USER MANUAL 7.086-ABS-VER 6.01
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
User Manual
X. Wu, C.-T. Hsiao, G. L. Chahine,
Version 6.0
January 2011
DYNAFLOW, INC.
10621-J IRON BRIDGE ROAD
JESSUP, MD 20794
U.S.A.
Phone: (301) 604-3688
Fax: (301) 604-3689
E-mail: info@dynaflow-inc.com
http://www.dynaflow-inc.com
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Table of Contents
Abstract...........................................................................................2
Intellectual Property and Software License Agreement ............3
1. Introduction................................................................................4
2. Technical Basis ...........................................................................5
2.1 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION ............................................................................................ 5
2.2 VALIDATION .................................................................................................................... 5
3. System Requirements and Setup ..............................................6
3.1 HARDWARE ...................................................................................................................... 6
3.2 SOFTWARE ....................................................................................................................... 6
3.3 SETUP AND CABLING FOR A DESKTOP BASED SYSTEM .................................................... 7
3.4 SETUP AND CABLING FOR A NOTEBOOK BASED SYSTEM ................................................. 8
4. Operating the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© ..........15
4.1 TOOL BAR ...................................................................................................................... 16
4.2 EXPERIMENT SETTINGS .................................................................................................. 16
4.3 ACQUIRE ........................................................................................................................ 28
4.4 VIEW SIGNALS ............................................................................................................... 29
4.5 ANALYZE ....................................................................................................................... 33
4.6 VIEW RESULTS ............................................................................................................... 34
4.8 REFERENCE SIGNALS ..................................................................................................... 37
4.9 CONTINUOUS MODE ....................................................................................................... 37
4.10 STOP CONTINUOUS MODE ............................................................................................ 38
4.11 CAVITATION SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENT MODE .................................................. 39
4.11 FILES AND I/O .............................................................................................................. 39
5. Example ABS Acoustic bubble Spectrometer®© Experiment41
6. Advanced Features...................................................................42
6.1 UTILIZING THE SIGNAL DROPPING OPTION .................................................................... 42
7. Useful Tips for Running Measurements................................43
8. References .................................................................................43
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Abstract
This manual provides a brief description of the ABS Acoustic Bubble
Spectrometer© an acoustics based device that measures bubble size
distributions and void fractions in liquids and measures cavitation
susceptibility. It explains in detail the procedures for setting up and
operating the system including support for a multiple-set hydrophone. A
step-by-step operation example is also provided to help the user get
started.
®©
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer
is a registered trademark of DYNAFLOW, INC.
The ABS software is a Copyright © of DYNAFLOW, INC. 1995-2011. All rights reserved.
DYNAFLOW, INC. may have patents and/or pending patent applications covering subject matter in
this document. The furnishing of this document does not convey any license to these patents. Other
brands or product names are trademarks (™) or registered trademarks (®) of their respective
holders. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express
written permission of DYNAFLOW, INC.
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USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Intellectual Property and
Software License Agreement
This agreement governs your use of the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© product and
any material enclosed with it, including any manuals, disks, hardware, PC cards, and
computer programs.
Grant of License. This agreement permits you to use one copy of the product, which is
licensed as a single product. The software is “in use” on a computer when it is loaded into
the temporary memory (i.e. RAM) or installed into the permanent memory (e.g., hard disk or
other storage device) of that computer.
Copyright and Restrictions. The software is owned by DYNAFLOW, INC. and is protected by
United States copyright laws. The Hardware and its Driver and the Software are protected
Copyright Laws, Patents, and Trade Secrets. You must treat the Software like any other
copyrighted material, except that you may make one copy of the Software solely for backup
archival purposes. You may not reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble the Software
and Hardware, except to the extent applicable law expressly prohibits the foregoing
restriction. DYNAFLOW, INC. may have patents and/or pending patent applications covering
subject matters in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any
license to these patents. DYNAFLOW, INC. grants you a non-exclusive license to use one copy
of the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© Software program.
Limited Warranty. For 30 thirty days from your date of purchase, DYNAFLOW, INC. warrants
that the media on which the Software is distributed are free from defects in materials and
workmanship. DYNAFLOW, INC. will, at its option, refund the amount you paid for the
Software or repair or replace the Software provided that (a) the defective Software is
returned to DYNAFLOW, INC. or an authorized dealer within 60 days from the date of
purchase and (b) you have completed and returned the enclosed registration.
Limitation of Liabilities. In no event will DYNAFLOW, INC. be liable for any indirect, special,
incidental, economic or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© Product. In no event will DYNAFLOW, INC.’s liability
exceed the amount paid by you for the Product.
Restricted Rights. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written
permission of DYNAFLOW, INC. Other brands or product names are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.
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1. Introduction
The ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©, is an acoustics based device
that measures bubble size distributions and void fractions in liquids.
Compared to optical based devices, the ABS Acoustic Bubble
Spectrometer®© is more affordable and easier to setup and use. The
underlying acoustic technique is very sensitive to bubbles but practically
insensitive to particulate matter unlike optical techniques that cannot readily
distinguish between these. The ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© can be
used in a wide variety of two-phase flow applications where knowledge of
the bubble size distribution and the volume fraction and/or area of contact
between the gas and the liquid are important. These areas include
oceanography, cavitation tunnels, controlled laboratory testing, industrial
flows, and biomedical instrumentation. The instrument can provide the data
in near real time, thus making it suitable for process or time varying
applications. The initial efforts to develop the device were funded by
National Science Foundation Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)
awards [1-2].
The device extracts the bubble population from acoustic measurements made
at several frequencies. It consists of a pair of hydrophones or transducers
connected to a signal generation / data acquisition system resident on a
personal computer. A data board controls signal generation by the first
hydrophone and signal reception by the second hydrophone. Short
monochromatic bursts of sound at different frequencies are generated by the
transmitting hydrophone and received by the second hydrophone after
passage through the bubbly liquid. These signals are processed and analyzed
utilizing specialized copyrighted software algorithms developed by
DYNAFLOW, INC. to obtain the attenuation and phase velocities of the acoustic
waves, and, from these, the bubble size distribution.
All the measurements and analyses can be easily and rapidly conducted
through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI). All physical,
experimental, and analytical parameters can be modified by the user
interactively. Both raw and processed experimental data from experiments
can be saved for future use. The results are displayed graphically in real time
on the screen and can also be exported or printed.
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As an option, the standard ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© can be
upgraded and used to determine the liquid susceptibility to cavitation. In
order to do so, a hydrophone projects acoustic power in the liquid with an
increasing intensity. A sensitive transducer measures the resulting pressure
field. The signals of this transducer are then analyzed and any high
frequency emission from cavitation bubble is detected. Cavitation is “called”
when a threshold of the rms of the emitted signals is crossed.
2. Technical Basis
2.1 Theoretical Foundation
Bubble size distribution measurements using the ABS Acoustic Bubble
Spectrometer®© are based on a dispersion relation for sound wave
propagation through a bubbly liquid. A multiphase fluid model for sound
propagation through bubbly liquids is combined with a model for the bubble
oscillations, including various damping modes. The combined model relates
the attenuation and phase velocity of a sound wave to the bubble population
or size distribution. These relations produce two Fredholm integral equations
of the first kind that are ill-posed and require special treatment for solution,
particularly in the presence of noise. Novel algorithms developed by
DYNAFLOW [1-3] are able to accurately solve these equations using a
constrained optimization technique that imposes a number of physical
constraints on the solution. This renders the equations well posed and the
solution more accurate. A detailed presentation of the underlying physics and
mathematics employed in the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© can be
found in our JASA paper [3].
2.2 Validation
The complete procedure was initially tested on analytical data with varying
amounts of artificial noise added. It was found that to successfully recover
the bubble distribution, and to perform much better than previous solution
techniques. The bubble distributions obtained from the ABS Acoustic Bubble
Spectrometer®© were then validated by comparison with microphotography.
Bubble populations were generated using electrolysis and air injection
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through porous tubes. The bubble population obtained using the ABS
Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© compared favorably with the results of
microphotography. Details can be found in [1-8].
3. System Requirements and Setup
3.1 Hardware
The ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© system can operate on a PC that
has Windows XP/Vista/7 installed. For a desktop based system, one spare
PCI slot is required. For a notebook based system, one spare PCMCIA slot
(CardBus or ExpressCard type) is needed. Sufficient hard disk space is
required to store the data acquired, which depends upon the parameters set by
the user.
The basic system also utilizes two hydrophones – one for transmission and
one for reception of acoustic wave bursts. Different sets of hydrophones can
be employed with the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© as long as they
have suitable performance characteristics over the frequency and distance
ranges of the application and their characteristics are known and specified to
the system. For an ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© system with
optional multiple-set hydrophone support, multiple pairs of hydrophones with
different resonance frequencies can be connected to the system at the same
time to enhance the performance through coverage of a larger frequency band
and to expand the available measurement range.
For the upgraded system with the capability to measure cavitation
susceptibility, a low frequency emitting hydrophone and a high sensitivity
receiving transducer for cavitation detection are also provided
3.2 Software
The ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© software runs on a Windows
XP/Vista/7 operating system or above. It enables the user to conduct the
measurements and analyses through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface
(GUI) from which the user can easily input the control and operating
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parameters for the experiment, specify analysis options, and view analysis
results. The detailed steps required for control of the various boards, data
acquisition, signal analysis, inverse problem solution, and data output are
thus transparent to the user. The various options and tasks are accessed
through a series of menus and dialog boxes.
3.3 Setup and Cabling for a Desktop Based System
The following hardware is provided as part of a desktop based ABS Acoustic
Bubble Spectrometer®© system:
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Signal Generation / Data Acquisition Board (Installed in desktop
computer or interface box)
External ABS Interface Box with integrated amplifier.
BNC Cables
Optional programmable multiplexer switch with accompanied USB
cable and terminal block
Perform the following steps to set up the desktop based ABS Acoustic
Bubble Spectrometer®© Generation II system hardware:
For the basic single-set hydrophone system:
 Connect the External ABS Interface Box with the attached Signal
Generation / Data Acquisition Board using the 68 Pin Shielded
Cable.
 Connect the sending hydrophone to the BNC connection on the ABS
Interface Box marked as “Transmitter”.
 Connect the Receiving hydrophone to the BNC connector on the
Connector Box marked as “Receiver”.
 Turn on the computer.
 Turn on the amplifier switch on the ABS Interface Box.
For the optional multiple-set system:
 Connect the External ABS Interface Box with the attached Signal
Generation / Data Acquisition Board using the 68 Pin Shielded
Cable.
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Note:
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Connect the programmable multiplexer switch to the computer using
the accompanied USB cable
If not attached, attach the accompanying terminal block to the
programmable multiplexer switch. Secure the attachment by
tightening the screws on the terminal block.
Connect the BNC connector on the ABS Interface Box marked as
“Transmitter” to the BNC connector marked as “AO IN” on the
terminal block of the switch using a BNC cable.
Connect the sending hydrophones to the BNC connects on the
terminal block of the switch marked as “AO 1”, “AO 2”, …, in
order.
Connect the Receiving hydrophones to the BNC connector on the
Connector Box marked as “Receiver 1”, “Receiver 2”, …, in order.
Power up the programmable multiplexer switch first and then turn on
the computer
Turn on the amplifier switch on the BNC Connector Box
Make sure the amplifier is turned on and that it has a fresh battery.
(When not in use, it should be turned off. Otherwise, the battery
will drain.) Also make sure the 68 pin cable connection with the
Signal Generation / Data Acquisition Board is good and pushed in
all the way.
3.4 Setup and Cabling for a Notebook Based System
The following hardware is provided as part of a notebook based ABS
Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© system:

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
Integrated ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© System Interface
Box
PCMCIA Expansion Cable with host card (CardBus or ExpressCard
type)
BNC Cables
Optional programmable Multiplexer Switch
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Perform the following steps to set up the notebook based ABS Acoustic
Bubble Spectrometer®© system hardware:
Flow
250 kHz
Hydrophone
For the basic single-set hydrophone system:
Figure 1 shows the setup diagram of the basic single set system. The analog
input and output as well as the signal amplifier are integrated into the ABS
System Interface Box. Follow the following steps to set up the system:
Laptop
Signal Amplifier
Analog
output
Analog
input
Figure 1. Setup of the basic single-set system.

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
Connect the Integrated System Interface Box with one end of the
PCMCIA Expansion Cable, and insert the other end with the
PCMCIA host card into PCMCIA slot of the notebook.
Connect the sending hydrophone to the BNC connector labeled as
Transmitter in the Integrated System Interface Box.
Connect the Receiving hydrophone to the BNC connector labeled as
Receiver of the Integrated System Interface Box.
Plug in the power supply and power up the interface box first, then
power up the laptop.
Select “Insert Mobility Express Card and press enter” option if it
appears to continue booting up the computer.
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
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USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
After the system has completely booted up, using the Measurement
& Automation application to check whether the DAQ card has been
detected by expanding the Devices and Interfaces on the task panel on
the left of the window. A device name such as “PCI-6115” should
appear.
If the DAQ card is not detected, close the Measurement &
Automation application and unplug the Express Card from the
laptop.
Wait for a few seconds and plug the Express Card back into the
laptop.
Launch the Measurement & Automation application again, the
DAQ card should be detected now. Click the device name to activate
the device.
Use test panel of the Measurement & Automation application to test
the DAQ card to ensure that the analog inputs and outputs are
working properly.
If the above procedures have been performed successfully, the ABS
system is ready for measurement.
For the twin-set hydrophone system:
Figure 2 shows the setup diagram of a twin-set system. It can drive up to two
sets of hydrophones. The system set-up procedures are similar to the singleset system except for connecting the hydrophones to the ABS System Box as
described below:
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Flow
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
250 kHz
Hydrophone
50 kHz
Hydrophone
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
Laptop
Signal Amplifier
Analog
output
Analog
input
Figure 2. Set up of the twin-set system.
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Connect the two sending hydrophones in the order of ascending
resonance frequency to the Transmitter 1 and Transmitter 2 of the
Integrated System Box.
Connect the two receiving hydrophones in the order of ascending
resonance frequency to the Receiver 1 and Receiver 2 of the
Integrated System Box.
Perform a similar system check to ensure the readiness of the
hardware as described previously for single-set hydrophone system.
For the optional multiplexer-controlled multiple-set hydrophone system:
Figure 3 shows the setup diagram of the multiplexer controlled triple-set
system. A multiplexer is used to route the sent signal to desired hydrophones.
As the basic and twin-set system, the analog inputs and outputs as well as the
signal amplifiers are integrated into the Integrated System Interface Box.
Follow the following steps to set up the system:
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250 kHz
Hyd rophone
Flow
150 kHz
Hydrop hone
50 kHz
Hydrop hone
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
Multiplexer
Power
Signal Amplifier
Amplifier
Laptop
Analog
output
Analog
input
Figure 3. Set up of the multiplexer controlled triple-set system.
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Connect the Integrated System Box with one end of the PCMCIA
Expansion Cable, and insert the other end with the PCMCIA host
card into the PCMCIA slot of the notebook.
Connect the programmable multiplexer switch to the notebook using
the accompanied USB cable.
If not attached, attach the accompanying terminal block for the
programmable multiplexer to the chassis of the multiplexer switch,
secure the attachment by tightening the screws on the terminal block.
Connect the BNC connector on the Integrated System Interface Box
marked as “Transmitter” to the BNC connector marked as “AO IN”
on the terminal block of the switch using a BNC cable.
Connect the sending hydrophones to the BNC connectors on the
terminal block of the switch marked as “AO 1”, “AO 2”, …, in order.
Connect the Receiving hydrophones to the BNC connectors on
Integrated System Box marked as “Receiver 1”, “Receiver 2”, …, in
order.
Power up the interface box and programmable switch first and then
power up the laptop.
Select “Insert Mobility Express Card and press enter” option if it
appears to continue booting up the computer.
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
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After the system has completely booted up, using the Measurement
& Automation application to check whether the programmable
switch has been detected by expanding the Devices and Interfaces. A
device similar like “NI SCXI-1127” should appear under the NIDAQmx Devices
Using the Measurement & Automation application to check whether
the DAQ card has been detected by expanding the Devices and
Interfaces. A device name such as “PCI-6115” should appear.
If the DAQ card is not detected, close the Measurement &
Automation application and unplug the Express Card from the
laptop.
Wait for a few seconds and plug the Express Card back into the
laptop.
Launch the Measurement & Automation application again, the
DAQ card should be detected now. Click the device name to activate
the device.
Use test panel of the Measurement & Automation application to test
the DAQ card to ensure that the analog inputs and outputs are
working properly.
If the above procedures have been performed successfully, turn on
the amplifier switch on the BNC Connector Box, the ABS system is
ready for measurement.
For the optional multiplexer-controlled multiple-set hydrophone system
with cavitation susceptibility measurement (CSM):
Figure 4 shows the set-up sketch of a multiplexer controlled triple-set system
with optional cavitation susceptibility meter. Compared to the regular tripleset system, this system has an extra hydrophone to generate cavitation and an
extra high-sensitivity pressure transducer to detect the cavitation events. As
other systems, all the analog inputs and outputs and the signal amplifiers for
the regular ABS receiving hydrophones are integrated into the ABS System
Interface Box. The pressure transducer has its dedicated unit for power
supply and signal amplification. The signals from the pressure transducer and
the 1st receiving ABS hydrophone share the same analog input channel, as
shown in Figure 4. These two signals are sent to the multiplexer and then are
routed to the analog input based on operation mode. The set-up procedures
are similar to the multiplexer controlled triple-set system except that the
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Pressure
transducer
50 kHz
Hydrophone
Flow
150 kHz
Hydrophone
250 kHz
Hydrophone
cable connections are a little more involved, follow the procedures as
described below:
Signal
Am plifier
Cav. Hydro.
Power
Amplifier
Multiplexer
Laptop
Signal Amplifier
Analog
output
Analog
input
Figure 4. System setup of the multiplexer controller triple-set system with cavitation
susceptibility measurement.
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Connect the BNC connector on the ABS System Box marked as
“Transmitter” to the BNC connector marked as “AO IN” on the
terminal block of the switch using a BNC cable.
Connect the sending hydrophones to the BNC connectors on the
terminal block of the switch marked as “AO 1”, “AO 2”, …, in order.
Make sure the hydrophones are connected in ascending order of the
resonance frequency
Connect the cavitation hydrophones to the BNC connector on the
terminal block of the switch marked as “Cav. AO”,
Connect the Receiving hydrophones to the BNC connectors on
Integrated System Interface Box marked as “Receiver 1”, “Receiver
2”, …, in order matched with the sending hydrophones.
Connect the pressure transducer to the BNC input connector of the
standalone power supply/signal conditioner unit for the pressure
transducer. Connect the output connector of the power supply/signal
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USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
conditioner unit and the BNC connector on the terminal block
marked as “Rec. 2”,
Connect the BNC connector marked as “To Multiplexer” on the
Integrated System Interface Box to the BNC connector marked as
“Rcv. 1” on the terminal block
Connect the BNC connector marked as “AI” on the terminal block to
the BNC connector marked as “From Multiplexer” on the Integrated
System Interface Box.
Perform similar system check to ensure the readiness of the
hardware as described previously for triple-set hydrophone system.
Notes :
a. Insert the PCMCIA host card into the notebook computer, plug in
the 12 V power supply to the ABS System Interface Box, and turn on
the power to the multiplexer.
b. Before turning on the laptop computer, make sure that the green
LED lights on the chassis of the multiplexer and the ABS System
Box are on.
c. If the ABS application fails to acquire data properly, close the ABS
application and use the Measurement & Automation application to
ensure that the DAQ card can be detected. Also use the test panel to
test the DAQ card to ensure that the analog inputs and outputs are
working properly.
d. Make sure the amplifier is turned on and that it has a fresh battery.
(When not in use, it should be turned off. Otherwise, the battery will
drain.) Replace battery if the “low Battery” LED light is on.
e. Also make sure the expansion cable connection is good on both
ends and pushed all the way in.
4. Operating the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
Double clicking the ABS icon starts the ABS Acoustic Bubble
Spectrometer®© Generation II software. This invokes the Graphical User
Interface. It includes the menu, the tool bar and a plotting area. The contents
displayed in the plotting area depend on the operation performed; they can be
the transmitted and received signals (either reference signals or those from an
actual measurement) or the analysis results.
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4.1 Tool Bar
The tool bar is located just under the main frame menu at the top of the
window. It contains several shortcut buttons that are used to invoke different
functions. These shortcut buttons are listed here and described in detail
below.
Print Preview
Experiment Settings
Reference Signals
Acquire
Analyze
View Signals
View Results
Start Continuous Mode
Stop Continuous Mode
Cavitation susceptibility measurement Mode
4.2 Experiment Settings
This button invokes the Experiment Settings property sheet that
enables the user to input the various environmental and operating conditions
for the experiment. The property sheet can also be invoked from the menu by
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clicking Experiment / Settings or by pressing the F7 key. There are four
separate property pages as described below. Screenshots of each page are
shown in Figure 7 through Figure 12.

General: This page has entries for title, date, time, user’s name, and
comments on the experiment (Figure 7).
Figure 5. Experimental Settings: General Information Page.
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Figure 6. Experimental Settings: Signals Page.

Signals: The signals property page is shown in Figure 8. The user can
specify the number of periods and the nominal peak signal amplitudes (in
volts; maximum signal amplitude is 10 volts) of the sent signals for test
and reference signals respectively, enter the distance between the two
hydrophones in the experiment, and build a table that lists signal
properties.
Note: The “burst” duration for each transmitted signal is then equal to
the ratio of the number of periods to the signal frequency.
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HARDWARE INFORMATION: The DAQ card information and its
maximum sampling rate is automatically detected and used by the
system. Information such as PCI 6115 DAQ card used, sampling rate up to
10 MS/s will be displayed, the system will automatically determine the
sampling rate to use based on the signal characteristics under
consideration.
DATA ACQUISITION DURATION EXTENSION FACTOR: The default time
duration for data acquisition is set to be four times the time of flight
between hydrophones in the liquid. This equals the hydrophone distance
divided by the sound speed in pure liquid, plus the duration of emission.
This default setting is good in normal cases. If this default duration is not
optimal for the particular experiment, e.g. the duration is too short to
obtain the complete response signal; the user can adjust the time duration
by changing the value of N of the user input in Extend data acquisition
time by N times of default setting, which sets the duration for acquisition to
be a multiple of the default acquisition time by the specified factor.
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Figure 7. Experimental Settings: General Information Page.
Figure 8. Experimental Settings: Signals Page.
ENABLE SIGNAL SETTINGS AUTO CALIBRATION: Since the gain and
voltage settings can be different for each frequency as well as for test and
reference signal. It is tedious to manually set up the gain and voltage
setting manually. The user can check Enable Signal Settings Auto
Calibration to let the system figure out the best gain and voltage settings
for each frequency in both test and reference condition. After checking
this option, when acquiring reference signal, the system will continuously
adjust the gain and voltage settings until optimal settings have been found
for all frequencies, then the real reference signals will be acquired at the
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settings optimized. When measuring the first time under the test
conditions, the system will similarly adjust the gain and voltage settings
until optimal settings have been found for all frequencies, then the real
test signals will be acquired at the settings optimized. After the
calibration for the test signal is finished, the check before Enable Signal
Settings Auto Calibration will be automatically unchecked by the system,
and all the subsequent tests will be conducted using the setting found in
the calibration process until the user checks the selection again to reconduct the calibration process. The user can examine the optimized
settings from the table. Ref Gain and Test Gain are the gain settings for the
reference and test signals respectively. V Factor and Ref V Factor are the
voltage factor settings for the reference and test signals respectively. The
actual sent signal voltage is the product of the voltage factor and the
specified nominal sent signal amplitude.
FREQ (HZ): This table includes the list of selected insonification
frequencies and the corresponding gains to be applied to the transmitted
and received signals at each frequency. The frequency list should be
arranged in ascending order. These should be set based on the
hydrophone characteristics to attain sufficient resolution for the particular
configuration without saturating the received signal. Trial and error may
be required. The table also includes a column labeled as Ignore Signal
which enables removal of any signal that is erroneous such that it will not
be taken into consideration in the analysis for the bubble populations. The
software automatically removes any signals that give unreasonable sound
speeds or bad signal to noise ratio and sets their values of Ignore Signal to
Yes. Users can also manually ignore any signal that they believe is
problematic by setting the value of Ignore Signal to Yes at the
corresponding frequency.
AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY SETUP: To manually set up a long frequency
list can be time consuming. To speed up the process, the GUI can arrange
the frequency automatically. What the user needs to do is to specify the
Min. Freq. (minimum frequency), the Max. Freq. (maximum frequency),
and the Number of Freq. (number of frequencies), and choose how to
generate the frequency list. Please notice that when the user changes the
Min. Freq. and the Max. Freq. the corresponding bubble sizes will be
automatically calculated and displayed as a guideline about the optimal
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bubble size measurement ranges. Two options are available, one is to
linearly arrange the frequency list with equal frequency interval (choose
Linear frequency list), the other one is base on equal bubble size interval,
which corresponding to the equal 1/f interval (choose Equal 1/f frequency
list). If the equal 1/f interval is selected, the user can also specify when to
start the equal 1/f interval arrangement. Between the minimum frequency
and this frequency, equal frequency interval of 1000 Hz will be used.
TRIPLE-SET HYDROPHONE OPTIONS: If it is a multiple-set hydrophone
system, the user can use this option to control how to distribute the
frequency list among the different sets of hydrophones. The order of the
hydrophone arrangement is in ascending frequency order, e.g, for tripleset hydrophone system, the 1st set is for lower range of frequencies, the
2nd set is for the middle range of frequencies, and the 3rd set is for the
higher range frequencies. What the user needs to do is to specify two cutof frequencies, the first frequency is specified after the text (Use 1st set of
hydrophones for the) frequencies up to, frequencies below this one are
handled by the 1st hydrophone set. The second frequency is specified
after the text (Use 2nd set of hydrophones for) frequencies up to. Frequencies
above this one are handled by the 3rd set of hydrophones. The system will
route automatically a given frequency signal to the corresponding
hydrophone according to the specification. Please make sure the order of
the hydrophone connections matches among the receiving and
transmitting hydrophones.
HYDROPHONE RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS: When a system is
delivered, the resonance frequency and response time (as specified in dT
Correction) of the hydrophones are given. They are used for analysis for
improved accuracy.
AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION AMONG HYDROPHONES:
Except for the basic single set ABS system, the user needs to specify the
frequency range for each set of hydrophones. Since the hydrophone
performance might change at different conditions, an automatic
frequency distribution scheme has been implemented to remove the user
guess work in specifying the frequency range for each hydrophone. To do
so, the user needs to check the check box of Automatically distribute the
frequency among the hydrophones. Close the signal setup page, and
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click Acquire to start the acquisition of the auto frequency distribution
process, which examines the frequency response characteristics of each
hydrophone set and then assign the optimal frequency range to each set of
hydrophones. (This option is presently not active)
AMPLIFICATION RATIO: The system can be coupled with an external
amplifier, however usually the amplifier is needed only during the actual
tests and not in the reference condition. If this is the case, the user needs
to specify the power amplification ratio after the text Test/Ref ratio of
power amplification of sent signal, such that the difference will be taking
account for in analysis.
GENERATE REFERENCE DATA: Also on this page is a check box
Generate Reference Data which is used to indicate whether the
experiment is to be conducted as a reference with a pure liquid (with no
bubbles). The pure liquid in the same experimental configuration
provides a background reference state and is used in calculating the
bubble size distribution in the liquid “with bubbles”. This reference data
set is obtained by conducting an experiment where bubbles have been
removed as much as possible from the liquid under conditions and
settings otherwise identical to those to be employed in determining the
desired bubble size distribution. Check the box to generate this reference
data set. The reference data set can be saved to disk for later use or stored
in memory. This procedure is recommended because it frees the user
from errors associated with calibration of the hydrophones in the specific
configuration of the experimental setup.
NUMBER OF TESTS: The user can specify the number of test runs, n,
desired to obtain the averaged results by entering a number between 1
and 20 in the Number of Tests box. Sets of signals are generated and
acquired as many times as specified. The average of these signals is used
to obtain the bubble distribution for n > 1. In this case, the signals of the
last run are displayed (see 4.4 View Signals below). The sound speed
ratio and attenuation vs. frequency displayed are the average values (see
4.6 View Results below). It should be noted that this option does not
work with the external trigger mode (section 4.7).
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Figure 9. Experimental Settings: Physical Parameters Page.

Physical Parameters: The Physical Parameters page (Figure 9) specifies
the operating conditions of the experimental environment. These data are
to be entered in SI units as noted on this page and should be specified for
the temperature and pressure at the measurement location. Values to be
specified include:
 Pressure (static) of the liquid at the measurement location (Pascal)
 Temperature of the liquid at the measurement location (°C)
 Specific heat ratio (cp/cv) of the gas comprising the bubbles
 Vapor pressure of the liquid (Pascal)
 Sound speed in the pure liquid (no bubbles) (m/s)
 Liquid density (kg/m3)
 Liquid surface tension (N/m)
 Liquid dynamic viscosity (kg/m-s)
 Gas thermal conductivity, k, given as a linear function of
temperature, T, (K) with parameters a and b (W/m-K ):
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
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k  aT  b.
A database for the frequently used liquids, such as water, mercury,
mineral oil, corn syrup, etc., is listed for convenience. If the liquid of
interest is not listed in the database, please select user specified, and
enters the customized physical parameters as required.
Figure 10. Experimental Settings: Physical Parameters Page.

Physical Constraints: On this page (Figure 10), physical constraints are
imposed in order to enable solution of the ill-posed problem, and the
parameters of the computed distribution are specified. These include the
minimum and maximum of the computed bubble sizes (radii) and the
number of discrete sizes to compute. Two options are available for
calculation (and subsequent display) of the bubble sizes. The sizes can
either be linearly or logarithmically distributed between the minimum and
maximum sizes. In addition, the vertical scale (y) – bubble number per
unit volume – can be displayed with either a linear or logarithmic scale.
The logarithmic scale is selected if the appropriate box on this page is
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
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checked. Upper bounds on both the total bubble surface area and the total
bubble volume per unit volume (m3) of the measurement region are also
specified here. These are utilized as constraints in solving the inverse
problem and need only be very approximate. They are usually set to large
positive values.
Figure 11. Experimental Settings: Physical Constraints Page.

Cavitation Susceptibility: This page (Figure 12) provides information
for the system with the optional Cavitation Susceptibility Meter to
measure the cavitation susceptibility.
AMPLIFICATION OF POWER AMPLIFIER: specifies the amplification of
the power amplifier that drives the cavitation hydrophone. Please make
sure that the actual amplification factor you set on the amplifier
matches with the value specified. To do so, use constant input signal
amplitude and adjust the amplification of the amplifier until the ratio of
the output signal to the input signal of the amplifier reaches the
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
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amplification value you require and enter the same in the ABS Cavitation
Susceptibility Page.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL VOLTAGE: gives the maximum signal voltage that
will be applied to the cavitation hydrophone, it should not exceed the
maximum output voltage of the power amplifier, for the Krohn-Hite wide
band power amplifier, the maximum output voltage is 160 v (RMS).
SENT SIGNAL FREQUENCY: specifies the signal frequency used to test the
cavitation susceptibility, which usually is around 50 – 70 kHz and
corresponds to the best response frequency range of the hydrophone
provided for cavitation susceptibility measurement.
SIGNAL CYCLES TO BE ACQUIRED: specifies the number of cycles to be
acquired during the data acquisition process, it should be long enough to
enable the detection of the cavitation events if the cavitation phenomenon
exists.
For the signal analysis, the low frequency signals should be removed
from the received signal:
RANGE OF BLOCKED FREQUENCY: specifies the range of frequency to be
filtered out during the signal analysis. This purpose of this filtering
process is to remove background and excitation noise and keep only high
frequency signals of cavitation events.
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
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Figure 12. Experimental Settings: Cavitation Susceptibility Page.
4.3 Acquire
This button initiates acquisition of signal in the ABS hardware
version and re-processing of the raw signals in the ABS no-hardware version
if the data file loaded is a regular ABS data.
For the hardware version, under regular ABS operation mode, a set of
acoustic signals of characteristics specified in the Experiment Settings/Signals
page are sent by the transmitting hydrophone and acquired by the receiving
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
hydrophone. In order to improve the signal analysis a rectangular wave with
the same duration as that of the matching sine wave is also added. The
Acquire function can also be invoked from the menu by clicking Experiment/
Acquiring Signals or by pressing the F8 key. The screen is automatically
refreshed after the data acquisition is completed and processed. The raw or
analyzed “sent” and “received” signals are displayed (Figure 13) based on the
user selection if set in View Signals mode originally. The analysis results are
displayed (Figure 18) if the View Results mode is originally set.
For the hardware version operating under the cavitation susceptibility
measurement mode, a set of acoustic signals of characteristics determined in
the Experiment Settings/Cavitation Susceptibility page are sent by the
transmitting hydrophone and acquired by the high sensitivity pressure
transducer. Similar as the regular ABS mode, the raw or analyzed “sent” and
“received” signals are displayed (Figure 17) based on the user selection if set
in View Signals mode originally. The analysis results are displayed (Figure
21) if the View Results mode is set originally.
4.4 View Signals
This button activates the View Signals mode to show the raw or
analyzed “sent” and “received” signals most recently acquired (Figure 13).
When clicked on while the Ctr key is pressured, a dialog box appears (Figure
15) to let the user specify the scale or magnification factors to be applied to
the vertical axes of the signals for display. This enables zooming in on signal
details that may be too small to see well with normal magnification. Another
way to view the sent/received signals or reference signals is by selecting the
Test Signals or Reference Signals under either Original Signals or Analyzed
Signals type on the View pull down menu. If it is the Original Signals type, the
acquired raw signal is displayed. If it is the Analyzed Signals type, the
processed signals will be displayed.
The following descriptions apply to regular ABS mode.
As shown in Figure 13, the corresponding responses to sinusoidal and
rectangular wave are displayed side by side. The duration of the rectangular
wave is also output on top of the signal. Also on the upper left corner of the
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
display window, either “Ref” or “Test” is marked to indicate that the signal
displayed is the reference signal or test signal.
Another feature in the signal display window of Version 5.0 is that the
signals that have been dropped (e.g. small signal to noise ratio) from bubble
distribution calculations during the signal analysis process are crossed out
and marked as “Dropped Signal”. This gives the user a direct indication of
which signals are used during the analysis. Figure 14 shows a sample screen
shot of the signals that have been dropped during the signal analysis.
Figure 13. Display of the Raw Sent (blue) and Received (red) Signals.
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Figure 14. Dropped signals during the analysis are crossed out in signal display
window.
If the Number of Tests specified in the Signals property page (Figure 9) is
greater than 1, another dialog box (Figure 16) appears to enable the user to
specify the option to view the signals of an individual test or to view the
averaged signals of the tests. The user can select a test of interest by clicking
the selection buttons. If the check box Used for average is checked, that
individual test will be used for signal averaging otherwise that specific test
will be excluded from the signal average process.
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Figure 15. Dialog Box for Setting Display Scale of the Raw Signals.
Figure 16. Dialog Box for Selecting Viewing Option for Multiple Tests.
Under the Cavitation Susceptibility mode, not all signals for all voltages
tested are displayed, only signals at 4 selected voltages are displayed,
covering the typical signals with and without cavitation in the test. When raw
signal is displayed, the Sent signal is scaled down before the amplification
while the Received signal is displayed in the original scale. If the Analyzed
signal is displayed, the graph scale is based on the analyzed Received signal,
which is displayed in its original scale, while the Sent signal is scaled down
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USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
by a varying scale to fit in the graph scale determined by the analyzed
Received signal.
Figure 17. Display of sent and received signals under Cavitation Susceptibility mode.
4.5 Analyze
For the No-hardware version, under the regular ABS mode, this
button invokes the analysis algorithms that reprocess the saved signal data
and uses the analyzed acoustic signals to obtain the measured bubble
populations. The results are automatically displayed on the screen (Figure 18,
described below under 4.6 View Results). This function can also be invoked
by selecting Experiment /Analyze Signals or pressing the F9 key. Under
Cavitation Susceptibility mode, this button invokes the algorithms that
process the acoustic signals to obtain variation of the filtered received signal
with voltage and the determined threshold of cavitation.
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4.6 View Results
This button activates the View Results mode to display the analysis
results of the experiment (Figure 18). It is automatically enabled after
clicking the Analyze
Results
button or can be activated by clicking the View
button at any time. In the No-hardware version, both Analyze
and View Results
buttons will display the analyzed resulst, howerver,
button will not re-analyze the saved signals and uses only
the saved u and v information to obtained the measured bubble populations.
View Results
Figure 18. Display of the Analyzed Results.
The following descriptions applied to the regular ABS mode:
Four plots are displayed in this mode:
 Sound speed ratio (u =c/cref) vs. frequency.
 Attenuation ratio (v) vs. frequency.
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©


USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Bubble size distribution in the form of the number of bubbles per cubic
centimeter vs. bubble radius in microns.
Void fraction contribution in the form of the void fraction contribution
vs. bubble radius in microns. The total void fraction of all bubbles are
also displayed above the graph, it is simply the total measured void
fraction in the range of bubble size detected.
Note: The number of bubbles per cubic centimeter is plotted on the vertical
axis of the bubble size distribution. To obtain the number of bubbles
within the measuring volume, this must be multiplied by the size of the
measuring volume in cubic centimeters.
After the View Results
button is clicked while the Ctrl key is pressed
down, a dialog box (Figure 19) appears to enable the user to select the
display option for viewing the analyzed results. If the Use Previous/Default
Display Settings button is clicked, the default ranges or the ranges used in the
previous display are used for displaying the analyzed results. If the Specify
Results Display Settings button is clicked, a new dialog window (Figure 20)
appears to let the user specify the desired ranges for sound speed ratio,
attenuation ratio, and bubble size distribution. In addition, the user can also
select to display the attenuation ratio in either power spectrum or RMS form.
The user can also show the analysis results of the experiment by clicking on
Analyzed Results in the menu item View.
Figure 19. Dialog Box for Selecting Display Option of the Analyzed Results.
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USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Figure 20. Dialog Box for Specifying Display Range of the Analyzed Results.
In the Cavitation Susceptibility mode, only one graph (Figure 21) is
displayed:
 Filtered Received Signal Amplitude vs. Applied Voltage.
Two vertical lines indicating the determined threshold voltage for cavitation
susceptibility are also displayed.
The blue line is based on the minimum threshold and the green line is based
on the threshold of maximum slope.
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Figure 21. Display of cavitation susceptibility results.
4.8 Reference Signals
After this button is highlighted, the signals acquired by clicking on
the Acquire button
are designated as reference signals (see Generate
Reference Data in 4.2). This button is automatically released after the
acquisition is finished. Also note that this button has to be clicked to release
the Cavitation Susceptibility mode if it is activated.
4.9 Continuous Mode
In some cases it may be desirable to monitor the bubble
characteristics continuously. Click this button to activate the Continuous
Mode which runs the ABS continuously. Before activating the Continuous
Mode the user needs to make sure that the reference data are available. A
dialog window (Figure 22) appears after the button is clicked to allow the
user to set up the Continuous Mode. The Time delay between sequences
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
specifies the time delay before one sequence of emission/reception and the
next. The Output options allow the user to choose whether the analyzed
results are written to a file. If No output is selected, the results of the
sequences are not output to files, however results for the most current one
can be displayed on the screen. If Output results is selected, the results of the
sequences are written to files at the desired frequency (see 4.10 for detail).
While the Continuous Mode is activated, the button will be disabled until the
Continuous Mode is deactivated.
Figure 22. Dialog Box for setting up the Continuous Mode.
One restriction to the Continuous Mode is that the cursor has to be left on top
of the
button to run the ABS continuously if there is no mouse activity,
otherwise the Continuous Mode will be idle unless a mouse activity is
detected.
4.10 Stop Continuous Mode
This button is enabled when the Continuous Mode is activated. Click this
button to deactivate the Continuous Mode. After the Continuous Mode is
deactivated, the button will be disabled.
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4.11 Cavitation Susceptibility Measurement Mode
This button activates the Cavitation Susceptibility mode if the system
is capable of this functionality. After this button is highlighted, the system is
operated under Cavitation Susceptibility mode.
4.11 Files and I/O
Important data are automatically saved to files during the experiment. In both
Acquire and Analyze processes, the following files are generated:
 ATTENUATION RATIO VS FREQUENCY.DAT This file includes the attenuation
ratio at each frequency.
 N_M3VSR1.DAT. This file includes the number of bubbles at different
bubble size bins.
 N_M4VSR1.DAT. This file includes the number of bubbles per unit bin
size at different bubble sizes, i.e. number of bubbles divided by bin
size.
 NGROUP1.DAT. This file includes the number of bubbles, the surface
area of the bubbles, and their contribution to the void fraction at
different bubble size bins.
 SOLN_PARAM1.DAT. This file gives the statistics of the analysis.
 SOUND SPEED SATIO VS FREQUENCY.DAT. This file includes the sound speed
ratio at each frequency.
 VF.DAT. This file includes the contributions to the void fraction at each
frequency.
The following files are generated only in the Acquire process:
 UVF.DAT. This file includes both the sound speed ratio and the
attenuation ratio at each frequency.
The following file is generated in the Analyze process as well as View Results
if it is the No-Hardware version:
 BUBBLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION.DAT. This file includes the number of bubbles
and its contribution to the void fraction at different bubble sizes.
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In the Continuous Mode, all the above files are generated for the latest run. In
addition, void fraction and bubble size distribution information for selected
runs in sequence are also generated.
 BUBBLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION_CONT_MODE.DAT. This file includes the number
of bubbles and its contribution to the void fraction at different bubble
sizes for each selected run in the Continuous Mode. In addition the
total void fraction and the time at which output is generated are also
included.
 VOIDFRACTION_VS_TIME.DAT. This file includes the variation of void
fraction with time for the selected runs in Continuous Mode.
Raw data and processed results from an experiment can be saved or reopened
by two means.
Save/Open
Clicking on File/Save will save all the information in a single binary file
readable by the software with a name chosen by the user. The extension of
the saved file is “.ABS”. Clicking on File/Open enables users to open a
previously saved .ABS file. With this feature, users can view signals and results
acquired previously. Users can also re-analyze the signals (solve the inverse
problem) differently.
Export/Import
Clicking on File/Export to export the acquired signals to individual files for
each frequency in ASCII format. Two types of data files are available for
export, the .DAT files contain the transmitted and received signals vs. time,
and the .CPV files are used by graphic software DF_CONTOUR developed by
DYNAFLOW, INC which is provided with the ABS. Clicking on File/Export to
export the experiment data to current directory, at first a window pops up to
let the user decide whether to export the .CPV files. Then a series of files are
generated with names of the form XXXKHZ.DAT and/or XXXKHZ.CPV based on the
users’ choice, where XXX is the frequency of the signal (in kHz).
In addition to exporting an individual file at each frequency, the following
files are also exported:
 UVF.INP. This file includes the sound speed ratio and the attenuation
ratio at each frequency.
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ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Clicking on File/Import to import the individual .DAT files for each frequency
listed in the property page Signals in the experiment settings as described in
section 4.2. Note that if a corresponding .DAT file does not exist for a
frequency listed an error message pops up to show the information about the
missing data file.
5. Example ABS Acoustic bubble Spectrometer®©
Experiment
An example of taking a set of measurements with the ABS Acoustic bubble
Spectrometer®© is provided in this section. The bubble population in water at
an ambient pressure of 110 kPa and a temperature of 15C is determined.
The gas in the bubbles is air. The following procedures are performed.
1. Run the ABS Acoustic bubble Spectrometer®© software by double
clicking on the ABS icon. A screen with blank plots and a tool bar will
appear. If desired, an existing file from a previous session with a .ABS
extension may be opened as a starting point.
2. Use the File / Save As a utility to create a new file.
3. Select the Experiment Settings button
from the tool bar.
4. Go to the General information page and fill in the information desired
(Figure 1).
5. Go to the Signals page. Edit the default frequencies to those desired. Edit
the default gains (applied to the voltages of the transmitted and received
signals by the data acquisition board) such that sufficient resolution is
attained for the particular configuration without saturating the received
signal (Figure 2).
6. Select the box “Generate Reference Data” option to obtain the reference
background data set.
7. Go to the Physical Parameters page. Edit the default values of these
physical conditions to correspond to those of the experiment as required
(Figure 3).
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8. Click on the Acquire button.
A “no-bubble” reference state is
generated and the sent and received raw signals are displayed (Similar to
Figure 5). It is very useful to inspect the signals to assure that sufficient
resolution was obtained and that there are no other problems such as no
received signals or no delay between emitted and received signal which
usually indicates electric leak problems between the transducers. If these
signals are not satisfactory, one should return to the Signals page and
modify the settings accordingly or inspect the experimental setup for
problems. A new reference state can then be acquired.
9. Experiments in the presence of bubbles will now be conducted having a
suitable reference state in memory.
10. Select the Experiment Settings button
again and go to the Signals
page. Turn off the “Generate Reference Data” option
11. Click on the Acquire button.
The sent and received raw signals in the
presence of bubbles are displayed (Figure 5). Again, it is useful to inspect
these signals to assure that sufficient resolution was obtained and that
there are no other problems.
12. Go to the Physical Constraints page and edit these as needed.
13. Select the Analyze button
to process the acquired experimental data.
The results will be displayed as in Figure 9.
14. If desired, one may alternately view the raw signals and the calculated
results by use of the View Signals
and View Results
buttons.
15. The experimental data (including reference state data) and results may be
saved to disk at any time by use of File/Save.
16. Based on these results, refine the parameters if desired and repeat the
experiment.
6. Advanced Features
6.1 Utilizing the Signal Dropping Option
In version 5.0, the user has the option to actively interfere with the signal
processing. This option should only be used by a very educated user and, if
not properly used, could result in very erroneous results. With this option the
user can define criteria for dropping signal from the analysis. Figure 23
shows the signal drop option page which can be activated by requesting a
42
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USER MANUAL: 7-086 v. 6.0
Key from DYNAFLOW. The user can choose to drop a signal if the signal to
noise amplitude ratio is less than a given threshold or if the sound speed ratio
from the analysis is outside of the user specified range.
7. Useful Tips for Running Measurements
To maintain the best signal possible, make sure that the battery in the
amplifier is powerful enough. Also keep the hydrophone surface clean and
bubble free as much as possible.
Figure 23. Signal dropping options.
8. References
1. Duraiswami, R. and Chahine, G. L. “Bubble Density Measurement Using an
Inverse Acoustic Scattering Technique,” NSF SBIR Phase I report, also
DYNAFLOW, INC. Technical Report 92004-1, September 1992.
2. Duraiswami, R., Prabhukumar, S. and Chahine, G. L., “Development of an
Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer (ABS) Using an Acoustic Scattering Technique,”
NSF SBIR Phase II report, also DYNAFLOW, INC. Technical Report 94001-1,
July 1996.
3. Duraiswami, R., Prabhukumar, S. and Chahine, G. L., “Bubble Counting Using
an Inverse Acoustic Scattering Method,” J. Acoustical Society of America, 104
(5), November 1998.
4. Hocine, C. A. and Ouarem, M., “Bubble Size Measurement Study,”
DYNAFLOW, INC. Technical Report 6.002-31, October 1996.
5. Demotes-Mainard, F. and Picard, M., “Study of Bubble Size Measurement
Technique,” DYNAFLOW, INC. Technical Report 6.002-46, September 1997.
43
ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®©
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6. Chahine, G. L., Duraiswami, R., and Frederick, G. S., “Detection of Air Bubbles
in HP Ink Cartridges Using DYNAFLOW’S Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer
Technology,” DYNAFLOW, INC. Technical Report 97014hp-1, January 1998.
7. Chahine, G. L., Kalumuck, K. M., Cheng, J-Y., and Frederick, G. S.,
“Validation of Bubble Distribution Measurements of the ABS Acoustic bubble
Spectrometer®© with High Speed Video Photography,” CAV2001 – 4th
International Symposium on Cavitation, Pasadena, CA, June 2001.
8. Chahine, G. L., Kalumuck, K. M., “Development of a Near Real-Time
Instrument for Nuclei Measurement: the ABS Acoustic bubble Spectrometer®©,”
FEDSM’03 - 4th ASME_JSME Joint Fluid Engineering Conference, Honolulu,
Hawaii, July 2003.
44
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