reflection
user manual
Software Version 2.xx
Electronic Theatre Controls Ltd
Unit 5 Victoria Industrial Estate
Victoria Road , Acton
London W3 6UU
Tel 0181 896 1000
Fax 0181 896 2000
Reflection Users Guide
Version 2.xx
Electronic Theatre Controls Ltd
table of contents
Chapter 1
Introduction...............
1
Text conventions
1
Pile-on convention
1
Customer service
2
Chapter 2
Installation......................
3
Installing your REFLECTION console
3
Connecting to dimmers
4
Installing analogue inputs
4
Installing expansion modules
5
Chapter 3
Tutorial
7
Switching on
7
Enabling dimmer output
8
Receiving input data
8
Recording backup states
8
Copying cues in output
8
Copying cues blind
9
Clearing submasters
9
Submaster pages
Changing Submaster pages
The freeze function
10
10
10
Input data failure
10
Momentary power failure
11
Using analogue inputs
11
Remote fader panels
11
Effects input
12
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In an emergency
12
Main console failure
12
Control room power failure
13
REFLECTION failure
14
Expanded systems (Master/Slave)
Recording Submasters
14
14
Clearing Submasters
14
DMX failure
14
Other features
Power-on alarm
15
15
System memory clear
15
DMX processing strategies
15
Byte-by Byte processing
15
Buffered DMX processing 16
Appendix B
Jumper settings
Console function jumpers
17
Expansion bus links
17
appendix C
connector Schedules
DMX Data Sockets
19
ANALOGUE INPUT CONNECTOR
19
EXPANSION PORT CONNECTOR
19
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Reflection Users Guide
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chapter one
introduction
Reflexion is a digital lighting control device that provides seamless backup for lighting
control consoles. It can also be used as an auxiliary lighting control console. In addition,
Reflection supports analogue inputs that allow it to be configured as part of a house
lighting control system./ When your main console is working normally, Reflection
transmits DMX 512 output directly from the main console to the dimmers. If this flow of
output data from console is interrupted for any reason, Reflection maintains the lighting
configuration that was in effect when the main consoles output signal was interrupted and
allows you to crossfade manually into backup looks.
Reflection allows you to record upto 60 lighting looks over five pages, each page
containing 12 memories. Once Reflection takes controls of the lights on stage, you can
then execute manual crossfades between any of the recorded looks. This enables you to
continue your show. When normal output is restored from the main console, you simply
execute a manual crossfade to restore control to the main console.
Reflection consoles support single DMX lines of 512 dimmers, To expand the system to
accommodate other DMX Lines, Expansion Modules are available. These Expansion
Modules are connected to one ‘main’ Reflection console and therefore all controls, faders,
buttons etc are controlled from just one unit. Reflection can be expanded to
accommodate 4 DMX Lines in total (one main console and three Expansion modules)
Text conventions
In this manual, console keys are indicated by square brackets, such as, [Freeze].
References to other sections of the manual as well as hints and tips are printed in italic,
such as, Chapter 1, Introduction.
Pile-on convention
REFLECTION uses a pile-on convention rather than last-action convention to determine
levels for channels that are acted on by several outputs. REFLECTION reads all output
levels it receives for a specific dimmer and sets that channel to the highest of these.
For example, assume a dimmer is included in one or more active submasters. If a dimmer
is also included in the received DMX input, REFLECTION sets the channel at the greater
of the two settings.
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Customer service
If you have problems with your console, please follow these steps:
1. Refer to this manual for operational instructions.
2. If you do not find the answer in the manual, call your local dealer or ETC Technical
Services for customer service. Please have the following information available before
you call:
 Console model and serial number (located on back panel)
 Software version (see sticker on rear of console)
 Options installed
 Demultiplexer type (if analogue dimmers)
 Dimmer type
 Main console type
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chapter two
installation
This chapter includes set up instructions that you need to install REFLECTION and any
optional accessories.
This chapter includes the following installation procedures:
 Installing your REFLECTION console
 Installing analogue inputs
 Installing expansion modules
Installing your REFLECTION console
This section details the installation instructions for your REFLECTION, including
connections to dimmers and control systems.
1. Place console on a hard, stable, flat surface with at least 150mm of space behind it for
ventilation and cable clearance. Console should be at least 2m away from dimmers
and high-current AC lines.
Caution: Do not leave the console in a flightcase tray or on a soft surface. This
will inhibit proper ventilation.
2. Verify that your dimmer connector pinout is correct. Pinouts for USITT DMX512 digital
dimmer protocol is listed below.
3. Connect the male end of the short 5-pin XLR cable supplied with your REFLECTION
console to the DMX512 dimmer data output of your main lighting control console.
4. Connect the female end of the same cable to the socket labelled Data in on
REFLECTION's rear panel.
5. Connect the socket marked Data out to your DMX demultiplexer(s) or digital dimmers,
using a standard DMX512 cable.
6. Set the power switch on the rear panel to the Off position.
7. Fit a suitable plug and connect the console power lead in a grounded 220-240 VAC
outlet. For 120Vac operation, check with your authorised ETC service agent
NOTE:Fuse replacement: Use only a 20mm 250mA anti-surge (T) fuse.
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Connecting to Dimmers
Dimmer data input and output conform to USITT DMX512 (1990) - the internationally
accepted dimmer data protocol. To install dimmers, connect either direct to digital
dimmers using the same standard, or to demultiplexers, such as the ETC CONNECTION
Output Module.
Note: When using DMX dimmers or demultiplexers, it is essential that the receiving unit is
optically isolated from the data line. To be safe, always use ETC CONNECTION Output
Modules, which offer full optical isolation from dimmer faults.
Connector Type:
XLR 5-pin chassis female (DMX Out)
Pinout
1
Common
2
Data (-) (DMX512)
3
Data (+) (DMX512)
4
Not used
5
Not used
Cable Type
Shielded twisted pair approved for RS422/485, eg Belden 9841, Alpha 5271 should be
used for runs of up to 1000 metres.
Installing analogue inputs
The analogue input option allows you to connect up to 12 standard 0 to +10Vdc analogue
control signals in parallel with REFLECTION's submaster faders, for use with remote
panels for such purposes as houselight, worklight and rehearsal lighting control. This
feature may also be used to pile on the output from a chase unit to REFLECTION's
submaster faders.
Note: REFLECTION analogue inputs are not suitable for negative (Strand) control
signals.
Connector
Subminiature DB15 male
Pinout
Pins 1-12
Pin 13-15
channel 1-12
common return
Note that, for reasons of safety and security, REFLECTION is intended for use with selfpowered external analogue sources. Passive fader panels will need to be supplied with
their own power supply units. If in doubt, consult your authorised ETC service agent.
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Installing expansion modules
An expanded REFLECTION system is operated and behaves exactly like a single
REFLECTION console, but can backup up to four DMX512 data streams. The Master
console's switches and faders control not only its own operation but also all operations of
the 3 Slave units.
Full REFLECTION consoles, as well as purpose built REFLECTION CPU Modules (which
have no Control Panel), can be set for operation as Slaves. If a full REFLECTION
console has its dipswitches set for Slave function then its Control panel is disabled; all
control is made via the Master's Control panel. Its LEDs do however continue to indicate
its status.
Automatic functions and alarms operate system-wide; eg if any DMX input is lost then the
whole system (Master & Slaves) will automatically enter Input Freeze Mode.
Master and slave units communicate via a three wire cable using I2C communications
protocol. Pin configurations and wire specifications are given below
To install Slave units follow these steps:
1. Ensure that the Master REFLECTION console and the Slave consoles are fitted with
the same software version. (Note: Master/Slave operation requires V2.06 or later)
2. Open the slave unit by removing the four securing screws and lifting the lid.
3. Remove the two jumpers that are fitted to LK2 & LK3.
4. Fit one or both jumpers to positions C & D following the chart on page 5.
Note: Ensure that each slave unit to be used in the system is set with its own unique
address.
Jumper
Master Unit
Slave #1 Unit
Slave #2 Unit
Slave #3 Unit
C
O/C
S/C
O/C
S/C
D
O/C
O/C
S/C
S/C
Affix a label on the rear of the unit identifying what slave number the unit is set for. This
can be useful in situations where a number of units could be interchanged
Replace the lid and securing screws.
Prepare and fit the Expansion cable to the Master Unit and Slave unit(s) (see below)
Plug one end of the short DMX cable (supplied) in to the Data in socket on the rear panel
of the slave unit and the other end to its DMX source. This may be a second output on
the same console or from another Control desk.
Connect the Dimmer DMX line to the socket Data out on the rear panel. The other end of
which then connects to either a DMX demultiplexer or Digital Dimmer.
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Expansion port cable connector
D-Type 9 pin free plug.
Pinout
pin 1= 0V (common)
pin 2= bi-directional open drain DATA bus.
pin 3= open drain CLOCK bus.
pins 4-9= n/c
The cable is wired one-to-one to each connector (Max 4) and should be as short as
possible, so if you are only using 1 Slave unit then just make the cable with two
connectors. For two slave units, use three connectors 'daisy-chained', for three slave
units, use four connectors 'daisy-chained'.
IE:
Master
Slave 1
Slave 2
Slave 3
Pin 1
Pin 1
Pin 1
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 2
Pin 2
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 3
Pin 3
Pin 3
Cable requirements:
The cable should be a two core twisted pair with overall braid or foil screen and drain wire.
Example cable :RS 360-649, Alpha 2461, Belden 8451.
The maximum length from Master unit to furthest Slave unit is limited by the TOTAL
capacitance of the cable used, which must not exceed 300pF.
Example: Alpha 2461, rated 111pF/m.:
/
Max length = 300pF 111pF/m = 2.7 metres
In many situations standard DMX cable (not microphone cable) may be used for
interconnecting master and slave units with a maximum length of 1.8 metres . Check the
Data Sheet for your particular cable.
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chapter three
Tutorial
With the REFLECTION console set up as described in the previous chapter, you are now
ready to learn how to use it. This chapter includes sections on the following topics:
 Switching on your REFLECTION console
Recording backup states
 Submaster pages
 The freeze function
 Using analogue inputs
 In an emergency...
 Expanded systems (Master-Slave) operation
 Other features
We strongly suggest that you work through all of this section of the manual with the
equipment set up and running, before using REFLECTION on a show.
Switching on your REFLECTION console
This section details the initialisation procedure each time you switch on your
REFLECTION console.
Switching on
At switch-on, REFLECTION's faders should normally be set as follows:
 input fader up
 all 12 submaster faders down
Switch on REFLECTION using the power switch on the rear panel. After two seconds
(REFLECTION is carrying out its initialisation procedures) you will see/hear the following:
 An intermittent tone sounds
 The red freeze Led flashes
 The green input data LED lights if good data is being received
 One of the green page LEDs lights (corresponding with the last active page prior
to the previous shutdown), as well as the LEDs of any submasters recorded in
the current page
The tone and flashing freeze LED indicate that REFLECTION is on, but is as yet not
transmitting any dimmer data. This is important in various emergency situations, and will
be covered in detail in the section on the freeze function below.
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Enabling dimmer output
Normally, you will simply press [freeze] to release the freeze function and allow
REFLECTION to start transmitting dimmer data. If your main console is off, disconnected
or not transmitting dimmer data, you will now hear a higher frequency tone, telling you that
REFLECTION is not receiving valid dimmer data. This tone will continue for ten seconds,
then stop. When no data is received on REFLECTION's data input, the input data LED on
the front panel is off.
REFLECTION may now be used as a stand-alone console. If input data is subsequently
received, the green input data LED will switch on and the input data will be used (see next
section).
Receiving input data
REFLECTION receives dimmer data from the output of any suitable lighting control
console, and immediately passes it to the dimmers. The input fader proportionally
controls the level of the input from the main console, and should therefore normally be
kept at its highest position (10), so that main console levels will be transmitted directly to
the dimmers, with no change in level.
You can fade down the current output of the main console at any time by lowering the
input fader below 10.
Please note that REFLECTION's submaster faders may be combined with the input state
at any time, simply by raising the appropriate fader(s) above zero. When the same
dimmer is present in more than one fader, the highest level will be passed to the dimmers
Recording backup states
With the main console transmitting data to the dimmers via REFLECTION, you are now
ready to start copying cues into REFLECTION's submaster faders.
Copying cues in output
1. Set up and output the state you want to copy on your main console.
2. Check that REFLECTION is in the page you want to use. If it isn't, press the
appropriate page button to select it and switch on the correct page LED.
3. Press [record]. The red record LED lights.
4. Press the submaster bumpswitch for the desired submaster. The current state being
received from the main console is copied into the desired submaster in the current
page. If the current received state is a blackout, the submaster will not be recorded,
and any previous levels in the submaster will be cleared.
Note: If you press [record] by mistake, a second press cancels the record operation.
For Record Lockout, See Jumper Settings in the appendix section in this manual.
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Copying cues blind
You can get ahead by copying a batch of cues into REFLECTION, even during the show.
1. Pick a quiet period between cues to do this! Make a note of the current cue being
output by the main console, and check that any REFLECTION submasters to be
recorded are at zero.
2. Press [freeze]. This causes the current state being received from the main console to
be frozen in REFLECTION's output. The input freeze LED flashes red.
3. Now send the first state to be copied from the main console. Because REFLECTION is
in freeze mode, this will not affect the output to the dimmers.
4. Press [record], followed by the bumpswitch of the desired submaster. The new input
state is now copied into the chosen submaster.
5. Repeat this procedure for as many states as you wish to copy. You may change pages
without affecting output.
6. Resend the original state from the main console, and press [freeze] again. This
unfreezes REFLECTION, without affecting output, and with the new backup states
safely recorded.
Clearing submasters
To clear individual recorded submasters all that is required is to record a Blackout Cue in
to a fader
1. Send a blackout from the main console (using output or blind techniques described
above)
2. Select the page required by pressing the appropriate page switch
3. Press [record] followed by the bumpswitch of the submaster to be cleared
4. The submaster is now erased.
Note: A submaster which has been cleared may not be restored, except by recopying its
contents from the main console.
To clear all recorded submasters on all pages:
1. Turn REFLECTION off.
2. Hold down bumpswitches 7-8-9 and turn REFLECTION on, keeping the buttons
pressed. The unit will flash all LEDs on and then return to a fresh state with all faders
empty.
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Submaster pages
Although REFLECTION has only 12 submaster faders, its power is greatly increased by
having five pages of submaster memory. This means that for each of five pages, you
have a set of twelve submaster memories - 60 in all.
Pressing one of the page switches selects that page to be active. The green LED next to
the appropriate page switch is lit. If any submasters on the current page have already
been recorded, their LEDs will also light, showing you which submasters are already in
use.
Changing submaster pages
You can change the active submaster page at any time by pressing the appropriate button
- page 1 through page 5. When you do this: The new page LED lights, and the old one
goes out.
The green submaster LEDs light for any submasters in the new page which are already
recorded.
If you change page while a submaster from the current page is above zero, the following
points should be noted:
The contents of the active submaster are not affected by the page change.
The green LEDs of any active submasters containing states from other pages flash to
indicate that they are not part of the current page.
The green page LED for the newly loaded page flashes to indicate that the page change
operation is not complete. In this situation, the active submaster(s) from previous pages
may still be manually faded up or down, but when they reach zero, the old state is lost,
and the state from the new page (if any) is automatically loaded.
When all states from previous pages have been cleared in this way, the page LED stops
flashing, to indicate that the page change operation is complete.
In this way, it is possible to have a number of submasters from different pages active at
the same time, and of course it means that page changing is completely safe, since active
submasters are not affected until they reach zero.
The freeze function
We saw in the last section how the freeze function can be used to freeze REFLECTION's
output in order to copy states blind from the main console. This was a voluntary use of
freeze. Strictly speaking, pressing [freeze] during normal operation locks the current input
state into the input master fader. REFLECTION continues to use the frozen state to send
to the dimmers, instead of what is actually being received from the main console.
But freeze also has automatic functions which should be understood. The following is a
description of the two automatic freeze functions.
Input data failure
If input data fails, REFLECTION automatically goes into freeze mode. When this
happens:
 A tone sounds intermittently for 10 seconds
 The input data LED switches off
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 The last valid data packet received from the main console is frozen, and may be
controlled by the input master fader.
Momentary power failure
It may happen that power is lost in the control room, causing the main console to reset
when power is restored. This is a potentially dangerous situation: normally, when control
room power is lost, the DMX receivers at the dimmers will maintain the last good data,
until see DMX restored. The problem is that most lighting consoles reset to a 'clean' state
where they are sending a stream of zero levels. This means that, although all may seem
to be well from the time power is lost up to the time when the console is initialising, when
initialisation is complete, the lights may go out!
REFLECTION solves this problem by going into freeze mode when either:
Power is applied, or Input data fails.
If power is lost in the control room, taking out REFLECTION as well as the main console,
when it is restored, REFLECTION transmits no DMX data until freeze is released. This
gives you time to set up the main console into the correct output state before pressing
[freeze] to continue the show.
If the problem was a main console failure or loss of power to the main console only,
REFLECTION detects bad or missing input data and automatically freezes the input
master with the last good data received. If the main console recovers from its problem, it
need only be set to the cue being sent at the time of the failure, at which time pressing
[freeze] will resume normal operation.
Using analogue inputs
The analogue input connector on the rear panel of the REFLECTION console enables any
standard self-powered +10Vdc signal to be used to drive REFLECTIONs submasters.
The analogue inputs should be seen as parallel faders to the submasters, and work on a
highest takes precedence basis between inputs 1-12 and submasters 1-12 respectively.
See Chapter 2 - Installation for information on connecting REFLECTION's analogue
inputs.
The analogue input option may be used in a number of ways, some of which are
described below.
Remote fader panels
Fader panels with between one and twelve faders may be used to control REFLECTION's
submasters for a number of uses:
Houselight control
Houselight dimmers are nowadays frequently integrated into the production lighting
dimmer racks, and controlled using a separate control system. It is certainly true that, for
safety reasons, house lighting control circuits should be independent of the main console.
Using REFLECTION, both options are available. Houselight dimmers can be controlled
by the main console when required for effects, and submasters (for example groups 1012) can be assigned on all five pages of REFLECTION's memory. If three-fader panels
are wired to REFLECTION and located in the auditorium or prompt corner, the houselight
states can readily be controlled from any position.
Rehearsal lighting
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Using a similar principle, a rehearsal lighting state can be set up using the main console,
copied into a REFLECTION submaster, and controlled from any point in the building.
Thus, without having the main console on, or an operator standing by, the rehearsal lights
can be faded up as required by stage management.
News/current affairs studios
Using any DMX source, a number of states may be set up in a small studio, and controlled
via faders or by remotely controlled ramp circuits. This has applications for remote
regional studios, interview studios and the like.
Effects input
Any effects generator with industry standard +10Vdc analogue outputs may be connected
to REFLECTION's analogue inputs, to augment the effects capability of the main console.
In an emergency
REFLECTION automatically protects against a number of possible fault conditions, listed
below. Remember that, once the main console dies, you have no way of programming
new memories into REFLECTION, so: always be sure you have copied enough backup
states into REFLECTION before the show!
We recommend that you copy all your cues (if less than 60) into REFLECTION for every
show. Then, on your plot or script, make a note of the REFLECTION submaster and page
to correspond with cue.
Below, we describe the three main control room faults which can (very rarely) arise during
a show, and how REFLECTION can get you out of trouble. Please become thoroughly
familiar with these procedures, so that you will be as ready as REFLECTION to do the
right thing in a real emergency!
Main console failure
In rare circumstances the main console might crash or lose power or memory. Most fault
conditions involve loss or corruption of dimmer data output.
REFLECTION automatically detects such a fault in its data input stages and disregards
any signal which does not conform to DMX512. At the same time it safeguards the last
good data received, which is, as always, mastered by the input master fader.
REFLECTION warns you about the problem in the following ways:
 audible warning - 20 beeps at 2Hz
 freeze LED flashes red
 input data
LED goes out
This is what you do:
1. Don't panic! REFLECTION is still sending the last good state received from the main
console to the dimmers. Nothing should have changed on stage.
2. See if you can revive the main console in time for the next cue. If you can, skip to step
6.
3. Check your cue sheet for the submaster and page required to back up the next cue,
and select the appropriate page on REFLECTION, if it is not already selected.
4. When the time comes for the next cue, execute a manual crossfade, fading the
appropriate submaster up and the input master fader down.
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5. Continue the show, carrying out page changes as required (see above) and manual
crossfades between submasters.
6. If the main console can be revived:
7. Switch on the main console and wait for it to initialise. Check carefully that
REFLECTION's green input data LED is on. Do not go any further until REFLECTION
indicates that good data is being received.
8. When REFLECTION's input data LED is on, you can send the current cue from your
main console. Nothing happens yet, as REFLECTION's input is still frozen.
9. When you are sure that you are sending the right output from the main console, check
that the input master fader is at zero, and press [freeze]. The freeze LED turns green.
10.Carry out a manual crossfade between any active REFLECTION submasters and the
input master. When the input master is at 10 and the submasters are out you can
continue the show on the main console as before.
Control room power failure
It's possible to lose power in the control room, without the dimmers being affected. In this
case, the demultiplexers at the dimmers will keep sending the last data received from the
console before communications were lost, so lights don't go out.
Note: The above is true of ETC CONNECTION Output Modules and other receivers
following the guidelines of USITT DMX512. We cannot guarantee that such devices from
all manufacturers will include this feature.
Eventually, we assume that power will be restored. Be aware that some power outs are
extremely brief, but they may be long enough to cause electronic equipment to reset.
When power is restored, REFLECTION will initialise as described in Switching on above.
Until you press [freeze], REFLECTION sends nothing to the dimmers
This is what you do:
1. Don't panic! The demultiplexers are still sending the last good state received from the
main console to the dimmers. Nothing should have changed on stage.
2. Switch on the main console and wait for it to initialise. Check carefully that
REFLECTION's green input data LED is on. Do not go any further until REFLECTION
indicates that good data is being received.
3. When REFLECTION's input data LED is on, you can send the current cue from your
main console. Nothing happens yet, as REFLECTION's input is still frozen.
4. When you are sure that you are sending the same output from the main console as that
being output by the dimmers, check that the input master fader is at 10, and press
[freeze]. The freeze LED turns green and the output from the main console is passed
directly through to the dimmers. If the state of the dimmers is the same as that being
sent by the main console, there will be no change in dimmer levels.
5. Continue the show on the main console as before.
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REFLECTION failure
Well, it could happen! If REFLECTION were to fail, we would expect that the dimmers
demultiplexer would hold up the last good data received, therefore not affecting dimmer
levels.
This is what you do:
1. Remove the XLR male and female connectors from REFLECTION's rear panel, and
join them together positively (to avoid making and breaking contact).
2. The demultiplexers are now receiving dimmer data direct from the main console.
Continue the show as normal and call your ETC service agent.
Expanded systems (Master-Slave) operation
An expanded REFLECTION system is operated and behaves exactly like a single
REFLECTION console, but can backup up to four DMX512 data streams. The Master
console's switches and faders control not only control its own operation but also all
operations of upto 3 Slave units.
For installation of Slave units on to a Master, please refer to Chapter 2, Installing
Expansion Modules.
Full REFLECTION consoles, as well as purpose built REFLECTION CPU Modules (which
have no Control Panel), can be set for operation as Slaves. If a full REFLECTION
console has its dipswitches set for Slave operation, then its Control panel is disabled; all
control is made via the Master's Control panel. The full REFLECTION unit operating as a
slave will continue to indicate its status via its own LEDs.
Recording Submasters
Recording your safety looks in to a REFLECTION system is achieved in the same way as
a single REFLECTION. First setup your total 'look' on the main console, select the page
that you want the look to be saved on to and press [Record] [Sub-Bump]. The Master and
Slave units will store in to their own memory the correct levels for each DMX line.
The Master unit will indicate which submasters have levels programmed in either the
Master or Slave units.
Clearing Submasters
Clearing submasters is again performed in exactly the same way by sending all zero
levels from the control desk. It is worth remembering that if any of the DMX lines has nonzero level set, eg a pre-heat level, then the system will assume that you wish to record it
as a 'look' and not extinguish the Submaster LED.
To clear all of the submasters across the system, first power on the Slave units. Then,
while holding down bump-buttons 7-8-9 on the Master, turn the Master unit on. The
REFLECTION will then give a short bleep while it performs the clear on all of the units
after which normal operation will resume.
DMX Failure
Automatic functions and alarms operate system-wide; eg if any DMX input is lost then the
whole system (Master & Slaves) will automatically enter Input Freeze Mode.
For example, a system that comprises of one Master REFLECTION console and two
Slaves is backing up a control desk with three DMX outputs. Should the main desk fail on
one DMX line, all three REFLECTION units will go in to freeze mode (sounding the beeper
and red LED), maintaining the last 'look' for each DMX output. The faders on the Master
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unit can now be used to bring in the pre-stored looks for each DMX line simultaneously.
Once control has been passed safely to the REFLECTION system, the cause of the fault
can now be traced.
Each of the Slave units has its own Input Data LED which in the example above, will be
extinguished on the unit with the missing DMX source. Once the fault has been corrected,
cross-fading back to the main console is the same as for a single REFLECTION unit.
Should a Slave unit be unable to communicate with its Master, it will beep at short
intervals warning you that something is wrong. If his happens, check that the Expansion
port cable is plugged in and that the Master unit is turned on. If you are unable to make
the Slave unit operate with the rest of the system, then remove the Expansion port cable
from the faulty Slave unit and by-pass the DMX by connecting the DMX-In lead to the
DMX-Out lead. This will at least allow you to continue with a part protective system.
OTHER FEATURES
Power-on Alarm
After REFLECTION is turned on it will not transmit DMX until the operator has pressed the
Input Freeze button. To remind the operator that its output DMX is still disabled
REFLECTION sounds its alarm at 1Hz. By popular request we have made the power-on
alarm optional. It can be disabled by placing a shorting clip on Jumper A.
Note: this does not disable the Loss-of-DMX alarm (at 2Hz) which REFLECTION gives
when it has gone into Automatic Input Freeze mode, having detected that the incoming
DMX stream has failed.
System Memory Clear
Clear System Memory operation is initiated in the same way as for other ETC control
systems, press and hold down bumpbuttons 7, 8 & 9 and apply power. When you hear
the first alarm the operation is complete and you may release the bumpbuttons; all stored
states will have been cleared and the system is ready for operation. This is, of course, the
simplest way to clear out all stored states prior to storing new backup states for a different
show.
In the case of an expanded REFLECTION system, with a Master and one or more Slaves,
you should connect their Expansion ports, apply power to the Slaves first, hold down the
Master's 7, 8 & 9 bumpbuttons and finally apply power. The Master will pass the Clear
System Memory command to each of its Slaves, so that memory in all units is cleared
simultaneously.
DMX PROCESSING STRATEGIES
With version 2.06 software fitted, it is now possible to select the method by which DMX is
processed. Two alternative modes are provided, Byte-by-Byte or Buffered. The unit is
configured for Buffered Mode as a default as this will allow the unit to operate with all
DMX type consoles. If you experience problems with a particular DMX source, in which
case you should switch to Byte-by-Byte processing.
Byte-by-Byte processing:
When a byte arrives in the processor's input SIO data register it is immediately passed to
the hardware calculator. 6 æ s later the processor gathers the calculated result and
immediately passes it to the output SIO data register. The net effect is that one byte is
transmitted for every byte received, which in turn means that the output DMX stream is
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fully synchronised with the input DMX stream. The total system throughput delay will be
between 44us and 88us (between one and two byte times).
This method deals successfully with all DMX sources and receivers in production today.
However, to be able to deal with ever increasing DMX speeds and varieties that are
permissible under the DMX512:1990 standard we have included a second handling
routine for incoming DMX, referred to as Buffered DMX throughput.
Buffered DMX processing:
In this mode, incoming DMX data bytes are received under the highest priority interrupt
and stored in a buffer in the battery-backed SRAM. The microprocessor also deals with
interrupts (at the second priority level) from the output SIO whenever it has completed
transmission of the latest output byte. At each output interrupt the microprocessor fetches
the next byte in sequence from the input data buffer, passes it through the hardware
calculator subsystem and finally sends the result to the output SIO. This therefore
separates the timing of the incoming DMX and the outgoing DMX and allows the output
DMX stream to continue smoothly even if the input DMX exhibits intermittent illegal timing
or framing errors.
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appendix B
jumper settings
Console Function Jumpers
There are 5 main jumpers located in the centre of the processor PCB. These are
identified as A through E. The following table shows the options that can be selected from
the jumpers.
Note: These jumper settings are valid for software version 2.06 only.
Jumper
Open circuit
Short circuit
A
Power-on beep Enabled
Power-on beep Disabled
B
Byte-by-Byte DMX
Buffered DMX throughput
C
D
CPU Address in
CPU Address in
Expanded systems only
Expanded systems only
Record Enable
Record Disable (RAM Write Protect)
E
Jumper settings shown underlined are factory defaults
 Jumper A when fitted disables the Power-On alarm.
 Jumper B when fitted enables Buffered DMX processing. See chapter 3, DMX
Processing Strategies for a full explanation on the use of this jumper.
 Jumper C & D set the unit to act as a Slave (see below)
 Jumper E when fitted disables the record function.
EXPANSION (I2C) BUS LINKS:
To use REFLECTION in a Master/Slave arrangement you must define a unique address
for each Slave unit that is connected to the Master via the Expansion Bus. When setting
jumpers and links for an expanded system there are three points to note:
1. NO MORE THAN THREE SLAVE UNITS CAN BE CONNECTED TO A MASTER
UNIT.
2. ENSURE THAT EACH SLAVE UNIT IS SET WITH A UNIQUE ADDRESS.
3. ENSURE THAT LK2 & LK3 ARE REMOVED FROM EACH SLAVE UNIT.
The Master unit will require LK2 & LK3 to be fitted. No address links are used in a Master
unit, ie it's address is 00h. Each Slave unit will need links to be set on jumpers C & D as
shown in the table below. Use one or both of the shorting links which you have removed
from LK2 & LK3. Note that jumpers C & D correspond to D0 & D1 of the Slave address,
expressed in binary notation.
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Jumpers
Master Unit
Slave #1 Unit
Slave #2 Unit
Slave #3 Unit
C
O/C
S/C
O/C
S/C
D
O/C
O/C
S/C
S/C
LK2
Fitted
Not Fitted
Not Fitted
Not Fitted
LK3
Fitted
Not Fitted
Not Fitted
Not Fitted
LK2 & LK3 connect 1.8k pull up resistors (R3 & R4) to the I2C Bus. There must only be
one pair of pullups on the I2C bus, so LK2 & LK3 must only be fitted in the Master Unit.
Early revisions of the CPU PCB (Revs 1 to 3) have 1.8k pull up resistors (R3 & R4)
which are hardwired onto the bus. To configure a Rev 3 or earlier PCB for use as a Slave
unit it is necessary to cut those two resistors from the PCB.
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appendix c
connector Schedules
DMX Data Sockets
DATA IN
- 5 Pin XLR Plug
DATA OUT - 5 Pin XLR Socket
Pinouts
pin 1
0V reference
pin 2
RS485 DATA-
pin 3
RS485 DATA+
pin 4
reserved
pin 5
reserved
ANALOGUE INPUT CONNECTOR D-Type 15 pin Chassis Plug
pins 1 to 12 = Inputs 1 to 12
pins 13,14 & 15 = 0V (common)
Input voltage range: 0v (off) to +10v (full)
Recommended Cable type : Multi-core cable with overall screen
EXPANSION PORT CONNECTOR D-Type 9 pin Chassis Socket.
pin 1= 0V (common)
pin 2= bi-directional open drain DATA bus.
pin 3= open drain CLOCK bus.
pins 4 to 9= n/c
As both data and clock lines are bi-directional, the cable must be wired pin to pin from the
Master connector to each Slave connector.
Cable requirements:
The cable should be a two core twisted pair with overall braid or foil screen and drain wire.
Example cable :RS 360-649, Alpha 2461, Belden 8451.
The maximum length from Master unit to furthest Slave unit is limited by the TOTAL
capacitance of the cable used, which must not exceed 300pF.
Example: Alpha 2461, rated 111pF/m.:
Max length =
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In many situations standard DMX cable may be used for interconnecting master and slave
units with a maximum length of 1.8 metres. Check the Data Sheet for your particular
cable.
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