PPA5500
KinetiQ
USER MANUAL
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
“Do
not be hasty when making measurements.”
KinetiQ is a precision instrument that provides you with
the tools to make a wide variety of measurements
accurately, reliably, and efficiently - but good metrology
practice must be observed. Take time to read this manual
and familiarise yourself with the features of the instrument
in order to use it most effectively.
DANGER OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
Only qualified personnel should install this
equipment, after reading and understanding this
user manual. If in doubt, consult your supplier.
RISQUE D'ELECTROCUTION
L'installation de cet équipement ne doit être confiée
qu'à un personnel qualifié ayant lu et compris le
présent manuel d'utilisation. Dans le doute,
s'adresser au fournisseur.
GEFAHR VON ELEKTRISCHEM SCHOCK
Nur entsprechend ausgebildetes Personal ist
berechtigt, diese Ausrüstung nach dem Lesen und
Verständnis dieses Anwendungshandbuches zu
installieren. Falls Sie Zweifel haben sollten, wenden
Sie sich bitte an Ihren Lieferanten.
RISCHIO DI SCARICHE ELETTRICHE
Solo personale qualificato può installare questo
strumento, dopo la lettura e la comprensione di
questo manuale. Se esistono dubbiconsultate il
vostro rivenditore.
PELIGRO DE DESCARGA ELÉCTRICA
Solo personal cualificado debe instalar este
instrumento, después de la lectura y comprensión
de este manual de usuario. En caso de duda,
consultar con su suministrador.
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
This equipment is designed to comply with BSEN 61010-1
(2001) (Safety requirements for electrical equipment for
measurement, control, and laboratory use) – observe the
following precautions:
 Ensure that the supply voltage agrees with the rating of
the instrument printed on the back panel before
connecting the mains cord to the supply.
 This appliance must be earthed. Ensure that the
instrument is powered from a properly grounded supply.
 The inputs are rated at 1kV rms or dc cat II; 600V rms
or dc cat III. Do not exceed the rated input.
 Keep the ventilation holes on the underneath and rear
free from obstruction.
 Do not operate or store under conditions where
condensation may occur or where conducting debris
may enter the case.
 There are no user serviceable parts inside the
instrument – do not attempt to open the instrument,
refer service to the manufacturer or his appointed
agent.
Note: Newtons4th Ltd. shall not be liable for any
consequential damages, losses, costs or expenses
arising from the use or misuse of this product
however caused.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Manufacturer: Newtons4th Ltd.
Address:
30 Loughborough Rd.
Mountsorrel
Loughborough
Leics.
LE12 7AT
We declare that the product:
Description:
Power Analyser
Product name: KinetiQ
Model:
PPA55xx Family
conforms to the requirements of Council Directives:
89/336/EEC relating to electromagnetic compatibility:
EN 61326:1997 Class A
73/23/EEC relating to safety of laboratory equipment:
EN 61010-1
April 2006
Eur Ing Allan Winsor BSc CEng MIEE
(Director Newtons4th Ltd.)
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
WARRANTY
This product is guaranteed to be free from defects in
materials and workmanship for a period of 12 months from
the date of purchase.
In the unlikely event of any problem within this guarantee
period, first contact Newtons4th Ltd. or your local
representative, to give a description of the problem. Please
have as much relevant information to hand as possible –
particularly the serial number and release numbers (press
SYSTEM then LEFT).
If the problem cannot be resolved directly then you will be
given an RMA number and asked to return the unit. The
unit will be repaired or replaced at the sole discretion of
Newtons4th Ltd.
This guarantee is limited to the cost of the instrument
itself and does not extend to any consequential damage or
losses whatsoever including, but not limited to, any loss of
earnings arising from a failure of the product or software.
In the event of any problem with the instrument outside of
the guarantee period, Newtons4th Ltd. offers a full repair
and re-calibration service
– contact your local
representative. It is recommended that the instrument be
re-calibrated annually.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
ABOUT THIS MANUAL
This manual describes the general features, usage and
specifications of the PPA55xx range of power analysers
“KinetiQ”.
Detailed descriptions of the communications command set
for RS232, USB, LAN and GPIB is given in the separate
manual “PPA25/26xx” communications manual”.
Firmware revision 2.01
This manual is copyright © 2006 - 2009 Newtons4th Ltd.
and all rights are reserved. No part may be copied or
reproduced in any form without prior written consent.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
CONTENTS
1
Introduction – general principles of operation ........ 1-1
2
Getting started ................................................. 2-1
2.1
3
Quick Start guide .............................................. 3-1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4
Standard event status register .................................. 6-4
Serial Poll status byte .............................................. 6-5
RS232 connections .................................................. 6-6
RS232 printer ......................................................... 6-7
System options ................................................. 7-1
7.1
8
Display zoom .......................................................... 5-1
PROG – non volatile memory store and recall ............. 5-2
Zero compensation.................................................. 5-4
ALARM - alarm function ........................................... 5-5
Data hold ............................................................... 5-7
Master/slave operation ............................................ 5-8
Using remote control ......................................... 6-1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
7
Selection from a list ................................................ 4-3
Numeric data entry ................................................. 4-4
Text entry .............................................................. 4-5
Special functions ............................................... 5-1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6
Operating Mode Keys............................................... 3-1
Menu Control Keys .................................................. 3-3
Display Control Keys ............................................... 3-4
Setup Keys/Keypad ................................................. 3-6
Control Keys........................................................... 3-8
Scope Mode............................................................ 3-9
Data Entry Guide .................................................. 3-11
Using the menus ............................................... 4-1
4.1
4.2
4.3
5
Unpacking .............................................................. 2-1
User data ............................................................... 7-3
Measurement options......................................... 8-1
8.1
8.2
Wiring configuration ................................................ 8-1
ACQU - Acquisition options ....................................... 8-5
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
9
COUPLING - coupling & bandwidth options ................. 8-8
RANGE - input channel options ............................... 8-10
DATALOG – datalog options .................................... 8-13
MATHS – custom result computation ....................... 8-15
Application specific modes .................................. 9-1
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
PWM motor drive .................................................... 9-1
Lighting ballast ....................................................... 9-2
Inrush current ........................................................ 9-3
Power transformers ................................................. 9-4
Standby power measurement ................................... 9-5
10 Power measurements ...................................... 10-1
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
Individual phase computations................................ 10-3
Sum computations ................................................ 10-7
Neutral synthesis .................................................. 10-8
Phase to phase computations ................................. 10-9
Mechanical power.................................................10-11
Efficiency ............................................................10-12
11 Integrated power measurements ....................... 11-1
12 True RMS Voltmeter ........................................ 12-1
13 Harmonic analyser .......................................... 13-1
14 Impedance meter ............................................ 14-1
15 Oscilloscope mode ........................................... 15-1
16 Phase meter ................................................... 16-1
17 Specifications ................................................. 17-1
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
APPENDICES
Appendix A
Accessories
Appendix B
Serial command summary
Appendix C
Available character set
Appendix D
Configurable parameters
Appendix E
Contact details
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
1
Introduction – general principles of operation
KinetiQ is a sophisticated and versatile power analyser, for
accurate wide bandwidth power measurements.
The PPA55xx family of power analysers covers 1 to 3
phase applications in both a low current and high current
models.
Each phase input has wide ranging voltage and current
channels which are fully isolated from each other and from
ground. The voltage input has a built in high voltage
attenuator or may be used with an external attenuator.
The current input has a built in current shunt or may be
used with an external shunt.
The voltage and current inputs are simultaneously sampled
and the data is analysed in real time by high speed DSPs
(digital signal processors). A separate CPU (central
processing unit) takes the DSP results for display and
communications. At the heart of the system is an FPGA
(field programmable gate array) that interfaces the various
elements.
This powerful, versatile structure allows the measurement
of a wide range of power related parameters including:
W, VA, VAr, power factor, phase
true rms, fundamental
harmonics, TIF
integrated values (W hours etc.)
impedance
inrush current, voltage surge
oscilloscpe
KinetiQ is particularly easy to use with a large clear colour
display and single menu levels for all main parameters.
Even difficult applications such as PWM motor drives and
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
lighting ballasts can be easily addressed with special
modes application in the firmware of the instrument and
dedicated hardware functions including torque/speed
inputs and ac line sync.
The whole operation of the instrument may be controlled
remotely via a serial interface (RS232/USB), or optionally
LAN interface or GPIB interface.
The voltage and current channels are identical except for
the voltage attenuator and current shunt at the very front
end.
Each channel consists of a selection switch for external or
internal attenuator/shunt followed by a high impedance
buffer, bandwidth control then a series of gain stages
leading to an A/D converter. Selection of the input gain
and the sampling of the A/D converter are under the
control of the DSP. There is an autozero switch at the front
end for dc accuracy. The analogue circuitry is optimised for
high linearity over a wide dynamic range and high
frequency performance.
Both input channels are fully isolated with very good CMRR
and noise rejection.
The current shunt is of a proprietary design which gives
very wide bandwidth with minimum phase shift.
The voltage attenuator is of a proprietary design which has
a wide bandwidth response matched to that of the current
shunt.
Both the voltage and current channels are calibrated
digitally so there are no physical adjustments to be made.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
2
Getting started
KinetiQ is supplied ready to use – it comes complete with
an appropriate power lead and a set of test leads. It is
supplied calibrated and does not require anything to be
done by the user before it can be put into service.
2.1
Unpacking
Inside the carton there should be the following items:
one KinetiQ unit
one appropriate mains lead
two yellow and two black 4mm leads per phase
two yellow and two black crocodile clips per phase
one null modem cable
one USB cable
this manual
Before connecting the test leads to an active circuit first
connect the mains cord from a properly grounded supply
outlet to the inlet on the rear panel of the KinetiQ. KinetiQ
has a universal mains input and accepts any supply
voltage from 90-265Vrms at 50 or 60Hz.
Switch on the KinetiQ. The display should illuminate with
the model name and the firmware version for a few
seconds while it performs some initial tests. It should then
default to the power measurement display. Note that the
switch on message can be personalised – see the User
Data section under System Options.
The screen is a 6” (150mm) LCD colour display. There are
no manual adjustments as the display should be clear and
visible in all lighting applications.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The voltage and current leads may now be connected to a
circuit under test. The high common mode rejection ratio
(CMRR) of the instrument allows the current channel to be
connected in the live path (high side shunt) instead of the
neutral path (low side).
The test leads supplied meet the safety requirements of
BSEN61010-1 to an operating voltage of up to 1000V rms
cat II or 600V rms cat III.
The Quick Start guide, Section 3 below, gives an
introduction to the operating modes of the KinetiQ, and
the selection of options and parameters. The Quick Start
guide may be followed with no inputs connected to the
instrument.
In the event of any problem with this procedure, please
contact customer services at Newtons4th Ltd. or your local
authorised
representative:
contact
addresses
and
telephone numbers are given in the appendix at the back
of this manual.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
3
Quick Start guide
3.1
Operating Mode Keys
Operating Mode selection
(Power-on default is Power Analyzer – diagram
below shows single-phase display.)
Note that with no inputs connected, display will be
showing noise levels only.)
Press the POWER, INTEG, HARM, RMS, IMP, SCOPE
key to access the operating mode directly, (except
Phase Meter mode – see below).
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Select Menu Options
Press the operating mode key “Power” etc a second
time, or press the “MODE” key, to access modespecific options (diagram below shows Power
Analyzer options).
Use Up and Down keys to highlight option, ENTER to
confirm (see MENU CONTROL KEYS). Parameter
values within the selected option may be adjusted
using L or R keys or by entering a numeric value
directly, as indicated. ENTER to confirm.
With Operating mode highlighted, use L and R
keys to cycle through operating modes and to
access Phase Meter mode.
With adjust contrast highlighted, L and R keys
adjust display contrast.
Use ENTER or HOME to return to readout display.
FOR TEXT ENTRY see DATA ENTRY GUIDE
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
3.2
Menu Control Keys
ENTER/NEXT confirms your selection or parameter
value/data entry.
HOME/ESC returns to the original entry or to your
previous action.
DELETE/BACK removes a previous selection or value,
or returns to your previous action.
ARROW KEYS (Up, Down, L, R) to move around menu
options, make incremental/decremental changes etc.
Also to position cursors in SCOPE mode.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
3.3
Display Control Keys
Display Zoom
Up to 4 displayed values may be emphasized.
a. Return to no zoom by pressing ZOOM–
(press twice from top zoom level).
b. Press ZOOM+ to view presently selected data.
(Diagram below shows Power Analyzer default
selection, this time with a load connected.)
c. Press DELETE to clear that selection.
d. Move the flashing box to the desired data to be
emphasized using the Up, Down, L and R menu
control keys.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
e. Press ENTER to confirm (flashing stops).
f. Continue to select up to a total of 4 values.
g. Press ZOOM+ once or twice to display emphasized
values as desired. (Diagram below shows top zoom
level for Power Analyzer.)
Realtime/Hold
Toggles between continuous display readings and
holding an instantaneous reading on screen. Note:
measurements continue to be taken even when
display is in Hold.
Table, Graph
Select tabular or graphical presentation of data as
collected in Datalog (see SETUP KEYS), or in
HARMONIC ANALYZER mode.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
3.4
Setup Keys/Keypad
SELECT MENUS for non mode-specific
configuration. Also use as numeric keypad when
entering parameter values or data.
ACQU – use for configuring inputs appropriate
to source and nature of signals being analyzed.
(Diagram below shows Power Analyzer default setup.)
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
COUPLING – appropriate to input signals.
RANGE – configure according to magnitude (voltage
and current) of input signals.
DATALOG – only available for Power Analyzer:
sampling interval; data retained or not at powerdown. Default is disabled. (See also Table, Graph in
DISPLAY CONTROL KEYS.)
APP – application-specific measurements, e.g. PWM
motor drive.
MATHS – no options available at present.
ALARM – audible/visual indication of thresholds crossed
set by ZOOM values (see DISPLAY CONTROL KEYS).
Default is disabled.
REMOTE – configure external comms.
AUX – no options available at present.
SYS – configure general system features.
MODE – see OPERATING MODE KEYS.
PROG – save, recall or delete Mode, Display and Setup
configurations for user-defined applications. Recall data
saved in Datalog (see DATALOG key above).
FOR NUMERIC ENTRY see DATA ENTRY GUIDE
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
3.5
Control Keys
START & STOP datalog function (when enabled) or
integration (INTEG mode). Either key also
triggers single-shot in SCOPE mode.
Use ZERO key for:
a. Zero compensation of input amplifier chain,
and test-lead compensation (USER MANUAL).
b. Reset integrator to zero (INTEG mode).
TRIGGER (or START) returns display to
Real Time from Hold. Also triggers single-shot in
SCOPE mode.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
3.6
Scope Mode
Selecting SCOPE mode from the OPERATING MODE
KEYS, or by cycling through the operating modes in
any of the Operating Mode Select Options, displays
voltage and current waveforms as a conventional
oscilloscope – diagram below shows the default display
with no inputs connected.
The following diagram shows the options available in
SCOPE mode:
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
A typical display of voltage and current waveforms for
a switched mode power supply is shown below:
When operating in the oscilloscope mode, the left and right
control keys operate in one of two modes:
A. With the cursor option „off‟ (default); the left and
right control keys change the timebase
B. With the cursor option „on‟; the left and right control
keys change the cursor position and the up or down
keys toggle between cursor 1 control or cursor 2
control.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
3.7
Data Entry Guide
TEXT ENTRY
Enter text via the six function keys in the upper
right of the panel. Each function key jumps to
a different letter of the alphabet:
(POWER) A, (INTEG) E, (HARM) I,
(RMS) O, (IMP) U, (SCOPE) space
Choose other characters by stepping forward or
backward using the UP and DOWN keys. Select
upper/lower case with the ZOOM+, ZOOM– keys.
(Values may be overwritten, or edited by use of the
RIGHT, LEFT and DELETE keys)
NUMERIC ENTRY
Use MODE/ENTRY KEYS for number, multiplier,
decimal point, or +/– to enter parameter value.
Press ENTER (MENU CONTROL KEYS) to set value.
Press HOME (MENU CONTROL KEYS) to abort data
entry, restore original.
(Values may be overwritten, or edited by use of the
R, L and DELETE keys)
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
4
Using the menus
KinetiQ is a very versatile instrument with many
configurable parameters. These parameters are accessed
from the front panel via a number of menus.
Each of the main menus may be accessed directly from a
specific key.
ACQU
data acquisition parameters such as speed
and filtering
COUPLING select ac/dc coupling and bandwidth
RANGE
select input ranges, and scaling
DATALOG specify datalog parameters
APP
Application specific functions
MATHS
User defined computations
ALARM
control of audible alarm and analogue output
REMOTE
communications options (RS232 etc)
AUX
control of auxiliary devices connected to the
rear EXTENSION port
SYSTEM
general system options such as phase
convention, keyboard beep etc.
MODE
function control
PROG
recall/store/ delete of non-volatile programs
and datalog
Each menu starts with the currently set parameters visible
but no cursor. In this condition, pressing the menu key
again or the HOME key aborts the menu operation and
reverts back to normal operation.
To select any parameter, press the UP or DOWN key and a
flashing box will move around the menu selecting each
parameter. In this condition the keys take on their
secondary function such as numbers 0-9, multipliers n-G
etc.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Pressing the HOME key first time reverts to the opening
state where the parameters are displayed but the cursor is
hidden. Pressing the HOME key at this point exits the
menu sequence and reverts back to normal operation.
To abort the menu sequence, press the HOME key
twice.
There are three types of data entry:
selection from a list
numeric
text
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
4.1
Selection from a list
This data type is used where there are only specific options
available such as the smoothing may be „normal‟, „slow‟, or
„none‟, the graph drawing algorithm may use „dots‟ or
„lines‟.
When the flashing cursor is highlighting the parameter, the
RIGHT key steps forward through the list, and the LEFT
key steps backwards through the list. The number keys 09 step directly to that point in the list, which provides a
quick way to jump through long lists. There is no need to
press the ENTER key with this data type
For example, if the smoothing selection list comprises the
options:
normal
(item 0)
slow
(item 1)
none
(item 2)
and the presently selected option is normal, there are 3
ways to select non:
press RIGHT twice times
press LEFT once
press number 2
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4.2
Numeric data entry
Parameters such as external shunt impedance and scale
factor are entered as real numbers; shunt impedance is an
example of an unsigned parameter, scale factor is an
example of a signed parameter.
Real numbers are entered using the number keys,
multiplier keys, decimal point key, or +/- key (if signed
value is permitted). When the character string has been
entered, pressing the ENTER key sets the parameter to the
new value. Until the ENTER key is pressed, pressing the
HOME key aborts the data entry and restores the original
number.
If a data value is entered that is beyond the valid limits for
that parameter then a warning is issued and the
parameter set as close to the requested value as possible.
For example, the minimum user defined measurement
window 10ms; if a value of 5ms is entered, a warning will
be given and the amplitude set to the maximum of 10ms.
When the parameter is first selected there is no character
cursor visible – in this condition, a new number may be
entered directly and will overwrite the existing number.
To edit a data value rather than overwrite it, press the
RIGHT key and a cursor will appear. New characters are
inserted at the cursor position as the keys are pressed, or
the character before the cursor position can be deleted
with the DELETE key.
Data values are always shown in engineering notation to
at least 5 digits (1.0000-999.99 and a multiplier).
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
4.3
Text entry
There are occasions where it is useful to enter a text
string; for example, a non-volatile program may have
some text as a title.
Text is entered by selecting one of 6 starting characters
using the function keys on the top right hand row of the
keyboard, then stepping forwards or backwards through
the alphabet with the UP and DOWN keys.
The starting letters from left to right are A, E, I, O, U, or
space.
Numbers can also be inserted using the number keys.
The UP and DOWN keys step forward and backward using
the ASCII character definitions – other printable characters
such as # or ! can be obtained by stepping on from the
space. The available character set is given in the
Appendix.
When entering alphabetic characters, the ZOOM+ and
ZOOM- keys select upper and lower case respectively for
the character preceding the cursor and the next characters
to be entered.
The editing keys, RIGHT, LEFT, DELETE and ENTER
operate in the same way as for numeric entry.
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5
5.1
Special functions
Display zoom
KinetiQ normally displays many results on the screen in a
combination of small font size (no zoom) and up to 4
values in a larger font size (first zoom level). There is also
an even larger font for up to 4 selected values (second
zoom level).
The second zoom level with the largest font has the option
of increasing the displayed data resolution via the SYSTEM
OPTIONS menu.
To set the data values for the larger font size, first return
to no zoom by pressing ZOOM-, twice if necessary. Press
ZOOM+ key to view the presently selected data, and press
DELETE to clear the selection.
A flashing box surrounds the first available result. The
flashing box is moved around the available results using
the cursor keys, UP, DOWN, LEFT and RIGHT. Pressing the
ENTER key selects the result for zoom and the box ceases
to flash. Further results (up to four in total) can then be
selected using the cursor keys in the same way – a solid
box remains around the already selected item, and a new
flashing box appears.
Having selected the desired results, pressing the ZOOM+
key invokes the first zoom level, pressing it again selects
the higher level. Pressing ZOOM-, steps back down one
level each time.
Note that any of the parameters selected for the zoom
function can be used as the input for the alarm monitoring,
and datalog.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
5.2
PROG – non volatile memory store and recall
There are 3 types of memory which can be saved in nonvolatile locations:
Programs
Data log
Measurement results
There are 100 non-volatile program locations where the
settings for the entire instrument can be saved for recall at
a later date. Each of the 100 locations has an associated
name of up to 20 characters that can be entered by the
user to aid identification.
Program number 1 (if not empty) is loaded when the
instrument is powered on, so that KinetiQ can be set to a
user defined state whenever it is switched on. This is
particularly useful to set system options such as phase
convention. If no settings have been stored in program 1
then the factory default settings are loaded (program
number 0).
Program numbers 1-6 may be recalled with a single press
of the function keys if the direct load option is selected in
the system menu (see system options).
The instrument can be restored to the factory default
settings at any time by recalling program number 0.
The program menu is accessed using the PROG key. The
program location can be selected either by stepping
through the program locations in turn to see the name, or
by entering the program number directly.
When storing a configuration in a program, there will be a
short pause of about 1 second if the program location had
previously been written or deleted. The process will be
very quick if the location has not been used.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
When supervisor mode is disabled (see system options),
programs can only be recalled, not stored nor deleted, to
avoid accidental modification.
When recalling a program it may be desirable for the
program to recall the selected communications interface
that was in use when the program was stored (RS232 or
USB etc). Alternatively it is more common for the
communications interface to be associated with the
instrument rather than a stored program. There is a
selectable option in the REMOTE menu to enable the
“recall with program”. If this is “off” then recalling the
program will not change the communications interface.
Datalog can be stored directly into non-volatile memory or
can be logged to RAM and stored subsequently. The data
then can be recalled for viewing or to download to a PC for
further analysis. There is a single non-volatile location for
holding the datalog.
Measurement results can be stored in one of 20 locations.
Press HOLD to hold the results, press PROG and select
memory = results. Each location holds the entire set of
computed results for all the phases no matter what phase
is on the display. Oscilloscope and harmonic series data
can also be stored but these take 3 contiguous locations
each because of the large amount of data. In each case
the full instrument set up is stored with the data and
recalled so that measurements may easily be repeated and
verified.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
5.3
Zero compensation
There are 2 levels of zero compensation:
Trim out the dc offset in the input amplifier chain.
Measure any remaining offset and compensate.
The trim of the dc offset in the input amplifier chain can be
manually invoked with the ZERO key, or over the RS232
with the REZERO command. This dc offset trim measures
the dc present while the autozero switch is active and
applies an equal and opposite offset via a D/A converter so
that the input range to the A/D is optimised.
The measurement of the remaining offset also happens
when the offset is trimmed but is also repeated at regular
intervals. This is to compensate for any thermal drift in the
amplifier chain. The remaining DC offset is precisely
measured and stored so that the measurements can be
compensated by an appropriate algorithm in the
instrument firmware.
Real time measurement is not possible while the autozero
measurement is in progress so this repeated autozero
function can be disabled via the SYSTEM OPTIONS menu.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
5.4
ALARM - alarm function
KinetiQ has 2 independent alarms that can be used to
generate an audible warning:
sound
sound
sound
sound
the
the
the
the
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
if
if
if
if
the
the
the
the
value
value
value
value
exceeds a threshold
is below a threshold
is outside a window
is inside a window
The values to which the alarms are applied can be any of
the measurements selected for zoom. The alarm status is
also available as a logic output via the communications.
The first alarm also has option to generate a variable
sound changing linearly as the value changes between two
thresholds.
To program an alarm, first select the functions for the
zoom; up to four measurements can be selected for the
display, the alarm is applied to any of them; then press
ALARM to invoke the alarm menu:
select which of the zoom functions is to be used
select the type of alarm
set the upper limit (if appropriate)
set the lower limit (if appropriate)
select whether the alarm is to be latched
select whether the alarm sounder is enabled
If the alarm latch is selected then both alarms will
continue to sound even if the value returns to within the
normal boundaries. To clear the alarm, press HOME.
The alarm latch can also be set to HOLD the data so that
an event can be captured. The data on the screen will be
the measurement that first triggered the alarm condition.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The SYNC output can be used to trigger a PLC or ATE
system on alarm. The SYNC output will be logic high when
the instrument is in an alarm condition and logic low if not.
The linear alarm option allows tests to be carried out even
if it is not possible to see the display. Pressing ZERO in the
alarm menu sets the upper and lower threshold to 4/3 and
1/3 of the measured value respectively. The repetition rate
of the sounder then varies linearly as the value changes
between these thresholds.
When using GPIB communications (IEEE488) the
instrument can be configured to generate an SRQ on alarm
(see section on remote control).
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
5.5
Data hold
When in real time display mode, the data on the display
can be held at any time by pressing the REAL TIME key.
When HOLD is activated the word HOLD flashes in the top
right hand corner of the display.
Press the REAL TIME key again or the HOME key or START
key to release HOLD; in this case, HOME and START do not
have their normal functions. Changing mode also releases
hold.
When HOLD has been activated, the DSP continues to
sample, compute and filter the results but the data is
ignored by the CPU. When HOLD is released the display is
updated with the next available value from the DSP.
HOLD can also be triggered by a an alarm condition (see
section 5.4 alarm function)
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
5.6
Master/slave operation
Two instruments can be connected together to make
synchronised measurements with up to 6 phases. The unit
assigned as „master‟ controls the measurements so both
instruments are taking data in the same time.
When in POWER or INTG modes, the SUM power from the
slave instrument is read by the master instrument to
compute the overall efficiency.
To operate in master/slave mode, connect together the
extension ports on the back of the instrument with the 15
way ribbon cable and the 15 pin D type port inverter. Also
connect together the SYNC BNC connectors on the back of
the instruments with a BNC cable. Press the AUX key on
each instrument to set master/slave to master and slave
respectively. The master/slave selection is shown in the
top left hand corner of the display.
Because the measurement window is set by the master
instrument, if the slave instrument is measuring a different
frequency (for example when measuring efficiency of a 3
phase inverter) then the measurements on the slave will
not be exactly synchronised to its frequency and may take
a little longer to settle than usual.
In the event that either instrument changes range or
detects a significant change in frequency then both
instruments will resynchronise and “waiting for data” will
be shown on the display.
To synchronise data read over the communications ports,
first send „HOLD,ON‟ to the master (which puts both
instruments in hold mode) read the data from the master
and slave, then release HOLD on the master „HOLD,OFF‟.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
6
Using remote control
KinetiQ is fitted with RS232 serial communications port
and a USB port as standard, and may have an IEEE488
(GPIB) interface or LAN interface fitted as an option. All
the interfaces use the same ASCII protocol with the
exception of the end of line terminators:
RS232
USB
LAN
IEEE488
Rx expects
Tx sends
carriage return
carriage return
(line feed ignored) and line feed
carriage return or
line feed or EOI
carriage return
with EOI
All the functions of KinetiQ can be programmed via any of
the interfaces, and results read back. When the IEEE488
interface is set to „remote‟ the RS232 port is ignored.
The commands are not case sensitive and white space
characters are ignored (e.g. tabs and spaces). Replies
from KinetiQ are always upper case, delimited by commas,
without spaces.
Only the first six characters of any command are important
– any further characters will be ignored. For example, the
command to set the bandwidth is BANDWI but
BANDWIDTH may be sent as the redundant DTH at the
end will be ignored.
Fields within a command are delimited by comma, multiple
commands can be sent on one line delimited with a semicolon. Eg.
BANDWI,LOW;SPEED,SLOW
Mandatory commands specified in the IEEE488.2 protocol
have been implemented, (e.g. *IDN?, *RST) and all
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
commands that expect a reply are terminated with a
question mark.
Data values returned by KinetiQ are in scientific notation,
with a 5 digit mantissa by default. For extra resolution,
this can be increased to 6 digit by setting resolution to
„high‟ in the REMOTE menu.
There is also an option for higher speed data transfer by
selecting resolution = „binary‟ where each value is
returned in 4 bytes, each of which has the msb set so that
it will not be interpreted as an ASCII character.
byte 1
byte 2
byte 3
byte 4
2‟s complement signed exponent
bit 6 = mantissa sign
bit 5:0 = mantissa bits 19:14
mantissa bits 13:7
mantissa bits 6:0
When the msbs are stripped off and the bytes put
together, there is 6 bit signed exponent, a mantissa sign
bit and a 20 bit mantissa magnitude. The value then is
given by:
Value = +/- 2^exponent x mantissa / 2^20
KinetiQ maintains an error status byte consistent with the
requirements of the IEEE488.2 protocol (called the
standard event status register) that can be read by the
mandatory command *ESR? (see section 5.1).
KinetiQ also maintains a status byte consistent with the
requirements of the IEEE488.2 protocol, that can be read
either with the IEEE488 serial poll function or by the
mandatory command *STB? over RS232 or USB or IEEE or
LAN (see section 5.2).
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The IEEE address defaults to 23 and can be changed via
the REMOTE menu. The LAN IP address defaults to autoassigned (DHCP) but can be set manually by the REMOTE
menu.
The keyboard is disabled when the instrument is set to
“remote” using the IEEE. Press HOME to return to “local”
operation.
RS232 data format is: start bit, 8 data bits (no parity), 1
stop bit. Flow control is RTS/CTS (see section 5.2), baud
rate is selectable via the REMOTE menu.
A summary of the available commands is given in the
Appendix. Details of each command are given in the
communications manual.
Commands are executed in sequence except for two
special characters that are immediately obeyed:
Control T (20) – reset interface (device clear)
Control U (21) – warm restart
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
6.1
Standard event status register
PON
CME
EXE
DDE
QYE
OPC
bit 0 OPC
(operation complete)
cleared by most commands
set when data available
bit 2 QYE (unterminated query error)
set if no message ready when data read
bit 3 DDE (device dependent error)
set when the instrument has an error
bit 4 EXE (execution error)
set when the command cannot be executed
bit 5 CME (command interpretation error)
set when a command has not been recognised
bit 7 PON (power on event)
set when power first applied or unit has reset
The bits in the standard event status register except for
OPC are set by the relevant event and cleared by specific
command (*ESR?, *CLS, *RST). OPC is also cleared by
most commands that change any part of the configuration
of the instrument (such as MODE or START).
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
6.2
Serial Poll status byte
ESB
MAV
ALA
FDV
RDV
bit 0 RDV
(result data available)
set when results are available to be read as
enabled by DAVER
bit 2 FDV (fast data available (streaming))
set when data streaming results are available
to be read as enabled by DAVER
bit 3 ALA
(alarm active)
set when an alarm becomes active as enabled
by ALARMER
bit 4 MAV (message available)
set when a message reply is waiting to be read
bit 5 ESB (standard event summary bit)
set if any bit in the standard event status
register is set as well as the corresponding bit
in the standard event status enable register
(set by *ESE).
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
6.3
RS232 connections
The RS232 port on KinetiQ uses the same pinout as a
standard 9 pin serial port on a PC or laptop (9-pin male „D‟
type).
Pin
Function
Direction
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
DCD
RX data
TX data
DTR
GND
DSR
RTS
CTS
RI
in (+ weak pull up)
in
out
out
not used
out
in
not used
KinetiQ will only transmit when CTS (pin 8) is asserted,
and can only receive if DCD (pin 1) is asserted. KinetiQ
constantly asserts (+12V) DTR (pin 4) so this pin can be
connected to any unwanted modem control inputs to force
operation without handshaking. KinetiQ has a weak pull up
on pin 1 as many null modem cables leave it open circuit.
In electrically noisy environments, this pin should be
driven or connected to pin 4.
To connect KinetiQ to a PC, use a 9 pin female to 9 pin
female null modem cable:
1&6
2
3
4
5
7
8
6-6
-
4
3
2
1&6
5
8
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
6.4
RS232 printer
The RS232 port can also be connected to a serial printer
for making a hard copy of any screen. When printing is
enabled in the REMOTE menu then pressing START will
commence a screen dump to the printer. The graphic
protocol used is the ESC/P so any printer which supports
this protocol should work such as the Seiko DPU-414.
The other communication options, USB, LAN or GPIB, can
still be used while the RS232 printer is enabled.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
7
System options
Press SYS to access the system options.
Measurements of phase can be expressed in one of three
conventional formats:
-180 to +180 (commonly used in circuit analysis)
0 to -360 (commonly used in power applications)
0 to +360
The measurement is exactly the same it is only the way
that it is expressed that changes.
Blanking can be applied to a number of measurements so
that zero is shown when the measurement is below a
certain level. This blanking can be disabled if desired.
The oscilloscope display and datalog graph may be made
up of single points or lines.
Each key press is normally accompanied by an audible
„beep‟ as well as the tactile „click‟. The „beep‟ can be
disabled for quiet environments if the feel of the key is
sufficient feedback
Regular autozero measurements can be suppressed.
The 6 main function keys, POWER, INTEG, HARM, RMS,
IMP, SCOPE, can be used to load stored configurations as
a “one-touch” way of configuring the instrument for
specific applications. This is particularly useful in a
production environment where an operator has a small
number of specific tests to perform.
The data displayed in zoom level 2 may be shown to one
digit greater resolution than normal. This is particularly
useful when measuring phase at power line frequencies
where the normal resolution of 0.01° is not sufficient.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
On a multi phase instrument all the phases usually use the
same input control data – internal/external, scaling factor
etc. It is possible to select independent input control so
that the phases can be set up differently. This is useful if
different scaling factors are required for external shunts or
if one phase is using internal shunt when others are
external.
To save these system settings as default, store the setup
in program 1 so that they are reloaded on power on.
Pressing RIGHT from the SYSTEM OPTIONS menu selects
the USER DATA screen where up to three lines of user
specified text may be entered. The first line is displayed on
power up; all three lines may be read remotely by the
command USER? to identify the instrument.
Pressing LEFT from first SYSTEM OPTIONS menu displays
the serial number, manufacture code, release versions,
and calibration date. These cannot be changed by the
user.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
7.1
User data
KinetiQ can be personalised by entering up to 3 lines of
user data as text (see section on text entry).
User data is displayed every time that the instrument is
switched on to identify the instrument. The entered text
may also be read over the communications to identify the
instrument (see USER?).
Typical arrangement of the user data might be:
line 1 company name
line 2 department or individual name
line 3 unique identifying number (eg. asset number)
Any user data may be entered as required, as the lines are
treated purely as text and are not interpreted by KinetiQ
at all.
After changing the user data, execute „store‟ to save the
data in non-volatile memory.
For use in a production environment, KinetiQ supports two
modes of operation, supervisor and user. When supervisor
mode is disabled, the stored programs can only be
recalled, not changed. KinetiQ saves the mode of operation
with the user data so that it may be configured to power
up in either mode as required.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
8
Measurement options
8.1
Wiring configuration
Note: For simplicity, this section refers to PPA25xx series
instruments but the wiring configuration options apply
equally to the PPA26xx series.
The three phase version of KinetiQ, the PPA2530, can be
used in a variety of wiring configurations. Other versions,
PPA2520 and PPA2510, accept a subset of these
configurations:
configuration
single phase 1
2 phase
3 phase 2 wattmeter
3 phase 3 wattmeter
single phase 2
single phase 3
3 phase 2 wattmeter + phase 3
2530







2520



2510


In the single phase modes (phase 1, phase 2, phase 3) the
other phase inputs are completely ignored and the
selected phase acts as a completely independent single
phase power analyser.
In the 3 phase 2 wattmeter configuration, the voltages are
measured relative to phase 3. The phase 1 voltage input is
connected across phase 1 and phase 3, and phase 2
voltage input is connected across phase 2 and phase 3,
thus measuring phase to phase voltage directly. Phase 1
and 2 current inputs are connected normally. There is no
need to measure the current in phase 3 as phase 3 has no
voltage relative to itself so the power contribution is zero.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
In this mode, the neutral channel displays the synthesised
phase 3 current.
The advantage of this connection method is that 3 phase
power can be measured with only 2 wattmeters. This frees
up phase 3 of a 3 phase instrument to simultaneously
measure the power of a single phase input (3 phase 2
wattmeter + phase 3 configuration). This allows direct
measurement of efficiency in a 3 phase motor drive or 3
phase inverter application. The frequency reference for the
independent phase 3 may be selected to be voltage,
current, the mains line frequency, or the same as phase 1
& 2. In this mode, frequencies up to 1kHz can be
measured with phase 3.
With the 3 phase 3 wattmeter configuration, each
measurement phase is connected to a phase of the load
with the voltage inputs measuring to neutral. In this mode,
phase to neutral voltages are measured directly and phase
to phase voltages are also computed.
The wiring configuration is the first item to be selected
under the ACQU menu.
8.1.1
Wiring diagrams
Single Phase
HI
L
ACH1
LO
HI
VCH1
N
LO
L
O
A
D
L
HI
VCH1
or
LO
N
LO
8-2
ACH1
HI
L
O
A
D
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Two Phase Two Wattmeter
HI
ACH1
LO
HI
L
L
O
A
D
VCH1
LO
L
O
A
D
N
LO
L
O
A
D
VCH2
HI
L
HI
ACH2
LO
Three Phase Two Wattmeter
Three
Phase
Source
HI
Ph1
HI
Ph2
ACH1
ACH2
LO
Ph1
LO
Ph2
HI
VCH1
or
LO
Ph3
Three
Phase
Load
HI
VCH2
LO
or
Ph3
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Three Phase Three Wattmeter - simulated neutral
Three
Phase
Source
HI
Ph1
HI
Ph2
HI
Ph3
ACH1
LO
ACH2
LO
ACH3
LO
Ph1
Ph2
HI
VCH1
or
LO
HI
VCH2
LO
HI
Three
Phase
Load
Ph3
VCH3
or
LO
Three Phase Three Wattmeter
Three
Phase
Source
HI
Ph1
HI
Ph2
HI
Ph3
ACH1
LO
ACH2
LO
ACH3
LO
Ph1
Ph2
HI
VCH1
or
LO
N
8-4
HI Ph3
HI
VCH2
LO
Three
Phase
Load
VCH3
or
LO
N
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
8.2
ACQU - Acquisition options
In normal acquisition mode the window over which the
measurements are computed is adjusted to give an
integral number of cycles of the input waveform. The
results from each window are passed through a digital
filter equivalent to a first order RC low pass filter.
There are four pre-set speed options - fast, medium, slow,
and very slow – that adjust the nominal size of the
window, and therefore the update rate and the time
constant of the filter. Greater stability is obtained at the
slower speed at the expense of a slower update rate.
There is also an option to set a specific size of the window
to a value other than the preset options. In order to
synchronise to an integral number of cycles, the window
size is either reduced by up to 25% or increased as
necessary.
Note that at low frequencies, the window is extended to
cover a complete cycle of the input waveform even if this
is a longer period than the nominal update rate.
There are two time constants for the smoothing filter,
normal or slow, or the filter can be deselected. The
nominal values are:
speed
update
rate
normal
time
constant
slow time
constant
fast
medium
slow
very slow
1/20s
1/3s
2.5s
10s
0.2s
1.5s
12s
48s
0.8s
6s
48s
192s
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The smoothing response is usually set to “auto reset”
where the filtering is reset in response to a significant
change in data. This speeds up the response of the
instrument to changing conditions. This function can be
disabled so that the filtering has a fixed time constant,
which would have an exponential response to a step
change.
The frequency may be measured from the voltage or
current channel. On a multi-phase instrument, any channel
may be selected for the frequency measurement.
Phase angle measurements have to be made with
reference to a specific input – normally phase 1 voltage.
The phase angle reference can be set to current which is
useful if operating the instrument with only current inputs,
or with low level voltage inputs. In multi-wattmeter wiring
modes, phase 1 is always used for the phase angle
reference; phase 2 or phase 3 is used when in single
phase 2 wiring or single phase 3 wiring.
Normal frequency measurement is from 5Hz upwards so
that there is not a very long delay if measuring dc. There
is a low frequency option that extends the frequency
measurement down to 20mHz. This low frequency option
also applies a digital filter, which can be useful when
measuring in a low frequency, noisy environment.
8.2.1
Advanced options
Pressing ACQU to access the acquisition control menu then
the right arrow key gives access to some advanced options
which would not be needed for normal measurement
applications.
The analysis for the fundamental component uses a DFT
(discrete Fourier transform) algorithm. The selectivity of
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
the DFT analysis is a compromise between noise rejection
of frequencies close to the frequency of the fundamental
component and the required stability of the frequency
component. Selecting “narrow” increases the selectivity of
the DFT analysis (reducing the effective bandwidth) which
has the effect of improving the noise rejection. It does
however require that the frequency of the fundamental
component is more stable.
In a noisy application any spikes present on the signal may
push the instrument onto a higher range than is necessary
for the signal being measured. If the nature of the
spurious spikes are such that they do not contribute to the
measurement and can safely be ignored then the range
can be manually set to the appropriate range for the signal
to be measured and the instrument can be told to ignore
any overload. If using this mode it is wise to check the
signal on the oscilloscope to be sure that the signal being
measured is not genuinely overrange.
In a very noisy application, where the frequency of the
signal is known but KinetiQ is unable to measure the
frequency even with PWM filters or low frequency mode
filters applied, it is possible to enter the frequency to be
used for analysis. When “frequency lock” is selected to be
“on” the present measured frequency is displayed but this
can be overwritten with the known frequency. This entered
frequency is then used for all the analysis and the
frequency of the input signal is not measured.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
8.3
COUPLING - coupling & bandwidth options
There are three coupling options - AC only, AC+DC, or DC
only. AC+DC coupling is the normal option and should be
used where possible. AC coupling should be used for
measuring signals that are biased on a dc level (such as an
amplifier operating on a single supply or the output of a dc
PSU). DC coupling should be selected when making DC
measurements as it prevents noise from resetting the
frequency measurement algorithm.
There are three bandwidth options - wide, low, and DC
only. Low bandwidth may be useful in noisy applications
for
example
where
there
are
switching
spikes
superimposed on the waveform of interest. The switching
spikes may push the input channels onto a higher range
than is necessary for the measurement. Selecting low
bandwidth puts a hardware filter in the analogue input
path to eliminate unwanted high frequency components.
The DC only bandwidth option applies a dc-accurate low
pass filter of around 10Hz to reduce the ac signal. This is
particularly useful when accurately measuring the dc
content of an ac waveform such as the output of a UPS
(uninterruptible Power Supply). A 50Hz or 60Hz ac signal
would not be removed entirely so that the measurement
may still be synchronised to the waveform, but the
amplitude would be greatly reduced so that the instrument
would be on a more appropriate range for the dc
component
In multi-phase applications, if independent input control
has been set (see system options) then the coupling and
bandwidth options are independently set on each phase.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Coupling
option
ac+dc
ac+dc
ac+dc
ac
ac
ac
Bandwidth
option
wide
low
dc
wide
low
dc
dc
wide
dc
dc
low
dc
Measurement Notes
bandwidth
dc - 2MHz
default
dc - 30kHz
dc - 5Hz
5Hz – 2MHz
5Hz – 30kHz
dc – 5Hz
dc bandwidth
overrides ac coupling
dc - 2MHz
* dc coupling disables
auto frequency search
and no compensation
is applied.
dc - 30kHz
*
dc - 5Hz
*
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
8.4
RANGE - input channel options
All the input channels are fully isolated from each other
and from earth with very high CMRR (common mode
rejection ratio). They are controlled independently but
sampled synchronously.
Each input channel has an external input as well as an
internal shunt or high voltage attenuator. The external
input gives versatility in the input ranging by using
external shunts or attenuators. If the external shunt or
external attenuator option is selected, the data is scaled
by the appropriate value (entered under the relevant
channel menu).
Precision low inductance current shunts or current
transformers may be used with the current channels; high
voltage attenuators or oscilloscope probe may be used
with the voltage channels. Note that when using
external shunts or attenuators on high voltage
signals, the inputs must not exceed 1000V rms cat
II, or 600V cat III, to ground.
There are 8 input ranges with nominal full scale values set
with a ratio of 1:10. This gives the following nominal peak
ranges:
8-10
range
internal
current
internal
voltage
external
input
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
100mA
316mA
1A
3.16A
10A
31.6A
100A
316A
1V
3.16V
10V
31.6V
100V
316V
1kV
3.16kV
1mV
3.16mV
10mV
31.6mV
100mV
316mV
1V
3.16V
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The actual ranges have approximately 20% overload
headroom so, for example, the 300V range which has a
nominal full scale of 316V pk, has an actual peak input
value of 380V allowing for the 20% headroom.
The ranges may be selected manually, or by autoranging
(default). To speed up the autoranging, the start range for
autoranging may be selected if it is known that the signal
will not be below a certain level.
There is also an option to autorange „up only‟ so that a test
may be carried out to find the highest range. Once the
highest range has been determined, the range can be set
to manual and the test carried out without losing any data
due to range changing. Pressing the TRIGGER key (or
sending *TRG) restarts the autoranging from the selected
minimum range.
In multi-phase applications it is usual to allow the phases
to independently range but there is an option to lock the
ranges across the phases. When enabled, this means that
all the voltage channels will be on the same range, and all
the current channels will be on the same range.
When in an input channel menu, the ZERO key provides a
quick way to lock and unlock the range. When no flashing
box is visible in the input channel menu and autoranging is
selected, pressing the ZERO key selects the range that the
instrument is currently using and sets the autoranging to
manual, thus locking the range and preventing further
autoranging. Pressing the ZERO key again returns to full
autoranging from the bottom range.
For most measurement functions full autoranging is the
most suitable option but some applications, such as where
transient events are occurring, are more reliable with
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
manual ranging. Manual ranging (or up-only autoranging)
is essential for low frequency measurements.
Separately from the current shunt and attenuator value, a
scaling factor can be entered for each channel.
In multi-phase applications, if independent input control
has been set (see system options) then the ranging
options may be independently set on each phase. Press
the RIGHT and LEFT keys to step between the phases.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
8.5
DATALOG – datalog options
KinetiQ can store and display measurements recorded at
regular intervals over a time period. Each data record
consists of the elapsed time and up to four data values
selected by ZOOM. The instrument can graph and display
all four sets of measurements simultaneously. The 1Gb
memory enables the storage of a very large quantity of
records, whether they are just one value or four values.
The actual interval between data points is governed by the
measurement speed and the datalog interval. KinetiQ
stores the next available measurement after the datalog
interval has elapsed: the actual elapsed time is attached to
each datalog record, is displayed with the data on the
table or each graph, and returned with each record over
the communications (RS232, USB, LAN or GPIB).
The data values may be stored to RAM or directly into nonvolatile memory as each value becomes available. The
non-volatile option is useful for acquiring data over long
periods, to prevent the loss of data in the event of a power
failure. Data that has been stored into RAM may be
subsequently transferred to non-volatile memory using the
PROG menu. In this mode the data may be viewed in real
time, as it is being acquired.
For high speed data acquisition, the datalog interval may
be set to zero so that each measurement is stored. The
measurement interval is controlled with the “speed” option
in the ACQU menu. Using the “window” option for speed
allows greater control of the measurement interval. In this
mode, the display flashes “DATALOG RUNNING” and only
shows the acquisition time. The minimum datalog interval
depends on the function but is typically 10ms.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Note that in all cases the measurement interval is
necessarily adjusted to be an integral number of cycles of
the measured waveform.
Press DATALOG to set up the datalog options. The datalog
is started with the START key, and stopped with the STOP
key unless the store becomes full first. The zero reference
for the elapsed time is taken as the first data
measurement after START.
The data can be viewed as a table or as individual graphs.
Pressing GRAPH steps the graph through the stored
parameters. If more than 250 records have been stored,
the graph can show the data for the whole period or
pressing ZOOM redraws the graph to show 250 records
about the cursor. The cursor can be moved in single steps
(LEFT or RIGHT) or large steps (UP or DOWN). Pressing
UNZOOM shows the whole data gain. Movements of the
cursor are synchronised in both the TABLE and GRAPH
views.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
8.6
MATHS – custom result computation
Non-standard results may be computed from a
combination of voltage and current parameters, signals on
the torque and speed inputs, and constants.
There are 3 formulae, each combining up to 4 terms:
1: (term1 + term2) / (term3+term4)
2: (term1 + term2) x term3 / term4
3: term1 x term2 / (term3+term4)
Each term comprises a result, scaled by a signed factor, or
a signed constant.
For example, consider the formula:
maths = Vpk.Apk / 2
Select formula 2 with:
term1 = voltage peak x 1.0
term2 = disabled
term3 = current peak x 1.0
term4 = constant x 1.414
or
term1 = voltage peak x 1.0
term2 = disabled
term3 = current peak x 0.7071
term4 = disabled
The selected formula is applied to the data from each
phase.
The result is displayed with a user definable label of up to
12 characters and units up to 8 characters.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
9
Application specific modes
Select the application specific options form the APP menu.
9.1
PWM motor drive
The nature of the waveforms in a PWM motor drive
application makes measurement of the fundamental
frequency difficult. The application mode for PWM motor
drives applies a selectable filter to the data being used for
the frequency measurement. The best filter to use for a
given application should be selected by experiment. The
filter does not change the measured data at all – it is only
applied to the data for the frequency measurement.
PWM application mode also allows torque and speed to be
simultaneously measured so that efficiency can be
computed.
To select PWM motor drive mode, press the APP key,
select the mode with the cursor keys, move down to the
“default settings” option and press ENTER. The filter and
torque/speed settings can now be selected.
The calculation for efficiency may be selected as the ratio
of:
Phase 1 and phase 2
Slave sum and master sum
Mechanical and sum
Phase 3 and sum
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
9.2
Lighting ballast
Electronic lighting ballast waveforms consist of a high
frequency carrier signal modulated by the line frequency.
KinetiQ measures the line frequency independently of the
input waveform frequency and synchronises the
measurement period to the line frequency.
The carrier frequency measurement ignores any “dead
band” around the zero crossing of the ac line to compute
the actual switching frequency of the ballast.
Both the frequency measured on the input waveform and
the frequency of the line input are displayed.
As the switching frequency can vary over the cycle, the
analysis frequency of the DFT measurement is continually
adjusted to give optimum measurement of the
fundamental and harmonics. The response of the tracking
algorithm can be adjusted to suit the ballast being
measured:
Fixed time (no adjustment)
Fast
Medium
Slow
To select lighting ballast mode, press the APP key, select
the mode with the cursor keys, move down to the “default
settings” option and press ENTER. The defaults are loaded
and the particularly important parameters can then be
changed.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
9.3
Inrush current
Measurement of inrush current (surge) requires very fast
sampling to catch the highest instantaneous value.
Measurements must be made under conditions of manual
ranging and with the voltage applied to the instrument.
Then when the load is switched on the highest peak value
can be detected. In inrush mode, KinetiQ samples and
analyses every sample at the full sample rate in excess of
2Msamples/s to catch even very fast peaks.
For the worst case inrush current the input to the device
under test must be switched on at the worst point in the
cycle (90˚ or 270˚ for a capacitive load, 0˚ or 180˚ for an
inductive load). The Phase Controlled Inrush Switch, or
PCIS, available as an accessory for KinetiQ, controls the
switch on of the power to the DUT from 0˚ to 315˚ in
steps of 45˚ from the KinetiQ front panel.
ENTERing the default settings in inrush mode in the
application menu selects the PCIS and sets KinetiQ to
manual ranging. If PCIS is not being used then it can be
deselected in the AUX menu. Having selected the default
settings, the current range should be set to an appropriate
range for the DUT.
The oscilloscope mode is also useful for qualitatively
evaluating the inrush current.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
9.4
Power transformers
Large power transformers operate at very low power factor
(<0.01) and the phase accuracy is critical to measure the
losses. Power transformer application mode sets the
configuration options to the optimum for phase accuracy
eg. AC+DC coupling, range lock across phases.
The multiple phase display is also changed to show
imbalance across the phases. Phase 1 appears with the
normal measurements but the voltage and current
measurements for phase 2 and phase 3 are expressed as a
percentage of the corresponding values from phase 1. The
phase angle measurements are expressed as deviation
from the expected values of -120° and -240°.
The temperature can be monitored at the same time by
connecting a suitable temperature sensor to the “torque”
BNC input. The input accepts an analogue voltage from
-10V to +10V which can be scaled by an offset and a
factor in degrees per Volt. The offset is entered as the zero
degree voltage so for a sensor with an output range of 5° /
Volt and 0V = 10 degrees, the offset to be entered would
be -2V.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
9.5
Standby power measurement
In order to minimise standby power, some devices operate
in a “dormant” mode whereby power is only drawn from
the supply when needed. These devices draw very little
current for most of the time and then draw a larger
current for a single cycle to charge a reservoir capacitor.
This pattern is repeated on an irregular basis.
Most of the power consumed by devices in this mode is
taken in the periodic higher current cycles so to accurately
measure the power drawn by these devices, so the
instrument synchronises to the power frequency for the
analysis but extends the measurement window to the
irregular period of higher energy pulses. Because the
instrument samples in true real time without any gaps, no
data is missed and every power cycle is captured.
It is important that ranging is set to manual or up only
autoranging so that the power cycles are not missed while
ranging.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
10 Power measurements
In the POWER mode, KinetiQ measures the following
values for each phase:
Parameter
Frequency
True power
Apparent power
Reactive power
Power factor
RMS voltage
RMS current
Fundamental power
Fundamental VA
Fundamental VAr
Fundamental power factor
Voltage fundamental
Current fundamental
Voltage magnitude
Current magnitude
phase
Voltage harmonic
Current harmonic
Voltage harmonic magnitude
Current harmonic magnitude
DC voltage
DC current
dc power
Peak voltage
Peak current
Rectified mean voltage
Rectified mean current
Type
elementary
elementary
secondary
secondary
secondary
elementary
elementary
secondary
secondary
secondary
secondary
elementary
elementary
secondary
secondary
secondary
elementary
elementary
secondary
secondary
elementary
elementary
secondary
elementary
elementary
elementary
elementary
Units
Hz
W
VA
VAr
V
A
W
VA
VAr
V
A
V
A
degrees
V
A
V
A
V
A
W
V
A
V
A
All elementary parameters (eg Watts) are computed from
their true definitions in real time so the measurements are
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
valid for all waveshapes. Secondary parameters are
computed from one or more of the elementary parameters
(eg. VA = Vrms x Arms).
Not all of the parameters listed are displayed in POWER
mode but they are all computed.
A multi phase instrument also computes the equivalent
values for total power (SUM channel) and the values for
the NEUTRAL current. Step through the phase values with
NEXT and BACK.
The measurements are computed over rectangular
windows with no gaps. The processing power of the DSPs
allows the measurements to be made in true real time
without missing any samples. In this way, the measured
power is a true value even if the signal is fluctuating. The
only occasion when data is missed is when an autozero
measurement is requested – this can be disabled in the
SYTEM OPTIONS menu.
The elementary values are individually filtered before
being used for secondary computations.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
10.1 Individual phase computations
The power dissipated in a load subjected to a periodic
voltage, v(), with a current flowing a(), is given by:
2

w = 1/2
v().a() d
0
For a sampled signal, the formula becomes:
i = n-1
w = 1/n
 v[i].a[i]
i=0
where n is the number of samples for an integral number
of complete cycles of the input waveform.
The rms value of a periodic waveform, v(), is given by:
rms = 
[
2
1/2

v2() d
]
0
For a sampled signal, the formula becomes:
i = n-1
rms = 
[
1/n
 v [i] ]
2
i=0
where n is the number of samples for an integral number
of complete cycles of the input waveform.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The dc present is given by:
2
dc = 1/2

v() d
0
For a sampled signal, the formula becomes:
i = n-1
dc = 1/n
 v[i]
i=0
where n is the number of samples for an integral number
of complete cycles of the input waveform.
From these elementary values of W, rms and dc, the
following secondary values can be derived:
VA
VAr
power factor
Wdc
10-4
=
=
=
=
Vrms x Arms
 (VA2 - W2)
W/VA
Vdc x Adc
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The fundamental in-phase and quadrature values of a
periodic waveform, v(), are given by:
2
a1 = 1/2

v().cos() d
0
2
b1 = 1/2

v().sin() d
0
For a sampled signal, the formulae become:
i = n-1
a1 = 1/n
 v[i].cos(2ci/n)
i=0
i = n-1
b1 = 1/n
 v[i].sin(2ci/n)
i=0
where n is the number of samples for an integral number
of complete cycles of the input waveform, and c is the
number of cycles.
These „a‟ and „b‟ values yield the further elementary
parameters:
magnitude
=  (a2 + b2)
phase angle = tan-1(b/a)
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
From these elementary „a‟ and „b‟ values of voltage and
current, the following secondary values can be derived:
fundamental Watts
fundamental VA
fund power factor
fundamental VAr
=
=
=
=
Va x Aa + Vb x Ab
Vmag x Amag
Wfund / VAfund
Va x Ab - Vb x Aa
The signs of Watts and VAr are a direct result of the
computation (watts has the sign of cos(phase angle), VAr
has the sign of sin(phase angle)). The sign of fundamental
power factor is determined by convention such that a
lagging current (inductive load) is shown as a positive
power factor and a leading current (capacitive load) is
shown as a negative power factor; this is effectively the
sign of sin(-phase angle). Optionally the signs of
fundamental VAr and power factor can be independently
inverted.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
10.2 Sum computations
When in 3 phase wiring modes (2 Wattmeter or 3
Wattmeter), the values for the total load are computed
from the data for each individual channel.
W, VA, VAr, W.f, VA.f , VAr.f, W.dc, and W.h are computed
as the sum of the individual phase data.
V.rms, V.mag, V.pprms and V.ppmag are computed as the
average of the individual phase data.
A.rms and A.mag are computed from sum VA / sum V and
sum VA.f / sum V.f respectively then may optionally be
divided by the number of phases to give the average.
Sum power factor is computed as sum W / sum VA and the
fundamental power factor is computed as fundamental
sum W / fundamental sum VA with the sign derived from
the sign of sum VAr.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
10.3 Neutral synthesis
In 3 phase 3 wattmeter configuration, the values for the
neutral current are synthesised from the calibrated values
of the three phases. By Kirchoff‟s law the sum of the
instantaneous currents flowing into a node must be zero.
By convention neutral current is regarded as flowing out of
the load so the neutral current can be derived from the
sum of the three phase currents.
In 3 phase 2 wattmeter configuration, the “neutral
current” values are synthesised from the 2 phase currents
and represent the third phase current.
Values available are rms, fundamental magnitude and
phase. Additional values for dc, ac, peak and crest factor
are displayed in RMS mode.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
10.4 Phase to phase computations
In 3 phase 3 wattmeter configuration, the voltmeters are
connected across each individual phase and neutral. The
phase to phase voltages are synthesised from the
individual phase data:
display phase
phase 1
phase 2
phase 3
computation
phase 1 – phase 2
phase 2 – phase 3
phase 3 – phase 1
Phase to phase values are computed for rms, fundamental
magnitude and phase.
Consider the fundamental component:
V12(t) = V1(t) – V2(t)
= V1 sin(ωt) – V2 sin(ωt + φ12)
= V1 sin(ωt) – V2 [sin(ωt).cos(φ12) + cos(ωt).sin(φ12)]
= sin(ωt) [V1 – V2 cos(φ12)] - V2 cos(ωt).sin(φ12)
In a balanced system:
V1 = V, V2 = V and φ12 = 120˚
V12 = sin(ωt) [V – V cos(120˚)] + V cos(ωt).sin(120˚)
= 1.5 V sin(ωt) - √3/2 V cos(ωt)
= √3 V sin(ωt – 30˚)
So the phase to phase voltage would have a magnitude √3
times larger than the phase to neutral voltage at a phase
displacement of -30˚.
KinetiQ applies the computations in the general way
without any assumptions about the system. It therefore
computes the correct values whatever the waveform.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The phase to phase values may also be displayed as a
rectified mean measurement.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
10.5 Mechanical power
KinetiQ has 2 extra inputs to measure the mechanical
power of motors or generators. Torque is measured in Nm
with a +/-10V analogue input scaled in Nm/V. Speed is
measured in rpm either with a +/-10V analogue input
scaled in rpm/V, or as a pulse input which can be scaled
with pulses/revolution.
An offset can be entered to allow for dc offset within the
torque and speed sensors. The scaled value is derived as:
Torque or speed = (measured value – offset) x scale
The speed offset only applies to analogue speed, not
pulsed. The offset values can be entered directly in the
APP menu or by pressing ZERO when „home‟ in the APP
menu ie no menu items are highlighted. To use the ZERO
function press APP, move down to enable the torque and
speed, press HOME to return the cursor to the „home‟
position then press ZERO. The presently measured values
will be entered automatically as the offsets.
The mechanical power is given by:
Wmech = torque x angular velocity (rad/s)
= torque x speed (rpm) x 60 x 2π
The mechanical power can then be used to compute
efficiency as:
efficiency = mechanical power / sum power (motor)
or
efficiency = sum / mechanical power (generator)
The measurement of mechanical power is made
simultaneously with the electrical measurements over the
same window.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
10.6 Efficiency
Efficiency may be computed as a ratio of:
phase 1 and phase 2 power
master and slave power
mechanical and sum power
phase 3 and sum power
In all cases, either term may be input power or output
power.
Total efficiency is computed from the total power,
fundamental efficiency is computed from the fundamental
power. In the case of mechanical power, there is only the
one measured power which is used both for total and
fundamental.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
11 Integrated power measurements
In the INTEG mode, KinetiQ computes the following
additional values:
Parameter
Watt hours
VA hours
VAr hours
Average power factor
Average rms voltage
Ampere hours
Fundamental watt hours
Fundamental VA hours
Fundamental VAr hours
Average fundamental power factor
Average fundamental voltage
Fundamental ampere hours
Units
Wh
VAh
VArh
V
Ah
Wh
VAh
VArh
V
Ah
The integrator is started by pressing the START key; the
elapsed time is displayed in the upper left corner of the
display. The integration can be stopped by pressing the
STOP key then restarted by pressing the START key again.
To reset the accumulated values and time press the ZERO
key. While the integration is running, pressing the REAL
TIME key holds the displayed values but accumulation
continues in the background.
Once started, the integration continues to accumulate in
the background even if the MODE is changed to POWER or
RMS. This allows the real time values to be displayed
without disturbing the integration.
To make an integrated measurement over a specific
interval, an integration run time can be entered in hours
and minutes. The integration will automatically stop when
the integration timer reaches the value entered, as if the
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
STOP button had been pressed. Setting the integration
time to zero, disables the timer.
The Watt hour integration and the Ampere hour integration
can be selected to be signed or magnitude. To integrate
the total power in terms of heating effect, choose
magnitude. If signed integration is selected then the rms
current is given the sign of the power before integration.
The Ampere hours and Watt hours then reflect the power
taken by the load, less any power generated by the load,
such as during regenerative braking in battery systems.
The integrated results may be displayed as the total
accumulated values or as the average over the integration
period.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
12 True RMS Voltmeter
The RMS voltmeter displays the additional secondary
parameters of ac, crest factor, surge, mean and form
factor:
Having computed the true rms and the dc component, the
ac component can be derived from:
rms2 = ac2 + dc2
=>
ac2 = rms2 – dc2
Crest factor is derived from the peak and rms:
cf = peak / rms
In order to measure surge conditions, the maximum
instantaneous peak value (unfiltered) is also recorded. It is
important that KinetiQ does not autorange while
measuring surge – either set the range to manual or
repeat the test several times with ranging set to up only.
To reset the maximum, press TRIGGER.
The mean value, also known as rectified mean, is
computed by the arithmetic mean of the absolute value of
the samples:
2
mean = 1/2

|v()| d
0
For a sampled signal, the formula becomes:
i = n-1
mean = 1/n
 |v[i]|
i=0
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
where n is the number of samples for an integral number
of complete cycles of the input waveform.
Note that the mean value will not give the same
measurement as rms. The form factor indicates the ratio of
mean to rms:
form factor = rms / mean
For an undistorted sinewave, the form factor is given by:
sine wave form factor = π / 2√2
= 1.11072
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
13 Harmonic analyser
The HARM mode of KinetiQ computes multiple DFTs on the
input waveforms in real time.
There are two modes of operation: difference THD, and
series harmonics. Series harmonic mode includes options
for THD, TIF, THF, TRD, TDD and phase.
In difference THD mode, the THD (Total Harmonic
Distortion) is computed from the rms and fundamental:
THD = 1/h1 √ ( rms² - h1²)
In series THD mode, the THD is computed from a series of
up to 100 harmonics.
i=n
THD = 1/h1 √

hi²
where hi is the ith harmonic
i=2
TIF (Telephone Influence Factor) is similar to THD but each
harmonic has a weighting factor applied to reflect the
severity of the potential interference of that harmonic on
telephone communication.
i=n
TIF = 1/rms √

(hi x ti)²
i=1
where hi is the ith harmonic
and ti is the ith weighting factor
TIF is defined by IEEE standard 115 and the weighting
factors are given in ANSI standard C50-13. The harmonic
factors for TIF are specified for harmonics of 60Hz.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
THF (Telephone Harmonic Factor) is a similar computation
to TIF but uses different weighting factors and is
expressed as a percentage.
i=n
THF = 1/rms √

(hi x ti)²
i=1
where hi is the ith harmonic
and ti is the ith weighting factor
The THF computation and weighting factors have been
implemented according to IEC standard 60034 part 1
(1996) with amendments A1 (1997) and A2 (1999). The
harmonic factors are specified for harmonics of 50Hz.
TRD (Total Rated Distortion) uses a different reference to
scale the harmonic percentages instead of the
fundamental. The voltage harmonics are scaled by the rms
voltage, and the current harmonics are scale by the larger
of the rms current or the rated current entered by the
HARM menu. The rms is computed from the series of
harmonics.
i=n
TRD = 1/ref √

hi²
i=2
where hi is the ith harmonic
and ref is rms or rated current
Similarly, TDD (Total Demand Distortion) scales the
computed harmonic distortion by the measured rms. For
voltage, TDD is the same as TRD; for current, TRD is less
than TDD unless the measured rms current is greater than
the entered rated current.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The value for TRD and TDD will always be lower than the
computed THD as rms is always greater than the
fundamental.
i=n
TDD = 1/rms √

hi²
i=2
where hi is the ith harmonic
Harmonic phase can be selected instead of a thd
computation and each harmonic in the series is computed
as a magnitude and phase angle.
The number of harmonics used for THF, TIF, TRD, TDD and
series harmonic phase computation is selectable in the
same way as for THD.
In all cases the harmonics are phase referred to Phase 1
voltage fundamental so that their in-phase and quadrature
components may be separately filtered to minimise noise.
Accurate frequency synchronisation is essential for reliable
harmonic measurement. Good results can be obtained in a
reasonable time using the medium speed setting (which
runs a little slower than other modes) but for the best
results, use the slow speed setting.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
14 Impedance meter
The IMP mode on KinetiQ uses the real and imaginary
components at the fundamental frequency using DFT
analysis as described previously to compute the
impedance of the load and associated parameters.
From the fundamental components of voltage, (a + jb),
and those of the current, (c + jd), KinetiQ computes the
complex impedance given by:
z
= v/i
= (a + jb) / (c + jd)
The components of the complex impedance are filtered
independently to minimise the effects of noise, which
would have random phase and would therefore be filtered
out.
The magnitude of the voltage and current are also
computed.
From the complex impedance the following parameters can
be derived:
resistance
inductance,
capacitance
impedance
phase
tan (= real/imaginary)
Q factor (= imaginary/real)
Values can displayed for either series or parallel models.
If the parameter option in LCR menu is set to „auto‟,
KinetiQ will display capacitance or inductance according to
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
the phase of the measurement. Alternatively, the display
can be forced to capacitance, inductance or impedance.
Capacitance is displayed with tan, inductance is displayed
with Q factor, and impedance is displayed in its resistive +
reactive form and as magnitude. The phase of the
impedance is displayed with all options.
For phase critical impedance measurements, is it possible
to offset the phase measurement to allow for phase shift
within the connection leads.
Note that the phase of the impedance is the opposite to
the phase of the current in POWER mode. This is because
the impedance is defined as voltage/current which,
considering the magnitude and phase of Z (impedance), V
(voltage) and A (current), gives:
Zmagnitude = Vmagnitude / Amagnitude
Zphase = Vphase – Aphase
As the phase is referred to the voltage:
Zphase = - Aphase
Therefore, using the phase convention from -180° to
+180°, an inductive load which has an impedance with
positive phase would cause a current with negative phase.
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PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
15 Oscilloscope mode
KinetiQ provides a storage oscilloscope function in order to
view the waveforms being measured.
The display for the oscilloscope is divided into 10 divisions
along the time axis with the selected timebase displayed in
units of time/division. The timebase may be set to any real
value between 10s/div to 5s/div using the SCOPE menu.
Pressing LEFT and RIGHT adjust the timebase by a factor
of 2. For slow timebase operation, (> 0.8s/div) the display
operates in „roll‟ mode where the waveform scrolls across
from left to right until triggered.
Two cursors can be enabled on the display. If cursors are
“on” in the menu (press SCOPE or MODE) then the LEFT
and RIGHT key mode the selected cursor, UP and DOWN
toggle which cursor is selected. The time difference
between the 2 cursors, „delta t‟, is displayed on the lower
left of the display. When the cursors are enabled, LEFT and
RIGHT no longer adjust the timebase.
The vertical scaling is shown as a full scale value, rather
than as a V/cm. This indicates the range that the
instrument is using for each channel.
Triggering is very important to obtain a stable trace and
there are various options to control the trigger:
source
level
type
polarity
HF reject
pretrigger
The data source for the trigger can be selected to be either
voltage or current. On a mutiphase instrument, any of the
phases may be selected for the trigger source.
15-1
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
The trigger level is set directly in Volts or Amps and does
not change if the range is changed, i.e. it is an absolute
trigger level and not relative to the range full scale.
Pressing NEXT and ENTER adjust the trigger level by a
factor of 2.
The trigger level is shown as a small horizontal bar on the
extreme left-hand edge of the display against the
appropriate channel. If the trigger is set to a value above
or below the range of the input channel then a small carat
^ is shown at the top or inverted at the bottom of the
display as appropriate.
The trigger type may be set to:
auto
(trigger if possible but do not wait)
normal
(wait indefinitely for trigger)
single shot
(wait for trigger then hold)
The single shot option is reset using the TRIGGER key.
The trigger polarity may be set to rising edge or falling
edge.
When „trigger HF reject‟ is on, a low pass filter is applied to
the trigger data to stabilise the trace with noisy signals.
The filter only influences the trigger detection and does not
change the data displayed.
Pretrigger may be set to:
none
25%
50%
75%
Autoranging can be used with the oscilloscope functions
but it is more customary to fix the range manually
particularly when looking for a single event in „single shot‟
15-2
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
mode. Manual ranging is essential for rare events with a
low mark space ratio.
15-3
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
16 Phase meter
The phase meter mode is a secondary function which does
not have a separate button. It is selected by stepping
through the operating mode via the MODE menu.
The phase meter uses the terminology of channel 1 for
voltage and channel 2 for current as it is normal to use a
phase meter to compare voltages directly. In this case the
current input is set to external attenuator in the RANGE
menu, and a voltage probe (oscilloscope probe) can be
used. For optimum phase accuracy the same type of
voltage probe should be used for the voltage input which
can also be set to external attenuator in the RANGE menu.
Remember to trim the oscilloscope probes if necessary by
connecting them to a 1kHz square wave and adjusting
them for 33.3% 3rd harmonic in the harmonic analyser
mode.
The phase meter measures the phase and gain of channel
2 relative to channel 1 using a discrete Fourier transform
(DFT) algorithm at the fundamental frequency. Relative
gain is given as an absolute value and in dB. The ratio can
be inverted to give the gain of channel 1 relative to
channel 2.
To look at differences in gain from a nominal value, an
offset gain can be applied either manually or by pressing
ZERO.
offset gain = measured dB – offset dB
16-1
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
17 Specifications
Frequency Range
DC and 10mHz to 2MHz
DC and 10mHz to 1MHz (50Arms version)
Voltage Input
Ranges – 300mVpk to 3000Vpk (1000Vrms) in 9 ranges
20% over-range ability maintains 300Vpk range with 240Vrms
Accuracy – 0.04% Rdg + 0.04% Rng + (0.004% x kHz) + 1mV *
External sensor input to 3Vpk – BNC connector
Current Input
The standard PPA is fitted with a 30Arms internal shunt.
10Arms or 50Arms internal shunts are available as an option
30Arms Shunt:
Ranges – 30mApk to 300Apk (30Arms) in 9 ranges
Accuracy – 0.04% Rdg + 0.04% Rng + (0.004% x kHz) + 100uA*
10Arms Shunt:
Ranges – 3mApk to 30Apk (10Arms) in 9 ranges
Accuracy – 0.04% Rdg + 0.04% Rng + (0.004% x kHz) + 10uA*
50Arms Shunt (PPA26xx series only):
Ranges – 100mApk to 1000Apk (50Arms) in 9 ranges
Accuracy – 0.04% Rdg + 0.04% Rng + (0.004% x kHz) + 100uA*
External shunt input to 3Vpk – BNC connector
Phase Accuracy
5 millidegrees + (10 millidegrees x kHz)
10 millidegrees + (20 millidegrees x kHz) (50Arms shunt)
Watts Accuracy
[0.05% + 0.03%/pf +(0.01% x kHz)/pf] Rdg + 0.05%VA Rng
DC Accuracy
Voltage – 0.1% Rdg + 0.1% Rng + 10mV (or 10uV external)
Current – 0.1% Rdg + 0.1% Rng + 1mA (or 10uV external)
Common Mode Rejection
Total Common Mode and Noise effect on current channels
Applied 250V @
50Hz – Typical 1mA (150dB)
Applied 100V @ 100kHz – Typical 3mA (130dB)
17-1
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Datalog
Functions
Datalog window
Memory
Up to 4 measured functions user selectable
From 10ms with no gap between each log
1 Gb Flash non-volatile
High Speed Data Streaming
Rate
Up to 1000 reading/s single phase
Window
1ms to 1s synchronized to waveform
Buffer
Up to 8000 records
General
Crest factor
Sample rate
Low power
accuracy
Remote
operation
Application
modes
Voltage and Current - 20
Real time no gap - 2.2Ms/s on all channels
Compliant with IEC62301 using internal shunt
Refer to low power measurement application
note
Full capability, control and data
PWM Motor Drive
Ballast
Inrush
Power transformer
Ports
RS232
LAN (option L)
GPIB (option G)
USB
Speed
Torque
Sync
Extension
Baud rate to 19200 – RTS/CTS flow control
10/100 base-T Ethernet auto sensing RJ45
IEEE488.2 compatible
USB device – 2.0 and 1.1 compatible
Analog bipolar +/- 10V or pulse count
Analog bipolar +/- 10V
Measurement synchronization for 6 phase mode
Master slave control and N4L accessory port
Physical
Display
150mm Colour Display
Size
PPA55xx - 132H x 400W x 282D mm – excl feet
Weight
PPA55xx – 7.8kg
Safety isolation
Power supply
1000V rms or dc – category II
90-265 rms 50-60Hz
35VA max
17-2
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Standard Accessories
Leads
Power, RS232, USB
Connection
36Arms rated 1.5 meter long leads with 4mm –
cables
stackable terminals
1x Yellow, 1 x Red and 2x Black per phase
Note 1: LC version instruments (rated at
10Arms) are supplied with 20Arms connection
cables
Note 2: HC version instruments (rated at
50Arms) are not supplied with connection cables
or connection clips.
Connection
clips
Documentation
4mm terminated alligator clips –
1x Yellow, 1 x Red and 2x Black per phase
Calibration Certificate,
User manual with quick start guide,
Communications manual
* measured fundamental value
17-3
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Appendix A – Accessories
ACCESSORIES
A-1
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
External shunts
A range of high bandwidth external shunts are available to
extend the operating range of the current measurements.
The external shunts are built using N4L proprietary shunt
design to give high accuracy from DC to 1MHz. They are
designed to comply with the safety standards of
BSEN61010-1 to 1000V rms cat II. The sense output is via
safety BNC connection to connect to the instrument, the
current connections depend on the device.
Part numbers
HF003
HF006
HF020
HF100
HF200
HF500
A-2
470mΩ 3A rms
100mΩ 6A rms
10mΩ 20A rms
1mΩ 100A rms
500uΩ 200A rms
200uΩ 500A rms
4mm safety
4mm safety
4mm safety
safety terminals
M10 bolt
M16 bolt
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
PCIS - Phase controlled inrush switch
To measure the maximum inrush current of a load it is
important to switch on the supply to it at the worst point in
the cycle – usually 90˚ or 270˚ for a capacitive load, 0˚ or
180˚ for an inductive load.
The PCIS is an active device which is controlled by KinetiQ
over the extension port. It accurately synchronises to the
line input, measures the frequency, and switches on the
output at a precise phase angle selectable from the KinetiQ
front panel in steps of 45˚.
Part numbers
PCIS
Phase Controlled Inrush Switch
A-3
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Ultra low capacitance high voltage probes
The KinetiQ voltage inputs have a capacitance to ground of
around 50pF but even this low value can cause problems
with high frequency high voltage waveforms. The ultra low
capacitance high voltage probes use a differential input
arrangement optimised for minimum capacitance to
achieve an input capacitance to ground less than 1pF with
an input range up to ±3kV pk and a bandwidth from dc to
2MHz ±1dB.
The probes connect to the external voltage input using the
touchproof BNC cable supplied. They are powered either
by an ac/ac mains adaptor or a dedicated ±12V dc supply.
Part numbers
ULCP
A-4
Ultra Low Capacitance Probe
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
External input attenuator
The KinetiQ voltage inputs have a +/-3V peak external
input for use with probes or attenuators.
A divide by 10 or divide by 20 passive attenuator with a
bandwidth of dc-30MHz (+/-1dB) is available to extend the
+/-3V peak input to +/-30V and +/-60V respectively.
The low frequency accuracy is +/-0.3% max
The attenuators have a short flying lead to connect to the
external BNC of the instrument.
Part numbers
ATT10
ATT20
divide by 10 attenuator
divide by 20 attenuator
A-5
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
CommVIEW PC software
CommVIEW is a self contained software program for a PC,
which facilitates communication with KinetiQ over RS232,
USB or LAN.
CommVIEW allows strings to be sent and received
between a PC and KinetiQ. The strings can be viewed in a
window and optionally stored in a file. Data received from
KinetiQ may be displayed in normal scientific notation with
an identifying label.
Strings to be sent to KinetiQ can be stored in a “script file”
and executed automatically. The script file is created with
any text editor and includes three types of lines
(interpreted by the first character on each line):
lines beginning with " are sent to KientiQ
lines beginning with # are commands for CommVIEW
any other line is a comment.
The # commands that are recognised:
#beep
sound the beeper on the PC
#label,i,string
apply a label to data value[i]
#pause,t
wait for time t
#reply,t
wait time t for a reply
For an example script file, look at example.scr on the
CommVIEW release disc.
Other functions in CommVIEW:
save results
set COM port parameters
firmware upgrade
read/store user programs
A-6
results menu
configure menu
instrument menu
instrument menu
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Appendix B – Serial command summary
command format
*CLS
*ESE,value
*ESE?
*ESR?
*IDN?
*OPC?
*RST
*SRE,value
*SRE?
*STB?
*TRG
*TST?
*WAI
ABORT
ALARM,latch,sounder
ALARM?
ALARME,value
ALARM1,type,data,hi,lo
ALARM2,type,data,hi,lo
APPLIC,type,setting
BANDWI,phase,type
BEEP
BLANKI,on/off,threshold
CALVER,string
CALVER?
CONFIG,parameter,data
CONFIG,parameter?
COUPLI,phase,coupling
DATALO,function,interval
DATALO,LINES?
DATALO,0?
DATALO,start,records?
DAV?
DAVER,value
DAVER?
DISPLAY,phase
DISPLAY?
EFFICI,type
EFFICI?
FAST on/off
reply format
single integer data value
single integer data value
company,product,serial no,version
0 or 1
single integer data value
single integer data value
single integer data value
single integer data value
string
single integer or real data value
single integer data
index,time,data…
index,time,data…
single integer data
value
one record per line
one record per line
value
single integer data value
multiple real data values
total efficiency, fundamental efficiency
B-1
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
FQLOCK,on/off
FQREF,phase,channel
FREQUE,frequency
HARMON,para,h,hmax
HARMON,phase?
or
HARMON,phase,SERIES?
or
HOLD,on/off
INPUT,channel,type
INTEGR,type,display
INTEGR,RUNTIM,hours,mins
INTEGR,phase?
KEYBOA,value
LCR,conditions,param,head
LCR,phase?
LOWFRE,on/off
MODE,type
MSLAVE,type
MULTILOG,index,phase,func
MULTILOG?
PFCONV,convention
PHASEM,ratio
PHASEM,phase?
PHCONV,convention
POWER,sum A
POWER,PHASE,WATTS?
POWER,PHASE,VOLTAGE?
POWER,PHASE,CURRENT?
POWER,PH-PH?
POWER,RMS?
POWER,VECTORS?
POWER,WVA?
B-2
freq,mag1,mag2,hmag1,hmag2,h1,h2,
thd1,thd2,hphase1,hphase2
mag,%, x n harmonics
mag,phase, x n harmonics
time,Wh,Wh.f, VArh,VArh.f,VAh,VAh.f,
pf,pf.f,Vav,Vav.fAh,Ah.f
freq,mag1,mag2,impedance,phase,R,
L,C (series),R,L,C (parallel),tan,Q
1-30 floats as selected
Freq,mag1,mag2,dB,phase
Freq,W,W.f, VA,VA.f,Var,Var.f,pf,pf.f,
Wdc,W.h
Freq,rms,mag,dc,,peak,cf,mean,ff,
harmonic
Freq,rms,mag,dc,,peak,cf,mean,ff,
harmonic
Freq,rms1,mag1,1,rms2,mag2,2,
rms3,mag3,3
Freq,vrms1,vdc1,arms1,adc1,vrms2,
vdc2,arms2,adc2,vrms3,vdc3, arms3,
adc3
Freq,mag1,1,mag2,2,mag3,3,
mag4,4,mag5,5,mag6,6
Freq,w1,vrms1,arms1,w2,vrms2,
arms2,w3,vrms3,arms3
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
PROGRAM,function,number
PROGRAM?
RANGE,ch,ranging,range
RESOLU.format
RESULT,function,number
RESULT
REZERO
SCALE,channel,factor
SCALE,channel?
SCOPE,phase,v/a?
SHUNT,channel,resistance
SHUNT,channel?
SMOOTH,type,dynamics
SPEED,value,window
START
STATUS,channel?
STOP
STREAM,enable,window
STREAM,disable
STREAM?
SUSPEN,on/off
TEMPER,type,scale,offset
TEMPER?
TORQSP,type,tscale,sscale
TORQSP,OFFSET,toff,soff
TORQSP?
USER?
VARCON,convention
VERSION?
VRMS
VRMS,PHASE,RMS?
VRMS,PHASE,MEAN?
VRMS,PHASE,SURGE?
WIRING,configuration
ZERO
ZERO,DELETE
ZOOM,level,d1,d2,d3,d4
ZOOM?
CR terminated text string
multiple integers
Single real data value
range, trigger, 250 signed integer data
values
Single real data value
Range number,range text,over/low/ok
Data, data, data, data, data, …..
single real data value
Mechanical power, torque, speed
3 CR terminated text strings
Datecode,cpu,dsp,fpga,boot
Rms1,rms2,dc1,dc2,ac1,ac2
Rms1,rms2,mean1,mean2,ff1,ff2
Pk1,pk2,cf1,cf2,surge1,surge2
Level,d1,d2,d3,d4
B-3
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
calibration commands
CALAPP
CALCOM,freq
CALFIL,index,value
CALFIL?
CALFRQ,index,freq
CALFRQ?
CALIBR,index,value
CALIBR?
CALIDS,string
CALIDS?
CALPHA,index
CALRES
CALSAV,password
CALSNO,serial number
CALSTR,string
CALSTR?
CALTQS,index,value
CALTQS?
B-4
Six real data values
Seven real data values
Single integer data value
String
String
Four real data values
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Appendix C – Available character set
The following characters can be selected in text entry
mode.
The table is to be read across then down (eg, starting at
space and repeatedly pressing NEXT gives ! “ # $ % & „ ( )
* etc.)
!
“
#
$
%
&
„
(
)
*
+
,
-
.
/
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
<
=
>
?
@
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
\
]
^
_
„
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
{
|
}
C-1
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Appendix D – Configurable parameters
All parameters can be accessed
command:
CONFIG,parameter?
CONFIG,parameter,data
using
Number
Function
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
19
20
21
22
System parameters
operating mode
master/slave
autozero manual or auto
blanking disable
phase convention
manual frequency on/off
line drawing on/off
keyboard beep on/off
ignore overrange
low frequency mode
user window size
measurement speed
Smoothing
Smoothing response
baud rate
LAN IP address nibble 3
LAN IP address nibble 2
LAN IP address nibble 1
LAN IP address nibble 0
Independent input control
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Input parameters (phase 1)
enable channel 1
enable channel 2
input range channel 1
input range channel 2
input ranging channel 1
input ranging channel 2
acdc coupling phase 1
the
CONFIG
D-1
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
31
32
33
34
35
bandwidth phase 1
scale factor channel 1
scale factor channel 2
external shunt channel 1
external shunt channel 2
38
39
40
General parameters
Remote resolution
frequency phase reference
voltage or current frequency reference
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
Display parameters
display page
zoom level
function zoomed on 1
function zoomed on 2
function zoomed on 3
function zoomed on 4
display type
48
49
50
53
Advance parameters
manual frequency
DFT selectivity
program jump enable
current phase reference
58
59
Datalog parameters
datalog memory type
datalog interval
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
Maths parameters
formula
argument 1
sub argument 1
coefficient 1
argument 2
sub argument 2
coefficient 2
Application mode parameters
D-2
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
70
71
72
73
application mode
PWM filter
ballast tracking speed
PWM low frequency mode
74
75
76
77
78
79
More maths parameters
argument 3
sub argument 3
coefficient 3
argument 4
sub argument 4
coefficient 4
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
Power meter parameters
wiring configuration
integration type
torque and speed enable
torque scaling Nm/V
speed scaling Hz/V
pulses per revolution
integration accumulated/average
sum current average
phase 3 frequency reference
power factor sign convention
VAr sign convention
efficiency computation
range lock
mechanical torque offset
mechanical speed offset
99
100
101
102
103
Harmonic analyser parameters
mode
selected harmonic
maximum harmonic
harmonic bargraph
rated current for TRD
106
Oscilloscope parameters
timebase
D-3
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
trigger level
pretrigger
trigger polarity
trigger type
trigger reference
trigger phase
cursors enable
trigger HF reject
119
System parameters
zoom 2 high resolution
122
123
128
129
Auxiliary parameters
fixture
control
PICS phase
PICS cycles
132
133
Other power parameters
integrator run time
phase to phase mean
137
138
139
LCR meter parameters
computation
series/parallel model
phase adjust value
148
150
Phase meter parameters
dB offset
ratio selection
152
153
154
155
System parameters
RS232 printer enable
IEEE address
LAN enable
COM port recall eeprom/program
156
157
158
Alarm functions
alarm 1 data
alarm 1 type
alarm 1 high threshold
D-4
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
159
160
161
167
168
169
170
alarm 1 low threshold
latching type
sounder enable
alarm 2 data
alarm 2 type
alarm 2 high threshold
alarm 2 low threshold
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
Input parameters (phase 2)
enable channel 3
enable channel 4
input range channel 3
input range channel 4
input ranging channel 3
input ranging channel 4
acdc coupling phase 2
bandwidth phase 2
scale factor channel 3
scale factor channel 4
external shunt channel 3
external shunt channel 4
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
Input parameters (phase 3)
enable channel 5
enable channel 6
input range channel 5
input range channel 6
input ranging channel 5
input ranging channel 6
acdc coupling phase 3
bandwidth phase 3
scale factor channel 5
scale factor channel 6
external shunt channel 5
external shunt channel 6
D-5
PPA55xx “KinetiQ” user manual
Appendix E – Contact details
Please direct all queries or comments regarding the
KinetiQ instrument or manual to:
Newtons4th Ltd.
30 Loughborough Rd.
Mountsorrel
LOUGHBOROUGH
LE12 7AT
United Kingdom
Tel: (0116) 230 1066
Fax: (0116) 230 1061
international
international
+44 116 230 1066
+44 116 230 1061
E-mail address:
sales@newtons4th.com
office@newtons4th.com
web site:
www.newtons4th.com
At Newtons4th Ltd. we have a policy of continuous product
improvement and are always keen to hear comments,
whether favourable or unfavourable, from users of our
products.
An example comment form can be found at the end of this
manual – if you have any comments or observations on
the product please fill a copy of this form with as much
detail as possible then fax or post it to us.
Alternatively send an e-mail with your comments.
E-1
PPA55xx KINETIQ comments
serial
number:
main release:
dsp release:
fpga release:
boot release:
(press SYS then LEFT)
your contact details:
date:
comments:
detailed description of application or circumstances:
Please post or fax to Newtons4th Ltd.