Advanced-High Force Linear Motors User`s Manual

Advanced-High Force Linear Motors
User’s Manual
4000 & 5000 Series Linear Motors
UM-101 Revision A
California Linear Devices, Inc.
2236 Rutherford Road, Ste. 119
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Ph: 760-603-8026, Toll Free: 877-474-2854
Fx: 760-603-0049
 2001
e-mail: sales@calinear.com web-site: www.calinear.com
UM-101
Revision A
Table of Contents:
1.
SAFETY: ................................................................................................................... 4
2.
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS AND NOTES: ............................................................. 4
3.
SCOPE:...................................................................................................................... 7
4.
INTRODUCTION: ................................................................................................... 7
4.1.
5.
Installation Sequence: ......................................................................................... 8
MECHANICAL MOUNTING: ............................................................................... 9
5.1.
Single-Face Mounting:........................................................................................ 9
5.2.
Dual-Face Mounting: .......................................................................................... 9
5.2.1.
Thermal Growth with Dual-Face Mounting: ............................................ 10
5.3.
Coupling to the Load: ....................................................................................... 10
5.3.1.
End-Stops:................................................................................................. 11
5.3.1.1.
Standard End-Stop (option): ............................................................. 12
5.3.1.2.
Threaded End-Stop (option): ............................................................ 13
5.3.1.3.
Loads without End-Stops (option):................................................... 13
5.3.2.
Trueness of Load: ..................................................................................... 14
5.3.3.
Overhung Loads:....................................................................................... 14
5.3.4.
Shaft Rotation: .......................................................................................... 14
6.
ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS: ........................................................................ 16
6.1.
Motor Drives:.................................................................................................... 16
6.2.
Motor Power Connections: ............................................................................... 16
6.2.1.
Power Filter:.............................................................................................. 17
6.3.
Temperature Levels: ......................................................................................... 17
6.3.1.
Thermal Protection (AD590): ................................................................... 17
6.3.1.1.
Filtering the VT signal ....................................................................... 20
6.4.
Position Feedback: ............................................................................................ 20
6.4.1.
Using CLD Position Sensor (optional): .................................................... 20
6.4.2.
Using 3rd Party Position Sensor: (optional) .............................................. 20
6.5.
Grounding and Shielding: ................................................................................. 20
7.
CONTROL CONVENTIONS: .............................................................................. 21
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
8.
Directional Reference: ...................................................................................... 21
Cycle Pitch:....................................................................................................... 22
Commutation Reference: .................................................................................. 22
Tuning a Servo System: .................................................................................... 23
MOTOR COOLING: ............................................................................................. 24
8.1.
Fan Cooling (option):........................................................................................ 24
8.1.1.
Fan Interconnections (option):.................................................................. 24
9.
MOTOR CARE AND MAINTENANCE: ............................................................ 24
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9.1.
Environmental Considerations:......................................................................... 24
9.2.
Bearing Replacement:....................................................................................... 24
9.3.
Shaft Care: ........................................................................................................ 25
9.3.1.
Shaft Cleaning:.......................................................................................... 25
APPENDIX-A: (REVISION HISTORY) ..................................................................... 26
UM-101
Revision A
1. Safety:
The CLD motor is capable of producing high forces and velocities. Always
follow appropriate safety precautions when installing and applying these motors.
Equipment should be designed and utilized to prevent personnel from coming in
contact with moving parts that could potentially cause injury.
Read all cautions, warnings and notes before attempting to operate this device.
Follow all applicable codes and standards.
2. Warnings, Cautions and Notes:
The following conventions are used on the equipment and found in this
manual. Please read all equipment labels and manuals before attempting to use CLD
Linear Motors.
!
WARNING: Identifies information about
practices or circumstances that can lead to
personal injury, property damage, or loss of life
if not correctly followed.
A WARNING identifies information that is critical for identifying and avoiding a hazard
that could lead to serious personnel injury or equipment damage.
!
CAUTION: Identifies information about
practices or circumstances that can lead to
severe equipment damage
A CAUTION identifies information that is critical to prevent permanent equipment
damage.
NOTE: Identifies information that is critical for successful
application and understanding of the product.
A NOTE identifies information that is critical for successful application and
understanding of the product.
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The following is a list of warnings and cautions that must be observed when working
with California Linear Devices High Force Linear Motors.
!
!
WARNING: Only those familiar with linear motors and
associated machinery should plan or implement
the
installation,
startup,
and
subsequent
maintenance of the system. Failure to comply can
result in personnel injury and/or equipment
damage.
WARNING: This
equipment
contains
HIGH
ENERGY
PERMANENT MAGNETS. Do not attempt to
disassemble. Serious damage to property or injury
to person may result. Keep ferrous materials away
from the motor.
!
WARNING: Improper Servo tuning can cause uncontrolled
motion of the CLD motor. Do not allow the system
to oscillate during the tuning process, and keep
all personnel and body parts away from moving
equipment.
!
WARNING: This system produces extremely strong magnetic
and electric fields that can interfere with other
equipment. Use extreme caution when using
motor near any type of medical device or
equipment.
!
!
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WARNING: Do not use drives powered by voltages greater
than 240 VAC.
WARNING: Keep fingers and limbs clear of the motor and
moving parts when power is applied to the motor.
5
Revision A
!
!
WARNING: This system produces very high forces and rapid
motion. Under no circumstances should it be
operated when hands, fingers or clothing are in,
on, or near the motor. Guards should be installed
to prevent such items from coming into contact
with the motor or other moving parts.
WARNING: CLD End-Stops are not designed for large loads.
!
CAUTION: Do not move the CLD linear motor’s shaft without
proper mechanical End-Stops. It is possible to over
travel a motor without End-Stops and cause
damage to the motor.
!
CAUTION: Do not attempt to insert or realign the shaft into the
bearings if has been moved beyond the bearings. If
this has occurred, the shaft will be pulled to the
stator side and lock in place. The motor must be
returned to CLD for repair.
!
UM-101
CAUTION: An incorrectly applied or installed motor can result
in equipment damage or a reduction in product life.
Wiring or application errors, such as under-sizing
the motor, using incorrect or inadequate AC supply,
or using the motor in excessive ambient
temperatures can result in malfunction or
permanent damage to the motor.
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Revision A
CAUTION:
Poor ground or shield connections or wiring can
cause unpredictable motion, and damage the motor,
control system or machine.
CAUTION:
Only use Anderol 465. Other lubricants could break
down prematurely and cause permanent damage to
the motor.
!
!
3. Scope:
This manual provides the necessary information for installation of CLD 4000
and 5000 Series Linear Motor. For technical support, application assistance and
sizing information, contact CLD’s Application Engineering at: 760-603-8026, Toll
Free 877-474-2854, Fax 760-603-0049, or email to sales@calinear.com.
4. Introduction:
The CLD motor is designed to be the driving part of a servo control system.
To ensure that the motor performs its function with precision and reliability, it is
important to follow the instructions contained in this manual.
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The CLD motor is only one component of a motion system that also includes
the load, position measuring device, power regulation device (amplifier) and a system
controller. All of these components must be properly specified and working together
to achieve optimum system performance and accuracy.
Typical Servo System with CLD Motor:
Servo
Drive
Phase A
Comand
or
Program
Servo
Controller
Amp.
Control
Servo
Amp.
Phase B
Phase C
Position
Commutation
Load
C
B
A
Position Sensor
Position
Commutation
Feedback
N
S
N
S
C
N
S
B
N
S
N
S
A
CLD Motor
The CLD motor has several options and accessories that are not addressed in
this manual. For detailed technical information on these components, please
reference relevant CLD interface control drawings and device manuals.
4.1.
Installation Sequence:
Use the following sequence when installing a CLD linear motor:
1. Read all of this manual’s warnings, cautions, and notes (Section 1).
2. Properly mount the motor (Section 5).
3. Ensure tight coupling to the feedback device if it is not an installed option
from CLD (Section 6.4).
4. Interconnect the motor to the control system (Section 6).
5. Ensure good electrical shielding and grounding throughout the system
(Section 6.5).
6. Initialize the motor with the control system (set direction, motion reference
and limits) (Section 7.1).
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7. Attach the load in a manner that does not induce or cause binding when the
motor is stationary or moving (Section 5.3).
8. Tune the system for desired performance and accuracy (Section 7.4).
5. Mechanical Mounting:
It is important that the mounting of the motor and load are designed to handle
the forces created. The mounting needs to allow the motor shaft to move freely while
under load without binding or creating additional loading of the bearings. If the
mounting is not secure and true, poor motion quality will most likely result.
Tolerance information is contained in the CLD motor interface control drawings.
5.1.
Single-Face Mounting:
When mounting the motor, it is important that the motor mounting face
(Datum A), is perpendicular to the direction of motion, and that it maintains this
orientation when the motor is under load (Refer to motor ICD for bolt pattern).
Shaft
Stroke
5.2.
Dual-Face Mounting:
Dual-Face Mounting can only be utilized without an integral CLD position
sensor. When mounting in this fashion, it is important to ensure that shaft motion is
perpendicular to the parallel planes of the motor’s mounting faces with and without
applied load. It is important to ensure that the linear position-sensing device is
tightly coupled and its output is proportional to the shaft’s motion.
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Mounting
Surface
Mounting
Surface
Shaft
Stroke
Shaft
Stroke
Thermal Growth
5.2.1. Thermal Growth with Dual-Face Mounting:
As the steel within the motor heats, the motor will expand. The motor
mounting will need to accommodate variation in the motor length that occur with
varying temperature.
5.3.
Coupling to the Load:
The load is typically coupled with the four ¼ -20 threaded mounting holes on
the end of the shaft, or with the use of an optional CLD end-stop. It is extremely
important that the load is coupled with as little compliance as possible in the direction
of force and motion. Poor coupling will result in diminished system performance.
Load
UM-101
No
Compliance
10
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Stop
Surface
!
5.3.1.1.
Stop
Surface
WARNING: CLD End-Stops are not designed for large loads.
Standard End-Stop (option):
CLD’s standard end-stop is designed to prevent the shaft from being retracted
into the motor. It is not designed for interconnection to a load. This plate is shipped
as a standard option on both ends of the motor shaft. When a CLD-supplied feedback
device is attached to the motor, an end stop is attached on the feedback side to
prevent over-travel.
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5.3.1.2.
Threaded End-Stop (option):
The threaded stop option can simplify the connection of the motor to a load.
When attaching the load, ensure full thread engagement of the stop and use a locking
nut. Follow all other guidelines for attaching loads to the CLD motor.
5.3.1.3.
Loads without End-Stops (option):
When attaching loads to the end of the shaft without using an end stop, ensure
that the stopping mechanism is capable of withstanding the forces exerted by the
motor and load.
1. Use four ¼-20 hardened screws with ½ inch of engagement to attach the
load to the motor shaft.
2. Ensure a flat flange of 2¼” diameter minimum to extend 1/8” beyond the
shaft diameter.
3. Ensure that nothing is protruding inside the flange area that could damage
the shaft seal.
.125"
min.
Load
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5.3.2. Trueness of Load:
Loads mounted to the CLD motor must to be mounted so the forces and
motion are in line with the shaft. The CLD motor is not designed for offset loads that
can cause additional loading or binding of the bearings.
Load
-B-
CL
MOTION
A
-A-
B
5.3.3. Overhung Loads:
The CLD motor is not designed for overhung loads greater than 25 lbs.
Overhung loads cause additional and unpredictable bearing wear.
Load
25 Lbs
Max.
Force
5.3.4. Shaft Rotation:
Shaft rotation is only limited by the feedback device and load constraints. The
CLD motor shaft has nothing preventing it from rotating. If shaft rotation is not
acceptable, provisions need to be taken to prevent the shaft from rotating.
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6. Electrical Connections:
Control component and system manufacturers use differing nomenclatures in
their wiring conventions. When inserting the CLD motor into a system, be sure to
consider this, and carefully examine the CLD conventions and those of the control
system manufacturer to ensure proper compatibility. Where applicable, CLD follows
conventions established in NEMA ICS 16 and ICS 17 ( ICS 17 is presently being
written).
Motor current and Motor power need to be limited by the amplifier or drive to
not exceed the ratings given by individual specification sheets. Thermal cutout should
be employed by the system to ensure that motor does not exceed the maximum rated
temperature of the motor.
Note:
6.1.
It is important to use good grounding and shielding practices
for any servo systems that use this motor to minimize
electrical interference.
Motor Drives:
CLD motors require a motor drive system to control the position of the motor.
The motors are designed for use with drives powered by 240 V 3ø power. Use
sinusoidal servo amplifiers or drives with the CLD motor.
The servo drive system should be selected and specified to match the specific
application.
WARNING: Do not use drives powered by voltages greater that
240 VAC.
!
6.2.
Motor Power Connections:
It is recommended that a CLD Motor Power Cable be used to connect the
motor to the power amplifier or drive. CLD power cables have integrated the
necessary power components, connectors and shielding to make a good electrical
power connection to the motor.
CLD produces a 10 ft. motor power cable (MPC-XX-10-1) and a 25ft motor
power cable (MPC-XX-25-1) for use with CLD 4000 and 5000 series motors.
Note:
UM-101
If cable lengths greater than 25 ft. are needed, additional
voltage spike suppression and special cable design will be
necessary.
16
Revision A
MOTOR
FILTER
DRIVE
A
B
C
4
5
6
1
2
3
CABLE
PHASE A
A
N
B
PHASE C
C
PHASE B
D
6.2.1. Power Filter:
A common mode choke should be used in series with the motor power leads.
This choke will help minimize ground currents associated with PWM amplifiers and
drives. The choke presents a high impedance on to capacitively-coupled ground
currents from the PWM transitions. The Choke should be placed within 6 inches of
the amplifier or drive lugs. These chokes are supplied on CLD motor power cables.
6.3.
4
5
6
1
2
3
1
2
3
6
5
4
Temperature Levels:
CLD motors are equipped with temperature sensors to signal the control
system when the motor has reached its maximum rated temperature preventing
permanent damage to the motor. This motor has no other mechanism that will shut
down the motor in the event of over heating. Ensure proper use of the Thermal
Protection Sensors with the control system.
6.3.1. Thermal Protection (AD590):
The CLD motor’s temperature sensor is an Analog Devices AD590 integrated
circuit temperature transducer. The AD590 is a terminal IC that provides an output
current proportional to absolute temperature (i.e., the Kelvin scale). This device
functions as a high impedance current source.
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The end user will typically provide a fixed voltage source rated at anywhere
from 4VDC to 30VDC, and a 10kΩ resistor. The device functions essentially the
same at 4V as it does at 30V, thus providing a large degree of flexibility based on the
user’s available power source.
The CLD linear motor uses two AD590 sensors, one at either end of the
motor. Connecting the two sensors as shown in the diagram, allows the two sensed
temperatures to be measured.
The AD590 simply provides 1 µA/Kelvin. Therefore, 25°C (273.2 + 25 =
298.2K), should give you 298µA (about 0.3 mA).
When the 10kΩ resistor is incorporated as in the figure, the 0.3 mA found at
room temperature drives the 10k resistor, giving you a voltage drop across the resistor
of 3 volts (0.3mA × 10kΩ = 3 V). The Table shows what the user can expect to
measure across the 10k resistor of figure as winding temperature increases.
The maximum temperature that the sensor should reach is 95°C. In
applications where the motor is rapidly climbing in temperature (>5°C/min.) the set
point should be lowered by 20°C.
Motor (winding) temperature and VT
UM-101
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Kelvin
AD590 output
(microamps)
V T output
VDC
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95
105
77
95
113
131
149
167
185
203
221
298
308
318
328
338
348
358
368
378
298
308
318
328
338
348
358
368
378
2.98
3.08
3.18
3.28
3.38
3.48
3.58
3.68
3.78
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TEMP SENSOR
CONNECTOR END OF MOTOR
SUPPLY
5-30VDC
RED
+
AD590JH
ANALOG INPUT
TO CONTROL SYSTEM
BLACK
-
10 KW
0VDC
TEMP SENSOR
OPPOSITE CONNECTOR END OF MOTOR
SUPPLY
5-30VDC
WHITE
+
AD590JH
ANALOG INPUT
TO CONTROL SYSTEM
GREEN
-
10 KW
0VDC
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Revision A
References:
AD590 data sheet, Analog Devices:
http://products.analog.com/products/info.asp?product=AD590 or
http://www.analog.com/pdf/1186_b.pdf
6.3.1.1.
Filtering the VT signal
A filtering algorithm is typically required to prevent false trips due to noise.
One method of filtering is to simply look at the time averaged VT value, and to disable
the driver when the average value of VT (over 5 seconds or over some number of
servo cycles) exceeds 3.78Vdc. (Example: Use in a servo loop; Vavg=.01(VinVavg)+Vavg ; Start loop with Vavg set to zero)
6.4.
Position Feedback:
A position feedback signal is required for proper operation of CLD motors.
The position feedback signal supplies the control system with the motor’s position for
control and commutation. Position sensors other than the CLD sensors can be used.
The type of position sensor is a system consideration and needs to be determined
during system design.
6.4.1. Using a CLD Position Sensor (optional):
CLD produces several position feedback devices for use with its motors:
Individual feedback device options have different resolutions, signal types, and
compatibility. The Interface Control Drawings for the feedback option contain the
relevant information and specifications. [Carefully match the feedback signal types
described in the control system manual]. Ensure directionality and commutation
compatibility before applying power to the motor.
6.4.2. Using a 3rd Party Position Sensor (optional):
When using a position sensor other than one supplied by CLD, it is important
to meet the following criteria in addition to those determined during system design:
Ø Proportional coupling between motor linear position and output
signal.
Ø A means of commutating the motor.
Ø Tight mechanical coupling between the sensor, motor shaft and
motor.
6.5.
Grounding and Shielding:
It is important that the motor and interconnection cables are well-grounded
and shielded. The motor grounding should be to a central system ground as well as to
the amp and controller. The motor power cable also needs to be shielded and
attached to the central ground.
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CAUTION:
!
Poor ground or shield connections or wiring can
cause unpredictable motion, and could damage the
motor, control system or machine.
3 Phase
Power
+
Ground
P
1
Amp
Power
Motor Power Cable
Y Axis
Filter
Motor
Power
P
3
Control
AMC
Amp.
P
2
X Axis Motor
7. Control Conventions:
When using the CLD motor in a servo system, specific information always
needs to be known and accounted for by the control system. The system always
needs to have a directionality reference established, where positive direction or force
sensed by the feedback device is commanded by the amplifier and control system. A
commutation method with a cycle pitch and reference angle must be established.
Many feedback devices supply commutation signals, but if they are devices other
than one supplied with the motor, a zero reference angle will have to be established
with the control system.
7.1.
Directional Reference:
For the motor and control system to work properly together, a directional
reference will need to be established for the system. CLD motors will generate
positive force and motion, and cause the shaft to extend on the power connector side
of the motor when the 3 phase wave-form below is applied.
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Positive
Motion
Phase to Null EMF
DX Shaft Position
(in.)
-1.383
-0.922
-0.461
0.000
0.461
0.922
1.383
Phase A
BEMF
Phase B
BEMF
Phase C
BEMF
180
270
0
90
180
270
0
90
180
270
0
90
180
Phase Angle
(deg.)
7.2.
Cycle Pitch:
As with other sinusoidal brushless motors, the CLD motor is commutated
relative to the shaft position within an electrical cycle. The repetition distance of the
cycle is known as the cycle pitch. The cycle pitch on the 4000 and 5000 series
motors is .922 inches.
7.3.
Commutation Reference:
When using a sinusoidal brushless motor without a CLD-supplied
commutation feedback device, it is necessary to know the relative shaft position at the
start of the electrical cycle. CLD motor documentation is supplied with two reference
positions (Q max And X0). Q max is a reference commutation angle with the shaft fully
extended in the positive direction. X0 is the distance from last zero degree phase
position to the position of maximum positive direction. These values are determined
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for each motor at the time of manufacture, and are specific for a motor and shaft
combination. These values are listed in the documentation supplied with each motor.
Shaft in Qmax position
Shaft in X0 position
7.4.
Tuning a Servo System:
The servo system that includes the CLD motor will likely require some form
of tuning. Follow the drive and control system manufacturers recommendations for
tuning of the system.
!
UM-101
WARNING: Improper servo tuning can cause uncontrolled
motion of the CLD motor. Do not allow the system
to oscillate during the tuning process, and keep
all personnel and body parts away from moving
equipment.
23
Revision A
8. Motor Cooling:
Motor cooling is an important facet of the motor’s operation. Depending on
the load capacity and ambient air temperature, a cooling system may be required. It is
important to keep in mind that like any other motor, the CLD motor produces heat
when it operates. It must have the opportunity to dissipate this heat or it will
eventually overheat and fail. It may dissipate heat through natural convection
(natural flow of air), conduction (attaching to a larger cool object), or one of the CLD
cooling options. The more heat a motor can dissipate, the cooler the motor will run,
and the longer it will last.
8.1.
Fan Cooling (option):
The CLD motor can be supplied with five fans that force air over the motor
and keep it cool. It is important that the fans and the motor are kept clean, and that
cool air is allowed to move freely around the motor. Buildup of excessive dirt and
debris on the motor’s cooling fins will cause the cooling system to work inefficiently
and could lead to overheating the motor.
8.1.1. Fan Interconnections (option):
Connect the fan to a 220 VAC single-phase supply for optimum cooling. Fans
will run at lower voltages with less than the designed airflow. Follow applicable
local wiring codes and regulations for interconnections.
9. Motor Care and Maintenance:
It is important to keep the motor clean and free of dirt and chemicals to
prevent damage and ensure long motor life. The CLD motor is not designed for
wash-down or exposure to most cleaning chemicals. When cleaning the motor, use a
clean dry cloth when removing dirt and debris from the motor and shaft.
9.1.
Environmental Considerations:
The CLD motor is designed for use in an indoor industrial environment. The
motor is not designed to be washed down, exposed to weather, corrosive, or abrasive
elements. Ambient temperatures should be between 1°C and 30°C (33°F and 85°F).
If the motor is to be used in an ambient temperature greater than 30°C (85°F), the
motor’s power rating will need to be decreased.
9.2.
Bearing Replacement:
The CLD motor contains replaceable bearings in the event that they wear out
or require replacement for other reasons. The bearings are designed in a taper-lock
housing with an integrated oil reservoir. CLD supplies bearing replacement kits
containing materials needed to replace both BKM2000.
Note:
UM-101
Only use bearings contained in the CLD bearing replacement kit for the
4000 and 5000 series motors.
24
Revision A
9.3.
Shaft Care:
The exterior of the motor shaft is carbon steel that will corrode if subjected to
corrosive agents. Take care in keeping it clean and free of contaminates that could
cause corrosion. The shaft should be maintained with a thin film of CLD-specified oil
only. In corrosive environments, the motor shaft will need to be protected from
elements.
9.3.1. Shaft Cleaning:
The CLD motor shaft is self-lubricated by oil that is contained in a reservoir in
the bearing assembly. Additional oil should not need to be applied to the shaft. If the
bearing reservoir runs out of oil, the bearing assembly should be replaced. When
cleaning the shaft, use a clean rag lightly oiled with Anderol 465.
CAUTION:
!
UM-101
Only use Anderol 465. Other lubricants could break
down prematurely and cause permanent damage to
the motor.
25
Revision A
Appendix-A: (Revision History)
ECO # Revision
0064
A
Change
Initial Release
Date
_
January 3, 2002
26