a study on remote home monitoring using different

ISSN 2320 - 2602
Volume 3, No.2, February 2014
International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology
Available Online at http://warse.org/pdfs/2014/ijacst14322014.pdf
Jyothis T.S et al., International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 3(2), February 2014, 129 - 135
house without a home automation system
that has a wide range of applications from
the remote burglar alarm and hi-tech
security gates, to an automated air
conditioning system that maintains the
temperature at a predefined value.
Automation is the use of control systems
and internet technology to control
equipment, industrial machinery and
processes, reducing the need for human
intervention. Home automation system
describes the functionality that provided
by the controlling home. The control
system is a computerized, intelligent
network for electronic devices, designed to
monitor and control the mechanical and
lighting systems of a home. The Home
functionality keeps the building climate
within a specific range and monitors
system performance and device failures
and provides email and text notifications to
home owner. The HAS functionality
improves building energy and maintenance
costs when compared to a non-controlled
building. Home automation system
includes all that a building automation
provides like door and window controls.
But there exists some difference in that
home automation emphasizes more on
comforts through ease of operation. The
types of home automation systems based
on their control systems are:
The paper presents a review on different
technologies that exist today and how
these technologies are used for home
monitoring and automation. Recently we
have seen that there are various demerits
while using network based home
automation. The paper considers these
problems with their implementation and
discusses on possible solutions through
various other network technologies,
indicating various measures to optimize
the use of such systems. The main reason
for the need of home monitoring is that,
these days home owners are mainly
working couples. So in order to protect
their homes from intruders, detection of
any form of abnormalities is required. This
paper makes a study on following factors security, reliability, robustness and price,
which are considered to determine the
Remote Monitoring, Home Automation,
Home automation is often referred as
smart home. Today, we can hardly find a
Jyothis T.S et al., International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 3(2), February 2014, 129 - 135
1. Individual Control Systems
2. Distributed Control Systems
4. Internet Protocol control system
Internet Protocol (IP) control home
automation system uses the internet gives
each device under its own control an
Internet Protocol address and creates a
local area network (LAN) in the home.
Hence, the home can be interacted with
over the internet with possibility of video
streaming and real-time control systems.
Individual Control Systems
Each device like the heater or the air
conditioner will have an independent
control dedicated to it.
Distributed Control Systems
The main feature is that these type of
systems are used in emergency shut-down.
In this system you can preset or change the
control parameters of several similar
devices, for example, the thermostat of
several air conditioners and their ON/OFF
ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high
level communication protocols using
small, low-power digital radios based on
the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless
personal area networks (PAN), such as
wireless headphones connected with cell
phones via short range radio. The
technology defined by the ZigBee
specification is intended to be simpler and
less expensive than other PAN. ZigBee
had been targeted at radio frequency (RF)
applications that require a low data rate,
long battery life, and secure networking.
ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific
and medical (ISM) radio bands especially
at 868 MHz in Europe and 2.4 GHz in
most jurisdictions worldwide. ZigBee chip
vendors typically sell integrated radios and
microcontrollers with between 60K and
128K flash memory. Radios are also
available as stand-alone to be used with
any microprocessor or microcontroller.
Generally, the chip vendors offer the
ZigBee software stack.
The types of home automation
systems based on the carrier mode are:
1. Power line carrier Systems
The least expensive type of home
automation system operates over the
home's existing wiring, or power line
2. Wireless systems
The available wireless home automation
technology. It’s often used to operate
lights, usually in conjunction with a
hardwired lighting control system.
3. Hardwired systems
The hardwired home control systems are
the most reliable and expensive. These
systems can operate over high-grade
communications cable such as their own
proprietary bus cable. Hard wired systems
can perform more tasks at a time and do
them quickly and reliably, making them
ideal for larger homes. It integrate more
systems in the home, effectively trying
together indoor and outdoor lighting, audio
and video equipment, security system.
Bluetooth is being preferred mainly due
capability. Bluetooth with globally
available frequencies of 2400Hz is able to
Jyothis T.S et al., International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 3(2), February 2014, 129 - 135
provide connectivity up to 100 meters at
speed of approximately 3Mbps depending
on the Bluetooth device class [1]. In
addition, a Bluetooth master device is able
to connect up to seven devices in piconet
network. A master Bluetooth device can
communicate with a maximum of seven
devices in a piconet (an ad-hoc computer
network), though not all devices reach this
limit. The devices can two switch roles
the slave can become the master The
Bluetooth Core Specification provides the
connection to two or more piconets to
form a scatter net, in this certain devices
simultaneously play the master role in one
piconet and the slave role in another. For
any time interval, data can be transferred
between the master and one other device,
suppose to listen in each receive slot, being
a master is a lighter burden than being a
slave. Being a master of seven slaves is
easy, being a slave of more than one
master is difficult.
can be allocated to a user or several active
users can share a single time slot, where
uplink and downlink are allocated
separately. The radio resources is been
shared dynamically between sound and
data services as a function of traffic load
and operator preference. Various radio
channel coding schemes are specified to
allow bitrates from 9 Kbs to 1 to more than
150 Kbs. GPRS fast reservation is
designed to start packet transmission
within 1s. GPRS security functionality is
considered equivalent to the existing GSM
security, whereas ciphering algorithm is
optimized for packet transmission. This
allows information to be delivered more
quickly and efficiently, GPRS is a
relatively inexpensive mobile data service
compared to Short Message Service (SMS)
and Circuit Switched Data. An excellent
survey on GPRS can be found about GPRS
architecture and air interface.
GPRS, new radio channels are predefined,
and the allocation of these channels is
flexible and reliable, one to eight timeslots
There are many definitions of home
automation available in the literature [8]
Jyothis T.S et al., International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 3(2), February 2014, 129 - 135
describes home automation as the
introduction of technology within the same
home to enhance the quality of life of
occupants, through the provision of
different services such as multimedia
entertainment and energy conservation has
continued to receive much attention in
networking. [9] developed a Java based
home automation system. An embedded
connected to all the home
automation system and through integration
with a personal computer (PC) based web
server, provided remote access to the
system. The use of Java technology, which
incorporates built-in network security
features, produces a secure solution.
However, the system requires an intrusive
and expensive wired installation and the
use of a high end PC. [10] introduced a
Bluetooth based home automation system,
of a controller and a number of subcontrollers. Moreover the sharing of a
Bluetooth module between numerous
devices have disadvantage of incurring an
access delay. [11] introduced a phone
based remote controller for home and
office automation. The system differs in all
communications occur over a fixed
telephone line and not over the Internet.
The system can be accessed through any
telephone that supports DTMF. The
disadvantages of this system are three
layered: users are not provided with a GUI,
users have to remember the access code,
and they also have to remember which
buttons to press for the control of
connected devices. [12] Proposed a novel
control network, using hand gestures.
As depicted in Figure 1, the ZigBee
system consists of four steps. Remote user
can access the system via the Internet. The
remote user’s communications traverse the
internet until they reach the home network.
These are then wirelessly transmitted to
the Home Gateway using the homes Wi-Fi
network. The Home Gateway is integrated
processed by the home gateway and virtual
home. This checking process involves
communication with the home networks
coordinator, which is integrated with the
home’s device database and contains the
status of all connected devices. Once
checked, communications are sent to the
real home automation system and the
respective device. Additionally, a local
ZigBee based remote control can be used
to directly control connected devices.
Bluetooth is being chosen with its suitable
capability. Bluetooth with globally
available frequencies of 2400Hz is able to
provide connectivity up to 100 meters at
speed of up to 3Mbps depending on the
Bluetooth device [1]. In addition, a
Bluetooth master device is able to connect
up to 7 devices in piconet network.
Jyothis T.S et al., International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 3(2), February 2014, 129 - 135
In figure 2, [1] illustrates the layout
for the graphical user interface using the
implementation of ARM9.Wince6.0 based
device control with the help of Bluetooth.
For this one ARM9 is required in the
transmitter section. In the receiver section
microcontroller with Bluetooth module.
User responsibility is to develop one
application (GUI) in ARM9 with .net that
is used to send commands. With
Bluetooth. In the receiver side Bluetooth
module is interfaced to the controller to
transreceive the data from the ARM9
microcontroller will decide the devices
operation like on/off the devices and
lock/unlock the door.
presents a compactable wireless home
monitoring system using a GPRS. The
microcontroller in it and so it is called as a
MicroGPRS. This unit consists of many
analog and digital I/O ports and a GPRS
modem associated with that. It also has a
data acquisition unit in that so no need
programming is used in the ports. Only
need is to set the threshold parameter
which has to be measured. To the input of
Micro-GPRS modem we are attaching
several sensors. The sensors will sense the
different parameters from the home
surroundings. The threshold parameters
are already configured in the micro GPRS
In figure 3, [15] when the detected
parameters are above the threshold level
the modem will send a message which
describes the status of sensor to an internet
based server. The server then sends
message to the home owner about the
abnormality. Also the system utilizes the
GIS to display the exact location of the
monitored house as well as the
Geographical Information System
In recent years, the home environment has
seen a rapid introduction of network
enabled digital technology. The paper
Jyothis T.S et al., International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 3(2), February 2014, 129 - 135
sensed parameters. The system detects
accidents or abnormal behavior or events
when the monitored physical phenomena
exceed a certain level. When such
condition happens it sends SMS to the
home owner. In addition to this the home
owners can be able to check their home
status by sending a message to modem.
The modem will reply by indicating the
status of the home. The system must have
to be reliable during the time of its
operation. It will go to sleep mode when
there is no deviation from the sensed value
to that of threshold value. The system
should accept only valid messages and
only responds to registered users.
Moreover the response time of the system
is only 1 minute. It will immediately
respond whenever it finds an abnormality
condition. This technology offers new and
exciting opportunities to increase the
connectivity of devices within the home
for the purpose of home automation. the
rapid expansion of the Internet, is to add
potential for the remote control and
monitoring, web- based GIS and the
availability of integrated General Packet
Radio Service (GPRS)/Global Positioning
Systems (GPS) modem have enabled the
development of embedded stand-alone
home monitoring systems.
The following table, Table 1 shows the
comparison study.
2.4 GHz
868/915 MHz; 2.4
10 m
10 - 100 m
1 Mb/s
250 Kb/s
1 MHz
0.3/0.6 MHz; 2
Table 1. Comparing technologies
From this we can conclude that Zigbee
based home automation is better. But it has
its own limitations.
Jyothis T.S et al., International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 3(2), February 2014, 129 - 135
[8] A ZigBee-Based Home Automation
System Khusvinder Gill, Shuang-Hua Yang,
Fang Yao, and Xin Lu.
[9] A. R. Al-Ali and M. Al-Rousan, "Javabased home automation system", IEEE
Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol.
50, no. 2, pp. 498-504, 2004.
[10] H. Ardam and I. Coskun, "A remote
controller for home and office appliances by
telephone", IEEE Transactions on Consumer
Electronics, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1291-1297,
[11] T. Baudel and M. Beaudouin-Lafon,
"Charade: remote control of objects using
free-hand gestures", Communications of the
ACM, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 28-35, 1993.
[12] T. Saito, I. Tomoda, Y. Takabatake, J.
Ami and K. Teramoto, "Home Gateway
Architecture And Its Implementation",
IEEE International Conference on Consumer
Electronics, pp. 194-195, 2000.
[13] N. Kushiro, S. Suzuki, M. Nakata, H.
Takahara and M. Inoue, "Integrated home
gateway controller for home energy
management system", IEEE International
Conference on Consumer Electronics, pp. 386387, 2003.
[14] S. Ok and H. Park, "Implementation of
initial provisioning function for home
gateway based on open service gateway
initiative platform", The 8th International
Conference on Advanced Communication
Technology, pp. 1517-1520, 2006..
[15] GRPS-Based Distributed HomeMonitoring
Geographical Information System
A. R. Al-Ali, Imran A. Zualkernan, Assia
Lasfer, Alaa Chreide, and Hadel Abu Ouda
The trend of standardization in home
automation is becoming the most
important factor to introduce an automated
environment in our neighborhoods. Since
this is a new field of science, the results of
this review paper are likely to be useful for
future enhancements. The completion of a
whole cycle of control between a remote
device and the home will be critical for the
success of home automation. This paper
introduces a new technology which helps
people to monitor the home
understand whether something harm
happened to the home such as intruders
attack, fire, flooding or gas leaks using
internet. These technologies offer new and
exciting opportunities to increase the
connectivity of devices within the home
for the purpose of home automation.
Moreover, with the rapid expansion of the
Internet, there is the added potential based
on the remote control and monitoring.
[1] Bluetooth based home automation
system N. Sriskanthan, F. Tan, A. Karande.
[2] The official Bluetooth website from
Bluetooth SIG www.Bluetooth.com, Date
viewed: March 21, 2001, Bluetooth
Specification Version 1.1.
[3] Bluetooth Committee, Specifications of
the Bluetooth System (Core), December
1999, V1.0B.
[4] Home System Specification, EHS, 1997.
[5] Ericsson Mobile Communications AB,
User Manual—Bluetooth PC Reference Stack,
1543 VNX 2/901 184 Uen Version R1a, April
Microcontroller, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddler
River, NJ, 1999.
[7] Phillips Semiconductors, 87C51 8-bit
Microcontroller Data Sheet, 1999.