Rev A 1918-R Power Meter User`s Manual

Model 1918-R
Hand-held Optical Meter
User’s Manual
ii
Preface
iii
Preface
EU Declaration of
Conformity
We declare that the accompanying product, identified with the
mark,
complies with requirements of the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive,
2004/108/EC and the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC.
Model Number: 1918-R
Year
mark affixed: 2007
Type of Equipment: Electrical equipment for measurement, control and
laboratory use.
Manufacturer: Newport Corporation
1791 Deere Avenue
Irvine, California 92606
Standards Applied:
Compliance was demonstrated to the following standards to the extent
applicable:
BS EN61326-1: 1997+A1+A2 +A3 “Electrical equipment for measurement,
control and laboratory use – EMC requirements”
Performance criteria B was achieved during immunity tests.
This equipment meets the CISPR 11:2006+A2 Class A Group 1 radiated and
conducted emission limits.
BS EN 61000-3-2:2001, Harmonic current emissions, Class A
BS EN 61000-3-3:2002, Voltage fluctuations and flicker
BS EN 61010-1:2001, 2nd Edition “Safety requirements for electrical
equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use”
Bruno Rety
Group Director
PPT Instrument and Motion Europe
Zone Industrielle
45340 Beaune-la-Rolande, France
Dan Dunahay
Director of Quality Systems
1791 Deere Avenue
Irvine, Ca. USA
iv
Preface
Firmware and User Manual Updates
Dear Customer,
In an effort to keep the 1918-R Optical Meter optimized for
your applications, Newport will on occasion update existing,
and add new features to this instrument.
To utilize this new functionality will require an update to the
instrument's firmware, which can be easily accomplished by
the user, as described in this User Manual. As required,
Newport will also generate a new version of this User
Manual, reflecting updates to the instrument.
Please check the Newport website (www.Newport.com)
for newer versions of the firmware and the User Manual,
which can be downloaded as a PDF file. Call your local
Newport application specialist if you need support with
locating or downloading these files.
Enjoy your new instrument!
v
Preface
Warranty
Newport Corporation warrants that this product will be free from defects in
material and workmanship and will comply with Newport’s published
specifications at the time of sale for a period of one year from date of
shipment. If found to be defective during the warranty period, the product
will either be repaired or replaced at Newport's option.
To exercise this warranty, write or call your local Newport office or
representative, or contact Newport headquarters in Irvine, California. You
will be given prompt assistance and return instructions. Send the product,
freight prepaid, to the indicated service facility. Repairs will be made and the
instrument returned freight prepaid. Repaired products are warranted for the
remainder of the original warranty period or 90 days, whichever first occurs.
Limitation of Warranty
The above warranties do not apply to products which have been repaired or
modified without Newport’s written approval, or products subjected to
unusual physical, thermal or electrical stress, improper installation, misuse,
abuse, accident or negligence in use, storage, transportation or handling.
This warranty also does not apply to fuses, batteries, or damage from battery
leakage.
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES,
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY
OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE.
NEWPORT CORPORATION SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES RESULTING
FROM THE PURCHASE OR USE OF ITS PRODUCTS.
First printing 2008
© 2008 by Newport Corporation, Irvine, CA. All rights reserved. No part of
this manual may be reproduced or copied without the prior written approval
of Newport Corporation.
This manual has been provided for information only and product
specifications are subject to change without notice. Any change will be
reflected in future printings.
Newport Corporation
1791 Deere Avenue
Irvine, CA, 92606
USA
Part No. 90039766, Rev. A
vi
Preface
Confidentiality & Proprietary Rights
Reservation of Title:
The Newport programs and all materials furnished or produced in
connection with them ("Related Materials") contain trade secrets of Newport
and are for use only in the manner expressly permitted. Newport claims and
reserves all rights and benefits afforded under law in the Programs provided
by Newport Corporation.
Newport shall retain full ownership of Intellectual Property Rights in and to
all development, process, align or assembly technologies developed and
other derivative work that may be developed by Newport. Customer shall
not challenge, or cause any third party to challenge the rights of Newport.
Preservation of Secrecy and Confidentiality and Restrictions to Access:
Customer shall protect the Newport Programs and Related Materials as trade
secrets of Newport, and shall devote its best efforts to ensure that all its
personnel protect the Newport Programs as trade secrets of Newport
Corporation. Customer shall not at any time disclose Newport's trade secrets
to any other person, firm, organization, or employee that does not need
(consistent with Customer's right of use hereunder) to obtain access to the
Newport Programs and Related Materials. These restrictions shall not apply
to information (1) generally known to the public or obtainable from public
sources; (2) readily apparent from the keyboard operations, visual display, or
output reports of the Programs; 3) previously in the possession of Customer
or subsequently developed or acquired without reliance on the Newport
Programs; or (4) approved by Newport for release without restriction.
Service Information
This section contains information regarding factory service for the source.
The user should not attempt any maintenance or service of the system or
optional equipment beyond the procedures outlined in this manual. Any
problem that cannot be resolved should be referred to Newport Corporation.
Copyright and Trademark Information
WINDOWSTM is a registered Trademark of Microsoft Corporation
LabVIEW is a registered Trademark of National Instruments INC.
Visual Basic is a registered Trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Visual C++ is a registered Trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
vii
Preface
Technical Support Contacts
North America & Asia
Europe
Newport Corporation Service Dept.
1791 Deere Ave. Irvine, CA 92606
Telephone: (949) 253-1694
Telephone: (800) 222-6440 x31694
Newport/MICRO-CONTROLE S.A.
Zone Industrielle
45340 Beaune la Rolande, FRANCE
Telephone: (33) 02 38 40 51 56
Asia
Newport Opto-Electronics
Technologies
253 Aidu Road, Bld #3, Flr 3, Sec C,
Shanghai 200131, China
Telephone: +86-21-5046 2300
Fax: +86-21-5046 2323
Newport Corporation Calling Procedure
If there are any defects in material or workmanship or a failure to meet
specifications, promptly notify Newport's Returns Department by calling 1-800222-6440 or by visiting our website at www.newport.com/returns within the
warranty period to obtain a Return Material Authorization Number (RMA#).
Return the product to Newport Corporation, freight prepaid, clearly marked with
the RMA# and we will either repair or replace it at our discretion. Newport is not
responsible for damage occurring in transit and is not obligated to accept products
returned without an RMA#.
E-mail: rma.service@newport.com
When calling Newport Corporation, please provide the customer care representative
with the following information:



Your Contact Information
Serial number or original order number
Description of problem (i.e., hardware or software)
To help our Technical Support Representatives diagnose your problem, please note
the following conditions:




Is the system used for manufacturing or research and development?

Can you identify anything that was different before this problem occurred?
What was the state of the system right before the problem?
Have you seen this problem before? If so, how often?
Can the system continue to operate with this problem? Or is the system nonoperational?
viii
Preface
IMPORTANT NOTE
Before plugging the instrument into a PC via a USB communication port, please
make sure that the USB Drivers are installed. Run Setup.exe from the Software CD
that came with your product. The installation program will configure the PC with the
1918-R USB drivers.
ix
Preface
Table of Contents
EU Declaration of Conformity................................................................ iii
Warranty................................................................................................... v
Technical Support Contacts ................................................................... vii
Table of Contents .................................................................................... ix
List of Figures ....................................................................................... xiii
List of Tables ........................................................................................ xiv
1
Safety Precautions
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
3
Definitions and Symbols ............................................................ 15
1.1.1 General Warning or Caution ...........................................15
1.1.2 Electric Shock..................................................................15
1.1.3 TÜV Mark .......................................................................15
1.1.4 European Union CE Mark ...............................................16
1.1.5 Alternating voltage symbol .............................................16
1.1.6 Stand-by...........................................................................16
1.1.7 Frame or Chassis .............................................................16
1.1.8 Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) .....17
1.1.9 Control of Hazardous Substances....................................17
Warnings and Cautions............................................................... 17
1.2.1 General Warnings............................................................18
1.2.2 General Cautions .............................................................18
Location of Labels...................................................................... 19
1.3.1 Rear Panel........................................................................19
General Information
2.1
2.2
2.3
3.3
21
Introduction ................................................................................ 21
Calibration .................................................................................. 22
Specifications ............................................................................. 22
2.3.1 Physical Specifications:...................................................22
2.3.2 Electrical Specifications ..................................................23
Unpacking and Handling............................................................ 24
Inspection for Damage ............................................................... 24
Available Options and Accessories ............................................ 25
Parts List..................................................................................... 25
Choosing and Preparing a Suitable Work Surface ..................... 26
Electrical Requirements.............................................................. 26
Battery and External Power Supply ........................................... 26
System Overview
3.1
3.2
15
29
Startup Procedure ....................................................................... 29
Front Panel Layout ..................................................................... 29
3.2.1 Front Panel Elements.......................................................29
3.2.2 Understanding the Main Screen ......................................30
Side Panel Layout....................................................................... 30
3.3.1 Side Panel Layout............................................................30
x
Preface
3.4
4
System Operation
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
5
Rear Panel Layout ...................................................................... 32
3.4.1 Rear Panel Elements ....................................................... 32
3.4.2 Kick Stand Positions....................................................... 32
Side Panel Power Switch and Indicators .................................... 35
4.1.1 Stand-by Switch.............................................................. 35
4.1.2 LED Indicators ............................................................... 35
Front Panel Keys ........................................................................ 36
4.2.1 Setup/Enter Key.............................................................. 36
4.2.2 Esc Key........................................................................... 38
4.2.3 Navigation and Selection Keys....................................... 38
4.2.4 Soft Keys ........................................................................ 38
4.2.5 Dedicated Keys............................................................... 38
Measurement Settings................................................................. 42
4.3.1 Changing the Measurement Settings .............................. 42
4.3.2 Detector Information ...................................................... 44
Power Management .................................................................... 45
Trigger Setup .............................................................................. 46
4.5.1 Trigger Start.................................................................... 46
4.5.2 Trigger Stop.................................................................... 46
Wavelength Setting..................................................................... 47
Display Color.............................................................................. 47
USB Address .............................................................................. 49
Statistics...................................................................................... 49
4.9.1 Graph .............................................................................. 50
Math Functions ........................................................................... 51
Measurement Correction Settings .............................................. 51
Display Modes............................................................................ 52
4.12.1 Numeric Display............................................................. 53
4.12.2 Analog Bar...................................................................... 53
4.12.3 Analog Needle ................................................................ 54
4.12.4 Vertical Chart ................................................................. 55
Optical Meter Firmware Upgrade Procedure ............................. 55
Performing Basic Measurements
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
35
57
Introduction ................................................................................ 57
Measurement Modes and Units .................................................. 57
CW Measurements (with 918D or 818P Detectors)................... 58
Peak-to-Peak Power Measurements (918D Detectors) .............. 59
Power Ratio and Power Reference measurements ..................... 59
Pulse Energy Measurements (818E Detectors) .......................... 60
Signal Integration Measurements (918D or 818P Detectors)..... 61
Measuring Laser Pulse Energy with an 818P Thermopile
Detector (Single Shot)................................................................ 61
RMS Measurements ................................................................... 63
xi
Preface
6
Software Application
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
7
7.3
8
9.11
107
Introduction .............................................................................. 107
Analog Signal Flow.................................................................. 107
Digitized Signal Flow............................................................... 108
Typical Detector Signals .......................................................... 109
Thermopile Detector Signals.................................................... 110
Pulse Energy Detector Signals ................................................. 110
Peak-to-Peak (Photodiode) Detector Signals ........................... 111
Integration of Detector Signals................................................. 112
Analog Output .......................................................................... 113
Measurement Considerations ................................................... 114
9.10.1 Detector Calibration and Uncertainty............................114
9.10.2 Quantum Detector Temperature Effects........................114
9.10.3 Thermopile Detector Temperature Effects ....................115
9.10.4 Energy Detector Temperature Effects ...........................116
9.10.5 Ambient and Stray Light ...............................................116
9.10.6 Signal Filtering ..............................................................117
Common Measurement Errors ................................................. 118
10 Troubleshooting
10.1
69
1918-R Optical Meter Remote Interface Commands................. 69
Command Overview................................................................... 69
Optical Meter Command Description ........................................ 70
8.3.1 Command Glossary .........................................................70
8.3.2 Display Commands .........................................................72
8.3.3 Optical Meter Commands................................................74
Principles of Operation
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
67
General Guidelines ..................................................................... 67
Computer Interface Terminology ............................................... 67
7.2.1 <…> Delimiting Punctuation ..........................................67
7.2.2 <CR> Carriage Return.....................................................67
7.2.3 <LF> Line Feed...............................................................67
7.2.4 (;) Semicolons..................................................................67
7.2.5 <number> Numerical Types............................................68
7.2.6 <string> String Types ......................................................68
USB Communication.................................................................. 68
Communication Command Reference
8.1
8.2
8.3
9
Overview .................................................................................... 65
Connection.................................................................................. 65
General Usage ............................................................................ 66
Menu Structure ........................................................................... 66
Computer Interfacing
7.1
7.2
65
120
Power Supply Problems ........................................................... 120
xii
Preface
10.2
10.3
Analog Output Problems .......................................................... 121
Questions and Answers ............................................................ 121
11 Maintenance and Service
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
Enclosure Cleaning................................................................... 124
Battery Pack Replacement........................................................ 124
Spare Parts ................................................................................ 125
Obtaining Service ..................................................................... 126
Service Form............................................................................. 127
12 Appendix A – Syntax and Definitions
12.1
12.2
128
Definition of <string>............................................................... 128
Definition of <number>............................................................ 129
13 Appendix B – Error Messages
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
124
132
Introduction .............................................................................. 132
Command Errors....................................................................... 132
Execution Errors ....................................................................... 133
Device Errors............................................................................ 134
14 Appendix C - Legacy Commands Reference
136
15 Appendix D – Sample Programs
138
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
Programming Samples.............................................................. 138
LabVIEW.................................................................................. 138
Microsoft® Visual Basic .......................................................... 138
Microsoft Visual C++............................................................... 138
Microsoft .NET......................................................................... 138
16 Appendix E – Disassembly Instructions
16.1
140
Disassembly instructions .......................................................... 140
xiii
Preface
List of Figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Figure 23
Figure 24
Figure 25
Figure 26
Figure 27
Figure 28
Figure 29
Figure 30
Figure 31
Figure 32
Figure 33
Figure 34
Figure 35
Figure 36
Figure 37
Figure 38
Figure 39
Figure 40
Figure 41
Figure 42
Figure 43
General Warning or Caution Symbol............................................. 15
Electrical Shock Symbol ................................................................ 15
TÜV Mark...................................................................................... 15
CE Mark ......................................................................................... 16
Alternating Voltage Symbol .......................................................... 16
Stand-by Symbol............................................................................ 16
Frame or Chassis Terminal Symbol............................................... 16
WEEE Directive Symbol ............................................................... 17
RoHS Compliant Symbol............................................................... 17
Locations of labels on the rear panel.............................................. 19
1918-R Optical Meter hard case .................................................... 25
Rear panel with the battery cover removed.................................... 27
Front Panel Layout......................................................................... 29
Side Panel Layout .......................................................................... 31
Rear panel ...................................................................................... 32
Kickstand in the first angled position............................................. 33
Power Switch ................................................................................. 35
Front Panel keys............................................................................. 36
Navigation/Selection and Setup/Enter keys ................................... 37
Main screen .................................................................................... 37
Measurement Settings screen......................................................... 37
Soft keys......................................................................................... 38
Dedicated keys ............................................................................... 38
Manual Range mode ...................................................................... 39
Auto Range mode........................................................................... 39
This screen is displayed after pressing the Config soft key ........... 39
Mode selection screen .................................................................... 40
Measurement is on hold ................................................................. 40
Filter selection screen..................................................................... 40
Filter configuration screen ............................................................. 41
Digital Filter editing....................................................................... 41
Wavelengths screen........................................................................ 41
Zero Selection ................................................................................ 42
Measurement Settings screen......................................................... 42
Accessing the Power Mangement screen...................................... 45
Power Mangement Settings screen ............................................... 45
Accessing the Trigger Setup screen ............................................... 46
Predefined color schemes............................................................... 48
Setup screen ................................................................................... 48
System Settings screen................................................................... 48
About screen .................................................................................. 49
Statistics screen .............................................................................. 49
Graph screen .................................................................................. 50
xiv
Preface
Figure 44
Figure 45
Figure 46
Figure 47
Figure 48
Figure 49
Figure 50
Figure 51
Figure 52
Figure 53
Figure 54
Figure 55
Figure 56
Figure 57
Figure 58
Figure 59
Figure 60
Figure 61
Figure 62
Figure 63
Figure 64
Figure 65
Figure 66
Math field ....................................................................................... 51
Math configuration screen.............................................................. 51
Measurement Settings .................................................................... 52
Correction Settings......................................................................... 52
Mode selection screen .................................................................... 52
The Numeric display ...................................................................... 53
Analog Bar ..................................................................................... 53
Auto Zoom ..................................................................................... 54
Analog Needle display ................................................................... 54
Vertical chart with 10 measurements per line................................ 55
Vertical chart with 1 measurement per line ................................... 55
Measuring Laser Pulse Energy via a Thermopile in CW Integrate
Mode .............................................................................................. 62
Application front panel................................................................... 65
Application Advanced Options (Configuration Tab)..................... 66
1918-R Optical Meter Analog Signal Flow Diagram .................. 107
Thermopile Signals exhibit 1 to 10 second time constants. ......... 110
Typical Newport Energy Detector Signal Waveform .................. 111
Negative Baseline Voltage. .......................................................... 111
Time Varying Signal Measurements............................................ 112
Integrated Energy Via a Trapezoid Approximation..................... 112
Measuring Laser Pulse Energy with a Thermopile. ..................... 113
Battery Replacement .................................................................... 125
Disassembled 1918-R Optical Meter ........................................... 141
List of Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Available Measurement Modes and Valid Units. .......................... 58
Root level Commands/Queries Summary ...................................... 70
Tree Level Commands/Queries Summary ..................................... 72
Analog Signal Flow Paths. ........................................................... 108
Analog Output Range Table......................................................... 113
Common Measurement Errors ..................................................... 118
Spare Parts.................................................................................... 126
Legacy Commands Reference...................................................... 137
1
Safety Precautions
1.1
Definitions and Symbols
The following terms and symbols are used in this documentation and also
appear on the 1918-R Optical Meter where safety-related issues occur.
1.1.1
General Warning or Caution
Figure 1
General Warning or Caution Symbol
The Exclamation Symbol in the figure above appears in Warning and Caution
tables throughout this document. This symbol designates an area where
personal injury or damage to the equipment is possible.
1.1.2
Electric Shock
Figure 2
Electrical Shock Symbol
The Electrical Shock Symbol in the figure above appears throughout this
manual. This symbol indicates a hazard arising from dangerous voltage.
Any mishandling could result in irreparable damage to the equipment, and
personal injury or death.
1.1.3
TÜV Mark
Figure 3
TÜV Mark
The presence of the TÜV mark indicates that it has been designed, tested and
certified as complying with the safety requirements in conjunction with the
issuance of this mark.
16
Safety Precautions
1.1.4
European Union CE Mark
Figure 4
CE Mark
The presence of the CE Mark on Newport Corporation equipment means that
it has been designed, tested and certified as complying with all applicable
European Union (CE) regulations and recommendations.
1.1.5
~
Alternating voltage symbol
Figure 5
Alternating Voltage Symbol
This international symbol implies an alternating voltage or current.
1.1.6
Stand-by
Figure 6
Stand-by Symbol
The Stand-by Symbol in the figure above represents a power switch position.
This symbol represents a Stand-by condition in which some circuitry is still
on. In the case of the 1918-R Optical Power Meter, in the Stand-by position
the charging circuit is still on, while the main processing circuit is off.
1.1.7
Frame or Chassis
Figure 7
Frame or Chassis Terminal Symbol
The symbol in the figure above appears on the 1918-R Optical Meter. This
symbol identifies the frame or chassis terminal
Safety Precautions
1.1.8
17
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
Figure 8
WEEE Directive Symbol
This symbol on the product or on its packaging indicates that this product
must not be disposed of with regular waste. Instead, it is the user
responsibility to dispose of waste equipment according to the local laws. The
separate collection and recycling of the waste equipment at the time of
disposal will help to conserve natural resources and ensure that it is recycled
in a manner that protects human health and the environment. For information
about where the user can drop off the waste equipment for recycling, please
contact your local Newport Corporation representative. See Section 16 for
instructions on how to disassemble the equipment for recycling purposes.
1.1.9
Control of Hazardous Substances
Figure 9
RoHS Compliant Symbol
This label indicates the products comply with the EU Directive 2002/95/EC
that restricts the content of six hazardous chemicals.
1.2
Warnings and Cautions
The following are definitions of the Warnings, Cautions and Notes that are
used throughout this manual to call your attention to important information
regarding your safety, the safety and preservation of your equipment or an
important tip.
WARNING
Situation has the potential to cause bodily harm or death.
18
Safety Precautions
CAUTION
Situation has the potential to cause damage to property or
equipment.
NOTE
Additional information the user or operator should consider.
1.2.1
General Warnings
Observe these general warnings when operating or servicing this equipment:








Heed all warnings on the unit and in the operating instructions.
Do not use this equipment in or near water.
Route power cords and other cables so they are not likely to be damaged.
Disconnect power before cleaning the equipment. Do not use liquid or
aerosol cleaners; use only a damp lint-free cloth.
Lockout all electrical power sources before servicing the equipment.
To avoid fire hazard, use only the specified fuse(s) with the correct type
number, voltage and current ratings as referenced in the appropriate
locations in the service instructions or on the equipment. Only qualified
service personnel should replace fuses.
To avoid explosion, do not operate this equipment in an explosive
atmosphere.
Qualified service personnel should perform safety checks after any
service.
1.2.2
General Cautions
Observe these cautions when operating or servicing this equipment:
 If this equipment is used in a manner not specified in this manual, the







protection provided by this equipment may be impaired.
Do not position this product in such a manner that would make it difficult
to disconnect the power cord.
Use only the specified replacement parts.
Follow precautions for static sensitive devices when handling this
equipment.
This product should only be powered as described in the manual.
There are no user-serviceable parts inside the 1918-R Optical Meter with
the exception of the battery.
Use only the Newport Model 1918-BAT battery.
Use only the Newport Model 1918-PS external power supply.
Safety Precautions
19
 To prevent damage to the equipment, read the instructions in the
equipment manual for proper input voltage.
 Adhere to good laser safety practices when using this equipment.
1.3
Location of Labels
1.3.1
Rear Panel
Markings on the rear panel identify the instrument compliance with different
standards and regulations. The labels are located in the middle of the rear
panel.
Location of
Labels
Figure 10
Locations of labels on the rear panel
20
Safety Precautions
This page is intentionally left blank
2
General Information
2.1
Introduction
The 1918-R Optical Meter is designed to provide a powerful combination of
features to measure optical power and energy of near-monochromatic or
monochromatic sources. The instrument is powered by internal, rechargeable
batteries, or via the AC wall-plug, hence making it a useful tool for both
stationary and portable applications.
Use of the extensive measurement modes and features have been simplified
with an intuitive menu driven structure that provides quick access to all
modes, features and settings. Some of the prominent specifications and
features that will simplify your calibrated measurement applications are in
the following:







Compatibility with Photodiode, Thermopile and Pyroelectric detectors.
(Low-Power (Semiconductor) Family, High-Power (Thermopile)
Family, Energy (Pyroelectric) Family, PMT, GaN, PbS, PbSe, and
HgCdZnTe)
Measurement rate up to 4 kHz with internal signal sampling rate of
250 kHz.
Multiple measurement modes for power and energy measurements:
Single, Continuous, Integrated, and Peak-to-Peak .
Software suite, including LabVIEW drivers and Windows application.
250,000 internal data point storage.
External USB flash-memory compatibility.
USB Device interface.
The full color TFT 4” LCD renders excellent visibility both with the naked
eye and laser goggles for single screen rendering of plotted and enumerate
results. Measurements can be displayed in W, Joules, Amps, Volts, dBm, dB,
Sun or relative units, either directly or as relative ratio measurements from
present or stored values. Statistical capabilities include the computation of
Min, Max, Max-Min, Mean and Standard Deviation. Additional features such
as digital and analog filtering, and data storage of up to 250,000 readings per
channel are also offered.
Newport’s experience with calibration, together with N.I.S.T. calibration
traceability and high precision Optical Meters provide users with accurate
measurements and exceptional inter-instrument correlation. In R&D, QA/QC,
22
General Information
and manufacturing environments, the 1918-R Series optical meters enable
users to benefit from high correlation between multiple locations at a priceto-performance ratio second to none. Among all the other practical tools
provided, remote controlling with a computer and synchronization to other
instruments are simplified with the inclusion of LabVIEW drivers, tools to
develop in the .NET environment and a high-speed software utility that fully
utilized the optical meter’s ability to sample at 250 kHz and transfer data via
a Full-Speed USB interface (11 Mbps).
2.2
Calibration
Calibration of the optical meter is done at the factory by defining a slope and
offset, for all ranges as determined for each detector type.
Newport recommends annual factory re-calibration to ensure the continued
accuracy of optical meter measurements.
Please refer to the “Maintenance and Troubleshooting” section for contact
information for re-calibration of your optical meter.
1
2.3
Specifications
2.3.1
Physical Specifications:
Dimensions:
5.4 x 7.6 x 2.4 inch (137 x 193 x 61 mm)
Weight:
max. 2.3 lb
Enclosure:
Plastic molded case with a kick stand.
Connectors:
Optical Detector 15-Pin D-Sub, Analog
Output 3.5 mm Jack, USB-A Host, mini-B
USB Device, DC Input 2.1 mm Power Jack.
Power:
90-264 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 33 Watts with
1918-EXT-PS External Power Supply
Display:
Graphical LCD ¼ VGA, 4 inch diagonal
Display Update Rate:
up to 20 Hz for selected graphical modes
Operating Environment1:
5C to 40C; 70% RH non-condensing
Storage Environment:
-20C to 60C; 90% RH non-condensing
Altitude
3000m
Installation Category
II
Pollution Degree
2
Use Location
Indoor use only.
Charging battery up to 35C
General Information
2.3.2
23
Electrical Specifications
DC Current Measurement (Low-Power, Semiconductor Photodiode)
Signal Range
2,3
0
1
2
3
4
2.50 µA
25.0 µA
250 µA
2.50 mA
25 mA
Resolution (Filtered)¹
10 pA
100 pA
1.00 nA
10.0 nA
100 nA
6
480 Hz
4 kHz
43 kHz
170 kHz
500 kHz
Accuracy (Filtered)¹
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
Accuracy (Maximum Measurement
Rate=4 kHz)
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
100 dB
100 dB
100 dB
100 dB
100 dB
Full-Scale Current
Bandwidth (Unfiltered)
Signal to Noise Ratio
1
Peak-Peak Current Measurement (Low-Power, Semiconductor Photodiode)
2,3
0
1
Full-Scale Current
2.50 µA
Resolution
76.3 pA
Signal Range
Accuracy
Bandwidth
6
Maximum Pulse Repetition Rate
4
2
3
4
25.0 µA
250 µA
2.50 mA
25 mA
763 pA
7.63 nA
76.3 nA
763 nA
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
480 Hz
4 kHz
43 kHz
170 kHz
500 kHz
480 Hz
4 kHz
4 kHz
4 kHz
4 kHz
D.C. Voltage Measurement (Thermopile)
2,3
0
1
2
3
4
5
Full-Scale Voltage
2.5mV
25.0 mV
250 mV
2.50 V
25.0 V
130 V
Resolution
76.3 nV
763 nV
7.63 µV
76.3 µV
763 μV
3.96 mV
Accuracy
1
(Filtered)
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
Accuracy (Maximum
Measurement Rate=2 kHz)
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
3 kHz
3 kHz
3 kHz
3 kHz
3 kHz
3 kHz
100dB
100dB
100dB
100dB
100dB
100dB
3
4
5
Signal Range
Bandwidth
6
Signal to Noise Ratio
1
Pulse Voltage Measurement (Energy, Pyroelectric)
2,3
0
1
Full-Scale Current
2.5mV
25.0 mV
250 mV
2.50 V
25.0 V
130 V
Resolution
76.3 nV
763 nV
7.63 µV
76.3 µV
763 μV
3.96 mV
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
600 kHz
1000 kHz
1000 kHz
1000 kHz
400 kHz
1000 kHz
2 kHz
2 kHz
2 kHz
2 kHz
2 kHz
2 kHz
Signal Range
Accuracy
Bandwidth
6
Maximum Pulse Repetition
5
Rate
2
24
General Information
RMS Measurement
Maximum Pulse Repetition Rate
2 kHz
4 kHz
Accuracy
1.0%
2.0 %
Analog Output
Output Range
0
1
2
1V
2V
5V
Accuracy
1.0 %
1.0 %
1.0 %
Linearity
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
Full Scale Voltage
(Load > 100 kΩ)
Trigger Level
Programmable Level
Resolution
0…100 % Full Scale
0.39 % Full Scale
1
With 0.5 HZ filter on.
Listed signal ranges specify meter capability. Available signal ranges are detector dependent.
3
Maximum measurable signal is detector dependent.
4
While the maximum repetition range may equal the bandwidth, it really depends on the signal duty-cycle or the
signal shape.
5
The Maximum Repetition Rate refers to the meter pulse-by-pulse measuring capability. Due to its high
bandwidth, the 1918-R can take in signals with higher repetitive rates and outputs them undistorted at the Analog
Output.
6
The instrument bandwidth is determined by the detector used. Please refer to Newport Corporation’s complete
offering on detector type. The specified bandwidth is measured from the instrument input (detector) to the Analog
Output BNC, using a generator with 50 Ω output.
2
2.4
Unpacking and Handling
It is recommended that the 1918-R Optical Meter be unpacked in a lab
environment or work site. Unpack the system carefully; small parts and
cables are included with the instrument. Inspect the box carefully for loose
parts before disposing of the packaging. You are urged to save the packaging
material in case you need to ship your equipment in the future.
2.5
Inspection for Damage
The 1918-R Optical Meter is carefully packaged at the factory to minimize
the possibility of damage during shipping. Inspect the box for external
signs of damage or mishandling. Inspect the contents for damage. If there
is visible damage to the instrument or accessories upon receipt, inform the
shipping company and Newport Corporation immediately.
General Information
25
WARNING
Do not attempt to operate this equipment if there is evidence of
shipping damage or you suspect the unit is damaged. Damaged
equipment may present additional hazards to you. Contact
Newport technical support for advice before attempting to plug
in and operate damaged equipment.
2.6
Available Options and Accessories
Newport Corporation also supplies temperature controlled mounts, lenses,
and other accessories. Please consult with your representative for additional
information.
2.7
Parts List
Battery
External
Power
Supply
And
detachable
power cord
1918-R
Optical
Meter
Figure 11
1918-R Optical Meter hard case
The following is a list of parts included in the hardcase (Figure 11) with the
1918-R Optical Meter:
1. A CD-ROM containing the User’s Manual, Software Drivers and Utilities.
(A PDF version of the manual can also be downloaded from the Newport
website at www.Newport.com).
2. Battery Pack (1918-BAT).
26
General Information
3. External Power Supply (1918-PS) and detachable power cord (1918-PSC).
If you are missing any of these items or have questions about the items you
have received, please contact Newport Corporation.
2.8
Choosing and Preparing a Suitable Work Surface
The 1918-R Optical Meter may be placed on any reasonably firm table or
bench during operation. The kickstand can be rotated to two angles to
improve visibility of the LCD display, as needed.
Provide adequate distance between the 1918-R Optical Meter and adjacent
walls for ventilation purposes. Approximately 2-inch spacing for all surfaces
is adequate.
2.9
Electrical Requirements
Before attempting to power up the unit for the first time, the following
precautions must be followed:
 If the power supply is equipped with a 3-prong plug, connect the
instrument to properly earth-grounded 3-prong receptacle only.
WARNING
If the power supply is equipped with a 3-prong plug, connect the
instrument to properly earth-grounded, 3-prong receptacles
only. Failure to observe this precaution can result in severe
injury.
 Have a qualified electrician verify the wall socket that will be used is
properly polarized and properly grounded.
2.10
Battery and External Power Supply
CAUTION
The battery needs to be charged for at least 8 hours before using
the optical meter without the external power supply.
The 1918-R Optical Meter is shipped from the factory with the battery
removed from the unit.
Install the battery before plugging the external power supply and before
turning on the unit.
To install the battery first remove the battery compartment cover from the
back of the unit. Connect the 5-pin battery connector to the corresponding
connector inside the battery compartment (Figure 12). The connector is keyed
and can only be inserted in one direction so please be careful to properly
align the connector pins. Carefully fold the battery wires inside the battery
General Information
27
compartment so that the wires will not put pressure on the battery
compartment cover. Close the cover and make sure it latches in place.
Battery
Connector
Battery
Figure 12
Rear panel with the battery cover removed
When the optical meter is turned on for the first time the battery needs to be
charged for at least 4 hours. The optical meter can be used while the battery
is being charged. It is recommended that the external power supply not be
removed during the first 4 hours of charging.
CAUTION
The battery needs to be removed if the instrument is going to be
unused for more than 3 weeks. Failure to do so may result in
over-discharging the battery which drastically reduces the
battery life or may cause battery breakdown.
AC power is supplied through an external power supply that provides in-line
transient protection and RF filtering. This power supply is universal which
means it can work at 90-264 VAC and 50/60 Hz.
CAUTION
Permanent damage may occur to the optical meter if external
powers supply other than the Newport 1918-PS is used. Please
call Newport Corporation if extra power supplies are needed for
a particular setup.
CAUTION
Do not operate with a line voltage that is not within 90-264 VAC.
28
General Information
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3
System Overview
3.1
Startup Procedure
Provided that the Optical Meter has been installed in an appropriate
environment and its external power supply power cord is connected to a
working electrical outlet, power-up the Optical Meter by pressing the power
button on the upper right corner of the left side panel. The battery will start
charging. If the Optical Meter is turned on for the first time, make sure the
external power supply is not unplugged from the AC outlet for at least
4 hours. During charging, the Optical Meter can be used for measurements.
At the end of the charging time, the Optical Meter can be used without the
external power supply.
For the highest precision and accuracy, the 1918-R Optical Meter should be
allowed to warm up for one hour before being used for measurements.
3.2
Front Panel Layout
Figure 13
3.2.1
Front Panel Layout
Front Panel Elements
The front panel of the 1918-R features the following elements:
30
System Overview




A faceplate with a 4” active color liquid crystal display
Setup/Enter and Esc keys
Rubberized horizontal (left/right) and vertical (up/down) arrow keys
Four rubberized blank keys below the display (referred to as “soft keys”
later in the manual, as their function depends on the text on the screen
above the key.)
 Six rubberized buttons with dedicated functions – Range, Mode, Hold,
Filter, Lambda (λ), Zero.
3.2.2
Understanding the Main Screen
The main screen is displayed after startup (Figure 13). The middle portion of
the main screen is a real-time display of power measured in last used units, and
the lower half of the main screen is a row of four labels for actions that the
keys below them will activate. Note that the screen will display “Saturated”
message either when the amount of power surpasses the detector saturation
specification, or when the detector spot size and/or detector saturation
specifications are missing in the calibration module.
When an annunciator label is visible, its function is enabled. If the
annunciator appears on the display as an unlabeled key, the function it
represents is currently disabled. Annunciators loosely correspond to keypad
keys, which are used either alone or in combination with the navigation and
selection keys to control annunciator functions.
3.3
Side Panel Layout
Input Connectors
The input connectors are on the side panel. The 1918-R Optical Meter
supports input from external detectors through a DB15 detector connector.
The external power supply is plugged in the DC INPUT connector.
Output Connectors
The 1918-R Optical Meter has an analog output, which enables direct
monitoring of a detector through an oscilloscope or voltmeter.
3.3.1
Side Panel Layout
The side panel is a brushed aluminum plate with input and output connectors,
a power switch, and LED indicators (Figure 14)





Stand-by switch. This is a push-on/push-off button for turning the unit on
or off.
Ground Pin. The user can connect the Optical Meter to an Earth Ground
for sensitive measurements.
15-Pin D-Sub Optical Detector Input.
3.5 mm Jack Analog Output.
Mini USB Connector labeled USB PC. This connector is used for
sending remote commands to the Optical Meter from a PC. The
System Overview

31
connection to a computer is done via a USB cable Type "A" Male
Connector to Type "Mini-B" Male Connector.
USB “A” connector labeled USB MEM. This connector is used for
saving the data on a USB Memory and for firmware upgrades.
Analog Out
Stand-by Switch
Mini USB
Connector
USB “A”
Connector
Charge
Status
Indicator
15-pin D-Sub
Detector
Connector
Power
Indicator
DC Input
Connector
Grounding
Pin
Figure 14
Side Panel Layout
WARNING
To avoid electrical shock hazard, connect the instrument to
properly earth-grounded, 3-prong receptacles only. Failure to
observe this precaution can result in severe injury.
32
System Overview
3.4
Rear Panel Layout
Battery
compartment
cover
Labels
Kickstand
Figure 15
3.4.1
Rear panel
Rear Panel Elements
The rear panel of the 1918-R features the following elements (Figure 15):
 Battery compartment cover
 Kickstand
 Labels
Markings on the rear panel identify the instrument compliance with different
standards and regulations.
CAUTION
There are no user-serviceable parts inside the Optical Meter.
Work performed inside the Optical Meter by persons not
authorized by Newport may void the warranty.
3.4.2
Kick Stand Positions
The instrument can be used in 4 viewing angles, allowing the user to adjust
for the height of the work surface and lighting conditions:
 Laying on its back side in the horizontal position
 Standing up on its bottom side in the vertical position
 At two angled positions, by moving the kick-stand into two, preconfigured
notches, manufactured into the instrument body.
System Overview
33
Figure 16
Kickstand in the first angled position
34
System Overview
This page is intentionally left blank
4
System Operation
4.1
Side Panel Power Switch and Indicators
4.1.1
Stand-by Switch
Figure 17
Power Switch
The Stand-by switch is located on the side panel and is a toggle button. It
turns the unit on or in stand-by. When in stand-by, the unit is not fully turned
off. In stand-by, the 1918-R Optical Meter will charge the battery, while all
the other functions are off.
4.1.2
LED Indicators
The instrument has two LED indicators – one for Power and one for Status.
Both of these are located on the Side Panel.
4.1.2.1
Power Indicator
The Power Indicator shows the current state of the battery charging circuit
when the external power supply is powered and connected to the instrument.
This indicator operates even when the unit is turned OFF. This indicator is
not lit when the external power supply is disconnected from the instrument or
is not connected to an external AC power source.
NOTE
The power indicator is not lit when the unit is operating from its internal battery.
When external power is applied, there are four states for this indicator –
Unlit, Flashing Red, Continuous Red, and Continuous Green.
The Power Indicator will be Continuously Green when the battery charge
circuitry detects a fully charged battery.
The Power Indicator will be Continuously Red while the battery is being
charged.
36
System Operation
The Power Indicator will be Flashing Red after external power is applied and
until the battery charge circuitry determines that the instrument’s internal
battery is safe to charge. This may range from less than a second to several
minutes, depending on the initial state of the battery.
Even when external power is applied to the instrument, the Power Indicator
will not be lit when the charging circuitry detects a failed, defective, or
missing battery. It is acceptable to operate the unit without a battery using
just the external supply.
4.1.2.2
Status Indicator
The Status Indicator will switch every few seconds between Green and Unlit
when the instrument is turned ON and is operating normally.
4.2
Front Panel Keys
The front panel keys are organized in three groups (see Figure 18).
 Navigation Keys
 Reconfigurable Keys (also called Soft Keys)
 Escape (ESC) Key
Navigation Keys
Escape Key
Dedicated Keys
Reconfigurable (Soft) Keys
Figure 18
4.2.1
Front Panel keys
Setup/Enter Key
The Setup/Enter key is placed to the right of the display (Figure 19). This key
has dual functionality. From the main screen (Figure 20) press this key to
display the Measurement Settings screen (Figure 21). Also, use this key while
System Operation
37
any secondary menu is displayed to complete entering data, or to exit the
current secondary screen.
Figure 19
Navigation/Selection and Setup/Enter keys
Figure 20
Figure 21
Main screen
Measurement Settings screen
Refer to Section 4.3 for more information about the measurement settings.
38
System Operation
4.2.2
Esc Key
The Esc key (Figure 18 and Figure 19) is used to cancel the current action.
When in a secondary screen or menu, it will close the current screen or menu
and the instrument will return to the main screen (Figure 20).
4.2.3
Navigation and Selection Keys
Navigation through and selection of data in the display is done with the top
right group of four arrows keys and with the Setup/Enter key (Figure 19).
If the instrument is in Setup mode or in any configuration screens, pressing
the arrow keys will select different setup modes as displayed by the current
screen.
4.2.4
Soft Keys
Below the screen are a group of four keys (Figure 22). Their function varies,
depending on the measurement mode or the setup screen. They are designed
to provide context sensitive functionality to the user. The label displayed
above each key indicates their function.
Figure 22
4.2.5
Soft keys
Dedicated Keys
Six dedicated function keys are at the bottom right portion of the front panel
(Figure 23). Each of these keys can be used for quick access to the given
function.
Figure 23
Dedicated keys
System Operation
39
Range
Pressing this key reconfigures the
Soft keys at the bottom of the
screen as in Figure 24.
From this screen the user has two
options.
 One is to toggle Auto/Manual
Range mode. This is accomplished
by pressing the left-most Soft key.
If the meter current configuration
is Manual mode the left-most Soft
key is labeled Auto to allow the
user to change the Range selection
in Auto Range Mode. This can be
seen in Figure 24, where the range
is 1.000 W indicating a manual
mode.
If the instrument is in Auto Range
Mode, the left most key is labeled
Manual. The user may return to
the main screen by pressing the
ESC key (see Figure 25).
 The other option is to press the
right-most Soft key, which is
labeled Config. This action
displays the Range Configuration
screen. Here the user can select a
certain range or even Auto Range
with the Navigation/Enter keys.
The number of ranges depends
on the detector used (see
Section 2.3.2). Once a range is
selected the instrument returns to
the main screen. While in Range
Configuration screen, the user
may cancel the selection by
hitting the ESC key.
Figure 24
Figure 25
Manual Range mode
Auto Range mode
Figure 26 This screen is displayed after
pressing the Config soft key
40
System Operation
Mode
The Mode key displays a screen as
in Figure 27. Using
Navigation/Enter keys, the user can
select different measurement modes
or display modes according to
his/her application. The ESC key
cancels the selection and brings the
instrument back to the main screen.
Figure 27
Mode selection screen
Hold
The Hold key toggles between
holding the current measurement or
running freely. When in Hold mode
the numeric display freezes and the
upper left corner of the display
reads Hold (see Figure 28).
The display starts running when the
Hold key is pressed again. The ESC
key has no effect on Hold status.
Figure 28
Measurement is on hold
Filter
The Filter key allows the user to
apply Analog or Digital Filters or
both to the detector signal. This key
brings a screen as in Figure 29. The
Soft keys are reconfigured for the
filter selection. Counting from left to
right, the first key applies only the
Analog filter to the detector signal,
the second applies only the Digital
Filter, and the third applies both
filters. When the filters are selected,
the corresponding label above the
soft key has a highlighted
background and the filter name is
displayed in the upper left corner.
Figure 29 Filter selection screen
System Operation
The fourth Soft key is used for filter
configuration. When selected, a
screen as in Figure 30 is displayed.
Using the Navigation/Enter keys the
user can select the filter of choice. If
the Enter key is not pressed, the ESC
key cancels the selection and brings
the instrument back to the main
screen. If the Enter key is pressed, a
selection is made, and the instrument
goes back to the main screen.
The digital filter values can be edited
(Figure 31). When one of the digital
filter values is selected, the right most
soft key becomes Edit Value. Pressing
this Soft key displays a cursor on top
of the first digit of the edited filter
value. The Navigation Up/Down keys
modify the digit, while the Left/Right
keys move the cursor to the next digit.
When finished, press the Enter key to
store the new digital filter value and
press Enter again to select the new
value and exit the Filter configuration
screen.
41
Figure 30
Filter configuration screen
Figure 31
Digital Filter editing
Lambda (λ) Key
The Lambda (λ) key brings the
Default and Custom Wavelengths
screen (Figure 32). This screen
allows the user to choose a default
wavelength for the measurement in
progress, or to choose a custom
wavelength. See Section 4.6 for
more details.
Figure 32 Wavelengths screen
42
System Operation
Set Zero Offset (Zero Key)
The Zero Offset key, or short, Zero
key is used to temporarily zero the
instrument for the measurement in
progress. When the user presses this
key, the instrument takes the displayed
numeric value as offset and subtracts
it from all the subsequent
measurements. When the instrument is
zeroed the offset value is displayed on
the main screen above the numeric
value (see Figure 33).
Figure 33 Zero Selection
The Zero key toggles the offset on or
off. The ESC key has no effect on the
Zero function.
4.3
Measurement Settings
The Measurement Settings screen has
dual functionality:
 One is the convenience the user has
to change all the measurement
settings within one screen.
 The other is information presented
to the user about the detector used.
From the default screen, when pressing
the Setup/Enter key, the 1918-R
displays the Measurement Settings
screen as in Figure 34.
4.3.1
Figure 34
Measurement Settings
screen
Changing the Measurement Settings
Within the Measurement Settings screen the user can select the Wavelength,
Range, Range Type, Beam Attenuator, Analog Filter selection, Digital Filter
selection, Measurement Units, Measurement Mode, Spot Size and the
Number of Digits displayed.
4.3.1.1
Wavelength Selection
With the Navigation/Selection keys bring the cursor on top of the
Wavelength field. Hit the Enter key. A drop-down menu appears with the
custom wavelength values (see Section 4.6 for more information about the
wavelength custom values). Select the desired wavelength and hit Enter.
4.3.1.2
Range Selection and Range Type (Rng. type)
The Range field has dual functionality:
System Operation
43
 One is to display the current selected range whether it was selected by the
user, in Manual Range Mode, or by the system, in Auto Range Mode.
 The other is to allow the user to change the range.
With the Navigation/Selection keys bring the cursor on top of the Range
field. Hit the Enter key. A drop-down menu appears with the available ranges
in the selected units. Select the desired range and hit Enter.
If the unit was in Auto Range mode, once a range is selected here, it will
switch the system to Manual Range Mode. To bring it back to Auto Range
Mode, navigate to Range Type (Rng. type) and change the range to Auto
Range Mode. Also, the user has another option to bring the Optical Meter
back into the Auto Range Mode. This can be done from the default screen
where the user can change the Range to Auto Range Mode with the Range
Dedicated key (see Section 4.2.5).
4.3.1.3
Attenuator On/Off
If the detector is equipped with an integrated attenuator (e.g. 918D Series),
the 1918-R detects its status (ON or OFF) and displays it in the Attenuator
field.
The user has the option to manually set the attenuator to ON or OFF for
detectors that have attenuators that can be manually mounted on the detector
(e.g. 818 Series).
To change the attenuator status, bring the cursor on top of the Attenuator
field. Hit the Enter key. A drop-down menu appears with the ON/OFF option.
Select the setting and hit Enter.
4.3.1.4
Analog and Digital Filter Selection
With the Navigation/Selection keys bring the cursor on top of the Analog or
Digital field. Hit the Enter key. A drop-down menu appears with the
available filter settings. Select the desired filter and hit Enter.
The Analog and Digital filter configuration can be accessed any time with the
Filter dedicated key. Refer to Section 4.2.5 for details.
4.3.1.5
Units Selection
With the Navigation/Selection keys bring the cursor on top of the Units field.
Hit the Enter key. A drop-down menu appears with the available units. Select
the desired units and hit Enter.
4.3.1.6
Mode Selection
This setting allows the user to change the measurement mode. The available
modes are as follows:






Continuous Wave Continuous Run (CW Cont.)
Continuous Wave Single Shot (CW Single)
Continuous Wave Integral (CW Integ.)
Peak-to-Peak Continuous Run (Pk-Pk Cont.)
Peak-to-Peak Single Shot (Pk-Pk Single)
Pulse Mode Continuous Run (Pulse Cont.)
44
System Operation
 Pulse Mode Single Shot (Pulse Single)
 RMS Measurements (RMS)
Refer to Section 5, Performing Basic Measurements, for detailed information
regarding these modes.
4.3.1.7
Spot Size
This setting allows users to change the spot size. The default spot size is set
to be same as the detector size. The spot size can be modified by navigating
the cursor to this setting, and pressing the Setup/Enter key. The value then
becomes editable; each digit in the value can be changed by pressing
Up/Down arrow keys, and different digits can be selected by pressing
Left/Right arrow keys. The desired value can be accepted by pressing
Setup/Enter key.
4.3.1.8
Number of Digits Setting
The 1918-R displays a default 4 number of digits. To change these settings
bring the cursor on top of the Num. Digits field. Hit the Enter key. A dropdown menu appears with the option of 3, 4 or 5 digits. Select the desired
number of digits and hit Enter.
4.3.1.9
Offset Field
On the right column of the Measurement Settings the unit displays the Offset
stored when the user hits the Zero dedicated key. This value can be cleared or
updated if the unit is in the default screen and Zero is pressed (see Section
4.2.5 for more information).
4.3.2
Detector Information
The Measurement Settings screen displays information about the detector
used based on the data available in the detector calibration module or detector
internal memory.
The available data are the detector model number (Detector), the detector
serial number (S/N), the detector temperature (Det. temp.) if the detector has
an internal temperature sensor, and the detector responsivity (Responsivity).
System Operation
4.4
45
Power Management
The Power Management Settings
screen is used to select the
instrument’s power savings behavior.
Reducing the intensity of the LCD
Display backlight significantly
reduces the instrument’s power
consumption and thereby increases the
time the instrument can be operated
while powered from its internal
battery. Power consumption is further
reduced when the instrument is in its
“Standby” mode.
Figure 35 Accessing the Power
Mangement screen
The Power Management Settings
screen can be accessed from the
Measurement Settings screen (Figure
35) by pressing the Power soft key.
The Power Management screen is
shown in Figure 36. The left column
settings are applicable while the
instrument is operating on battery
power. The right column settings are
applicable when the instrument is
powered via the external power
supply.
Figure 36
Power Mangement Settings
screen
By default, the LCD Display Backlight is set for full (maximum) intensity.
After a selected period of time without input from the keypad or
communications via the USB interfaces, the instrument will enter its
“Reduced Backlight” mode. In this mode the instrument functions normally;
i.e., it is still capable of taking measurements; but the backlight is dimmer.
The display will return to its normally bright intensity when any key on its
keypad is actuated or when a command is received via the USB interface.
The Backlight Level can be changed from OFF to 100% in increments of
25%.
The Backlight Pwr. settings are used to select the time from the last keypad
actuation, or USB command, until the instrument enters “Reduced Backlight”
mode. The available settings are 1 minute, 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 2 hours,
and Always. When “Always” is selected, the display is always at the
maximum backlight intensity.
In Standby mode, measurements are disabled and the LCD Display Backlight
is completely turned OFF, but the instrument will continue to monitor for
keypad actuations and USB commands. When either of these “wake-up”
events occurs, the instrument will read the detector; if the detector was not
46
System Operation
changed while the instrument was in Standby mode, it will then revert to the
user settings in effect when it entered Standby mode.
The Standby settings on the Power Management Settings screen are used to
select the time from the last keypad actuation, or USB command, until the
instrument enters Standby mode. The available settings are 1 minute, 5
minutes, 30 minutes, 2 hours, and never. When Never is selected, the
instrument never enters Standby mode.
4.5
Trigger Setup
The Trigger Setup screen can be
accessed from the Measurement
Settings (Figure 37). Pressing the
Trigger soft key gives the user a few
choices to setup the trigger according
to the measurement needs.
The 1918-R Series has an advanced
Trigger set that allows the user to
synchronize the measurements.
Synchronization can be achieved with
Trigger Start and Trigger Stop which
can be set both from the trigger setup
screen or with external commands.
4.5.1
Figure 37
Accessing the Trigger Setup
screen
Trigger Start
The Trigger Start is an event that tells the system when to take a
measurement or a group of measurements. It can be set in different ways.
 Continuous. The system is always triggered
 Soft Key. The system can be triggered with a Soft Key that appears in the
main screen.
 Command. The system is triggered with an external command,
PM:TRIG:STATE (Section 8.3.3).
The Trigger Start can also be set with an external command
PM:TRIG:START (Section 8.3.3).
4.5.2
Trigger Stop
The Trigger Stop is an event that tells the system when to stop taking
measurements. In the case of a single measurement, a trigger stop event
arms the system for the next measurement. It can be set in different ways.
System Operation
47
 Never Stop. The system measures continuously.
 Soft Key. The system stops measuring when a Soft Key is pressed. This




key appears on the main screen.
Command. The system stops measuring when an external command,
PM:TRIG:STOP (Section 8.3.3) is sent via USB.
Value. The system stops measuring when the measured signal crosses a
user programmed value.
Time. The system stops measuring when a user programmed time passed
between the Start event and the current measurement.
Number of Samples. The system stops measuring when a user
programmed number of measurements passed between the Start event and
the current measurement.
The Trigger Stop can also be set with an external command PM:TRIG:STOP
(Section 8.3.3).
4.6
Wavelength Setting
Newport detectors have a calibration module or internal memory which
stores the Responsivity versus Wavelength Table. If the Lambda key is
pressed, a wavelength screen is displayed with the most common values in
nanometers (nm) (see Figure 32 on page 41).
The screen has two columns. The left column displays the common
wavelength values used in the industry, while the right column has custom
values.
When the user selects one of the predefined wavelengths in the left column,
the 1918-R looks up the wavelength in the responsivity table in the detector
calibration module. If that exact value is found, the system will use the
corresponding responsivity for that particular wavelength. If the value is not
found, the system will calculate the responsivity using interpolation.
The right column in the Wavelength screen gives the user the option to set
custom wavelengths. To do so, with the Navigation keys bring the cursor on
top of one of the numbers. The rightmost Soft key becomes Edit Value. Hit
this key to edit the custom number. A white cursor appears on the first digit.
Press the Up/Down navigation keys to change the number and the Left/Right
keys to move to the next digit. When finished, hit Enter. The new custom
wavelength will be stored. Press Esc to return to the main screen
4.7
Display Color
In a laboratory environment, and especially when one uses protective
eyewear, it may be desirable to change the meter display color to
48
System Operation
accommodate the eyewear color. The instrument has predefined color
schemes that can be changed any time (Figure 38).
a. Negative black and white
screen
b. Positive black and white
screen
c. Red screen
d. Green screen
e. Blue screen
f. Color/Blue screen
Figure 38
Predefined color schemes
To change the display colors first
press the Enter/Setup key. This will
bring the Setup screen and
reconfigure the Soft keys (Figure 39).
Figure 39
Pressing the System soft key will
bring a secondary setup screen.
Navigate to the Color Selection to
change the screen color (Figure 40).
Also, navigate to the Brightness field
and hit Enter to change the screen
brightness. The default value is
100%. Press the Measure soft key to
go back to the Measurement Settings
screen, or press ESC to go back to
the main screen.
Figure 40
Setup screen
System Settings screen
System Operation
49
Pressing the About soft key will
bring a another screen with
information about the unit Firmware
version, serial number, calibration
date. In addition, the attached
detectors data is diplayed (Figure
41). From here, one can navigate
back to the Measurement Settings or
back to the System Settings.
Figure 41 About screen
4.8
USB Address
The USB Address can be changed in the System Settings screen (Figure 40).
Navigate to the USB Address and hit Enter. In the drop-down menu select the
desired USB address.
4.9
Statistics
The 1918-R can display statistics
for the measurement in progress.
From the main screen press the
Soft key labeled Statistics. The
Statistics screen is displayed as in
Figure 42.
The left column shows the
statistics current setup. The
Statistics function has two modes:
Fixed and Continuous.
Figure 42
Statistics screen
When in Fixed mode the Statistics engine calculates the minimum (Min),
maximum (Max), Range, Mean, Standard Deviation (Std. Dev.) for a
fixed number of samples and displays them in the right column.
The number of samples is displayed in the left column on the Samples
line. As Figure 42 shows, the number of samples is 10000 with a time
interval between samples of 100 µs. This means that the statistics values
are calculated over 1 second interval.
If the Mode is Fixed, at the end of the 10000 samples, the statistics values
are cleared and the calculation starts again with the next measurement.
The user can change the Mode with the Navigation keys. When the Enter
key is pressed a drop-down menu allows the user to select Fixed or
Continuous Mode. By using the Up and Down navigation keys followed by
Enter, the user can change the Mode to Continuous.
Pressing Clear Stats soft key in Continuous mode clears current statistics,
50
System Operation
enables data collection and starts computation of new statistics values. In
this mode, the unit does not disable data collection when the number of
samples specified is collected. Instead, it continues to collect data and place
them in a data buffer on a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis. The statistics
shown are representative of data collected since the time Clear Stats was
last pressed. As in Fixed mode, the Clear Stats soft key can be pressed at
any time to restart the whole process again.
The Soft keys offer the user the option to clear the statistics at any time,
with Clear Stats soft key, and to return back to the default screen with
Display OFF soft key.
The Graph soft key (Section 4.9.1) can be used for the visualization of the
measured values on a time graph.
The Statistics screen displays also the current measured value at the top of
the right column.
4.9.1
Graph
The Graph soft key displays the last
10000 measurements on a time graph
(Figure 43). Due to the sample time
interval of 100μs, the graph duration
is 1 second. The graph width is 270
pixels and, because of that, the
system has to decimate the 10000
samples to fit them in this fixed
number of pixels. Therefore, the
graph might look choppy if the graph
zoom is set on 1.
Figure 43
Graph screen
The user can zoom into the graph with the Soft keys +Zoom and –Zoom. As
the zoom changes the graph displays a finer picture of the measurements.
The zoom value is retained at the top of the screen. Pressing the +Zoom soft
key will zoom in the graph 2 times the previous zoom value. Pressing the –
Zoom soft key will zoom out ½ times the previous zoom value.
The maximum graph value is displayed in the upper left corner of the
display. If the Cursor soft key is pressed, a vertical line (cursor) is
displayed. The user can direct the cursor left or right with the Navigation
Keys to read the measured values on the graph. The current value is
displayed in the upper right corner and marked on the screen with a red dot.
System Operation
4.10
51
Math Functions
The Math function is displayed on
the math field, at the upper right
corner, (Figure 44). To display the
Math field the user selects the soft
key labeled Math in the main
screen. This in turn displays the
math configuration screen
The Math function can be used to
add, subtract, multiply or divide the
current measurement Ch. A with a
reference Ref. A in real time.
Once in the Math configuration
screen the user can use the
Navigation keys to build the
mathematical expression. From the
first column the user can select the
first variable in the expression, from
the second column, the operator, and
from the third column, the second
variable. When the selection was
made, the system returns to the main
screen after the Enter key was
pressed.
Figure 44
Figure 45
Math field
Math configuration screen
The Ref. value is assigned a default value of 1 when the system is first
turned on. The reference value is stored and displayed in the selected units.
The user can change the reference value with a remote command
PM:REF:VAL value
as described in Section 8.3.
If the displayed units change, then the user needs to update the stored
reference value so that the system will store the new units in the reference.
The Math field can be turned off from the math configurations screen. The
second Soft key is labeled Display OFF. If this key is pressed the system
returns to the default screen and the Math field disappears.
4.11
Measurement Correction Settings
The 1936/2936 Series power meters provide users the capability to correct
actual measurements taken by it through a “Correction Settings” screen.
This screen can be accessed by pressing the “Correction” soft-key in
“Measurement Settings” screen (Figure 46). The “Measurement Settings”
screen, as described earlier, can be accessed by pressing the Setup key from
main measurement screen.
52
System Operation
The Correction Settings screen
(Figure 47) allows users to enter
two (2) multiplier values, labeled
“Multiplier 1” (M1) and
“Multiplier 2” (M2), besides an
“Offset” value. The corrected
measurement is arrived at using the
formula shown below:
Corrected measurement = [(Actual
measurement * M1) – Offset] *
M2.
The default value for the two
multipliers is 1.0, and the offset is
0.0. If any one of these three
parameters are changed from their
default values, the main
measurement screen shows the
corrected measurement. A new field
called “Detector:” appears at the
bottom of the main screen that
displays
4.12
Figure 46
Measurement Settings
Figure 47
Correction Settings
Display Modes
The selection of various display modes
can be done from the default screen,
by pressing the Mode soft key. When
the Mode selection screen is displayed
(Figure 48), the display mode can be
selected from the second column.
Figure 48
Mode selection screen
System Operation
4.12.1
53
Numeric Display
The numeric display is the default
display of the 1918-R. The numeric
display shows the current measured
value.
Figure 49
4.12.2
The Numeric display
Analog Bar
The Analog Bar display mode brings
a bar graph below the numeric
display. The bar graph is white and
follows the value showed by the
numeric display. The minimum and
maximum labels displayed just below
the bar graph represent the input
range the unit is currently set on. For
example, if the unit is set on
109.99 µW range, then the bar graph
shows the same range of 0 to
109.99 µW. In the middle of the bar
graph the displayed number is the
middle of the range.
Figure 50
Analog Bar
The major ticks represent 10% of the range, and the minor ticks represent
5% of the range.
If the Soft key labeled Show Max is selected, the maximum value is retained
and displayed in the bar graph with red color. The red bar is updated with
each measurement, if the current measured value is larger than the largest of
the previous measurements. Besides the maximum value being displayed
with a red bar, the actual value is displayed above the bar graph where
“Max=” shows the value. If the Soft key labeled Show Min is selected, the
minimum value is retained and displayed in the bar graph with green color.
The green bar is updated with each measurement, if the current measured
value is smaller than the smallest of the previous measurements. Besides the
minimum value being displayed with a green bar, the actual value is
displayed above the bar graph where “Min=” shows the value.
The maximum and minimum bars can be reset with the Reset m/M soft key.
54
System Operation
For users who would like to fine
adjust a maximum or a minimum, the
1918-R offers the Auto Zoom
function. When the Auto Zoom soft
key is pressed another bar appears
above the Analog Bar. The bar length
is 2% of the Analog Bar. It is a display
of the region around the end of the
analog bar.
Figure 51
Auto Zoom
The Auto Zoom bar displays with white the current measured value, as the
Analog Bar does. However its trip is more sensitive, because the maximum
trip is +/-1% of the Analog Bar. If the Show Max or Show Min soft keys are
pressed, the system behaves the same as with the Analog Bar, displaying
with red the maximum value and with green the minimum value. As an
example, as Figure 51 shows, the red bar in the Analog Bar is very small, so
with the Analog Zoom this bar is extended giving the user the convenience to
see better small signal variations.
Pressing the Reset m/M soft key, clears the minimum and maximum bars
from both the Analog Bar and the Auto zoom graphs.
4.12.3
Analog Needle
The Analog Needle displays a vertical
marker that moves with the displayed
numeric value. It is useful for users
who look for a maximum or a
minimum when adjusting the optical
power.
Figure 52
Analog Needle display
System Operation
4.12.4
55
Vertical Chart
When the Vertical Chart is selected
the numeric display is moved in the
upper right corner. The vertical
chart scrolls down, representing a
snapshot of the last measurements.
The chart can be cleared with the
Clear soft key. The maximum peak
value of the chart is the maximum
measurement of the entire chart,
since the last clear. Below the chart,
there is a line with the chart
maximum and minimum in major
units. On the same line in the
middle, there is information about
the chart zoom level, e.g. 2x, and the
number of samples processed per
chart line, e.g. 10 Avg (Figure 53).
Figure 53
Vertical chart with 10
measurements per line
The chart has 100 lines, each line
having a white and red color. When
the system fills up a line, it looks at
a number of samples defined by the
number displayed below the chart.
Figure 54 Vertical chart with 1
measurement per line
Figure 53 shows 100x -- 10 Avg, which means that, while painting a line,
the system looks at the previous 10 measurements. It displays with white the
minimum value in the 10- measurement list and with red the maximum
value in the same list.
The user can change the number of measurements by selecting the Average
soft key and then pressing the Right or Left Navigation keys, to increase,
respectively decrease the number of measurements. If one measurement is
selected, the chart color is white, because the maximum and minimum per
line are the same (Figure 54). Due to one measurement display per line, the
chart speed increases.
If the Zoom soft key is pressed the user can zoom into the chart with the Up
and Down Navigation keys
4.13
Optical Meter Firmware Upgrade Procedure
Firmware Upgrade is an easy, straight-forward process. Simply copy
firmware files (PM1918APP.EXE and XMLFILE1.XML) to a WinCE
compatible USB Flash Drive and then plug it into the USB connector on the
front of the instrument. Then wait a few seconds for the instrument to
recognize the USB Flash Drive. The Optical Meter will detect the new
firmware files and will ask if you want to download the files. Press the “Yes”
56
System Operation
softkey to start the upgrade process. The Optical Meter will instruct you to
restart once the upgrade is successful. Restart the Optical Meter by turning it
OFF and back ON. The Optical Meter will restart running the new firmware.
New firmware files may be available either through the Newport web site
(http://www.newport.com) at the product page or through your local Newport
application specialist.
5
Performing Basic Measurements
5.1
Introduction
Many different types of optical measurements are possible using the 1918-R
Optical Meter. Most of these possible measurements are selected from within
the MODE menu. This chapter discusses these measurements.
5.2
Measurement Modes and Units
The 1918-R provides a number of measurement modes for acquiring data. At
power on, the meter checks the detector’s calibration EEPROM to determine
the available measurement modes supported by the detector.
Measurements can be displayed in various units. The detector type and the
measurement mode determine the set of units available at any given time.
Table 1 illustrates the measurement modes and units available for each detector
family. The measurement modes are grouped naturally into three categories:
CW, Peak-to-Peak (Pk-Pk), and Pulsed. Each will be discussed in the sections
below.
The 1918-R sets the measurement to a detector specific default mode
depending on the detector used. All Newport detectors have internal logic or
calibration modules. Based on the data stored in detectors, the instrument
knows to auto configure itself and sets up the mode, range, filter, rate, etc.
The user, in the setup screen, can change the detector specific default mode.
The basic measurement techniques for using the 1918-R are covered in the
following sections. Refer to Table 1 for a review of the 1918-R’s functions
and measurement capabilities.
(918DSeries)
HighPower
(818PSeries)
dB
REL / %
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
CW
Integrate
Pk-Pk
Continuous
Pk-Pk
Single
CW
Continuous
CW Single
Energy
CW
Integrate
Pulse
Continuous
(818ESeries)
Pulse
Single
X
X
Sun
dBm
X
CW Single
J/cm2
CW
Continuous
Mode
J
W/cm2
LowPower
W
Detector
Family
A
Performing Basic Measurements
V
58
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 1 Available Measurement Modes and Valid Units.
The following instructions assume familiarity with the meter’s functions.
They also include steps to incorporate background correction and assume that
the experimental setup under-fills and does not saturate or damage the
detector.
5.3
CW Measurements (with 918D or 818P Detectors)
This section describes the procedure for making basic optical power
measurements while properly removing the influence of ambient light and
other drift effects.
 With a 918D (also 818-XX lower power detectors with proper adapters) or
818P-Series Detector connected to the meter, turn the meter on. Press the
Mode key and then select CW Continuous with the Navigation keys. Use
the ESC key to return to the Main screen. Set Range to Auto and press the
Lambda (λ) key to set the measurement wavelength to the desired value.
 Cover or otherwise block the light source being measured and then press
the Zero key to turn the Offset on. This effectively removes any
background signal from subsequent measurements.
 Uncover the source so that it illuminates the detector and note the
displayed value. This reading is the optical power observed by the detector
due to the source.
Performing Basic Measurements
59
This process assumes that the ambient signal is not changing between the
time when the Zero key is pressed and when the measurement is made. The
user should remember that, if he/she can see the detector active area as he/she
moves around, then the detector registers this as a changing ambient DC
signal!
 For the 918D series detectors (also 818-XX lower power detectors with
proper adapters) you can decide whether to use the attenuator for your
measurement or deactivate (or physically remove on 818 low power
series) the attenuator.
a. For very low power measurements, below μW range in various
ambient light environments, you can elect to use the detector with
no physical attenuator in the optical path. This will increase the
sensitivity and hence accuracy of the measurement.
b.
In case of higher power measurement, the attenuator should be used
to avoid damage or saturation of the detector. The attenuator use is
recommended in mW to low Wattage range incident power. Please
refer to the specifications of the particular detector to make sure you
do not exceed the saturation levels of the detector.
For the 918D series detectors with integrated (non-removable) attenuators,
there is a switch built into the detector head, sensing the position of the
attenuator. The Optical Meter will then automatically use proper
calibration data for presence or absence of the attenuator in front of the
photo diode. For models such as 818 low power series detectors which
have a removable attenuator, there is no switch built into the detector
head, hence the user will have to manually select attenuator option status
on the meter to obtain the proper power or signal readings.
5.4
Peak-to-Peak Power Measurements (918D Detectors)
This section describes the procedure for making basic optical peak-to-peak
power measurements.
 With a 918D Low Power Detector connected to the meter, turn the meter
on. Set the Mode to Pk-Pk Continuous. Set Range to Auto and press the
Lambda (λ) key to set the measurement wavelength to the desired value.
 Illuminate the detector and note the displayed value. This reading is the
peak-to-peak optical power observed by the detector.
 Accurate peak-to-peak power measurements can be made for pulse
repetition rates up to 20 kHz.
5.5
Power Ratio and Power Reference measurements
This section describes how to use the mathematical functions in the Optical
Meter to obtain a power or signal comparison to a previously saved value.
The readout can be displayed as a linear ratio, a percentage or in dB. Refer to
Section 4.10 for information on setting the reference values.
60
Performing Basic Measurements
 Example 1 – In order to select dB ratio versus a stored reference value:
a. While in the Math function screen, select channel A by using the up
or down arrow keys. There will remain a black border around the
highlighted/selected channel as you leave the column for the next
selection.
b. Move to the next column by using the right arrow key, and select
“/(dB)” option.
c. Move to the last column by using the right arrow key and use the up
or down keys to select Ref. A.
d. Press the Menu/Enter key to accept the selections and exit the Math
function screen.
e. The result of Ch. A/Ref. A in units of dB will appear in the
designated window on the screen.
 Example 2 – In order to get the difference between channel A and a stored
reference value:
a. From the main screen of the meter, select soft key labeled “Math” to
enter the math function screen. If you cannot see the label “Math”,
press the “ESC” key.
b. Use the direction keys to highlight channel A in the first column
c. Using the direction keys, navigate to the “-“ symbol in the center
column.
d. Using the direction key, move the final column such that Ref. A is
highlighted.
e. Press the Menu/Enter key to retain the settings and exit the screen at
the same time.
f. The result of Ch. A- Ref. A will be displayed in the designated
window of the main display screen.
5.6
Pulse Energy Measurements (818E Detectors)
This section describes the procedure for making basic optical pulse energy
measurements.
 With an 818E Energy Detector connected to the meter, turn the meter on.
Set the Mode to Pulse Continuous. Set the Range to Manual Mode and
press the Lambda (λ) key to set the measurement wavelength to the
desired value.
 Illuminate the detector and note the displayed value as the meter measures
each laser pulse. These readings represent the energies of the incident laser
pulses. The meter will display the last pulse energy measured until a new
pulse arrives.
 Accurate measurements can be made for pulse repetition rates up to 10 kHz,
depending on the limitation of the specific detector in use, of course.
Performing Basic Measurements
5.7
61
Signal Integration Measurements (918D or 818P
Detectors)
This section describes the procedure for making a basic signal integration
measurement while properly removing the influence of ambient light and
other drift effects. The 1918-R begins and ends the signal integration every
second.
 With a 918D or 818P Detector connected to the meter, turn the meter on.
Set the Mode to CW Continuous. Set the Range to Auto and press the
Lambda (λ) key to set the measurement wavelength to the desired value.
 Cover or otherwise block the light source being measured, turn Zero on
and then set the Mode to CW Integrate. Immediately upon entering the
integration mode, the meter will begin to acquire and integrate data. The
display value may reflect the integration of noise due to ambient
temperature fluctuations (when using the 818P detectors) or light
fluctuations (when using the 918D detectors).
 Uncover or trigger the source. The displayed value should now reflect the
detector signal integration value.
NOTE
This process assumes that ambient signals are not changing between the moments
when the user zeros the display and when the measurement is made.
5.8
Measuring Laser Pulse Energy with an 818P Thermopile
Detector (Single Shot)
This application makes use of the 1918-R’ CW Integrate mode (see Section
5.7 above). When an optical pulse with energy E(λ) is incident on a
thermopile (818P Series), a voltage signal is generated at the detector input as
the heat pulse flows out to the cooling fins. The sum of a series of integrated
signals (each one second long) resulting from this heat pulse is a measure of
the optical pulse energy, see Figure 55.
62
Performing Basic Measurements
Figure 55
Measuring Laser Pulse Energy via a Thermopile in CW Integrate Mode
A recommended procedure is:
 With an 818P High Power Detector connected to the meter, turn the meter
on. Set the Mode to CW Continuous. Set the Range to Auto and press the
Lambda (λ) key to set the measurement wavelength to the desired value.
Set Zero on and then change Mode to CW Integrate.
 Before the optical pulse arrives, the display may reflect the integral of
detector noise due to ambient temperature fluctuations.
 Trigger the laser pulse. The display will display a new integrated energy
measurement every second. The readings will start decreasing rapidly
after the first couple of measurements due to the decline in heat flow from
the relatively slow thermopile detector.
 When the displayed reading drops again to the point of essentially
displaying the detector’s noise component, the individual stored readings
may be retrieved via the USB interface. Summing these readings will
yield the pulse energy.
NOTE
This method works best if the integrated result of the pulse signal is much larger
than the integral of the detector’s noise component. If the integrated result of the
pulse is not much larger, then error in the measurement will arise due to the
uncertainty generated by integration of the noise component terms.
NOTE
The time constant of a thermopile detector determines the amount of time that one
should expect to wait when making an integrated energy measurement of an optical
pulse. Typically, an accurate value will be at 5 time constant after the arrival.
Performing Basic Measurements
5.9
63
RMS Measurements
This section describes the procedure for making a basic signal RMS (Root
Mean Square) measurement while properly removing the influence of
ambient light and other drift effects. The 1918-R begins and ends the signal
RMS every second.
 With a 918D or 818P Detector connected to the meter, turn the meter on.
Set the Mode to RMS. Set the Range to Auto and press the Lambda (λ)
key to set the measurement wavelength to the desired value.
 Cover or otherwise block the light source being measured, turn Zero on.
Immediately upon entering the RMS mode, the meter will begin to acquire
and calculate RMS value of the data. The display value may reflect the
RMS of noise due to ambient temperature fluctuations (when using the
818P detectors) or light fluctuations (when using the 918D detectors).
 Uncover or trigger the source. The displayed value should now reflect the
detector signal RMS value.
 The RMS value is calculated based on data acquired over a one second
time period. The formula used to calculate the RMS value is given below:
n
y
x
i 0
2
i
n
Where xi is the signal measured, n is the number of samples acquired over a
one second period, and y is the RMS value.
NOTE
This process assumes that ambient signals are not changing between the moments
when the user zeros the display and when the measurement is made.
64
Performing Basic Measurements
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6
Software Application
6.1
Overview
The 1918-R has a USB connector on the side of the unit that is used to
connect to a computer for use with this application. (RS-232 connection for
this application is not supported.)
Provided on the CD that comes with the unit is an installation for this software
application, it communicates with the 1918-R using the USB port.
The installation installs the USB drivers that are required to use USB
communication.
The design of the software is to allow the user to remotely control basic
functions of the instrument.
6.2
Connection
Start the application, which will detect and connect the attached Optical
Meter. The 1918-R Optical Meter has just one channel, so channel B is
grayed out.
Connect Button /
Indicator
Figure 56
Application front panel
66
Software Application
6.3
General Usage
This software application allows the user to setup and monitor the instrument
remotely.
The controls on the instrument are available in the software in a very easy to
read and change format.
Figure 57
Application Advanced Options (Configuration Tab)
The application is designed to have menus similar to standard Windows
applications like MS Word, to ease usability.
6.4
Menu Structure
To Exit the application go to the File menu and select Exit.
The Edit/Advanced Options menu has additional property settings, including
channel settings and data logging options.
The Help/About will show information about the application, including
firmware version when an instrument is connected and communicating.
7
Computer Interfacing
7.1
General Guidelines
The 1918-R Optical Meter has a USB computer interface port used to send
commands to the Optical Meter from a host PC. The connection to a
computer is done via a USB cable Type "A" Male Connector to Type "MiniB" Male Connector.
The commands supported by the Optical Meter can be divided into the
following two categories: commands that cause the Optical Meter to take a
desired action, and commands (queries) that return a stored value or state of
the Optical Meter.
Query commands are always terminated by a question mark (?). It is
recommended that when a query command is sent, the response to that
command from the Optical Meter be read before issuing any other command.
Set commands, on the other hand, are used to configure/setup the Optical
Meter for a desired mode of operation. These commands take at least one
parameter. The subsequent sections in this chapter detail the USB
communication protocols supported by the Optical Meter.
7.2
Computer Interface Terminology
Listed below are the key abbreviations and concepts used in the command
reference section (Section 8) of this manual.
7.2.1
<…> Delimiting Punctuation
For the purposes of this manual, any string enclosed by <…> is considered to
be a command, a string or numerical argument. The punctuation <…> is
used to symbolize the typographic limits of the command, string or argument
in question.
7.2.2
<CR> Carriage Return
The ASCII encoded byte 13 in decimal. (0D hex)
7.2.3
<LF> Line Feed
The ASCII encoded byte 10 in decimal. (0A hex)
7.2.4
(;) Semicolons
Semicolons are used to separate commands within a single transmission
(concatenation).
68
Computer Interfacing
7.2.5
<number> Numerical Types
Numerical parameters are passed and returned as the actual ASCII characters
in the string representation of the number. See section 12.2 for more detailed
information.
7.2.6
<string> String Types
See the section 12.1 for a detailed description of <string>.
7.3
USB Communication
The instrument is designed to communicate with standard USB interfaces.
Before connecting the instrument to the USB interface the user should install
the application included in the software CD that accompanies the Optical
Meter. The application automatically installs the right USB drivers.
Communication can be done through this interface by using the application
or by developing software in the user’s preferred programming language.
The software CD contains drivers and example programs in the following
programming languages: LabVIEW, Visual Basic, and Visual C++.
8
Communication Command
Reference
8.1
1918-R Optical Meter Remote Interface Commands
A complete listing of the commands supported by the 1918-R Optical Meter
is provided below.
8.2
Command Overview
There are two types of commands: commands that cause the Optical Meter
to take a desired action, and queries that return a stored value or state of the
Optical Meter. Queries must end with a question mark (?), while commands
may require parameter(s) to follow:
PM:Lambda 810
For example, the value “810” in the command PM:Lambda 810 sets the
wavelength to 810nm. The table below summarizes all the commands and
queries supported by the 1918-R Optical Meter. The command/query MUST
contain all of the letters, which are shown in upper case in this table. The
lower case letters shown with the commands are optional, and may be used
for clarity. If any of the optional letters are used, then all of the optional
letters are required for the command.
The commands may be sent to the instrument in either upper or lower case or
in any combination. For example, the following commands are equal:
PM:Lambda 810
PM:L 810
pm:L 810
Pm:L 810
COMMAND EXECUTION:
The controller interprets the commands in the order they are received and
execute them sequentially. If a set of commands have to be executed closer
to each other, these commands can be sent to the controller simultaneously
by creating a command string with semicolon (;) used as a command
separator. The command string length should not exceed 50 characters. In
the example shown below, a command string was created with semicolon
70
Communication Command Reference
separating 5 queries. The controller responds to this command string with a
response that has 5 values using a comma (,) as a separator.
COMMAND STRING:
PM:P?;PM:ATT?;PM:L?;ERR?
INSTRUMENT RESPONSE:
1.2450,1,810,0
8.3
Optical Meter Command Description
8.3.1
Command Glossary
Root level Commands/Queries Summary
Name
Number of
Parameters
*IDN?
*RCL
*SAV
ADDRess
ADDRess?
ERRors?
NONE
1
1
1
NONE
NONE
ERRSTR?
NONE
Function
Identification query
Recall configuration settings
Save configuration settings
Sets the instrument’s USB address
Returns the instrument’s USB address
Returns errors generated since the last query.
Returns errors and their corresponding error text generated since the last
query.
Table 2
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74
74
75
75
76
76
Root level Commands/Queries Summary
Tree level Commands/Queries Summary
Name
DISP:BRIGHT
DISP:BRIGHT?
Number of
Parameters
1
NONE
PM:AC:BackLight
1
PM:AC:BackLight?
NONE
PM:AC:LEVEL
1
PM:AC:LEVEL?
NONE
PM:AC:STANDBY
1
PM:AC:STANDBY?
NONE
PM:ANALOGFILTER
PM: ANALOGFILTER?
PM:ANALOG:IMP
PM:ANALOG:IMP?
PM:ANALOG:OUT
PM:ANALOG:OUT?
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
PM:ATT
1
PM:ATT?
NONE
PM:ATTSN?
PM:AUTO
PM:AUTO?
NONE
1
NONE
Function
Sets the backlight level of the display and the keypad
Returns the backlight level of the display and the keypad
Sets the inactive time duration for reducing the backlight level
during AC operation
Returns the inactive time duration for reducing the backlight
level during AC operation
Sets the reduced backlight level following inactive time
duration during AC operation
Returns the reduced backlight level following inactive time
duration during AC operation
Sets the inactive time duration for going to standby during AC
operation
Returns the inactive time duration for going to standby during
AC operation
Sets the analog filter to desired value
Returns the analog filter setting
Sets the analog output impedance to desired value
Returns the analog output impedance value
Sets the analog output range to desired level
Returns the analog output range
Selects if the attenuator’s calibration data is included for power
calculation.
Returns setting if attenuator data should or should not be used
when calibrating the Optical Meter.
Gets the attenuator serial number.
Sets the Optical Meter ranging to manual or automatic.
Returns 1 if automatic Optical Meter ranging is selected.
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81
81
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82
82
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Communication Command Reference
Name
Number of
Parameters
PM:BAT:BL
1
PM:BAT:BL?
NONE
PM:BAT:LEVEL
1
PM:BAT:LEVEL?
NONE
PM:BAT:STANDBY
1
PM:BAT:STANDBY?
NONE
PM:CALDATE?
NONE
PM:CALTEMP?
NONE
PM:CORR
PM:CORR?
PM:DETMODEL?
PM:DETSIZE?
PM:DETSN?
PM:DIGITALFILTER
PM: DIGITALFILTER?
PM:DPower?
PM:DS:BUFfer
PM:DS:BUFfer?
PM:DS:Clear
PM:DS:Count?
PM:DS:Enable
PM:DS:Enable?
3
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
PM:DS:GET?
PM:DS:INTerval
PM:DS:INTerval?
PM:DS:SAVEBUFER
PM:DS:SIZE
PM:DS:SIZE?
PM:DS:UNITs?
1
1
NONE
1
1
NONE
NONE
PM:FILTer
1
PM:FILTer?
NONE
PM:Lambda
PM:Lambda?
PM:MAX:Lambda?
PM:MAX:Power?
PM:MIN:Lambda?
PM:MIN:Power?
PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT
PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT?
PM:MODE
PM:MODE?
PM:Power?
PM:PWS?
1
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
NONE
NONE
PM:RANge
PM:RANge?
PM:REF:VALue
1
NONE
1
71
Function
Sets the inactive time duration for reducing the backlight level
during battery operation
Returns the inactive time duration for reducing the backlight
level during battery operation
Sets the reduced backlight level following inactive time
duration during battery operation
Returns the reduced backlight level following inactive time
duration during battery operation
Sets the inactive time duration for going to standby during
battery operation
Returns the inactive time duration for going to standby during
battery operation
Returns the calibration date of the detector.
Returns the temperature at which the calibration was
performed.
Sets the power measurement correction settings.
Power measurement correction settings query
Returns the model number of the detector.
Returns the detector surface area
Returns the serial number of the detector.
Sets the digital filter to desired value
Returns the digital filter setting
Detector Power query
Set data store behavior select.
Returns data store behavior select.
Clear data store.
Returns data store count of items stored.
Set data store enable.
Returns data store enable.
Returns data store data. {1,1-10,-5,+5} – value, range, oldest 5,
newest 5
Set data store interval.
Returns data store interval.
Saves the data store buffer to a WinCE compatible USB flash
disk
Sets the size of the Data Store buffer
Returns the sizes of the Data Store buffer
Returns data store units.
Selects the filtering operation: no filtering, analog filter, digital
filter, or analog and digital.
Returns the filtering operation: no filtering, analog filter,
digital filter, or analog and digital.
Sets the wavelength for use when calculating power.
Gets the selected wavelength in nanometers.
Returns the longest calibrated wavelength in nanometers.
Returns the maximum readable power in present range
Returns the shortest calibrated wavelength in nanometers.
Returns the minimum readable power in present range
Sets the measurement timeout period
Returns the measurement timeout period
Acquisition mode select
Returns the currently selected acquisition mode.
Returns the power in the selected units.
Returns the power with status.
Selects the gain stage when making readings with the detector
head within a range from 0 to 6 (with zero being the highest).
Returns an integer indicating the current range.
Sets the user reference value for use in relative or dB readings.
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83
84
84
85
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86
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90
90
90
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98
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Communication Command Reference
Number of
Parameters
NONE
Name
PM:REF:VALue?
PM:REF:STOre
NONE
PM:RESPonsivity?
NONE
PM:RUN
PM:RUN?
PM:SATLEVEL
PM:SATLEVEL?
PM:SPOTSIZE
PM:SPOTSIZE?
PM:STAT:MAX?
PM:STAT:MEAN?
PM:STAT:MIN?
PM:STAT:MAXMIN?
PM:STAT:SDEViation?
PM:Temp?
PM:THERM:PREDICT
PM:THERM:PREDICT?
PM:TRIG:START
PM:TRIG:START?
PM:TRIG:STOP
PM:TRIG:STOP?
PM:TRIG:STATE
PM:TRIG:STATE?
PM:UNITs
PM:UNITs?
PM:ZEROSTOre
PM:ZEROVALue
PM:ZEROVALue?
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
Function
Returns the user reference value.
Sets the user reference value for use in relative or dB readings
as the present reading.
Gets the responsivity currently used for making power
calculations.
Disables or enables the acquisition of data.
Returns the present acquisition mode.
Set saturation current density or power level
Query saturation current density or power level
Sets the detector spot size
Returns the detector spot size
Returns statistics buffer maximum value.
Returns statistics buffer mean value.
Returns statistics buffer minimum value.
Returns statistics buffer maximum-minimum value.
Returns statistics buffer standard deviation value.
Returns the 918 detector's temperature in degrees Celsius.
Disables or enables thermopile prediction algorithm
Returns the present thermopile prediction algorithm state
Set the optional start event
Returns optional start event
Set the optional stop event
Returns optional start event
Set the trigger state
Returns the trigger state
Selects the units for readings.
Returns an integer indicating the selected units.
Sets the zeroing value with the present reading.
Sets the zeroing value.
Gets the zeroing value.
Table 3
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98
98
99
99
99
100
100
100
100
101
101
101
101
102
102
102
103
103
103
103
104
104
104
105
105
106
106
106
Tree Level Commands/Queries Summary
8.3.2
Display Commands
8.3.2.1
DISP:BRIGHT
Description
Display brightness command
Syntax
BRIGHT brightness
Remarks
The BRIGHT command controls the brightness of the
instrument display.
Argument
Type
Description
Brightness
int
Brightness, in levels from 0 to 7
Related Commands: DISP:BRIGHT?
8.3.2.2
DISP:BRIGHT?
Description
Display brightness query
Syntax
DISP:BRIGHT?
Remarks
The BRIGHT? query returns the display brightness setting.
Response
Type
Description
Communication Command Reference
Brightness
int
Display brightness, in levels from 0 to 7
Related Commands: DISP:BRIGHT
73
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Communication Command Reference
8.3.3
Optical Meter Commands
8.3.3.1
*IDN?
Description
Identification Query
Syntax
*IDN?
Parameters
None
Function
Remarks This query will cause the Optical Meter to return an identification string.
Model
name
Firmware
version #
Firmware
date
Controller
Serial #
NEWPORT XXXX vYYY mm/dd/yy SNZZZZ
Examples:
NEWPORT 1918-R v2.0.0 11/07/06 SN0001
8.3.3.2
*RCL
Description
Recall Configuration Settings
Syntax
*RCL bin
Remarks
The *RCL command restores the power meter to the setup
state saved in its non-volatile flash memory.
Argument
Value
Description
bin
0
Reserved
1 to 5
Valid configuration settings
Related Commands:
8.3.3.3
*SAV
*SAV
Description
Save Configuration Settings
Syntax
*SAV bin
Remarks
The *SAV command saves the present state of the power
meter in its non-volatile flash memory. A particular state is
then recalled using the *RCL command. If any one of
these parameters are changed, the present state of the power
meter will automatically be saved in configuration setting
#1. When the power meter is reset, the state of the meter
defaults to configuration setting #1. The setup parameters
saved include:
Display brightness level
USB address
Communication Command Reference
75
Color scheme
Measurement display mode
Custom wavelengths
AC backlight level
AC backlight power
AC standby
Battery backlight level
Battery backlight power
Battery standby
Argument
Value
Description
bin
0
Reserved
1 to 5
Valid configuration settings
Related Commands:
8.3.3.4
ADDRess
Description
USB address command.
Syntax
ADDRess value
Remarks
The ADDRess command sets the Optical Meter USB
address. After changing USB address, the communication
with the Optical Meter has to be re-initialized.
Argument
Value
Description
Value
0
Reserved
1 to 31
Valid USB address range
Related Commands:
8.3.3.5
*RCL
ADDRess?
ADDRess?
Description
USB address query.
Syntax
ADDRess?
Remarks
The ADDRess query returns the Optical Meter’s USB
address.
Response
Value
address
0
1 to 31
Related Commands:
Description
Reserved
Valid USB address range
ADDRess
76
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.6
ERRors?
Description
Error query
Syntax
ERRors?
Remarks
The ERRors? query returns a single error number that has
occurred since the last query. This error is indicated by a
number that corresponds to the type of error that occurred.
This command also clears the read error from the Error
buffer .
Response
Type
Description
Error code
int
Error code number per Appendix B, 0 if no
errors
Related Commands: ERRSTR?
8.3.3.7
ERRSTR?
Description
Error string query
Syntax
ERRSTR?
Remarks
The ERRSTR? query returns a single error number
along with the corresponding error text string that have
occurred since the last error query.
Response
Error code,
Type
string
Related Commands:
8.3.3.8
Description
Error code number and text for error code
as"text"per Appendix B, 0 if no errors
ERRors?
PM:AC:BackLight
Description
Inactive time period for reducing the backlight level during
AC operation
Syntax
PM:AC:BackLight value
Remarks
If the instrument is on AC power, its display backlight will
be reduced to a pre-specified level following a period of
inactivity specified using this command. The instrument is
considered to be inactive if either the keys on the front
panel are not being pressed or if there is no communication
with a host PC over USB interface.
Argument
Value
Inactive Time Period
Value
0
1
2
1 min
5 min
30 min
Communication Command Reference
77
3
2 hours
4
Always
Related Commands: PM:AC:BackLight?; PM:AC:LEVEL?
8.3.3.9
PM:AC:BackLight?
Description
Inactive time period for reducing the backlight level during
AC operation
Syntax
PM:AC:BackLight?
Remarks
The PM:AC:BackLight? query returns an integer
indicating the present inactive time period for reducing the
backlight level during AC operation.
Argument
Value
Inactive Time Period
0
1 min
1
5 min
2
30 min
3
2 hours
4
Always
Related Commands: PM:AC:BackLight; PM:AC:LEVEL
Value
8.3.3.10
PM:AC:LEVEL
Description
Display backlight level following an inactive time period
during AC operation
Syntax
PM:AC:LEVEL value
Remarks
If the instrument is on AC power, its display backlight will
be reduced following a pre-specified period of inactivity to
the level specified using this command. The instrument is
considered to be inactive if either the keys on the front
panel are not being pressed or if there is no communication
with a host PC over USB interface.
Argument
Value
Backlight Level
0
100%
1
75%
2
50%
3
25%
4
OFF
Related Commands: PM:AC:BackLight?; PM:AC:LEVEL?
Value
78
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.11
PM:AC:LEVEL?
Description
Display backlight level following an inactive time period
during AC operation
Syntax
PM:AC:LEVEL?
Remarks
The PM:AC:LEVEL? query returns an integer indicating
the display backlight level following an inactive time
period during AC operation.
Argument
Value
Backlight Level
0
100%
1
75%
2
50%
3
25%
4
OFF
Related Commands: PM:AC:BackLight; PM:AC:LEVEL
Value
8.3.3.12
PM:AC:STANDBY
Description
Inactive time period for putting the instrument in standby
mode during AC operation
Syntax
PM:AC:STANDBY value
Remarks
If the instrument is on AC power, it will be put in standby
mode following a period of inactivity specified using this
command. The instrument is considered to be inactive if
either the keys on the front panel are not being pressed or if
there is no communication with a host PC over USB
interface.
Argument
Value
Inactive Time Period
0
1 min
1
5 min
2
30 min
3
2 hours
4
Never
Related Commands: PM:AC:STANDBY?; PM:AC:LEVEL?
Value
8.3.3.13
PM:AC:STANDBY?
Description
Inactive time period for putting the instrument in standby
mode during AC operation
Syntax
PM:AC:STANDBY?
Communication Command Reference
Remarks
The PM:AC:STANDBY? query returns an integer
indicating the present inactive time period for putting the
instrument in standby mode during AC operation.
Argument
Value
79
Inactive Time Period
0
1 min
1
5 min
2
30 min
3
2 hours
4
NEVER
Related Commands: PM:AC:STANDBY; PM:AC:LEVEL
Value
8.3.3.14
PM:ANALOGFILTER
Description
Analog filter select command
Syntax
PM:ANALOGFILTER value
Remarks
The PM:ANALOGFILTER command selects the analog
filter setting.
Argument
Value
Analog Filter
0
None
1
250 kHz
2
12.5 kHz
3
1 kHz
4
0.5 Hz
Related Commands: PM:ANALOGFILTER?
Value
8.3.3.15
PM: ANALOGFILTER?
Description
Analog filter query
Syntax
PM:ANALOGFILTER?
Remarks
The PM:ANALOGFILTER? query returns an integer
indicating the present analog filter setting.
Argument
Value
Analog Filter
0
None
1
250 kHz
2
12.5 kHz
3
1 kHz
4
0.5 Hz
Related Commands: PM:ANALOGFILTER
Value
80
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.16
PM:ANALOG:IMP
Description
Analog output impedance select command
Syntax
PM:ANALOG:IMP value
Remarks
The PM:ANALOG:IMP command selects the analog
output impedance.
Argument
Value
Output Impedance
0
50 Ω
1
100 kΩ
2
1 MΩ
Related Commands: PM:ANALOG:IMP?
Value
8.3.3.17
PM:ANALOG:IMP?
Description
Analog output impedance query
Syntax
PM:ANALOG:IMP?
Remarks
The PM:ANALOG:IMP? query returns an integer
indicating the present analog output impedance.
Argument
Value
Output Impedance
0
50 Ω
1
100 kΩ
2
1 MΩ
Related Commands: PM:ANALOG:IMP
Value
8.3.3.18
PM:ANALOG:OUT
Description
Analog output range select command
Syntax
PM:ANALOG:OUT range
Remarks
The PM:ANALOG:OUT command selects the analog
output range.
Argument
Value
Max. Output
0
1V
1
2V
2
5V
3
Reserved
Related Commands: PM:ANALOG:OUT?
Range
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.19
PM:ANALOG:OUT?
Description
Analog output range query
Syntax
PM:ANALOG:OUT?
Remarks
The PM:ANALOG:OUT? query returns an integer
indicating the present analog output range.
Response
Value
Max. Output
0
1V
1
2V
2
5V
3
Reserved
Related Commands: PM:ANALOG:OUT
Range
8.3.3.20
PM:ATT
Description
Attenuator enable command
Syntax
PM:ATT enable
Remarks
Indicates whether or not the attenuator for the 818 Series
power detector is on the detector.
Argument
Type
Description
Enable use of detector responsivity with
attenuator available in the calibration
module for 818 detectors.
Related Commands: PM:ATT?
8.3.3.21
Enable
int
PM:ATT?
Description
Attenuator enable query
Syntax
PM:ATT?
Remarks
The PM:ATT? query returns 1 when using attenuator
calibration, 0 when calculating power without attenuator
data.
Response
Value
attenuator
Description
0
Calibrating power without attenuator
1
Calibrating power using attenuator
Related Commands: PM:ATT
81
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Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.22
PM:ATTSN?
Description
Attenuator serial number query
Syntax
PM:ATTSN?
Remarks
The PM:ATTSN? query returns the serial number of the
attenuator. When no detector is found the Optical Meter
responds with "no detector".
Response
Type
Description
serial number
string
Serial number of the attenuator
Related Commands: PM:DETMODEL?, PM:DETSN?
8.3.3.23
PM:AUTO
Description
Auto range enable command
Syntax
PM:AUTO mode
Remarks
The PM:AUTO command sets the power ranging to either
manual or automatic.
Argument
Value
Description
0
Manual Optical Meter ranging
1
Automatic Optical Meter ranging
Related Commands: PM:AUTO?, PM:RANge
mode
8.3.3.24
PM:AUTO?
Description
Auto range mode query
Syntax
PM:AUTO?
Remarks
The PM:AUTO? query returns a value to indicate if auto
ranging is enabled or not.
Response
Value
Description
0
Manual Optical Meter ranging
1
Automatic Optical Meter ranging
Related Commands: PM:AUTO, PM:RANG
mode
8.3.3.25
PM:BAT:BackLight
Description
Inactive time period for reducing the backlight level during
battery operation
Syntax
PM:BAT:BackLight value
Remarks
If the instrument is on battery power, its display backlight
will be reduced to a pre-specified level following a period
of inactivity specified using this command. The instrument
Communication Command Reference
83
is considered to be inactive if either the keys on the front
panel are not being pressed or if there is no communication
with a host PC over USB interface.
Argument
Value
Inactive Time Period
0
1 min
1
5 min
2
30 min
3
2 hours
4
Always
Related Commands: PM:BAT:BackLight?; PM:BAT:LEVEL
Value
8.3.3.26
PM:BAT:BackLight?
Description
Inactive time period for reducing the backlight level during
battery operation.
Syntax
PM:BAT:BackLight?
Remarks
The PM:BAT:BackLight? query returns an integer
indicating the present inactive time period for reducing the
backlight level during battery operation.
Argument
Value
Inactive Time Period
0
1 min
1
5 min
2
30 min
3
2 hours
4
Always
Related Commands: PM:BAT:BackLight; PM:BAT:LEVEL
Value
8.3.3.27
PM:BAT:LEVEL
Description
Display backlight level following an inactive time period
during battery operation
Syntax
PM:BAT:LEVEL value
Remarks
If the instrument is on battery power, its display backlight
will be reduced following a pre-specified period of
inactivity to the level specified using this command. The
instrument is considered to be inactive if either the keys on
the front panel are not being pressed or if there is no
communication with a host PC over USB interface.
Argument
Value
Backlight Level
Value
0
1
2
3
100%
75%
50%
25%
84
Communication Command Reference
4
OFF
Related Commands: PM:BAT:BackLight?; PM:BAT:LEVEL?
8.3.3.28
PM:BAT:LEVEL?
Description
Display backlight level following an inactive time period
during battery operation
Syntax
PM:BAT:LEVEL?
Remarks
The PM:BAT:LEVEL? query returns an integer indicating
the display backlight level following an inactive time
period during battery operation.
Argument
Value
Backlight Level
0
100%
1
75%
2
50%
3
25%
4
OFF
Related Commands: PM:BAT:BackLight; PM:BAT:LEVEL
Value
8.3.3.29
PM:BAT:STANDBY
Description
Inactive time period for putting the instrument in standby
mode during battery operation
Syntax
PM:BAT:STANDBY value
Remarks
If the instrument is on battery power, it will be put in
standby mode following a period of inactivity specified
using this command. The instrument is considered to be
inactive if either the keys on the front panel are not being
pressed or if there is no communication with a host PC over
USB interface.
Argument
Value
Inactive Time Period
0
1 min
1
5 min
2
30 min
3
2 hours
4
Never
Related Commands: PM:BAT:STANDBY?; PM:BAT:LEVEL?
Value
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.30
85
PM:BAT:STANDBY?
Description
Inactive time period for putting the instrument in standby
mode during battery operation
Syntax
PM:BAT:STANDBY?
Remarks
The PM:BAT:STANDBY? query returns an integer
indicating the present inactive time period for putting the
instrument in standby mode during battery operation.
Argument
Value
Inactive Time Period
0
1 min
1
5 min
2
30 min
3
2 hours
4
NEVER
Related Commands: PM:BAT:STANDBY; PM:BAT:LEVEL
Value
8.3.3.31
8.3.3.32
PM:CALDATE?
Description
Detector calibration date query
Syntax
PM:CALDATE?
Remarks
The PM:CALDATE? query returns the calibration date of
the detector.
For example:
21JUN1999.
Response
Type
Description
Date
string
DDMMMYYYYY
PM:CALTEMP?
Description
Temperature at which detector was calibrated query
Syntax
PM:CALTEMP?
Remarks
The PM:CALTEMP? query returns the temperature
(degrees Celsius) at which the detector was calibrated.
When no detector is present, "no detector" is returned.
Response
Type
Description
temperature
float
Returns the temperature at which the
detector was calibrated.
86
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.33
PM:CORR
Description
Power measurement correction settings
Syntax
PM:CORR value1, value2, value3
Remarks
The PM:CORR command sets the power measurement
correction settings. These settings are used by the power
meter to correct the actual power measurement. The
corrected power is calculated using the formula provided
below:
Corrected Measurement =
((Actual Measurement * value1) + value2) * value3
Argument
Type
Description
value1
float
Multiplier 1 (default = 1.000)
value2
float
Offset (default = 0.000)
value3
float
Multiplier 2 (default = 1.000)
Related Commands: PM:CORR?, PM:Power?, PM:DPower?
8.3.3.34
PM:CORR?
Description
Power measurement correction settings query
Syntax
PM:CORR?
Remarks
The PM:CORR? command returns the power
measurement correction settings. These settings are used by
the power meter to correct the actual power measurement.
The corrected power is calculated using the formula
provided below:
Corrected Measurement =
((Actual Measurement * value1) + value2) * value3
Response
Type
Description
value1
float
Multiplier 1 (default = 1.000)
value2
float
Offset (default = 0.000)
value3
float
Multiplier 2 (default = 1.000)
Related Commands: PM:CORR, PM:Power?, PM:DPower?
8.3.3.35
PM:DETMODEL?
Description
Detector model query
Syntax
PM:DETMODEL?
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.36
8.3.3.37
8.3.3.38
Remarks
The PM:DETMODEL? query returns the model number
of the detector.
For example:
818-SL.
Response
Type
Description
model
string
Detector model number
PM:DETSIZE?
Description
Detector surface area
Syntax
PM:DETSIZE?
Remarks
The PM:DETSIZE? query returns the surface area of the
detector in cm2.
Response
Type
Description
Area
float
Detector surface area
PM:DETSN?
Description
Detector serial number query
Syntax
PM:DETSN?
Remarks
The PM:DETSN? query returns the serial number of the
detector.
For example:
0001
Response
Type
Description
serial number
string
Detector serial number
PM:DIGITALFILTER
Description
Digital filter select command
Syntax
PM:DIGITALFILTER value
Remarks
The PM:DIGITALFILTER command specifies the digital
filter setting.
Argument
Type
Description
Value
int
digital filter size between 0 and 10000
Related Commands: PM:DIGITALFILTER?
8.3.3.39
87
PM:DIGITALFILTER?
Description
Digital filter query
Syntax
PM:DIGITALFILTER?
88
Communication Command Reference
Remarks
The PM:DIGITALFILTER? query returns the present
digital filter setting.
Argument
Type
Description
Value
int
digital filter size between 0 and 10000
Related Commands: PM:DIGITALFILTER
8.3.3.40
PM:DPower?
Description
Detector power query
Syntax
PM:DPower?
Remarks
The PM:DPower? returns the actual power measurement.
This measurement does not include any correction settings
specified using “PM:CORR” command. When the
correction settings are set to default values, the power
measurement returned by this command is same as the
measurement returned by “PM:P?” command.
Response
Type
Description
Power
float
Power in Watts
Related Commands: PM:Power?
8.3.3.41
PM:DS:BUFfer
Description
Data Store buffer behavior selection
Syntax
PM:DS:BUFfer behavior
Remarks
The PM:DS:BUFfer command selects the behavior mode
for control of the Data Store buffer.
Argument
Value
Description
Mode
0
Fixed Size
1
Ring Buffer
The behavior of the ring buffer is to allow continual data collection after the
buffer is full where the oldest values will be overwritten when new
measurements are taken.
Related Commands: PM:DS:BUFfer?
8.3.3.42
PM:DS:BUFfer?
Description
Data Store buffer behavior selection query
Syntax
PM:DS:BUFfer?
Remarks
The PM:DS:BUFfer? query returns the value of the Data
Store buffer behavior.
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.43
8.3.3.44
8.3.3.45
Argument
Type
Description
Behavior
int
See PM:DS:BUFfer for a definition of
the behavior status.
PM:DS:CLear
Description
Clear the Data Store of all data
Syntax
PM:DS:CLear
Remarks
The PM:DS:CLear command resets the data store to be
empty with no values.
Argument
Type
none
-
Description
PM:DS: Count?
Description
Data Store data item count query
Syntax
PM:DS:Count?
Remarks
The PM:DS:Count? query returns the number of
measurements that have been collected in the Data Store.
Argument
Type
Description
count
int
The number of measurements that have been
collected.
PM:DS:ENable
Description
Enable Data Store Collection
Syntax
PM:DS:ENable enable
Remarks
The PM:DS:ENable enables or disables the collection of
measurements in the Data Store.
Argument
Value
Description
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
Data will be collected after the PM:DS:ENable command has been called
with a parameter of 1. Data collection will stop when the PM:DS:ENable
command has been called with a parameter of 0 or when a fixed size data
buffer is full.
enable
Related Commands: PM:DS:ENable?
8.3.3.46
89
PM:DS:ENable?
Description
Enable Data Store Collection query
Syntax
PM:DS:ENable?
90
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.47
Remarks
The PM:DS:ENable? query returns the enabled status of
the Data Store.
Argument
Type
Description
enable
int
See PM:DS:Enable for a description of the
enable argument
PM:DS:GET?
Description
Retrieve Data Store data query
Syntax
PM:DS:GET? num
Remarks
The PM:DS:GET? command returns a number of
measurements that have been collected in the Data Store.
Argument
Type
Description
“1” – returns the single value specified
“1-10” – returns values in the range from 1-10
“-5” – returns the oldest 5 values (same as 1-5)
“+5” – returns the newest 5 values
Note: depending on the number of data points requested, there may be several
read operations required on the USB interface.
selection
8.3.3.48
string
PM:DS:INTerval
Description
Data Store Interval Select
Syntax
PM:DS:INTerval <interval>
Parameters
The parameter <interval>is of type <number>that is an integer. The
parameter represents the interval in milliseconds for storing one measurement
in the data buffer.
Function
This command sets the interval in milliseconds to be used for data storing.
For example if DSINT = 100 and DSSIZE = 100 it will take 100 x 100ms to
fill the buffer.
Related Commands: PM:DS:SIZE,PM:DS:SIZE?,PM:DS:INTerval?
8.3.3.49
PM:DS:INTerval?
Description
Data Store Interval Query
Syntax
PM:DS:INTerval?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the interval in milliseconds currently used for data storing.
Communication Command Reference
91
Related Commands: PM:DS:SIZE,PM:DS:SIZE?,PM:DS:INTerval
8.3.3.50
8.3.3.51
PM:DS:SAVEBUFFER
Description
Save the current Data Store data to a file
Syntax
PM:DS:SAVEBUFFER filename
Remarks
The PM:DS:SAVEBUFFER command saves the current
user Data Store to a file on the WinCE compatible USB
Flash Disk plugged into the USB Host port on the front of
the Optical Meter.
Argument
Type
Description
Filename
string
The filename that will be created or
overwritten on the USB Flash Disk
containing the measurments stored in the
Data Store.
PM:DS:SIZE
Description
Size of the Data Store query
Syntax
PM:DS:SIZE <size>
Parameters
The parameter <size>is of type <integer> in the range 1 to 250000.The
parameter represents the size of the data buffer to be used for data storing.
Function
This command sets the size of the buffer used for data storing.
NOTE
The data buffer is cleared automatically when this command is used and all
previously stored data will be gone.
Related Commands: PM:DS:SIZE?,PM:DS:INTerval,PM:DS:INTerval?
8.3.3.52
PM:DS:SIZE?
Description
Data Store Buffer Size Query
Syntax
PM:DS:SIZE?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the data store buffer size.
Returns
<size> is of type <number>and represents an integer of the
range 1 to 250000.
Related Commands: PM:DS:SIZE,PM:DS:INTerval,PM:DS:INTerval?
92
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.53
PM:DS:UNITs?
Description
Data store units query
Syntax
PM:DS:UNITS?
Remarks
The PM:DS:UNITS? query returns an integer indicating
the units selected.
Response
Value
Description
0
Amps
1
Volts
2
Watts
3
Watts/cm2
4
Joules
5
Joules/cm2
6
dBm
7-10
Reserved
11
Sun
Related Commands: PM:UNITS,PM:UNITS?
units
Note: The UNITs selection depends on the detector used. Refer to Table 1 for
the relationship between the detector type and units.
8.3.3.54
PM:FILTer
Description
Filter select command
Syntax
PM:FILT filter type
Remarks
The PM:FILT command select the filtering operation to be
performed on power readings.
Argument
Value
Description
0
No filtering
1
Analog filter
2
Digital filter
3
Analog and Digital filter
Related Commands: PM:FILT?
Filter type
8.3.3.55
PM:FILTer?
Description
Filter type query
Syntax
PM:FILT?
Remarks
The PM:FILT? query returns an integer indicating the
present filter mode.
Response
Value
Description
Filter type
0
1
No filtering
Analog filter
Communication Command Reference
93
2
Digital filter
3
Analog and Digital filter
Related Commands: PM:FILT
8.3.3.56
PM:Lambda
Description
Wavelength set command
Syntax
PM:Lambda value
Remarks
The PM:Lambda command selects the wavelength to use
when calculating power. The value must fall within the
calibrated wavelength of the detector.
Argument
Type
Description
Value
int
Wavelength in nanometers (nm)
Related Commands: PM:Lambda?, PM:MAX:Lambda?,
PM:MIN:Lambda?
8.3.3.57
PM:Lambda?
Description
Wavelength query
Syntax
PM:Lambda?
Remarks
The PM:Lambda? query returns the selected wavelength
in nanometers. This is the wavelength used to look up the
responsivity from the calibration data.
Response
Type
Description
Wavelength
int
Wavelength in nanometers (nm)
Related Commands: PM:Lambda, PM:MAX:Lambda?,
PM:MIN:Lambda?
8.3.3.58
PM:MAX:Lambda?
Description
Maximum wavelength query
Syntax
PM:MAX:Lambda?
Remarks
The PM:MAX:Lambda? query returns the longest
calibrated wavelength in nanometers. If no detector is
preset, the max lambda for the last read detector is returned.
Response
Type
Description
Wavelength
int
Wavelength in nanometers (nm)
Related Commands: PM:MIN:Lambda?
94
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.59
8.3.3.60
PM:MAX:Power?
Description
Maximum power query
Syntax
PM:MAX:Power?
Remarks
The PM:MAX: Power? returns current range’s maximum
readable power.
Response
Type
Description
Power
float
Power in Watts
PM:MIN:Lambda?
Description
Minimum wavelength query
Syntax
PM:MIN:Lambda?
Remarks
The PM:MIN:Lambda? query returns the shortest
calibrated wavelength in nanometers. If no detector is
preset,min lambda for the last read detector is returned.
Response
Type
Description
Wavelength
int
Wavelength in nanometers (nm)
Related Commands: PM:MAX:Lambda?
8.3.3.61
PM:MIN:Power?
Description
Minimum power query
Syntax
PM:MIN:Power?
Remarks
The PM:MIN: Power? returns current range’s minimum
readable power.
Response
Type
Description
Power
float
Power in Watts
Related Commands: PM:MAX:Power?
8.3.3.62
PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT
Description
Measurement timeout set command
Syntax
PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT value
Remarks
This command sets the measurement timeout period. This
value is used for making the following measurements:
1. Peak-to-peak measurements: These measurements are
updated once every timeout period when the power meter is
in Peak-Peak Continuous mode.
Communication Command Reference
95
2. Auto-ranging in Pulse Continuous mode: The power
meter automatically shifts to a lower range once every
timeout period when it determines that no pulse
measurements could be taken in the existing range. Users
must set this timeout value to 250ms or larger than their
pulse repetition rate in order to be able to perform
measurements accurately.
Argument
Type
Description
Value
int
Timeout value (milliseconds)
Related Commands: PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT?
8.3.3.63
PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT?
Description
Measurement timeout query
Syntax
PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT?
Remarks
The PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT? query returns the selected
measurement timeout value in milliseconds.
Response
Type
Description
Timeout
int
measurement timeout in milliseconds
Related Commands: PM:MEAS:TIMEOUT
8.3.3.64
PM:MODE
Description
Acquisition mode select
Syntax
PM:MODE mode
Remarks
The PM:MODE command selects the acquisition mode for
acquiring subsequent readings.
Argument
Value
Description
0
DC Continuous
1
DC Single
2
Integrate
3
Peak-to-peak Continuous
4
Peak-to-peak Single
5
Pulse Continuous
6
Pulse Single
7
RMS
Related Commands: PM:MODE?
Mode
Note: The MODE selection depends on the detector used. Refer to Table 1
for the relationship between the detector type and MODE.
96
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.65
PM:MODE?
Description
Acquisition mode query
Syntax
M:MODE?
Remarks
The PM:MODE? query returns an integer indicating the
present acquisition mode.
Response
Value
Description
0
DC Continuous
1
DC Single
2
Integrate
3
Peak-to-peak Continuous
4
Peak-to-peak Single
5
Pulse Continuous
6
Pulse Single
7
RMS
Related Commands: PM:MODE
Mode
Note: The UNITs selection depends on the detector used. Refer to Table 1 for
the relationship between the detector type and units.
8.3.3.66
PM:Power?
Description
Power query
Syntax
PM:P?
Remarks
The PM:P? query returns the power in the selected units.
Response Type Description power exp Exponential form (i.e. 9.4689E-04)
Related Commands: PM:UNITS?, PM:PWS?
8.3.3.67
PM:PWS?
Description
Read with status query
Syntax
PM:PWS?
Remarks
The PM:PWS? query returns two values that are comma
delimited: The first value is the power reading and the
second value is the status. The status should be used to
validate the reading. The reading is in units corresponding
to the units field in the status word.
Response
Type
Description
Power reading
Status
exp
int
Power in present units
A bitfield in hexadecimal defining the
current channel status
Communication Command Reference
97
NOTE
The bitfield is defined as follows:
Bits 10-7
Channel Units. See PM:UNITS?
Bits 6-4
Channel Range, See PM:RANge?
Bit 3
Detector Present
Bit 2
Channel range change status. Indicates if a measurement has
been taken while the unit is ranging
Bit 1
Detector Saturated (reserved, follows bit 0)
Bit 0
Channel overrange. Indicates that the current measurement is
overrange for the current channel range
Related Commands: PM:MODE?
Example
If the query returns the following values
1.862153E-004, 118
then the Power reading is 1.862153E-004 and the Status is the hex value 118
or the binary value 00100011000b. Taking into consideration the bitfield
definition, the status is decoded as follows:
Bits
10 - 7
6-4
3
2
1
0
8.3.3.68
Binary
0010
001
1
0
0
Decimal
2
1
1
0
0
Function
units = Watts
range # 1
detector present
instrument not ranging during measurement
reserved
measurement is not over-range
PM:RANge
Description
Range select
Syntax
PM:RANge range
Remarks
The PM:RANge command selects the gain stage when
making readings from the detector head. The range of this
value depends on the detector being used.
Response
Type
Values range from 0 to 5 for Thermopile and
Energy detectors or 0 to 4 for Photodiodes
(see Section 2.3.2).
Related Commands: PM:RANge?, PM:AUTO
range
int
Description
98
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.69
PM:RANge?
Description
Range query
Syntax
PM:RANge?
Remarks
The PM:RANge? query returns an integer that indicates the
present range. The range of this value depends on the
detector being used.
Response
Value
Description
Values range from 0 to 5 for Thermopile and
Energy detectors or 0 to 4 for Photodiodes
(see Section 2.3.2).
Related Commands: PM:RANge, PM:AUTO
range
8.3.3.70
0
PM:REF:VALue
Description
Reference Value Define
Syntax
PM:REF:VALue <val>
Parameters
The parameter <val>is of type <number>.
Function
This command provides a means of directly storing a reference value to be
used in linear and logarithmic (dB) relative measurements. The units of this
value are the current units being used by the instrument.
Related Commands: PM:REF:STOre,PM:REF:VALue?
8.3.3.71
PM:REF:VALue?
Description
Reference Value Query
Syntax
PM:REF:VALue?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the user defined reference value. The units of this value
are the current units being used by the instrument.
Returns <refval>
<refval> is of type <number>
Related Commands: PM:REF:STOre,PM:REF:VALue
8.3.3.72
PM:REF:STOre
Description
Reference Value Store
Communication Command Reference
Syntax
PM:REF:STOre
Parameters
None
99
Function
This command takes the latest reading and stores it as a reference reading to
be used when making relative linear and dB measurements. The units of this
value are the current units being used by the instrument.
Related Commands: PM:REF:VALue,PM:REF:VALue?
8.3.3.73
PM:RESPonsivity?
Description
Responsivity query
Syntax
PM:RESP?
Remarks
The PM:RESP? query returns the responsivity currently
used in making power calculations.
Response
Type
Description
Responsivity
float
Optical Meter responsivity
Related Commands: PM:UNITS?, PM:PWS?
8.3.3.74
PM:RUN
Description
Run command
Syntax
PM:RUN mode
Remarks
The PM:RUN command disables or enables the acquisition of data.
Argument
Value
Description
0
Stop
1
Run
Related Commands: PM:RUN?, PM:MODE?
Mode
8.3.3.75
PM:RUN?
Description
Run query
Syntax
PM:RUN?
Remarks
The PM:RUN? query returns an integer indicating the
present run mode.
Response
Value
Description
Mode
0
Stopped
1
Running
Related Commands: PM:RUN, PM:MODE?
100
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.76
PM:SATLEVEL
Description
Set detector saturation current density or power level
Syntax
PM:SATLEVEL value
Remarks
This command sets or overrides the saturation density value
recorded in the detector calibration
Argument
Type
Description
Value
float
saturation current density ( A/cm² ) for
semiconductor detector or saturation power
( W ) for thermopile detector.
Related Commands: PM:SPOTSIZE, PM:SATLEVEL?
8.3.3.77
PM:SATLEVEL?
Description
Query detector saturation current density or power level
Syntax
PM:SATLEVEL?
Remarks
This command query the saturation density value which is
set by PM:SATLEVEL command
Response
Type
Description
Value
float
saturation current density ( A/cm² ) for
semiconductor detector or saturation power
( W ) for thermopile detector.
Related Commands: PM:SPOTSIZE, PM:SATLEVEL
8.3.3.78
PM:SPOTSIZE
Description
Set detector spot size
Syntax
PM:SPOTSIZE value
Remarks
This command sets the detector spot size. By default, the
spot size is same as a detector’s surface area. This value is
used to when measurement units are set to W/cm2, J/cm2 or
Sun.
Argument
Type
Description
Value
float
Spot size (cm2)
Related Commands: PM:SPOTSIZE?, PM:DETSIZE?
8.3.3.79
PM:SPOTSIZE?
Description
Detector spot size query
Syntax
PM:SPOTSIZE?
Communication Command Reference
101
Remarks
The PM:SPOTSIZE? query returns the detector spot size
in cm2.
Response
Type
Description
Spot size
float
detector spot size in cm2
Related Commands: PM:SPOTSIZE, PM:DETSIZE?
8.3.3.80
PM:STAT:MAX?
Description
Statistics Maximum Value Query
Syntax
PM:STAT:MAX?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the maximum value in the statistics buffer.
Returns
<max>
<max>is of type <number>in exponent notation.
8.3.3.81
PM:STAT:MEAN?
Description
Statistics Mean Value Query
Syntax
PM:STAT:MEAN?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the mean or average of all the values in
the statistics buffer.
Returns
<mean>
<mean>is of type <number>in exponent notation.
8.3.3.82
PM:STAT:MIN?
Description
Statistics Minimum Value Query
Syntax
PM:STAT:MIN?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the minimum value in the statistics
buffer.
Returns
<min>
<min>is of type <number>in exponent notation.
8.3.3.83
PM:STAT:MAXMIN?
Description
Statistics Max-Min Query
Syntax
PM:STAT:MAXMIN?
102
Communication Command Reference
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the difference between the maximum
and minimum readings in the statistics buffer.
Returns
<mxmn>
<mxmn>is of type <number>in exponent notation.
8.3.3.84
PM:STAT:SDEViation?
Description
Statistics Standard Deviation Query
Syntax
PM:STAT:SDEViation?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the standard deviation of the readings in
the statistics buffer.
Returns
<stddev>
<stddev>is of type <number>in exponent notation.
8.3.3.85
PM:Temp?
Description
918 detectors temperature query
Syntax
PM:Temp?
Remarks
The PM:Temp? query returns the 918 detector's
temperature as a float in degrees Celsius.
Response
Type
Description
temp
float
Detector temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
Related Commands: PM:ATT?
8.3.3.86
PM:THERM:PREDICT
Description
Thermopile prediction command
Syntax
PM:THERM:PREDICT mode
Remarks
The PM:THERM:PREDICT command disables or enables the
thermopile prediction algorithm. When this algorithm is enabled,
the instrument predicts the power measured by thermopile
detector very accurately, a few seconds faster than the natural
response of the detector.
Argument
Value
Description
0
Disable prediction algorithm
1
Enable prediction algorithm
Related Commands: PM:THERM:PREDICT?
Mode
Communication Command Reference
8.3.3.87
103
PM:THERM:PREDICT?
Description
Thermopile prediction query
Syntax
PM:THERM:PREDICT?
Remarks
The PM:THERM:PREDICT? query returns the state of
thermopile prediction algorithm.
Response
Value
Description
Mode
0
Prediction algorithm is disabled
1
Prediction algorithm is enabled
Related Commands: PM:THERM:PREDICT
8.3.3.88
PM:TRIG:START
Description
This command sets the optional start event.
Syntax
PM:TRIG:START option
Parameters
The parameter <option> is of type <number> and is an integer from 0 to 3.
Argument
Value
Description
option
0
Continuous measurement
1
Reserved
2
Measurement starts when a designated
Soft key is pressed
3
Measurement starts when
PM:TRIG:STATE 1 command is issued.
Related Commands: PM:TRIG: START?
8.3.3.89
PM:TRIG:START?
Description
Trigger START Query
Syntax
PM:TRIG:START?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the TRIGGER START condition.
Related Commands: PM:TRIG: START
8.3.3.90
PM:TRIG:STOP
Description
This command sets the optional stop event.
104
Communication Command Reference
Syntax
PM:TRIG:STOP <option>
Parameters
The parameter <option> is of type <number> and is an integer from 0 to 6.
Argument
Value
Description
option
0
The measurement never stops
1
Reserved
2
Measurement stops when a designated Soft
key is pressed
3
Measurement stops when PM:TRIG:STATE
0 command is issued.
Related Commands: PM:TRIG: STOP?
8.3.3.91
PM:TRIG:STOP?
Description
Trigger STOP Query
Syntax
PM:TRIG:STOP?
Parameters
None
Function
This query returns the TRIGGER STOP condition.
Related Commands: PM:TRIG: STOP
8.3.3.92
PM:TRIG:STATE
Description
This command sets the trigger state
Syntax
PM:TRIG:STATE <option>
Parameters
The parameter <option> is of type <number> and is an integer 0 or 1.
Argument
Value
Description
option
0
Trigger is armed. The system waits for a trigger
start event to occur in order to make a
measurement.
1
System is triggered and at least one
measurement occurred.
Related Commands: PM:TRIG: STATE?
8.3.3.93
PM:TRIG:STATE?
Description
Trigger STATE Query
Communication Command Reference
Syntax
PM:TRIG:STATE?
Parameters
None
105
Function
This query returns the TRIGGER STATE condition.
Related Commands: PM:TRIG: STATE
8.3.3.94
PM:UNITs
Description
Units select
Syntax
PM:UNITS units
Remarks
The PM:UNITS command selects the units for readings.
Argument
Value
Description
0
Amps
1
Volts
2
Watts
3
Watts/cm2
4
Joules
5
Joules/cm2
6
dBm
7-10
Reserved
11
Sun
Related Commands: PM:MODE?
units
Note: The UNITs selection depends on the detector used. Refer to Table 1 for
the relationship between the detector type and units.
8.3.3.95
PM:UNITs?
Description
Units query
Syntax
PM:UNITS?
Remarks
The PM:UNITS? query returns an integer indicating the
units selected.
Response
Value
Description
units
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7-10
11
Amps
Volts
Watts
Watts/cm2
Joules
Joules/cm2
dBm
Reserved
Sun
106
Communication Command Reference
Related Commands: PM:UNITS
Note: The UNITs selection depends on the detector used. Refer to Table 1 for
the relationship between the detector type and units.
8.3.3.96
PM:ZEROSTOre
Description
Zero value set command
Syntax
PM:ZEROSTO
Remarks
The PM:ZEROSTO command sets the zeroing value with
the present reading.
Argument
Type
none
-
Description
Related Commands: PM:ZEROVAL?
8.3.3.97
PM:ZEROVALue
Description
Zero value set command
Syntax
PM:ZEROVAL value
Remarks
The PM:ZEROVAL command sets the zeroing value.
When enabled, zeroing subtracts the stored zero value from
readings before making measurement calculations.
Argument
Type
Description
Value
float
Zeroing value
Related Commands: PM:ZEROSTO
8.3.3.98
PM:ZEROVALue?
Description
Zero value query
Syntax
PM:ZEROVAL?
Remarks
The PM:ZEROVAL? query returns the zero value.
Response
Type
Description
value
float
Zero exponent
Related Commands: PM:ZEROVAL
9
Principles of Operation
9.1
Introduction
The 1918-R Optical Meter electronics adapt to a number of signal
measurement tasks: DC current or voltage, AC peak-to-peak current or pulse
voltage, or integrated DC current or voltage signals. This versatility is
required to handle the various signals that Newport’s Low Power, HighPower, Energy and other detector families generate. These detector families
are based on semiconductor, thermopile and pyroelectric. The detector data is
introduced to the 1918-R by way of a calibration module specific to the
detector in use. At power up (and RESET), the 1918-R downloads
information about the detector from the calibration module or the detector
internal memory. Based on the calibration module preprogrammed data, the
meter learns the set of operating states available to the detector. The user then
selects among the available operating states when using the meter. Front
panel control and the operating states of the 1918-R Optical Meter are
discussed in Section 3.
9.2
Analog Signal Flow
The detector signals can follow many different paths through the 1918-R
input amplifier chain. A block diagram of analog signal flow is shown in
Figure 58. The actual flow path depends upon the detector type and the mode
of measurement.
Figure 58
1918-R Optical Meter Analog Signal Flow Diagram
108
Principles of Operation
The analog signal flow path is primarily determined by the responsivity units
of the detector. The numerator of these units indicates how the meter must be
configured in order to obtain a calibrated optical measurement. Analog signal
flow is independent of whether single or continuous measurements are made.
Responsivity units and signal flows for the various detector families are listed
in Table 4.
Detector Family
Low-Power
Low-Power
Low-Power
High-Power
High-Power
Energy
Resp. Units
Mode
A/W
A/W
A/W
V/W
V/W
V/J
DC
Peak-Peak
Integral
DC
Integral
Pulse
Table 4
9.3
Amplifier
Path
I
I
I
V
V
V
PeakBaseline
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Analog Signal Flow Paths.
Digitized Signal Flow
An analog-to-digital converter captures the input signal. The input signal has
the units of current or voltage depending upon how the input amplifier chain
was configured. Note: In this manual the digitized signal may be referred as
sampled signal or samples.
This digitized signal moves through a number of process steps that may or
may not alter the digitized value depending upon the operating state of the
meter. Each of these possible-processing steps is discussed further.
Digital Filter
If the digital filter annunciator Dig or Digital is on, Section 4.2.5, the filter
output is the average of the most recent 10, 100, 1000, 10000 samples. The
number of samples is selectable by the user with the Filter menu. Also, the
user can change the number of samples. When less than the selected number
of samples has been acquired since the last reset of the digital filter, the
output is the average of all the values received. The digital filter is reset when
the 1918-R Optical Meter is turned on and whenever the UNITS or the range
changes or when the MODE of operation changes.
NOTE
When using the digital filter in CW Single acquisition mode, each measurement is
the average of the last 10, 100, 1000, 10000 acquisitions independent of how old
any of the measurements are.
Gain
Gain processing accounts for the signal gain of the input amplifiers. The
output is the product of the digitized value and the amplifier gain.
Principles of Operation
109
Zero Offset
Zero offset is active whenever the Offset annunciator is lit. The zero offset
output is equal to the input value less the zero reference value.
Responsivity Map(s)
This process scales the input value in accordance with current calibration
wavelength and the responsivity map downloaded from the detector
calibration module. The output of this process, i.e. the measurement value, is
the digitized input value divided by the responsivity associated with the
current calibration wavelength or the user defined calibration value. Different
responsivities are used depending upon if the attenuator is on as shown in the
Setup Menu.
Units Correction
Unit’s correction adjusts a measurement value to account for the display units
selected. When the display units are equal to the detector signal units, i.e.
equal to the numerator of the responsivity units, Table 1, the measurement
value is not adjusted. Otherwise the digitized value is adjusted to account for
detector responsivity and/or additional unit conversions such as W-to-W/cm2.
NOTE
Per area unit conversions such as W-to-W/cm2 divide the measurement value by the
active area of the detector. This calculation assumes that the entire active area of
the detector is uniformly illuminated. Per area measurements where the entire
detector active area is not uniformly lit are not accurate. The user must insure that
these conditions are met before utilizing per area units or make measurement
corrections accordingly.
9.4
Typical Detector Signals
The flexibility of the 1918-R Optical Meter analog signal flow is required in
order that it may properly measure the signals that various types of detectors
make.
Basic optical power or energy measurements are related to a measured
detector signal, S, in the following way:
P or E 
Where:
S
R
Rλ = Detector responsivity at λ
S = Detector signal
Semiconductor (918D/818 Series Low-Power) detectors provide a current
signal. The 1918-R is capable of 10 pA resolution in order to provide the
highest sensitivity performance with these detectors.
110
Principles of Operation
Thermopile (818P Series High-Power) detectors, provide a small voltage
signal.
The 1918-R is capable of 76.3 nV resolution in order to reach the sensitivity
limits of thermopile detectors.
Pyroelectric (818E Series Energy) detectors, deliver a peak voltage signal.
The1918-R is capable of capturing 2 µsec rise time voltage spikes so that it
may be operated with the fastest of these detectors.
9.5
Thermopile Detector Signals
Thermopile detectors respond with a voltage signal that slowly changes in
incident optical power. The time constant of most thermopile detectors is on
the order of 1 to 10 seconds.
Figure 59
9.6
Thermopile Signals exhibit 1 to 10 second time constants.
Pulse Energy Detector Signals
A Newport Energy detector will respond to a single radiant energy pulse with
a voltage pulse at its BNC output. This pulse exhibits a sharp voltage rise to a
peak followed by slower voltage decay that “undershoots” zero volts before
settling back to zero volts. When a detector is operated within its proper
limits, the voltage difference from immediately before the sharp rise to the
peak is linearly proportional to the radiant energy.
If a second pulse arrives before the “undershoot” rises back to zero volts, the
voltage rise from this pulse will start from an initial negative value. At
sufficient energy pulse repetition rates, a negative “baseline” voltage will
develop from which the voltage rise must now be measured to achieve
accurate energy readings. The 1918-R contains baseline capture circuitry that
maintains its accuracy specifications over rep-rates ranging from single pulse
to 10 kHz.
Principles of Operation
111
Figure 60
Typical Newport Energy Detector Signal Waveform
An energy detector signal sharply rises to a peak value and then decays going somewhat
negative before finally returning to zero. The energy in the radiant pulse is proportional to
the height of the peak measured from immediately before the sharp rise.
Figure 61
Negative Baseline Voltage.
Negative Baseline Voltage Due to a Pulse Train shown. If a laser pulse arrives before the
previous Energy detector signal has fully decayed, the detector signal rises from the present
decay point of the previous signal.
9.7
Peak-to-Peak (Photodiode) Detector Signals
The 1918-R enables one to make peak-to-peak measurements of time
varying signals from semiconductor photodiode detectors. Since optical
power is a zero bounded positive quantity, signals from a detector observing
such modulated light will similarly be zero bounded positive signals.
To make a peak-to-peak measurement, the 1918-R must be able to capture
both the maximum and minimum values of a detector signal. This is
accomplished by sampling the signal.
112
Principles of Operation
Figure 62
Time Varying Signal Measurements.
Many different measurements can be made on different portions of a time varying signal. The
most common are: DC power, peak power, and peak-to-peak power.
9.8
Integration of Detector Signals
The 1918-R provides for making measurements that integrate incoming
power detector signals to obtain energy via the CW Integrate mode. In CW
Integrate mode, the display units indicate Joules since energy is the time
integral of power:
t1

E()  P()dt 
t0
t1

t0
S( t )
dt
R ( )
As the detector signal actually consists of a stream of digitized values, the
integral becomes a numerical approximation using the trapezoid method.
See Figure 63.
Figure 63
Integrated Energy Via a Trapezoid Approximation.
The INTG measurement mode performs a discrete integration at a 400 Hz sample rate.
Principles of Operation
113
Two common applications are natural extensions of the CW Integrate
measurement mode:
4. Pulse laser energy measurement using a thermopile detector
5. Energy from exposure over a period of time (dosage)

Figure 64
Measuring Laser Pulse Energy with a Thermopile.
Thermopiles are often used to measure pulsed laser energy by integrating the response of the
detector to the pulse.
9.9
Analog Output
The 1918-R provides an analog output for signal monitoring. The analog
output is the actual amplified detector signal and is uncorrected for the effects
of the detector’s responsivity, calibration, and ZERO. The analog output
signal is a representation of what the meter “sees” at its input. However, the
analog output signal may be filtered if the user selects the 0.5 HZ filter (see
paragraph 4.2.5). Also, the analog output signal is amplified and scaled to the
selected analog output level (see Table 5).
The user can select the analog output level with a command,
PM:.ANALOG:OUT (see Section 8.3). The analog output maximum level
corresponds to the maximum full-scale input range the meter is set on. For
example, if one selects the analog output level at 1 V, and the meter is set on
250 mW maximum full-scale input range, the analog output signal will have
a transfer function of 250 mW/1 V. Therefore, if the analog output is
connected to an oscilloscope or voltmeter and the user reads 0.125 V, the
detector power is 125 mW.
The selectable analog output levels are given in Table 5.
Output Range
0
1
2
Full Scale Voltage (Load ≥ 1 MΩ)
1V
2V
5V
Table 5 Analog Output Range Table.
114
Principles of Operation
9.10
Measurement Considerations
This section describes detector characteristics, optical and electrical
considerations, and environmental influences on optical measurements. In
general, measurement accuracy is limited by the accuracy of the detector
calibration.
Accurate measurements, however, are also dependent upon proper set-up,
control of temperature and illumination conditions and understanding the
factors that affect optical measurements.
9.10.1
Detector Calibration and Uncertainty
Newport Corporation calibrates its detectors using secondary standards directly
traceable to the United States National Institute of Science and Technology
(NIST), to Great Britain’s National Physical Laboratory (NPL), or to National
Research Council (NRC) of Canada.
The details and uncertainty of the calibration procedure vary with each
detector model but a detailed description of the calibration results is supplied
with each individually calibrated detector. In general, detector calibration
uncertainty varies from 1% to 8% and varies with wavelength. Each detector
will also have some variation in response over its surface. Therefore, for the
most reproducible measurements, light should illuminate the detector as
uniformly as possible over 80% of the detector’s active area.
CAUTION
Avoid focusing a light source onto the detector surface.
Inaccurate readings and possible detector damage may result.
Consult the detector manual for saturation or damage
thresholds.
NIST trace ability requires that detectors be recalibrated on one-year intervals.
As individual detector responses change with time, especially in the
ultraviolet, recalibration is necessary to assure confidence in the uncertainty
of the measurement. For the most reproducible measurements, the same
detector should always be used for measurements that are to be directly
compared.
9.10.2
Quantum Detector Temperature Effects
Semiconductor (Newport Low-Power) detectors are affected by temperature.
At long wavelengths, quantum detectors typically lose sensitivity with
increasing temperature. Additionally, detector dark current increases
exponentially with temperature. For silicon detectors, dark current is
generally on the order of a few picoamps at room temperature. With uncooled
germanium detectors , however, this dark current is on the order of a
nanoamp, or typically 1,000 to 10,000 times greater than silicon. Observed
Principles of Operation
115
dark current is often dominated by the interaction between the detector and a
meter’s amplifier and is typically larger than the theoretical dark current
limit. Silicon detectors are inherently quieter than germanium detectors due
to their higher internal resistance and lower capacitance. The noise or drift in
the dark current sets a lower bound on the measurement resolution that can be
achieved with any given detector. Cooling a detector significantly lowers its
dark current and dark current noise.
The observed dark currents can also be zeroed at any moment via the ZERO
function. Since dark currents drift with temperature, the ZERO should be
adjusted just prior to taking any measurements. If the detector temperature is
constant, sensitivity changes and dark current drifts are significantly reduced.
The 1918-R Optical Meter can measure the detector temperature and correct
the power readings accordingly. The power correction happens automatically
only for those detectors which are equipped with a thermistor (Newport
offers detectors with thermistors for temperature compensation. See Newport
web-site www.newport.com for more details.)
The thermistor signal is read via the detector DB-15 connector and the
displayed power is adjusted continuously depending on the detector
temperature. The analog output signal shows the detector signal and is not
corrected for temperature.
9.10.3
Thermopile Detector Temperature Effects
Thermopile (Newport High-Power) detectors are significantly affected by
temperature fluctuations arising from airflow disturbances. As the detector is
a temperature-measuring device, airflow disturbances set a practical lower
limit on the power that a detector can measure. In order to get the most out of
any thermopile detector, be careful to shield the detector from airflow
disturbances. Common sources of disturbance are: air conditioners and
people walking past.
NOTE
“Use Prediction to deactivate the power meter acceleration software that provides
the “prediction” response. By using advanced algorithms and known properties of
the detector, this software allows the 1936-R to provide a very accurate power
measurement a few seconds faster than the natural response of a thermopile power
detector. It accelerates the natural response by a factor of 5 to 10.
Turning off the prediction will result in a slower response but it can provide a more
stable measured value in a noisy environment. The default is on. Users are advised
to turn the prediction off if they use a high-power thermopile at low power levels.”
116
Principles of Operation
9.10.4
Energy Detector Temperature Effects
Pyroelectric (Newport Energy) detectors are AC coupled devices and thus are
not susceptible to temperature induced DC signal offsets or noise floor
changes.
One generally does not need to take much precaution with pyroelectric
detectors except to make sure that their damage threshold is not exceeded.
9.10.5
Ambient and Stray Light
Ambient and stray light striking the detector should be considered when
making a measurement. Ambient light can be distinguished from dark current
(or the detector/meter noise floor) by either turning off or blocking the source
and covering the detector face with opaque material such as a piece of black
rubber.
Using the human hand to cover the detector is not advised because it emits a
significant amount of infrared radiation and radiates a temperature
significantly different from ambient. With the detector covered, a reading of
the dark current may be made. Next, remove the material that is covering the
detector and take another reading. The difference is the ambient light level.
The effects of ambient light are greatly reduce when using a fiberconnectorized signal input to the detector. If free-space beam measurements
are desired, using an attenuator ( Low-Power detectors have an OD3
attenuator included ) will reduce stray light and often improve the source
signal to ambient signal noise level. Wavelength-specific filters, such as
optical cutoff, bandpass, or spike filters can also be used if the signal
wavelength spectrum permits. Other techniques to reduce stray light include
using apertures, placing detector in a box or other housing to shield the
surface from light ( or air currents when using Newport’s High-Power disk
thermopile detectors ) which is not coming from the source, and turning off
room and other light.
NOTE
Changes in ambient light levels can occur from such factors as turning room lights
on or off, or by moving people or equipment. Remember, if you can see your
detector element, then your detector can see the light bouncing off you.
The effects of ambient light are greatly reduced when using a fiber-connectorized
signal input to the detector. If free-space beam measurements are desired, using an
attenuator will often improve the signal to ambient signal noise level.
Wavelength-specific filters, such as optical cutoff, band pass, or spike filters can be
used if the signal wavelength spectrum permits. Other techniques to reduce stray
light include using apertures, placing the detector in a box or other housing to shield
the surface from light (or air currents) and turning off room and other polluting light
sources.
Principles of Operation
9.10.6
117
Signal Filtering
The 1918-R Optical Meter offers the user the option to filter the detector
signal. There are two programmable filters that can be used individually or
together to condition the detector signal: the Analog Filter and the Digital
Filter.
The Analog Filter is a hardware based, programmable low-pass filer. The
user can select the following settings: 0.5 HZ, 1kHz, 12.5kHz, and 250kHz.
This flexibility is offered to the user to improve the measurement precision
for different detectors.
It is well known that white noise has large spectrum. The noise level
increases with bandwidth. The higher the noise, the higher the minimum
signal that can be measured. The quality of the measurement can be linked to
the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR): the higher the SNR, the better the
measurement precision of very small signals. In order to increase the SNR the
user may choose to cut the bandwidth of the power meter, depending on the
detector signal.
For example, if the detector is modulated with a sine wave of 800Hz, the user
may choose to set the Analog filter to 1kHz to increase the SNR and be able
to measure very small signals. Also, cutting the bandwidth at 1kHz does not
affect the measurement. However, if the modulation frequency is 800Hz, but
the signal is a square, the user may opt to cut the bandwidth higher, at
12.5kHz, to let the signal harmonics be unfiltered and minimize the
distortion. Of course, in this case, the noise in the system will increase with
the square root of the bandwidth. The user needs to asses the tradeoffs in his
measurement, taking advantage of the 1918-R high flexibility in setting the
proper filters for the measurement.
Generally, the 0.5 HZ filter is used for CW Cont. measurements. However,
the 1918-R Optical Meter can measure the amplitude of AC signals down to
0.01Hz, so the 0.5 HZ filter can be used for any modulating signal below 0.5
HZ.
The Digital Filter is a moving average filter that can be set at 10, 100, 1000,
or 10000 measurements. These values can be changed by the user. If the
digital filter is set on 10, the average value is computed on 10 measurements,
in a First In First Out (FIFO) fashion. The Digital Filter helps the SNR the
same way as the Analog Filter does. With both filters on, low level,
continuous signals can be measured with a high degree of accuracy.
The Analog Filter is always applied to the entire amplifier chain of the meter.
Therefore, the user will see the detector signal filtered at the Analog Output
BNC. The Digital Filter is a digital signal-processing filter and is only
applied to the calculated measured values that are displayed on the meter
screen. While the displayed values may have both filters applied (An+Dg) the
118
Principles of Operation
Analog Output can only have the Analog Filter applied to the signal. Because
of that, the user may see a difference in the way the signal is filtered between
the displayed values and the Analog Output values.
9.11
Common Measurement Errors
The most common sources of optical measurement error are listed in Table 6
below. Other common errors are discussed in the preceding subsections of
Measurement Considerations.
Type of Error
What should be done?
Radiometry
Check that all of the light is actually hitting the
detector
Ambient light
Check that any ambient light was ZEROed before
the measurement was made.
Wavelength calibration
Check that the calibration factor for the
measurement wavelength is properly set.
Detector saturation or
damage
Check that the optical power density remains below
the detector’s saturation or damage
Table 6 Common Measurement Errors
Principles of Operation
This page is intentionally left blank
119
10
Troubleshooting
10.1
Power Supply Problems
Problem
1 The unit does not turn
on when battery
powered.
Solution
1. Use the external power supply to
operate the unit and recharge the
battery.
2. Verify that the USB-Host interface is
not connected to a shorted cable or
device.
Verify that the battery is properly installed.
2 The unit does not turn
on when powered
from the external
power supply.
3 The battery does not
charge.
1. Verify that the external power supply is
connected to AC power.
2. Verify that the external power supply
connector is fully mated with the
connector on the instrument.
Check the PWR LED.
1. If it is blinking, verify that the unit is
operating within the correct temperature
range. If the battery is extremely
discharged, the PWR LED may remain
blinking for up to 30 minutes while the
battery is “pre-charged.”
2. If it is not lit:
2.1. Verify that the external power supply is
connected to AC power.
2.2. Verify that the external power supply
connector is fully mated with the
connector on the instrument.
2.3. Verify that the battery is properly
installed.
3. If it is solid red, the battery is charging.
Troubleshooting
121
Allow the unit to charge for at least
three hours.
4. If it is solid green, the battery is fully
charged.
4 Short battery life
1. Allow battery to fully charge.
2. Use the various power-saving modes of
the instrument.
3. Disconnect any device(s) connected to
the USB-Host interface connector.
10.2
Analog Output Problems
1
10.3
Problem
Solution
There is no AC signal at
the analog output
Check if the 0.5 Hz Analog Filter is on.
Questions and Answers
Q. I am trying to update the firmware but my USB flash drive is not working.
I don’t see any light on the memory stick.
A. The USB flash drive needs to be WinCE compatible. WinCE is the
operating system of 1918C power meter.
Q. Is the detector hot swappable?
A. Yes, you can swap the detector without having to turn off the power
meter.
Q. Is it possible to write the measurement data into Spreadsheet?
A. Yes, you can plug in a USB flash drive into the power meter and save the
data from the Statistics screen.
Q. Is it possible to use a third party detector with the 1918-R Optical Meter?
A. It may be possible for some measurements by purchasing a special
adaptor. Contact Newport Corporation for availability and details.
122
Troubleshooting
Q. I would like to change the configuration back to the factory default
setting. How can I do that?
A. Turn off the Power Meter. Hold down both “ZERO and “HOLD” buttons
and turn on the Power Meter. A message window appears. Choose YES or
NO for reset by using the left-right arrow keys and press enter.
Q. The display shows some noise and fluctuation when I measure my CW
light source. Any suggestions?
A. Turn on the analog/digital filter. Check whether the meter and detector
calibration is up-to-date.
Q. Can I measure peak power or energy of a single pulse with a Newport low
power detector (918D, etc.) and 1918-R?
A. No. There is no energy or peak power mode measurement with the 1918-R
when using a low power detector.
Troubleshooting
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123
11
Maintenance and Service
CAUTION
There are no user serviceable parts inside the 1918-R Optical
Meter. Work performed by persons not authorized by Newport
Corporation will void the warranty.
Calibration accuracy is warranted for a period of 1 year. After
1 year, the unit should be returned to Newport Corporation for
recalibration and NIST traceability re-certification.
11.1
Enclosure Cleaning
WARNING
Before cleaning the enclosure of the 1918-R Optical Meter, the
external power supply must be disconnected from the unit.
The enclosure should only be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol or a mild soapy
water solution applied to a damp lint-free cloth.
11.2
Battery Pack Replacement
Maintenance and Service
Open cover to
remove battery
pack
Figure 65
Battery Replacement
WARNING
To reduce the risk of electric shock or damage to the instrument,
turn the power switch off and disconnect the power cord before
replacing a battery pack.
To replace a battery pack:
1. Disconnect the power cord from the instrument
2. Push the battery cover latches as the arrows show in Figure 65 and lift
the battery cover.
3. Disconnect the battery pack from the instrument by detaching the
connector from the contacts to which it is attached
4. Remove the old battery pack and replace with a new 1918-BAT battery
pack, by attaching the connector to the contacts and placing the battery
pack inside the compartment
5. Close the battery cover, while assuring that no wires are caught between
the instrument and the back cover.
6. Reconnect the power cord, charge the new battery pack for at least 4
hours and turn on the instrument.
11.3
Spare Parts
The following spare parts can be ordered directly from Newport Corporation.
126
Maintenance and Service
Item
Newport Part
Number
Equivalent
Battery
1918 - BAT
No equivalent. Use only Newport battery.
External Power
Supply
1918 – PS
Cincon Electronics # TR36A2423A03
Power Cord
1918 – PSC
Qualtek Electronics #223021-01 or
equivalent 8 ft max, SPT-2, 18 AWG, 7A,
Nema 1-ISP to IEC 60320K7 cord.
Battery
Compartment Cover
90000198
No equivalent.
Kickstand Assembly
45344-01
No equivalent.
Table 7 Spare Parts
11.4
Obtaining Service
The 1918-R Optical Meter contains no user serviceable parts. To obtain
information regarding factory service, contact Newport Corporation or your
Newport representative. Please have the following information available:
1. Instrument model number (on the rear panel).
2. Instrument serial number (on rear panel).
3. Description of the problem.
If the instrument is to be returned to Newport Corporation, you will be given
a Return Number, which you should reference in your shipping documents.
Please fill out a copy of the service form, located on the following page, and
have the information ready when contacting Newport Corporation. Return
the completed service form with the instrument.
Maintenance and Service
11.5
Service Form
Newport Corporation
U.S.A. Office: 800-222-6440
FAX: 949/253-1479
Name _______________________________
Return Authorization #__________________
(Please obtain RA# prior to return of item)
Company ________________________________________________________________________
(Please obtain RA # prior to return of item)
Address ________________________________ ____________________Date _________________
Country _______________________ Phone Number ______________________________________
P.O. Number ___________________ FAX Number _______________________________________
Item(s) Being Returned:
Model # _______________________ Serial # __________________________
Description _______________________________________________________________________
Reason for return of goods (please list any specific problems):
12
Appendix A – Syntax and
Definitions
12.1
Definition of <string>
For convenience, the 1918-R recognizes double quoted, single quoted, and
unquoted strings with certain restrictions as detailed below. Any of these
forms may be used where a <string> parameter is required.
1. <string>,using double quotes
“this is a string”
2. <string>,using single quotes.
‘this is a string’
3. <string>,using no quotes.
thisisastring
A description of each type of <string follows:
1. <string> defined using double quotes.
A double quote indicates that a string follows, and the string is terminated
by another double quote. A double quote may be embedded within the
string by using two double quotes together:
Example: “this string contains a “”double quote”
All characters within the two outer double quotes are considered part of
the string. It is an error if the string does not terminate with a double
quote. The string cannot contain the <CR>(ASCII decimal 13),
<LF>(ASCII decimal 10), or End or Identify characters.
2. <string> defined using single quotes.
This form is similar to double quoted string. A single quote indicates that
a string follows, and the string is terminated by another single quote. A
single quote may be embedded within the string by using two single
quotes together:
Example: ‘this string contains a‘’single quote’
All characters within the two outer single quotes are considered part of the
string. It is an error if the string does not terminate with a single quote.
The string cannot contain the <CR>(ASCII decimal 13), <LF>(ASCII
decimal 10), or End or Identify characters.
3. <string> defined using no quotes.
Appendix A
All strings using this format must start with an alphabetic character (A
through Z, a through z). All other characters must be either alphabetic, digit
(0 through 9)or the ‘_’ character. Any other character will delimit the string.
Some examples are shown below:
Sent: this is a string
Interpreted:
this
(1st string)
is
(2nd string)
a
(3rd string)
string
(4th string)
Sent: this,isastring
Interpreted:
this
(1st string)
,
(separator character)
isastring
(2nd string)
Sent: w/cm
Interpreted:
12.2
w
(1st string)
ERROR
(unrecognized character)
cm
(2nd string)
Definition of <number>
The 1918-R recognizes four types as <number> ,thus any format may be
used.
1.
<number> defined as floating point.
2.
<number> defined as binary.
3.
<number> defined as octal.
4.
<number> defined as hexadecimal.
Where necessary, integers are converted to floating point numbers. In all
cases, a number is terminated by any of the below characters:
<NL> <EOI> <SPACE>
Any non-valid characters detected in any number received are considered an
error in format, and an error condition will be generated in the system.
A description of each type of <number> follows:
1.
<number> defined as floating point.
130
Appendix A
Any of the following characters, as the first character of an ASCII sequence,
indicates that a number is being defined:
+-.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
A floating point number is defined as follows:
1. Optional +-sign. This defines the sign of the number. If missing, positive
is assumed.
2. Optional 0-9 digits. These digits define the integer portion of the
mantissa.
3. Optional . decimal point. This defines the end of the integer portion of the
mantissa, and indicates that the fractional portion of the mantissa follows.
4. Optional 0 -9 digits. These digits define the fractional portion of the
mantissa.
5. Optional exponent indicator, an ASCII ‘E ’ or ‘e ’,followed by a ‘+’ or ‘-’
(optional), followed by decimal digits.
Examples:
The numbers below all represent the value “1.2 ”
1.2
1.2e0
+01.2E+00000
120E-2
.12e1
The numbers below all represent the value “-1.2 ”
-1.2
-1.2e+00
-0001.2e+0
-120e-2
.12E1
2. <number>defined as binary.
The 1918-R recognizes unsigned binary numbers in the range of 0 to 65535,
decimal, or 0 to 1111111111111111 binary. Binary numbers are represented
using only the digits 0 and 1.A binary number has the following format:
#B<binary>
Where
#B = mandatory binary number header
<binary> = binary digits (0’s or 1’s)
Appendix A
Example:
All numbers below represent the decimal value 129.
#B10000001
#b010000001
#b10000001
3. <number> defined as octal.
The 1918-R recognizes unsigned octal numbers in the range 0 to 65535
decimal, or 0 to 177777 octal. Octal numbers are represented using digits
from 0 to 7.An octal number has the following format:
#Q<octal>
Where
#Q =mandatory octal number header
<octal> =octal digits (0 to 7)
Example:
All numbers below represent the decimal value 129.
#Q201
#q0201
#q201
4. <number>defined as hexadecimal.
The 1918-R recognizes unsigned hexadecimal numbers in the range 0 to
65535 decimal, or 0 to FFFF hexadecimal. Hexadecimal numbers are
represented using the digits 0 -9 and the characters A -F.A hexadecimal
number has the following format:
#H<hexadecimal>
Where
#H =mandatory octal number header
<hexadecimal> =hexadecimal digits (0 -9 and A -F)
Example:
All numbers below represent the decimal value 127.
#H7f
#H007F
#h7f
13
Appendix B – Error Messages
13.1
Introduction
The communication errors can be retrieved with the following commands:
*ERR? or ERRSTR?. The descriptions of the returned errors are detailed in
the next sections.
13.2
Command Errors
Command Errors are associated with the conversion of the data received into
the commands and their parameters (parsing). Incorrect syntax, incorrect
parameters, and improper command format will generate these errors. Any
command error will cause the Command Error bit (bit 5) in the Standard
Event Status Byte to be set.
104, Numeric Type Not Defined
Generated during the parsing of a number and an undefined number type is
encountered.
106, Digit Expected
Generated during the parsing of a number and the parser encounters a nonnumber when a number is expected.
107, Digit Not Expected
Generated during the parsing of a number and the parser encounters a number
when a different character is expected.
115, Identifier Not Valid
Generated when a parameter is not valid or not properly formed.
116, Syntax Error
Occurs when an error in command structure or parameter type is detected.
Some typical causes are:
 Using a number as a command mnemonic.
 Using the wrong parameter type.
 Using ASCII characters outside of a string constant that are not defined by
the command language syntax.
 Missing or too many parameters.
The above list in not exhaustive but does give the basic idea of what to look for.
Appendix B
126, Too Many Or Few Arguments
Generated when command arguments are missing or too many.
13.3
Execution Errors
Execution Errors are associated with the interpretation of the converted
commands and parameters received. Incorrect parameter values and
numerical range errors are types of execution errors. Any execution error
will cause the Execution Error bit (bit 4) in the Standard Event Status Byte to
be set.
1, Out of memory
This error is caused by an internal program fault, and may be followed by an
automatic instrument reset.
201, Value Out Of Range
This error will occur if a parameter is out of a valid range or not in the set of
valid parameters for a given command.
214, Exceeds Maximum Length
Generated when the command exceeds the maximum command length. Try
shortening the command string.
217, No saved information in recalled bin
Generated when the user attempts to recall a bin which has no previous stored
data.
301, Query Error
The Query Error occurs when the instrument is in the midst of transmitting a
message over a communication bus and the instrument exits remote mode.
303, Input Buffer Overflow
Error generated when the system parser runs out of space during reception of
command. It may occur if commands are not terminated correctly. Input
buffer is 1,024 characters long.
304, Output Buffer Overflow
Error generated when the system parser runs out of space for query results. It
may occur if query results in too much data to be returned in a single
response, or if multiple command queries are issued but not read. Output
buffer is 4,096 characters long.
305, Parser Buffer Overflow
Error generated when the system parser runs out of space for commands. A
command is received into the input buffer then transferred to the parser buffer.
This error is generated if the command in the input buffer is too large to fit into
the available space in the parser buffer. It is usually generated when commands
134
Appendix B
are sent to the instrument faster than it can process. Parser buffer is 2,048
characters long.
13.4
Device Errors
Device Errors are associated with some system condition that affects the
operation of the meter. Errors associated with data reading will set the
appropriate bit but will not generate an error message to avoid jamming the
error queue or the interface.
701, Detector Calibration Read or Write Failed.
An error was encountered during a read/write operation to the calibration
EPROM in the detector. If problem persists, contact the factory.
703, Optical Meter set to defaults due to Firmware update
After upgrading the firmware, in some cases the changes are significant
enough to require resetting the instrument to factory defaults.
704, User reference cannot be changed/stored while you are in units of
Watts or dBm. Change to dB or Rel to set the user reference value.
User reference can only be stored in dB or Rel mode.
705, Illegal data store parameter change. Queue cleared.
An action that affects the data store caused the data store queue to be cleared.
706, Digital Filter Interval changed, must not be greater than Data Store
interval.
The digital filter interval cannot be greater than the data store interval.
707, Digital Filter Disabled with External Trigger.
Digital filter must be disabled during external trigger mode.
708, There is no new data for a statistics update.
No new data has been stored in the data store since the last statistics update.
709, Statistics are not calculated while Data Store is running.
User attempted to compute statistics while data store was active. Turn off
data store and compute.
Appendix B
This page is intentionally left blank
14
Appendix C - Legacy
Commands Reference
Name
Number of
Parameters
DISP:BRIGHT
1
DISP:BRIGHT?
NONE
DISP:SCReen
1
DISP:SCReen?
NONE
PM:ANALOG:OUT
PM:ANALOG:OUT?
1
NONE
PM:ATT
1
PM:ATT?
NONE
PM:ATTSN?
NONE
PM:AUTO
1
PM:AUTO?
NONE
PM:CALDATE?
NONE
PM:CALTEMP?
NONE
PM:CHANnel
PM:CHANnel?
PM:DETMODEL?
PM:DETSN?
PM:DS:BUFfer
PM:DS:BUFfer?
PM:DS:CLear
PM:DS:Count?
PM:DS:ENable
PM:DS:ENable?
PM:DS:GET?
PM:DS:SIZE
PM:DS:SIZE?
PM:DS:INTerval
PM:DS:INTerval?
PM:DS:SAVEBUFER
PM:DS:SIZE
PM:DS:SIZE?
PM:DS:UNITs?
PM:FILTer
1
NONE
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
NONE
NONE
1
NONE
1
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
1
NONE
NONE
1
Function
Sets the backlight level of the display and the keypad
Returns the backlight level of the display and the
keypad
Switches to the n - screen display.
Returns displayed screen number, 0 – n/a screen
number, 1 – Main, etc.
Sets the analog output range to the desired level
Returns the analog output range
Selects if the attenuator's calibration data is included
for power calculation.
Returns setting if attenuator data should or should not
be used when calibrating the Optical Meter.
Gets the attenuator serial number.
Sets the Optical Meter ranging to manual or
automatic.
Returns 1 if automatic Optical Meter ranging is
selected.
Returns the calibration date of the detector.
Returns the temperature at which the calibration was
performed.
Selects the Optical Meter channel to display and
control.
Returns the Optical Meter channel currently selected.
Returns the model number of the detector.
Returns the serial number of the detector.
Set data store behavior select.
Return data store behavior select.
Clear data store.
Return data store count of items stored.
Set data store enable.
Return data store enable.
Return data store data. {1,1-10,-5,+5} – value, range,
oldest 5, newest 5
Sets the size of the Data Store buffer
Return the sizes of the Data Store buffer
Set data store interval.
Return data store interval.
Saves the data store buffer to USB flash disk
Set data store max size.
Return data store max size.
Return data store units.
Selects the filtering operation: no filtering, analog
filter, digital filter, or analog and digital.
Legacy
Commands
ATTN_n
ATTN_n?
ATTNSN_n?
AUTO_n
AUTO_n?
CALDATE_n?
CALTEMP_n?
DETMODEL_n?
DETSN_n?
DSBUF_n
DSBUF_n?
DSCLR_n
DSCNT_n?
DSE_n
DSE_n?
DS_n?
SFREQ
SFREQ?
DSSIZE_n
DSSIZE_n?
DSUNITS_n?
FILTER_n
Appendix B
Name
Number of
Parameters
PM:FILTer?
NONE
PM:Lambda
PM:Lambda?
1
NONE
PM:MAX:Lambda?
NONE
PM:MAX:Power?
NONE
PM:MIN:Lambda?
NONE
PM:MODE
PM:MODE?
PM:Power?
PM:PWS?
1
NONE
NONE
NONE
PM:RANge
1
PM:RANge?
NONE
PM:RESPonsivity?
NONE
Function
Returns the filtering operation: no filtering, analog
filter, digital filter, or analog and digital.
Sets the wavelength for use when calculating power.
Gets the selected wavelength in nanometers.
Returns the longest calibrated wavelength in
nanometers.
Returns current range’s maximum readable power.
Returns the shortest calibrated wavelength in
nanometers.
Returns the currently selected acquisition mode.
Returns the power in the selected units.
Returns the power with status.
Selects the gain stage when making readings with the
detector head within a range from 0 to 5 (with zero
being the highest).
Returns an integer indicating the current range.
Gets the responsivity currently used for making power
calculations.
PM:RUN
1
PM:RUN?
NONE
Returns the present acquisition mode.
PM:STAT:MAX?
PM:STAT:MEAN?
PM:STAT:MIN?
PM:STAT:MAXMIN?
PM:STAT:SDEViation?
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
PM:Temp?
NONE
PM:TRIG:EXTernal
PM:TRIG:EXTernal?
PM:TRIG:EDGE
PM:TRIG:EDGE?
PM:TRIG:HOLDoff
PM:TRIG:HOLDoff?
PM:UNITs
PM:UNITs?
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
1
NONE
Return statistics buffer maximum value.
Return statistics buffer mean value.
Return statistics buffer minimum value.
Return statistics buffer maximum-minimum value.
Return statistics buffer standard deviation value.
Returns the 918 detector's temperature in degrees
Celsius.
Set external trigger enable.
Return external trigger enable.
Set external trigger edge select.
Return external trigger edge select.
Set external trigger holdoff time.
Return external trigger holdoff time.
Selects the units for readings.
Returns an integer indicating the selected units.
Sets the user reference value for use in relative or dB
readings.
Returns the user reference value.
Sets the user reference value for use in relative or dB
readings as the present reading.
Sets the zeroing value with the present reading.
Sets the zeroing value.
Gets the zeroing value.
Return TEC measured temperature.
PM:REF:VALue
1
PM:REF:VALue?
NONE
PM:REF:STOre
NONE
PM:ZEROSTOre
PM:ZEROVALue
PM:ZEROVALue?
TEC:T?
NONE
1
NONE
NONE
Disables or enables the acquisition of data.
Table 8 Legacy Commands Reference
Legacy
Commands
FILTER_n?
LAMBDA_n
LAMBDA_n?
MODE_n
MODE_n?
R_n?
RWS_n?
RANGE_n
RANGE_n?
RESP_n?
RUN_n,
STOP_n
RUN_n?,
STOP_n
STMAX_n?
STMEAN_n?
STMIN_n?
STMXMN_n?
STSDEV_n?
EXT
EXT?
EXTEDGE
EXTEDGE
EXTHOLDOFF
EXTHOLDOFF?
UNITS_n
UNITS_n?
USRREF_n
USRREF_n?
STOREF_n
STOZERO_n
ZEROVAL_n
ZEROVAL_n?
15
Appendix D – Sample Programs
15.1
Programming Samples
The CD will install some simple programming samples to get computer
interfacing started. These are minimal samples and provided only for
reference.
15.2
LabVIEW
LabVIEW programming samples separated in folders based on version of
LabVIEW compiled with. SampleQuery.vi demonstrates the use of the
drivers.
15.3
Microsoft® Visual Basic
A zip file in the application folder contains a simple Visual Basic project for
communicating with the meter.
15.4
Microsoft Visual C++
A zip file in the application folder contains a simple Visual C++ project for
communicating with the meter.
15.5
Microsoft .NET
A zip file in the application folder contains a simple .NET project for
communicating with the meter.
Appendix B
This page is intentionally left blank
16
Appendix E – Disassembly
Instructions
NOTE
These disassembly instructions are intended only for recycling at the end of the
product lifetime.
For troubleshooting or servicing, users should contact the local Newport Corporation
representative. There are no user serviceable parts inside the equipment.
Attempting to self-service the unit will void the warranty.
16.1
Disassembly instructions
Figure 66 shows an exploded version of the 1918-R.
For recycling purposes only, the disassembly steps are as follows:
1. Make sure the unit power cord is removed.
2. Remove the battery.
3. Remove any other cables: detectors, Analog Output monitor cables, USB,
and ground cables.
4. Remove all 4 screws on the rear panel.
5. Remove the rear panel.
6. Remove the screws and posts of each assembly and unplug each assembly
from the unit.
Assembly 3
Side Plate
Assembly 2
Assembly 1
Front Cover
Rear Cover
Battery
Battery
compartment
cover
Figure 66
Disassembled 1918-R Optical Meter
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Product Support. Product support for the SOFTWARE is not provided by MS, Microsoft Corporation, or their affiliates or subsidiaries.
For product support, please refer to the Newport support number provided in the documentation for the DEVICE. Should you have any
questions concerning this EULA, or if you desire to contact Newport for any other reason, please refer to the address provided in the
documentation for the DEVICE.
Termination. Without prejudice to any other rights, Newport may terminate this EULA if you fail to comply with the terms and conditions
of this EULA. In such event, you must destroy all copies of the SOFTWARE and all of its component parts.
Export Restrictions. You acknowledge that SOFTWARE is subject to U.S. and European Union export jurisdiction. You agree to comply
with all applicable international and national laws that apply to the SOFTWARE, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, as
well as end-user, end-use and destination restrictions issued by U.S. and other governments. For additional information, see
http://www.microsoft.com/exporting/.
Newport Corporation
Worldwide Headquarters
1791 Deere Avenue
Irvine, CA 92606
(In U.S.): 800-222-6440
Tel: 949-863-3144
Fax: 949-253-1680
Internet: sales@newport.com
Visit Newport Online at: www.newport.com
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