Electrophoresis -EGel and Transilluminators

E-Gel Powerbase
Fotodyne wThermal Printer
E-Gel Agarose
1.2% typical
Detect Pictures to Jump to that Instrument
Elchrom Origins
Link to Power Supply
and standard cell Electrophoresis SOP
Cambrex FlashGel (ref)
Electroblotter @BRDG
Prepared by: Bob Morrison
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
FVCC, Instrumentation Specialist
Original Sep 2008, Rev Apr 2012
Page 1
Electrophoresis: ORIGINS by Elchrom Scientific
Width 55 cm Depth 41 cm Height 22 cm
Weight 18 kg
Gel compartment D 10.8 x W 27.8 cm
The ORIGINS by ElchromTM comprises THE most cost-effective alternative to capillary
electrophoresis: better results for lower costs!
Technical Features:
Integrated system for cooling/heating: no external water bath nor temperature
probe required
Integrated temperature control: constant temperature of the running buffer
independent of running time and voltage
Integrated pump for buffer circulation: guarantees constant temperature and
eliminates pH gradients even in the vicinity of the electrodes
Parallel double-electrodes on either side of the gel compartment provide a
homogeneous and uniform electric field.
Working temperature range: 4°C - 55°C
Link to Elchrom ORIGINS Technical Manual …. pdf
Link to Elchrom GEPS Power Unit User Manual …. pdf
Link to Elchrom Starter Kits for 2100U (110volt) …. pdf
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 2
Electrophoresis: ORIGINS, Major Features, Power
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 3
ORIGINS, Mode of
Running Precast at
Pg1 of 2
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 4
Mode of
pg 2/2
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 5
Electrophoresis: ElChrom, Power Unit Controls
Link to Elchrom GEPS Power Unit User Manual …. pdf
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 6
Electrophoresis: ElChrom, Power Unit Controls
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 7
Elchrom Power Unit
Output without Timer
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 8
Elchrom Power Unit
Output with Timer
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 9
Electrophoresis: ElChrom, Power Unit Controls
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 10
Electrophoresis; Elchrom, Prep of Precast Gels
pg 10-11 of manual
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 11
Electrophoresis; Capillary, Prep of Samples, Pg 12-13 manual
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 12
Electrophoresis; Elchrom Mode of Operation ,
pg 14, 15 Manual
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 13
Electrophoresis; Elchrom Mode of Operation,
pg 16-17 manual
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 14
Electrophoresis: Elchrome, Load Samples
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 15
ElChrom, Short
Manual, GMS gels
at 9C. Pg 1/2
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 16
ElChrom, Short
Manual, GMS
gels at 9C.
Pg 2/2
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 17
Electrophoresis: Elchrom Gels, Distributor Jan2012
Sent: Monday, December 17, 2012 10:05 AM
To: Taylor, Angela M.; BioLynx Sales; BioLynx Quotations
Cc: Boedeker, Elizabeth D.; Hill, Jennifer S.; Barban, JoAnn L.; Norris, Richard J.; Morrison, Robert G.; Staerk, Becky K.;
Gaetane Denechaud
Subject: RE: Biolynx Inc - Set Up As New Vendor - W9 Needed
Good morning Angi,
BioLynx Inc is now the Distributor of Elchrom products in the United States. We appreciate you contacting us. Our
Accounting Dept. will be sending an email with the information required to set up an account to purchase from us. Please
note the email address will be “@chromspec.com”, Chromatographic Specialties Inc. is our sister company.
Our quotation dept., quotes@biolynx.ca will be happy to send you pricing when you are ready to proceed, please include
the Elchrom part number if available. In addition, our sales dept., sales@biolynx.ca will process your orders and send
confirmation via email.
Our team would be pleased to provide you with any information you require. For more information regarding MJS BioLynx
Inc., visit our website at www.biolynx.ca
I am a contact within the office to answer any questions you may have.
Gaëtane Denechaud
Gaëtane Denechaud
Customer Service Coordinator - Coordinatrice du Service à la Clientèle
MJS BioLynx Inc. www.biolynx.ca
1-613-498-2126 ext. 327
Toll Free in Canada - Sans Frais au Canada
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 18
Electrophoresis: E-Gel System, Powerbase V4.0
15 and 30 min
control buttons
Observe Status light per instructions on next page
Power plug must fit securely in slot. If status lights
do not show with an E-gel in place, the plug may be
loose. Use pliers to crimp the circular plug to a
more elliptical shape to tighten the grip in the slot.
ETHROG or Invitrogen E-Gel Power Base , Ver 4
Invitrogen E-Gel Power Base, self-contained unit with a
AC/DC adaptor that plugs directly into a wall
Powerbase outputs 8.8-9.0VDC and maintains a current
of 38-42 mA
15 min. and 30 min timed program so that it will shut off
automatically when electrophoresis is complete. E-Gel
Pre-Cast Agarose Gel Electrophoresis System
Link to Egel Powerbase User Manual (pdf)
Make sure both base pole electrodes are
clean. Scrape if necessary.
Secure E-gel Agarose packet by inserting
right side first, then snap left side into place.
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
E-Gel Agarose
1.2% typical
Page 19
Electrophoresis: E-gel Basic Operations
Before putting an E-gel cartridge in the powerbase, attach the circular end plug of the
power adapter cord into the hole in the base and then plug the adapter itself into the 110V
outlet. A brief self-test of flashing lights and beeping will occur, then no lights until step 2 is
Insert the E-gel cartridge into the base right side first, then press the left side down. There
should be an click sound as the cartridge snaps into place and a steady red light will appear
(Ready Mode). No button pushes are required to reach this state.
A two minute “pre-run” with the E-Gel comb in place is required before you will load
samples into the wells. Press and hold either the 15 or 30 min button for a few seconds as
the steady red light turns into a flashing green light for the 2-minute run.
At the end of the “pre-run”, the flashing green light will turn to flashing red and a rapid beep
will sound. Press and release either button to stop the beeps and return to a steady red.
Remove the comb from the E-gel cartridge carefully lifting straight out and then clear up any
gel residue near the wells.
Prepare and load your samples into the wells per the E-gel manual guidelines.
For a single-comb gel, press the 15 min button, a steady blue light will appear for the
duration of the run.
For a double-comb gel, press the 30 min button, a steady green light will appear.
You may interrupt the run at any time by pressing either button once and then again to restart
but you must manually time the remaining portion to avoid overrunning the gel.
10. At the end of the run periods, the steady light will return to a flashing red light and beeps will
sound. Press either button to stop the beeping and return the light to a steady red.
11. Remove the E-gel carefully from the powerbase and you are now ready for the
Page 20
4/1/2013 and/or other analysis. Bands will diffuse within 20 minutes however!
Electrophoresis: E-Gel Rig, BRDG, Ethrog Biotechnologies
Purchase through Fisher Scientific:
Ethrog Biotechnologies
A base and power supply together in one piece.
Lighted display indicates when the two-minute pre-run is
complete and when to load samples.
See details
Includes: Power cord and manual
Required Accessories: Double-comb or single-comb E-Gels
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 21
Electrophoresis : Typical Gel Setup
Red ( +) Electrical
Probe; leads to far
or receiving end of
plate. If lose or
pops out, expose
metallic end and
expand thin strips.
Black ( – ) Electrical
Probe; leads to well
or start end of plate
Safety Notes:
1) Connect all wiring
and probes before
turning the unit on.
2) Never touch the
probes or power
supply box while the
device is on.
3) Turn off the device
before disconnecting
electrical probes.
4) Do not handle the
device with wet
hands or on wet
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Voltage or Amps dial
control. Typically set
to maintain 95 volts
during run.
Digital Volt or
Amp readout
Rocker Switch: Set to
constant Volts (or Amps)
per lab procedure.
Typically 95 Volts DC.
Red + Electrical
Probe; goes to far or
receiving end of plate.
Note, if probes
become lose or pop
out , expose the
metallic portion and
expand the thin metal
strips to increase
friction in the female
Page 22
Typical Instructions and Guidelines
1. Place the cover on the electrophoresis unit, making sure to have the negative (black)
electrode at the well end of the gel.
2. Insert the electrode cords into the proper inputs of the power supply. Set the power supply
on ‘low’ and turn it on. Set the voltage at 90-95 volts. Check to make sure bubbles are
forming in the buffer on the platinum wire electrodes along the ends of the gel box. Watch
the gel closely for 2 – 5 minutes to make sure that the dye is migrating in the correct
3. If you hear an audible alarm or any of small red lights (Fuse or >500mA) come on
during the run, turn off the unit immediately and unplug. The audible alarm and
overcurrent lights indicate potential breakdown of the gel mixture or higher than
normal temperatures in the gel. For further information on Voltage, Current, and
Resistance, see the following slides.
4. If the Gel Rig Electrode/probes pop out or become lose during the run. Turn off and
unplug the Power Supply and remove each electrode. Inspect each electrode probe
end by exposing the metallic portion. Use a sharp tool to “spring” the thin strips on
the metallic probe ends to create a better grip in the power supply female sockets.
5. Allow the tracking dye to migrate 4-5 centimeters from the wells so that the molecular
weight marker fragments separate sufficiently.
6. Turn off the power supply, unplug it, and disconnect the electrodes from it. Then remove
the lid from the gel box.
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 23
Electrophoresis: Horizontal, Mini, Owl-Series, 400ML
Mini-Gel System 400 ML
Size 16 x 9.5 x 8 (65/16 x 33/4 x 35/32) 8 x 7 (35/32 x 23/4)
Thermo Sci # B1A
VWR # 27372-226
Mini-Gel systems have a small footprint and can run 5–34 samples (for 400 and 600mL systems) or 8–48 samples (for 800mL
systems) on one gel. The buffer chamber features lane visualization strips, which are silkscreened on the platform to provide a
clear view of sample wells. Lane markers and fluorescent rulers provide accurate fragment size determination of DNA when
compared to known standards. Durable acrylic construction and research-quality components give the buffer chamber a long life.
Platinum electrodes and gold-plated banana plugs are corrosion-protected, and electrode placement ensures a uniform electric
Leak-resistant, gasketed ultraviolet transmission trays allow tape-free casting in the buffer chamber. The trays have two comb
positions and allow DNA bands to be viewed on a transilluminator without removing the gel. Optional multiload UVT trays have 12
slots for multiple sample-running, and allow samples to be loaded directly from a 96-well plate into an agarose gel. This design is
based on the fixed spacing required to accommodate multichannel pipets (at least eight channels) and 96-well plates.
Heavy-duty, one-piece combs eliminate the need for comb assembly. The SuperSafe* safety lid eliminates the risk of accidental
shock. System is supplied with a 0.91m (3') safety power cord, attached.
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 24
Electorphoresis: Agarose Gel Guidelines, Edvotek Kit
Hotlink to Edvotek Guidelines for Gel
Electrophoresis …. Pdf (24 pgs)
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 25
Electrophoresis: Phase-Lock Gel (PLG), Eppendorf Manual
Hotlink to Eppendorf Phase-Lock
Gel manual …. Pdf (24 pgs)
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 26
Electrophoresis: FOTO/Phoresis Operation
 8.6 x 10.8 cm viewing surface
 UV Blocking Cover with interlocking safety switch and
indicator light
 Perfect positioning of mini-gels for
 Notched acrylic viewing frame for holding standard
Petri plate
 Two 9-watt, 300 nm bulbs
 Cooling fan
Replacement Bulbs: 300 nm, 9 watt, 5-7/8" pin-to-pin
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 27
Electrophoresis: Transilluminator-UVP-LM26
Transilluminator; UV; Benchtop; LM-26; 2UV;
Single Intensity; 100-115V, 8w, Midrange;
Wavelength 302/365nm, E-Ballast; Purple
Base; Stainless Steel Filter Assembly; 21 x
26cm filter surface; w/UV blocking cover; 9.5D x
13.25W x 4.75&Pr
Includes: UVG 5000 hour long-life filter and
hinged UV blocking cover with adjustable height
UV Blocking cover lid,
detachable for cleaning
Analog dial, set at
302 or 365nm
Gel Cutter Tool: UVP85 0002 01 Ultra Violet Products No.:85-0002-01
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 28
Electrophoresis: UV Transilluminator, BRDG,
MINI UV TRANSILLUM TM-10 115V, 21476-040
Supplier UVP
Transilluminator, Benchtop Model M-10E, 6W.
Single intensity for detection of nucleic acids
in all gel documentation applications.
UVG* filter decreases solarization.
UV blocking cover included.
Wavelength: 302nm UV.
Filter size: 10x10cm.
11.4Hx26Wx18.4Dcm. 115V, 60Hz. ETL, ETLc
UV Blocking cover lid,
detachable for cleaning
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Analog dial, set at
302 or 365nm
Page 29
Electrophoresis: FOTO/Phoresis Minivisionary System
Simple, Inexpensive Thermal Prints—No Computer Needed
MiniVisionary Workstations are designed to simply and rapidly
document electrophoresis gels in both research and educational
Camera, Hood, and Filters
- Receives power and commands from
Minivisionary Controller
- Sends video signal to Thermal Printer
for copies
These stand-alone CCD-based imaging systems allow the
acquisition of very low light fluorescent gels. Inexpensive thermal
prints can be produced for about 1/10 the price of conventional
film with the touch of a button.
Fotodyne* FOTO/Analyst* MiniVisionary FD62310 System
Photodocumentation, FOTO/Analyst MiniVisionary Hood
Mount System; CCD camera; Hood; Controller; Ethidium
bromide/coomassie; blue/methylene blue filters; Thermal
printer; Cable; Support frame; 120V 60Hz
Minivisionary Controller
-set # copies, then use this PRINT button
- Automatically sends commands to the Thermal Printer
Thermal Printer
-Gets commands from controller (PC or
- Has options for brightness and multiple copies
Link to Fotodyne Brochure on Minivisionary .. pdf
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 30
Electrophoresis: FOTO/Phoresis, Focusing and Aperture on Camera
Focusing: Adjust focusing and aperture on camera to
align with markings on the dial as shown below. A target
of “8” seems to work well for the Fotodyne unit at BRDG.
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 31
Electrophoresis: MITSUBISHI P93W Monochrome Printer
Copy: Use ONLY if you want to set
Multiple copies from each press of
the PRINT button on the
Minivisionary Controller.
Paper replacement, press to open
door, see next slide for details.
Print Method Thermal printing on thermal paper
Dot Density 325 dpi (12.8 dots/mm)
Resolution (NTSC)1280 x 500 dots
(PAL)1280 x 600 normal
Greyscale 256 levels
Interface BNC (input and output)
Memory 10 Frames
6 image sizes Normal, Side (landscape), MultiNormal, Multi-Side, Square (1:1) and expanded (x
0.5 to 2.0)
Print Capacity Normal - Approx. 260 prints (paper
save mode)
Side - Approx. 150 prints (paper save mode)
Square (1:1) - Approx. 195 prints (paper save mode)
Normal Size 3.3 Sec. NTSC, 3.9 Sec. PAL
Side (landsacpe) 8.4 Sec. NTSC, 8.4 Sec. PAL
Picture Size (Normal) Approx. 3 x 4 inches
Picture Size (Side) Approx. 4 x 5.2 inches
Picture Size (Square) Approx. 4 x 4 inches
Dual Power Supply AC 100-120V, 50/60 Hz
AC 220-240V, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption 1.5 to 0.8 amps
Dimensions (W x D x H) 6 x 9.8 x 3.5 inches
152 x 249 x 89 mm
Weight 6.16 lbs. (2.8 kg)
Regulatory Approvals UL2601-1; CAN.CSA C22.2
No.601-1(C-UL), FCC-Class A, TUV GS, TUV GM;
CE Mark (EMC; 89/336/EEC)
Fisher Scientific Catalog:
Paper, Thermal Printer, Fotodyne; Approx. 260 prints/roll; 3 x
4 in. (7.6 x 10.2cm); Accessory for MiniVisionary Printer
FD602012 Fotodyne No. :60-2012
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 32
Electrophoresis: Thermal Printer Paper Replacement
1) Press to open printer door
2) Locate KP65HMce thermal paper in
the cabinet above printer. Open foil and
place in carousel with end at top of the
3) Insert new paper roll with shiny
face on outside, whiter flat face on inside
of roll
4) Extend paper 2cm outside of cut edge
5) Close door and resume printing
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 33
Electrophoresis: PhotoDoc-It System
MIDSCI Cat #: 97-0274-04
PhotoDoc-It System, w/M-20V
Transilluminator, 20x20cm,
Variable Intensity
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
DigiCam 60:
Color digital camera
10.0 megapixels
SD memory card (16 MB minimum)
Power cord included (batteries not required)
UV blocking viewer window
Lightweight and compact
Handles for easy transport of the hood
Fits on top of the transilluminator
Emission Filters
EtBr Red 570-640nm
The system is designed for use with UVP's Benchtop UV
Select from 302nm UV or 2UV model with 302nm and 365nm
Filter sizes: 20x20cm or 21x26cm
M-20V and M-26V feature variable intensity settings
Color Printer
300 x 300 resolution
4x6 in. prints
USB connectivity
108 prints included
Dimensions: 7 x 5 x 2.5 in. (178 x 127 x 64 mm)
Combination Lock:
3 digit resettable combination
2 ft. cable
Dimensions: 17H x 13.25W x 9.5D in. (432 x 337 x 241mm)
Page 34
Electroblotter: Semi-Dry, Ellard HEB 2020
Owl Series Semi-Dry Electroblotters, Thermo Scientific
Supplier: Thermo Scientific
Rapidly transfer proteins or nucleic acid molecules from
polyacrylamide or agarose gels to membranes. Reduce
Southern, Northern, and Western blotting times to less than one
Solid plate platinum/titanium and stainless steel electrodes are
highly conductive and allow transfers at low voltages without
external cooling systems. Plate electrodes provide a uniform
electric field for efficient, even transfers.
The HEB 2020 accepts gels up to 20 cm x 20 cm. Completely
enclosed lid and drip retaining base. For safety power leads
must be disconnected to open unit. Color coded lid, base and
leads prevents reversal of polarity. Solid construction of 3/16
inch red and 1/4 inch black acrylic, 3/8 inch laminated base
with 1/4 inch thick graphite plates.
Advantages of Horizontal Semi-Dry Electro-Blotter
Transfer time, one hour at constant 0.8mA/square cm at room
Increases capacity to six gels.
Reduces Buffer Requirements to only 200 ml.
No cooling required.
Standard power supplies can be used.
Safety Cover.
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Lid and attached power cord are safety-interlocked to prevent
electric shock. Lid is designed to ensure proper orientation of
electric field.
Minimal buffer is needed for accurate transfers; the amount
contained within the blotting filter paper is sufficient. Easy-to-turn
knobs allow uniform pressure to be applied across the entire
blotting stack for even transfers.
Use electroblotter 27372-374 for mini- to full-size gels. Unit is
designed specifically for the transfer from polyacrylamide or
agarose gels to membranes.
Electroblotter 27372-376 is ideal for the transfer of nucleic acids
from sequencing gels to nylon membranes.
Page 35
Electrophoresis: Cambrex FlashGel System
Not in Service at present at FV
The FlashGel™ System is the fastest way to separate DNA and the only
way to watch DNA migration as it happens. This revolutionary new tool
separates DNA in 2–7 minutes. Monitor gel runs right at the bench, without
UV light. The highly sensitive system allows a 5X reduction in DNA amount
saving both time and money.
Get results in 5 minutes or less
Watch DNA migrate at your bench, in real time without UV light
Enjoy outstanding resolution and exquisite sensitivity
The FlashGel™ System consists of enclosed, disposable, precast agarose
gel cassettes and a combination of electrophoresis and transilluminator
FlashGel™ Cassettes contain precast, prestained agarose gels and buffer
– no need for gel preparation, buffer addition or gel staining.
The FlashGel™ Dock is an electrophoresis apparatus with a built-in
transilluminator that provides both separation and detection.
FlashGel™ Starter Kit includes:
FlashGel Dock
9 FlashGel Cassettes
1 ml FlashGel Loading Dye
150 μl FlashGel DNA Marker
See Brochure for details.
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 36
Electrophoresis: E-Gel System; Quick Guide
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 37
Electrophoresis: E-Gel System
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 38
Electrophoresis: E-Gel System; Basic Operations
and Interrupt
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 39
Electrophoresis: E-Gel System; Pre-run and Running Gel
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 40
Electrophoresis: E-Gel System; Trouble-Shooting
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 41
Electrophoresis: E-Gel, BRDG, FlashGel/Lonza
DNA Starter Kit 57026
FlashGel systems consist of enclosed, disposable, precast agarose gel cassettes and a combination electrophoresis and
transilluminator unit.
FlashGel DNA system separates DNA in 2–7 minutes with outstanding resolution and allows monitoring of gel runs right at the bench
without UV light. The highly sensitive system also allows 5–20 times the reduction in DNA levels, saving both time and money.
FlashGel RNA system is a fast and sensitive tool for analysis of sample integrity and optimized for the unique requirements of RNA.
Recommended for verification and analysis of total RNA, quick checks of native RNA, and checking RNA degradation and mRNA purity.
The system provides results in 30 minutes or less while avoiding use of hazardous reagents and contaminating RNases. RNA fragments
are analyzed on the FlashGel system using the same fast and simple procedure used for DNA. Separation is complete in less than eight
minutes and RNA samples are ready for imaging within 10–20 minutes. FlashGel system for RNA is 5–20 times more sensitive than
ethidium bromide gels and RNA <10ng per band are clearly detected, conserving precious RNA samples.
FlashGel system for DNA recovery eliminates agarose gel preparation and delivers highly efficient recovery, free from inhibitors and UVinduced damage, in a simple 5–10 minute protocol. Go from sample loading to recovery in just five minutes. Recover samples directly
from the cassette without band excision or purification. Visualize sample recovery without UV light and recover at 80–100% efficiency.
FlashGel Dock is an electrophoresis apparatus with a built-in transilluminator that provides visualization of both DNA and RNA
The FlashGel camera captures gel images from the FlashGel system right at the benchtop with complete gel run and image capture in
just five minutes.
FlashGel cassettes contain precast, prestained agarose gels and buffer with no need for gel preparation, buffer addition, or gel staining.
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Ordering Information: DNA starter kit includes the FlashGel Dock; nine DNA cassettes with
precast, prestained agarose gels (1.2% agarose) and buffer, in 12+1 well, single tier format;
loading dye; and DNA marker (100bp–4kb). RNA starter kit includes nine RNase-free RNA
cassettes that fully enclose the gel (1.2%), stain, and running buffer in 12+1 single tier
format; formaldehyde sample buffer; RNA marker; and molecular biology water.
Page 42
Electrophoresis: Power-Voltage-Current-Resistance
What are the relations between Voltage, Current, Power and Resistance?
Power (W) = Voltage (V) x Current (A)
Resistance (Ω) = Voltage (V) / Current (A)
How does a power supply react after pressing RUN?
The internal generator will start building up the high voltage at the output terminals while voltage
and current are constantly measured and power calculated. When one of the pre-set parameters is
exceeded, the generator stops and will keep that parameter constant.
How important is the resistance of an electrophoresis unit?
The resistance of an electrophoresis unit depends on its size, gel thickness, amount of buffer, buffer
conductivity and temperature. This resistance will normally decrease in time due to a slowly increasing
temperature. Electrophoresis units which have a resistance below the minimum load resistance
of a power supply will trigger an alarm and/or cause fuses to blow ! Read the output voltage and current
during a run to measure the resistance and use above formula to calculate the value.
How to keep a constant voltage during a run?
Program the desired voltage and a higher current and power then the maximum expected values:
Current > Voltage / Resistance
Power > Voltage x Current
How to keep a constant current during a run?
Program the desired current and a higher voltage and power then the maximum expected values:
Voltage > Current x Resistance
Power > Voltage x Current
How to keep a constant power during a run?
Program the desired power and a higher voltage and current then the maximum expected values:
Voltage > Current x Resistance
Current > Voltage / Resistance
STLCC_CPLS;Morrison 4/1/2013
Page 43