user manual ( 11Mo 08/2001)


Tecplot
User’s Manual
Version 9, Revision 2
Amtec Engineering, Inc.
Bellevue, Washington
August, 2001
Copyright © 1988-2001 Amtec Engineering, Inc. All Rights Reserved worldwide. No part of Tecplot software or documentation may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated in any form without
the express written permission of Amtec Engineering, Inc.
The license management portion of this product is based on Élan License Manager. Copyright © 1989-1997 Rainbow Technologies,
Inc. All rights reserved.
This software contains material that is © 1994-1998 DUNDAS SOFTWARE, LTD., all rights reserved.
NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Software Library and Utilities © 1988-1998 The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.
All rights reserved. Contributors include National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois, Fortner
Software (Windows and Mac), Unidata Program Center (netCDF), The Independent JPEG Group (JPEG), Jean-loup Gailly and Mark
Adler (gzip).
WARRANTY
Amtec Engineering, Inc. (Amtec) warrants that the Tecplot computer program and documentation will substantially conform to published specifications. Amtec also warrants that the magnetic media used to transfer the software is free from defects in material and
workmanship and that the software is free from substantial programming errors for a period of six (6) months from the date of purchase,
unless a longer period is required by local law. During this period defective media will be replaced and substantial programming errors
in the software will be corrected by Amtec with no charge. If Amtec is unable to replace defective media or correct substantial programming errors within sixty (60) days after notification of the defect or error, Amtec will refund the license fee to licensee. These are your
sole remedies for any breach of warranty.
DISCLAIMER AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
EXCEPT AS SPECIFIED ABOVE, AMTEC MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE
CONTENTS OF THE TECPLOT SOFTWARE AND DOCUMENTATION. AMTEC SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF FITNESS OF TECPLOT FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. FURTHER, AMTEC RESERVES THE RIGHT
TO MAKE CHANGES FROM TIME TO TIME IN THE CONTENTS OF TECPLOT WITHOUT OBLIGATION OF AMTEC TO
NOTIFY ANY PERSONS OR ORGANIZATIONS OF SUCH REVISIONS OR CHANGES.
Since Tecplot is complex and may not be entirely free from errors, we advise you to verify the data produced by Tecplot. IN NO
EVENT SHALL AMTEC BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF USE, PROFIT, OR REVENUE DUE TO THE USE OF TECPLOT, OR
FOR ANY INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR SPECIAL DAMAGES INCURRED OR SUFFERED DUE TO OR
RELATED TO THE USE OF TECPLOT EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. IN NO CASE SHALL
AMTEC’S LIABILITY EXCEED THE AMOUNT OF THE PURCHASE PRICE.
Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties, or the exclusion of incidental or consequential
damages, so the above exclusions and limitations may not apply to you.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraphs (a) through (d) of the
Commercial Computer-Restricted Rights clause at FAR 52.227-19 when applicable, or in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013, and/or in similar or successor clauses in the DOD or NASA FAR
Supplement. Contractor/manufacturer is Amtec Engineering, Inc., PO Box 3633, Bellevue, WA 98009-3633.
TRADEMARKS
Tecplot, Preplot, Framer—Amtec Engineering, Inc. Encapsulated PostScript, FrameMaker, PageMaker, PostScript, Premier—Adobe
Systems, Inc. Ghostscript—Aladdin Enterprises. Linotronic, Helvetica, Times—Allied Corporation. LaserWriter—Apple
Computers, Inc. AutoCAD, DXF—Autodesk, Inc. Alpha, DEC, Digital,VAXstation—Digital Equipment Corporation. Élan License
Manager is a trademark of Élan Computer Group, Inc. LaserJet, HP-GL, HP-GL/2, PaintJet—Hewlett-Packard Company. XDesigner—Imperial Software Technology. Builder Xcessory—Integrated Computer Solutions, Inc. IBM, RS6000, PC/DOS—International Business Machines Corporation. Bookman—ITC Corp. X Windows—Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MGI VideoWave—
MGI Software Corporation. ActiveX, Excel, MS-DOS, Microsoft, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual J++, Visual Studio, Windows,
Windows Metafile—Microsoft Corporation. HDF, NCSA—National Center for Supercomputing Applications. UNIX, OPEN LOOK—
Novell, Inc. Motif—Open Software Foundation, Inc. Gridgen—Pointwise, Inc. IRIS, IRIX—Silicon Graphics, Inc. Open Windows,
Solaris, Sun, Sun Raster—Sun MicroSystems, Inc. All other product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks
of their respective owners.
ii
Contents
Contents
CHAPTER 1
iii
What’s New in Tecplot Version 9.0
1.1.New Capabilities
1
1.1.1.3-D Upgrades 1
1.1.2.Import and Export
1.1.3.Curve-Fits 3
3
1.2.Changes from Version 8.0
4
1.2.1.3-D Images 4
1.2.2.Printing and Exporting Images 5
1.2.3.Performance 6
1.2.4.XY Curve-Fits 6
1.2.5.Keyboard and Mouse Operations 6
1.2.6.Interface Navigation Changes 7
1.2.7.Macro Language Changes 8
1.2.8.Tecplot Version 8.0 Layout Suggestions
CHAPTER 2
Getting Started
1
8
9
2.1.Starting Tecplot 9
2.1.1.Windows 9
2.1.2.UNIX 9
2.2.The Interface
10
2.2.1.The Menu Bar 11
2.2.2.The Sidebar 13
2.2.3.The Status Line 18
iii
Contents
2.2.4.The Workspace 18
2.2.5.Dialogs 19
2.2.6.File Dialogs 21
2.2.7.Basic Operations 24
2.2.8.Positioning and Resizing Objects
2.2.9.The Quick Edit Dialog 27
2.3.Help
CHAPTER 3
25
27
Frames and the Workspace
3.1.Working with Frames
29
29
3.1.1.Creating Frames 30
3.1.2.Deleting Frames 30
3.1.3.Sizing and Positioning Frames 30
3.1.4.Modifying the Frame Background Color 31
3.1.5.Controlling Frame Borders and Headers 32
3.1.6.Modifying the Frame Name 34
3.1.7.Pushing and Popping Frames 34
3.2.Managing Your Workspace
35
3.2.1.Setting Up the Tecplot Paper 35
3.2.2.Setting Up Grids and Rulers 37
3.2.3.Maximizing Your Workspace 38
3.3.Coordinate Systems 38
3.4.Modifying Your View 40
3.4.1.Modifying the View of Your Data within a Frame 40
3.4.2.Modifying the View of Frames and Paper within the
Workspace 44
3.5.Copying, Cutting, and Pasting
45
3.5.1.Copying Objects 46
3.5.2.Clearing Objects 46
3.5.3.Cutting Objects 46
CHAPTER 4
Data Organization
47
4.1.Data Hierarchy 47
4.2.Multiple Zones 48
4.3.Data Structuring within a Zone
4.3.1.Ordered Data 50
iv
50
4.3.2.Finite-Element Data 55
4.4.Viewing Data Set Information
CHAPTER 5
57
Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
5.1.ASCII Data File Records
61
61
5.1.1.File Header 62
5.1.2.Zone Records 63
5.1.3.Text Record 65
5.1.4.Geometry Record 67
5.1.5.A More Extensive Example of a Geometry Record
5.1.6.Custom Label Record 71
5.1.7.Summary of Data File Records 72
5.2.Ordered Data
70
75
5.2.1.I-Ordered Data 76
5.2.2.IJ-Ordered Data 80
5.2.3.IJK-Ordered Data 82
5.2.4.One Variable Data Files 84
5.3.Finite-Element Data
84
5.3.1.Example of Triangle Data in FEPOINT Format 86
5.3.2.An Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate Triangle Data in
FEPOINT Format 87
5.3.3.An Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate Triangle Data in
FEBLOCK Format 88
5.3.4.An Example of a Finite-Element Zone Node Variable
Parameters 88
5.4.Duplicating Variables and Connectivity Lists 89
5.5.Converting ASCII Data Files to Binary 90
5.5.1.Standard Preplot Options 91
5.5.2.Examples of Using Preplot 92
5.5.3.Using Preplot to Convert Files in PLOT3D Format 93
CHAPTER 6
Working with Tecplot Files
95
6.1.Loading Tecplot-Format Data Files
95
6.1.1.Loading Data Files 96
6.2.Writing Data Files 107
6.3.Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets
109
6.3.1.Stylesheets 110
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Contents
6.3.2. Layout Files 111
6.3.3. Layout Package Files 116
6.4.Publishing Plots on the Web
6.5.Other Tecplot Files 120
CHAPTER 7
118
Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
7.1.The CGNS Loader
121
122
7.1.1.CGNS Loader Options: Zones Dialog 123
7.1.2.CGNS Loader Options: Index Ranges Dialog 124
7.1.3.CGNS Loader Options: Variables Dialog 125
7.2.The DEM Loader 126
7.3.The DXF Loader 126
7.3.1.The Load DXF File Dialog 127
7.3.2.Limitations of the DXF Loader 128
7.4.The Excel Loader
128
7.4.1.Spreadsheet Data Formats 129
7.4.2.Example: Loading an FEPOINT Excel File in User-Defined
Format 132
7.4.3.Restrictions of the Excel Loader 134
7.5.The Fluent Loader 134
7.6.The Gridgen Loader 135
7.6.1.Loading Gridgen Data Using Tecplot
7.7.The HDF Loader
7.7.1.HDF Loader Limitations
7.8.The Image Loader
136
138
139
139
7.8.1.Limitations of the Image Loader 140
7.9.The PLOT3D Data Loader
140
7.9.1.PLOT3D File Attributes 142
7.9.2.Setting the Data Structure Attribute 142
7.9.3.Setting the File Format Attribute 142
7.9.4.Setting Miscellaneous Attributes 142
7.9.5.Determining the File Attributes 142
7.9.6.Reading In a Subset of the Data 143
7.10.The Text Spreadsheet Loader 143
7.10.1.Data File Format 143
7.10.2. Text Spreadsheet Loader Limitations
vi
144
CHAPTER 8
XY-Plots
145
8.1.XY-Plot Data 146
8.2.Creating XY-Mappings 147
8.3.Editing XY-Mappings 149
8.3.1.Modifying XY-Mapping Names 150
8.3.2.Activating and Deactivating XY-Mappings 150
8.3.3.Assigning X- and Y-Variables to XY-Mappings 151
8.3.4.Assigning Zones to XY-Mappings 152
8.3.5.Assigning Axes to XY-Mappings 152
8.4.Altering the Style 152
8.4.1.Activating and Deactivating Map Layers 153
8.4.2.Altering Line Attributes 154
8.4.3.Altering Symbol Attributes 158
8.5.Controlling the X- and Y-Axes 164
8.5.1.Controlling the Axis Range 164
8.5.2.Log Axes 165
8.5.3.Using Multiple X- and Y-Axes 166
8.6.Fitting Curves to Data
167
8.6.1.Curve-Fit Types 168
8.6.2.Fitting a Straight Line to Your Data 170
8.6.3.Fitting a Polynomial to Your Data 171
8.6.4.Fitting an Exponential Curve to Your Data 172
8.6.5.Fitting a Power Curve to Your Data 173
8.6.6.Fitting a Spline to Your Data 174
8.6.7.Fitting a Parametric Spline to Your Data 175
8.6.8.Fitting an Extended Curve to Your Data 176
8.6.9.Assigning Dependent and Independent Variables 177
8.6.10.Assigning Curve-Weighting Variables 178
8.6.11.Extracting Curve Details and Data Points 180
8.7.Assigning Error Bars
184
8.7.1.Selecting an Error Bar Type 185
8.7.2.Modifying Other Error Bar Attributes 187
8.8.Creating Bar Charts 189
8.9.Selecting I-, J-, and K-Indices 190
8.10.Adding an XY-Plot Legend 192
8.11.Labeling Data Points 193
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Contents
CHAPTER 9
Creating Field Plots
197
9.1.Creating 2-D Field Plots 198
9.2.Creating a 3-D Field Plot 199
9.3.Modifying Your Field Plot 202
9.3.1.Using Field Plot Attributes Dialogs 203
9.3.2.Controlling Which Zones are Displayed 204
9.3.3.Controlling Zone Layer Display 204
9.3.4.Choosing Colors 205
9.3.5.Choosing a Line Pattern 206
9.3.6.Choosing a Pattern Length 208
9.3.7.Choosing a Line Thickness 209
9.4.Labeling Data Points and Cells
9.5.2-D Plotting Order 212
9.6.Controlling 3-D Plots 212
210
9.6.1.3-D Rotation 212
9.6.2.3-D View Details 213
9.6.3.3-D Zooming and Translating 215
9.6.4.3-D Sorting 216
9.6.5.3-D Projection 217
9.6.6.3-D Orientation Axis 217
9.6.7.3-D Axis Reset 218
9.6.8.3-D Axis Limits 218
CHAPTER 10
Creating Mesh Plots and Boundary
Plots 221
10.1.Modifying Your Mesh Plot 221
10.2.Choosing a Mesh Plot Type 222
10.3.Modifying Boundary Plots 224
10.4.Specifying Which Boundaries are Displayed 225
CHAPTER 11
Creating Contour Plots
227
11.1.Modifying Your Contour Plot 227
11.2.Choosing a Contour Variable 229
11.3.Controlling the Contour Plot Type 229
viii
11.3.1.Controlling Contour Lines 231
11.3.2.Controlling Contour Flooding 232
11.3.3.Lighting Effects and Contour Flooding 232
11.4.Specifying Contour Levels 233
11.4.1.Specifying the Range or Number of Contour Levels 234
11.4.2.Adding Contour Levels 235
11.4.3.Removing Contour Levels 235
11.4.4.Adjusting Contour Levels 236
11.5.Controlling the Global Color Map
236
11.5.1.Modifying a Standard Color Map 238
11.5.2.Modifying a User-Defined Color Map 239
11.5.3.Modifying a Raw User-Defined Color Map 239
11.5.4.Color Map Files 239
11.6.Adjusting the Color Map for a Specific Frame 240
11.6.1.Color Distribution Methods 241
11.6.2.Color Cutoff 242
11.6.3.Reversing the Color Map 243
11.6.4.Color Map Cycles 244
11.7.Creating a Contour Legend
11.8.Contour Labels 245
CHAPTER 12
Creating Vector Plots
244
249
12.1.Creating a Vector Plot 249
12.2.Modifying Your Vector Plot 250
12.3.Controlling the Vector Plot Type 251
12.4.Controlling Vector Arrowheads 252
12.4.1.Controlling Arrowhead Style 253
12.4.2.Controlling Arrowhead Size 254
12.4.3.Controlling Arrowhead Angle 255
12.5.Controlling Vector Length 255
12.6.Controlling Vector Spacing 256
12.7.Creating 3-D Vector Plots 257
12.7.1.Tangent Vectors 257
12.7.2.Lengths of 3-D Vectors
258
12.8.Displaying a Reference Vector 258
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Contents
CHAPTER 13
Streamtraces
261
13.1.Creating Surface Streamlines 262
13.2.Creating Volume Streamtraces 264
13.3.Controlling Streamtrace Plot Attributes 266
13.3.1.Streamlines 266
13.3.2.Streamrods and Streamribbons 267
13.4.Deleting Streamtraces 269
13.5.The Streamtrace Termination Line 269
13.5.1.Creating a Termination Line 269
13.5.2.Controlling the Termination Line 270
13.6.Streamtrace Timing 271
13.6.1.Creating Stream Markers 271
13.6.2.Creating Stream Dashes 273
13.7.Extracting Streamtraces as Zones 275
13.8.Streamtrace Integration 275
CHAPTER 14
Creating Scatter Plots
279
14.1.Creating a Scatter Plot 279
14.2.Modifying Your Scatter Plot 279
14.3.Choosing the Scatter Symbol 281
14.4.Specifying the Symbol Color 283
14.4.1.Specifying the Outline Color 283
14.4.2.Choosing Filled Symbols and a Fill Color 284
14.5.Specifying Scatter Symbol Size and Font 285
14.5.1.Specifying a Fixed Symbol Size 285
14.5.2.Specifying Variable Symbol Sizes 285
14.5.3.Specifying the Variable Size Multiplier and Font
14.5.4.Creating a Reference Scatter Symbol 288
14.6.Specifying Symbol Spacing 289
14.7.Creating a Scatter Legend 290
CHAPTER 15
Creating Shade Plots
293
15.1.Creating 2-D Shade Plots 293
15.2.Creating 3-D Surface Shade Plots 294
x
286
CHAPTER 16
Translucency and Lighting
297
16.1.Translucency and Lighting 297
16.1.1.Translucency 297
16.1.2.Lighting 299
CHAPTER 17
Controlling Axes
303
17.1.Showing and Hiding Axes 304
17.2.Assigning Variables to Axes 305
17.3.Modifying the Axis Range 305
17.3.1.Controlling Axis Dependency 307
17.3.2.Reversing the Axis Direction 307
17.3.3.Controlling Axis Position 308
17.4.Controlling the Axis Grid 309
17.4.1.Controlling Gridlines 310
17.4.2.Controlling the Precise Dot Grid 311
17.4.3.Controlling the Grid Area 311
17.5.Controlling Tick Marks and Tick Mark Labels 313
17.5.1.Controlling Tick Marks 313
17.5.2.Controlling Tick Mark Labels 316
17.5.3.Tick Mark Label Formats 317
17.6.Controlling the Axis Line 321
17.6.1.Controlling Axis Line Color 322
17.6.2.Controlling Axis Line Thickness 322
17.6.3.Controlling Edge Assignments in 3-D 322
17.7.Controlling Axis Titles 323
17.7.1.Choosing an Axis Title 323
17.7.2.Controlling Axis Title Offset 324
17.7.3.Controlling Axis Title Position 325
CHAPTER 18
Annotating with Text and Geometries
327
18.1.Adding Text 328
18.1.1.Editing Text 329
18.1.2.Deleting Text 330
18.1.3.Controlling Text Fonts 330
18.1.4.Using European Characters 331
xi
Contents
18.1.5.Using Character Codes to Generate European
Characters 333
18.1.6.Specifying Text Size and Position 333
18.1.7.Adding Dynamic Text 336
18.2.Adding Geometries to Your Plot 339
18.2.1.Creating Geometries 339
18.2.2.Modifying Geometries 340
18.2.3.Creating 3-D Line Geometries
347
18.3.Pushing and Popping Text and Geometries 349
18.4.Aligning Text and Geometries 349
18.5.Linking Text and Geometries to Macros 350
18.6.Creating Custom Characters 350
CHAPTER 19
Frame Linking
351
19.1.Attributes that can be Linked 351
19.2.Frame Linking Groups 352
19.3.Linking an Attribute 353
19.4.Dependent Axes 353
CHAPTER 20
Working with Finite-Element Data
355
20.1.Creating Finite-Element Data Sets 356
20.2.Creating 3-D Volume Data Files 361
20.2.1.Creating a Finite-Element Volume Brick Data Set 361
20.2.2.Creating a Finite-Element Volume Tetrahedral Data Set 364
20.3.Triangulated Data Sets 365
20.4.Extracting Boundaries of Finite-Element Zones 368
20.5.Limitations of Finite-Element Data 369
CHAPTER 21
Working with 3-D Volume Data
371
21.1.Choosing Which Surfaces to Plot 371
21.2.Choosing which Points to Plot 374
21.3.Plotting Derived Volume Objects 375
21.4.Interpolating 3-D Volume Irregular Data 376
xii
21.5.Extracting I-, J-, and K-Planes 377
21.6.Generating and Extracting Iso-Surfaces 378
21.6.1.Locating Iso-Surfaces 378
21.6.2.Iso-Surface Style 379
21.6.3.Extracting Iso-Surfaces 380
21.7.Slicing Data in 3-D 381
21.7.1.Defining Slice Planes 381
21.7.2.Extracting Slices 385
21.8.Creating Special 3-D Volume Plots 388
21.8.1. Fence Plots 388
21.8.2.Analytic Iso-Surface Plots 390
CHAPTER 22
Printing Plots
393
22.1. Printing a Plot 393
22.2.Setting Up Your Paper 394
22.2.1.Using the Print Setup Dialog under Windows
22.2.2.Using the Paper Setup Dialog 394
394
22.3.Setting Up Your Printer 396
22.3.1.Setting Up Windows Printing 396
22.3.2.Setting Up Motif Printing 397
22.4.Print Render Options 401
22.4.1.Specifying Color Mappings for Monochrome Printing
22.5.Print Preview
CHAPTER 23
402
404
Exporting Plots
405
23.1.Creating a File for Export 406
23.2.Creating Vector Export Files 407
23.2.1.Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) 407
23.2.2.Windows Metafile (WMF) Export 409
23.2.3.Clipboard Capability for Placing Tecplot Images Directly into
Other Applications 410
23.3.Creating Image Export Files 411
23.3.1.Creating PNG Images 412
23.3.2.Creating BMP Images 412
23.3.3.Creating AVI Files 412
23.3.4.Creating TIFF Images 413
xiii
Contents
23.3.5.Creating Sun Raster Files 415
23.3.6.Creating Raster Metafiles 415
23.3.7.Creating PostScript Images 416
CHAPTER 24
Data Spreadsheet
419
24.1.Viewing a Data Set 419
24.2.Changing Data in the Spreadsheet 420
CHAPTER 25
Data Operations
421
25.1.Altering Data with Equations 421
25.1.1.Equation Syntax 422
25.1.2.Zone Selection 433
25.1.3.Index Range and Skip Selections for Ordered Zones
25.1.4.Specifying the Data Type for New Variables 433
25.1.5.Overriding Equation Restrictions 434
25.1.6.Performing the Alteration 434
25.1.7.Equations in Macros 435
433
25.2.Transforming 2-D Polar Coordinates to Rectangular 440
25.3.Transforming 3-D Spherical Coordinates to
Rectangular 441
25.4.Rotating 2-D Data 441
25.5.Shift Cell-Centered Data 442
25.6.Creating Zones 443
25.6.1.Creating a 1-D Line Zone 444
25.6.2.Creating a Rectangular Zone 444
25.6.3. Creating a Circular or Cylindrical Zone 447
25.6.4.Entering XY-Data 450
25.6.5.Extracting Data Points 451
25.6.6.Duplicating a Zone 453
25.7.Deleting Zones 456
25.8.Triangulating Irregular Data Points 458
25.9.Interpolating Data 459
25.9.1.Inverse-Distance Interpolation 460
25.9.2.Kriging 462
25.9.3.Linear Interpolation 465
25.9.4.Alternatives to Interpolation 466
xiv
25.10.Smoothing Data
CHAPTER 26
Probing
466
469
26.1.Probing Field Plots with the Mouse 469
26.2.Advanced Probing 472
26.2.1.Probing Obscured Points 472
26.2.2.Probing on Streamtraces, Iso-Surfaces, and Slices
472
26.3.Probing Field Plots by Specifying
Coordinates and Indices 473
26.4.Viewing Probed Data from Field Plots 474
26.4.1.Viewing Variable Values 474
26.4.2.Viewing Zone and Cell Info 475
26.5.Probing XY-Plots 475
26.5.1.Probing XY-Plots with a Mouse
476
26.6.Probing XY-Data by Specifying Coordinates and
Indices 480
26.7.Viewing XY Probe Data 481
26.7.1.Viewing Interpolated XY Probe Data 481
26.7.2.Viewing Nearest Point XY Probe Data 481
26.8.Probing to Edit
482
26.8.1.Editing Data with the Mouse 483
26.8.2.Editing Data with the Probe/Edit Data Dialog 483
CHAPTER 27
Blanking
485
27.1.Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots 485
27.1.1.Value-Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots 486
27.1.2.IJK-Blanking 491
27.1.3.Cutaway Plots 494
27.1.4.Depth-Blanking 495
27.2.Blanking XY-Plots 496
CHAPTER 28
Using Macros
497
28.1.Creating Macros 497
28.1.1.Defining Macro Functions 499
xv
Contents
28.2.Playing Back Macros 500
28.2.1.Preparing to Play Back a Macro 500
28.2.2.Running a Macro From the Command Line 500
28.2.3.Running a Macro From the Interface 501
28.2.4.Running Macros from the Quick Macro Panel 501
28.2.5.Linking Macros to Text and Geometries 503
28.3.Debugging Macros 503
28.3.1.Macro Context 504
28.3.2.Changing the Macro Command Display Format 505
28.3.3.Evaluating a Macro File with the Macro Viewer 505
28.3.4.Adding and Deleting Breakpoints 506
28.3.5.Watching Variable Values while Debugging 506
28.3.6.Modifying Macro Variables 507
28.4.Doing More with Macros 508
28.4.1.Processing Multiple Files 508
28.5.When to use Macros, Layouts or Stylesheets 509
CHAPTER 29
Batch Processing
511
29.1.Batch Processing Setup 511
29.2.Batch Processing Using a Layout File
29.3.Processing Multiple Data Files 513
512
29.3.1.Looping Outside Tecplot 513
29.3.2.Looping Inside Tecplot 513
29.4.Batch Processing Using Stylesheet Files 514
29.5.Batch Processing Diagnostics 514
29.6. Moving Macros to Different Computers or Different
Directories 515
CHAPTER 30
Animation and Movies
517
30.1.Animation Tools 517
30.1.1.Animating Zones 518
30.1.2.Animating XY-Mappings 519
30.1.3.Animating Contour Levels 520
30.1.4.Animating IJK-Planes 521
30.1.5.Animating IJK-Blanking 522
30.1.6.Animating Slices 523
xvi
30.1.7.Animating Streamtraces 524
30.1.8.Creating a Movie File 525
30.2.Creating a Movie Manually 525
30.3.Creating Movies with Macros 526
30.4.Advanced Animation Techniques 527
30.4.1.Changing Image Size of Animations 527
30.4.2.Changing Text in Animations by Attaching Text to Zones 528
30.4.3.Changing Text in Animations by Using the Scatter Symbol
Legend 528
30.4.4.Changing Text in Animations by Using Macros 529
30.4.5.Animating Multiple Frames Simultaneously 530
30.5.Viewing Movie Files 531
30.5.1.Viewing AVI Files 531
30.5.2.Viewing Raster Metafiles in Framer 531
CHAPTER 31
Customizing Tecplot
535
31.1.Tecplot Configuration Files 535
31.1.1.Creating a Configuration File 536
31.1.2.Setting Plot Defaults 539
31.1.3.Configuring the Tecplot Interface 540
31.1.4.Specifying Default File Name Extensions 544
31.1.5.Specifying the Default Temporary Directory 545
31.2.Customizing Tecplot Interactively 545
31.2.1.The Color Preferences Dialog 545
31.2.2.The Size Preferences Dialog 545
31.3.Using the Display Performance Dialog 547
31.3.1.On Screen Performance 548
31.3.2.Graphics Cache 549
31.3.3.Style Options 550
31.4.Configuring the Interface under UNIX 551
31.4.1.Changing the Default Size of Tecplot 551
31.4.2.Changing Accelerator Keystrokes 551
31.4.3.Setting Default Positions for Dialogs 552
31.5.Defining Custom Characters and Symbols 553
31.6.Configuring the Location of the "tecplot.phy" File 556
xvii
Contents
CHAPTER 32
Tecplot Add-Ons
557
32.1.Using Add-Ons 557
32.1.1.Loading Add-Ons 558
32.1.2.Using the $!LoadAddOn Command 560
APPENDIX A
Tecplot Command Line Options
563
A.1.Tecplot Command Line 563
A.2.Using the Command Line in Windows 565
A.3.Using Command Line Options in Windows Shortcuts
565
A.3.1.Creating Shortcuts 565
A.3.2.Changing Shortcuts 566
A.4.Additional Command Line Options in Motif 567
A.5.Overriding the Data Sets in Layouts by Using "+" on the
Command Line 567
A.6.Tecplot Command Line Examples 568
A.7.Specifying Data Set Readers on the Command Line 569
APPENDIX B
Utility Command Line Options
571
B.1.Framer 571
B.2.LPKView 573
B.3.Preplot 574
B.4.Raster Metafile to AVI (rmtoavi) 575
APPENDIX C
Mouse and Keyboard Operations
C.1.Extended Mouse Operations 577
C.2.Mouse Tool Operations 578
C.3.Picked Object Options 581
C.4.Other Keyboard Operations 581
xviii
577
APPENDIX D
List of Example Files
APPENDIX E
Glossary
APPENDIX F
Limits of Tecplot Version 9.0
583
585
599
xix
Contents
xx
CHAPTER 1
What’s New in Tecplot
Version 9.0
Tecplot Version 9.0 renders images using OpenGL, which dramatically enhances Tecplot’s
capabilities, especially in the area of three-dimensional data visualization. This chapter highlights the broad improvements to Tecplot and details how using Tecplot Version 9.0 differs
from using past versions of Tecplot.
1.1. New Capabilities
The most significant improvements to Tecplot Version 9.0 concern 3-D plotting, image import
and export, and curve-fit augmentation. An overview of each is provided in the following sections.
1.1.1. 3-D Upgrades
Tecplot’s new 3-D capabilities include:
• Fast rendering: OpenGL allows Tecplot to utilize today’s fast graphics cards.
• Unified view controls: Magnification, rotation, and translation modes have been integrated
into mouse controls, eliminating the time spent hopping from tool to tool. Time-saving
mouse and keyboard shortcuts allow greater efficiency for creating plots.
• Translucency: Pack more information into your plots by making your iso-surfaces, slices,
streamtraces, and other zonal surfaces translucent. This is true translucency, not the pseudotranslucency of previous versions that was based on a form of dithering. An example is
shown in Figure 1-1.
1
Chapter 1. What’s New in Tecplot Version 9.0
Figure 1-1. An
example of a translucent plot created with Tecplot Version 9.0.
• Slicing: A suite of new tools allow you to interactively place and display slices for 3-D volume data sets without having to first extract them to zones. Flooded contours, shading,
mesh lines, vectors and scatter symbols instantly appear on your slices. Simultaneously
slice multiple planes, or sweep a slice through a volume to explore your data. The slices
may be created for constant X-, Y-, Z-, I-, J-, or K-planes. An example is shown in
Figure 1-2.
• Iso-surfaces: Increase and decrease iso-surface values in 3-D data sets to discover information quickly. You may show one or more values at the same time, and like Tecplot’s slicing
capabilities, you do not have to extract to zones to display them with lighting effects.
• Streamtraces: Just point-and-click to place streamtraces in 3-D volumes on slices or isosurfaces within volumes. Your streamtraces are rapidly rendered, and just as rapidly
removed if you desire. Information on your slices, iso-surfaces, and streamtraces is saved to
your layout file so you can recreate them in seconds.
• True color: Contour flooding and light source shading on 3-D surfaces are now rendered in
vivid colors to create stunning plots and animations.
2
1.1. New Capabilities
Figure 1-2. An
example of interactive information discovery utilizing Tecplot’s
slicing abilities.
1.1.2. Import and Export
Tecplot’s new import and export abilities include:
•
•
•
•
New CGNS and Fluent data loaders.
A new Image Loader so you may load your logo as a set of geometries.
Export vibrant 24-bit raster images in true color, or reduce to 256 colors for compactness.
Exported images may be any resolution independent of your monitor.
1.1.3. Curve-Fits
Tecplot, through the Add-on Developer’s Kit, gives you the ability to create your own curvefits. Customized curve-fits using your own proprietary algorithms enhance Tecplot. Also, with
an Amtec-supplied curve-fit add-on, you can interactively define curves with up to eight
degrees of freedom.
3
Chapter 1. What’s New in Tecplot Version 9.0
1.2. Changes from Version 8.0
Tecplot Version 9.0 uses OpenGL for 3-D on-screen imaging and for exporting raster images.
With Version 9.0, all details are redrawn with each movement. To fully realize the 3-D performance of Version 9.0 we strongly recommend that you install a powerful OpenGL-accelerated
graphics card on your computer.
To maintain responsiveness when viewing extremely large data sets, you may switch to a trace
image (an approximate wire-frame view) during operations such as rotation and translation.
Specify the trace option by setting the Draw Level for 3D View Changes to Trace on the Performance Options dialog, which is accessed from the sidebar.
Note: For optimum performance on Windows, go to your Display properties by clicking with
your right mouse button on your desktop, then choose Properties. Make sure that “Show
window contents while dragging” is turned off under “Plus!” (Windows NT) or “Effects”
(Windows 98 or 2000).
1.2.1. 3-D Images
The following changes have been made as to how Tecplot Version 9.0 handles objects in 3-D:
• In Version 8.0 there was only one global light source color. Now each light source shaded
object may be a different color.
• The 3-D lighting effects on light source shaded objects is now specified in the new Effects
page of the Plot Attributes dialog. These effects may be applied to flooded contour surfaces, shaded surfaces, iso-surfaces, slices, and streamtraces. (Previously, to have a lighting
effect on a contour-flooded object, you had to turn on both contours and shade, and set the
Contour layer to be pseudo-translucent.)
• IJK Attributes have been changed to Volume Attributes. For each zone, you may choose
which surfaces to plot (surfaces, planes, and so forth), which points to plot, and which 3-D
objects to plot (whether to draw streamtraces, slices and iso-surfaces for that zone).
• There is no need to extract streamtraces, slices or iso-surfaces to view them with correct
sorting or with more advanced surface plot styles. They are displayed immediately with
mesh, shading, and/or flooded contours.
• Iso-surfaces may be viewed independently of a zone’s contour lines. They are controlled by
their own dialog. You may choose to see iso-surfaces for all contour levels, or for up to
three specified values of the contour variable.
4
1.2. Changes from Version 8.0
• A new 3D Slice Details dialog allows you to display a specified number of slices on X-, Y-,
or Z-planes. Ordered data also has the option of displaying slices for constant I, J, or K. A
new tool has been added to the sidebar allowing you to begin creating and displaying slices,
or change the position of existing slices. When it is selected, you can change the plane of
the slices by typing the appropriate letter, such as Z for a Z-plane. The starting plane may
be moved by clicking the desired location. Shift-click on your data to add or move the ending slice plane, and press any number on the keyboard to set the number of intermediate
slices. Slices can display flooded contours, vectors, meshes, shading, and boundaries.
When extracting slices, choose to extract only from the surface zones or only from the volume zones.
• Screen images and exported bit-based images can have true translucency in 3-D. It can be
specified as any value from 1-99 percent. Translucency may be applied to streamtraces, isosurfaces, slices, shaded surfaces, and contour flooded surfaces.
• Finite-element volume data performance is greatly improved. The new default is to draw
only the outer surfaces, so you do not have to extract a finite-element boundary to view it.
Hidden surface removal for 3-D finite-element data has also been improved.
• Rotation has been smoothed and is faster and more accurate.
1.2.2. Printing and Exporting Images
The following changes have been made as to how Tecplot Version 9.0 prints and exports
images:
• Exported raster images may have true translucency.
• Plots exported in a vector-based format such as PostScript and Windows Metafile may
appear different than the screen image. Translucency is only supported in raster image output. Hidden surfaces may show some minor artifacts at intersecting surfaces.
• When printing, new render options allow you to print a bit-based image and specify its size.
A print preview option is available, to view how a plot would appear as an exported vectorbased file.
• Appending to existing files with Tecplot’s animation export formats (Raster Metafile and
Audio-Visual Interleaved) is no longer supported. Appending is only supported while creating the file; you cannot stop the animation and restart it in the middle at some future time. If
you wish to make animations and later concatenate them together you may create animations as separate Raster Metafile movies and later concatenate them together. The rmtoavi
utility allows you to convert the Raster Metafiles to AVI files.
5
Chapter 1. What’s New in Tecplot Version 9.0
1.2.3. Performance
OpenGL, along with new algorithms, has lead to increased performance in the following areas:
• Adding or removing streamtraces or iso-surfaces does not cause a recalculation of the other
objects, so it is much faster.
• Many internal calculations such as slicing, blanking interpolation, and streamtrace integration are faster.
• Creating streamtraces for 2- and 3-D plots is now faster and more accurate.
• More colors are available for contour flooding. The number of colors available is now tied
to the maximum contour levels allowed. There is also a continuous color flooding option
which smoothly varies the color for 3-D plots.
• The change from one color to the next on multi-color and color-flooded streamtraces,
streamrods, and streamribbons, is now accurate with the change of the contour variable,
instead of an abrupt “block” change perpendicular to the sides of the streamtrace.
• The new Slice tools allow you to extract the slices you have created in your plot.
• You may display the boundary for a finite-element quadrilateral or finite-element triangle
zone.
• Tecplot allows use of non-traditional ordered data such as J-, K-, IK-, and JK-ordered.
• You may now probe exclusively on non-zone objects (like streamtraces, slices, and iso-surfaces) using the Alt key. For example, if you have a slice in a volume plot, you may use the
Alt with the Streamtrace tool to place a streamtrace directly on the slice. You could also use
Alt with the Selector tool to select the slice, then use the Quick Edit dialog to add or remove
mesh, contour, and so forth on the slice.
1.2.4. XY Curve-Fits
The following changes have been made to curve-fitting:
• Curve-fit types are now located on the Curves page of the Plot Attributes dialog, instead of
the Lines page, as in Version 8.0.
• In addition to the standard curve-fits, you may also choose the Extended option, which lists
all curve-fits added to Tecplot as add-ons.
1.2.5. Keyboard and Mouse Operations
The following operations are allowed while using most sidebar tools with a mouse:
6
1.2. Changes from Version 8.0
• For a three-button mouse:
Middle button: Zoom in/out.
Right button: Translate.
• For a two-button mouse:
Ctrl-Right button: Zoom in/out.
Right button: Translate.
Further enhancements include:
• You may now drag the mouse when using the Contour Add tool. In addition, if you hold the
Ctrl key down you may adjust the location of an existing contour line or iso-surface.
• When adding streamtraces you can press R, D, V, or S on your keyboard to switch to ribbons, rods, volume lines, or surface lines. Pressing a number on your keyboard changes the
number of streams to place in a rake.
• All interactive rotations using the mouse will be smooth. The step size now only applies to
clicking the rotate options on the sidebar.
• When using the Zoom tool you can click once with left mouse button to center the zoom
around the point you click.
• Alternate, viewer-centric rotate and zoom operations are now available. An Alt-middle
mouse button, or Alt-Ctrl-right mouse button, while dragging with your mouse will
increase or decrease the view distance instead of view width. When in one of the Rotate
modes, adding Alt while dragging your mouse will cause the viewer, rather than the object,
to rotate. These new modes are useful for flyby-like examinations of your 3-D plot.
1.2.6. Interface Navigation Changes
Functionality changes due to menu and dialog modifications are detailed below.
• 3D Light Source Color Dialog: This dialog has been removed from the Workspace menu.
It is no longer an option.
• Contour Colormap Adjustments: Colormap Override options are on the new Advanced
Options dialog, which is accessed from the new Contour Coloring Options dialog.
• Lift Fractions for Vector, Geometry and Scatter: These have moved from the Field
menu’s 3D Details dialog to the Field menu’s new Advanced 3D Control dialog. They are
now called Lift Fractions for Line, Symbol, and Tangent.
• Lighting Effects: To add a lighting effect to a contour flooded zone, go to the Field menu’s
Contour Attributes dialog and set Use Lighting to Yes. Then go to the Effects page and set
Lighting Effect to Paneled or Gouraud. This may also be done for streamtrace rods or rib-
7
Chapter 1. What’s New in Tecplot Version 9.0
bons on the Field menu’s Streamtrace Details dialog, for slices on the Field menu’s 3D
Slice Details dialog, and for iso-surfaces on the Field menu’s 3D Iso-Surface Details dialog.
• Light Source Position: This option has been moved from the Field menu’s 3D Details dialog to the Field menu’s new 3D Light Source dialog.
• Orthographic to Perspective 3-D Images: This ability has moved from the Field menu’s
3D Details dialog to the View menu’s new 3D View Details dialog. (The parameters have
also been changed.)
• Streamtraces: Because there are several new options for displaying streamrods and
streamribbons, the Field menu’s Streamtrace Details dialog has a new page for Rod/Ribbon. (Windows users should use the tab page arrows to access the Integration page.)
• Z-Clipping: This ability has moved from the Field menu’s 3D Details dialog to the Style
menu’s new 3D Depth-Blanking dialog. Cells are blanked along an imaginary plane parallel to the surface of the monitor screen.
1.2.7. Macro Language Changes
To accommodate the changes in Tecplot Version 9.0 there are many new and updated macro
commands. In most cases, Version 8.0 macros will run without modification. The biggest
exceptions are macros which create Raster Metafile or AVI animation files. These must be
modified to work with Tecplot Version 9.0.
1.2.8. Tecplot Version 8.0 Layout Suggestions
If a 3-D layout created in Tecplot Version 8.0 looks very dark, try moving the light source
direction. Do this using the 3D Light Source dialog accessed from the Shade sub-menu of the
Field menu. You may also try increasing the amount of background light. This option, which is
also available on the 3D Light Source dialog, along with Intensity and Surface Color Contrast,
gives you excellent control over the coloring of your plots.
On all 3-D zones with both contour flooding and shading, turn off the Shade zone layer on the
sidebar, then change the Lighting Effect to Paneled or Gouraud using the Field menu’s Contour
Attributes dialog.
8
CHAPTER 2
Getting Started
Tecplot is a powerful tool for visualizing a wide range of technical data. It offers XY-plotting,
2- and 3-D surface plots in a variety of formats, and 3-D volumetric visualization, combined
within an easy to learn point-and-click interface. This chapter describes Tecplot’s interface and
goes through the basic procedures for creating a variety of graphics. We will use data sets
included with Tecplot for the examples in this chapter, and many examples in the rest of the
book, so you may create these plots.
2.1. Starting Tecplot
The following sections describe how to start Tecplot on Windows or UNIX systems.
2.1.1. Windows
On Windows operating systems you start Tecplot from the Start button, or from an icon on
your desktop.
To start Tecplot from the Start button:
1.
Click Start, then select Programs.
2.
Select the Tecplot 9.0 folder.
3.
Click on Tecplot.
Following the opening banner, the Tecplot window appears, as shown in Figure 2-1.
2.1.2. UNIX
On UNIX systems, Tecplot is typically installed by a system administrator, who then makes it
available to end users. You then run Tecplot by typing:
9
Chapter 2. Getting Started
Figure 2-1. The
Tecplot window under Windows.
tecplot
at the shell prompt. The opening banner appears, followed by the Tecplot window, as shown in
Figure 2-1.
The directory in which Tecplot is installed, on any platform, is called the Tecplot home directory. You should know the absolute path of this directory and set your TEC90HOME environment variable to point to it. The Tecplot home directory includes numerous example files
referred to throughout this manual; by working with these files you can quickly gain proficiency with Tecplot’s features. A list of the example data files and their features appears in
Appendix D, “List of Example Files.”
2.2. The Interface
Figure 2-2 shows the Tecplot window as it appears at startup with no initial data set. There are
four main regions in the Tecplot window: the menu bar, the sidebar, the workspace, and the status line.
10
2.2. The Interface
Menu Bar
Sidebar
Workspace
Status Line
Figure 2-2. The Tecplot
window in Motif, showing the four main regions: menu
bar, sidebar, workspace and status line.
2.2.1. The Menu Bar
The menu bar, shown in Figure 2-3, offers rapid access to most of Tecplot’s features, which are
controlled primarily through dialogs, secondary windows that contain one or more controls for
managing various aspects of the plot.
Figure 2-3. The
menu bar.
Tecplot’s features are organized into the following menus:
• File: Use the File menu to control reading and writing of data files and plot layouts, printing and exporting of plots, recording and playing back macros, setting and saving your configuration preferences, and exiting Tecplot.
• Edit: Use the Edit menu to control cutting, copying, pasting, and clearing objects, as well
as pushing and popping them (which can change the order in which Tecplot draws them).
The Edit menu also contains an option for adjusting data points.
11
Chapter 2. Getting Started
Tecplot’s Cut, Copy, and Paste options work only within Tecplot. If you are operating the
Windows version of Tecplot and want to place a graphics image of your layout into other
word processing or graphics software, you can do so using the Copy Plot to Clipboard
option.
• View: Use the View menu to control the point of view of your data, including the scale,
viewed range, and 3-D rotation. You can also use the View menu to copy and paste views
between frames.
• Axis: Use the Axis menu to control the axes in XY, 2D, and 3D frame modes.
• Field: Use the Field menu to control field plots in 2D and 3D frame modes (mesh, contour,
vector, scatter, shade, streamtrace, 3-D iso-surface, 3-D slice, and boundary plots).
• XY: Use the XY menu to control XY-plotting.
• Style: Use the Style menu to control text, geometries (polylines, circles, squares, ellipses,
and rectangles), data labeling and blanking features. The Style menu also has options for
copying and pasting stylesheet files.
• Data: Use the Data menu to create, manipulate, and examine data. Types of data manipulation available in Tecplot include simple zone creation, interpolation, triangulation, and creation or alteration of variables by means of FORTRAN-like equations.
• Frame: Use the Frame menu to create, edit, and control frames.
• Workspace: Use the Workspace menu to control the attributes of your workspace, including the color map, paper grid, display options, and rulers.
• Tools: Use the Tools menu to run any Quick Macros you may have defined, or to create
simple animations of your plots. (Add-ons other than data loaders and extended curve-fits
are also accessed through the Tools menu.)
• Help: Use the Help menu to get quick help on features. By selecting About Tecplot. you
can obtain specific information about your license. The Help menu also gives you access to
information about the add-ons you have loaded.
12
2.2. The Interface
2.2.2. The Sidebar
Tecplot’s sidebar accesses the most frequently used
controls for plotting. Many take the form tools,
which control the behavior of the pointer in the
workspace. Additional controls determine frame
mode, which layers are active, and snap modes. The
controls are organized in the following functional
clusters, as shown in Figure 2-4:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Frame Modes.
Zone/Map Layers.
Zone Effects.
Plot Attributes.
Redraw All-Redraw-Auto Redraw.
Performance.
Tools.
Quick Edit/Object Details.
Snap Modes.
Frame Modes
Zone/Map Layers
Zone Effects
Plot Attributes
Redraw
Auto Redraw
Performance
2.2.2.1. Frame Modes. A frame mode determines, in a broad sense, what type of plot can be
drawn in the current frame. There are four:
Tools
• 3D: Create 3-D plots of surfaces and volumes.
• 2D: Create 2-D field plots, which will often be
plots of some variable by location on a plane.
• XY: Create XY-plots, such as plots of independent versus dependent variables.
• S (Sketch): Create plots without data such as
Quick Edit/
Object Details
Snap Modes
drawings, flow charts, and viewgraphs.
Figure 2-4. The Tecplot sidebar.
The frame mode, combined with a frame’s data set,
the active plot layers and their associated attributes, defines the plot. Each frame mode represents just one view of the data.
2.2.2.2. Zone Layers/Map Layers. A zone layer is one way of representing a frame’s data
set. The complete plot is the sum of all the active layers, axes, text, geometries, and other elements added to the basic data plotted in the layers. There are six zone layers for 2D and 3D
frame mode, four map layers for XY frame mode, and no zone layers in Sketch frame mode.
13
Chapter 2. Getting Started
The six zone layers for 2D and 3D frame modes, as shown in Figure 2-4, are:
• Mesh: The Mesh zone layer plots the lines connecting the data points within each zone.
• Contour: The Contour zone layer plots contours, which in Tecplot can be either lines having a constant value, or the region between these lines, or both.
• Vector: The Vector zone layer plots the direction and magnitude of vector quantities.
• Scatter: The Scatter zone layer plots symbols at the location of each data point.
• Shade: The Shade zone layer may be used to shade each zone with a specified solid color,
or to add light-source shading to a 3-D surface plot. Used in conjunction with the Lighting
zone effect you may set Paneled or Gouraud shading. Used in conjunction with the Translucency zone effect you may create a translucent surface for your plot.
• Boundary: The Boundary zone layer plots the zone boundaries for ordered data.
The four map layers in XY mode, shown in Figure 2-5,
are:
• Lines: This map layer plots a pair of variables, X
and Y, as a set of line segments or a fitted curve.
• Symbols: This map layer plots a pair of variables,
X and Y, as individual data points represented by a
symbol you specify.
• Bars: This map layer plots a pair of variables, X
Figure 2-5. XY
map layers.
and Y, as a horizontal or vertical bar chart.
• Error Bars: This map layer plots error bars in any of several formats.
2.2.2.3. Zone Effects. In 3D frame mode the
check boxes shown in Figure 2-6 appear: Lighting;
Translucency. Only shaded and flooded contour
surface plot types are affected by Lighting and
Translucency.
2.2.2.4. The Plot Attributes Button. The Plot
Attributes button calls up the Plot Attributes dialog,
which allows you to modify the appearance of each zone.
14
Figure 2-6. Zone
Effects options.
2.2. The Interface
2.2.2.5. The Redraw Buttons. Tecplot does not
automatically redraw the plot after every change,
unless you select the Auto Redraw check box. The
Redraw buttons, as shown in Figure 2-7, allow you
to keep your plot up to date.
Figure 2-7. Redraw
• Redraw: Redraws only the current frame.
• Redraw All: Redraws all frames. Shift-Redraw
buttons.
All causes Tecplot to completely regenerate the workspace.
2.2.2.6. Auto Redraw. The Auto Redraw check box allows you to continuously update your
plot.
2.2.2.7. The Performance Button. The Performance button calls up the Display Performance dialog, where you may configure Tecplot’s status line and performance options. The
Display Performance dialog allows you to adjust Tecplot’s performance to suit your individual
needs. For further details, see Section 31.3, “Using the Display Performance Dialog.”
2.2.2.8. The Tool Buttons. Each of the tools represented by a button is a mouse mode,
which specifies the behavior of the mouse pointer anywhere in the workspace. There are 28
modes, which fall into the following 12 categories, as shown in Figure 2-8:
3D Text Geometries
Rotation
Selector
Contour
Adjustor
Zoom
Translate/
Magnify
Streamtrace
Probing
Slicing
Data
Extraction
Frame
Zone
Creation
Figure 2-8. Sidebar
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Contour mouse modes.
Streamtrace mouse modes.
Slicing mouse mode.
Frame mouse mode.
Zone creation mouse modes.
3-D rotation mouse modes.
Text mouse mode.
Geometry mouse modes.
Mouse pointer modes:
Selector and Adjustor.
• View mouse modes:
Zoom and Translate/Magnify.
Geometries
tools and mouse modes.
• Probe mouse mode.
• Data extraction mouse modes.
15
Chapter 2. Getting Started
2.2.2.9. Enhanced Tool Operations. Several of the sidebar tools offer mouse and keyboard shortcuts which can greatly speed Tecplot use, especially when working with large
amounts of data. These are:
• Contour tools:
+: Switch to Contour Add tool if you are using Contour Remove.
- : Switch to Contour Remove tool if you are using Contour Add.
• Contour Add tool:
Click: Place a contour line.
Ctrl-click: Replace the nearest contour line with a new line.
Drag: Move the new contour line.
• Streamtrace Placement tool (3D frame mode only):
D: Switch to streamrods.
R: Switch to streamribbons.
S: Switch to surface lines.
V: Switch to volume lines.
Alt-click/Alt-drag: Determine the XYZ-location by ignoring zones and looking only at
derived volume objects (streamtraces, iso-surfaces, slices).
1-9: Change the number of streamtraces to be added when placing a rake of streamtraces.
• Slicing tool:
Click: Place a start slice.
Drag: Move the start slice.
Alt-click/Alt-drag: Determine the XYZ-location by ignoring zones and looking only at
derived volume objects (streamtraces, iso-surfaces, slices).
Shift-click: Place the end slice
Shift-drag: Move the end slice.
+: Turns on the start slice if no slices are active, or turns on the end slice if slices are
already active.
- : Turns off the end slice if the end slice is active, or conversely, turns off the start slice if
the end slice is not active.
I, J, K (ordered zones only): Switch to slicing constant I-, J-, or K-planes respectively.
X, Y, Z: Switch to slicing constant X-, Y, or Z-planes respectively.
0-9: Numbers one through nine activate intermediate slices and set the number of intermediate slices to the number entered; zero turns off intermediate slices.
16
2.2. The Interface
• Zoom tool:
Click: Center a 200 percent magnification around the location of your click.
2.2.2.10. Enhanced Mouse Operations. The middle and right mouse buttons allow you
to smoothly zoom and translate your data. Your middle mouse button (or Ctrl-right click)
zooms smoothly, and your right mouse button translates data. This advanced functionality is
available in:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
All Contour Modes.
Streamtrace Placement.
Slicing.
All 3-D Rotation Modes.
All Geometry Modes (Except Polyline).
Zooming.
Translate/Magnify.
Probing.
Zone Creation.
2.2.2.11. The Details Button. Immediately under the sidebar tools is a single button with a
context-sensitive label, referred to as the Details button. Use this button to call up the dialog
most directly applicable to your current action. When the currently selected tool is either the
Selector (
) or the Adjustor (
), but no objects are selected in the workspace, the
Details button is labeled Quick Edit. When either of those tools is selected and one or more
objects are selected in the workspace, the label changes to Object Details. If any other tool is
selected, the label changes to read Tool Details.
2.2.2.12. The Quick Edit Button. The Quick Edit button calls up the Quick Edit dialog,
which you can use to make rapid changes to selected objects in the workspace.
2.2.2.13. Snap Modes. Snap modes, as shown in
Figure 2-9, allow you to place objects precisely by
locking them to the nearest reference point, either on the
axis grid or on the workspace paper. There are two:
Figure 2-9. Snap
mode buttons.
• Snap to Grid.
• Snap to Paper.
17
Chapter 2. Getting Started
2.2.3. The Status Line
The status line, running along the bottom of the Tecplot window, gives “hover help.” When
you move the mouse pointer over one of the sidebar tools, any button on the Quick Edit dialog,
or over a menu item, it displays a brief description of the control. When you choose a tool, the
help changes to a brief instruction for that tool. The status line also provides a variety of other
information for specific purposes.
The configuration of the status line can be changed by selecting Interface from the Preferences
sub-menu of the File menu.
2.2.4. The Workspace
The workspace, shown below, is the portion of your screen in which you create sketches and
plots. All sketching and plotting is done inside a frame, which can be manipulated much like a
process window. The current state of the workspace, including the sizing and positioning of
frames, the location of the data files used by each frame, and all current plot attributes for all
frames, makes up a Tecplot layout. By default, the workspace displays a representation of the
paper Tecplot is set up to draw on, as well as a reference grid (for precise placement of frames
on the paper) and rulers (for measuring frame and object sizes). The active frame, in which you
are currently working, is on top. All modifications are made to the current frame.
Ruler
Frame
Workspace
Frame
Ruler
Figure 2-10. The
18
Tecplot workspace.
2.2. The Interface
2.2.5. Dialogs
Most dialogs use some combination of the following controls:
• Buttons: When you click on a button,
Tecplot performs some action. Most
dialogs have at least two buttons, Close
and Help. Click Close to close the dialog. Click Help to display the Help sysFigure 2-11. Increase and Decrease buttons in
tem. Other common buttons are the
Motif (left) and Windows (right).
Increase and Decrease buttons, and the
sidebar buttons, previously described. Figure 2-11 shows the Increase and Decrease buttons
as they appear in Motif and Windows systems.
• Option Buttons: Option buttons allow you to select only one of a set of mutually exclusive
options; when you click an option, that option is selected and any previously selected
option is deselected. Figure 2-12 shows option buttons as they appear in Motif and Windows systems.
Figure 2-12. Option
buttons in Motif (left) and Windows (right).
• Check boxes: Check boxes are Yes/No or On/Off switches. Typically, a check box names
some option. If the check box is selected, the option is in effect. If the check box is not
selected, the option is not in effect. Figure 2-13 shows check boxes as they appear in Motif
and Windows systems.
Figure 2-13. Check
boxes in Motif (top) and Windows (bottom).
19
Chapter 2. Getting Started
• Text fields: Use text fields to
type information, such as file
names, arbitrary parameters, or
data values. Figure 2-14 shows
text fields as they appear in
Motif and Windows systems.
Figure 2-14. Text
fields in Motif (top) and Windows
(bottom).
• Sliders: Sliders, also known as
scales, are controls that allow you to specify
any value in a specific range by using the
pointer to drag a thumb slider button back
and forth or up and down along a scale. For
fine control, you can use the arrow keys on
your keyboard to move the thumb in small
increments. Figure 2-15 shows sliders as
they appear in Motif and Windows systems.
• Scrolled lists: Scrolled lists, also known as
Figure 2-15. Sliders
in Motif (top) and
Windows (bottom).
list boxes, are lists of options, such as file
names. Sometimes scrolled lists allow multiple selections, sometimes they are restricted to
one selection only. Figure 2-16 shows scrolled lists as they appear in Motif and Windows
systems.
Figure 2-16. Scrolled
20
lists in Motif (left) and Windows (right).
2.2. The Interface
• Drop-downs: Any menu or list of options which becomes visible when you click at a particular spot is a drop-down. Thus, all the menus available from the menu bar and their submenus, as well as various types of option menus and drop-down lists, are called dropdowns. Figure 2-17 shows drop-downs as they appear in Motif and Windows systems.
Figure 2-17. Drop-downs
in Motif (top) and Windows (bottom).
2.2.6. File Dialogs
Each type of Tecplot file has at least two dialogs associated with it: one for opening files and
one for saving files. All of these dialogs are very similar to each other, but they differ greatly
depending on whether you are using Tecplot under Motif or under Windows. This section
gives basic procedures for using these file dialogs under both Motif and Windows.
2.2.6.1. Working with File Dialogs in Motif. Figure 2-18 shows a typical Motif file
dialog: the Open Layout dialog. Near the bottom of the dialog is a text field labeled Selection.
If you know the complete path of the file you want to open or save, you can simply type it into
this field and press Enter or click OK. At the top of the dialog is a text field labeled Filter
(Name Search). You can use this field to specify a file name filter. Using a file name filter
causes Tecplot to display all sub-directories of the current directory in the Directories scrolled
list, as well as all files in the current directory ending with the extension .lay in the Files
scrolled list. Dialogs for other file types have different default filters—for example, the data
file dialogs have a filter that displays files with the extension .plt. The filter determines the
initial path displayed in the Selection text field. To change the default file extensions, see
Section 30.1.4., “Specifying Default File Name Extensions.”
21
Chapter 2. Getting Started
Figure 2-18. The
Open Layout dialog in Motif.
You can supply a new filter by selecting the Filter text field and typing in new text. Typically,
the only part of the filter you will change is the file path, so that you can list files in a different
directory. Press Enter or click Filter to update your Files and Directories scrolled lists as well
as the Selection text field.
You can also modify the filter by choosing a different directory from the Directories scrolled
list. The directory specified by the current filter is displayed, along with its subdirectories and
its parent directory (the line ending with “..”). Click on any directory in the list to make it the
current filter directory, then press Enter or click Filter to update the Files and Directories
scrolled lists as well as the Selection text field. Double-clicking on a directory name has the
same effect.
When your filter shows the directory containing the file you want to open or save, you can
select it in any of the following ways:
• Click on the file name in the Files scrolled list, then press Enter or click OK.
• Double-click on the file name in the Files scrolled list.
• Type the name of the file in the Selection text field, then press Enter or click OK. (The
insertion point is initially set at the end of the filter path, so all you have to do is type in the
file name.)
2.2.6.2. Working with File Dialogs in Windows. Figure 2-19 shows a typical Windows
file dialog—the Open Layout dialog. In the lower half of the dialog is a text field labeled File
22
2.2. The Interface
name. If you know the complete path of the file you want to open or save, you can type it into
this field, then press Enter or click Open. You can also use this field to specify a file name
filter. By default, the Open Layout dialog has a file name filter of *.lay and *.lpk, and the
list of file names displays all files in the current directory ending with the extension .lay and
.lpk. Dialogs for other file types have different default filters—for example, the data file
dialogs have a filter that displays files with the extension .plt and .dat. To change the
default file extensions, see Section 30.1.4., “Specifying Default File Name Extensions.”
Figure 2-19. The
Open Layout dialog in Windows.
You can supply a new filter by selecting the text in the File name text field and typing in new
text. Press Enter to update the File name text field, the Look in drop-down, and its list of files
and folders.
You can also modify the filter by choosing a different directory or folder from the Look in
drop-down, or you can choose a folder in the field below the Look in drop-down, which displays files and folders in the drive or folder selected in the Look in drop-down. To move to the
parent folder or directory of the current folder or directory, click Up One Level, at the right of
the Look in drop-down. Clicking View Desktop will change the filter to your desktop. Clicking
again will take you back to the folder or directory displayed before View Desktop was selected.
Click on any directory in the list to make it the current filter directory and press Enter, or
double-click the directory name to update the File name text field, the Look in drop-down and
its list of files and folders.
23
Chapter 2. Getting Started
When your filter shows the directory containing the file you want to open or save, you can
select it in any of the following ways:
• Click on the file name in the scrolled list under the Look in drop-down, then press Enter or
click Open.
• Double-click on the file name in the scrolled list under the Look in drop-down.
• Type the name of the file in the File name text field, then press Enter or click Open. (The
insertion point is initially set to highlight the entire text field, so all you have to do is type in
the file name.)
To change the format in which the files and folders are listed in the field below the Look in
drop-down menu, toggle between the List and Details buttons. These buttons are located in the
upper right-hand corner of the dialog.
2.2.7. Basic Operations
The basic operation of Tecplot controls will be familiar to anyone who has used Motif or Windows interfaces. Most actions are performed by clicking the mouse, that is, pressing and releasing the left mouse button. (If your mouse is configured for left-hand use, then the word “click”
means depress and release the right mouse button.)
Another common mouse action is dragging, which is performed by pressing the left mouse
button, then, without releasing the button, moving the pointer. Dragging is used in resizing
frames, creating and modifying geometries, and to alter or adjust data.
Clicking and dragging can be combined with keyboard actions to produce different actions.
Tecplot makes extensive use of the Ctrl-click (clicking the mouse while holding down the Ctrl
key) in its probing feature. See Chapter 26, “Probing,” for details. Similarly, in lists which
permit multiple selections, you select a single item by clicking on it. You select a range of
items by clicking on the item at one end of the range, then Shift-clicking (clicking the mouse
while holding down the Shift key) on the item at the other end of the range (you can also
simply drag the mouse from the first selection to the last). You select an arbitrary set of items
by clicking on the first item, then Ctrl-clicking on subsequent items until all desired items are
selected.
The primary tasks done with the mouse are to select objects and options, and choose actions.
To select an object means different things for different types of objects:
• For check boxes and option buttons, to select means to click on the desired option. A
selected check box or option button is either filled or marked with an X, as shown in
Figure 2-13, while an unselected check box or option button is empty.
24
2.2. The Interface
• For list box items and objects in the Tecplot workspace, including frames, text, geometries,
zones, and so on, to select means to highlight and make the object the recipient of subsequent actions. For example, before you can make any changes in any of the Plot Attributes
dialogs, you must select one or more zones (field plots) or XY-mappings (XY-plots).
To choose an action means to click on a button or menu item that performs some specified
action. For example, if you click Close on a dialog, the dialog closes. If you click New Layout
in the File menu, Tecplot clears the workspace and creates a new, empty frame.
The terms click, select, and choose are sometimes used interchangeably. It is useful, however,
to keep in mind that select in general means to “select an item to operate on,” while choose in
general means to “pick an action.”
To select an object in the workspace, simply click on it. To select an object and call up the
dialog used to modify the object, double-click on the object. For example, if you double-click
on a piece of text, the Text dialog appears so that you can edit or reformat the text. You can
select the object and click on the Details button in the sidebar for the same effect. You can
select groups of items, then act on them all at once. To select a group of items, perform the following steps:
1.
On the sidebar, select
.
2.
In the workspace, click-and-drag the pointer. A rubber band box appears.
3.
Drag the pointer until all the desired items are enclosed in the rubber band box, as shown in
Figure 2-20.
4.
Release the mouse button. The Group Select dialog appears, as shown in Figure 2-21.
5.
Select the objects you want to select using the appropriate check boxes.
6.
Click OK to select the desired items.
An alternative way to select multiple objects is to hold the Shift key down and click on one
object at a time.
2.2.8. Positioning and Resizing Objects
Selected objects such as frames, text, geometries, legends, and so forth, may be moved either
by clicking and dragging, or by using the arrow keys on your keyboard. Arrow keys move
objects in one pixel increments. For more information on moving and resizing frames, see
Section 3.1.3, “Sizing and Positioning Frames.”
25
Chapter 2. Getting Started
Rubber band
box
Figure 2-20. A
rubber band box around three frames.
Figure 2-21. The
26
Group Select dialog.
2.3. Help
To scale selected objects proportionally, maintaining the vertical to horizontal aspect ratio,
select the object, then press “+” on your keyboard to enlarge or “-” to reduce. Double-clicking
a selected object will bring up its property attributes dialog. For example, if you doubledclicked on a geometry, the Geometry dialog would appear.
2.2.9. The Quick Edit Dialog
Those aspects of the plot that affect how the
individual layers are drawn are called plot
attributes. You control these attributes using the
options under the Field menu (for 2- and 3-D
plots) or the XY menu (for XY-plots). You can
also control many of these attributes using the
Quick Edit dialog, shown in Figure 2-22.
To use the Quick Edit dialog, select one or more
objects in the workspace, then click the appropriate button to change the attribute of the
selected object(s).
2.3. Help
Tecplot features an extensive Help system,
which is fully integrated into the Tecplot interface. Quick help on menu items and sidebar
controls is available from the status line, while
detailed help is accessible in any of the following ways:
• Press the F1 key anywhere in the Tecplot
window. If the pointer is over the sidebar,
Quick Edit dialog, or a menu, the F1 key
provides context-sensitive help on that control or menu. Otherwise, F1 calls up the
Contents page of Help via your Web
browser.
Figure 2-22. The
Quick Edit dialog.
• Select Contents from the Help menu. This
calls up the Contents page of the Tecplot help file via your Web browser.
• Click Help on any dialog.
27
Chapter 2. Getting Started
Figure 2-23 shows Tecplot’s Help as it appears in a Web browser in Windows. It supports text
search, has many hypertext links, and provides detailed information on all menus and dialogs.
Figure 2-23. Tecplot
Help in a Windows Web browser.
Your answer may be in Technical Support Notes at www.amtec.com/support. Help is also
available from 6:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Pacific Standard Time from Tecplot Technical Support at
425.653.9393. (Be sure to ask for Tecplot Technical Support.) You may also send e-mail to
support@amtec.com with your questions.
28
CHAPTER 3
Frames and the
Workspace
No matter which type of plot you want to create, certain operations occur repeatedly within
Tecplot. Those operations concerning files are covered in Chapter 4, “Data Organization.”
Operations concerning software are covered here. These options are discussed:
• Working with frames: All plots are created in a plotting frame—a boxed area in the workspace that acts like a sub-window. You control each frame format individually.
• Managing your workspace: The workspace and paper controls determine the color and
orientation of your paper, as well as the Ruler and Grid, which help you precisely size and
position objects.
• Understanding coordinate systems: It is important to understand when and where Tecplot
uses a number of different coordinate systems.
• Controlling the plot view: Zooming, translating, and fitting your plot in a frame.
• Copying, cutting, and pasting: Many plot elements may be cut or copied from the workspace and pasted back into other plot elements.
3.1. Working with Frames
All of Tecplot’s plots and sketches are drawn inside frames. By default, the Tecplot window
contains one frame, but you may add additional frames, up to a total of 128. You may resize
and reposition frames, modify their background color, and specify whether their borders and
headers appear. Tecplot acts upon only one frame at any given time. This is the current frame.
29
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
3.1.1. Creating Frames
You create new frames interactively, by drawing them in the workspace. If you will be printing
your plots, you should draw frames within the paper displayed in the workspace. However, this
is not required.
To create a new frame:
1.
From the sidebar, select
, or choose Create from the Frame menu.
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace. The pointer becomes a cross-hair.
3.
Move the cross-hair to the desired location of one corner of the frame, then click the left
mouse button and drag. A rubber band box shows the outline of the frame.
4.
When the rubber band box is the desired size and shape, release the mouse button.
3.1.2. Deleting Frames
You can delete frames one at a time using the Delete Current Frame option under the Frame
menu, or delete frames singly or in groups using the Clear option under the Edit menu.
To delete a single frame:
1.
In the workspace, click anywhere in the frame to make it the current frame.
2.
From the Frame menu, choose Delete Current Frame. Or, if the frame is selected (by clicking on its border or header) you can choose Cut or Clear under the Edit menu.
To delete a group of frames:
1.
Select the group of frames as described in Section 2.2.7, “Basic Operations.” The Group
Select dialog will appear.
2.
In the Objects region, deselect all check boxes except Frames. (If your rubber band box
encloses any frames, the Frames check box will be selected for you automatically. Otherwise, the Frames check box will be desensitized.) All the frames within the rubber band
box are selected.
3.
From the Edit menu, choose Clear, or, with the keyboard focus in the Tecplot window, type
Delete. A warning dialog appears asking if you really want to delete the selected items.
4.
Click OK to delete the selected frames; click Cancel to retain the selected frames.
3.1.3. Sizing and Positioning Frames
You can size and position frames in four ways: with your mouse, with the arrow keys on your
keyboard, specifying exact coordinates using the Edit Current Frame dialog, or from the Frame
menu, choosing Fit all Frames to Paper.
30
3.1. Working with Frames
3.1.3.1. Sizing and Positioning Frames Using the Mouse. If you click anywhere on
the frame header or frame border, resize handles appear at the corners and midpoints of the
frame. Drag any of these resize handles to resize the frame. The resize handles on the top and
bottom of the frame allow resizing only vertically; the resize handles on the left and right of the
frame allow resizing only horizontally. The resize handles on the four corners allow simultaneous resizing vertically and horizontally. You can also obtain the resize handles by selecting a
group of frames, as described in Section 2.2.7, “Basic Operations.”
To scale the frame or frames proportionally, maintaining the vertical to horizontal aspect ratio,
select the frames so that the resize handles appear. Press “+” on your keyboard to enlarge the
frames, “-” to reduce them.
3.1.3.2. Positioning Using the Arrow Keys. If you click anywhere on the frame header
or frame border, handles appear at the corners and midpoints of the frame. Using the arrow
keys on your keyboard, you can move the frame up, down, left or right in one-pixel increments
for precise locating. You cannot resize a frame using arrow keys.
3.1.3.3. Sizing and Positioning Frames Using the Edit Current Frame Dialog. If
you want precise control over the size of your frames and where they are located, use the Edit
Current Frame dialog to specify the exact location for the frame’s left and top sides, together
with the frame’s width and height. You use the same units in this dialog as are currently displayed in the workspace rulers, which can be shown as inches or centimeters.
To precisely position and size your frame:
1.
From the Frame menu, choose Edit Current Frame. The Edit Current Frame dialog appears
as shown in Figure 3-1. (You can also get to this dialog by double-clicking on the header or
border of the current frame.)
2.
Enter the position of the left side of the frame in the Left Side text field and enter the position of the top side of the frame in the Top Side text field, using Paper Ruler units.
3.
Enter the width and height of the frame, using Paper Ruler units, in the Width and Height
text fields. Units other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the number.
For example, cm for centimeters, in for inches, or pix for pixels.
4.
Click Close to close the Edit Current Frame dialog.
3.1.4. Modifying the Frame Background Color
You can alter the frame background color for a variety of effects. To create a transparent frame,
turn off the background color completely. Use transparent frames to create overlay plots showing contour lines for two or more contour variables.
To turn off the background color and create a transparent frame:
1.
From the Frame menu, choose Edit Current Frame. The Edit Current Frame dialog appears.
31
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
2.
Figure 3-1. The Edit Current Frame dialog.
Deselect the Show Background check box. (By default, this check box is selected.)
3.
Click Close.
4.
Click Redraw All in the Tecplot sidebar to redraw the transparent frame and any frames
lying beneath it.
To choose a different background color:
1.
From the Frame menu, choose Edit Current Frame. The Edit Current Frame dialog appears.
2.
Verify that the Show Background check box is selected. (By default, this check box is
selected.) Immediately to the right of the Show Background check box is a drop-down
labeled Color containing Tecplot’s basic colors.
3.
From the Color menu, select the desired background color.
4.
Click Close.
5.
Click Redraw to redraw your frame with the new background color.
3.1.5. Controlling Frame Borders and Headers
Every frame is surrounded by a border and is topped with a header. The frame border acts
much like a picture frame, giving a clear visual outline of the drawing region. Sometimes, however, the picture frame may be undesirable. For example, if you are building a composite plot
out of multiple frames, the frame borders may detract from the appearance of the finished plot.
32
3.1. Working with Frames
Tecplot allows you to turn off frame borders for any frame. You can make the frame border
invisible, in which case the frame header is also invisible, or you can display the border but not
the header. You can also control the thickness of the frame border. You specify the thickness in
frame units, as a percentage of the frame height.
The frame header contains information that can be configured by the user, and defaults to
"&(FrameName) | &(date) | &(DataSetTitle)"
This displays information about the name of the frame, the date the frame was created or
revised, and, if applicable, the title of the current data set (these defaults can be changed in
your configuration file; see the $!GLOBALFRAME command in the Tecplot Reference Manual).
The frame header is displayed only when both the Show Border and Show Header check boxes
are selected in the Edit Current Frame dialog. By default, both check boxes are selected. However, if you turn off the frame border by deselecting the Show Border check box, the header
will be turned off as well. You can choose any of Tecplot’s basic colors for the frame header.
On most screens, the header information is difficult to read unless you are zoomed into the
paper (for example, by selecting Fit All Frames from the Workspace menu).
To modify the display of frame borders and headers:
1.
From the Frame menu, choose Edit Current Frame. The Edit Current Frame dialog appears.
2.
Set your header and border settings as desired.
3.
Click Redraw.
Positioning and resizing borderless frames can be somewhat frustrating, because it is difficult
to click on boundaries that cannot be seen. For this reason, Tecplot by default displays a dashed
representation of the “invisible” frame borders. These dashed lines do not appear in graphics
formatted for printing, nor in EPS files, but they do appear in bitmap files created from Tecplot.
You can turn off this feature by toggling the option Show Invisible Borders in the Frame menu.
When the Show Invisible Borders option is on (the default), a small box (or check mark in
Windows) appears to the left of the words “Show Invisible Borders” in the Frame menu. When
the option is off, no box appears in the menu.
To turn off display of invisible borders:
1.
From the Frame menu, click Show Invisible Borders while the small box (or check mark)
appears to the left of the words “Show Invisible Borders.”
33
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
3.1.6. Modifying the Frame Name
You may alter any frame’s name so that it reflects the contents of the frame. One advantage of
giving frames meaningful names is that they can be easily distinguished in the Order Frames
dialog. See Section 3.1.7, “Pushing and Popping Frames.”
To change the name of the current frame:
1.
From the Frame menu, choose Edit Current Frame. The Edit Current Frame dialog appears.
2.
Change the frame name to the desired value.
3.
Click Close.
3.1.7. Pushing and Popping Frames
If you have overlapping or overlaid frames, there will be times when you want to expose, or
pop, underlying frames. For frames that are partially exposed, you can do this by clicking on
the exposed portion of the frame (in any mouse mode except Create Frame). For frames that
are completely obscured, you pop underlying frames by pushing the covering frames to the
back of the plot, or use the Order Frames dialog found under the Frame menu.
To push a frame to the back of the plot:
1.
In the Tecplot workspace, click on the frame to make it the current frame.
2.
From the Frame menu, choose Push Current Frame Back.
If you have multiple overlaid frames, you may need to do the above steps repeatedly until the
desired frame is on top, or pop a specific frame by name using the Order Frames dialog.
If part of a frame is visible, you can pop it to the top of the view stack by clicking on it. Alternatively, you can pop a frame by name using the Order Frames dialog:
1.
From the Frame menu, choose Order Frames. The Order Frames dialog appears, as shown
in Figure 3-2.
2.
Select the desired frame by name from the list and click Pop. Alternately, double clicking a
frame name in the list will select and pop the frame.
3.
To change the display order of the frame names within the list, select the List By option
menu. When listed by name the frame names are displayed within the list alphabetically.
When listed by draw order, the frames are displayed within the list in the order that they are
drawn.
4.
Click Close.
Note: The List By option does not affect the actual frame order within the workspace, only the
display of the names within the list.
To change a frame's designated name, see Section 3.1.6, “Modifying the Frame Name.”
34
3.2. Managing Your Workspace
Figure 3-2. The
Order Frames dialog, accessed via the Frame drop-down menu.
Frames have been named using the Edit Current Frame dialog under the Frame
drop-down menu.
3.2. Managing Your Workspace
The workspace is the entire region in which you can create Tecplot frames, including, but not
limited to, the region covered by the Tecplot paper. You may find yourself using only the paper
region in creating the screen plots. This is a natural way to work, but not essential, since the
paper only limits the printing of the plots. If you are creating plots for screen use only, you may
find it useful to use the entire workspace. One way to do this is simply to turn off display of the
Tecplot paper.
3.2.1. Setting Up the Tecplot Paper
Tecplot’s representation of paper in the workspace allows you to lay out your plots in precisely
the way you would like them to be printed. If you place a frame somewhere on this paper, then
print the resulting plot, the frame will appear in the exact relative location on the printed paper.
35
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
Tecplot gives you tremendous flexibility and control in setting up your paper. You can control
the size, orientation, and even the color of your paper. You can also turn off the screen representation of the paper.
3.2.1.1. Controlling Paper Size. Tecplot offers the following six paper sizes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Letter: Standard U.S. letter size, 8 1/2 x 11 inches.
Double: Standard U.S. ledger size, 11 x 17 inches.
A4: Standard European letter size, 21 x 29.7 centimeters.
A3: Standard European size, 29.7 x 42 centimeters.
Custom 1: Default is 8.5 x 14 inches.
Custom 2: Default is 8 x 10 inches.
To choose a paper size:
1.
From the File menu, choose Paper Setup. The Paper Setup dialog appears.
2.
In the Size region of the Paper Setup dialog, select the desired paper size.
In Windows, you can also set the paper size in the Print dialog under the File menu.
All of Tecplot’s paper sizes can be customized using options in Tecplot configuration or macro
files. We recommend that you only change the dimensions of the Custom 1 and Custom 2
paper sizes.
3.2.1.2. Controlling Paper Orientation. Tecplot layouts can be created as either landscape or portrait plots. In landscape orientation, the long axis of the paper is horizontal, while
in portrait orientation the long axis is vertical. Portrait orientation uses the specified paper’s
width for the horizontal dimension, while landscape uses it for the vertical dimension. You
specify the orientation as part of paper setup. The default is landscape.
To specify a paper orientation:
1.
From the File menu, choose Paper Setup. The Paper Setup dialog appears.
2.
In the Orientation region of the Paper Setup dialog, select the desired orientation.
3.2.1.3. Turning Off the Screen Paper. If you are creating plots simply for display on
your screen, you need not be constrained by the limits of the printed page. You can turn off the
screen representation of the paper and more freely use the full workspace.
To turn off the screen paper:
36
1.
From the File menu, choose Paper Setup. The Paper Setup dialog appears.
2.
Deselect the check box labeled Show Paper on Screen.
3.2. Managing Your Workspace
3.2.1.4. Controlling the Paper Color. You can set up your paper to show any of Tecplot’s
basic colors as a background color (called the “paper fill color”) on your screen, and also allow
Tecplot to use that color when printing to a color printer.
To specify the paper fill color:
1.
From the File menu, choose Paper Setup. The Paper Setup dialog appears.
2.
From the drop-down labeled Paper Fill Color, choose the desired color from the list of Tecplot’s basic colors.
When you are printing, you can have Tecplot flood the paper with your specified paper fill
color. By default, the paper fill color is ignored during printing.
To use the paper fill color when printing:
1.
From the File menu, choose Paper Setup. The Paper Setup dialog appears.
2.
Select the check box labeled Use Paper Fill Color when Printing.
3.2.2. Setting Up Grids and Rulers
The workspace grid provides a convenient guide for placing objects on your Tecplot paper.
When placing text or geometric shapes, you can choose to snap the anchor points of the shapes
to the grid.
Rulers help you size objects such as frames, text, and geometries by providing a reference
length. You can visually gauge the relative size of objects on your screen by comparing them to
the vertical and horizontal rulers. Tecplot allows you to draw the rulers in centimeters (cm),
inches (in), or points (pt), or not draw them at all.
3.2.2.1. Controlling the Workspace Grid. Tecplot allows you to select the grid spacing
from several pre-set sizes in dimensions of centimeters (cm), inches (in), or points (pt). You
can also specify not to show the grid. By default, the grid is shown. The grid is not shown if the
paper is not visible onscreen, or if the Show Grid check box is deselected.
To turn off the grid:
1.
From the Workspace menu, select Ruler/Grid. The Ruler/Grid dialog appears.
2.
Deselect the Show Grid check box.
To specify the grid spacing:
1.
From the Workspace menu, select Ruler/Grid. The Ruler/Grid dialog appears.
2.
From the drop-down titled Grid Spacing, choose the desired spacing.
37
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
3.2.2.2. Controlling the Workspace Ruler. Tecplot allows you to select the ruler markings from several pre-set sizes in dimensions of centimeters (cm), inches (in), or points (pt).
You can also specify whether to show the ruler. By default, the ruler is shown. The ruler is not
shown if the Show Ruler check box is deselected.
To turn off the ruler:
1.
From the Workspace menu, select Ruler/Grid. The Ruler/Grid dialog appears.
2.
Deselect the Show Ruler check box.
To specify the ruler spacing:
1.
From the Workspace menu, select Ruler/Grid. The Ruler/Grid dialog appears.
2.
From the drop-down titled Ruler Spacing, choose the desired spacing.
3.2.3. Maximizing Your Workspace
You can create plots up to the full size of the workspace, and you can force that workspace to
fill the Tecplot window, hiding the sidebar and menu bar.
To maximize your workspace:
1.
From the Workspace menu, choose Maximize Workarea. The sidebar and menu bar disappear.
2.
To return the sidebar and menu bar, simply click anywhere in the maximized workspace.
3.3. Coordinate Systems
Tecplot manages a number of coordinate systems. Four of these coordinate systems that are
important to know about are the paper, frame, 2- and 3-D physical coordinate systems.
Figure 3-3 shows the origins of each coordinate system and how each coordinate system
relates to the other. Note that only one of the 2- or 3-D physical coordinate systems is in effect
at any given time, depending on the frame mode.
The 2- and 3-D physical coordinate systems are the coordinate systems in which the X-,Y-, and
or Z-coordinates of your data points are plotted. The 2-D physical coordinates are often
referred to as grid coordinates.
The frame coordinate system is shown in Figure 3-4. The vertical axis of this coordinate
system always runs from zero at the bottom border line of the frame to 100 at the top of the
frame. The horizontal axis likewise runs from zero to 100 from left to right along the bottom
edge of the frame. The distance of one horizontal unit is not necessarily equal to the distance of
one unit in the vertical direction, since frames take on almost any aspect ratio.
38
3.3. Coordinate Systems
PAPER
COORDINATE
X
SYSTEM
Y
Z
Y
X
3D PHYSICAL COORDINATE
Y
Y
SYSTEM (FRAMEMODE = 3D)
2D PHYSICAL
COORDINATE
X
SYSTEM (FRAMEMODE = SKETCH, XY, OR 2D)
FRAME
COORDINATE
SYSTEM
Figure 3-3. Coordinate
X
systems in Tecplot.
Frame
Header
100
Frame 001  8 Aug 1998  No Dataset
Frame
Border
Y-Frame
Units
0
100
0
X-Frame Units
Figure 3-4. The
frame coordinate system.
39
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
Tecplot uses the height of the frame for objects that are scaled by frame units (such as font
size). Whenever you enter a frame unit value into a Tecplot dialog, or when you are setting
frame size and position on your paper, you may specify a different unit system as a suffix.
Tecplot converts the value to frame units (or paper units when sizing or positioning a frame) for
you. The valid suffixes are “in” (inches), “pt” (points), “cm” (centimeters), and “pix” (pixels).
For example, if you want a piece of text exactly one inch away from the left edge of your frame
you can enter “1in” in the X-Origin field. Tecplot converts the value to the appropriate frame
unit value.
3.4. Modifying Your View
There are two types of views inside Tecplot. The first is the view of your data inside a frame.
Each frame can have a separate view of its data. This view is controlled by the View menu.
The second type of view is the view of the frames and paper inside the workspace. This view is
controlled by options in the Workspace menu.
Both types of views may be controlled by the two view mouse modes in the sidebar: Zoom and
Translate. However, other actions differ depending on whether you are acting on a frame or the
workspace. These are covered in the following subsections.
3.4.1. Modifying the View of Your Data within a Frame
The view of your Tecplot data is the position, size, and orientation of the plot within the Tecplot frame. The View menu contains controls to help you adjust the view to your tastes, and
also to copy the view from one frame to another. The View menu contains the following
options:
• Redraw: Redraws the current frame.
• Zoom: Turns on the Zoom mode, which you use to zoom into the current frame.
• Fit to Full Size: Resizes the plots so that all data points, text, and geometries are included
in the frame. This is the initial view for XY and 2D frame modes.
• Data Fit: Resizes the plot so that all the data points are included in the frame. Text and
geometries are not considered.
• Center: Centers the plot in the frame.
• Translate/Magnify: Turns on the Translate mode and calls up the Translate/Magnify dialog, which you use to move and resize your plot with respect to the frame.
• Last: Restores the previous view.
• 3D Rotate: Calls up the 3D Rotate dialog, which you use to rotate 3-D images. For further
information, see Section 9.6.1, “3-D Rotation.”
40
3.4. Modifying Your View
• 3D View Details: Calls up the 3D View Details dialog, which sets the view position and
angle for 3-D images. For further information see Section 9.6.1, “3-D Rotation.”
• Copy View: Copies the current frame view to a buffer, it can then be pasted onto another
frame.
• Paste View: Pastes a copied view onto the current frame.
We have already used Redraw; it is on the View menu to remind you of the keyboard shortcut
Ctrl-R to redraw your plot. The 3D Rotate and 3D View Details options are only active when
the current frame is in 3D frame mode.
This section discusses the remaining View options. Shortcuts are provided for most of these
controls. For Zoom, you can use the
button in the sidebar to select the Zoom mode. For
Translate/Magnify, you can use the
button in the sidebar. For Fit to Full Size, you can use
the keyboard shortcut Ctrl-F almost anytime the Tecplot application window has the input
focus. For Last, you can use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl-L. For Paste View, you can use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl-A. There are no shortcuts for Data Fit, Center, and Copy View.
3.4.1.1. Smooth Zooming and Translation with Your Mouse. The middle and right
mouse buttons allow you to smoothly zoom and translate your data. Your middle mouse button
(or Ctrl-right click) zooms smoothly, and your right mouse button translates data. (See Appendix C, “Mouse and Keyboard Operations,” for additional mouse functionality.) This advanced
functionality is available in:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
All Contour Modes.
Streamtrace Placement.
Slicing.
All 3-D Rotation Modes.
All Geometry Modes (Except Polyline).
Zooming.
Translate/Magnify.
Probing.
Zone Creation.
3.4.1.2. Zooming into Your Data within a Frame. You can use Tecplot’s Zoom feature
to quickly zoom into a portion of your plot. To zoom into your plot, select the Zoom tool from
the sidebar. The pointer becomes a magnifying glass. Drag to draw a box around the region
you want to magnify. Your plot is resized to fit the longest dimension of the zoom box you
created on the screen. You can quickly zoom into a region by positioning the magnifying glass
41
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
and clicking your left mouse button. This magnifies the region by 200 percent and centers the
zoom on the position of the magnifying glass.
For certain types of data, it may be useful to zoom into successively smaller regions until the
area of interest is revealed in adequate detail. For example, look at the sample finite-element
data file feexchng.plt. At full size, you see the whole data set, and see that there is an
area of interest containing many circles. You zoom in on the circles, and then zoom in again on
a single circle. Finally, you zoom in on the boundary of a circle. This sequence is illustrated in
Figure 3-5. At any stage of the zoom, you can use Ctrl-L to return to the previous (last) view,
or Ctrl-F to return to the full size initial view.
5
15
Y
Y
4
10
3
2
5
1
0
-10
0
10
X
0
20
4.6
4
4.4
3.9
5
10
X
15
Y
Y
4.2
3.8
4
3.7
3.8
3.6
3.6
5.5
6
X
6.5
Figure 3-5. Zooming
7
5.8
6
X
6.2
6.4
into a plot.
You can fit one or all frames to the workspace by using the Fit Selected Frame or Fit All
Frames option under the Workspace menu. Both options are alternative methods of zooming
the paper.
To return to the default paper view, choose Fit Paper from the Workspace menu.
3.4.1.3. Translating and Scaling Your Data within a Frame. You can use Tecplot’s
Translate/Magnify feature to translate the view of your plotted data. Translating moves the
image of your data with respect to the current frame. You can translate plots in any direction
within the frame. The Translate/Magnify feature is available as both a sidebar tool and as a dialog, shown below.
The following options and shortcuts are available for the Translate/Magnify dialog:
Up, Down, Left, Right: Use the four arrow buttons to translate your image in the desired
direction.
Magnification Factor: Increase or decrease the magnification by using the arrow buttons
or by entering a value in the text field.
42
3.4. Modifying Your View
Figure 3-6. The
Translate/Magnify dialog.
Step Size (%): Control the step size for each arrow button using the pre-set ranges in the
drop-down, or by entering your own value in the text field.
To translate your image using Translate/Magnify tool from the sidebar:
1.
On the sidebar, click
. The pointer changes to an all-direction cursor.
2.
In the workspace, drag in the direction you want to transfer the image.
3.
While translating in 2D frame mode, you see a trace of your data. That is, you see a wire
frame sketch of what the plot will look like when you are done. Redraw your plot when you
are done to see the entire plot. The number of lines allowed in the trace can be changed
through the Performance button on the sidebar.
Translate/Magnify tool mode offers the following keyboard options:
+: Increase scale of images.
- : Decrease scale of images.
3.4.1.4. Fitting Your Data to a Frame. You can use the Fit to Full Size option from the
View menu to restore the initial view of your data after extensive zooming, scaling, or translating. Tecplot performs the Fit to Full Size operation when it first displays your data set. You can
perform the operation in either of the following ways:
• Select Fit to Full Size from the View menu.
• While the window is active, press Ctrl-F.
43
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
3.4.1.5. Restoring the Last View of Your Data within a Frame. Tecplot does not have
an “Undo” option. Any data alterations are permanent, but you can step backward through the
resizings and repositionings of your plot.
Any time you change the view of a frame, either by zooming, centering, translating, or fitting
the plot, the previous view is placed in a view stack. Each frame has four view stacks, one for
each frame mode. Each view stack stores the last 16 views for that frame mode. You can move
back through the view stack by choosing Last from the View menu repeatedly, or more quickly
by typing Ctrl-L repeatedly.
3.4.1.6. Copying and Pasting Views between Frames. When you are working with
multiple frames attached to the same data set, it is often useful to make your view changes to
one frame, and then propagate those changes to the other frames. You can do this using the
Copy View and Paste View options under the View menu, as follows:
1.
Make the changes (zooming, translating) you want to make to one frame.
2.
From the View menu, choose Copy View.
3.
Click in another frame sharing the same frame mode.
4.
From the View menu, choose Paste View. (Or type Ctrl-A.)
Note: Copy View and Paste View only affect the ranges of XY-axis and tick mark spacing. For
complete duplication, use Copy Style to File and Paste Style from File from the Style menu.
3.4.2. Modifying the View of Frames and Paper within the Workspace
The view of your frames and the paper within the workspace is controlled through the Workspace menu. This is called the workspace view. The Workspace menu contains the following
options to control the workspace view:
• Redraw All: Redraws all frames as well as the paper.
• Fit Selected Frames: Resizes the workspace view such that the currently selected frames
are included in the view.
• Fit All Frames: Resizes the workspace view such that all frames are included in the view.
• Fit Paper: Resizes the workspace view such that the paper fits into the view.
• Last View: Restores the workspace to its previous view.
3.4.2.1. Zooming the Workspace. To zoom the workspace, use the
sidebar tool. The
mouse pointer changes to a magnifying glass. Shift-drag the magnifying glass cursor to draw a
box about the region that you want to magnify. The plot is resized such that the longest dimension of the zoom box fits into the workspace.
44
3.5. Copying, Cutting, and Pasting
3.4.2.2. Translating and Scaling the Workspace. You can use the
sidebar tool to
translate and magnify the paper and the image simultaneously. Magnifying your on-screen
image will not affect the printout size.
To translate the entire paper and image:
1.
Click the
sidebar tool to enter Translate/Magnify mode.
2.
Shift-click to operate on paper and image simultaneously. (Leave the mouse button down.)
3.
Drag to move the paper.
To magnify the entire paper and image (operates on the on-screen paper and image only):
1.
Click the
sidebar tool to enter Translate/Magnify mode.
2.
Shift-click to operate on paper and image simultaneously. Remember to leave the mouse
button down.
3.
Press “+” to magnify paper and image, “-” to reduce.
You can move and rescale the paper simultaneously so long as you have the mouse button
depressed. If you release the mouse button, “+” and “-” will revert to resizing the image of the
data.
3.4.2.3. Fitting the Workspace View. You can use the Fit Paper option from the Workspace menu to restore the initial view of the paper. Tecplot fits the paper to the workspace when
it first starts.
3.4.2.4. Restoring the Last Workspace View. You may restore the last workspace view
with the Last View option on the Workspace menu.
Any time you change the view of the workspace, the previous view is placed in a view stack,
which stores the last 16 workspace views. You can cycle back through the view stack by choosing Last View from the Workspace menu repeatedly.
3.5. Copying, Cutting, and Pasting
You can duplicate frames, text, and geometries by copying and pasting using options under the
Edit menu (or their keyboard equivalents). You can also cut objects from one location and
paste them into another, or throw them away completely. To select all geometries, zones, text
or streamtraces in a frame, choose the Select All option from the Edit menu.
Note: In Windows, Tecplot’s Cut, Copy, and Paste options work only within Tecplot. However,
Copy Plot to Clipboard, under the Edit menu, allows you to copy Tecplot frames and paste
45
Chapter 3. Frames and the Workspace
them into other Windows applications. See Section 23.2.3, “Clipboard Capability for Placing
Tecplot Images Directly into Other Applications,” for a discussion of this feature.
3.5.1. Copying Objects
To create an exact copy of a Tecplot frame, text, or geometry:
1.
In the workspace, select the object or objects you want to copy.
2.
From the Edit menu, choose Copy, or Ctrl-C on your keyboard. The selected objects are
copied to Tecplot’s internal paste buffer.
3.
From the Edit menu, choose Paste, or Ctrl-V. A copy of the original object is stacked on top
of the original.
4.
To place the copy, first select the copy and then move the pointer until it becomes a fourway translation cursor. Drag the copy to the desired location and release the mouse button.
(Tecplot will not place an exact replica of a copied text or geometry to the exact same position. In that case, move the original and then paste a copy.)
3.5.2. Clearing Objects
To clear an object from the Tecplot workspace means to delete it, without saving it in the Paste
buffer. To remove an object and save it in the Paste buffer, use Cut.
To clear an object:
1.
In the workspace, select the object or objects you want to clear.
2.
From the Edit menu, choose Clear, or Delete on your keyboard. A question dialog appears
asking if you are sure you want to delete the selected objects.
3.
Click OK.
If you clear the last Tecplot frame, Tecplot automatically creates another frame to replace it.
3.5.3. Cutting Objects
To cut an object means to remove it from its current location but store it in the Tecplot Paste
buffer.
To cut an object:
1.
In the workspace, select the object or objects you want to cut.
2.
From the Edit menu, choose Cut, or Shift-Delete or Ctrl-X on your keyboard.
3.
You can then paste the object using Paste from the Edit menu.
If you cut the last frame, Tecplot will automatically creates another frame to replace it.
46
CHAPTER 4
Data Organization
This chapter describes Tecplot’s internal handling and storage of data.
4.1. Data Hierarchy
Tecplot structures data in two levels. Figure 4-1 shows the data hierarchy for a simple case.
Figure 4-1. Tecplot’s
data set structure.
The highest level is an internal Tecplot data structure known as a data set. A data set consists of
one or more zones, blocks of data that make up the whole data set. Zones, the second level in
the data hierarchy, can be loaded into a data set from a data file, or created within Tecplot.
Starting with a blank frame, a data set is created and assigned to the active frame whenever you
read one or more data files into Tecplot, or create a zone within Tecplot. Multiple frames can
be attached to the same data set. Figure 4-2 shows how data sets and frames relate to one
another.
47
Chapter 4. Data Organization
(2D)  4 Aug 1996 CYLINDER
(2D)  4 Aug 1996 Pin Geometry from Program Developme
14
7
Dataset 1
10
6
8
5
6
Y(M)
Y(M)
12
4
4
3
2
2
0
1
-2
0
5
10
15
X(M)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
X(M)
Dataset 2
(Sketch)  4 Aug 1996 
(2D)  4 Aug 1996 Pin Geometry from Program Development Cor
6
(No Dataset)
5
Y(M)
4
Some Text
3
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
X(M)
Figure 4-2. Data
sets and frames.
If more than one data file is read into a frame, Tecplot groups all zones supplied by the files
into a single data set. Once in Tecplot, all zones within a data set must contain the same variables defined for each data point. This does not necessarily mean each of your data files needs
to have the same number of variables in the same order. See Section 6.1, “Loading TecplotFormat Data Files,” for instructions on loading dissimilar data files or parts of data files. The
number of zones in a concatenated data set will be the sum of the number of zones in the data
files that are read. As Figure 4-2 shows, one or more frames can access data from the same data
set. Frames using the same data set will initially have the same header color.
Figure 4-3 gives a more complex example of a Tecplot data structure. Frames number 1 and
number 2 both access data set number 1, which is made up of one data file containing three
zones. Frame number 3 accesses data set number 2 which contains two data files—one with
two zones and one with three zones. Frame number 4 uses data set number 3, which contains
one data file with two zones.
4.2. Multiple Zones
Multiple zones can be used for plotting complex configurations, or subdividing data for convenience in plotting.
You can also represent data that was taken at different time steps, or using measurement methods. The plot on the left in Figure 4-4 provides an illustration of multiple zones. For example,
you could use multiple zones to show the measurement of snow depth at several different sta-
48
4.2. Multiple Zones
TECPLOT
FRAME 1
FRAME 2
FRAME 3
FRAME 4
ZONE 1
ZONE 1
ZONE 1
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
ZONE 2
ZONE 2
ZONE 2
DATA FILE 2
ZONE 3
DATA FILE 4
ZONE 3
DATA FILE 1
DATA SET 3
DATA FILE 3
DATA SET 1
DATA SET 2
Figure 4-3. Example
of a complex data structure.
Zone 4
Zone 1
Zone 5
Zone 2
SNOW DEPTH (INCHES)
30
25
Station 1
Station 2
Station 3
20
15
10
Zone 3
Zone 6
5
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
TIME (DAYS)
Figure 4-4. Example
plots showing the use of multiple zones. A 2-D mesh plot is on
the right, and an XY-plot is on the left.
49
Chapter 4. Data Organization
tions in an XY-plot. You take measurements once a day at each station, but there are some days
on which you cannot get to all of the stations. As a result, when you are finished taking data,
you have a different number of data points for each station. Since each set of data has the same
number of variables per data point (time and snow depth), you can set up a Tecplot data file
with the measurements from each station in a separate zone. In Tecplot, you can define a set of
XY-mappings to plot snow depth versus time for any combination of zones (in this example,
stations). Figure 4-4 shows a plot of this data.
4.3. Data Structuring within a Zone
Tecplot can accommodate two different types of data: ordered and finite-element. The following sections describe each of these two types in detail.
4.3.1. Ordered Data
Ordered data is a set of points logically stored in a one-, two-, or three-dimensional array in
Tecplot. I, J, and K are used as subscripts to access values within the array. The most common
forms for these arrays are:
• I-ordered: A one-dimensional array of data points where the I-dimension is greater than or
equal to one and the dimension in J- and K-directions is equal to one. The I-dimension thus
represents the total number of data points for the zone.
• IJ-ordered: A two-dimensional array of data points where both the I- and J-dimensions are
greater than one and the K-dimension is equal to one. The number of data points is the
product of the I- and J-dimensions.
• IJK-ordered: A three-dimensional array of data points where all three of the I-, J-, and Kdimensions are greater than one. The number of data points is the product of the I-, J-, and
K-dimensions.
Other ordered data types are also valid but are not typically created in a Tecplot session. These
may come from data sets created by other applications wishing to retain a particular data order.
They are:
• J- or K-ordered: These are the same as I-ordered but the J- or K-dimension is greater than
one and the remaining dimensions are equal to one.
• JK- or IK-ordered: These are similar to IJ-ordered. In both cases two of the three dimensions are greater than one and the remaining dimension is equal to one.
In general, all discussions in this manual which refer to using I-ordered data may be applied
equally to J- or K-ordered data. All three represent a logical one-dimensional array of data.
Likewise, all discussions referring to IJ-ordered data may be applied to JK- or IK-ordered data.
50
4.3. Data Structuring within a Zone
4.3.1.1. I-, J-, or K-Ordered Data Points. The data points for XY-plots are usually
arranged in a one-dimensional array and indexed by one parameter: I for I-ordered, J for Jordered, or K for K-ordered, with the two remaining index values equal to one. For I-ordered,
the most common type, I is as follows: I=1 at the first data point, I=2 at the second data point,
I=3 at the third data point, and so forth to I=IMax for the last point. At each data point, N variables (V1, V2, ..., VN) are defined. If you arrange the data in a table where the values of the
variables (N values) at a data point are given in a row, and there is one row for each data point,
the table would appear something like that shown in Figure 4-5. For example, if you wanted to
make a simple XY-plot of pressure versus time, V1 would be time and V2 would be pressure.
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
...
VN
(Values at data point I = 1.)
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
...
VN
(Values at data point I = 2.)
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
...
VN
(Values at data point I = 3.)
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
...
VN
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
...
VN
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
...
VN
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
...
VN
Figure 4-5. Table
(Values at data point I =
IMax.)
of values for I-ordered data points (suitable for XY-plots).
You may also input data for 2- and 3-D vector and scatter plots in I-ordered format. You could
create a 3-D vector plot by setting the first six variables at each data point to the three physical
coordinates (X, Y, Z) and the three velocity vector components (U, V, W). However, if you did
this, you would not be able to use features like light source shading, hidden-surface removal, or
streamtraces. These features depend upon a mesh structure connecting the data points (see IJand IJK-ordering and finite-element surface points in the next sections).
4.3.1.2. IJ-Ordered Data Points. The data points for 2- and 3-D surface field plots are
usually organized in a two-parameter mesh. Each data point is addressable by a set of the two
parameters (I and J) and has four neighboring data points (except at the boundaries). The
points are located above, below, to the left, and to the right as shown in Figure 4-6.
At each data point, you would usually define two (or three) spatial variables (X, Y, and Z) plus
one or more variables like temperature, velocity components, or concentration. The data points
can be plotted in a 2- or 3-D coordinate system where any two (or three) of the variables
defined at the data points are the spatial coordinates (by default, the first two or three are used).
A family of I-lines results by connecting all of the points with the same I-index. Likewise, a
family of J-lines is formed by connecting all of the points with the same J-index. When both
the I-lines and J-lines are plotted in a two-dimensional coordinate system, a 2-D mesh plot
51
Chapter 4. Data Organization
(I, J+1)
(I-1, J)
(I, J)
(I+1, J)
(I, J-1)
Figure 4-6. IJ-ordered
data point neighbors.
results as shown in Figure 4-7. When both the I-lines and J-lines are plotted in a three-dimensional coordinate system, a 3-D surface mesh plot results as shown in Figure 4-7.
92000
P(N)
90000
10
88000
8
86000
15 10
Y(M)
6
10
5
4
5
x
de
I-in
0
)
X (M )
ex
nd
J-i
-2
5
10
X(M)
15
x
de
I-in
0
Y (M
0
2
x
de
in
J-
0
Figure 4-7. Left,
a 2D frame mode mesh plot of IJ-ordered data points. Right, a
3D frame mode mesh plot of IJ-ordered data points.
The data points lie at the intersections of the I- and J-lines. The points along the I-lines and Jlines need not lie in a straight line. The points may trace out curved, irregularly spaced, and/or
nonparallel paths. They may lie in a planar 2-D surface or on a non-planar 3-D surface.
Data organized in IJ-order can also be used for XY-plots. I-order is actually the same as IJorder with J equal to one. In XY-plots, you can specify the range (maximum and minimum)
and skip interval for the I- and J-indices for plotting data points; data points outside of the
specified ranges are not plotted. You can also plot the I-lines or the J-lines of an IJ-ordered
zone.
52
4.3. Data Structuring within a Zone
4.3.1.3. IJK-Ordered Data Points. The data points for 3-D volume field plots are usually
organized in a three-parameter mesh. Each point is addressable by a set of three parameters (I,
J, and K) and has six neighboring data points (except at the boundaries). These neighbors are
located above, below, left, right, in front of, and behind the data point as shown in Figure 4-8.
(I, J+1, K)
(I, J, K-1)
(I-1, J, K)
(I, J, K)
(I+1, J, K)
(I, J, K+1)
(I, J-1, K)
Figure 4-8. IJK-ordered
data point neighbors.
At each data point, you define three spatial variables (X, Y, Z) plus (typically) one or more
variables such as pressure, vector components, and vorticity.
A mesh plot of IJK-ordered data is displayed in Figure 4-9. The directions of the I-, J-, and Kindices are shown. As you can see, the points that define the mesh can form curved, irregularly
spaced, and/or nonparallel paths.
4.3.1.4. I-planes, J-planes, and K-planes. An important concept in dealing with IJKordered data is that of I-planes, J-planes, and K-planes. A K-plane is the connected surface of
all points with a constant K-index value. The I- and J-indices range over their entire domains;
thus, a K-plane has, in effect, a two parameter ordering, much like IJ-ordering. In fact, IJordered data is identical to IJK-ordered data with the K-index equal to one (KMax=1). Note
that K-planes are not necessarily planes in the strict sense. They are called K-planes because
they exist as planes in logical (IJK) space. In real (XYZ) space, the K-planes may be cones,
ellipsoids, or arbitrary surfaces.
An I-plane is the connected surface of all points with a constant I-index value (with J and K
ranging over their entire domains), and a J-plane is the connected surface of all points with a
constant J-index value (with K and I ranging over their entire domains). Figure 4-10, 4-11, and
4-12 show examples of I-, J-, and K-planes.
4.3.1.5. Plotting IJK-Ordered Data. Plotting IJK-ordered data is more complex than plotting other ordered data types such as I- or IJ-ordered. With the other data types all data will
53
Chapter 4. Data Organization
Y
I=2
Y
I-Direction
X
I=1
X
Z
I=4
I=5
K-Direction
Z
I=3
I=6
J-D
i
I=7
rec
tio
n
I=8
I=9
Figure 4-9. I-,
J-, and K-directions of
an IJK-ordered zone.
Figure 4-10. I-planes of an IJKordered zone.
Y
X
Y
X
Z
Z
11
J=
15
13
J=
J=
J
J =1
J == 5
9
K = 15
K = 13
K=9
K = 1-5
Figure 4-11. J-planes of an IJKordered zone.
Figure 4-12. K-planes of an IJK-ordered
zone.
typically be plotted. IJK-ordered data offers more options as to which portions of data will be
viewed, especially when creating 2- or 3-D plots. The Volume page of the Plot Attributes
dialog allows you to designate which surfaces of IJK-ordered data will be plotted. You may
choose to plot just outer surfaces, or you may select combinations of I-, J-, and K-planes to be
plotted. For more information see Chapter 20, “Working with 3-D Volume Data.”
54
4.3. Data Structuring within a Zone
4.3.2. Finite-Element Data
Finite-element data, also referred to as FE data, is a method of structuring data as a collection
of points in 2- or 3-D space with a set of instructions on connecting these points to form elements, or cells.
Finite-element data defines a set of points (nodes) and the connected elements of these points.
Finite-element data can be divided into two types:
• FE-surface: A set of triangular or quadrilateral elements defining a 2-D field or a 3-D surface.
• FE-volume: A set of tetrahedral or brick elements defining a 3-D volume field.
In each of the above data-point orderings there is virtually no limit to the number of data
points; the size of your data set is limited only by the amount of physical resources of your
computer. You may use a different data point structure for each zone within a data set, as long
as the number of variables defined at each data point is the same. Chapter 5, “Formatting
ASCII Data for Tecplot,” gives detailed information about how to format your data for Tecplot.
4.3.2.1. Finite-Element Surface Data. Plotting the connecting lines between finiteelement surface data points in a two-dimensional coordinate system results in a mesh like the
one shown in Figure 4-15. Plotting a finite-element surface mesh in a 3-D coordinate system
results in a mesh like that shown in Figure 4-16.
The values of the variables at each data point (node) are entered in the data file similarly to Iordered data, where the nodes are numbered with the I-index. This data is followed by another
set of data that defines the connections between the nodes. This second section is often referred
to as the connectivity list.
You can choose (by zone) to arrange your data in three point (triangle) or four point (quadrilateral) elements. The number of points per node and their arrangement are called the element
type of the zone. You may repeat a node in the quadrilateral element type to create a triangle if
a mixture of quadrilaterals and triangles is necessary.
4.3.2.2. Finite-Element Volume Data. Finite-element volume cells may contain four
points (tetrahedron) or eight points (brick). The elements in each zone must be either all tetrahedra or all bricks.
Finite-element volume node connectivity is shown in Figures 4-17 and 4-18. In the brick
format, points may be repeated to achieve 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-point elements. For example, a node
list entry of “n1 n1 n1 n1 n5 n6 n7 n8” would result in a quadrilateral-based pyramid
element. Figure 4-19 shows an example of a finite-element volume mesh plot.
55
Chapter 4. Data Organization
4
3
2
1
3
Figure 4-15. Mesh
4
5
6
7
8
plot of finite-element surface data in two dimensions.
X
Z
Y
Figure 4-16. Mesh
plot of finite-element surface data in three dimensions.
In finite-element volume order, the values of the variables at each node (data point) and their
connectivity lists are entered in the data file in the same manner as finite-element surface data,
as described in Section 4.3.2.1, “Finite-Element Surface Data.”
Finite-element zones of element type brick or tetrahedron are referred to as finite-element
volume zones.
56
4.4. Viewing Data Set Information
n7
n8
N1
n5
n6
N4
n4
n3
N2
n1
N3
Figure 4-17. Connectivity
of
tetrahedron FE-volume element.
n2
Figure 4-18. Connectivity of brick FE-
volume element.
Z
X
Y
2
1.5
1
0
0.5
1
0
2 2
Figure 4-19. An
1.5
1
0.5
0
FE-volume mesh plot.
4.4. Viewing Data Set Information
The Data Set Information dialog, accessed from the Data Set Info option of the Data menu,
gives summary information about the current data set, including the data set title, zone and
variable names, and the minimum and maximum values of a selected variable. You can modify
the data set title, zone and variable names of any data set. The dialog is shown in Figure 4-20.
57
Chapter 4. Data Organization
Figure 4-20. The
Data Set Information dialog, showing the Zone/Variable Info (top)
and Data Set page (bottom).
58
4.4. Viewing Data Set Information
The following information is provided on two pages in the dialog. On the Zone/Variable Info
page are:
• Zone(s): Lists all zones by number, with their titles. Select one zone to display its name in
the Zone Name field, where the zone name can be modified.
• Zone Name: Enter a new name for a selected zone.
• Zone Type (Ordered or FE data): Displays the type of zone selected in the Zone(s) listing. For ordered data, it is followed by the index values for IMax, JMax and KMax (shown
below). For finite-element data, it is followed by the element type, number of points, and
number of elements (see below).
- IMax (Ordered data): Displays the IMax value of the zone selected in the Zone(s) listing.
- JMax (Ordered data): Displays the JMax value of the zone selected in the Zone(s) listing.
- KMax (Ordered data): Displays the KMax value of the zone selected in the Zone(s)
listing.
- Pts (FE data): Displays the number of data points in the zone selected in the Zone(s)
listing.
- Elem (FE data): Displays the number of elements in the zone selected in the Zone(s)
listing.
• Variable(s): Lists all variables by number, with their names. Select one variable to display
its name in the Variable Name field, where the name can then be modified.
• Variable Name: Enter a new name for a selected variable.
• Var Type: Displays the type of data of the selected variable in the Variable(s) field.
• Var Range -- Selected Zone: Displays the Min and Max values for the selected variable in
the selected zone.
• Var Range -- Active Zone(s): Displays the Min and Max values for the selected variable
for all active zones.
On the Data Set page are:
• Data Set Title: Enter a title for the current data set, or edit an existing title. The default is
the result of concatenating the titles specified in each Title record encountered in the
data files making up the data set.
• Data File(s): Lists the names and paths of all external data files making up the current data
set.
• Var Load Mode: Depending on the method used, this displays either By Position or By
Name.
59
Chapter 4. Data Organization
• Locked By: This field will inform you if the current data set has been locked by an add-on.
Add-ons can lock a data set which in turn prevents your from deleting zones or deleting the
last frame associated with the data set.
60
CHAPTER 5
Formatting ASCII
Data for Tecplot
This chapter tells you how to format data so your data files may be loaded directly into Tecplot.
You can also load data generated by, or tabulated in, other software packages. Amtec has
written some data loaders using Tecplot’s Add-on Developer’s Kit (ADK). These loaders
convert data from a number of popular software packages into a format readable by Tecplot.
They are described in Chapter 7, “Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature.” Tecplot users can
also write loaders of their own using the ADK.
Data files read by Tecplot may be binary or ASCII. Reading an ASCII data file into Tecplot can
be much slower than reading a binary data file, as binary data files take up less disk space. You
can use Tecplot or Preplot to convert ASCII data files to binary. See Section 6.1, “Loading
Tecplot-Format Data Files,” for details on using Tecplot, or Section 5.5, “Converting ASCII
Data Files to Binary,” for details on using Preplot.
The following sections describe the format of ASCII data files. The documentation for the
binary data file format is included as comments in the Preplot source code. If your data is generated by a computer program written in FORTRAN or C, you may be able to generate binary
data files directly using the utilities described in Chapter 11, “Writing Binary Data for Loading
into Tecplot,” of the Tecplot Reference Manual.
5.1. ASCII Data File Records
An ASCII data file begins with an optional file header defining a title for the data file and or
the names of the variables. The file header is followed by optional zone records which contain
the plot data. Zone records may contain either ordered data or finite-element data. You may
also include text records, geometry records, and custom-label records that create text, geometries, and/or custom labels on your plots. Each data file may have up to 32,700 zone records, up
to ten custom label records, and any number of text records and geometry records. These
records may be in any order.
61
Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
The first line in a zone, text, geometry, or custom-label record begins with one of the keywords
ZONE, TEXT, GEOMETRY, or CUSTOMLABELS. The maximum length of a line in a data file is
4,000 characters (unless you edit and recompile the Preplot source code). Any line may be continued onto one or more following lines (except for text enclosed in double quotes ["]). Double
quotes must be used to enclose character strings with embedded blank spaces or other special
characters. A backslash (\) may be used to remove the significance of (or escape) the next
character (that is, \" produces a single double-quote). Any line that begins with an octothorp
(#) is treated as a comment and ignored.
The following simple example of a Tecplot ASCII data file has one small zone and a single line
of text:
TITLE="Simple Data File"
VARIABLES="X" "Y"
ZONE I=4 F=POINT
1 1
2 1
2 2
1 2
TEXT X=10 Y=90 T="Simple Text"
The format of the ASCII data file is summarized in Section 5.1.7, “Summary of Data File
Records.”
5.1.1. File Header
In the file header of your data file, you may specify an optional title that is displayed in the
headers of Tecplot frames. The title line begins with TITLE=, followed by the title text
enclosed in double-quotes. You may also assign a name to each of the variables by including a
line that begins with VARIABLES=, followed by each variable’s name enclosed in double
quotes. The quoted variable names should be separated by spaces or commas. Tecplot calculates the number of variables (N) from the list of variable names. If you do not specify the variable names (and your first zone is in POINT or FEPOINT format), Tecplot sets the number of
variables equal to the number of numeric values in the first line of zone data for the first zone,
and names the variables V1, V2, V3, and so forth.
Initially, Tecplot uses the first two variables in data files as the X- and Y-coordinates, and the
third variable for the Z-coordinate of 3-D plots. You may, however, order the variables in the
data file any way you want, since you can interactively reassign the variables to the X-, Y-, and
or Z-axes using Tecplot dialogs.
If the file header occurs in a place other than at the top of the data file, a warning is printed and
the header is ignored. This allows you to concatenate two or more ASCII data files before
using Tecplot (provided each data file has the same number of variables per data point).
62
5.1. ASCII Data File Records
5.1.2. Zone Records
A zone record consists of a control line that begins with the keyword “ZONE” followed by a set
of numerical data called the zone data. The format of the zone control line is shown in
Section 5.1.7, “Summary of Data File Records.”
5.1.2.1. The Format Parameter. The zone data are in the format specified by the F (format) parameter in the control line. There are two basic types of zones: ordered and finite-element. Ordered zones have the formats POINT and BLOCK; finite-element zones have the
formats FEPOINT and FEBLOCK. POINT format is assumed if the F parameter is omitted
(thus, by default, zones are assumed to be ordered). See Section 5.2, “Ordered Data,” for more
information on ordered zones, and Section 5.3, “Finite-Element Data,” for details on finiteelement data.
In POINT and FEPOINT format, the values for all variables are given for the first point, then
the second point, and so on. In BLOCK and FEBLOCK format, all of the values for the first variable are given in a block, then all of the values for the second variable, then all of the values for
the third, and so forth. More detail on this is given below.
5.1.2.2. A Simple Example of POINT Format. If you have only one zone of data in
POINT format, and it is one-dimensional (that is, JMax=1, KMax =1), you may omit the zone
control line. If you want Tecplot to determine the number of variables, you may create a data
file with only the zone data, such as the following:
12.5
14.3
12.2
13.3
13.5
23
24
24
26
27
45
46
50
51
55
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Tecplot calculates the number of data points (IMax) in the zone by assuming that each row represents a data point and each column represents a variable, and creates an I-ordered zone. This
type of structure is good for XY-plots and scatter plots. If there are multiple zones, two- or
three-dimensional zones, finite-element zones, or BLOCK-format zone data, you must include a
zone control line at the beginning of each zone record.
5.1.2.3. Data Types. Each variable in each zone in the data file may have its own data type.
Tecplot supports the following six data types:
•
•
•
•
SINGLE (four-byte floating point values).
DOUBLE (eight-byte floating point values).
LONGINT (four-byte integer values).
SHORTINT (two-byte integer values).
63
Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
• BYTE (one-byte integer values, from 0 to 255).
• BIT.
The data type determines the amount of storage Tecplot assigns to each variable. Therefore, the
lowest level data type should be used whenever possible. For example, imaging data, which
usually consists of numerical values ranging from zero to 255, should be given a data type of
BYTE. By default, Tecplot treats numeric data as data type SINGLE. If any variable in the zone
uses the BIT data type, the zone format must be BLOCK or FEBLOCK; you cannot use POINT
or FEPOINT format.
5.1.2.4. Listing Your Data. Numerical values in zone data must be separated by one or
more spaces, commas, tabs, new lines, or carriage returns. Blank lines are ignored. Integer
(101325), floating point (101325.0), and exponential (1.01325E+05) numbers are
accepted. To repeat a particular number in the data, precede it with a repetition number as follows: “Rep*Num,” where Rep is the repetition factor and Num is some numeric value to be
repeated. For example, you may represent 37 values of 120.5 followed by 100 values of 0.0 as
follows:
37*120.5, 100*0.0
5.1.2.5. Zone Types and Their Control Lines. As stated above, there are two distinct
types of zones: ordered zones and finite-element zones. Ordered zones are I-, IJ-, and IJKordered zones (formats POINT and BLOCK). Finite-element zones are FE-surface and FEvolume zones (formats FEPOINT and FEBLOCK). The control lines for these zone types differ
in the parameters needed. Both zone types can use the C (color), F (format), T (zonetitle), D
(duplist), and DT (datatype) parameters, although the format of the F and D parameters is
slightly different for each zone type.
The T parameter specifies a title for the zone. This may be any text string up to 64 characters in
length. If you supply a longer text string, it is automatically truncated to the first 64 characters.
The titles of zones appear in the Plot Attributes and other dialogs, and, optionally, in the XYplot legend. (You can use keywords in the zone titles to identify sets of zones to enable/disable
or to change zone attributes.) The C parameter sets an initial color for the zone. This may be
overridden interactively, or by use of a stylesheet. The DT (type1, type2, type3, ...) parameter
specifies the data types for the variables in a zone.
The D (duplist) parameter specifies a list of variables to duplicate from the preceding zone,
which must have the same dimensions (IMax, JMax, and KMax) as the new zone. If a variable
is duplicated using the D parameter in the zone control line, no values are listed for this variable, and the values of the specified variables are obtained from the previous zone record. For
example, if the zone control line has D=(1,2,4), the first values listed would be for variable
V3, the second, for variable V5.
64
5.1. ASCII Data File Records
For ordered zones, you may specify the I (IMax), J (JMax), and K (KMax) parameters, which
store the number of data points in the I, J, and K directions. J and K both default to 1. I must
be specified if J is used; I and J must be specified if K is used. If all are omitted, Tecplot
assumes an I-ordered zone and calculates IMax for you.
Note: I and J are not equivalent to either the number of variables or the number of data points.
The number of data points is equal to the product of I, J, and K.
For finite-element zones, described in Section 5.3, “Finite-Element Data,” you must specify
the N (numnodes) and may optionally include the ET (elementtype), the E (numelements), and
or the NV (nodevalue) parameter. If the E parameter is not specified, Tecplot calculates it from
the number of node sets in the connectivity list following the node data. The NV (nodevalue)
parameter specifies the number of variables which represent the “Node” value in FE data.
The D (duplist) parameter specifies a list of variables to duplicate and/or the keyword FECONNECT, which duplicates the connectivity list of the preceding zone. The preceding zone must
have the same numnodes and numelements as the new zone in order to use the D parameter.
The following sections give simple examples of zone data in various formats, as well as sample
pieces of FORTRAN code that you can use as templates to print out your own data. Note that
the sample code is intended only as a general example—the zone data that it produces contains
only one value per line. You may want to modify the code to suit your own needs.
5.1.3. Text Record
Text records are used to import text directly from a data file. Text can also be imported into
Tecplot using a macro file. Text may be titles, labels, or other information. You may create data
files containing only text records and read them into Tecplot just as you would read any other
data file. You may delete and edit text originating from data files just like the text that you
create interactively.
The text record consists of a single control line. The control line starts with the keyword TEXT
and has one or more options:
• The text string is defined in the required T (text) parameter.
• The color is controlled by the C (color) parameter.
• Use the CS (coordinatesys) parameter to specify the text coordinate system, either FRAME
or GRID. If you specify the frame coordinate system (the default), the values of the X (xorigin) and Y (yorigin) parameters are in frame units; if you specify grid coordinates, X and Y
are in grid units (i.e., units of the physical coordinate system). X and Y locate the anchor
point of the text string.
• Use the AN (textanchor) parameter to specify the position of the anchor point relative to the
text. There are nine possible anchor positions, as shown in Figure 5-1.
65
Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
Figure 5-1. Text
Headleft
Headcenter
Headright
Midleft
Midcenter
Midright
Left
Center
Right
anchor positions—values for the AN parameter.
• Use the HU (heightunits) parameter to assign units for character heights. If the CS parameter is FRAME, you can set HU to either FRAME or POINT. If the CS parameter is GRID, you
can set HU to either GRID or FRAME.
• Use the H parameter to specify the height; it is measured in the units defined by the HU
parameter.
• To include multiple lines of text in a single text record, include \\n in the text string to
indicate a new line.
• You can assign the line spacing for multi-line text using the LS (linespacing) parameter.
The default value, 1, gives single-spacing. Use 1.5 for line-and-a-half spacing, 2 for doublespacing, and so on.
You may optionally draw a box around the text string using the BX (boxtype) parameter. The
parameters BXO (boxoutlinecolor), BXM (boxmargin), and LT (linethickness) are used if the
boxtype is HOLLOW or FILLED. The parameter BXF (boxfillcolor) is used only if the boxtype
is FILLED. The default boxtype, NOBOX, ignores all other box parameters.
The S (scope) parameter specifies the text scope. GLOBAL scope is the same as selecting the
check box Show in “Like” Frames in the Text Options dialog. See Section 18.1.6.3, “Specifying the Scope of the Text,” for details.
You may also use the ZN (zone) parameter to attach text to a specific zone or XY mapping. For
further information, see Section 16.1.6.4, "Attaching Text to Zones or X-Y Mapping."
5.1.3.1. Examples of Text Records. You may attach a macro command to the text with
the MFC parameter. See Section 18.5, “Linking Text and Geometries to Macros.”
Some simple examples of text records are shown below. The first text record specifies only the
origin and the text. The next text record specifies the origin, color, font, and the text. The last
text record specifies the origin, height, box attributes, and text. Note that the control line for the
text can span multiple file lines if necessary (as in the last text record below).
66
5.1. ASCII Data File Records
TEXT X=50, Y=50, T="Example Text"
TEXT X=10, Y=10, F=TIMES-BOLD, C=BLUE, T="Blue Text"
TEXT X=25, Y=90, CS=FRAME, HU=POINT, H=14,
BX=FILLED, BXF=YELLOW, BXO=BLACK, LS=1.5,
T="Box Text \\n Multi-lined text"
5.1.4. Geometry Record
Geometry records are used to import geometries from a data file. Geometries are line drawings
that may be boundaries, arrows, or even representations of physical structures. You may create
data files containing only geometry and text records and read them into Tecplot. You may
delete and edit geometries originating from data files just like the geometries that you create
interactively.
The geometry record control line begins with the keyword GEOMETRY. Use the CS (coordinatesys) parameter to specify the geometry coordinate system, either FRAME or GRID. If you
specify the frame coordinate system (the default), the values of the X (xorigin) and Y (yorigin)
parameters are in frame units; if you specify grid coordinates, X and Y are in grid units (that is,
units of the physical coordinate system). X and Y locate the anchor point, or origin, of the
geometry, which is the center of a circle or ellipse, the lower left corner of a square or rectangle, and the anchor point of a polyline. The anchor point specifies the offset of all the points: if
X=1, Y=1, and the first point is (1, 2), and the second point is (2, 4), then Tecplot draws at (2,
3) (1+1, 2+1) then (3, 5) (2+1, 4+1). In other words, the points for any geometry are always
relative to the specified anchor point. The Z (zorigin) is specified only for LINE3D geometries,
and, since LINE3D geometries are always in grid mode, Z is always in units of the Z-axis.
Geometry types are selected with the T (geomtype) parameter. The available geometry types
are listed below:
•
•
•
•
•
•
SQUARE: A square with lower left corner at X, Y.
RECTANGLE: A rectangle with lower left corner at X, Y.
CIRCLE: A circle centered at X, Y.
ELLIPSE: An ellipse centered at X, Y.
LINE: A set of 2-D polylines (referred to as multi-polylines) anchored at X, Y.
LINE3D: A set of 3-D polylines (referred to as multi-polylines) anchored at X, Y, Z.
The color of the geometry is controlled by the C (color) parameter. Any geometry type except
LINE3D may be filled with a color by using the FC (fillcolor) parameter. With both C (color)
and FC (fillcolor) on the control line, the geometry is outlined in one color and filled with
another. Each polyline of a LINE geometry is filled individually (by connecting the last point
67
Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
of the polyline with the first). Not specifying the FC (fillcolor) parameter results in a hollow, or
outlined, geometry drawn in the color of the C (color) parameter.
You can control how geometries are drawn using the L (linetype), LT (linethickness), and PL
(patternlength) parameters. You can set L to any of Tecplot’s line patterns (SOLID, DASHED,
DOTTED, DASHDOT, LONGDASH, DASHDOTDOT). You can set LT and PL to any value, using
frame units.
The control line of the geometry is followed by geometry data. For SQUARE, the geometry
data consists of just one number: the side length of the square.
For RECTANGLE, the geometry data consists of two numbers: the first is the width (horizontal
axis dimension), and the second is the height (vertical axis dimension).
For CIRCLE, the geometry data is one number: the radius. For ELLIPSE, the geometry data
consists of two numbers: the first is the horizontal axis length and the second is the vertical
axis length. For both circles and ellipses, you can use the EP (numellipsepts) parameter to
specify the number of points used to draw circles and ellipses. All computer-generated curves
are simply collections of very short line segments; the EP parameter allows you to control how
many line segments Tecplot uses to approximate circles and ellipses. The default is 72.
For LINE and LINE3D geometries, the geometry data is controlled by the F (format) parameter. These geometries may be specified in either POINT or BLOCK format. By default, POINT
format is assumed. Each geometry is specified by the total number of polylines, up to a
maximum of 50. Each polyline is defined by a number of points and a series of XY- or XYZcoordinate points between which the line segments are drawn. In POINT format, the XY- or
XYZ-coordinates are given together for each point. In BLOCK format, all the X-values are
listed, then all the Y-values, and (for LINE3D geometries) all the Z-values. All coordinates are
relative to the X, Y, and Z specified on the control line. You can specify points in either single
or double precision by setting the DT (datatype) parameter to either SINGLE or DOUBLE.
For LINE geometries, you can specify arrowheads using the AAT (arrowheadattach), AST
(arrowheadstyle), ASZ (arrowheadsize), and AAN (arrowheadangle) parameters. See
Section 5.1.7, “Summary of Data File Records,” for details. These parameters provide the
same functionality available when you create a line geometry interactively.
The S (scope) parameter specifies the geometry’s scope. GLOBAL scope is the same as selecting the check box Show in Like Frames in the Geometry dialog. See Section 18.2.2.6, “Specifying Geometry Scope,” for details.
You may also use the ZN (zone) parameter to attach geometry to a specific zone or XY-mapping.
You may attach a macro command to the text with the MFC parameter. See Section 18.5, “Linking Text and Geometries to Macros.”
68
5.1. ASCII Data File Records
LINE3D geometries must be created in a data file. They may not be created interactively.
LINE3D geometries are always in grid mode. To view LINE3D geometries in Tecplot, you
must be in 3D frame mode, which requires at least one zone. Thus, a data file with only
LINE3D geometries is useful only as a supplement to other data files.
5.1.4.1. Examples of Geometry Records. The following geometry record defines a
rectangle of 40 width and 30 height:
GEOMETRY
40 30
T=RECTANGLE
The following geometry record defines an origin and a red circle of 20 radius, with an origin
of (75, 75) that is filled with blue:
GEOMETRY X=75, Y=75, T=CIRCLE, C=RED, FC=BLUE,CS=FRAME
20
The following geometry record defines an origin and two polylines, drawn using the Custom 3
color. The first polyline is composed of three points, the second of two points.
GEOMETRY X=50, Y=50, T=LINE, C=CUST3
2
3
0 1
0 0
2 0
2
0 0
1 2
In BLOCK format, the same geometry looks like the following:
GEOMETRY X=50, Y=50, T=LINE, C=CUST3, F=BLOCK, CS=FRAME
2
3
0 0 2
1 0 0
2
0 1
0 2
The next geometry record defines a purple ellipse with a horizontal axis length of 20 and a
vertical axis length of 10, with an origin of (10, 70), that is filled with yellow.
GEOMETRY X=10, Y=70, T=ELLIPSE, C=PURPLE, FC=YELLOW
20 10
The final geometry record is a 3-D polyline with four points that is composed of one polyline
using the default origin of (0, 0, 0):
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
GEOMETRY T=LINE3D
1
4
0 0 0
1 2 2
3 2 3
4 1 2
In BLOCK format, this geometry record can be written as follows:
GEOMETRY T=LINE3D, F=BLOCK
1
4
0 1 3 4
0 2 2 1
0 2 3 2
5.1.5. A More Extensive Example of a Geometry Record
In the TextGeom file shown below, there are four text records (showing a circle, ellipse, rectangle, and line). A plot of the file is shown in Figure 5-2.
TEXT X=20, Y=85, F=HELV-BOLD, C=BLUE, H=7.5,
T="Example Text"
TEXT X=20, Y=75, F=TIMES-BOLD, H=5, T="Subtitle"
TEXT X=80, Y=25, F=TIMES-ITALIC-BOLD, H=4, C=RED,
BX=FILLED, BXF=YELLOW, BXM=50, BXO=CYAN,
T="Filled Box"
TEXT X=41, Y=8, H=4, F=COURIER-BOLD,
C=CUST3, BX=HOLLOW, BXO=CUST4, T="Hollow Box"
GEOMETRY X=50, Y=50, T=RECTANGLE, FC=WHITE, C=BLUE
40 30
GEOMETRY X=30, Y=30, T=CIRCLE, FC=BLUE, C=GREEN
20
GEOMETRY X=70, Y=65, T=LINE, FC=PURPLE, C=BLACK
1
4
-10 0
0 10
010 10
10 0.6
GEOMETRY T=LINE, C=CUST1
2
3
5 50
70
5.1. ASCII Data File Records
(Sketch)  16 Jun 1998 
Example Text
Subtitle
Filled Box
Hollow Box
Figure 5-2. Text
and geometries created from the sample in Section 5.1.5, “A More
Extensive Example of a Geometry Record.”
10 10
20 10
2
15 15
25 25
GEOMETRY X=60, Y=30, T=ELLIPSE, C=CUST8
30 10
5.1.6. Custom Label Record
The custom label record is an optional record to define sets of text strings for use in custom
labeling the values of an axis, contour legend or value labels, or variable-value node labels.
The custom-label record begins with the keyword CUSTOMLABELS, followed by one or more
text strings. The text strings must be enclosed within double quotes (“"”) if they contain any
commas, spaces or other special characters, or if they might be confused with valid data file
keywords. Enclosing the strings in double quotes is always recommended.
The first custom-label string corresponds to a value of one on the axis, the next to a value of
two, the next to a value of three, and so forth. Custom labels may appear one to a line, or there
71
Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
may be more than one on a line, separated by a comma or space. Multiple custom-label records
can be present in a data file. If this is the case, you choose which set to assign to a given axis,
contour legend, or variable-value node labels. Custom labels are discussed in more detail in
Section 17.5.2, “Controlling Tick Mark Labels.”
A simple example of a custom-label record is shown below. MON corresponds to a value of 1,
TUE corresponds to 2, WED to 3, THU to 4, and FRI to 5. Since custom labels have a wraparound effect, MON also corresponds to the values 6, 11, and so forth.
CUSTOMLABELS "MON", "TUE", "WED", "THU", "FRI"
5.1.7. Summary of Data File Records
The following table summarizes the records and parameters allowable in Tecplot data files.
Data File
Section
File Header
Ordered Zone
Record
Records
Parameter Descriptions
TITLE = "filetitle"
VARIABLES =
Title for data file.
"vname1"
"vname2" ...
Name of first variable.
Name of second variable.
ZONE
T="zonetitle"
I=IMax
J=JMax
K=KMax
C=color
F=orderedformat
D=(duplist)
DT=(datatypelist)
72
Title for zone.
Number of points in I-direction.
Number of points in J-direction.
Number of points in K-direction.
One of the following: BLACK, RED, GREEN,
BLUE, CYAN, YELLOW, PURPLE, WHITE,
CUST1, ..., CUST8.
Either POINT or BLOCK.
List of variables to duplicate from previous
zone.
List specifying data type for each variable,
from among the following: SINGLE,
DOUBLE, LONGINT, SHORTINT, BYTE,
BIT.
5.1. ASCII Data File Records
Data File
Section
Finite-element Zone
Record
Records
ZONE
T="zonetitle"
N=numnodes
E=numelements
ET=elementtype
C=color
F=feformat
D=(feduplist)
NV=nodevariable
DT=(datatypelist)
Parameter Descriptions
Title for zone.
Number of nodes.
Number of elements.
One of the following: TRIANGLE,
QUADRILATERAL, TETRAHEDRON,
BRICK..
See description above.
Either FEPOINT or FEBLOCK.
List of variables to duplicate from previous
zone, and/or the keyword FECONNECT.
Which variable represents the Node value.
See description above.
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
Data File
Section
Text Record
Records
TEXT
X=xorigin
Y=yorigin
F=font
CS=coordinatesys
HU=heightunits
AN=textanchor
C=color
A=angle
H=height
LS=linespacing
S=scope
T="text"
BX=boxtype
BXM=boxmargin
BXF=boxfillcolor
BXO=boxcolor
LT=boxlinethickness
ZN=zone
MFC="macrofunctioncommand"
74
Parameter Descriptions
X origin of object in coordinatesys units.
Y origin of object in coordinatesys units.
One of the following: HELV, HELV-BOLD,
TIMES, TIMES-ITALIC, TIMES-BOLD,
TIMES-ITALIC-BOLD, COURIER,
COURIER-BOLD, GREEK, MATH,
USER-DEF.
Either FRAME or GRID.
In FRAME coordinatesys, either FRAME or
POINT; in GRID coordinatesys, either GRID
or FRAME.
One of the following: LEFT, CENTER,
RIGHT, MIDLEFT, MIDCENTER,
MIDRIGHT, HEADLEFT, HEADCENTER,
HEADRIGHT.
See description above.
Angle in degrees, counter-clockwise from
horizontal.
Character height in heightunits.
Line spacing for multiple-line text.
Either LOCAL or GLOBAL.
Alphanumeric text string.
One of NOBOX, HOLLOW, or FILLED.
Margin around text as fraction of text height.
Fill color for box; use color options.
Color of text box outline; use color options.
Line thickness of text box.
Zone (or XY-mapping) number to which this
item is assigned.
Macro function command.
5.2. Ordered Data
Data File
Section
Geometry
Record
Records
GEOMETRY
X=xorigin
Y=yorigin
Z=zorigin
CS=coordinatesys
C=color
L=linetype
PL=patternlength
LT=linethickness
T=geomtype
EP=numellipsepts
AST=arrowheadstyle
AAT=arrowheadattach
ASZ=arrowheadsize
AAN=arrowheadangle
DT=datatype
S=scope
F=geomformat
FC=geomfillcolor
ZN=zone
MFC="macrofunctioncommand"
Custom
Labels
Record
CUSTOMLABELS
"label1"
"label2" ...
Parameter Descriptions
X-origin of object in coordinatesys units.
Y-origin of object in coordinatesys units.
Z-origin of object in coordinatesys units.
Either FRAME or GRID.
See description above.
One of the following: SOLID, DASHED,
DASHDOT, DOTTED, LONGDASH,
DASHDOTDOT.
Pattern length for specified line type.
Line thickness for geometry outline.
One of the following: LINE, SQUARE,
RECTANGLE, CIRCLE, ELLIPSE,
LINE3D.
Number of points to use to approximate circles and ellipses.
One of PLAIN, HOLLOW, or FILLED.
One of the following: NONE, BEGINNING,
END, BOTH.
Size of arrowhead in Frame units.
Angle of arrowhead in degrees.
Either SINGLE or DOUBLE (applies to 2- and
3-D polylines only).
Either LOCAL or GLOBAL.
Either POINT or BLOCK.
Fill color for geometry; use color options
Zone (or XY-mapping) number to which this
geometry is assigned.
Macro function command.
String for value of one when using custom
labels.
String for value of two when using custom
labels.
5.2. Ordered Data
For ordered data, the numerical values in the zone data must be in either POINT or BLOCK
format, determined by the F (format) parameter.
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
5.2.1. I-Ordered Data
I-ordered data has only one index, the I-index. This type of data is typically used for XY-plots,
scatter plots, and irregular (random) data for triangulation or for interpolation into an IJ-or IJKordered zone within Tecplot.
In I-ordered data, the I-index varies from one to IMax. The total number of data points is IMax.
The total number of values in the zone data is IMax*N (where N is the number of variables).
For data in POINT format, IMax is calculated by Tecplot from the zone data if it is not explicitly set by the zone control line (using the I-parameter).
5.2.1.1. Example of I-Ordered Data in POINT Format. A simple example of Iordered data in POINT format is listed below. There are two variables (X, Y) and five data
points. In this example, each row of data corresponds to a data point and each column to a variable. This data set is plotted in Figure 5-3; each data point is labeled with its I-index.
VARIABLES = "X","Y"
ZONE I=5, F=POINT
2
4
3
9
5
25
6
36
7
49
50
5
Y
40
4
30
3
20
10
0
Figure 5-3. An
2
1
1
2
3
4
X
5
6
7
8
I-ordered data set.
5.2.1.2. FORTRAN Code Example to Generate I-Ordered Data in POINT Format. The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create I-ordered data in POINT
format:
76
5.2. Ordered Data
INTEGER VAR
.
.
.
WRITE (*,*) ´ZONE F=POINT, I=´, IMAX
DO 1 I=1,IMAX
DO 1 VAR=1,NUMVAR
1
WRITE (*,*) ARRAY(VAR,I)
5.2.1.3. Example of I-Ordered Data in BLOCK Format. The same data as in Section
5.2.1.1. is shown below in BLOCK format. In this example, each column of zone data corresponds to a data point; each row to a variable.
VARIABLES = "X", "Y"
ZONE I=5, F=BLOCK
2 3 5 6 7
4 9 25 36 49
In BLOCK format all IMax values of each variable are listed, one variable at a time.
5.2.1.4. Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate I-Ordered Data in BLOCK
Format. The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create I-ordered data in
BLOCK format:
INTEGER VAR
.
.
.
WRITE (*,*) ´ZONE F=BLOCK, I=´, IMAX
DO 1 VAR=1,NUMVAR
DO 1 I=1,IMAX
1
WRITE (*,*) ARRAY(VAR,I)
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
5.2.1.5. Example: A Multi-zone XY-Plot. The two tables below show the values of pressure and temperature measured at four locations on some object at two different times. The
four locations are different for each time measurement.
Time = 0.0 seconds:
Time = 0.1 seconds:
Position
Temperature
Pressure
Position
Temperature
Pressure
71.30
563.7
101362.5
71.31
564.9
101362.1
86.70
556.7
101349.6
84.42
553.1
101348.9
103.1
540.8
101345.4
103.1
540.5
101344.0
124.4
449.2
101345.2
124.8
458.5
101342.2
For this case, we want to set up two zones in the data file, one for each time value. Each zone
has three variables (Position, Temperature, and Pressure) and four data points (one
for each location). This means that IMax=4 for each zone. We include a text record (discussed
in Section 5.1.3., “Text Record”) to add a title to the plot. A data file in POINT format is given
below. The plot shown in Figure 5-4 can be produced from this file.
TITLE = "Example: Multi-zone XY-Plot"
VARIABLES = "Position", "Temperature", "Pressure"
ZONE T="0.0 seconds", I=4
71.30 563.7 101362.5
86.70 556.7 101349.6
103.1 540.8 101345.4
124.4 449.2 101345.2
ZONE T="0.1 seconds", I=4
71.31 564.9 101362.1
84.42 553.1 101348.9
103.1 540.5 101344.0
124.8 458.5 101342.2
TEXT CS=GRID, HU=GRID, X=0.36, Y=0.87, H=0.04, T="SAMPLE CASE"
A data file in BLOCK format is shown below. All of the values for the first variable (Position) at each data point are listed first, then all of the values for the second variable (Temperature) at each data point, and so forth.
TITLE = "Example: Multi-zone XY-Plot"
VARIABLES = "Position", "Temperature", "Pressure"
ZONE F=BLOCK, T="0.0 seconds", I=4
71.30 86.70 103.1 124.4
563.7 556.7 540.8 449.2
101362.5 101349.6 101345.4 101345.2
78
5.2. Ordered Data
SAMPLE CASE
Temperature (0.0 seconds)
Pressure (0.0 seconds)
Temperature (0.1 seconds)
Pressure (0.1 seconds)
560
550
101360
540
101355
520
510
500
101350
490
Pressure
Temperature
530
480
470
101345
460
450
80
90
100
110
120
Position
Figure 5-4. A
multi-zone XY-plot.
ZONE F=BLOCK, T="0.1 seconds", I=4
71.31 84.42 103.1 124.8
564.9 553.1 540.5 458.5
101362.1 101348.9 101344.0 101342.2
TEXT CS=GRID, HU=GRID, X=0.36, Y=0.87, H=0.04, T="SAMPLE CASE"
A more compact data file for this example is in the point format shown below. Tecplot determines the number of variables from the number of values in the first line of data under the first
zone. The variables and zones are assigned default names.
ZONE
71.30 563.7 101362.5
86.70 556.7 101349.6 103.1 540.8 101345.4 124.4 449.2 101345.2
ZONE
71.31 564.9 101362.1 84.42 553.1 101348.9 103.1 540.5 101344.0
124.8 458.5 101342.2
TEXT CS=GRID, HU=GRID, X=0.36, Y=0.87, H=0.04, T="SAMPLE CASE"
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
5.2.2. IJ-Ordered Data
IJ-ordered data has two indices: I and J. IJ-ordered data is typically used for 2- and 3-D surface
mesh, contour, vector, and shade plots, but it can also be used to plot families of lines in XYplots. See Chapter 8, “XY-Plots,” for more information. In IJ-ordered data, the I-index varies
from 1 to IMax, and the J-index varies from one to JMax. The total number of data points is
IMax*JMax. The total number of numerical values in the zone data is IMax*JMax*N (where N
is the number of variables). Both IMax and JMax must be specified in the zone control line
(with the I and J parameters). The I- and J-indices should not be confused with the X- and Ycoordinates—on occasions the two may coincide, but this is not the typical case.
The I-index varies the fastest. That is, when you write programs to print IJ-ordered data, the Iindex is the inner loop and the J-index is the outer loop. Note the similarity between I-ordered
data and IJ-ordered data with JMax=1.
5.2.2.1. Example of IJ-Ordered Data in POINT Format. A simple example of IJordered data in POINT format is listed below. There are four variables (X, Y, Temperature,
Pressure) and six data points. In this example, each row of data corresponds to a data point;
each column to a variable. The first two lines are for J=1, the next two for J=2, the last two for
J=3. The first, third, and fifth lines are for I=1; the second, fourth, and sixth lines are for I=2.
This data is plotted in Figure 5-5; each data point is labeled with its IJ-index.
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Temperature", "Pressure"
ZONE I=2, J=3, F=POINT
3 0 0 50
7 2 0 43
2 4 1 42
6 6 0 37
1 8 1 30
5 9 1 21
5.2.2.2. Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate IJ-Ordered Data in POINT
Format. The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create IJ-ordered data in
POINT format:
WRITE (*,*) ´VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Temperature", "Pressure"’
WRITE (*,*) ´ZONE I=’, IMAX, ’, J=’, JMAX, ’, ’F=POINT’
DO 1 J=1,JMAX
DO 1 I=1, IMAX
1
WRITE (*,*) X(I,J), Y(I,J), T(I,J), P(I,J)
5.2.2.3. Example of IJ-Ordered Data Set in BLOCK Format. The same data set as
in Section 5.2.2.1. is shown in BLOCK format below. In this example, each column of data corresponds to a data point; each row to a variable.
80
5.2. Ordered Data
2,3
9
1,3
8
7
2,2
Y
6
5
1,2
4
3
2,1
2
1
1,1
0
0
2
4
6
8
X
Figure 5-5. An
IJ-ordered data set.
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Temperature", "Pressure"
ZONE I=2, J=3, F=BLOCK
3 7 2 6 1 5
0 2 4 6 8 9
0 0 1 0 1 1
50 43 42 37 30 21
In BLOCK format, all IMax*JMax values of each variable are listed, one variable at a time.
Within each variable block, all the values of a variable at each data point are listed.
5.2.2.4. Example FORTRAN Code to Generate IJ-Ordered Data in BLOCK Format. The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create IJ-ordered data in BLOCK
format:
INTEGER VAR
.
.
.
WRITE (*,*) ´ZONE F=BLOCK, I=´, IMAX, ´, J=´, JMAX
DO 1 VAR=1,NUMVAR
DO 1 J=1,JMAX
DO 1 I=1,IMAX
1
WRITE (*,*) ARRAY(VAR,I,J)
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
5.2.3. IJK-Ordered Data
IJK-ordered data has three indices: I, J, and K. This type of data is typically used for 3-D
volume plots, although planes of the data can be used for 2- and 3-D surface plots. See
Chapter 21, “Working with 3-D Volume Data,” for more information.
In IJK-ordered data, the I-index varies from 1 to IMax, the J-index varies from one to JMax,
and the K-index varies from one to KMax. The total number of data points is
IMax*JMax*KMax. The total number of values in the zone data is IMax*JMax*KMax*N,
where N is the number of variables. The three indices, IMax, JMax, and KMax, must be specified in the zone control line using the I-, J-, and K-parameters.
The I-index varies the fastest; the J-index the next fastest; the K-index the slowest. That is, if
you write a program to print IJK-ordered data, the I-index is the inner loop, the K-index is the
outer loop, and the J-index is the loop in between. Note the similarity between IJ-ordered data
and IJK-ordered data with KMax=1.
5.2.3.1. An Example of IJK-Ordered Data in POINT Format.
A simple example of IJK-ordered data in
POINT format is listed below. There are
four variables (X, Y, Z, Temperature)
and twelve data points. For this example,
each row of data corresponds to a data
point; each column to a variable. This
data is plotted in Figure 5-6; each data
point is labeled with its IJK-index.
X
3,1,2
2,2,2
2,1,2
1,2,2
3,2,1
10
1,1,2
3,1,1
2,2,1
5
82
0
0
0
6
6
6
0
0
0
6
6
6
0 0
1 5
3 10
3 10
4 41
6 72
8 0
9 29
11 66
11 66
12 130
14 169
6
2,1,1
1,2,1
0
3
6
0
3
6
0
3
6
0
3
6
Y
3,2,2
Z
VARIABLES = "X" "Y" "Z" "Temp"
ZONE I=3, J=2, K=2,F=POINT
Z
4
1,1,1
5
Figure 5-6. An
2
X
0
0
0
IJK-ordered data set.
5.2. Ordered Data
5.2.3.2. The Same Data in BLOCK Format. The same data set as Section 5.2.3.1., this
time in BLOCK format, is shown below. For this example, each column of data corresponds to a
data point; each row to a variable.
VARIABLES = "X" "Y" "Z" "Temp"
ZONE I=3, J=2, K=2, F=BLOCK
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
5
6 0 3
0 6 6
3 3 4
10 10
6 0 3
6 0 0
6 8 9
41 72
6 0 3 6
0 6 6 6
11 11 12 14
0 29 66 66 130 169
5.2.3.3. An Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate an IJK-Ordered Zone in
POINT Format. The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create an IJK-ordered
zone in POINT format:
WRITE (*,*) ’VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z", "Temp"’
WRITE (*,*) ’ZONE I=’,IMAX,’ J=’,JMAX,’ K=’,KMAX,’ F=POINT’
DO 1 K=1,KMAX
DO 1 J=1,JMAX
DO 1 I=1,IMAX
1
WRITE (*,*) X(I,J,K), Y(I,J,K), Z(I,J,K), Temp(I,J,K)
In BLOCK format, all IMax*JMax*KMax values of each variable are listed, one variable at a
time. Within each variable block, all the values of the variable at each data point are listed.
5.2.3.4. An Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate IJK-Ordered Data in
BLOCK Format. The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create an IJKordered zone in BLOCK format:
INTEGER VAR
.
.
.
.
WRITE (*,*) ´ZONE F=BLOCK, I=´, IMAX, ´, J=´, JMAX, ´, K=´, KMAX
DO 1 VAR=1,NUMVAR
DO 1 K=1,KMAX
DO 1 J=1,JMAX
DO 1 I=1,IMAX
1
WRITE (*,*) ARRAY(VAR,I,J,K)
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
5.2.4. One Variable Data Files
For ordered data, it is possible to read in a data file that has only one variable. Tecplot then
creates the other required variables. That is, if your data is I-ordered, a variable containing the
I-index values is created, numbered V1, and called “I”. For IJ-ordered data, two variables,
numbered V1 and V2 and called “I” and “J,” are created to contain the I- and J-index values.
For IJK-ordered data, three variables “I”, “J”, and “K” are created and numbered V1, V2, and
V3. The variable in the data file is numbered with the next available variable number, that is,
V2 for I-ordered data, V3 for IJ-ordered data, and V4 for IJK-ordered data. The created variables are the default X-, Y-, and Z-variables. The data type for the created variables is determined according to the following table:
Maximum of IMax,
JMax, and KMax
Data Type
< 256
BYTE
<32,766
SHORTINT
>=32,766
SINGLE
For example, if you have an ASCII file with 256 by 384 numbers representing intensities of a
rasterized image, you could make a data file similar to the following:
VARIABLES = "TEMPERATURE"
ZONE I=256, J=384
List all 98,304 values of temperature here.
Read the data file into Tecplot. Two new variables of type SHORTINT are created and used as
the default X- and Y-coordinates. These variables are the I- and J-index values; they are named
“I” and “J.” You can now create any type of 2-D plot with the data.
If you have finite-element data, Tecplot will not create any new variables for you. If you need
to add variables to finite-element data, you can do so using the Data menu.
5.3. Finite-Element Data
For finite-element data, the numerical values in the zone data must be in either FEPOINT or
FEBLOCK format as specified by the F (format) parameter. The number of nodes (data points)
is given by the N=numnodes parameter, and the number of elements is given by the
E=numelements parameter (this is also the total length of the connectivity list). The element
type (triangle, quadrilateral, tetrahedron or brick) is specified using the ET parameter. The
zone data is divided into two logical sections (without any markers). The first section, the node
data, lists the values of the variables at the data points (or nodes) as if they were I-ordered (onedimensional) zone data. The second section, the connectivity list, defines how the nodes are
84
5.3. Finite-Element Data
connected to form elements. There must be numelements lines in the second section; each line
defines one element. The number of nodes per line in the connectivity list depends on the
element type specified in the zone control line (ET parameter). (You may place blank lines
between the node data and the connectivity list to help distinguish them.)
In the descriptions below, NE is the Eth node at a vertex of an element. The subscripts of NE
refer to the element number. For example, N23 represents the second node of the third element.
For the triangle element type, each line of the connectivity list contains three node numbers
that define a triangular element:
N1M, N2M, N3M
For the quadrilateral element type, each line of the connectivity list contains four node
numbers that define a quadrilateral element:
N1M, N2M, N3M, N4M
If you need to mix quadrilateral and triangle elements, either create two zones or use the quadrilateral element type with node numbers (N4M=N3M) repeated to form triangles.
Zones created from the quadrilateral and triangle element types are called FE-surface zones.
For the tetrahedron element type, each line of the second section of the zone data contains four
node numbers that define a tetrahedral element:
N1M N2M N3M N4M
For the brick element type, each line of the second section contains eight node numbers that
define a ‘‘brick-like” element:
N1M N2M N3M N4M N5M N6M N7M N8M
Tecplot divides the eight nodes into two groups of four; nodes N1M, N2M, N3M, and N4M make
up the first group, and N5M, N6M, N7M, and N8M make up the second group. Each node is connected to two nodes within its group and the node in the corresponding position in the other
group. For example, N1M is connected to N2M and N4M in its own group, and to N5M in the
second group. To create elements with fewer than eight nodes, repeat nodes as necessary,
keeping in mind the basic brick connectivity just described. Figure 5-7 shows the basic brick
connectivity. For example, to create a tetrahedron, you can set N3M=N4M and N5M=N6M
=N7M=N8M. To create a quadrilateral-based pyramid, you can set N5M=N6M=N7M=N8M. If you
need a mixture of bricks and tetrahedra, either use two zones or use the brick element type with
node numbers repeated so that tetrahedra result.
Zones created from the brick and tetrahedron element types are called FE-volume zones.
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
n7
n8
n5
n6
n4
n1
Figure 5-7. Basic
n3
n2
brick connectivity.
If the keyword “FECONNECT” is specified in the D parameter in the zone control line, the connectivity list is duplicated from the previous zone. In this case, no connectivity list is given, just
the node data. If you use FECONNECT for the first finite-element zone, Tecplot generates an
error message.
5.3.1. Example of Triangle Data in FEPOINT Format
A simple example of triangle element type finite-element data in FEPOINT format is listed
below. There are two variables (X, Y) and five data points. In this example, each row of the data
section corresponds to a node and each column to a variable. Each row of the connectivity list
corresponds to a triangular element and each column specifies a node number. This data set is
plotted in Figure 5-8. Each data point is labeled with its node number.
VARIABLES = "X", "Y"
ZONE N=5, E=3, F=FEPOINT, ET=TRIANGLE
1.0 1.0
2.0 3.0
2.5 1.0
3.5 5.0
4.0 1.0
1 2 3
3 2 4
3 5 4
5.3.1.1. The Same Data File in FEBLOCK Format. The same data in FEBLOCK
format is shown below. In this example, each column of the data section corresponds to a node
86
5.3. Finite-Element Data
5
4
Y
4
3
2
2
1
1
0
1
3
2
3
X
Figure 5-8. A finite-element triangle data set.
5
4
5
and each row to a variable. As above, each row of the connectivity list corresponds to a triangular element and each column specifies a node number.
VARIABLES = "X", "Y"
ZONE N=5, E=3, F=FEBLOCK, ET=TRIANGLE
1.0 2.0 2.5 3.5 4.0
1.0 3.0 1.0 5.0 1.0
1 2 3
3 2 4
3 5 4
5.3.2. An Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate Triangle Data in
FEPOINT Format
The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create triangle element type finiteelement data in FEPOINT format:
INTEGER VAR
.
.
.
WRITE (*,*) ´ZONE F=FEPOINT,ET=TRIANGLE,N=´, NNODES,´,E=´,NELEM
DO 1 N=1,NNODES
DO 1 VAR=1,NUMVAR
1
WRITE(*,*) VARRAY(VAR,N)
DO 2 M=1,NELEM
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
2
DO 2 L=1,3
WRITE (*,*) NDCNCT(M,L)
5.3.3. An Example of FORTRAN Code to Generate Triangle Data in
FEBLOCK Format
The following sample FORTRAN code shows how to create triangle element type finiteelement data in FEBLOCK format:
INTEGER VAR
.
.
.
WRITE (*,*) ´ZONE F=FEBLOCK,ET=TRIANGLE,N=´,NNODES, ´,E=´,NELEM
DO 1 VAR=1,NUMVAR
DO 1 N=1,NNODES
1
WRITE(*,*) VARRAY(VAR,N)
DO 2 M=1,NELEM
DO 2 L=1,3
2
WRITE (*,*) NDCNCT(M,L)
5.3.4. An Example of a Finite-Element Zone Node Variable Parameters
The node variable parameter allows you to set the connectivity to match the value of the
selected node variable. In the example below, the files appear to be identical in Tecplot,
although the connectivity list has changed to reflect the values of the node variable Node
Order. Notice that the index value of the nodes is not changed by the node variable value.
The original data set:
TITLE
= "Internally created dataset"
VARIABLES = "X"
"Y"
ZONE T="Triangulation"
N=6, E=5,F=FEPOINT ET=Triangle
DT=(SINGLE SINGLE )
2.00E+000 3.00E+000
2.20E+000 3.10E+000
3.10E+000 4.20E+000
2.80E+000 3.50E+000
2.40E+000 2.10E+000
4.30E+000 3.20E+000
1 2 5
88
5.4. Duplicating Variables and Connectivity Lists
6
5
2
5
4
4
3
2
3
6
4
4
The data set with the nodes re-ordered for connectivity:
TITLE
= "RE-ordered data"
VARIABLES = "X"
"Y" "Node-Order"
ZONE T="Triangulation"
N=6, NV = 3, E=5,F=FEPOINT ET=Triangle
DT=(SINGLE SINGLE )
2.00E+000 3.00E+000 5
2.20E+000 3.10E+000 4
3.10E+000 4.20E+000 1
2.80E+000 3.50E+000 2
2.40E+000 2.10E+000 6
4.30E+000 3.20E+000 3
1 2 3
4 2 6
5 4 6
2 3 6
1 2 4
5.4. Duplicating Variables and Connectivity Lists
The D parameter in the ZONE record allows you to duplicate variables or the connectivity list
from the previous zone. The following is an example to illustrate this feature.
The table below shows Cartesian coordinates X and Y of six locations, and the pressure measured there at three different times (P1, P2, P3). The XY-locations have been arranged into
finite-elements.
X
Y
P1
P2
P3
-1.0
0.0
100
110
120
0.0
0.0
125
135
145
1.0
0.0
150
160
180
-0.5
0.8
150
165
175
0.5
0.8
175
185
195
0.0
1.6
200
200
200
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
For this case, we want to set up three zones in the data file, one for each time measurement.
Each zone has three variables: X, Y, and P. The zones are of the triangle element type, meaning
that three nodes must be used to define each element. One way to set up this data file would be
to list the complete set of values for X, Y, and P for each zone. Since the X,Y-coordinates are
exactly the same for all three zones, a more compact data file can be made by using the duplication list parameter (D). In the data file given below, the second and third zones have duplication lists that copy the values of the X- and Y-variables and the connectivity list from the first
zone. As a result, the only values listed for the second and third zones are the pressure variable
values. A plot of the data is shown in Figure 5-9. Note that the data could easily have been
organized in a single zone with five variables. Since blank lines are ignored in the data file, you
can embed them to improve readability.
TITLE = "Example: Duplicated Variables and Connectivity Lists"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "P"
ZONE T="P_1", F=FEPOINT, N=6, E=4, ET=TRIANGLE
-1.0 0.0 100
0.0 0.0 125
1.0 0.0 150
-0.5 0.8 150
0.5 0.8 175
0.0 1.6 200
1
2
3
5
2
5
5
6
4
4
2
4
ZONE T="P_2", F=FEPOINT, N=6, E=4, ET=TRIANGLE, D=(1,2,FECONNECT)
110 135 160 165 185 200
ZONE T="P_3", F=FEPOINT, N=6, E=4, ET=TRIANGLE, D=(1,2,FECONNECT)
120 145 180 175 195 200
5.5. Converting ASCII Data Files to Binary
Although Tecplot can read and write either ASCII or binary data files, binary data files are
more compact and are read into Tecplot much more quickly than ASCII files. Your Tecplot distribution includes a program called Preplot that converts ASCII data files to binary data files.
You can also use Preplot to debug ASCII data files that Tecplot cannot read.
90
5.5. Converting ASCII Data Files to Binary
Mesh
Pressure 1
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.0
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
-1.0
188.75
177.5
166.25
155
143.75
132.5
121.25
110
98.75
87.5
76.25
65
53.75
42.5
31.25
-0.5
Pressure 2
1.0
0.5
1.0
Pressure 3
188.75
177.5
166.25
155
143.75
132.5
121.25
110
98.75
87.5
76.25
65
53.75
42.5
31.25
1.5
0.0
0.5
188.75
177.5
166.25
155
143.75
132.5
121.25
110
98.75
87.5
76.25
65
53.75
42.5
31.25
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
Figure 5-9. Plot
0.5
1.0
0.0
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
of finite-element zones.
5.5.1. Standard Preplot Options
To use Preplot, type the following command from the UNIX shell prompt, from a DOS
prompt, or using the Run command in Windows:
preplot infile [outfile] [options]
where infile is the name of the ASCII data file, outfile is an optional name for the binary data
file created by Preplot, and options is a set of options from either the standard set of Preplot
options or from a special set of options for reading PLOT3D format files. If outfile is not spec-
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
ified, the binary data file has the same base name as the infile with a “.plt” extension. You
may use a minus sign (“-”) in place of either the infile or outfile to specify “standard input” or
“standard output,” respectively.
Any or all of -iset, -jset, and -kset can be set for each zone, but only one of each per
zone.
For more Preplot command lines, see Appendix B.3, "Preplot."
5.5.2. Examples of Using Preplot
If you have an ASCII file named dset.dat, you can create a binary data file called
dset.plt with the following Preplot command:
preplot dset.dat dset.plt
By default, Preplot looks for files with the .dat extension, and creates binary files with the
.plt extension. Thus, either of the following commands is equivalent to the above command:
preplot dset
preplot dset.dat
Preplot checks the input ASCII data file for errors such as illegal format, numbers too small or
too large, the wrong number of values in a data block, and illegal finite-element node numbers.
If Preplot finds an error, it issues a message displaying the line and column where the error was
first noticed. This is only an indication of where the error was detected; the actual error may be
in the preceding columns or lines.
If Preplot encounters an error, you may want to set the debug option to get more information
about the events leading up to the error:
preplot dset.dat -d
You can set the flag to -d2, or -d3, or -d4, and so forth, to obtain even more detailed information.
In the following Preplot command line, the number of points that are written to the binary data
file dset.plt is less than the number of points in the input file dset.dat:
preplot dset.dat -iset 3,6,34,2 -jset 3,1,21,1 -iset 4,4,44,5
For zone 3, Preplot outputs data points with I-index starting at 6 and ending at 34, skipping
every other one, and J-index starting at one and ending at 21. For zone 4, Preplot outputs data
points with the I-index starting at four, ending at 44, and skipping by five.
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5.5. Converting ASCII Data Files to Binary
In the following Preplot command line, every other point in the I-, J-, and K-directions is
written to the binary data file:
preplot dset.dat -iset ,,,2 -jset ,,,2 -kset ,,,2
The zone, start, and end parameters are not specified, so all zones are used, starting with index
1, and ending with the maximum index. The overall effect is to reduce the number of a data
points by a factor of about eight.
5.5.3. Using Preplot to Convert Files in PLOT3D Format
PLOT3D is a graphics plotting package developed at NASA. Some numerical simulation packages and other programs can create graphics in PLOT3D format. There are two paths by which
you can get files in PLOT3D format into Tecplot. This section describes the Preplot path; you
can also use the PLOT3D loader described in Section 7.9, “The PLOT3D Data Loader.”
Preplot can read files in the PLOT3D format and convert them to Tecplot binary data files
through the use of special switches. You do not need to know about these switches unless you
have data in PLOT3D format.
PLOT3D files typically come in pairs consisting of a grid file (with extension .g) and a solution file (with extension .q). Sometimes only the grid file is available. The grid itself may be
either a single grid, or a multigrid, and the data may be 1D, 2D, 3D-planar, or 3D-whole
(equivalent to Tecplot’s 3-D volume data). The PLOT3D files may be binary or ASCII. The
PLOT3D-specific switches to Preplot allow you to read PLOT3D files with virtually any combination of these options.
The ilist, jlist, and klist are comma-separated lists of items of the form:
start[:end][:skip]]
where start is the number of the starting I-, J-, or K-plane, end is the number of ending I-, J-, or
K-plane, and skip is the skip factor between planes. If end is omitted, it defaults to the starting
plane (so if just start is specified, only that one plane is included). The skip defaults to one
(every plane) if omitted; a value of two includes every other plane, a value of three include
every third plane, and so on.
You must specify one of the flags -1d, -2d, -3dp, or -3dw. You may also specify only one
of -ip, -jp, or -kp and only one of -b or -f.
If the input PLOT3D file is 3-D whole (-3dw) and none of the plane-extraction switches -ip,
-jp, or -kp is specified, the PLOT3D file is converted directly to an IJK-ordered zone (or
multiple zones if the file is multi-grid).
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Chapter 5. Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot
For example, in the following command line, Preplot reads from the PLOT3D files aero.g
and aero.q. The input is binary and 3-D whole. The J-planes 2, 3, 4, 45, 46, and 47 are processed and made into six IJ-ordered zones, in a binary data file named aero.plt:
preplot aero -plot3d -b -3dw -jp 2,3,4,45,46,47
In the following command line, the plane-extraction switches are omitted, so Preplot creates a
single IJK-ordered zone:
preplot aero -plot3d -b -3dw
The following command line reads an ASCII file airplane.g for which there is no corresponding .q file; the data is 3-D whole:
preplot airplane -plot3d -gridonly -3dw
The following command line reads a multi-grid, 3-D planar, binary-FORTRAN pair of
PLOT3D files, multgrid.g and multgrid.q:
preplot multgrid -plot3d -m -f -3dp
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CHAPTER 6
Working with Tecplot
Files
Tecplot reads and writes a number of different files. In general, file operations are performed in
the File menu. Using this menu, you can instruct Tecplot to read or write data files, layout files,
and macro files. Some files, such as stylesheets and equation files, are read and written from
other menus and dialogs.
This chapter presumes that your data files are in a form readable by Tecplot. Chapter 5, “Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot,” discusses the format for data files structured for direct reading by Tecplot. Chapter 7, “Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature,” discusses the
importation of a variety of other data formats.
Some files can be loaded from the Tecplot command line. For more information, please see
Appendix A, “Tecplot Command Line Options.”
6.1. Loading Tecplot-Format Data Files
Once your data files are structured for Tecplot, loading them is the next step. This section
describes the process for Tecplot-format data files and for reading data files formatted for other
software packages.
Tecplot cares about the format of a data file and the context in which the file is read, but is not
concerned about file names (including extensions). Tecplot uses standard extensions (.dat for
ASCII, .plt for binary).
Tecplot can read and write both ASCII and binary Tecplot-format data files. Binary files are
generally more compact and efficient. ASCII files are “human-readable,” but they are larger
than binary files, and take longer to load. In general, if you have a large amount of data, you
will want to use binary files.
There are four ways to work with Tecplot-format data files:
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
• Generate an ASCII Tecplot-format data file. Read the ASCII data file into Tecplot and work
with it without any conversion. If the data set is altered, save it as an ASCII data file. This
method works for smaller data sets where the convenience of an ASCII file outweighs the
inefficiencies.
• Generate an ASCII Tecplot-format data file. When you first work with a data file, read it
into Tecplot, then save it as a binary data file. From then on, work with the binary file. Once
you have saved a binary version of the data file, you can delete the ASCII version to save
space. This method works well for large data sets where the inefficiencies of ASCII format
are noticeable.
• Generate an ASCII Tecplot-format data file, and then convert the file to binary with Preplot.
Preplot is a utility program included with your Tecplot distribution which converts ASCII
Tecplot-format data files to binary Tecplot-format data files (Preplot can also convert
PLOT3D files to Tecplot-format binary data files). Once the binary file is created, you can
delete the ASCII version to save space. This method works well for identifying problems
with data files, since Preplot’s error messages can be more detailed than Tecplot’s. This
method also works well in batch processing, or if the ASCII data files are generated on
another machine. See Section 5.5, “Converting ASCII Data Files to Binary,” for a description of Preplot.
• Generate a binary Tecplot-format data file. Read the binary data file into Tecplot and work
with it without any conversion. This method works well if you can use the routines provided by Amtec that write Tecplot-format binary files from C or FORTRAN programs. See
Chapter 11, “Writing Binary Data for Loading into Tecplot,” in the Tecplot Reference Manual, for complete details.
6.1.1. Loading Data Files
Tecplot allows you to read multiple data files to create a data set, but most often, you will start
with a single data file. Tecplot uses separate procedures for loading single versus multiple data
files.
To load a single data file:
1.
From the File menu, choose Load Data File(s). The Load Data File dialog appears, as
shown in Figure 6-1.
2.
Enter the file name in the File Name field and click Open. You may have to include the file
path or use the Look in drop-down to navigate to the file’s folder.
To load multiple data files:
96
1.
From the File menu, choose Load Data File(s). The Load Data File dialog appears.
2.
Click Multiple Files. The Load Data File dialog for multiple files appears, as shown in Figure 6-1.
6.1. Loading Tecplot-Format Data Files
Figure 6-1. Load
Data File dialog in Motif (top) and the Load Multiple Data Files
dialog in Windows (bottom).
3.
Select a file following the procedure in step 2 above regarding how to load a single data file.
Open will now read Add To List. Click on it to add the file, repeat this process for any
remaining files you wish to add. You may specify a URL by selecting the URL check box
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
and entering a URL. The URL must start with ftp:// or http://. For example,
ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/myplot.plt. If you wish to add as disk file name you must deselect
the URL check box. You may add any combination of URLs and disk file names to the
Selected File(s) list.
or
Double-click on the name of the file in the Look in drop-down list. The file is added to the
Selected File(s) scrolled list.
4.
To remove files from the Selected File(s) scrolled list, select the files, then click Remove.
5.
When the Selected File(s) scrolled list contains only those files you want to read in, click
Open Files to read in the files.
The order of the list of files to be read in is important. Tecplot numbers the zones based on the
ordering in this list.
6.1.1.1. Options when Loading Data Files. Tecplot allows you to specifically control
what is loaded from your data files. This gives you the ability to load only certain zones or
variables, or even part of a zone. You can also choose to load the variables in your data files by
name or by position. The Load Data File Options dialog is where you can specify these and
other options.
To select options when loading one or more data files:
1.
Select files for loading as described in Section 6.1.1, “Loading Data Files,” but do not click
Open.
2.
Select the Specify Options check box.
3.
Click Open. The Load Data File Options dialog appears, as shown in Figures 5-2 through
5-5.
4.
Select your desired options. (See below for more information about all of the options available.)
5.
Click OK to close the Load Data File Options dialog and read the selected data.
The Load Data File Options dialog is a multi-page dialog. Clicking each button or tab at the
top of the dialog will show you a different page or group of options (however, when clicking
OK all of the options will be used). The Load Data File Options dialog has three pages—General, Zones, and Variables—which are discussed in Sections 6.1.1.2. through 6.1.1.6.
6.1.1.2. General Options when Loading Data Files. On the General page (Figure
6-2), you have the option to load a subset of record types, to load only portions of the data, and
to specify in which frame mode the data will initially be displayed.
If you want to load only specific record types from the data file, you can choose the desired
record types by selecting the appropriate check boxes, as follows:
98
6.1. Loading Tecplot-Format Data Files
Figure 6-2. The
General page of the Load Data File Options dialog.
Field data
Load zone records (these are the actual data). If this option is
not selected, the Zones and Variables pages of the dialog will
be gray, as they allow you to specify more details about the
data to be loaded.
Text
Load text records.
Geometries
Load geometry records.
Custom labels
Load custom label records.
The check boxes will be available only if those records exist in the data files you selected to
load. By default, all of the records which exist in the data files are selected.
If you want to load only a portion of the data points, you can specify skip factors for the I-, J-,
and K-dimensions in the I-, J-, and K-Skip text fields. Each skip factor n tells Tecplot to read in
every nth point in the specified direction. By default, all the skip factors are set to 1, so that
every data point is loaded.
If you want to specify the initial frame mode for the data, you can select one of the Initial
Frame Mode buttons. By default, I-ordered data has an initial frame mode of XY, IJ-ordered
and finite-element surface data has an initial frame mode of 2D, and IJK-ordered and finiteelement volume data have an initial frame mode of 3D.
6.1.1.3. Zone Options when Loading Data Files. On the Zones page, shown in
Figure 6-3, you have the option of selecting specific zones to load from the data files and, if
appropriate, whether to “collapse” the zone list.
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
Figure 6-3. The
Zones page of the Load Data File Options dialog.
If you want to specify which zones to load from the data files, you can select them in the Select
Zones to Load list. This is a multiple selection list so you can either click and drag, Ctrl-click,
or Shift-click to get the set of zones which you want to load. The zones are listed in the order in
which the data files were chosen (that is, all of the zones from the first data file are listed, then
all of the zones from the second data file, and so forth). By default, all of the zones are selected
to be loaded.
If you have selected to only load specific zones and want them renumbered when they are read
in, select the Collapse Zone List check box (If you are loading variables by position, the check
box will be labeled Collapse Zone and Variable Lists). See Section 6.1.1.7, “Collapsing Zone
and Variable Lists,” for more information.
6.1.1.4. Variable Options when Loading Data Files. On the Variables page, you
have the option of loading your variables By Name or By Position (as shown in Figure 6-4 and
Figure 6-5). Select to load your variables by name by selecting the By Name option and by
position by selecting the By Position option. The default is to load variables by position. If you
are loading variables by position, then none of the options you see when By Name is selected
have any effect, and vice-versa.
When loading variables by position, Tecplot variables are created based on the order in which
variables are listed in the data files. Tecplot’s first variable is created from the first variable in
each data file, then Tecplot’s second variable is created from the second variable in each data
file, and so on.
When loading variables by name, Tecplot initially tries to create variables based on the variable
names in the data files. Tecplot’s first variable is created from the first variable name common
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6.1. Loading Tecplot-Format Data Files
Figure 6-4. The Variables page of the Load Data File Options dialog (Load Variables
by Name option).
Figure 6-5. The Variables page of the Load Data File Options dialog (Load Variables
by Position option).
to all data files, then Tecplot’s second variable is created from the second variable name
common to all data files, and so on.
In the data set it creates, Tecplot sets variable order based on the order of variables in the first
data file it loads. This is true both when loading by position and by name.
To see the difference between loading by position and loading by name, consider a hypothetical example where two data files are being loaded: file1.plt and file2.plt. File
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
file1.plt has variables X, Y, and P, in that order. File file2.plt has variables P, X, and
Y, in that order.
Data File
file1.plt
file2.plt
Variable 1
X
P
Variable 2
Y
X
Variable 3
P
Y
If these two files were loaded by position, the first variable in Tecplot would be created from X
in file1.plt and P in file2.plt. The second variable in Tecplot would be created from
Y in file1.plt and X in file2.plt. The third variable in Tecplot would be created from
P in file1.plt and Y in file2.plt. In other words, loading variables by position would
load the first variable from both files, then the second variable from both files, then the third.
If these two files were loaded by name, the first variable in Tecplot would be created from X in
file1.plt and X in file2.plt. The second variable in Tecplot would be created from Y
in file1.plt and Y in file2.plt. The third variable in Tecplot would be created from P
in file1.plt and P in file2.plt. In other words, loading variables by name would load
the first variable from file1.plt and the second variable from file2.plt; then, the
second variable from file1.plt and the third variable from file2.plt; then, the third
variable from file1.plt and the first variable from file2.plt.
When appending data files to the current data set, or replacing the current data set but retaining
the plot style, you will not be able to select whether to load the variables by name or by position. The choice is fixed based on the current data set in Tecplot.
6.1.1.5. Loading Variables by Name. The Variables page when loading variables by
name is shown in Figure 6-5. You have the option of selecting specific variable names to load
from the data files.
When loading variables by name, the variables are associated by name and then loaded into
Tecplot. Variable names can be combined so that a variable in one data file with a different
name in another data file can be loaded into one Tecplot variable. If a variable name is missing
in a given file, that Tecplot variable will be set to all zeros for all zones loaded from that file.
When loading variables by name from the Variables page, there are two lists of variables with
several options between them.
The list on the left (the Show Variables From list) shows the variable names from the data files
which you selected to load. You can filter this list with the drop-down at the top of the list,
which allows you to select any of the data files you are loading, or select All Data Files. The
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6.1. Loading Tecplot-Format Data Files
All Data Files option shows the variable names from all of the data files, listed in order (that is,
all of the variable names from the first data file are listed, then all of the variable names from
the second file, and so forth). However, if a variable name exists in more than one data file, it
only appears once in this list. An asterisk (*) next to a variable name in this list indicates that
the variable name does not exist in all data files which are being loaded. A number next to a
variable name in this list indicates that the variable name will be loaded into that Tecplot variable. For example, if a “2” appears next to a variable name in this list, it means that the variable
name will be loaded into the second Tecplot variable.
The list on the right (the Variables to Load list) shows the variables which will be loaded into
Tecplot when you click OK. By default, this list shows only variable names which exist in all
of the data files you selected to load. So, if no matching variable names exist, this list will initially be empty. You will get an error if you click OK while the Variables to Load list is empty.
An asterisk (*) next to a variable name in this list indicates that the variable name does not
exist for all data files which are being loaded. If you click OK with an asterisk in this list, the
files which do not contain the variable name will have their zones set to zero for that variable.
No duplicate variable names are allowed in this list.
The options separating the two lists allow you to manipulate the lists by moving variable
names between the two lists. Some perform operations based on items that are selected in the
lists. If no appropriate items are selected, these will be inactive.
• The
button takes all of the variable names listed in the Show Variables
From list and adds them to the Variables to Load list.
• The
button takes the variable name which is selected in the Show Variables
From list and adds it to the Variables to Load list.
• The
button takes the variable name which is selected in the Show Variables
From list and combines it with the variable name which is selected in the Variables to Load
list.
• The
button removes the selected variable name from the Variables to Load
list.
• The
button removes all of the variable names from the Variables to Load
list.
For example, look at the case where two data files are being loaded: file1.plt and
file2.plt. File file1.plt has variables X, Y, and P. File file2.plt has variables X,
Y, and Pressure.
Data File
file1.plt
file2.plt
Variable 1
X
X
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
Variable 2
Y
Y
Variable 3
P
Pressure
If you loaded these two files and selected to go to the Load Data File Options dialog on the By
Name Variables page, you would see the variable names listed as follows:
Note the numbers 1 and 2 listed next to the variable names in the Show Variables From list.
This indicates that these variables will be loaded into Tecplot in positions 1 and 2. Also note
the asterisks (*) next to the P and Pressure variables. This indicates that these variable
names do not exist in all files. In this case, P does not exist in file2.plt and Pressure
does not exist in file1.plt. For this reason, the variables P and Pressure do not appear
by default in the Variables to Load list. If you wanted to load these variables together as one
Tecplot variable, you would first select the variable name P in the Show Variables From list.
Next, click the
button. The dialog now appears as follows:
Note the asterisk (*) that appears next to P in the Variables to Load list. This again indicates
that the variable name P does not exist in all files (in this case, file2.plt). If you were to
click OK at this time the variable P would be filled with zeros for all zones which came from
file2.plt. To remedy this, we would like to add the variable name Pressure to the variable name P to combine these two variable names into one Tecplot variable. First, select
Pressure in the Show Variables From list. Next, select P in the Variables to Load list. Next,
click the
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button.
6.1. Loading Tecplot-Format Data Files
The dialog now looks like:
Note that there is now no asterisk (*) next to the third variable in the Variables to Load list.
This indicates that either a variable name P or a variable name Pressure exists in all data
files. Clicking OK at this time would load the first three variables from both data files.
When Tecplot encounters a combined variable name like P;Pressure, it looks at the first
data file and tries to find a variable named P. If it finds one, it loads that variable. If it cannot, it
then tries to find a variable named Pressure. If that too fails, then the variable for the zones
from that file is filled with zeros.
When appending data files to the current data set or replacing the current data set but retaining
the plot style, you will have limited options in changing the Variables to Load list. The list is
partially fixed based on the current data set in Tecplot. You can add variable names to the list,
and combine new variable names with the list, but you will not be able to remove any of the
current variable names from the list.
Note: When appending data files to the current data set by adding variable names to the Variables to Load list, adding a new variable name which already exists in the current data set’s
data files but which was not initially loaded will cause Tecplot to reload the affected data files
to include these new variable names. You must first change the data set by the Alter option
from the Data menu, or by other means.
6.1.1.6. Loading Variables by Position. The Variables page when loading variables by
position is shown in Figure 6-6. Here, you have the option of selecting specific variables to
load from the data files, and if appropriate, whether to “collapse” the zone and variable lists.
If you want to specify which variables to load from the data files, you can select them in the
Select Variables to Load list. This is a multiple selection list so you can either click-and-drag,
Ctrl-click, or Shift-click to get the set of variables which you want to load. The variable names
listed come from the first data file. If variable names in the other data files do not match those
in the first data file, an asterisk (*) will appear next to the variable name. The number of variables listed is limited to the minimum number of variables across all of the data files. So, for
example, if you are loading three files, one with five variables, one with six variables, and one
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
Figure 6-6. The Variables page, Load Variables By Position option, of the Load Data
File Options dialog.
with four variables, you will only be able to load the first four variables out of each data file.
By default, all of the variables are selected to be loaded.
If you have selected to only load specific variables and want them renumbered, select the “Collapse Zone and Variable Lists” check box. See Section 6.1.1.7, “Collapsing Zone and Variable
Lists,” for more information.
When appending data files to the current data set or replacing the current data set but retaining
the plot style, you will not be able to select which variables to load. These are fixed to the variables currently in Tecplot. When appending data files to the current data set, the new data files
must have at least as many variables as are currently in Tecplot.
6.1.1.7. Collapsing Zone and Variable Lists. When you load your data files into Tecplot, you have the option of reading only selected zones (and variables when loading them by
position). When you perform such a partial read, you have the option of either preserving the
existing zone and variable numbering or “collapsing” the data that is actually read so that
zones and variables are renumbered according to their positions in Tecplot.
For example, suppose you have a data file with five zones, and you want to read only zones 2
and 5. If you choose not to collapse your zones and variables (the default), Tecplot reads in the
zones as zones 2 and 5. If you then write this data set to a file in ASCII format, you will see
that the data set does indeed have five zones; zones 1, 3, and 4 are zones with no data called
“Zombie” zones. If you choose the collapse option, Tecplot reads in the zones as zones 1 and 2.
Subsequently writing the data set to a file results in a file with only two zones.
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6.2. Writing Data Files
Similarly, if you are loading variables by position and want to read variables 1, 5, and 6, the
default is to preserve the variable numbering, so that you continue to work with variables 1, 5,
and 6. If you write out the data set to a file in ASCII format, you will see nameless variables,
with values of zero, where the unread variables would have been. If you choose the collapse
option, Tecplot renumbers the variables as variables 1, 2, and 3.
If you are appending data files, the Collapse Zone List check box is set based on the current
data set in Tecplot, and you cannot change it. The zones will be numbered offset from Tecplot’s
current zones. For example, if you partially read zones 1 and 5 from a data file and collapse the
zone list, you will get zones 1 and 2. Then, when you append a data file with zones 2 and 4 you
will get new zones numbered 3 and 4 in Tecplot. If instead, you had not collapsed the zone list
in the first data file, you would have had zones 1 and 5, and when you appended zones 2 and 4
from the second data file you would get new zones 7 and 11 in Tecplot.
In most cases, you will not need to collapse zones and variables. All dialogs that show zones or
variables will list the zones you read in; they just won’t be numbered sequentially. There are
certain situations when you definitely do not want to collapse your zones and variables:
• You have a large data set and read a portion of the data to reduce the amount of memory
Tecplot requires to process the data. You then create a stylesheet that you want to use at a
later time with a different subset of the data.
• You have many zones and variables and you are familiar with certain ranges of zones or
variables. For example, you may know that zones 150-200 represent a known portion of the
data. If you do a partial read and do not collapse the data, these zones will continue to be
designated with their familiar numbers.
6.2. Writing Data Files
You can write out the data set in the current frame as either an ASCII or binary data file. Every
time you write a file, you are given the opportunity to choose which part of the data to write,
and to specify the format for the saved file.
To write the data set in the current frame to a file:
1.
From the File menu, choose Write Data File. The Write Data File Options dialog appears,
as shown in Figure 6-7.
2.
(Optional) Select the zones and or variables you want to write to the saved data file.
3.
(Optional) Specify which record types you want to write to the saved data file by selecting
the appropriate check boxes:
- Text: Select this check box to save any text attached to the current frame.
- Geom: Select this check box to save any geometries attached to the current frame.
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
Figure 6-7. The
Write Data File Options dialog.
- Custom labels: Select this check box to save any custom labels attached to the current
data set.
- Field data: Select this check box to save the zone data.
By default, all record types that are present in the current data set are selected.
(Optional) Choose whether to save the file as ASCII or Binary by selecting the appropriate
option button.
5.
(Optional) If you choose ASCII, choose whether to write the file in POINT format or
BLOCK format. (POINT format organizes the data by data points, BLOCK format organizes
it by variables. See Chapter 5, “Formatting ASCII Data for Tecplot,” for a complete
description of both formats.) You can also specify the precision of your Float and Double
variables. These variable types are written in exponent format and the precision determines
the number of digits included past the decimal point (a precision of three would result in
numbers of the form 4.657E+02).
6.
Click OK to call up the Write Data File dialog shown in Figure 6-8.
7.
Specify a file name.
8.
Click OK to write the data. If you have selected the file name of an existing file, Tecplot
prompts you for confirmation before overwriting the file.
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4.
6.3. Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets
Figure 6-8. The
Write Data File dialog in Motif (top) and Windows (bottom).
6.3. Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets
Tecplot has three different types of files for storing plot information:
• Stylesheets: Stylesheets store information about a single frame, but do not include any
information about the data used by the frame.
• Layout files: Layout files store information about all the frames in the workspace, including identification of the data used by each frame.
• Layout Package files: Layout package files are an extension to layout files where data and
an optional preview image are included.
This section describes the three types of files and gives suggestions on when to use each one.
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
6.3.1. Stylesheets
Layout and layout package files for the most part are the preferred medium for saving the style
of your plot. They are quick and easy to load and save, and they save your complete picture.
Unlike layout and layout package files, which contain the complete style of all the frames in
your workspace, Stylesheets contain only the style of a single frame in Tecplot. Despite this
limitation, there are a few situations where Stylesheets are useful. These are:
• When pre-processing must be done to a data set prior to attaching a style. You may need to
load a data set and run some equations or do interpolation or zone extraction before you can
assign a style. The style may reference objects or variables that do not exist in the original
data and it is necessary to assign the style after they are created.
• When switching styles on large data sets. You may want to load a large data set and generate two full page plots. Each plot has a different style. By using a stylesheet for the second
plot you avoid having to reload the data set.
• When copying the style of one frame to another frame in the same layout.
• When saving just part of a frame’s style, such as just the contour levels.
A stylesheet is a special type of macro file that contains commands used to define the style of a
single frame in Tecplot. Figure 6-9 shows some of the items that are part of the style of a
frame. The style of a frame includes such attributes as what type of plot is being drawn (a 2-D
contour plot or an XY-plot) and what colors are being used. The style also defines the current
view of the data and how the axes are drawn (if at all). Any enhancements to the frame, such as
text or line art (geometries) are also part of the style of a frame.
Stylesheets are copied (created, by extracting from a frame and writing to a file) or pasted
(applied to a frame) by using the Copy Style to File or Paste Style from File options in the
Style menu. A stylesheet does not contain any information about the frame’s data (if required),
or where that data set comes from.
To select part or all of a frame style and create a stylesheet:
1.
In the Style menu, click Copy Style to File. The Copy Style to File dialog appears.
2.
Select a path and file name.
3.
(Optional) Click Options. The Copy Style Options dialog will appear. In the Copy Style
Options dialog, select the aspects of the frame style that you want to save, then click Close.
4.
In the Copy Style to File dialog, click OK.
To apply all or part of a stylesheet to a data set:
110
1.
In the Style menu, click Paste Style from File. The Paste Style from File dialog appears.
2.
Specify the path and name of the file which has the style to be copied.
6.3. Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets
Text added for a title
Contour style
Contour levels
Contour table style
Current View and rotation angle
V
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
Space Vehicle
Y
Z
X
Mesh color
Mesh line thickness
Mesh style
Scatter symbol color
Scatter symbol style
Scatter symbol size
1
2
X
0
1
Frame border (include/exclude)
Frame border thickness
Frame background color
-6
-5
Y
0
-4
-3
-1
-2
Z
-1
-2
0
Vector color
Vector length
Vector style
Vector spacing
Vector line thickness
Surface shade color
Surface shade style
LIght source direction
Figure 6-9. Some
Axis labeling
Axis tick and label spacing
Axis range
Axis title
Axis box style
Axis gridlines/minor gridlines
Axis scaling
of the items considered part of the frame style.
3.
(Options) Click Options. The Paste Style Options dialog appears. Specify which style items
to paste, then click Close.
4.
When you have finished your file and style selections, click OK.
6.3.2. Layout Files
A plot often consists of multiple frames and sometimes even multiple data sets. To capture all
the information on the plot, you use layout files, which are a special type of Tecplot macro file
(usually with an extension of ‘‘.lay”) that give a complete description of your Tecplot plot,
including the names of the data files used to create the plot, the frame layout and data set
attachments, axis and plot attributes, the current color map, and so on.
If you want to include the field data with the layout, you can use a layout package file. For
more information, see Section 6.3.3, “Layout Package Files.”
For complete details on the structure of Tecplot macro files and the commands available in
Tecplot layout files, see Chapter 28, “Using Macros,” and the Tecplot Reference Manual.
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
Figure 6-10 shows a layout using four frames. The frame in the upper left hand corner is
attached to data set 1. The two frames on the right are both attached to data set 2. The frame in
the lower left is not attached to any data set.
(2D)  4 Aug 1996 CYLINDER
(2D)  4 Aug 1996 Pin Geometry from Program Developme
14
7
10
6
8
5
6
Y(M)
Dataset 1
Y(M)
12
4
4
3
2
2
0
1
-2
0
5
10
15
X(M)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
X(M)
Dataset 2
(Sketch)  4 Aug 1996 
(2D)  4 Aug 1996 Pin Geometry from Program Development Cor
6
(No Dataset)
5
Y(M)
4
Some Text
3
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
X(M)
Figure 6-10. Layout
of four frames using two data sets.
If a frame defined in a layout file requires an attached data set, the data files necessary to build
the data set are referenced in the layout file. These data files can be referenced using absolute
paths or relative paths. Use relative paths if you intend to move both the layout file and the data
files to some other location on disk, or some other platform, at a later date. When using relative
paths under Windows, the data files must be on the same drive as the layout file.
Aside from the commands needed to build the individual style of each frame, layout files also
include macro commands to set the following:
• Page layout information including, for example, the size and orientation of the paper.
• Some print setup information, including, for example, how colors are to be mapped to
monochrome gray scales for monochrome output.
• Color spectrum information, including what basic global color map is installed and what
adjustments have been made.
6.3.2.1. Saving Layout Files. You save layout files using the Save Layout or Save Layout
As options under the File menu. To save your layout, do the following:
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6.3. Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets
1.
From the File menu, select Save Layout As. The Save Layout dialog appears.
2.
Choose “Linked Data (*.lay)” using the File of type drop-down, as shown in Figure 6-11.
Figure 6-11. The
Save Layout dialog in Motif, showing the Linked Data (*.lay) option.
3.
By default, Tecplot saves the name of the data files used in the layout with their relative file
paths. If you want to save your layout using absolute file paths, turn off the Use Relative
Path check box.
4.
Specify a file name for the layout file. In Windows, you may specify a URL by selecting the
URL check box. When selected, you may enter a full URL as the file name, as shown in
Figure 6-12. The URL must start with either ftp:// or http://. For example,
ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/myplot.plt. Note that the two file types are mutually exclusive. You
cannot browse disk files when the URL check box is selected, and you cannot enter a URL
if the URL check box is not selected. To open (or save) the URL, click Open URL (or Save
URL).
5.
If you have changed a data set since you last read it in or wrote it out, Tecplot prompts you
for a file name under which to save the changed data. If your layout has multiple data sets,
Tecplot prompts you for a file name for each modified data set.
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
Figure 6-12. The
Save Layout dialog in Windows, showing the URL check box.
Once you save a layout, the layout file name appears in the header of the Tecplot application
window. To save your layout to this file again, simply choose Save Layout from the file menu.
6.3.2.2. Opening Layout Files. You open layout files using the Open Layout option
under the File menu. To open your layout file:
1.
From the File menu, select Open Layout. The Open Layout dialog appears.
2.
Specify a file name, then click OK. If you have an unsaved layout, Tecplot asks you if you
want to save it before opening a new layout file.
3.
(Optional) To combine the layout file with the current layout in Tecplot, click on the
Append check box prior to clicking OK.
6.3.2.3. Opening Layout Files with Different Data Files. When you open your
layout files in Tecplot, you have the option of overriding the data files that are referenced in the
layout file. This does not change the layout file, however, you can save a layout file with the
new data files.
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6.3. Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets
This section describes the process for overriding a data file from the Open Layout dialog. A
second method is described in Appendix A, Section A.5, “Overriding the Data Sets in Layouts
by Using "+" on the Command Line.”
To open a layout file with different data files than those specified in the layout file:
1.
From the File menu, choose Open Layout. The Open Layout dialog appears.
2.
Select the Data Override check box.
3.
Specify the layout file name, and click OK.
4.
The Override Layout Data dialog appears, as shown in Figure 6-13.
5.
One line is listed for each data set in the layout file. Each line contains the data reader name
(TECPLOT for Tecplot-format data files). If the data set is being loaded by the Tecplot
reader, then this line will also list the number of files that make up the data set, and a partial
list of file names. If a data loader add-on is used then the instruction used by the loader are
listed here. This could be a list of file names just like the Tecplot loader would show.
6.
To change the data files or instructions which make up a data set, either double-click on the
relevant line or select the line and click Change.
7.
Generally, at this point you will be presented with one or more dialogs that allow you to
change the list of file names or instructions. For Tecplot-format data files, you will get a file
dialog with which to select a new file or files. If the data loader responsible for loading this
data set does not have the capability to override the instructions, then an error message will
result.
8.
Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the Override Layout Data dialog lists the files which you want to
load with your layout file.
9.
Click OK to open the layout file with the specified data files (Figure 6-13).
Figure 6-13. The
Override Layout Data dialog.
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
6.3.3. Layout Package Files
Layout package files are an excellent way of working in collaboration with your colleagues.
When sending an image of your data is not enough, they allow you to transmit raw data, along
with style information, so your colleagues can view the results in Tecplot. With layout package
files the view can be changed, different plot types tested, and so forth.
Layout package files are very useful if you are making large documents containing many
images, or other situations when you need to catalog your images. If you save your figures in
layout package files, you can quickly view the contents by using the lpkview utility. This
utility allows you to look at thumbnail sketches of each image in a layout packing file without
having to load each separately into Tecplot. For more information on lpkview, see Section
6.3.3.3, “Layout Package Utility.”
Layout package files have the same properties as standard layout files. (For more information
about layout files, see Section 6.3.2, “Layout Files.”) In addition, layout package files also
contain all data associated with frames in the layout, and an optional preview image of the
Tecplot workspace. To help distinguish layout package files from layout files an extension of
.lpk is used.
6.3.3.1. Saving Layout Package Files. You save a layout package file using the Save
Layout or Save Layout As options under the File menu. To save your layout package file, do
the following:
1.
From the File menu, select Save Layout As. The Save Layout dialog appears.
2.
Choose “Packaged Data (*.lpk)” from the Files of type drop-down, as shown in Figure
6-14.
3.
Choose whether or not you want a preview image included with your layout package file.
4.
Specify a file name for the layout package file.
Once you save a layout package file, the layout package file name appears in the header of the
Tecplot application window. To save your layout package to this file again, simply choose Save
Layout from the file menu.
6.3.3.2. Opening Layout Package Files. You open a layout package file using the
Open Layout option from the File menu. Note that you may open both standard layout files and
layout package files from this dialog.
The Data Override check box is only applicable when the file being opened is a standard layout
file. If you select Data Override, and the file you open is a layout package file, you will get a
warning dialog and Tecplot will proceed to load in the layout package with the original data.
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6.3. Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets
Figure 6-14. The Save Layout dialog in Motif, showing the Packaged Data (*.lpk) and
Include Preview Image options.
6.3.3.3. Layout Package Utility. As a convenience a command line utility, lpkview, is
also provided to catalog, preview, and unpack layout packages. Except for the preview capability all options are consistent between Unix and Windows platforms. The preview image capability varies slightly between the two platforms such that the utility integrates into the target
operating system naturally.
Under most Windows operating systems, save for Windows 2000, you can view .lpk files by:
1.
In any explorer window, select the file, then right-click.
2.
Select Quick View from the Context menu.
In its simplest form only a layout package file is given to the utility and all default options are
assumed. Using default options will cause the utility to unpack the preview image (if present),
the layout, and all associated data files into the directory in which the utility was run. For
example:
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
lpkview myplot.lpk
might unpack the following files in the current directory:
myplot.png
myplot.lay
welldata.plt
grid_1.plt
grid_2.plt
Names given to the unpacked files were determined by Tecplot when the package was created.
Tecplot guarantees that no name conflicts exist within the package by appending unique
numbers to non-unique names. However, no attempt is made by lpkview to ensure that
names are unique with other files located in the directory in which the items are unpacked.
Continuing with the illustration above, if only the layout and associated data files are desired
then run the command as follows:
lpkview -l -d myplot.lpk
Using the -t options will output the names of the items within the layout package file without
unpacking them. For example:
lpkview -t wingperf.lpk
might output the following catalog to standard output:
wingperf.png
wingperf.lay
run_alpha12beta5.plt
For a complete list of lpkview command lines, see Appendix B.2, “LPKView.”
6.4. Publishing Plots on the Web
Publish enables collaborative research between individuals around the world, within work
groups, and among large enterprises. Your results can be used online by saving directly to an
HTML file, from which you may read and write data and plot layout files to ftp:// and http://
sites. A Tecplot HTML file could include a reference to a layout package file of your analysis,
enabling other Tecplot users browsing your files can review your results directly. The Publish
Options dialog and a Tecplot HTML file are shown in Figure 6-15.
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6.4. Publishing Plots on the Web
Figure 6-15. Tecplot’s Publish Options dialog (top) and a Publish HTML file read in a
Web browser (bottom). The layout package file may be downloaded and brought into
Tecplot by other users.
The Publish feature of Tecplot provides a way in which you can create an HTML file which
references the plot images in your Tecplot workspace. Publish can also create a layout package
file which includes a link from the HTML file to the layout package file.
To create a Publish file:
1.
Choose Publish from the File menu.
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Chapter 6. Working with Tecplot Files
2.
Decide whether you would like to reference a layout package file. Selecting this option creates a layout package file, along with a reference to that file in the resulting Publish file.
3.
Select what images are to be referenced in your Publish file.
Selecting the Make Single Image for the Workspace check box creates a single image file
of your entire Tecplot workspace. A single reference is added to your Publish file for this
image file.
Selecting the Make Separate Images for Each Frame check box creates an image for each
frame in your Tecplot workspace. A separate reference for each frame is added to your Publish file.
4.
Click OK. You will be presented with a standard file input/output dialog. The name you
enter for your file will be used to create the HTML file, create the associated image files,
and optionally, the layout package file.
6.5. Other Tecplot Files
In addition to the basic ASCII and binary data files, Tecplot uses a number of other files:
• Equation: Equation files are used to store equations for data manipulation. They are discussed in their entirety in Chapter 24, “Data Operations.”
• Macro: Macro files are used to record and play back Tecplot operations and to set up Tecplot for animation or batch mode. See Chapter 28, “Using Macros,” for more details, and
the Tecplot Reference Manual for an annotated list of all macro commands.
• Color map: A color map file is a Tecplot macro file that saves and restores RGB color values used for contour flooding and multi-coloring. See Chapter 11, “Creating Contour
Plots,” for details on creating and modifying Tecplot color map files.
• Print: Print files are files created with Tecplot (or Windows) printer drivers. See
Chapter 22, “Printing Plots,” for more details.
• Export: Export files are graphics files created by Tecplot for import into graphics editing
or word processing programs. All the print file formats are available for export, as are several types of bitmaps, Windows Metafile (WMF) Format, and Encapsulated PostScript
(EPS) format. For more information on creating bitmap files for export, see Chapter 23,
“Exporting Plots.”
• Curve-coefficient: These files contain the coefficients for the equations used to draw
curves in XY-plots. These are output files only; they cannot be read back into Tecplot. See
Chapter 8, “XY-Plots,” for more details.
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CHAPTER 7
Data Loaders: Tecplot’s
Import Feature
Tecplot allows you to load data in a number of formats with loaders that Amtec has produced
using the Add-on Developer’s Kit. The Import option on the File menu accesses a scrolled list
of data loaders. This chapter tells you how to load data in the following formats:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Computational Fluid Dynamics General Notation System (CGNS).
Digital Elevation Map (DEM).
Digital eXchange Format (DXF).
Excel (Windows only).
Fluent Version 5 (.cas and .dat).
Gridgen.
Hierarchical Data Format (HDF).
Image.
PLOT3D.
Text spreadsheet.
Available data loaders can be accessed using the Import option on the File menu (Figure 7-1).
Figure 7-1. The
Import dialog, accessed via the File menu.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
As Amtec writes data loaders they will be posted at our Web site, www.amtec.com. You can
also build your own data loaders using the Add-on Developer’s Kit.
7.1. The CGNS Loader
The CGNS Loader allows you to read CGNS files created with CGNSLib Version 1.2 (Revision 6, June 5, 2000) or earlier into Tecplot. New versions of the CGNS Loader are created to
correspond to new releases of the CGNSLib. Check our Web site at www.amtec.com for
updates. You are able to choose either all or specific bases, zones, and solutions to be loaded
into Tecplot zones. You can also select field variables individually. For structured-grid zones
you are allowed to define index ranges to load specific subzone blocks or planes.
Only CGNS bases and zones with valid grids can be read by the CGNS data loader. For
unstructured grids Version 2.0 of the CGNS loader supports TRI_3, QUAD_4, TETRA_4,
PYRA_5, PENTA_6, HEXA_8, MIXED element types and their combinations on every section. However, the CGNS Data Loader does not support higher-order element types.
Only vertex and cell-center field variable locations are supported. Cell-centered data is averaged to the nodes when the file is read. For cell-centered structured grids arithmetic averaging
is used. Rind data is used in the averaging if it is available. For cell-centered unstructured grids
either a Laplacian averaging or arithmetic averaging can be selected to average the cell data to
the surrounding nodes.
The CGNS Loader dialog is shown in Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-2. The
CGNS Loader dialog.
The following options are available:
• File: Enter the name of the CGNS file to load, including the complete path, or click "..." to
browse for the file.
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7.1.The CGNS Loader
• Specify Options: This check box is active when a valid CGNS file has been entered or
selected. If this option is not selected, CGNS loader will load every base, zone, solution,
and variable into Tecplot when you click OK. This option allows you to control the data
loaded from your CGNS file, including the ability to load only particular zones, field variables, or partial zones.
• Select Zones: Launches the Load CGNS Options: Zones dialog, which allows you to select
specific zones and partial zones to load. The dialog is shown in Figure 7-3.
• Select Variables: Launches the Load CGNS Options: Variables dialog, which allows you
to select specific field variables to load. Grid variables are always loaded automatically.
The dialog is shown in Figure 7-5.
7.1.1. CGNS Loader Options: Zones Dialog
This dialog is used to specify the zones to load from the data file, and is shown in Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3. The
CGNS Loader: Zones dialog.
Zones found in the data file are listed under Zones from CGNS. Tecplot zones are not always
equivalent to CGNS zones. For example, each solution for a CGNS zone is considered a
unique Tecplot zone. The CGNS base, zone, and solution hierarchy orders the zones in this list.
The integer that precedes the word “Zone” is the Tecplot zone number that has been assigned
to that zone. The integer after the word “Zone” represents the order in which the zone was
found in the CGNS data file. The zone description includes the CGNS hierarchy information in
parentheses, where “CGNS B, Z, S =” followed by three integers represents the CGNS order
for the base, zone, and solution, respectively. If a single base is found, then just “CGNS Z, S =”
and two integers are displayed. The description also indicates whether the zone is Ordered
(structured) or FE (finite-element or unstructured). The I-, J-, and K-dimensions are provided
for ordered zones, and the number of nodes and elements are provided for finite-element
zones.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
By default all zones are selected for reading and are listed under Zones to Load. This list can
be deleted by clicking Remove All. You can also selectively remove zones from the Zones to
Load list by highlighting the zone(s) with a click, click-and-drag, Ctrl-click, or Shift-click and
then clicking Remove. This will not affect the order of the zones in the Zones from CGNS list.
However, the zones that do not appear in the Zones to Load list will not have a Tecplot zone
number assigned to them. Similarly, all zones can be added to Zones to Load by clicking Move
All, or they can be added selectively by highlighting the zone(s) to be added in the Zones from
CGNS list and then clicking Move. Zones in the Zones to Load list will be listed in the order in
which they were added to the list regardless of their order in the Zones from CGNS list. This
order is the basis for their Tecplot zone number, which is how they will be identified in Tecplot.
To load a partial zone or sub-zone first highlight the zone(s) of interest in the Zones to Load
list, then click Index Ranges for Zone(s). This will bring up the Load CGNS: Index Ranges
dialog.
7.1.2. CGNS Loader Options: Index Ranges Dialog
This dialog is used to specify a subset of the selected ordered/structured zone(s) to be loaded
and is shown in Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-4. The
CGNS Loader: Index Ranges dialog.
It allows you to define a block, plane, or line of points that will be extracted when the data is
loaded. This is accomplished by inputting the ranges for the I, J, and K indices. For each index
you must input the Start, End, and Skip values. The Skip value is used to reduce the number of
points that will be loaded by skipping points. A Skip value of 3 will load every third point after
the Start point. The Start and End points are always loaded. If multiple zones have been
selected prior to entering this dialog, the default values for End will be Mx, indicating the
maximum value for each zone. You can enter any value for End, but it will only be used in the
zones for which it is meaningful. If the value is greater than the maximum index for a zone,
then the End for that zone will be replaced by that maximum index.
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7.1.The CGNS Loader
For multi-dimensional zones the number of points that can specified to load for the I- and Jdirections must be greater than one. If the inputs for Start, End, and Skip result in a single point
in either direction, an error message will be displayed and you will be forced to change your
inputs or cancel the dialog.
7.1.3. CGNS Loader Options: Variables Dialog
The Variables dialog contains two lists: Variables from CGNS and Variables to Load, and is
shown in Figure 7-5.
Figure 7-5. The
CGNS Loader: Variables dialog.
The Variables from CGNS list includes all field variables that were found in the CGNS data
file regardless of the zone(s) to which they belong, since CGNS files may contain zones that
have different field variables. The Variables to Load list contains the field variables that have
been selected to load into Tecplot. Initially, both lists are the same. A Tecplot variable number
is assigned to each CGNS field variable that appears in the Variables to Load list. Since Tecplot
requires every zone to have the same number of variables, each zone that is loaded into Tecplot
will include every variable in the Variables to Load list. This will occur regardless of whether
the zone included that field variable in the CGNS file. The variables that were not originally in
the zone will be initialized to zero before they are loaded into Tecplot. Since this can unnecessarily increase the size of the data set in Tecplot, you are cautioned to carefully examine the
Variables from CGNS list to guarantee that the field variables selected for the Variables to
Load list will be consistent with the zones to be loaded.
Remove All lets you delete all variables from the Variables to Load list. Move All lets you
include all variables from the Variables from CGNS list. You can also selectively remove variables from the Variables to Load list by highlighting the variable(s) with a click, click-anddrag, Ctrl-click, or Shift-click, and then clicking Remove. The field variables that do not
appear in the Variables to Load list will not have a Tecplot variable number assigned to them.
Similarly, variables can be added to the Variables to Load by selectively highlighting the variable(s) to be added in the Variables from CGNS list and then clicking Move. Note that vari-
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
ables in the Variables to Load list will be listed in the order in which they were added to the list
regardless of their order in the Variables from CGNS list. This order is the basis for their
Tecplot variable number, which is how they will be ordered in Tecplot.
7.2. The DEM Loader
The DEM Loader add-on can load Digital Elevation Map files that have the same file format as
the U.S. Geological Survey’s standard DEM format. These files are generally used by cartographers and geologists to map terrain. The DEM Loader will not accept Spatial Data Transfer
Standard (SDTS) formatted data.
DEM files are available on the Web for a number of states within the U.S. For more information, refer to the following references:
• General: edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/doc/edchome/ndcdb/ndcdb.html.
• User’s guide: edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/glis/hyper/guide/l_dgr_dem.
The DEM Loader first launches a multi-file selection dialog. After choosing one or more DEM
files to load, you are presented with a simple dialog where you can set the I- and J-skipping.
Since DEM files are quite large, you will likely want to set both of these to be 10 or more.
Figure 7-6 shows the DEM Loader dialog.
7.3. The DXF Loader
The DXF Loader add-on can import AutoCAD DXF (drawing interchange) files. When
importing a file, Tecplot will create an appropriate geometry for each of the following entity
types:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Text.
Lines.
Arc.
Circle.
Point.
Solid.
3-D faces.
Note: When importing a DXF file, no zones are created. Instead, the geometries representing
each entity type are simply added to the frame. Be aware that a typical DXF file can contain
several thousand geometries, and these are all included when you save a layout file.
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7.3.The DXF Loader
Figure 7-6. The
Digital Elevation Map (DEM) Loader dialog.
7.3.1. The Load DXF File Dialog
The Load DXF File dialog (Figure 7-7) has a variety of features, most of which are selfexplanatory.
You can select any of the following:
• Import: Select any or all geometries to import -- Text, Lines, Arcs, Circles, Points, Solids,
3D Faces.
• Font: Select the font to use for text.
• Attach Imported Items to Zone: Specify a zone to which all imported geometries will be
attached. Clicking the Select Zone button produces a menu of zone options.
• Polylines/Import as 2D: All lines and polylines are stored with three coordinates in DXF
files. If you select this option, the loader will add 2-D line geometries for all lines and
polylines in the DXF file (the third coordinate will be ignored).
• Polylines/Import as 3D: If you select this option, the loader will add 3-D line geometries
for all lines and polylines in the DXF file. To view a 3-D DXF file, create or load a 3-D
zone, import your DXF file, then choose Fit to Full Size from the View menu.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
Figure 7-7. The
Load DXF File dialog.
• Hide Invisible Layers: If this option is checked, objects in layers which are “off” in the
DXF file will be imported with the background color.
7.3.2. Limitations of the DXF Loader
The DXF Loader does not create any field data. Loading a DXF file only adds geometries to
your existing frame.
Since most geometries in Tecplot are 2-D, best results will be obtained by loading “flat” DXF
files, such as maps.
Binary AutoCAD (*.dwg) are not supported in this release.
7.4. The Excel Loader
The Excel Loader add-on can read numeric data from Microsoft Excel version 5.0 or higher
.xls files and import the data into Tecplot (Figure 7-8). The Excel Loader is available only
for Windows platforms.
The loader is a point-and-click operation if your spreadsheet is arranged in either of two ways,
which we refer to as table format and carpet format. Other formats can also be loaded and
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7.4.The Excel Loader
Figure 7-8. The initial Excel Loader dialog.
imaged, but they require a little more work, and in some cases more sophistication, on your
part.
Once you have chosen an Excel file to load into Tecplot, the Excel Loader leads you through a
series of dialogs that let you specify a variety of attributes such as the format of the data in the
Excel spreadsheet, the variables to read into Tecplot, and zone information.
7.4.1. Spreadsheet Data Formats
The Excel Loader will automatically identify blocks of data in table or carpet format, that is,
blocks that satisfy the conditions of these formats. The characteristics of these formats are
described in Section 7.4.1.1, “Table Format,” and Section 7.4.1.2, “Carpet Format.” If the
loader has identified any carpet or table format blocks, you may select them from a list.
The loader will list blocks of data in standard Excel notation. For example, a block found on
worksheet sheet1, cells A1-D8, is listed as follows: (sheet1 ! A1:D8). It is important to
verify that the matrix specified is actually the matrix of data you wish to load.
If you select a user-defined format (or if the loader did not identify any carpet or table blocks),
then you will be prompted to enter the names and number of variables, and one or more zones
and associated properties. For each zone you will also have to enter the location of the field
data in the spreadsheet.
7.4.1.1. Table Format. Table format is especially applicable to spreadsheets containing data
that will be plotted in XY frame mode—generally, data that represent an independent and one
or more dependent variables. Many spreadsheets containing data to be plotted in 2D or 3D
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
frame modes will also satisfy the conditions of table format. A table formatted data set has the
following characteristics:
• The data set is arranged in one or more adjacent columns.
• Each column is the same length and contains numeric data.
• At the top of each column is a variable name (that is, a cell containing the text label of the
variable).
• The spreadsheet data set is imported as a single I-ordered zone in POINT format with N
variables, where N is the number of columns in the table.
• There must be no blank cells within the block of data. An empty cell will prevent the loader
from recognizing the block. You can satisfy this condition by filling blank cells with 0.0.
• The block of data must be surrounded by empty cells, text-filled cells, or table boundaries.
The loader will not recognize a block of data as being in table format if any cell adjacent to
the block is filled with a number.
Figure 7-9 shows an Excel block in table format.
Figure 7-9. A block of data in table format. Note that for the block to be recognized
as such by Tecplot, it must be bounded by spreadsheet edges, text, or empty cells.
7.4.1.2. Carpet Format. A spreadsheet to be plotted in 2D or 3D frame mode is likely to be
in carpet format. The carpet formatted data set, shown in Figure 7-10, has the following characteristics:
• The spreadsheet data set is imported as an IJ-ordered zone. In Figure 7-10, the spreadsheet
is imported as I=4 and J=4. The three variables are X, Y and V. In the spreadsheet cell 2B
is index 1, 1, cell 3B is index 2, 1. See section 4.2.2, “IJ-Ordered Data.”
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7.4.The Excel Loader
• The top row in the block contains the values of the X-variable, the first column of the block
contains the values of the Y-variable, and the V-values are the interior data. This format is
useful if your data set was generated from a function f, such that f(X, Y) = V. This may be a
simple arithmetic function of X and Y, or may represent measurements of some variable at
points on a grid.
• The block is a rectangular arrangement of numeric data in the spreadsheet, with a blank cell
in the upper left hand corner.
• There must be no blank cells within the block of data. An empty cell will prevent the loader
from recognizing the block. You can satisfy this condition by filling blank cells with 0.0.
• The block of data must be surrounded by empty cells, text-filled cells, or table boundaries.
The loader will not recognize a block of data as being in carpet format if any cell adjacent
to the block is filled with a number.
Figure 7-10. The
carpet table shows values as a simple arithmetic function
of X and Y.
7.4.1.3. Other Formats. The Other format option gives you a great deal of flexibility in
loading data into Tecplot, but also requires you to give the loader more information about the
block of data you are loading. A series of dialogs leads you through the process of describing
your data, similar to the way you would specify this information in a Tecplot ASCII file. Some
of the most relevant attributes of your data set and its format are described in Section 5.1.2.3,
“Data Types,” Section 5.2, “Ordered Data,” and Section 5.3, “Finite-Element Data.”
• Default format: The Excel Loader offers a semiautomatic option that requires only that
you specify the upper left and lower right corners of your data block. Once you’ve specified
those corners, it handles the data in the same way that Tecplot handles an unformatted
block in an ASCII file. That is, it assumes one zone of I-ordered data in POINT format.
• Custom format: Using the Custom format option, you can specify characteristics of your
data set. Custom format has the following features:
- It allows you to work with spreadsheets containing blank cells or text cells.
- For XY-, IJ- and IJK-ordered data, you’ll tell the loader the boundaries of the block to
load, and how many data points there are within that block (IMax, JMax, KMax).
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
- For finite-element data, the number of data points is implied by the number of nodes and
number of elements.
- Allows you to load blocks of cells that you delimit interactively.
- It is the only option for loading finite-element, IJK-ordered, or zone data from Excel. If a
user wants to read in data from an Excel spreadsheet into more than one Tecplot zone
the custom format must be used. The default assumes that all data read should be put
in a single I-ordered zone.
7.4.2. Example: Loading an FEPOINT Excel File in User-Defined Format
The Excel spreadsheet in Tec90/examples/loaders/xls/fe1.xls (Figure 7-11)
contains data in finite-element POINT format (refer to Section 5.3, “Finite-Element Data,” for
a discussion of FE-point format). The procedure for loading the data into Tecplot is as follows:
Figure 7-11. Excel
file fe1.xls, used in the example in Section 7.4.2.
Select the Import option from the File menu.
2.
Choose Excel.
3.
In the Read Excel File, specify a path and a file, and click OK.
4.
In the Import Excel File—Step 1 dialog, you are restricted to Other format, because
fe1.xls does not satisfy the conditions of table or carpet format. Click Next>.
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1.
7.4.The Excel Loader
5.
In the Step 2 of 4 dialog, add seven variables of type Double, and a title if you wish. Click
Next>.
6.
In the Step 3 of 4 dialog, click Add.
7.
From the Add menu select the Edit Zone option and specify that:
-
You choose the block of data that extends from B1 to H33.
The format of the data file is FEPOINT.
The data set contains 13 nodes.
Those nodes are connected into 20 elements.
The element type is TETRAHEDRON.
8.
Click OK. The Step 3 of 4 dialog now displays the zone you have described, with a + button
that you can press to display your parameters.
9.
Click Next>.
10.
The Import dialog displays some of your choices. Confirm them and click Finish.
11.
The initial plot is in 2D frame mode, which you can convert to 3D mode for a full view of
the finite-element volume (Figure 7-12).
Z
X
Y
100
0
V3
50
-50
-100
-50
-50
V2 0
0
50
Figure 7-12. Excel
V1
50
spreadsheet fe1.xls, plotted in 3D frame mode.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
7.4.3. Restrictions of the Excel Loader
Recall that a block of data is a rectangular group of numbers in the spreadsheet. The loader
places the following restrictions on blocks:
• Carpet and table format, which the loader detects and loads automatically, are fairly narrowly defined. All other formats must be loaded on the user-defined pathway.
• Numeric cells within each block should contain only numbers or numeric characters such
as +, -, and so forth. For example, a cell which contains X=34 is interpreted by the loader
as text, since it begins with text.
• Cells containing formulas (therefore displaying calculated values) will be skipped by the
loader. You can convert the formulas to values within Excel.
• The spreadsheet file must have been written by Excel Version 5.0 or higher. Earlier versions
of Excel are not supported.
7.5. The Fluent Loader
The Fluent Data Loader allows you to read Fluent Version 5 case (.cas) and data (.dat) files
into Tecplot. To load files from earlier versions of Fluent, you must first import them into Fluent 5, then save them as Fluent 5 files.
Fluent stores solution data at cell centers (face centers for boundary zones). Since Tecplot
requires all data to be at the nodes, the Fluent Data Loader averages the cell or face center data
to the surrounding nodes using arithmetic averaging. Values at hanging nodes (nodes in the
center of a cell face or edge) are currently calculated only from those cells of which the node is
a corner. Hanging nodes can lead to discontinuous contours due in part to this one-sided averaging. The Fluent Data Loader dialog is shown in Figure 7-13.
The following options are available:
• Load Grid and Solution Data: Loads both a case and a data file. The grid comes from the
case file, and the solution comes from the data file. Specify the case file and other grid
options in the Grid Options section of the dialog. All variables are read from the data file
and added to the Tecplot data set. If a particular variable is present in the data file for only
one zone, it is set to zero in Tecplot for all other zones.
• Load Grid Only: Loads the grid from a case file. Specify the case file and other grid
options in the Grid Options section of the dialog.
• Load Residuals Only: Loads the residual data (convergence history) from a data file. The
residuals are not scaled or normalized.
• Grid Options: The Grid Options portion of the dialog pertains to the Fluent case (.cas)
file. It contains the following options.
134
7.6.The Gridgen Loader
Figure 7-13. The
Fluent Data Loader dialog.
• Case File: Type the name of the case file you wish to load, or click Select, then select the
name of the file from the resulting dialog.
• Load Cells and Boundaries: Loads the cell (solution) and boundary zones from the case
file. Each fluid or solid cell zone and each boundary zone will be displayed as a separate
zone in Tecplot.
• Load Cells Only: Loads only the cell (solution) zones. Each zone will be displayed as a
separate zone in Tecplot.
• Load Boundaries Only: Loads only the boundary zones. Each zone will be displayed as a
separate zone in Tecplot.
• Data File: The data (.dat) file contains the solution and the residual (convergence history)
data. Type the name of the data file, or click Select, then select the name of the file from the
resulting dialog.
7.6. The Gridgen Loader
The Gridgen Loader add-on accepts output from Pointwise, Inc.’s Gridgen Version 11. (Amtec
has not tested previous versions.) The Gridgen Loader can import the following types of
Gridgen files into Tecplot:
• Database Network (*.net)—one IJ-ordered zone is created for each network in the file.
• Volume Grid (*.dat)—one IJK-ordered zone is created for each block of data in the file.
More information on Gridgen Volume Grid and Database Network files can be found in the
Gridgen User’s Manual.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
The files can be in any of the following formats, which are automatically detected:
•
•
•
•
ASCII.
Binary formatted.
Binary unformatted.
Single or double precision.
The data set is given a default title of “Imported Gridgen Data,” which you may change by
selecting the Data Set Info option from the Data menu.
Variables names default to “X,” “Y,” and “Z.” These can be changed within Tecplot after the
data set is loaded.
The Gridgen Loader leads you through several screens, each of which allows you to specify
one or more attributes of the input files (Figure 7-14).
7.6.1. Loading Gridgen Data Using Tecplot
The Gridgen Loader dialog asks for the following information:
• File Type: Select the type of file you wish to import.
• I-Skip, J-Skip, K-Skip: Select the I-, J-, and K-Skip values. A value of 1 will read every data
point, 2 will read every other data point, and so on.
After you have selected the file type and skip values, click OK and you will be prompted for
one or more files to load. Select one or more files and click OK to load the files.
136
7.6.The Gridgen Loader
Figure 7-14. The
Gridgen Loader dialogs.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
7.7. The HDF Loader
The Tecplot HDF Loader add-on can load 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D Scientific Data Sets (SDS) from
HDF files. Its dialog is shown in Figure 7-15.
Figure 7-15. The
HDF Loader dialog.
A data set from an HDF file is imported as follows:
1.
The file is scanned and a list of all SDS in the file is created.
2.
You select one or more SDS to import. Each SDS that you select must have the same
dimension.
3.
A rectangular I-, IJ-, or IJK-ordered zone (for 1-, 2-, or 3-D data, respectively) is created for
each SDS that you select to load.
4.
The data is imported.
The HDF Loader dialog asks the following information:
• Scientific Data Sets to load: Select one or more SDS’s to load. Each SDS that you select must have
the same rank (dimension).
• I-Skip: Select the I-Skip value. A skip value of 1 loads every data point, a skip value of two loads
every second data point, and so on.
138
7.8.The Image Loader
•
•
•
•
J-Skip: Select the J-Skip value.
K-Skip: Select the K-Skip value.
Select File: Select an HDF file.
Attributes: Displays attributes of each SDS found, such as number type, rank, label, and so on.
Note: The HDF Loader uses the public-domain HDF API code library from the National
Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
7.7.1. HDF Loader Limitations
The HDF Loader can import only Scientific Data Sets from HDF files, and these are imported
in a manner similar to NCSA’s own HDF viewer. The way in which the data file is interpreted
cannot be altered in this release of the loader. However, it is possible to write a Tecplot Version
9.0 add-on (using the NCSA code library) which loads HDF data in a manner more suited to
your particular use of the HDF format. See the ADK User’s Manual for more information on
writing add-ons.
7.8. The Image Loader
The Image Loader add-on allows you to import a .bmp file as a group of Tecplot geometries.
When importing a .bmp file, Tecplot will create one or more rectangular geometries for each
line of the image. The Image Loader dialog is shown in Figure 7-16.
Figure 7-16. The
Image Loader dialog.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
The following options are available on the Image Loader dialog:
• Width in Frame Units: When the image is imported, it will be scaled to this with. You
may change this value by selecting Change Largest Dimension.
• Height in Frame Units: When the image is imported, it will be scaled to this height. Width
and height are calculated so that the original aspect ratio of the image is preserved. Thus
you may only change the largest dimension. The other dimension will be calculated based
on this setting.
• Change Largest Dimension: Click to set the imported width or height in frame units. Only
the largest dimension is changed, the other dimension will be calculated for you.
• Background Color: If you select a background color, any pixels in the original image
which match this color will be ignored during the import. This will both reduce the total
number of geometries created and allow certain parts of images to be transparent.
• Import Using Custom Colors: If you select this option, Image Loader will try to match
the original image colors to Tecplot’s custom colors, in addition to Tecplot’s basic colors.
This will generally result in better imported images.
• Position Inside the Frame: You may set the initial position of the center of the imported
image inside the Tecplot frame.
• Color Matching: Image Loader can match colors using two different algorithms. Select
HSL to use the closest distance in HSL (Hue, Saturation, Luminance) color space. Select
RGB to use the closest distance in the RGB color space.
• BMP File: Select the file to import here.
7.8.1. Limitations of the Image Loader
• The image loader does not create any field data, only rectangular geometries. Large images
will result in a large number of geometries.
• Colors in the original image are matched as best as possible to the eight basic and eight custom Tecplot colors. However, with only 16 colors to choose from, some images will not
look as good as the original when imported. Smaller images which use only the basic colors
will work best.
• BMP files must be eight- or 24-bit and cannot be compressed. You may have to re-save the
.bmp image as an eight- or 24-bit uncompressed .bmp before attempting to import it.
7.9. The PLOT3D Data Loader
The PLOT3D Loader add-on can import data files formatted for the PLOT3D program developed by Pieter Buning at the NASA Ames Research Center. Some extensions such as unstructured data that are now available in FAST, the successor to PLOT3D, are also supported.
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7.9.The PLOT3D Data Loader
Figure 7-17 shows the PLOT3D Data Loader dialog. A grid file must be selected and assigned
to the text field at the top of the dialog. Click “...” to browse for a file name.
Figure 7-17. The
PLOT3D Data Loader dialog.
A solution or function file may also accompany the grid file. The solution or function file is
specified in the second text field. You must first select a grid file before selecting a solution or
function file. The loader cannot detect whether a given file is a solution or function file, so you
must specify the type using the solution or function toggles.
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
7.9.1. PLOT3D File Attributes
The PLOT3D file attributes are divided into three groups: option buttons that define the data
structure, option buttons that set the file format, and a set of miscellaneous toggles referencing
data organization.
7.9.2. Setting the Data Structure Attribute
On the right side of the data loader dialog is an area for selecting the data structure. PLOT3D
data can be 1-, 2-, or 3-D-planes, 3-D whole, or Unstructured. You may only select one of these
options; 3-D whole is the most common.
7.9.3. Setting the File Format Attribute
The file format is set using one of the option buttons in the lower left of the File Attributes section. Formatted files are ASCII, and historically have used the .fmt extension, but are not
restricted to doing so. Unformatted files are binary files that contain FORTRAN record
markers and historically use the .dat extension. Binary files are just that, binary, however
unlike the unformatted files, contain no record markers and historically use the .bin extension.
7.9.4. Setting Miscellaneous Attributes
In the upper left corner of the File Attributes section are three toggles that set miscellaneous
file attributes.
The Foreign toggle must be set if the data was written out on a platform whose binary data byte
ordering is foreign to the platform you are running Tecplot on. This typically involves nonIntel machines versus Intel machines. If your files are generated on the same machine on which
you are running Tecplot, then you most likely will not want to turn this toggle on.
The Multi-Grid toggle must be set if the data is multi-grid. Each grid will be turned into a separate zone within Tecplot.
The IBlanked toggle must be set if the data contains the extra IBlanking value. A separate variable will be created in Tecplot with the IBlanking value.
7.9.5. Determining the File Attributes
Most often you will know the attributes of your data files ahead of time. In the case that you do
not know the attributes, a Query function is provided to help you make some educated guesses.
Clicking Query calls up a file selection dialog. Select the file you would like to query, and an
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7.10.The Text Spreadsheet Loader
informational dialog will appear with some observations about the file. This information may
then aid you in filling out the rest of the dialog.
7.9.6. Reading In a Subset of the Data
The bottom section of the PLOT3D Data Loader dialog is used to set index skipping. This
allows you to load a subset of the data. The index skipping will be applied to all grids in a
multi-grid file. You are not allowed to set index skipping for unstructured data.
7.10. The Text Spreadsheet Loader
The Text Spreadsheet Loader add-on is both an example of how to write a loader add-on and a
utility which lets you import simple data from ASCII files. The complete source code for the
Text Spreadsheet Loader is included in the ADK Examples directory.
7.10.1. Data File Format
The Text Spreadsheet Loader can read ASCII files of the following format (blank lines are
ignored):
Variable 1, Variable 2, ..., Variable N
datapoint1,datapoint2, ..., datapoint N
.
.
.
datapoint1,datapoint2, ..., datapointN
Here is an example of a valid ASCII spreadsheet file:
Month, Rainfall
1, 15.0
2, 21.0
3, 21.0
4, 32.0
5, 10.3
6, 5.1
7, 2.3
8, 0.2
9, 1.4
10, 8.3
11, 12.2
12, 15.4
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Chapter 7. Data Loaders: Tecplot’s Import Feature
7.10.2. Text Spreadsheet Loader Limitations
All of the variable names must be on the first line.
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CHAPTER 8
XY-Plots
This chapter discusses XY-plots in detail. In Tecplot, you may create XY-line plots, symbol
plots, and bar charts. You may also include error bars, either by themselves or in combination
with any of the other map layers.
An XY-plot is simply a graph of one or more series of independent and dependent (X, Y) data
points. Each series of data points is referred to as an XY-mapping or mapping, the Tecplot
dialogs often condense this as maps. Each XY-mapping associates one variable with an X-axis
and one variable with a Y-axis. For example, you may create an XY-plot of an airplane’s speed
versus its altitude, with Speed on the vertical Y-axis and Altitude on the horizontal X-axis. To
create this plot, you need only one XY-mapping, which associates Altitude with one of Tecplot’s five X-axes and Speed with one of Tecplot’s five Y-axes, as shown below in Figure 8-1.
700
600
Speed
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
Altitude
Figure 8-1. XY-plot
with one XY-mapping.
To create an XY-plot such as Figure 8-1, the procedure to follow is:
1.
From the Data menu, select Create Zone.
2.
From the Create Zone drop-down, select Enter XY-Values. The dialog titled Enter XY-Values to Create a Zone appears.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
3.
In the text box labeled Enter XY Values, enter X- and Y-value pairs, one per line; first X,
then one or more spaces, then Y.
4.
If you would like to specify a data type for the data (integer, float, double, byte, bit), select
the desired data type from the drop-down labeled Destination Data Type.
5.
After entering all of the XY-values, click Create, then Close.
You might also construct an I-ordered zone in a data file. For example, consider the data file
simpxy.dat (stored in the examples/dat directory in your Tecplot home directory).
This file lists the values of temperature measured at 20 locations unequally spaced along a
wire. We would like to plot temperature versus distance along the wire. We can assign an index
(i) to identify each row of data; every row represents a single data point. Then each data point
can be identified uniquely by its I-index. Data point number 1 is addressed as I=1, data point
number 2 is addressed as I=2, and so on up to I=20. Data which can be addressed in this way is
called I-ordered data.
To plot this data, just read the data file into Tecplot. The default frame mode is XY because this
data set is I-ordered.
By default, Tecplot plots the first variable (V1) on the X-axis versus the second variable (V2)
on the Y-axis. You may use the Define XY-Mappings dialog to reassign variables to the axes.
Tecplot initially sets the ranges on the X- and Y-axes so that you can see all of your data points,
(grid mode) text, and (2D grid mode) geometries. This view can be changed using the Edit
Axis dialog and the View menu. The standard default axis mode for XY-plots is independent,
meaning that the scales on the X- and Y-axes are unrelated. This can be changed using the Edit
Axis dialog.
When you initially create an XY-plot, Tecplot assigns colors, symbol types, and line patterns to
each line (that is, a series of data points). These and other XY-plot attributes can be changed
using the seven linked dialogs known collectively as the XY Plot Attributes dialogs. These
include the Define XY-Mappings dialog, along with the Line Attributes, Curve-Fit Attributes,
Symbol Attributes, Bar Chart Attributes, Error Bar Attributes, and Index Attributes dialogs.
The initial behavior of XY-plots can be changed in the configuration file to create different
default settings for many of the XY-plot options.
8.1. XY-Plot Data
XY-plots are usually created from one-dimensional data in the I-ordered structure. Tecplot also
allows you to create XY-plots from two- or three-dimensional data in the IJ- or IJK-ordered
structure, or finite-element data. Finite-element data sets are treated as I-ordered; the connectivity list is ignored. IJ-ordered data sets are just a family of J sets of I-ordered data; I-ordered
data can be thought of as IJ-ordered data with J=1. IJK-ordered data sets are just K-planes of J-
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8.2. Creating XY-Mappings
families of lines; I-ordered data can be thought of as IJK-ordered data with J=K=1. You can
make XY-plots of IJ- or IJK-ordered data simply by loading your files in XY frame mode, or
clicking XY from 2D or 3D frame mode.
Use the Index Attributes dialog to select different ranges and skip intervals for the I-, J-, and Kindices. See Section 8.9, “Selecting I-, J-, and K-Indices,” later in this chapter.
The data used for XY-plots must have at least two variables defined at each data point (one for
the X-axis and one for the Y-axis). The same number of variables must be defined at each data
point. You may have up to 32,700 variables defined at each data point. For example, you could
be recording the pressure at a set of 500 pressure probes every minute for two hours (120 time
samples). The data could be organized into an array of numbers with 120 rows and 501 columns. The first column could be the time and columns 2 through 501 the pressure measurements. Each row represents a data point with 501 variables. In Tecplot, you can plot all or some
of the pressure probes versus time on one plot. Since you can select any variable as the variable
on the X-axis, the pressure at probe number 59 (on the Y-axis) could be plotted versus the pressure at probe number 5 (on the X-axis).
8.2. Creating XY-Mappings
All XY-plots in Tecplot are composed of the graphs of one or more XY-pairs. The XY-pairs
and their dependency relations are defined in Tecplot as XY-mappings. XY-mappings can be
displayed as a combination of one or more of three basic plot styles:
• Lines: Tecplot draws line segments connecting all of the data points in order, or a curve that
represents a fit of some mathematical function to the data.
• Symbols: Each data point is represented by a solid or outline symbol, such as circles, triangles, or squares.
• Bars: Each data point is represented by a vertical or horizontal bar, according to whether
the dependent variable of the XY-pair is the Y-variable or the X-variable.
Each XY-mapping consists of a pair of variables, one assigned to one of five X-axes and the
other assigned to one of five Y-axes. XY-mappings are defined for each frame; the same data
set can have a different set of XY-mappings in each frame it is attached to.
You define XY-mappings using the Define XY-Mappings dialog, which you access from the
XY menu. (The XY menu is active only if the frame mode is set to XY.)
To define a new XY-mapping:
1.
From the XY menu, select Define XY-Mappings. The Define XY-Mappings dialog appears.
Figure 8-2 shows the demo file rain.plt.
2.
Click Create Map. The Create XY-Mappings dialog appears, as shown in Figure 8-3.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
3.
Figure 8-2. The
Define XY-Mappings dialog.
Figure 8-3. The
Create XY-Mappings dialog.
Choose what sort of XY-mapping (or mappings) to add. You have the following options:
- X-Axis Var versus Y-Axis Var for One Zone: (Default) Click this option if you want to
add a single XY-mapping with one X- and one Y-variable defined for one zone. If you
select this option, continue with Step 4.
- X-Axis Var versus Y-Axis Var for All Zones: Click this option if you want to add one
XY-mapping for each zone. You choose an X- and a Y-variable; Tecplot creates an
XY-mapping with those variables for each of the current data set’s zones. If you select
this option, continue with Step 5.
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8.3. Editing XY-Mappings
- X-Axis Var versus All Other Variables: Click this option if you want to create a new
set of mappings using one variable as the X-variable and each of the other variables in
the data set as Y-variables. When you choose this option, you must also specify the
zone for which this set of mappings is defined. If you select this option, continue with
Step 5.
- Y-Axis Var versus All Other Variables: Click this option if you want to create a new
set of mappings using one variable as the Y-variable and each of the other variables in
the data set as X-variables. When you choose this option, you must also specify the
zone for which this set of mappings is defined. If you select this option, continue with
Step 6.
4.
(Optional) Enter a name for the mapping in the field labeled Mapping Name. The default
mapping name is “Map n,” where n is the number of the mapping that is to be created.
5.
Choose an X-axis variable by selecting a variable from the drop-down labeled X-Axis Var.
The default is V1.
6.
Choose a Y-axis variable by selecting a variable from the drop-down labeled Y-Axis Var.
The default is V2.
7.
Choose a zone by selecting a zone from the drop-down labeled Zone. The default is the first
zone.
When you first read an ordered data set, Tecplot automatically defines some XY-mappings. If
your data set has more than two variables, Tecplot creates XY-mappings that associate the first
variable with each of the other variables for the first zone only. If your data set has only two
variables, Tecplot creates XY-mappings which associate the first variable with second variable
for each zone. By default, each of these mappings assigns the first variable to the first X-axis,
X1, and the other variable to the first Y-axis, Y1. Tecplot automatically activates the first mapping.
8.3. Editing XY-Mappings
To edit an existing XY-mapping, use the Define XY-Mappings dialog. To call up this dialog,
choose Define XY-Mappings from the XY menu, or double-click on an existing XY-plot. From
this dialog, you can perform the following tasks:
•
•
•
•
•
Modify the names of XY-mappings.
Activate and deactivate XY-mappings.
Assign X- and Y-axis variables to selected XY-mappings.
Assign zones to selected XY-mappings.
Assign particular X- and Y-axes to selected XY-mappings.
Each of these tasks is discussed in detail in the following subsections.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
8.3.1. Modifying XY-Mapping Names
Tecplot automatically assigns each XY-mapping a name. The nature of the name varies with
the type of data used to create the mapping. If your data has only one dependent variable, the
default is to use the zone name for the mapping. If your data has multiple dependent variables,
then the default is to use the dependent variable name for the mapping. You can modify any
mapping’s name using the Enter XY-Mapping Name dialog. This dialog is accessible from all
the XY Plot Attributes dialogs by selecting Edit Name from the Map Name drop-down.
To modify an XY-mapping name:
1.
From the Define XY-Mappings dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want
to change the name.
2.
Click on the Map Name column header.
3.
Click Edit Name to call up the Enter XY-Mapping Name dialog, as shown in Figure 8-4.
4.
Enter a new name for the selected mapping or mappings, or construct a new name from text
you enter and/or one or more of the predefined inserts:
- Zone Name: Adds the string “&ZN&” to the Map Name field, which is then replaced
with the actual name of the zone assigned to that mapping.
- X-Axis Num: Adds the string “&X#&” to the Map Name field, which is then replaced
with the actual number of the X-axis assigned to that mapping.
- Y-Axis Num: Adds the string “&Y#&” to the Map Name field, which is then replaced
with the actual number of the Y-axis assigned to that mapping.
- Independent Var: Adds the string “&IV&” to the Map Name field, which is then
replaced with the actual name of the independent variable assigned to that mapping.
- Dependent Var: Adds the string “&DV&” to the Map Name field, which is then replaced
with the actual name of the dependent variable assigned to that mapping.
To add an insert, simply click on its button, or type the associated string directly into the
Map Name field.
5.
When the Map Name field is as desired, click OK to make the change, or Cancel to abandon the changes.
For example, Figure 8-4 shows the Enter XY-Mapping Name dialog assigning an XY-mapping
name consisting of the X-Axis Number, a dash (two hyphens), and the dependent variable
name.
8.3.2. Activating and Deactivating XY-Mappings
Your XY-plot can show any or all XY-mappings defined for the current frame. You can activate
and deactivate mappings from any of the Plot Attributes dialogs using the Map Show dropdown.
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8.3. Editing XY-Mappings
Figure 8-4. Assigning
XY-mapping names.
To activate or deactivate a mapping or mappings:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings you want to activate or deactivate.
2.
Click Map Show.
3.
Click Activate or Deactivate. (You can also click Map Show then drag to Activate or Deactivate, then release.) You may also choose Show Selected Only, which activates the selected
maps and deactivates all other maps.
Active mappings have the word Yes in the column under Map Show; inactive mappings
have the word No.
8.3.3. Assigning X- and Y-Variables to XY-Mappings
The choice of X- and Y-variables is the heart of the XY-mapping, so once defined, you are
unlikely to change them. However, if you are editing a copy of a mapping to create a new mapping, you probably will change the X- and Y-variables. You can do this at any time, for any
mapping, using the X-Axis Variable and Y-Axis Variable buttons on the Define XY-Mappings
dialog.
To assign a variable to the X-axis (Y-axis) for a mapping or mappings:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to change the X-axis or Y-axis variable.
2.
Click X-Axis Variable (Y-Axis Variable). The Select Variable dialog appears, containing a
drop-down menu of all the current data set’s variables.
3.
Choose the desired variable from the drop-down menu.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
8.3.4. Assigning Zones to XY-Mappings
Each XY-mapping is restricted to one zone. If your data set has multiple zones, you can specify
which zone a particular mapping is restricted to.
To assign a zone to a mapping or mappings:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings which you want to assign to a zone.
2.
Click Zone. The Select XY-Mapping Zone dialog appears, containing a drop-down menu of
all the current data set’s zones.
3.
Choose the desired zone.
8.3.5. Assigning Axes to XY-Mappings
Tecplot’s default active XY-mapping assigns the X-Axis and Y-Axis variables to the X1- and
Y1-axes, respectively. You can change these assignments, for both active and inactive mappings, using the Which X-Axis and Which Y-Axis fields on the Define XY-Mappings dialog.
Use these fields, respectively, to reassign the X-axis variable and Y-axis variable to different
axes.
To change the axis assignments for a mapping or mappings:
1.
From the Define XY-Mappings dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want
to change the X-Axis or Y-Axis assignment.
2.
Click Which X-Axis (Y-Axis).
3.
Click the desired axis (X1 through X5, Y1 through Y5).
For more information on working with multiple X- and Y-axes, see Section 8.5.3, “Using Multiple X- and Y-Axes.”
8.4. Altering the Style
The ‘‘style’’ of an XY-plot includes each mapping’s color, curve type (line segment, spline,
and so forth), line pattern (none, solid, dashed, and so forth), symbol type (none, circle, square,
and so forth), symbol size (small, medium, or large), and many other attributes. More broadly,
you can think of the style as the total visual look of the plot.
One graph is drawn for each active XY-mapping. For example, if you have two mappings with
variables assigned to the Y1-axis, one mapping with a variable assigned to the Y2-axis, and
repeat these mappings for each of three zones, Tecplot plots nine ((2+1)*3) graphs in a single
frame. Each graph may have a different style.
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8.4. Altering the Style
Each graph is composed of one or more map layers. The map layers in XY-plots are Lines,
Symbols, Bars (for creating bar charts), and Error Bars. Each graph is given an initial color to
distinguish it from others. By default, only the Lines map layer is turned on, so no symbols are
plotted. All attributes are assigned on a per-mapping basis; that is, the default colors are
assigned to differentiate each mapping. By default, all mappings are assigned square symbols.
Using the four XY Plot Attributes dialogs, (Line Attributes, Symbol Attributes, Bar Chart
Attributes, and Error Bar Attributes), you set the style attributes for the lines, bar charts,
symbols and error bars of the XY-plots. You can also make many of these changes using the
Quick Edit dialog accessible from the sidebar. You can set the style of any mapping independently of all other mappings.
8.4.1. Activating and Deactivating Map Layers
Changing map layers is the quickest and most visually striking means of changing your XYplot style. Switching from a line plot to a symbol plot or a bar chart dramatically alters the
style. You can also combine layers to create striking visuals—for example, a curve fit together
with a bar chart can clearly outline the trend in the data, as in Figure 8-5.
Average Monthly Temperature
1995
90
80
Degrees (F)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August September October November December
Month
Figure 8-5. A
bar chart combined with an XY-curve fit.
To activate or deactivate a map layer, click on the map layer’s check box on the sidebar.
Figure 8-6 shows the map layer area of the sidebar with the Lines and Symbols map layers
turned on.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
Figure 8-6. The
map layer area of the sidebar, with Lines and Symbols selected.
8.4.2. Altering Line Attributes
Figure 8-7 shows the Line Attributes dialog, with information from the demo file
slice.plt. The first two columns, Map Num and Map Name, list the mapping number and
name. The Map Show field shows which mappings are currently active. A mapping must be
Figure 8-7. The
Line Attributes dialog.
active for it to be displayed, although an active mapping is not always visible. The remaining
columns of the Line Attributes dialog contain specific line attributes, as follows:
• Line Show.
• Line Color.
• Line Pattern.
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8.4. Altering the Style
• Pattern Length.
• Line Thickness.
Figure 8-8 shows the Quick Edit dialog. It allows you to control all of the line attributes. Each
of the line attributes is described in detail below.
Figure 8-8. The
Quick Edit dialog for XY-plots.
8.4.2.1. Choosing Lines to Show. You can specify whether lines are shown for individual
XY-mappings. This option allows you to turn off selected XY-mapping lines, while keeping
both the selected XY-mappings and the Lines map layer active. You might want to do this, for
example, if you want a line plot of one mapping and a symbol plot of another. In this case, you
would set Line Show to “No” for the symbol plot, and Symb Show to “No” for the line plot.
See Section 8.4.3.1, “Showing Symbols,” for details on using Symb Show.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
To turn the line plot on or off for a mapping or mappings:
1.
From the Line Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to
show or hide line plots.
2.
Click Line Show.
3.
Click Yes to show the line for the selected mappings, No to turn off the line.
or
1.
In the workspace, click on the plot line that you want to show or hide.
2.
In the Quick Edit dialog, next to the Lines map layer button, click Y to show the line for the
selected mappings, N to turn off the line.
8.4.2.2. Choosing a Line Color. Set line color for XY-plots using the Line Color dropdown in the Line Attributes dialog, or using the Quick Edit dialog. There is, however, a difference between the two methods. The Quick Edit dialog changes the line color for all selected
objects, so that, for example, if there are symbols as well as lines drawn, the symbol color
would change with the line color. If you use the Line Color field to change the line color, only
the lines change.
To change the line color using the Line Color drop-down in the Line Attributes dialog:
1.
From the Line Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to
assign a new color.
2.
Click Line Color. A drop-down of Tecplot’s basic colors appears.
3.
Click the desired color.
To change the line color using the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, click on the line whose color you wish to change.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog, if it is not already on your
screen. Figure 8-9 shows the color edit area of the Quick Edit dialog.
Figure 8-9. The
156
color edit area of the Quick Edit dialog.
8.4. Altering the Style
3.
If the Line option button in the color edit area is not already selected, select it.
4.
Click on the desired color.
8.4.2.3. Choosing a Line Pattern. Set line patterns for XY-line plots using the Line Pttrn
drop-down, or the line pattern area of the Quick Edit dialog, shown in Figure 8-10. The choices
Figure 8-10. The
line pattern area of the Quick Edit dialog.
are: Solid, Dashed, DashDot, Dotted, LongDash, and DashDotDot. The line pattern setting
affects the line or curve drawn for a plot, but not the symbols. Line pattern also has no effect
for variables assigned as error bars. Error bars, bar charts, and symbols are always drawn using
a solid line pattern.
To change the line pattern for a mapping or mappings from the Line Attributes dialog:
1.
From the Line Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings whose line pattern you
want to change.
2.
Click Line Pttrn. A drop-down menu containing the six pattern types appears.
3.
Choose the desired pattern.
To change the line pattern using the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, click on the line whose line pattern you wish to change.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog, if it is not already on your
screen.
3.
In the line pattern area of the dialog (Figure 8-10), click on the desired pattern.
8.4.2.4. Specifying Pattern Length. Set the pattern length for patterned lines using either
the Pttrn Lngth drop-down menu on the Line Attributes dialog, or the Pttrn Length drop-down
menu on the Quick Edit dialog. The pattern length is measured as a percentage of the frame
height for one complete cycle of the pattern.
To set the pattern length for a mapping or mappings:
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to change the pattern length. (If you
are using the Lines Attribute dialog, select the mappings on that page; if you are using the
Quick Edit dialog, select them in the workspace.)
2.
Click the appropriate button: Pttrn Lngth on the Line Attributes dialog, or Pttrn Length on
the Quick Edit dialog. A drop-down appears containing pre-set choices and an Enter
option.
3.
Click the desired drop-down option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter the value for the line pattern length as a percentage of frame
height.
8.4.2.5. Specifying Line Thickness. Set the thickness of lines using the Line Thck dropdown on the Line Attributes dialog, or the Line Thcknss drop-down menu on the Quick Edit
dialog. You can choose from pre-set widths, or enter an arbitrary width as a percentage of the
frame height. If you use the Quick Edit dialog, the new line thickness affects all displayed
attributes of the selected mappings. For example, it also affects symbol and bar chart line thickness.
To set the line thickness for a mapping or mappings:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to change the line thickness. (If you
are using the Line Attributes dialog, select the mappings on that page; if you are using the
Quick Edit dialog, select them in the workspace.)
2.
Click the appropriate button: Line Thck on the Line Attributes dialog, or Line Thcknss on
the Quick Edit dialog. A drop-down menu appears containing pre-set choices and an Enter
option.
3.
Click the desired drop-down menu option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog
appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter the value for the line thickness as a percentage of frame height.
8.4.3. Altering Symbol Attributes
Figure 8-11 shows the Symbol Attributes dialog. The first two columns list the mapping number and name. The Map Show field shows which mappings are currently active. A mapping
must be active for it to be displayed, although an active mapping need not be displayed. The
remaining columns of the Symbol Attributes dialog contain specific attributes, as follows:
•
•
•
•
158
Symb Show.
Symb Shape.
Outline Color.
Fill.
8.4. Altering the Style
Figure 8-11. The
•
•
•
•
Symbol Attributes dialog.
Fill Color.
Symb Size.
Line Thck.
Symb Spacing.
Each of these attributes can also be modified using the Quick Edit dialog, shown in Figure 8-8.
Each of these options is described in detail in the sections that follow.
8.4.3.1. Showing Symbols. You can specify whether symbols are shown for individual
XY-mappings. This option allows you to turn off selected XY-mapping symbols, while keeping
both the selected XY-mappings and the Symbols map layer active. You might use this capability, for example, to plot two mappings, one as a line plot, the other as a symbol plot. In this
case, you would set Symb Show to “No” for the line plot, and then set the Line Attributes dialog’s Line Show to “No” for the symbol plot. See Section 8.4.2.1, “Choosing Lines to Show,”
for procedures for using Line Show.
To turn the symbol plot on or off for a mapping or mappings:
1.
From the Symbol Attributes dialog of the Plot Attributes dialogs, select the mapping or
mappings for which you want to show or hide symbol plots.
2.
Click Symb Show.
3.
Click Yes to show the symbols for the selected mappings, No to turn off the symbols.
or
1.
In the workspace, click on the symbols of the mapping or mappings for which you want to
show or hide symbol plots.
2.
On the Quick Edit dialog, in the Symbols layer area, click on Y to show the symbols for the
selected mappings, N to turn off the symbols.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
8.4.3.2. Choosing a Symbol Shape. Use the Symb Shape drop-down on the Symbol
Attributes dialog or use the symbol selection area of the Quick Edit dialog, shown in
Figure 8-12, to select the symbol type for each mapping.
Figure 8-12. Symbol
selection area of the Quick Edit dialog.
There are seven predefined symbols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Square.
Delta: An equilateral triangle pointing up.
Gradient: An equilateral triangle pointing down.
Right Triangle: An equilateral triangle pointing to the right.
Left Triangle: An equilateral triangle pointing to the left.
Diamond.
Circle.
In addition to the predefined symbols, you can choose as a symbol any ASCII character in the
following Tecplot fonts: Helvetica-Bold, Math, Greek, User-Defined.
To change the symbol shape using the Symb Shape drop-down in the Symbol Attributes
dialog:
1.
From the Symbol Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to
assign a new symbol.
2.
Click Symb Shape. A drop-down appears containing the seven predefined shapes and an
Other option.
3.
Click the desired symbol shape, or on Other. If you select Other, the Enter ASCII Character
dialog appears.
4.
(Other option only) Enter the ASCII character to use as a symbol, and select a font from
which to display the symbol.
To change the symbol shape using the Quick Edit dialog:
In the workspace, click on the mapping for which you wish to change the symbols.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog, if it is not already on your
screen.
160
1.
8.4. Altering the Style
3.
In the symbol selection area, click on the desired symbol. If you select
ASCII Character dialog appears.
, the Enter
4.
(
option only). Enter the ASCII character to use as a symbol, and select a font from
which to display the symbol.
8.4.3.3. Choosing a Symbol Outline Color. Symbols can be filled or unfilled; by default
they are unfilled. The symbol’s outline color is the color of the unfilled symbol. You can
choose an outline color using the Outline Color drop-down menu on the Symbol Attributes
dialog or using the color selection area of the Quick Edit dialog. There is a difference between
the two methods. The Quick Edit dialog changes the line color for all selected objects. For
example, if there are lines as well as symbols drawn, the line color changes as well as the
symbol color. If you use the Outline Color field to change the symbol color, only the symbols
change.
To change the symbol outline color using the Outline Color drop-down menu in the Symbol
Attributes dialog:
1.
From the Symbol Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to
assign a new color.
2.
Click Outline Color. A drop-down menu of Tecplot’s basic colors appears.
3.
Click the desired color.
To change the symbol outline color using the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, click on the graph for which you wish to change the symbol colors.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog, if it is not already on your
screen. Figure 8-9 shows the color edit area of the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
If the Line option in the color edit area is not already selected, select it.
4.
Click on the desired color. (Multi-coloring is not an option in XY-plots.)
8.4.3.4. Choosing Filled or Outline Symbols. Symbols may be either filled or unfilled.
Filled symbols are outlined using the specified outline color, then filled with the specified fill
color. You can specify filled symbols either by turning on Fill on the Symbol Attributes dialog,
or by specifying a fill color in the color edit area of the Quick Edit dialog. The methods are
slightly different, however: the Fill attribute on the Symbol Attributes dialog affects only XYplotting symbols, while the fill color on Quick Edit affects all selected objects. Thus, you can
potentially flood selected geometries as well as plotting symbols when you use the Quick Edit
approach.
To choose filled or outline symbols from the Symbol Attributes dialog:
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to choose filled or outline symbols.
2.
Click Fill.
3.
Click Yes for filled symbols, No for outline symbols.
To choose filled symbols using the Quick Edit dialog, or to turn off fill if you already have
filled symbols:
1.
In the workspace, click on the graph(s) for which you wish to choose filled symbols.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
Click
for filled symbols, or
for hollow symbols.
You can also choose filled symbols by simply selecting a fill color for the selected graphs:
1.
Figure 8-9 shows the color edit area of the Quick Edit dialog. If the Fill option button in the
color edit area is not already selected, select it.
2.
Click the desired color, or click X in the color edit area to turn off fill.
If you have filled symbols, and you select the Line option button in the color edit area, choosing X makes the symbol outline color the same as the symbol fill color.
8.4.3.5. Choosing a Fill Color. If you use the Symbol Attributes dialog to specify that a
mapping’s symbols should be filled, use the Fill Color drop-down menu to select a fill color for
filled symbols from among Tecplot’s basic colors.
To specify a fill color from the Symbol Attributes dialog:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to choose a fill color.
2.
Click Fill Color. A drop-down menu appears containing Tecplot’s basic colors.
3.
Click the desired color.
To choose a fill color using the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, click on the graph(s) for which you wish to choose filled symbols.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
If the Fill option is not already selected, select it. Click on the desired color, or click X in
the color edit area to turn off fill.
8.4.3.6. Choosing a Symbol Size. Select the symbol size for your XY-plotting symbols
using either the Symb Size drop-down menu on the Symbol Attributes dialog or the Size dropdown in the symbol selection area of the Quick Edit dialog.
To specify the symbol size for a mapping or mappings:
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8.4. Altering the Style
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to change the symbol size. (If you are
using the Symbol Attributes dialog, select the mappings on that page; if you are using the
Quick Edit dialog, select them in the workspace.)
2.
Click Symb Size on the Symbol Attributes dialog, or Size on the Quick Edit dialog (be sure
you are selecting the Size option in the symbol selection area, immediately to the right of
the eight symbol options). A drop-down menu appears containing pre-set choices and an
Enter option.
3.
Click the desired drop-down menu option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog
appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter the value for the symbol size as a percentage of frame height.
8.4.3.7. Specify Line Thickness. To specify the thickness of lines used to draw the plotting symbols, use either the Line Thck drop-down menu on the Symbol Attributes dialog or the
Line Thcknss drop-down menu on the Quick Edit dialog. The Line Thck drop-down menu on
the Symbol Attributes dialog affects only XY-plotting symbols, while the Line Thcknss dropdown menu on the Quick Edit dialog affects all selected objects.You can choose from pre-set
widths, or specify a width as a percentage of the frame height.
To set the line thickness for a mapping or mappings:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to change the line thickness. If you are
using the Symbols Attribute dialog, select the mappings there; if you are using the Quick
Edit dialog, select them in the workspace.
2.
Click Line Thck on the Symbol Attributes dialog, or Line Thcknss on the Quick Edit dialog. A drop-down menu appears containing pre-set choices and an Enter option.
3.
Click the desired drop-down menu option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog
appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter the value for the line thickness as a percentage of frame height.
8.4.3.8. Specify Symbol Spacing. To specify the spacing between symbols, use the Symb
Spacing drop-down menu on the Symbol Attributes dialog. You can either use one of the dropdown menu’s pre-set values, or enter the spacing as either a percentage of the frame height or
by the number of indices to skip. The pre-set values are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Draw All: All symbols are drawn at every data point.
ISkip=2: Symbols are drawn at every other data point.
ISkip=3: Symbols are drawn at every third data point.
ISkip=4: Symbols are drawn at every fourth data point.
Distance=1%: Symbols are drawn at the first data point and subsequently at data points
that are at least one percent of the frame height distant from the previously plotted data
point.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
• Distance=2%: Symbols are drawn at the first data point and subsequently at data points
that are at least two percent of the frame height distant from the previously plotted data
point.
• Distance=3%: Symbols are drawn at the first data point and subsequently at data points
that are at least three percent of the frame height distant from the previously plotted data
point.
To specify the symbol spacing:
1.
From the Symbol Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to
specify the symbol spacing.
2.
Click Symb Spacing.
3.
Click the desired option. If you select Enter Index or Enter Distance, an Enter Value dialog
appears.
4.
(Enter Index only) Enter the I-index skip between XY-plot symbols.
5.
(Enter Distance only) Enter the distance between XY-plot symbols as a percentage of the
frame height.
8.5. Controlling the X- and Y-Axes
By default, Tecplot creates XY-plots with one X-axis and one Y-axis. The length of the axes,
their ranges, and other axis attributes such as tick marks and labels, are determined for you
automatically, but Tecplot allows you to customize these features with almost unlimited flexibility. This section describes how to perform those axis manipulations unique to XY-plots; see
Chapter 16, “Controlling Axes,” for a complete description of all axis options.
8.5.1. Controlling the Axis Range
Although not unique to XY-plots, controlling the axis range is a very common action in XYplots. You may want to modify the range, for example, to include additional text or geometries
in your axis area, or you may want to have the axes begin and end at round numbers. You control the range of your X- and Y-axes using the Range page of the Edit Axis dialog, shown in
Figure 8-13.To call up this page, select Edit from the Axis menu. The default range for both X
and Y is the range of the X- and Y-variables. You can alter the range of any active axis. For
more details on modifying the axis range, see Section 16.3, “Modifying the Axis Range.”
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8.5. Controlling the X- and Y-Axes
Figure 8-13. The
Range page of the Edit Axis dialog.
8.5.2. Log Axes
You can create a log scale on any or all of the X- and Y-axes. The log axes are available only
for XY-plots. When Auto Spacing is selected, large numbers are displayed in scientific notation (that is, 3.48x105). It is strongly recommended that you use Auto Spacing with log axes.
To specify a log axis:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
On the Range page of the Edit Axis dialog, select the check box labeled Use Log Scale for
each axis you wish to have a log scale.
3.
On either the Ticks or Labels page of the Edit Axis dialog, confirm that the check box
labeled Auto Spacing is selected (Auto Spacing is turned on by default).
Figure 8-14 shows an XY-plot using a log scale on the Y-axis.
When a log scale is used, polylines and text may be drawn on the plot, but no other grid mode
geometries. If you have drawn grid mode circles, squares, rectangles, or ellipses on a plot
before selecting the Use Log Scale check box, those geometries will not be drawn when you
redraw the plot. However, they remain part of the layout. If you subsequently deselect the Use
Log Scale check box, the grid mode circles, squares, and so on reappear.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
GROWTH RATE
105
Test 23
Cell Count
104
Test 24
103
Test 25
Test 26
102
Test 27
101
Test 28
2
4
6
8
10
Seconds
Figure 8-14. An
XY-plot with a log scale on the Y-axis.
8.5.3. Using Multiple X- and Y-Axes
You may want to display XY-mappings which have greatly differing scales on a single plot. For
example, you might want to plot a function and its derivative together, or see a plot of both the
crime rate and the number of autos per capita versus income level. To create such plots, you
assign each mapping to a separate Y-axis; each axis uses the natural scale of the variables
assigned to that mapping.
For example, consider the data in the example Tecplot data file rain.plt; it includes
monthly rainfall observations for three U.S. cities, along with two error measurements. The
rainfall observations and the error measurements have very different scales. To plot the Seattle
rainfall observations and the second error measurement, do the following:
Read in the data file rain.plt from the demo/plt sub-directory of your Tecplot home
directory. Tecplot automatically creates an XY-plot of the Seattle rainfall observations (V2)
versus the Month (V1).
2.
From the XY menu, choose Define XY-Mappings. The Define XY-Mappings dialog
appears.
3.
Select the mapping named Error 2, then activate it by clicking Map Show and choosing
Activate.
4.
Click Which Y-Axis, then choose Y2.
5.
Redraw to obtain the plot shown in Figure 8-15.
166
1.
8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
4.5
0.45
4
0.35
3
0.3
2.5
0.25
2
1.5
Error 2
Seattle Rainfall
0.4
3.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
0.2
12
Month
Figure 8-15. An
XY-plot using two Y-axes.
By default, Tecplot places axis X1 at the bottom of your axis grid area, and subsequent X-axes
at the top. Similarly, it places axis Y1 at the left of your axis grid area and subsequent Y-axes at
the right. Thus, in Figure 8-15, the Seattle rainfall observations are shown along axis Y1 at the
left of the axis grid area, while the error observations are shown along Y2 at the right.
If you have more than two X- or Y-axes, you will typically turn off the display of one or more
of the axes to avoid over-plotting the axes.
You do not need to display mappings with different axes at the same time. You may find it convenient to assign different mappings to different axes so that you can set axis ranges, axis positions, or other axis attributes independently for each mapping. Then as you activate and
deactivate your mappings, each appears with the settings you have previously set.
Most of the axis settings are axis-specific; you can change these settings for one axis without
affecting the corresponding setting on the other axes. The one major exception is the Dependency setting. The Dependency setting affects only X1 and Y1. This, however, may also affect
any XY-mappings that use either X1 or Y1 since X1 and Y1 will be more restricted.
8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
When you specify a curve type, you control whether Tecplot plots the data and connects the
points, or performs a more sophisticated analysis to determine the drawn curve. Curve fitting is
an important data analysis tool because it lets you discover hidden trends in seemingly random
scatters of data. Curve fits can also help you determine if experimental results match theoretical predictions. Tecplot provides a number of different types of curve fits.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
Tecplot offers a variety of curve-fits and spline fits, and they are activated by choosing the
appropriate curve type for the XY-mapping. You set the type of curve plotted for an XYmapping using the Curve Type drop-down on the Curve Attributes dialog, or by using the line
type buttons on the Quick Edit dialog. The following settings are available (the names are as
shown under the Curve Type drop-down menu; the buttons as shown in the Quick Edit dialog).
8.6.1. Curve-Fit Types
Tecplot offers the following types of curve-fits:
• Line Segments
: Straight line segments that connect adjacent points.
• Linear Fit: A straight line is fit to the points using a least-squares algorithm. (Not available
on Quick Edit dialog.)
• Polynomial Fit
: A polynomial curve fit of order N (where 1 <= N <=10). A polynomial of order N is fit to the points using a least-squares algorithm.
• Exponential Fit
Y=e
b*X+c
: An exponential curve fit that finds the best curve of the form
(equivalent to Y=a*e
b*X
c
, where a = e ). To use this curve type, Y-values for this
variable must be all positive or all negative. If the function dependency is set to X=f(Y) then
all X-values must be all positive or all negative.
• Power Fit
: A power curve fit that finds the best curve of the form Y=e
b
b * ln X + c
(equiv-
c
alent to Y=a*X , where a = e ). To use this curve type, Y-values for this variable must be all
positive or all negative, and the X-values must be all positive. If the function dependency is
set to X=f(Y), X-values must be all positive or all negative, and the Y-values must all be
positive.
• Spline
: A smooth curve that goes through every point. This curve type assumes that
the points represent Y or X values that are the functional values of an independent X- or Yvariable. That is, a spline is drawn through the data points after sorting in increasing values
along the independent axis. The spline is a single-valued function of the variable assigned
to the independent axis. The spline may be clamped or free. With a clamped spline, you
supply the slopes of the curve (dy/dx) at each end point; with a non-clamped (natural or
free) spline, the slopes are determined for you.
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8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
• ParaSpline
: Same as above, except the assumption is that both X and Y are functions
of some other independent variable s, where s is the accumulated scaled distance between
points (that is, (x,y)=F(s)). No sorting of the points is performed; the order of the data
points from the data file is used. This spline may result in a multi-valued function (of either
X and/or Y).
• Extended
: Select from a list of installed curve-fit add-ons which are extensions to Tecplot. These curve-fits may be provided by Amtec, a third party, or written by users. The
functionality of each extended curve-fit is defined by its creator. If you wish to write an
extended curve-fit add-on, see the Add-On Developer’s Kit User’s Manual for more information.
Figure 8-16 shows examples of each of Tecplot’s curve-fit types.
300
200
100
LineSeg
PolyFit
Exp. Fit
0
Power Fit
Spline
ParaSpline
0
Figure 8-16. Tecplot’s
5
10
15
curve-fit types.
Use the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog, shown in Figure 8-17, to control attributes specific to the
curve-fit types. As with the other Plot Attributes dialogs, this page has the mappings listed by
number and name, and has the Map Show field for activating and deactivating mappings.
The Curve-Fit Attributes dialog also contains fields for controlling the following attributes:
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
Figure 8-17. The
Curve-Fit Attributes dialog.
• Number of curve points: Users control the maximum number of points displayed for
drawing curve fits and splines with the Curve Points field on the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog. Raising the number of points increases not only the accuracy of curve but also the plotting time and the size of print files.
• Dependent variable: The choices are y=f(x) or x=f(y).
• Curve settings: The choices available are dependent upon the curve type.
You may define families of lines in IJ- and IJK-ordered zones to have curve types of splines or
curve fits. This means that you can plot the I-varying lines, J-varying lines, or K-varying lines
of an IJ- or IJK-ordered zone using these curve types. For example, suppose you create a circular zone with a small number (seven for example) of points around the circumference. A 2-D
plot or a straight line segment XY-plot of the J-lines of this zone will show a polygon-shaped
zone. Using the Paraspline curve type for the J-lines results in splined mesh lines that reveal
the circular shape of the zone. The coefficients used to draw curve fits and splines may be
output to a file, as can the actual points used to draw curve fits and splines.
8.6.2. Fitting a Straight Line to Your Data
Tecplot fits straight lines to data using the standard least-squares algorithm. It calculates the
line for which the sum of the squared differences from the data points to the fitted line is a minimum. A straight line fit implies a linear relationship between the dependent and independent
variables. As with all of Tecplot’s XY-plotting options, you fit straight lines for particular XYmappings. For each mapping, you can specify the dependent and independent variables, and, if
desired, specify a weighting variable to create a weighted least-squares line. To fit a straight
line to your data:
1.
170
From the Curve Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to fit
a straight line.
8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
2.
Click Curve Type. A drop-down appears containing all of Tecplot’s curve fit and line types.
3.
Click Linear Fit.
By default, this option gives a straight line with the X-axis variable as the independent variable
and the Y-axis variable as the dependent variable, using no weighting. To choose different
dependent and independent variables, see Section 8.6.9, “Assigning Dependent and Independent Variables.”
By default, this option fits a line with the X-axis variable as the independent variable and the
Y-axis variable as the dependent variable, using no weighting. Use the Curve Fit Settings
dialog, shown in Figure 8-18, to specify a different settings:
Figure 8-18. The
Curve Fit Settings dialog.
1.
Click Curves to call up the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog.
2.
Click Curve Settings. The Curve Fit Settings dialog will appear.
3.
To limit the points used in the mapping, select Use Only Points Within Range, and enter
minimum and maximum values.
4.
To assign a curve-weighting variable, select Use Weighting Variable. Choose your variable
from the drop-down menu. For more information on curve weighting, see Section 8.6.10,
“Assigning Curve Weighting Variables.”
8.6.3. Fitting a Polynomial to Your Data
Tecplot fits polynomials to data using the standard least-squares algorithm. That is, it calculates the polynomial of specified order for which the sum of the squared differences from the
data points to the fitted polynomial is a minimum. As with all of Tecplot’s XY-plotting options,
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
you fit polynomials for particular XY-mappings. For each mapping, you can specify the dependent and independent variables, and, if desired, specify a weighting variable to create a
weighted least-squares line. To fit a polynomial to your data:
1.
From the Curve Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to fit
a polynomial.
2.
Click Line Type. A drop-down appears containing all of Tecplot’s curve fit and line types.
3.
Click Polynomial Fit.
You can also create a polynomial by selecting an XY-mapping in the workspace and clicking
the
button in the Quick Edit dialog.
By default, this option fits a cubic polynomial with the X-axis variable as the independent variable and the Y-axis variable as the dependent variable, using no weighting. To specify a different settings:
1.
Click Curves to call up the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog.
2.
Click Curve Settings. The Curve Fit Settings dialog will appear, as shown in Figure 8-18.
3.
To change the polynomial order click Poly Order. A drop-down appears containing the integers 1-10. Click the desired polynomial order.
4.
To limit the points used in the mapping, select Use Only Points Within Range, and enter
minimum and maximum values.
5.
To assign a curve-weighting variable, select Use Weighting Variable. Choose your variable
from the drop-down menu. For more information on curve weighting, see Section 8.6.10,
“Assigning Curve Weighting Variables.”
8.6.4. Fitting an Exponential Curve to Your Data
If the dependent-variable values are all positive or all negative, and either a preliminary look at
the data or prior knowledge gives evidence of an exponential relationship between the variables, you can have Tecplot fit an exponential curve to the data. Tecplot finds the best curve (in
the least-squares sense) of the form Y=eb*X+c (equivalent to Y=a*eb*X where a=ec). If X is the
dependent variable, the equation is X=eb*Y+c. To fit an exponential curve to your data:
1.
From the Curve Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to fit
an exponential curve.
2.
Click Curve Type. A drop-down appears containing all of Tecplot’s curve fit and line types.
3.
Click Exponential Fit.
You can also create an exponential fit by selecting an XY-mapping in the Tecplot workspace
and clicking
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in the Quick Edit dialog.
8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
By default, this option fits an exponential curve with the X-axis variable as the independent
variable and the Y-axis variable as the dependent variable, using no weighting. You can change
the dependency relationship between the mapping variables using the procedure described in
Section 8.6.9, “Assigning Dependent and Independent Variables.”
To change other settings:
1.
Click Curve Settings. The Exponential Fit Settings dialog appears, as shown in Figure 8-19.
2.
To limit the points used in the mapping, select Use Only Points Within Range, and enter
minimum and maximum values.
3.
To assign a curve-weighting variable, select Use Weight Variable. Choose your variable
from the drop-down menu. For more information on curve weighting, see Section 8.6.10,
“Assigning Curve Weighting Variables.”
Figure 8-19. The
Exponential Fit Settings dialog.
8.6.5. Fitting a Power Curve to Your Data
If the dependent-variable values are all positive or all negative, and a preliminary look or prior
knowledge gives evidence of a power relationship between the variables, you can have Tecplot
fit a power curve to the data. Tecplot finds the best curve (in the least-squares sense) of the
form Y=eb*lnX+c (equivalent to Y=a*Xb where a=ec). If X is the dependent variable, the equation is X=eb*lnY+c. If the independent variable has negative values, they are ignored for purposes of this fit.
To fit a power curve to your data:
1.
From the Curve Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to fit
a power curve.
2.
Click Curve Type. A drop-down appears containing all of Tecplot’s curve fit and line types.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
3.
Click Power Fit.
You can also create a power curve fit by selecting an XY-mapping in the workspace and clicking
on the Quick Edit dialog.
By default, this option fits a power curve with the X-axis variable as the independent variable
and the Y-axis variable as the dependent variable, using no weighting. You can change the
dependency relationship between the mapping variables using the procedure described in
Section 8.6.9, “Assigning Dependent and Independent Variables.”
To change other settings:
1.
Click Curve Settings. The Power Fit Settings dialog appears, as shown in Figure 8-20.
2.
To limit the points used in the mapping, select Use Only Points Within Range, and enter
minimum and maximum values.
3.
To assign a curve-weighting variable, select Use Weighting Variable. Choose your variable
from the drop-down menu. For more information on curve weighting, see Section 8.6.10,
“Assigning Curve Weighting Variables.”
Figure 8-20. The
Power Fit Settings dialog.
8.6.6. Fitting a Spline to Your Data
A spline is a mathematical function defined to link a specified set of points in such a way that
the resulting function is continuous and differentiable at each of the specified points. The most
common type of spline, the cubic spline, is defined using a set of cubic polynomials, one for
each interval between specified points. Splines can be natural or clamped; natural splines are
twice-differentiable at the endpoints and the second derivative is zero at those points, while
clamped splines need not be twice-differentiable, but have known first-derivatives at the
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8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
boundary points. Before plotting the spline, Tecplot sorts the data points in increasing value
along the independent axis.
To fit a spline to your data:
1.
From the Curve Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to fit
a spline.
2.
Click Curve Type. A drop-down appears containing all curve fit and line types.
3.
Click Spline.
You can also create a spline fit by selecting an XY-mapping in the workspace and clicking
on the Quick Edit dialog.
By default, this option fits a natural cubic spline with the X-axis variable as the independent
variable and the Y-axis variable as the dependent variable, using no weighting.
To specify a clamped spline:
1.
Click Curve Settings. The Spline Settings dialog appears, as shown in Figure 8-21.
2.
Select Clamp the Spline.
3.
If desired, enter new values for Slope at Start and Slope at End.
Figure 8-21. The
Spline Settings dialog.
8.6.7. Fitting a Parametric Spline to Your Data
Tecplot’s standard spline fit assumes that the spline function is a single-valued function of the
specified independent variable. Sometimes, however, you have XY-data that curves back upon
itself, but still would like to have a spline-like curve fit to it. Parametric splines solve this problem by assuming that both the X- and Y-values are functions of an underlying variable s. The
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
spline function is then a single-valued function of the underlying variable. Unlike regular
splines, parametric splines plot points in their unsorted order, exactly as they are listed in the
data set.
To fit a parametric spline to your data:
1.
From the Curve Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want to fit
a parametric spline.
2.
Click Curve Type. A drop-down appears containing all of Tecplot’s curve fit and line types.
3.
Click ParaSpline.
You can also create a parametric spline by selecting an XY-mapping in the workspace and
clicking
on the Quick Edit dialog.
By default, this option fits a natural cubic spline to the (assumed) underlying variable.
To clamp the spline:
1.
Click Curve Settings. The Parametric Spline Settings dialog appears, shown in Figure 8-22.
2.
Select Clamp the Spline.
3.
If desired, enter new values for Slope at Start and Slope at End.
Figure 8-22. The
Parametric Spline Settings dialog.
8.6.8. Fitting an Extended Curve to Your Data
Your XY-data may be plotted using other curve-fits, either supplied with Tecplot, or curve-fits
you have added by creating a curve-fit add-on. (For information on creating your own curvefits, see Chapter 8, “Building Extended Curve-Fit Add-Ons,” in the Add-on Developer’s Kit
User’s Manual.
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8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
To fit an extended curve to your data:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to use an extended curve-fit from the
Curve Attributes dialog.
2.
Click Curve Type. A drop-down menu appears containing all of Tecplot’s curve-fits.
3.
Choose Extended from the drop-down menu. The Choose Extended Curve-Fit dialog will
appear with a list of optional curve fits, as shown in Figure 8-23. Select the desired curvefit.
Figure 8-23. The
Choose Extended Curve-Fit dialog.
You may also invoke an extended curve-fit by selecting an XY-mapping in the workspace, then
clicking
on the Quick Edit dialog. This calls up the Choose Extended Curve-Fit dialog,
shown in Figure 8-23, from which you may select the desired curve-fit.
Some curve-fits allow optional parameters. These can be accessed by selecting the Curve Settings option on the Curve Attributes dialog. When the curve-fit includes optional settings, a
dialog for that curve-fit will appear. For example, the options available for the Stineman Interpolation curve-fit are shown in Figure 8-24.
8.6.9. Assigning Dependent and Independent Variables
You specify the dependence relationship between your X-axis and Y-axis variables using the
Dependent Variable drop-down on the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog. The default setting is
y=f(x); use x=f(y) to use the X-axis variable as the dependent variable and the Y-axis variable
as the independent variable. The Dependent Variable has no effect on parametric spline fits.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
Figure 8-24. Stineman
Interpolation curve-fit options.
To assign dependent and independent variables:
1.
From the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want
to specify the dependent and independent variables.
2.
Click Dependent Variable.
3.
Click y=f(x) to make the Y-axis variable dependent (the default); click x=f(y) to make the
X-axis variable dependent.
If you create a horizontal bar chart, Tecplot automatically sets the dependency to x=f(y).
8.6.10. Assigning Curve-Weighting Variables
You can create weighted curve fits by assigning one variable to be a weighting factor to use
when fitting a curve to an XY-mapping. The variable used as the weighting factor is called the
curve-weighting variable. Only one curve-weighting variable can be assigned to a given XYmapping.
When plotting a curve fit, the values in the curve-weighting variable are used to determine a
weight factor for each point of the base variable. Relatively higher numbers in the curveweighting variable mean more significance for a given point. By default, every point is given
equal weighting. If the curve-weighting variable is zero at a data point, then that data point has
no effect upon the resulting curve. If the curve-weighting variable is two at a data point (and
one at all the other points), that point will have twice the effect upon the resulting curve. If the
curve-weighting variable is much larger at one point than the others, the weighting of that point
will pull the resulting curve close to that point. The weighting coefficients must be integers in
the range of 0 to 9,999. Tecplot truncates weighting coefficients defined as floating-point
numbers (that is, a weighting coefficient of “1.99” is truncated to “1.0”).
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8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
For example, consider again the distance-temperature data. There is a small cluster of points
centered about Distance=0.1 and Temperature=550. If we add the following weighting variable
to the original data file simpxy.dat, we can omit this cluster from our analysis:
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
The data file simpxy2.dat contains this added variable as variable 3, Weight1.
To assign the curve-weighting variables, see the instructions for Straight Line, Polynomial,
Exponential Curve, and Power Curve.
Figure 8-25 shows the weighted linear fit with the cluster of points omitted. For comparison,
the original data points and the un-weighted least-squares fit are also plotted. Creating this plot
involves the following steps:
A Weighted Linear Fit
800
Temperature
700
Temperature
Weighted Temperature
Data Points
600
500
400
300
200
0
0.5
1
Distance
Figure 8-25. A
weighted linear fit.
1.
Read in the data set simpxy2.dat, containing the weighting variable Weight1.
2.
Create two copies of the distance-temperature XY-mapping, and activate the new XY-mappings.
3.
Name the first mapping “Temperature,” the second mapping “Weighted Temperature” and
the third mapping “Data Points.”
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
4.
Turn on both the Lines and Symbols map layers.
5.
Turn off Line Show for the “Data Points” mapping.
6.
Set the line pattern for the Weighted Temperature to be dashed, and the curve points for that
mapping to be 20.
7.
Set the Line Type for Temperature and Weighted Temperature to Linear Fit.
8.
Turn off Symb Show for the same two mappings.
9.
Assign the Weighting Variable to the Weighted Temperature mapping.
10.
Create an XY-plot legend.
8.6.11. Extracting Curve Details and Data Points
You can view information about XY-plot curve fits or spline fits in the XY-Plot Curve Information dialog, and write that information to a file for future reference. You can also save the calculated data points along the curve for further analysis in later sessions.
To view the curve details:
1.
From the Data menu, select XY-Plot Curve Info. The XY-Plot Curve Information dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 8-26.
Figure 8-26. The
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XY-Plot Curve Information dialog.
8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
To create an ASCII data file of the points of the curve fits:
1.
From the Data menu, choose XY-Plot Curve Info.
2.
Select an XY-mapping from the XY-Map drop-down.
3.
Click Write Data Points to File. The Write Data Points to File dialog appears.
4.
On Motif systems, specify a file name in the text field labeled Selection. On Windows systems, specify a file name in the text field labeled File Name.
5.
Click OK.
The data file contains one zone. The zone is I-ordered with the number of points equal to the
active curve points setting, set in the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog. The data file has two variables. This is a valid Tecplot ASCII data file that can be read into another frame.
To create an ASCII file with the coefficients for each curve fit or spline:
1.
From the Data menu, choose XY-Plot Curve Info. The XY-Plot Curve Information dialog
appears.
2.
Select an XY-mapping from the XY-Map drop-down.
3.
Click Write Curve Details to File. The Write Curve Details to File dialog appears.
4.
On Motif systems, specify a file name in the text field labeled Selection.
On Windows systems, specify a file name in the text field labeled File Name.
5.
Click OK.
Depending on the curve type, the coefficient file has one of the forms described in the following sections.
8.6.11.1. Polynomial Curve Fits. The coefficient output file for a polynomial least-squares
curve fit is of the form:
POLYNOMIAL FIT DATA:
ZONE = Zone-name (Zone number)
Y-Axis Variable = Variable-name
X-Axis Variable = Variable-name
Pwr Coef
0 C0
1 C1
2 C2
.
.
.
m Cm
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
The order of the curve fit is m, and if the function dependency is y=f(x) the curve fit equation
is:
Y = C0
+ C1*X + C2*X2 + ... + Cm*Xm
If the function dependency is x=f(y), the output is as follows:
X = C0
+ C1*Y + C2*Y2 + ... + Cm*Ym
8.6.11.2. Other Curve Fits. For exponential and power fits, if the function dependency is
y=f(x), the coefficient output is as follows:
EXPONENTIAL FIT:
ZONE = Zone-name (Zone number)
Y-Axis Variable = Variable-name
X-Axis Variable = Variable-name
Y = e^(B*X+C)
POWER FIT:
ZONE = Zone-name
Y-Axis Variable =
X-Axis Variable =
Y = e^(B*log(X) +
(Zone number)
Variable-name
Variable-name
C)
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
If x=f(y), the output is as follows:
EXPONENTIAL FIT:
ZONE = Zone-name (Zone number)
Y-Axis Variable = Variable-name
X-Axis Variable = Variable-name
X = e^(B*Y+C)
POWER FIT:
ZONE = Zone-name
Y-Axis Variable =
X-Axis Variable =
X = e^(B*log(Y) +
(Zone number)
Variable-name
Variable-name
C)
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
A and B are replaced with the appropriate values.
8.6.11.3. Splines. The coefficient output for a spline has the following form:
SPLINE DATA:
ZONE = Zone-name
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(Zone number)
8.6. Fitting Curves to Data
Y-Axis Variable = Variable-name
X-Axis Variable = Variable-name
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
N=001 DIST= x
Coefficients:
A=value
B=value
C=value
D=value
.
.
.
N=m DIST=x
Coefficients:
A=value
B=value
C=value
D=value
where m+1 is the number of XY-points in the zone, and if y=f(x), the following equation is the
equation of the polynomial used between points i and i+1, for x between xi and xi+1:
Y = Ai
+ Bi*X + Ci*X2 + Di*X3
If the function dependency is x=f(y), then the following equation is the equation of the polynomial used between points i and i+1, for y between yi and yi+1:
X = Ai
+ Bi*Y + Ci*Y2 + Di*Y3
8.6.11.4. Parametric Splines. For parametric splines, the output coefficients are for two
polynomial equations, one for X and one for Y:
PARASPLINE DATA:
ZONE = Zone-name (Zone number)
Y-Axis Variable = Variable-name
X-Axis Variable = Variable-name
(Variable number)
(Variable number)
N=001 DIST=x
XCoefficients:
A=value
B=value
C=value
D=value
YCoefficients:
A=value
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
B=value
C=value
D=value
.
.
.
N=m DIST=x
XCoefficients:
A=value
B=value
C=value
D=value
YCoefficients:
A=value
B=value
C=value
D=value
where m+1 is the number of XY-points in the zone, and the following equations are equations
of polynomials for X and Y between points i and i+1 for d between di and di+1:
X = AXi
+ BXi*d + CXi*d2 + DXi*d3
Y = AYi
+ BYi*d + CYi*d2 + DYi*d3
8.7. Assigning Error Bars
You can assign one or more variables to be used to compute error bars for another variable
using the Error Bar Attributes dialog, shown in Figure 8-27. To access this page, select Error
Bar Attributes from the XY menu or click on the Error Bars button from any Plot Attributes
dialog. Each error bar variable is associated with a single XY-mapping, so if you want to assign
multiple error bar variables to a mapping, you will need to create one copy of the mapping for
each error bar you want to assign.
You can use any variable in your data set as an error bar variable, although for them to be
meaningful, they should have the same units as the axis along which they are drawn. Sometimes, error variables will be part of your original data file. At other times, you may create
error variables using Tecplot’s data manipulation utilities. For example, if you know that the
values of some measured variable are accurate only to within ten percent, you may create a
new variable to use as the error bar variable by multiplying the measured variable by 0.10.
To add error bars to a plot:
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8.7. Assigning Error Bars
Figure 8-27. The
Error Bar Attributes dialog.
1.
From the Error Bar Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings to which you want to
assign an error bar variable.
2.
Click EBar Var. A Select Variable dialog appears containing a drop-down listing the current
data set’s variables.
3.
Select the desired error bar variable.
4.
Click EBar Show, and then on Yes. This enables error bars to be displayed once the Error
Bars map layer is activated.
5.
On the sidebar, select the Error Bars check box.
6.
Click Redraw to regenerate the plot and show the error bars.
8.7.1. Selecting an Error Bar Type
Tecplot offers you the choice of seven types of error bars:
• Top: Error bar extends upward for positive values (and downward for negative values) of
the error-bar variable.
• Bottom: Error bar extends downward for positive values (and upward for negative values)
of the error-bar variable.
• Left: Error bar extends to the left for positive values (and to the right for negative values) of
the error-bar variable.
• Right: Error bar extends to the right for positive values (and to the left for negative values)
of the error-bar variable.
• Horizontal: Error bar extends both left and right.
• Vertical: Error bar extends both up and down.
• Cross: Error bar extends up, down, left, and right.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
To select an error-bar type:
1.
From the Error Bar Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want
to specify the error-bar type.
2.
Click EBar Type. A drop-down appears containing the seven error-bar types.
3.
Click the desired error-bar type.
When you reverse the direction of an axis using the Reverse Axis Direction option on the
Range page of the Edit Axis dialog, the error bars point in the opposite direction. For example,
if you reverse the X-axis, Left error bars will point to the right for positive values and to the left
for negative values of the error bar variable.
You may assign several variables to be error bars. Each assignment, however, requires a separate XY-mapping. For example, you could assign one variable for the left error bar, copy the
XY-mapping, then assign another for the right error bar. You can even assign different variables with the same error bar type. For example, you could assign two variables to be vertical
error bars resulting in two vertical error bars at the data point.
An example plot with error bars is shown in Figure 8-28. Variable V5 (called ErrP) is
assigned as a vertical error bar for one mapping. Variable V6 (called Err2) is assigned as a left
error bar for a copy of the same XY-mapping. These vertical and left error bars are plotted on
the curve for V2 (called RainS). The data is in the demo data file rain.plt.
4.5
Rainfall (inches)
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Month
Figure 8-28. An
186
XY-symbol plot with error bars.
8
9
10
11
12
8.7. Assigning Error Bars
8.7.2. Modifying Other Error Bar Attributes
As with lines and symbols, you can modify most of the attributes with which error bars are
drawn—their color, their thickness, their spacing, and the width of the endpoint crossbars. You
make all these changes from the Error Bar Attributes dialog.
8.7.2.1. Choosing an Error Bar Color. Set error bar line color using the EBar Color dropdown menu on the Error Bar Attributes dialog. To change the line color using the EBar Color
drop-down menu:
1.
From the Error Bar Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want
to assign a new error bar color.
2.
Click EBar Color. A drop-down menu of Tecplot’s basic colors appears.
3.
Click the desired color.
To change the Error Bar color using the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, click on the graph for which you wish to change the Error Bar colors.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog, if it is not already on your
screen. Figure 8-9 shows the color edit area of the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
If the Line option in the color edit area is not already selected, select it.
4.
Click the desired color. (Multi-coloring is not an option in XY-plots.)
8.7.2.2. Choosing the Crossbar Size. Select the size of the crossbars on your error bars
using the EBar Size drop-down menu on the Error Bar Attributes dialog.
To specify the crossbar size for error bars:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to change the crossbar size.
2.
Click EBar Size. A drop-down menu appears containing pre-set choices and an Enter
option.
3.
Click the desired drop-down menu option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog
appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter the value for the crossbar size as a percentage of frame height.
8.7.2.3. Specify Line Thickness. To specify the thickness of lines used to draw the error
bars, use the Line Thck field on the Error Bar Attributes dialog. You can choose from pre-set
widths, or enter an arbitrary width as a percentage of the frame height.
To set the line thickness for error bars:
1.
Select the mapping or mappings for which you want to change the error bar line thickness.
2.
Click Line Thck. A drop-down menu appears containing pre-set choices and an Enter
option.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
3.
Click the desired drop-down menu option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog
appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter the value for the error bar line thickness as a percentage of frame
height.
8.7.2.4. Specify Error Bar Spacing. To specify the spacing between error bars, use the
EBar Spacing drop-down menu on the Error Bar Attributes dialog. You can either use one of
the drop-down menu’s pre-set values, or enter the spacing as either a percentage of the frame
height or by the number of indices to skip. The pre-set values are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Draw All: All error bars are drawn at every data point.
ISkip=2: Error bars are drawn at every other data point.
ISkip=3: Error bars are drawn at every third data point.
ISkip=4: Error bars are drawn at every fourth data point.
Distance=1%: Error bars are drawn at the first data point and subsequently at data points
that are at least one percent of the frame height distant from the previously plotted data
point.
• Distance=2%: Error bars are drawn at the first data point and subsequently at data points
that are at least two percent of the frame height distant from the previously plotted data
point.
• Distance=3%: Error bars are drawn at the first data point and subsequently at data points
that are at least three percent of the frame height distant from the previously plotted data
point.
To specify the error bar spacing:
From the Error Bar Attributes dialog, select the mapping or mappings for which you want
to specify the error bar spacing.
2.
Click EBar Spacing.
3.
Click the desired option. If you select Enter Index or Enter Distance, an Enter Value dialog
appears.
4.
(Enter Index only) Enter the I-index skip between error bars.
5.
(Enter Distance only) Enter the distance between error bars as a percentage of the frame
height.
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1.
8.8. Creating Bar Charts
8.8. Creating Bar Charts
A bar chart is an XY-plot that uses vertical or horizontal bars placed along an axis to represent
data points. You create bar charts by activating the Bars map layer on the sidebar. You can use
the Bars map layer alone to create a pure bar chart, or add symbols, lines, or error bars to create
useful visual effects. An example plot with bar charts is shown in Figure 8-5.
To create a pure bar chart:
1.
Read in a data file and choose XY frame mode.
2.
Select the Bars map layer check box on the sidebar, and deselect the check boxes for all
other XY-plot layers.
3.
Click Redraw to view the bar chart.
The direction of the bars, vertical or horizontal, is determined by the Depend Variable attribute,
which specifies which variable is dependent and which independent (either y=f(x) or x=f(y)).
By default, all mappings are created with Y as the dependent variable, so default mappings will
appear as vertical bar charts.
To specify vertical or horizontal bars:
1.
From the XY menu, choose Bar Chart Attributes. The Bar Chart Attributes dialog appears,
as shown in Figure 8-29.
Figure 8-29. The
2.
Bar Chart Attributes dialog.
Click Bars Dir, then choose Horizontal or Vertical. When you change this setting, Tecplot
automatically changes the Depend Variable attribute.
To modify other bar chart attributes (Bars Show, Outline Color, Fill, Fill Color, Bar Size, and
Line Thickness), use the Bar Chart Attributes dialog, using the same procedures used to set
symbol attributes. See Section 8.4.3, “Altering Symbol Attributes,” for details.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
8.9. Selecting I-, J-, and K-Indices
If your XY-plot data is IJ- or IJK-ordered, an XY-mapping consists of a family of lines; along
each line, one index varies while the others are held constant. By default, Tecplot displays the
I-varying family of lines. For example, read in the demo data file cylinder.plt and choose
the XY frame mode. You see the family of I-varying lines for Zone 1 of the data, as shown in
Figure 8-30.
3
2
Y(M)
1
0
-1
-2
-2
-1
0
X(M)
Figure 8-30. A
family of I-varying lines for the cylinder data.
You can choose whether the I-varying family, the J-varying family, or the K-varying family of
lines is drawn using the Index Attributes dialog. You can also choose which members of the
family are drawn (and using which data points), by specifying index ranges for each of I, J, and
K. The index range for the varying index tells Tecplot which points to include in each line, and
the index ranges for the other indices tell Tecplot which lines in the family to include.
To choose the varying index, and thus specify the family of lines to be drawn:
From the XY menu, choose Index Attributes. The Index Attributes dialog appears, as
shown in Figure 8-31.
2.
Select the XY-mapping for which you want to specify the varying index.
3.
Click on Varying Index, and choose the desired family (I-varying, J-varying, or K-varying).
K-varying is only available if the data is IJK-ordered.
190
1.
8.9. Selecting I-, J-, and K-Indices
Figure 8-31. The
Index Attributes dialog.
As a simple example, read in the cylinder data and choose the J-varying index. You obtain the
family of J-varying lines shown in Figure 8-32.
3
2
Y(M)
1
0
-1
-2
-2
-1
0
X(M)
Figure 8-32. A
family of J-varying lines for the cylinder data.
To specify the index ranges:
1.
Select the XY-mapping for which you want to specify an index range.
2.
Click on one of I-Index Range, J-Index Range, or K-Index range. The Enter Range dialog
appears.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
3.
Enter a starting index in the Begin field, an ending index in the End field, and a skip factor
in the Skip field. A skip of 1 means “use every point in the range,” a skip of two means “use
every other point,” and so on.
For example, for the cylinder data, if you change the I-Index Range to have a skip of three
while displaying J-varying lines, you obtain the plot shown in Figure 8-33.
3
2
Y(M)
1
0
-1
-2
-2
-1
0
X(M)
Figure 8-33. Family
of J-varying lines with I-Index Range having Skip=3.
8.10. Adding an XY-Plot Legend
You can generate a legend that shows the line, symbol, and bar chart attributes of all active XYmappings. This legend can be positioned anywhere on the plot. You can choose to have the
mapping names included in the legend.
Tecplot automatically removes redundant entries. That is, if two entries in the legend would
look exactly alike, only one is printed.
192
8.11. Labeling Data Points
To create the XY-legend:
1.
From the XY menu, choose XY Legend. The XY
Legend dialog appears, as shown in Figure 8-32.
2.
Select the check box labeled Show XY Legend.
3.
If you want the mapping names in the legend,
select the check box labeled Show XY-Mapping
Names.
4.
Format the text for the legend by choosing a
color and font, and specifying the text height as a
percentage of the frame height. Enter the desired
line spacing in the Line Spacing text field.
5.
Specify the location of the upper left corner of
the legend by entering values in the X (%) and Y
(%) text fields. Enter X as a percentage of the
frame width and Y as a percentage of the frame
height.
6.
Select which kind of box you want drawn around
the legend (No Box, Filled, or Plain). If you
choose Filled or Plain, format the box using the
following controls:
- Line Thickness: Specify the line thickness as
a percentage of frame height.
- Box Color: Choose a color for the legend box
outline.
- Fill Color: (Filled only) Choose a color for
Figure 8-34. The
XY Legend dialog.
the legend box fill.
- Margin: Specify the margin between the legend text and legend box as a percentage of
the text height.
7.
On the sidebar, click Redraw.
8.11. Labeling Data Points
You can label all or some of the data points, or nodes, in your XY-plots with either the index of
the data point, the value of the dependent variable at the point, or the pair of values X, Y for the
data point.
For example, Figure 8-35 shows an XY-plot with each data point labeled with its XY-value
pair.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
Station 1
SNOW DEPTH (INCHES)
25
Station 2
Station 3
5,21.5
20
1,20.5
0,19.5
2,17.3
3,17.5
4,18.5
4,17.2
5,16
15
0,12.3
10
5
0,5
0
1,5.5
2,6
5,6.5
3,6
2
4
TIME (DAYS)
Figure 8-35. XY-plot
with data labels.
To create data labels:
1.
From the Style menu, choose Data Labels. The Data Labels dialog appears, as shown in
Figure 8-36.
2.
To label the data points, or nodes, select the Show Node Labels check box. If you select this
check box, choose one of the three option buttons Show Index Value, Show Dependent
Variable Value, or Show X, Y Value Pair.
3.
To label all nodes, select the option button labeled By Index in the Skip region. Confirm
that the Index Skip text field contains the default value 1. To label only some of the nodes,
enter a larger number in the text field. A value of 2 labels every other point, a value of 3
labels every third point, and so on.
You can also specify label-skipping in terms of distance: simply select the By Distance (%)
option button, then enter a value in the adjacent text field. Data points which are closer than
the specified distance to the last labeled point are not labeled.
4.
194
Specify the format of the data labels using the following controls:
8.11. Labeling Data Points
Figure 8-36. The
Data Labels dialog.
-Color: Choose any of Tecplot’s basic colors from the color drop-down.
-Font: Choose a font from the drop-down.
-Size(%): Specify a size for the labels as a percentage of the frame height. Either enter a
value or choose a pre-set value.
-Include Text Box: Select this check box to include a filled box around each data label.
-Variable Values: If you are using a variable value as the data label, you can specify the
format of the labels using these controls. The available formats are the same as for
tick mark labels; see Section 16.5.3, “Tick Mark Label Formats,” for details.
5.
Redraw your plot to see the data labels.
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Chapter 8. XY-Plots
196
Creating Field Plots
CHAPTER 9
A field plot is any plot created in 2D or 3D frame mode. Such plots combine one or more of the
following zone layers:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mesh.
Contour.
Vector.
Scatter.
Shade.
Boundary.
By default, 2- and 3-D field plots consist of the Mesh and Boundary zone layers. For example,
when you read in the data set cylinder.plt (included with your Tecplot distribution), you
automatically see the plot shown in Figure 9-1. The cylinder.plt data set contains three
zones. By default all zones are plotted; Tecplot assigns basic colors cyclically to the individual
5
4
Y(M)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
Figure 9-1. A
0
5
X(M)
10
15
2-D mesh plot.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
zones. However, you can assign any of Tecplot’s basic colors to each zone. By default, the Xand Y-axes are dependent; if you change the range of one, the other changes to preserve the
XY-aspect ratio. You can change virtually all attributes of the plot using the Axis, Field, and
Style menus. This chapter discusses the basic plot attributes that are common to all field plots.
9.1. Creating 2-D Field Plots
A 2-D field plot typically uses an IJ-ordered or finite-element surface data set. (You can view
I-ordered data in a 2-D field plot, but XY-plots are typically more informative. Similarly, you
can view IJK-ordered and FE-volume data with 2-D field plots, but 3-D views are usually better.) An IJ-ordered data file has the basic structure shown below:
TITLE = "Example: Multi-Zone 2-D Plot"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Press", "Temp", "Vel"
ZONE T="BIG ZONE", I=3, J=3, F=POINT
1.0 2.0 100.0 50.0 1.0
1.0 3.0 95.0 50.0 1.00
1.0 4.0 90.0 50.0 0.90
2.0 2.0 91.0 40.0 0.90
2.0 3.0 85.0 40.0 0.90
2.0 4.0 80.0 40.0 0.80
3.0 2.0 89.0 35.0 0.85
3.0 3.0 83.0 35.0 0.80
3.0 4.0 79.0 35.0 0.80
ZONE T="SMALL ZONE", I=3, J=2, F=POINT
3.0 2.0 89.0 35.0 0.85
3.5 2.0 80.0 35.0 0.85
4.0 2.0 78.0 35.0 0.80
3.0 3.0 83.0 35.0 0.80
3.5 3.0 80.0 35.0 0.85
4.0 3.0 77.0 33.0 0.78
This data file has two zones and five variables, and is included with Tecplot as the file examples/dat/multzn2d.dat. The first zone has nine data points arranged in a three-bythree grid. The second zone has six data points in a three-by-two mesh. Reading this data file
yields the mesh plot shown in Figure 9-2.
A 2-D finite-element data file is shown below:
TITLE = "Example: 2D Finite-Element Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "P", "T"
ZONE N=8, E=4, F=FEPOINT, ET=QUADRILATERAL
0.0 1.0 75.0 1.6
1.0 1.0 100.0 1.5
3.0 1.0 300.0 2.0
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9.2. Creating a 3-D Field Plot
5
4.5
Y
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
X
Figure 9-2. A
0.0
1.0
3.0
4.0
2.0
1 2
2 3
6 7
3 2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
5 4
6 5
3 3
8 8
2-D field plot.
50.0 1.0
100.0 1.4
200.0 2.2
400.0 3.0
280.0 1.9
The above finite-element data file has eight nodes and four elements, with four variables, and
is included in your Tecplot distribution as examples/dat/2dfed.dat. It yields the
simple mesh plot shown in Figure 9-3.
9.2. Creating a 3-D Field Plot
Creating a 3-D field plot from a 2-D plot is usually as simple as clicking on the button labeled
3D on the sidebar. For example, suppose you read in the file spcship.plt from the demo/
plt directory, an IJ-ordered data set which by default is displayed in 2-D. Clicking on the 3D
button yields the 3-D surface mesh plot shown at the left in Figure 9-4. The spaceship appears
on its side by default; you can change this either by rotating the plot around the X-axis or by
interchanging the axis assignments of the X- and Y-variables.
To change the axis assignments:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Assign XYZ. The Select Variables dialog appears.
2.
For the Y-axis, choose variable Y, and for the Z-axis, choose variable X.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
2
Y
1.5
1
0.5
1
2
3
4
X
Figure 9-3. A
2-D mesh plot of a finite-element data set.
Z
X
Z
Y
X
Y
2
1
1
0.5
X
0
-6
Y
0
0.5
-5
-2
-6
-1
-5
-4
-2
-3
-2
-0.5
3.
-3
Y
0
Z
-2
1
Z
-1
2
0
-1
0
X 0.5
Figure 9-4. A
-4
-1
1
0
3-D field plot (left). The same plot after interchanging X and Y (right).
Redraw the plot to obtain the view displayed at the right of Figure 9-4.
For 3-D volume data sets, which include both IJK-ordered and FE-volume data sets, 3D is the
default frame mode. That is, when you read in such data sets, Tecplot automatically displays
them in 3-D.
IJK-ordered data sets have the general form shown below:
TITLE = "Example: Simple 3-D Volume Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z", "Density"
ZONE I=3, J=4, K=3, F=POINT
1.0 2.0 1.1 2.21
2.0 2.1 1.2 5.05
200
9.2. Creating a 3-D Field Plot
3.0 2.2 1.1 7.16
1.0 3.0 1.2 3.66
...
The complete ASCII data file is included with Tecplot as simp3dpt.dat (POINT format),
and in block format as simp3dbk.dat. When you read either of these files into Tecplot, you
immediately get the plot shown in Figure 9-5.
Z
X
Y
4
3.5
3
Z
2.5
2
1.5
2
1
2.5
3
1
3.5
1.5
Y
4
2
4.5
2.5
5
5.5
3.5
6
Figure 9-5. Plot
X
3
4
of a 3-D volume.
Finite-element volume data sets, like FE-surface data sets, consist of two separate lists—the
value list and the connectivity list. A portion of a finite-element volume data file is shown
below:
TITLE = "Example: FE-Volume Brick Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z", "Temperature"
ZONE N=14, E=5, F=FEPOINT, ET=BRICK
0.0 0.0 0.0 9.5
1.0 1.0 0.0 14.5
1.0 0.0 0.0 15.0
1.0 1.0 1.0 16.0
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
...
1 1
2 4
4 4
4 4
2 2
1
5
5
4
4
1
3
5
4
4
2 4 5 3
7 10 11 8
10 13 14 11
9 12 13 10
7 6 9 10
The full data file, consisting of a single FE-Brick zone, is included with Tecplot as
febrfep.dat (POINT format), and in BLOCK format as febrfeb.dat. When you read
either of these files into Tecplot, you obtain the plot shown in Figure 9-6.
Z
X
Y
2
1
Z
1.5
0.5
0
0
0
0.5
0.5
Y
1
1
1.5
1.5
2
Figure 9-6. A
X
2
3-D field plot of a finite-element volume data set.
9.3. Modifying Your Field Plot
Once you have read in your data, you can modify your field plot attributes using one or more of
the Field Plot Attributes dialogs (Mesh Attributes, Contour Attributes, and so forth) or the
Quick Edit dialog. No matter which zone layer you are currently modifying, you can control
the following attributes from its corresponding Field Plot Attributes dialog:
• Which zones are active.
• Whether the zone layer is visible for each active zone.
• The color. (For the Scatter zone layer, you may specify two colors, an outline color and a
fill color.)
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9.3. Modifying Your Field Plot
A few other attributes are common to some, but not all, zone layers:
•
•
•
•
The plot type. (For the Scatter zone layer, this is the symbol shape.)
The line pattern.
The pattern length.
The line thickness.
9.3.1. Using Field Plot Attributes Dialogs
The following seven dialogs are listed as Attributes options on the Field menu. We refer to
them collectively as the Field Plot Attributes dialogs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mesh Attributes.
Contour Attributes.
Vector Attributes.
Scatter Attributes.
Shade Attributes.
Boundary Attributes.
Effects Attributes.
Volume Attributes.
These dialogs allow you to specify plot attributes for each zone layer, zone by zone. On each
dialog, the zone information is in the form of a scrolled list. To modify an attribute, the general
procedure is the following:
1.
Call up the appropriate Attributes dialog via the Field menu or the Details button on the
sidebar whenever it is labeled Plot Attributes (the Plot Attributes label appears when no
objects are selected and the current mouse mode is either Selector or Adjustor). The Mesh
Attributes dialog is shown in Figure 9-7.
2.
Select one or more zones, listed in the left hand column of the scrolled list.
3.
Click on a column header, which is usually a drop-down showing all the options for that
attribute.
4.
Choose the desired option to change the attribute for all selected zones.
5.
You can quickly move between the different Field Plot Attributes dialogs by clicking the
page tabs at the top of the dialog, labeled with an abbreviated form of the various dialog
names.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
Figure 9-7. The
Mesh Attributes dialog.
9.3.2. Controlling Which Zones are Displayed
By default, all zones are active, meaning capable of being displayed. If a zone is not active, it
will not be plotted. At least one zone must be active at all times; if you attempt to deactivate all
zones, Tecplot activates the first zone of the group which you tried to deactivate. For example,
suppose zones 2 and 3 are active, and you try to turn off both of them. Tecplot automatically
turns zone 2 back on. You can activate and deactivate zones from any of the Plot Attributes dialogs.
To activate or deactivate a zone or zones:
1.
From any of the Plot Attributes dialogs, select the zone or zones you want to activate or
deactivate.
2.
Click Zone Show. The choices Activate and Deactivate appear.
3.
Click Activate to activate the zones, Deactivate to deactivate the zones, or Show Selected
Only to activate the selected zones and deactivate all others.
9.3.3. Controlling Zone Layer Display
Whether a given zone layer is displayed for a given zone depends on three things:
• Whether the zone layer is active (controlled via the zone layer buttons on the sidebar).
• Whether the zone is active (controlled in any Attributes dialog).
• Whether the zone is enabled to show the layer (controlled in the relevant zone layer’s
Attributes dialog).
When you read in a data set, all three conditions are true for all zones and for the Mesh and
Boundary zone layers, and the Mesh and Boundary zone layers are shown for all zones. However, you can deactivate certain zones, and for those zones nothing is plotted. You can also
204
9.3. Modifying Your Field Plot
disable individual zone layers for any zone. This is useful if you are creating a complex plot
with different plot types for different zones. For example, you might have one zone plotted
with contour flooding and another with multi-color mesh lines. In this case, you would selectively turn off the Mesh zone layer in the contour flooded zone and turn off the Contour zone
layer in the mesh zone. Both the Mesh and the Contour zone layers would be active globally.
To enable or disable a field layer for a zone or zones:
1.
Choose the appropriate Field Plot Attributes dialog.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to enable or disable the zone layer.
3.
Click on the column header for showing the zone layer (Mesh Show, Contour Show, and so
forth). The choices Yes and No appear.
4.
Click Yes to enable the zone layer for the selected zones, or No to disable the zone layer for
the selected zones.
If you click Yes to enable plotting when the corresponding zone layer is disabled, Tecplot displays a dialog asking if you want to turn on the corresponding zone layer. Click Yes to turn on
the zone layer, No to leave it turned off. In either case, the zone has that zone layer enabled,
and that zone layer will be displayed at the first Redraw after turning on the corresponding
zone layer.
You can also enable or disable each zone layer using the Quick Edit dialog for zones you select
interactively in the workspace. Figure 9-8 shows the region of the Quick Edit dialog you use to
enable or disable mesh display and also to control the mesh plot type.
Figure 9-8.
Mesh display and plot type region of the Quick Edit dialog.
To enable or disable a field layer for a zone from the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
enable or disable a plotting layer.
2.
Call up the Quick Edit dialog from the sidebar.
3.
Click Y in the appropriate display area to enable the zone layer for the selected zones; click
N to disable the zone layer for the selected zones.
9.3.4. Choosing Colors
For each zone layer, you can pick a color independently for each zone in the data set. The color
chosen for each zone layer is independent of the colors chosen for the other layers. Thus, the
mesh color is independent of the colors that you choose for contour lines, vectors, scatter sym-
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
bols, solid shading, or boundaries. You can choose from any of Tecplot’s basic colors, or (for
mesh, contour lines, scatter symbols, and vectors) choose the Multi-color option. When you
select Multi-color, the zone layer is colored as a function of the contour variable. If no contour
variable is currently active, the Contour Variable dialog appears with the default Contour Variable highlighted. You can either select a new contour variable, or click Close to accept the
default. A multi-colored plot varies in color like a flooded contour plot—the color of each line
segment (between adjacent data points) is determined from the average value of the contour
variable at the two data points (together with other options such as the number of contour levels and the current color map).
Specifying a color is essentially the same for all zone layers; to be specific, the procedure for
modifying mesh plots is given below. The procedure for changing the color for other zone
layers is similar.
To choose a mesh color for a zone or zones:
1.
From the Mesh Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify a
color.
2.
Click Mesh Color. A drop-down appears containing Tecplot’s basic colors and the Multicolor option.
3.
Click on the desired color option.
You can also choose the mesh color from the Quick Edit dialog for zones chosen interactively
in the workspace. The color region consists of a row of options labeled Fill, Line, and Text,
respectively, followed by two rows of color options, one for each of Tecplot’s basic colors plus
one labeled M for the Multi-color option, and one labeled X, which is not used for mesh plots.
When you choose a color from the Quick Edit dialog, the color changes for all visible zone
layers for the selected zones.
To choose a mesh color for a zone or zones from the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
assign a new mesh color.
2.
Call up the Quick Edit dialog from the sidebar.
3.
Click Line.
4.
Click on the desired color option.
9.3.5. Choosing a Line Pattern
For mesh plots, contour line plots, and vector plots, you can pick a line pattern independently
for each zone in the data set. The line pattern chosen for one layer is independent of the line
patterns of the other plot layers. You can choose from any of Tecplot’s six line patterns:
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9.3. Modifying Your Field Plot
•
•
•
•
•
•
Solid.
Dashed.
Dash Dot.
Dotted.
Long Dash.
Dash Dot Dot.
Choosing a line pattern is essentially the same for all zone layers; to be specific, the procedure
for modifying mesh plots is given below. The procedure for changing the line pattern for other
zone layers is similar.
To choose a mesh line pattern for a zone or zones:
1.
From the Mesh Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify a
line pattern.
2.
Click Line Pttrn. A drop-down menu appears containing six line pattern types.
3.
Click on the desired line pattern option. If you choose any option besides Solid, you can
also check the Pattern Length, and modify it as necessary. See Section 8.3.6, “Choosing a
Pattern Length.”
You can also choose the line pattern from the Quick Edit dialog for zones chosen interactively
in the workspace. Figure 9-9 shows the line pattern region of the Quick Edit dialog, which contains one option for each of Tecplot’s six line patterns. When you choose a line pattern from
the Quick Edit dialog, the line pattern changes for all visible layers for the selected zones.
Figure 9-9. The
line pattern region of the Quick Edit dialog.
To choose a line pattern for a zone or zones from the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
assign a line pattern.
2.
Call up the Quick Edit dialog from the sidebar.
3.
Click on the option with the desired line pattern:
-
Chooses a solid line.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
-
Chooses a dotted line.
-
Chooses a dashed line.
-
Chooses a long dashed line.
-
Chooses an alternating dash-and-dot line.
-
Chooses an alternating dash-and-two-dots line.
9.3.6. Choosing a Pattern Length
The pattern length determines the cycle length for your line pattern, that is, how long the pattern appears before repeating. In practice, this determines the length of dashed lines, and the
spaces between dots and dashes. The pattern length has no effect on solid lines. You specify the
pattern length as a percentage of the frame height.
Choosing a pattern length is essentially the same for all zone layers; to be specific, the procedure for modifying mesh plots is given below. The procedure for changing the pattern length
for other zone layers is similar.
To choose a mesh pattern length for a zone or zones:
1.
From the Mesh Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify a
pattern length.
2.
Click Pttrn Lngth. A drop-down menu appears containing five pre-set lengths and an Enter
option.
3.
Click on the desired option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter a percentage of the frame height in the Enter Value dialog.
You can also choose the pattern length from the Quick Edit dialog for zones chosen interactively in the workspace. When you choose a pattern length from the Quick Edit dialog, the
pattern length changes for all visible zone layers for the selected zones.
To choose a pattern length for a zone or zones from the Quick Edit dialog:
In the workspace use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
specify the pattern length.
2.
Call up the Quick Edit dialog from the sidebar.
3.
Click Pttrn Length. A drop-down appears containing five pre-set lengths and an Enter
option.
4.
Click on the desired option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears.
5.
(Enter option only) Enter a percentage of the frame height in the Enter Value dialog.
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1.
9.3. Modifying Your Field Plot
9.3.7. Choosing a Line Thickness
For all field layers except Shade zone layer, you can specify a line thickness independently for
each zone. The line thickness is independent for each zone layer. The thickness is specified as
a percentage of the frame height (see Figure 9-10). Differing line thicknesses can be drawn on
the screen, but are not supported on all printers. In particular, HP-GL print files do not support
varying line thicknesses. The minimum screen line thickness is one pixel.
Tecplot Line Thicknesses
Line Thickness = 5%
Line Thickness = 3%
Line Thickness = 2%
Line Thickness = 1.5%
Line Thickness = 0.8%
Line Thickness = 0.4%
Line Thickness = 0.1%
Line Thickness = 0.02%
Figure 9-10. Varying
line thicknesses in Tecplot.
Choosing a line thickness is essentially the same for all zone layers; to be specific, the procedure for modifying mesh plots is given below. The procedure for changing the line thickness
for other zone layers is similar.
To choose a mesh line thickness for a zone or zones:
1.
From the Mesh Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify a
line thickness.
2.
Click Line Thck. A drop-down menu appears containing five pre-set widths and an Enter
option.
3.
Click on the desired option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears.
4.
(Enter option only) Enter a percentage of the frame height in the Enter Value dialog.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
You can also choose the line thickness from the Quick Edit dialog for zones chosen interactively in the Tecplot workspace. When you choose a line thickness from the Quick Edit dialog,
the line thickness changes for all visible zone layers for the selected zones.
To choose a line thickness for a zone or zones from the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
specify the line thickness.
2.
Call up the Quick Edit dialog from the sidebar.
3.
Click Line Thcknss. A drop-down menu appears containing five pre-set lengths and an
Enter option.
4.
Click on the desired option. If you select Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears.
5.
(Enter option only) Enter a percentage of the frame height in the Enter Value dialog.
9.4. Labeling Data Points and Cells
You can label all or some of the data points, or nodes, in your field plots with either the index
value(s) of the data point or the value of some specified variable at each point. You can also
label each cell, or element, of the data, with its index (which for finite-element data is its element number).
For example, Figure 9-11 shows a finite-element data set with each node labeled with its node
number.
To create data labels:
1.
From the Style menu, choose Data Labels. The Data Labels dialog appears, as shown in
Figure 9-12.
2.
To label the data points, or nodes, select the Show Node Labels check box. If you select this
check box, choose one of the two option buttons Show Index Value or Show Variable Value.
If you select the Show Variable Value option, choose a variable from the drop-down immediately below the option.
3.
To label the cells, or elements, select the Show Cell Labels check box.
4.
To label all nodes or cells, confirm that the Index Skip text field contains the default value
1. To label only some of the nodes or cells, enter a larger number in the text field. A value
of 2 labels every other point, a value of 3 labels every third point, and so on.
5.
Specify the format of the data labels using the following controls:
- Color: Choose any of Tecplot’s basic colors from the color drop-down.
- Font: Choose a font from the drop-down.
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9.4. Labeling Data Points and Cells
2.5
8
2
Y
1.5
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
3
4
0.5
0
2
X
Figure 9-11. Finite-element
Figure 9-12. The
data with data labels.
Data Labels dialog.
- Size(%): Specify a size for the labels as a percentage of the frame height. Either enter a
value or choose a pre-set value.
- Include Text Box: Select this check box to include a filled box around each data label.
- Variable Values: If you are using a variable value as the data label, you can specify the
format of the labels using these controls. The available formats are the same as for
tick mark labels; see Section 17.5.3, “Tick Mark Label Formats,” for details.
6.
Redraw your plot to see the data labels.
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9.5. 2-D Plotting Order
In 2D frame mode, by default, each zone layer is drawn for all zones before the next layer is
drawn. Sometimes, you will want to plot the data zone by zone instead of layer by layer. To do
this, choose 2D Draw Order from the Field menu and select the By Zone check box.
9.6. Controlling 3-D Plots
You can view any type of data as a 3-D plot. By default, only IJK-ordered data and finite-element volume data are displayed in 3-D, but you can view other data in 3-D simply by clicking
3D frame mode on the sidebar. Three-dimensional plots can be rotated in space, allowing you
to look at your data from any angle. This rotation is probably the most common control you
will exercise over your 3-D plots, but Tecplot gives you control over a number of other 3-D
plotting attributes that determine precisely how your plot is displayed. This control is necessary because 3-D plots need to provide an illusion of depth in a two-dimensional screen display. The available controls are as follows:
• 3D Rotation: Control the 3-D orientation of the plot. See Section 9.6.1, “3-D Rotation,”
for details.
• 3D View Details: Set the specifications for a variety of parameters affecting the 3-D display of your plot, including the perspective, field of view, angular orientation of the plot,
and view distance. See Section 9.6.2, “3-D View Details,” for details.
• 3D Orientation Axis: Allows you to control the optional 3-D orientation axis, which
shows the current orientation of the three axes. See Section 9.6.6, “3-D Orientation Axis,”
for details.
• 3D Reset Axis: Allows you to reset the 3-D axis sizes and the 3-D origin of rotation. See
Section 9.6.7, “3-D Axis Reset,” for details.
• 3D Axis Limits: Allows you to control the data and axis aspect ratios for 3-D plotting. See
Section 9.6.8, “3-D Axis Limits,” for details.
• 3D Light Source: Control the light source position, as well as the intensity of the light, the
background light, and the surface color contrast.
• Advanced 3D Control: Specify the default lift fraction for 3-D lines, symbols, and tangent
vectors, as well as the 3-D sorting algorithm for the plot.
9.6.1. 3-D Rotation
Tecplot allows you to rotate your data in a variety of different ways. Choose one of the six 3-D
rotation mouse modes, then drag the pointer in the workspace to rotate your 3-D image. The
six rotation mouse modes can be entered by selecting the appropriate sidebar tools, as follows:
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9.6. Controlling 3-D Plots
• Spherical
: Drag the mouse horizontally to rotate about the Z-axis; drag the mouse vertically to control the tilt of the Z-axis.
• Rollerball
: Drag the mouse in the direction to move with respect to the current orientation on the screen. In this mode, your mouse acts much like a rollerball.
• Twist
: Drag the mouse clockwise around the image to rotate the image clockwise.
Drag the mouse counterclockwise around the image to rotate the image counterclockwise.
• X-axis
: Drag the mouse to rotate the image about the X-axis.
• Y-axis
: Drag the mouse to rotate the image about the Y-axis.
• Z-axis
: Drag the mouse to rotate the image about the Z-axis.
Once you have chosen a rotation mouse mode, you can quickly switch to any of the others
using the following keyboard shortcuts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
s: Spherical.
r: Rollerball.
t: Twist.
x: X-axis.
y: Y-axis.
z: Z-axis.
9.6.2. 3-D View Details
The angular orientation of the plot is defined by three spherical rotation angles:
• ψ (Psi): Tilt of eye origin ray away from Z-axis.
• θ (Theta): Rotation of the eye origin ray about the Z-axis.
• α (Alpha): Twist about the eye origin ray.
The eye origin ray is a line from the origin of the 3-D object to your eye. The eye origin ray is
perpendicular to the plane of the computer screen. These angles define a unique view. These
angles are shown in Figure 9-13.
When rotating an object, there is a center of rotation about which the rotation takes place. This
is called the 3-D origin, and it should not be confused with the actual XYZ-origin of the data.
The default 3-D origin is approximately the centroid of all the data in the active zones.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
Screen Distance
Screen Projection Surface
Z
Y
Eye
Coordinate
System
E
X
Z
α
ψ
Y
θ
θ
X
Ey
eD
Figure 9-13. The
ist
an
ce
ψ
α
θ
E
Z-Axis Tilt Angle (PR)
Twist Angle about Eye/Origin Ray (AR)
Rotation Angle about Z-Axis (TR)
Location of Viewer’s Eye
3-D angles and 3-D projection.
Besides being able to set the 3-D rotate origin via the 3D Rotate dialog, you may also set the
origin by positioning the rotation cursor over your data, then pressing the letter O. The rotation
origin will then be shifted to the point on the closest surface underneath the cursor.
From the 3D Rotate dialog, you can also choose from four pre-set views or precisely specify
the desired orientation of your 3-D plot by entering exact values for the three spherical angles
Psi, Theta, and Alpha. You can also define the origin of the 3-D rotation.
9.6.2.1. Rotate About the Viewer Position. In addition to the rotation capabilities
described above, you may use the Alt key and mouse to rotate about the viewer (instead of
rotating the object). Although you may use this feature while in orthographic projection, it is
best suited for when perspective projection is being used. The Alt key and your middle mouse
button may be used to simulate fly-through type motion. You may move closer to the object
using the Alt key and middle mouse button (or Ctrl-Alt-right mouse button), then turn your
head using the Alt key and left mouse button.
9.6.2.2. Rotate Using the 3D Rotate Dialog. You may also rotate your plots using the 3D
Rotate dialog under the View menu, shown in Figure 9-14. At the top of this dialog, there are
three options specifying three rotation modes—XYZ-Axis, Spherical, and Rollerball. Depending on the rotation mode chosen, the array of buttons to the right of the options will vary. To
rotate the image, click these options. Each click rotates the image by the number of degrees
specified in the Rotation Step Size text field.
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9.6. Controlling 3-D Plots
Figure 9-14. The
3D Rotate dialog.
9.6.3. 3-D Zooming and Translating
Just as in all other plots, you may zoom and translate your plot using the mouse. This may be
done using either the Zoom or Translate tools. For most sidebar tools you may also use your
middle and right mouse buttons (or Ctrl-right mouse button) to zoom and translate.
When the plot projection is orthographic, zooming with the middle mouse button magnifies the
plot. When the plot projection is perspective, zooming with the middle mouse button changes
the viewer angle, making the plot appear larger or smaller. If you want to change the viewer’s
position by moving closer to or further away from an object hold the Alt key down while using
the middle mouse button.
Working with very large data sets may result in slow rotation and translation. If this is the case
you may reduce rotations and translations to use a trace of the data instead of the full plot.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
To change the rotation and translation drawing behavior:
1.
From the sidebar, call up the Display Performance dialog by clicking the Performance button.
2.
Click Draw Level for 3D View Changes, then select Trace from the drop-down menu.
If performance remains slow you may also want to turn off the caching of graphics in display
lists. This option is also on the Display Performance dialog.
If you are working with multiple frames you may increase performance by choosing to trace all
non-current frames. The option is also on the Display Performance dialog.
See Section 31.2, “Customizing Tecplot Interactively,” for further information on customizing
the display.
9.6.4. 3-D Sorting
For some 3-D plots, Tecplot uses a painter’s algorithm. The data objects are divided into
smaller objects. The smallest object is usually a cell, finite-element, vector, or scatter symbol.
These objects are sorted based upon the distance from viewer. Tecplot draws the image starting
with the objects farthest from the viewer and working forward.
In Tecplot, 3-D sorting occurs whenever you use translucency in a 3-D plot, or whenever you
print or print preview a 3-D plot. A quick sorting algorithm is used by default. This does not
detect problems such as intersecting objects and is somewhat less accurate. The 3-D sorting for
each frame is controlled by the Perform Extra 3D Sorting check box on the Advanced 3D
Control dialog, shown in Figure 9-15. If the Perform Extra 3D Sorting check box is selected, a
slower, more accurate approach is used to detect problems for you. Call up the Advanced 3D
Control dialog by selecting the Field menu’s Advanced 3D Control option.
Note: All of the settings in the Advanced 3D Control dialog are specific to the current frame.
There are instances when Tecplot cannot sort correctly. For example, consider elements A, B,
and C, where element A overlaps part of element B which overlaps part of element C which
overlaps part of element A. Since Tecplot draws only whole elements, one of these elements
will be drawn last and (incorrectly) cover a portion of another element. If this occurs while
printing or exporting, choosing an image format will often resolve the problem.
If you specify lift fractions for 3-D lines, tangent vectors, or scatter symbols, plotted objects of
the appropriate type are lifted slightly towards you by this fraction so that they lie on top of
surface elements. The lift fraction is the fraction of the distance from the 3-D origin of the
object to your eye. You may specify lift fractions with the Advanced 3D Controls dialog.
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9.6. Controlling 3-D Plots
Figure 9-15. The
Advanced 3D Control dialog.
9.6.5. 3-D Projection
The image you see on the screen is a 2-D representation of a 3-D image. Three-dimensional
data is projected onto a 2-D plane, your screen. Tecplot offers two projection methods: orthographic and perspective. Orthographic projection is used as the default.
In the 3D View Details dialog, shown in Figure 9-16, you can choose either of the following
two types of 3-D projection:
• Orthographic: The shape of the objects is independent of distance. This is sometimes an
“unrealistic” view, but it is often used for displaying physical objects when preserving the
true lengths is important (such as drafting).
• Perspective: The shape of the objects is dependent on the field of view angle. The larger
the angle the larger the perspective effects. From the 3D View Details dialog you can control the field of view angle and the viewer position. As a convenience you can also change
the viewer position by moving closer to or further from the object by changing the view distance.
9.6.6. 3-D Orientation Axis
Depending on the view, it may be difficult to determine the current orientation of your 3-D
axes. The 3-D orientation axis is a (usually small) representation of your axes that shows you
the orientation immediately. By default, all 3-D plots show the 3-D orientation axis in the
upper right of the frame. Using the 3D Orientation Axis dialog under the Axis menu, you can
control whether the 3-D orientation axis is shown in your plot, and if so, its color, size, line
thickness, and the position of the axis origin. You can also position the 3-D orientation axis
simply by clicking on it and dragging it to the desired location in the frame.
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
Figure 9-16. The
3D View Details dialog.
9.6.7. 3-D Axis Reset
By default, the 3-D axes are calculated so that they just surround the data. If you alter your data
to expand or contract the overall data size, the axes do not automatically adjust to the new size.
For example, if you multiply your X-variable by four, the data will extend four times the length
of the X-axis.
You can use the 3D Axis Reset option under the Axis menu to reset the axes so that they once
again just surround the data.
The 3D Axis Reset option also resets the 3-D origin, that is, the origin of 3-D rotation. If you
have modified your 3-D origin using the 3D Rotate dialog (see Section 9.6.1, “3-D Rotation,”
for details), the 3D Axis Reset option will reset it to approximately the centroid of the data.
9.6.8. 3-D Axis Limits
In a 3-D plot, whenever you read a data file or manipulate the values of variables assigned to
axes or change variables assigned to the axes, Tecplot examines the data and determines how to
plot it. The data may require scaling in one or more axis directions, a change of the axis dependency, an adjustment of the space between the data and the axis box, and/or an adjustment of
the shape of the axis box.
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9.6. Controlling 3-D Plots
For example, suppose you read into Tecplot X-Y-Z data that defined a pencil: a long and thin
shape. You may want Tecplot to plot this true to scale (that is, a scale factor of one for each
axis) in the dependent axis mode, with a long, thin axis box adapted closely to the pencil. Or
you may want the data plotted true to scale, but with an axis box nearly cubic in shape. Or
perhaps you want the data scaled so the pencil actually appears short and stubby and fills a
nearly cube-shaped axis box. Tecplot can plot all of these variations.
Because there are many valid forms in which the data could be plotted, Tecplot requires some
user input to determine how to automatically configure the plot the way you want. There are
several parameters used by Tecplot to determine when and how the axes are rescaled and
resized which are described below. These parameters make up the 3-D axis limit options
described below.
You control the allowable shape of your data and axes using the 3D Axis Limits dialog, shown
in Figure 9-17. From this dialog accessed from the Axis menu, you can set an aspect ratio and
reset limits for both your data and your axes.
Figure 9-17. The
3D Axis Limits dialog.
The data aspect ratio is the ratio of the range of the variable assigned to one axis (multiplied by
the axis size factor), divided by the range of the variable assigned to another axis (multiplied by
that axis size factor).
For example, if the variable assigned to the X-axis ranged from -2 to 2 (range of four), the
X-axis scale factor was one, the variable assigned to the Y-axis ranged from 100 to 500 (range
of 400), and the Y-axis scale factor was 0.2, the data aspect ratio would be 20, which is
[400*0.2]/[4*1].
The Data Aspect Ratio Limit is the ratio used when Tecplot is automatically resetting data.
When the data aspect ratio of any two axes exceeds the Data Aspect Ratio Limit, Tecplot auto-
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Chapter 9. Creating Field Plots
matically rescales the longer axis (that which has the larger value of range multiplied by scale
factor) so that the new data aspect ratio is equal to the Data Aspect Ratio Reset value.
If your plots are usually unscaled, such as plots of real physical objects, you should set the data
aspect ratio maximum to a large number like 30. This allows you to plot data that is thirty times
longer than it is wide without Tecplot automatically resizing it. If your plots are usually scaled,
then you should set the data aspect ratio to a small number like two.
The Data Aspect Ratio Reset value should be equal to or smaller than the data aspect ratio
limit. For scaled plots, a reset value of one is reasonable, making the two scale axes equal in
length when automatic rescaling takes place.
The Axes Aspect Ratio Limit works like the Data Aspect Ratio Limit, except that it deals with
the shape and size of the axes box. For example, if you are viewing a long, slender, physical
object, you may want a high data-aspect-ratio limit to keep from rescaling the physical object,
but you might also want a low axis-aspect-ratio limit to keep the axes box in a reasonable
shape.
The Axes Aspect Ratio Reset value works like Data Aspect Ratio Reset, except that it deals
with the shape and size of the axes box. This is the ratio used when Tecplot is automatically
resetting the axes box. When the data aspect ratio of any two axes exceeds the Data Aspect
Ratio Limit, Tecplot also automatically rescales the longer axis of the axes box (which has the
larger value of range multiplied by scale factor) so that the new axes box aspect ratio is equal to
the Axes Aspect Ratio Reset value.
Sometimes maintaining the same size factor for each axis is not desirable, especially if the 3-D
data do not represent a real physical object. For example, a carpet plot is a 3-D surface where
the height (Z) is a single-valued function of width (X) and depth (Y). The data points are
usually arranged in an IJ-ordered rectangular array (although this is not required by Tecplot).
The variable assigned to the Z-axis could have a range of values that differs greatly from the
ranges on the X- and Y-axes. If you plotted this data with equal size factors for each of the
three axes, the plot could be long and thin (or very flat). Usually the desired axes for carpet
plots are nearly equal in length, but with different size factors. You can have Tecplot automatically rescale the axes for you by changing the Data Aspect Ratio Limit.
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CHAPTER 10
Creating Mesh Plots
and Boundary Plots
A mesh plot is a field plot of the lines connecting neighboring data points within a zone. For
I-ordered data, the mesh is a single line connecting all of the points in order of increasing Iindex. For IJ-ordered data, the mesh consists of two families of lines connecting adjacent data
points of increasing I-index and increasing J-index. For IJK-ordered data, the mesh consists of
three families of lines, one connecting points of increasing I-index, one connecting points of
increasing J-index, and one connecting points of increasing K-index. By changing the zone’s
Surfaces to Plot on the Volume Attributes dialog, you may limit the plotted mesh to the exterior
surface (exposed cell faces) or to selected I-, J-, and K-grid planes. For finite-element zones,
the mesh is a plot of all edges of all elements which are defined by the connectivity list for the
node points. Mesh lines are straight lines between adjacent points.
A boundary plot is a field plot of the boundaries of ordered-data zones or 2-D finite-element
zones. Boundary plots are frequently combined with other plot types.
Because the default field plot type consists of the Mesh and Boundary layers, we have already
seen numerous examples of these plots in Chapter 9, “Creating Field Plots.” This chapter concentrates on those aspects of mesh and boundary plots unique to those plot types.
10.1. Modifying Your Mesh Plot
Once you have read in your data, you can modify your mesh plot attributes using either the
Mesh Attributes dialog or the Quick Edit dialog. You can control any of the following
attributes from the Mesh Attributes dialog, shown in Figure 10-1:
• Which zones are active. See Section 9.3.2, “Controlling Which Zones are Displayed.”
• Whether the mesh is visible for each active zone. See Section 9.3.3, “Controlling Zone
Layer Display.”
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Chapter 10. Creating Mesh Plots and Boundary Plots
•
•
•
•
•
The mesh plot type. See Section 10.2, “Choosing a Mesh Plot Type,” below.
The mesh color. See Section 9.3.4, “Choosing Colors.”
The mesh line pattern. See Section 9.3.5, “Choosing a Line Pattern.”
The mesh line pattern length. See Section 9.3.6, “Choosing a Pattern Length.”
The mesh line thickness. See Section 9.3.7, “Choosing a Line Thickness.”
Figure 10-1. The
Mesh Attributes dialog.
10.2. Choosing a Mesh Plot Type
Tecplot has three distinct mesh plot types:
• Wire Frame: Mesh lines are drawn underlying all other field plots. Wire frame meshes are
drawn below any other field plots (such as contours or vectors) on the same zone. In 3D
frame mode, no hidden lines are removed. For 3-D volume zones (finite-element volume or
IJK-ordered), the full 3-D mesh consisting of all the connecting lines between data points is
not generally drawn because the sheer number of lines would make it confusing. The mesh
drawn will depend upon your choice of Surfaces to Plot on the Volume Attributes dialog.
See Section 20.1, “Choosing Which Surfaces to Plot,” for further details. By default, only
the mesh on exposed cell faces is shown.
• Overlay: Like Wire Frame, except that mesh lines are drawn over all other field-plot types
except vectors and scatter symbols. For example, if you have flooded contours on a zone,
you do not see a wire frame mesh (which would be underneath the contour flooding), but
you can see an overlay mesh. In 3D frame mode, the area behind the cells of the plot is still
visible (unless some other plot type such as contour flooding prevents this). As with Wire
Frame, the mesh drawn is dependent upon your choice of Surfaces to Plot in the Volume
Attributes dialog. See Section 20.1, “Choosing Which Surfaces to Plot,” for further details.
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10.2. Choosing a Mesh Plot Type
• Hidden Line: Like Overlay above, except hidden lines are removed from behind the mesh.
In effect, the cells (elements) of the mesh are opaque. Surfaces and lines that are hidden
behind another surface are removed from the plot. For 3-D volume zones, using this plot
type obscures everything inside the zone. If you choose this option for 3-D volume zones
using the Volume Attributes dialog’s Surfaces to Plot option set to Every Surface, you may
want to use a different Surfaces to Plot option (Exposed Cell Faces has the same effect) or
use a wire frame mesh instead. If this option is set and the frame mode is not 3D, you get a
mesh identical to that for Overlay. The opaque surfaces crated by Hidden Line are not
affected by the Lighting zone effect (there is no light source shading).
Figure 10-2 shows the available mesh plot types, along with the effects of choosing Overlay
and Wire Frame in combination with contour flooding.
Overlay
Hidden Line
None
Zone Boundary
Wire Frame
Contour Flooding
(With Flood Cutoff)
Figure 10-2. Mesh
plot types.
To choose a mesh plot type for a zone or zones from the Mesh Attributes dialog:
1.
From the Mesh Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify a
plot type.
2.
Click Mesh Plottype. The options Wire Frame, Overlay, and Hidden Line appear.
3.
Click on the desired plot type.
You can also choose the mesh plot type from the Quick Edit dialog for zones chosen interactively in the workspace.
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Chapter 10. Creating Mesh Plots and Boundary Plots
To choose a mesh plot type for a zone or zones from the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
specify a plot type.
2.
Call up the Quick Edit dialog from the sidebar.
3.
Click
in the Mesh display area for a wire frame plot, click
click
for a hidden line plot.
for an overlay plot, or
10.3. Modifying Boundary Plots
The Boundary layer controls the boundary lines for zones. Zone boundaries exist only for
ordered zones, or 2-D finite-element zones. They appear as lines around the edges of the zone.
Figure 10-3 shows a boundary plot of multiple zones.
6
5
Y(M)
4
3
2
1
0
-1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X(M)
Figure 10-3. The
boundary of a multiple-zone data set.
Three-dimensional finite-element zones do not have boundaries, although you may use the
Extract FE Boundary dialog to create a zone that is the outer boundary or surface of a finiteelement zone. See Section 20.4, “Extracting Boundaries of Finite-Element Zones,” for details.
You can control any of the following attributes from the Boundary Attributes dialog, shown in
Figure 10-4:
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10.4. Specifying Which Boundaries are Displayed
• Which zones are active. See Section 9.3.2, “Controlling Which Zones are Displayed.”
• Whether the boundary is visible for each active zone. See Section 9.3.3, “Controlling Zone
Layer Display.”
• Which boundaries are displayed for each zone. See Section 10.4, “Specifying Which
Boundaries are Displayed,” below.
• The boundary color for each zone. See Section 9.3.4, “Choosing Colors.”
• The boundary line thickness for each zone. See Section 9.3.7, “Choosing a Line Thickness.”
Figure 10-4. The
Boundary Attributes dialog.
10.4. Specifying Which Boundaries are Displayed
For IJ-ordered zones, the available boundaries are the lines I=1, I=IMax, J=1, and J=JMax.
When the Volume Attributes dialog’s Surfaces to Plot option is set to Boundary Cell Faces,
Exposed Cell Faces, or Every Surface for IJK-ordered zones, the available boundaries are the
boundaries of the surface areas, forming a “box” that contains the data. When the Volume
Attributes dialog’s Surfaces to Plot option is set to one of the planes options, such as I-, J-, or
K-planes, for IJK-ordered zones the boundaries are the boundaries of each plane (I-, J-, or
K-plane). By default, all available boundaries are drawn when the Boundary layer is active.
You can specify which of the available boundaries are plotted using either the Boundary
Attributes dialog or the Quick Edit dialog.
To specify which boundaries to draw using the Boundary Attributes dialog:
1.
From the Boundary Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify which boundaries to draw.
2.
Click I-Indx Bndy (or J-Indx Bndy or K-Indx Bndy). The options None, Min Only, Max
Only, and Both appear.
3.
Click on the desired option.
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Chapter 10. Creating Mesh Plots and Boundary Plots
To specify which boundaries to draw using the Quick Edit dialog:
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the boundary of the zone for which you
want to specify the boundaries to be drawn. When you select a zone boundary, an extra
selection handle shows which of the zone’s available boundaries is currently selected. Click
on any other available boundary to select that boundary.
2.
Call up the Quick Edit dialog from the sidebar.
3.
Click on one of the following buttons in the Boundary display area:
226
1.
-
To display all available boundaries for the zone.
-
To display the currently selected boundary.
-
To turn off the currently selected boundary.
-
To turn off all boundaries except the currently selected boundary.
CHAPTER 11
Creating Contour
Plots
Contour plots show the variation of one variable across the data field. Contour lines and contour flooding are examples of contour plots, as are multicolored mesh, scatter, and vector plots.
In this chapter, however, we restrict our attention to plots having contour lines and/or contour
flooding.
Plotting contours allows you to add an extra dimension to a plot, and thus contour plots may
require one more variable than mesh plots of the same dimension. Where a 2-D mesh plot
shows two variables, a contour plot can show three, and a 3-D contour plot can show four. This
extra variable is called the contour variable.
The procedure for creating a contour plot is:
1.
Read in a data set.
2.
Select the Contour check box on the sidebar to activate the Contour zone layer. If no contour variable is currently assigned, the Contour Variable dialog appears with the default
contour variable selected. You can either choose a different contour variable, or click Close
to accept the default.
3.
Deselect the Mesh check box on the sidebar. This turns off the Mesh zone layer, which is on
by default.
The default contour plot is a flood contour plot, as shown in Figure 11-1, with 15 contour
levels spanning a range calculated by Tecplot from the range of your contour variable.
11.1. Modifying Your Contour Plot
You can modify the attributes of your contour plot using either the Contour Attributes dialog or
the Quick Edit dialog. You can control any of the following attributes from the Contour
Attributes dialog, shown in Figure 11-2:
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
5
4
Y(M)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
Figure 11-1.
0
5
X(M)
10
15
A contour plot of the cylinder data.
• Which zones are active. See Section 9.3.2, “Controlling Which Zones are Displayed.”
• Whether the contours are visible for each active zone. See Section 9.3.3, “Controlling Zone
Layer Display.”
•
•
•
•
•
•
The contour plot type. See Section 11.3, “Controlling the Contour Plot Type.”
The contour line color. See Section 9.3.4, “Choosing Colors.”
The contour line pattern. See Section 9.3.5, “Choosing a Line Pattern.”
The contour line pattern length. See Section 9.3.6, “Choosing a Pattern Length.”
The contour line thickness. See Section 9.3.7, “Choosing a Line Thickness.”
Whether the lighting effect for contour flooding should be active for this zone. See Section
11.3.3, “Lighting Effects and Contour Flooding.”
Figure 11-2. The
Contour Attributes dialog.
The following attributes of contour plots are set on a frame-by-frame basis, rather than
zone-by-zone:
• The contour variable. See Section 11.2, “Choosing a Contour Variable.”
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11.2. Choosing a Contour Variable
•
•
•
•
•
The contour line mode. See Section 11.3.1, “Controlling Contour Lines.”
Contour levels. See Section 11.4, “Specifying Contour Levels.”
The contour legend. See Section 11.7, “Creating a Contour Legend.”
Contour labeling. See Section 11.8, “Contour Labels.”
Adjustments to the color map, including the choice of Banded or Continuous color distribution. See Section 11.6, “Adjusting the Color Map for a Specific Frame.”
11.2. Choosing a Contour Variable
You choose a contour variable from the Contour Variable dialog. This dialog comes up automatically when you turn on the Contour zone layer for the first time in a frame, or can be
accessed via the Contour Variable option on the Field menu. The Contour Variable dialog is
shown in Figure 11-3. Simply choose one of the data set’s variables from the drop-down
labeled Current Contour Variable.
Figure 11-3. The
Contour Variable dialog.
11.3. Controlling the Contour Plot Type
Tecplot allows you to create contour plots of five different types:
•
•
•
•
Lines: Draws lines of constant value of the specified contour variable.
Flood: Floods regions between contour lines with colors from the global color map.
Both Lines and Flood: Combines above two options.
Average Cell: Floods cells or finite-elements with colors from the global color map
according to the average value of the contour variable over the data points bounding the
cell.
• Corner Cell: Floods cells or finite-elements with colors from the global color map according to the value of the contour variable at one corner of the cell.
By default, Tecplot uses the Flood type with Banded color distribution. Figure 11-4 shows
examples of each of the contour plot types.
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
Both Lines and Flood
None
Average Cell
Corner Cell
Lines
Flood
Figure 11-4. Contour
plot types.
To modify the contour plot type:
1.
From the Field menu, choose Contour Attributes. The Contour Attributes dialog appears.
2.
On the dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to modify the plot type.
3.
Click Cont Plottype. A drop-down menu appears listing the available plot types.
4.
Click on the desired plot type.
To modify the contour plot type from the Quick Edit dialog:
From the sidebar, click on Quick Edit. The Quick Edit dialog appears.
2.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
modify the plot type.
3.
In the Quick Edit dialog, click on the appropriate button, as follows:
230
1.
-
Lines.
-
Flood.
11.3. Controlling the Contour Plot Type
-
Both Lines and Flood.
-
Average Cell.
-
Corner Cell.
11.3.1. Controlling Contour Lines
You can control the color and thickness of the contour lines on a zone-by-zone basis, using the
procedures of Section 9.3, “Modifying Your Field Plot.” You can also specify the line pattern
and pattern length on a zone-by-zone basis, but whether those settings are used depends on the
current frame’s contour line mode. The contour line mode determines how contour lines are
drawn for all zones in the current frame’s data set.
To specify the contour line mode:
1.
From the Field menu, choose Contour Line Mode. The Contour Line Mode dialog appears,
as shown in Figure 11-5.
Figure 11-5. The
2.
Contour Line Mode dialog.
Choose one of the following options:
- Use Zone Line Pattern: For each zone, draw the contour lines using the line pattern and
pattern length specified in the Contour Attributes dialog.
- Skip to Solid: Draw n dashed lines between each pair of solid lines, where n is an integer you enter in the text field Number of Dashed Lines to Draw between Solid Lines.
- Dashed Negative Lines: Draw lines of positive contour variable value as solid lines and
lines of negative contour variable value as dashed lines.
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
3.
If you choose Skip to Solid or Dashed Negative Lines, specify a pattern length for the
dashed lines.
4.
If you choose Skip to Solid, enter the number of dashed lines to draw between solid lines.
11.3.2. Controlling Contour Flooding
A flooded contour plot is a contour plot in which the area between contour levels is filled (that
is, flooded). Flooded contour plots give an immediate visual impression of how the contour
variable is changing.
The distribution of colors used for contour flooding may be banded or continuous. When
banded distribution is used for flooding a solid color is used between contour levels. If continuous color distribution is used the flood color will vary linearly in all directions. See Section
11.6.2, “Color Distribution Methods,” for details on Tecplot’s color distribution methods.
To create a flooded contour plot from the Contour Attributes dialog, set the contour plot type to
either Flood or Both Lines and Flood. The area between adjacent contour levels is colored
according the value of the contour variable, the color distribution method, the number of
contour levels (banded distribution only), and the active color map. If you select the contour
plot type Both Lines and Flood, the flooding is displayed along with the contour lines. (If the
contour lines are multi-colored, you will not be able to see them against the contour flooding.)
In addition to the standard contour flooding, Tecplot supports two other types of flooded contour plots: average cell and corner. Unlike the standard flooding, which floods the regions
between adjacent contour levels, these options flood individual cells or elements. The flooding
is based on either the average value of the contour variable at the data points of the cell or element (for average cell) or the value at the primary corner of the cell or element (for corner
flooding). The primary corner is either the first node of the cell (as specified in the data file’s
element definition), or the point of minimum I-, J-, and K-index.
When viewing a 3-D figure, either finite-element or IJK-ordered, each face of each element is
colored individually. This is because each face may be part of two cells, each with a different
value. For average cell contours, the flooding is based on the average value of the contour variable at the corners of the face. For corner contour flooding, the color is based on the value at
the primary corner of the face.
11.3.3. Lighting Effects and Contour Flooding
Lighting effects may distort the surface color depending on the orientation of the surface with
respect to the light source. You may want to turn off the lighting effects when creating flooded
contour plots in 3-D to assure the surface colors match those in the contour legend. The easiest
way to do this for zones is via the Lighting Zone Effects check box on the sidebar.
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11.4. Specifying Contour Levels
To maintain shading on objects with a combination of plain surface shaded zones and flooded
contour zones make sure the sidebar’s Lighting Zone Effects check box is selected. You must
also turn off lighting zone effects on a zone-by-zone basis with the Use Lighting option on the
Contour page of the Plot Attributes dialog.
11.4. Specifying Contour Levels
A contour level is a value at which contour lines are drawn. The number of contour levels is the
number of contour lines that will be drawn. The range of contour levels is the interval between
the minimum contour level and the maximum contour level.
You control contour levels using the Contour Levels dialog, shown in Figure 11-6. Call up this
dialog by choosing Contour Levels option from the Field menu. From this dialog, you can
perform any of the following tasks:
• Specify a new range or number of contour levels.
• Add levels to an existing set of contour levels.
• Remove selected contour levels.
Figure 11-6. The
Contour Levels dialog.
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
11.4.1. Specifying the Range or Number of Contour Levels
The number and range of contour levels should usually be modified together.
To modify the number of levels while letting Tecplot determine the range, click Reset Levels
on the Contour Levels dialog. An Enter Value dialog appears with the default (or current)
number of contour levels, as shown in Figure 11-7. Enter the desired number of contour levels
and click OK.,
Figure 11-7. Entering
the number of contour levels.
To modify the number of levels and control the range yourself, click New Levels on the
Contour Levels dialog. The Enter Contour Level Range dialog appears with the current settings. The dialog is shown in Figure 11-8.
Figure 11-8. The
234
Enter Contour Level Range dialog.
11.4. Specifying Contour Levels
You can specify the range and number of levels in any of three ways:
• As a minimum and maximum level value, together with the number of levels to be distributed equally through the range. Choose this option (the default) by selecting the check box
labeled Min, Max, and Number of Levels, then filling in the appropriate text fields.
• As a minimum and maximum level value, together with a delta, that is, the difference or
change in contour value between two adjacent contour levels. You choose this option by
selecting the check box labeled Min, Max, and Delta, then filling in the appropriate text
fields. Tecplot generates contour levels beginning at the minimum level specified, then at
intervals of Delta, until adding Delta would result in a level higher than the maximum level
specified. Thus the highest actual contour level is usually somewhat less than the maximum
level unless Delta is chosen precisely.
• As a minimum and maximum level value, together with the number of levels to be distributed exponentially through the range. You choose this option by selecting the check box
labeled Exponential Distribution, then filling in the appropriate text fields.
In specifying a range, you can refer to the main Contour Levels dialog, which displays the
minimum and maximum range of the contour variable. You can specify contour levels that
extend beyond the range of the contour variable; any levels outside the range of the data are not
displayed.
11.4.2. Adding Contour Levels
You can add contour levels to an existing set of contours. You might do this to get a clearer idea
of how the contour variable is varying in areas with few visible contour lines.
You can add new levels in any of three ways:
• Add a new range of contour levels to the existing set by clicking the Add Levels option in
the Contour Levels dialog and then using the Enter Contour Level Range dialog as
described in Section 11.4.1, “Specifying the Range or Number of Contour Levels.”
• Enter a value in the Level To Add text field in the Contour Levels dialog and then clicking
Add Level.
• Choose
from the sidebar, then click at any location in the contour plot where you
would like a new contour level. Tecplot adds a new contour level that goes through the
specified point. By holding down the mouse button you can drag and interactively position
the new contour level until you release the button. While using this tool you may also press
the “-” key to switch to the Remove Contour tool.
11.4.3. Removing Contour Levels
You can remove contour levels in either of two ways:
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
• In the Levels scrolled list in the Contour Levels dialog, select one or more contour levels,
then click Remove Selected Levels.
• Choose
from the sidebar, then click on any contour line in your contour plot. Tecplot
deletes the specified contour level, or the nearest contour level to the specified point. While
using this tool you may also press the “-” key to switch to the Add Contour tool.
11.4.4. Adjusting Contour Levels
You can interactively adjust a contour level with the
tool. Select the tool from the sidebar.
Hold down the Ctrl key; then click and drag the contour level you want to adjust. Move the
contour to the desired location and release the mouse button. The value of the contour level
will change as can be viewed in the Contour Levels dialog.
11.5. Controlling the Global Color Map
The colors used in flooded contour plots are determined by the global color map, controlled in
the Workspace menu, and by frame-specific color options controlled in the Field menu. This
section discusses the global color map; frame-specific color options are discussed in
Section 11.6, “Adjusting the Color Map for a Specific Frame.”
By default, Tecplot uses a color map called Small Rainbow, which is a rainbow of colors from
blue to cyan to green to yellow to red. This default color map is called Small Rainbow to distinguish it from another color map, Large Rainbow, which adds purple and white beyond the
red. The color map is used by all frames; if you change the color map to modify the look of one
frame, all frames with contour flooding or any form of multi-colored will be modified as well.
To choose a color map:
1.
From the Workspace menu, choose Color Map. The ColorMap dialog appears, as shown in
Figure 11-9.
2.
From the Base Color Map drop-down menu, choose one of the following color maps:
- Small Rainbow: Five color spectrum from blue to cyan to green to yellow to red.
- Large Rainbow: Seven color spectrum from blue to cyan to green to yellow to red to
purple to white.
- Modern: Seven color spectrum; within each color band colors change in intensity from
dark to light.
- GrayScale: Color spectrum from black to white.
- Wild: random Color spectrum. Wild is different each time you select it.
236
11.5. Controlling the Global Color Map
Figure 11-9. The
Color Map dialog.
- Two Color: A two-color spectrum.
- User-Defined: A customizable version of one of the first four options above. You can
add or delete control points, as well as change RGB values for each control point. See
Section 11.5.2, “Modifying a User-Defined Color Map,” for details on modifying a
User Defined color map.
- Raw User-Defined: A customizable version of one of the first four options above. To
customize the color map, however, you must save your Raw User-Defined map to a
file using the Copy Color Map to File option in the Workspace menu. See
Section 11.5.3, “Modifying a Raw User-Defined Color Map,” for details on modifying a Raw User Defined color map.
You can modify any color map, except the Raw User-Defined color map, using the controls in
the Color Map dialog.
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
11.5.1. Modifying a Standard Color Map
You can modify the standard color maps either by altering the position of the color map control
points or by modifying the RGB values of the control points. Altering the position of the
control points allows you to alter the proportions of colors in the spectrum. Modifying the
RGB values of the control points changes the spectrum itself. All of the control points except
the first and last are two-sided; they have both a left- and a right-RGB value. This allows you to
define color maps such as Modern, which has sharp demarcations between color bands. To
define smoothly varying color maps, select the Right RGB Same as Left check box for each
two-sided control point. Except for the Wild and Modern color maps (and, if suitably modified,
the Raw User-Defined color map), all color maps vary smoothly between control points.
To alter the position of control points:
1.
Move the pointer into the color bar in the Color Map dialog.
2.
Drag a point on the color bar. The entire color bar, including the control points, is distorted
relative to the point where the drag started. If the point is dragged to the right, control
points to the left of the drag point become more widely spaced, while control points to the
right of the drag point are moved closer together. An XORed line shows the point being
dragged. To move just a single control point, which does not affect the position of other
control points, Ctrl-drag on the color bar to select the nearest control point, then drag as
before. To return the control points to their original positions, click Redistribute Control
Points.
To modify the RGB values for a control point:
1.
Select the control point for which you want to modify RGB values. You can do this either
by entering a value (or using the up and down arrows to choose a value) in the field labeled
RGB Values for Control Point, or by Ctrl-clicking on the control point in the color bar.
2.
Use the three sliders under the heading Left RGB to specify the left-RGB colors for the
control point. (These sliders are disabled for the left-most control point.)
3.
Use the three sliders under the heading Right RGB to specify the right-RGB colors for the
control point, or select the check box Right RGB Same as Left to use the same values you
just set for the left-RGB colors. (The Right RGB sliders are disabled for the right-most control point, or if the check box Right RGB Same as Left is selected.)
To reset the RGB values to their original values (and also reposition the control points in their
original locations), click Reset.
238
11.5. Controlling the Global Color Map
11.5.2. Modifying a User-Defined Color Map
You can modify a User-Defined color map in the same way you modify a standard color map,
by altering the position of control points or modifying the RGB values of the control points,
but you have the added ability to modify the number of control points.
To change the number of control points in a user defined color map:
1.
Choose the User Defined color map. By default, the User-Defined color map has the same
settings as the standard Small Rainbow color map.
2.
Enter a value from two through nine in the Number of Control Points field.
If you choose a number greater than the current value, the new control points are added to the
right of the existing control points; click Redistribute Control Points to see all your control
points. If you choose a number less than the current value, the control points are removed rightmost first.
11.5.3. Modifying a Raw User-Defined Color Map
You can modify a Raw User-Defined color map only by saving it to a file and then editing the
resulting file, which consists of RGB triplets for every color in the spectrum. You can modify
these RGB triplets as you want, using any ASCII text editor. In most cases, you want to use the
User-Defined color map rather than the Raw User-Defined, since you cannot edit the raw color
map in Tecplot.
11.5.4. Color Map Files
The position of color map control points and their RGB values can be stored in color map files;
you can then edit the color map files to modify either the position or RGB values of the control
points.
To create a color map file:
1.
From the menu, choose Copy Color Map to File. The Write Color Map dialog appears.
2.
Specify a file name for the color map.
3.
Click OK.
To use the saved color map in a new plot, choose Paste Color Map from File on the workspace
menu. The color map file is a Tecplot macro file with a limited set of commands (only
$!COLORMAP and $!COLORMAPCONTROL commands are allowed). The first part of the
color map file generated from the Large Rainbow color map is shown below:
#!MC 900
$!COLORMAP
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
CONTOURCOLORMAP = LGRAINBOW
$!COLORMAPCONTROL RESETTOFACTORY
$!COLORMAP
LGRAINBOW
{
CONTROLPOINT 1
{
COLORMAPFRACTION = 0
LEADRGB
{
R = 0
G = 0
B = 255
}
TRAILRGB
{
R = 0
G = 0
B = 255
}
}
. . .
11.6. Adjusting the Color Map for a Specific Frame
Although the color map is global, affecting all frames, there are some adjustments you can
make that apply only to the current frame. These adjustments allow you to customize the look
of a single contour plot without changing the global color map. Adjustments to the color map
for individual frames are made from the Contour Coloring Options dialog, shown in
Figure 11-10.
Here are the color properties you can change for each frame:
•
•
•
•
240
The color distribution method may be continuous or banded.
The color map may be cut off such that coloring outside of a given range is not done at all.
The color map can be reversed.
The color map can contain multiple cycles.
11.6. Adjusting the Color Map for a Specific Frame
Figure 11-10. The
Contour Coloring Options dialog.
11.6.1. Color Distribution Methods
The color distribution method determines how to look up the colors in the global color map.
There are two options; Banded and Continuous.
11.6.1.1. Continuous Color Distribution. Continuous color distribution assigns linearly
varying colors to all multi-colored objects or contour flooded regions. Continuous coloring is
currently only available for 3D frame mode.
11.6.1.2. Banded Color Distribution. Banded color distribution is closely tied to the
contour levels. A solid color is assigned for all values within the band between two levels. For
contour flooding this means the area between two levels is filled with a single solid color. For
multi-color scatter symbols or vectors this means all scatter symbols or vectors that have a contouring value between two contour levels will be assigned the same color.
When banded coloring is in effect the following options are available:
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
• Color bands can be zebra shaded. This in effect colors every other band with a specific
color (or no color at all).
• Specific contour bands can be assigned a unique basic color. This is useful for forcing a
particular region to use blue, for example, to designate an area of water. You can define up
to 16 color overrides.
For these selections, click Advanced Options on the Contour Coloring Options dialog. The
Advanced Band Coloring Options dialog appears, as shown in Figure 11-11.
Figure 11-11. The
Advanced Band Coloring Options dialog.
11.6.2. Color Cutoff
Color cutoff lets you specify a range within which contour flooding and multi-colored objects,
such as scatter symbols, are displayed. For example, you may specify that only contour flooding in the range of -4.5 to 4.5 should be displayed; contour flooding outside this range is not
plotted.
To use color cutoff:
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11.6. Adjusting the Color Map for a Specific Frame
1.
From the Field menu’s Contour options choose Contour Coloring Options.
2.
To set a minimum color cutoff select the Cutoff Color Below check box and enter a value in
the text field.
3.
To set a maximum color cutoff select the Cutoff Color Above check box and enter a value
in the text field.
A flooded contour plot before and after color cutoff has been applied is shown in Figure 11-12.
Without Contour Flood Cut-Off
With Contour Flood Cut-Off
P0
3.00
1.5
1.5
(0 to 3)
2.75
2.50
2.25
1.0
2.00
P0
2.75
1.0
1.75
2.50
1.50
2.25
1.25
0.5
1.00
2.00
1.75
0.5
0.75
1.50
0.50
0.25
0.0
1.25
1.00
0.0
0.00
0.75
-0.25
0.50
-0.50
-0.5
0.25
-0.5
-2.5
-2.0
Figure 11-12. Flooded
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
-2.5
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
contour plot without and with flood cutoff.
11.6.3. Reversing the Color Map
You can reverse the color map by selecting the check box at the bottom of the Contour Coloring Options dialog. Two plots, one with the color map going in the default direction, and one
with the color map reversed, are shown in Figure 11-13.
Standard Contour Flood
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
R/RFR
0.981924
0.98115
0.979523
0.971948
0.94383
0.915712
0.887594
0.859476
0.831358
0.80324
0.775122
0.747004
0.718886
0.690768
0.66265
0.634532
0.606413
0.578295
Reversed ColorMap
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
-0.05
-0.05
-0.10
-0.10
Figure 11-13. Flooded
R/RFR
0.981924
0.98115
0.979523
0.971948
0.94383
0.915712
0.887594
0.859476
0.831358
0.80324
0.775122
0.747004
0.718886
0.690768
0.66265
0.634532
0.606413
0.578295
contour plot with a standard and a reversed color map.
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
11.6.4. Color Map Cycles
You may choose to cycle the color map. This is useful if you have data where there is a great
deal of activity in multiple ranges of the contour variable and you want to cycle through all
colors in each region. A plot with the color map cycled two times is shown in Figure 11-14.
R/RFR
0.981924
0.98115
0.979523
0.971948
Cycled ColorMap
(2 Cycles)
0.15
0.94383
0.915712
0.887594
0.859476
0.831358
0.10
0.80324
0.775122
0.747004
0.718886
0.690768
0.05
0.66265
0.634532
0.606413
0.578295
0.00
-0.05
-0.10
0.0
Figure 11-14. Flooded
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
contour plot with the color map cycled two times.
11.7. Creating a Contour Legend
A contour legend is a key to the contour flooding in your flooded contour plot. It relates the
displayed colors to the actual values of the contour variable. The contour legend can also relate
contour level numbers to contour values. This is useful if you are using contour number labels.
To create a contour legend, do the following:
From the Field menu, select Contour Legend. The Contour Legend dialog appears.
2.
Select the check box labeled Show Contour Legend.
3.
Select the check box labeled Show Header to include a legend heading that includes the
name of the contour variable.
4.
If you want to include black lines between the color bands representing each level, select
the check box labeled Separate Color Bands.
5.
Choose an orientation for the legend by selecting one of the option buttons Align Vertical or
Align Horizontal.
6.
Specify the location of the upper left corner of the legend by entering values in the X (%)
and Y (%) text fields. Enter X as a percentage of the frame width and Y as a percentage of
the frame height. (The legend is also moveable interactively.)
7.
Enter the number of levels between each entry in the legend in the Level Skip text field, and
enter the line spacing between entries in the Line Spacing text field. Together, these two
text fields control the overall size of your legend.
8.
Format the text for the legend by choosing a color and font, and specifying the text height
as a percentage of the frame height. Enter the desired line spacing in the Line Spacing text
field.
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1.
11.8. Contour Labels
9.
Specify the format for numeric values in the legend. The available options are the same as
for axis tick mark labels; see Section 17.5.3, “Tick Mark Label Formats.”
10.
Select which kind of box you want drawn around the legend (No Box, Filled, or Plain). If
you choose Filled or Plain, format the box using the following controls:
-
Line Thickness: Specify the line thickness as a percentage of frame height.
Box Color: Choose a color for the legend box outline.
Fill Color (Filled only): Choose a color for the legend box fill.
Margin: Specify the margin between the legend text and legend box as a percentage of
the text height.
11.8. Contour Labels
Contour labels are labels that identify particular contour levels either by number or by value.
You can place contour labels interactively, or have Tecplot create them for you automatically.
You can also have Tecplot create a set of contour labels automatically, then interactively add
contour labels to this saved set. You control contour labels with the Contour Labels dialog
under the Field menu, and with the Add Contour Label mouse mode tool from the sidebar.
To add contour labels to your plot, you can use either of the following procedures. The first
describes using the Add Contour Label mode tool; the second describes using the Contour
Labels dialog to have Tecplot automatically generate the contour labels. If you are using the
Add Contour Label tool, you still use the Contour Labels dialog to specify whether contour
level numbers or values are used and to specify formatting and alignment options for the
labels.
Contour labels show the value or number of the nearest contour level. In other words, if you
add a label between two contour lines, the label will show the value or number of the nearest
line. This can be misleading when contour labels are far away from contour lines.
To add contour labels interactively using the Add Contour Label mode:
1.
Create a plot with an active Contour zone layer.
2.
From the sidebar, choose the Add Contour Label mode by clicking
3.
In the workspace, click on the location at which you want a contour label to appear. By
default, Tecplot uses contour values and aligns the labels with the contour line. You can
modify the following options using the Contour Labels dialog.
.
- The label color.
- The label font.
- The label size.
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
- The numeric format. The available formats are described in Section 17.5.3, “Tick Mark
Label Formats.”
- Whether there is a color fill behind the labels, and if so, its color and the margin of fill
around the labels.
- Label alignment. If the Align Next User-Positioned Label is selected, the next label
placed is aligned with the contour line. Otherwise, the label is written with normal,
upright text.
To have Tecplot generate contour labels automatically with each redraw:
1.
Create a plot with an active Contour zone layer.
2.
From the Field menu, choose Contour Labels. The Contour Labels dialog appears as shown
in Figure 11-15.
Figure 11-15. The
Contour Labels dialog.
Select the check box labeled Show Labels.
4.
Choose whether contour numbers or contour values are used in the labels by selecting the
appropriate option.
5.
If you want the labels aligned with the contour lines, select the Align Labels check box.
6.
Specify the spacing between labels in frame units.
7.
Specify the number of levels to skip in the Level Skip text field. The default of 1 labels all
contour labels.
246
3.
11.8. Contour Labels
8.
Select the Generate Automatic Labels (with each Redraw) check box.
At each Redraw, Tecplot creates a new set of contour labels. At any time, you can deselect the
Generate Automatic Labels (with each Redraw) check box, and Tecplot will retain the last set
of labels generated. Thus you can create labels for several redraws, then save a set to which
you can interactively add more labels.
When Generate Automatic Labels is deselected, you can click Clear All Contour Labels to
erase the current set of contour labels.
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Chapter 11. Creating Contour Plots
248
CHAPTER 12
Creating Vector Plots
Vector plots are field plots of the direction and or magnitude of vector quantities. The vector
quantities can be displacements, velocities, forces, or anything else that can be represented by
vectors. You create vector plots by activating the Vector layer in the Tecplot sidebar, and, if you
have not done so already, specifying two or three vector component variables.
One important use of vector components in Tecplot is to allow you to compute the trajectories
of massless particles in a steady-state velocity field. These trajectories are called streamtraces.
Streamtraces do not need to be created in vector plots, even though they require vector components. For this reason, they are discussed in a separate chapter. See Chapter 13, “Streamtraces.”
12.1. Creating a Vector Plot
When you select the Vector check box in the Tecplot sidebar, Tecplot checks to see whether
vector components have been assigned for the current data set in the current frame mode,
whether 2D or 3D. If you have not assigned vector components, the Select Variables dialog
appears. In 2D frame mode, the Select Variables dialog allows you to choose two vector components, as shown in Figure 12-1.
Figure 12-1. The
Select Variables dialog for assigning 2-D vector components.
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Chapter 12. Creating Vector Plots
Choose variables by selecting the desired U-, V-, and in 3D frame mode, W-variables from
their respective drop-downs. You may select any of the current data set’s variables as any component. You can change the component variables at any time by choosing Vector Variables
from the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu.
Once you have selected the Vector check box and have chosen your vector components your
vector plot will appear as shown in Figure 12-2 for the cylinder data. If vectors are not visible,
see 12.5, “Controlling Vector Length.”
Y(M)
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
0
5
10
15
X(M)
Figure 12-2. A
vector plot of the cylinder data.
12.2. Modifying Your Vector Plot
You can modify your vector plot attributes using either the Vector Attributes dialog or the
Quick Edit dialog. You can control any of the following attributes from the Vector Attributes
dialog (Figure 12-3):
• Which zones are active. See Section 9.3.2, “Controlling Which Zones are Displayed.”
• Whether the vectors are visible for each active zone. See Section 9.3.3, “Controlling Zone
Layer Display.”
• The vector plot type. See Section 12.3, “Controlling the Vector Plot Type.”
• The arrowhead style. See Section 12.4.1, “Controlling Arrowhead Style.”
• Whether 3-D vectors are tangent vectors or regular vectors. See Section 12.7.1, “Tangent
Vectors.”
•
•
•
•
•
250
The vector color. See Section 9.3.4, “Choosing Colors.”
The vector line pattern. See Section 9.3.5, “Choosing a Line Pattern.”
The vector line pattern length. See Section 9.3.6, “Choosing a Pattern Length.”
The vector line thickness. See Section 9.3.7, “Choosing a Line Thickness.”
The vector spacing. See Section 12.6, “Controlling Vector Spacing.”
12.3. Controlling the Vector Plot Type
The following attributes are assigned on a frame-by-frame basis, rather than zone-by-zone:
• Vector lengths. See Section 12.5, “Controlling Vector Length.”
• Arrowhead angle and size. See Section 12.4, “Controlling Vector Arrowheads.”
• The optional reference vector. See Section 12.8, “Displaying a Reference Vector.”
12.3. Controlling the Vector Plot Type
Tecplot allows you to plot vectors of four different types:
• Tail at point: Vectors are drawn with the tail of the vector positioned at the data point,
which for ordered data is a corner of the cell.
• Head at point: Vectors are drawn with the head of the vector positioned at the data point.
• Anchor at midpoint: Vectors are drawn with the midpoint of the vector positioned at the
data point.
• Head only: A vector arrowhead (but no tail) is drawn with the head of the arrow centered at
the data point.
By default, Tecplot uses the “Tail at Point” type. Figure 12-4 shows examples of each of the
vector plot types.
Figure 12-3. The
Vector Attributes dialog.
To modify the vector plot type:
1.
Choose Vector Attributes from the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu. The Vector
Attributes dialog appears as shown in Figure 12-3.
2.
In the Vector Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to modify the
plot type.
3.
Click Vect Plottype. A drop-down appears listing the available plot types.
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Chapter 12. Creating Vector Plots
Tail at Point
Head at Point
Anchor at Midpoint
Head Only
Figure 12-4. Vector
4.
plot types.
Click on the desired plot type.
To modify the vector plot type from the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit. The Quick Edit dialog appears.
2.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
modify the plot type.
3.
On the Quick Edit dialog, click on the appropriate button, as follows:
-
Tail at point.
-
Head at point.
-
Anchor at midpoint.
-
Head only.
12.4. Controlling Vector Arrowheads
Tecplot allows you a good deal of control over your vector arrowheads. You can control the
style of the arrowhead, its size, and the angle it makes with the vector. The style of the arrowhead can change from zone to zone; the size and angle are global attributes affecting vectors in
all zones.This section explains how to perform these tasks.
252
12.4. Controlling Vector Arrowheads
12.4.1. Controlling Arrowhead Style
You can assign arrowhead styles on a zone-by-zone basis. Tecplot arrowheads come in three
styles:
• Plain: Line segments drawn from the head of the vector.
• Filled: Filled isosceles triangles with apex at the head of the vector.
• Hollow: Hollow isosceles triangles with apex at the head of the vector.
By default, Tecplot draws plain arrowheads. Figure 12-5 shows an example with all three
arrowhead styles.
3
Plain
Filled
Hollow
Y(M)
2
1
0
-1
0
1
2
X(M)
Figure 12-5. Examples
of Tecplot’s three arrowhead styles.
To modify the arrowhead style for a zone or zones:
1.
Choose Vector Attributes from the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu. The Vector
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to modify the arrowhead style.
3.
Click Head Style. A drop-down appears containing the available choices.
4.
Click on the desired arrowhead style.
or
1.
In the workspace, use the Selector tool to select the zone or zones for which you want to
modify the arrowhead style.
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Chapter 12. Creating Vector Plots
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit. The Quick Edit dialog appears.
3.
In the Quick Edit dialog, click on the button for the desired arrowhead style, as follows:
-
Plain arrowhead style.
-
Filled arrowhead style.
-
Hollow arrowhead style.
12.4.2. Controlling Arrowhead Size
You can specify arrowhead sizes as either a fraction of the vector length or in frame units (that
is, as a percentage of the frame height). Arrowhead size is a global attribute; it applies to all
arrowheads in all zones in the current frame. By default, Tecplot specifies size as a fraction of
the vector length.
To modify the arrowhead size:
1.
Choose Vector Arrowheads from the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu. The Vector
Arrowheads dialog appears as shown in Figure 12-6.
Figure 12-6. The
Vector Arrowheads dialog.
Select one of the two option buttons in the box labeled Set Size Based On: either Fraction
of Length or Frame Units (%).
3.
Enter a value in the text field to the right of the selected option button. Use a fraction (a decimal value from zero to one) in the Fraction of Length text field. Use a percentage (a decimal value from zero to 100) in the Frame Units (%) field. Entering a value of zero in either
field effectively “turns off” the vector arrowhead in the current frame.
254
2.
12.5. Controlling Vector Length
12.4.3. Controlling Arrowhead Angle
Arrowhead angle is another global attribute; you assign one angle for all vector arrowheads in
all zones in the current frame. The arrowhead angle is the angle (in degrees) that one side of the
arrowhead makes with the vector; thus, the apex angle is twice the arrowhead angle. For example, to create hollow equilateral triangles as arrowheads, specify an arrowhead angle of 30 globally in conjunction with an arrowhead style of hollow for all zones.
To specify the arrowhead angle:
1.
Choose Vector Arrowheads from the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu. The Vector
Arrowheads dialog appears.
2.
In the field labeled Angle (deg), either enter a value from 1 to 90, or choose a value from
the drop-down, indicated by the down-arrow button.
12.5. Controlling Vector Length
You can specify the length of vectors in any of three different ways. In the first two, the length
of any given vector is proportional to the vector magnitude, while in the third, all vectors have
the same length. The difference between the first two methods is the units used to specify the
relative size of the vectors, either grid units or screen centimeters. Vector length is a global
attribute — it applies to all zones in the current frame.
To specify the vector length:
1.
Choose Vector Length from the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu. The Vector Length
dialog appears as shown in Figure 12-7.
Figure 12-7. The
2.
Vector Length dialog.
Select one of the three option buttons:
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Chapter 12. Creating Vector Plots
- Relative (Grid Units/Magnitude): specify the vector length as the number of grid units
per unit of vector magnitude.
- Relative (Cm/Magnitude): specify the vector length as the number of centimeters per
unit of vector magnitude.
- Uniform (%): specify the vector length as a percentage of frame height.
3.
Enter a value in the text field to the right of the selected option button. For either of the
“Relative” options, the value you specify is a scale factor which is multiplied by the vector
magnitude to determine the length of the vector.
By default, Tecplot calculates a reasonable default based on the size of the longest vector. You
can have Tecplot recalculate this default length by clicking Recalculate Length.
12.6. Controlling Vector Spacing
You can draw every vector or specify a skip factor that lets you plot only every nth vector (in I-,
J-, or K- coordinates). Spacing the drawn vectors is useful in situations where you have an
extensive vector field, and plotting all the vectors makes the general flow of the vector field difficult to discern. For example, Figure 12-8 shows the cylinder data with every other vector
shown in the I direction and every third vector shown in the J direction. Compare this to the
vector plot shown in Figure 12-2.
5
4
Y(M)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
0
Figure 12-8. A
5
X(M)
10
15
vector plot with Index Skip specified.
To specify the vector spacing:
Choose Vector Attributes from the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu. The Vector
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to specify the vector spacing.
3.
Click Index Skip. A drop-down appears with the options No Skip and Enter Skip. (No Skip
is the default.)
256
1.
12.7. Creating 3-D Vector Plots
4.
Click on the desired option. If you click on Enter Skip, the Enter Index Skipping dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 12-9 below.
5.
(Enter Skip only) Enter the desired values of I-Skip, J-Skip, and K-Skip. Figure 12-8 was
created with the following settings: I-Skip=2, J-Skip=3, K-Skip=1..
Figure 12-9. The
Enter Index Skipping dialog.
For irregular and finite-element data, only the I-Skip has an effect, skipping through nodes in
the order they are listed in the data file.
12.7. Creating 3-D Vector Plots
To create a 3-D vector plot, simply read a data set into Tecplot, choose the 3D frame mode, and
select the Vector check box in the Tecplot sidebar. Three-dimensional vector plots require three
vector components, U, V, and W, for the three axes X, Y, and Z. The Select Variables dialog
appears asking you to specify vector variables.
12.7.1. Tangent Vectors
In 3D frame mode, Tecplot allows you to display 3-D surface tangent vectors. These are 3-D
vectors that have been projected onto the 3-D surface; in other words, the component of the 3D vectors normal to the surface is removed, leaving only the component parallel to the surface.
Figure 12-10 shows how tangent vectors compare to regular vectors.
To select tangent vectors for a zone:
1.
From the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu, choose Vector Attributes. The Vector
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to draw tangent vectors.
3.
Click Vect Tang. A drop-down appears with the choices Yes and No.
4.
Click Yes.
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Chapter 12. Creating Vector Plots
Vectors not Tangent
Figure 12-10. Regular
Vectors Tangent
vectors compared to tangent vectors.
Tangent vectors are drawn on 3-D surfaces only where it is possible to determine a vector
normal to the surface. A plot where multiple surfaces intersect each other using common nodes
is a case where tangent vectors are not drawn because there is more than one normal to choose
from. An example of this would be a volume IJK-ordered zone where both the I- and J-planes
are plotted. If tangent vectors cannot be drawn then regular vectors are plotted instead.
12.7.2. Lengths of 3-D Vectors
Since 3-D vectors are plotted in the plane of the screen, a 3-D vector’s length will depend on
both the vector length settings and the orientation of the vector. The length may be distorted
even further if the vector length setting is Relative and the 3-D projection is Perspective.
12.8. Displaying a Reference Vector
A reference vector is a vector of specified magnitude placed on the plot as a measure against all
other vectors. You can specify whether to show a reference vector, and if so, its color, orientation, line thickness, magnitude, and position.
To display a reference vector:
From the Vector sub-menu of the Field menu, choose Reference Vector. The Reference
Vector dialog appears as shown in Figure 12-11.
2.
Select the Show Reference Vector check box.
258
1.
12.8. Displaying a Reference Vector
Figure 12-11. The
3.
Reference Vector dialog.
Modify any of the following options, as desired:
- Color: Choose a color from the drop-down of Tecplot’s basic colors.
- Angle (deg): Enter the orientation of the vector in degrees from horizontal, or choose a
value from the drop-down.
- Line Thickness (%): Enter the desired line thickness or choose a value from the dropdown.
- Magnitude: Enter the magnitude of the reference vector. The units correspond to those
of the vector components.
- Origin (%): Enter the coordinates of the starting point of the reference vector, as a percentage of the frame width (X-coordinate) and frame height (Y-coordinate).
4.
Click OK to close the dialog.
5.
On the sidebar, click Redraw.
Figure 12-12 shows a plot with a reference vector.
Magnitude = 120
5
4
Y(M)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
0
Figure 12-12. Vector
5
X(M)
10
15
plot with reference vector.
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Chapter 12. Creating Vector Plots
260
CHAPTER 13
Streamtraces
A streamtrace is the path traced by a massless particle placed at an arbitrary location in a
steady-state vector field. Tecplot’s streamtrace features may be used to illustrate the nature of
the vector field flow in a particular region of the plot.
Because streamtraces are dependent upon a vector field, you must define vector components
before creating streamtraces in Tecplot. You do not, however, have to activate the Vector zone
layer. You may place streamtraces on any of Tecplot’s field layers, or even on bare axes.
There are two main categories of streamtraces:
• Surface line streamtraces, or streamlines.
• Volume streamtraces.
Surface streamtraces are confined to the surface on which they are placed. They can only be
placed in zones displayed as a 2- or 3-D surface. If you try to place streamlines in a zone displayed as a 3-D volume, an error dialog appears, and no streamlines are drawn.
Volume streamtraces can be created only in 3-D volume zones (IJK-ordered or FE-volume
zones). Volume streamtraces themselves fall into three categories:
• Volume Lines, or volume streamlines.
• Volume Ribbons, or streamribbons.
• Volume Rods, or streamrods.
You can add streamtraces to your plot either singly or in a rake, which is a set of streamtraces
with starting positions along a defined line. Once the rake is added, the individual streamtraces
of the rake are identical to singly placed streamtraces.
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Chapter 13. Streamtraces
13.1. Creating Surface Streamlines
Surface streamlines include all 2-D streamtraces and 3-D surface streamtraces, which are confined to the surface on which they are placed. You can place streamlines one at a time, or in
groups called rakes. A streamline rake is a set of streamlines with starting points along a given
line.
You can place streamlines and streamline rakes using either the mouse or the Streamtrace
Placement dialog. The mouse enables you to place streamtraces quickly, but the Streamtrace
Placement dialog gives you precise control over the starting points.
To create a streamline or streamline rake using the mouse:
1.
On the sidebar, choose the Place Streamtrace tool, represented by
2.
If you have not already assigned vector components you will be prompted for them.
.
3.
Move the pointer into the workspace. The pointer changes to a cross-hair.
4.
To place a single streamline, click at the desired starting point for the streamline, or Ctrlclick to begin the streamline at the data point nearest to the cross-hair.
5.
To create a rake of streamlines, click-and-drag from one end point of the desired rake starting line to the other, then release.
Before placing streamlines, you can change the streamtrace direction or the number of
streamtraces per rake using the Streamtrace Placement dialog as discussed below.
To create a streamline or rake of streamlines using the Streamtrace Placement dialog:
1.
From the Field menu, choose Streamtrace Placement. If you have not yet assigned vector
components for the current frame mode, the Vector Variables dialog appears for you to
assign them. Otherwise, the Streamtrace Placement dialog appears, as shown in
Figure 13-1.
2.
Choose a direction for the streamline integration from the Direction drop-down:
- Forward: The streamline is calculated downstream, that is, in the direction of the flow.
- Backward: The streamline is calculated upstream, that is, against the flow.
- Both: Both the forward and backward streamlines are calculated.
No matter which direction is chosen for the integration, the arrowheads still point in the forward, “downstream” direction.
3.
262
Under the heading Place Streamtraces by Entering Positions, select either the Use IJK or
Use XYZ option. (Use XYZ is the default). If you select Use IJK, also pick a zone from the
drop-down labeled Zone.
13.1. Creating Surface Streamlines
Figure 13-1. The
Streamtrace Placement dialog.
If you select Use IJK, the fields under Start Position and Rake End Position are labeled I, J,
and K. Otherwise, they are labeled X, Y, and Z.
4.
Enter the starting position by specifying either a set of IJK-indices or XYZ-coordinates. For
finite-element zones, only enter I. The J and K fields will not be available.
5.
To place a single streamline, click Place Streamtrace(s).
To place a rake of streamlines, select the Enter Rake Positions check box and enter the end
positions for the rake as either a set of IJK indices or XYZ-coordinates. Then click Place
Streamtrace(s). By default, Tecplot draws ten streamlines per rake. To change this, enter a
new value in the Streams per Rake field.
Streamtraces will be terminated at the edge of any cell which is all or partially valueblanked.
Figure 13-2 shows some surface line streamtraces and a streamtrace rake on the cylinder data.
5
4
Rake
Y(M)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
0
Figure 13-2. Surface
5 X(M)
10
15
line streamtraces and a streamtrace rake.
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Chapter 13. Streamtraces
13.2. Creating Volume Streamtraces
You can place volume streamtraces using either the mouse or the Streamtrace Placement
dialog. The mouse enables you to place streamtraces quickly, but the Streamtrace Placement
dialog gives you precise control over the starting points.
Volume streamtraces may only be drawn in 3-D volume zones so you must have at least one
volume zone active. It does not matter what plot style you choose for the zone, but you must
choose a setting that includes streamtraces in the Volume Objects option on the Plot Attributes
dialog’s Volume page. The default is to allow streamtraces to be drawn in all zones.
There are a number of different ways to place volume streamtraces. It is best to have some
knowledge of the general direction of flow for the velocity field in the zones, so that you may
place your streamtraces in a location of interest. Often it is a good idea to start streamtraces
from somewhere within the volume, as opposed to starting on the outer surface of the volume.
One of the best ways to start a volume streamtrace is to create a slice through the volume, then
place the streamtrace starting position on the slice. A slice through a volume zone and a rake of
streamtraces starting from the slice is shown in Figure 13-3.
Z
X
Y
Figure 13-3. A
slice through a volume zone with a rake of streamlines starting
from the slice.
To place volume streamtraces on a slice perform the following steps:
1.
264
Add a slice plane to your volume zone using the Slice tool
from the sidebar. Click on
the volume zone to add a slice. You may press I, J, K, X, Y, or Z on your keyboard first to
orient the slice in one of the constant I-, J-, K-, X-, Y-, or Z-planes.
13.2. Creating Volume Streamtraces
2.
Click on the Place Streamtrace tool
on the sidebar.
3.
Press D on your keyboard to create streamrods, R for streamribbons, or V to create volume
streamlines. You may also choose streamtrace types using the Streamtrace Placement dialog from the Field menu.
4.
Place a single streamtrace by holding down Alt on your keyboard while clicking on the
slice, or place a rake of streamtraces by holding down Alt and clicking-and-dragging. Alt
will make sidebar tools operate on any objects except for zones, which in this case is the
slice.
5.
If you want to place streamtraces starting on the outer boundary of your zone, perform steps
2, 3, and 4 without holding down Alt.
To create a volume streamtrace or a rake of volume streamtraces using the Streamtrace Placement dialog:
1.
From the Field menu, choose Streamtrace Placement. If you have not yet assigned vector
components for the 3D frame mode, the Vector Variables dialog appears for you to assign
vector components. Otherwise, the Streamtrace Placement dialog appears, as shown in
Figure 13-1.
2.
Choose a format for the streamtrace from the drop-down labeled Format. You can choose
Surface Line, Volume Line, Volume Ribbon, or Volume Rod. The default is Volume Line
for 3-D volume zones, and Surface Line for all other zones.
3.
Choose a direction for the streamtrace integration from the Direction drop-down:
- Forward: The streamtrace is calculated “downstream,” that is, in the direction of the
flow.
- Backward: The streamtrace is calculated “upstream,” that is, against the flow.
- Both: Both the forward and backward streamtraces are calculated. You should use this
only for surface and volume lines. For ribbons and rods, Tecplot always integrates one
step from the starting position before actually plotting or extracting the streamtrace.
No matter which direction is chosen for the integration, the arrowheads still point in the forward, “downstream” direction.
4.
Under the heading Place Streamtraces by Entering Positions, select either the Use IJK or
Use XYZ option. (Use XYZ is the default). If you select Use IJK, also pick a zone from the
drop-down labeled Zone. If you select Use IJK, the fields under Start Position and Rake
End Position are labeled I, J, and K. Otherwise, they are labeled X, Y, and Z.
5.
Enter the starting position by specifying either a set of IJK-indices or XYZ-coordinates.
6.
To place a single streamtrace, click Place Streamtrace(s). To place a rake of streamtraces,
select the Enter Rake Positions check box and enter the end positions for the rake as either
a set of IJK-indices or XYZ-coordinates. Then click Place Streamtrace(s). By default, Tecplot draws ten streamtraces per rake. To change this, enter a new value in the Streams per
Rake field.
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Chapter 13. Streamtraces
Figure 13-4 shows several examples of volume streamtraces.
Z
Y
X
0.6
Z
0.4
0.2
-0.5
X
0
0
0.5
0
Figure 13-4. Volume
0.1
0.2
Y
streamlines, volume ribbons, and volume rods.
13.3. Controlling Streamtrace Plot Attributes
You can control the plot attributes, or style, of your streamtraces using the Streamtrace Details
dialog. These style attributes affect all streamtraces in the current frame, including those
already placed. They do not affect extracted streamtrace zones, discussed in Section 13.7,
“Extracting Streamtraces as Zones,” because these are now ordinary ordered zones, not
streamtraces at all.
13.3.1. Streamlines
The following attributes may be set with the Lines page of the Streamtrace Details dialog,
shown in Figure 13-5.
• Whether streamtraces are displayed: Select the Show Streamtraces check box if you
want streamtraces drawn on your plot. By default, this check box is selected.
• Line Color: Enter the color for all streamtraces. You may set the color to Multi-Color to
color the streamtraces by the contour variable in the same manner as color flooding. (If the
contour variable is not currently defined, the Contour Variable dialog appears so that you
can define it.) You can use the Multi-Color option, for example, to color the streamtraces by
the local temperature or by the velocity magnitude.
The following attributes affect surface and volume streamlines only:
266
13.3. Controlling Streamtrace Plot Attributes
Figure 13-5. The
Lines page of the Streamtrace Details dialog in Motif.
• Arrows: Select the Show Arrowheads on Lines check box to display arrowheads along all
streamlines (surface and volume) in the current frame. Arrows are not shown on volume
ribbons or volume rods. You can also control the following attributes of the displayed
arrows:
- Arrowhead Size: Either enter a value for the arrowhead size (as a percentage of the
frame height), or choose a pre-set value from the drop-down menu.
- Arrowhead Spacing: Enter the distance between arrowheads in terms of Y-frame units.
A value of ten percent will space arrowheads approximately ten percent of the frame
height apart from each other along each streamline.
• Line Thickness: Either enter a value for the streamline thickness (as a percentage of the
frame height for 2-D lines and as a percentage of the median axis length for 3-D surface
lines and volume lines), or choose a pre-set value from the drop-down menu.
13.3.2. Streamrods and Streamribbons
The following attributes may be set with the Rod/Ribbon page of the Streamtrace Details dialog, shown in Figure 13-6. They affect volume ribbons and volume rods only:
• Rod/Ribbon Width: Enter a width for the volume ribbons and volume rods. The width is
expressed in grid units. If you want two sets of streamtraces with different widths, you must
create one set and then extract them as zones, then configure a new set of streamtraces with
the second width.
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Chapter 13. Streamtraces
Figure 13-6. The
Rod/Ribbon page of the Streamtrace Details dialog in Motif.
• Rod Points: Volume rods have a polygonal cross-section; this parameter tells Tecplot what
that cross-section should be. Three is an equilateral triangle; four is a square; five, a regular
pentagon; and so on. If you want two sets of volume rods with different cross-sections, you
must create one set and then extract them as zones, then configure a new set of streamtraces
with the second cross-section.
• Show Mesh: Select this check box to display a mesh.
• Mesh Color: Select a mesh color from the drop-down menu, or choose a custom color or
multi-color.
• Mesh Line Thickness: Select a line thickness from the drop-down menu, or enter your
own number in the text field.
•
•
•
•
Show Contour Flood: Select this check box to display contour flooding.
Show Shade: Select this check box to display shading.
Shade Color: Select a shade color from the drop-down menu, or choose a custom color.
Use Lighting Effect: Select this check box to enable the lighting effect drop-down menu
where you may choose Paneled or Gouraud shading.
• Use Surface Translucency: Select this check box to enable the surface translucency text
field, where you may set the surface translucency from one (opaque) to 99 (translucent).
268
13.4. Deleting Streamtraces
13.4. Deleting Streamtraces
You can delete streamtraces, either individually or in groups, by first selecting them and then
either pressing Delete or choosing Clear from the Edit menu. You may delete all streamtraces
at once by clicking Delete All Streamtraces on the Streamtrace Placement dialog. You may
delete the last streamtrace placed by clicking Delete Last on the Streamtrace Placement dialog.
13.5. The Streamtrace Termination Line
A streamtrace termination line is a polyline that terminates any streamtraces that cross it. The
termination line is useful for stopping streamtraces before they spiral or stall. If a streamtrace
and the termination line intersect on the screen, the streamtrace is considered to cross the termination line. This is true for volume streamtraces within a 3-D volume zone as well as for
surface streamlines. Figure 13-7 shows the cylinder data with some streamtraces terminated
with a 2-D streamtrace termination line.
5
Streamtrace Termination Line
4
Y(M)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
0
Figure 13-7. Surface
5 X(M)
10
15
streamlines and 2-D termination line.
Streamtraces are also terminated whenever any of the following occur:
• The maximum number of integration steps is reached.
• Any point in the streamtrace passes outside the available data.
• The streamtrace enters a cell for which the velocity magnitude is zero.
For more details, see Section 13.8, “Streamtrace Integration.”
13.5.1. Creating a Termination Line
To add a streamtrace termination line:
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Chapter 13. Streamtraces
1.
From the sidebar, choose the Add Streamtrace Termination Line tool, represented by the
button, or from the Term Line page of the Streamtrace Details dialog, click Draw
Stream Term Line.
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace. The pointer becomes a cross-hair.
3.
Click at the desired starting point for the termination line, then click at additional points to
define the desired polyline.
4.
To end the termination line, press Esc or select another tool from the sidebar.
Only one termination line can exist at any one time in a given frame. If you draw a second termination line, the first is automatically deleted.
In 2D frame mode, the termination line is drawn in the grid coordinate system and moves with
the data as you zoom and translate. In 3D frame mode, unlike most Tecplot objects, the termination line is drawn in the eye coordinate system, which is essentially the plane of your computer screen. This coordinate system also moves with the data as you zoom and translate. If
you rotate a 3-D data set after drawing a streamtrace termination line, streamtraces previously
terminated by the termination line may be terminated at different places, or not terminated at
all if the rotated streamtrace no longer intersects the termination line. Figure 13-8 shows a 3-D
volume plot with streamribbons and a streamtrace termination line, and how the termination
points vary as the plot is rotated. Notice that the termination line itself remains in place on the
screen as the plot is rotated.
13.5.2. Controlling the Termination Line
You control the streamtrace termination line from the Term Line page of the Streamtrace
Details dialog, shown in Figure 13-9.
From the Term Line page, you can control the following attributes of the termination line:
• Active: If the Active Termination Line check box is selected, the termination line is active,
and any streamtraces that cross it are terminated. You can deselect the check box and
redraw the plot to view the unterminated streamtraces.
• Shown: If the Show Termination Line check box is selected, the termination line is displayed. You can deselect the check box and redraw the plot so that only the terminated
streamtraces are displayed, not the termination line.
• The color, line pattern, pattern length, and line thickness of the termination line.
You can select a termination line with the Selector or Adjustor tool. This allows you to interactively move the line (with the Selector), modify the line (with the Adjustor), or delete the line
(with either tool).
270
13.6. Streamtrace Timing
No Termination Line
Termination Line
0.6
0.6
-0.5
0.4
0.4
Z
Z
-0.5
0
X
0.2
0
X
0
0
Y 0.1 0.2
0.2
Z
Z
0.5
0
0.5
X
Y
0
0.1
Termination Line
Y
X
0.2
Y
Termination Line
0.6
0.6
0.4
Z
0.4
Z
-0.5
0.2
0.2
-0.5
0
Z
X
0
0
Y 0.1 0.2
X
0
0.5
0.5
Figure 13-8. Terminating
X
0
0.1
0Z
0.2
Y
Y
X
Y
volume streamtraces with a termination line.
13.6. Streamtrace Timing
Stream markers are symbols plotted along streamtrace paths to identify the positions of particles at certain times. Streamtrace dashes are another means of indicating the passage of time by
causing a streamtrace to be “on” for a time interval, then “off” for another time interval.
Figure 13-10 shows a plot with both streamtrace markers and dashes.
13.6.1. Creating Stream Markers
Stream markers are drawn at timed locations along streamlines. The spacing between stream
markers is proportional to the magnitude of the local vector field—that is, it is large in regions
where the local magnitude is large, small in regions where the local magnitude is small. You
can adjust the spacing between stream markers by specifying the time interval, or delta,
between stream markers. Increasing the delta time will increase the space between stream
271
Chapter 13. Streamtraces
Figure 13-9. The
Term Line page of the Streamtrace Details dialog in Motif.
markers and vice versa. The actual spacing is the product of the local vector magnitude and the
specified delta.
You may also select the shape of your stream marker using the pre-set list under the Shape
drop-down menu. Selecting Other from the list activates the Enter ASCII Character option.
Clicking this will call up the Enter ASCII Character dialog, where you may enter an ASCII
character to be used as your stream marker.
Stream markers are available only for streamlines (surface and volume); they are not available
for volume ribbons or volume rods.
To place stream markers along your streamtraces:
1.
From the Field menu, choose Streamtrace Details. The Streamtrace Details dialog appears.
2.
Click Timing (Timing tab in Windows). The Timing page of the Streamtrace Details dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 13-11.
3.
Select the check box labeled Show Markers. The three fields immediately below Show
Markers become active, as do the fields grouped under the heading Timing.
4.
Specify the size, color, and shape of the markers in the fields provided.
5.
Specify the timing for the stream markers by entering values in the following fields:
-Start Time: Enter the time at which the first marker is drawn. A start time of zero means
that the first marker is drawn at the starting point. A start time of 2.5 means that the first
stream marker is drawn 2.5 time units downstream of the starting point.
- End Time: Enter the time after which no more stream markers are drawn.
272
13.6. Streamtrace Timing
3
StartTime = 0.0
0
TimeDelta = 0.01
-3
-3
0
3
6
9
12
15
3
StartTime = 0.0
TimeDelta = 0.01
0
-3
-3
0
3
6
9
12
15
3
StartTime = 0.01
TimeDelta = 0.01
0
-3
-3
0
Figure 13-10. Streamtrace
3
6
9
12
15
markers (top), dashes (bottom), and both (middle).
-Delta Time: Enter the time interval which measures the time between stream markers.
The actual distance between markers is the product of this number and the local vector
magnitude.
6.
On the sidebar, click Redraw to see the stream markers on existing streamlines; subsequent
streamlines will have them drawn automatically.
13.6.2. Creating Stream Dashes
Stream dashes, unlike stream markers, are not restricted to streamlines; you can also apply
stream dashes to volume ribbons and volume rods. A stream dash shows the streamtrace with a
dashed line pattern. The streamtrace is “on” for a time interval, then “off” for a time interval,
then “on” again, and so on. The lengths of the dashes and the spaces between them are controlled by the same time delta used for stream markers.
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Chapter 13. Streamtraces
Figure 13-11. The
Timing page of the Streamtrace Details dialog in Motif.
To use stream dashes:
1.
From the Field menu, choose Streamtrace Details. The Streamtrace Details dialog appears.
2.
Click Timing (Timing tab in Windows). The Timing page of the Streamtrace Details dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 13-11.
3.
Select the check box labeled Show Dashes. The Dash Skip field immediately below Show
Dashes becomes sensitive, as do the fields grouped under the heading Timing.
4.
Enter the dash skip factor, which controls the number of time deltas used for the “off” sections of the streamtraces. Using a dash skip factor of one produces an on-off-on-off pattern.
A skip factor of two produces an on-off-off-on-off-off pattern. The actual lengths of the
dashes are computed as the product of the delta time and the local vector magnitude.
5.
Specify the timing for the stream dashes by entering values in the following fields:
- Start Time: Enter the time at which the first dash is drawn. A start time of zero means
that the first dash is drawn at the starting point. A start time of 2.5 means that the first
stream dash is drawn 2.5 time units downstream of the starting point.
- End Time: Enter the time after which no more stream dashes are drawn.
- Delta Time: Enter the time interval which controls the length of the dashes. The actual
dash length is the product of this number and the local vector magnitude.
6.
274
Click Redraw on the sidebar to see the stream dashes on existing streamtraces; subsequent
streamtraces will have them drawn automatically.
13.7. Extracting Streamtraces as Zones
13.7. Extracting Streamtraces as Zones
In Tecplot you should be able to assign any style you desire to streamtraces without further
processing. Temporary streamtrace objects are created and drawn just like zones. However, if
you need to make permanent objects from streamtraces you may extract them to zones.
To extract your streamtraces as zones:
1.
Create a plot containing streamtraces. You may (if your data includes any 3-D volume
zones) use multiple streamtrace formats.
2.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose Streamtraces. The Extract Streamtraces
dialog appears, containing the single check box Concatenate Common Streamtraces into
One Zone.
3.
If you want all streamtraces of a given format extracted to a single zone, select the check
box labeled Concatenate Common Streamtraces into One Zone. If you select this check
box, Tecplot extracts all surface lines into one zone, all volume lines into another, all volume ribbons into a third, and all volume rods into a fourth. Tecplot uses value-blanking to
blank out the intervals between streamtraces (and between stream dashes). This is discussed more fully later in this section.
4.
If you do not select the check box, each streamtrace is extracted into its own zone.
5.
Click Extract to extract the streamtraces to zones. A Working dialog appears while the
extraction is proceeding; click Cancel to interrupt the extraction.
Once you have created these new zones, you may treat them as any other zone, and by default,
that is what Tecplot does. If you have a mesh plot, you will see the mesh of your original data
plotted with the mesh for each of the new zones. You will also see the original streamtraces,
which may obscure the plotted streamtrace zones. Once you have extracted the zones, you can
delete the original streamtraces by clicking Delete All Streamtraces in the Streamtrace Placement dialog. Figure 13-12 shows some extracted volume ribbon zones, with the original
streamtraces deleted.
If timed dashes are active, all extracted streamtraces will be finite-element zones. Otherwise,
all extracted streamline zones are I-ordered, and extracted volume ribbon and volume rod
zones are IJ-ordered.
13.8. Streamtrace Integration
Tecplot uses a predictor-corrector integration algorithm to calculate streamtraces. The basic
idea is to create the streamtrace by moving in a series of small steps from the starting point in
the direction of, or in opposition to, the local vector field. Each step is only a fraction of a cell
or element. Tecplot automatically adjusts the step size based on the local cell shape and vector
field variation.
You can control the streamtrace integration by modifying the following parameters in the Integration page of the Streamtrace Details dialog, shown in Figure 13-13:
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Chapter 13. Streamtraces
Y
X
Z
Figure 13-12. Extracted
Figure 13-13. The
276
volume ribbons.
Integration page of Streamtrace Details dialog in Motif.
13.8. Streamtrace Integration
• Step Size: Enter the initial and maximum step size Tecplot uses while integrating through
the vector field, as a decimal fraction of the local cell or element width. A typical value
(and the default) is 0.25, which results in four integration steps through each cell or element. The value for Step Size affects the accuracy of the integration. Setting Step Size too
small can result in round-off errors, while setting it too large can result in errors due to
missed cells.
• Max Steps: Enter the maximum number of steps before the streamtrace is terminated. This
prevents streamtraces from spinning forever in a vortex, or from wandering aimlessly in a
region where the vector components are very small, very random, or both. If you choose a
small Step Size, you should enter a larger Max Steps.
• Minimum Step Size: The smallest step size for Tecplot to use. Setting this too small results
in integration problems. Setting this greater than or equal to the Step Size results in a constant step size.
During the integration, a streamtrace is terminated if any of the following conditions occur:
• The maximum number of integration steps (Max Steps) have been taken.
• Any point in the streamtrace passes outside the available data. This is a particular concern
with volume ribbons: a volume ribbon with a large width may terminate when one edge
passes outside the vector field, even though the center is within the field. You can avoid this
problem by entering a smaller Ribbon/Rod Width on the Style page of the Streamtrace
Details dialog.
• The streamtrace enters a cell for which the velocity magnitude is zero.
• The streamtrace crosses the stream termination line.
277
Chapter 13. Streamtraces
278
CHAPTER 14
Creating Scatter Plots
Scatter plots are plots of symbols at the data points in a field. The symbols may be sized
according to the values of a specified variable, colored by the values of the contour variable, or
may be uniformly sized or colored. Unlike contour plots, scatter plots do not require any mesh
structure connecting the points, allowing you to make scatter plots of irregular data.
14.1. Creating a Scatter Plot
A 2-D scatter plot plots the position of the Y-variable against the position of the X-variable.
Thus, it is a representation of the location of data points in the 2-D field. Thought of somewhat
differently, the scatter plot is a plot of the vertices of an ordered mesh or the nodes of a finiteelement mesh.
To create a scatter plot in Tecplot, you activate the Scatter layer (and deactivate any active
layers that you do not want to appear). For example, to create the scatter plot shown in
Figure 14-1, do the following:
1.
Read in the data file simpscat.plt from your Tecplot examples/dat directory. (If
you currently have a data set in your Tecplot frame, choose to replace the data set and reset
the frame style.)
2.
From the sidebar, select the Scatter check box and deselect the Mesh check box (and any
other active layer check box).
3.
On the sidebar, click Redraw.
14.2. Modifying Your Scatter Plot
Once you have read in your data, you can modify your scatter plot attributes using either the
Scatter Attributes dialog or the Quick Edit dialog. You can control any of the following
attributes from the Scatter Attributes dialog, shown in Figure 14-2:
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Chapter 14. Creating Scatter Plots
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
Y
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
0
0.5
1
X
Figure 14-1. A
scatter plot.
• Which zones are active. See Section 9.3.2, “Controlling Which Zones are Displayed.”
• Whether the scatter symbols are visible for each active zone. See Section 9.3.3, “Controlling Zone Layer Display.”
•
•
•
•
•
•
The scatter symbol shape. See Section 14.3, “Choosing the Scatter Symbol.”
The scatter outline color. See Section 14.4.1, “Specifying the Outline Color.”
The scatter fill color. See Section 14.4.2, “Choosing Filled Symbols and a Fill Color.”
The scatter symbol size. See Section 14.5, “Specifying Scatter Symbol Size and Font.”
The scatter line thickness. See Section 9.3.7, “Choosing a Line Thickness.”
The scatter symbol spacing (Index Skip). See Section 14.6, “Specifying Symbol Spacing.”
The following scatter attributes are assigned on a frame-by-frame basis:
• The scatter-size variable. See Section 14.5, “Specifying Scatter Symbol Size and Font.”
• The optional reference scatter symbol. See Section 14.5.4, “Creating a Reference Scatter
Symbol.”
• The scatter legend. See Section 14.7, “Creating a Scatter Legend.”
280
14.3. Choosing the Scatter Symbol
14.3. Choosing the Scatter Symbol
By default, Tecplot uses outlined squares for the scatter symbols. You can choose a different
scatter symbol for each zone from any of Tecplot’s seven predefined scatter symbols, or any
printable character in any of Tecplot’s four character sets. You can change the scatter symbol
either from the Scatter Attributes dialog or from the Quick Edit dialog.
To choose a scatter symbol:
1.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears, as shown in Figure 14-2.
Figure 14-2. The
Scatter Attributes dialog.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to choose a scatter symbol.
3.
Click Symbol Shape. A drop-down appears listing the seven predefined scatter symbols
together with an Other option. Figure 14-3 shows the seven predefined scatter shapes from
the Quick Edit dialog.
Figure 14-3. Pre-defined
4.
scatter symbols.
Click on the desired symbol shape. If you click on Other, the Enter ASCII Character dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 14-4.
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Chapter 14. Creating Scatter Plots
Figure 14-4. The
5.
Enter ASCII Character dialog.
(Other option only) Enter a character to use as a symbol, and then specify the Tecplot character set from which to obtain the symbol: Base (the Courier, Helvetica and Times fonts are
collectively referred to as English fonts), Greek, Math, or User Defined. Click OK to dismiss the Enter ASCII Character dialog.
To choose a scatter symbol from the Quick Edit dialog:
1.
In the workspace, select the zone or zones for which you want to choose a scatter symbol.
2.
On the sidebar, click on Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
In the Quick Edit dialog, click on the button for the desired symbol shape, as follows:
-
Plot with square plotting symbols (Square).
-
Plot with upward pointing equilateral triangles (Delta).
-
Plot with downward pointing equilateral triangles (Gradient).
-
Plot with rightward pointing equilateral triangles (Right Triangle).
-
Plot with leftward pointing equilateral triangles (Left Triangle).
-
Plot with diamonds (Diamond).
-
Plot with circles (Circle).
-
282
Plot with a specified ASCII character from one of Tecplot’s four character sets
(Other). When you select this option, the Enter ASCII Character dialog appears.
14.4. Specifying the Symbol Color
4.
(
option only) Enter a character to use as a symbol, and then specify the Tecplot character set from which to obtain the symbol: Base (English Font), Greek, Math, or User
Defined. Click OK to close the Enter ASCII Character dialog.
14.4. Specifying the Symbol Color
By default, scatter symbols are drawn as outlined symbols, that is, unfilled geometric shapes in
a single color. You control the basic color by choosing an outline color for each zone’s scatter
symbols. You can also specify that a zone’s scatter symbols be filled, and then specify a fill
color. (If you fill a symbol chosen from the ASCII character set, you obtain a filled rectangle
with the character drawn inside in the outline color; the perimeter of the box is also drawn in
the outline color.)
For both outline and fill color, one of the available options is Multi-Color, which uses the
current contour variable to determine the color of each individual scatter symbol.
14.4.1. Specifying the Outline Color
For unfilled scatter symbols, the outline color is simply the symbol color. You can specify a
different outline color for each zone using either the Scatter Attributes dialog or the Quick Edit
dialog.
To specify an outline color:
1.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to choose an outline color.
3.
Click Outline Color. A drop-down appears listing Tecplot’s basic colors together with a
multi-color option.
4.
Click on the desired color.
or
1.
In the workspace, select the zone or zones for which you want to choose a scatter symbol.
2.
On the sidebar, click on Quick Edit to bring up the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
On the Quick Edit dialog, click Line, then click on the desired color, on M for Multi-Color,
or on X to make the line color match the current fill color if the symbols are filled.
If you select the Multi-Color option, each plotting symbol is colored according to the value of
the current contour variable at that data point. If no contour variable is currently assigned, the
Contour Variable dialog appears with the default contour variable assignment. You can either
accept the default or choose a new contour variable.
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Chapter 14. Creating Scatter Plots
14.4.2. Choosing Filled Symbols and a Fill Color
You can fill any zone’s scatter symbols with any of Tecplot’s basic colors, or with colors based
on the current contour variable. You can control whether a zone’s scatter symbols are filled,
and if so, what color they are filled with, using either the Scatter Attributes dialog or the Quick
Edit dialog.
To specify whether a zone’s scatter symbols are filled or unfilled:
1.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to specify filled or unfilled symbols.
3.
Click on Fill. A drop-down appears listing the options Yes and No.
4.
Click on Yes for filled symbols, No for unfilled symbols.
or
1.
In the workspace, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify filled or unfilled
symbols.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
Click on the
button for unfilled symbols; click on
for filled symbols.
If you choose filled symbols and want them filled with a color other than the default white, you
should also specify a fill color.
To specify a scatter symbol fill color for a zone or zones:
1.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to specify the fill color.
3.
Click Fill Color. A drop-down appears listing Tecplot’s basic colors together with the
multi-color option.
4.
Click on the desired color.
or
1.
In the workspace, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify the fill color.
2.
On the sidebar, click on Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
In the Quick Edit dialog, select the Fill option button, then click on the desired fill color, M
for Multi-Color, or X to turn off fill.
If you select the Multi-Color option, each plotting symbol is colored according to the value of
the current contour variable at that data point. If no contour variable is currently assigned, the
284
14.5. Specifying Scatter Symbol Size and Font
Contour Variable dialog appears with the default contour variable assignment. You can either
accept the default or choose a new contour variable.
14.5. Specifying Scatter Symbol Size and Font
You can have Tecplot draw each zone’s scatter symbols at a specified size, or you can size each
scatter symbol according to the value of a specified variable at that point. To specify fixed-size
scatter symbols, you can use either the Scatter Attributes or Quick Edit dialog. To specify variable-size scatter symbols, you must use the Scatter Attributes dialog.
14.5.1. Specifying a Fixed Symbol Size
To specify a fixed symbol size:
1.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to specify the symbol size.
3.
Click Scat Size. A drop-down appears listing five preset options, an Enter option, and a
Size by Variable option.
4.
Click on the desired option. If you click Enter, the Enter Value dialog appears. Continue
with Step 5. If you click Size by Variable, the Select Variable dialog appears asking you to
choose a scatter-sizing variable. See Section 14.5.2, “Specifying Variable Symbol Sizes,”
for complete instructions for sizing scatter symbols by variable.
5.
(Enter option only) Enter a percentage of the frame height in the Enter Value dialog.
or
1.
In the workspace, select the zone or zones for which you want to specify the symbol size.
2.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog.
3.
In the Quick Edit dialog, click Size to the right of the Scatter Symbol buttons. A drop-down
appears listing five preset options and an Enter option.
4.
Click on the desired option. If you click Enter, the Enter Value dialog appears.
5.
(Enter option only) Enter a percentage of the frame height in the Enter Value dialog.
14.5.2. Specifying Variable Symbol Sizes
To size the scatter symbols by a variable for a zone or zones:
1.
Choose Scatter Size/Font from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter Size/
Font dialog appears as shown in Figure 14-5.
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Chapter 14. Creating Scatter Plots
Figure 14-5. The
Scatter Size/Font dialog.
2.
From the drop-down labeled Scatter Size Variable, choose the variable you want to use to
size the scatter symbols.
3.
(Optional) Specify a size multiplier by selecting one of the two options labeled Grid Units/
Magnitude or Cm/Magnitude, then entering a value in the adjacent text field. See Section
14.5.3, “Specifying the Variable Size Multiplier and Font.”
4.
Click Close.
5.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears.
6.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to use variable scatter sizing.
7.
Click Scat Size.
8.
Click Size by Variable.
Figure 14-6 shows a sample scatter plot sized by a variable.
14.5.3. Specifying the Variable Size Multiplier and Font
When you choose Size by Variable for scatter plots, Tecplot multiplies the value of the scattersize variable at each point by a specified multiplier to determine the actual size of the plotting
symbol. You can modify this multiplier from the Scatter Size/Font dialog.
You can change the base font used for ASCII character symbols to any of Tecplot’s basic fonts
(Helvetica, Courier Bold, etc.). To do this, choose Scatter Size/Font from the Field menu. The
Scatter Size/Font dialog appears as shown in Figure 14-5. Choose the desired font from the
286
14.5. Specifying Scatter Symbol Size and Font
0.050
Y (meters)
0.040
0.030
0.020
0.020
Figure 14-6. Scatter
0.030
X (meters)
0.040
0.050
plot sized by a variable.
drop-down labeled Base Font for ASCII Symbols. The base font affects all ASCII symbols
using the base font in the current frame.
To modify the scatter size multiplier and font:
1.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears.
2.
Select the zones for which you want to modify the multiplier for scatter symbols.
3.
Click Scat Size. On the drop-down which appears, select Size by Variable.
4.
Choose Scatter Size/Font from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter Size/
Font dialog appears, as shown in Figure 14-5.
5.
Select Base Font for ASCII Symbols and choose the desired font from the list shown.
6.
If you have not specified a scatter-size variable, or if you want to use a different variable,
choose a variable from the Scatter Size Variable menu on the Scatter Size/Font dialog. The
Size Multiplier region becomes active.
7.
Choose the Grid Units/Magnitude or Cm/Magnitude option. By default, Tecplot uses Grid
Units/Magnitude. Tecplot calculates and displays an initial size multiplier in the adjacent
text field.
8.
Enter the desired multiplier in the text field to the right of the selected option.
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Chapter 14. Creating Scatter Plots
14.5.4. Creating a Reference Scatter Symbol
If you are using a scatter-size variable, it is sometimes useful to create a reference scatter symbol that shows the size at which a data point of a given magnitude will be represented. You create the reference scatter symbol using the Reference Scatter Symbol dialog. The Reference
Scatter Symbol appears only if a scatter size variable is defined; if you have not yet created
one, select one by choosing Scatter Font/Size from the Field menu, then choosing a Scatter
Size Variable from the drop-down.
To create a reference scatter symbol:
1.
Choose Reference Scatter Symbol from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Reference Scatter Symbol dialog appears, as shown in Figure 14-7.
Figure 14-7. The
Reference Scatter Symbol dialog.
2.
Select the check box labeled Show Reference Scatter Symbol.
3.
Enter an appropriate value in the Magnitude text box. It may be useful to use the Probe tool
on a symbol of appropriate size, then set the Reference Scatter Symbol magnitude
accordingly.
4.
Modify the shape, color, line thickness, fill color, and origin as desired.
5.
Click OK.
Figure 14-8 shows a scatter plot with a reference scatter symbol.
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14.6. Specifying Symbol Spacing
= 2E-14
0.050
Y (meters)
0.040
0.030
0.020
0.020
Figure 14-8. Scatter
0.030
X (meters)
0.040
0.050
plot with reference scatter symbol.
14.6. Specifying Symbol Spacing
If your data consists of a dense mesh of points, a scatter plot may be too crowded to be of much
use. You can “thin” the scatter plot by plotting only a certain subset of the data points.
You control the number of points plotted with the Index Skip attribute from the Scatter
Attributes dialog. For IJ-ordered data, you can specify both an I-skip and a J-skip, while for
IJK-ordered data, you can specify I-, J-, and K-skips. (For I-ordered data and finite-element
data, only an I-skip is permitted; it allows you to plot every nth data point, using the natural
order of nodes and data points in the original data set.)
For example, a typical scatter plot from a full-size mesh has so many points it is difficult to see
individual symbols (shown in Figure 14-9). Figure 14-10, on the other hand, shows a “thinned”
scatter plot of the same data with Index Skip specified, showing every third point in the I-direction and every fourth point in the J-direction.
To specify the symbol spacing:
1.
Choose Scatter Attributes from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter
Attributes dialog appears.
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Chapter 14. Creating Scatter Plots
All Points Plotted
5
4
Y(M)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
0
Figure 14-9. A
5
X(M)
10
15
crowded scatter plot, using the cylinder data.
With Skip I=3, J=4
5
4
3
Y(M)
2
1
0
-1
-2
0
Figure 14-10. A
5
X(M)
10
15
scatter plot with Index Skip specified.
2.
Select the zone or zones for which you want to specify the symbol spacing.
3.
Click Index Skip. A drop-down appears with the options No Skip and Enter Skip. (No Skip
is the default.)
4.
Click the desired option. If you click Enter Skip, the Enter Index Skipping dialog appears.
5.
(Enter Skip only) Enter the desired values of I-Skip, J-Skip, and K-Skip. Figure 14-10 was
created with the following settings: I-Skip=3, J-Skip=4, K-Skip=1.
14.7. Creating a Scatter Legend
You can generate a legend that shows the style attributes of all scatter symbols. This legend can
be positioned anywhere on the plot. You can elect to have the zone names included in the
legend.
To create the scatter legend:
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14.7. Creating a Scatter Legend
1.
Choose Scatter Legend from the Scatter sub-menu of the Field menu. The Scatter Legend
dialog appears.
2.
Select the check box labeled Show Scatter Legend.
3.
Select the Show Zone Names check box to include zone names in the legend.
4.
Format the text for the legend by choosing a color and font, and specifying the text height
as a percentage of the frame height. Enter the desired line spacing in the Line Spacing text
field.
5.
Specify the location of the upper left corner of the legend by entering values in the X (%)
and Y (%) text fields. Enter X as a percentage of the frame width and Y as a percentage of
the frame height.
6.
Select which kind of box you want drawn around the legend (No Box, Filled, or Plain). If
you choose Filled or Plain, format the box using the following controls:
-
Line Thickness: Specify the line thickness as a percentage of frame height.
Box Color: Choose a color for the legend box outline.
Fill Color: (Filled only) Choose a color for the legend box fill.
Margin: Specify the margin between the legend text and legend box as a percentage of
the text height.
Figure 14-11 shows a scatter plot with a scatter legend.
m1
d2
d3
4
Y(M)
2
0
-2
-4
0
Figure 14-11. Scatter
5
X(M)
10
15
plot with legend.
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Chapter 14. Creating Scatter Plots
292
CHAPTER 15
Creating Shade Plots
Shade plots cover the surface of zones with a single color. In 2-D plots, each shaded zone will
have one constant color. In 3-D plots, effects such as translucency and lighting will cause variation in color at different locations on the zone.
Shade plots require IJ- or IJK-ordered, or finite-element data. I-ordered, or irregular data,
cannot be used to create shade plots.
15.1. Creating 2-D Shade Plots
In 2D frame mode, the only type of shading available is solid zone flooding. Each shaded zone
is drawn as a uniform color.
To create a 2-D shade plot:
1.
Select the Shade zone layer from the sidebar.
To control the 2-D shade color for a zone or zones:
1.
From the Field menu, select Shade Attributes. The Shade Attributes dialog appears as
shown in Figure 15-1.
2.
In the Shade Attributes dialog, select the zone or zones for which you want to modify the
shade color.
3.
Click Shade Color. A drop-down appears containing Tecplot’s basic colors.
4.
Click on the desired color.
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Chapter 15. Creating Shade Plots
Figure 15-1. The
Shade Attributes dialog.
15.2. Creating 3-D Surface Shade Plots
Three-dimensional shade plots may be created with surface or volume zones. Surface zones,
such as IJ-ordered, finite-element triangle or finite-element quadrilateral, are loaded by default
into Tecplot as 2-D plots. They may be viewed as 3-D surfaces by selecting 3D frame mode
from the sidebar. Volume zones, IJK-ordered, finite-element brick, and finite-element tetrahedral, by default will plot the outer surface with the field layer you select.
To create a 3-D shade plot:
1.
Select the Shade zone layer from the sidebar.
2.
Control which zones are shaded using the Shade Show option of the Shade Attributes dialog.
3.
Control the shade color for each zone using the Shade Color option of the Shade Attributes
dialog.
4.
Choose which zones will have a 3-D shade effect using the Use Lighting option on the
Shade Attributes dialog. To change the lighting effect, go to the Effects tab page of the
Shade Attributes dialog.
Figure 15-2 shows a 3-D surface shade plot, with the Use Lighting option selected and the
default Paneled lighting effect. The data file from which this plot was generated is delivered
with Tecplot as demo/plt/spcship.plt.
You may specify zone colors for each plotted zone. When Use Lighting is set to No, the zone
color is used to uniformly color the zone. For Paneled and Gouraud shading, the zone color is
combined with the light source effect, as described in Section 16.1.2, “Lighting.”
To specify the zone color, use the procedures for choosing colors in Section 9.3.4, “Choosing
Colors.” (The Multi-Color option is not available for shade plots.)
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15.2. Creating 3-D Surface Shade Plots
Z
X
Y
1
0.5
X
0
-6
-0.5
-5
-2
-4
-1
-3
Y
0
-2
1
2
Figure 15-2. A
Z
-1
0
3-D surface shade plot.
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Chapter 15. Creating Shade Plots
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Translucency and
Lighting
CHAPTER 16
16.1. Translucency and Lighting
The 3-D Effects, Translucency and Lighting, are effective with shaded or contour flooded
zones. Each must be selected on the sidebar to be available for zones with a plot. Streamtraces,
slices and iso-surfaces all have separate controls from zones for lighting and translucency. The
Effect Attributes dialog is shown in Figure 16-1.
Figure 16-1. The
Effect Attributes dialog.
16.1.1. Translucency
When a zone is translucent, you may view objects inside or beyond the zone. You control the
translucency of a zone using the Surface Translucency attribute in the Effects Attributes dialog.
Translucency may be set to a value between one, nearly solid, and 99, nearly invisible. There
are nine pre-set percentages ranging from ten to 90. You may also use the Enter option to
define a percentage of your own. An example of a translucent plot is shown in Figure 16-2.
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Figure 16-2. A
plot with translucency.
To create a plot using translucency:
1.
Create a 3-D shade or contour flooded plot.
2.
Select the Translucency check box on the sidebar.
3.
From the Field menu, choose Effect Attributes. The Effect Attributes dialog appears.
4.
Select the zone or zones that you want to plot using translucency, then set Use Surface
Translucency to Yes.
5.
Click Surface Translucency, then select a percentage from the drop-down menu. Alternatively, you may click Enter to type in a value between one and 99.
16.1.1.1. Plots with Translucency. All surfaces in 3D frame mode may be made translucent. A different translucency may be assigned to individual zones, and may also be assigned
to derived objects such as slices, streamtrace ribbons or rods, and iso-surfaces. Please note that
the Translucency check box on the side bar applies only to zones, not slices, streamtraces, or
iso-surfaces. Translucency for those objects is controlled through their respective dialogs.
Plots with translucency cannot be printed. Translucency will only appear on your screen, or in
exported bitmap images. See Appendix E, “Limits of Tecplot Version 9.0,” for more details.
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16.1. Translucency and Lighting
16.1.2. Lighting
There are two types of lighting effects, Paneled and Gouraud.
• Paneled: Within each cell the color assigned to each area by shading or contour flooding is
tinted by a shade constant across the cell. This shade is based on the orientation of the cell
relative to your 3-D light source.
• Gouraud: This plot type offers a more continuous and much smoother shading than Paneled shading, but also results in slower plotting and larger print files. Gouraud shading is
not continuous across zone boundaries. Gouraud shading is not available for finite-element
volume zones when blanking is included. A finite-element volume zone set to use Gouraud
shading will revert to Paneled shading when blanking is included.
IJK-ordered data with Surfaces to Plot set to Exposed Cell Faces, faces exposed by blanking will revert to Paneled shading.
Figure 16-3 shows two shade plots. The one on the left uses a Paneled lighting effect and the
one on the right a Gouraud lighting effect.
Paneled
Figure 16-3. Plots
Gouraud
showing Paneled and Gouraud lighting effects.
16.1.2.1. 3-D Light Source. The 3-D light source is a point of light infinitely far from the
drawing area. You can specify its location as a point on a hemisphere with a pole along the eyeorigin axis. You control the location with the Light Source Position control in the 3D Light
Source dialog, shown in Figure 16-4.
The 3-D light source may be different for each frame. By default, the light source is positioned
at infinity along the eye-origin axis. The light source position is indicated by a dot over the
origin of the 3-D orientation axes displayed in the Light Source Position control.
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Chapter 16. Translucency and Lighting
Figure 16-4. The
3D Light Source dialog.
To adjust the light source position:
1.
From the Field menu, choose 3D Light Source. The 3D Light Source dialog appears.
2.
In the Light Source Position control, click the mouse at the desired light source location.
You may also drag the mouse to move the light source position. As the light source position
moves away from the eye origin ray, its representation appears as an arrow. The length of
the arrow indicates how far from the eye origin ray the light source position is. At the eye
origin ray, the arrow is pointing directly into the screen, so just a dot is visible; at the horizon (on the circle surrounding the 3-D orientation axes in the Light Source Position control), the arrow is at its longest.
The 3D Light Source dialog also includes the following options:
• Intensity (%): Controls the amount of lighting effect produced by the directional light
source. An intensity of 100 produces the maximum contrast between lit and unlit areas, and
fully lit areas use the full surface color. Lesser values produce less contrast between lit and
unlit areas, and fully lit areas use darker colors. An intensity of zero means the light source
produces no contrast between lit and unlit areas, and all areas are black.
• Background Light (%): Controls the amount of lighting effect applied to all objects
regardless of the light source position. A background light of zero means that areas unlit by
the directional light source receive no lighting at all and are entirely black, while areas lit
by the directional light source get only the effect of that light. Larger values produce more
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16.1. Translucency and Lighting
lighting effect in areas not lit by the directional light source, making these areas show some
of the surface color. A background light of 100 means that all areas are lit by the maximum
amount, and areas unlit by the directional light source use the full surface color.
Note: Intensity and Background Light are cumulative; they can add up to more than 100
and result in colors lightened beyond the base surface color. For example, reds will become
pink and grays will become white.
• Surface Color Contrast (%): Controls the contrast of the color of light source shaded surfaces before applying lighting effects. A surface color contrast of 100 means that light
source shaded surfaces use the full surface color for applying lighting effects. Lesser values
mean that the surface color is blended with progressively more white, making light source
shaded surface colors lighter. A surface color contrast of zero means that colors are pure
white before applying lighting effects; the plot will only be shades of gray.
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Chapter 16. Translucency and Lighting
302
CHAPTER 17
Controlling Axes
Tecplot creates axes automatically for all XY-plots and 2- and 3-D field plots. For these automatically created axes, Tecplot determines good tick mark position and spacing, and creates
reasonable tick mark and axis labels. You can, however, modify your Tecplot configuration file
to change the default behavior, and you can use the Axis menu interactively to exercise virtually complete control over your axes.
You control each axis individually. You specify whether each axis is displayed, its color, position, range, length, tick mark spacing, and many other attributes. You can also specify dependencies between axes that help control the shape of your data when you change the view or
individual axis ranges. For 3-D axes, these dependencies can be used to automatically rescale
the axes when the X-, Y-, or Z-ranges of your data are significantly different.
Most axis controls are concentrated in the Edit Axis dialog, one page of which is shown in
Figure 17-1. As can be gathered from the row of buttons (tabs in the Windows version), this
dialog has seven pages. Each page controls a different aspect of the axis. Each page is repeated
for each axis.
Tecplot maintains four distinct sets of axes, one for each frame mode. This means that modifying the color, say, of your X-axis line for 2-D plots will not affect 3-D plots. The 2-D X-axis
and the 3-D X-axis are different objects.
To edit an axis from the Edit Axis dialog, you must be sure you are working on the correct axis.
At the top of each page, except the Area page, there is a check box labeled Show a-Axis, where
a can be X or Y for 2-D axes, X1 through X5 or Y1 through Y5 for X-Y axes, and X, Y, or Z
for 3-D axes. To the right of this check box, there is a row of buttons, X and Y for 2-D axes, X,
Y, and Z for 3-D axes, X1 Y1 through X5 Y5 for X-Y axes and X and Y for Sketch frame
mode. One of these buttons will always appear selected, and will match the check box label.
This button indicates the axis the current page modifies. To edit a different axis, simply click
on its button.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
Figure 17-1. The
Range page of the Edit Axis dialog for a 3-D plot.
17.1. Showing and Hiding Axes
The most basic axis control is whether or not to show the axis. Showing an axis, by default,
shows the axis line, tick marks, tick mark labels, and axis title for the axis. It is possible to disable any of these components separately, even the axis line. But if you choose not to show an
axis, none of the plot components associated with that axis (line, tick marks, tick mark labels,
title, or grid lines) is displayed. You can control whether an axis is shown from any page
(except Area) of the Edit Axis dialog, using the Show a-Axis check box.
To control the display of an axis, use the following procedure:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
At the top of the Edit Axis dialog, click X, Y, or Z to select the axis you want to show or
hide. The check box to the left of the X, Y, Z buttons is labeled Show a-Axis, where a is one
of X, Y, or Z. For example, by default X is selected, and the check box is labeled Show XAxis.
3.
Select the Show a-Axis check box to show the axis; deselect the check box to hide the axis.
You can display axes in Sketch frame mode as well as windows containing data. By default,
sketch window axes are not displayed. Follow the above procedure to display sketch axes.
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17.2. Assigning Variables to Axes
17.2. Assigning Variables to Axes
For 2-D axes, Tecplot initially assigns the first and second variables in the data set to the Xand Y-axes, respectively. For 3-D axes, Tecplot initially assigns the first three variables in the
data set to the X-, Y-, and Z-axes respectively.
To change variable assignments for 2-D and 3-D axes:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Assign XYZ. A Select Variables dialog appears, with a dropdown for each available axis listing the data set’s variables.
2.
Choose one variable for each axis.
For XY-plots, assigning variables to axes is part of defining XY-mappings. See Chapter 8,
“XY-Plots,” for more information.
17.3. Modifying the Axis Range
The range of an axis specifies the minimum and maximum data values displayed along it. The
length of an axis is its physical length on the screen or paper. The scale of an axis is the ratio of
its length to its range. You can modify the range in two ways: in one, changing the range does
not affect the length of the axis, and thus modifies the scale. In the second, changing the range
preserves the scale, and thus modifies the length.
To change the range while preserving the axis length:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Range page and the appropriate axis.
3.
Select the check box labeled Preserve Length when Changing Range.
4.
Enter the desired range in the text fields labeled Min and Max. You may also use the up and
down arrows to increase or decrease the displayed values.
To change the range while preserving the axis scale:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Range page and the appropriate axis.
3.
Deselect the check box labeled Preserve Length when Changing Range.
4.
Enter the desired range in the text fields labeled Min and Max. You may also use the up and
down arrows to increase or decrease the displayed values.
Figure 17-2 shows the difference between the two methods of changing the range.
You can also change the length of the axis without changing its scale. In XY and 2D frame
modes, you can do this using the Grid Position (%) text fields, which are also used to position
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
3
Changing the range
on X to go from
ORIGINAL VIEW
2
-3.0 to 0.0, without
1
preserving axis length
0
-1
3
-2
2
1
-3
-2
-1
0
0
-1
-2
0
-2
0
2
-1
Preserving axis length
while changing the range
-2
on X to go from
-3.0 to 0.0
-3
Figure 17-2. Preserving
-2
-1
0
length versus preserving scale while changing range.
the grid within the frame. The Left and Right text fields determine the length of the X-axis, and
the Top and Bottom text fields determine the length of the Y-axis.
In 3D frame mode, you can change the length of axes using the X, Y, and Z Size Factor fields,
but this affects the scale as well. If the 3-D axes are independent (see Section 17.3.1, “Controlling Axis Dependency,” for details), you can resize each axis independently. If the axes are
XY-dependent, changing the X or Y size factor changes the other. If the axes are XYZ-dependent, changing one size factor changes the other two.
In XY-plots, you can display the axis range using a logarithmic scale. See Section 8.5.2, “Log
Axes.”
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17.3. Modifying the Axis Range
17.3.1. Controlling Axis Dependency
When you modify the range on one axis, other axes may be affected as well, depending on the
current dependency settings for the axes. Axes may be dependent or independent; in general, if
axes are dependent, changing the range for one axis will cause similar changes in the other
axes, while changing the range of an independent axis will have no effect on the other axes. As
you can see, axis dependency within Tecplot is distinct from dependency relations within your
data.
For XY-axes and 2-D field plots, the dependency relations Dependent and Independent are the
only choices. For XY-plots, independent axes are the default; for 2-D field plots, dependent
axes are the default.
For 3-D axes, there are three dependency modes, as follows:
• Independent: All axes are independent.
• XY Dependent: The X- and Y-axes are dependent upon each other just as for dependent 2D axes. The Z-axis is independent.
• XYZ Dependent: Changing the scale on any axis results in a proportional change in scale
on the other two axes, so that the specified X to Y Ratio and X to Z Ratio are preserved.
To control the dependency of your axes:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Range page and the appropriate axis.
3.
In the region labeled Dependency, choose one of the available option buttons (for XY- and
2-D plots, Dependent or Independent; for 3-D plots, Independent, XY Dependent, or XYZ
Dependent).
4.
For 2-D Dependent or either of the 3-D Dependent axis modes, enter the X to Y Ratio in the
provided text field. For XY Dependent plots, enter the X1 to Y1 Ratio.
5.
For XYZ Dependent mode, also enter the X to Z Ratio in the provided text field.
17.3.2. Reversing the Axis Direction
In XY- and 2-D plots, you can reverse the direction on any axis. Normally, the values along an
axis increase as you move from bottom to top on the Y-axis, and from left to right on the Xaxis. When you reverse the direction, the values increase from top to bottom and right to left.
To reverse the direction of your XY- or 2-D axis:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Range page and the appropriate axis.
3.
Select the check box labeled Reverse Axis Direction.
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For 3-D axes, you can use negative size factors and/or negative X-to-Y and X-to-Z ratios to
reverse the direction of an axis. This can create a left-handed coordinate system, or simply
rotate the plot so that, for example, the Z-axis is pointed downward. If the axis mode is Dependent, changing the size factor for one axis changes it on all axes. If the axis mode is XY Dependent, changing the sign of either the X-axis or Y-axis size factor changes the sign of the other.
If the axis mode is Independent, changing the sign of the size factor does not affect the signs of
the size factors for the other axes, but it does change the sign of the corresponding X-to-Y and
X-to-Z ratios.
To reverse the direction of your 3-D axis:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Range page and the appropriate axis.
3.
Select the Independent axis mode.
4.
Enter a negative number in the Size Factor text field for the axis you want to reverse.
17.3.3. Controlling Axis Position
For XY- and 2-D axes, you can control the position of each axis within the frame. You can do
this either by specifying a number in the Axis Pos (%) field of the Edit Axis dialog’s Range
page (which displays the position of the axis as a percentage of the frame width for the Y-axis
and as a percentage of the frame height for the X-axis), or by using the Adjustor tool
.
To control axis position from the Edit Axis dialog:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Range page and the appropriate axis.
3.
Enter the desired position in the Axis Pos (%) text field.
To control axis position with the Adjustor:
From the sidebar, choose the
2.
In the workspace, select the axis you want to position. Adjustor handles appear on the axis.
3.
Move the pointer over the axis until the cursor changes to a double-sided arrow.
4.
Click-and-drag the axis to the desired position. If you drag the axis over the grid area border, the axis will initially stop at the border (this makes it easy for you to position your axis
on the edge of the grid area). To continue moving your axis past the border, release the
mouse button and continue with Step 3.
308
1.
tool.
17.4. Controlling the Axis Grid
17.4. Controlling the Axis Grid
The grid area is one or more rectangular regions defined and bounded by the axes. For XY- and
2-D plots, the grid area is simply the rectangle defined by the X- and Y-axes. For 3-D plots, the
grid area consists of the three rectangles defined by the X-, Y-, and Z-axes.
The gridlines are a set of lines drawn from one or more axes. Gridlines extend from the tick
marks on an axis, across the grid area. Minor gridlines extend from the minor tick marks. Gridlines make it easier to determine the values of individual data points.
The precise dot grid is a set of small square dots drawn at the intersection of every minor gridline. In XY-plots, the axis assignments for the first active XY-map govern the precise dot grid.
The precise dot grid option is disabled for 3D frame mode, or when either of the axes for the
first active XY-map uses a log scale.
You control the gridlines and precise dot grid from the Grid page of the Edit Axis dialog
(Figure 17-3), while grid area attributes are controlled from the Area page.
Figure 17-3. The
Grid page of the Edit Axis dialog.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
17.4.1. Controlling Gridlines
From the Grid page of the Edit Axis dialog, you can control whether grid lines or minor grid
lines are shown, and if so, their line pattern, pattern length, and line thickness. The spacing of
grid lines is controlled by the tick mark spacing; see Section 17.5, “Controlling Tick Marks
and Tick Mark Labels.”
To control grid lines and minor grid lines:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click Grid (Grid tab in Windows) to call up the Grid page, shown in Figure 17-3.
3.
To show gridlines, select the Show check box under Gridlines. To show minor gridlines,
select the Show check box under Minor Gridlines.
4.
On the Grid page, specify a line pattern, line pattern length, and line thickness for both the
gridlines and minor gridlines.
Skin Temperature
Temperature °C
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
Station
Figure 17-4. The
310
effect of turning on the precise dot grid.
4
5
17.4. Controlling the Axis Grid
17.4.2. Controlling the Precise Dot Grid
From the Grid page of the Edit Axis dialog, you can control whether the precise dot grid is
shown, and if so, the size and color. Figure 17-4 shows the effect of turning on the precise dot
grid.
To control the precise dot grid:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click on the Grid button (Grid tab in Windows) to bring up the Grid page, shown in
Figure 17-3.
3.
To show the precise dot grid, select the Show check box under Precise Dot Grid.
4.
Specify dot size (measured in centimeters on the output) and a color as desired.
17.4.3. Controlling the Grid Area
From the Area page of Edit Axis, you control whether the grid area is color-filled, whether the
grid area border is displayed, and (except in 3D frame mode) the grid line draw order. For 3-D
axes, you can also specify an axis box padding, the minimum distance from the data to the axis
box.
To control grid area attributes:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click on the Area button (Area tab in Windows) to call up the Area page, shown in
Figure 17-5.
3.
To fill the grid area with color, select the check box labeled Fill Behind Grid Area. Select a
fill color from the drop-down, or (in 3D frame mode only) select the Use Light Source
check box to fill the grid area using the light source color.
4.
In 2D frame mode, to display the grid area border, select the Show Border check box, then
choose a Border Color and specify a Border Thickness. In 3D frame mode, to display the
axis box, select the Show Box check box. The color and line thickness of the 3-D axis box
are determined by the axis line color and line thickness, set on the Line page of the Edit
Axis dialog. See Section 17.6, “Controlling the Axis Line,” for details.
5.
To draw tick marks and tick labels on the grid area border (the default is to draw them only
on the axis lines themselves), select the Labels and/or Ticks check box in the Draw on Grid
Area Border options. These check boxes control ticks and labels on the sides of the plot
away from the main axes. Ticks and labels on the main axes of the plot are controlled on the
Ticks and Label pages of the Edit Axis dialog.
6.
For XY- and 2-D axes, you may specify a gridline draw order. Gridlines may be drawn
either first, before any of the other plotting layers, or last, so that they overlay any plotting
layers. Figure 17-6 shows the different effect each option has.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
Figure 17-5. The
Area page of the Edit Axis dialog.
You can also specify the gridline draw order by “pushing” or “popping” the axis grid area
from the Edit menu. First select the axis grid area by clicking on a gridline, then choose
Push from the Edit menu to plot the gridlines first, or choose Pop to plot the gridlines last.
7.
312
For 3-D axes, you may specify an axis-box padding, which specifies the minimum amount
of space between the axis box and the 3-D object as a percentage of the object size. If you
decrease the axis-box padding then you must choose 3D Axis Reset from the Axis menu to
see the results of your change, otherwise the effect of the new padding will show on the
next Redraw.
17.5. Controlling Tick Marks and Tick Mark Labels
Gridline Draw Order = First
Gridline Draw Order = Last
3
Gridlines
2
2
1
1
Tickmark Labels
Tickmark Labels
3
0
-1
Gridlines
0
-1
-2
-2
Tickmarks
-3
-3
-2
Minor Tickmarks
-1
Figure 17-6. The
0
1
2
3
Tickmarks
-3
-3
-2
Minor Tickmarks
-1
0
1
2
X Minor Gridlines Turned Off
3
grid plotting order.
17.5. Controlling Tick Marks and Tick Mark Labels
Each axis can be marked with tick marks, and those tick marks may or may not be labeled,
either with numbers or with custom text strings. You control tick marks and their placement
using the Ticks page of the Edit Axis dialog. You control the tick mark labels using the Label
page of the Edit Axis dialog. You can control the tick mark spacing from either page.
17.5.1. Controlling Tick Marks
From the Ticks page of the Edit Axis dialog, you can specify any of the following tick mark
attributes independently for each axis:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Whether tick marks are displayed.
Length of tick marks and minor tick marks.
Thickness of tick marks and minor tick marks.
Number of minor tick marks between tick marks.
Direction of the tick marks (into the plot, out of the plot, or centered on the axis line).
Spacing and position of tick marks.
17.5.1.1. Showing and Hiding Tick Marks. You can show tick marks on any, all, or none
of your axes.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
To show tick marks for an axis:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click Ticks (Ticks tab in Windows) to call up the Ticks page, shown in Figure 17-7.
Figure 17-7. The
3.
Ticks page of the Edit Axis dialog.
Choose the axis for which you want to show tick marks. Select the Show Tick Marks check
box.
Note: There is no separate control for showing minor tick marks, as there is for minor gridlines. To show no minor tick marks, enter zero in the Number of Minor Ticks text field.
To hide tick marks, deselect the Show Tick Marks check box.
17.5.1.2. Controlling Tick Mark Length. You can specify length independently for the
tick marks and minor tick marks on each axis. You specify length as a percentage of the frame
height for XY- and 2-D axes, and as a percentage of the median axis length for 3-D axes.
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17.5. Controlling Tick Marks and Tick Mark Labels
To specify tick mark and minor tick mark length:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the axis for which you want to specify tick mark length.
3.
Click Ticks (Ticks tab in Windows) to call up the Ticks page.
4.
Enter a length for ticks and minor ticks in the provided text fields, or choose a preset value
from the adjacent drop-downs.
17.5.1.3. Controlling Tick Mark Thickness. You can specify line thickness independently for the tick marks and minor tick marks on each axis. You specify line thickness as a
percentage of the frame height.
To specify tick mark and minor tick mark line thickness:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click Ticks button (Ticks tab in Windows) to call up the Ticks page.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to specify tick mark thickness.
4.
Enter a thickness for ticks and minor ticks in the provided text fields, or choose a preset
value from the adjacent drop-downs.
17.5.1.4. Controlling the Number of Minor Tick Marks. By default, Tecplot draws four
minor tick marks between each pair of tick marks, giving five subintervals between tick marks.
You can modify the number of minor tick marks, and hence the number of subintervals, by
entering a new number in the text field labeled Number of Minor Ticks.
17.5.1.5. Controlling Tick Mark Direction. You can specify the direction in which the
tick marks are drawn, using one of the following options:
• In: Tick marks and minor tick marks are drawn from the axis toward the center of the plotting region.
• Out: Tick marks and minor tick marks are drawn from the axis away from the center of the
plotting region.
• Center: Tick marks and minor tick marks are centered on the axis line.
To specify tick mark direction:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click Ticks (Ticks tab in Windows) to call up the Ticks page.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to specify tick mark length.
4.
Choose one of the Direction option buttons: In, Out, or Center.
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17.5.1.6. Controlling Tick Mark and Label Spacing. You can control tick mark and tick
mark label spacing directly, or you can use Auto Spacing (the default). When you use Auto
Spacing, Tecplot calculates an optimal spacing and number format for your tick marks and tick
mark labels. As you change views, particularly while zooming, Tecplot recalculates the
number format and spacing.
To use Auto Spacing for tick marks and tick mark labels:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click Ticks (Ticks tab in Windows) to call up the Ticks page, or click Labels (Labels tab in
Windows) to call up the Labels page.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to use Auto Spacing.
4.
In the area labeled Tick Mark and Label Spacing, select the Auto Spacing check box.
For a particular view, you may want to exercise manual control by specifying an anchor position, which specifies a particular value at which one tick mark should be drawn, and a spacing
factor; additional tick marks are drawn at intervals spacing apart.
To exercise manual control of tick marks and tick mark labels:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click Ticks (Ticks tab in Windows) to call up the Ticks page, or click Labels (Labels tab in
Windows) to call up the Labels page.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to specify tick mark and tick mark label spacing.
4.
In the area labeled Tick Mark and Label Spacing, deselect the Auto Spacing check box.
5.
In the text field labeled Spacing, specify a spacing in the units of the variable assigned to
the axis.
6.
In the text field labeled Anchor, specify a value at which you want one tick mark drawn.
Additional tick marks are spaced according to the Spacing parameter away from this
anchor tick mark.
17.5.2. Controlling Tick Mark Labels
From the Labels page of the Edit Axis dialog, shown in Figure 17-8, you can specify the following attributes for tick mark labels for each axis:
• Whether tick mark labels are displayed.
• The color, font, and size of the tick mark labels.
• The offset of the tick mark labels—that is, the distance between the tick mark labels and the
axis line (in frame units for XY- and 2-D axes, and as a percentage of the median axis
length for 3-D axes).
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17.5. Controlling Tick Marks and Tick Mark Labels
• The orientation of the tick mark labels. For 2-D axes, this is just the angle the labels make
with the horizontal. For 3-D axes, the orientation can be the angle the labels make with the
horizontal, or they can be placed parallel or perpendicular to the axis.
• The format of the tick mark labels.
• The position and spacing of the tick marks and tick mark labels.
Figure 17-8. The
Labels page of the Edit Axis dialog.
• A label skip for each axis. This is the number of major tick marks to skip. For example,
with the label skip set to 2, every other major tick mark will be labeled.
• You can add labels and/or ticks to all sides of the axis box by using the Show Border and
associated options on the Grid page of the Edit Axis dialog.
17.5.3. Tick Mark Label Formats
You can choose several numeric formats for your tick mark labels, or specify a set of text
strings to use as custom labels. The following numeric formats are available:
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
• Integer: Tick marks are labeled in integer format (for example, 12). If this format is
selected, tick mark labels with a decimal part are truncated.
• Float: Tick marks are labeled with floating-point numbers (for example, 10.2).
• Exponent: Tick marks are labeled using numbers in exponential format (for example,
1.02E-03).
• Best Float: Tecplot automatically selects the best floating-point representation of the tick
mark labels.
• Superscript: Tick marks are labeled with numbers in scientific notation (for example,
1.2x10-3).
Custom labels are text strings defined in your data file that allow you to print meaningful labels
for variables that do not contain numeric data, such as variables that contain names or levels
(such as Yes/No, Small/Medium/Large, or months of the year) of a categorical variable.
Custom labels are defined using the CUSTOMLABELS record; each CUSTOMLABELS record
corresponds to one custom set. When you choose custom labels for an axis, you also choose
which custom set should be used for that axis.
To specify the format for your tick mark labels:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the axis for which you want to specify the format of the tick mark labels.
3.
Click Labels (Labels tab in Windows) to call up the Labels page.
4.
Choose one of the five numeric formats Integer, Float, Exponent, Best Float, or Superscript,
or Custom from the drop-down labeled Format.
5.
(Float, Exponent, or Superscript only) Enter a value in the Precision field to specify the
number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the tick mark labels. The default is four.
6.
(Custom only) Enter a value in the Custom Set field to specify which set of custom labels to
use on this axis.
As a simple example of using custom labels, consider the following data file, containing data
about attendance at two schools:
VARIABLES="SCHOOL", "ATTENDANCE"
CUSTOMLABELS "Cleveland", "Garfield"
ZONE T="1991"
1 950
2 640
ZONE T="1992"
1 1010
2 820
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17.5. Controlling Tick Marks and Tick Mark Labels
The numbers 1 and 2 represent the school number, and the CUSTOMLABELS record defines
Cleveland as school one and Garfield as school two. Once you assign custom labels in Tecplot,
the School axis is labeled with “Cleveland” and “Garfield” rather than “1” and “2.”
To create a plot with custom labels:
1.
Create a data file with one or more CUSTOMLABELS records, and one or more variables
with ordered integer values 1, 2, 3, and so forth. The first string in the CUSTOMLABELS
record corresponds to a value of 1, the second string to 2, and so on.
2.
Read the data file into Tecplot.
3.
Create a plot. XY-plots are the most likely to use custom labels, but you can use them anywhere.
4.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit, and select the Label page of the Edit Axis dialog.
5.
Choose the axis for which you want to assign custom labels, select Custom from the Format
drop-down, and choose a set of custom labels for the axis from among all the
CUSTOMLABELS records in the data file. For this example, edit the X-axis and choose custom set 1.
6.
Go to the Ticks page of the Edit Axis dialog and deselect the Auto Spacing check box, then
set the spacing to one. (You may also want to set the number of minor ticks to zero.)
7.
Go to the Range page of the Edit Axis dialog and set the Min and Max value to 0.5 and 2.5
respectively.
8.
Close the Edit Axis dialog, then go to the sidebar. Select the Bars check box and deselect
the Lines check box from the plot layers area.
The attendance data are plotted in Figure 17-9.
As another example, consider the following data file containing temperature and rainfall data:
VARIABLES="MONTH", "TEMPERATURE", "RAINFALL"
CUSTOMLABELS "Jan", "Feb", "Mar", "Apr", "May", "Jun"
"Jul", "Aug", "Sep", "Oct", "Nov", "Dec"
CUSTOMLABELS "Cold", "Cool", "Warm", "Hot"
CUSTOMLABELS "Dry", "Average", "Wet"
1 1 1
2 1 2
3 2 3
4 2 3
5 3 3
6 3 2
7 4 1
8 4 1
This weather data file is plotted in Figure 17-10.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
Attendance 1991
Attendance 1992
1000
1000
900
900
800
800
700
700
600
600
500
500
400
400
300
300
200
200
100
100
0
Cleveland
Figure 17-9. Bar
0
Garfield
Cleveland
Garfield
charts with custom labels.
Wet
Average
Dry
Jan
Figure 17-10. A
Feb
Hot
Mar
Apr
Warm
May
Jun
Cool
Jul
Aug
Cold
3-D plot with custom labels on each axis.
Custom labels are used cyclically. That is, if the variable assigned to the axis using custom
labels goes over the number of custom labels, Tecplot starts with the first label again. This is
useful for days of the week, months of the year, or other cyclical data. For example, in the
weather data set above, a value of 13 for the MONTH variable yields a tick mark label of “Jan.”
Similarly, a value of five for TEMPERATURE yields a tick mark label of “Cold”; in this case,
that is probably not what you want.
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17.6. Controlling the Axis Line
17.6. Controlling the Axis Line
The actual axis line is shown by default whenever the axis is shown, but it is just as much an
optional part of the plot as the tick marks or tick mark labels. There may be situations when
you want to see an axis represented simply by the tick marks or the gridlines, without an additional line for the axis itself. In such cases, you can hide the axis line without turning off the
axis as a whole.
To show or hide the axis line:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Line button (Line tab in Windows) to call up the Line page of the Edit Axis dialog, shown in Figure 17-11.
Figure 17-11. The
Line page of the Edit Axis dialog.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to show or hide the axis line.
4.
To show the axis line, select the Show check box. To hide the axis line, deselect the Show
check box.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
17.6.1. Controlling Axis Line Color
You can choose a color for the axis line from the drop-down of Tecplot’s basic colors. The axis
line color is used to color not only the axis line but also any tick marks or grid lines associated
with that axis. In 3-D plots, the color of the axis is also used for the axis box, even if the axis
line itself is turned off. The color of tick mark labels, however, is set independently of the axis
line color.
To modify the axis line color:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Line button (Line tab in Windows) to call up the Line page of the Edit Axis dialog.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to modify the axis line color
4.
Choose one of Tecplot’s basic colors from the Color drop-down.
17.6.2. Controlling Axis Line Thickness
You can specify the thickness of the axis line. Unlike the choice of color, the axis line thickness
affects only the axis line and, in 3-D plots, the axis box; the thickness of gridlines and tick
marks is set independently.
To modify the axis line thickness:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Line button (Line tab in Windows) to call up the Line page of the Edit Axis dialog.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to modify the axis line thickness.
4.
Enter the desired line thickness (as a percentage of frame height), or choose one of the preset values from the Thickness(%) drop-down.
17.6.3. Controlling Edge Assignments in 3-D
In three dimensions, a given axis line might appear in any of four locations relative to the other
axes. By default, Tecplot automatically places the three axis lines so they will not interfere with
the drawing of the plot, as shown in Figure 17-12.
You can override this automatic edge assignment for each axis line as follows:
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Line button (Line tab in Windows) to call up the Line page of the Edit Axis dialog.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to change the edge assignment.
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1.
17.7. Controlling Axis Titles
Z
X
Y
Z(M)
X (M
Y (M
Figure 17-12. Default
)
)
edge positions for 3-D axis lines.
4.
Deselect the check box labeled Auto Edge Assignment. Four option buttons, labeled
(generically) Min-Min, Max-Min, Min-Max, and Max-Max, become sensitive.
5.
Select the option button that yields the desired edge assignment.
17.7. Controlling Axis Titles
An axis title is a text label that identifies the axis. By default, Tecplot labels each axis with the
name of the variable assigned to that axis. From the Title page of the Edit Axis dialog, you can
specify the following attributes for each axis title:
•
•
•
•
Whether axis titles are displayed, and if so, what text to use for the title.
The color, font, and size of the axis title.
The offset of the axis title—that is, the spacing between the axis title and the axis line.
The position of the axis title (left, center, or right).
17.7.1. Choosing an Axis Title
You have three options in choosing an axis title:
• No Title: The axis is untitled.
• Use Variable Name: The axis is titled with the name of the variable assigned to the axis.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
• Use Text: The axis is titled with text that you supply.
To specify the axis title:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Choose the Title button (Title tab in Windows) to call up the Title page of the Edit Axis dialog.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to modify the axis title.
4.
Select one of the option buttons No Title, Use Variable Name, or Use Text.
5.
(Use Text only) If you select Use Text, enter the desired axis title in the text field immediately below the set of option buttons, as shown in Figure 17-13.
Figure 17-13. The
Title page of the Edit Axis dialog.
17.7.2. Controlling Axis Title Offset
The axis title offset prevents Tecplot from printing your axis title directly on top of the axis.
You specify the offset as a percentage of frame height for XY- and 2-D axes, or as a percentage
of median axis length for 3-D axes. For XY- and 2-D axes, you can specify a negative offset,
which moves the axis title to the other side of the axis (that is, inside the drawing area). For 3-
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17.7. Controlling Axis Titles
D axes, negative offsets are treated as positive. Zero offset prints the edge of the axis title on
the axis.
To specify an axis title offset:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click the Title button (Title tab in Windows) to bring up the Title page.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to modify the axis title offset.
4.
Enter the desired offset in the Offset (%) field.
17.7.3. Controlling Axis Title Position
You can choose the position of your axis title from the following three options:
• Left: The axis title is positioned at the logical left of the axis (normally at the minimum of
the axis range, unless the axis is reversed).
• Center: The axis title is centered along the axis.
• Right: The axis title is positioned at the logical right of the axis (normally at the maximum
of the axis range, unless the axis is reversed)
To specify an axis title position:
1.
From the Axis menu, choose Edit. The Edit Axis dialog appears.
2.
Click the Title button (Title tab in Windows) to bring up the Title page.
3.
Choose the axis for which you want to modify the axis title position.
4.
Select a position from one of the option buttons Left, Center, or Right.
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Chapter 17. Controlling Axes
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CHAPTER 18
Annotating with Text
and Geometries
You can enhance any plot, or create a drawing from scratch, using Tecplot’s text and drawing
tools. Tecplot provides tools for creating polylines, circles, ellipses, squares, and rectangles, in
addition to a text tool for creating titles, labels, and any other text you want. You can annotate
plots created in XY, 2D, or 3D frame mode.
Alternatively, pure sketches are created in the “Sketch” frame mode, denoted by the letter “S”
on the sidebar. Figure 18-1 shows a sketch created with Tecplot drawing tools.
α
WEDGE
Freestream
Shock Wave
XS
XF
LSH
Flat Plate
Free Stream
Z
Figure 18-1. A
sketch created with Tecplot.
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
18.1. Adding Text
Text strings are used for plot titles and labels. Figure 18-2 shows a small sample of the types of
text you can create with Tecplot.
Examples of Text
5%
Figure 18-2. Text
Reversed Text
Times
Te
xt
An
gl
ed
Tecplot
X2+Y2
Plot Title
Tecplot
u
Bo
xT
Mesh Plot αi+βj
Italics
Temperature
Times Bold
Times Italic Bold
Co
Text
δ
ε
αβχδεφγηιϕκλµνοπ
d
Line
ex
t
Helvetica
β
χ
l
Bo
Multi
Helvetica Bold
Big Text
main()
r
α
Pressure
Times Italic
3.07±0.14
Courier
e
ri
Four Score and Seven Years Ago
examples created with Tecplot.
To add text to your plot or sketch:
From the sidebar, choose the Text tool
, or from the Style menu, choose Add Text. In
either case, when you move the pointer into the workspace it becomes a cross-hair.
2.
Click anywhere in a frame to indicate the location of the text. The Text dialog appears, as
shown in Figure 18-3.
3.
Enter the desired text in the text area labeled Enter Text String. As you type, the text you
enter is echoed in the frame.
4.
Modify the text color, font, angle, height, and position as desired. Units for the height and
position other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the number. Use cm
for centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
328
1.
18.1. Adding Text
Figure 18-3. The
Text dialog.
5.
Click Options to add a box around your text, modify the line spacing for multi-line text, or
set a text anchor location.
6.
Click Close to place the text and close the dialog, or click elsewhere in the work area to
place additional text.
18.1.1. Editing Text
To edit text already placed:
1.
From the sidebar, choose the Selector tool
.
2.
Double-click on the text you wish to edit. The Text dialog appears.
3.
Edit the text in the Enter Text String text area, or make any desired modifications to the text
attributes (color, font, angle, height, and position). Units for the height and position other
than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
4.
Click Options to modify the text box style and the line spacing for multi-line text.
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
5.
To cancel your modifications, click Cancel.
To modify the text attributes of several text items at once, drag the mouse to create a group
select rubber band box to enclose the items you want to edit. In the Group Select dialog, deselect all object type check boxes except for Text, and click OK. Then click Quick Edit. The
Quick Edit dialog appears. You can use the Quick Edit dialog to modify the font, size, and
color of your text items.
18.1.2. Deleting Text
To delete text:
1.
From the sidebar choose the Selector tool
.
2.
Select the text you wish to delete, then from the Edit menu, choose Clear, or press Delete. A
confirmation dialog appears asking if you are sure you want to clear the selected text.
3.
Click OK.
18.1.3. Controlling Text Fonts
You can create text using any of Tecplot’s eleven built-in fonts. Samples of all eleven fonts are
shown in Figure 18-4. Eight of the fonts (Courier, Helvetica and Times) are collectively
referred to as English fonts. You can embed Greek, Math, and User-Defined characters into
Examples of Text Fonts
Helvetica
Helvetica Bold
Times
Times Bold
Times Italic
Times Italic Bold
Courier
Courier Bold
Greek Font: αβχδεφγηιϕκλµνοπ
Math Font: ℵℑℜ℘⊃⊄⊆∉∏∑
User Defined Font:
Figure 18-4. Examples
330
of Tecplot’s text fonts.
18.1. Adding Text
English-font strings by using special lead-in characters called font identifiers, together with the
keyboard character that corresponds to the desired character in the chosen font, as shown in
Figure 18-5.
The font identifiers and their effects are as follows:
• ‘ (back quote): Draw the following character from the Greek font.
• ~ (tilde): Draw the following character from the Math font.
• @ (at sign): Draw the following character from the User-Defined font.
For example, to insert the Greek letter Φ into a Tecplot text string, use the combination “`F.” A
serif registered trademark symbol (such as that accompanying the word “Tecplot” in
Figure 18-2) can be created with the combination “~R.”
Similarly, you can produce subscripts or superscripts by preceding any single character with an
underscore (“_”) or caret (“^”), respectively. To subscript or superscript multiple characters,
you need to subscript or superscript each character individually. (Tecplot has only one level of
2
superscripts and subscripts; expressions requiring additional levels, such as e x , must be
created by hand using multiple Tecplot text strings.) If you alternate subscripts and superscripts, Tecplot positions the superscript directly above the superscript. Thus, the string a_b^c
produces a cb . To produce consecutive superscripts, use the ^ before each superscript character.
The string x^(^a^+^b^) produces x
(a + b)
in your plot.
To insert any of the characters “`”, “~”, “@”, “_”, or “^” into text literally, precede the character with a backslash (“\”). To insert a backslash in the text, just type two backslashes (“\\”). In
ASCII input files, the number of backslashes must be doubled (two to precede a special character, four to create a backslash) because the Preplot program also requires a backslash to escape
special characters.
Embedding and escaping special characters work only in English-font text; they have no effect
in text created in Greek, Math, or User-Defined fonts.
18.1.4. Using European Characters
Tecplot supports the ISO-Latin one-character encodings. Characters in the ASCII ordinal range
from 160-255 are now available, providing support for most of the major European languages.
Figure 18-5 shows the characters supported by Tecplot. Note that the two right-hand columns
represent the extended European characters. Using a lead-in character to produce a Greek,
Math, or User-Defined character only works with characters in the range 32-126 and is not
available for the extended European characters.
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332
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
208
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18.1. Adding Text
If your keyboard is configured to produce European characters, then the European characters
should appear and print automatically with no further setup.
18.1.5. Using Character Codes to Generate European Characters
If your keyboard is not configured to produce a specific European character you can generate it
by including the sequence \nnn in your text where nnn the character index value is taken from
the character index table found in Figure 18-5. For example, if your keyboard will not generate
the é and you want to show the word “latté,” you would enter:
latt\233
You may need to redraw to get the characters to display clearly.
18.1.6. Specifying Text Size and Position
Text can be specified using either of two coordinate systems: frame or grid. In the frame coordinate system, text is positioned relative to the frame, but not to any data that might be in the
frame. Thus, if you change the view of the data (for example, by zooming, or translating, or
rotating), the frame coordinate text does not move. In the grid coordinate system, on the other
hand, the text does move as you alter the view by zooming or translating. If you want to annotate individual data points, it is wise to use grid coordinates.
Once you have chosen a coordinate system, you can choose a set of units for specifying text
heights. In the frame coordinate system, you can specify character heights in either frame units
(that is, as a percentage of the frame height), or in points. In the grid coordinate system, you
can specify character heights in either frame units or grid units (that is, in the same units as
shown on the axes; in a sketch plot, the default grid axes run from zero to one in both the Xand Y-direction). Units other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the
number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
In the Text dialog, you specify the coordinate system and character height units as a pair; you
simply choose the desired combination from among the four option buttons under the group
label Coordinate System/Character Height: Frame/Frame, Frame/Point, Grid/Grid, or Grid/
Frame.
After choosing a Coordinate System/Character Height combination (Frame/Point is the
default), you can specify the text height by either choosing a pre-set value or entering a value in
the Height field.
18.1.6.1. Controlling Text Position. You specify the anchor position for each piece of text
by clicking at the desired location in the frame. You have some guidance in this by using the
workspace rulers, and you can gain some specific control by using the Snap to Paper or Snap to
333
Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
Grid sidebar options. However, for complete control over the position of your anchor point,
you can specify exact coordinates for the anchor position, or origin of the text, using the Origin
controls in the Text dialog.
To specify an exact position for the text anchor position:
1.
In the workspace, select the text for which you want to specify an origin.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Text dialog appears.
3.
Enter a value for the X-position in the text field labeled X and a value for the Y-position in
the text field labeled Y. Values should be in the coordinate system specified for the text,
either frame units or grid units. Units other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing
them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches, or pix for pixels
The text anchor can be at any of nine locations with respect to the text: vertically, one of Headline, Midline, or Baseline, and horizontally, one of Left, Center, or Right. The anchor location
determines whether text is centered about the text origin, or right, left, top, or bottom justified.
To specify the anchor location:
1.
In the workspace, select the text for which you want to specify the anchor position.
2.
Click Options. The Text Options dialog appears as shown in Figure 18-6.
Figure 18-6. The
334
Text Options dialog.
18.1. Adding Text
3.
Under the heading Text Anchor Location, select one of the nine option buttons corresponding to the allowable anchor locations.
18.1.6.2. Controlling the Text Box. You can put a plain or filled box around any piece of
text. A filled text box obscures all portions of the plot under the text box; a plain box is a transparent outline.
To add a text box:
1.
In the workspace, select the text for which you want to specify a text box.
2.
Click Options. The Text Options dialog appears.
3.
Choose one of the option buttons Filled or Plain.
4.
Specify the line thickness and box outline color, and for a filled box, select a fill color.
5.
Specify the margin around the text as a percentage of the text character height.
18.1.6.3. Specifying the Scope of the Text. By default, text is displayed only in the
frame in which it is created. You can, however, choose to have the text appear in all frames
using the same data set as the one in which the text was created. Such frames are called like
frames.
To propagate text to all like frames:
1.
In the workspace, select the text that you want to appear in like frames.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Text dialog appears.
3.
Click Options. The Text Options dialog appears.
4.
Select the check box labeled Show in All Like Frames.
5.
Click Close.
18.1.6.4. Attaching Text to Zones or XY-Mappings. By default, text is always displayed, regardless of which zones or XY-mappings are currently active. Sometimes, however,
you use text to highlight a particular feature of a specific zone or XY-mapping, and that text is
meaningless unless the zone or XY-map is displayed as well. In such cases, you can control the
display of the text by attaching the text to the zone or XY-map.
To attach text to a zone or XY-map:
1.
In the workspace, select the text that you want to attach to a zone or XY-map.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Text dialog appears.
3.
Click Options. The Text Options dialog appears.
4.
Select the check box labeled Attach to Zone/Map.
5.
Enter a zone or XY-mapping number in the text field immediately to the right of the Attach
to Zone/Map check box.
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
6.
Click Close.
Once attached to a zone or XY-map, the text is displayed when the zone or XY-map is active,
and not displayed when the zone or XY-map is inactive. In XY-plots, this option is controlled
by just the XY-mapping number. In 2- and 3-D plots, it is controlled by just the zone number.
18.1.7. Adding Dynamic Text
You can add special placeholders to text that changes with the data or the display environment.
For example, you can add a date placeholder that Tecplot will replace with the current date at
each Redraw. Similarly, you can add a zone name or variable name placeholder.
The complete list of placeholders is as follows:
336
Variables
Notes
&(AXISMAXX)
Maximum value of current X-axis range.
&(AXISMAXY)
Maximum value of current Y-axis range.
&(AXISMAXZ)
Maximum value of current Z-axis range.
&(AXISMINX)
Minimum value of current X-axis range.
&(AXISMINY)
Minimum value of current Y-axis range.
&(AXISMINZ)
Minimum value of current Z-axis range.
&(COLORMAPDYNAMIC)
Returns one if the color map is dynamic, zero if static.
&(DATE)
Replaced with the current date in the format dd Mon yyyy.
&(DATASETFNAME:nnn)
Data set file name of the nth file associated with the current data
set. If n is omitted then all data set file names are show, separated
by new lines.
&(DATASETTITLE)
Replaced with the current data set title.
&(FRAMEMODE)
Zero=Sketch, One=XY, Two=2D, Three=3D.
&(FRAMENAME)
Replaced with the current frame name.
&(LAYOUTFNAME)
Replaced with the name of the current layout file.
&(LOOP)
Innermost loop counter.
&(MACROFILEPATH)
Path to the directory containing the most recently opened macro
file.
&(MAXB)
Maximum value for blanking variable. If the frame mode is 2D or
3D, the value is calculated from the current set of active zones. If
the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from the zone
assigned to the lowest numbered active XY-mapping.
&(MAXC)
Maximum value for contour variable. If the frame mode is 2D or
3D, the value is calculated from the current set of active zones. If
the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from the zone
assigned to the lowest numbered active XY-mapping.
18.1. Adding Text
Variables
Notes
&(MAXI)
I-dimension for the lowest numbered active zone for 2D and 3D
frame modes. For XY frame mode this represents the maximum Ivalue for the zone assigned to the lowest numbered active XYmapping. For finite-element data, this represents the number of
nodes in the lowest numbered active zones.
&(MAXJ)
J-dimension for the lowest numbered active zone for 2D and 3D
frame modes. For XY frame mode this represents the maximum Jvalue for the zone assigned to the lowest numbered active XYmapping. For finite-element data, this shows the number of elements in the lowest numbered active zone.
&(MAXK)
K-dimension for the lowest numbered active zone for 2D and 3D
frame modes. For XY frame mode this represents the maximum
K-value for the zone assigned to the lowest numbered active XYmapping. For finite-element data, this shows the number of nodes
per element for the lowest numbered active zone.
&(MAXS)
Maximum value for scatter sizing variable for the currently active
zones.
&(MAXU)
Maximum value for variable assigned to the X-vector component
for the currently active zones.
&(MAXV)
Maximum value for variable assigned to the Y-vector component
for the currently active zones.
&(MAXW)
Maximum value for variable assigned to the Z-vector component
for the currently active zones.
&(MAXX)
Maximum value for variable assigned to the X-axis. If the frame
mode is 2D or 3D, the value is calculated from the current set of
active zones. If the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from
the zone assigned to the lowest numbered active XY-mapping.
&(MAXY)
Maximum value for variable assigned to the Y-axis. If the frame
mode is 2D or 3D, the value is calculated from the current set of
active zones. If the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from
the zone assigned to the lowest numbered active XY-mapping.
&(MAXZ)
Maximum value for variable assigned to the Z-axis for the currently active zones.
&(MINB)
Minimum value for blanking variable. If the frame mode is 2D or
3D, the value is calculated from the current set of active zones. If
the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from the zone
assigned to the lowest numbered active XY-mapping.
&(MINC)
Minimum value for contour variable. If the frame mode is 2D or
3D, the value is calculated from the current set of active zones. If
the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from the zone
assigned to the lowest numbered active XY-mapping.
&(MINS)
Minimum value for scatter sizing variable for the currently active
zones.
&(MINU)
Minimum value for variable assigned to the X-vector component
for the currently active zones.
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
Variables
Notes
&(MINV)
Minimum value for variable assigned to the Y-vector component
for the currently active zones.
&(MINW)
Minimum value for variable assigned to the Z-vector component
for the currently active zones.
&(MINX)
Minimum value for variable assigned to the X-axis. If the frame
mode is 2D or 3D, the value is calculated from the current set of
active zones. If the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from
the zone assigned to the lowest numbered active X-Y mapping.
&(MINY)
Minimum value for variable assigned to the Y-axis. If the frame
mode is 2D or 3D, the value is calculated from the current set of
active zones. If the frame mode is XY, the value is calculated from
the zone assigned to the lowest numbered active X-Y mapping.
&(MINZ)
Minimum value for variable assigned to the Z-axis for the currently active zones.
&(NUMFRAMES)
Number of frames.
&(NUMPLANES)
Returns number of graphics bit-planes
&(NUMVARS)
Number of variables in current data set.
&(NUMWIN)
Number of frames. (Backward compatibility with Version 6.0.)
&(NUMXYMAPS)
Number of XY-maps assigned to the current frame.
&(NUMZONES)
Number of zones in current data set.
&(OPSYS)
Returns 1=UNIX, 2=DOS.
&(PRINTFNAME)
Replaced with the name of the current print file.
&($string)
Replaced with the value of the system environment variable
string.
&(TECHOME)
Path to the Tecplot home directory.
&(TECPLOTVERSION)
Returns Tecplot Version. (Currently returns “90.”)
&(TIME)
Replaced with the current time in the format hh:mm:ss.
&(VARNAME:nnn)
Replaced with the variable name for variable nnn.
&(ZONENAME:nnn)
Replaced with the zone name for zone nnn.
The placeholders must be typed exactly as shown, except that the nnn in the zone name and
variable name placeholders should be replaced by the actual number of the zone or variable,
such as &(ZONENAME:3) or &(VARNAME:2).
You can, of course, embed the dynamic text strings in text records in a Tecplot-format data file,
as in the following example:
TEXT CS=FRAME HU=POINT T="&(DATE)"
338
18.2. Adding Geometries to Your Plot
System environment variables can be accessed directly from Tecplot by using the following:
&($string), where string is the name of your environment variable. Using environment variables
within Tecplot can add another degree of flexibility by taking advantage of your customized
environment. If an environment variable is missing, the environment variable name itself will
appear on the screen.
18.2. Adding Geometries to Your Plot
Geometries in Tecplot are simply line drawings. Geometries include polylines (a set of line
segments), circles, ellipses, rectangles, and squares. Polylines may include arrowheads at
either or both ends. Figure 18-7 shows some examples of geometries.
Map Made Using Geometries
Example Geometry Shapes
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-150
-100
Figure 18-7. Sample
-50
0
geometries.
18.2.1. Creating Geometries
You create geometries by drawing them in a frame using one of the following sidebar tools:
• The
button to draw polylines. You can also choose this tool by choosing Add
Polyline from the Style menu.
339
Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
• The
button to draw circles. You can also choose this tool by choosing Add Circle
from the Style menu.
• The
button to draw ellipses. You can also choose this tool by choosing Add
Ellipse from the Style menu.
• The
button to draw squares. You can also choose this tool by choosing Add
Square from the Style menu.
• The
button to draw rectangles. You can also choose this tool by choosing Add
Rectangle from the Style menu.
After choosing any of these tools, when you move the pointer into the workspace, where it
becomes a cross-hair. Click once in a frame to set the anchor position for the geometry. To
complete the geometry, follow the instructions for each geometry type as follows:
• For polylines: Move the mouse (without dragging) to the desired end point of the
•
•
•
•
first line segment, then click the left mouse button. Move the pointer to the next end
point, click, and so on. After placing the last segment, double-click on the final end
point or press Esc on your keyboard. To draw a horizontal or vertical line segment,
press the H or V keys, respectively, while drawing the segment. After you place the
segment’s end point, the horizontal or vertical restriction is lifted. To lift the horizontal or vertical line segment restriction without placing the end point, press A on your
keyboard. You can draw unconnected line segments in a single polyline; press U on
your keyboard to “lift the pen.” You can then move the pointer to the start of the next
line segment.
For circles: Click at the desired center point of the circle; drag the mouse until the
circle is the desired radius, then release.
For ellipses: Click at the desired center point of the ellipse; drag the mouse until the
ellipse is the desired size and shape, then release.
For squares: The anchor point of the square is either the lower left-hand corner or
the upper right corner of the square. Drag the mouse to the right of the anchor to create a square with the anchor at lower left; drag the mouse to the left to create a square
with the anchor at upper right. Release when the square is the desired size.
For rectangles: Drag the mouse until the rectangle is the desired size and shape. In
contrast to squares, rectangles can propagate in any direction.
18.2.2. Modifying Geometries
You can modify the outline color, line pattern, line thickness, fill color, and position of your
geometries, along with other attributes that affect the relationship of the geometry to the frame
and the data set (if any). Individual geometry types have their own specific attributes.
340
18.2. Adding Geometries to Your Plot
18.2.2.1. Controlling Colors. Geometries may be filled or unfilled. Unfilled geometries
have a single color attribute: the line color. Filled geometries have both a line color and a fill
color. You can control the colors from either the Geometry dialog or the Quick Edit dialog.
To specify a geometry’s colors:
1.
In the workspace, select the geometry or geometries for which you want to modify the
color.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. If you have selected a single geometry, the Geometry
dialog appears. Continue with Step 3. If you have selected multiple geometries, the Quick
Edit dialog appears. Continue with Step 4.
3.
(Geometry dialog) Specify the geometry’s outline color by choosing one of Tecplot’s basic
colors from the Line Color menu. If you want the geometry filled, select the check box
labeled Fill Color, then select a fill color from the menu immediately to the right of the Fill
Color check box.
4.
(Quick Edit dialog) Specify the outline color for all selected geometries by selecting the
Line option button, then clicking on one of the basic colors. If you want the geometries
filled, select the Fill option button, then click on one of the basic colors. For both Line and
Fill, the M button has no effect on geometries. The X button causes fill to be turned off
(when Fill option button is selected), or causes line color to match fill color (when Line
option button is selected, and fill is present). If no fill is present, the X button also has no
effect.
5.
Click Close.
18.2.2.2. Controlling Line Patterns. The outline of a geometry, or any polyline, can be
drawn in any of Tecplot’s line patterns. You control the line pattern from either the Geometry
dialog or the Quick Edit dialog.
To specify a geometry’s line pattern:
1.
In the workspace, select the geometry or geometries for which you want to modify the line
pattern.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. If you have selected a single geometry, the Geometry
dialog appears. Continue with Step 3. If you have selected multiple geometries, the Quick
Edit dialog appears. Continue with Step 4.
3.
(Geometry dialog) Specify the geometry’s line pattern by choosing one of Tecplot’s six line
patterns (Solid, Dashed, Dotted, Dash Dot, Long Dash, and Dash Dot Dot) from the Line
Pattern menu. Specify a pattern length by either choosing a pre-set value from the dropdown menu or entering a percentage of the frame height in the text field.
4.
(Quick Edit dialog) Specify the line pattern for all selected geometries by selecting the
appropriate line pattern button, as follows:
341
Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
-
Chooses a solid line.
-
Chooses a dotted line.
-
Chooses a dashed line.
-
Chooses a long dashed line.
-
Chooses an alternating dot-and-dash line.
-
Chooses an alternating dash-and-two-dots line.
Specify a pattern length by clicking on the Pttrn Length button, and choosing either one of
the pre-set values or Enter. If you choose Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears; enter the
desired pattern length as a percentage of frame height and click OK.
5.
Click Close.
18.2.2.3. Controlling Line Thickness. You can control the thickness of polylines and the
outlines of other geometries. You control the line thickness from either the Geometry dialog or
the Quick Edit dialog.
To specify a geometry’s line thickness:
1.
In the workspace, select the geometry or geometries for which you want to modify the line
thickness.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. If you have selected a single geometry, the Geometry
dialog appears. Continue with Step 3. If you have selected multiple geometries, the Quick
Edit dialog appears. Continue with Step 4.
3.
(Geometry dialog) Specify the geometry’s line thickness by either choosing a pre-set value
from the drop-down menu or entering a percentage of the frame height in the Line Thickness (%) field.
4.
(Quick Edit dialog) Specify a line thickness by clicking Line Thcknss, and choosing either
one of the pre-set values or Enter. If you choose Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears; enter
the desired line thickness as a percentage of frame height and click OK.
5.
Click Close.
18.2.2.4. Controlling the Coordinate System. Geometries, like text, can be positioned
using either frame coordinates or grid coordinates. Grid coordinates are used by default.
Unlike text, however, geometries are sized using the units of the coordinate system in which
they are placed. That is, geometries that use frame coordinates use frame units to specify both
the position and the size, while geometries that use grid coordinates use grid units to specify
both the position and size. When frame coordinates are used, the geometry is locked at a partic-
342
18.2. Adding Geometries to Your Plot
ular location within the frame, and actions which modify the view (such as zooming, translating, and rotating) have no effect on the geometry. When grid coordinates are used, the
geometry is part of the view, subject to change when the view changes. For example, a circle in
frame coordinates retains its size and shape when you zoom into the plot, while a circle in grid
coordinates grows as you zoom in. You specify the coordinate system using the Geometry
dialog.
To specify a geometry’s coordinate system:
1.
In the workspace, select the geometry for which you want to specify a coordinate system.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Select one of the two option buttons Frame or Grid in the region labeled Coordinate System.
4.
Click Close.
18.2.2.5. Controlling Geometry Position. You specify the anchor position for a new
geometry by clicking anywhere in the frame. You have some guidance in this by using the
workspace rulers, and you can gain some specific control by using the Snap to Paper or Snap to
Grid sidebar options. Users can also move a geometry to the front or the back of a group of
geometries by selecting it, then choosing Edit, Push or Edit, Pop. However, for complete
control over the position of your anchor point, you can specify exact coordinates for the anchor
position, or origin of the geometry, using the Origin controls in the Geometry dialog.
To specify an exact position for a geometry’s origin:
1.
In the workspace, select the geometry for which you want to specify an origin.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Enter a value for the X-position in the text field labeled X, a value for the Y-position in the
text field labeled Y, (and, for 3-D line geometries brought in from data files, a value for the
Z-position in the text field labeled Z). Values must be in the coordinate system specified for
the geometry, either frame units or grid units. Units other than Paper Ruler may be specified
by typing them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
18.2.2.6. Specifying Geometry Scope. By default, a geometry is displayed only in the
frame in which it is created. You can, however, choose to have the geometry appear in all
frames using the same data file as the one in which the geometry was created. Such frames are
called like frames.
To propagate a geometry to all like frames:
1.
In the workspace, select the geometry that you want to appear in like frames.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Select the check box labeled Show in All Like Frames.
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
4.
Click Close.
18.2.2.7. Attaching Geometries to Zones or XY-Mappings. By default, geometries
are always displayed, regardless of which zones or XY-mappings are currently active. Sometimes, however, you draw a geometry to highlight a particular feature of a specific zone or XYmapping, and that geometry is meaningless unless the zone or XY-map is displayed as well. In
such cases, you can control the display of the geometry by attaching the geometry to the zone
or XY-map.
To attach a geometry to a zone or XY-map:
1.
In the workspace, select the geometry that you want to attach to a zone or XY-map.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Select the check box labeled Attach to Zone/Map.
4.
Enter a zone or XY-mapping number in the text field immediately to the right of the Attach
to Zone/Map check box.
5.
Click Close.
Once attached to a zone or XY-map, the geometry is drawn when the zone or XY-map is active,
and not drawn when the zone or XY-map is inactive.
18.2.2.8. Adding Arrowheads to Polylines. You can add arrowheads to either or both
ends of any polyline, and control the arrowhead style, size, and angle. You control polyline
arrowheads from either the Geometry dialog or the Quick Edit dialog.
To control polyline arrowheads:
In the workspace, select the polyline or polylines for which you want to specify arrowhead
attachment.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. If you have selected a single polyline, the Geometry
dialog appears. Continue with Step 3. If you have selected multiple polylines, the Quick
Edit dialog appears. Continue with Step 4.
3.
(Geometry dialog) Specify where to place arrowheads for the geometry by selecting none,
one, or both of the check boxes labeled Start and End beside the label Attachment. If you
select one or both of Start and End, specify a style by selecting one of the option buttons
labeled Plain, Filled, or Hollow. Specify a size by either choosing a pre-set value or entering a value in the Size (%) field. Specify an angle by either choosing a pre-set value or
entering a value in the Angle (deg) field.
4.
(Quick Edit dialog) Specify where to place arrowheads by clicking on one of the following:
344
1.
-
No arrowheads.
-
Arrowheads at both ends.
18.2. Adding Geometries to Your Plot
-
Arrowhead at start of polyline.
-
Arrowhead at end of polyline.
Specify a style by clicking on one of the following buttons:
-
Plain arrowhead style.
-
Filled arrowhead style.
-
Hollow arrowhead style.
Specify a size for the arrowheads by clicking Size, located beneath the Arrowhead Style
options, then choosing either one of the pre-set sizes, or Enter. If you choose Enter, an Enter
Value dialog appears. Enter the desired size as a percentage of the frame height, then click
OK.
Specify an angle for the arrowheads by clicking Angle, then choosing either one of the preset values, or Enter. If you choose Enter, an Enter Value dialog appears. Enter the desired
arrowhead angle, which is the angle that one side of the arrowhead makes with the polyline,
in degrees.
18.2.2.9. Specifying Circle Attributes. Using the Geometry dialog, you can modify the
radius of a circle and also the number of line segments used to approximate the circle.
To modify a circle’s radius:
1.
In the workspace, select the circle for which you want to modify the radius.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Enter a new value in the text field labeled Radius. Units other than Paper Ruler may be
specified by typing them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for
pixels.
4.
Click Close.
To modify the number of line segments used to approximate the circle:
1.
In the workspace, select the circle for which you want to specify a different number of line
segments.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Enter a new value in the text field labeled Approximated by Number of Sides.
4.
Click Close.
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
18.2.2.10. Specifying Ellipse Attributes. Using the Geometry dialog, you can modify the
horizontal and vertical axes of an ellipse and also the number of line segments used to approximate the ellipse.
To modify an ellipse’s axes:
1.
In the workspace, select the ellipse for which you want to modify the axes.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Enter a new value for the horizontal axis length in the text field labeled Horizontal Axis.
Units other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the number. Use cm for
centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
4.
Enter a new value for the vertical axis length in the text field labeled Vertical Axis. Units
other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
5.
Click Close.
To modify the number of line segments used to approximate the ellipse:
1.
In the workspace, select the ellipse for which you want to specify a different number of line
segments.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Enter a new value in the text field labeled Approximated by Number of Sides.
4.
Click Close.
18.2.2.11. Specifying a Square’s Size. The only specific attribute of a square that you
can modify is the side length.
To modify the size of a square:
1.
In the workspace, select the square for which you want to modify the size.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
3.
Enter a new value in the text field labeled Size. Units other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
4.
Click Close.
18.2.2.12. Specifying a Rectangle’s Size. The only specific attributes of a rectangle that
you can modify are the width and height.
To modify the size of a rectangle:
In the workspace, select the rectangle for which you want to modify the size.
2.
On the sidebar, click Object Details. The Geometry dialog appears.
346
1.
18.2. Adding Geometries to Your Plot
3.
Enter a new value in the text field labeled Width. Units other than Paper Ruler may be specified by typing them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for pixels.
4.
Enter a new value in the text field labeled Height. Units other than Paper Ruler may be
specified by typing them after the number. Use cm for centimeters, in for inches or pix for
pixels.
5.
Click Close.
18.2.2.13. Moving Individual Points of a Geometry. With the Adjustor tool, you can
move one or more points from polyline geometries, as follows:
1.
On the sidebar, choose the Adjustor tool by clicking
.
2.
Click the point you want to move. If you want to move more than one point, you can drag a
box around them to select them as a group, or Shift-click each point in turn. Handles appear
on the selected points. (The points do not all have to be in the same polyline.)
3.
Drag the selected points to move them. The points move as a group.
As you move the points, you can use the V and H keys on your keyboard to restrict motion to
the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. Press A to allow movement in all directions
(the default).
18.2.3. Creating 3-D Line Geometries
Three-dimensional line geometries cannot be created interactively; they must be created in a
data file. For example, the following data file includes two 3-D line geometries representing
the trajectories of two bugs in a cubic room (10 x 10 x 10). Two zones are used to represent the
ceiling and floor of the room. (In order to display 3-D geometries, you must either include at
least one zone in the data file with the 3-D geometries or read the 3-D geometries in, using the
Add to Current Data Set option, after having first read a data set into the frame.) A plot of this
data set (included in your Tecplot distribution as examples/dat/3dgeom.dat) is shown
in Figure 18-8.
TITLE = "EXAMPLE: 3D GEOMETRIES"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z"
ZONE T="Floor", I=3, J=3, F=POINT
0. 0. 0.
5. 0. 0.
10. 0. 0.
0. 5. 0.
5. 5. 0.
10. 5. 0.
0. 10. 0.
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Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
Z
Y
X
10
8
6
Z
4
10
5
Y
2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
X
Figure 18-8. Three-dimensional
line geometries.
5. 10. 0.
10. 10. 0.
ZONE T="Ceiling", I=3, J=3, F=POINT
0. 0. 10.
5. 0. 10.
10. 0. 10.
0. 5. 10.
5. 5. 10.
10. 5. 10.
0. 10. 10.
5. 10. 10.
10. 10. 10.
GEOMETRY X=0, Y=0, Z=0, CS=GRID, C=BLUE, T=LINE3D, F=POINT
1
12
10. 4.0 10.
9.5 5.0 10.0
9.3 4.0 9.0
10. 5.0 9.5
348
18.3. Pushing and Popping Text and Geometries
9.2 4.0 8.2
8.8 5.3 7.6
7.8 5.6 7.0
7.2 5.2 5.0
6.9 6.0 5.5
6.9 4.5 6.4
7.3 4.6 6.8
8.2 4.8 7.0
GEOMETRY X=0,
1
20
0 .1 .5 .7 1.
0 .1 .3 .4 .5
0 .1 .3 1. 3.
Y=0, Z=0, CS=GRID, C=RED, T=LINE3D, F=BLOCK
2. 4.9 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.9 8. 8.5 9. 10. 10. 10. 9.5 8. 9.
.7 .8 1. 2. 3. 3.5 3.7 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.5 5. 5. 6.
5. 6. 8. 10. 10. 10. 9. 7. 5. 2. 1. 0. 0. 0. 3.
18.3. Pushing and Popping Text and Geometries
You can place text and geometries in any order you like. Tecplot draws all geometries first, in
the order in which they were placed, then all text. There are times, however, when you want to
override this default order. Sometimes, for example, you may place one geometry, then draw a
second geometry that partially obscures the first. You can “pop” the first geometry to the top of
the draw stack, so that Tecplot draws it after the geometry that had partially obscured it.
Popping raises the object to the top of its draw stack. Pushing lowers the object to the bottom
of its draw stack. The text stack is always drawn on top of the geometry stack.
To push a text or geometry object:
1.
Select the object.
2.
From the Edit menu, choose Push.
To pop a text or geometry object:
1.
Select the object.
2.
From the Edit menu, choose Pop.
18.4. Aligning Text and Geometries
When you have a number of text and geometries,
you may want to align them after placing them. You
can do this using the alignment tools in the Quick
Edit dialog, shown in Figure 18-9.
Figure 18-9. Alignment
tools.
You can use these tools as follows:
349
Chapter 18. Annotating with Text and Geometries
1.
On the sidebar, choose the Selector tool by clicking
.
2.
In the workspace, select a text or geometry with which you want to align other objects.
3.
Drag the mouse to draw a rubber band box around the text and geometries you want to
align. The Group Select dialog appears.
4.
Select the Text and Geometries check boxes in the Group Select dialog, then click OK.
Selection handles appear on the selected text and geometries.
5.
On the sidebar, click Quick Edit to call up the Quick Edit dialog, if it is not already displayed.
6.
Use the alignment buttons as follows:
-
Left align the selected text and geometries with the original selected object.
-
Center the selected text and geometries with the original selected object.
-
Right align the selected text and geometries with the original selected object.
-
Top align the selected text and geometries with the original selected object.
-
Bottom align the selected text and geometries with the original selected object.
18.5. Linking Text and Geometries to Macros
Each text or geometry you create can be linked to a macro function. This macro function is
called whenever the user holds down the control key and clicks the right mouse button on the
text or geometry.
For example, if you have pieces of text, each representing a different well, Ctrl-right-click on
any piece could run a macro that brings up an XY-plot of that well’s data.
Macro functions are specified with the “Macro Function” field in the Geometry dialog or in the
Text Options dialog. If desired, the macro function may be listed with one or more parameters.
See Chapter 28, “Using Macros,” and the Tecplot Reference Manual, for more detailed information on using macros in Tecplot.
18.6. Creating Custom Characters
You can create symbols, characters, and even custom fonts for use in Tecplot. See Section
31.5, “Defining Custom Characters and Symbols,” for instructions.
350
19.1. Attributes that can be Linked
CHAPTER 19
Frame Linking
Tecplot’s frame linking feature allows you to link specific style attributes between frames.
Changing an attribute in one frame results in the same change to all other frames linked with
respect to that attribute.
19.1. Attributes that can be Linked
Figure 19-1 shows the Set Links for Current Frame dialog.
Figure 19-1. The
Set Links for Current Frame dialog.
The attributes which may be linked are:
• Contour Levels: Link the values and number of contour levels.
• Frame Size and Position: Allows you to stack transparent frames. (See section 2.1.4,
“Modifying the Frame Background Color,” for further information.)
• X-Axis Range: For XY- and 2-D plots.
• Y-Axis Range: For XY- and 2-D plots.
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Chapter 19. Frame Linking
• 3D Plot View: Links the ranges of axes in 3D frame mode.
19.2. Frame Linking Groups
In addition to setting which attributes to link between frames, you can also choose to which
group the current frame belongs. The first step when linking attributes between frames is to
identify which frames are going to be assigned to which group. If you only have two frames,
then this is unimportant as both frames default to being in group 1 and there is no need to have
any other groups. Attributes are only propagated to other frames that are members of the same
group and that have the same link attributes selected.
Frame A
Frame C
Contour Levels
X-Axis Range
Group = 1
Frame D
X-Axis Range
Group = 1
Contour Levels
X-Axis Range
Frame E
Group = 2
Frame B
X-Axis Range
Contour Levels
Group = 2
X-Axis Range
Group = 1
Figure 19-2. Five
frames in two groups showing different linking options.
Figure 19-2 shows five frames. Frames A, B, and C are in group 1. Frames D and E are in
group 2. Note that all five frames have their X-axis ranges linked. If you change the X-axis
range in frame A, the corresponding change will occur in frames B and C. It will not occur in
frames D and E, as they are not in group 1. A change to the X-axis range in frame D will only
be propagated to frame E.
Some frames in Figure 19-2 also have linked contour levels. Changes in the contour levels in
frame A would propagate to frame C only. Setting the link for contour levels in frame D has no
effect as frame E, the only other frame in group 2, does not have the same attribute linked.
New frames added to a group take on the characteristics of previous members of the group. For
this reason, it is important to start the group with a frame that has the characteristics you want
for that group (though, once frames are in a group, a change to a linked attribute of one frame
changes that attribute for all frames in that group).
352
19.3. Linking an Attribute
19.3. Linking an Attribute
To link an attribute:
1.
From the Frame menu, choose the Set Links for Current Frame option. The Set Links for
Current Frame dialog appears.
2.
Set the group number for this frame. To change the group the current frame is assigned to
simply change the group setting at the bottom of the dialog.
3.
Activate the check box for the attribute you wish to link.
4.
One by one, pop the other frames you want to also have the same link attributes. Repeat
Step 1-3 for each of these frames.
19.4. Dependent Axes
When 2-D or XY-frames have dependent axes and the axis ranges are linked, Tecplot will make
a “best-fit” attempt to match the axis ranges between frames. Misalignments can occur when
the aspect ratios for the lengths of the axes is not the same between two frames with linked Xand Y-axes. Setting the X- and Y-axes to be independent will allow a precise match.
353
Chapter 19. Frame Linking
354
CHAPTER 20
Working with
Finite-Element Data
A finite-element zone consists of a set of points (nodes) that are connected into polygonal or
polyhedral units called elements. Associated with each element is a list of the nodes used by
that element, in the order in which they are connected. A complete finite-element zone consists
of the set of nodes plus the connectivity list for each element.
Tecplot supports both triangular and quadrilateral elements; these are collectively referred to as
finite-element surface zones. Tecplot also supports tetrahedral or brick polyhedral elements,
which are referred to as finite-element volume zones. Each Tecplot zone must be composed
exclusively of one element type. You can, however, simulate zones with mixed element types
by repeating nodes as necessary. Thus, a triangle element can be included in a quadrilateral
zone by repeating one node in the element’s connectivity list, and tetrahedral, pyramidal, and
prismatic elements can be included in a brick zone by repeating nodes appropriately.
While finite-element data is usually associated with numerical analysis for modeling complex
problems in 3-D structures, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and electromagnetics, it also provides an effective approach for organizing data points in or around complex geometrical
shapes. For example, you may not have the same number of data points on different lines, there
may be holes in the middle of the data set, or the data points may be irregularly (randomly)
positioned. For such difficult cases, you may be able to organize your data as a patchwork of
elements. Each element can be virtually independent of the other elements, so you can group
your elements to fit complex boundaries and leave voids within sets of elements. Figure 20-1
shows how finite-element data can be used to model a complex boundary.
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Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
Heat Exchanger
Finite Element Mesh Structure
6
5
Y
4
3
2
1
0
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
X
Figure 20-1. Finite-element
data used to model a complex boundary.
20.1. Creating Finite-Element Data Sets
Creating a finite-element data set is generally somewhat more work than creating a similar
sized ordered data set, because in addition to specifying all the data points, you must also specify the connectivity list which describes how the data points are connected into elements. As an
example, consider the data shown in Table 20-1.
Node
X
Y
P
T
A
0.0
1.0
100.0
1.6
B
1.0
1.0
150.0
1.5
C
3.0
1.0
300.0
2.0
D
0.0
0.0
50.0
1.0
E
1.0
0.0
100.0
1.4
F
3.0
0.0
200.0
2.2
G
4.0
0.0
400.0
3.0
H
2.0
2.0
280.0
1.9
Table 20-1. Finite-element
356
data.
20.1. Creating Finite-Element Data Sets
We can create an FEPOINT Tecplot data file for this data set as follows (a 2-D mesh plot of
this data set is shown in Figure 20-2):
TITLE = "Example: 2D Finite-Element Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "P", "T"
ZONE N=8, E=4, F=FEPOINT, ET=QUADRILATERAL
0.0 1.0 100.0 1.6
1.0 1.0 150.0 1.5
3.0 1.0 300.0 2.0
0.0 0.0 50.0 1.0
1.0 0.0 100.0 1.4
3.0 0.0 200.0 2.2
4.0 0.0 400.0 3.0
2.0 2.0 280.0 1.9
1 2 5 4
2 3 6 5
6 7 3 3
3 2 8 8
2
H
Y
1.5
A
B
C
1
0.5
F
E
D
1
2
3
G
4
X
Figure 20-2. A
mesh plot of 2-D finite-element data.
The ZONE record describes completely the form and format of the data set: there are eight
nodes, indicated by the parameter N=8; four elements, indicated by the parameter E=4, and the
elements are all quadrilaterals, as indicated by the parameter ET=QUADRILATERAL.
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Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
The same data file can be written more compactly in FEBLOCK format as follows:
TITLE = "Example: 2D Finite-Element Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "P", "T"
ZONE N=8, E=4, F=FEBLOCK, ET=QUADRILATERAL
0.0 1.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 3.0 4.0 2.0
1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0
100.0 150.0 300.0 50.0 100.0 200.0 400.0 280.0
1.6 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.4 2.2 3.0 1.9
1 2 5 4
2 3 6 5
6 7 3 3
3 2 8 8
In FEBLOCK format, all values for a single variable are written in a single block. The length of
the block is the number of data points in the zone. In FEPOINT format, all variables for a
single data point are written in a block, with the length of the block equal to the number of
variables. The connectivity list, however, is the same for both formats.
You can change the connectivity list to obtain a different mesh for the same data points. In the
above example, substituting the following connectivity list yields the five-element mesh shown
in Figure 20-3. (You must also change the E parameter in the zone control line to specify five
elements.)
2
H
Y
1.5
A
1
B
C
0.5
0
D
0
E
1
F
2
3
G
4
X
Figure 20-3. Finite-element
358
data of Figure 20-2 with different connectivity list.
20.1. Creating Finite-Element Data Sets
1
4
5
6
3
2
2
3
7
2
4
3
6
3
8
4
5
6
3
8
Finite-element surface data specify node
locations in three dimensions. For example,
consider the data in Table 20-2. Locations
are listed for eleven nodes, each having
only the three spatial variables X, Y, and Z.
We would like to create an finite-element
surface zone with this data set, where some
of the elements are triangles and some are
quadrilaterals. All the elements could be
organized into one zone, of element type
Quadrilateral, but as an illustration of creating 3-D surface data, create three zones:
one triangular, one quadrilateral, and one a
mixture (using quadrilaterals with repeated
nodes for the triangles).
A Tecplot data file for the data in Table
20-2 is shown below in FEPOINT format
and plotted in Figure 20-4:
X
Y
Z
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
−2.0
1.0
0.0
−2.0
1.0
1.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
−1.0
1.0
−1.0
0.0
1.0
−1.0
−1.0
−1.0
1.0
0.0
−1.0
1.0
−1.0
−1.0
−1.0
0.0
−1.0
−1.0
−1.0
Table 20-2. Data
set with eleven nodes and
three variables.
TITLE = "Example: 3D FE-SURFACE ZONES"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z"
ZONE T="TRIANGLES", N=5, E=4, F=FEPOINT, ET=TRIANGLE
0.0 0.0 1.0
-1.0 -1.0 0.0
-1.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 -1.0 0.0
1 2 3
1 3 4
1 4 5
1 5 2
ZONE T="PURE-QUADS", N=8, E=4, F=FEPOINT, ET=QUADRILATERAL
-1.0 -1.0 0.0
-1.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 -1.0 0.0
-1.0 -1.0 -1.0
-1.0 1.0 -1.0
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Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
1.0 1.0 -1.0
1.0 -1.0 -1.0
1 5 6 2
2 6 7 3
3 7 8 4
4 8 5 1
ZONE T="MIXED", N=6, E=4, F=FEPOINT, ET=QUADRILATERAL
-1.0 -1.0 -1.0
-1.0 1.0 -1.0
1.0 1.0 -1.0
1.0 -1.0 -1.0
0.0 0.0 -2.0
1.0 0.0 -2.0
1 5 2 2
2 5 6 3
3 4 6 6
4 1 5 6
Z
1
X
Y
0
Z
-1
-2
-1
-0.5
0
Y
Figure 20-4. Three-dimensional
360
0.5
1 1
0
X
-1
mesh plot of finite-element surface data.
20.2. Creating 3-D Volume Data Files
20.2. Creating 3-D Volume Data Files
Finite-element volume data in Tecplot is constructed from either tetrahedrons having four
nodes or bricks having eight nodes. Bricks are more flexible, because they can be used
(through the use of repeated nodes in the connectivity list) to construct elements with fewer
than eight nodes and combine those elements with bricks in a single zone. Bricks, on the other
hand, are harder to construct because care must be taken to make sure all faces in all bricks are
planar.
20.2.1. Creating a Finite-Element Volume Brick Data Set
As a simple example of finite-element volume brick data, consider the data in Table 20-3. The
data can be divided into five brick elements, each of which is defined by eight nodes.
Table 20-3. Data
X
Y
Z
Temperature
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.5
1.0
1.0
0.0
14.5
1.0
0.0
0.0
15.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
16.0
1.0
0.0
1.0
15.5
2.0
2.0
0.0
17.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
17.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
17.5
2.0
2.0
1.0
18.5
2.0
1.0
1.0
20.0
2.0
0.0
1.0
17.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
18.0
2.0
1.0
2.0
17.5
2.0
0.0
2.0
16.5
with fourteen nodes and four variables.
In each element’s connectivity list, Tecplot draws connections from each node to three other
nodes. You can think of the first four nodes in the element as the “bottom” layer of the brick,
and the second four nodes as the “top.” Within the bottom or top layer, nodes are connected
cyclically (1-2-3-4-1; 5-6-7-8-5); the layers are connected by connecting corresponding nodes
(1-5; 2-6; 3-7; 4-8). Figure 20-5 illustrates this basic connectivity. When you are creating your
own connectivity lists for brick elements, you must keep this basic connectivity in mind, par-
361
Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
n7
n8
n5
n6
n4
n1
Figure 20-5. Basic
n3
n2
connectivity for finite-element bricks.
ticularly when using duplicated nodes to create pyramids and wedges. Tecplot lets you create
elements that violate this basic connectivity, but the result will probably not be what you want.
The data file in FEPOINT format is shown below:
TITLE = "Example: FE-Volume Brick Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z", "Temperature"
ZONE N=14, E=5, F=FEPOINT, ET=BRICK
0.0 0.0 0.0 9.5
1.0 1.0 0.0 14.5
1.0 0.0 0.0 15.0
1.0 1.0 1.0 16.0
1.0 0.0 1.0 15.5
2.0 2.0 0.0 17.0
2.0 1.0 0.0 17.0
2.0 0.0 0.0 17.5
2.0 2.0 1.0 18.5
2.0 1.0 1.0 20.0
2.0 0.0 1.0 17.5
2.0 2.0 2.0 18.0
2.0 1.0 2.0 17.5
2.0 0.0 2.0 16.5
1 1 1 1 2 4 5 3
2 4 5 3 7 10 11 8
4 4 5 5 10 13 14 11
362
20.2. Creating 3-D Volume Data Files
4 4 4 4 9 12 13 10
2 2 4 4 7 6 9 10
The same data in FEBLOCK format is shown below:
TITLE = "Example: FE-Volume Brick Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z", "Temperature"
ZONE N=14, E=5, F=FEBLOCK, ET=BRICK
0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
9.5 14.5 15.0 16.0 15.5 17.0 17.0
17.5 18.5 20.0 17.5 18.0 17.5 16.5
1
2
4
4
2
1
4
4
4
2
1
5
5
4
4
1
3
5
4
4
2 4 5 3
7 10 11 8
10 13 14 11
9 12 13 10
7 6 9 10
Figure 20-6 shows the resulting mesh plot from the data set listed in this section.
Z
X
Y
2
1.5
Z
1
2
0.5
1.5
0
X
1
0
0.5
0.5
1
0
Figure 20-6. A
1.5
Y
2
finite-element brick zone.
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Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
20.2.2. Creating a Finite-Element Volume Tetrahedral Data Set
As a simple example of an finite-element volume data set using tetrahedral elements, consider
the data in Table 20-4. The data set consists of thirteen nodes, with seven variables. The nodes
are to be connected to form twenty tetrahedral elements, each with four nodes.
X
Y
Z
C
U
V
W
0
0
−95
−1
1
0
8
0
85
−42
0
−5
−3
9
81
26
−42
2
−22
80
8
50
−69
−42
−6
72
52
9
−50
−69
−42
14
67
−48
9
−81
26
−2
20
−30
−82
9
0
0
0
1
−2
−5
10
50
69
43
14
−68
48
11
81
−26
43
20
31
82
11
0
−85
43
0
84
−3
10
−81
−26
43
2
21
−80
11
−50
69
43
−6
−71
−51
11
0
96
1
0
−1
12
0
Table 20-4. Data
with thirteen nodes and seven variables.
The data file in FEPOINT format for the data in Table 20-4 is shown below, and plotted in
Figure 20-7:
TITLE = "Example: FE-Volume Tetrahedral Data"
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "Z", "C", "U", "V", "W"
ZONE N=13, E=20, F=FEPOINT, ET=TETRAHEDRON
0 0 -95 -1 1 0 8
0 85 -42 0 -85 -3 9
81 26 -42 2 -22 80 8
50 -69 -42 -6 72 52 9
-50 -69 -42 14 67 -48 9
-81 26 -42 20 -30 -82 9
0 0 0 1 -2 -5 10
50 69 43 14 -68 48 11
81 -26 43 20 31 82 11
0 -85 43 0 84 3 10
-81 -26 43 2 21 -80 11
-50 69 43 -6 -71 -51 11
364
20.3. Triangulated Data Sets
0
0 96 1 0 -1 12
1 2 3 7
1 3 4 7
1 4 5 7
1 5 6 7
1 6 2 7
2 8 3 7
3 9 4 7
4 10 5 7
5 11 6 7
6 12 2 7
12 2 8 7
8 3 9 7
9 4 10 7
10 5 11 7
11 6 12 7
12 8 13 7
8 9 13 7
9 10 13 7
10 11 13 7
11 12 13 7
This data file is included in your Tecplot distribution’s examples/data directory as the file
fetetpt.dat. A block format version of the same data is included as the file
fetetbk.dat.
20.3. Triangulated Data Sets
One common source of finite-element surface data is Tecplot’s triangulation option. If you
have 2-D data without a mesh structure, it is probably simplest to enter your data points as an
I-ordered data set, then use Tecplot’s triangulation feature to create a finite-element data set.
You can then edit the file, and particularly the connectivity list, to obtain the set of elements
you want, rather than having to create the entire connectivity list by hand.
For example, consider again the data of Table 20-1. We can triangulate that data set as follows:
1.
Enter the data as a simple ordered data file, as follows:
VARIABLES = "X", "Y", "P", "T"
0.0 1.0 100.0 1.6
1.0 1.0 150.0 1.5
3.0 1.0 300.0 2.0
0.0 0.0 50.0 1.0
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Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
Y
X
Z
Figure 20-7. Finite-element
1.0
3.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
100.0
200.0
400.0
280.0
volume tetrahedral data.
1.4
2.2
3.0
1.9
2.
Read the data file into Tecplot and switch the frame mode to 2D.
3.
From the Data menu, choose Triangulate, then select the simple ordered zone as the source
zone, and click Compute.
4.
From the File menu, choose Write Data File. The Write Data File Options dialog appears.
5.
Select the ASCII check box and the Point Format check box, then click OK.
6.
Save to a file name of your choice. The result is the following finite-element surface zone
(in addition to your original zone):
VARIABLES = "X"
"Y"
"P"
"T"
366
20.3. Triangulated Data Sets
ZONE T="Triangulation"
N=8, E=7,F=FEPOINT ET=Triangle
DT=(SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE )
0.000000000E+000 1.000000000E+000
1.000000000E+000 1.000000000E+000
3.000000000E+000 1.000000000E+000
0.000000000E+000 0.000000000E+000
1.000000000E+000 0.000000000E+000
3.000000000E+000 0.000000000E+000
4.000000000E+000 0.000000000E+000
2.000000000E+000 2.000000000E+000
2 3 5
5 4 2
4 1 2
7 6 3
5 3 6
3 2 8
8 2 1
1.000000000E+002
1.500000000E+002
3.000000000E+002
5.000000000E+001
1.000000000E+002
2.000000000E+002
4.000000000E+002
2.800000000E+002
1.600000024E+000
1.500000000E+000
2.000000000E+000
1.000000000E+000
1.399999976E+000
2.200000048E+000
3.000000000E+000
1.899999976E+000
Figure 20-8 shows a plot of the resulting data. With triangulation, we obtain more elements
(seven) than when we created the data set by hand (four), and the elements are triangles (naturally) rather than quadrilaterals. However, when you have many data points, triangulation is the
most reasonable approach.
2
Y
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
1
2
3
4
X
Figure 20-8. Triangulated
data from Table 20-1.
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Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
20.4. Extracting Boundaries of Finite-Element Zones
Boundary lines for finite-element data are similar to boundary lines in ordered data, with a few
exceptions. For triangular and quadrilateral meshes a boundary is drawn along the edges of elements that have no neighboring element according to the element connectivity. In some cases
finite-element data will be supplied to Tecplot where each element is independent of all the
others, that is, elements do not share common nodes. For this type of data a boundary will be
drawn around each element.
Finite-element volume data, such as tetrahedral and brick element types, will not plot boundary
lines, as opposed to ordered volume data. With finite-element volume data there are, by definition, no boundary lines. However, some plot styles will draw on the outer surface of these
zones, in effect they are just drawing on the boundary. Extracting the boundary of these zones
extracts the outer surface.
To extract the boundary of a finite-element zone:
1.
Choose the appropriate frame mode for your data, either 2D or 3D. If the zone for which
you are extracting the boundary is a 3-D surface, make sure the frame mode is set to 3D. If
you create the boundary zone in 2D frame mode, the Z-coordinate is not taken into account,
and points that are not coincident in 3D frame mode may become coincident in 2D mode.
Tecplot eliminates coincident points in the final phase of the boundary extraction, so you
could lose important boundary points.
2.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose FE-Boundary. The Extract FE-Boundary
dialog appears as in Figure 20-9.
Figure 20-9. Extract
FE-Boundary dialog.
Choose the source zone, that is, the zone for which you want to extract the boundary zone.
4.
If blanking is on, decide whether to include the boundary between blanked and un-blanked
cells in the zone boundary. To include this boundary, select the check box labeled Retain
boundaries between blanked and un-blanked cells.
368
3.
20.5. Limitations of Finite-Element Data
5.
Click Extract. The extracted boundary zone is an FE-surface zone with quadrilateral elements, but each element has two repeated nodes so that each element is a single line segment along the boundary.
20.5. Limitations of Finite-Element Data
Working with finite-element data has some limitations, as follows:
• Finite-element data cannot be smoothed.
• Finite-element data cannot be mathematically differentiated.
• XY-plots of finite-element data treat the data as I-ordered; that is, the connectivity list is
ignored. Only nodes are plotted, not elements, and the nodes are plotted in the order in
which they appear in the data file.
• Index skipping in vector and scatter plots treats finite-element data as I-ordered; the connectivity list is ignored. Nodes are skipped according to their order in the data file.
369
Chapter 20. Working with Finite-Element Data
370
CHAPTER 21
Working with 3-D
Volume Data
This chapter brings together descriptions of most of the Tecplot tasks involving 3-D volume
data, whether IJK-ordered or finite-element. In this chapter, you will find descriptions of the
following common 3-D volume tasks:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Choosing which surfaces you want to plot from your volume data.
Choosing which data points to use for vector and scatter plots.
Interpolating 3-D volume irregular data.
Extracting I-, J-, and K-planes from an IJK-ordered zone.
Generating and extracting iso-surfaces.
Extracting the outer surface of an FE-volume zone.
Generating and extracting volumes with a plane.
Creating specialized 3-D volume plots.
Other related topics such as IJK-blanking and animating IJK-planes are discussed in Chapter
25, “Blanking,” and Chapter 28, “Animation and Movies,” respectively.
21.1. Choosing Which Surfaces to Plot
There are many ways to divide volume data for plotting. One way to view volume data is to
select surfaces from part of the data. For example, a typical plot would view a contour flooded
plot drawn only on the outer surface of the volume data.
In Tecplot you may choose which surfaces to plot for volume zones from the Volume page of
the Plot Attributes dialog. You can call up the Plot Attributes dialog by clicking Plot Attributes
on the sidebar, or by double-clicking on a zone.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
Figure 21-1 shows the Volume page of the Plot Attributes dialog.
Figure 21-1. The
Volume page of the Plot Attributes dialog.
The Surfaces to Plot option allows you to choose on of the following:
• Boundary Cell Faces: This will plot all surfaces on the outside of the volume zone. For
IJK-ordered data this amounts to plotting the minimum and maximum I-, J-, and K-planes.
For finite-element volume data this will plot all faces that do not have a neighbor cell
(according to the connectivity list). If blanking is turned on, the boundary cells in the
blanked region will not be drawn and you will be able to see the interior of the volume
zone. Figure 21-2 shows plots of a volume zone with surface to plot set to Boundary Cell
Faces without blanking, with value blanking, and with IJK-blanking.
• Exposed Cell Faces (Default): This setting is similar to the Boundary Cell Faces setting,
save for cases in which value blanking is turned on. When value blanking is used the outer
surfaces are drawn, similar to results from the Boundary Cell Faces setting. In addition, the
cells faces between blanked and non-blanked cells are drawn. Figure 21-3 shows a plot of a
volume zone with Surfaces to Plot set to Exposed Cell Faces with and without value blanking.
• Planes Settings (I-, J-, K-, IJ-, JK-, IK-, and IJK-planes): These settings will plot the
appropriate combination of I-, J-, and or K-planes. The planes are determined by the Range
for columns to the right of the dialog. These settings are available only for IJK-ordered
data. Figure 21-4 shows a number of examples of plotting I-, J-, and K-planes.
• Every Surface (Exhaustive): This setting will plot every face of every cell in volume data.
It is not recommended for large data sets. Unless the surfaces are translucent, the plot will
appear the same as for the Exposed Cell Faces setting.
372
21.1. Choosing Which Surfaces to Plot
Z
Z
X
X
Y
Y
With Value blanking
Without blanking
Z
Y
X
With IJK blanking
Figure 21-2. Boundary
Cell Face plotting without blanking, with value-blanking, and
with IJK-blanking.
Z
Z
X
X
Y
Y
Without blanking
With Value blanking
Figure 21-3. Examples
of plots where Surfaces to Plot has been set to Exposed Cell
Faces with (left) and without (right) value-blanking.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
Z
Z
Y
X
I planes only
J and K planes
Z
Z
X
X
Y
Y
I planes only
I and J planes
Figure 21-4. Examples
Y
X
of plotting I-, J-, and K-planes.
21.2. Choosing which Points to Plot
You may select the source for the data points used to plot vectors and scatter symbols from the
Points to Plot column on the Plot Attribute dialog’s Volume page. Your choices are Surfaces
Only and All.
Choosing Surfaces Only will draw a vector or scatter symbol (when the appropriate zone layer
is active) at every data point on all surfaces being plotted. To select the surface use the Surfaces
to Plot option, discussed in the section above.
Choosing All will enable the plotting of vector or scatter symbols at every data point.
374
21.3. Plotting Derived Volume Objects
A plot where zone 1 is plotting scatter symbols only on one plane (J=5) and zone 2 is plotting
all symbols is shown in Figure 21-5.
Z
Y
X
Zone 1
Zone 2
Figure 21-5. A
plot showing two zones set to show only J-planes equal to five, with
scatter symbols plotted on the surface in zone 1 and all symbols in zone 2.
In addition to selecting which surfaces to use to plot vector and scatter symbols, you may
further limit these objects by setting the scatter symbol skip or vector skip on their respective
pages of the Plot Attributes dialog. You can only set a skip value for ordered zones.
21.3. Plotting Derived Volume Objects
Volume streamlines, volume streamribbons, volume streamrods, slices and iso-surfaces are all
derived from volume data automatically. The data used to generate these objects only exists for
the life of the frame they are plotted in. When you save a layout or the style of a frame only the
instructions necessary to recreate these objects are saved.
From the Volume Objects column on the Plot Attributes dialog you may include or exclude
volume zones from consideration in the construction of volume objects. Figure 21-6 shows a
plot with two zones where streamribbons and an iso-surface have been excluded from zone 2.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
Figure 21-6. A
plot where streamribbons and an iso-surface have been excluded from
zone 2.
21.4. Interpolating 3-D Volume Irregular Data
To use 3-D volume irregular data in Tecplot field plots, you must interpolate the data onto a
regular, IJK-ordered zone. (Tecplot does not have a 3-D equivalent for triangulation.) To interpolate your data, perform the following steps:
Place your 3-D volume irregular data into an I-ordered zone in a data file.
2.
Read in your data file and create a 3-D scatter plot.
3.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then choose Rectangular. The Create Rectangular Zone dialog appears.
4.
Enter the I-, J-, and K-dimensions for the new zone; at a minimum, you should enter 10 for
each dimension. The higher the dimensions, the finer the interpolation grid, but the longer
the interpolating and plotting time.
5.
Enter the minimum and maximum X, Y, and Z values for the new zone. The default values
are the minimums and maximums of the current (irregular) data set.
6.
Click Create to create the new zone, and close to dismiss the dialog.
7.
From the Data menu, choose Interpolate, then choose Kriging. The Kriging dialog appears
(alternatively, choose Inverse Distance).
376
1.
21.5. Extracting I-, J-, and K-Planes
8.
Choose the irregular data zone as the source zone, and the newly created IJK-ordered zone
as the destination zone. Set any other kriging parameters as desired (see Section 25.9.2,
“Kriging,” for details).
9.
Click Compute to perform the kriging.
Once Tecplot completes the interpolation, you can plot the new IJK-ordered zone as any other
3-D volume zone. You may plot iso-surfaces, volume streamtraces, and so forth. At this point,
you may want to deactivate or delete the original irregular zone so as not to conflict with plots
of the new zone.
Figure 21-7 shows an example of irregular data interpolated into an IJK-ordered zone, with
iso-surfaces plotted on the resultant zone.
Z
X
Irregular 3D-Volume Data
Z
X
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
-1
-2
-3
3
-1
Y
-2
Y
Interpolated IJK-Ordered Data
-3
-2
-4
-2
-4
-4
-4
-1
-1
-3
0
-2
-1
1
-3
0
-2
-1
1
0
2
0
2
1
Figure 21-7. Irregular
1
data interpolated into an IJK-ordered zone.
21.5. Extracting I-, J-, and K-Planes
Suppose you want to plot a collection of I-, J-, and K-planes that cannot be specified using the
index range and index skip options of the Volume Attributes dialog. You can plot an arbitrary
set of planes in Tecplot, but you must first extract each plane as a separate zone. Extracting
planes is very simple using the Create SubZone dialog.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
To extract a K-plane from an IJK-ordered zone, follow these steps:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then choose SubZone. The Create SubZone dialog appears as shown in Figure 21-8.
Figure 21-8. The
Create SubZone dialog.
2.
From the Source Zone drop-down, select the IJK-ordered zone.
3.
In the K-Index fields, set Start and End to the same value: the number of the desired
K-plane. Set Skip to 1.
For example, to extract the K=5 plane, set Start to 5, End to 5, and Skip to 1.
4.
Click Create to extract the plane. Tecplot creates an IJ-ordered zone containing just the data
points in the extracted plane.
Extracting I- and J-planes is similar.
21.6. Generating and Extracting Iso-Surfaces
An iso-surface is a surface having a constant value for the contour variable. Iso-surfaces
require that your data contains volume zones, such as IJK-ordered, finite-element brick, or
finite-element tetrahedral zones. In Tecplot you control iso-surfaces from the 3D Iso-Surface
Details dialog under the Field menu, shown in Figure 21-9.
21.6.1. Locating Iso-Surfaces
The contour value where iso-surfaces are defined can either be associated with the current set
of contour levels, or you may specify up to three unique levels independent of the contour
levels. To enter unique levels, chose the 1, 2, or 3 Specified Values option from the 3D Iso-
378
21.6. Generating and Extracting Iso-Surfaces
Figure 21-9. The
3D Iso-Surface Details dialog.
Surface Details dialog. You can then either enter values in the appropriate text fields, or use the
increase or decrease arrows.
If you choose the Each Contour Level option to draw iso-surfaces, you may control the isosurface positions using the Contour Levels dialog from the Field menu, or by using a contour
level tool from the sidebar. The Contour Add and Contour Delete tools may also be used to add
or delete iso-surfaces because they add and delete contour levels. The Contour Add tool may
also adjust existing levels if you hold down the Ctrl key while clicking and dragging.
21.6.2. Iso-Surface Style
Style settings for all iso-surfaces are handled through the 3D Iso-Surface Details dialog. (These
are independent of the style assigned to zones by the Plot Attributes dialog.) The following
options are available:
• Show Iso-Surfaces: Select this check box to display iso-surfaces.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
• Draw Iso-Surfaces at: Use this drop-down menu to draw iso-surfaces at each contour
level, or up to three specified values.
• Show Mesh: Select this check box to display the mesh on iso-surfaces.
• Mesh Color: Select a mesh color from the drop-down menu, or choose a custom color or
multi-color.
• Mesh Line Thickness: Select a line thickness from the drop-down menu, or enter your
own number in the text field.
•
•
•
•
Show Contour Flood: Select this check box to display contour flooding on iso-surfaces.
Show Shade: Select this check box to display shading on iso-surfaces.
Shade Color: Select a shade color from the drop-down menu, or choose a custom color.
Use Lighting Effect: Select this check box to enable the lighting effect drop-down menu
where you may choose Paneled or Gouraud shading.
• Use Surface Translucency: Select this check box to enable the surface translucency text
field, where you may set the surface translucency from one (opaque) to 99 (translucent).
21.6.3. Extracting Iso-Surfaces
You may wish to extract existing iso-surfaces to Tecplot zones to retain these surfaces while
switching the contour variable to generate a different set of iso-surfaces. Once extracted, the
new zones may be plotted like any other zone in which case style is set with the Plot Attributes
dialog instead of the 3D Iso-Surface Details dialog.
To extract iso-surfaces to zones, perform the following steps:
1.
Add iso-surfaces to your plot as described above.
2.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose Iso-Surfaces. The Extract Iso-Surfaces
dialog appears, as shown in Figure 21-10.
Figure 21-10. The
380
Extract Iso-Surfaces dialog.
21.7. Slicing Data in 3-D
3.
Click Extract to create the new iso-surface zones, one zone for each contour level. All of
the variables in the data set are interpolated from the 3-D volume zones to the data points of
the iso-surfaces.
Iso-surface zones are FE-surface quadrilateral element-type zones, regardless of the original 3D volume zone types. The mesh of the iso-surfaces is derived from the mesh of the original
zones, so that in regions where the original mesh was coarse, the iso-surface mesh is coarse,
and where the original mesh was fine, the iso-surface mesh is fine.
After creating the new iso-surface zones, it is often a good idea to turn off or reconfigure the
current settings for iso-surfaces because the new zones will occupy the same physical space as
the iso-surfaces.
21.7. Slicing Data in 3-D
There are two methods for creating slices:
1.
Create slicing planes defined by a constant X-, Y-, or Z-location, or constant I-, J-, or Kindex for IJK-ordered zones. These slices are created using either the Slice tool from the
sidebar, or the 3D Slice Details option of the Field menu.
2.
Extract an arbitrary slice using the Slice from Plane option on the Extract sub-menu of the
Data menu. This option allows you to slice through 3-D surface as well as 3-D volume
zones.
These operations are separate and each has unique advantages.
21.7.1. Defining Slice Planes
Slicing planes defined with the 3D Slice Details dialog or the Slice tool become part of the
style of your plot. They do not add to the data set used to create your plot unless you extract
them. When you save a layout or stylesheet the information about where the slices are defined
will be saved in your file.
Starting and ending slice positions may be defined. Intermediate slice positions between the
start and end slice may also be activated. You may generate slices of constant X, Y, or Z, or, if
you have IJK-ordered data, you may create slices of constant I, J, or K. Only volume zones
may be sliced using this feature. The resulting slices are always 3-D surfaces.
Figure 21-11 shows the pages of the 3D Slice Details dialog. Selecting the Show Slices check
box activates the start slice.
21.7.1.1. The Position Page. Use the slider to move the start slice, or you may type in the
slice position. Activate the end slice and move it with the end slice slider. You may also acti-
381
Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
Figure 21-11. The
pages of the 3D Slice Details dialog, from upper left: the Position
page, the Contour page, the Vector page, and the Other page.
382
21.7. Slicing Data in 3-D
vate intermediate slices. Intermediate slices are distributed evenly between the start and end
slices.
The following options are available:
•
•
•
•
Show Slices: Select this check box to enable 3-D slicing.
Draw Slices at: Select which plane to slice on.
Slice 1: Your first slice.
Position: Indicates the current location of your slice. Use the slider to select the position of
your slice, or enter a value in the field.
• Show Slice 2: Select this check box to show a second slicing plane.
• Position: Indicates the current location of your slice. Use the slider to select the position of
your slice, or enter a value in the field.
• Slider Range: Limit the range for the slides. A value of 100 means the slider range is the
same as the range of the axis variable currently being sliced.
• Show Intermediate Slices: Select this check box to show intermediate slices between the
first and second slices.
• Number of Intermediate Slices: Enter the number of intermediate slicing planes in the
text field. (Range 1-100.)
21.7.1.2. The Contour Page. Use the Contour page to control the contour attributes of your
3-D slices. The following options are available:
• Show Contours: Select this check box to show contours.
• Contour Type: Select the contour type of the flood from the drop-down menu. Lines,
Flood, Lines and Flood are available.
• Line Color: Choose the line color from the drop-down menu of Tecplot’s basic colors.
Multi-Color will color the slice contour lines based on the contour variable.
• Line Thickness: Specify the line thickness as a percentage of the frame width. You may
enter a value in the text field, or choose one of the values in the drop-down menu.
• Use Lighting Effect: Select this check box to enable the lighting effect drop-down menu
where you may choose Paneled or Gouraud shading.
• Use Surface Translucency: Select this check box to enable the surface translucency text
field, where you may set the surface translucency from one (opaque) to 99 (translucent).
21.7.1.3. The Vector Page. Use the Vector page to control the vector attributes of your 3-D
slices. The following options are available:
• Show Vectors: Select this check box to show vectors.
• Tangent Vectors: Select to use tangent vectors for your slices.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
• Line Color: Choose the line color from the drop-down menu of Tecplot’s basic colors.
Multi-Color will color vectors based on the contour variable. If no contour variable is set
when selecting Multi-Color the Contour Variable dialog will appear.
• Line Thickness: Specify line thickness as a percentage of the frame width. You may enter
a value in the text field, or choose one of the values in the drop-down menu.
• Vector Type: Use this drop-down menu to set the vector type for your slices. Choose from
Tail at Point, Head at Point, Anchor at Midpoint, and Head Only.
• Vector Head Style: Use this drop-down menu to set the vector head style for your slices.
Choose from Plain, Filled, and Hollow.
21.7.1.4. The Other Page. Use this page to control the mesh, shade, and boundary
attributes of your 3-D slices. The following options are available:
• Show Mesh: Select this check box to show mesh lines.
• Color: Choose the line color from the drop-down menu of Tecplot’s basic colors. MultiColor will color meshes based on the contour variable. If no contour variable is set when
selecting Multi-Color the Contour Variable dialog will appear.
• Line Thickness: Specify the mesh line thickness as a percentage of the frame width. You
may enter a value in the text field, or choose one of the values in the drop-down menu.
• Show Shade: Select this check box to show shading on the slice when Show Contour has
not been selected or is set to Lines.
• Color: Choose the shade color from the drop-down menu of Tecplot’s basic colors. MultiColor will color shading based on the contour variable. If no contour variable is set when
selecting Multi-Color the Contour Variable dialog will appear.
• Use Lighting Effect: Select this check box to enable the lighting effect drop-down menu
where you may choose Paneled or Gouraud shading.
• Use Surface Translucency: Select this check box to enable the surface translucency text
field, where you may set the surface translucency from one (opaque) to 99 (translucent).
• Show Boundary: Select this check box to show selected boundary lines on all slices.
• Color: Choose the boundary color from the drop-down menu of Tecplot’s basic colors.
Multi-Color will color boundaries based on the contour variable. If no contour variable is
set when selecting Multi-Color the Contour Variable dialog will appear.
• Line Thickness: Specify the boundary thickness as a percentage of the frame width. You
may enter a value in the text field, or choose one of the values in the drop-down menu.
21.7.1.5. Using the Slice Tool. The Slice tool allows you to position slice planes with your
mouse. Select the tool from the sidebar, then click on a surface anywhere in your data. A slice
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21.7. Slicing Data in 3-D
will be positioned according to the XYZ-location of the nearest surface below where you
clicked.
When adding a slice to volume data it is often a good idea to plot the original data using the
Shade zone layer and set the translucency to a high level, such as 70 percent. This will allow
you to see the outer bounds of your data while placing your slice. It is necessary to see the
surface in order to be able to place your slice by mouse-click.
The Slice tool offers mouse and keyboard shortcuts which can greatly speed Tecplot use, especially when working with large amounts of data. These are:
Click: Place a start slice.
Drag: Move the start slice.
Shift-click: Place the end slice
Shift-drag: Move the end slice.
+: Turn on the start slice if no slices are active, or turns on the end slice if slices are already
active.
- : Turn off the end slice if the end slice is active, or conversely, turns off the start slice if the
end slice is not active.
I, J, K (ordered zones only): Switch to slicing constant I-, J-, or K-planes respectively.
X, Y, Z: Switch to slicing constant X-, Y, or Z-planes respectively.
1-9: Activate intermediate slices and set the number of intermediate slices to the number
entered.
0: Turn off intermediate slices.
Alt-click/Alt-drag: Determine the XYZ-location by ignoring zones and looking only at
derived volume objects (streamtraces, slices, iso-surfaces, slices).
21.7.2. Extracting Slices
In most cases it is not necessary to extract slices to zones. Most existing slice features allow
you to set almost any style. There are cases where you may need to display multiple sets of
slices in various directions, so it is necessary to extract at least some of the slices to zones.
21.7.2.1. Extracting Pre-Defined Slices. To extract slices that you have pre-defined with
the Slice tool or the 3D Slice Details dialog choose the Current 3D Slices option from the
Extract sub-menu of the Data menu. This option will create a separate zone for each slice
plane.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
21.7.2.2. Extracting an Arbitrary Slice. To extract a slice at an arbitrary orientation, or to
slice a 3-D surface instead of a volume, use the Slice from Plane option from the Extract submenu of the Data menu.
Specify any of four different types of cutting planes, as follows:
• Arbitrary: An arbitrary cutting plane. You may specify the position and orientation of the
cutting plane using three points or an origin and a normal vector, or you can interactively
place and rotate the cutting plane using the controls in the Extract Slice dialog.
• Constant X: A cutting plane of constant X-value. You may specify the X-value either by
entering a value, or using a position slider.
• Constant Y: As Constant X above, but for a cutting plane of constant Y-value.
• Constant Z: As Constant X above, but for a cutting plane of constant Z-value.
To slice a 3-D zone with a plane:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose the Slice from Plane option. The Extract
Slice from Plane dialog appears as in Figure 21-12.
Figure 21-12. The
386
Extract Slice from Plane dialog.
21.7. Slicing Data in 3-D
2.
Choose the option button corresponding to your desired slice plane (Arbitrary, Constant X,
Constant Y, or Constant Z).
3.
If you choose Arbitrary as your cutting plane, you can either use the Position sliders and
Rotate About buttons to position the cutting plane, or choose one of the following buttons:
- Three Points: Calls up the Enter Three Points dialog, in which you specify the cutting
plane by entering the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of three points on the cutting plane
(nine numbers in all). These points must form a triangle; they cannot be coincident or
collinear.
- Origin and Normal: Calls up the Enter Slice Origin and Normal dialog in which you
specify the cutting plane by entering the coordinates of a point and the components of
a normal vector. Using this option, you enter six numbers to specify the cutting plane:
the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of a point on the cutting plane (called the slice origin),
and the X-, Y-, and Z-components of a vector normal to the cutting plane (called the
slice normal).
Use the X,Y, and Z Position sliders (or the associated text fields) to move the cutting
plane’s slice origin. A representation of the slice plane is shown in the workspace. Use
Rotate About to rotate the slice plane about the slice origin.
4.
To see a “trace” of the current slice, select the Show Trace check box. If Show Trace is
selected, Tecplot draws an approximation of the intersection of the slicing plane with the
active 3-D zones. For finite-element zones, the trace in fact draws all line segments of the
intersections of the slicing plane with the cells in the zone. For IJK-ordered data, the trace
is simply the line resulting from the intersection of the slicing plane and the outer surface of
the zone. If Show Trace is not selected, Tecplot simply draws the intersection of the slicing
plane with the axis box.
5.
Choose to create slices from volume zones, surface zones, or surfaces of a volume zone. A
slice from a volume zone will create a plane. A slice from a surface zone, or the surface of
a volume zone, will be as a line or curve.
6.
Click Extract to extract the slice as a finite-element surface zone.
Once you have created the slice zone, you may plot it, write it out to a data file, delete it, etc. It
is the same as any zone that was read into Tecplot. If you slice volume zones the resulting slice
zones created are finite-element surface, quadrilateral element-types. If you slice surface zones
the resulting zones are finite-element surface, triangle element types.
See Figure 21-13 for an example of a zone created by a slice.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
Y
Z
X
Source zone
Slice zone
0.2
Y
0.5
0.1
X
0
0.6
0
0.4
0.2
-0.5
Z
0
Figure 21-13. Zone
extracted by slicing 3-D volume zone.
21.8. Creating Special 3-D Volume Plots
Special 3-D volume plots include fence plots, so called because they look like a flat plane
divided by fences, and analytic iso-surface plots, which plot iso-surfaces for analytic functions
such as F(x,y,z)=2x2-3y2-7z2, and cutaway plots, which are discussed in Chapter 27, “Blanking.”
21.8.1. Fence Plots
A fence plot is a plot of planes of a 3-D data field. These planes may be IJ-ordered zones, or
combinations of I-, J-, and K-planes of an IJK-ordered zone. In particular, the “bottom” plane
of the plot is plotted, plus a few planes that are perpendicular to this plane. These perpendicular
planes are the “fences.” Typically, flooded contours are plotted on each plane. An example
fence plot is shown in Figure 21-14.
Creating a fence plot with IJK-ordered data is simple; just perform the following steps:
Read in the IJK-ordered data set.
2.
Select the Contour zone layer check box on the sidebar. (This will initially be an iso-surface
plot.)
3.
Deselect the Mesh zone layer.
4.
From the sidebar click Plot Attributes. The Plot Attributes dialog appears.
5.
From the Volume page set Surfaces to Plot to I&J&K Planes.
6.
For each of I, J, and K, set the index range as appropriate. In Figure 21-14, the ranges chosen were as follows:
388
1.
21.8. Creating Special 3-D Volume Plots
Z
X
RHO
1.18305
1.18169
1.18033
Y
1.17897
1.17761
1.17625
1.1749
1.17354
5
0
1.17218
1.17082
1.16946
10
5
15
0
20
0
5
25
10
30
15
20
Figure 21-14. A
fence plot.
- I-planes: Start=1, End=1, Skip=1 (the bottom plane)
- J-planes: Start=1, End=Mx, Skip=7 (the three parallel planes)
- K-planes: Start=1, End=Mx, Skip=17 (the two parallel planes)
7.
From the Contour Attributes dialog, set the contour plot type to Flood or Both Lines and
Flood. Set the Flood Translucency to Medium.
8.
Select the Shade zone layer.
9.
Redraw your plot. You should see a fence plot similar to that in Figure 21-14.
You can also create fence plots using IJ-ordered zones. For the best effect, the plotted zones
should be perpendicular to each other when plotted in 3-D. For example, you can create a fence
plot from the planes extracted using the procedure in Section 21.5, “Extracting I-, J-, and
K-Planes.”
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21.8.2. Analytic Iso-Surface Plots
Using Tecplot’s data manipulation tools, you can create iso-surface plots of 3-D volume analytic functions such as F(x,y,z)=2x2-3y2-7z2. An iso-surface plot of this function in the range
x=0 to x=1, y=0 to y=1, and z=0 to z=1 is shown in Figure 21-15.
2
2
F(X,Y,Z)=2X -3Y -7Z
2
Z
X
Y
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.4
0.8
0.6
1.0
Figure 21-15. Iso-surface
0.8
1.0
plot of an analytic function.
To create an iso-surface plot of an analytic function, perform the following steps:
From the File menu, choose New Layout to clear the workspace.
2.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, and then choose Rectangular. The Create Rectangular Zone dialog appears.
3.
Enter the dimensions of I, J, and K. These will be, respectively, the number of points plotted in the X-, Y-, and Z-directions. Figure 21-15 was plotted using a dimension of 20 for
each index.
4.
Enter zero for each of XMin, YMin, and ZMin; enter one for each of XMax, YMax, and
ZMax.
5.
From the Data menu, choose Alter, then choose Specify Equations. The Specify Equations
dialog appears.
6.
In the Equation(s) text field, enter the following equation:
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1.
21.8. Creating Special 3-D Volume Plots
V4 = 2*X*X - 3*Y*Y - 7*Z*Z
7.
Click Compute to create the new variable.
8.
Deselect the Mesh zone layer check box on the sidebar.
9.
Bring up the 3D Iso-Surface Details dialog from the Field menu. When the Select Variable
dialog appears, accept the default, v4, as the contour variable.
10.
Turn on Iso-Surfaces.
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Chapter 21. Working with 3-D Volume Data
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CHAPTER 22
Printing Plots
Printing your plot is the process of sending the plot image to an output device, print spooler, or
a file. Output devices include printers, plotters, film recorders, and typesetting machines. You
can print any plot to a file, instead of having it print directly on the printer or plotter. If you are
creating files for use in another program, you should use Tecplot’s Export menu to create your
files—the Export menu includes all the supported print file types, as well as several standard
graphics formats such as TIFF, WMF, and EPS. See Chapter 23, “Exporting Plots,” for complete details.
22.1. Printing a Plot
To print a plot, select Print from the File menu. From the Print dialog you can specify whether
the output is sent directly to the printer or print spooler or to a file, and also specify the number
of copies (available for Motif only). When you click OK, everything visible on the Tecplot
paper is printed, either on the printer or to a file. The Print dialog is shown in Figure 22-1.
Figure 22-1. The
Print dialog under Windows.
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Chapter 22. Printing Plots
If you select the Send Output to File check box, the Print to a File dialog appears and you may
select the name of the file to create.
The Print dialog lets you specify options for setting up your printer by accessing the Print
Setup dialog as discussed in Section 22.3, “Setting Up Your Printer,” and for setting additional
controls for preparing the plot being sent to the printer via the Print Render Options dialog as
discussed in Section 22.4, “Print Render Options.” The Print dialog also provides access to
Print Preview, which is discussed in Section 22.5, “Print Preview.”
At any time in your Tecplot session, you can set various parameters relating to the paper,
including paper size and orientation, using the Paper Setup dialog and the Print Setup dialog. A
change to your paper settings in either the Paper Setup dialog or the Print Setup dialog will
automatically update the other.
22.2. Setting Up Your Paper
You may use the Print Setup dialog under Windows, or the Paper Setup dialog, to specify your
paper size and orientation. The Print Setup dialog is called up by clicking Print Setup on the
Print dialog. The Print dialog is accessed from the File menu’s Print option. The Paper Setup
dialog is accessed from the File menu’s Paper Setup option.
A change to your paper settings in either the Paper Setup dialog or the Print Setup dialog will
automatically update the other.
22.2.1. Using the Print Setup Dialog under Windows
The Print Setup dialog is preferable under Windows for setting up your paper. It lists all the
paper sizes your printer supports. Tecplot can produce output to fit virtually any paper size.
You may select a paper size using the Print Setup dialog’s Size drop-down menu.
Print Setup allows you to specify the paper source tray if your printer has multiple paper trays.
Do this by choosing a tray from the Print Setup dialog’s Source drop-down menu.
You can choose either Portrait or Landscape paper orientation from the Print Setup dialog. In
Portrait orientation, the long axis of the paper is aligned with the vertical axis of the plot. In
Landscape orientation, the long axis of the paper is aligned with the horizontal axis of the plot.
The Print Setup dialog is shown in Figure 22-2.
22.2.2. Using the Paper Setup Dialog
To adjust the paper size, orientation, and background color for your plots, select the Paper
Setup option from the File menu. The current settings for these options are reflected in the rep-
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22.2. Setting Up Your Paper
Figure 22-2. The
Print Setup dialog under Windows.
resentation of the paper in the workspace. (To view the paper, select the Show Paper on Screen
check box in either the Paper Setup dialog or the Ruler/Grid dialog under the Workspace menu.
This check box is selected by default.)
The Paper Setup dialog, in contrast with the Print Setup dialog under Windows, offers you only
six paper sizes. These may not be compatible with the paper sizes your printer supports. You
cannot select from multiple paper trays with the Paper Setup dialog. You may set screen
display options and fill colors with the Paper Setup dialog. The Paper Setup dialog is shown in
Figure 22-3.
Figure 22-3. The
Paper Setup dialog.
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Chapter 22. Printing Plots
The following options are available in the Paper Setup dialog:
• Size: Choose the size of the paper from the following six selections:
- Letter (8.5 x 11 inches).
- Double (11 x 17 inches).
- A4 (21x 29.7 cm).
- A3 (29.7 x 42 cm).
- Custom 1 (8.5 x 14 inches).
- Custom 2 (8 x 10 inches).
Under Windows, paper size Custom 2 is overwritten with the size selected in Print Setup if
that size does not exist in Tecplot.
You can customize all six paper sizes in the configuration file, as well as their hard-clip limits. The hard-clip limits are the lines on the edges of the paper that show where your printer
cannot print. You can set the hard-clip limits to larger values for use as guides in placing
your plots on the paper.
• Orientation: Choose the paper orientation. You have two options: Portrait and Landscape.
In Portrait orientation, the long axis of the paper is aligned with the vertical axis of the plot.
In Landscape orientation, the long axis of the paper is aligned with the horizontal axis of
the plot.
• Paper Fill Color: Select a color to use for the paper background. This color is used to display the paper in the workspace. You can select the check box Use Paper Fill Color when
Printing to have Tecplot print this background color on the hard-copy as well.
22.3. Setting Up Your Printer
You use the Print Setup dialog to set up Tecplot for printing on a particular printer. The available options are different on Windows and Motif systems. The Print Setup dialog is called up
by clicking Print Setup on the Print dialog. The Print dialog is accessed from the File menu’s
Print option.
22.3.1. Setting Up Windows Printing
To set up for printing on Windows systems, select the Print option from the File menu. The
Print dialog will appear, which was shown in Figure 22-1. Click Print Setup to launch the Print
Setup dialog, shown in Figure 22-2.
You may choose to use the printer and specifications presented, or you may click Print Setup or
(Print) Render Options to customize your printing.
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22.3. Setting Up Your Printer
You may choose to use the Windows default printer, or choose from any currently installed
printers. To change to another installed printer, click on the Name drop-down menu and select
another printer from the list.
22.3.2. Setting Up Motif Printing
Setting up to print under Motif includes the following tasks:
• Specifying a spool command, if you are using a print spooler. This may include specifying
a device-dependent startup string to condition the output device for the Tecplot output, or a
mopup string to reset the output device upon completion of plotting.
• Specifying the precision of the output for those formats which support variable precision.
• Assigning pen colors to pens for pen plotters, if applicable.
You perform most of these tasks from the Motif version of the Print Setup dialog, accessed
from the Print option of the File menu, and shown in Figure 22-4. Some of the Print Setup
dialog options launch additional dialogs, which are discussed at the appropriate places in the
following sections.
Figure 22-4. The
Motif version of the Print Setup dialog.
22.3.2.1. Choosing a Print Format. In Tecplot, you can choose from any of the following
print formats:
• PostScript (color or monochrome): PostScript is the recommended output format, since it
supports all Tecplot fonts (including Greek and Math), color flooding (or gray-scale flooding), hidden surface (or line) removal, and overlaid frames (plots).
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Chapter 22. Printing Plots
• HP-GL (line color only): The HP-GL format generates output for most HP pen plotters as
well as other pen plotters that emulate the HP-GL language. Screen colors are mapped to
pen numbers on the plotter. HP-GL output can be imported into some programs, such as
WordPerfect, but it has some limitations. It does not support contour flooding, multi-coloring, or hidden-surface removal, and it is restricted to using the Tecplot stroke (screen) fonts.
• HP-GL/2 (color or monochrome): The HP-GL/2 format can be used for HP-GL pen plotters as well as the HP LaserJet III, LaserJet 4, and PaintJet XL printers. When used with a
supported printer (as opposed to a pen plotter), HP-GL/2 can show contour flooding, multicoloring and hidden-surface removal, but plots are always limited to using the Tecplot
stroke fonts.
To choose the print format:
1.
Call up the Print Setup dialog by clicking Print Setup on the Print dialog, accessed from the
File menu.
2.
Choose the desired format from the Format drop-down menu.
If your printer is incompatible with all of the above formats, you might consider a PostScript
converter such as the freeware program Ghostscript. These programs interpret PostScript
output and translate it to the native languages for dozens of supported devices.
22.3.2.2. Specifying a Spool Command. Printers on most UNIX systems are accessed
via print spoolers that manage the print queue. Under UNIX, you typically use either the lp or
lpr commands to send files to the print spooler. There may be command-line options that
need to be set on your system, as well, such as a flag to specify a particular printer. You use the
Print Setup dialog to specify the appropriate spool command for your system.
To specify the spool command for your system:
1.
Call up the Print Setup dialog, and choose the desired format. (Spool commands will most
likely be different for different print formats, and Tecplot stores one spool command for
each print format.)
2.
In the Spooler Cmd text field, enter the appropriate spool command for your system, using
the @ symbol to represent a file name.
For example, suppose you routinely use the following spool command to print a file named
myfile.ps: “lpr -m -r myfile.ps.” The appropriate spooler command to enter in
the Spooler Cmd field is then “lpr -m -r @.”
When printing to a spooler, Tecplot creates temporary files with names of the form
tp??????, where the ?s are randomly generated characters. Tecplot does not delete these
temporary files automatically; commands to do so should be included in your spool command.
In our example, the -r flag says to remove the file when done.
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22.3. Setting Up Your Printer
22.3.2.3. Specifying Startup and Mopup Strings. A startup string is an initialization
string that sets up your output device to accept the plot created by Tecplot. A mopup string is a
reset signal that tells your output device that the special output has ended. For most devices no
startup or mopup strings are needed. However, some common devices, such as the HP LaserJet
III when printing HP-GL/2, require both startup and mopup strings.
To specify a startup or mopup string:
1.
Call up the Print Setup dialog, and choose the desired format. (Startup and mopup strings
will be different for each format, and Tecplot stores one startup and mopup string for each
print format.)
2.
Enter the appropriate startup string or mopup string in the appropriate text field. Special
characters are generated by using Macro Codes (such as “%E” for the escape character and
“^nnn” for any ASCII character with a decimal ordinal value of nnn). Check your printer
documentation for the appropriate strings. For example, with some HP-GL implementations, the HP-GL startup string must be set to the following:
$E.J$E.N;19:$E.I81;;17:
The HP LaserJet III requires the HP-GL/2 startup and mopup strings shown below:
- Startup String: $E%-1B
- Mopup String: $E%0A^012
22.3.2.4. Controlling Printing Precision. For PostScript and HP-GL/2 output, you can
control the numerical precision used in your print files. Print files contain numbers that define
sizes and positions of pieces of the plot on the output paper. These numbers are defined as integers between zero and about 8,000. Usually, this provides sufficient resolution for most output
devices. Occasionally, you may need more resolution. For example, printing to a high-resolution output device like a Linotronic typesetter may require more precision; making print output
with very small cells or elements may also require more precision.
To increase the precision of the output, increase the value in the Extra Precision field of the
Print Setup dialog. You specify one Extra Precision value for all formats that supports precision control. The precision is defined as the number of digits to the right of the decimal. Normally, precision is zero. The disadvantage of setting precision high is that the print files
increase in size. The higher the Extra Precision setting, the larger your print files, but the more
accurate the plot. Numbers above two are not normally required unless you need extremely
fine resolution. The maximum setting for the precision is eight.
22.3.2.5. Configuring Pen Plotters. If you are using a pen plotter, you can use the Pen
Plotter Device Configuration dialog shown in Figure 22-5 to specify plotter speed and pen
assignments for particular colors and Tecplot object types. You access this dialog by clicking
Pen Plotter on the HP-GL page of the Print Setup dialog. You can associate each of Tecplot’s
basic colors with any of the plotter’s pens.
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Chapter 22. Printing Plots
Figure 22-5. The
Pen Plotter Device Configuration dialog. (Motif only.)
You may also specify that the following object types be associated with a particular pen:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Axes.
Tick mark labels.
Major grid lines.
Minor grid lines.
Objects colored with the multi-color option.
Streamtraces.
Zone boundaries.
To specify a pen assignment, simply enter the number of the desired pen in the appropriate
color or object field.
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22.4. Print Render Options
To specify a plotter speed, either enter a value in the Plotter Speed field, or use the up and
down arrow buttons to increment and decrement the current value.
Click OK to accept your changes, Cancel to quit with no changes, or Reset to reset the configuration to its last saved value.
The pen plotter configuration settings only affect the output only when the print format is HPGL; they have no effect on PostScript or HP-GL/2. There are no settings for Flood Pens
because flooding is not supported under HP-GL. The default is for all lines and text to use Pen
1.
22.4. Print Render Options
Clicking the Print dialog’s (Print) Render Options calls up the Print Render Options dialog,
shown in Figure 22-6.
Figure 22-6. The
Print Render Options dialog under Windows.
The Print Render Options dialog offers you the following choices:
• Color: Select this check box for color output; deselect the check box for monochrome output.
• Color to Mono: This option is available when the Vector option is selected, but the Color
check box is not selected. Clicking Color to Mono, when it is available, calls up the Monochrome/Gray Scale Mappings dialog, which you use to specify how colors map to gray
scales when creating monochrome (black and white) output from color plots. For more
information see Section 22.4.1, “Specifying Color Mappings for Monochrome Printing.”
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Chapter 22. Printing Plots
• Vector: Select this option to create print output using the drawing commands of the printer.
The printer renders the plot, yielding higher resolution, but some plot options, such as
translucency, are not available.
• Image: Select this option to create print output using an image. Rendering is done by Tecplot at the specified resolution, usually less than the printer’s resolution. However, all plot
options are available.
• Force Extra Sorting for all 3D Frames: This option is available when the Vector option
has been selected. Selecting this check box will cause Tecplot to use extra sorting in all 3-D
frames. This overrides the setting in the Advanced 3D dialog. If this check box is not
selected, Tecplot will choose sorting algorithms based on the Advanced 3D dialog options
that were chosen for each frame. When printing 3-D plots in a vector graphics format, Tecplot must sort the objects so that it can draw those farthest from the screen first and those
closest to the screen last. By default, Tecplot uses a quick sorting algorithm. This is not
always accurate and does not detect problems, such as intersecting objects. If Extra Sorting
is selected, Tecplot uses a slower, more accurate approach that detects problems.
• Resolution (dpi): Available when the Image option is selected. Enter the resolution in
terms of dpi in the text field. Larger resolutions may result in an out-of-memory condition,
or produce very large files. Smaller resolutions may yield less-attractive output images.
The Print Render Options dialog also indicates the amount of memory your final output will
require when the selected Render Type is Image.
22.4.1. Specifying Color Mappings for Monochrome Printing
When you create monochrome plots from Tecplot, particularly if you have been working in
color on your screen, you can specify how Tecplot maps various colors to shades of black,
white, and gray. With the standard configuration, all colors of lines and text (including white)
are mapped to black, and the colors of flooded regions (geometries, frame background, grid
background color) are mapped to various gray scale values. Using the Monochrome/Gray
Scale Mappings dialog, you specify how lines, text, and flooded objects on the screen are
mapped to shades of gray in the print output. Shades of gray are specified as a percentage (zero
to 100) of white. These mappings affect only monochrome formatted output. Color output
formats use screen colors.
To specify the color to gray scale mappings:
Call up the Print Setup dialog and choose the desired format. Deselect the Color check box
if it exists.
2.
Click Color to Mono to bring up the Monochrome/Gray Scale Mappings dialog shown in
Figure 22-7. This is a global dialog—the settings apply to all monochrome output formats.
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Figure 22-7. The
Monochrome/Gray Scale Mappings dialog.
3.
In the Line/Text column, assign a percentage of white for each of Tecplot’s basic colors.
This percentage represents the shade of gray in which lines and text of that color will be
printed (zero represents black, 100 represents white).
4.
In the Flood column, assign a percentage of white for each of Tecplot’s basic colors. This
percentage represents the shade of gray in which color filling of that color will be printed
(zero represents black, 100 represents white).
5.
Click OK to accept your changes, Reset to restore the most recently saved values, or Cancel
to quit with no changes.
The colors used for contour flooding and multi-coloring are converted to gray scale values
according to the NTSC standard:
GRAY SCALE= 0.3*RED + 0.59*GREEN + 0.11*BLUE
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For the best black and white plots, Amtec recommends that you switch the Tecplot color map
to Gray Scale for printing on monochrome printers. See Section 11.5, “Controlling the Global
Color Map,” for details.
Specifying how colors map to gray scales when creating monochrome (black and white) output
from color plots.
22.5. Print Preview
A preview of your screen image as it will be rendered for the printer may be generated by
selecting Print Preview from the File menu. The preview image may be accessed by clicking
Preview on the Print dialog, which is shown in Figure 22-1. There are several reasons for viewing the print preview image prior to sending the plot to the printer. They are associated with the
image quality and reduced image content that can be supported for vector graphics printer formats such as PostScript.
As discussed in Section 22.4, “Print Render Options,” the default sorting algorithm used by
Tecplot may have problems with intersecting objects. This will typically not show up in the
OpenGL-rendered screen image. However, sorting errors may occur for vector print output.
These will be visible in the preview. The Print Preview option provides access to the Print
Render Options dialog, where you may improve sorting by selecting Force Extra Sorting for
All 3D Frames. If extra sorting does not solve the problem, the only option available is to
export the plot using an image format, discussed in Chapter 23, “Exporting Plots.” By increasing the resolution for an image format you can obtain a quality comparable to PostScript
without the sorting errors.
Vector graphics formats do not support translucency, contour flooding with Gouraud shading,
or contour flooding using the continuous color distribution method (which is only available
with OpenGL). Print Preview will not display translucency. Gouraud shading for contour
flooding will be reduced to Paneled shading. Continuous color flooding will be reduced to
color flooding with average-cell color. When you print, warning messages will be displayed to
advise you about the unsupported plot styles. The resulting printed output will closely match
the print preview image.
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Exporting Plots
In Chapter 22, “Printing Plots,” we stated that all Tecplot plots could be printed to files, as well
as directly to printers. Print files are useful only for printing at a later time. Sometimes, however, you want to create files for use in other applications, such as plots to be included in a
word-processor document, or to be edited by a graphics program. Sometimes, you can use print
files for these purposes. More often, however, you need plots in different formats. Use the
Export dialog under the File menu to create files for export into other applications.
Tecplot supports two main types of export files—vector graphics and raster graphics. Vector
graphics have device-independent resolution, but they have the same limitations as vector print
output.
With vector graphics, the export file specifies a series of lines on the paper by specifying start
and end points. The importing application then simply draws a line from the start point to the
end point. The Tecplot Export menu supports the following vector plot formats:
• PostScript (PS): Suitable for direct printing, but unsuitable for export to other applications.
It is recommended that you use the Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) format for importing
into other applications.
• Encapsulated PostScript (EPS): Special type of PostScript file designed for inclusion in
other applications.
• Windows Metafiles (WMF): Used to import into various Windows applications.
• HP-GL: Mainly for pen plotters. Screen colors are mapped to pen numbers. You can
import these files into some applications.
• HP-GL/2: Mainly for pen plotters, HP LaserJet II or IV, PaintJet XL.
Tecplot also allows you to create a raster or bit-mapped image. In Tecplot’s nomenclature there
are called image formats. Raster files contain images of plots defined as an array of pixels.
Each pixel is a dot and may have one or more bits of information that define the color or grayscale value of the dot. Tecplot creates its raster, or bitmap, files by scanning the image, reading
the color of each pixel, and writing it to a file. You define a region of the workspace, and
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Tecplot creates a file of the specified region in the image format that you specify, scaled to the
requested size of the image. Tecplot supports the following image formats:
• PNG: Portable Network Graphic.
• BMP: Windows Bitmap.
• AVI: Audio Visual Interleaved, a Windows movie file format. You may set the number of
frames per second.
• TIFF: Tagged Image File Format. You may export a color or gray scale image. For gray
scale, you may select an image depth (see below for details).
•
•
•
•
X-Windows: An image in “xwd” (X-Window Raster) format.
Sun Raster: A Sun Microsystems’ Sun Raster image.
Raster Metafile: A NASA Raster Metafile. Used for creating movies for Framer.
PostScript Image: A PostScript screen image. This is a raster EPS file suitable for printout
or import into other applications. You may choose to export a color or monochrome image.
In most cases, you want to use the vector format of PS or EPS instead of creating a PostScript image.
Of all the image formats only .rm and .avi allow you to append multiple images to a file.
Note: On Windows, you cannot create color bitmaps from Tecplot unless your graphics card
supports the display of at least 256 colors. In addition to the Export dialog, the Windows
version allows you to export a vector-based image (.wmf) or a raster-based image (.bmp)
directly to the Clipboard. If you are running Windows with only 256 colors, exporting may be
very slow.
23.1. Creating a File for Export
The basic procedure for creating an export file is the same whether you are creating a vector
format or image format file:
From the File menu, select Export. This calls up the Select Export Format dialog, shown in
Figure 23-1.
2.
Select a format from the Format list.
3.
Set format-specific options. The vector formats draw from one set of options and the image
formats from another, so we will consider the two types separately in discussing these
options.
4.
When you click OK in the Select Export Format dialog, you must specify a file name for
the export file.
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23.2. Creating Vector Export Files
Figure 23-1. The
Select Export Format dialog.
23.2. Creating Vector Export Files
For any of the three native Tecplot print formats (HP-GL, HP-GL/2, PostScript), the process
for creating an export file is similar to printing to a file on a Motif system. (Windows users
should review the discussion of printing under Motif in Section 22.3.2, “Setting Up Motif
Printing.” ) Print formats are supplied as options on the Export menu for convenience.
Available on all vector export formats is Tecplot’s Force Extra Sorting for All 3D Frames
option. Selecting this check box will cause Tecplot to use extra sorting in all 3-D frames. This
overrides the setting in the Advanced 3D dialog. If this check box is not selected, Tecplot will
choose sorting algorithms based on the Advanced 3D dialog options for a given frame. When
exporting 3-D plots in a vector graphics format, Tecplot must sort the objects so that it can
draw those farthest from the screen first and those closest to the screen last. By default, Tecplot
uses a quick sorting algorithm. This is not always accurate and does not detect problems, such
as intersecting objects. If Extra Sorting is selected, Tecplot uses a slower, more accurate
approach that detects problems.
23.2.1. Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) format can be imported into many programs (desktop publishing and word processing for instance). EPS format files may include an embedded bit-map
image that displays on the screen in many of the programs that import EPS files. There are
several different forms of bit images from which you can choose. Tecplot supports TIFF (for
most PC programs), PostScript Version 2, and a special EPS format for Adobe’s FrameMaker
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program. The embedded bit image only approximates the actual PostScript image. The default
preview image type is TIFF. The EPS Exporter dialog is shown in Figure 23-2.
Figure 23-2. The
EPS Exporter dialog.
The following options are available:
• Extra Precision: Specify the number of decimal places to which size and position parameters are carried. The number of decimal places added to the integer value will be used as
coordinates for the resulting vector-based print output. Use the increase or decrease arrows,
or enter a value in the text field.
• Color: Allows you to create color Encapsulated PostScript images.
• Force Extra Sorting for All 3D Frames: Selecting this check box will cause Tecplot to
use extra sorting in all 3-D frames.
• Color to Mono: This calls up the Monochrome/Gray Scale Mappings dialog. You may
examine or modify the mappings from colors used for screen lines or text and floods to
gray scales used in monochrome plotting. By default, all lines and text are converted to
black. Flood colors are mapped to a gray scale except for custom colors, which are set to
black. This option is only available when exporting non-color (gray scale) images.
In addition, you may choose the type of preview image included in your EPS files (both color
and monochrome). A preview image is a rough sketch of your print file used by importing programs. When you choose an EPS image, you may also specify its resolution (in pixels) in the
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width and height fields. Low values make the preview image poor. High values can make the
EPS file large.
Options for preview images include:
• None: No embedded image information is added to the EPS file. This is good for importing
into applications that do not use image information.
• TIFF: Include a monochrome/gray-scale TIFF image in the EPS file. (Color preview
images are not available.) This is the most common image format. You may specify a image
depth for the TIFF image, as described in Section 23.3.4, “Creating TIFF Images.”
• EPSIV2: Include a monochrome (one bit per pixel) Encapsulated PostScript Version 2
image. This is also a common image type of EPS Print Files.
23.2.2. Windows Metafile (WMF) Export
Windows and UNIX versions of Tecplot can export a Tecplot image in Windows Metafiles
(WMF) format. These “placeable metafiles” can be imported into many other applications.
Selecting Windows Metafile from the Select Export Format list brings up the Windows Metafile Exporter dialog, shown in Figure 23-3.
Figure 23-3. The
Windows Metafile Exporter dialog.
The following options are available:
• Region: By default, the image region is the current frame, but you can also choose the
smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the region,
choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the Region
drop-down.
• Color: Allows you to create color Windows Metafile images.
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• Force Extra Sorting for All 3D Frames: Selecting this check box will cause Tecplot to
use extra sorting in all 3-D frames.
• Color to Mono: This calls up the Monochrome/Gray Scale Mappings dialog. You may
examine or modify the mappings from colors used for screen lines or text and floods to
gray scales used in monochrome plotting. By default, all lines and text are converted to
black. Flood colors are mapped to a gray scale except for custom colors, which are set to
black. This option is only available when producing non-color (gray scale) Windows Metafiles.
23.2.3. Clipboard Capability for Placing Tecplot Images Directly into
Other Applications
Tecplot’s Cut, Copy, and Paste commands work only within Tecplot. However, the Copy Plot
to Clipboard command (available only in the Windows version of Tecplot) allows you to copy
and paste Tecplot images directly into other applications such as Microsoft Word and Paint,
Adobe FrameMaker, and many other applications. The Copy Plot to Clipboard dialog is shown
in Figure 23-4.
Figure 23-4. The
Copy Plot to Clipboard dialog (Windows only).
The following options are available:
• Region: By default, the image region is the current frame, but you can also choose the
smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image region,
choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the Image
Region drop-down.
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23.3. Creating Image Export Files
• Format: Plots may be copied as a vector (Windows Metafile) or image (BMP) format. If
you select Image on the Copy Plot to Clipboard dialog you may specify the width in pixels
of the bitmap. The greater the width, the greater the quality of your final image.
• Force Extra Sorting for All 3D Frames: Selecting this check box will cause Tecplot to
use extra sorting in all 3-D frames. This option is only available for Windows Metafile.
• Color: Allows you to create color Windows Metafile images.
• Color to Mono: This calls up the Monochrome/Gray Scale Mappings dialog. You may
examine or modify the mappings from colors used for screen lines or text and floods to
gray scales used in monochrome plotting. By default, all lines and text are converted to
black. Flood colors are mapped to a gray scale except for custom colors, which are set to
black. This option is only available for Windows Metafile in gray scale, not color.
• Convert to 256 Colors: If you select this check box, the bitmap will be reduced from up to
16 million potential colors to 256 colors. Tecplot will select the best color match. The converted image will take up less memory on your Windows clipboard.
• Width: Select the width of the image in pixels. The image will be scaled to the width you
specify. The greater the width you specify, the longer it will take to export the image. However, a larger width will increase the quality of your image. This option is only available for
BMP.
To copy and place a Tecplot image into a document or other art work:
1.
In the Edit menu, click Copy Plot to Clipboard. Choose options, then click OK.
2.
In your other software package, place your cursor or select the frame or site where you
want to place the Tecplot image.
3.
From the menu of the other software package, execute the Paste command. The entire Tecplot frame will be pasted. Some packages will push other content out of the way to create a
spot for the Tecplot image, while others will draw the Tecplot image on top of existing content.
4.
Resize and reposition as needed within the other software package.
23.3. Creating Image Export Files
In this section, we describe each image export dialog. All export formats allow you to specify
the region to be included in the image and the file in which to write the image. Additionally, all
export formats allow you to specify the width of the image file in pixels. The exported image
will be scaled to this width. Most of the formats have additional options. The file dialog is
automatically launched after selecting the export file options and clicking OK.
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23.3.1. Creating PNG Images
When you select PNG you have the following options:
• Image Region: By default, the image region is the current frame, but you can also choose
the smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image
region, choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the
Image Region drop-down.
• Width: Select the width of the image in pixels. The image will be scaled to the width you
specify. The greater the width you specify, the longer it will take to export the image. However, a larger width will increase the quality of your image.
• Convert to 256 Colors: If you select this check box, the bitmap will be reduced from up to
16 million potential colors to 256 colors. Tecplot will select the best color match. The converted image will have a greatly reduced file size.
23.3.2. Creating BMP Images
When you select BMP you have the following options:
• Image Region: By default, the image region is the current frame, but you can also choose
the smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image
region, choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the
Image Region drop-down.
• Width: Select the width of the image in pixels. The image will be scaled to the width you
specify. The greater the width you specify, the longer it will take to export the image. However, a larger width will increase the quality of your image.
• Convert to 256 Colors: If you select this check box, the bitmap will be reduced from up to
16 million potential colors to 256 colors. Tecplot will select the best color match. The converted image will have a greatly reduced file size.
23.3.3. Creating AVI Files
The AVI format is used for viewing movies created in Tecplot. The AVI Exporter dialog is
shown in Figure 23-5. Your options are:
• Image Region: By default, the image region is the current frame, but you can also choose
the smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image
region, choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the
Image Region drop-down.
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23.3. Creating Image Export Files
Figure 23-5. The
AVI Exporter dialog.
• Width: Select the width of the image in pixels. The image will be scaled to the width you
specify. The greater the width you specify, the longer it will take to export the image. However, a larger width will increase the quality of your image.
• Animation Speed: Allows you to set the frames per second. The default speed is ten
frames per second. You may only set the animation speed if you are not appending.
• Use Multiple Color Tables: If you select this check box, a color table is created for each
frame of the animation. If this check box is not selected, Tecplot will scan each frame in
your AVI file and create an optimal color table from 256 colors for the entire animation.
AVI images are always reduced to 256 colors.
For more information on Audio Visual Interleaved files, see Chapter 30, “Animation and Movies.”
23.3.4. Creating TIFF Images
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) images can be either color or black-and-white. The TIFF
Exporter dialog is shown in Figure 23-6.
When you select TIFF you have the following options:
• Image Region: By default, the image region is the current frame. You can also choose the
smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image region,
choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the Image
Region drop-down.
• Width: Enter a value in the text field for your exported image’s width in pixels. The image
region is rendered to the image file to exactly fit a size of Width by Height.
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Figure 23-6. The
TIFF Exporter dialog.
• Color: Allows you to create color TIFF images.
• Gray Scale: Select this check box to save the image as a gray scale TIFF file.
• Convert to 256 Colors: For color images, select this check box to reduce the bitmap from
16 million potential colors to 256 colors. Tecplot will select the best color match. The converted image will have a greatly reduced file size.
• Depth: For gray scale images, this specifies the number of shades of gray per pixel. Your
options are:
- On/Off: One bit per pixel using an on/off strategy. All background pixels are made white
(on), and all foreground pixels, black (off). This setting creates small files and is good
for images with lots of background, such as XY-plots and contour lines.
- 1 Bit/Pixel: One bit per pixel using gray scale values of pixels to determine black or
white. Those pixels that are more than 50 percent gray are black; the rest are white.
The larger the number of bits per pixel, the larger the resulting file.This setting creates
small files and is good for images with a large amount of foreground and a good deal
of contrast (such as contour flooded and light source shaded surfaces).
- 4 Bit/Pixel: Four bits per pixel using sixteen levels of gray scale. This is the best setting
for TIFF EPS-Preview for programs that do not accept two bits per pixel images. This
setting generates larger image files with a fair number of gray levels.
- 8 Bit/Pixel: Eight bits per pixel using 256 levels of gray. This setting is useful for full
image representation. The files generated by this setting are quite large, and there are
so many levels of gray that it is hard to distinguish adjacent ones.
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23.3.5. Creating Sun Raster Files
Sun Raster files can be created in either of two formats—the standard format, which is not
compressed, and a byte-encoded format, which creates a compressed format. The Sun Raster
Exporter dialog is shown in Figure 23-7.
Figure 23-7. The
Sun Raster Exporter dialog.
The options available for Sun Raster are:
• Image Region: By default, the image region is the current frame. You can also choose the
smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image region,
choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the Image
Region drop-down.
• Width: Enter a value in the text field for your exported image’s width in pixels. The image
region is rendered to the image file to exactly fit a size of Width by Height.
• Format: You may select Standard, which will create an uncompressed file, or ByteEncoded, which will create a compressed file. You should select Byte-Encoded unless you
have a compelling reason to do otherwise.
23.3.6. Creating Raster Metafiles
The Raster Metafile format was defined and is used by NASA, but is also the format read by
the Framer program for viewing movies created in Tecplot. The Raster Metafile Exporter
dialog is shown in Figure 23-8.
Raster Metafiles and AVI files are the only formats which allow you to put multiple images in
a single file. This is useful for creating movies. Your options for Raster Metafiles are:
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Figure 23-8. The
Raster Metafile Exporter dialog.
• Image Region: By default, the image region is the current frame, but you can also choose
the smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image
region, choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the
Image Region drop-down.
• Width: Enter a value in the text field for your exported image’s width in pixels. The image
region is rendered to the image file to exactly fit a size of Width by Height.
• Use Multiple Color Tables: If you select this check box create a color table for each frame
of the animation. If this check box is not selected, Tecplot will scan each frame in your AVI
file and create an optimal color table from 256 colors for the entire animation. AVI images
are always reduced to 256 colors.
For more information on Raster Metafiles and Framer, see Chapter 30, “Animation and Movies.”
23.3.7. Creating PostScript Images
A PostScript Image file is a raster Encapsulated PostScript file without a preview image—it
has advantages and disadvantages compared to PostScript. If your plot uses translucency, or
any other features not supported by vector PostScript, you should use a PostScript Image file.
If your plot does not use any of the features affected by these limitations, you should probably
use a normal PostScript print file or Encapsulated PostScript export file. For complicated plots,
PostScript Images can provide much smaller files than vector PostScript. In general, if you
want PostScript output, you should create a normal PostScript print file or an Encapsulated
PostScript export file.
The PostScript Image Exporter dialog is shown in Figure 23-9.
The following options are available:
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23.3. Creating Image Export Files
Figure 23-9. The
PostScript Image Exporter dialog.
• Image Region: By default, the image region is the current frame, but you can also choose
the smallest rectangle containing all frames, or the full workspace. To specify the image
region, choose the desired option (Current Frame, All Frames, or Work Area) from the
Image Region drop-down.
• Color: Select this check box to save the image as a color PostScript Image file.
• Width: Enter a value in the text field for your exported image’s width. The image region is
rendered to the image file to exactly fit a size of Width by Height.
All color PostScript Image files use a full range of 16 million potential colors. Specifying large
widths in PostScript Image files will result in a higher quality image. However, the time it takes
to print these files will be greatly increased.
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24.1. Viewing a Data Set
CHAPTER 24
Data Spreadsheet
All ordered and finite-element data can be viewed using Tecplot’s data spreadsheet. The data
may be modified within the spreadsheet in order to change the plots Tecplot produces.
The spreadsheet only allows the viewing and altering of data loaded into Tecplot. If you want
to add zones, variables, or values, you can do so in your original data files before loading into
Tecplot, or through the Create Zone or Alter options on the Data menu.
24.1. Viewing a Data Set
The spreadsheet displays Tecplot's data differently depending on the type of zone being examined. I-ordered and finite element data sets are displayed with each zone's variable displayed in
a column. IJ-ordered data sets are displayed in the spreadsheet with I along the rows and J
along the columns. IJK-ordered data sets are displayed one plane at a time: selecting the Kplane displays I along the rows and J along the columns, selecting the J-plane displays I along
the rows and K along the columns, and selecting the I-plane displays J along the rows and K
along the columns. With IJK-ordered data the slice of interest can be selected by entering a
specific index or using the up and down arrows provided.
You view data using the Spreadsheet option under the Data menu. To view your data set:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Spreadsheet. The Data Spreadsheet dialog appears (see Figure
24-1).
2.
From the Data Spreadsheet dialog select a desired zone and variable to examine.
3.
Use the scroll bars to examine all of your data.
You can change the format of data in a spreadsheet without changing the appearance of your
plot. To change the data spreadsheet's display format:
1.
On the Data Spreadsheet dialog click Format. The Data Format dialog appears.
2.
Select a number format from the option menu that best represents the data of interest.
3.
If available for the selected number format, specify precision (number of decimal places).
4.
Enter a column width that best fits the data of interest.
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Chapter 24. Data Spreadsheet
Figure 24-1. The
Data Spreadsheet dialog, accessed under the Data menu. The
dialog displays the contents of file tec90/demo/plt/rain.plt.
24.2. Changing Data in the Spreadsheet
You can change your data set within Tecplot without changing your original data file. You do
this by editing values in the cells of the spreadsheet. To modify data:
From the Data Spreadsheet dialog select a desired zone and variable to modify.
2.
Select the value of interest from the spreadsheet. This will highlight and expand the value to
its full precision.
3.
To replace the highlighted value simply enter the new value. Anything highlighted is
instantly replaced with new digits entered.
4.
To slightly modify a highlighted value select the value a second time. This will un-highlight
the value and place the edit cursor at the desired position. Make desired modifications to
the existing value.
5.
To undo a modification of a given cell press Esc. To commit to a modification press the
Enter, Tab, or Shift-Tab keys, or click on another cell.
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CHAPTER 25
Data Operations
All plots in Tecplot, with the exception of sketches, rely on the data sets attached to each
frame. You can modify, create, transform, interpolate, duplicate, and delete the data in the
current data set using the Data menu. You can also use the data operation capabilities of
Tecplot to create plots of analytical functions. By using Tecplot’s macro capabilities and equation files, you can create complex data operations that can be repeated on different data sets.
Changes to the data set within Tecplot do not affect the original data file(s). You can save the
modified data to a data file by selecting Write Data File from the File menu. When you save a
layout file, any data sets that have been modified are also saved to data files (see Section 6.3,
“Layout Files, Layout Package Files and Stylesheets,” for details).
25.1. Altering Data with Equations
Tecplot allows you to alter data in existing zones. You can alter the values of a variable or
create new variables as functions of existing variables and index values. Data can be altered
simultaneously in one or more zones (or in all zones). For ordered zones, you can also restrict
the alteration to specified ranges of indices (I, J, and K).
To modify your data set, follow these steps.
1.
From the Data menu, choose Alter.
2.
From the Alter menu, choose Specify Equations. The Specify Equations dialog appears as
shown in Figure 25-1.
3.
Using the Specify Equations dialog, perform the following steps:
- Enter the equations.
- (Optional) Select the set of zones to alter using the appropriate region of the Specify
Equations dialog. The default is to alter all zones. You may skip this step if you want
to apply the equation to all zones.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Figure 25-1. The
4.
Specify Equations dialog.
(Optional) Select the index ranges to alter in the selected zones. You may skip this
step if you want to apply the equation to all points of the selected zones.
Click Compute to alter the data. This is important. If you do not click Compute, the data
values do not change.
These steps are discussed in more detail in the following sections.
25.1.1. Equation Syntax
Tecplot equations have the following form:
LValue = F(RValue1, RValue2, RValue3, ...)
Where F() is a mathematical expression, with some limitations and some extensions as discussed below. LValue is a reference to an existing or non-existing variable, and RValueN is a
reference to a value (such as a constant, variable value, or index value).
There may be any number of spaces within the equation, between operators, and so forth.
There cannot, however, be any spaces between the letters of intrinsic-function names nor for
variables referred to by name. (See Section 25.1.1.1, “Equation Variables and Values.”)
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
If the variable on the left-hand side (LValue) already exists in the data set of the active frame,
the equation is used to modify that variable. If the variable does not already exist, the equation
is used to create a new variable as a function of existing variables.
If the equation contains a syntax error, the equation is displayed in an error dialog. The error
dialog informs you of the approximate location of the syntax error.
Each equation occupies one line of the Equation(s) text field of the Specify Equations dialog.
You can use multiple equations, all of which use as defaults, the zones and index ranges set up
at the time you click Compute. Each equation is applied to all specified zones and data points
before subsequent equations are computed.
25.1.1.1. Equation Variables and Values. A variable is specified in one of three ways:
according to its order in the data file, by its name, or by a letter code.
A variable may be referenced according to its order in the data file. V1 is the first variable in
the data file, V2 is the second, and so forth.
For example, to set the first variable in the data file equal to the sum of the values of the second
and third variables, type:
V1 = V2 + V3
To create a new variable using this specification, you must specify the number of the next
available variable. Assuming there are five variables in the data file, you can create a new variable that is equal to half of the fourth variable as follows:
V6 = V4 / 2
You must specify the number of the next available variable. If you try to assign the result to a
higher numbered variable, Tecplot pops up an error dialog informing you that you have specified an invalid variable number.
A variable may also be referenced by its name. You refer to a variable by its name by enclosing
the name within curly braces (“{” and “}”). For example, to set V3 equal to the value of the
variable named R/RFR, you can type:
V3 = {R/RFR}
Variable names are case insensitive, meaning that any combination of uppercase and lowercase
letters matches the variable name. Leading and trailing spaces are also not considered. So the
following equations are equivalent:
v3 = {R/rfr}
V3 = { r/rfr }
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Spaces within the variable name are significant, so the following equation is not equivalent to
the equations above:
V3 = {R / rfr}
If two or more variables have the same name, Tecplot uses the first variable. So, if both V5 and
V9 are named R/rfr, V5 is used.
The curly braces can also be used on the left-hand side of the equation. In this case, if a variable with that name does not exist, a new variable is created with that name. This is useful in
equation files (see Section 25.1.1.6, “Examples of Equations,” for details). For example, the
following equation sets a variable called T/R to the value of a variable called T divided by the
value of a variable called R. If no variable called T/R exists, a new variable is created.
{T/R} = {T} / {R}
Finally, variables may also be referenced by letter codes. Letter codes can also be used to reference index values. Valid letter codes are:
•
•
•
•
I: The I-index value at the data point.
J: The J-index value at the data point (1 for finite-element zones).
K: The K-index value at the data point (1 for finite-element zones).
X: The variable assigned to the X-axis (in XY-plots, all active mappings must have the same
X variable in order for this variable name to be valid).
• Y: The variable assigned to the Y-axis (in XY-plots, all active mappings must have the same
Y variable in order for this variable name to be valid).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Z: The variable assigned to the Z-axis (if in 3-D).
U: The X-component of vectors (if set).
V: The Y-component of vectors (if set).
W: The Z-component of vectors (if set, and if in 3-D).
B: The value-blanking variable (if set).
C: The contour variable (if set).
S: The scatter-sizing variable (if set).
Letter codes may be used anywhere on the right-hand side of the equation. Do not enclose
them in curly braces. Some examples follow:
V3 = I + J
V4 = cos(X) * cos(Y) * cos(Z)
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
{Dist} = sqrt(U*U + V*V + W*W)
{temp} = min(B,1)
Those letter codes representing variables (all letter codes except I, J, and K) may be used on
the left-hand side of the equation, as well. For example:
Z = X*X/(1+Y*Y)
W = 0
S = 1+ABS(S)
You receive an error message if the appropriate Tecplot feature is not available. For example, if
you try to use Z and the current frame is not in 3D frame mode, you get an error message. The
variables referenced by the letter codes are for the current frame.
25.1.1.2. Data Set Information. To view a list of variable names and numbers, select Data
Set Info on the Data menu, or click Data Set Info on the Specify Equations dialog. The Data
Set Information dialog appears, as shown in Figure 25-2, listing all the variables in the current
data set.
Figure 25-2. The
Data Set Information dialog.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
To see more information about a zone, select one of the zone names listed under Zone(s) in the
upper left-hand corner. The information about that zone will be displayed in the lower lefthand corner. If it is an ordered zone, the I-, J-, and K-values will be shown. If it is a finiteelement zone, the number of points and elements will be shown. While a zone is selected you
may edit its name in the Zone Name text field.
To view more information about a variable, select one of the variable names listed under Variables in the upper right-hand corner. Information about that variable, such as whether it is float
or integer, its range in values, and the range in values for all active zones, will be shown in the
lower right-hand corner. To see a variable’s range for a particular zone, select the zone from
Zone(s) while the variable is highlighted under Variables. While a variable is selected you may
edit its name in the Variable Name text field.
To view additional information about the data set click on the Data Set tab. If the data has not
been changed since a data file was loaded, the name of that data file will appear in the Data
File(s) field. The Data Set Title field shows the current name of the data set. While a data set is
selected you may edit its name in this field. The lower part of the page shows the Variable Load
Mode, which will affect your ability to load additional data files to append your current data
set. See Chapter 5 for a discussion of loading variables by name or position. The Locked By
field will inform you if the current data set has been locked by an add-on. Add-ons can lock a
data set which in turn prevents your from deleting zones or deleting the last frame associated
with the data set.
25.1.1.3. Equation Operators and Functions. In an equation, the valid binary operators
are as follows:
+
Addition.
-
Subtraction.
*
Multiplication.
/
Division.
**
Exponentiation.
Binary operators have the following precedence:
**
Highest precedence.
*,/
+,-
Lowest precedence.
For example, the expression V1+2*V2 is evaluated as V1+(2*V2), not as (V1+2)*V2.
Operators are evaluated from left to right within a precedence level (that is, “*” and “/” are
evaluated left to right).
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
The available functions are as follows (except where noted, all take a single argument):
SIN
Sine (angle must be specified in radians).
COS
Cosine (angle must be specified in radians).
TAN
Tangent (angle must be specified in radians).
ABS
Absolute value.
ASIN
Arcsine (result is given in radians).
ACOS
Arccosine (result is given in radians).
ATAN
Arctangent (result is given in radians).
ATAN2(A,B)
Arctangent of A/B (result is given in radians).
SQRT
Positive square root.
LOG, ALOG
Natural logarithm (base e).
LOG10,
ALOG10
Logarithm base 10.
EXP
Exponentiation (base e); EXP(V1)=e**(V1).
MIN(A,B)
Minimum of A or B.
MAX(A,B)
Maximum of A or B.
SIGN
Returns -1 if argument is negative, +1 otherwise.
ROUND
Round off to the nearest integer.
TRUNC
Remove fraction part of a value.
LOG and ALOG are equivalent functions, as are LOG10 and ALOG10.
First- and second-derivative and difference functions are also available. These are discussed
later in this section.
To call an intrinsic function, place its argument within parentheses (“(” and “)”). For example,
to set V4 to the arctangent of V1, use:
V4 = ATAN(V1)
25.1.1.4. Specifying Zone Numbers. By following a variable reference with square
brackets (“[” and “]”), you can specify a specific zone from which to get the variable value.
Some examples follow:
V3 = V3 - V3[1]
X = ( X[1] + X[2] + X[3] ) / 3
{TempAdj} = {Temp}[7] - {Adj}
V8 = V1[19] - 2*C[21] + {R/T}[18]
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
The zone number must be a positive integer constant less than or equal to the number of zones.
The zone specified must have the same structure (I-, IJ-, or IJK-ordered or finite-element) and
dimensions (IMax, number of nodes) as the current zone. If you do not specify a zone, the
current zone is used.
Zone specification works only on the right-hand side of the equation. All values used on the
right-hand side of the equation are the values before the alteration began. To specify zones for
the left-hand side, use the Zones region of the Specify Equations dialog.
25.1.1.5. Specifying Indices. By following a variable reference with parentheses (“(” and
“)”), you can specify indices. Indices can be absolute or an offset from the current index. For
example:
V2 = ( V2(i+1)
U = U(i+1,j) {NTQ} = {TQ} +
S = S(i+1,j) -
+ V2(i-1) ) / 2
U(i-1,j) + V(i+2,1) + 3*W(i-1)
{TQ}(i-3,j+7,k-1) - {TQ}(3,j+1,k+8}
V3(2) + {RFR/T}(J+2)
Index offsets are specified by using the appropriate index “i”, “j” or “k” followed by a “+” or
“-” and then an integer constant. Any integer offsets may be used. If the offset moves beyond
the end of the zone, the boundary value is used. For example, V3(i+2) uses the value
V3(IMAX) when I=IMax-1 and I=IMax. V3(I-2) uses the value of V3(1) whenI=1 or
I=2.
Absolute indices are specified by using a positive integer constant only. For example, V3(2)
references V3 at index 2 regardless of the current i index.
Indices must be listed I-index, then J-index, then K-index. The J-index is omitted if the data set
is I-ordered; the K-index is omitted if the data set is not IJK-ordered. Indices are not allowed
for finite-element data.
Index specification works only on the right-hand side of the equation. If the indices are not
specified, the current index values are used. To specify indices for the left-hand side, use the
Index Ranges section of the Specify Equations dialog.
Indices may be combined with zone specifications. The zone is listed first, then the index
offset. For example:
V3 = V3 - V3[1](i+1)
Y = Y[1] - Y[2](1) + Y(1,j+3) + Y
25.1.1.6. Examples of Equations. In the following equation, V1 (the first variable defined
in the data file) is replaced by two and a half times the existing value of V1:
V1 = 2.5*V1
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
The following equation sets the value of a variable called Density to 205. A new variable is
created if a variable called Density does not exist.
{Density} = 205
In the next equation, the values for Y (the variable assigned to the Y-axis) are replaced by the
negative of the square of the values of X (the variable assigned to the X-axis):
Y = -X**2
The following equation replaces the values of V3 with the values of V2 rounded off to the
nearest integer. A new variable is created if there are only two variables currently in the data
set.
V3 = round(V2)
In the following equation, the values of the fourth variable in the data set are replaced by the
log (base 10) of the values of the third variable.
V4 = ALOG10(V3)
Suppose that the third variable and fourth variable are the X- and Y-components of velocity
and that there are currently a total of five variables. The following examples create a new variable (V6) that is the magnitude of the components of velocity.
V6 = (V3*V3+V4*V4)**0.5
or
V6 = sqrt(V3**2+V4**2)
The above operation can also be accomplished with the following equation (assuming you have
already defined the vector components for the current frame):
{Mag} = sqrt(U*U + V*V)
The following equation sets the value of a variable named diff to the truncated value of a
variable named depth subtracted from the existing value of depth:
{diff} = {depth} - trunc({depth})
In the next equation, C (the contour variable) is set to the absolute value of S (the scatter-sizing
variable), assuming both C and S are defined:
C = abs(S)
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
In the following example, a new variable is created (assuming that only seven variables initially existed in the data file). The value for V8 (the new variable) is calculated from a function
of the existing variables:
V8 = SQRT((V1*V1+V2*V2+V3*V3)/(287.0*V4*V6))
The above operation could have been performed in two simpler steps as follows:
V8 = V1*V1+V2*V2+V3*V3
V8 = SQRT(V8/(287.0*V4*V6))
The following equation replaces any value of a variable called TIME that is below 5.0 with
5.0. In other words, the values of TIME are replaced with the maximum of the current value
of TIME and 5.0:
{TIME} = max({TIME},5)
The following equation creates variable V4 which has values of X at points where X<0; at other
points, it has a value of zero (this does not affect any values of X):
V4 = min(X,0)
Another example using intrinsic functions is shown below:
V8 = 55.0*SIN(V3*3.14/180.0) + ALOG(V4**3/(v1+1.0))
You can also reference the I-, J-, and K-indices in an equation. For example, if you wanted to
cut out a section of a zone using value-blanking, you could create a new variable that is a function of the I- and J-indices (for IJ-ordered data). Then, by using value-blanking, you could
remove certain cells where the value of the value-blanking variable was less than or equal to
the value-blanking cut-off value.
Here is an example for calculating a value-blanking variable that is zero in a block of cells
from I=10 to 30, and is equal to one in the other cells:
V3 = min((max(I,30)-min(I,10)-20),1)
The following equation replaces all values of Y with the difference between the current value
of Y and the value of Y in zone 1. (If zone 1 is used for the data alteration, the new values of Y
will be zero throughout that zone.)
Y = Y - Y[1]
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
The following equation replaces the values of V3 (in an IJ-ordered zone) with the average of
the values of V3 at the four adjacent data points:
V3 = (V3(i+1,j)+V3(i-1,j)+V3(i,j+1)+V3(i,j-1))/4
The following equation sets the values of a variable called TEMP to the product of the values of
a variable called T measured in four places: in zone 1 at two index values before the current
data point, in the current zone at an absolute index of three, in zone 4 at the current data point,
and in the current zone at the current data point.
{TEMP} = {T}[1](i-2) * {T}(3) * {T}[4] * {T}
25.1.1.7. Derivative and Difference Functions. Tecplot has a complete set of first- and
second-derivative and difference functions. These functions are listed below:
ddx
d2dx2
d2dxy
ddi
d2di2
d2dij
ddy
d2dy2
d2dyz
ddj
d2dj2
d2djk
ddz
d2dz2
d2dxz
ddk
d2dk2
d2dik
The derivative function ddx is used to calculate ∂ ⁄ ∂ x; d2dx2 calculates ∂
2
∂x2
; d2dxy calcu-
2
lates
∂
, and so on. The difference functions ddi, d2di2, etc., calculate centered differ∂ x ∂y
ences of their argument with respect to the indices I, J, and K based on the indices of the point.
For example:
Vi + 1 – Vi – 1
ddi ( V ) = ---------------------------2
The derivative and difference functions are used just like the intrinsic functions described
above. For example:
V4 = ddx(V3)
V6 = d2dx2(v5)
{dC/dx} = ddx(C)
V8 = ddj(X)
{Vt12} = ddy({Vt11}(i+1)) + ddy({Vt11}(i-1))
Z = d2dj2(sin(v5*v6))
V9 = ddj(ddx({R/T}))
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
C = d2dij(C[1]-C)
{NEWVAR}=ddi(X)+ddj(Y)+ddk(Z)
The use of derivative and difference functions is restricted as follows:
• Finite-element zones are not supported. Derivative and difference functions can be used
only on I-, IJ-, and IJK-ordered zones.
• Derivatives and differences for IJK-ordered zones are calculated for the full 3-D volume.
The IJK-mode for such zones is not considered.
• If the derivative cannot be defined at every data point in all the selected zones, the operation
is not performed for any data point.
• Derivative functions are calculated using the current frame’s axis assignments. Be careful if
you have multiple frames with different variable assignments for the same data set.
• All derivatives and differences are centered at the data point.
• Derivatives at the boundary of two zones may differ since Tecplot operates on only one
zone at a time while generating derivatives.
Boundary values for first-derivative and difference functions (ddx, ddy, ddz, ddi, ddj, and
ddk) are evaluated in one of two methods: simple or complex. The default is simple. The following parameter in the configuration file selects the method to use:
$!INTERFACE
DATA {DERIVATIVEBOUNDARY=SIMPLE}
Change the parameter SIMPLE to COMPLEX to use the complex boundary condition.
For simple boundary conditions, the boundary derivative is determined by the one-sided first
derivative at the boundary. This is the same as assuming that the first derivative is constant
across the boundary (with the second derivative equal to zero).
For complex boundary conditions, the boundary derivative is extrapolated linearly from the
derivatives at neighboring interior points. This is the same as assuming that the second derivative is constant across the boundary (with the first derivative varying linearly).
For second-derivatives and differences (d2dx2, d2dy2, d2dz2, d2dxy, d2dyz, d2dxz,
d2di2, d2dj2, d2dij, d2dk2, d2djk, and d2dik), these boundary conditions are
ignored. The boundary derivative is set equal to the derivative one index in from the boundary.
This is the same as assuming that the second derivative is constant across the boundary.
You can create your own derivative boundary conditions by using the index range and the
indices options discussed previously.
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
25.1.2. Zone Selection
You may select which zone(s) to alter using the Zones to Alter area of the Specify Equations
dialog. By default, all zones are altered. If you are creating a new variable, all zones must be
selected since all zones in a data set must have the same number of variables per data point.
25.1.3. Index Range and Skip Selections for Ordered Zones
For ordered zones, you can use the Index Ranges area of the Specify Equations dialog to select
which data points to alter (based upon the index values). You can specify an I-Index range, a JIndex range, and/or a K-Index range.
For each index range, you enter the start index value, the end index value, and a skip factor. A
skip factor of one applies your equation to every index value; two does every other; three,
every third; and so forth. Use the special value 0 or Mx to specify the maximum index. You can
also use the values Mx-1 (to specify the index one less than the maximum index), Mx-2, and
so forth. By default, these ranges are set to the entire range of points (that is, the start index
defaults to one, the end index defaults to Mx, and the skip factor defaults to one).
The index ranges are applied to all ordered zones that are selected using the Zones to Alter
area. Index ranges are ignored for finite-element zones; every data point of a finite-element
zone is altered regardless of the settings in the Index Ranges area.
If you are creating a new variable, the new variable’s value is set to zero at any index value that
is skipped.
25.1.4. Specifying the Data Type for New Variables
If your equations are creating one or more new variables, you can specify a data type for these
new variables using the New Var Data Type drop-down menu. By default, this is set to Auto,
and Tecplot assigns the most appropriate data type to the variables. However, if you want to be
sure that your new variables have a particular data type, choose the type from the New Var
Data Type drop-down menu. The following data types are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Single: Four-byte floating point values.
Double: Eight-byte floating point values.
Long Int: Four-byte integer values.
Short Int: Two-byte integer values.
Byte: One-byte integer values (zero to 255).
Bit: Either zero or one.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
25.1.5. Overriding Equation Restrictions
The zone and index restrictions specified in the equation dialog can be overridden on an equation by equation basis. To specify restrictions for a single equation add the colon character (:)
at the end of the equation followed by one or more of the following:
Equation Restrictor
Comments
<Z=<set>>
Restrict the zones.
<I=start[,end[,skip]]>
Restrict the I-range.
<J=start[,end[,skip]]>
Restrict the J-range.
<K=start[,end[,skip]]>
Restrict the K-range.
<D=<datatype>>
Set the data type for the variable on the
left hand side. This only applies if a new
variable is being created.
For example, to add one to X in zones 1, 3, 4, and 5:
X=X+1:<Z=[1,3-5]>
The following example adds one to X for every other I-index. Note that zero represents the
maximum index.
X=X+1:<I=1,0,2>
The next example creates a new variable of type Byte:
{NewV}=X-Y:<D=Byte>
25.1.6. Performing the Alteration
After you have set the index ranges and zones that are to be altered and have entered the equations, click the Compute button to apply the equations to your data. Each equation is applied to
each data point in each zone independently of the other points. Each equation is applied to all
specified zones and data points before subsequent equations are processed.
If an error occurs during the alteration (because of division by zero, overflow, underflow, and
so forth), an error message is displayed, and all of the zones are restored to the state they were
in before the bad equation was processed. Thus, if you have three equations A, B, and C, and B
contains an error, the final state is the result of processing equation A.
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
25.1.7. Equations in Macros
Tecplot allows you to put your equations in macros. In fact, we sometimes refer to a macro
with just equations as an equation file. An equation in a macro file is specified using the
$!ALTERDATA macro command. Equation files may also include comment lines, and in fact
must start with the comment #!MC 900, just like other macro files. If you are performing
complex operations on your data, and/or the operations are repeated frequently, equation files
can be very helpful.
You can create equation files from scratch using an ASCII text editor, or you can create your
equations interactively using the Specify Equations dialog, and then save the resulting equations. The standard file name extension for equation files is “.eqn.”
For example, you might define an equation to compute the magnitude of a 3-D vector. In the
Specify Equations dialog, it would have the following form:
{Mag} = sqrt(U*U + V*V + W*W)
In a macro file, it would have the following form:
#!MC 900
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{Mag} = sqrt(U*U + V*V + W*W)"
That is, the interactive form of the equation must be enclosed in double quotes and supplied as
a value to the EQUATION parameter of the $!ALTERDATA macro command.
To read an equation file, click Load Equations on the Specify Equations dialog. The Load
Equation File dialog appears. Select an equation file that contains a set of equations to apply to
the selected zones of your data. The equations in the equation file are added to the list of equations in the dialog. All equations are applied to your data when you click Compute.
Equations in equation files may be calculated somewhat differently depending on whether the
computation is done from within the Specify Equations dialog or by running the equation file
as a macro. When loaded into the Specify Equations dialog, equations that do not contain zone
or index restrictions use the current zone and index restrictions shown in the dialog. When processed as a macro file, such equations apply to all zones and data points. To include zone and
index restrictions, you must include them in the equation file as part of the $!ALTERDATA
command. See Section 25.1.7.2, “Specifying Zones To Operate On,” and Section 25.1.7.4,
“Specifying Ranges and Skip Factors,” for details.
25.1.7.1. Equation File Comments. As with any macro file, any line with a pound sign
(“#”) as the first character is considered a comment and ignored. For example:
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
#!MC 900
#
# calculate magnitudes of vectors
#
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{Mag} = sqrt(U*U + V*V + W*W)"
#
# normalize
#
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "U = U/{Mag}"
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "V = V/{Mag}"
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "W = W/{Mag}"
#
# done
#
25.1.7.2. Specifying Zones To Operate On. To restrict the zones to operate on, specify
the number of the zone or zones to the $!ALTERDATA command as a square-bracketed
parameter:
$!ALTERDATA [zonelist]
EQUATION = "equation"
where zonelist is a list of zones or zone ranges separated by a comma (“,”). Zone ranges are
separated by a hyphen (“-”). For example, the following macro command restricts the equation to only the second zone:
$!ALTERDATA [2]
EQUATION = "X=X+1"
If you do not specify the zones in your equation file, Tecplot defaults to the dialog settings if
you read the equations into the Specify Equations dialog. (If you run the equations from a
macro file, Tecplot defaults to all zones.) The default setting in the Specify Equations dialog is
all zones. To create a new variable, you must have all zones available for data operation.
For example:
#!MC 900
# do the following to default set of zones
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "Y = Y*2"
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
# now just do zone 1
$!ALTERDATA [1]
EQUATION = "Y = 0"
# now just do zones 2 and 3
$!ALTERDATA [2-3]
EQUATION = "Y = Y[4]"
# now just do zones 4, 5, 6, 7, and 19
$!ALTERDATA [4-7,19]
EQUATION = "Y = Y(i-1) + Y(i+1)"
# now do all zones to create a new variable
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{SomeNewVariable} = 0"
25.1.7.3. Specifying Zone Numbers for Operands. By following a variable reference
with brackets “[“ and “]” you may designate a specific zone from which to get the variable
value. For example:
V3 = V3 -V3[1]
X = ( X[1] + X[2] + X[3] ) / 3
{TempAdj} = {Temp}[7] - {Adj}
V7 = V1[19] - 2*C[21] + {R/T}[18]
The zone number must be a positive integer constant less than or equal to the number of zones.
The zone designated must have the same structure (finite-element, I-, IJ-, or IJK-ordered) and
dimensions (number of nodes and so forth). If you do not designate a zone, the current zone
will be used.
Specifying a zone only works on the right-hand side of an equation. All values used on the
right-hand side of the equation are the values from before the alteration began.
25.1.7.4. Specifying Ranges and Skip Factors. You can restrict index ranges from
within your Equation file by specifying the following parameters to the $!ALTERDATA macro
command:
IRANGE = min, max, skip
JRANGE = min, max, skip
KRANGE = min, max, skip
where min is the minimum value for that index; max, the maximum; and skip, the skip factor.
Index ranges are described in Section25.1.3, “Index Range and Skip Selections for Ordered
Zones.” If these commands are not used, the default index ranges use the currently selected
indices (if the equations are executed from a macro, all points are used). Index ranges are effective only for ordered zones.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
For example:
#!MC 900
#
# use default index range
#
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{K/10} = round(K/10)"
#
# calculate d2dxy(C) everywhere
#
$!ALTERDATA
IRange = 1,0,1
JRange = 1,0,1
KRange = 1,0,1
EQUATION = "V5 = d2dxy(C)"
#
# set corner values to zero
#
$!ALTERDATA
IRange = 1,0,0
JRange = 1,0,0
KRange = 1,0,0
EQUATION = "V5 = 0"
25.1.7.5. Specifying New Variable Data Type. You can specify the data type for new
variables that are created in equations in the $!ALTERDATA command by including the following parameter:
DATATYPE = <datatype>
where datatype can be one of SINGLE, DOUBLE, LONGINT, SHORTINT, BYTE, or BIT.
For example, to create a new variable and set its data type to BYTE:
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{NewV} = X-Y"
DATATYPE = BYTE
25.1.7.6. Naming Variables in an Equation File. To name a variable when creating it in
an equation file, simply provide the name within curly braces ({}) on the left hand side of the
equation, as in the example below:
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25.1. Altering Data with Equations
#!MC 900
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{myvar} = V4 / V5"
To rename a variable using a macro, use the macro command $!RENAMEDATASETVAR, as
in the example below:
#!MC 900
$!RENAMEDATASETVAR
VAR = 6
NAME = "myvar"
The macro listed above may be played back using Play option of the Macro command under
the File menu. It cannot, however, be loaded in as an equation in the Specify Equations
dialog.
25.1.7.7. Example Equation Files. If you want to cut out a section of a zone using valueblanking, you can create a new variable that is a function of the I- and J-indices (for IJ-ordered
data). Then, by using value-blanking, you can remove certain cells where the value of the
value-blanking variable is less than or equal to the value-blanking cut-off value. Below is an
example equation file for calculating a value-blanking variable that is zero in a block of cells
from I=10 to 28 and from J=5 to 16 and is equal to one in the other cells.
#!MC 900
## create a mask for the cells in the I-direction
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{MASK_I} = max(I,28) - min(I,10) - 18"
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{MASK_I} = min({MASK_I},1)"
## create a mask for the J-direction
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{MASK_J} = max(J,16) - min(J,5) - 11"
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{MASK_J} = min({MASK_J},1)"
## create the value-blanking variable that is the
## intersection ("and") of the above conditions
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{VBLANK} = {MASK_I} + {MASK_J}"
## create a second value-blanking variable that is
## the union ("or") of the above conditions
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "{OR_VBLANK} = {MASK_I} * {MASK_J}"
Another example of an equation file is shown below. In this example, V8 is a new variable, so
all zones must be selected when V8 is created.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
#!MC 900
## The first three equations are applied to all zones
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "V4 = SQRT(V4) / 460.0"
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "V4 = (V4*V5 + V4*V6)/2"
$!ALTERDATA
EQUATION = "V5 = SIN(V4/V3) * EXP(-0.53*V2/V1)"
## Creating New Variable, Operate on all zones
$!ALTERDATA [1,|NUMZONES|]
EQUATION = "{CRITT} = 0.5396E-3 * V4**2"
## Operate on Zone 5 only
$!ALTERDATA [5]
EQUATION = "V1 = V1 / 2"
$!ALTERDATA [5]
EQUATION = "V2 = V2 / 2"
## Operate On Zones 6,7,8,9, and 23 Only
$!ALTERDATA [6-9,23]
EQUATION = "V1 = V1 * 4.3"
$!ALTERDATA [6-9,23]
EQUATION = "V2 = V2 * 4.3"
## Operate On All Zones, But Limit Index Ranges
## To Every Fifth Point in the I- or J-Direction
$!ALTERDATA
IRange = 1,0,5
JRange = 1,0,5
EQUATION = "V5 = EXP(V3(i-2)+V5(i+4))"
##
##
25.2. Transforming 2-D Polar Coordinates to Rectangular
All 2-D Tecplot plots use a rectangular coordinate system with axes X and Y. Some 2-D data
may be represented in polar coordinate form, in which each point is represented by the radius r
and by an angle θ (in radians). Such a data set will initially display as a rectangle in Tecplot.
Use the Transform Polar to Rectangular dialog to transform data sets in polar coordinates to a
rectangular coordinate system which Tecplot can use. When you use this dialog, Tecplot
assumes the current X-variable represents the radius r, and the current Y-variable represents the
angle θ. These variables are listed in the upper portion of the dialog.
To transform your data in polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates:
1.
440
From the Data menu, choose Alter, then choose Polar to Rectangular. The Transform Polar
to Rectangular dialog appears as shown in Figure 25-3.
25.3. Transforming 3-D Spherical Coordinates to Rectangular
Figure 25-3. The
2.
Transform Polar to Rectangular dialog.
Verify that the X- and Y-variables shown represent r and θ, respectively, in your polar coordinate data. The data must be in radians.
3.
Select the zones for the transformation.
4.
Click Compute.
Redraw you plot to see your data appearing in its transformed state.
25.3. Transforming 3-D Spherical Coordinates to
Rectangular
This process is the same as the 2-D case discussed in the previous section except that in this
case Tecplot assumes the current X-variable represents the radius ρ, the current Y-variable the
angle θ (in radians), and the current Z-variable the angle ψ. Figure 25-4 shows ρ, θ, and ψ in
the spherical coordinate system.
25.4. Rotating 2-D Data
Use the 2D Rotate dialog to rotate 2-D field data about a user specified XY-origin. Unlike 3-D
rotation, which does not alter the data but merely the user’s view of the data, 2-D rotation actually modifies the data.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Z
P
•
ψ
Y
θ
X
θ
ρ
Figure 25-4. Three-dimensional
ψ Z-Axis Tilt Angle
θ Rotation Angle about Z-Axis
ρ Distance to point P
angles of rotation.
To rotate data in 2-D:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Alter, then choose 2D Rotate. The 2D Rotate dialog appears,
as shown in Figure 25-5.
2.
Specify the angle of rotation, in degrees, using the Angle (deg) drop-down.
3.
Enter the X- and Y-coordinates of the origin of rotation (that is, the point around which the
data rotate).
4.
Select the zones to rotate.
5.
Click Compute.
Redraw your plot to view the rotated data.
25.5. Shift Cell-Centered Data
Tecplot works with node-centered data. That is, it assumes that data values are taken at the grid
points. Sometimes you may have cell-centered data in which the variable values are specified
at the center of cells defined by the mesh grid points. Use the Shift Cell-Centered Data dialog
to recalculate the values of variables at your grid points under the assumption that the original
data represented values observed at the centers of the grid cells.
For example, suppose you have grid points at X=1, 2, ..., and Y=1, 2, ..., and your data values
are gathered at the cell centers, that is, at X=1.5, 2.5, ..., Y=1.5, 2.5, ..., when you create your
Tecplot data file, simply map the cell-centered values to the lowest indexed corner of the cell,
so that, for example, the values at (X, Y)=(1.5, 1.5) are identified with the grid point (X, Y)=(1,
442
25.6. Creating Zones
Figure 25-5. The
2D Rotate dialog.
1). Then use the Shift Cell-Centered Data dialog to interpolate these cell-centered values onto
the grid points. The final result is a node-centered data set with interpolated values at each
node. Note that the values supplied along the outer boundary (I=IMax or J=JMax or K=KMax)
are not used.
To transform your data to cell-centered:
1.
Create your data file as described above.
2.
From the Data menu, choose Alter, then choose Shift Cell-Centered Data. The Shift CellCentered Data dialog appears as shown in Figure 25-6.
3.
Select the zones and variables to be shifted.
4.
Click Compute.
25.6. Creating Zones
You create zones in Tecplot as part of any number of operations: zone duplication, iso-surface
extraction, streamtrace zone generation, 3-D data slicing, finite-element boundary extraction,
and triangulation. Most of these tasks are discussed in the chapter related to those topics—
streamtrace zone generation, for example, is discussed in Chapter 13, “Streamtraces.” This
section concentrates on zone creation that is also essentially data creation—creating new rectangular, circular, or linear zones. We also describe briefly the data duplication aspects of zone
creation—zone duplication, mirror zones, and sub-zones.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Figure 25-6. The
Shift Cell-Centered Data dialog.
25.6.1. Creating a 1-D Line Zone
A 1D-line zone is an I-ordered set of points along a line. You can create a 1-D line zone as the
first step in plotting an analytic function. Typically, you create the 1-D line zone, then use the
Specify Equations dialog to modify the Y-variable, then plot the result.
To create the 1-D line zone:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then choose 1-D Line. The Create 1-D Line
Zone dialog appears.
2.
In the text field labeled Number of Points, enter the number of points you want to have in
the zone.
3.
In the text fields labeled XMin and XMax, enter the range of X-values for the defined
points.
4.
Click Create. A dialog informs you that the zone was created. Tecplot uniformly distributes
the points along the X-axis between XMin and XMax. Y, and any other variables, are set to
zero.
25.6.2. Creating a Rectangular Zone
Creating a rectangular zone is often the first step in interpolating irregular data into an ordered
grid (see Section 21.4, “Interpolating 3-D Volume Irregular Data,” ) or in plotting analytic
functions as described in Section 21.8.2, “Analytic Iso-Surface Plots.”
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25.6. Creating Zones
Tecplot allows you to create a new ordered rectangular zone with the dimensions in the I-, Jand K-directions you specify. This is done either with the Create Rectangular Zone tool or the
Create Rectangular Zone dialog. The zone that you create has the same number of variables as
other zones in the data set, if any. Otherwise, it has just two or three variables, depending on
the value specified for the K-dimension. In the 3D frame mode, you can specify three dimensions when creating a zone. In the 2D frame mode, you can specify two dimensions. In the
Sketch and XY frame modes, Create Rectangular Zone is not available, except in Sketch mode
when no data set is attached to the current frame.
If you have no current data set, Tecplot creates one with two or three variables, depending on
the specified K-dimension. If you specify K=1 (the default), the data set is created as IJordered, and has just two variables. If you specify K>1, the data set is created as IJK-ordered,
and has three variables.
25.6.2.1. New Rectangular Zones in 2D Frame Mode. In 2D frame mode, you may
create IJ-ordered zones. You may interactively draw the boundary of the new zone, or use the
Create Rectangular Zone dialog to enter the X- and Y-coordinates of the lower-left and upperright corners of the new zone.
To create a rectangular zone interactively:
1.
From the sidebar, choose the Create Rectangular Zone tool. The tool is only available if a
data set is attached to the current frame. Use the Create Rectangular Zone dialog to create a
zone in an empty frame.
2.
In the frame in which you want to create the zone, press down and hold the left mouse button to specify one corner of the zone.
3.
Drag until the boundary of the zone is as desired, then release. The Create Rectangular
Zone dialog appears (see Figure 25-7) with the X and Y extents for the rectangular zone
already filled in. You can adjust the I- and J-dimensions and the X- and Y-coordinates.
4.
Click Create to create the zone.
To create a rectangular zone using the Create Rectangular Zone dialog:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then Rectangular. The Create Rectangular Zone
dialog appears, as in Figure 25-7.
2.
In the Create Rectangular Zone dialog, you enter the number of data points in the I-direction and the number of data points in the J-direction. Also enter the X- and Y-coordinates of
the two corners.
3.
Click Create to create the zone.
Tecplot uniformly distributes the data points in the I- and J-directions. In this situation, the Idirection is along the X-axis, and the J-direction is along the Y-axis as shown in Figure 25-8.
All other variables (those not assigned to the X- and Y-axes) are set to zero.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Figure 25-7. The
Create Rectangular Zone dialog.
5
Y
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X
Figure 25-8. A
rectangular zone.
After creating a rectangular zone, you can modify the X- and Y-coordinates and/or the other
field variables using the tools under the Alter sub-menu of the Data menu.
25.6.2.2. New Rectangular Zones in 3D Frame Mode. In 3D frame mode, you can
create an I-ordered (linear) zone, an IJ-ordered (planar) zone or an IJK-ordered (3-D volume)
zone. In 3D frame mode, the Create Rectangular Zone mouse mode is disabled; you do not
have the option to interactively draw the new zone.
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25.6. Creating Zones
To create a rectangular zone in 3D frame mode:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then choose Rectangular. The Create Rectangular Zone dialog appears.
2.
Enter the dimensions (that is, number of data points) in the I-direction, the J-direction, and
the K-direction in the text fields grouped under the label Dimensions.
To create an I-ordered zone, enter one for both the J- and K-dimensions.
To create an IJ-ordered zone, enter one for the K-dimension. Z=ZMin throughout the created zone.
To create an IJK-ordered zone, enter a K-dimension greater than one.
3.
Enter the minimum and maximum coordinate values for X, Y, and Z in the text fields
grouped under the label Coordinates.
4.
Click Create to create the new zone.
The values for X, Y, and Z are calculated at each data point in the new zone. Tecplot distributes
the data points uniformly in the I-, J-, and K-directions. In this situation, the I-direction is along
the X-axis, the J-direction along the Y-axis, and the K-direction along the Z-axis. All other
variables are set to zero. If you plot the new zone, you will see a rectangular mesh with uniform
spacing in the X-, Y-, and Z-directions. The mesh lines are straight and parallel to the axes.
Using Alter option under the Data menu, you can modify the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates, and
the values of the other variables as well, by using equations or Equation files. See Section 25.1,
“Altering Data with Equations.”
25.6.3. Creating a Circular or Cylindrical Zone
Tecplot allows you to create a new ordered circular or cylindrical zone with the dimensions in
the I-, J-, and K-directions you specify. The I-dimension determines the number of points on
each radius of the zones. The J-dimension determines the number of points around the circumference. The K-dimension determines the number of layers in the zone, creating a cylinder.
You create a circular or cylindrical zone with the Create Circular Zone dialog, or, in 2D frame
mode, with the Create Circular Zone tool. The zone that you create has the same number of
variables as other zones in the data set, if any. In the 3D frame mode, you can specify three
dimensions when creating a data set. In the 2D frame mode, you can specify two dimensions.
In the Sketch and XY frame modes, the create circular zone options are not available, except in
Sketch mode when no data set is attached to the current frame.
If you have no current data set, Tecplot creates one with two or three variables, depending on
the K-dimension. If you specify K=1 (the default), the data set is created as IJ-ordered, and has
just two variables. If you specify K>1, the data set is created as IJK-ordered, and has three
variables.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
25.6.3.1. New Circular Zones in 2D. In 2D frame mode, you may create circular IJordered zones. You may interactively draw the boundary of the new zone, or use the Create
Circular Zone dialog to enter the radius and X- and Y-coordinates of the center of the new
zone.
To create a circular zone interactively:
1.
From the sidebar, choose the Create Circular Zone tool. The tool is only available if a data
set is attached to the current frame. Use the Create Circular Zone dialog to create a zone in
an empty frame.
2.
In the frame in which you want to create the zone, press down and hold the left mouse button to specify the center of the zone.
3.
Drag the mouse until the boundary of the zone is as desired, then release. The Create Circular Zone dialog appears (see Figure 25-9) with the current origin and radius filled in for
you. You may adjust the dimensions and coordinates as necessary.
4.
Click Create to create the new zone.
To create a circular zone using the Create Circular Zone dialog:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then Circular. The Create Circular Zone dialog
appears, as in Figure 25-9.
Figure 25-9. The
448
Create Circular Zone dialog.
25.6. Creating Zones
2.
In the Create Circular Zone dialog, you enter the number of data points in the I-direction
(radial) and the number of data points in the J-direction (circumferential). You must supply
a J-dimension of at least 2.
3.
Click Create to create the new zone.
Tecplot creates a zone in which I-circles are connected by J-radial lines, as shown in
Figure 25-10. All other variables (those not assigned to the X- and Y-axes) are set to zero.
1
0.75
0.5
Y
0.25
0
-0.25
-0.5
-0.75
-1
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
X
Figure 25-10. A
circular zone.
After creating a circular zone, you can modify the X- and Y-coordinates and/or the other field
variables using the tools under the Data/Alter sub-menu.
25.6.3.2. New Cylindrical Zones in 3D Frame Mode. In 3D frame mode, you can create
an IJ-ordered (planar) zone or an IJK-ordered (3-D volume) zone. In 3D frame mode, the
Create Circular Zone mouse mode is disabled, so that you do not have the option to interactively draw the new zone.
To create a cylindrical zone in 3D frame mode:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then choose Circular. The Create Circular Zone
dialog appears.
2.
Enter the dimensions (that is, number of data points) in the I-direction (radial), the J-direction (circumferential), and the K-direction (layers) in the text fields grouped under the label
Dimensions.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
To create an IJ-ordered zone, enter one for the K-dimension. Z=ZMin throughout the created zone.
To create an IJK-ordered zone, enter a K-dimension greater than one.
3.
Enter the radius, the X- and Y-coordinate values for the zone center, and the minimum and
maximum Z coordinates in the text fields grouped under the label Coordinates.
4.
Click Create to create the new zone.
The values for X, Y, and Z are calculated at each data point in the new zone. If K>1, Tecplot
creates a K-layered cylindrical zone having I circles connected by J radial planes as shown in
Figure 25-11. All other variables are set to zero.
Z
X
Y
0.5
0
-1.5
-1
-1
-0.5
-0.5
Y
0
0
0.5
0.5
X
1
1
1.5
Figure 25-11. A
Z
1
1.5
3-D circular zone.
Using the Alter option from the Data menu, you can modify the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates, and
the values of the other variables as well, by using equations or equation files. See Section 25.1,
“Altering Data with Equations.”
25.6.4. Entering XY-Data
If you have a fairly small number of XY-pairs, you can enter them directly into Tecplot to
create a zone with XY-values.
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25.6. Creating Zones
To create an I-ordered zone for XY-plots:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then choose Enter XY. This action calls up the
Enter XY-Values to Create a Zone dialog, as shown in Figure 25-12.
Figure 25-12. The
Enter XY-Values to Create a Zone dialog.
2.
In the text box labeled Enter XY Values, enter X- and Y-value pairs, one per line; first X,
then one or more spaces, then Y.
3.
If you would like to specify a data type for the data (long or short integer, float, double,
byte, bit), select the desired data type from the drop-down labeled Destination Data Type.
4.
Click Create to create the zone.
25.6.5. Extracting Data Points
Another method for creating an I-ordered zone is to extract data points from the current data
set using any of three methods:
• Choosing a discrete set of points with the mouse.
• Drawing a polyline with the mouse from which points are extracted at regular intervals.
• Selecting an existing polyline geometry from which points are extracted, either at regular
intervals or at the points which define the geometry.
The difference between the second and third methods is that in the second method, the polyline
used to extract the points is not a geometry and is not part of your plot—it is simply a transient
structure used to extract the points. The points which define the polyline are not treated specially in any way. When you extract points from a polyline geometry, however, you can choose
to use the points that define the polyline as the extracted points.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Note: To extract points from a geometry or polyline, it must lie within the boundaries of a zone
with connectivity.
25.6.5.1. Extracting Discrete Points. To extract a discrete set of points with the mouse:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose Discrete Points.
2.
Click at each location from which you want to extract a point.
3.
Double-click on the last data point or press Esc to end. The Extract Data Points dialog
appears; use it to specify how to save the data.
25.6.5.2. Extracting Points from Polyline. To extract points from a polyline:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose Points from Polyline.
2.
Click at the desired beginning of the line, and at all desired breakpoints.
3.
Double-click on the last data point or press Esc to end. The Extract Data Points dialog
appears; use it to specify how many points to extract and how to save the data.
25.6.5.3. Extracting Points from Geometry. To extract points from a polyline geometry:
1.
In the workspace, select the polyline geometry from which you want to extract data points.
2.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose Points from Geometry. The Extract Data
Points dialog appears; use it to specify how many points to extract and how to save the data.
25.6.5.4. Controlling Data Point Extraction. Use the Extract Data Points dialog to control how data points are extracted. Use the following controls:
• Extract Data to:
- File: Select this check box if you want the data points extracted to an ASCII Tecplot
data file. If this check box is selected, the Extract Data Points to File dialog appears
when you click Extract. Use this dialog to specify a file name for the extracted data
file.
-
Zone: Select this check box if you want the data points extracted to a zone in the current data set.
• Include distance variable: Select this check box if you want the extracted data file to contain an additional variable, DISTANCE, which contains the accumulated distance from the
first point.
• Number of points to extract: Enter the number of points to extract. This field is sensitive
only if you are extracting data points from a polyline or geometry. It is insensitive if you are
extracting discrete points. If you are extracting from a geometry, you must also select the
check box labeled “Extract regular points along a geometry.”
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25.6. Creating Zones
• Extract regular points along geometry: Select this check box if you want to extract the
specified number of points distributed uniformly along the geometry. This check box is sensitive only if you are extracting points from a geometry.
• Extract only points which define geometry: Select this check box if you want to extract
only the endpoints of the segments in the geometry. This check box is sensitive only if you
are extracting points from a geometry.
After specifying any desired options, click Extract.
25.6.6. Duplicating a Zone
Tecplot can create a new zone by duplicating all or part of an existing zone. This is useful for
creating projections, mirror images, and subzones of existing zones.
25.6.6.1. Duplicating a Full Zone. To create a full duplicate of one or more existing zones:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then Duplicate. The Create Duplicate Zone dialog appears, as shown in Figure 25-13.
Figure 25-13. The
Create Duplicate Zone dialog.
2.
Select the source zone or zones from the scrolled list labeled Source Zone.
3.
Click Create to create the duplicate zone or zones. Each duplicate zone has the same name
as the zone of which it is a copy.
Duplicate zones can be used as the first step to create new zones which are projections of existing 3-D surface zones onto a plane. To do this, follow these steps:
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
1.
Create a plot of a 3-D surface zone.
2.
Create a duplicate of the surface zone using the procedures in Section 25.6.6.1, “Duplicating a Full Zone.”
3.
From the Data menu, choose Alter, then choose Specify Equations.
4.
Make the new zone a plane by setting the Z-coordinate to a constant value (-20,000 in this
example) by entering the following equation in the Specify Equations dialog:
Z = -20000
5.
Select the new zone in the Zones to Alter region of the Specify Equations dialog, deselecting other zones as necessary.
6.
Click Compute to complete modifying the new zone.
Figure 25-14 shows an example of a projection of a 3-D surface zone.
Z
Y
X
ORIGINAL ZONE
5000
0
-5000
-10000
0.
5
1.
0
-15000
1.
5
ORIGINAL ZONE)
2.
0
-20000
-2.5
NEW ZONE
(PROJECTION OF
2.
5
-2.0
-1.5
3.
0
-1.0
3.
5
-0.5
0.0
Figure 25-14. Projection
4.
0
of a 3-D surface.
25.6.6.2. Creating a Sub-zone. You can only create a sub-zone out of an existing I-, IJ-, or
IJK-ordered zone. You cannot create a sub-zone out of a finite-element zone.
To create a sub-zone of an existing zone:
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then SubZone. The Create SubZone dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 25-15.
2.
Select the source zone from the Source Zone drop-down menu.
454
1.
25.6. Creating Zones
Figure 25-15. The
Create SubZone dialog.
3.
Specify the desired sub-zone as a range of I-, J-, and K-indices. For each of I-Index,
J-Index, and K-Index (if applicable), specify a start index, an end index, and a skip. You
may use the special value 0 or Mx to indicate the maximum of that index, and the values
Mx-1 to represent one index less than the maximum, Mx-2 for two less than the maximum,
and so forth.
4.
Click Create to create the subzones. Each sub-zone is given the name “SubZone.”
25.6.6.3. Creating a Mirror Zone. Tecplot makes it very simple to create a duplicate zone
that is the mirror image of an existing zone if the desired mirror axis or mirror plane is one of
the standard axes (2-D) or the plane determined by any two axes (3-D). To create a mirror
image of one or more existing zones using one of these standard mirrors:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Create Zone, then Mirror. The Create Mirror Zone dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 25-16.
2.
Select the source zone or zones from the scrolled list labeled Source Zone(s).
3.
Specify the axis (2-D) or axis plane (3-D) to mirror about.
4.
Click Create to create the mirror zone or zones. Each mirror zone has a name of the form
“Mirror of zone sourcezone,” where sourcezone is the number of the zone from which the
mirrored zone was created.
For example, consider the case where your input file describes a 90 degree wedge which occupies the positive X-positive Y-quadrant. You want to create the complete circle based on your
inputs. To do this, perform the following steps:
1.
Mirror the original zone about the X-axis.
2.
Mirror both the original zone and the mirrored zone created in Step 1 about the Y-axis.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Figure 25-16. The
Create Mirror Zone dialog for a 2-D image.
It is also possible to create a mirror zone that is mirrored about a different axis or plane. For
example, suppose you wanted to mirror a 2-D zone about the line X=5. You can do this as follows:
1.
Create a mirror zone about the Y-axis as described above
2.
From the Data menu, choose Alter, then choose Specify Equations.
3.
Enter the following equation in the Equations text field:
X = 10 - X
4.
Specify the new mirror zone as the only zone to alter.
5.
Click Compute to complete the process.
Figure 25-17 shows an example of creating mirror image zones.
25.7. Deleting Zones
In any data set with more than one zone, you can use the Delete Zone dialog to delete any
unwanted zones. You cannot delete all zones; if you attempt to delete all zones, the lowest
numbered zone is not deleted.
To delete a zone:
1.
456
From the Data menu, choose Delete Zone. The Delete Zone dialog appears as shown in
Figure 25-18.
25.7. Deleting Zones
AFTER CREATION OF
MIRROR IMAGE ZONES
ORIGINAL DATA (19 ZONES)
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
0.0
Figure 25-17. Creating
Figure 25-18. The
0.5
-0.5
0.0
0.5
a mirrored zone.
Delete Zone dialog.
2.
Select the zone or zones you want to delete.
3.
Click Delete to delete the zones.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
25.8. Triangulating Irregular Data Points
Triangulation is a process in which data points are connected to form triangles. You can use triangulation to convert irregular, I-ordered data sets into a finite-element surface zone. You can,
in fact, use triangulation on any type of source zone, ordered or finite-element. But its use on
irregular data is most common. Triangulation is one of two options for creating 2-D field plots
from irregular data. The other is interpolation, discussed in Section 25.9, “Interpolating Data.”
Triangulation preserves the accuracy of the data by creating an finite-element surface zone
with the source data points as nodes and a set of Triangle elements. Triangulation is only available in the 2D frame mode.
Triangulation works best for 2-D data; you can, however, triangulate 3-D surface data as long
as the Z-coordinate is single-valued (the surface does not wrap around on itself). When you triangulate 3-D surface data, the Z-coordinate of the data is ignored, causing a less-than-optimal
triangulation in some cases.
To triangulate your data:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Triangulate. The Triangulate dialog appears, as shown in
Figure 25-19.
Figure 25-19. The
2.
458
Triangulate dialog.
Select the zone or zones to triangulate from the scrolled list labeled Source Zone(s).
25.9. Interpolating Data
3.
If you want to specify a boundary zone for the triangulation, select the Use Boundary
Zone(s) check box and select the boundary zone or zones from the Boundary Zone(s)
scrolled list. The boundary zones define the boundaries in the triangulation region; if you
do not include boundary zones, Tecplot assumes the data points lie within a convex polygon
and that all points in the interior can be connected.
4.
(If Use Boundary Zone(s) is selected) If you want to include the points in the boundary
zones in the triangulated zone, select the Include Boundary Points check box.
5.
(Optional) Modify the Triangle Keep Factor, if desired. This factor is used to define “bad”
triangles on the outside of the triangulated zone. See below for complete details.
6.
Click Compute to perform the triangulation.
At the completion of triangulation, Tecplot attempts to remove bad triangles from the outside
of the triangulation. This does not include any triangles next to the boundary zone, only those
along the edges where there is no boundary (or where the boundary zone points are excluded).
The definition of a bad triangle is stored as the Triangle Keep Factor as a number between zero
(three collinear points) and 1.0 (an equilateral triangle). Typical settings are values between 0.1
and 0.3; settings above 0.5 are not allowed.
After triangulating your data, you can use the resulting finite-element surface zone to create
plots. Generally, you turn off the original zone(s) and plot the new zone only, but you can, for
example, plot a scatter plot of the original zone(s) along with the contours of the new zone.
25.9. Interpolating Data
Interpolation, in Tecplot, means assigning new values for the variables at data points in a zone
based on the data point values in another zone (or set of zones).
For example, you may have a set of data points in an I-ordered zone that are distributed in a
random-like fashion in the XY-plane. This type of data is sometimes referred to as unordered,
ungridded, or random data; in Tecplot, it is called irregular data. Using data in this form, you
can create mesh plots and scatter plots, but you cannot create contour plots, light-source shading, or streamtraces. In Tecplot, you can interpolate the irregular I-ordered data onto an IJordered mesh, and then create contour plots and other types of field plots with the interpolated
data. You can also interpolate your 3-D, I-ordered irregular data into an IJK-ordered zone and
create 3-D volume plots from the IJK-ordered zone. You can even interpolate to a finiteelement zone.
There are three types of interpolation available:
• Linear: Interpolate using linear interpolation from a set of finite-element, IJ-ordered, or
IJK-ordered zones to one zone.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
• Inverse Distance: Interpolate using an inverse-distance weighting from a set of zones to
one zone.
• Kriging: Interpolate using kriging from a set of zones to one zone.
Each of these options is described in the following sections.
25.9.1. Inverse-Distance Interpolation
Inverse-distance interpolation averages the values at the data points from one set of zones (the
source zones) to the data points in another zone (the destination zone). The average is weighted
by a function of the distance between each source data point to the destination data point. The
closer a source data point is to the destination data point, the greater its value is weighted.
In many cases, the source zone is an irregular data set—an I-ordered set of data points without
any mesh structure (a list of points). Inverse-distance interpolation may be used to create 2- or
3-D surface, or a 3-D volume field plots of irregular data. The destination zone can, for example, be a circular or rectangular zone created within Tecplot. See Section 25.6, “Creating
Zones.”
To perform inverse-distance interpolation in Tecplot, use the following steps:
Read the data set to be interpolated into Tecplot (the source data).
2.
Read in or create the zone onto which the data is to be interpolated (the destination zone).
3.
From the Data menu, choose Interpolate, then choose Inverse Distance. The Inverse-Distance Interpolation dialog appears, as shown in Figure 25-20.
4.
Select the zones to be interpolated from those listed in the Source Zone(s) scrolled list.
5.
Select which variables are to be interpolated from those listed in the Variable(s) scrolled
list. By default, all variables are interpolated except those assigned to the X-, Y-, and
Z-axes. If, after interpolating, you will be working with just one or two interpolated variables, you can speed up the calculations by interpolating only those needed variables.
6.
Select the destination zone into which to interpolate. Existing values for the interpolated
variables in the destination zone will be overwritten.
7.
(Optional) Enter the minimum distance used for the inverse-distance weighting in the Minimum Distance text field. Source data points which are closer to a destination data point
than this minimum distance are weighted as if they were at the minimum distance, thus
reducing the weighting factor for such points. This tends to reduce the peaking and plateauing of the interpolated data near the source data points.
8.
(Optional) Enter the exponent for the inverse-distance weighting in the Exponent text field.
9.
(Optional) Select the method used for determining which source points to consider for each
destination point from the Point Selection drop-down menu. There are three available methods, as follows:
460
1.
25.9. Interpolating Data
Figure 25-20. The
Inverse-Distance Interpolation dialog.
-
Nearest N: For each point in the destination zone, consider only the closest n points
to the destination point. These n points can come from any of the source zones. You
specify n after selecting this option. This option may speed up processing if n is significantly smaller than the entire number of source points.
-
Octant: Like Nearest N above, except the n points are selected by coordinate-system
octants. The n points are selected so they are distributed as evenly as possible
throughout the eight octants. This reduces the chances of using source points which
are all on one side of the destination point.
-
All: Consider all points in the source zone(s) for each point in the destination zone.
10.
(Optional) If you specified Nearest N or Octant for the point selection method, enter the
number of points.
11.
Click Compute to perform the interpolation. While the interpolation is proceeding, a working dialog appears showing the progress of the interpolation. This dialog has a Cancel button allowing you to interrupt the interpolation.
If you click Cancel during the interpolation process, the interpolation is terminated prematurely. The destination zone is left in an indeterminate state, and you should redo the interpolation.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Inverse-distance interpolation ignores the IJK-mode of IJK-ordered zones. All data points in
both the source and destination zones are used in the interpolation.
Note: Tecplot uses the current frame’s axis assignments to determine the variables to use for
coordinates in interpolation, but it ignores any axis scaling that may be in effect.
25.9.1.1. The Inverse-Distance Algorithm. The algorithm used for inverse-distance
interpolation is simple. The value of a variable at a data point in the destination zone is calculated as a function of the selected data points in the source zone (as defined in the Point Selection drop-down).
The value at each source zone data point is weighted by the inverse of the distance between the
source data point and the destination data point raised to a power as shown below:
∑
∑
wsϕs
ϕ d = -------------------(summed over the selected points in the source zone)
ws
where ϕ d and ϕ s are the values of the variables at the destination point and the source point,
respectively, and ws is the weighting function defined as:
ws = D
–E
D in the equation above is the distance between the source point and the destination point or
the minimum distance specified in the dialog, whichever is greater. E is the exponent specified
in the Exponent text field. The exponent should be set between 2 and 5. The algorithm is
speed-optimized for an exponent of 4, although in many cases, the interpolation looks better
with an exponent of 3.5.
Smoothing may improve the data created by inverse-distance interpolation. Smoothing adjusts
the values at data points toward the average of the values at neighboring data points, removing
peaks, plateaus, and noise from the data. See Section 25.10, “Smoothing Data,” for information on smoothing.
25.9.2. Kriging
Kriging is a more complex form of interpolation than inverse-distance. It works similar to
inverse-distance interpolation discussed in Section 25.9.1, “Inverse-Distance Interpolation,”
and is used for the same purposes. Kriging generally produces superior results to the inversedistance algorithm but requires more computer memory and time.
To perform kriging in Tecplot, perform the following steps:
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25.9. Interpolating Data
1.
Read the data set to be interpolated into Tecplot (the source data).
2.
Read in or create the zone onto which the data is to be interpolated (the destination zone).
3.
From the Data menu, choose Interpolate, then choose Kriging. The Kriging dialog appears,
as shown in Figure 25-21
Figure 25-21. The
Kriging dialog in Motif.
4.
Select the zones to be interpolated from those listed in the Source Zone(s) scrolled list.
5.
Select which variables are to be interpolated from those listed in the Variable(s) scrolled
list. By default, all variables are interpolated except those assigned to the X-, Y-, and
Z-axes. If, after interpolating, you will be working with just one or two interpolated variables, you can speed up the calculations by interpolating only those needed variables. In
kriging, interpolating fewer variables can have a significant effect on the speed of interpolation.
6.
Select the destination zone into which to interpolate. Existing values for the interpolated
variables in the destination zone will be overwritten.
7.
(Optional) In the Range text field, enter the distance beyond which source points become
insignificant for the kriging. The value is stated as the fraction of the length of the diagonal
of the box which contains the data points. A range of zero means that any point not coinci-
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
dent with the destination point is statistically insignificant; a range of one means that every
point in the data set is statistically significant for each point. In general, values between 0.2
and 0.5 should be used.
8.
(Optional) In the Zero Value text field, enter the semi-variance at each source data point on
a normalized scale from zero to one. Semi-variance is the certainty of the value at a data
point. A value of zero means that the values at the source points are exact. Greater values
mean the values at the source points have some uncertainty or noise. Zero is usually a good
number for the zero value, and it causes the interpolated data to fit closely to all the source
data points. Increasing the zero value results in smoother interpolated values that fit
increasingly more to the average of the source data.
9.
(Optional) Select the overall trend for the data in the Drift drop-down. This can be No Drift,
Linear, or Quadratic.
10.
(Optional) Select the method used for determining which source points to consider for
each destination point from the Point Selection drop-down. There are three available methods, as follows:
-
Nearest N: For each point in the destination zone, consider only the closest n points
to the destination point. These n points can come from any of the source zones.
-
Octant: Like Nearest N above, except the n points are selected by coordinate-system
octants. The n points are selected so they are distributed as evenly as possible
throughout the eight octants. This reduces the chances of using source points which
are all on one side of the destination point.
-
All: Consider all points in the source zone(s) for each point in the destination zone.
This option is very important for kriging, since kriging involves the computationally expensive inversion and multiplication of matrices. The computational time and memory requirements increase rapidly as the number of selected source data points increases. In general,
you should not use the All option unless you have very few source points.
11.
If you specified Nearest N or Octant for the point selection method, enter the number of
points.
12.
Click Compute to perform the kriging. While the kriging is proceeding, a working dialog
appears showing its progress. This dialog has a Cancel button allowing you to interrupt the
kriging.
If you click Cancel during the kriging process, the kriging is terminated prematurely. The
destination zone is left in an indeterminate state, and you should redo the kriging.
Note: Tecplot uses the current frame’s axis assignments to determine the variables to use for
coordinates in kriging, but it ignores any axis scaling that may be in effect. Also, if the Drift is
set to Linear or Quadratic, Tecplot requires that the points selected be non-collinear (noncoplanar in 3-D). To avoid this limitation, set the Drift to None. Tecplot requires that no points
be coincident. You can eliminate coincident points by triangulation before you interpolate.
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25.9. Interpolating Data
25.9.2.1. The Kriging Algorithm. For a detailed discussion of the kriging algorithm see:
Davis, J. C., Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons,
New York, 1973, 1986.
25.9.2.2. Improving Results with Kriging and Inverse Distance Interpolation. For
better results with 3-D data, try changing the range of your Z-variable to one similar to the Xrange the Y-range. Also, set Zero Value to 0.05.
25.9.3. Linear Interpolation
Linear interpolation differs from the two previous interpolation schemes previously discussed
in that the source zone must have some 2- or 3-D structure. That is, the source zones must be
IJ-ordered, IJK-ordered, or finite-element. Irregular I-ordered data cannot be used for the
source zones. (For 2-D data, you may be able to first create a finite-element zone from an irregular, I-ordered zone by using triangulation. See Section 25.8, “Triangulating Irregular Data
Points.”)
Linear interpolation finds the values in the destination zone based on their location within the
cells of the source zones. The value is linearly interpolated to the destination data points using
only the data points at the vertices of the cell (or element) in the source zone(s).
To perform linear interpolation in Tecplot, perform the following steps:
1.
Read the data set to be interpolated into Tecplot (the source data).
2.
Read in or create the zone onto which the data is to be interpolated (the destination zone).
3.
From the Data menu, choose Interpolate, then choose Linear. The Linear Interpolation dialog appears, as shown in Figure 25-22.
4.
Select the zones to be interpolated from those listed in the Source Zone(s) scrolled list.
5.
Select which variables are to be interpolated from those listed in the Variable(s) scrolled
list. By default, all variables are interpolated except those assigned to the X-, Y-, and
Z-axes. If, after interpolating, you will be working with just one or two interpolated variables, you can speed up the calculations by interpolating only those needed variables.
6.
Select the destination zone into which to interpolate. Existing values for the interpolated
variables in the destination zone will be overwritten.
7.
(Optional) Select what to do with points that lie outside the source-zone data field. You
have two options, represented by option buttons on the dialog: Constant, which sets all
points outside the data field to a constant value that you specify; and Do Not Change, which
preserves the values of points outside the data field. Do Not Change is appropriate in cases
where you are using one interpolation algorithm inside the data field, and another outside.
8.
(Optional) If you choose Constant as the Outside Points option, specify the constant value
in the Constant Value text field.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
Figure 25-22. The
9.
Linear Interpolation dialog.
Click Compute to perform the interpolation. While the interpolation is proceeding, a working dialog appears showing the progress of the interpolation. This dialog has a Cancel button allowing you to interrupt the interpolation.
If you click Cancel during the interpolation process, the interpolation is terminated prematurely. The destination zone is left in an indeterminate state, and you should redo the interpolation.
25.9.4. Alternatives to Interpolation
An alternative to 2-D interpolation is to triangulate your irregular data points. This creates a
mesh of triangles (a Triangle element-type, finite-element zone) using the source data as node
points. No interpolation is required. See Section 25.8, “Triangulating Irregular Data Points,”
for a description of triangulation.
25.10. Smoothing Data
You can smooth the values of a variable of an I-, IJ-, or IJK-ordered zone (in either 2- or 3-D)
to reduce “noise” and lessen discontinuities in data. Smoothing can also be used after inversedistance interpolation to reduce the artificial peaks and plateaus.
466
25.10. Smoothing Data
Smoothing is applied to XY-lines, in 2-D, across a 3-D surface, or in a 3-D volume, depending
on the state of the current frame and the type of zone structure. Each pass of smoothing shifts
the value of a variable at a data point towards an average of the values at its neighboring data
points.
To smooth data in Tecplot, use the following steps:
1.
From the Data menu, choose Alter, then choose Smooth. The Smooth dialog appears as
shown in Figure 25-23.
Figure 25-23. The
Smooth dialog.
2.
Select the zone to smooth from the Zone drop-down. The zone must be I-, IJ-, or IJKordered. The zone should not intersect itself.
3.
Select the variable to smooth from the drop-down of variables in the zone. In XY frame
mode, the variable must be a dependent variable for one active mapping for that zone.
4.
(Optional) Specify the number of smoothing passes to perform. The default is 1. A greater
number of passes will take more time but smooth the data more.
5.
(Optional) Specify the relaxation factor for each pass of smoothing in the field labeled
Coefficient. Enter a number between zero and one (exclusively). Large numbers flatten
peaks and noise quickly. Small numbers smooth less each pass, rounding out peaks and valleys rather than eliminating them.
6.
(Optional) Select the boundary conditions by which to smooth from the Boundary dropdown. The options are Fixed, First Order, and Second Order, as follows:
-
Fixed: The points at the boundary are not changed in value.
First Order: The points at the boundary are smoothed based on the assumption that
the first derivative normal to the boundary is constant. This will tend to cause contour
lines of the smoothed variable to be perpendicular to the boundary.
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Chapter 25. Data Operations
-
7.
Second Order: The points at the boundary are smoothed based on the assumption
that the second derivative normal to the boundary is constant. This option may overextrapolate derivatives at the boundary.
Click Compute to perform the smoothing. While the smoothing is underway, a working
dialog appears showing the progress of the smoothing. This dialog has a Cancel button
allowing you to interrupt the smoothing.
If you click Cancel during the smoothing process, you will interrupt the smoothing, and
Tecplot will report back the number of passes completed. For example, if you specified ten
passes in Number of Passes but hit escape halfway through, Tecplot would report five
passes complete.
Smoothing has some limitations:
• Finite-element zones cannot be smoothed. Only I-, IJ-, and IJK-ordered zones can be
smoothed.
• Tecplot uses the current frame’s axis assignments to determine the variables to use for the
coordinates in the smoothing, and also to determine whether the smoothing should be done
in XY, 2D, or 3D frame mode. Be careful if you have multiple frames with different variable assignments for the same data set.
• Any axis scaling is ignored by Tecplot while smoothing.
• For I-ordered zones, the current frame can be in XY, 2D, or 3D frame mode. In XY mode,
the variable must be the dependent variable of one active mapping for that zone.
• For IJ-ordered zones, the current frame can be in 2D or 3D frame mode, but you cannot
smooth the variables assigned to the X- and Y-axes in the 2D frame mode.
• For IJK-ordered zones, you must be in 3D frame mode, and you cannot smooth the variables assigned to the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. The IJK-mode is ignored. The zone is smoothed
with respect to the entire 3-D volume.
• Smoothing does not extend across zone boundaries. If you use a boundary condition option
other than Fixed (such that values along the zone boundary change), contour lines can be
discontinuous at the zone boundaries.
• Smoothing is performed on all nodes of a zone, and disregards value-blanking if it is active.
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CHAPTER 26
Probing
In Tecplot probing is the ability to select a point and view the values of all variables at that
point. You can also view information about the data set itself while probing. Similar to probing
is probing-to-edit, a feature which allows you to modify your data interactively. To prevent you
from inadvertently changing your data, probing-to-edit is disabled by default. You can enable
the feature by toggling the option Allow Data Point Adjustment in the Edit menu. Use either
the Probe At dialog or the Probe tool to obtain point information from a data field.
With the Probe At dialog, you can specify the location of the probe as either a set of spatial
coordinates X, Y, and Z, or as a set of I-, J-, and K-indices. You select one or more locations in
the data field where information is to be collected, and the resulting information is displayed in
the Probe dialog.
When you probe with the mouse, you can probe in either of two modes: Interpolate and
Nearest Point. In Interpolate mode, accessed by a mouse click, the value returned is the linearly
interpolated value for the specified locations. In Nearest Point mode, accessed by Ctrl-click,
the value returned is the exact value at the closest data point in the field.
26.1. Probing Field Plots with the Mouse
The most direct method of probing is to use the Probe tool. When you select the Probe tool
from the sidebar and move the pointer into the workspace, where it becomes a cross-hair. Click
at any point to probe in Interpolate mode, which calls up a dialog showing the probe information interpolated for that point. Ctrl-click at any location to probe in Nearest Point mode which
will obtain probe information for the data point closest to the cross-hair.
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Chapter 26. Probing
The following table shows the information returned for each type of probe action for field
plots. (All mouse click operations are using the left mouse button.)
Probe Action
Information Returned
Click
If the pointer is over a valid cell return the interpolated field values from
all nodes in the cell. If multiple cells are candidates then, for 2D frame
mode the cell from the highest number zone is used and for 3D frame
mode the cell closest to the viewer is used.
Ctrl-Click
If the pointer is over a valid cell return the field values from the nearest
node in the cell. If multiple cells are candidates then, for 2D frame
mode the cell from the highest number zone is used and for 3D frame
mode the cell closest to the viewer is used. If the pointer is not over any
cell then the field values from nearest data point as measured in distance
on the screen are returned.
Shift-Ctrl-Click
Return the field values from the nearest point on the screen ignoring
surfaces and regardless of zone number or depth of the point. This is
useful in 3-D for probing on data points that are on the back side of a
closed surface without having to rotate the object. In 2-D this is useful
for probing on data points for zones that may be underneath other zones
because of the order in which they were drawn.
Alt-Click
(3D Frame mode only)
Same as Click except ignore zones while probing. (Probe only on
streamtraces, iso-surfaces, or slices.)
Alt-Ctrl-Click
Same as Ctrl-Click except ignore zones while probing. (Probe only on
streamtraces, iso-surfaces, or slices.)
Alt-Ctrl-Shift-Click
Same as Shift-Ctrl-Click except ignore zones while probing. (Probe
only on streamtraces, iso-surfaces, or slices.)
To obtain interpolated variable values for the exact probed location:
Select the Probe tool, represented by
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace. The pointer changes to a cross-hair.
3.
Click at the desired location. A cross appears at the probed location, and the Probe dialog
appears as shown in Figure 26-1, showing variable values. The variable values are interpolated linearly from the values of the data set. If you probe a 3-D volume zone in 3D frame
mode, the probe cross-hairs point to locations on the surface of the plot, not to locations
within the plot.
4.
To view zone and cell information, click Zone/Cell Info to bring up the Zone/Cell Info
page, as shown in Figure 26-1.
470
1.
, from the sidebar.
26.1. Probing Field Plots with the Mouse
Figure 26-1. The
5.
Var Values and Zone/Cell Info pages of the Probe dialog.
Click at additional locations to view variable values or zone and cell information for other
data points.
Note: Interpolate mode does not work for I-ordered data displayed in 2D or 3D frame mode; if
you probe such data you will always get the error message “Point is outside of data field,”
because Tecplot cannot interpolate without a field mesh structure. You can, however, use the
Nearest Point mode (described below) in such situations.
To obtain exact results for the data point nearest the probed location:
1.
On the sidebar select the Probe tool, represented by
.
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace where it will change to a cross-hair.
3.
Ctrl-click at the desired location. An XORed cross appears at the data point closest to the
probed location, and the Probe dialog appears showing variable values, including the X-,
Y-, and Z-coordinates of the nearest point.
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Chapter 26. Probing
The variable values are the exact values for the nearest point. If the zone is not I-ordered
and the cross-hairs are placed within the data field, the point reported is the closest data
point in the cell pointed to by the pointer. (This may not be the closest point in the entire
data field.) If you probe a 3-D volume zone in 3D frame mode, the probe cross-hairs point
to locations on the surface of the plot, not to locations within the plot.
4.
To view zone and cell information, click the Zone/Cell Info to call up the Zone/Cell Info
page.
5.
Ctrl-click at additional locations to view variable values or zone and cell information for
other data points.
You may alternate between interpolated and exact values by clicking and Ctrl-clicking.
26.2. Advanced Probing
By default a Tecplot probe first detects a zone cell face. It then finds the nearest point of that
face if Ctrl-click was used while probing. However, advanced probe options let you probe
points behind a cell face, or objects that are contained within zones.
26.2.1. Probing Obscured Points
Nearest point probing using Ctrl-click is limited in two ways. In 2D frame mode the Probe tool
will select mesh intersection points only according to drawing order when using Ctrl-click. By
default, when probing data in 3D frame mode using Ctrl-click with the Probe tool, the probe
will only select the surface nearest you. Thus, if you are viewing a 3-D wire mesh, the probe
will not select mesh intersection points shown on the far side of an enclosed surface, and you
would need to rotate the view in order to select points on the far side.
To overcome this, you may use Shift-Ctrl-click. This option lets you select points to probe as if
all visible points were projected onto the 2-D plane of the screen and a ruler was laid on the
screen to measure the distance from the cross-hair to each point, allowing you to find the
nearest point.
26.2.2. Probing on Streamtraces, Iso-Surfaces, and Slices
In 2D frame mode Shift-Ctrl-click allows users to probe mesh intersection points regardless of
drawing order. In 3D frame mode it will allow you to chose mesh intersection points independent of surface depth. Thus, when viewing a 3-D wire mesh for example, you may use ShiftCtrl-click to select points on the far side of an enclosed surface.
You may probe for values on volume objects such as streamtraces, iso-surfaces and slices, with
the Alt key. Using the Alt key alone when probing will give you interpolated values of the
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26.3. Probing Field Plots by Specifying Coordinates and Indices
nearest volume object. Using Alt-Ctrl-click will probe a point where the mesh intersects the
closest object. Using Alt-Shift-Ctrl-click will probe the closest point where the mesh intersects
any object.
26.3. Probing Field Plots by Specifying
Coordinates and Indices
If you want precise control over your probe location, or if you want to probe using I-, J-, and
K-indices, or if you want to probe inside a 3-D volume, you need to use the Probe At dialog to
specify the probe location. You can launch the Probe At dialog either from the Data menu (by
choosing Probe At), from the Var Values page of the Probe dialog (using the Probe At button),
or by clicking Details in Probe mode.
To probe at a specified location using spatial coordinates (in Interpolate mode):
1.
Launch the Probe At dialog. The
Probe At dialog appears, as in
Figure 26-2, ready for you to enter
X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates.
2.
Enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates
of the desired probe location.
3.
If the zone you are probing is a 3-D
volume zone, select the check box
labeled Probe Within Volume to
ensure that the probe is performed
at the indicated point. If you specify a position within a 3-D volume
zone and the Probe Within Volume
check box is not selected, Tecplot
probes at the surface of the zone
Figure 26-2. The Position page of the Probe At dialog.
nearest the user’s eye along the ray
defined by the specified point and the user’s eye.
4.
Click Do Probe to perform the probe. The Probe dialog appears with interpolated values for
the specified location.
To probe at a specified location using data set indices (in Nearest Point mode):
1.
Launch the Probe At dialog. The Probe At dialog appears.
2.
Click the Index button (Index tab in Windows) to bring up the Index page of the Probe At
dialog, shown in Figure 26-3.
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Chapter 26. Probing
3.
Select the desired zone from the
Zone drop-down.
4.
Enter the I-, J-, and K-indices of
the desired probe location. (For
finite-element and I-ordered
data, you can enter only the Iindex. For IJ-ordered data, you
can enter both I- and J-indices.
For IJK-ordered data, you can
enter I-, J-, and K-indices.)
5.
Click Do Probe to perform the
probe. The Probe dialog appears.
If you have already probed one
point, you can specify new indices
by increasing or decreasing the disFigure 26-3. Index page of the Probe At dialog.
played values using the up and down
arrows at the right of each index field. Doing this automatically performs the probe; you need
not click Do Probe again.
26.4. Viewing Probed Data from Field Plots
You view probed data in the Probe dialog. The Probe dialog has two pages:
• Var Values: Examine values of all variables at any selected location.
• Zone/Cell Info: Report characteristics of any location in a data field. The characteristics
reported include the indices of the selected cell or point, the zone number, the dimensions
of the zone, and the type of zone (ordered or finite-element).
26.4.1. Viewing Variable Values
The Var Values page of the Probe dialog, shown in Figure 26-1, lists every variable in the current data set, together with its value at the specified probe point. By default, each variable is
shown on a single line, which allows display of about the first ten characters of the variable
name and seven significant digits of the variable value.
To display longer variable names or see more digits of the value, deselect the check box
labeled One Line per Variable. If there are more variables than will fit in one window, use the
Scroll Up and Scroll Down buttons. The Var Values page also displays the zone name and
number.
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26.5. Probing XY-Plots
26.4.2. Viewing Zone and Cell Info
The Zone/Cell Info page of the Probe dialog, shown in Figure 26-1, lists the following information about any probed data point, regardless of the format of the data:
• The number and name of the probed zone.
• The format of the zone, either ordered or one of the finite-element formats:
-
FE-Triangle.
FE-Quad.
FE-Tetra.
FE-Brick.
For ordered zones, the following additional information is displayed:
• The maximum I-, J-, and K-indices of the zone. JMax is 1 for I-ordered data, and KMax is
one for I-ordered and IJ-ordered data.
• The type of plane (I, J, or K) which was probed. (For I-ordered and IJ-ordered data, this is
always K.)
• In Interpolate mode, the I-, J-, and K-indices of the principal data point of the cell containing the probed point.
• In Nearest Point mode, the I-, J-, and K-indices of the nearest point to the probed point.
For finite-element zones, the following additional information is displayed:
• The total number of points in the zone.
• The total number of elements (cells) in the zone.
• The number of the probed node. This field is filled in only if the point is probed in Nearest
Point mode.
• The number of the probed element.
• The number of each node of the probed cell. There are three nodes for FE-surface triangle
zones, four nodes for FE-surface quadrilateral and FE-volume tetrahedral zones, and eight
nodes for FE-volume brick zones.
26.5. Probing XY-Plots
You may probe XY-plots in much the same way you probe field plots. You can use the probe
mouse mode to obtain interpolated variable values at any given location, or obtain exact values
from a specified (X,Y) data point. There is a significant difference, however. When you probe
in the standard mode, Tecplot displays a vertical or horizontal line, depending on whether you
are probing along the X- or Y-axis. The probe is performed along the displayed line. All dependent variable values of the active XY-mappings that lie along the probe line are interpolated
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Chapter 26. Probing
and displayed. When you hold down the Ctrl key to enter the Nearest Point mode, the displayed line disappears. Now the exact location of the pointer is important. When you Ctrlclick, Tecplot displays the exact X- and Y-values of the data point closest to the pointer.
Note: When probing in XY frame mode, keep in mind whether you are in nearest point or
interpolate mode. The presence or absence of the XORed line should indicate the current
mode.The exact position of the mouse pointer, while relatively unimportant in interpolate
mode, is significant in determining the nearest point.
26.5.1. Probing XY-Plots with a Mouse
Just as for field plots, there are two distinct methods of probing an XY-plot with the mouse:
probing in Interpolate mode and probing in Nearest Point mode.
The Interpolate mode enables you to click along an X- or Y-axis with the mouse to specify the
value of the independent variable, and then view the corresponding dependent values for all
active XY-mappings, interpolated to the probed location. Thus, if you are probing along the
X-axis, active mappings having Y as the dependent variable are probed. If you are probing
along the Y-axis, active mappings having X as the dependent variable are probed. By default, Y
is the dependent variable. You can change the dependency for any XY-mapping by modifying
the Depend Variable attribute in the Curve-Fit Attributes dialog.
The Nearest Point mode enables you to click at a specific XY-location and view the exact Xand Y-values, along with a variety of information about the XY-mapping, for the data point
closest on the screen to the probed location. In Nearest Point mode, probing is independent of
whether you are probing along the X- or Y-axis.
26.5.1.1. Probing XY-Plots in Interpolate Mode. Interpolate mode is the standard probe
mouse mode in XY-plots just as for field plots. You can probe along any of Tecplot’s five Xaxes, or along any of Tecplot’s five Y-axes. By default, probing is performed along the X1 axis.
To enter the Probe Interpolate mode:
1.
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Choose the Probe tool, indicated by
, from the sidebar.
26.5. Probing XY-Plots
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace,
where it becomes a cross-hair. When
you move into the axis grid area, the
cross-hair is augmented by a vertical
or horizontal line, depending on
whether you are probing along the Xaxis or the Y-axis. Click at the desired
X- or Y-location. A cross appears on
each probed XY-mapping at the
probed location, and the Probe dialog
appears with a title of Interpolated
Values, as in Figure 26-4.
3.
Read the desired information from
the Probe dialog.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 as desired.
Figure 26-5 shows a workspace with an
XY-plot being probed along the X-axis.
Figure 26-4. The
Figure 26-5. Probing
Probe dialog for XY-mappings.
an XY-plot along the X-axis.
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Chapter 26. Probing
To specify which axis to probe along:
1.
Choose the Probe tool from the sidebar.
2.
Click Tool Details on the sidebar. The Probe At dialog appears as shown in Figure 26-6.
Figure 26-6. The
3.
Probe At dialog for XY-plots.
Click the button labeled with the name of the axis you want to probe along. If none of the
XY-mappings use that axis for the independent variable, the Probe will not return interpolated values.
In the Probe dialog, the probe value is dashed (---) if the probe was out of range for the XYmap.
The probe value is blank if you are probing the XY-map’s dependent-variable axis. For example, you are probing an X-axis and the XY-map uses the Y-axis for its independent variable,
that is, its function dependency is x = f(y).
The probe value is inactive if the XY-map is not assigned to the specific axis which you are
probing. For example you are probing the X1 axis and the XY-map is assigned to the X2 axis.
To change the axis you are probing, use the Probe At dialog as specified above.
26.5.1.2. Probing XY-Plots in Nearest Point Mode. The Nearest Point probe mode provides the exact X- and Y-values of the data point closest on the screen to the probed location,
together with information on the XY-mapping and the zone to which the probed point belongs.
If a data point is common to multiple mappings, the probe returns information on the highest
numbered mapping. For example, if a data point is plotted as part of two mappings, numbered
1 and 2, the probe results are displayed for mapping 2.
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26.5. Probing XY-Plots
To enter the Probe Nearest Point mode:
1.
Choose the Probe tool, indicated
, from the sidebar.
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace, where it becomes a cross-hair. When you move into
the axis grid area, the cross-hair is augmented by a vertical or horizontal line, depending on
whether you are probing along the X- or Y-axis. Press and hold down the Ctrl key to see
only the cross-hair as you move the mouse. Nearest Point probing is independent of the axis
you were probing along.
3.
Ctrl-click at the desired probe location. Remember, the nearest point is calculated from the
actual location of the cross-hair. (The vertical or horizontal line actually disappears when
you press Ctrl. If you intend to probe for several nearest-points, hold down the Ctrl key as
you move the cross-hair. This helps you remember that you are probing the point nearest
the cursor.)
A cross appears at the probed location, and the Probe dialog appears with the title Specific
Values, as shown in Figure 26-7.
Figure 26-7. The
Probe dialog for XY-plots (Nearest Point mode).
4.
Read the desired data from the Probe dialog.
5.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 as often as desired.
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Chapter 26. Probing
26.6. Probing XY-Data by Specifying Coordinates and
Indices
If you want precise control over your probe location, or if you want to probe using I-, J-, and
K-indices, you need to use the Probe At dialog rather than the Probe mouse mode to specify
the probe location. You can launch the Probe At dialog from the Data menu (by choosing Probe
At), from the Probe dialog (using the Probe At button), or by clicking the Details button while
in Probe mouse mode.
To probe at a specified location using position (in Interpolate mode):
1.
Launch the Probe At dialog. The Probe At dialog appears, ready for you to enter an X-coordinate. By default the probe is done along the X1 axis.
2.
To probe along a different axis, click the button labeled with the name of the axis you want.
3.
Enter the exact X- or Y-coordinate of the desired probe location.
4.
Click Do Probe to perform the probe. The Probe dialog appears.
To probe at a specified location using data set indices (in Nearest Point mode):
1.
Launch the Probe At dialog. The Probe At dialog appears.
2.
Click Index to bring up the Index page of the Probe At dialog, shown in Figure 26-8
Figure 26-8. The
Index page of the Probe At dialog for XY-mappings.
Select the desired XY-mapping from the XY-Map drop-down.
4.
Enter the I-, J-, and K-indices of the desired probe location. (For finite-element and
I-ordered data, you can enter only the I-index. For IJ-ordered data, you can enter both I- and
J-indices. For IJK-ordered data, you can enter I-, J-, and K-indices.)
480
3.
26.7. Viewing XY Probe Data
5.
Click Do Probe to perform the probe. The Probe dialog appears.
If you have already probed one point, you can specify new indices by increasing or decreasing
the displayed values using the up and down arrows at the right of each index field. Doing this
automatically performs the probe; you do not need to click Do Probe again. If you choose a
combination of I-, J-, and K-indices that is valid for the data set but not included in the current
mapping, the correct values are returned. No cross appears on the screen because that portion
of the data is not being plotted.
26.7. Viewing XY Probe Data
The Probe dialog for XY-plots has two different forms, depending on whether you are probing
for the interpolated value of the dependent variable or for information on the nearest data point.
26.7.1. Viewing Interpolated XY Probe Data
For interpolated plot values, the Probe dialog appears with the heading Interpolated Values and
lists every XY-map currently active for the current frame, together with the value of the dependent variable at the specified probe point (see Figure 26-4).
In the Probe dialog, the probe value is dashed (---) if the probe was out of range for the XYmap.
The probe value is blank if you are probing the XY-map’s dependent-variable axis. For example, you are probing an X-axis and the XY-map uses the Y-axis for its independent variable,
that is, its function dependency is x = f(y).
The probe value is gray (insensitive) if the XY-map is not assigned to the specific axis which
you are probing. For example you are probing the X1 axis and the XY-map is assigned to the
X2 axis. To change the axis you are probing, use the Probe At dialog as specified above.
By default, each map is shown on a single line, which allows display of about the first ten characters of the map name and seven significant digits of the variable value.
To display longer map names or see more digits of the value, deselect the check box labeled
One Line per XY-Map. If there are more XY-mappings than will fit in one window, use the
Scroll Up and Scroll Dn buttons. Below the list of XY-maps, the X- or Y-position of the probe
is listed.
26.7.2. Viewing Nearest Point XY Probe Data
In Nearest Point mode, the Probe dialog appears with the heading Specific Values (see
Figure 26-7). You obtain this version of the Probe dialog if you use Probe At Index to specify a
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Chapter 26. Probing
probe position, or if you use the Probe tool and Control-click to specify the probe position.
This form displays the following information about the nearest data point to the probed position:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
X-value.
Y-value.
I-index.
J-index.
K-index.
The number and name of the XY-mapping associated with the data point.
The number and name of the zone referenced in the XY-mapping.
The maximum I-index of the zone.
The maximum J-index of the zone.
The maximum K-index of the zone.
The X-axis associated with the XY-mapping.
The Y-axis associated with the XY-mapping.
26.8. Probing to Edit
Using the Adjustor tool, you can probe and edit specific data points. In Adjuster mode, you can
actually modify the X- and Y-coordinates of your data with the mouse. To avoid inadvertent
changes, data point editing must be specifically enabled before you can actually change points
with the Adjustor.
You can edit data points either by moving them with the mouse (in XY- and 2-D plots only), or
by using the Probe/Edit Data dialog to enter new values for any variable in the probed data
point.
• To enable data point editing: In the Edit menu, select Allow Data Point Adjustment. On
Motif systems, a small box is displayed next to the menu item to indicate the option is
active. On Windows systems, a check mark appears next to the menu item to indicate the
option is active.
• To disable data point editing: In the Edit menu, select Allow Data Point Adjustment
again. The mark indicating the option is active disappears.
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26.8. Probing to Edit
26.8.1. Editing Data with the Mouse
In XY- and 2-D plots, you can select and move data points with the Adjustor mouse mode. You
can select multiple data points and move them as a group. When you move data points with the
mouse, you will not actually see the changes until you redraw the screen.
To edit your data with the mouse:
1.
On the sidebar, choose the Adjustor tool, indicated by
.
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace, where it becomes the Adjustor.
3.
Enable data point editing, if you have not already done so.
4.
Click on a single point to select it. In the Adjustor mode, you must be within one-half of the
selection handle’s width to select the data point. To select multiple points, you can either
Shift-click after selecting your initial point to select additional points, or you can draw a
group select band to select the points within the band. (In XY-plots, you can select points
from only one mapping at a time.)
5.
Once you have selected all desired points, move the Adjustor over the selection handles of
one of the points, then click-and-drag to the desired location of the chosen data point. Other
selected points will move as a unit with the chosen data point, maintaining their relative
positions.
For XY-plots, if several mappings are using the same data for one of the variables, adjusting
one of the mappings will result in simultaneous adjustments to the others. You can avoid
this by pressing the H or V keys on your keyboard while adjusting the selected point. The H
and V keys restrict the adjustment to the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.
26.8.2. Editing Data with the Probe/Edit Data Dialog
To probe to edit using the Probe/Edit Data dialog:
1.
On the sidebar, choose the Adjustor tool, indicated by the
button.
2.
Move the pointer into the workspace, where it becomes the Adjustor.
3.
Enable data point editing, if you have not already done so.
4.
Double-click on the point you want to edit, or click on the point and then click Object
Details on the sidebar. The Probe/Edit Data dialog appears, as shown in Figure 26-9. All
variables in the zone or mapping are listed, along with their values at the probed point. In
2D and 3D frame mode, the Probe/Edit Data dialog has Scroll Up and Scroll Dn buttons
which are active if the data set has more variables than can be displayed on one page of the
dialog.
Note: If you attempt to double-click, but move the mouse between clicks, you may find that
you have accidentally moved your data point.
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Chapter 26. Probing
5.
Enter new values as desired.
The lower half of the Probe/Edit Data dialog is a copy of the Probe At dialog’s Index page. You
can use this area to specify a new zone or mapping to probe, along with the specific points to
probe and edit. Thus, for example, you can edit one point, then increase or decrease the displayed indices to edit the next point along a mapping.
Figure 26-9. Probe/Edit
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Data dialog for field plots (left) and XY-plots (right).
CHAPTER 27
Blanking
Blanking is the capability of Tecplot to exclude certain portions of zones from being plotted (in
other words, selectively display certain cells or data points). In 3-D, the result is analogous to a
cutaway view.
27.1. Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots
In the following discussions, the term cell is used. In I-ordered data sets, a cell is the connection between two adjacent points. In IJ-ordered data sets, a cell is the quadrilateral area
bounded by four neighboring data points. In IJK-ordered data sets, a cell is the six-faced (hexahedral) volume bounded by eight neighboring data points. For finite-element data sets, a cell is
equivalent to an element.
There are three forms of blanking, as follows:
• Value-Blanking: Cells of all zones or XY-mappings are excluded based on the value of a
variable (the value-blanking variable) at the data point of each cell or at the point where
each cell intersects with a constraint boundary depending on the type of value blanking
applied.
• IJK-Blanking: Cells of one IJK-ordered zone are included or excluded based on the index
values.
• Depth-Blanking: Cells in a 3-D plot are visually excluded based on their distance from the
viewer plane.
All types of blanking affect all field layers, except the Boundary zone layer. Value-blanking
and IJK-blanking affect data operations such as streamtrace extraction, iso-surface extraction,
slicing, and so on. Blanking is not performed in 3D frame mode when wire-frame sketches are
drawn while rotating, translating, slicing, and so on.
Blanking on volume zones may produce different results, depending upon the Surfaces to plot
setting on the Volume Attributes dialog. See Section 20.1, “Choosing Which Surfaces to Plot,”
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Chapter 27. Blanking
for more details.
All types of blanking may be used in a single plot. They are cumulative: cells blanked from any
of the options do not appear.
Value-blanking and depth-blanking affect all zones of all types of data, while IJK-blanking
affects only one IJK-ordered zone. IJK-blanking is available in 2D or 3D frame mode; valueblanking is available in XY, 2D, or 3D frame mode; depth-blanking is only available in 3D
frame mode.
27.1.1. Value-Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots
Value-blanking allows you to selectively eliminate or trim cells and elements from XY-, 2-D,
and 3-D field plots. The two forms of value-blanking are referred to as whole cell and precise
blanking. The whole cell or precise blanking of cells is based on one or more user-defined constraints. For each active constraint you specify a value-blanking variable, a constant value or
another variable, and a conditional statement telling Tecplot that region to blank in relation to
the specified variable or constant. Whole cell blanking eliminates entire cells and therefore can
result in a jagged blanking boundary, while precise blanking trims the display of data along a
constraint boundary that you specify (precise blanking is only available in 2D frame mode).
27.1.1.1. Whole Cell Blanking. To use whole cell blanking:
1.
From the Style menu, choose Value-Blanking. The Value-Blanking dialog appears as in
Figure 27-1.
2.
Select the Include Value-Blanking check box. Value-blanking has no effect until this check
box is turned on and at least one constraint is activated (see step 4), regardless of the settings of the other value-blanking parameters.
Figure 27-2 demonstrates the various effects of whole cell and precise value-blanking
modes.
3.
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Choose the Blank entire cells option. Specify how the cell is blanked by selecting one of
three selections from the option menu:
-
All corners are blanked: Cells are removed from the plot if all of their data points
satisfy one or more of the active blanking constraints.
-
Any corner is blanked: Cells are removed from the plot if any of their data points
satisfy one or more of the active blanking constraints.
-
Primary corner is blanked: Cells are removed from the plot based on the value at
the primary corner of each cell. For ordered zones, the primary corner of a cell is the
data point with the smallest indices of that cell. For finite-element zones, the primary
corner is the first node listed in the data file’s connectivity list for that element.
27.1. Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots
Figure 27-1. The
Value-Blanking dialog when frame mode is 2D or 3D.
4.
Activate a constraint by selecting the Active check box associated with the desired constraint number.
5.
For any active constraint select the variable to use for value-blanking. This man be any variable, even one that is being used elsewhere in the plot. It is often convenient to create a new
variable for use as the value-blanking variable. In this way you can manipulate its values
without changing any other part of the plot. If no value-blanking variable is available, you
can create one using the Specify Equations dialog, accessed from the Alter option of the
Data drop-down menu (for instance, "{VBlank}=1"). See Section 25.1.1, “Equation Syntax.”
6.
Specify one of the following operations to describe how the blanking variable will be compared to the constant or variable following it:
7.
-
Is less than or equal to: Cells for which the value-blanking variable has a value less
than or equal to the specified constant or variable are removed from the plot.
-
Is greater than or equal to: Cells for which the value-blanking variable has a value
greater than or equal to the specified constant or variable are removed from the plot.
Specify the value-blanking constant or variable used for comparison with the value-blanking variable:
-
Variable: This is the variable that is compared against the value-blanking variable to
determine which cells are removed from the plot.
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Chapter 27. Blanking
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Figure 27-2. The
effects of the different value-blanking options for a constraint
where a variable is less than or equal to zero. The dark shading indicates the areas
which are not blanked. A) Blank cell when primary corner is blanked. B) Blank
cell when all corners are blanked. C) Blank cell when any corner is blanked. D)
Trim cells along mathematical constraint boundary.
-
Constant: This is the number that is compared against the value-blanking variable to
determine which cells are removed from the plot.
The Show Constraint Boundary check box will show you the line which separates the region of
your data which is blanked from the region which is not blanked. Value-blanking has no effect
on boundaries of an ordered zone. If the boundary is turned on, the boundary of the entire zone
(without value-blanking) is plotted.
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27.1. Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots
For finite-element data, value-blanking can affect the view of previously extracted boundaries,
because each extracted boundary is a zone (see Section 20.4., “Extracting Boundaries of
Finite-Element Zones” ).
Figure 27-3 shows an IJ-ordered mesh with whole cell and precise value-blanking in use.
Value-Blanking of Mesh
(Whole Cell Blanking)
Value-Blanking of Mesh
(Precise Blanking)
1
1
Zone
Boundary
Value-Blanked
Region
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0
Zone
Boundary
Value-Blanked
Region
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Figure 27-3. An
0.8
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
IJ-ordered mesh with whole cell and precise value-blanking.
27.1.1.2. Precise Blanking. Precise blanking is only available in 2D frame mode. To use
precise blanking:
1.
From the Style menu, choose Value-Blanking. The Value-Blanking dialog appears as in
Figure 27-4.
2.
Select the Include Value-Blanking check box. Value-blanking has no effect until it is turned
on and at least one constraint is activated (see step 4), regardless of the settings of the other
value-blanking parameters.
Figure 27-2 demonstrates the various effects of whole cell and precise value blanking
modes.
3.
Choose the Trim Cells along Constraint Boundary option.
4.
Activate a constraint by selecting the Active check box associated with the desired constraint number.
5.
For any active constraint select the variable to use for value-blanking. This variable can be
any variable, even one that is being used elsewhere in the plot. It is often convenient to create a new variable for use as the value-blanking variable. In this way you can manipulate its
values without changing any other part of the plot. If no value-blanking variable is available, you can create one using the Specify Equations dialog (for example, "{VBlank}=1").
See Section 25.1.1, “Equation Syntax.”
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Chapter 27. Blanking
Figure 27-4. The
Value-Blanking dialog in 2D and 3D frame mode, set for precise
blanking.
6.
7.
Specify one of the following operations to describe how the blanking variable will be compared to the constant or variable following it:
-
Is less than or equal to: Trim away all regions where the value-blanking variable is
less than or equal to the specified constant.
-
Is greater than or equal to: Trim away all regions where the value-blanking variable
has a value greater than or equal to the specified constant or variable.
Specify the value-blanking constant or variable used for comparison with the value-blanking variable:
- Variable: This is the variable that is compared against the value-blanking variable.
- Constant: This is the number that is compared against the value-blanking variable.
8.
Select the Show Constraint Boundary check box to control the visibility of the defined constraint boundary line. The various attributes of the constraint line such as color, line pattern,
pattern length, and line thickness can also be set to produce the desired effect.
Value-blanking has no effect on boundaries of an ordered zone. If the boundary is turned on,
the boundary of the entire zone (without value-blanking) is plotted. For finite-element data,
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27.1. Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots
value-blanking can affect the boundary extraction. For more information see Section 16.4,
“Extracting Boundaries of Finite-Element Zones.”
Figure 27-3 shows a mesh with whole cell and precise value-blanking in use. Figure 27-5 demonstrates a more complex usage of precise value-blanking by overlaying multiple frames, each
using some of the same constraints.
32
28
01
20
-24
.55
16
12
.81
82
182
11
11.8
78.4
156.58
09
5
9
78.4
8
09
Turn Rate - (deg/sec)
24
78
.40
4
373.171
0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
Mach Number
Figure 27-5. A
single contour variable with precise blanking.
27.1.2. IJK-Blanking
IJK-blanking is available only for 3-D volume zones. IJK-blanking removes a selected portion
of one IJK-ordered zone from the plot. This allows you to create cutaway plots, plots showing
the exterior of some data set with a section “cut away” to show the interior, such as the plot
shown in Figure 27-6. You define the blank region by specifying the following:
• The IJK-ordered zone in which the blanking is to be performed.
• I-, J-, and K-index ranges for the blank region, either using specific index values or percentages of the index range.
• Whether Tecplot should blank the interior or exterior of the defined region.
To use IJK-blanking, you must have an IJK-ordered zone, and the current frame must be in 2D
or 3D frame mode. Unlike value-blanking, which operates on all zones within a single frame,
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Chapter 27. Blanking
Z
X
Y
Figure 27-6. A
cutaway plot created with IJK-blanking.
IJK-blanking can only be used on a single zone within a frame, and the zone must be IJKordered.
To use IJK-blanking:
From the Style menu, choose IJK-Blanking. The IJK-Blanking dialog appears as in
Figure 27-7.
2.
Select the Include IJK-Blanking check box to turn on IJK-blanking for the current frame.
IJK-blanking does not take effect until this option is turned on, nor are any of the other controls sensitive.
3.
Specify the domain of the IJK-blanking by choosing one of the following options:
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1.
-
Interior: Cells within the specified index ranges are blanked. Those outside are plotted. This creates a ‘‘hole’’ in the zone. The left side of Figure 27-8 shows an ordered
zone with IJK-blanking with Interior domain.
-
Exterior: Cells outside the specified index ranges are blanked. Those inside are plotted. This plots a sub-zone of the zone. The right side of Figure 27-8 shows an ordered
zone with IJK-blanking with Exterior domain.
27.1. Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots
Figure 27-7. The
IJK-Blanking dialog.
IJK-Blanking
IJK-Blanking
Interior Domain
Exterior Domain
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.5
Figure 27-8. IJK-blanking
-0
.
-0 2
.
-0 4
.6
-3.0
-1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.
-0 0
.
-0 2
.
-0 4
.6
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-0.5
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
with Interior domain (left) and Exterior domain (right).
4.
Select the zone to which IJK-blanking is applied from the Zone drop-down. The zone must
be IJK-ordered. You may select only one zone at a time.
5.
Specify the format in which you will specify the index ranges by selecting one of the following option buttons:
-
Select IJK-Ranges Using Index Values: If you select this option, you specify the I-,
J-, and K-index ranges using actual minimum and maximum indices.
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Chapter 27. Blanking
-
6.
Select IJK-Ranges Using % of Max: If you select this option, you specify the I-, J-,
and K-index ranges as start and end percentages of the maximum index. For example,
you could blank the middle third of a data set by setting the start percentage to 33.3
and the end percentage to 66.6.
Enter the I-, J-, and K-index ranges in the fields provided.
When you save a layout, macro, or stylesheet, the IJK-blanking index ranges are stored as the
percentage of the maximum index regardless of how you chose to enter them. This way, one
file can be used for different zone sizes.
27.1.3. Cutaway Plots
Cutaway plots are plots of a 3-D volume zone in which a portion of the zone is blanked using
IJK-blanking so that the interior of the zone can be seen. Create Figure 27-6 as follows:
1.
Create an IJK-ordered zone, and create a 3-D contour plot of the zone. (Leave the Mesh
zone layer turned on.)
2.
Set the contour plot type to either Flood or Both Lines and Flood.
3.
Use the IJK-Blanking dialog to blank out the appropriate region. Use the Interior blanking
domain.
A more complex cutaway plot is shown in Figure 27-9. This plot contains iso-surfaces inside
the cutout region.
Y
MAG
46.01
X
35.69
25.37
Z
15.05
Figure 27-9. Cutaway
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plot with iso-surfaces inside cutout region.
27.1. Blanking 2- and 3-D Plots
To create the plot in Figure 27-9, continue with the following steps:
1.
Set the contour plot type of the IJK-ordered zone to Both Lines and Flood.
2.
Set the IJK-mode of the IJK-ordered zone to Volume.
3.
Use the IJK-Blanking dialog to blank out the appropriate region, and choose the Exterior
blanking domain. You should now have a plot of the region you want to blank out.
4.
Call up the 3D Iso-Surface Details dialog from the Field menu. Select Show Iso-Surfaces
and set the Draw Iso-Surfaces At drop-down menu to Each Contour Level.
5.
From the Data menu, choose Extract, then choose Iso-Surfaces to extract the contour isosurfaces of the region you want to blank out.
6.
Change the contour plot type of the new iso-surface zones to Flood.
7.
Change the IJK-blanking domain to Interior. This changes the IJK-blanking to plot the
entire zone minus the blanked region.
8.
Set the IJK mode of the IJK-ordered zone to Face.
The iso-surfaces appear in the plot because they were extracted as separate zones.
27.1.4. Depth-Blanking
Depth-blanking removes cells in a 3-D plot based upon how close or far they appear from the
screen. The options below are available on the Depth Blanking dialog, shown in Figure 27-10.
Figure 27-10. The
Depth Blanking dialog.
• Include Depth Blanking: Select this check box to toggle depth-blanking on and off.
• Blank from Front (%): Blank cells appearing closer to the viewer than this plane. The
value entered is the plane position in percentage of depth from the closest corner of the
bounding box of the data to the furthest corner of the bounding box.
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Chapter 27. Blanking
At the default of zero, the plane is at the depth of the closest corner of the bounding box. No
cells on the front of the plot are blanked. At 50, the front half of the plot will be blanked. In
particular, cells closer to the viewer than the front of the blanking plan, and cells further
from the viewer than the blanking plane, may be blanked.
• Blank from Back (%): Blank cells appearing farther from the viewer than this plane. The
value entered is the plane position in percentage of depth from the furthest corner of the
bounding box of the data to the closest corner of the bounding box.
At the default of zero, this plane is at the depth of the furthest corner of the bounding box.
No cells on the back of the plot will be blanked. At 50, the back half of the plot will be
blanked.
27.2. Blanking XY-Plots
For XY-plots, blanking is the capability of Tecplot to exclude data points from consideration in
the resulting plot. On a global scale, only value-blanking is available. To plot specific index
ranges you can use the Index Attributes option from the XY menu to limit index ranges per
XY-mapping. The Curves option from the XY menu can provide another form of blanking, by
allowing you to limit the range for the independent variable for individual XY-mappings.
Figure 27-11 shows two plots. The original data for the plots contain some “bad” data points.
The bad data points were identified as those with a Y-value greater than 0.6. The plot on the
left uses all data points, including the bad data points, to draw a curve. The plot on the right has
filtered out the bad data points by using value-blanking where all points are removed if Y >
0.6. Blanking does not necessarily have to be on the independent or dependent variable.
Blanking Points Where Y > 0.6
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
Y
Y
No Blanking
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
X
Figure 27-11. XY-plots
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0.8
0.2
0.4
0.6
X
showing the effect of value-blanking.
0.8
CHAPTER 28
Using Macros
Macro files allow you to automate Tecplot. Macro files contain a sequence of macro commands, and may contain macro function definitions. Macro functions act like macros-withinmacros: they allow you to combine macro commands that you frequently use into a single unit
callable from within another macro. This chapter focuses on the Tecplot menu options for
recording and playing back macros. The Tecplot Reference Manual describes the Tecplot
macro language in detail.
Macros are very useful for performing repetitive operations such as setting up frames, reading
in data files and layout files, manipulating data, and creating plots. They are also necessary for
running Tecplot in batch mode. See Chapter 29, “Batch Processing.”
The Macro sub-menu, found under the File menu, provides the following control options:
•
Play: Calls up the Load/Play Macro File dialog, to select a macro file to load and play.
•
View: Select this option to call up the Macro Viewer dialog, which provides several command buttons for stepping through and debugging a macro file.
•
Record: Calls up the Macro Recorder dialog, which provides several command buttons
for recording a series of actions to a macro file for playing back at a later time.
28.1. Creating Macros
The simplest way to create a macro is to have Tecplot record it for you. You can then use any
ASCII text editor to edit the macro file. While editing your file, you can, for example, add
macro function definitions, or add loops and other control commands.
Tecplot’s Macro Recorder lets you record a macro as you perform a sequence of actions interactively to obtain precisely the results you want. After recording your macro, you can edit it
with an ASCII text editor to remove redundant operations, compress repetitive actions into
loops, and otherwise modify the macro. Using the Macro Recorder is the quickest and surest
way to become familiar with the Tecplot macro language.
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Chapter 28. Using Macros
To record a macro with the Macro Recorder:
1.
From the File menu, choose Macro, then choose Record. The Write Macro File dialog is
displayed.
2.
Specify a macro file name.
3.
Click OK to initiate the recording of the macro file. The Macro Recorder dialog now
appears, as shown in Figure 28-1. This dialog must remain up during the recording session.
Figure 28-1. The
Macro Recorder dialog.
4.
Perform the actions you want recorded using the Tecplot interface.
5.
Click Stop Recording on the Macro Recorder dialog when you are finished with the
sequence of actions you want recorded.
While recording macros, you can use any of the following four buttons on the Macro Recorder
dialog to add specific macro commands to your macro:
• Insert “Pause”: Adds a “pause” command to the macro. When you play a macro including
a pause command, Tecplot displays a message box when it reaches the pause command,
and waits for you to click OK before continuing to process the macro.
• Insert “Graphics Off”: Adds a “graphics off” command to the macro. When you play a
macro containing a “graphics off” command, Tecplot stops displaying graphics in the workspace from the “graphics off” command until a “graphics on” command is encountered.
• Insert “Graphics On”: Adds a “graphics on” command to the macro.
• Insert Raw Command: Brings up a dialog in which you can enter any valid Tecplot macro
command. For example, you can add “$!LOOP 10” at the start of a section you want to
repeat 10 times, then “$!ENDLOOP” at the end. See the Tecplot Reference Manual for
information on the Tecplot macro language.
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28.1. Creating Macros
28.1.1. Defining Macro Functions
When editing your macros, you can add macro function definitions and macro function calls.
Macro functions have the following form:
$!MACROFUNCTION
NAME = functionname
.
.
.
$!ENDMACROFUNCTION
Between $!MACROFUNCTION and $!ENDMACROFUNCTION, you can include any legal
macro command except $!MACROFUNCTION. These included macro commands are associated with the functionname specified as the value of the NAME parameter, but are not executed
until the macro function is called with the $!RUNMACROFUNCTION macro command.
For example, the following macro function turns on the Contour zone layer, turns off the Mesh
zone layer, sets the contour plot type to Both Lines and Flood for zones 1, 2 and 3, then
chooses gray scale color mapping:
$!MACROFUNCTION
NAME = "graycontour"
RETAIN = Yes
$!FIELDLAYERS SHOWCONTOUR = YES
$!FIELDLAYERS SHOWMESH = NO
$!FIELD [1-3] CONTOUR{CONTOURTYPE = BOTHLINESANDFLOOD}
$!COLORMAP CONTOURCOLORMAP = GRAYSCALE
$!REDRAW
$!ENDMACROFUNCTION
The RETAIN parameter tells Tecplot to retain the macro function definition for use in subsequent macro calls; this allows you to define a macro function once in some macro you load
every time you run Tecplot, and continue to use it throughout your Tecplot session. See
Section 28.4, “Doing More with Macros,” for a more sophisticated example of a macro function.
Use the $!RUNMACROFUNCTION macro command to call your macro function. For example, to call the “graycontour” macro function defined above, use the following macro command:
$!RUNMACROFUNCTION "graycontour"
If the macro function requires any parameters, you combine them into a parenthesized list
which you give as a second argument to $!RUNMACROFUNCTION, as in the following example:
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Chapter 28. Using Macros
$!RUNMACROFUNCTION "Process Plane" (K,|LOOP|)
You can use the $!RUNMACROFUNCTION command within other macro functions; calls may be
nested up to ten deep.
28.2. Playing Back Macros
Once you have created a macro file, you have four methods in Tecplot for playing it back.
The four different methods are:
•
•
•
•
From the command line.
From the File menu, under the Macro Play option in the interface.
Stepping through commands using the Macro Viewer.
From the Quick Macro Panel.
The following sections explain each of these methods.
28.2.1. Preparing to Play Back a Macro
Often, the commands in a macro file rely on Tecplot being in a particular state. It is usually a
good practice to have commands at the start of a macro that force Tecplot into a known state,
$!NEWLAYOUT is a good command to do this since it deletes all data sets and frames and
creates a single empty frame with a default size and position.
If you will always run your macro from the command line, then you can be sure Tecplot will be
in its initial state when the macro begins processing. Including layout files, data files or
stylesheet files on the command line along with the macro file is fine as long as the macro
expects them.
If your macro performs some intermediate task, it is up to you to make sure Tecplot is in the
same (or a similar) state when you run the macro as the state the macro was designed to start
in.
28.2.2. Running a Macro From the Command Line
You can immediately play a macro when you first start Tecplot by simply including the name
of the macro file on the command line. In Windows, this can be accomplished by either dragging and dropping a macro file onto the Tecplot icon, or by using the command line from an
MS-DOS dialog.
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28.2. Playing Back Macros
For example, to run the macro file mymacro.mcr from a UNIX or DOS command line
prompt, type:
tecplot mymacro.mcr
If you name your macro file without the .mcr extension you can still run Tecplot with the
macro file. However, you must include the -p flag on the command line. To run the macro file
called mymacro.mmm you would type:
tecplot -p mymacro.mmm
In Windows you cannot drag and drop a macro file onto the Tecplot icon if it does not have the
.mcr extension. Tecplot will think it is an ASCII data file and attempt to read it in as such.
If you want the macro viewer to automatically appear so you can see the macro commands
prior to their execution, you can include the -z flag on the command line.
Macros can also be played back in batch mode (i.e., no graphics are displayed). See
Chapter 29, “Batch Processing,” for details.
28.2.3. Running a Macro From the Interface
You can play a macro from within Tecplot by using the Play option under the File main menu.
This plays back the macro file without stopping until it reaches the end of the file.
To play back a macro file from the Tecplot interface:
1.
From the File menu, choose Macro, then choose Play. The Load/Play Macro File dialog is
displayed.
2.
Specify a macro file name.
3.
Click OK.
Tecplot immediately starts playing the specified macro file.
28.2.4. Running Macros from the Quick Macro Panel
The Quick Macro Panel (Figure 28-2) is Tecplot’s quick access mechanism for storing and
retrieving your favorite, commonly used macro functions. This panel allows you to quickly play a
macro function by clicking on the button in the panel that is linked to that macro function.
The Quick Macro Panel is linked to a special macro file that contains only macro function definitions. When Tecplot first starts up, it looks for this file under one of the following names, in
the following order:
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Chapter 28. Using Macros
Figure 28-2. The
Quick Macro Panel.
1.
The file tecplot.mcr in the current directory.
2.
The file .tecplot.mcr in your home directory (UNIX), or tecplot.mcr in the your
home directory (Windows). Under Windows, your home directory is determined by the two
environment variables HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH. If they are not set, Tecplot skips your
home directory.
3.
The file tecplot.mcr in the Tecplot home directory.
If Tecplot finds the file, it loads it and associates each button on the Quick Macro Panel with a
specific macro function.
You can specify a different Quick Macro file by adding the -qm option flag in front of the
macro file name to the command line.
The following command starts Tecplot and installs the macro functions defined in the file
myteccmd.mcr into the Quick Macro Panel:
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28.3. Debugging Macros
tecplot -qm myteccmd.mcr
If you want Tecplot to call up the Quick Macro Panel immediately after start up, include the
-showpanel option flag at the end of the command as well.
For example, the following command starts Tecplot and immediately calls up the Quick Macro
Panel:
tecplot -qm myteccmd.mcr -showpanel
To see an example of a macro function file, look at the Quick Macro file qmp.mcr located in
the examples/mcr sub-directory below the Tecplot home directory.
Once the Quick Macro Panel has been installed you can run a macro by pressing its associated
button on the Quick Macro Panel.
28.2.5. Linking Macros to Text and Geometries
Each text or geometry you create can be linked to a macro function. This macro function is
called whenever the user holds down the control key and clicks the right mouse button on the
text or geometry.
For example, if you have pieces of text, each representing a different well, Ctrl-right click on
any piece could run a macro that brings up an XY-plot of that well’s data.
Macro functions are specified with the “Link to Macro function” field in the Geometry dialog
or in the Text Options dialog. If desired, the macro function may be listed with one or more
parameters.
28.3. Debugging Macros
Use the Macro Viewer to step through and debug your macro file. This dialog allows you to
add and delete breakpoints, view and set watch variables, and view state variables local to the
macro currently loaded into the Macro Viewer. Selecting View from the Macro sub-menu displays the Macro Viewer dialog, shown in Figure 28-3. Using the Macro Viewer to look at a
macro file built with the Macro Recorder is a quick and easy way to explore the Tecplot macro
language.
To load a macro file into the Macro Viewer, click Load Macro. This calls up the Load/Play
Macro File dialog for you to specify which macro file to load. Macro files typically have the
extension .mcr.
The specified macro is loaded into the macro viewer for you. If you already had a macro
loaded, it is discarded and the new macro is loaded in its place.
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Chapter 28. Using Macros
Figure 28-3. The
Macro Viewer dialog.
The Macro Viewer dialog displays the text of the currently loaded macro file at the top of the
dialog. A > (greater than) marks the currently active line, that is, the line that Tecplot is about
to evaluate. Click Step to evaluate the currently active line. The > sign then moves to the next
line.
28.3.1. Macro Context
In the Macro Viewer dialog, the field labeled Macro displays the name of the macro or macro
function you are currently evaluating. In most cases, this field displays the name MAIN, which
means that the macro commands currently shown in the macro text display come from within
the main macro body, that is, not from inside a macro function. If the macro you are viewing
contains a call to a macro function, then when you evaluate (or step into) that macro function
call (when you evaluate a $!RUNMACROFUNCTION command) the name displayed in the
Macro field changes. The new name displayed is the name of the macro function just called. At
the same time, the display in the top of the Macro Viewer dialog changes to show the macro
function text for the called macro function.
Pressing on the up and down arrows located at the right hand side of the Macro display field
shifts the macro context, that is, it lets you move between the text of the called macro function,
and the text of the calling macro or macro function. If you switch context to the calling macro
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28.3. Debugging Macros
function, the $!RUNMACROFUNCTION command that called the macro is displayed with a ^
(caret) in front of it. This helps you quickly determine which command line called the macro
function currently under evaluation. The down arrow then moves you back down a level to the
called macro you were just viewing.
28.3.2. Changing the Macro Command Display Format
Tecplot displays the macro in the viewer in one of two formats: a short format that lists the
macro commands, one command per line, and a long format which expands a single, simple
macro command to show all of its sub-commands and parameters. The short format is the
default for the Macro Viewer.
• To choose the short form, select the List Commands option.
• To choose the long form, select the Expand Commands option.
28.3.3. Evaluating a Macro File with the Macro Viewer
The Macro Viewer dialog’s main purpose is to allow you to step through a macro’s commands
in a variety of ways so you can view and debug a macro file. With this dialog you can evaluate
each line, including the commands within nested macro function calls, or just have Tecplot run
the macro automatically while you watch.
28.3.3.1. Stepping through a Macro Line by Line. The main activity you do in the
Macro Viewer dialog is evaluate macro commands line by line. The > (greater than) marks the
currently active command, that is, the command that Tecplot is about to evaluate. It moves to
the next command after the currently active command is evaluated.
To evaluate a macro command, click Step. When a $!RUNMACROFUNCTION command is
encountered, the macro viewer steps into the called function.
Step Over also processes each macro command, line by line however, when a $!RUNMACROFUNCTION command is encountered the entire function is processed.
You can also view or play a macro all the way through without stopping. To play the macro
without stopping after each step, click Go. Tecplot continues until it either receives a stop
signal from the Stop button, or it finishes playing the macro, or it encounters a breakpoint. See
Section 28.3.4, “Adding and Deleting Breakpoints,” on using breakpoints.
To stop the playing of a macro that the Go control started, click Stop.
You can restart a macro from the beginning, so you can evaluate it again from within the Macro
Viewer. To restart the evaluation of a macro, click Reset.
Note: If your macro assumes Tecplot is in a particular state when it starts processing then you
must make sure Tecplot is in this state before you click Reset and start the macro processing.
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Chapter 28. Using Macros
28.3.4. Adding and Deleting Breakpoints
An important debugging feature that the Macro Viewer provides is the ability to add breakpoints within a macro’s command stream. A breakpoint is a flag you can insert anywhere in a
macro that tells Tecplot to immediately suspend evaluation. Tecplot stops the action of a
playing macro at the breakpoint to allow you to explore what is happening at that point in the
macro file.
To add a breakpoint to a macro command:
1.
Highlight the command in front of which you want to place the breakpoint by clicking on
the command with the mouse cursor.
2.
Click Add Break to add a breakpoint at the selected macro command. A B displayed at the
beginning of the highlighted macro command indicates the breakpoint’s placement.
To delete a breakpoint from a macro command:
1.
Highlight the command for which you want to delete the breakpoint by clicking on the
command with the mouse cursor.
2.
Click Delete Break to delete the breakpoint.
To delete all the breakpoints set in a macro, click Delete All Breaks. This removes all the
breakpoints within a macro.
28.3.5. Watching Variable Values while Debugging
Another debugging feature that the Macro Viewer provides is the ability to specify and view
specific user defined, or system defined internal variables—that is, to specify watch variables.
Use the Macro Variables dialog, shown in Figure 28-4, that is displayed after clicking Watch
Variable to specify and view watch variables.
To specify a watch variable in a macro:
1.
Click Watch Variables in the Macro Viewer dialog to bring up the Macro Variables dialog.
2.
Type the name of the variable you want to watch in one of the User-Defined or Internal
Variable text fields.
Leave this dialog open, off to one side, to watch the changing values in the Value column to the
right of the variable name as the macro is playing.
The Macro Variables dialog also automatically displays any loop iteration values and
command parameter stack calls that occur as a macro is played. In the Loops display area, the
Value column for loops displays the loop iteration counter and changes as the system cycles
through the loop sequence. The End Value displays the total number of iterations set for that
loop. Tecplot lists the iteration values for up to three levels of nested loops. The Call Stack area
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28.3. Debugging Macros
Figure 28-4. The
Macro Variables dialog.
displays the parameter values used in calling the currently active macro function. Each field
displays one parameter value up to the limit of eight parameters per macro function call. The
display changes to show the state of the currently called macro function as Tecplot evaluates a
$!RUNMACROFUNCTION command.
28.3.6. Modifying Macro Variables
After a breakpoint stops macro evaluation, you can change the value of a variable, a loop, or a
stack call parameter. The ability to change these values in the middle of evaluating a macro
allows you to either check a certain condition or to get out of a problem situation.
To change the value of a variable, a loop or a call stack parameter:
1.
Highlight the variable value you want to change by selecting the value in the text field.
2.
Type the new value.
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Chapter 28. Using Macros
3.
Click Go or Step to continue the macro evaluation with the new value.
28.4. Doing More with Macros
There is much more to macro files than just recording and playing them. Tecplot provides you
a whole macro programming language that allows you to develop tools for performing various
functions, from developing your own interactive demonstration to transforming your data with
a series of algorithms. See the Tecplot Reference Manual for details of Tecplot’s macro language and macro files.
28.4.1. Processing Multiple Files
Suppose you need to create hardcopy plots with a specific style for a large number of input data
files. You can do this with a macro that does the following:
• Reads in data files named tnnn.plt where nnn counts from 1 to 50.
• Applies a predefined layout to the data set.
• Generates a PostScript file named tnnn.ps (nnn counting from 1 to 50), one for each data
file.
There are a number of ways to create a macro like the one described. The easiest way involves
using the $!OPENLAYOUT command feature that allows you to replace data files referenced
in the layout file itself with other data files:
1.
Read in a representative example data file and create the layout you want to plot. If you are
creating a contour plot make sure the contour levels you choose will be good ones for all
files that are processed.
2.
Create a macro file that references the layout file created in Step 1.
If the layout file generated in Step 1 is called cont.lay then the final macro to process the
data files is as follows:
#!MC 900
#
Use a variable to store the number of
#
files to process.
$!VarSet |NumFiles| = 50
#
Make sure the output is PostScript.
$!ExportSetup
ExportFormat
= PS
Palette
= MONOCHROME
#
Begin the loop
$!Loop |NumFiles|
#
Here is where we make use of the special feature
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28.5. When to use Macros, Layouts or Stylesheets
#
(i.e. the AltDataLoadInstructions option) of the $!OPENLAYOUT
#
command that allows us to override the named
#
data files within the layout file. Also make use of
#
the intrinsic LOOP macro variable.
$!OpenLayout "cont.lay"
AltDataLoadInstructions = "t|LOOP|.plt"
#
#
Set the name of the file to be printed.
#
$!ExportSetup
ExportFName = "t|LOOP|.ps"
#
#
Create the PostScript file.
#
$!Export
$!EndLoop
$!Quit
28.5. When to use Macros, Layouts or Stylesheets
Tecplot layout files are simply macro files. Why not just create the plot you want, then save a
layout to preserve it, rather than recording a macro to recreate it? Layout files are typically
very simple macro files; they do not include loops or data alterations or any such “programming.” Macros are generally used to do more complex tasks than layout files.
Tecplot processes layout and stylesheet files in a slightly different manner than it does macro
files. In general, commands processed from a macro file undergo rigorous error checking and
adjustments are sometimes made when values are outside certain limits. Layout and stylesheet
files are treated more as a single unit by Tecplot. Individual commands are given more latitude
because Tecplot assumes that the layout or stylesheet at one time represented a valid state. This
is also why, while stepping through a macro file, the $!OPENLAYOUT and
$!READSTYLESHEET commands are processed in a single step and you are not able to step
“into” either of these commands. For layout and stylesheet files, error checking is not done
until after the file is processed. By contrast, macro files are checked and adjusted line by line
during processing. So, results from a layout file or stylesheet that you modify by hand may not
be the same as those from a macro file.
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CHAPTER 29
Batch Processing
You can run Tecplot in batch mode to create plots without displaying any graphics to the
screen. This saves a lot of time when processing multiple files for printing or export. In batch
mode, Tecplot can be executed locally on your workstation computer or, under UNIX,
remotely using an ASCII terminal. The only limitation for batch mode operation is that you
cannot create export files in bitmap formats, since these files are generated from the screen.
29.1. Batch Processing Setup
To prepare for batch processing, you generally perform the following steps:
1.
Create a macro file to control the batch processing. You may do this either interactively, by
recording a Tecplot session, or using an ASCII text editor, or both. See Chapter 28, “Using
Macros.”
2.
Create layout and stylesheet files as necessary.
3.
Prepare data files.
4.
Debug the macro file by running Tecplot while not in batch mode.
Macros are necessary to do batch processing. When Tecplot is launched in batch mode it
requires that you provide the name of a macro file to execute. The minimal command to launch
Tecplot in batch mode is as follows:
tecplot -b -p macrofile
The -b flag instructs Tecplot to run in batch mode and the -p macrofile tells Tecplot the
name of the macro file to execute. See Appendix A, “Tecplot Command Line Options,” for
more command line options.
How the macro file interacts with layout and/or stylesheet files is the subject of the following
sections. Different strategies work with different situations depending on your data and what
you want to do with it.
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29.2. Batch Processing Using a Layout File
Combining layout files with batch processing is both powerful and flexible. With layout files
you can organize a plot using one or more frames in a single file. The layout file manages data
sets and can be altered on the fly, either on the command line or within a macro that loads the
layout file.
For example, suppose you want to do the following sequence of tasks in batch mode:
• Load a data file from a user supplied file name.
• Create a specific style of plot.
• Create a PostScript file of the plot.
You can set up the batch job as follows:
1.
Obtain a representative data file to be plotted.
2.
Interactively, create a layout of the style of plot you want. (For this example, name the file
batch.lay).
3.
Create (using a text editor) the following macro (for this example call this macro
batch.mcr):
#!MC 900
$!ExportSetup
ExportFormat = PS
Palette = MONOCHROME
$!Export
$!Quit
The above macro can be modified to choose a different driver or palette depending on your situation.
Use the following command to run the job in batch mode:
tecplot -b -p batch.mcr -y tecplot.out batch.lay mydatafile
Layout files are self-contained. They contain all the information necessary to create a plot
including the name(s) of the data file(s) to load. When you supply the names of data files on
the command line (mydatafile in the above example) along with the layout file, Tecplot
replaces the data files referenced in the layout file with the ones from the command line. If two
or more data files are to be combined to form a single data set, use the “+” symbol to join the
data file names.
The final result is a file called tecplot.out which contains the PostScript commands.
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29.3. Processing Multiple Data Files
29.3. Processing Multiple Data Files
In Section 29.2, “Batch Processing Using a Layout File,” we set up Tecplot to process a usersupplied data file (or data files) and create a single output file. If the above procedure is to be
repeated for a large number of input files (one at a time), you can do this by using a loop: either
outside Tecplot in the operating system or within Tecplot using the flow-of-control commands
in the Tecplot macro language.
29.3.1. Looping Outside Tecplot
The following examples show the command files for launching Tecplot in an operating system
loop on two different operating systems. Tecplot processes five data files named dnn.plt and
creates ten output files named dnn.out where nn goes from 1 to 10.
29.3.1.1. Looping Outside Tecplot (UNIX). Create a shell script with the following commands:
#!/bin/sh
n=1
while test $n -le 10
do
tecplot -b -p batch.mcr -y d$n.out batch.lay d$n.plt
n=‘expr $n+1‘
done
29.3.1.2. Looping Outside Tecplot (Windows). Create a batch file with the following
commands:
for %%f in (d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8 d9 d10)
do tecplot -b -p batch.mcr -y %%f.out batch.lay %%f.plt
29.3.2. Looping Inside Tecplot
In Section 29.3.1, “Looping Outside Tecplot,” we set up Tecplot to process multiple data files
using the operating system language to do the looping. There are two drawbacks to this procedure:
• The operating system languages are not portable between different operating systems.
• Tecplot must be continuously started and stopped each time a new data set is processed.
A more efficient approach is to loop through the data files inside Tecplot. Here, the layout file
and the data files are all named within the Tecplot macro. The command line in this example is
simple, as follows:
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Chapter 29. Batch Processing
tecplot -b -p batch.mcr
The Tecplot macro is set up as follows:
#!MC 900
$!EXPORTSETUP
EXPORTFORMAT = PS
PALETTE = MONOCHROME
$!LOOP 10
$!OPENLAYOUT "batch.lay"
ALTDATALOADINSTRUCTIONS = "d|LOOP|.plt"
$!EXPORTSETUP
EXPORTFNAME = "d|LOOP|.out"
$!EXPORT
$!ENDLOOP
$!QUIT
The $!OPENLAYOUT command loads in batch.lay but replaces the data file referenced in
the layout with the file names in the ALTDATALOADINSTRUCTIONS sub-command. The
$!EXPORTSETUP command is used in two places. Initially it is used to set the export format.
Later it is used just to change the name of the file to export to. The $!EXPORT command does
the actual exporting.
29.4. Batch Processing Using Stylesheet Files
Instead of using layout files, you can use stylesheet files when batch processing. In general,
batch processing with stylesheets works just like the batch processing described above in “Processing Multiple Data Files,” except a stylesheet file is used instead of a layout file.
If you want to make many different plots using the same data set, stylesheets will be more efficient than layout files.
29.5. Batch Processing Diagnostics
Each time Tecplot is run in batch mode it creates a file defined by the name in the
BATCHLOGFILE environment variable, or, if the environment variable is not defined, by a file
named batch.log in the directory where Tecplot was started. If the name given in the
BATCHLOGFILE environment variable is a relative path, the directory name where Tecplot
was started is prepended. A running commentary on actions performed in Tecplot, as well as
warning and error messages, are sent to the batch.log file.
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29.6. Moving Macros to Different Computers or Different Directories
29.6. Moving Macros to Different Computers or Different
Directories
The file tecplot.phy is created each time you run Tecplot interactively. It contains information about the physical characteristics of your computer system as well as information about
the size of the Tecplot process window used during the last Tecplot session. It also contains the
name of the last layout file used by Tecplot. If you are developing macros on one computer, but
using them for batch processing on a different computer, you must transfer the
tecplot.phy file from the development computer to the computer where you will run
Tecplot in batch mode. Under UNIX, the same is true if you are developing macros in one
directory, but will be processing them in batch mode in a different directory. See Section 31.6,
“Configuring the Location of the "tecplot.phy" File,” for information on the location of your
tecplot.phy file.
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CHAPTER 30
Animation and
Movies
Animation is the process of showing a succession of still images to give the impression of
motion. Tecplot provides a variety of methods for creating animated plots, and exporting them
to movie files for playback at a later time. There are three basic animation methods available:
• Animation Tools: Perform simple animations using the dialogs in the Animate sub-menu
under the Tools menu. The Animate sub-menu allows you to animate zones, XY- mappings,
contour levels, IJK-planes, IJK-blanking, and streamtraces. The animation is viewed within
Tecplot, or exported to a movie file which can be played back outside of Tecplot.
• Manually: Interactively create movies by creating an initial plot, exporting the image as
either a AVI or Raster Metafile movie, then repeatedly changing and appending new images
to the same movie file.
• Macros: Use a macro to perform multiple, repetitive changes, and write each image to a
movie file.
This chapter discusses these methods, as well as ways to play back movies that have been
created in Tecplot.
30.1. Animation Tools
Use the Animate sub-menu under the Tools menu to have Tecplot cycle through your data,
automatically displaying zones, IJK-planes, or any of several other plot elements, one after the
other, until your entire data set has been displayed. The following plot elements may be animated using the dialogs in the Animate submenu:
• Zones.
• XY-Mappings.
• Contour Levels.
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
•
•
•
•
IJK-Planes.
IJK-Blanking.
Slices.
Streamtraces.
30.1.1. Animating Zones
Use the Animate Zones dialog to display all or a specified subset of the zones in the current
data set, one at a time.
To animate zones:
1.
From the Tools menu, choose Animate, then choose Zones. The Animate Zones dialog
appears as shown in Figure 30-1.
Figure 30-1. The
Animate Zones dialog.
Specify a start zone (the first zone you want displayed), an end zone, and a zone skip in the
fields provided. If you specify a start zone having a higher number than the end zone, Tecplot cycles backward from the start to the end.
3.
If you want Tecplot to create a movie file containing the animation, select “to AVI file” or
“to RM file” from the Animate drop-down menu.
4.
Click Animate to run the animation automatically, or use + and - in the Current Zone area
to “step through” the animation one zone at a time. (These cycle through the range of zones
specified by Start Zone and End Zone; if your range is reversed, so are their actions.)
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2.
30.1. Animation Tools
For example, suppose you have several sets of 2-D data defined at different times. At each time
value, the data point positions are the same, but the variables defined at the data points are different. You could organize this body of data into one data file where each time value is allocated to a separate zone. In Tecplot, you could set up the plot style the way you want for all
zones, then use Animate Zones to view the data for all time values by activating each zone, one
at a time.
As an example, you might try loading the data file demo/plt/cylinder.plt and animating its zones. The cylinder data set has three zones.
30.1.2. Animating XY-Mappings
Use the Animate XY-Mappings dialog to display all or a specified subset of the XY-mappings
defined in the current frame, one at a time.
To animate XY-mappings:
1.
From the Tools menu, choose Animate, then choose XY-Mappings. The Animate XY Mappings dialog appears, as shown in Figure 30-2.
Figure 30-2. The
Animate XY-Mappings dialog.
2.
Specify a Start Map (the first XY-map you want displayed), an End Map, and a Map Skip in
the fields provided. If you specify a Start Map having a higher number than the End Map,
Tecplot cycles backward from the start to the end.
3.
If you want Tecplot to create a movie file containing the animation, select “to AVI file” or
“to RM file” from the Animate drop-down menu.
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
4.
Click Animate to run the animation automatically, or use + and - in the Current Map area to
“step through” the animation one XY-map at a time. (Theses cycle through the range of
XY-maps specified by Start Map and End Map; if your range is reversed, so are their
actions.)
You can try this with the demo data file, tec90/demo/plt/rain.plt.
30.1.3. Animating Contour Levels
Use the Animate Contour Levels dialog to display all or a specified subset of the contour levels
defined in the current frame, one at a time.
To animate contour levels:
1.
From the Tools menu, choose Animate, then choose Contour Levels. The Animate Contour
Levels dialog appears, as shown in Figure 30-3.
Figure 30-3. The
Animate Contour Levels dialog.
Specify a start contour level (the first contour level you want displayed), an end contour
level, and a contour level skip in the fields provided. If you specify a start level having a
higher number than the end level, Tecplot cycles backward from the start to the end.
3.
If you want Tecplot to create a movie file containing the animation, select “to AVI file” or
“to RM file” from the Animate drop-down menu.
4.
Click Animate to run the animation automatically, or use the + and - in the Current Level
area to “step through” the animation one contour level at a time. (These cycle through the
range of levels specified by Start Level Number and End Level Number; if your range is
reversed, so are their actions.)
520
2.
30.1. Animation Tools
30.1.4. Animating IJK-Planes
Use the Animate IJK-Planes dialog to display all or a specified sub-set of the IJK-planes in the
current data set, one at a time. You can choose to animate either the I-, J-, or K-planes.
To animate IJK-planes:
1.
From the Tools menu, choose Animate, then choose IJK-Planes. The Animate IJK-Planes
dialog appears, as shown in Figure 30-4.
Figure 30-4. The
Animate IJK-Planes dialog.
2.
Specify the set of planes to animate: I-Planes, J-Planes, or K-Planes.
3.
Specify a start index (the first plane you want displayed), an end index, and an index skip in
the fields provided. If you specify a start index having a higher number than the end index,
Tecplot cycles backward from the start to the end.
4.
If you want Tecplot to create a movie file containing the animation, select “to AVI file” or
“to RM file” from the Animate drop-down menu.
5.
Click Animate to run the animation automatically, or use + and - in the Current Index area
to “step through” the animation one plane at a time. (These cycle through the range of
planes specified by Start Index and End Index; if your range is reversed, so are their
actions.)
Figure 30-5 shows an example of animating I-planes in an IJK-ordered zone.
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
Y
Y
Y
X
Z
Z
I=1
I=2
I=3
Y
Y
Y
X
X
X
Z
Z
I=4
Z
I=5
I=6
Y
Y
Y
X
X
Z
I=7
Figure 30-5. An
X
X
Z
X
Z
I=8
Z
I=9
animated sequence of I-planes.
30.1.5. Animating IJK-Blanking
Use the Animate IJK-Blanking dialog to animate a sequence of Tecplot renderings starting
with an initial set of blanked IJK indices and proceeding in a series of interpolated steps to a
final set of blanked IJK indices. Before you can animate IJK-blanking, you must first specify
which zone you want to use. Do this in the IJK-Blanking dialog.
To animate a sequence of IJK-blankings, you must first turn on IJK-blanking, then use the
Animate IJK-Blanking dialog:
From the Style menu, choose IJK-Blanking. The IJK-Blanking dialog appears.
2.
Select the Include IJK-Blanking check box. The remaining controls in the dialog become
active.
3.
From the Zone drop-down, select the desired zone and specify whether the interior or exterior of the zone should be blanked.
4.
Click Close.
5.
From the Tools menu, choose Animate, then choose IJK-Blanking. The Animate
IJK-Blanking dialog appears, as shown in Figure 30-6.
6.
Specify an initial set of blanked IJK-indices in the text fields grouped under the title Starting Index (% of Max). Enter a range of indices for each of I, J, and K. Index values are
entered as percentages of the maximum index.
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1.
30.1. Animation Tools
Figure 30-6. The
Animate IJK-Blanking dialog.
7.
Specify a final set of blanked IJK-indices in the text fields grouped under the title Ending
Index (% of Max). Enter a range of indices for each of I, J, and K.
8.
Specify the number of steps—that is, the number of renderings required to move from the
initial IJK-blanking to the final IJK-blanking. The minimum number of steps is two.
9.
If you want Tecplot to create a movie file containing the animation, select “to AVI file” or
“to RM file” from the Animate drop-down menu.
10.
Click Animate to run the animation automatically, or use + and - in the Current Step area to
“step through” the animation one step at a time.
30.1.6. Animating Slices
Use the Animate Slices dialog to animate a sequence of slices through your data. Use the Slice
tool or the 3D Slice Details dialog to configure the start and end slices for your animation. The
Animate Slices dialog is shown in Figure 30-7.
To animate a sequence of slices perform the following steps:
1.
Use the Slice tool or the 3D Slice Details dialog to define a start and end slice.
2.
From the Tools menu, choose Animate, then select Slices. The Animate Slices dialog
appears, as shown in Figure 30-7.
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
Figure 30-7. The
Animate Slices dialog.
3.
Enter the number of slices to animate.
4.
If you want to create a movie file containing the animation select “to AVI file” or “to RM
file” from the Animate drop-down menu.
5.
Click Animate.
If the slices are currently assigned to I-, J-, or K-planes, the total number of slices you can
animate is limited to the total number of I-, J-, or K-planes possible between the start and end
slice planes. If the slice planes are X-, Y-, or Z-planes you may specify any number of slices
larger than or equal to two.
30.1.7. Animating Streamtraces
Use the Animate Streamtraces dialog to create animated images of streamtraces. You specify
the number of images shown for each streamtrace cycle, and the number of cycles to show. The
resulting animation shows streamtrace markers and/or streamtrace timing dashes at each step
of the animation, “moving” down the streamtrace. Before you can animate streamtraces, you
must turn on either the timing dashes or timing markers or both, using the Streamtrace Details
dialog under the Field menu. See Section 13.6, “Streamtrace Timing,” for details.
To animate your streamtraces:
Create a number of streamtraces. (For information on how to do this, see Chapter 12,
“Streamtraces.” )
2.
If you have not already done so, select Show Dashes or Show Markers from the Timing
page of the Streamtrace Details dialog. (Choose Streamtrace Details from the Field menu to
call up this dialog.)
3.
From the Tool menu, choose Animate, then choose Streamtraces. The Animate
Streamtraces dialog appears, as shown in Figure 30-8.
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1.
30.2. Creating a Movie Manually
Figure 30-8. The
Animate Streamtraces dialog.
4.
If you want Tecplot to create a movie file containing the animation, select “to AVI file” or
“to RM file” from the Animate drop-down menu.
5.
Specify the number of steps per cycle and the number of cycles in the fields provided.
6.
Click Animate to begin the animation.
30.1.8. Creating a Movie File
Each of the animation dialogs offers you the option of saving the current animation as an AVI
or Raster Metafile (Framer Movie File).
To save the current animation as a movie file:
1.
In the appropriate Animation dialog, select “to AVI file” or “to RM file” from the Animate
drop-down menu. When you click Animate, the appropriate Export dialog will appear.
2.
Choose the image width and whether to use multiple color tables.
3.
If you choose AVI as the export file type, you may specify animation speed in frames per
second. Animation speed is only available for AVI files.
4.
When you click OK, the Select Move File dialog will appear. Enter a file name.
5.
Click OK to create the movie file. The images are written to the movie file while the Working dialog is displayed on your screen. (The screen image will not change.)
See Section 30.5.2, “Viewing Raster Metafiles in Framer,” for information on running Framer
on your movie files.
30.2. Creating a Movie Manually
You can create a sequence of Raster Metafile images interactively as follows:
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
1.
Create the first plot.
2.
Select Export from the File menu and select Raster Metafile from the list.
3.
Setup the desired characteristics on the Raster Metafile dialog, and click OK.
4.
Select a file name when the Select Export File dialog is presented, then click Save.
5.
The first image will be saved after you click Save on the Select Export File dialog, then the
Record Animation File dialog will appear.
6.
Create the next plot interactively.
7.
When satisfied with the next image, click Record Next Image on the Record Animation
File dialog.
8.
Repeat steps 6 and 7 to continue adding images to the animation. When done, click Finish
Animation on the Record Next Image dialog.
30.3. Creating Movies with Macros
The Tecplot macro language expands the capabilities of Tecplot’s standard animation features.
The macro commands allow you to do almost anything you can do interactively, and export
images to movie files. You can also use loops to repeatedly rotate 3-D objects, cycle from one
active zone to another, and so on, to create your movie. See Chapter 28, “Using Macros,” for
detailed information regarding the Tecplot macro language.
A typical macro file for making movies has the following form:
#!MC 900
... optional commands to set up the first image
$!EXPORTSETUP
EXPORTFORMAT = AVI
EXPORTFNAME = "mymovie.avi"
$!EXPORTSTART
$!LOOP 50
... commands to set up next image
$!REDRAWALL
$!EXPORTNEXTFRAME
$!ENDLOOP
$!EXPORTFINISH
For example, the following macro file duplicates the actions performed by the Animate Zones
dialog:
#!MC 900
## Set up Export file type and file name.
$!EXPORTSETUP
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30.4. Advanced Animation Techniques
EXPORTFORMAT = AVI
EXPORTFNAME = "C:\temp\timeseries.avi"
## Begin Animating
$!LOOP |NUMZONES|
## Change the active zone.
## The |Loop| variable is equal to the current
## loop cycle number.
$!ACTIVEFIELDZONES = [|Loop|]
$!REDRAWALL
## This series of $!IF statements ensures
## that a new AVI file will be created when
## the macro is started.
$!IF |Loop| == 1
$!EXPORTSTART
$!ENDIF
$!IF |Loop| != 1
$!EXPORTNEXTFRAME
$!ENDIF
$!ENDLOOP
$!EXPORTFINISH
To run this macro, do the following:
1.
Create a macro file like the example above. Edit the macro file to specify a new export file
name if necessary.
2.
Load in a multi-zone data file.
3.
Switch to 2D frame mode.
4.
From the File menu, choose the Play option from the Macro sub-menu, then choose the
macro file you specified in step 1.
Note: Version 8.0 macros for creating animation files (Raster Metafiles or AVI) must be
revised to work with Version 9.0, as shown in the example above.
30.4. Advanced Animation Techniques
There may be times when you want to include information in your animation which tells
viewers about the time step, current zones, or an XY-map. There are several ways this can be
done.
30.4.1. Changing Image Size of Animations
When you need a particular size for your animation image, such as 300 by 250 pixels, first edit
your frame to the correct width and height. Then export only the current frame.
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
30.4.2. Changing Text in Animations by Attaching Text to Zones
This method works best if you are using the Zone Animation function under the Tools menu.
First, create several text strings in your data file, and use the ZN= parameter to attach each text
string to a zone or XY-mapping. (See section 5.1.3, “Text Record,” for details on attaching text
to zones.) You should have a separate text string for each zone in your data set that will be used
in your animation. An example of this is:
ZONE T="Temp. distribution, Time = 0.5 seconds" I=51, J=51 F=POINT
.
.
.
list of variable values
.
.
.
TEXT X=70, Y=90, T="Time = 0.5 seconds", F=COURIER, CS=FRAME, H=2, ZN=1
ZONE T="Temp. distribution, Time = 1.0 seconds" I=51, J=51 F=POINT
.
.
.
list of variable values
.
.
.
TEXT X=70, Y=90, T="Time = 1.0 seconds", F=COURIER, CS=FRAME, H=2, ZN=2
Next, use the Animate Zones or XY Maps tool to create your animation. Only the text string
attached to the current zone in your animation will be visible. You can also use Tecplot's
dynamic text feature (see Section 18.1.7. “Adding Dynamic Text”) to insert a zone name into
your text strings. For example:
ZONE T="Time = 1.0 seconds" I=51, J=51 F=POINT
.
.
.
list of variable values
.
.
.
TEXT X=70, Y=90, T="&(ZONENAME:2)", F=COURIER, CS=FRAME, H=2, ZN=2
30.4.3. Changing Text in Animations by Using the Scatter Symbol
Legend
You also can show the name of the current zone in your animation with the use of the scatter
legend. Although you may not be using Scatter zone layer in your plot, the scatter legend will
show the name of the current zone during the animation. See Section 14.7, “Creating a Scatter
Legend,” for more information about using the scatter legend in Tecplot.
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30.4. Advanced Animation Techniques
Turn on the scatter legend by selecting the Scatter Legend option on the Field menu, then make
the scatter symbol invisible in the legend by changing the scatter color to white for all of your
zones in the Scatter Attributes dialog (or changing to the same color as your frame background
if it is not white).
30.4.4. Changing Text in Animations by Using Macros
If you are using a macro to generate your animation, you can include a command to attach a
text string that contains the current time step:
$!Loop 20
$!Pick AddAll
SelectText = TRUE
$!Pick Clear
.
.
.
Commands to change the existing plot
.
.
.
$!AttachText
Text = "Time = |Elapsed_Time| seconds."
XYPos
{
X = 70
Y = 90
}
$!Redraw
$!If |Loop| == 1
$!ExportStart
$!EndIf
$!If |Loop| == 1
$!ExportNextFrame
$!EndIf
$!Varset |Elapsed_Time| += 0.5
$!EndLoop
The above loop is an example of how you could use a user-defined macro variable (discussed
in the Tecplot Reference Manual) to insert an increasing time value into a text string. This
example uses a variable called |Elapsed_Time|, which we consider to be the current time.
One could alternatively set |Elapsed_Time| to be a text string that uses dynamic text:
$!Varset |Elapsed_Time| = "%(ZONENAME:|LOOP|)"
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
With each loop iteration, the |LOOP| macro variable will increment and the name for each
zone will be inserted into |Elapsed_Time| each time through the loop. (Zone 1, 2, 3, 4,
and so on.)
30.4.5. Animating Multiple Frames Simultaneously
Animation of plots in multiple frames requires the use of a macro. The $!FRAMECONTROL
PUSHTOP command is used to switch between each frame. The following template demonstrates how this is done with a layout where each frame contains a similar plot:
#!MC 900
##Set the number of images (movie frames) in the animation.
$!VARSET |NumCycles| = 10
$!EXPORTSETUP
EXPORTFNAME
= "2frames.rm"
EXPORTFORMAT = RASTERMETAFILE
BITDUMPREGION = ALLFRAMES
.
.
Insert commands to set up first frame, if necessary.
.
.
## Outer loop.
$!LOOP |NumCycles|
## Inner loop cycles through each frame in the current layout.
$!LOOP |NumFrames|
.
.
Insert commands to change the plot in the current frame.
.
.
##This command pushes the topmost (active) frame to the back,
##making the next frame active.
$!FrameControl PushTop
$!EndLoop
## This series of $!IF statements ensures
## that a new AVI file will be created when
## the macro is started.
$!IF |Loop| == 1
$!EXPORTSTART
$!ENDIF
$!IF |Loop| != 1
$!EXPORTNEXTFRAME
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30.5. Viewing Movie Files
$!ENDIF
$!ENDLOOP
$!EXPORTFINISH
30.5. Viewing Movie Files
The following tools allow you to view movie files you have created with Tecplot.
30.5.1. Viewing AVI Files
AVI format is the standard video format for Windows platforms. Below are some applications
that can be used to view and/or edit AVI files:
• Media Player: A standard movie viewer included with Windows.
• Xanim: A program for playing a wide variety of video formats on UNIX X11 machines.
More information is available at xanim.va.pubnix.com.
• Premier: A powerful tool for professional digital video editing. More information is available at www.adobe.com.
30.5.2. Viewing Raster Metafiles in Framer
Raster Metafile is a NASA-defined standard format for storing bit images and may contain one
or more images. You can create a Raster Metafile in Tecplot either interactively, or using a
Tecplot macro. For many types of repetitive plots (such as rotations, where each image is a
slightly rotated version of the previous image), macros provide a very convenient means of
simplifying Raster Metafile creation.
The Raster Metafile format is defined in the following reference:
Taylor, N., Everton, E., Randall, D., Gates, R., and Skeens, K., NASA TM 102588, Raster
Metafile and Raster Metafile Translator. Central Scientific Computing Complex Document G-14, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. September, 1989.
Once you have created your Raster Metafile, you can view the resulting file with Framer.
Framer is a utility program that is included with Tecplot. It allows you to view files stored in
Raster Metafile format and runs independently of Tecplot. You may freely distribute Framer so
that others may view your movies.
The Motif version of Framer is run from your shell prompt; the Windows version can be
launched from the Tecplot program folder under the Start button (Windows 95 or 98, or
Windows NT 4.0). You may freely distribute the Framer executable to allow others to view
your animation.
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To launch Framer at a command line (shell prompt, Run command, and so forth), use the following command:
framer [options] [rmfile]
where [rmfile] is the name of a file containing Raster Metafile bitmaps created by Tecplot, and
[options] is one or more of the options listed in Section 1 of Appendix B, “Utility Command
Line Options.”
To run Framer on UNIX type:
framer [filename]
If you do not specify a file name, Framer prompts you for one. (Under Windows you get the
file dialog shown in Figure 30-9. In this dialog, you can choose to set buffering [equivalent to
the -b flag] and/or multiple color maps [equivalent to the -m flag].) For a list of Framer
Figure 30-9. The
Framer Open File dialog under Windows.
command lines, see Appendix B.1, “Framer.”
Figure 30-10 shows the main Framer window under Windows.
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30.5. Viewing Movie Files
Figure 30-10. The
Framer application window under Windows.
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Chapter 30. Animation and Movies
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CHAPTER 31
Customizing Tecplot
Tecplot comes with a complete set of factory defaults for creating plots of all kinds: frame
attributes, such as the initial frame size, background color; axis attributes, such as axis line
color and range; plot attributes, such as boundary line thickness and contour plot type; and so
on. You can modify virtually all of these defaults through the use of a configuration file. A Tecplot configuration file is a special type of Tecplot macro file that Tecplot reads on start up; the
settings in the configuration file override Tecplot’s factory defaults.
You can create a configuration file from scratch, using any ASCII text editor, or you can have
Tecplot create one for you using the Save Configuration option in the File menu’s Preferences
sub-menu. You can also use the Preferences sub-menu and the Display Performance dialog to
modify many settings interactively.
This chapter discusses creating and editing configuration files. The names of the files used will
vary from platform to platform; this chapter concentrates on UNIX and Windows files.
31.1. Tecplot Configuration Files
Tecplot looks for configuration files in one of three places: the current working directory, the
user’s home directory, and the Tecplot home directory. In the current working directory,
Tecplot searches for a file named tecplot.cfg. If it finds it, it uses the settings in that file to
override the factory defaults. If not, Tecplot searches your home directory for a file named
.tecplot.cfg (tecplot.cfg in Windows). If Tecplot finds this file, it uses the settings
in that file to override factory defaults. If there is no .tecplot.cfg file in your home directory, Tecplot looks in the Tecplot home directory for a file named tecplot.cfg, and uses
the settings in that file to override the factory defaults. (Under Windows, your home directory
is determined by the two environment variables HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH. If they are not
set, Tecplot skips your home directory.)
You can save configuration files with any valid file name. To have Tecplot use them, you must
either rename them to have one of the names Tecplot searches for by default, or, more com-
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
monly, use the “-c” command line option when starting Tecplot. For example, the following
command starts Tecplot using the configuration settings in the file mydefs.cfg:
tecplot -c mydefs.cfg
System administrators can use the tecplot.cfg file in the Tecplot home directory to set
system-wide defaults, then others on the system can copy the system configuration file to their
own home directories and make any desired changes. The settings in your local configuration
file are used instead of the settings in the system configuration file. A configuration file needs
to include only those options for which you want to override defaults.
Tecplot under Motif has a second type of configuration file, an X11 resource file (app-defaults
file) that controls the appearance of the Tecplot application and its dialogs. Most users do not
need to concern themselves with this file; nothing in the resource file has any affect on the
plots you create with Tecplot, either on screen or on paper. However, if you are an experienced
Motif and X11 user, you may want to modify some of the resources to improve the appearance
of Tecplot’s windows and dialogs on your display. Section 31.4, “Configuring the Interface
under UNIX,” explains how to do this.
31.1.1. Creating a Configuration File
The simplest way to create a configuration file is to change the appropriate settings using the
Tecplot interface, then save the configuration. For example, suppose you want to have your
paper orientation default to portrait and have your default export format be Encapsulated PostScript (EPS). You can modify the settings using the appropriate Tecplot dialogs, then save the
configuration file.
To save a Tecplot configuration file:
Change settings as desired using Tecplot dialogs.
2.
From the File menu, choose Preferences, then choose Save Configuration. The Save Configuration dialog appears as shown in Figure 31-1.
3.
Check the file name listed. If the file name is correct, click OK. If you want to save to a different file, click Change File Name and specify a new file name.
536
1.
31.1. Tecplot Configuration Files
Figure 31-1. The
Save Configuration dialog.
Here is the configuration file resulting from the changes described above:
#!MC 900
$!PAPER
ORIENTPORTRAIT = YES
$!EXPORTSETUP
EXPORTFORMAT = EPS
$!FRAMELAYOUT
XYPOS
{
X = 1
Y = 0.25
}
WIDTH = 9
HEIGHT = 8
This configuration file specifies portrait orientation, and sets the Export format to EPS, just as
desired. The only other settings saved are the default frame layout settings.
You can, however, obtain a configuration file that includes most of the factory defaults as follows:
1.
From the File menu, choose Preferences, then choose Save Configuration. The Save Configuration dialog appears.
2.
Select the check box labeled Include Factory Defaults.
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
3.
Check the file name listed. If the file name is correct, click OK. If you want to save to a different file, click Change File Name and specify a new file name.
The created file contains factory defaults for the following types of Tecplot settings:
•
•
•
•
Interface details.
RGB color assignments for Tecplot’s basic colors.
Default paper layout.
Print and export setup information.
If you modify any setting from these four types interactively and then save your configuration,
the modifications are saved. However, modifications to other types of settings will not be
saved.
You are not limited, however, to changing merely those settings which appear in the saved configuration file. Most settings which can be modified by one of Tecplot’s SetValue macro commands can be changed in the configuration file. These other settings must be changed,
however, by editing the configuration file.The simplest way to do this is to create a layout or
macro with the settings you want, then copy and paste the appropriate SetValue commands into
your configuration file. (Once you become more familiar with the macro language, it may be
simpler to type in the appropriate SetValue command directly.) See the Tecplot Reference
Manual for complete details on the SetValue and other macro commands.
For example, suppose you want your 2-D axes to appear cyan. You can add this preference to
your configuration file as follows:
1.
Using the Tecplot interface, create a 2-D plot with cyan axes, either recording your steps as
a macro, or saving the result as a Tecplot layout.
2.
Edit the resulting macro or layout, scanning for the lines that set the 2-D axis colors. The
following example shows the commands that specify the X- and Y-axis details in a layout
of a 2-D plot with cyan axes:
$!TWODAXIS
XDETAIL
{
RANGEMIN = -2.99985003471
RANGEMAX = 15.001799985
GRSPACING = 5
AXISCOLOR = CYAN
}
YDETAIL
{
RANGEMIN = -2.99985003471
RANGEMAX = 13.4283224277
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31.1. Tecplot Configuration Files
GRSPACING = 2
AXISCOLOR = CYAN
}
3.
Discard everything but the lines that actually set the color:
$!TWODAXIS
XDETAIL
{
AXISCOLOR = CYAN
}
YDETAIL
{
AXISCOLOR = CYAN
}
4.
Paste the resulting lines into your configuration file.
31.1.2. Setting Plot Defaults
A single $!FIELD command can be included to set plot defaults. The command cannot
specify a zone, and is not effective for values set dynamically by Tecplot, such as Mesh Color.
In the example below, the default contour type is Flood, scatter symbol shape is Delta, and
scatter size is 1.8.
$!FIELD
CONTOUR
{
CONTOURTYPE = FLOOD
}
SCATTER
{
FRAMESIZE = 1.8
SYMBOLSHAPE
{
GEOMSHAPE = DEL
}
}
In the same way, a single $!XYMAP command can be added for XY-mapping defaults. In the
example below, XY-mapping will have a dashed line pattern, and symbols will be filled circles.
$!XYMAP
LINES
{
LINEPATTERN = DASHED
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
}
SYMBOLS
{
SYMBOLSHAPE
{
GEOMSHAPE = CIRCLE
}
ISFILLED = YES
}
31.1.3. Configuring the Tecplot Interface
The following macro commands help you configure Tecplot’s user interface and graphics
drawing capabilities. They are all members of the $!INTERFACE macro. Although some of
these commands can be executed in any Tecplot macro the best place to put these is in the
Tecplot configuration file, tecplot.cfg.
31.1.3.1. General Interface Configuration Options.
$!INTERFACE MIDDLEMOUSEBUTTONMODE = (REDRAW, REVERTTOSELECT)
Specify the action of the middle mouse button click. REDRAW redraws the current frame.
REVERTTOSELECT forces the mouse tool back to the Selector tool. The default is
REDRAW. This command can only be executed from the Tecplot configuration file.
$!INTERFACE RIGHTMOUSEBUTTONMODE = (REDRAW, REVERTTOSELECT)
Specify the action of the right mouse button click. REDRAW redraws the current frame.
REVERTTOSELECT forces the mouse tool back to the Selector tool. The default is
REVERTTOSELECT. This command can only be executed from the Tecplot configuration
file.
$!INTERFACE USETECPLOTPRINTDRIVERS = (YES, NO)
Make Tecplot use its own internal print drivers instead of the Windows print drivers. The
default for windows is NO. For UNIX this command has no effect. This command can only
be executed from the Tecplot configuration file.
$!INTERFACE SECURESPOOLCOMMANDS = (YES, NO)
Specify whether or not spooler commands can only be altered from within of the tecplot
configuration file. The default is YES. (You are only allowed to assign print spool commands from within the Tecplot configuration file itself.) This command can only be executed from the Tecplot configuration file.
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31.1. Tecplot Configuration Files
$!INTERFACE UNIXHELPBROWSERCMD = string
Specify the command to execute to launch the browser on UNIX systems for viewing the
Help files. This command can only be executed from the Tecplot configuration file.
$!INTERFACE BEEPONFRAMEINTERRUPT = (YES, NO)
Set this to YES if you want Tecplot to beep whenever a drawing is interrupted.
$!INTERFACE PICKHANDLEWIDTH = d
Set the width of pick handles. D is in units of inches as measured on the screen.
$!INTERFACE RULERTHICKNESS = d
Set the thickness (width) of the rulers in the work area. D is in units of inches as measured
on the screen.
$!INTERFACE RULERPADDING = d
Set the distance between the ruler and the part of the work area usable for drawing in
frames.
$!INTERFACE SHOWCOORDINATES = (YES, NO)
Show or do not show the running coordinates in the status line.
$!INTERFACE SHOWSTATUSLINE = (YES, NO)
Show or do not show the entire status line.
$!INTERFACE SHOWCONTINUOUSSTATUS = (YES, NO)
Show or do not show the continuous status messages in the status line.
$!INTERFACE SHOWWAITDIALOGS = (YES, NO)
You can disable the launch and display of all Wait dialogs by setting this to NO. (Wait dialogs are launched during long operations and give you the ability to cancel the operation.)
$!INTERFACE SHOWFRAMEBORDERSWHENOFF = (YES, NO)
If set to NO frame borders are drawn on the screen using a dashed line when you elect to
turn them off (from the Frame/Edit dialog). If set to YES they are not drawn at all on the
screen. This setting only applies to the screen and does not effect print output or image
output.
$!INTERFACE PRINTDEBUG = (YES, NO)
Set this to YES to get a running commentary of your Tecplot session written to the standard out (UNIX only).
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
$!INTERFACE ENABLEINTERRUPTS = (YES, NO)
If set to NO this will not allow you to interrupt drawing in the work area.
$!INTERFACE ENABLEWARNINGS = (YES, NO)
If set to NO this will disable the launch and display of all warning dialogs.
$!INTERFACE ENABLEPAUSES = (YES, NO)
If set to NO this will disable the launch of all Pause dialogs during the execution of macros.
$!INTERFACE ENABLEDELAYS = (YES, NO)
If set to NO all $!DELAY macro commands will be ignored during macro processing.
$!INTERFACE ALLOWDATAPOINTSELECT = (YES, NO)
If set to NO this disables the feature where you can use the Adjustor tool to move data
points around on the screen for XY- and 2-D plots.
$!INTERFACE USESTROKEFONTSONSCREEN = (YES, NO)
If set to YES all text drawn in the work area will be drawn using Tecplot’s internal stroke
fonts. If set to NO the native True Type fonts will be used instead. This option has no effect
under UNIX.
$!INTERFACE USESTROKEFONTSFOR3DTEXT = (YES, NO)
If set to YES all 3-D text drawn in the work area will be drawn using Tecplot’s internal
stroke fonts. 3-D text consists of ASCII scatter symbols, and node and cell labels when the
current frame mode is 3-D. For 3-D text, this setting overrides the setting of
USESTROKEFONTSONSCREEN. If set to NO the native True Type fonts will be used
instead. This option has no effect under UNIX.
$!INTERFACE MAXTRACELINES = n
Set the approximate number of lines to draw when the data in a frame is traced.
$!INTERFACE FASTLINEPATTERNSONSCREEN = (YES, NO)
Set to YES (the default) to draw patterned lines on the screen using a fast approximate
method. If set to NO all patterned lines on the screen will be drawn by hand.
$!INTERFACE USEFASTAPPROXCONTINUOUSFLOOD = (YES, NO)
Set to YES to use a faster but less accurate method for drawing continuous flooding in 3D.
$!INTERFACE FORCEGOURAUDFORCONT3DFLOOD = (YES, NO)
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31.1. Tecplot Configuration Files
If set to YES and the surface effects are paneled and the plot contains continuous flooding
then the surface effects will be upgraded to Gouraud. Gouraud shading is much more efficient than paneled shading in this instance.
$!INTERFACE USEDISPLAYLISTS = (YES, NO)
Set to YES to cache graphics primitives into display lists. This provides much faster rendering speed but requires more memory.
$!INTERFACE USEDOUBLEPRECISIONFORDISPLAYLISTS = (YES, NO)
Set to YES to request that the graphics sub-system use double precision for vertex points
and the depth buffer. This is only a request that the graphics sub-system may elect to
ignore.
$!INTERFACE INTERRUPTCHECKINGFREQUENCY = n
Set the number of milliseconds between interrupt checks while Tecplot is drawing or processing data.
$!INTERFACE THREEDVIEWCHANGEDRAWLEVEL = (FULL, TRACE)
Set what to draw while Tecplot is performing 3-D view changes such as translating or
rotating. You can choose FULL or TRACE.
$!INTERFACE NONCURRENTFRAMEREDRAWLEVEL = (FULL, TRACE)
Set how to draw all frames except the current frame. You can choose FULL or TRACE.
31.1.3.2. OpenGL Specific Configuration Options. The following options are available
to further tune Tecplot to operate with the OpenGL capabilities of your platform. To assign
values to these parameters you must use the $!INTERFACE OPENGLCONFIG.
$!INTERFACE OPENGLCONFIG
{ SCREENRENDERING { DOEXTRADRAWFORLASTPIXEL = (YES, NO)}}
Some OpenGL implementations use an optimization for line drawing that omits the last
pixel in the line. Set this to YES to change all line drawing to force the last pixel to be
drawn. This setting applies only to drawing on the screen.
$!INTERFACE OPENGLCONFIG
{ SCREENRENDERING { STIPPLEALLLINES = (ALL, CRITICAL, NONE)}}
Set to ALL to make all lines drawn using stippling. Set to CRITICAL to use stippling for
stroke and user-defined fonts. Set to NONE to disable stippling. This setting applies only to
drawing on the screen.
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
$!INTERFACE OPENGLCONFIG
{ IMAGERENDERING { DOEXTRADRAWFORLASTPIXEL = (YES, NO)}}
Some OpenGL implementations use an optimization for line drawing that omits the last
pixel in the line. Set this to YES to change all line drawing to force the last pixel to be
drawn. This setting applies only to exporting images from Tecplot.
$!INTERFACE OPENGLCONFIG
{ IMAGERENDERING { STIPPLEALLLINES = (ALL, CRITICAL, NONE)}}
Set to ALL to make all lines drawn using stippling. Set to CRITICAL to use stippling for
stroke and user-defined fonts. Set to NONE to disable stippling. This setting applies exporting images from Tecplot.
31.1.4. Specifying Default File Name Extensions
The default extensions for file names in file input-output dialogs can also be changed in the
configuration file. These settings are changed via the FNAMEFILTER sub-command in the
$!FILECONFIG macro command.
•
•
•
•
•
COLORMAPFILE: Specifies the default extension for color map files.
INPUTDATAFILE: Specifies the default extension for input data files.
OUTPUTASCIIDATAFILE: Specifies the default extension for ASCII output files.
OUTPUTBINARYDATAFILE: Specifies the default extension for binary output files.
INPUTLAYOUTFILE: Specifies the default extension for input layout and layout package
files.
• OUTPUTLAYOUTFILE: Specifies the default extension for output layout files.
• OUTPUTLAYOUTPACKAGEFILE: Specifies the default extension for output layout package files.
• STYLEFILE: Specifies the default extension for stylesheet files.
• MACROFILE: Specifies the default extension for macro files.
• EQUATIONFILE: Specifies the default extension for equation files.
For example, to change the default extension for input data files to be .tbl use:
$!FILECONFIG
FNAMEFILTER
{
INPUTDATAFILE = "*.tbl"
}
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31.2. Customizing Tecplot Interactively
31.1.5. Specifying the Default Temporary Directory
Tecplot writes out a number of temporary files. To tell Tecplot where to place these files, put
the following macro command in the tecplot.cfg file:
$!FILECONFIG
TEMPFILEPATH = "tempfilepath"
where tempfilepath is the new path. The default path is system dependent.
31.2. Customizing Tecplot Interactively
Using the Preferences sub-menu under the File menu, you can interactively control the colors
used throughout Tecplot, the size options available in most Tecplot dialogs, and several miscellaneous parameters.
31.2.1. The Color Preferences Dialog
To change the RGB values of Tecplot’s basic colors, use the Color Preferences dialog, shown
in Figure 31-2.
To change a color, click on it in the palette and alter its RGB values with the sliders. As you
move the sliders, the box in the upper right corner of the dialog shows the color as currently
specified. You may alter multiple colors by selecting those colors and changing their RGB
values. Choosing Reset Selected Color or Reset All Colors will restore the default RGB values.
All color changes take effect when you click OK.
31.2.2. The Size Preferences Dialog
To set size options, use the Size Preferences dialog, shown in Figure 31-2.
These options determine the choices available in drop-down menus such as Line Thickness
that occur throughout the interface.
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
546
Figure 31-2. The
Color Preferences dialog.
Figure 31-3. The
Size Preferences dialog.
31.3. Using the Display Performance Dialog
You can control the following sets of sizes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Line thickness.
Symbol size.
Pattern length.
Arrowhead size.
Tick mark length.
Text height (in both points and frame units).
Translate step size.
Rotate step size.
Magnification step size.
Stroke font line thickness.
31.3. Using the Display Performance Dialog
Various aspects of what is displayed in the Tecplot workspace may be configured with the
Display Performance dialog. Some of these options control the look of the workspace, while
others enhance the graphics performance. The Display Performance dialog is shown in
Figure 31-4.
Figure 31-4. The
Display Performance dialog.
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
There are many different combinations of computer systems and graphics card capabilities.
Because of this no one setting is optimal for all hardware configurations. In addition, there are
many different types of plots that can be made with Tecplot. Different plots can often be rendered faster if Tecplot is configured one way; others may be rendered faster if Tecplot is configured in a different way.
The Display Performance dialog allows you some control over how Tecplot manages the
graphics resources. Often there is a trade off between level of detail or accuracy on the screen
versus drawing speed.
For most general uses of Tecplot it is probably unnecessary to use the Display Performance
dialog. However, if you are dealing with large data sets it is likely that you will want to make
some adjustments.
The Display Performance dialog addresses four different areas:
•
•
•
•
On screen performance.
Graphics cache settings.
Status line options.
Other miscellanous style options.
The first two deal with changing Tecplot’s performance by changing the level of detail of what
is drawn or how often somthing is drawn. The second two merely allow you change what is
seen in the work area or change the style for selected plot types to gain better performance.
31.3.1. On Screen Performance
Here you can configure the responsiveness of Tecplot and the level of detail.
31.3.1.1. Timed Redraw Timeout. Choose the number of seconds you want Tecplot to
wait until it will automatically stops processing in preparation to draw. This should almost
always be set to a high number. A drawing can always be interrupted by the user by clicking
with the mouse in the work area
Note: There are a number of phases Tecplot goes through when processing a drawing in the
work area. Most of the phases can be interrupted by clicking with the mouse in the work area.
However, there are some phases that cannot be interrupted.
31.3.1.2. Approximate Plots for Better Speed. Selecting this option instructs Tecplot to
render plots with a lesser degree of detail according to the Approximation Mode. The Approximation Mode can be one of the following:
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31.3. Using the Display Performance Dialog
31.3.1.3. Automatic. In this mode Tecplot will choose when the drawing in each frame is to
be approximated based on the Point Threshold for Automatic Approximation. If the number of
points used in a drawing in a frame exceed the Point Threshold then Tecplot will create an
approximated version of the plot and render that first and then proceed to work on rendering a
complete drawing. You will see the approximated plot quickly and you can at that point elect to
make other changes to the plot. If you proceed in Tecplot before the final drawing is completed
Tecplot will interrupt the processing of the detailed drawing. During rotation, translation, or
smooth zoom, the plot will remain approximated until the mouse button is released.
31.3.1.4. Non-Current Frames Always Approximated. Choosing this option is like
Automatic except that all non-current frames are always approximated. After a change in the
current frame you will see all frames with an approximate drawing followed by the current
frame drawn in full detail. The non-current frames are left as is. You can see a full detail
drawing in all frames by clicking Redraw All on the sidebar or clicking with the middle mouse
in the workarea (outside of any frame).
31.3.1.5. All Frames Always Approximated. In this mode the drawing in all frames is
always approximated while you change views or style. You can see a full detail plot of the currently active frame by clicking Redraw on the sidebar or by clicking the middle mouse in the
current frame. You can see a full detail plot of all frames by clicking Redraw All on the sidebar
by clicking with the middle mouse in the work area (outside of any frame).
31.3.1.6. Point Threshold for Automatic Approximation. The drawing in a frame is a
candidate to be approximated if the number of points used to draw the full plot exceeds this
value. This is only a factor if the Approximation Mode is Automatic or Non-Current Frames
Always Approximated.
31.3.1.7. Approximate Plot as % of Full Plot. When a plot is approximated it will be
drawn with this percentage of the original data. In some cases Tecplot will plot more than this
percentage to preserve the shape of the data.
31.3.1.8. Show Text/Geometries in Approximate Plots. Text and geometries are not
approximated because it is assumed that they do not affect performance. If you are plotting a
large number of text or geometries then you can unselect this option to remove text and geometries from the approximated views.
31.3.2. Graphics Cache
The Graphics Cache is used to store instructions for OpenGL display lists used to draw in the
work area. If a significant amount of processing is needed to create the instructions, then
saving the instructions for repeated use can increase the rendering speed significantly. The
graphics cache can greatly speed up drawing for a number of situations including 3-D view
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
changes, changing the style in a sub-set of the plot (that is, changing the style of iso-surfaces
only), or for repairing of the Tecplot work area after it has been damaged because a dialog has
moved on top.
Some computers may have limited graphics resources compared to the amount of data to be
plotted. In these cases it may be beneficial to either cache only "lightweight" graphics objects
or do not cache anything at all.
If graphics are not cached you may experience situations where most or all of your plot is not
drawn on the screen. This can occur when the work area is damaged by moving another dialog
on top of it for example. If you have Auto Redraw turned off, the work area will have frames
that are not drawn at all and remain that way until you click Redraw All.
31.3.2.1. Status Line. Three check boxes used to configure the status line are located at the
top of the Performance Options dialog. You may enable or disable the display of running coordinates, status line messages, or turn off the status line altogether.
31.3.3. Style Options
This sections contains style options that can have an effect on the on-screen performance in
Tecplot.
31.3.3.1. Use Approximate Continuous Contour Flooding. If this option is selected
Tecplot will use a slightly faster but less accurate method for continuous contour flooding.
With continuous contour flooding each cell is colored using a continuous variation across the
cell from the colors derived at the nodes. In some cases the colors at opposing nodes in a cell
may be different enough such that the colors derived for the middle of the cell may pass
through the color cube and will extend outside of the colors defined in the Tecplot color map.
This can produce things like a brownish color in the middle of a cell that has yellow and green
on its edges. If this option is not selected, Tecplot takes extra care when it finds a cell where
colors on opposing nodes straddle colors defined at the control points in the workspace color
map. These cells are first subdivided to avoid this situation and then painted.
31.3.3.2. Force Gouraud Effects When Plotting 3D Continuous Flooded Contours. An unfortunate limitation in 3-D graphics causes the drawing of continous flooded
contours on a surface that is panel shaded to be slow and very expensive in terms of the
amount of resources needed to accomplish the task. In some cases the extra resources may
overload the graphics capacity. Using Gouraud flooding in these cases is less taxing as well as
faster. If this option is selected, Tecplot will automatically promote Panel shading to Gouraud
shading when continuous contour flooding is used.
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31.4. Configuring the Interface under UNIX
31.4. Configuring the Interface under UNIX
In UNIX, the style of the graphical user interface for Tecplot is configured for the most part by
a resource file called Tecplot90 which resides in the app-defaults sub-directory below
the Tecplot home directory. If you edit this file the changes will affect all users. Alternatively,
you can add entries to a file called .Xdefaults which resides in your own $HOME directory
if you want the changes to apply only to your own execution of Tecplot. If the file .Xdefaults does not already exist in your home directory, you can create one.
31.4.1. Changing the Default Size of Tecplot
The resource lines that affect the default Tecplot process window size are:
*Tecplot.main_dialog.width: 900
*Tecplot.main_dialog.height: 720
Changing either the value 900 or the value 720 will change the default size of the Tecplot
process window.
31.4.2. Changing Accelerator Keystrokes
Changing accelerator keystrokes is easiest using the following method:
1.
Find the menu options to which you can assign accelerator keys in Tecplot. Use the grep
command as follows:
grep _mbopt.labelString Tecplot90
2.
Find the accelerator keys not already assigned. The assigned keys can be found using the
following command:
grep accelerator Tecplot90
3.
Add an entry to the Tecplot90 or to the .Xdefaults file in your $HOME directory to
add an accelerator. For example, the following line will let you press just the letter N to
open a new layout:
Tecplot*main_filenew_mbopt.accelerator: <Key>N
The following example will let you press Ctrl-N to open a new layout:
Tecplot*main_filenew_mbopt.accelerator: Ctrl<Key>N
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
31.4.3. Setting Default Positions for Dialogs
On UNIX platforms, you can customize the default positioning of modeless dialogs (those that
can remain up while you do other things in Tecplot) by adding a few entries to your
.Xdefaults file.
To change the default position for a given dialog, do the following:
1.
Determine the base name of the dialog from table xxxx below.
2.
Add the following lines to your .Xdefaults file:
Tecplot*bbbbbb_dialog.defaultPosition: FALSE
Tecplot*bbbbbb_dialog.x: xxxxxx
Tecplot*bbbbbb_dialog.y: yyyyyy
Where:
bbbbbb is the base name of the dialog.
xxxxxx is the X-position you want the dialog to start in.
yyyyyy is the Y-position you want the dialog to start in.
The XY-position is relative to the upper left corner of the screen. Here are the base names of
modeless dialogs in Tecplot.
advancedbandopts
axisedit
contcoloropts
contlinemode
createcircularzone
createrectzone
datalabels
dataspreadsheet
dupzone
enterxyzone
extractslice
globalscat
invdistinterp
linearinterp
macrovariables
orderframes
polartorect
quickmacro
smooth
threedadvanced
triangulate
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animaterecord
cellcenter
contlabel
contourlevels
createlinezone
createsubzone
datarotate2d
deletezone
editframe
extractcurrent3dslice
frameaxis
globalstream
isosurface
linkframes
macroview
paper
probe
scatlegend
stream
threedlightsrc
twod
atprobe
colormap
contlegend
contourvar
createmirrorzone
dataalter
datasetinfo
depthblank
editprobe
extractfebound
geom
ijkblank
kriging
macrorecord
optionstext
plotattr
quickedit
slicedetails
text
translate
valueblank
31.5. Defining Custom Characters and Symbols
vectorhead
viewrotate3d
vectorlength
xyeditprobe
view3d
xylegend
31.5. Defining Custom Characters and Symbols
When Tecplot starts up, it reads the font file (‘‘tecplot.fnt’’). This file contains information that defines the appearance of text characters on the screen. Tecplot defines and draws
characters on the screen as a set of straight lines called strokes. These stroked characters
approximate the appearance of characters for the screen.
The font file is an ASCII file that can be edited using an ASCII text editor. You can modify the
shape, size, and resolution of existing stroke-font characters or add completely new ones. In
PostScript print files, text characters are generated using PostScript defined fonts, not the
stroked fonts. If you are using the Windows version of Tecplot and the Windows print drivers
are active, then all text except text using the User-Defined fonts is serviced by the Windows
printer driver. However, HP-GL and HP-GL/2 print files use the stroked fonts, and the text
characters in bitmap export files are also in stroked fonts (since they are generated from the
screen). The inter-character spacing in all output files is determined by the character-width definitions in the font file. When using PostScript print files or the Windows print drivers, changing the font commands affects only the character shape for User-Defined fonts and the
character spacing for all fonts.
The Font File is structured as follows:
#!FF 4
CharCellHeight
Stroke command
Stroke command
Stroke command
Stroke command
Stroke command
Stroke command
Stroke command
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
Helvetica Font
Greek Font
Math Font
User-Defined Font
Times Font
Times Italic Font
Courier Font
The file type and version are on the first line (‘‘FF’’ means Font File). CharCellHeight is the
interline spacing (that is, the height of a capital M plus some vertical space) in the units of a
two-dimensional coordinate system used to define the stroke-font characters. The baseline of
the characters is at zero. Before Tecplot uses the character definitions, they are normalized by
the character cell height.
Following the character cell height, there are seven sets of stroke commands, one set for each
font as shown above. Each stroke command set consists of definitions for the characters in the
font. Each font has a base set of 96 characters (character indices 32 to 127). Some fonts also
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
include an extended set of characters (character indices 160 to 255). The extended characters
are needed to complete the character sets for most of the common European languages.
All seven stroke command sets must be present, and each must have at least one character
defined. Each stroke command set begins with the definition for a space (character index 32).
After that, characters within a stroke command set may be defined in any order. If a character
is not defined in the Font File, it is drawn as a blank.
Each character in a stroke command set is defined as follows:
CharIndex NumCommands CharWidth
Command1
Command2
Command3
.
.
.
CommandNumCommands
CharIndex is the character index which ranges from 32 to 127 and 160 to 255 for each font (see
Figure 18-5 for the matching of the character index to the English, Greek, Math, and standard
User-Defined font characters), NumCommands is the number of stroke commands defining the
character that follows, and CharWidth is the character width, which determines the spacing of
the characters.
A command may be in one of the following forms:
•
•
•
•
m x y.
d x y.
mr dx dy.
dr dx dy.
A command that begins with an m is a move command. A command that begins with a d is a
draw command. Commands mr and dr are relative move and relative draw commands. The x
and y are the absolute coordinates within the character cell. The dx and dy are the relative coordinates with respect to the previous location (increments from the position attained by the previous command). All coordinates are specified as integers. Figure 31-5 shows an example of a
character cell and the commands used to define the lowercase letter ‘‘y.’’ The height of the
character cell is 48.
Figure 31-6 shows a symbol being defined. Symbols should be centered about (0, 0) so that
they are centered about the point they mark. The font file included with Tecplot contains many
User-Defined font stroke commands. Most of these are for creating extra plotting symbols,
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31.5. Defining Custom Characters and Symbols
Char
Index
Num C
om m
ands
Char
Width
Creating a Letter
Draw
and
Move
Commands
121 6 24
m 4 23
d 12 1
m 4 -9
d 6 -9
y
0
d 9 -7
d 20 23
0
Character Cell
Figure 31-5. Defining
a user-defined character.
accessible when you use the Symbol Type “Other,” enter an ASCII character, and specify the
User-Defined font.
Char
Index
Num C
om m
ands
Char
Width
Creating a Symbol
0
75 6 48
Symbol is centered
about (0,0)
Move
m 0 12
d -7 -12
and
d 9 2
Draw
d -9 2
Commands
d 7 -12
d 0 12
0
Character/Symbol Cell
Figure 31-6. Defining
a user-defined plotting symbol.
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Chapter 31. Customizing Tecplot
31.6. Configuring the Location of the "tecplot.phy" File
Whenever Tecplot starts, it tries to load a tecplot.phy file. This file contains information
useful for running macros in batch mode (see Chapter 29, “Batch Processing,” for more information) and also the name of the last layout file used in Tecplot. Whenever Tecplot exits, it
writes out a new tecplot.phy file.
The place Tecplot looks for the tecplot.phy file is based on the following search:
1.
Tecplot checks the environment variable TECPHYFILE. If this variable is set, Tecplot uses
the value of this variable as the name of the tecplot.phy file. By default, this variable
is not set. You can set this environment variable to control the location and name of the
tecplot.phy file on a user-by-user basis.
2.
(Windows Only) Tecplot checks the Windows registry for the key
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Amtec Engineering, Inc.\Tecplot
9.0. If the value PhyFile is set under this key, then it is used as the name of the
tecplot.phy file. This value is set by the installation program. You can use the command regedit from the Start Menu's Run option to edit the registry if you want to change
or delete this key.
3.
Tecplot uses the file called tecplot.phy in the directory where Tecplot is started. Note
that this is the default behavior under UNIX.
Thus, using the default installation, Windows versions of Tecplot will write a tecplot.phy
to one specific location (usually the Tecplot home directory), and UNIX versions will always
use a tecplot.phy file in the directory where Tecplot is started.
The Windows version can be made to act like the UNIX version by deleting the value
PhyFile from HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Amtec Engineering,
Inc.\Tecplot 9.0 in the Windows registry with regedit.
Under both Windows and UNIX, the environment variable TECPHYFILE can be set to override this behavior.
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CHAPTER 32
Tecplot Add-Ons
Add-ons are a way to extend the basic functionality of Tecplot. They are executable modules
designed to perform specific tasks. Amtec has produced a number of add-ons that load data in
a variety of formats, allow advanced editing, or extend Tecplot’s capabilities. By using the
Tecplot Add-on Developer’s Kit (ADK), users can create their own add-ons to generate plots,
transform or analyze data, or perform a broad range of specialized tasks.
32.1. Using Add-Ons
Add-ons are external programs that attach themselves to Tecplot and are accessed through the
Tecplot interface. When Tecplot is started, it goes through various initialization phases, including the processing of the tecplot.cfg file, the loading of the Tecplot stroke font file (tecplot.fnt) and the initialization of the graphics. After all of this has been completed, Tecplot
begins to look for add-ons.
A number of the add-ons currently used by Tecplot are data file loaders or converters, which
allow users to read non-Tecplot data files. These are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
loadplot3d: A PLOT3D data loader.
loadxls: An Excel file loader.
loadss: A speadsheet file data loader.
loadgridgen: A GridGen file data loader.
loaddxf: A Data eXchange Format (DFX) data loader.
loadhdf: A Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data loader.
loaddem: A Digital Elevation Map (DEM) data loader.
loadimg: An add-on that loads bitmaps as a group of geometries.
loadcgns: A CFD General Notation System (CGNS) data loader.
loadfluent: A Fluent Version 5 data loader for .cas and .dat files.
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Chapter 32. Tecplot Add-Ons
These show up under the File drop-down under the Import option. The primary difference
between loaders and converters are that loaders bring up more complex dialogs than do converters, which only bring up dialogs based on Tecplot’s standard Load Data File(s) option.
Tecplot also uses add-ons for extended curve-fits with XY-plots. They may be accessed by
selecting the Curve Type’s Extended option, located on the Curve Attributes dialog.
Curve-fit add-ons include:
• crvstineinterp: A curve-fit using Stineman interpolation.
• crvgen: A curve fit where users define the equation.
Other add-ons may be accessed through the Tools drop-down on Tecplot’s menu bar. They
include:
• advqet: This calls up the Advanced Quick Edit dialog.
• crsfez: Allows extractions from finite-element sub-zones.
• cstream: Circle stream (this allows users to place a rake of streamtraces in a circular pattern).
• statechange: View all Tecplot state change information (used primarily for add-on development).
• viewbin: Binary data file viewer.
To use these add-ons, you may edit the tecplot.add file (located in the TEC90HOME directory), uncommenting the appropriate lines. For example, to use the advqet add-on, find the line
which reads #$!LoadAddOn "advqet" in the tecplot.add file, remove the # sign,
then save your changes. When you start Tecplot again, Advanced Quick Edit Tool will be an
option under the Tools menu.
Finally, there are a number of add-ons related to Amtec’s ADK (Add-on Developer’s Kit). This
consists of one add-on, GuiBuild, or Tecplot GUI Builder, along with several samples.
These samples are add-ons which do not load automatically when you first install Tecplot.
If you want to build your own add-ons, you should refer to ADK documentation in the
<tecplot-home-dir>/adk/doc. If this is not present, you may install the ADK by
running the Tecplot installation program again, selecting to include the ADK during the installation.
32.1.1. Loading Add-Ons
You can customize lists of add-ons to be loaded by different Tecplot users in your network, or
by a single user starting Tecplot with different commands.
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32.1. Using Add-Ons
32.1.1.1. Add-Ons Loaded by All Users. In a normal installation of Tecplot, the add-ons
you want loaded by all users of Tecplot are named in an add-on load file called tecplot.add, located in the Tecplot home directory. The only command allowed in a tecplot.add file is the $!LoadAddOn command. The following is an example of a typical
tecplot.add file:
#!MC 900
$!LoadAddOn "cfdtool"
$!LoadAddOn "streamtool"
32.1.1.2. Specifying a Secondary Add-On Load File. You may also instruct Tecplot to
load a different list of add-ons by naming a second add-on load file using one of the following
methods:
• Include -addonfile addonfilename on the command line.
or
• Set the environment variable TECADDONFILE.
Both of these methods tell Tecplot the name of another add-on load file to process.
32.1.1.3. Specifying Add-Ons on the Command Line. You can also instruct Tecplot to
load a particular add-on via the command line. The following flags are available:
-loadaddon libname
or
-loadaxaddon activeXname
where
libname
The full name (including path and extension) of a V7Standard add-on
(the only choice in UNIX).
activeXname
The name of an ActiveX style add-on. (The supplier of the add-on will tell
you what type it is.)
You may specify the -loadaddon or -loadaxaddon flag as many times as you want on
the command line.
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Chapter 32. Tecplot Add-Ons
If your add-on is named with the proper suffix for your platform (.dll for Windows, .sl for
HP-UNIX, and .so for all other UNIX platforms) you can simply name the add-on on the
command line without using the -loadaddon flag.
After add-ons are loaded, Tecplot re-processes all command line arguments not processed
earlier (for graphics and add-on initialization). This ordering allows for a data reader add-on
(discussed later) to be used to load data specified on the command line.
32.1.2. Using the $!LoadAddOn Command
The tecplot.add file is a special macro file that is executed at startup time and contains
one or more $!LoadAddOn commands to load add-ons into Tecplot. $!LoadAddOn is, in
fact, the only macro command allowed in a tecplot.add file. The syntax for the
$!LoadAddOn command is:
$!LoadAddOn "libname"
AddOnStyle = addonstyle
where
libname
The name of the shared object library file (see below). This must be in
quotes.
addonstyle
The add-on style. This can be either V7Standard or V7ActiveX.
V7Standard is the default.
Special rules govern how libname name is specified. In all cases the filename extension is
omitted. If you assign libname to just the base name of the shared object library, then Tecplot
will do the following:
• UNIX: The shared library to load will come from the file specified by:
- Tecplot-Home-Directory/lib/lib+basename+platform-specific-extension
where platform-specific-extension is .sl for HP platforms and .so for all others.
• Windows: If the add-on is of type V7Standard and just the base name is supplied, the
add-on basename.dll will be searched for in the following directories (in this order):
- The directory where the Tecplot executable resides.
- The Windows system directories.
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32.1. Using Add-Ons
- The directories in your PATH environment variable.
If an absolute path name is used in libname, then in Windows, .dll is appended and in UNIX
.so or .sl is appended.
On Windows using V7ActiveX style add-on libraries, Tecplot connects to the add-on via the
libname entry in the registry.
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Chapter 32. Tecplot Add-Ons
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A.1. Tecplot Command Line
APPENDIX A
Tecplot Command
Line Options
A.1. Tecplot Command Line
The general form of the Tecplot command line is:
tecplot [options] [layoutfile] [datafiles] [macrofile]
where options is one or more of the following:
-addonfile filename
Load add-ons listed in filename.
-b
Run Tecplot in batch mode (-p option is also required).
-c cfgfile
Use cfgfile for the configuration set up instead of the default
configuration file.
-d or -display computername
Displays Tecplot on computer computername (UNIX only).
The computer, computername, must have X-server capability
with the GLX extension.
-datasetreader readername
Instruct Tecplot to use the data set reader readername when
loading data files specified on the command line. See Section
A.7, “Specifying Data Set Readers on the Command Line,”
for details.
-debug dbugfile
Send debug information to the file dbugfile. Information is
displayed to aid in debugging a new Tecplot configuration
file, macro file, or binary data file. You may specify the minus
sign (“-”) for dbugfile to send the debug output to the “standard output.”
-demo
Run Tecplot in demo mode (only reads demo files).
-develop
Launch Tecplot in a mode used to develop add-ons (UNIX
only).
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Appendix A. Tecplot Command Line Options
-f fontfile
Use fontfile for the font file instead of the default font file
tecplot.fnt.
-h homedir
Use homedir for the Tecplot home directory instead of the
default home directory or the directory stored in the operating
system environment variable TEC90HOME. (See the Tecplot
Installation Notes.)
-loadaddon "addonname"
Load add-on addonname.
-loadaxaddon "axaddonname"
Load Active-X add-on axaddonname (Windows only).
-m cmapfile
Select initial color map file to load.
-n
List node information (UNIX only).
-nostdaddons
Do not load add-ons in tecplot.add.
-p macfile
Play the macro in the file macfile. Note that if your macro file
has an .mcr extension you do not need to use -p.
-q
Use quick playback mode. Ignores delay and pause commands.
-qm quickpanelfile
Load macro functions for the Quick Macro Panel from quickpanelfile instead of the default file tecplot.mcr.
-r prtfile
Set the default file name for routing Print Files to prtfile. This
name can be reassigned interactively while running Tecplot.
-s stylfile
Use stylfile as a stylesheet for the first Tecplot frame.
-showpanel
Show the Quick Macro Panel immediately when Tecplot
starts up.
-v
Print version number of Tecplot.
-x
Run Tecplot full screen.
-y exportfile
Same as -r except for exported files.
In the command line, data files is one or more data files. These files are assigned to the first
data set. You can also give the name of a layout file (typically having a “.lay” extension).
Tecplot processes the layout immediately upon starting up. If both a layout file and data files
appear on the command line, Tecplot substitutes the data files from the command line for the
data files referenced in the layout file. When you read in a layout package file (“.lpk”) you
will not get this behavior.
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A.2. Using the Command Line in Windows
A.2. Using the Command Line in Windows
Most of the Tecplot command line options are available in Windows. To use them, you should
start Tecplot from the Run command. In Windows the Run command is launched from the
Start button. Under Windows you may also use the command line from the DOS prompt
(known in Windows NT and Windows 2000 as the command prompt).
A.3. Using Command Line Options in Windows
Shortcuts
All of the command line options that can be entered at the DOS or Command prompt by using
the Run command can also be used in a Windows shortcut.
A.3.1. Creating Shortcuts
If you frequently run Tecplot using the same command line flags, it may be useful to create a
shortcut on your Windows desktop that launches Tecplot with the desired command line flags.
Here’s how this can be done:
1.
Right click in any blank space on your Windows desktop. A drop-down menu will appear.
2.
Select New.
3.
Select Shortcut from the next drop-down menu that appears.
4.
The “Create Shortcut” dialog will appear (Figure A-1).
Figure A-1. The
Create Shortcut dialog in Windows.
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Appendix A. Tecplot Command Line Options
Type the location of the Tecplot executable, along with any command flags you want to specify. You can also click Browse if you are not sure where Tecplot is located. An example
command line is:
C:\TEC90\BIN\Tecplot.exe -p C:\TEC90\mymacro.mcr
5.
Click Next.
6.
Select a name for your shortcut, then click on Finish. An example name would be:
Run my Macro
A new shortcut icon will be placed on your Windows desktop. To run Tecplot using the
command line options you specified, simply double-click on the new shortcut icon.
A.3.2. Changing Shortcuts
You can alter an existing shortcut by doing the following:
1.
Right-click on the shortcut icon you want to change.
2.
Select Properties from the drop-down menu.
3.
On the Shortcut page (Figure A-2), modify the command line by changing the setting for
Target. To change the working directory that Tecplot runs under, change the Start in location.
Figure A-2. The
566
Shortcut page in Windows.
A.4. Additional Command Line Options in Motif
A.4. Additional Command Line Options in Motif
Under UNIX, you can use additional command line flags which are passed to the window manager to control how the application window is displayed. These include -geometry (for
specifying the location and position of the application window), -fg and -bg (for specifying
foreground and background window colors), and others. See the X11 reference for your system
for complete details on these options.
A.5. Overriding the Data Sets in Layouts by Using "+" on
the Command Line
This section describes how to load an alternate data set into a layout using the command line. A
method for overriding the layout data set interactively, in the Open Layout dialog, is described
in Section 5.1.2, “Loading Data from Other Software Packages.”
When loading a layout from the command line, you may override the data files used in that
layout by specifying them on the command line after the layout file name. For example:
tecplot amt.lay t4.plt
This loads the amt.lay layout with the t4.plt data file instead of the data file specified in
amt.lay.
If amt.lay had more than one data set associated with it, t4.plt would replace the first
data set. If you wanted to replace multiple data sets, specify each file on the command line like
so:
tecplot amt.lay t4-1.plt t4-2.plt t4-3.plt
This will use t4-1.plt as the first data set, t4-2.plt as the second, etc.
If amt.lay's first data set had more than one data file associated with it, t4-1.plt would
replace all data files in the first data set. If you wanted to specify more than one data file for the
data set, you can use the + to specify they are all part of the first data set like so:
tecplot amt.lay t4-1.plt+t4-2.plt+t4-3.plt
In this case, t4-1.plt, t4-2.plt, and t4-3.plt are all combined into one data set that
replaces the first data set of amt.lay.
You can combine both multiple data sets and multiple files per data set like so:
tecplot amt.lay ds1a.plt+ds1b.plt ds2.plt ds3a.plt+ds3b.plt
567
Appendix A. Tecplot Command Line Options
In this case, the files ds1a.plt and ds1b.plt are combined and replace the first data set,
ds2.plt replaces the second data set, and ds3a.plt and ds3b.plt are combined to
replace the third data set in amt.lay.
If you do not know which data set to substitute in your layout, look at the top of the layout file.
It will look something like this:
#!MC 900
$!VarSet |LFDSFN1| = ’temp.plt’
$!VarSet |LFDSFN2| = ’chem.plt’
$!VarSet |LFDSFN3| = ’pos.plt’
So you can, for example, replace chem.plt with chem1.plt and chem2.plt using the
following command line:
tecplot amt.lay temp.plt chem1.plt+chem2.plt pos.plt
A.6. Tecplot Command Line Examples
To run Tecplot without pre-loading any data files, use:
tecplot
To run Tecplot loading the data file ex1.plt as the first data set, use:
tecplot ex1.plt
To run Tecplot loading the data files ex1.plt, ex2.plt, and ex3.plt as the first data set,
use:
tecplot ex1.plt ex2.plt ex3.plt
To run Tecplot using /usr/myhome as the Tecplot home directory and loading the Tecplot
configuration file /usr/myhome/myset.cfg, use:
tecplot -h /usr/myhome -c /usr/myhome/myset.cfg
To read a Tecplot layout file sumtr1.lay, you would use:
tecplot sumtr1.lay
To read a Tecplot layout file calc.lay and replace the first data set referenced in the layout
file with the data file temp.plt, you would use:
568
A.7. Specifying Data Set Readers on the Command Line
tecplot calc.lay temp.plt
For example, suppose the layout file t.lay has two frames. The two frames reference different data sets. Suppose you want to start Tecplot, load this layout file, and have frame one use
the data set defined in a.plt and have frame two use the data set defined by loading in
b.plt and c.plt together. You can do this with the following command:
tecplot t.lay a.plt b.plt+c.plt
In UNIX, to determine the path or alias that the tecplot command calls, you would use:
which tecplot
A.7. Specifying Data Set Readers on the Command Line
Special care should be taken when using the -datasetreader option on the command line.
The following rules apply if -datasetreader is used:
1.
The -datasetreader flag must be followed by the data set reader name and then
immediately followed by a space separated list of commands to be passed on to the data set
reader. No further Tecplot options are allowed after this point.
2.
The data set reader name must be placed in quotes if it contains spaces.
3.
Only one data set reader can be specified on the command line.
4.
If a layout file is also specified (prior to -datasetreader) then you can only override
the first data set load instructions referenced in the layout file.
Following is an example:
Suppose you have a layout file (mylayout.lay) that uses the PLOT3D loader. To launch
Tecplot via the command line and override the PLOT3D load instructions use:
tecplot mylayout.lay -datasetreader "plot3d loader" -ISET 1,,5 -b -3DW -GF
blunt.g
Everything from the -ISET parameter and following are instructions to be sent to the
PLOT3D loader. Note that the instructions themselves are not entirely contained within any
quotes. If your data reader requires instructions that themselves contain spaces then you must
surround those instructions with quotes.
569
Appendix A. Tecplot Command Line Options
570
B.1. Framer
APPENDIX B
Utility Command Line
Options
B.1. Framer
To launch Framer at a command line (shell prompt, Run command, and so forth), use the following command:
framer [options] [rmfile]
where [rmfile] is the name of a file containing Raster Metafile bitmaps created by Tecplot, and
[options] is one or more of the following:
-b [nf]
Use buffered mode. Framer reads nf frames into memory and
displays only those frames. Frames not read are not displayed.
This mode displays images much faster, but requires extra memory. If nf is not specified, Framer reads as many frames as possible up to the total limit on frames (see -max parameter).
-c nc
Use no more than nc colors (X-Windows only). On some
machines, you may need to use “-c 128” to allow two copies
of Framer to run at the same time.
-cycle nn
Start Framer in “cycle” mode (as if C were pressed), and continue for nn complete cycles (unless interrupted by user input),
and then exit.
-d dfile
Send debug information to dfile. Use “-d2,” “-d3,” “-d4,”,
etc., for more detailed debug information.
-f start,end,skip
Display frames starting with frame number start and ending
with frame number end, skipping by skip frames.
-g
Use gray scale for image instead of color.
-help
Print help information.
571
Appendix B. Utility Command Line Options
-loop nn
Start Framer in “loop” mode (as if L were pressed), and continue for nn complete loops (unless interrupted by user input),
and then exit.
-m
Allow for multiple color maps. Without this flag, Framer
assumes the first color map in the Raster Metafile is valid for all
images in that file.
-max nn
Specify upper limit on total number of images in the Raster
Metafile. The default value is 512.
-noinfo
Do not print initial copyright notice, help info, or count of buffered frames.
-p ms
Pause at least ms milliseconds between each frame. This does
not affect the rate of the single frame keys (+ and -).
-w wc
Width correction. (Use “-w -1” for Tecplot Version 4 images.)
-x
Run full screen.
If you do not specify a file name, Framer prompts you for one. You can choose to set buffering
(equivalent to the -b flag) and/or multiple color maps (equivalent to the -m flag).
While Framer is running, you can press the following keys to control it:
B
Move backward through frames (or left mouse button).
C
Cycle forward and backward through frames.
F
Move forward through frames (or middle mouse button on a three-button
mouse or right mouse button on a two button mouse).
L
Loop repeatedly forward through frames.
Q
Quit Framer (or right mouse button on three button mouse) or Escape key.
S
Stop cycling or looping (or spacebar).
R
Redraw the current frame.
1
Move to the first frame.
+
Move forward one frame.
-
Move backward one frame.
<
Increase the minimum delay between frames by 50 milliseconds. This
decreases the speed at which frames are displayed.
>
Decrease the minimum delay between frames by 50 milliseconds. This
increases the speed at which frames are displayed.
Under Windows, these Framer commands are also available from the Go and Step menus.
572
B.2. LPKView
B.2. LPKView
Following is a description of the utility’s syntax. Brackets ([]) surround optional parameters
and the vertical bar (|) separates one mutually exclusive set of options from another:
lpkview [[-t] | [-ild] | [[-c <preview command>] -p]] filename
where the options are described as follows:
-t
Show table of contents.
-i
Extract image (for example, a Portable Network Graphics or .png format).
-l
Extract layout.
-d
Extract data.
-c
(UNIX only) Specify preview command.
-p
(UNIX only) Preview image.
Option -t may not be used with any other options and options -i, -l, and -d may not be
used with options -c and -p. If no command line options are specified -i, -l, and -d are
assumed by default.
Note: Under UNIX, if the -p option is specified without specifying a preview command, -c,
the following default preview command is used:
$MOZILLA_HOME/netscape -remote "OpenURL(%s)"
where %s is substituted by lpkview with the file name of the temporarily extracted preview
image. The default command assumes that the environment variable $MOZILLA_HOME is set,
Netscape is installed under $MOZILLA_HOME, and that lpkview has been added to
Netscape as a helper application.
To add lpkview as a helper application bring up Netscape’s Preferences dialog. This is
usually accomplished by selecting Preferences from Netscape’s Edit menu. Within the Preferences dialog locate and select the Applications page. Within the Applications page select New
and add lpkview as a new helper application by entering the following information:
Description:
<optionally leave this blank>
MIMEType:
application/x-tecplot-lpk
Suffixes:
lpk
Handled By:
<select "Application">
Application: $TEC90HOME/bin/lpkview -p %s
573
Appendix B. Utility Command Line Options
Assuming that you have correctly set the $TEC90HOME environment variable, if you browse
with Netscape and click on a layout package file, it will run lpkview as a helper application
and display the preview image in your browser.
If you choose to specify your own preview command, there are several requirements:
• The path to the preview command must be fully specified.
• If relative, it must be located in one of the directories specified in your $PATH environment
variable
• The command must contain a %s that can be substituted by lpkview with the file name of
the temporarily extracted preview image.
For example, if you wanted the preview command to be the UNIX file utility. Then, running
the following command:
lpkview -c "file %s" -p myplot.lpk
might produce the following output:
/var/tmp/aaaa005L7:
data
Where file /var/tmp/aaaa005L7 is the temporarily extracted preview image. The temporary file is removed as soon as the preview command completes.
B.3. Preplot
The following options are used with standard Tecplot data files:
-d
Turn on debug echo. Use -d2, -d3, -d4 for more detailed debug information.
-r
Reverse the bytes of the output binary data file (generally not required).
-iset [zone], [start], [end], [skip]
Create the binary data file using only the specified range and skipping for the
I-index. The arguments are optional, but the commas are not. The zone parameter specifies which zone this option affects; if not specified, all zones are
affected. The start parameter is the starting I-index; the default is one. The end
parameter is the ending I-index; the default is the last index value. The skip
parameter specifies the I-interval, that is, the distance between indices; one
means every index is used, two means every other index, and so on.
For example, -iset 1, 3, 7, 2 indicates that for zone 1 only I-index values of 3, 5, and 7 are used. Only one -iset option is allowed per zone.
-jset [zone], [start], [end], [skip]
Same as -iset above, except with respect to the J-index.
574
B.4. Raster Metafile to AVI (rmtoavi)
-kset [zone], [start], [end], [skip]
Same as -iset above, except with respect to the K-index.
-zonelist start[:end[:skip]], ...
Specify the zones to process. You may supply more than one specification. By
default Preplot processes all zones.
The following options are used with PLOT3D data files:
-d
Turn on debug echo. Use -d2, -d3, -d4 for more detailed debug information.
-r
Reverse the bytes of the output binary data file (generally not required).
-plot3d
Input file is in PLOT3D format. This flag is required for PLOT3D data.
-b
Input file is binary.
-f
Input file is binary-FORTRAN, that is, there are record markers.
-foreign
Reverse bytes of input file.
-function
The .q file is a .f file.
-functionandq
There are both .f and .q files present.
-gridonly
Read grid variables only.
-i
Input file includes PLOT3D IBLANK variable.
-m
Input file is multi-grid (usually more than one grid block).
-ip ilist
Extract planes of constant i for all i in ilist. (Requires 3-D whole data.)
-jp jlist
Extract planes of constant j for all j in jlist. (Requires 3-D whole data.)
-kp klist
Extract planes of constant k for all k in klist. (Requires 3-D whole data.)
-1d
Input PLOT3D file is 1-D.
-2d
Input PLOT3D file is 2-D.
-3dp
Input PLOT3D file is 3-D planar.
-3dw
Input PLOT3D file is 3-D whole.
B.4. Raster Metafile to AVI (rmtoavi)
The rmtoavi utility will convert a Raster Metafile animation to an AVI animation. The following is a description of the utility’s syntax. Brackets ([]) surround optional parameters.
Options must be specified separately.
rmtoavi [options] filename[.rm] [outputfilename]
575
Appendix B. Utility Command Line Options
Filename is the name of the Raster Metafile to convert. Only one file name may be specified.
The input file must end with the.rm extension.
The [outputfilename] is the name of the converted output AVI file. If the output file name is not
specified, the input file name is used with an.avi extension. If any of the file names contain
spaces, they must be enclosed in quotes.
For example, the command rmtoavi test.rm will create the file test.avi. If the output
file exists, rmtoavi will prompt to overwrite it unless the -y option is used (see below).
The [options] are described as follows
576
-help
Prints help information.
-q
Suppress startup banner and information message.
-y
Suppress query to overwrite an existing AVI file.
-d [nn]
Progress indicator. This prints a dot (.) every [nn]
frames processed. If [nn] is not specified, it defaults to
ten.
-m
Use multiple color palettes in the converted AVI file.
Each frame of an AVI or Raster Metafile animation is limited to 256 colors. AVI animations can use either one set
of 256 colors for the entire animation or a separate set of
256 colors for each frame. If you use the -m option, then
each frame of the output AVI file will use a separate set of
256 colors. Since color information is read from the input
Raster Metafile, this option only affects the output AVI
animation if the Raster Metafile was originally exported
using multiple color palettes.
-speed nn
Sets the speed of the output AVI file to nn frames per second. The default is ten.
C.1. Extended Mouse Operations
APPENDIX C
Mouse and Keyboard
Operations
C.1. Extended Mouse Operations
The middle and right mouse buttons are powerful tools you may use to immediately zoom and
translate your data without having to switch to the Zoom or Translate tools on the sidebar. This
advanced mouse/keyboard functionality is available when using any 3D rotate, Contour,
Geometry (except Polyline), Probe, Slice, Streamtrace Placement, Translate, Zoom, or Zone
Creation tools. If you have a two button mouse use the Ctrl key in conjunction with the right
mouse button to achieve middle mouse button capabilities.
The following table lists all of the capabilities of the middle and right mouse buttons.
Action
Middle Button/Ctrl-Right Button
Right Button
Click
Redraw. If the pointer is in the current
frame then the current frame is redrawn.
Otherwise, redraw all frames.a
Switch from the current tool to the
Selector.b
Drag
Smoothly zoom in or out. An upward
motion zooms out. A downward motion
zooms in.
Translate.
Alt-Drag
In 3D frame mode, move the viewer further from (upward motion) or closer to
(downward motion) the object. In all
other frame modes, this behaves like the
Drag action
Same as the Drag action.
a. This is the default action for a click. It may be configured with the
$!INTERFACE MOUSEMIDDLEBUTTONMODE command.
b. This is the default action for a click. It may be configured with the
$!INTERFACE MOUSERIGHTBUTTONMODE command.
577
Appendix C. Mouse and Keyboard Operations
C.2. Mouse Tool Operations
The following tables contain all mouse/keyboard operations you may use with the various sidebar tools. All mouse button operations utilize the left button.
3D Rotate tools:
Drag
Rotate about the defined rotation origin with your current Rotate tool.
Alt-Drag
Rotate about the viewer position using your current Rotate tool.
C
Move rotation origin to probed point, ignoring zones.
O
Move rotation origin to probed point of data.
R
Rollerball rotation.
S
Spherical rotation.
T
Twist rotation.
X
X-axis rotation.
Y
Y-axis rotation.
Z
Z-axis rotation.
Contour Add tool:
Alt-Click
Place a contour line by probing on a streamtrace, slice, or iso-surface.
Click
Place a contour line.
Ctrl-Click
Replace the nearest contour line with a new line.
Drag
Move the new contour line.
-
Switch to the Contour Remove tool.
Contour Remove tool:
Click
Removes the contour line nearest to the probed location.
+
Switch to Contour Add tool if you are using Contour Remove.
Geometry Polyline tool:
578
A
Allow translation of polyline segments in all directions.
H
Restrict translation of current polyline segment to horizontal.
C.2. Mouse Tool Operations
U
Pen up, while drawing polyline.
V
Restrict translation of current polyline segment to vertical.
Probe tools.
Click
If the pointer is over a valid cell return the interpolated field
values from all nodes in the cell. If multiple cells are candidates then, for 2D frame mode the cell from the highest
number zone is used and for 3D frame mode the cell closest
to the viewer is used.
Ctrl-Click
If the pointer is over a valid cell return the field values from
the nearest node in the cell. If multiple cells are candidates
then, for 2D frame mode the cell from the highest number
zone is used and for 3D frame mode the cell closest to the
viewer is used. If the pointer is not over any cell then the
field values from nearest data point as measured in distance
on the screen are returned.
Shift-Ctrl-Click
Return the field values from the nearest point on the screen
ignoring surfaces and regardless of zone number or depth
of the point. This is useful in 3-D for probing on data points
that are on the back side of a closed surface without having
to rotate the object. In 2-D this is useful for probing on data
points for zones that may be underneath other zones
because of the order in which they were drawn.
Alt-Click
Same as Click except ignore zones while probing. (Probe
only on streamtraces, iso-surfaces, or slices.)
Alt-Ctrl-Click
Same as Ctrl-Click except ignore zones while probing.
(Probe only on streamtraces, iso-surfaces, or slices.)
Alt-Ctrl-Shift-Click
Same as Shift-Ctrl-Click except ignore zones while probing. (Probe only on streamtraces, iso-surfaces, or slices.)
Slice tools:
+
Turn on the start slice if no slices are active, or turn on
the end slice if slices are already active.
-
Turn off the end slice if the end slice is active, or turn
off the start slice if the end slice is not active.
Click
Place a start slice.
Drag
Move the start slice.
579
Appendix C. Mouse and Keyboard Operations
Alt-click/Alt-drag
Determine the XYZ-location by ignoring zones and
looking only at derived volume objects (streamtraces,
slices, iso-surfaces, slices).
Shift-click
Place the end slice.
Shift-drag
Move the end slice.
I, J, K (ordered
zones only)
Switch to slicing constant I-, J-, or K-planes respectively.
X, Y, Z
Switch to slicing constant X-, Y-, or Z-planes respectively.
0-9
Numbers one through nine activate intermediate slices
and set the number of intermediate slices to the number
entered; zero turns off intermediate slices.
Streamtrace Placement tools (3D Frame mode only):
D
Switch to streamrods.
R
Switch to streamribbons.
S
Switch to surface lines.
V
Switch to volume lines.
1-9
Change the number of streamtraces to be added when placing a rake of
streamtraces.
Translate/Magnify tool:
580
Drag
Translate the data.
Shift-Drag
Translate the paper.
-
If the drag was started with Shift, this will reduce the magnification
of the paper. Otherwise, this will reduce the magnification of the
data.
+
If the drag was started with Shift, this will increase the magnification
of the paper. Otherwise, this will increase the magnification of the
data.
- drag
Decrease magnification on the paper.
+ drag
Increase magnification on the paper.
C.3. Picked Object Options
Zoom tool:
Click
Center the zoom around the location of your click.
C.3. Picked Object Options
-
Reduce the size of the object. If multiple objects are selected,
all object positions will be shifted towards the first object
selected.
-
Increase the size of the object. If multiple objects are
selected, all object positions will be shifted away from the
first object selected.
Del
Delete picked object(s).
Ctrl-C
Copy picked object(s) to the clipboard.
Ctrl-V
Paste picked object(s) from the clipboard.
Ctrl-X
Cut picked object(s).
C.4. Other Keyboard Operations
Ctrl-A
Paste stored frame view to current frame.
Ctrl-C
Copy selected objects to paste buffer.
Ctrl-D
Redraw all frames.
Ctrl-F
Fit current image to full size.
Ctrl-L
Restore last frame view.
Ctrl-O
Open layout.
Ctrl-P
Print.
Ctrl-Q
Exit Tecplot.
Ctrl-R
Redraw the current frame.
Ctrl-S
Save current layout.
Ctrl-U
Call up the Publish dialog to control Web publishing.
Ctrl-W
Save current layout as a specified file.
581
Appendix C. Mouse and Keyboard Operations
582
List of Example Files
APPENDIX D
These files can be found in the TEC90HOME/demo/plt and TEC90HOME/examples/
dat directories. The file all.lay opens all .plt files in the TEC90HOME/demo/plt
directory. The contents of any .plt file can be converted to a human-readable ASCII format
by going to the File menu and selecting the Write Data File option. When writing out to an
ASCII file, point format is preferable.
File
.dat
.plt
XY
I
(Irregular)
X
X
IJ
(Surface)
3dfe
X
chem
X
circle
X
create
X
creatvol
X
cstream
X
X
cylinder
X
X
dataltr
X
2dfed
X
3dgeom
X
febrfeb
X
febrfep
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
fetetpt
X
X
feexchng
fetetra
X
X
X
X
FE
(Volume)
X
febrick
fetetbk
FE
(Surface)
X
X
exchng
IJK
(Volume)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
583
Appendix D. List of Example Files
fetetra2
X
X
fetriang
X
X
head
X
X
ijkcyl
X
X
ijkortho
X
X
jetflow
X
month
X
X
X
month2
X
X
X
movie
X
584
X
X
X
multzn
multzn2d
X
X
X
X
X
nozzle
X
X
polar2d
X
X
polar3d
X
position
X
X
X
rain
X
X
X
random
X
X
X
X
X
simp3dbk
X
X
simp3dpt
X
X
simpscat
X
simpxy
X
simpxy2
X
X
X
X
X
X
skirt
X
X
slice
X
smooth
X
spcship
X
triang
X
twodrot
X
X
velocity
X
X
xtemp
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
APPENDIX E
Glossary
The following terms are used throughout the Tecplot User’s Manual and are included here for
your information.
2-D
Plotting in two dimensions. Line plots of one or more variables (XY-plots) are not considered
2-D.
2-D Field Plot
A plot of some variable by location on a single plane using two axis. These plots are created
in 2D frame mode.
3-D
Plotting in three dimensions. Three-dimensional plotting can be subdivided into 3-D surface
and 3-D volume.
3-D Field Plot
A plot displaying a 3-D scattering of points, surfaces, or volumes using three axis. These plots
are created in 3D frame mode.
3-D Sorting
The process by which Tecplot determines which surface to plot first. The various cells are
sorted relative to the viewer and then plotted from farthest away to closest.
3-D Surface
Three-dimensional plotting confined to a surface. For example, the surface of a wing.
3-D Volume
Three-dimensional plotting of data that includes interior data points of a volume, as well as
those on the surface. For example, the vector field around a wing.
Active Zone
A zone that is activated in the Plot Attributes dialog.
585
Appendix E. Glossary
ASCII Data File
A data file composed of human-readable statements and numbers using ASCII characters.
Aspect Ratio
The ratio of lengths of the sides of an object. In 3D frame mode, the ratio is that of the longest
side to the shortest side.
Banded Contour Flooding
A field plot where the surface between contour lines is filled with a constant color.
Binary Data File
A data file composed of machine-readable data. This type of file is created by converting
ASCII data files with Preplot, or by directly creating them from an application.
Blanking
A feature of Tecplot that excludes certain cells and points from a plot. There are three types of
blanking: value-blanked, IJK-blanking, and depth-blanking.
Block
A data file format in which the data is listed by variable. All the point values of the first
variable are listed first, then all the point values of the second variable, and so forth.
Boundary
A 2- or 3-D field plot option. Plotting the boundary of a zone plots the connection of all outer
lines (IJ-ordered zones), finite-element surface zones, or planes (IJK-ordered zones).
Boundary Cell Faces
A set of un-blanked cell faces in a 3-D volume zone which have only one neighboring volume
cell. In contrast, interior cell faces have two neighboring volume cells, one on either side,
which share the face. For an IJK-ordered zone the boundary cell faces are on the exterior of
the zone. That is, the first and last I-planes, the first and last J-plans, and the first and last Kplanes. For a finite-element 3-D volume zone, boundary cell faces are on the exterior of the
zone and the surface of any voids within the zone.
Bounding Box of Data
The smallest rectangular box, aligned with the coordinate axes, which completely encloses all
data points.
Brick
An element type of finite-element volume data composed of eight node points arranged in a
hexahedron-like format. This element type is used in 3-D volume plotting.
Carpet Plot
A 3-D surface plot formed by a 3-D plot where the variable is plotted in the third dimension
and is singular-valued with respect to the independent variables.
586
Case Insensitive
Text that may be in upper- or lowercase letters.
Cell
Either an element of finite-element data, or the space contained by one increment of each
index of IJ- or IJK-ordered data.
Color Map
A color spectrum used to plot contour flooding and multi-colored objects.
Color Map File
A file that contains a description of a color map.
Connectivity List
The second portion of a finite-element data file where the relationships between points are
given to define elements. Cells of the appropriate element type are defined by listing the node
point indices. The number of node points per cell is determined by the element type.
Continuous Contour Flooding
A field plot where a color is assigned to each point in a mesh, based upon the contour variable
and the color map. Each face is filled with colors interpolated between the corner nodes. This
results in a smooth variation of color over the surface.
Contour
A field plot type that plots iso-valued lines, or color flooding based on the values of a
specified variable.
Curve Type
The function used to fit the data points in an XY-plot.
Custom Labels
Text strings contained within a data file or text geometry file which define labels for your
axes or contour table. You may select Custom Labels anywhere you can choose a number
format, the result is the text strings in place of numbers.
Cutaway Plot
A 3-D volume plot where a portion of a 3-D volume zone is cut-away by blanking to reveal
the interior.
Cutting Plane
A planar surface used to slice 3-D volume or surface zones.
Data File
A file that contains data used for plotting in Tecplot.
587
Appendix E. Glossary
Data Format
The type of zone data as specified by the format parameter in a Tecplot data file, such as:
BLOCK, POINT, FEBLOCK, or FEPOINT.
Data Loader
A Tecplot add-on which allows you to read non-Tecplot data files.
Data Point
An XYZ-point at which field variables are defined.
Data Set
A set of one or more zones. A data set may be plotted in one or more frames, however, a
single frame may only plot one data set. A data set may be created by loading one or more
data files.
Dependent
An axis mode requiring the axes to maintain a fixed ratio to one another.
Depth
For image export, the number of bits stored per pixel. For depth-blanking, the component of
distance from the viewer position in a screen normal coordinate system.
Depth-Blanking
A blanking option which excludes cells in a 3-D plot, based upon their depth into the image.
Cells closer than a plane of a certain depth, as well as cells further than a plane of another
depth, may be blanked.
Derived Volume Objects
Graphic objects which are visible in the plot and created from zone data, but are not zones.
Examples include iso-surfaces, 3-D slices, and streamtraces.
Display List
A group of OpenGL commands that have been stored for subsequent execution. Using display
lists can, depending upon the hardware involved, dramatically speed up graphics rendering.
Using display lists also requires more memory.
Draw Level
A draw behavior setting for modifying the image quality and rendering speed during various
operations, such as rotation. Options vary from Trace, a simplified wire-frame mesh which is
rendered quickly, to Full.
Element Type
The form of individual elements in a finite-element zone. There are four types: Triangle and
Quadrilateral (finite-element surface types), and Tetrahedron and Brick (finite-element
588
volume types). The element type of a zone determines the number of nodes per element and
their orientation within an element.
Exposed Cell Faces
The set of those cell faces in 3-D volume zones that have only one un-blanked neighboring
volume cell. By comparison, interior cell faces have two neighboring cells, one on either side,
which share the face. The exposed cell faces include boundary cell faces and interior cell
faces exposed by blanking. (One of the neighboring cells has been blanked.)
Extended Curve-Fit
A Tecplot add-on which extends Tecplot’s XY-plot curve-fitting capabilities.
Extra 3D Sorting
Perform extra work to resolve hidden surface problems encountered during 3-D sorting.
FE
An abbreviation for finite-element, a common means of arranging data for calculations.
(Often referred to as “unstructured.”)
FEBLOCK
A data file format for finite-element zones in which the node data is listed by variable. All the
node values of the first variables are listed first, then the node values of the second variable,
and so forth. This section is followed by a connectivity list.
Fence Plot
A plot of planes of a 3-D data field.
FEPOINT
A data file format for finite-element zones in which the node data is listed by point-by-point.
All the variable values of the first point are listed first, then the variable values of the second
point, and so forth. This section is followed by a connectivity list.
FE Surface
A finite-element zone of the element type Triangle or Quadrilateral. These zones are used for
2- and 3-D surface plots.
FE Volume
A finite-element zone of the element type Tetrahedron or Brick. These zones are used for 3-D
volume plots.
Field Layers
One way of displaying a 2- or 3-D frame’s data set. The plot is the sum of the active zone
layers, which may include mesh, contour, vector, shade, scatter and boundary.
589
Appendix E. Glossary
Field Plot
Generally used to display the spacial relationship of data. These plots are created in 2D or 3D
frame mode using any of the 2- or 3-D plotting options. Mesh, Contour, Vector, Scatter and
Shade are all considered field plots. XY and Sketch frame modes are not field plots.
File Path
An option which specifies the directory for Tecplot to search for a given type of file. For
instance, a linked layout saved with absolute file path contains the complete directory
structure to load the associated file.
Finite-Element
A type of data point ordering. Data is arranged by listing the data points (called nodes), and
then listing their relationships (called elements). The element type of the zone determines the
number of nodes which are contained in each element, as well as the exact relationship of
nodes within an element. There are four different element types supported by Tecplot:
triangle, quadrilateral, tetrahedron and brick.
Font Identifier
The initial character used to embed Greek, Math, or User-Defined characters in a text string.
Frame
Boxed areas within the workspace where sketches and plots are created.
Frame Mode
Determines the type of plot which is displayed in a frame. For example, 2D field plot, 3D field
plot, XY-plot, or Sketch plot.
Geometry
An arrangement of objects or parts that suggests geometric figures.
Grid Area
One or more rectangular regions defined and bounded by the grid axes.
Grid Axes
An axis option which displays the coordinates of the grid along the various spatial dimensions.
Gridline
A set of lines drawn from one or more axes that extend from the tick marks on an axis across
the grid area.
Grid Point
In 2-D, the intersection of gridlines.
590
I-Ordered
A type of data point ordering where each point is listed one at a time (that is, by one index).
Used mainly in XY-plots. In 2- or 3-D, this type of data point ordering is sometimes called
irregular, and is only useful for scatter plots, or for interpolating or triangulating into 2-D, 3-D
surface, or 3-D volume zones. (This type of data can also be used for 2- or 3-D vector plots if
streamtraces are not required.)
IJ-Ordered
A type of data point ordering where the points are arranged in a 2-D array. used for 2-D and
3-D surface plotting.
IJK-Blanking
A feature to include or exclude portions of an IJK-ordered zone based on index ranges.
IJK-Ordered
A type of data ordering where the points are arranged in a 3-D array. Used for 3-D volume
plotting as well as 2-D and 3-D surface plotting.
Image Format
Any of the raster or bit-mapped graphic formats supported by Tecplot.
Inactive Zone
A zone loaded into Tecplot which does not appear in the plot. A zone can be deactivated
using the Zone Show option on any page of the Plot Attributes dialog.
Independent
Axis mode allowing each axis to have a range that is not affected by the ranges of other axis
or axes.
Interpolate
To assign new values for the variables at data points in one zone based on the data point
values in another zone (or set of zones).
Internal Macro Variable
A read-only macro variable which allows you to access certain key values in Tecplot. For
example, $NUMVARS gives the number of variables.
I-Plane
In an ordered zone, the connected surface of all points with a constant I-index. In reality, Iplanes may be cylinders, spheres, or any other shape.
Irregular Data
Points which have no order, or at least no order which can be easily converted to IJ- or IJKordering.
591
Appendix E. Glossary
Iso-Surface
A surface within a 3-D zone where the contour variable has a constant value at all locations.
J-Plane
In an ordered zone, the connected surface of all points with a constant J-index. In reality, Jplanes may be cylinders, spheres, or any other shape.
K-Plane
In an IJK-ordered zone, the connected surface of all points with a constant K-index. In reality,
K-planes may be cylinders, spheres, or any other shape.
Layout File
A specialized macro file which preserves a plot created within Tecplot. When the layout is
opened, it restores Tecplot to the state it was in when the layout file was saved.
Layout Package File
A binary layout file with the data embedded.
Macro
A file containing a list of instructions, called macro commands, which can duplicate virtually
any action performed in Tecplot.
Macro Command
An instruction given to Tecplot in a macro file. Macro commands always start with a dollar
sign and then an exclamation mark. For example, $!Redraw refreshes a plot view.
Macro File
A file which contains a series of macro commands. Macro files are run from the command
line, or through the Run option of the Macro sub-menu of the File menu.
Macro Function
A self-contained macro sub-routine that can be called.
Macro Variable
A holding place for numeric values in a macro file. There are two types of macro variables:
user-defined (you set and retrieve the value), or internal (Tecplot sets the value and you may
retrieve it).
Median Axis
In 3-D, the grid axis which when scaled is not the shortest nor the longest axis.
Menu Bar
The top bar of the Tecplot screen used to select menu options.
Mesh
A 2- or 3-D field plot type which plots connections between data points.
592
Multi-Colored
Any Tecplot object which is colored by the value of the contouring variable. Multi-colored
objects may include mesh, scatter symbols, vectors, contour lines, and streamtraces.
Multi-Line Text
Text which spans two or more lines.
Node
A point in finite-element data.
Number Format
The style of numbers to display for a data or axis label; exponent, integer, float, and so forth.
OpenGL
A graphics library for high-end 3-D graphics. It usually takes advantage of hardware
acceleration for 3-D rendering.
Ordered Data
A type of data point organization which consists of a parameterized series of points. There are
seven types of ordered data: I-, J-, K-, IJ-, JK-, IK-, and IJK-ordered. I-, IJ-, and IJK-ordered
are the most common.
PLOT3D
A plotting package developed by NASA. Useful because the file format can be converted to a
Tecplot binary data file by Preplot.
Point
A data file format for an I-, IJ-, or IJK-ordered zone in which the data is listed by point. All of
the variable values for the first data point are listed first, then all the variable values for the
second data point, and so forth.
Precise Dot Grid
In 2-D, the points of intersection of the imaginary lines extending from the X- and Y-axes’
tick marks.
Preview Image
A display of your plot as it will appear when printed.
Primary Corner
The point in an ordered zone’s cell that has the minimum index values for that cell, or the first
listed node of a finite-element cell.
Print File
An output file which contains a description of the plot. (Used for making hard copies.)
593
Appendix E. Glossary
Print Format
The type of print output. For example. PostScript, HP-GL/2, and so forth.
Quadrilateral
An element type of finite-element surface data which is composed of four node points
arranged in a quadrilateral. Used in 2- and 3-D surface plotting.
Quick Macro Panel
A user-defined panel accessed from the Tool menu which allows quick access to your macro
functions.
Rake
A specified line from which two or more streamtraces are generated.
Ribbon
(See Streamribbon.)
Rod
(See Streamrod.)
Scatter
A 2- or 3-D field plot type which plots a symbol at each data point.
Shade Plot
A 2- or 3-D field plot type which plots solid color or colors with lighting effect over the cells
of the data.
Sidebar
The area to the left of the Tecplot workspace.
Sketch Plot
A plot which displays only text and geometries. These plots are in Sketch frame mode.
Slice
A set of data created by the intersection of a plane with 3-D zones.
Snap-to-Grid
Lock any object on the screen to the closest grid point. The position and size of the object will
be affected by changes to the grid.
Snap-to-Paper
Lock any object on the screen to the underlying paper. The position and size of the object will
not be affected by changes to the grid.
594
Sort
A measurement from one to two of the amount of work Tecplot should do to resolve hiddensurface problems during 3-D sorting. Selecting two will increase the time required for each
redraw and will generate messages about the number of cells with a potential conflict.
Step Size
The fraction of a cell over which Tecplot streamtraces are integrated. Step size in Tecplot is
variable, changing with the vector field and the size and aspect ratio of the cells.
Stream
An option of vector plots to plot particle traces through the vector field.
Stream Format
The current type of streamtraces being placed in Tecplot. For example, Surface Line, Volume
Line, Volume Ribbon, or Volume Rod.
Streamline
A 2- or 3-D line which is parallel to the vector filed along its entire length. For a steady state
vector field, this is the same as a simple particle trace which marks the path of a massless
particle in the vector field.
Streamribbon
A particle trace with a width which not only follows the flow field (its center being a regular
streamline), but which also twists with the vorticity of the vector field.
Streamrod
A particle trace with a polygonal cross-section and a width which not only follows the flow
field (its center being a regular streamline), but which also rotates with the vorticity of the
vector field.
Streamtrace
Any type of particle trace: streamlines, streamribbons, or streamrods.
Streamtrace Zone
Any streamtrace which has been extracted to form a new zone.
Stylesheet
A type of file which contains the definition of how the plot in a single frame is to be plotted.
The stylesheet does not contain any zone data but does contain information about views, axes
positions, zone attributes, and so forth.
Surface Line
A type of 3-D streamline which is confined to remain on a 3-D surface. Also used to refer to
2-D streamlines.
595
Appendix E. Glossary
Tetrahedron
An element type of finite-element surface data which is composed of four node points
arranged in a tetrahedron. (Used in 3-D volume plotting.)
Translucency
A property allowing you to see through an object to areas within or beyond it. In Tecplot you
may vary the amount of translucency, controlling the extent that an object closer to you
obscures one it overlays.
Triangle
An element type of finite-element surface data which is composed of three node points
arranged in a triangle. (Used in 2- and 3-D surface plotting.)
Unordered Data
(See Irregular Data.)
Value-Blanking
A feature of Tecplot used to trim or eliminate cells based on one or more user-defined
constraints for variable values.
Variable
One of the values defined at every data point in a Tecplot data set or data file.
Vector
A short line or arrow showing the direction and or the magnitude of vector qualities.
Volume Line
A type of 3-D streamline which is not confined to remain on a surface and may travel through
3-D volume data.
Volume Zone
Any zone that is IJK-ordered, finite-element tetrahedron, or finite-element brick.
Vorticity
The measurement of the tendency of a vector field to rotate about a point. (Also called
“curl.”)
Workspace
The portion of your screen where you can create Tecplot frames. This includes but is not
limited to the region covered by the displayed paper.
XY-Dependent
A 3-D axis mode where X and Y are fixed (dependent), but Z is free to vary in ratio
(independent).
596
XY-Map
A set of points from a single zone where one variable is assigned to an X-axis and another is
assigned to a Y-axis. You can define many XY-maps for an XY-plot.
XY Map Layer
One way of displaying an XY-map, such as with line, bars, symbols, and so forth. One XYmap may be displayed with one or more layers.
XY-Plot
Plots one variable assigned to one axis versus another variable assigned to another axis. Log
plots, bar charts, curve fitted lines are all examples of XY-plots. These plots are created with
XY frame mode.
Zone
A subset of a data set which is assigned certain plot types. Zones may be activated (plotted) or
deactivated (not plotted). Each zone has one type of data ordering: I-, IJ-, IJK-, or finiteelement. Zones are typically used to distinguish different portions of the data. For example,
different calculations, experimental versus theoretical results, different time steps, or different
types of objects, such as a wing surface versus a vector field around a wing.
597
Appendix E. Glossary
598
APPENDIX F
Limits of Tecplot
Version 9.0
The following hard limits apply to Tecplot Version 9.0.
Item
Limit
Maximum number of data points per variable
Over 2 billion
Maximum number of zones per data set
32,700
Maximum number of variables per data set
32,700
Maximum number of XY-mappings
32,700
Largest floating point absolute value
10150
Smallest non-zero floating point absolute value
10-150
Maximum number of picked objects
1500
Maximum number of data sets
128 (Limited by max.
number of frames)
Maximum number of frames
128
Maximum number of value blank constraints
8
Maximum number of geometries
limited by memory
Maximum number of polylines per line geometrya
50
Maximum number of points per circle or ellipse
720
Maximum number of custom label sets
10
Maximum number of custom labels per set
5000
Minimum frame width or height
0.1 inches
Maximum frame width
500 inches
599
Appendix F. Limits of Tecplot Version 9.0
Item
Limit
Maximum streamtraces per frame
5000
Maximum number of color map overrides
16
Maximum preview width for EPS files
1024
Maximum preview height for EPS files
1024
Maximum number of user-defined color map control points
9
Maximum number of raw user-defined color map entries
800
Maximum number of characters in variable name
64
Maximum number of characters in zone title
64
Maximum number of characters in data set title
256
Maximum number of views per view stack
16
a. A polyline is a continuous series of line segments, and can be a subset of a line
geometry.
The following soft limits may be changed via the Tecplot configuration file:
Number of:
Windows
UNIX
Hard Limit
Points per linea
3000
5000
500,000
Contour levels
150
400
5000
Characters per text label
1023
1023
10,000
a. Points per line is the limit on the number of points allowed in the following: line
segment geometries, stream termination lines, and contour lines. For line segment
geometries, this is the total number of points used in all polylines contained in the
geometry.
600
The following hard limits apply to plot style:
Item
Limit
Printing Gouraud shaded plots with continuous flooding
On screen or
exported bitmap
image only
Printing plots with translucency
On screen or
exported bitmap
image only
601
Appendix F. Limits of Tecplot Version 9.0
602
Index
Symbols
# in files 435
& 337
* in equations 425, 426
** in equations 426
+ in equations 424, 426
/ in equations 426
{ } in equations 423
Numerics
2-D data
circular zone creation 447
2D Draw Order option 212
2-D field plots
cell elimination 486
contour plot 227
element elimination 486
rotating 441
scatter plot 279
shade plots 293
value-blanking 486
vector plot 249
2D frame mode 13, 197
rectangular zones 445
shade plots 293
2-D frames
value-blanking 486
2-D plots
axis direction reverse 307
circular zone creation 447
creating 198
mesh field 221
2-D polar coordinates
rectangular, tranforming to 440
2D Rotate dialog 441
2D Rotate option 442
2D zone layers
see also Zone layers
3-D
axis limits 218
cylindrical zones 449
rotation 40
translating 215
zooming 215
3D Axis Limits option 212
3D Axis Reset option 218, 312
3D Depth Blanking option 495
3D Details dialog
3D Light Source dialog 8
3D View Details dialog 8
specify lift fractions 216
3D frame mode 13, 197
rectangular zones 446
shade plots 294
3D Iso-Surface Details dialog 379
3D Light Source Color dialog 7
3D Light Source dialog 8, 212, 300
Light Source Position 8
3D Light Source option 212
3-D lines
creating in geometries 68, 69
example of geometry record 69
geometry record 67, 69
3D Orientation Axis dialog 217
3D Orientation Axis option 212
3-D plots
axis limits 212
carpet 220
controlling 212
1
Index
creating 199, 201, 202
lift fractions 216
orientation axis 212
overlay mesh 222
Perform Extra 3D Sorting option 216
projection to a plane 453
reset axis 212
rotation 212, 214
sorting 216
vector plots 257, 258
3D Reset Axis option 212
3D Rotate dialog 40, 214
3D Rotate option 212, 214
3-D Rotation mouse modes 15
3D Slice Details dialog 5, 381
3-D spherical coordinates
rectangular, transforming to 441
3-D surface zones
three projections 453
3-D vectors
see Vector
3D View Details dialog 41, 212, 213, 217
3D Details dialog 8
3D View Details option 212
3-D volume data
analytic functions in iso-surface plots 390
analytic iso-surface plots 388
controlling volume mode IJK-ordered data 371
creating specialized plots 371
cutaway plots 494
extracting IJK-planes 377
extracting iso-surfaces 378
extracting outer surfaces of finite-element
volume zone 371
fence plots 388
finite-element 371
generating iso-surfaces 371
hidden line mesh 223
IJK-blanking 491
IJK-ordered data 53
interpolating irregular data 371, 376
overlay mesh 222
probing plots 473
slicing 2
slicing with a plane 371
wire frame mesh 222
zone probing 473
zones 491
3D zone layers
2
see also Zone layers
A
Absolute path 112, 113
Absolute value 429
data operations 427
Add Circle option 340
Add Circle tool 340
Add Contour Label tool 245
Add Ellipse option 340
Add Ellipse tool 340
Add Polyline option 339
Add Polyline tool 339
Add Rectangle option 340
Add Rectangle tool 340
Add Square option 340
Add Square tools 340
Add Streamtrace Termination Line tool 270
Add Text option 328
Addition
binary operator 426
Add-On Developer’s Kit 61, 122, 139, 143, 558
Add-Ons 557
$!LoadAddOn command 560
advqet 558
crsfez 558
Crvgen 558
Crvstineinterp 558
cstream 558
Loadcgns 557
Loaddem 557
Loaddxf 557
Loadfluent 557
Loadgridgen 557
Loadhdf 557
Loadimg 557
loading 558
Loadplot3d 557
Loadss 557
Loadxls 557
running 557
specifying on command line 559
statechange 558
Tecplot GUI Builder 558
viewbin 558
Adjustor mouse mode
editing data 483
Adjustor tool 15, 270, 308, 347
data editing 483
probing 482
ADK 558
Advanced 3D Control dialog 7, 212, 216
Perform Extra 3D Sorting option 216
Advanced 3D Control option 212, 216
Advanced Quick Edit add-on 558
Advqest add-on 558
Algorithms
fitting straight line to data 170
least-square 171
polynomials 171
Allow Data Point Adjustment option 469, 482
Alter menu
Specify Equations option 421
Alter option 419, 421, 442
Amtec
Technical Support 28
Analytic functions 444
iso-surface plots 390
Anchor option
for axis labeling 316
Anchor position
for text 333
Angles
2-D data rotation 442
polar to rectangular coordinate
transforming 440
rotating 3-D view 212
Animate Contour Levels dialog 520
Animate IJK-Blanking dialog 522
Animate IJK-Planes dialog 521
Animate option 517
Animate Streamtraces dialog 524
Animate XY-Mappings dialog 519
Animate Zones dialog 518
Animation 517
advanced techniques 527
animated sequence 524
append changes in Version 9 5
AVI file viewing 531
blanking 517, 518
contour levels 517, 520
Framer creation 531
Framer viewing of Raster Metafiles 531
frames, multiple 530
IJK-blanking 517, 518, 522
IJK-planes 517, 518, 521
image size alteration 527
I-planes sequence 524
legends 528
macro animation 526
macros 517
manual creation 517
movie files 525
planes 518
Raster Metafile conversion to AVI 575
Raster Metafile viewing with Framer 531
size 527
slice 518
still images 517
streamtraces 517, 518, 524
techniques 527
text 528
text changes 528
text changes with macros 529
tools 517
value-blanking 517
XY-mappings 517, 519
zones 517, 518
Approximated by Number of Sides option 345,
346
Arbitrary cutting planes 386
Arccosine
data operations 427
Arcsine
data operations 427
Arctangent
data operations 427
Arithmetic
operator precedence 426
Arrow keys
moving frames 31
positioning objects with 25
Arrowheads
angles 255
filled 253
geometry records 68
hollow 253
in polyline geometries 68
plain 253
polyline addition 344
polyline arrowhead controls 344
size 254
streamtraces 267
style 253
vector 252
ASCII characters
3
Index
ordinal values 331
stream markers 272
ASCII data files 95
ASCII files
BLOCK format description 108
example 62
POINT format description 108
writing in BLOCK format 108
writing in POINT format 108
ASCII fonts
scatter plots 286
ASCII format
symbol shapes 161
ASCII terminal
Tecplot execution 511
Aspect ratio 219
Assign XYZ option 199
Attach to Zone/Map option 335, 344
Attributes
assign by zone 203
Audio Visual Interleaved (AVI) files 406
Auto Edge Assignment option 323
Auto Redraw 13, 15
Auto Spacing option 165, 316
axis 316
AutoCAD DXF files
importing 126
AVI files 406
creating 412
image creation 412
Raster Metafile conversions 575
viewing 531
Axes
3D Axis Reset 312
3-D dependencies 307
3-D direction reverse 308
3-D limits 218
3-D orientation 299
3-D orientation axes 217
3-D reset 218
3-D, overriding automatic edge 322
assign to XY-mappings 149
box padding 311
change dependency 218
controls 303
custom labels 71
customizing in XY-plots 164
default assignments 62
dependency 307
4
dependent 353
display 304
edge assignment controls 322
editing 146, 164
ellipse axes modifying 346
field plot dependencies 307
grid 309
grid area 311
gridlines 310
in XY-plots 152, 164
labels 316
labels, custom 320
limits for 3-D plots 212
line color controls 322
line controls 321
line display controls 321
line thickness controls 322
log 165
minimum/maximum as variables 336
multiple X- and Y-axes 166
No Title option 323
number of tick marks 315
orientation for 3-D plots 212
position 308
positioning with Adjustor tool 308
positioning with Edit Axis dialog 308
precise dot grid 309
Probe 478
range for 2D or 3D 305
range for XY-plots 164
range modifying 305
ranges, linked 353
reset for 3-D plots 212
reversing direction 186, 307
scaling 218
showing and hiding tick marks 314
text label controls 323
tick mark and label spacing 316
tick mark direction 315
tick mark display 313
tick mark label format controls 318
tick mark label formats 317
tick mark labels 316
tick mark line length 314
tick mark thickness 315
tick marks and tick mark labels 313
title controls 323, 324
title offset controls 324
title position controls 325
Use Text option 324
Use Variable Name option 323
variable assignment 199, 305
variable assignment in mesh plots 199
XY-plot dependencies 307
Axis grid 309
controls 311
Axis menu 12, 303
Assign XYZ option 199
Edit option 164
Axis variables
assign to XY-mappings 149, 152
B
Background light 212
Bar Chart Attributes dialog
specify bar attributes 189
with XY-plots 146
XY-mappings 153
Bar charts
assigning error bars 184
creating 189
map layer 14, 189
pure 189
vertical or horizontal bars 189
with error bars 184
XY 145
Batch mode
Tecplot running 511
Batch processing 563
batch.log diagnostic file 514
BATCHLOGFILE 514
bitmap format limitations 511
command line option 563
data files 513
data set looping 513
data sets, multiple 513
diagnostics 514
layout files 512
limitations 513
looping inside Tecplot 513
looping inside Tecplot limitations 513
looping outside Tecplot 513
macro file creation 511
plot styles 512
printing 511
setup 511
stylesheet file use 514
Batch.log file
running batch mode 514
BATCHLOGFILE 514
Binary data file viewer add-on 558
Binary files 95
ASCII conversion 61
efficiency 61
writing 107, 108
Binary operators 426
equations 426
precedence 426
BIT data type
format registration 64
Bitmap files 120, 405
Raster Metafile 532
Bit-mapped image
raster 405
Black and white
color map, gray scale 236
Blanking 485
animation 517, 518
Boundary zone layer 485
cells 485
cutaway plot creation 494
cutaway plots 491
data 485
depth 485, 495
exterior domain 494
field plots 485
finite-element volume zones 299
IJK-blanking 485, 491
IJK-ordered data 485
IJK-ordered zones 299, 491, 495
IJK-ranges 493
IJK-zones 493
IJ-ordered data 485
interior domain 494
I-ordered zones 485
iso-surfaces 495
limitations 486
precise 486, 489
value-blanking 486
whole cell 486
XY-plots 496
zones 485
BLOCK format 202
description 108
example in FORTRAN with I-ordered data 77
example with IJK-ordered data 83
example with IJ-ordered data 80
5
Index
example with I-ordered data 77
examples 78
FORTRAN example with IJK-ordered data 83
FORTRAN example with IJ-ordered data 81
writing ASCII 108
BMP files 406
creating 412
image creation 412
Border Color option 311
Border Thickness option 311
Bottom error bars 185
Boundaries
boundary zone triangulation 459
displaying 225
finite-element 368
finite-element extraction 368
Simple boundary conditions 432
smoothing 467
specifying 225
zone boundary smoothing limitations 468
Boundary 432
Boundary Attributes dialog 225
Boundary conditions 432
creating 432
Boundary plot layer 225
Boundary plots 221
definition 221
Boundary zone layer 14, 197
blanking 485
Boxed text 335
Breakpoints
macros 506
Brick
FE-volume element type 55
Brick element type 85, 202
connectivity list 85
Brick polyhedral elements 361
FE-volume zones 355
Buttons 19
Close 19
Help 19, 27
Object Details 13
Option 19
Performance 13, 15
Plot Attributes 13
Quick Edit 13, 17
Redraw 13, 15
Redraw All 13, 15
Tools 13
6
BYTE data type 84
C
C
writing data to binary 61
Carpet
3-D surface plot 220
Carpet data format
in Excel Loader 130
CAS files
Loadfluent add-on 557
Cell-centered data
shifting 442
Cells
blanking 485
eliminating 486
finite-element 485
Hexahedral 485
labeling 210
precise blanking 486
Quadrilateral 485
viewing information 475
whole cell blanking 486
CGNS Data Loader 3
Loadcgns add-on 557
CGNS files 557
Characters
custom creation 350
customization 553
Check boxes 19
deselecting 24
selecting 24
Circle
example of geometry record 69
geometry record 67, 68, 69
symbol shape 160
Circle Stream add-on 558
Circles
controls 345
creation 340
selecting 340
Circular zones
creating 447
Clamped spline
fitting to data 175, 176
Clear
objects 46
Clear option 46
Close button 19
Color map
banded color distribution 241
choosing 236
color cutoff 242
command line file specifying 564
continuous color distribution 241
control point modification 238
control point movement 238
control point numbers 239
control points 238
copy to file 239
cycles 244
distribution methods 241
dynamic 336
file creation 239
file macro commands allowed 239
file specifying 564
file specifying on command line 564
files 120, 239
frame-specific options 236, 240
gray scale 236
Large Rainbow 236
Modern 236
number of cycles 240
paste from file 239
Raw User-Defined 237
Raw User-Defined modifying 239
reversing 240, 243
RGB value modification 238
RGB values 238
Small Rainbow 236
specifying 236
Two Color 237
User-Defined 237, 239
Wild 236
Color Map dialog 236, 237, 238
Color Map option 236
Color mappings
monochrome printing 402
Color maps
limits in Tecplot 600
Color Preferences dialog 545
Color to Mono option 402
Colors
axis line color controls 322
basic 32, 37, 206
fill colors in geometries 67
flooded contour plots 232
geometries 67
global light source color in Version 9 4
mesh plots 206
scatter plots 283
scatter symbols 283
streamtraces 266
surface color contrast controls 212
text 65
true color 2
zones 64
Command line
batch processing 563
color map file specifying 564
data set overrides in layouts 567
data set readers specifying 569
examples 568
Framer 571
last view in frame restoration option 44
layout reading 564
loading data files 568
macro playing 564
macro running 500, 564
options 563
Preplot options 574
shortcut creation 565
shortcut editing 566
UNIX options 567
Windows run options 565
Windows shortcuts 565
Windows start options 565
Comments
data files 62
Complex boundary conditions 432
Components
equation use 424
Configuration files 535
creating 536
creating and editing 535
Motif 536
saving 535, 536
specifying 563
UNIX 535, 551
Connectivity list 55
duplicating 65
examples 89
finite-element 84
finite-element data lists 356
for Brick element type 85
limitations 369
7
Index
Contacts
Amtec 28
Technical Support 28
Continuation lines
in data files 62
Continuous flooding
limits 601
Contour Add tool 379
shortcuts 578
Contour Attributes dialog 227, 230, 232
Contour Coloring Options 243
Contour Coloring Options dialog 7
Contour Colormap Adjustment options 7
Contour Delete tool 379
Contour labels
Add Contour Label tool 245
adding automatically 246
clearing 247
definition 245
interactively adding 245
Contour legend
contour plot creation 244
custom labels 71
definition 244
Contour Legend dialog 244
Contour levels
adding 235
animation 517, 520
choosing 233
deleting 235
exponential distribution specifying 235
limits in Tecplot 600
mouse modes 15
number 233, 234
range 233, 234
removing 235
skipping 233
specifying by range and delta 235
specifying by range and number 235
Contour Levels dialog 233, 236
Contour Line Mode option 231
Contour lines
controlling 231
modes 231
Contour plots 227
adding contour legend 244
average cell flooding 232
blanking 494
color map adjustment from a frame 240
8
contour flooding color distribution 232
corner cell flooding 232
creating 227
data requirements 227
flooded color 232
flooded contour plot creation 232
flooded contours 232
line controls 231
line plots 227
modifying 230
types 229
variable selection 229
Contour Remove tool
shortcuts 578
Contour table
see Contour legend 244
Contour tool
shortcuts 16
Contour Variable dialog 206, 227
Contour Variable option 229
Contour variables 429
assigning 227
choosing 229
Contour zone layer 14, 197, 229
Control lines
for zone types 64
Controls
arrow keys 25
Auto Redraw 15
check boxes 19
Contour tools shortcuts 578
coordinate systems 38
dialog buttons 19
drop-down menus 21
mouse tool shortcuts 17, 41
name filters 23
operations 24
Performance button 15
Quick Edit button 17
Redraw 15
Redraw All 15
Shift-click 24
Slicing tool shortcuts 385
sliders 20
Snap modes 17
Streamtrace tools shortcuts 580
text fields 20
Translate/Magnify tool 43
Zoom tool shortcut 581
Coordinate systems 29, 38
frame 40
geometries in frames 342
grid 333
grids coordinates with geometries 342
text 65
text heights 333
text in frames 65
text positioning 333
Copy 29
color map to file 239
Ctrl-C shortcut 46
frame style 110
style to file 110
views between frames 44
Copy Layout to Clipboard dialog 410
Copy option 46
Copy Plot to Clipboard 45
Copy Plot to Clipboard dialog 411
Copy Plot to Clipboard option 12
Copy Style Options dialog 110
Copy Style to File dialog 110
Copy View option 41, 44
Copying
connectivity lists 65, 86
variables 64, 65
zones 447
Cosine function
data operations 427
Create 1-D Line Zone dialog 444
Create Circle Zone dialog 447
Create Circular Zone dialog 448
Create Circular Zone tool 448
Create Duplicate Zone dialog 453
Create Frame mouse mode 30
Create Mirror Zone dialog 455
Create Rectangular Zone dialog 445, 447
Create Rectangular Zone tool 445
Create SubZone dialog 377, 454
Create SubZone option 454
Create XY-Mappings dialog 147
Create Zone option 145, 419, 444, 447
Cross error bars 185
Crsfez add-on 558
Crvgen add-on 558
Crvstineinterp add-on 558
Cstream add-on 558
Ctrl-A (Paste View) 41, 44
Ctrl-C (Copy) 46
Ctrl-click
in interface 24
Ctrl-F (Fit to Full Size) 43
Ctrl-L (Last) 41, 44
Ctrl-R (Redraw) 41
Ctrl-V (Paste) 46
Ctrl-X (Cut) 46
Cubic spline 174
Curly braces 438
Current frame 29
Curve Attributes dialog 170
exponential curve fitting 172
parametric spline fitting 176
polynomial fitting 172
power curve fitting 173
spline fitting 175
Curve type
exponential fit 168
linear fit 168
paraspline 169
polynomial fit 168
power fit 168
spline 168
Curve-coefficient files 120, 180
Curve-Fit Attributes dialog 171, 172, 177, 181
assign curve-weighting variables 179
assign dependent variables 178
assign independent variables 178
fitting clamped splines 175, 176
with XY-plots 146
Curve-fits 3
add-ons 558
Crvgen add-on 558
Crvstineinterp add-on 558
exponential 182
function dependency 182
loading with add-ons 558
power 182
Curves
Crvgen add-on 558
Crvstineinterp add-on 558
curve-fit loading with add-ons 558
exponential curve-fits 182
extracting data points of XY-curve 180
extracting details and data points 180
extracting details of XY-curve 180
extracting spline coefficients and data
points 182
fit types 168
9
Index
fitting curve-weighting variables to data 178
fitting dependent and independent variables to
data 177
fitting exponential to data 172
fitting parametric splines to data 175
fitting polynomials to data 171
fitting power to data 173
fitting spline to data 174
fitting straight lines to data 170
fitting to data 6, 167
polynomial fits 181
power curve-fits 182
viewing details 180
XY-plot curve information 180
Curve-weighting variables
assign with Curve-Fit Attributes dialog 179
Custom characters
creating 553
Custom label record 62, 71
Custom labels
axes 71, 318
contour legend 71
example 72
limits in Tecplot 599
loading records 99
nodes 71
record parameters 75
saving record to file 108
Cut 29
Ctrl-X shortcut 30, 46
frames 46
geometries 46
objects 46
text 46
Cut option 46
Cutaway plots 494
3-D volume plot 388
IJK-blanking 491
Cutting planes
arbitrary 386
defining with 3 points 387
Cylinder data 197
Cylindrical zones
creating 447
D
d . 535
d2di2 432
10
d2dij 432
d2dik 432
d2dj2 432
d2djk 432
d2dk2 432
d2dx2 432
d2dxy 432
d2dxz 432
d2dy2 432
d2dyz 432
d2dz2 432
DashDot line pattern 157
DashDotDot line pattern 157
Dashed line pattern 157
DAT files
Loadfluent add-on 557
Data
ASCII data files 90
ASCII file example 62
ASCII file format 61
ASCII files 95
binary data files 61, 95
BIT type 64
BLOCK format 202
BLOCK format description 108
BLOCK format example 78
BYTE type 64
combining files 48
concatenates ASCII files 62
connectivity list 84
continuation line in files 62
converting ASCII to binary 61
data set information 425
Data Set Information dialog 59
data set renaming 426
DOUBLE type 63
example of I-ordered in POINT format 76
FE Volume 55
FEPOINT format example 201, 202
file header 72
finite-element 212
finite-element mesh plots 201
fitting clamped splines 176
functions 427
geometry record files 67, 75
IJK-ordered 50, 53, 82, 199, 200, 212
IJK-ordered 3-D volume 371
IJK-ordered data blanking 299
IJK-ordered one variable files 84
IJK-ordered with XY-plots 146
IJK-ordered zone record 82
IJ-ordered 199
IJ-ordered in mesh plots 198
IJ-ordered in POINT format 198
IJ-ordered maximum index 80
IJ-ordered organization 80
IJ-ordered with XY-plots 146
IJ-ordered zone record 80
IK-ordered 50
I-ordered 50, 51, 76
I-ordered files 63
I-ordered one variable files 84
I-ordered probe limitations 471
irregular 459
JK-ordered 50
J-ordered 50
K-ordered 50
line length maximum in files 62
load variables by name 100
load variables by position 100
loading 95
LONGINT type 63
operations, see also Data operations 421
ordered 50
ordered data format 75
partial read options 98, 99
PLOT3D file options with Preplot 93
PLOT3D files 93
point extraction 451
POINT format 200, 201, 202
POINT format description 108
POINT format example 78
POINT format for I-ordered 76
point probing 469, 471
point values 459
preprocessing files with Preplot 90
quote strings in files 62
random 459
reading files 96
reading multiple files 98
saving custom label record 108
saving in layout files 112
saving modified 421
scaling in frames 42
SHORTINT type 63
SINGLE type 63
triangle mesh example in FEPOINT format 86
ungridded 459
unordered 459
variables 423
viewing inside frames 40
writing binary 108
writing binary files 107
writing files 107
writing selected record types 107
writing selected variables 107
writing selected zones 107
XY-data entry 450
XY-plot curve information 180
zone creation 443
Data extraction tools 15
Data files
appending 426
batch processing 513
command line readers 569
comments in files 62
custom label record 62
custom label record files 75
custom label record loading 99
dialogs for reading and writing 21
Drawing Interchange Files (DXF) 126
DXF 126
Escape character in files 62
example of IJK-ordered in BLOCK format 83
example of IJK-ordered in POINT format 82
example of IJ-ordered in BLOCK format 80
example of IJ-ordered in POINT format 80
example of I-ordered in BLOCK format 77
example of I-ordered in POINT format 76
geometry record file format 67
geometry record files 62
geometry records 99
Gridgen Loader 135
HDF 138
loading from the command line 568
one variable files 84
one variable IJ-ordered files 84
readers 121
specifying zones in files 99
text record 62
text record file format 65
text record files 74
text records 99
text records in files 65
variables 423
writing ASCII 108
11
Index
writing ASCII files 107
writing ASCII in BLOCK format 108
writing ASCII in POINT format 108
zone record 72
zone record types 64
Data Fit 40
Data Format dialog 419
Data labels
creating 194
Data Labels dialog 194, 210
Data Labels option 194, 210
Data Loaders 122
DXF 126
Excel 128
for DEM files 126
Gridgen 135
HDF 138
Image 139
PLOT3D 140
SDS 138
Spreadsheet Loader 143
Text Spreadsheet 143
Data menu 12
2D Rotate option 442
Alter option 419, 421, 442
Create SubZone option 454
Create Zone option 145, 419, 444, 447
Data Set Info option 57
Delete Zone option 456
Duplicate option 453
Enter XY option 451
Extract option 368, 380, 452
Extract Slice from Plane option 386
Interpolate option 460, 463, 465
Inverse Distance option 460
Kriging option 463
Linear option 465
Mirror option 455
Points from Geometry option 452
Points from Polyline option 452
Polar to Rectangular option 440
Probe At option 473, 480
Shift-Cell Centered Data option 443
Smooth option 467
Spreadsheet option 419
Triangulate option 366, 458
XY-Plot Curve Info option 180
Data operations
1-D line zone creation 444
12
2-D circular zone creation 448
2-D data creation 445
2-D data rotation 442
2-D polar coordinate transforming 440
3-D cylindrical zone creation 449
3-D rectangular zone creation 446
3-D spherical coordinates to rectangular 441
absolute value 427
addition 426
Adjustor tool editing 483
Allow Data Point Adjustment 469
analytic functions 444
Arccosine 427
Arcsine 427
Arctangent 427
binary equation operators 426
boundary smoothing 467
boundary zone triangulation 459
cell-centered data shifting 442
circular zone creation 447
coordinate variable smoothing 467
Cosine function 427
cylindrical zone creation 447
data altering 434
data editing with Probe 483
data point adjustment 482
data point extraction 451
data rotation 442
data set modifying 421
data set renaming 426
data type for variables 433
derivative functions 431
difference functions 431
discrete point extraction 452
edit with Probe 469, 483
equation altering 434
equation examples 428
equation file comments 435
equation file loading 435
equation indices 428
equation operators 426
equation restriction overriding 434
equation variables 423
equations 422
equations in macros 435
exponentiation 426, 427
file appending 426
functions 427
geometry point extraction 452
index range and skip selections 433
interpolate, linear 459
interpolating 459
interpolation alternatives 466
interpolation, inverse-distance 460
interpolation, kriging 460
interpolation, linear 465
inverse-distance interpolation 460
irregular point triangulation 458
kriging interpolation 460, 462
linear interpolation 459, 465
Logarithms 427
macro use 497
macros, equations 435
mirror zone creation 455
multiplication 426
ordered zones 433
Outside Points in interpolation 465
polyline point extraction 452
probe editing 469
rectangular zone creation 444
rectangular zones 445
rotation in 2-D 442
Rounding function 427
Sine function 427
smoothing 466
smoothing limitations 468
spreadsheet alteration 420
square root 427
sub-zone creation 454
tangent function 427
triangulation of irregular data points 458
Truncate function 427
variable data type specifying 438
variable names 438
variable renaming 426
variables 423
variables in equations 425
XY-value entry 450
zone creation 443
zone creation, circular 447
zone creation, cylindrical 447
zone deletion 456
zone duplication 453
zone number specifying for operands 437
zone renaming 426
zone specifying 428
Data points 50
Allow Data Point Adjustment option 469
discrete point extracting 452
editing 482
exact probing 471
extracting 180, 451
labeling 193, 210
limits in Tecplot 599
probing 482
Data set indices
Nearest Point mode 473
Data Set Info option 57, 136
Data Set Information dialog 57, 59, 425
Data sets
command line overrides of layouts 567
displaying indices 194, 210
finite-element 369
finite-element brick 361
finite-element brick creation 361
finite-element creation 356
finite-element mesh plots 198
finite-element POINT format 198
finite-element quadrilaterals 357
finite-element volume 361
finite-element volume tetrahedral 364
fitting clamped splines 175
fitting curves to data in XY-plots 167
fitting curve-weighting variables to 178
fitting exponential curves to 172
fitting lines to 170
fitting parametric splines to 175
fitting points in frames 40
fitting polynomials to 171
fitting power curves to 173
fitting splines to 174
fitting to frames 43
information on 425
limits in Tecplot 599
modifying 421
probe specific location 480
probing 473
processing multiple 513
renaming 426
spreadsheet viewer 419
tetrahedron 361
title limits in Tecplot 600
triangulated FE-surface data 365
variables, maximum number 599
viewing information 426
Data Spreadsheet dialog 419
Database Network
13
Index
importing GRIDGEN files 135
-datasetreader flag 569
Date
displayed as text 336
ddi 432
ddj 432
ddk 432
ddx 432
ddy 432
ddz 432
Defaults
extensions for file names 544
modifying 535
Define XY-Mappings dialog 146, 147, 149, 150,
151, 152, 166
Delete
contour level 235
frames 30
objects 46
zone 456
Delete key 46
Delete Zone dialog 456
Delete Zone option 456
Delta
symbol shape 160
DEM files
importing 126
DEM Loader 557
Dependent variables
assign with Curve-Fit Attributes dialog 178
Depth-blanking 485, 495
limitations 486
Derivative 432
Derivative boundary conditions 432
Derivative functions 431, 432
boundary conditions 432
restrictions 432
Destination Data Type menu 146
Dialogs
buttons 19
check box selection 24
check boxes 19
controls 19
Display Performance 547
drop-down menus 21
list boxes 20
option button selection 24
option buttons 19
scrolled list selection 25
14
scrolled lists 20
sliders 20
text fields 20
Diamond
symbol shape 160
Difference functions 431
complex boundary conditions 432
restrictions 432
simple boundary conditions 432
Digital Elevation Map (DEM) files
importing 126
Discrete points
extracting 452
Discrete Points option 452
Display Performance dialog 15, 216, 535, 547
trace line maximum 43
Division
binary operator 426
Domain
IJK-blanking 492
Dotted line pattern 157
Draw Iso-Surfaces at option 380
Draw Level for 3D View Changes option 4
Drawing interchange files
importing 126
Drawing speed 547
Drop-down menus 21
Duplicate option 453
Duplication
connectivity lists 65, 86
examples in connectivity lists 89
frames 45
geometries 45
objects 45
text 45
variables 64, 65
zones 453
Duplist 64
description 72
DXF files
importing 126
viewing in 3-D file 127
DXF Loader
Loaddxf add-on 557
Dynamically linked libraries
loading add-ons 560
E
Edit
Pop 343
Push 343
Edit Axis dialog 146, 164, 303, 304, 311, 313,
315, 316, 318, 319, 321, 322, 324, 325
Area page 309, 311
axis positioning 308
Grid page 309, 310, 311
Line page 321, 322
log axis specifying 165
Range page 305, 307, 308
Reverse Axis Direction option 186
Ticks page 313, 314, 315, 316
Title page 323, 324, 325
Edit bar
changing colors with Quick Edit 187
Edit Current Frame dialog
resize and position frames 31
Edit menu 11, 45
Allow Data Point Adjustment option 469
Clear option 46
Copy option 46
Copy Plot to Clipboard option 12
Cut option 46
Paste option 46
Effects Attributes dialog 297
Element type
Brick 202
brick 55, 85
quadrilateral 55, 85
tetrahedron 55, 85
triangle 55, 86, 90
Elements
eliminating 486
Ellipse
axes modifying 346
controls 346
creation 340
geometry record 67, 68
line segment modifying 346
number of points in geometries 68
selecting 340
E-mail
for Technical Support 28
Encapsulated PostScript
format 120
Encapsulated PostScript files 405
format 407
preview image 408
Enter ASCII Character dialog 272
Enter Contour Level Range dialog 234
Enter XY-Mapping Name dialog 150
Enter XY-Values to Create a Zone dialog 145,
451
Environment variables
add-on loading 559
as text 339
BATCHLOGFILE 514
MOZILLA_HOME 573
TEC90HOME 10
tecplot.phy set up and location 556
Windows hom directory 535
EPS
limits in Tecplot 600
EPS files 405
format 407
EPS format 120
Equation
create boundary conditions 432
Equation files 120
ASCII text editor 435
Equations 422
alterations 434
ASCII text editor for files 435
binary operators 426
components use 424
data operations 422
derivative and difference functions 431
examples 428
file loading 435
indices 424, 428
letter codes 424
macro example files 439
macro file comments 435
macros 435
macros, variable data type 438
modifying 421
restriction overriding 434
variables 423
zone numbers 427
Equations in macros
ranges and skip factors 437
Equilateral triangle shape 160
Error Bar Attributes dialog 184, 186
setting error bar colors 187
specify crossbar size 187
specify error bar spacing 188
15
Index
specify line thickness 187
with XY-plots 146
XY-mappings 153
Error bars
adding to plots 184
assigning 184
bottom 185
cross 185
modifying attributes 187
modifying thicknesses 187
right 185
selecting type 185
setting colors 187
spacing 188
specifying crossbar size 187
top 185
vertical 185
XY 145
XY-plots 184
Error Bars map layer 14, 185
Escape character
data files 62
Excel Data Loader 128
limitations 134
Loadxls add-on 557
spreadsheet data format 129
table data format 129
Exponential curves
fitting to data 172
fitting with Curve Attributes dialog 172
fitting with Quick Edit 172
Exponential Fit option 168
Exponential fits 182
Exponentiation
binary operator 426
data operations 427
Exponents
plotting 427
Export
files 120, 406
format 405
plots into other applications 405, 410
raster graphics files 405
vector graphics files 405, 407
Windows Metafile files 409
WMF files 409
Export dialog 405
Extended curves 169
Extract
16
discrete points 452
IJK-planes 377
iso-surfaces 378
points from geometry 452
points from polyline 452
Extract Data Points dialog 452
Extract Data Points to File dialog 452
Extract FE-Boundary dialog
image 368
Extract Iso-Surfaces dialog 380
Extract option 368, 380, 452
Extract Slice from Plane dialog 386
Extract Streamtraces dialog 275
Eye distance 217
F
F1 key (Help) 27
FE volume 55
FEBLOCK format 63
3-D data files 363
creating data file 358
example of triangle mesh 86
finite-element 84
FORTRAN example for triangle mesh 88
Triangle element type 86
zone record 84
Fence plots 388
FEPOINT format 63
3-D volume data files 362
BIT data type retriction 64
creating a data file 357
example data file 198, 201, 202
example of triangle mesh 86
FORTRAN example for triangle mesh 87
zone record 84
Field data
loading options 99
Field layers 13
Field menu 12, 203
2D Draw Order option 212
3D Light Source option 212
3D Slice Details option 381
Advanced 3D Control option 212, 216
Contour Coloring Options 243
Contour Legend option 244
Contour Line Mode option 231
Contour Variable option 229
Reference Vector 258
Streamtrace Placement option 262, 265
Vector Arrowheads option 254, 255
Field plots
boundary plots 221
contour plots 227
mesh plots 221
scatter plot 279
vector plots 249
File dialogs
basic procedures 21
Motif 21
File headers 61
parameters 72
title 62
variable names 62
File menu 11
Import option 121
Load Data File(s) option 96
Macro option 439
Open Layout option 114
Paper Setup option 394
Preferences option 535
Print option 393, 394, 396
Print Preview option 404
Publish option 118, 119
Save Configuration option 535, 537
Save Layout As option 112, 116
Save Layout option 112, 116
Write Data File option 366, 421
Writing Data File option 107
Files
absolute path 112
animation 525
animation file creation 518, 519, 520, 521,
523, 525
ASCII file formats 61
Audio Visual Interleaved (AVI) 406
Batch mode printing 511
batch processing layout files 512
batch processing with stylesheets 514
bitmap 120, 405
BLOCK format description 108
BMP 406, 412
Color Map 120, 239, 564
command line file reading 564
configuration 535
data file batch processing 513
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) 120, 405
equation 120
equation file loading 435
example file list 583
export 120
export format 405
font file 553, 564
formats 109
HDF Loader 138
HP-GL 209, 405
HP-GL/2 405
layout 109, 111
layout file batch processing 512
layout file composition 112
layout package 109
layout package file use 116
macro 120, 497
macro examples 439
macro specifying 564
Motif configuration files 536
movie 517
multiple file printing 511
name extension 435
name extension defaults 544
name filters 22, 23
opening layout files 114
opening layout package files 116
PNG 406, 412
POINT format description 108
PostScript 405
PostScript Image 406
print 120
Raster Metafile (RM) 406, 415, 525, 531
relative path 112
saving via HTTP 113
streamtrace formats 261
stylesheet formats 109
stylesheets 109
Sun Raster 406, 415
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) 406, 413
Windows Bitmap 406
Windows Metafiles (WMF) 120, 405
writing ASCII 107, 108
writing ASCII in BLOCK format 108
writing ASCII in POINT format 108
writing binary 107, 108
X-Windows 406
Fill Behind Grid Area option 311
Fill color
specify with Symbol Attributes dialog 162
symbol choices 162
17
Index
Filled arrowheads 253
Filled symbols 161
Filters
file name 22
file path 22
name filters 23
Point format
see also FEPOINT format
Finite-element
3-D volume 371
3-D volumes 361
BLOCK format 202
boundary extraction 368
boundary lines 368
brick 85
brick data sets 361
brick element creation 361
Brick element type 202
brick polyhedral elements 355
cells 485
connectivity list limitations 369
data 61, 355
data connectivity list 55, 84, 85
data format 84
data set connectivity lists 356
data set creation 356
data sets 369
definition 55
differentiation limitations 369
duplicating variables 90
element type in zones 65
example of node variable parameters 88
extracting outer surfaces of volume zone 371
FEBLOCK format 84, 363
FEPOINT format 362
irregular data point triangulation 459
iso-surface zones 381
limitations 369
mesh plot data 201
mesh plots 198
mixing element types 85
number of elements in zones 65
number of nodes 65
plotting 55
POINT format 198, 202
quadrilateral data sets 357
quadrilateral element type 55
sample FORTRAN code for creating 86
smoothing limitations 369
18
spreadsheet data viewer 419
surface data points 55
surface description 55
surface triangulated data sets 365
surface zones 85, 355
Tecplot performance 5
tetrahedral polyhedral elements 355
tetrahedron element type 55
tetrahedron volume data sets 361
triangle element type 55, 355
triangulated data sets 365
volume brick data set creation 361
volume data 55
volume data connectivity list 201
volume data sets 361
volume data value list 201
volume description 55
volume tetrahedral data set 364
volume zone blanking 299
volume zones 85, 355
zone boundary extraction 368
zone formats 475
zone probing 475
zone record data 73, 84
zone slicing 387
zone smoothing limitations 468
zones 64, 65, 443, 458, 459
First-derivative 432
Fit All Frames 44
Fit Paper 44
Fit Paper option 45
Fit Select Frames 44
Fit to Full Size 43, 127
Ctrl-F shortcut 41, 43
Flow-of-control commands
processing data sets 513
Fluent Data Loader 3
Fluent Loader
Loadfluent add-on 557
Fonts
creating 553
file 553
font file specifying 564
identifiers 331
text editing 330
text record 74
user-defined 553
Foreign data files
Gridgen Loader 135
Foreign data formats 121
DEM 126
DXF 126
Excel Data Loader 128
HDF Loader 138
PLOT3D 140
SDS Loader 138
Text Spreadsheet Loader 143
FORTRAN
example of I-ordered in BLOCK format 77
example of triangle mesh in FEBLOCK
format 88
example of triangle mesh in FEPOINT
format 87
example with BLOCK format 81
simple code for triangle finite-element point
data 88
writing data to binary 61
Frame linking 351
attributes 351
axes 351
axis ranges, linked 353
contour levels 351
position 351
size 351
views 351
Frame menu 12
Delete Current Frame 30
Set Links for Current Frame option 353
Frame modes 13
2D 13, 197
3D 13, 197, 212
coordinate systems in Sketch 333
grid coordinate system in Sketch 333
loading options 99
Sketch 13, 327
text position in Sketch 333
text size in Sketch 333
view stack 44
XY 13
XY-plot default 146
Frame mouse modes 15
Framer 517, 531, 571
animation creation 531
commands 571, 572
Motif version 531, 532, 571
Raster Metafile format 531
Raster Metafile movie creation 406
Raster Metafile viewing 531
Windows options 572
Frames
animation 530
attribute linking 351
axis linking 351
axis ranges, linked 353
background color 31, 32
border options 33
centering plots 40
clearing 46
contour level linking 351
controlling headers and borders 32
coordinate systems 29, 38, 40
coordinate systems for positioning text 333
Copy Plot to Clipboard option 45
Copy View 41
copying 45
copying views 44
Create Frame mode 30
creating 30
current 29
cutting 45, 46
deleting 30, 46
deleting groups 30
fitting data 43
fitting data points 40
fitting plots to 29
frame units for geometries 67
geometry coordinate systems 67, 342
geometry propagation in like frames 343
header color 32
header options 33
height minimum 599
last view 44
like frames 335
like frames with geometries 343
limits in Tecplot 599
limits on number 29
linking 351
macro use 497
managing workspace 29
mode 13
mode options during loading 99
moving 25
moving with arrow keys 31
moving with Translate/Magnify 40
multiple view copying and pasting 44
name changing 34
number of frames 338
19
Index
object selection 25
overlay 31
Pasting views 41, 44, 45
popping 34
position linking 351
positioning 25, 30, 31
pushing 34
resizing 30
resizing with Edit Current Frame 31
resizing with mouse 31
resizing with Translate/Magnify 40
saving style to stylesheets 110
scaling data 42
Select All 45
Show In All Like Frames option 335
Show Invisible Borders option 32
showing or hiding headers 33
size 31, 328, 329, 333, 334, 343, 345, 346, 347
size linking 351
sizing 30
stacking 31, 34
text coordinate system 65
text height units 65
text propagation 335
transparent 31
units 40
using Zoom 41
value-blanking 486
view linking 351
view stack 44, 45
views of data 40
width maximum 599
working with 29
XY-plot default frame mode 146
Zoom 40
FTP
reading via 113
Function definitions
macros 497
Function dependency
curve-fits 182
Functions
data manipulation 427
G
Geometries
3-D lines 68, 69
alignment 349
20
alignment with Quick Edit 350
alignment with Selector 350
arrowheads 68
circle attributes 345
circle creation 340
clearing 46
color controls 341
coordinate system controls 343
copying 45
creation 340
cutting 45, 46
data file examples 70
deleting 46
ellipse attributes 346
ellipse creation 340
ellipses 340
file formats 67
filled or unfilled 341
frame coordinate systems 342
keyboard shortcuts 578
limits in Tecplot 599
line and fill color 341
line pattern controls 341
line patterns 341
line thickness controls 342
macro linking 350
macro links 503
modifying 340
mouse mode 15
origin controls 343
pasting 45
point changes with Adjustor tool 347
point extraction 452
polyline arrowheads 344
polyline creation 340
popping 349
position controls 343
positioning 342
propagate to like frames 343
pushing 349
rectangle controls 346
rectangle creation 340
scope controls 343
Select All 45
shortcuts 578
sizing 342
Sketch frame mode creation 339
square creation 340
XY-mapping attachment 344
zone attachment 344
Geometry dialog 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346,
350
Approximated by Number of Sides option 345,
346
Attach to Zone/Map option 344
Show in All Like Frames option 343
Geometry record 62, 107
3-D line 67, 68, 69
circle 67, 68, 69
color 67
control line 67
ellipse 67, 68
example of 3-D lines 69
example of circle 69
file format 67
line 67, 68, 69
line thickness 67
line type 67
parameters 75
polyline 67, 69
polyline example 69
rectangle 67, 68, 69
square 67, 68
Geometry records 67
arrowheads 68
loading options 99
Geometry tool
shortcuts 578
Ghostscript
PostScript conversion software 398
Gouraud shade plot types 299
Gradient
symbol shape 160
Graphics performance 547
Graphs
XY 145
Gray scale
color map 236
macros 499
printing 402
Grid
display options 37
precise dot grid 309
Snap to 37
spacing 37
units 37
workspace 37
Grid area 309, 311
controls 311
Grid coordinate system
geometries 67
Grid units
text 65
Gridgen Loader 135
add-on 557
Loadgridgen add-on 557
Gridlines 310
axis 310
controls 309, 310
Group Select dialog 350
H
H
keyboard shortcut to restrict horizontal
adjustment 483
HDF Loader 138
limitations 139
Loadhdf add-on 557
HDF Loader dialog 138
Headers
showing or hiding 33
Height units
text 65
Help
accessing 27
button 19
by pressing F1 27
from the status line 27
Status line 18
Technical Support 28
Tecplot license 12
Help button 19
Help dialog 28
Help menu 12, 27
Hexahedral
cells 485
Hidden Line mesh plots 223
Hollow arrow