Line Scan CCD Cameras
P-2x-xxx40, P2-4x-xxx40, P2-2x-xxx30
Camera User’s Manual
Printed 3/29/2006 9:03:00 AM
29-Mar-06
03-32-00493-11
www.dalsa.com
2
Piranha2 User’s Manual
© 2006 DALSA. All information provided in this manual is believed to be accurate and reliable. No
responsibility is assumed by DALSA for its use. DALSA reserves the right to make changes to this
information without notice. Reproduction of this manual in whole or in part, by any means, is prohibited
without prior permission having been obtained from DALSA.
About DALSA
DALSA is an international high performance semiconductor and electronics company that designs,
develops, manufactures, and markets digital imaging products and solutions, in addition to providing
wafer foundry services. DALSA’s core competencies are in specialized integrated circuit and electronics
technology, and highly engineered semiconductor wafer processing. Products include image sensor
components; electronic digital cameras; and semiconductor wafer foundry services for use in MEMS,
power semiconductors, image sensors and mixed signal CMOS chips.
DALSA is a public company listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol “DSA”. Based in
Waterloo, On. Canada, the company has operations in Bromont, PQ; Colorado Springs, CO; Tucson, AZ;
Eindhoven, NL; Munich, Germany and Tokyo, Japan.
All DALSA products are manufactured using the latest state-of-the-art equipment to ensure product
reliability. All electronic modules and cameras are subjected to a 24 hour burn-in test.
For further information not included in this manual, or for information on DALSA’s extensive line of
image sensing products, please call:
DALSA Sales Offices
Waterloo
Europe
Asia Pacific
605 McMurray Rd
Waterloo, ON N2V 2E9
Canada
Tel: 519 886 6000
Fax: 519 886 8023
www.dalsa.com
sales.americas@dalsa.com
Breslauer Str. 34
D-82194 Gröbenzell (Munich)
Germany
Tel: 49 - 8142 – 46770
Fax: 49 - 8142 – 467746
www.dalsa.com
sales.europe@dalsa.com
Space G1 Building, 4F
2-40-2 Ikebukuro
Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-0014
Japan
81 3 5960 6353 (phone)
81 3 5960 6354 (fax)
www.dalsa.com
sales.asia@dalsa.com
DALSA Worldwide Operations
Waterloo
Colorado Springs
Europe
Asia Pacific
605 McMurray Rd
Waterloo, ON N2V 2E9
Canada
Tel: 519 886 6000
Fax: 519 886 8023
www.dalsa.com
sales.americas@dalsa.com
4820 Centennial Blvd., Suite 115
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
USA
Tel: 719 599 7700
Fax: 719 599 7775
www.dalsa.com
sales.americas@dalsa.com
Breslauer Str. 34
D-82194 Gröbenzell (Munich)
Germany
Tel: 49 - 8142 – 46770
Fax: 49 - 8142 – 467746
www.dalsa.com
sales.europe@dalsa.com
Ikebukuro East 13F
3-4-3 Higashi-Ikebukuro
Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-0013
Japan
Tel: 81 3 5960 6353
Fax: 81 3 5960 6354 (fax)
www.dalsa.com
sales.asia@dalsa.com
Camera Link is a trademark registered by PULNiX America Inc., as chair of a committee of industry
members including DALSA.
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
Contents
Introduction to the Piranha2 Line Scan Camera __________________________________ 5
1.1 Camera Highlights.......................................................................................................................................................5
1.2 Image Sensors .............................................................................................................................................................7
1.3 Camera Performance Specifications ............................................................................................................................8
Camera Hardware Interface________________________________________________ 13
2.1 Installation Overview...................................................................................................................................................13
2.2 Input/Output................................................................................................................................................................13
2.3 Connectors, Pinouts, and Cables..................................................................................................................................14
2.4 Power Supplies ............................................................................................................................................................16
2.5 Control Inputs, Camera Link........................................................................................................................................16
2.6 Data Bus, Camera Link................................................................................................................................................17
2.7 Timing .........................................................................................................................................................................19
2.8 Camera Link Serial Communication............................................................................................................................22
Software Interface: How to Control the Camera __________________________________ 23
3.1 Overview......................................................................................................................................................................23
3.2 Command Format........................................................................................................................................................24
3.3 Processing Chain..........................................................................................................................................................24
3.4 Startup.........................................................................................................................................................................25
3.5 Saving and Restoring Settings.....................................................................................................................................25
3.6 Setting Baud Rate........................................................................................................................................................26
3.7 Setting the Data Mode.................................................................................................................................................26
3.8 Setting the Video Mode ...............................................................................................................................................27
3.9 Setting Line Rate and Exposure Mode.........................................................................................................................27
3.10 Setting a Region of Interest.......................................................................................................................................29
3.11 Returning Video Information ....................................................................................................................................29
3.12 Optimizing Offset Performance .................................................................................................................................31
3.13 Setting Gains .............................................................................................................................................................34
3.14 How to Calibrate the Camera ....................................................................................................................................35
3.15 Setting and Reading FPN Coefficients.......................................................................................................................38
3.16 Setting and Reading PRNU Coefficients ....................................................................................................................39
3.17 Generating Test Patterns...........................................................................................................................................39
3.18 Monitoring the Camera .............................................................................................................................................40
3.19 Rebooting the Camera...............................................................................................................................................41
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3.20 Setting the Pre-trigger ..............................................................................................................................................41
Optical, Mechanical, and Thermal Considerations_________________________________ 43
4.1 Mechanical Interface....................................................................................................................................................43
4.2 Optical Interface ..........................................................................................................................................................47
4.3 Compliance ..................................................................................................................................................................49
CCD Handling Instructions _________________________________________________ 51
5.1 Electrostatic Discharge and the CCD Sensor ................................................................................................................51
5.2 Protecting Against Dust, Oil and Scratches..................................................................................................................51
5.3 Cleaning the Sensor Window.......................................................................................................................................52
Troubleshooting ________________________________________________________ 53
6.1 Common Solutions.......................................................................................................................................................53
6.2 Troubleshooting Using the Serial Interface.................................................................................................................54
6.3 Specific Solutions .........................................................................................................................................................56
6.4 Product Support...........................................................................................................................................................58
Camera Link™ Reference _________________________________________________ 59
EMC Declaration of Conformity______________________________________________ 61
Communications Protocol _________________________________________________ 63
C1 Protocol Overview.........................................................................................................................................................63
C2 Protocol Features..........................................................................................................................................................63
C3 Command Format and Examples .................................................................................................................................63
C4 Networking Mode .........................................................................................................................................................64
C5 Error Handling..............................................................................................................................................................67
C6 Camera Parameter Screen............................................................................................................................................70
C7 Commands....................................................................................................................................................................73
DC Offset De-rating Curve _________________________________________________ 79
Revision History ________________________________________________________ 81
Index _______________________________________________________________ 83
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
1
Introduction to the
Piranha2 Line Scan
Camera
1.1 Camera Highlights
Features
•
Data rates up to 160MHz
•
Resolutions from 1k to 8k for 40MHz model
•
Resolutions from 1k to 8k for 30MHz model
•
High responsivity
•
Exposure control and antiblooming
•
Pinned photodiode sensor for low image lag
•
Programmable integration time, line rate, gain, offset, bit depth, test pattern, and
diagnostics
•
Flat-field correction—minimizes sensor FPN and PRNU, lens vignetting and nonuniform lighting
•
Camera Link™ interface
•
Single 12V to 15V power supply
•
Compact design
Performance
•
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4x40MHz quad output data rate, 2x40MHz dual output data rate with 40MHz model
•
2x30MHz dual output data rate with 30MHz model
•
8 or 10-bit output from 10-bit digitization
•
1024, 2048, and 4096 pixels, 10µm x 10µm, and 4096, 6144 and 8192 pixels, 7µm x 7µm,
100% fill factor
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•
Line rates up to 65kHz
Programmability
•
Simple ASCII protocol controls gain, offset, line rates, trigger mode, pixel correction,
test pattern output, and camera diagnostics.
•
Serial interface (ASCII, 9600 baud, adjustable to 19200, 57600, 115200), through
Camera Link.
Usability
•
Programmable gains, offsets, and camera controls
•
End-of-line sequence and test pattern output for debugging
•
Single input supply (+12V to +15V)
•
Compliant with CE and MIL-STD-810E (shock and vibration)
Description
Piranha2 takes performance to a new level. Two and four 8 or 10-bit outputs (selectable)
at up to 40MHz deliver up to 160MHz throughput.
Available in 1k to 8k resolutions, Piranha2 is small, light, and uses a single voltage power
supply. Cabling and interface are simplified with the Camera Link high-speed serial
standard. The camera is sensitive, but still provides quiet, uniform output thanks to CDS
(correlated double sampling) and embedded flat-field correction algorithms. Gain and
offset are fully programmable for each output channel, and the camera can output test
patterns for cable/system troubleshooting. All resolutions provide appropriate, readilyavailable standard lens options (C-mount, F-mount, and M72x0.75 large format
photography standards).
All these features combine to make Piranha2 the most powerful line scan camera in the
world. Set it loose on your toughest imaging challenge.
Applications
The Piranha2 is ideal for applications requiring high speed, superior image quality, and
high responsivity.
Applications include:
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Electronics manufacturing inspection
•
Postal/parcel sorting
•
High performance document scanning/image lift
•
Narrow and large web inspection
•
High-end industrial inspection
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1.2 Image Sensors
The image sensor used in your camera depends on the camera’s resolution and number of
taps.
1k, 2k, 4k (10 µm), 2 taps: IL-P1 (Figure 1)
2k, 4k (10 µm), 4 taps: IT-P1 (Figure 2)
4k (7 µm), 6k, 8k, 2 taps: IL-P4 (Figure 3)
4k (7 µm), 6k, 8k, 4 taps: IT-P4 (Figure 4)
Figure 1: IL-P1 Image Sensor (1k, 2k, 4k (10 µm), 2 tap models)
CR1S, CR2S,
CR1B, CR2B, CRLAST
OS2
5I
CCD Readout Shift Regist er
4I
Stor ageWell with Exposure Control and Reset Structure
32 S
4I
N Pinned Photodiodes (10µm x 10µm)
4I
TCK
32 S
VSTOR
PR
VPR
Stor ageWell with Exposure Control and Reset Structure
VDD
5I
OS1
1
CCD Readout Shift Regist er
VBB
RST
VSET
VOD
CR1S, CR2S,
CR1B, CR2B, CRLAST
4I
32 S Light-shielded pixels
4 I Isolation pixels
N = 1024 or 2048
VSS
Relative position of package Pin 1
Figure 2: IT-P1 4k Image Sensor (2k, 4k (10 µm), 4 tap models)
Relative position
1 of package Pin 1
N=2048 or 4096
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Figure 3: IL-P4 Image Sensor (4k (7µm), 6k, and 8k, 2 tap models)
CR1, CR2, CRLAST
OS2
5I
CCD Readout Shift Regist er
4I
Stor ageWell with Exposure Control and Reset Structure
32 S
4I
N Pinned Photodiodes (7µm x 7µm)
4I
TCK
32 S
VSTOR
PR
VPR
Stor ageWell with Exposure Control and Reset Structure
VDD
5I
CCD Readout Shift Regist er
4I
32 S Light-shielded pixels
VBB
RST
VSET
VOD
OS1
1
4 I Isolation pixels
N = 4096, 6144 or 8192
CR1, CR2, CRLAST
VSS
Relative position of package Pin 1
Figure 4. IT-P4 Image Sensor (4k (7µm), 6k, and 8k, 4 tap models)
CR1, CR2,
CRLAST-L
OS2
CR1, CR2,
CRLAST-R
5I
CCD Readout Shift Regist er
OS4
5I
Stor ageWell with Exposure Control and Reset Str ucture
32 S
4I
N Pinned Photodiodes (7µm x 7µm )
4I
TCK
32 S
VSTOR
PR
VPR
Stor ageWell with Exposure Control and Reset Str ucture
5I
CCD Readout Shift Regist er
CR1, CR2,
CRLAST-L
5I
32 S Light-shielded pixels
4 I Isolation pixels
N = 4096, 6144 or 8192
CR1, CR2,
CRLAST-R
VDD
VBB
OS1
RST-L VSET-L
VOD-L
Relative position
1 of package Pin 1 VSS-L
VDD
VSET-R
VBB
RST-R
VOD-R
VSS-R
OS3
1.3 Camera Performance Specifications
The following two tables list the camera’s performance specifications. The first table lists
the operating ranges of the camera, and the second table lists the performance
specifications at minimum, nominal and maximum gain levels at 1kHz data rate. Note
that as gain levels increase, performance decreases, because your signal to noise
decreases.
Also note that the cameras performance specifications were obtained using a line rate of
only 1kHz. At low line rates, dark current can become a significant source of noise and
appears in specifications such as FPN, PRNU and noise. If you operate the camera at
faster line rates, such as 10kHz or greater, the amount of dark current will be reduced by
10x or greater.
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Table 1. Piranha2 Operating Requirements and Ranges
Operating Requirements
Units
Typical
Notes
Power
1024—2 o/p
W
6
2048—2 /4 o/p
W
6 / 8.5
4096 (7µm)—2 / 4 o/p
W
6 / 8.5
4096 (10µm)—2 o/p
W
9
4096 (10µm)—4 o/p
W
11
6144—2 / 4 o/p
W
7 / 9.5
8192 —2 / 4 o/p
W
7.5 / 10
Power Supply Current (Vin = +12V)
1024—2 o/p
mA
480
2048—2 /4 o/p
mA
500 / 700
4096—2 / 4 o/p
mA
500 / 690
4096 (10µm)—2 o/p
mA
750
4096 (10µm)—4 o/p
mA
900
6144—2 / 4 o/p
mA
650 / 850
8192 —2 / 4 o/p
mA
680 / 900
sec.
15
1024
sec.
10
2048
sec.
19
4096
sec.
38
6144
sec.
85
8192
sec.
115
Time to power up, typ
Time to calibrate (FPN/PRNU)
Specification
Units
Min
Max
40 MHz
Data Rate, per tap (40 MHz model)
MHz
40
40
(30 MHz model)
MHz
30
30
Units
Min
Specification
Notes
1
Max
30 MHz
Max
40
MHz
1
49.6
65.3
1
27
35.4
1
Line Rate
1024, 2 o/p
kHz
2048, 2 o/p
kHz
1
2048, 4 o/p
kHz
1
4096, 2 o/p
kHz
1
4096, 4 o/p
kHz
1
36.2
6144, 2 o/p
kHz
1
12.3
6144, 4 o/p
kHz
1
8192, 2 o/p
kHz
1
8192, 4 o/p
kHz
1
14
68
1
18.5
1
24.4
7.15
9.3
18.6
Temperature
Front plate Temperature
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°C
10
50
2
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
Specification
Units
Min
Max
40 MHz
Temperature drift before
recalibration,
(recommendation)
°C
10
x,y
um
±175
z
mm
±0.25
θz
°
±0.6
Notes
Sensor Alignment
Note that the environment conditions represent the state of the environment when the
camera was being tested. Typical results are the average values obtained with at a 1kHz
line rate and 30°C. Maximum results represent the worst case results from any camera
operating at 50°C with a 1kHz line rate.
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
0
0
30
50
40
40
1
1
+10
+1
0
30
50
3
3.4
3.8
9.4
10.7
12
30
34
38
DN/(nJ/cm2)
6
6.8
7.6
18.8
21.4
24
60
68
76
Dynamic Range
Ratio
496:1
207:1
390:1
62:1
135:1
Pk-Pk Noise, max
DN
2
3
4
8
15
32
4
RMS Noise, max
DN
0.5
0.5
0.75
1.2
2.2
4
4
FPN uncorrected, max 4K and under
DN
1.1
4
3.5
8
8
27
5
FPN uncorrected, max 6K and over
DN
1.6
4
4
8
14
27
5
FPN corrected, max
DN
0.3
2
1
2
2
8
2
1K and 2K, ECD/ECE
DN
5
18
5
23
8/10
39
4k, ECD/ECE
DN
9
28
10
28
12/2
0
43
6K and 8K, ECD/ECE
DN
15
38
16
38
14/2
7
55
PRNU corrected ECD/ECE
DN
1.5
/2
3/3
1.2/
1.5
3/
8
2/3.
5
5/
27
2
DC Offset
DN
4k and under
2
3
5
5
7
17
6
6k and over
2
3
5
5
14
17
6
Typ
Min
3
Broadband Responsivity, 10um pixels
Min
DN/(nJ/cm2)
Typ
Broadband Responsivity, 7um pixels
Electro-Optic Specifications
Min
Max
+10
Typ
0
40
Notes
50
1
Notes
30
40
1
Max
-10
40
Typ
-10
-10
40
Max. Gain
Min
1
Max
°C
40
1
Typ
Front Plate Temperature
40
Min
dB
Max
Gain Setting
40
Max
kHz
Typ
MHz
Line Rate
Min
Data Rate (40MHz model)
Environment Conditions
Units
Units
Table 2. Pirahna2 Performance Specifications, 1kHz line rate, 40MHz Model
Min. Gain
Nom. Gain
Max
11
PRNU uncorrected
Notes:
DN = Digital Numbers (0-255); also known as gray levels.
ECE = Exposure Control Enabled
ECD = Exposure Control Disabled
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•
All measurements taken in 8-bit output mode.
•
All measurements are valid for front plate temperatures in still air.
•
All measurements used a Tungsten halogen light source, 3200K bulb temp., and
750nm cutoff filter
1.
All specifications for the 30MHz model are preliminary.
2
Due to FPN/PRNU correction calculations, certain digital numbers will be
unavailable when outputting 10 bits with FPN/PRNU correction.
3
Measured at front plate. The corresponding ambient temperature range with still air
is 0°C - 37°C.
4
Measurements taken at maximum line rates.
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
5
Exposure control enabled to set the maximum integration time to 200 microseconds.
6.
Refer to Appendix D for DC Offset de-rating curves.
Figure 5: P2 Responsivity
2
Responsivity [DN/(nJ/cm )]
Responsivity, Nominal Gain
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24
10µm pixels
20
16
12
7µm pixels
8
4
0
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Wavelength (nm)
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
2
Camera Hardware
Interface
2.1 Installation Overview
In order to set up your camera, you should take these steps:
1. Connect Camera Link™ cables from camera to framegrabber.
2. Connect power.
You must also set up the other components of your system, including light sources, frame
grabbers, camera mounts, heat sinks, host computers, optics, encoders, and so on.
2.2 Input/Output
Camera Link™ (2 and 4Tap models)
Camera Link™ (4Tap model only)
Diagnostic LED (See section 3.18)
+12V to +15V and Ground
!
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WARNING: It is extremely important that you apply the appropriate voltages to your
camera. Incorrect voltages will damage the camera. See section 2.4 for more details.
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
2.3 Connectors, Pinouts, and Cables
The camera uses a high-density 26-pin MDR26 connector for Camera Link control signals,
data signals, and serial communications, and a 6-pin Hirose connector for power.
MDR26 Female
13
1
26
14
Base, Medium, and Full Configuration
Medium and Full Configuration Only
M at ing Par t: 3M 334-31 ser ies
Cable: 3M 14X 26-SZ LB-X X X-0LC* *
Table 3: Camera Link Medium and Full Configuration
Medium and Full Configurations
Up to an additional 2 Channel Link Chips
Camera
Right Angle
Channel
Cable Name
Connector Frame
Link Signal
Grabber
1
1
inner shield
Inner Shield
14
14
inner shield
Inner Shield
2
25
Y0-
PAIR1-
15
12
Y0+
PAIR1+
3
24
Y1-
PAIR2-
16
11
Y1+
PAIR2+
4
23
Y2-
PAIR3-
17
10
Y2+
PAIR3+
5
22
Yclk-
PAIR4-
18
9
Yclk+
PAIR4+
6
21
Y3-
PAIR5-
19
8
Y3+
PAIR5+
7
20
100 ohm
PAIR6+
20
7
terminated
PAIR6-
8
19
Z0-
PAIR7-
21
6
Z0+
PAIR7+
9
18
Z1-
PAIR8-
22
5
Z1+
PAIR8+
10
17
Z2-
PAIR9+
23
4
Z2+
PAIR9-
11
16
Zclk-
PAIR10-
24
3
Zclk+
PAIR10+
12
15
Z3-
PAIR11+
25
2
Z3+
PAIR11-
13
26
13
26
inner shield
inner shield
Inner Shield
Inner Shield
*Exterior Overshield is connected to the shells of the connectors on both ends.
**3M part 14X26-SZLB-XXX-0LC is a complete cable assembly, including connectors.
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
Table 4: Camera Link Base Configuration
Base Configuration
One Channel Link Chip + Camera Control +Serial
Communication
Camera Connector Right Angle
Channel Link
Frame Grabber
Signal
1
1
inner shield
14
14
inner shield
2
25
X0-
15
12
X0+
3
24
X1-
16
11
X1+
4
23
X2-
17
10
X2+
5
22
Xclk-
18
9
Xclk+
6
21
X3-
19
8
X3+
7
20
SerTC+
20
7
SerTC-
8
19
SerTFG-
21
6
SerTFG+
9
18
CC1-
22
5
CC1+
10
17
CC2+
23
4
CC2-
11
16
CC3-
24
3
CC3+
12
15
CC4+
25
2
CC4-
13
13
inner shield
26
26
inner shield
Unused pairs should be terminated in 100 ohms at both ends of the cable.
Table 5: DALSA Camera Control Configuration
Signal Configuration
Pin
CC1
EXSYNC
9, 22
CC2
PRIN
10, 23
CC3
Spare
11, 24
CC4
Spare
12, 25
See Appendix B for the complete DALSA Camera Link configuration table, and refer to
the DALSA Web site, vfm.dalsa.com, for the official Camera Link documents.
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Piranha2 User’s Manual
Hirose 6-pin Circular Male
6
1
5
2
4
3
Mat ing Par t: HIRO SE
HR10A -7P-6S
Pin
Description
Pin
Description
1
+12V to +15V
4
GND
2
+12V to +15V
5
GND
3
+12V to +15V
6
GND
2.4 Power Supplies
The camera requires a single voltage input (+12V to +15V). The camera meets all
performance specifications using standard switching power supplies, although wellregulated linear supplies provide optimum performance. See the Performance
Specifications for current requirements.
When setting up the camera’s power supplies follow these guidelines:
•
Protect the camera with a fast-blow fuse between power supply and camera.
•
Do not use the shield on a multi-conductor cable for ground.
•
Keep leads as short as possible to reduce voltage drop.
See section 1.3 for power requirements.
!
WARNING: It is extremely important that you apply the appropriate voltages to your camera.
Incorrect voltages will damage the camera. Protect the camera with a fast-blow fuse between
power supply and camera.
Visit http://vfm.dalsa.com for a list of companies that make power supplies that meet
the camera’s requirements. The companies listed should not be considered the only
choices. Many high quality supplies are available from other vendors. DALSA assumes
no responsibility for the use of these supplies.
2.5 Control Inputs, Camera Link
The camera accepts control inputs through the Camera Link MDR26F connector. All inputs
are optional. The camera ships in exposure mode 1 (maximum line rate and exposure time). All
Camera Control (CCx) signals are in a logic HIGH state. Line rate can be set internally using
the serial interface. Power-on rate is always 9600 baud. Data rate for the 40MHz model is
always 40MHz. Data rate for the 30MHz model is always 30MHz.
The external control signals, EXSYNC and PRIN, are optional and enabled through the
serial interface.
PRIN
PRIN is an optional input signal used for exposure control (PRIN).
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PRIN
Indicates
High
Integration
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Low
IMPORTANT:
This camera uses the
falling edge of EXSYNC
to trigger line readout,
unlike previous DALSA
cameras, which used the
rising edge.
Pixel reset
EXSYNC (Triggers Line Readout)
EXSYNC is an optional input signal that can be used to trigger the line readout rate. This
camera uses the falling edge of EXSYNC to trigger line readout.
Note: EXSYNC should not be clocked faster than the camera’s specified maximum line
rate. The camera ignores the EXSYNC pulse until it has completed reading the last line
out.
2.6 Data Bus, Camera Link
These signals indicate when data is valid, allowing you to clock the data from the camera
to your acquisition system. These signals are part of the Camera Link configuration and
you should refer to the DALSA Camera Link Implementation Road Map, available at
vfm.dalsa.com, for the standard location of these signals:
Clocking Signal
Indicates
LVAL (high)
DVAL (high)
STROBE (rising edge)
Outputting valid line
Valid data
Valid data
IMPORTANT: This camera’s data should be sampled on the rising edge of STROBE.
Digital Data
The camera digitizes internally to 10 bits and outputs either all 10 bits or the most
significant 8 bits in LVDS format on the Camera Link connector.
Note: Due to flat-field correction calculations, certain digital numbers will be unavailable
when outputting 10 bits with flat-field correction enabled (i.e. you will experience
missing codes).
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Test Pattern Pixels and End-of-line Sequence
For information
on the test pattern
and end of line
sequence
commands, see
section 3.17
Generating Test
Patterns.
To facilitate system-level debugging and verification of data path integrity, the camera
can generate a test pattern. The test pattern is a ramp from 0 to 255DN, then starts at 0
again. Use the test pattern to verify the proper timing and connections between the
camera and the frame grabber.
To alleviate post-processing, Piranha2 offers an end-of-line sequence that provides basic
calculations including "line counter", "line average", "pixels above threshold", "pixels
below threshold", and "derivative line sum". These basic calculations are the center of
most automatic gain control (AGC) algorithms.
To further aid in debugging and cable/data path integrity, the first six bits of the output
of the end-of-line sequence are "aa", "55", "aa". Refer to the table below.
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Location
Value
Description
1
A’s
2
5’s
By ensuring these values consistently toggle
between "aa" and "55", you can verify cabling
(i.e. no stuck bits)
3
A’s
4
4 bit counter LSB justified
Counter increments by 1. Use this value to
verify that every line is output
5
Line sum LSB
6
Line sum MID
Use these values to help calculate line
average
7
Line sum MSB
8
0
9
Pixels above threshold LSB
10
Pixels above threshold
MSB
11
Pixels below threshold LSB
12
Pixels below threshold
MSB
13
Derivative line sum LSB
14
Derivative line sum Mid
15
Derivative line sum MSB
16
0
Monitor these values (either above or below
threshold) and adjust camera gain to keep
these values relatively constant. This
provides a basis for automatic gain control
(AGC)
Use these values to focus the camera.
Generally, the greater the sum the greater the
image contrast
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2.7 Timing
Figure 6. Piranha2 Overview Timing Showing Input and Output Relationships
Figure 7. Piranha2 Fixed (Programmed) Integration Timing with External EXSYNC
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Table 6: Piranha2 40MHz Timing (Fixed Integration Mode)
Symbol
Definition
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Min (ns)
twSYNC
The minimum low width of the EXSYNC
pulse when not in SMART EXSYNC
mode.
twSYNC(SMART)
*
The minimum low width of the EXSYNC
pulse when in SMART EXSYNC modes to
guarantee the photosites are reset.
twSYNC_INT
The minimum width of the high pulse
when the “SMART EXSYNC” feature is
turned off
twSYNC_INT
(SMART) *
Is the integration time when the “SMART
EXSYNC” feature is available and turned
on. Note that the minimum time is
necessary to guarantee proper operation.
tLINE PERIOD
(t LP)
The minimum and maximum line times
made up of tTransfer, tREADOUT plus
tOVERHEAD to meet specifications.
53,190 (8K4T)
106,382 (8K2T)
40,485 (6K4T)
80,645 (6K2T)
27,624 (4K4T)
54,054 (4K2T)
28,248 (2K2T)
15,313 (1K2T)
tTransfer
The time from the reception of the falling
edge of EXSYNC to the rising edge of
LVAL when pretrigger is set to zero.
Pretrigger reduces the number of clocks to
the rising edge of LVAL but doesn’t
change the time to the first valid pixel. If
the fixed integration time mode of
operation is available and selected then
the integration time is added to the
specified value.
1,420 +/-50
twFixed Int.
Fixed Integration Time mode of operation
for variable exsync frequency.
800
tREADOUT
Is the number of pixels per tap times the
readout clock period. Pretrigger = 0.
51,200 (8K4T)
102,400 (8K2T)
38,400 (6K4T)
76,800 (6K2T)
25, 600 (4K4T)
51,200 (4K2T)
25,600 (2K2T)
12,800 (1K2T)
tOVERHEAD
Is the number of pixels that must elapse
after the falling edge of LVAL before the
EXSYNC signal can be asserted. This time
is used to clamp the internal analog
electronics
540+/-50
thPR
Applies when the PRIN exposure control
feature is enabled . The PRIN signal must
be held a minimum time after the
EXSYNC falling edge to avoid losing the
integrated charge
0
Typ
(ns)
Max
(ns)
100
2,000
100
2,000
106
t LP –
2,000
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Symbol
Definition
Min (ns)
twPR_LOW
Minimum Low time to assure complete
photosite reset
2,000 +/- 200
tPR_SET
The nominal time that the photo sites are
integrating. Clock synchronization will
lead to integration time jitter, which is
shown in the specification as +/- values.
The user should command times greater
than these to ensure proper charge
transfer from the photosites. Failure to
meet this requirement may result in
blooming in the Horizontal Shift Register.
2,000+/-200
Typ
(ns)
Max
(ns)
*SMART EXSYNC refers to exposure mode 4. Refer to section 3.9 Setting Line Rate and
Exposure Mode for further information on exposure modes.
Table 7: Piranha2 30MHz Timing (Fixed Integration Mode)
Note: All values are preliminary for the Piranha2 30MHz
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Symbol
Definition
Min (ns)
twSYNC
The minimum low width of the EXSYNC
pulse when not in SMART EXSYNC
mode.
132
twSYNC(SMART)
*
The minimum low width of the EXSYNC
pulse when in SMART EXSYNC modes to
guarantee the photosites are reset.
twSYNC_INT
The minimum width of the high pulse
when the “SMART EXSYNC” feature is
turned off
twSYNC_INT
(SMART) *
Is the integration time when the “SMART
EXSYNC” feature is available and turned
on. Note that the minimum time is
necessary to guarantee proper operation.
2,000
tLINE PERIOD
(t LP)
The minimum and maximum line times
made up of tTransfer, tREADOUT plus
tOVERHEAD to meet specifications.
140487 (8K2T)
70,170 (4K2T)
36,378 (2K2T)
19,483 (1K2T)
tTransfer
The time from the reception of the falling
edge of EXSYNC to the rising edge of
LVAL when pretrigger is set to zero.
Pretrigger reduces the number of clocks to
the rising edge of LVAL but doesn’t
change the time to the first valid pixel. If
the fixed integration time mode of
operation is available and selected then
the integration time is added to the
specified value.
1,874 +/-66
twFixed Int.
Fixed Integration Time mode of operation
for variable exsync frequency.
800
Typ
(ns)
Max
(ns)
2,640
132
106
t LP –
2,000
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Symbol
Definition
Min (ns)
tREADOUT
Is the number of pixels per tap times the
readout clock period. Pretrigger = 0.
138033 (8K2T)
33, 792 (4K4T)
67,584 (4K2T)
33,792 (2K2T)
16,896 (1K2T)
tOVERHEAD
Is the number of pixels that must elapse
after the falling edge of LVAL before the
EXSYNC signal can be asserted. This time
is used to clamp the internal analog
electronics
712+/-66
thPR
Applies when the PRIN exposure control
feature is enabled . The PRIN signal must
be held a minimum time after the
EXSYNC falling edge to avoid losing the
integrated charge
0
twPR_LOW
Minimum Low time to assure complete
photosite reset
2,640 +/- 264
tPR_SET
The nominal time that the photo sites are
integrating. Clock synchronization will
lead to integration time jitter, which is
shown in the specification as +/- values.
The user should command times greater
than these to ensure proper charge
transfer from the photosites. Failure to
meet this requirement may result in
blooming in the Horizontal Shift Register.
2,640+/-264
Typ
(ns)
Max
(ns)
2.8 Camera Link Serial Communication
Camera features can be controlled through the Camera Link™ serial communication
(LVDS, 9600 baud). The serial interface uses simple ASCII-based protocol. The following
chapter describes how to configure the camera using the serial interface.
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3
Software Interface:
How to Control the
Camera
3.1 Overview
i
This chapter details the
most commonly used
commands. See
Appendix C for the
complete syntax and
command reference for
the camera’s serial
interface.
All camera features can be controlled through the serial interface. The camera can also be
used without the serial interface after it has been set up correctly. Functions available
include:
•
Controlling basic camera functions such as gain and sync signal source
•
Camera calibration
•
Measuring internal temperature and voltages
•
Capturing video
•
Generating a test pattern for debugging
The serial interface uses a simple ASCII-based protocol. The complete protocol is
described in Appendix C, Communications Protocol.
Online Help
For quick help, the camera can return all available commands and parameters through
the serial interface. To generate this list, send the command h to the camera.
Retrieving Camera Settings
To read current camera settings, send the command gcp. For an explanation of the
camera parameter screen, see section C6 Camera Parameter Screen on page 70.
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3.2 Command Format
•
A carriage return (CR) ends each command.
•
Values in square brackets are optional.
•
There are two methods for entering the commands: In long form each command is
written in its entirety. In short form, only a predefined abbreviation is required. The
manual uses the short form.
•
The camera will answer each command with either "OK >" or "Error x: Error Message
>". The ">" is always the last character sent by the camera.
•
The following parameters are used in the manual:
i = integer
f = float
s = string
t = tap
x1, x2 = pixel start and stop values
3.3 Processing Chain
The figure below is a simplified block diagram of the camera's processing chain. The
analog processing chain contains two elements–a gain stage and an offset stage. The
digital processing chain contains the FPN correction, PRNU correction, background
subtract, and a system gain stage. The software commands allow you to set and change
all the elements of the processing chain. This enables maximum processing flexibility
depending on your requirements.
Digital Processing
In addition, the two elements of the analog processing chain, analog gain and analog
offset, can be adjusted to separate values in the calibrated and uncalibrated modes. For
example, the analog gain value can be set to –5db in calibrated mode and 6dB in
uncalibrated mode. When switching between calibrated and uncalibrated modes, the
camera automatically uses the corresponding value.
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3.4 Startup
When the camera is first started, it must perform several actions before it is ready for
imaging. This startup routine takes approximately 15 seconds, and follows this sequence:
1. Initializes the camera and all internal hardware.
2. Loads the last settings saved to non-volatile memory, including the last set of video
correction coefficients, if previously saved.
3. Restores user settings if previously saved, otherwise factory settings.
4. Performs a memory test and voltage test and reports an error if any occurred.
After this startup sequence is complete, the camera will return either the prompt "OK>" if
no error occurred, or an error code if a problem has been discovered.
3.5 Saving and Restoring Settings
The camera provides a number of commands for restoring, storing, and saving settings.
ƒ
To restore the original factory settings, use the command rfs. The FPN and PRNU
coefficients are reset to 0.
ƒ
To save all current settings to EEROM, use the command wus. The camera will
automatically restore the saved user settings when powered up. Note: While settings
are being written to nonvolatile memory, do not power down camera or camera
memory may be corrupted.
•
To save all current pixel coefficients to EEROM, use the command wpc.
•
To restore the last saved user settings and the FPN and PRNU coefficients, use the
command rus.
Factory Settings
restore
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User Settings /
EEROM
Current
Session
write / restore
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3.6 Setting Baud Rate
To set the speed of the camera serial communication port, use the command:
Syntax:
sbr i
Syntax Elements:
i
Baud rate. Available baud rates are: 9600 (Default), 19200, 57600,
and 115200.
Notes:
Example:
•
Power-on rate is always 9600 baud.
•
The rc (reset camera) command will not reset the camera to the
power-on baud rate.
sbr 57600
3.7 Setting the Data Mode
To select the camera output mode, use the command:
Syntax:
sdm i
Syntax Elements:
i
See Table 8: Mode Selection Values below for allowable parameter
values.
Notes:
Example:
To obtain the current data mode, use the command gcp.
sdm 0
In the table below, ports A-F refer to ports in the Camera Link specification.
Table 8: Mode Selection Values
Mode
Description
0
8-bit, using A/B/C/D ports for single processor configuration
1
10-bit, using A/B/C and D/E/F for single processor configuration
2
8-bit using ports A/B and D/E for dual processor configuration
3
10-bit, using A/B/C and D/E/F for dual processor configuration
To obtain the current data mode, use the command gcp.
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3.8 Setting the Video Mode
The video mode sets whether the camera is running in calibrated or uncalibrated mode,
or if it is generating a test pattern.
To set the video mode, use the command:
Syntax:
svm i
Syntax Elements:
i
Video mode to use. Allowable values are:
0 Uncalibrated video, deactivated video correction
1 Calibrated video, activated video correction
2 Test pattern right
Notes:
To obtain the current video mode, use the command gcp.
3.9 Setting Line Rate and Exposure Mode
The camera’s line rate (synchronization) is generated internally or input from a frame
grabber/host system. With six different exposure mode settings, the Piranha2 delivers
many possibilities for flexible camera timing. Table 9 outlines each of these six exposure
modes, and is followed by a full explanation on how to set the camera’s frame rate and
exposure time.
Table 9: Piranha2 Exposure Modes
Programmable Line Rate Programmable Exposure Time
Mode SYNC
PRIN
Description
1
Internal
Internal
No
No
Maximum line rate and exposure time
(factory setting)
2
Internal
Internal
Yes
Yes
Exposure control OFF until a set
command is sent
3
External
Internal
No
No
Maximum exposure time
4
External
Internal
No
No
Smart EXSYNC
5
External
External
No
No
6
External
Internal
No
Yes
Fixed integration time
To obtain the current value of the exposure mode, use the command gcp.
When setting the camera to external signal modes, EXSYNC and/or PRIN must be
supplied.
Overview: Setting Line Rate and Exposure Time
The camera’s line rate (synchronization) can be generated internally through software
commands or input externally from a frame grabber/host system. To select how you
want the camera’s line rate to be generated:
1.
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You must first set the camera mode using the sem command. Refer to Setting the
Exposure Mode on the following page for details.
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2.
Then, when applicable, use the commands ssf (mode 2 only) to set the line rate
and/or set (mode 2 or 6), to set the exposure time. Refer to Setting Line Rate and
Setting Exposure Time below for details.
Setting the Exposure Mode
To select an exposure mode, use the command:
Syntax:
sem i
Syntax Elements:
i
Exposure mode to use. Factory setting is 1. Refer to
Table 9 on page 27 for a list of available modes.
Notes:
To obtain the current value of the exposure mode, use the
command gcp.
Related Commands:
ssf, set
Example:
sem 3
Setting Line Rate
Camera must be operating in exposure mode 2.
To set the line rate, use the command:
Syntax:
ssf i
Syntax Elements:
i
Desired line rate in Hz. Allowable range is 1000Hz to the
camera’s maximum line rate. See Table 1. Piranha2
Operating Requirements and Ranges for maximum line
rates.
Notes:
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•
To read the current line rate frequency, use the command
gcp.
•
If you enter an invalid line rate frequency, the valid range of
values will be displayed.
Related Commands:
sem, set
Example:
ssf 3000
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Setting Exposure Time
Camera must be operating in exposure mode 2 or 6.
To set the camera exposure time, use the command:
Syntax:
set f
Syntax Elements:
f
Floating point number in µsecs.
Notes:
•
To read the current exposure time, use the command gcp.
•
If you enter an invalid exposure time, the valid range of
values will be displayed.
Related Commands:
sem, ssf
Example:
set 2100
3.10 Setting a Region of Interest
The roi command sets the pixel range used to collect the end of line statistic and sets the
region of pixels used in the cag, cao, gl, gla, ccf, and ccp commands.
To define a region of interest, use the command:
Syntax:
roi x1 x2
Syntax Elements:
x1
Pixel start number. Must be an odd number and less
than the pixel end number.
x2
Pixel end number. Must be an even number and greater
than the pixel start number.
Related Commands
cag, cao, gl, gla, ccf, ccp
Example:
roi 10 50
3.11 Returning Video Information
The camera’s microcontroller has the ability to read video data. This functionality can be
used to verify camera operation and to perform basic testing without having to connect
the camera to a frame grabber. This information is also used for collecting line statistics
for calibrating the camera.
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Returning a Single Line of Video
The gl command returns a complete line of video (without digital processing or test
pattern) displaying one pixel value after another. It also displays the minimum,
maximum, and mean value of the line sampled. If a region of interest has been set, the
statistics are generated for the region of interest only.
Use this command, or the following gla command, to ensure the proper video input
range into the processing chain before executing any pixel calibration commands.
To return a single line of video, use the command:
Syntax:
gl [x1] [x2]
Syntax Elements:
[x1]
Optional parameter. This sets the start pixel to display
on screen. Allowable range is 1 to sensor pixel count.
This parameter does not affect the Min, Max, and Mean
statistics generated at the end of the line output.
[x2]
Optional parameter. This sets the end pixel to display on
screen. Allowable range is 1 to sensor pixel count. This
parameter does not affect the Min, Max, and Mean
statistics generated at the end of the line output.
Notes:
Example:
•
If you do not specify a pixel range to display, the line output
will display all sensor pixels on screen.
•
If a region of interest has been set using the roi command,
the Min, Max, and Mean statistics at the end of the line
output include statistics for the region of interest only.
•
If you are using the 4 tap model, and your region of interest
is in one half of the sensor only (taps 1 and 2, or taps 3 and 4),
the values displayed on screen for the taps outside the ROI
are a mean of the ROI line statistics.
•
Values returned are in DN.
gl 10 20
Returning Multiple Lines of Video
You can also return the average for multiple lines of video data. The number of lines to
sample is set and adjusted by the css command. The camera displays the Min., Max., and
Mean statistics. If you are using a region of interest, the camera displays the statistics for
the region of interest only.
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To set the number of lines to sample, use the command:
Syntax:
css i
Syntax Elements:
i
Notes:
Example:
Number of lines to sample. Allowable values are 16, 32,
or 64 (factory setting).
To return the current setting, use the gcp command.
css 32
To return the average of multiple lines of video, use the command:
Syntax:
gla [x1] [x2]
Syntax Elements:
[x1]
Optional parameter. This sets the start pixel to display
on screen. Allowable range is 1 to sensor pixel count.
This value does not affect the Min, Max, and Mean
statistics generated at the end of the line output.
[x2]
Optional parameter. This sets the end pixel to display on
screen. Allowable range is 1 to sensor pixel count. This
value does not affect the Min, Max, and Mean statistics
generated at the end of the line output.
Notes:
Example:
•
If you do not specify a pixel range to display, the line output
will display all sensor pixels on screen.
•
If a region of interest has been set using the roi command,
the Min, Max, and Mean statistics at the end of the line
output include statistics for the region of interest only.
•
If you are using the 4 tap model, and your region of interest
is in one half of the sensor only (taps 1 and 2, or taps 3 and 4),
the values displayed on screen for the taps outside the ROI
are a mean of the ROI line statistics.
•
Values returned are in DN.
gl 10 20
3.12 Optimizing Offset Performance
Optimizing offset performance in the analog domain allows you to achieve a better
signal-to-noise ratio (dynamic range) than you would achieve by trying to optimize the
offset in the digital domain.
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Setting Analog Offset
To set the analog offset of the camera, use the command:
Syntax:
sao t i
Syntax Elements:
t
Tap selection. Allowable range is 1 to 4, or 0 for all taps.
i
Analog offset value. Allowable range is 0 to 1023.
Notes:
Example:
•
The offset increases linearly with higher values. A value of
100 does not equal an offset of 100DN.
•
The resulting analog offset value depends on other camera
parameters such as temperature, line rate, and gain.
•
The offset for calibrated and uncalibrated video is set and
saved separately.
sao 0 200
Subtracting Offset or Background
To subtract the video scene offset or any other background from the output video signal,
use the command:
Syntax:
ssb t i
Syntax Elements:
t
Tap selection. Allowable range is 1 to 4, or 0 for all taps.
i
Subtracted value in a range from 0 to 511.
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Notes:
When subtracting a digital value from the digital video signal the
output can no longer reach its maximum. Use the ssg command
to correct for this. See section 3.13 Setting Gains for details on the
ssg command.
Example:
ssb 0 20
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Subtracting Offset in Calibrated Mode
To subtract the A/D offset from the video signal in calibrated mode only (svm 1), prior to
the PRNU correction, use the command:
Syntax:
sdo t i
Syntax Elements:
t
Tap selection. Allowable range is 1 to 4, or 0 for all taps.
i
Subtracted offset value in a range from 0 to 511.
Notes:
Example:
•
When subtracting a digital value from the digital video
signal, the output can no longer reach its maximum. Use the
ssg command to correct for this. See section 3.13 Setting
Gains for details on the ssg command.
•
Available in calibrated mode only (svm 1).
sdo 0 100
Calibrating Offset
To calibrate the analog offset, use the command:
Syntax:
cao t i
Syntax Elements:
t
Tap selection. Allowable range is 1 to 4, or 0 for all taps.
i
The line average in a range dependent on the current
camera data mode setting.
8 bit: 1 to 100DN
10 bit: 4 to 400DN
See section 3.11 Returning Video Information for more
information on line averages
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Notes:
This command sets offset in uncalibrated mode (svm 0).
Example:
cao 0 100
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3.13 Setting Gains
Optimizing gain in the analog domain allows you to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio
(dynamic range) than you would achieve by trying to optimize the gain in the digital
domain.
To set the analog gain mode, use the command:
Syntax:
sg t f
Syntax Elements:
t
Tap selection. Allowable range is 1 to 4, or 0 for all taps.
f
Gain setting. A gain value of 0 sets the camera to its
nominal gain (0dB). The specified gain value range is
from –10 to 10dB.
Example:
sg 0 5.2
To set the digital gain, following a background subtraction, use the command:
Syntax:
ssg t i
Syntax Elements:
t
Tap selection. Allowable range is 1 to 4, or 0 for all taps.
i
Gain setting. The gain ranges are 0 to 511 (equal to a gain
from 1 to 1.999). Use this command in conjunction with
the ssb command.
Related Commands:
ssb
Example:
ssg 1 15
Calibrating Gains
Instead of setting the analog gain to a specific value, you can have the camera determine
the gain value by providing the camera with an average output level to use.
Note: This function requires a constant light input while it executes. This feature is
beneficial for achieving a common output level for multiple cameras in a system.
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To calibrate the analog gain:
Syntax:
cag t i
Syntax Elements:
t
Tap selection. Allowable range is 1 to 4, or 0 for all taps.
i
Line average in a range dependent on the current camera
data mode setting:
8-bit: 64 to 251 DN
10 bit: 256 to 1007 DN
See section 3.11 Returning Video Information for more
information on line averages
Notes:
•
This function requires constant light input while executing.
•
This command sets gain in uncalibrated mode.
Related Commands:
gla, gl
Example:
cag 1 156
3.14 How to Calibrate the Camera
Calibration Overview
This camera has the ability to calibrate itself in order to remove non-uniformity in the
image. This video correction operates on a pixel-by-pixel basis and implements a two
point correction for each pixel. This correction can reduce or eliminate image distortion
caused by the following factors:
Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN)
Photo Response Non Uniformity (PRNU)
Lens and light source non-uniformity
The two point correction is implemented such that for each pixel:
Voutput = (Vinput - FPN( pixel ) - digital offset) * PRNU(pixel)
where
Voutput
=
digital output pixel value
Vinput
=
digital input pixel value from the CCD
PRNU( pixel)
=
PRNU correction coefficient for this pixel
FPN( pixel )
=
FPN correction coefficient for this pixel
The calibration algorithm is performed in two steps. The fixed offset (FPN) is determined
first by performing a calibration without any light. This calibration determines exactly
how much offset to subtract per pixel in order to obtain flat output when the CCD is not
exposed.
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The white light calibration is performed next to determine the multiplication factors
required to bring each pixel to the required value (balance target) for flat, white output.
Video output is set slightly above the brightest pixel (depending on offset subtracted).
For FPN (dark light) the value of all pixels must be between 1DN and 127DN. For PRNU
(white light) the value must be between 128DN and 254DN. Use the gl command to
ensure the proper input to the digital processing, Vinput.
White light calibration will gain up to maximum white light pixel plus the maximum FPN
subtract pixel.
When performing any camera calibration, random noise is minimized by averaging out
up to 64 lines of valid data. To adjust the sample line size, use the css i command,
where i is 16, 32, 64 (factory setting). A lower value reduces the camera’s calibration time,
at the expense of increased coefficient error.
Calibration time
Typical
1024
2048
4096
6144
8192
10 sec.
19 sec.
38 sec.
85 sec.
115 sec.
LED blinks green while calibrating. IMPORTANT: While camera is blinking green, do
not power down camera or memory may be corrupted.
Calibration Steps Overview
1. Change camera video mode to calibrated using the command svm 1
2. Set up the camera operating environment (i.e. line rate, exposure, gain, etc.)
3. Make sure there are suitable calibration targets. The target to calibrate should be a flat
field, e.g. plastic or ceramic for white calibration.
4. Set the calibration sample size using the command css (see Returning Multiple Lines
of Video page 30).
5. Perform Dark (FPN) calibration (see Dark Calibration on page 36).
6. Perform White (PRNU) calibration (see White Light Calibration on page 37).
7. Save settings and pixel coefficients using the commands wus and wpc.
Note: It is important to do the FPN calibration first. Results of the FPN calibration are
used in the PRNU procedure. We recommend that you repeat the calibration when a
temperature change greater than 10°C occurs.
Dark Calibration
Dark calibration is used to remove the fixed analog offset from the video path. It is
recommended you repeat the calibration when a temperature change greater than 10°C
occurs.
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To perform dark calibration:
1.
Stop all light from entering the camera. (Tip: cover lens with a lens cap.)
2.
Verify that output signal level is within range by issuing the command gl or
gla (a valid range is 1-127). If the signal level is too low, adjust the analog offset
(sao). If the signal level is too high, ensure that no light is entering the camera,
reduce the analog offset or reduce the gain level (sg).
3.
Issue the command ccf. The camera will respond with OK> if no error occurs. Dark
calibration automatically calibrates FPN coefficients and digital offset.
To perform a dark calibration with an analog offset value:
Use the ccf [i] command, where i is the analog offset DN. When the optional
parameter is provided, this command sets the analog offset first to i before calculating
the FPN coefficients range from 1 to 100DN for 8-bit data mode, and 4 to 400DN for
10-bit data mode for the specified region of interest. If value is left blank, current offset
values are used.
4.
After the calibration is complete, you can save these settings, and the PRNU
coefficients, to non-volatile memory so they will be remembered after power-down.
To do so, issue the command wpc.
White Light Calibration
Note: If your
illumination or white
reference does not
extend the full field of
view of the camera,
calibration will not be
successful. The camera
will send a warning.
White light calibration is more complex than dark calibration because the camera
attempts to create a flat white image. This calibration corrects PRNU effects as well as
non-uniform lighting and lens vignetting affects.
White light calibration requires a clean, white reference. The quality of this reference is
important for proper calibration. White paper is often not sufficient because the grain in
the white paper will distort the correction. White plastic or white ceramic will lead to
better balancing.
There are several restrictions that must be met in order for the calibration to succeed:
1. The camera is sufficiently sensitive to detect 60 Hz ambient light flicker which may
affect camera performance and calibration results.
2. The light level must be set so that all pixels are between 64DN and 254DN, otherwise
a warning will be sent stating that the camera could not calibrate all pixels to the same
level. Use the gl command to determine input level. If the signal level is too low or
too high, adjust analog gain using the command sg.
3. The variance in light intensity across the target must not be more than 4 to 1. Because
the maximum per-pixel digital gain is 2x, the camera will not be able to compensate
for extremely non-uniform light.
These restrictions are all tested within the calibration algorithm and the camera will
report an informal message code if any of these conditions could not be met.
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To perform a white light calibration:
1.
Place a white reference in front of the camera.
2.
Verify that output signal level is within range by issuing the command gl or gla
(valid range is 128-254). If signal level is too low or too high, adjust the gain using the
command sg.
3.
Instruct the camera to perform a white light calibration using the command ccp. The
camera will respond with OK> if no error occurs.
To perform a white light calibration with an analog gain value:
Use the ccp [i] command. When the optional parameter is provided the analog gain
is adjusted to produce an average white pixel level that is equivalent to the parameter.
This command sets the analog gain first to i before calculating the PRNU coefficients
range from 64 to 251DN for 8-bit data mode, and 256 to 1007DN for 10-bit data mode.
If value is left blank, current gain values are used.
4.
After the calibration is complete, you can save these settings to non-volatile memory
so they will be remembered after power-down. To do so, issue the command wpc.
Returning Calibration Results and Errors
After calibration, you can retrieve the results using the command dpc. This function
returns all the pixel coefficients in the order FPN, PRNU, FPN, PRNU… The camera also
returns the pixel number with each coefficient.
To set a range for the returned coefficients provide an optional pixel start and end value:
Example: display pixel coefficient from pixel 10 to 20
dpc 10 20
The command gcp returns all other settings.
3.15 Setting and Reading FPN Coefficients
You can set or read an individual pixel’s FPN coefficient.
To set the FPN coefficient, use the command:
Syntax:
sfc i i
Syntax Elements:
i
The pixel number from 1 to the pixel count.
i
Coefficient value in a range from 0 to 127.
Example:
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To read the FPN coefficient, use the command:
Syntax:
gfc i
Syntax Elements:
i
The pixel number to read.
Example:
gfc 10
3.16 Setting and Reading PRNU Coefficients
You can set or read an individual pixel’s PRNU coefficient.
To set the PRNU coefficient, use the command:
Syntax:
spc i i
Syntax Elements:
i
The pixel number from 1 to the pixel count.
i
Coefficient value in a range from 0 to 511 where:
i
PixelPRNU = 1 + 512
Example:
spc 10 50
To read the PRNU coefficient, use the command:
Syntax:
gpc i
Syntax Elements:
i
The pixel number to read.
Example:
gpc 10
3.17 Generating Test Patterns
The camera can generate a test pattern to aid in system debugging. Use the command
svm 2 to activate the test pattern. The test pattern is a ramp from 0 to 255DN, then starts
at 0 again. Use the test pattern to verify the proper timing and connections between the
camera and the frame grabber.
End-of-line Sequence
To further aid debugging, the camera can generate an end-of-line sequence. The end-ofline-sequence outputs "aa", "55", "aa", "line counter", "line average", "pixels above
threshold", "pixels below threshold", "derivative line sum". To activate the end-of-line
sequence, use the command els 1. To disable the end-of-line sequence, use the
command els 0.
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Use the sut and slt commands to set threshold values between 0 and 255 for 8-bit data
modes, or 0 to 1023 for 10-bit data modes.
3.18 Monitoring the Camera
The camera is equipped with a red/green LED used to display the operational status of
the camera. The following table summarizes the operating states of the camera and the
corresponding LED states:
LED state
Priority
Camera
Status
Condition
Blinking RED
1
Error
Fatal hardware failure
Steady RED
2
Warning
Monitoring task failure
Blinking GREEN
3
Progress
Lengthy operation in progress. While
camera is blinking green, do not power
down camera or memory may be corrupted.
Steady GREEN
4
OK
Healthy
Note: When more than one condition is active, the LED indicates the condition with the
highest priority. Error and warning states are accompanied by corresponding messages
further describing the current camera status.
Monitoring Tasks
The camera enters a warning state when any of camera's continuously running
monitoring tasks detects a failure. Use the wed i i command, where the first parameter
is the monitoring task and the second parameter is the enable or disable value, to display
the status of all the defined monitory tasks (if no parameter is passed) and/or to
enable/disable specific monitoring tasks.
Note: If you are performing defect detection down to a single pixel, enabling monitoring
tasks is not advisable because monitoring can occur during active video and could
potentially provide erroneous data.
The following table lists the monitoring tasks:
Monitoring
task number
Cod
e
0
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MONITORING TASK
DESCRIPTION
All
Enable/disable all monitoring tasks
1
1
Voltage Monitoring
Monitors all camera voltages
2
2
Temperature Monitoring
Monitors camera temperature
3
4
External SYNC presence
Monitors presence of external SYNC
4
8
External PRIN presence
Monitors presence of external PRIN
5
16
Gain Out Of Spec
Monitoring
Monitors current setting of analog
gain
6
32
Line Rate Bellow 1 Khz
Monitors current line rate
Value
Function
0
Disable selected task
1
Enable selected task
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Note: by default all monitoring tasks are enabled except voltage monitoring.
Example: enable all monitoring tasks
wed 0 1
Example: disable EXSYNC presence
wed 3 0
Temperature Measurement
The temperature of the camera can be determined by using the vt command. This
command will return the temperature inside the cover in degrees Celsius. For proper
operation, this value should not exceed 75°C.
Voltage Measurement
The command vv checks the camera’s input voltage and internal voltages during powerup. If they are within the proper range, the camera returns OK>. Otherwise the camera
returns an error message. Note that the voltage measurement feature of the camera
provides only approximate results (typically within 10%). They should not be used to set
the applied voltage to the camera. The purpose of this test is to isolate gross problems
with the supply voltages.
3.19 Rebooting the Camera
The command rc reboots the camera. The camera starts up with the last saved settings.
Previously saved pixel coefficients are also restored.
3.20 Setting the Pre-trigger
A pre-trigger may be required for some frame grabbers.
To set the pre-trigger, use the command:
Syntax:
sp i
Syntax Elements:
i
Pretrigger value from 0 to 15.
Example:
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4
Optical, Mechanical, and
Thermal Considerations
4.1 Mechanical Interface
The camera’s electronics are housed in a ruggedized lightweight aluminum case. See
Error! Reference source not found. and Error! Reference source not found..
Mounting
The camera can be mounted using the M3 holes (metric-threaded) on its base or top, and
on its front plate at the corners.
Environment
The camera and cables should be shielded from environmental noise sources for best
operation. The camera should also be kept as cool as possible. The specified operating
temperature is 10–50°C measured at the front plate, (the corresponding ambient
temperature range with still air is 0°C to 37°C). Mounting holes (refer above) allow you to
attach heat sinking.
Thermal Management
For any CCD camera optimal performance is achieved by transferring heat away from the
sensor. Keeping a sensor “cool” reduces the amount of dark current generated. Dark
current is the leading contributor to FPN, PRNU, dark offset, random noise and other
performance specifications, especially when a camera is significantly gained (i.e. +10db).
Generally, dark current doubles for every 7°C increase in temperature at the sensor and
increases linearly with integration time. Further variations in dark current cannot be
compensated for with our flat-field correction algorithms. For this reason, at high gains
(+10dB), high temperatures (40°C front plate), and low line rates, it is recommended that
you recalibrate the flat-field coefficients when the temperature shifts by ±10°C.
Note: Upon initial power-up the front plate camera temperature is near ambient. It is
recommended to perform flat-field correction once the camera gets within 10°C of its
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steady state temperature. For Piranha2, at an ambient temperature of 25°C and with no
airflow, the camera takes 90 minutes to achieve steady state and 20 minutes to reach
within 10°C of steady state. If your system cannot perform flat-field correction after
warm-up consider the recommended methods of reducing dark current and overall
camera temperatures (see below).
Reducing Dark Current
The Piranha2 mechanicals have been optimized to transfer heat from the sensor to the
front plate. Therefore, to reduce dark current the front plate is the ideal place to mount
heat sinks.
The heat fins on Piranha2 improve conduction and provide a greater surface area for
convection (airflow). Mount fans away from the camera to avoid vibration, and direct the
airflow on the heat fins to decrease the temperature delta between ambient and front
plate temperatures. Convection is the ideal method to minimize camera warm-up times
and reduce dark current generation.
Both methods— either conduction through heat sinking, or convection through air flow—
greatly reduce dark current and will improve your system performance.
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Figure 8: Piranha2, 2 tap models
PIXEL 1 (1K) 19.88±0.18
PIXEL 1 (2K) 14.76 ±0.18
PIXEL 1 (4K) 10.66 ±0.18
STATUS
6.0 (4X)
4 9 .3
53.8
1 0 .5
57.0(2X)
85.0
32.5
4.0(2X)
9.0 (2X)
32.0 (2X)
54.9(2X)
POWER
OPTICAL DISTANCE
6.56±0.25
CAMERA SURFACE
TO DIE SURFACE
89.2
60.3
CONTROL/DATA 1
OPTICAL DISTANCE
6.56±0.25
CAMERA SURFACE
TO DIE SURFACE
27.0
M3x0.5 - 6H(4X)
6.0 DEEP
M42X1
4.5 DEEP
54 .9 (2X)
1k/2k (10 µm) , 4k ((7 µm)
2 TAP WITH F-MOUNT
1k/2k (10 µm), 4k(7 µm)
2 TAP WITH C-MOUNT
M3x0.5 - 6H(4X)
5.0 DEEP
10.3
4.0 (2X)
42.0 (2X)
56.1
19.1 (2X)
3.5 (2X)
CONTROL
DATA 1
3 2 .5
46.81 (2X)
58.0 (2X)
65.0
85.0
89.2
62.3
PIXEL 1 (4K) 22.02 ±0.18
PIXEL 1 (6K) 21.00 ±0.18
PIXEL 1 (8K) 13.83 ±0.18
M3x0.5 - 6H (4X)
7.0 DEEP
M2x0.4 - 6H (4X)
7.0 DEEP
M72X0.75
STATUS
POWER
7.5 (2X)
25.0
9.1 (2X)
3.5 (2X)
Ø78.0
10.5
6K (7 µm), 4K (10 µm)
2 TAP WITH F MOUNT
6K/8K (7 µm), 4K (10 µm)
2 TAP WITH LARGE FORMAT
ADAPTER
6.0 (4X)
4 9 .3
5 3 .7
50.0
70.0 (2X)
M3x0.5 - 6H (4X)
5.0 DEEP
46.81 (2X)
78.0 (2X)
85.0
Figure 9: Piranha2, 4 tap, 10 µm models
2K Camera
4K Camera
PIXEL 1 (4K) 22.02 ±0.18
19.1 (2X)
3.5 (2X)
M3x 0.5 - 6H (4X )
M42x1
x 4.5
(10.9) 2X
A
85.0
CO NTROL
DATA 1
65.0
58.0 (2X)
58.0
(2X)
32.50±0.18
CCD IMAGING
CENTER
(85.0)
(64.0) 2X
(10.5) 2X
M2x0.4 - 6H (4X)
7.0 DEEP
46.81 (2X)
M3x0.5
x 6.0
(4X)
(32.8) 2X
7 .0 DE EP
32.5
PIXEL 1 (2K) 32.26 ±0.18
(85.0)
(65.0)
DATA 2
STATUS
3.5
(2X)
3.5 (2X)
78.0 (2X)
9.1 (2X)
POW ER
46.81 (2X)
78.0 (2X)
(49.3)
(53.8)
(10.0)
(54.8)
(32.1)
(10.5)
(24.9)
(41.6)
2X
8 5.0
M3x0.5
x 5.0
(4X)
7.5 (2X)
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6.0 (4X)
70.0 (2X)
CAMERA ASSEMBLY WITH
C-MOUNT LENS ADAPTER
SCALE (1:2)
CAMERA ASSEMBLY WITH
F-MOUNT LENS ADAPTER
SCALE (1:2)
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Figure 10: Piranha2, 4 tap, 7 µm models
PIXEL 1 (4K) 28.16 ±0.18
19.1 (2X)
3.5 (2X)
7.5 (2X)
32.5
70.0 (2X)
54.9 (2X)
10.5
S L IM L IN E 8 K 4 T A P
CONTROL
DATA 1
DATA 2
STATUS
3.5 (2X)
9.1 (2X)
M3x0.5 - 6H (4X)
5.0 DEEP
M72X0.75
46.81 (2X)
78.0 (2X)
85.0
32.1 (2X)
POWER
25.0
76.0 MAX
WITH LARGE FORMAT ADAPTER
49.3
5.6 (2X)
PIXEL 1 (8K) 9.32±0.18
39.6
(2X)
CONTROL
DATA 1
M72x0.75
6.0
(4X)
32.8 (2X)
22.8
66.8
85.0
Ø78.0
65.0
M2x0.4 - 6H (4X)
7.0 DEEP
46.81 (2X)
49.3
M3x0.5 - 6H (4X)
7.0 DEEP
53.7
6.0 (4X)
PIXEL 1 (6K) 21.00 ±0.18
PIXEL 1 (8K) 13.83 ±0.18
58.0 (2X)
OPTICAL DISTANCE
6.56±0.25
CAMERA SURFACE
TO DIE SURFACE
89.2
62.3
STANDARD 8K 4 TAP WITH STANDARD 4K/6K 4 TAP
LARGE FORMAT ADAPTER WITH F MOUNT
105.0
DATA 2
85.0
37.6
78.0
(2X)
STATUS
13.0
7.5 (2X)
61.0 (2X)
M3x0.5 - 6H
5.0 DEEP
(4X)
POWER
42.50±0.18
PIXEL 1
10.0
3.5
(2X)
3.5 (2X)
69.0 (2X)
22.9
6.56±0.25
OPTICAL DISTANCE
(ACTIVE AREA TO FRONT
PLATE MOUNT SURFACE)
16.0
M3x0.5 - 6H
6.0 DEEP
(4X)
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4.2 Optical Interface
Depending upon resolution the cameras can be ordered with different lens mounts. The
following table provides this information.
Lens Mounts
Camera
Configuration
Available Lens Mount
Options
1K, 2 Tap
No mount and C-mount
2K, 2 Tap, 4 Tap
No mount, C-mount and F-mount
4K, 2 Tap
No mount and F-mount and
M72x0.75 (10µm model only)
4K, 4 Tap
No mount, F-mount and M72x0.75
6K, 2 Tap
No mount, F-mount and M72x0.75
6K, 4 Tap
No mount, F-mount and M72x0.75
8K, 2 Tap
No mount, and M72x0.75
8K, 4 Tap
No mount, and M72x0.75
All C-mount and F-mount adapters have the appropriate back focal distance for the lens
type being used. Ensure that the image circle diameter of the lens to be used is as great as
the length of the imaging region. The following table provides information regarding the
lens mount used and the back focal distance. The M72x0.75 lens adapter originated from
the high-end photography standard. Distances to its inner flat surface and the outer flat
surface are provided.
Mount
Back Focal Distance (sensor die to
adapter)
C-Mount
17.52 ±0.25mm
F-Mount
46.5 ±0.25mm
M72x0.75
19.55mm (nominal)—outer flat surface
Detailed mechanicals, including front plate opening sizes, and the distance from the
sensor die to the opening, can be found in section 4.1 Mechanical Interface.
Note: Lens manufacturers have readily available lens mounts and lenses to adapt to the
M72x0.75 adapter available on the 6K and 8K cameras.
Illumination
The amount and wavelengths of light required to capture useful images depend on the
particular application. Factors include the nature, speed, and spectral characteristics of
objects being imaged, exposure times, light source characteristics, environmental and
acquisition system specifics, and more. DALSA’s web site, vfm.dalsa.com, provides an
introduction to this potentially complicated issue. See “Radiometry and Photo
Responsivity” and "Sensitivities in Photometric Units" in the CCD Technology Primer
found under the Application Support link.
It is often more important to consider exposure than illumination. The total amount of
energy (which is related to the total number of photons reaching the sensor) is more
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important than the rate at which it arrives. For example, 5µJ/cm2 can be achieved by
exposing 5mW/cm2 for 1ms just the same as exposing an intensity of 5W/cm2 for 1µs.
Light Sources
Keep these guidelines in mind when setting up your light source.
•
LED light sources are relatively inexpensive, provide a uniform field, and longer life
span compared to other light sources. However, they also require a camera with
excellent sensitivity, such as DALSA’s Piranha2 camera.
•
Halogen light sources generally provide very little blue relative to IR.
•
Fiber-optic light distribution systems generally transmit very little blue relative to IR.
•
Some light sources age; over their life span they produce less light. This aging may
not be uniform—a light source may produce progressively less light in some areas of
the spectrum but not others.
Filters
CCD cameras are extremely responsive to infrared (IR) wavelengths of light. To prevent
infrared from distorting the images you scan, use a “hot mirror” or IR cutoff filter that
transmits visible wavelengths but does not transmit wavelengths over 750nm. Examples
are the Schneider Optics™ B+W 489, which includes a mounting ring, the CORION™ LS750, which does not include a mounting ring, and the CORION™ HR-750 series hot
mirror.
Lens Modeling
Any lens surrounded by air can be modeled for camera purposes using three primary
points: the first and second principal points and the second focal point. The primary
points for a lens should be available from the lens data sheet or from the lens
manufacturer. Primed quantities denote characteristics of the image side of the lens. That
is, h is the object height and h′ is the image height.
The focal point is the point at which the image of an infinitely distant object is brought to
focus. The effective focal length (f′) is the distance from the second principal point to the
second focal point. The back focal length (BFL) is the distance from the image side of the
lens surface to the second focal point. The object distance (OD) is the distance from the first
principal point to the object.
Figure 11. Primary Points in a Lens System
Magnification and Resolution
The magnification of a lens is the ratio of the image size to the object size:
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m=
h′
h
where m is the magnification, h’ is the image height (pixel size)
and h is the object height (desired object resolution size).
By similar triangles, the magnification is alternatively given by:
m=
f′
OD
These equations can be combined to give their most useful form:
h′
f′
=
h OD
This is the governing equation for many object and image plane
parameters.
Example: An acquisition system has a 512 x 512 element, 10µm pixel pitch area scan
camera, a lens with an effective focal length of 45mm, and requires that 100µm in the
object space correspond to each pixel in the image sensor. Using the preceding equation,
the object distance must be 450mm (0.450m).
10µm
45mm
=
100µm
OD
OD = 450mm (0.450m)
4.3 Compliance
The Piranha2 cameras have been designed for EMC compliance. The test setup has been
verified to the following EMC standards:
CISPR-22:1997
EN 50082-1:1997
EN 61000-4-2; ±6kV CD, ±8kV AD:1995
EN 61000-4-3; 3V/m:1996
EN 61000-4-4; 500V, 1100V:1995
Follow these specific guidelines to ensure best performance:
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•
Keep Camera Link cables as short as possible.
•
Ensure that all cable shields have 360° electrical connection to the connector.
•
Fasten and secure all connectors.
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5
CCD Handling
Instructions
5.1 Electrostatic Discharge and the CCD Sensor
Cameras contain charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors, which are metal oxide
semiconductor (MOS) devices and are susceptible to damage from electrostatic discharge
(ESD).
Electrostatic charge introduced to the sensor window surface can induce charge buildup
on the underside of the window that cannot be readily dissipated by the dry nitrogen gas
in the sensor package cavity. When charge buildup occurs, surface-gated photodiodes
(SGPDs) may exhibit higher image lag. Some SGPD sensors, such as the IL-P4 and the ITP4 used in the Piranha2 cameras, may also exhibit a highly non-uniform response when
affected by charge buildup, with some pixels displaying a much higher response when
the sensor is exposed to uniform illumination. The charge normally dissipates within 24
hours and the sensor returns to normal operation.
!
WARNING: Charge buildup will affect the camera’s flat-field correction calibration. To avoid an
erroneous calibration, ensure that you perform flat-field correction only after a charge buildup
has dissipated over 24 hours.
5.2 Protecting Against Dust, Oil and Scratches
The CCD window is part of the optical path and should be handled like other optical
components, with extreme care.
Dust can obscure pixels, producing dark patches on the sensor response. Dust is most
visible when the illumination is collimated. The dark patches shift position as the angle of
illumination changes. Dust is normally not visible when the sensor is positioned at the
exit port of an integrating sphere, where the illumination is diffuse.
Dust can normally be removed by blowing the window surface using a compressed air
blower, unless the dust particles are being held by an electrostatic charge, in which case
either an ionized air blower or wet cleaning is necessary.
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Oil is usually introduced during handling. Touching the surface of the window
barehanded will leave oily residues. Using rubber fingercots and rubber gloves can
prevent oil contamination. However, the friction between the rubber and the window
may produce electrostatic charge that may damage the sensor. To avoid ESD damage and
to avoid introducing oily residues, only hold the sensor from the edges of the ceramic
package and avoid touching the sensor pins and the window.
Scratches can be caused by improper handling, cleaning or storage of the sensor. Vacuum
picking tools should not come in contact with the window surface. CCDs should not be
stored in containers where they are not properly secured and can slide against the
container.
Scratches diffract incident illumination. When exposed to uniform illumination, a sensor
with a scratched window will normally have brighter pixels adjacent to darker pixels. The
location of these pixels changes with the angle of illumination.
5.3 Cleaning the Sensor Window
1. Use compressed air to blow off loose particles. This step alone is usually sufficient to
clean the sensor window.
2. If further cleaning is required, use a lens wiper moistened with alcohol or acetone.
3. We recommend using lint-free ESD-safe cloth wipers that do not contain particles that
can scratch the window. The Anticon Gold 9”x 9” wiper made by Milliken is both ESD
safe and suitable for class 100 environments. Another ESD acceptable wiper is the
TX4025 from Texwipe.
4. An alternative to ESD-safe cloth wipers is Transplex swabs that have desirable ESD
properties. There are several varieties available from Texwipe. Do not use regular
cotton swabs, since these can introduce charge to the window surface.
5. Wipe the window carefully and slowly.
6. When cleaning long linear sensors, it may be easier to wipe along the width (i.e. as
opposed to the length) of the sensor.
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6
Troubleshooting
The information in this chapter can help you solve problems that may occur during the
setup of your camera. Remember that the camera is part of the entire acquisition system.
You may have to troubleshoot any or all of the following:
power supplies
cabling
frame grabber hardware & software
host computer
light sources
optics
operating environment
encoder
Your steps in dealing with a technical problem should be:
1. Try the general and specific solutions listed in sections 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
2. If these solutions do not resolve your problem, see section 6.4 on getting product
support.
6.1 Common Solutions
Connections
The first step in troubleshooting is to verify that your camera has all the correct
connections.
Power Supply Voltages
Check for the presence of all voltages at the camera power connector. Verify that all
grounds are connected.
EXSYNC
When the camera is powered on for the first time, it defaults (no external input required)
to exposure mode 2 (5kHz line rate, and internal Sync to trigger readout). After a user has
saved settings, the camera powers up with the saved settings. Note, a warning appears
when switching to exposure mode requiring external signals if external signals are not
present (EXSYNC or PRIN).
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PRIN
PRIN is an optional input signal used to control exposure control (PRIN).
PRIN
Indicates
High
Low
Integration
Pixel reset
Data Clocking/Output Signals
To validate cable integrity, have the camera send out a test pattern and verify it is being
properly received. Refer to section D11 Generating Test Patterns for further information.
6.2 Troubleshooting Using the Serial Interface
The following commands can aid in debugging. (The complete command protocol is
described in Appendix B and C.)
Communications
To quickly verify serial communications send the help command . The h command
returns the online help menu. If further problems persist, review Appendix C for more
information on communications.
Verify Parameters
To verify the camera parameters, send the gcp command. See section C6 Camera
Parameter Screen for a complete explanation of the camera parameters screen.
Verify Factory Calibrated Settings
To restore the camera’s factory settings and reset the FPN and PRNU coefficients to 0,
send the rfs command.
After executing this command send the gcp command to verify the factory settings.
Verify Timing and Digital Video Path
Use the test pattern feature to verify the proper timing and connections between the
camera and the frame grabber and verify the proper output along the digital processing
chain. See below.
Generating Test Patterns
The camera can generate a test pattern to aid in system debugging. Use the command
svm 2 to activate the test pattern. The test pattern is a ramp from 0 to 255DN, then starts
at 0 again. Use the test pattern to verify the proper timing and connections between the
camera and the frame grabber.
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•
No test pattern or bad test pattern — May indicate a problem with the camera (e.g.
missing bit) or a system setup problem (e.g. frame grabber or timing). Verify the
presence of the LVAL and STROBE signals.
•
Test pattern successful — Run the svm 0 command to deactivate video correction.
Then run the gl command under both dark and light conditions to retrieve a line of
raw video (no digital processing). Under dark conditions, with factory settings, the
analog offset value should be within the specified range (refer to the user
specifications). Adjust the analog offset using the cao or sao commands. Under
light conditions, you should receive a value.
Verify Voltage
To check the camera’s input voltages and internal voltages, use the vv command. If they
are within the proper range, the camera returns OK>. Otherwise the camera returns an
error message.
Verify Temperature
To check the internal temperature of the camera, use the vt command. For proper
operation, this value should not exceed 75°C.
Verify Pixel Coefficients
To activate video correction, send the command svm 1. Then use the dpc command to
display the pixel coefficients in the order FPN, PRNU, FPN, PRNU… The camera also
returns the pixel number with each coefficient.
End-of-line Sequence
To further aid debugging, the camera can generate an end-of-line sequence. The end-ofline-sequence outputs "aa", "55", "line counter", "line average", "pixels above threshold",
"pixels below threshold". To activate the end-of-line sequence, use the command els 1.
To disable the end-of-line sequence, use the command els 0.
Use the sut and slt commands to set threshold values between 0 and 255 for 8-bit data
modes, or 0 to 1023 for 10-bit data modes.
LED Status
Located on the back of the camera is a red/green LED used to display the operational
status of the camera. Red lights indicate errors or warnings and green lights indicate
progress and OKs. Error and warning states are accompanied by corresponding messages
further describing current camera status.
Monitoring Tasks
The camera enters a warning state when any of the camera's continuously running
monitoring tasks detects a failure. Use the wed command to display the status of all the
defined monitory tasks (if no parameter is passed) and/or to enable/disable specific
monitoring tasks.
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6.3 Specific Solutions
No Output or Erratic Behavior
If your camera provides no output or behaves erratically, it may be picking up random
noise from long cables acting as antennae. Do not attach wires to unused pins. Verify that
the camera is not receiving spurious inputs (e.g. EXSYNC or PRIN, if camera is in
exposure mode that regulates external signals).
Line Dropout, Bright Lines, or Incorrect Line Rate
Verify that the frequency of the internal sync is set correctly, or when the camera is set to
external sync that the EXSYNC signal supplied to the camera does not exceed the
camera’s maximum specified line rate.
Noisy Output
Check your power supply voltage outputs for noise. Noise present on these lines can
result in poor video quality. Low quality or non-twisted pair cable can also add noise to
the video output.
Dark Patches
If dark patches appear in your output the optics path may have become contaminated.
Clean your lenses and sensor windows with extreme care.
1. Take standard ESD precautions.
2. Wear latex gloves or finger cots
3. Blow off dust using a filtered blow bottle or dry, filtered compressed air.
4. Fold a piece of optical lens cleaning tissue (approx. 3" x 5") to make a square pad that
is approximately one finger-width
5. Moisten the pad on one edge with 2-3 drops of clean solvent—either alcohol or
acetone. Do not saturate the entire pad with solvent.
6. Wipe across the length of the window in one direction with the moistened end first,
followed by the rest of the pad. The dry part of the pad should follow the moistened
end. The goal is to prevent solvent from evaporating from the window surface, as this
will end up leaving residue and streaking behind.
7. Repeat steps 2-4 using a clean tissue until the entire window has been cleaned.
8. Blow off any adhering fibers or particles using dry, filtered compressed air.
Stuck Bits
If data bits seem to be stuck or do not change, check that the camera is not saturated by
preventing light from entering. To verify the data path integrity, check the levels of the 2
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test pattern pixels (first 2 pixels following the last End-of-line pixel. You may need to turn
the End-of-line sequence “on” by sending the command els 1). Any deviation from a
consistent value of these pixels (170DN/85DN) could be an indication of the following:
• shorted bits
• stuck bits
• digital noise pickup on the I/O cable
• open connection.
To activate the test pattern, use the command svm 2. Use the test pattern to verify the
proper timing and connections between the camera and frame grabber.
To receive a complete line of raw video data (without digital processing or test pattern)
through the RS232 port, use the command gl. The returned data displays one pixel value
after another and the minimum, maximum, and mean value of the sampled line. Use this
command to ensure the proper video input range.
Probe the output lines with an oscilloscope. Disconnect the digital cable from the camera
and check the digital signals at the output of the camera. Ensure that the correct values
are present. Check all cable connections, especially right at the connector; poor
connections or broken wires will cause randomly changing bits or stuck bits.
Horizontal Lines or Patterns in Image
A faulty or irregular encoder signal may result in horizontal lines due to exposure time
fluctuations; ensure that your exposure time is regular. If you have verified that your
exposure time is consistent and patterns of low frequency intensity variations still occur,
ensure that you are using a DC or high frequency light source.
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6.4 Product Support
If there is a problem with your camera, collect the following data about your application
and situation and call your DALSA representative.
Note: You may also want to photocopy this page to fax to DALSA.
Customer name
Organization name
Customer phone number
fax number
Complete Product Model Number
(e.g. P2-21-xxx40, P2-21-xxx30...)
Complete Serial Number
Your DALSA Agent or Dealer
Acquisition System hardware
(frame grabber, host computer, light
sources, etc.)
Acquisition System software
(version, OS, etc.)
Power supplies and current draw
Data rate used
Control signals used in your
application, and their frequency or
state (if applicable)
‰ EXSYNC
‰ MCLK
‰ PRIN
‰ BIN
‰ Other _______
Results when you run the
get_camera_parameter command
Detailed description of problem
encountered.
please attach description with as
much detail as appropriate
In addition to your local DALSA representative, you may need to call DALSA Technical
Sales Support:
Voice:
Fax:
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North America
519-886-6000
519-886-8023
Europe
+49-8142-46770
+49-8142-467746
Asia
519-886-6000
519-886-8023
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Appendix A
Camera Link™ Reference
Camera Link is a communication interface for vision applications.
For years, the scientific and industrial digital video market has lacked a standard method
of communication. Both frame grabbers and camera manufacturers developed products
with different connectors, making cable production difficult for manufacturers and very
confusing for consumers. A connectivity standard between digital cameras and frame
grabbers is long overdue and will become even more necessary as data rates continue to
increase.
Increasingly diverse cameras and advanced signal and data transmissions have made a
connectivity standard like Camera Link a necessity. The Camera Link interface will
reduce support time, as well as the cost of that support. The standard cable will be able to
handle the increased signal speeds, and the cable assembly will allow customers to
reduce their costs through volume pricing.
LVDS Technical Description
Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) is a high-speed, low-power general purpose
interface standard. The standard, known as ANSI/TIA/EIA-644, was approved in March
1996. LVDS uses differential signaling, with a nominal signal swing of 350mV differential.
The low signal swing decreases rise and fall times to achieve a theoretical maximum
transmission rate of 1.923 Gbps into a loss-less medium. The low signal swing also means
that the standard is not dependent on a particular supply voltage. LVDS uses currentmode drivers, which limit power consumption. The differential signals are immune to ±1
V common volt noise.
Camera Signal Requirements
This section provides definitions for the signals used in the Camera Link interface. The
standard Camera Link cable provides camera control signals, serial communication, and
video data.
Video Data
The Channel Link technology is integral to the transmission of video data. Image data
and image enable signals are transmitted on the Channel Link bus. Four enable signals
are defined as:
• FVAL—Frame Valid (FVAL) is defined HIGH for valid lines.
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• LVAL—Line Valid (LVAL) is defined HIGH for valid pixels.
• DVAL—Data Valid (DVAL) is defined HIGH when data is valid.
• Spare— A spare has been defined for future use.
All four enable signals must be provided by the camera on each Channel Link chip. All
unused data bits must be tied to a known value by the camera. For more information on
image data bit allocations, refer to the official Camera Link specification on the
vfm.dalsa.com web site.
Camera Control Signals
Four LVDS pairs are reserved for general-purpose camera control. They are defined as
camera inputs and frame grabber outputs. Camera manufacturers can define these signals
to meet their needs for a particular product. The signals are:
• Camera Control 1 (CC1)
• Camera Control 2 (CC2)
• Camera Control 3 (CC3)
• Camera Control 4 (CC4)
Communication
Two LVDS pairs have been allocated for asynchronous serial communication to and from
the camera and frame grabber. Cameras and frame grabbers should support at least 9600
baud. These signals are
• SerTFG—Differential pair with serial communications to the frame grabber.
• SerTC—Differential pair with serial communications to the camera.
The serial interface will have the following characteristics: one start bit, one stop bit, no
parity, and no handshaking. It is recommended that frame grabber manufacturers supply
both a user interface and a software application programmming interface (API) for using
the asynchronous serial communication port. The user interface will consist of a terminal
program with minimal capabilities of sending and receiving a character string and
sending a file of bytes. The software API will provide functions to enumerate boards and
send or receive a character string. See Appendix B in the Official Camera Link
specification on the vfm.dalsa.com web site.
Power
Power will not be provided on the Camera Link connector. The camera will receive
power through a separate cable. Camera manufacturers define their own power
connector, current, and voltage requirements.
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Appendix B
EMC Declaration of
Conformity
DALSA
605 McMurray Rd.,
Waterloo, ON
CANADA N2V 2E9
We,
declare under sole responsibility, that the product(s):
P2-2x-xxx40
P2-4x-xxx40
P2-2x-xxx30
fulfill(s) the requirements of the standard(s)
EMC:
CISPR-22:1997
EN 50082-1:1997
EN 61000-4-2; +/- 6kV CD, +/-8kV AD:1995
EN 61000-4-3; 3V/m:1996
EN 61000-4-4; 500V, 1100V:1995
This product complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive
73/23/EEC and the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC and carries the CE mark
accordingly.
Place of Issue
Waterloo, ON, CANADA
Date of Issue
October 2003
Name and Signature
of authorized person
Hank Helmond
Quality Manager, DALSA Corp.
This Declaration corresponds to EN 45 014.
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Appendix C
Communications Protocol
C1 Protocol Overview
This protocol defines the method used to control the camera via a serial interface. The
communication protocol defines the command format used and error messages provided.
C2 Protocol Features
•
ASCII-based
Camera Serial Port Defaults
•
8 data bits
•
1 stop bit
•
No parity
•
No flow control
•
9.6Kbps
•
Camera does not echo characters
C3 Command Format and Examples
•
A carriage return (CR) ends each command.
•
Values in square brackets are optional.
•
There are two methods for entering the commands: In long form each command is
written in its entirety. In short form, only a predefined abbreviation is required. The
manual used the short form.
•
The following parameters are used in the manual:
i = integer
f = float
s = string
t = tap
x1, x2 = pixel start and stop values
•
The camera will answer each command with either "OK >" or "Error x: Error Message
>". The ">" is always the last character sent by the camera.
Command Format
command_long/short_form [parameters…] CR
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Example: to set the gain to –3.5dB on all taps
set_gain 0 –3.5
or
sg 0 –3.5
Example: to return the camera model number
get_camera_model
or
gcm
Example: to begin a camera calibration (dark correction)
correction_calibrate_fpn or correction_calibrate_fpn i
or
ccf or ccf i
C4 Networking Mode
The camera's network feature provides the capability to connect and control multiple
cameras over a multi-drop RS485 link.
The network feature consists of three commands and a set of definitions describing the
behavior of the camera when the commands are sent in network mode.
Command
Short
Form
Description
set_camera_ID
sci
Sets camera network ID
get_camera_ID
gci
Reads camera ID
set_netmessage_mode
snm
0: disable, default (messages enabled)
1: enable (messages disabled)
Camera ID
The camera ID is a single, case insensitive ASCII alphanumeric character: A to Z or 0 to 9.
To change the network ID for a camera, use the command sci i i. Where the first
parameter is an ID of A to Z or 0 to 9, and the second, optional, parameter is the camera's
serial number.
To read current camera ID, use the gcp command.
Changing Network ID of a Camera
To change the ID of a networked camera, even if some or all of the cameras share the
same camera ID, provide the serial number of the camera as the second parameter when
sending the broadcast version of the sci command.
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Example: change network ID of camera with serial number abcd to 1
: sci 1 abcd
Note: each camera must be polled following use of a broadcast command.
The Network Commands
The network command is an ordinary camera command prefixed by a network prefix.
Network prefixes always start with the colon character ":" and are followed immediately
by the camera ID (addressing a single camera on the network), or space (addressing all
cameras on the network or a Broadcast command).
The camera replies to the network command only if it is addressed directly. The last line
of the camera reply (error or OK message) to the network command is prefixed with the
ID of the camera.
Example: return camera ID for camera a
:a gci
camera id: a
a OK>
Special Case: Empty Network Command
The empty network command is a special case of network commands. If the last
command issued was not a Broadcast command, the empty network command will cause
the addressed camera to output an "OK" message followed by the ">" prompt and
prefixed by the network ID. If the last command issued was a broadcast command, the
empty network command is used to query each camera for its READY/BUSY status.
Example: empty network command issued
:a CR
a OK>
Broadcast Commands and READY/BUSY Status
Broadcast commands are commands sent to all cameras on the network at the same time.
After a broadcast command is sent, and before issuing the next command, each camera on
the link must be polled until a READY status is returned. A BUSY status indicates that the
camera is not ready to receive the next command.
To poll the status of a networked camera, send an empty network command to each
camera until they each return the READY reply.
Both the READY and BUSY reply consist of six characters: Carriage Return (CR), Line
Feed (LF), and the network ID of the queried camera, followed by a space and either the
BUSY code "0", or the READY code "1" and the prompt character ">".
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Example: query command followed by a BUSY reply
:a CR
<CR><LF>a 0>
Example: query command followed by a READY reply
:a CR
<CR><LF>a 1>
After all cameras return the READY status, use the gps to poll each camera for the return
codes of the sent broadcast command.
Note, the QUERY BUSY mode is active only after a broadcast command, normally the
camera does not support this mode of operation. The controlling software must wait for a
reply from the camera before sending the next command.
Camera will not reply to the Broadcast command.
To read the status of the last command executed (major error code + coded value of
informal messages) and coded value for all pending monitoring task warnings poll each
camera by using network version of the gps command.
Example: reading status from camera ID "a"
:a gps
Enabling/Disabling Non-Command Messages in the
Network Environment
To enable/disable camera messages unrelated to the executed command, such as
initialization and monitoring task messages, use the command snm i.
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Value
Function
0
Enable messages, default
1
Disable messages
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C5 Error Handling
Use the gps command to read the status of the last command executed. Return values
come in the following order:
•
Decimal number representing the code of the last command.
•
Decimal number representing the error code for last command executed.
•
Decimal value representing sum of all informal message codes caused by last
command executed.
•
Decimal number representing sum of all pending warning values from all monitoring
tasks.
Example: value returned following a ccf command
gps
2 0 192 33
The returned value, 2 0 192 33, reads as follows:
Returned value
Description
2
Command code: correction_calibrate_fpn
0
Error code: successful
192
Informal message: code 64 + code 128
33
Monitoring task message: code 1 + code 32
The following tables list the codes for errors, informal messages, and monitoring task
messages. (Refer to section E7 for a list of all available commands.)
Error Codes
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Cod
e
Description
Suggested Cause
0
Command executed successfully
Command executed without major error
detected
1
Internal camera error (PIXEL
INDEX)
Internal software error trap
2
Internal camera error (RESULT
CODE)
Internal software error trap
3
Invalid command
Command not recognized
4
Command parameters incorrect
or out of range
Command parameters are invalid or out of
range
5
Command not available in
current exposure mode
ssf and set are allowed only in mode 2
(ssf and set) and in mode 6 (set)
6
Command available in
CALIBRATED mode only
ccf, ccp
7
Command available in
UNCALIBRATED mode only
cao, cag
8
Command not available in
VIDEO TEST mode
sao, sg
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Error Codes
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Cod
e
Description
Suggested Cause
9
Start value must be an odd
number less than the even
numbered end value
roi: invalid starting or ending pixel index
10
Camera memory check failure
Memory test of external RAM failed
11
Unable to configure DSP
DSP (FPGA) configuration failure
12
DSP configuration reset failure
DSP (FPGA) could not be placed in
configuration mode
13
Get line process command timed
out, check for the presence of
external signals
gl,gla,cao,cag,ccf,ccp timed out.
Current exposure mode requires external
SYNC, however SYNC signal not present
14
DSP echo test error
DISC bus communication test failure
15
Invalid sensor configuration
(DSP)
Invalid sensor configuration read from DSP
(FPGA)
16
Invalid sensor configuration
(ADC)
Invalid sensor configuration encoding on
the board
17
Sensor configuration mismatch
Sensor configuration read from DSP is
different than one encoded on the board
18
One (or more) of the supply
voltages is out of specification
vv command result
19
The camera's temperature is
outside the specified operating
range
vt command result
20
Not Used
Not Used
21
Analog offset calibration failure
Analog offset calibration failure (could not
tune the analog offset to obtain targeted
video level)
22
Analog gain calibration failure
Analog gain calibration failure (could not
tune the analog gain to obtain targeted
video level)
23
CRC check failure while
attempting to restore the camera
settings
Camera setting will initialize to default
settings, since restore of USER/FACTORY
settings failed (internal micro EE memory
failure). Contact your DALSA
representative or Product Support if this
error code is returned.
24
Camera settings not saved
rus, rfs attempted but settings were not
saved. Contact your DALSA representative
or Product Support if this error code is
returned.
25
Pixel coefficients write failure
Failure while writing pixel coefficients to
EEROM (I2C EEROM external to micro)
26
I2C communication fault while
accessing temperature sensor
Serial communication fault (I2C) while
accessing temperature sensor
27
Timeout waiting for DISC SYNC
to go LOW
Internal communication protocol error
28
Unable to calibrate gain. Tap
Analog gain could not be calibrated because
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Error Codes
Cod
e
29
Description
Suggested Cause
number outside ROI.
tap number specified in cag command is
outside region of interest.
Unable to calibrate offset. Tap
number outside ROI.
Analog offset could not be calibrated
because tap number specified in cao
command is outside region of interest.
Informal Message Codes
Code
Description
Suggested Cause
1
INFO: CRC check failure while
attempting to restore
calibration status
Pixel calibration status will be set to NOT
CALIBRATED (internal micro EEROM
failure)
2
INFO: CRC check failure while
attempting to restore pixel
coefficients
All pixel coefficients will be reset to zero
(external EEROM (I2C) failure)
4
INFO: Flash memory ID error
Reported from boot process, only if DSP
configuration fails (possible cause:
communication error with serial flash
memory )
8
INFO: DSP configuration file
missing or corrupt
Reported from boot process, only if DSP
configuration fails (possible cause)
16
INFO: Serial communication
failure while accessing
external ADC chip
Reported from boot process if
communication verification fails with
external ADC chip (camera voltage
measurement, SPI)
32
INFO: Calibration may be outof-specification (PRNU
coefficient clipped)
ccp: several coefficients were clipped
INFO: Calibration may be outof-specification (FPN
coefficient clipped)
ccf: several coefficients were clipped
INFO: Calibration may be outof-specification (DO+FPN >
511)
ccf: at least one pixel -> digital offset +
INFO: Changing analog
settings of calibration mode
voids pixel calibration
sao, sg in calibration mode after
512
INFO: For better calibration
results, run FPN calibration
first
ccp: ccp called before ccf
1024
INFO: Coefficient may be
inaccurate. A/D clipping has
occured.
Insufficient analog offset or too much gain
for given light.
64
128
256
during the ccp command process
during the ccf command process
FPN coefficient > 511
calibration has been done
Monitoring Task Message Codes
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Code
Description
Suggested Cause
1
WARNING: One or more
At least one of voltages is out of
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Monitoring Task Message Codes
Code
Description
Suggested Cause
voltages out of specification
specification
2
WARNING: Camera
temperature exceeds specified
limit
Current camera temperature exceeds
specification limit
4
WARNING: External SYNC
not detected
Exposure Mode 3,4,5,6: external SYNC not
detected
8
WARNING: External PRIN
not detected
Exposure Mode 2: external PRIN not
detected
16
WARNING: Analog gain is
over/under the specification
Current analog gain setting is out of
specification
32
WARNING: Line rate is set
below 1000 Hz
Exposure mode 2: current line rate is below
1Khz
C6 Camera Parameter Screen
You can read current camera settings with the gcp command. The table below lists the
settings displayed on the gcp screen with sample values, along with a description of some
of these settings:
GCP Screen
Desctiption
GENERAL CAMERA SETTINGS
See the following section for
a complete command list.
Camera Model No.:
P2-xx-xxxxx
Camera model number.
Camera Serial No.:
xxxxxxxxx
Camera serial number.
Sensor Serial No.:
xxxxxxxxx
Sensor serial number.
Camera Network ID:
x
Camera network id set
with the sci command.
Network Message Mode:
disabled
Displays whether network
messages are enabled or
disabled. Set with the snm
command. See C4
Networking Mode for
details.
Firmware Design Rev.:
xx-xx-xxxxx-xx
DSP Design Rev.:
xx.xx
Firmware design revision
number.
DSP design revision
number.
SETTINGS FOR UNCALIBRATED MODE:
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GCP Screen
Desctiption
Analog Gain (dB):
+0.0 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0
Analog gain value set with
the sg and cao commands.
Available only in
uncalibrated mode (svm
0).
See section 3.13 Setting
Gains for details.
Analog Offset:
308 324 304 292
Analog offset value set
with the sao and cag
command. The cag
command is available only
in uncalibrated mode (svm
1). See section 3.12
Optimizing Offset
Performance for details.
SETTINGS FOR CALIBRATED MODE:
Analog Gain (dB):
+0.0 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0
Analog gain value set with
the sg or ccp command.
The ccp command is
available only in calibrated
mode (svm 1). See sections
3.13 Setting Gains and
White Light Calibration
(page 37) for details.
Analog Offset:
0 0 0 0
Analog offset value set
with the sao or ccf
command. The ccf
command is available only
in calibrated mode (svm
1). See section 3.12
Optimizing Offset
Performance and Dark
Calibration (page 36) for
details.
Digital Offset:
0 0 0 0
Digital offset value set with
the sdo command.
Available only in calibrated
mode (svm 0). See section
3.12 Optimizing Offset
Performance for details.
Calibration Status:
FPN(uncalibrated)
Calibration status will
change to calibrated
after a ccf or ccp
command has been issued
PRNU(uncalibrated)
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GCP Screen
Desctiption
after a power up.
Calibration status will
return to uncalibrated
after camera reboot or a
rpc or svm 0 command
had been issued.
SETTINGS COMMON TO CALIBRATED AND UNCALIBRATED MODES:
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System Gain:
0 0 0 0
Digital gain value set with the
ssg command. See section 3.13
Setting Gains for details.
Background Subtract:
0 0 0 0
Background subtract value set
with the ssb command. See
section 3.12 Optimizing Offset
Performance for details.
Pretrigger:
0
Pretrigger value set with the sp
command. See section 3.20
Setting the Pre-trigger for
details.
Number of Line Samples:
64
Number of lines samples set
with the css command. See
section 3.11 Returning Video
Information for details.
Video Mode:
1
Current video mode value set
with the svm command. See
section 3.8 Setting the Video
Mode for details.
Data Mode:
0
Current data mode value set
with the sdm command. See
section 3.7 Setting the Data
Mode for details.
Exposure Mode:
2
Current exposure mode value
set with the sem command. See
section 3.9 Setting Line Rate
and Exposure Mode for details.
SYNC Frequency:
5000 (4998.51)
Hz
Current line rate. Value is set
with the ssf command. See
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GCP Screen
Desctiption
section 3.9 Setting Line Rate
and Exposure Mode for details.
Exposure Time:
197.950 uSec
Current exposure time setting.
Value is set with the set
command. See section 3.9
Setting Line Rate and Exposure
Mode for details.
End-Of-Line Sequence:
on
States whether an end of line
sequence is turned on or off.
Set using the eol command.
See section 3.17 Generating Test
Patterns for details.
Upper Threshold:
240
Upper threshold value set with
the sut command.
Lower Threshold:
15
Lower threshold value set with
the slt command.
Region of Interest:
0001-4096
Region of interest size set with
the roi command. See section
3.10 Setting a Region of Interest
for details.
C7 Commands
The following table lists all of the commands available to the camera user. The first
column of the table lists command codes returned as first code from gps.
Code
Command
Short
Form
Parameters
Description
0
calibrate_analog_gain
cag
t i
Calibrates the analog gain. The
first parameter is the tap
selection 1 to 4, 0 for all taps.
The second parameter is a line
average in a range from 64 to
251DN for 8-bit mode and 256
to 1007DN for 10-bit. This
command requires a constant
light input and only works in
uncalibrated mode.
1
calibrate_analog_offset
cao
t i
Calibrates the analog offset.
The first parameter is the tap
selection 1 to 4, 0 for all taps.
The second parameter is a line
average in a range from 1 to
100DN for 8-bit mode and 4 to
Parameters:
i = integer
f = float
t = tap selector
s = string
x1 = pixel start
number
x2= pixel end number
[]= optional
parameter
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Code
Command
Parameters:
i = integer
f = float
t = tap selector
s = string
x1 = pixel start
number
x2= pixel end number
[]= optional
parameter
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Short
Form
Parameters
Description
400 for 10-bit. This command
only works in uncalibrated
mode.
2
correction_calibrate_fpn
ccf
[i]
Start FPN coefficient
calibration. Use css to set
sample size. Values range
from 1 to 100DN for 8-bit
mode and 4 to 400 for 10-bit.
3
correction_calibrate_prnu
ccp
[i]
Start PRNU coefficient
calibration. Use css to set
sample size. Values range
from 64 to 251DN for 8-bit
mode and 256 to 1007DN for
10-bit.
4
correction_set_sample
css
i
Set number of line samples
averaged for pixel coefficient
calculations or for output of
gla command. Values: 16, 32,
64. Factory setting: 64
5
display_pixel_coeffs
dpc
[i] [i]
Display the pixel coefficients
in the order FPN, PRNU, FPN,
PRNU, … Optional pixel start
and end values in a range from
1 to sensor pixel count.
6
endof_line_sequence
els
i
Set the end-of-line sequence:
0: Off
1: On, default value
7
get_camera_id
gci
Read the camera ID.
8
get_camera_model
gcm
Read the camera model
number.
9
get_camera_parameters
gcp
Read camera parameters.
10
get_camera_serial
gcs
Read the camera serial
number.
11
get_camera_version
gcv
Read the firmware version and
FPGA version.
12
get_fpn_coeff
gfc
i
Read the FPN coefficient.
14
get_line
gl
[i] [i]
Get a line of raw video (no
digital processing or test
pattern) displaying one pixel
value after another and the
minimum, maximum, and
mean value of the sampled
line. Optional pixel start and
end values in a range from 1 to
sensor pixel count.
15
get_line_average
gla
[i] [i]
Read the average of line
samples. Use css to set
sample size. Optional pixel
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Code
Command
Parameters:
i = integer
f = float
t = tap selector
s = string
x1 = pixel start
number
x2= pixel end number
[]= optional
parameter
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Short
Form
Parameters
Description
start and end values in a range
from 1 to sensor pixel count.
13
get_prnu_coeff
gpc
16
get_processing_status
gps
Read the status of last
executed command and coded
value for all pending
monitoring task warnings.
17
get_sensor_serial
gss
Read the sensor serial number.
18
help
h
Display the online help.
19
region_of_interest
roi
20
reset_camera
rc
Reset the entire camera
(reboot).
21
reset_pixel_coeffs
rpc
Reset the pixel coefficients to
0.
22
restore_factory_settings
rfs
Restore the camera’s factory
settings. FPN and PRNU
coefficients reset to 0.
23
restore_user_settings
rus
Restore the camera's last saved
user settings and FPN and
PRNU coefficients.
24
set_analog_offset
sao
t i
Set the analog offset. The first
parameter is the tap selection 1
to 4, 0 for all taps. The second
parameter controls the digital
analog convertor (DAC), in a
range from 0 to 1023, that sets
analog offset. Offset increases
with higher values.
25
set_baud_rate
sbr
i
Set speed of serial
communication port. Baud
rates: 9600, 19200, 57600, and
115200. Default baud: 9600
26
set_camera_id
sci
s [s]
Set camera ID. The first
parameter is a character A to
Z, or 0 to 9. The second
optional parameter is the serial
number of the addressed
camera.
i
i i
Read the PRNU coefficient.
Set the pixel range for reading
end-of-line statistic and for the
region of pixels used in the
cag, cao, gl, gla, ccf, and
ccp commands. Pixel start and
end values in a range from 1 to
sensor pixel count.
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Code
Command
Short
Form
Parameters
Description
27
set_data_mode
sdm
i
Set the data mode of camera
output to:
0: 8-bit, A/B/C/D ports, single
processor
1: 10-bit, A/B/C and D/E/F
ports, single processor
2: 8-bit, A/B and D/E ports,
dual processor
3: 10-bit, A/B/C and D/E/F
ports, dual processor
28
set_digital_offset
sdo
t i
Subtracts the input value from
the video signal prior to the
PRNU correction. The first
parameter is the tap selection 1
to 4, 0 for all taps. The second
parameter is the offset in a
range from 0 to 511. Use in
calibrated mode only.
29
set_exposure_mode
sem
i
Set the exposure mode:
1: Internal SYNC and PRIN,
max line rate and exposure
time, factory setting
2: Internal SYNC and PRIN,
programmable line rate and
exposure time using
commands ssf and set
3: External SYNC, internal
PRIN, maximum exposure
time
4: Smart EXSYNC
5: External SYNC and PRIN
6: External SYNC, internal
PRIN, programmable
exposure time
30
set_exposure_time
set
f
Set the exposure time in
exposure mode 2 or 6. Value
will be a floating point number
in µsecs
31
set_fpn_coeff
sfc
i i
Set the FPN coefficient. The
first parameter is the pixel
number within the range 1 to
8192. The second value is a
specified value within the
range 0 to 127.
32
set_gain
sg
t f
Set the analog gain. The first
parameter is the tap selection 1
to 4, 0 for all taps. The second
parameter is a gain value
specified from –10 to 10. A
Parameters:
i = integer
f = float
t = tap selector
s = string
x1 = pixel start
number
x2= pixel end number
[]= optional
parameter
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Code
Command
Parameters:
i = integer
f = float
t = tap selector
s = string
x1 = pixel start
number
x2= pixel end number
[]= optional
parameter
Short
Form
Parameters
Description
gain value of 0 sets the camera
to its nominal gain.
33
set_lower_threshold
slt
i
Set the lower threshold to a
value from 0 to 255 for 8-bit
data modes, and 0 to 1023 for
10-bit.
34
set_netmessage_mode
snm
i
Enable/disable camera
messages unrelated to the
executed network command:
0: Enable messages, default
1: Disable messages
35
set_pretrigger
sp
i
Set the pretrigger to a value
from 0 or 15.
36
set_prnu_coeff
spc
i i
Set the PRNU coefficient. The
first parameter is the pixel
number within the range 1 to
8192. The second parameter is
a specified value within the
range 0 to 511where:
i
PixelPRNU = 1 + 512
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37
set_subtract_background
ssb
t i
Subtracts the input value from
the output signal. The first
parameter is the tap selection 1
to 4, or 0 for all taps. The
second parameter is the
subtracted value range from 0
to 511.
38
set_sync_frequency
ssf
i
Sets the line rate, in exposure
mode 2, to a value from
1000Hz to camera's maximum
line rate. Value rounded
up/down as required.
39
set_system_gain
ssg
t i
Set the digital gain. The first
parameter is the tap selection 1
to 4, or 0 for all taps. The
second parameter is a gain
value is specified from 0 to
511.
40
set_upper_threshold
sut
i
Set upper threshold to a value
from 0 to 255 in 8-bit data
modes, and 0 to 1023 in 10-bit.
41
set_video_mode
svm
i
Switch between calibrated and
uncalibrated modes:
0: Uncalibrated video,
deactivate video correction
1: Calibrated video, activated
correction
2: Test pattern
42
verify_temperature
vt
Check the internal
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Code
Command
Parameters:
i = integer
f = float
t = tap selector
s = string
x1 = pixel start
number
x2= pixel end number
[]= optional
parameter
03-32-00493-11
Short
Form
Parameters
Description
temperature of the camera.
43
verify_voltage
vv
Check the camera voltages and
return OK or fail.
44
warning_enable_disable
wed
45
write_pixel_coeffs
wpc
Write all current pixel
coefficients to EEROM.
46
write_user_settings
wus
Write all of the user settings to
EEROM except pixel
coefficients which are written
using the wpc command.
[i] [i]
Read enable/disable status of
all defined monitoring tasks.
Optionally, the first parameter
selects a monitoring task and
the second parameter
enables/disable the selected
task.
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Appendix D
DC Offset De-rating Curve
As of December 2004, all Piranha2 line scan cameras have been modified. This
modification has caused:
•
The Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) of the sensor to be improved, and
•
An increase in dark current at the minimum line rate and maximum gain.
This increased dark current is only an issue when the camera is using long integration
times, at the maximum gain setting, or at high ambient temperatures. Operating the
camera at high temperatures or at low line rates with maximum gain, impacts the
camera’s ability to perform offset calibration. Figure 12 illustrates camera operating
conditions and the associated limits for optimal offset calibration. The offset values
indicated are the values obtained after issuing the cao 0 5 (calibrate analog offset)
command. The plot shows the DC offset over temperature at maximum gain with the
optimal offset calibration limit being represented by the Limit line. The area under the
Limit line shows the operating conditions where the camera’s offset can be calibrated to
camera specifications; the area above the Limit line shows the operating conditions where
the camera’s DC offset is greater than camera specifications. If you are operating the
camera in this range, you may want to reduce the effect of the increased dark current by:
03-32-00493-11
•
Adjusting the calibration target value higher to enable offset compensation to work.
For example, cao 0 30.
•
Adding cooling to reduce temperature. Refer to the Thermal Management section on
page 43 for more information.
•
Operating the camera at higher line rate and averaging or discarding the extra lines
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Figure 12: Worst Case Calibrated DC Offset vs. Temperature and Exposure Time
Worst case calibrated DC offset VS temperature and exposure
time
80
70
999 usec
60
DC Offset (DN)
900 usec
50
800 usec
700 usec
40
600 usec
500 usec
30
400 usec
20
Limit
10
0
15.5
27.5
36.5
45
56
65.5
Camera internal Temperature C
Notes:
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•
Camera ambient temperature is approximately 15°C less than the internal camera
temperature.
•
Camera gain is 10dB
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Appendix E
Revision History
03-32-00493-11
Revision
Number
Change Description
00
Preliminary release
01
Updated pgs 9-10: Added sensor alignment specifications of x,y: ±175um, z:
±0.18mm and ø: 0.6°. Changed FPN uncorrected: Max Gain 27DN. Changed
RMS Noise: typ. 1.2DN, max 4DN. Added Notes: All measurements taken in 8bit output mode; All specifications are valid for the front plate temperature
range of 10°C to 50°C, in still air. Added Notes 4 and 5.
Page 25,26 Mechanicals drawings: Included specifications on the location of
pixel 1 with respect to edges of the front plate. On page 27 removed nominal
from C, F-Mount chart and replaced with ±0.18mm
02
1K, 2k, and 4K--2 tap Piranha2 cameras available.
03
Mostly minor text and spec changes, plus replacing Doody with Helmond on
EMC declaration
04
Added note 4 on page 10.
Added section 3.10, page 27, Setting a Region of Interest.
Added section 3.11, page 27, Returning Video Information.
Removed all references of the css command default being 128 and changed it to
64.
On page 31, Calibrating Gains, changed allowable ranges from 64 (was 128) to
251 and 256 (was 512) to 1007.
Added error message 28 and 29 on page 64. Removed error message 20.
Added informal message codes 32 and 64 on page 65.
Added section C6 Camera Parameter Screen on page 65.
In section C7, command table:
cag: range is now 64 (was 128) to 251 or 256 (was 512) to 1007
ccp: range is now 64 (was 128) to 251 or 256 (was 512) to 1007
css: 64 is now the factor setting. 128 was removed.
roi: explanation expanded to include the roi influence on the cag, cao, gl, gla,
ccf and ccp commands.
05
Added P2x-xxx30 part number to front cover.
Added 30MHz info to section 1.1 Camera Highlights.
Added 30MHz specs to section 1.3 Camera Performance Specifications
Added Note 1 on page 10
Added table 5, page 20, 30MHz timing values
Added P2-2x-xxx30 to EMC Declaration of Conformity, page 61.
06
Updated drawing in section 2.2. LED was referenced to section D13 which no
longer exists. It is now referenced to section 3.18.
In section 3.16, page 39, and Appendix B, All Available Commands table,
added equation for determining the PRNU coefficient for the spc command.
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Revision
Number
Change Description
07
Added the following note (or similar) to these sections, "While settings are
being written to nonvolatile memory, do not power down camera or camera
memory may be corrupted."
1. Section 3.5, page 25, second bullet
2. Page 36, middle of page in calibration section
3. Section 3.18 in the LED description table, Blinking Green section
Added revision history.
03-32-00493-11
08
Fixed incorrect ± character in mechanical drawings.
Updated Colorado Springs address
Added Appendix D: De-rating Curves
Removed maximum DC Offset specification from Specification table in Chapter
1 and added note 6 to refer to Appendix D for DC Offset de-rating curves.
09
Added 8k 30MHz model to:
Table 1: Operating Requirements and Ranges (max line rate)
Table 7: Piranha2 30MHz Timing
10
Added 4k, 10µm model to:
Section 1.2 Image Sensors [Figure 2: IT-P1 4k Image Sensor (2k, 4k (10 µm), 4
tap models) ]
Section 1.3 Camera Performance Specifications (power and power supply
current specs)
11
Added 2k, 4 tap model to:
Section 1.2 Image Sensors [Figure 2: IT-P1 4k Image Sensor (2k, 4k (10 µm), 4
tap models) ]
Section 1.3 Camera Performance Specifications (power and power supply
current, line rate specs)
Added Figure 1: IL-P1 Image Sensor (1k, 2k, 4k (10 µm), 2 tap models) to
Chapter 4, Mechanical Interface
Updated z tolerance from .18mm to .25mm in table 1 and Lens Mount table
(page 47).
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Index
30MHz model, 5, 9
Data Bus, 17
data mode, 26
debugging, 18, 39, 53
digital data, 17
4
E
40MHz model, 5, 9
EIA-644 Reference, 59
EMC compliance, 49
EMC Declaration of
Conformity, 61
end of line sequence, 18
generating, 39
environmental considerations,
43
error handling, 67
error messages, 40
exposure mode
setting, 27
exposure time, 27, 29
EXRCLK, 16
EXSYNC, 17
setting, 21, 27, 72
troubleshooting, 53
3
A
about DALSA, 2
applications, 6
B
baud rate, 26
bright lines, 56
C
cables, 16
calibrating the camera, 35
calibration
dark, 36
errors, 38
overview, 35
results, 38
steps, 36
time, 36
white light, 37
camera controls, 15, 60
Camera Link, 59
command reference, 63
commands
descriptions, 72
long form, 24
parameters, 24
short form, 24
communications protocol, 63
connector
Camera Link, 14
MDR26, 14
power, 14
cooling, 43
D
dark calibration, 36
dark current, 44
dark patches, 56
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F
fiber-optic light sources, 48
filters, 48
FPN, 36, 38
G
gain
analog, 34
calibrating, 34
digital, 34
setting, 34
H
halogen light sources, 48
help, 23
hot mirror, 48
I
illumination, 47
IL-P1 image sensor, 7
incorrect line rate, 56
input/output, 13
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inputs
Camera Link, 16
exteranl sync, 17
PRIN, 16
interface
mechanical, 43
optical, 47
serial, 23
software, 23
IT-P1 image sensor, 7
L
LED, 40
lens
modeling, 48
mounts, 47
light sources, 48
line dropout, 56
line rate, 21, 27, 28, 72
setting, 21, 27, 72
line statistics, 29
LVDS, 59
P
performance, 8
pixel statistics, 29
power supplies, 16
pretrigger, 41
PRIN, 16
PRNU, 37, 39
R
rebooting, 41
region of interest, 29
responsivity graph, 11
roi. See Region of Interest
S
magnification, 49
mechanical interface, 43, 47
mode
data, 26
exposure, 27
networking, 64
video, 27
model
30MHz, 5, 9
40MHz, 5, 9
modes
exposure, 27
operating, 27
monitoring tasks, 40
mounting, 43
sensor, 7
alignment, 47
cleaning, 51
serial interface, 23
settings
gain, 34
offset, 31
pretrigger, 41
restoring, 25
saving, 25
specifications
electro-optic, 10
performance, 8
startup, 25
statistics, 29
STROBE
troubleshooting, 54
stuck bits, 56
N
T
network commands, 65
networking, 64
noisy output, 56
Technical Sales Support, 58
temperature, 43
measurement, 41
recommendations, 40
test patterns, 18
generating, 39, 54
timing
fixed (programmed), 19
input and output, 19
troubleshooting, 53
M
O
offset
analog, 32
calibrating, 33
optimizing, 31, 70, 71
subtracting, 32
online help, 23
operating requirements, 8
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operational status of camera,
40
optical interface, 47
output mode, 26
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V
W
video data, 30, 59
voltage
measurement, 41
warning messages, 40
white light calibration, 37
DALSA