’s a good idea to duplicate the file or save
it under a different name so you don’t lose your
information again. You could even lock the file. ●
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OS X LION
Share files
faster with
AirDrop
01 Ready to drop
To access AirDrop, open a new Finder
window and you’ll spot AirDrop under the
Favourites section in the left-hand pane. Click
on it to show all of the available AirDrop
computers within 30 feet of your Mac. If you
don’t see any, make sure Wi-Fi is turned on.
A
irDrop is a great little addition to
OS X that acts like a mix between
Dropbox and DropCopy. Unlike
those two, however, AirDrop is built into
the OS and can automatically find other
computers that can accept file transfers.
There’s no tricky setup and you don’t
even need to be connected to a Wi-Fi
network; AirDrop does all the boring stuff
for you so you can focus on transferring
02 Drag and share
Once AirDrop has found other Macs,
locate the files you want to share on your Mac
and drag them onto one of the local
destinations in AirDrop. You will now be asked if
you’re sure you want to send this file. If so, click
the Send button to initiate the transfer.
Make the
M
most of Mail
03 Accept and receive
The person you are sending a file to will
now receive a message asking whether or not
they want to receive it. They can choose from
Save, Decline or Save and Open. Once they
accept the file it will begin to transfer,
eventually to appear in the Downloads folder. ●
ail has seen a big overhaul in
Lion and makes it even more
enjoyable to send and receive
email. First on the list of new features is
the ability to work with Mail in full-screen
mode. This provides a great way to view
messages, inboxes and folders in one go,
especially if there are images attached to
your emails. Your inbox will now show
snippets of each message you receive, so
01 Search success
Previously, searching for email was a bit
of a chore because you needed to make sure
you got your search criteria correct in terms of
spelling. In the new Mail, however, search looks
for names, subject lines and keywords as part
of the same search to bring you the best results.
02 Enlarged email
The clean new design of Mail in Lion is
made even better when viewed in full-screen
mode. The three-column view splits the
interface into a list of accounts and folders,
inbox and messages, and provides everything
you need on one screen.
files. AirDrop is available from within the
Finder and once selected, opens a
window that searches for other AirDrop
users within 30 feet of you. From here
you can simply drag a file onto the name
of another AirDrop user’s computer and,
once they accept it, it will copy wirelessly.
Files copied via AirDrop are sent to the
Downloads folder where a small progress
bar shows the status of the transfer.
you can quickly spot what you’re after or
decide whether or not to open an email
right away. Then there’s a slick new
Conversations view that shows related
messages or those that are part of a
conversation, much like threading in the
previous Mail but far more attractive and
easier to understand. There’s also an
enhanced search that looks for people,
subjects and keywords as you type.
03 Conversations
Conversations is a new way to view
email chains. If you and another person (or
group of people) have been emailing back and
forth within the same email subject, Mail
groups all these messages together so you can
view them in a chronological timeline. ●
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