Development of a Ground Station (GS) Package
Suited for Spacecraft Operation Control
and Optimization for Satellite Flyby
over the Ground Station
HCTL Open Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Series in Engineering and Technology
Master Thesis
Raj Gaurav Mishra
Faculty Member
The ICFAI University - Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India)
23 June 2014
HCTL Open Thesis and Dissertation Repository
(HCTL Open TDR)
HCTL Open Thesis and Dissertation Repository (HCTL Open TDR)
Year 2014
Title Information
Development of a Ground Station (GS) Package Suited for
Spacecraft Operation Control and Optimization for Satellite Flyby
over the Ground Station by Raj Gaurav Mishra.
Date of Online Publishing: 23-June-2014
About this e-Book
This e-book is a Master Thesis submitted by Raj Gaurav Mishra to the
Department of Informatics VII - Robotics and Telematics, Julius Maximilians
University of Wuerzburg (Germany) in the year 2007.
Copyright and License Information
c Copyright of this e-book retains with author(s) and their respective
organization(s). This e-book is an open-access document distributed under the
terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial
3.0 License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).
Publisher
Published by:
HCTL Open Publications Solutions,
Bhopal, MP, India
Email: director@hctl.org, editor tdr@hctl.org
Website: http://tdr.hctl.org/
Bibliographic Information
ISBN-13 (PDF version): 978-1-62951-608-0
ISBN-10 (PDF version): 1-62951-608-2
Unique Reference No.: TDR MThesis 201406001
e-Version (Online) available at:
www.hctl.org/tdr/2014/TDR_MThesis_201406001.pdf
Cite this e-Book as:
Raj Gaurav Mishra, Development of a Ground Station (GS) Package Suited
for Spacecraft Operation Control and Optimization for Satellite Flyby over the
Ground Station, Master Thesis, HCTL Open Thesis and Dissertation
Repository, ISBN (PDF version): 978-1-62951-608-0.
HCTL Open Publications Solutions, India
e-ISBN (PDF version): 978-1-62951-608-0
Dedicated to my Loving Grand-Parents & Parents
with Heartfelt Gratitude and Love...
Development of a GS Package suited for
Spacecraft Operation Control and
Optimization methods for Satellite flyby over
the Ground Station.
Raj Gaurav Mishra
January 12, 2007
Abstract
Development of a Ground Station Package suited for Spacecraft Operation
Control and Optimization methods for Satellite flyby over the Ground Station is a Master thesis project done at “Julius Maximilian University of
Wuerzburg, Department of Informatics VII- Robotics and Telematics, Germany” from June to Dec 2006.
The CubeSat satellite ground station at the University of Wuerzburg is
built with “commercial of the shelf” low cost amateur radio hardware. It
opens up opportunities for students to receive and operate CubeSats, including Wuerzburgs UWE-1.
As any other satellite ground station, it is built up on essential hardware,
as there are Antenna, Antenna Rotator, Radio, Modem and Computers. Furthermore software is used to afford basic control over the ground station and
provide tracking abilities to follow a satellite passing over the ground station.
The main aim of this project is to redesign the ground station system for
satellite tracking and to overcome the related problems of the existing system.
Contents
1 Introduction
6
1.1 Old design of the Ground Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 Ground Station Structural Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 New Planned Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 Construction
2.1 Hardware Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Hummel Teletower Jumbo III . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Yaesu G-5500- Azimuth-Elevation Rotator and
troller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.4 Rotator Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.5 Rotator-Computer Interface . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.6 Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.7 Preamplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.8 Transceiver - IC-910H and TNC4e . . . . . . . .
2.2 Software Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Nova for Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Die Funkbox - WinRotor XP . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Why Windows XP..?? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
. . . . 15
. . . . 16
. . . . 17
Con. . . . 20
. . . . 21
. . . . 23
. . . . 25
. . . . 25
. . . . 26
. . . . 29
. . . . 29
. . . . 31
. . . . 35
3 Testing and Optimization of Ground Station
37
3.1 Testing Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4 Conclusion
39
Appendices
39
A Hardware Documentation
40
B Configurations for “Nova for Windows”.
43
1
C Test Results
52
Bibliography
64
2
List of Figures
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 9
. 11
. 13
. 14
Hummel Teletower Jumbo III. . . . . . . . . . .
2 m Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70 cms Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yaesu G-5500 Rotator and Controller. . . . . .
Rotator Plate - Old design. . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotator Plate - New design. . . . . . . . . . . .
WinRotor Computer Interface. . . . . . . . . . .
Preamplifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications of Transceiver - IC910H. . . . . .
Nova for Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WinRotorXP - General Configuration. . . . . .
WinRotorXP - Rotator Calibration. . . . . . . .
WinRotorXP - Tracking Modus. . . . . . . . . .
WinRotorXP - Tracking and Parking Positions.
WinRotorXP - Satellite Tracking with NOVA. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1.1 Old design of the Ground Station. . . .
1.2 Ground Station Structural Study. . . .
1.3 New design of the Ground Station. . .
1.4 Block Diagram of the Ground Station.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
17
18
20
22
22
24
24
26
28
29
32
33
34
35
36
A.1 Connections at Yaesu Rotator and Controller. . . . . . . . . . 41
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
B.6
B.7
B.8
B.9
Nova
Nova
Nova
Nova
Nova
Nova
Nova
Nova
Nova
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
Windwos
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
-
Configuring View. . . .
Configuring Observer. .
Configuring Satellites. .
TLE Updation . . . . .
Current View Observer.
Current View Satellite.
Satellite Footprints. . .
Floating Toolbar. . . .
Satellite Script. . . . . .
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
44
44
45
46
46
47
47
48
49
B.10 Nova for Windows - Frequency Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
B.11 Nova for Windows - Antenna-Rotator Setup. . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.12 Nova for Windows - Further Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
C.1 Test
C.2 Test
C.3 Test
C.4 Test
C.5 Test
C.6 Test
C.7 Test
C.8 Test
C.9 Test
C.10 Test
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
Beacons
on 08Dec2006.
on 11Dec2006.
12Dec2006. . .
on 13Dec2006.
on 13Dec2006.
on 14Dec2006.
on 14Dec2006.
on 15Dec2006.
on 18Dec2006.
on 18Dec2006.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
53
54
56
57
58
59
60
62
63
64
List of Tables
7
1.1
New Ground Station Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
Hardware Specifications Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hummel Teletower Jumbo III. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parking Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 meter Antenna Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . .
70 cms Antenna Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yaesu G-5500 Rotator and Controller’s Specifications.
Specification Table - Preamplifier LNA 145 MK II. .
Specification Table - Preamplifier LNA 435 MK II. .
Specifications Table - TNC4e. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Specifications Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
15
16
16
19
21
23
25
26
27
29
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
Connections
Connections
Connections
Connections
C.1 Testing
C.2 Testing
C.3 Testing
C.4 Testing
C.5 Testing
C.6 Testing
C.7 Testing
C.8 Testing
C.9 Testing
C.10 Testing
C.11 Testing
-
at
at
at
at
Rotator Controller. .
Rotator Controller. .
Rotator’s Metal Plug.
Rotator’s Metal Plug.
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Script
Script
Script
Script
Script
Script
Script
Script
Script
Script
Script
08Dec2006.
11Dec2006.
11Dec2006.
12Dec2006.
13Dec2006.
13Dec2006.
14Dec2006.
14Dec2006.
15Dec2006.
18Dec2006.
18Dec2006.
5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
40
40
41
42
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
52
53
53
55
55
57
58
59
61
62
63
Chapter 1
Introduction
Ground Station at University of Wuerzburg.
Department of Informatics VII is situated at the east of Wuerzburg on a hill,
which is approximately 310 meters above the river “Main” level.
The antenna tower is situated on the Department’s roof which is infact a
most suitable position to operate the Ground Station. The satellite ground
station at the University of Wuerzburg is built with “commercial off the shelf”
low cost amateur radio hardware. It opens up opportunities for Students to
operate CubeSats.
As any other satellite ground station, it is built upon essential hardware,
as there are Antenna, Antenna Rotator, Radio, and Modem.
Furthermore software is used to afford basic control over the ground station
and provide tracking abilities to follow a satellite passing over the ground
station. The basic ground station is composed of 4 main components, an
Antenna with antenna rotator, a Radio, a Modem and Computer. Each of
these devices fulfils essential operations.
1. Antenna.
An antenna is an arrangement of electrical conductors designed to
transmit or receive radio waves which is a class of electromagnetic
waves. It is mounted upon a rotator, which provides the possibility
to move the antenna to any position by editing its azimuth- and elevation angle. This antenna rotator is further connected with computer
to provide the automatic tracking.
2. Radio.
The Radio makes it possible to transmit- and receive-signals from the
Antenna.
6
Ground Station Name
University
Latitude
Longitude
City
Country
Altitude
Tower
Operating frequencies
One 2 meter antenna
One 70 cms antenna
Antenna rotator
Rotator controller
Rotator-Computer Interface
Rotator-Computer Interface driver
Tracking software
Radio
Polarisation switch
Preamplifiers
Tranceiver
Power Supply
Two PCs
UWE-UWZ
University of Wuerzburg, Germany
49o 470 49.20”/49, 797deg.N orth
9o 560 56.40”/9, 949deg.East
Wuerzburg
Germany
310 meters
Hummel Teletower Jumbo III
2m and 70 cms amateur bands
M2 2MCP22
M2 436CP42U/G
Yaesu G-5500
Yaeau G-5500 controller
WinRotor
WinRotor XP
NOVA for Windows
TNC4e
WiMO
LNA-145, SLN Series
ICOM IC-910H
Microset 13.5 Volts
Fujitsu Siemens
Table 1.1: New Ground Station Specifications.
3. Modem.
A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information, and also
demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily
and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modem is used to
transmit or receive analog signals, from radio.
7
4. Computer.
One or more computers for steering the hardware and for the administration of the sent and received data.
For manual control and automatic tracking purposes, Wuerzburg’s satellite ground station is endowed with ground station satellite tracking software.
8
1.1
Old design of the Ground Station
There were two 70cm antennas and two 2m antennas in the old design of
the ground station. The antennas were mounted in an H-construction in a
way to provide a uniform distribution of the weight on the rotator. This
construction consists of three supporting rods. The central bar was manufactured from aluminium and was 6 meters long.
This H-construction was installed on a metal plate, which served as connecting piece between rotator and antenna construction.
The Rotator used was EGIS EPSR-203 mod, and the rotator controller used
was EGIS EPS-103.
Figure 1.1: Old design of the Ground Station.
Related problems
The University of Wuerzburg’s Ground Station was unable to work perfectly
with respect of the Satellite flyby time of approx about 12-15 min.
The rotator was weak and was unable to move in speed to track the satellite
9
in a suitable time. The second problem was with the satellite passes with
high elevations, the antenna rotator was unable to track them. One of the
clear reasons was the weight of the Antenna assembly associated with the
malfunctioning of the Antenna Rotor.
Also there were some problems associated with the cabling pattern of the
Antenna wires of the ground station system.
The need was to start with a detailed research study of the other CubeSats
Ground Stations in order to see what could be the best possible structure so
that the new design of the Antenna-Rotator system can auto track satellites,
with combination of some satellite tracking software.
1.2
Ground Station Structural Study
The GS structural study survey was made to get an idea about the existing
structure of various Ground Stations around the world, made for tracking
CubeSat satellites.
The selection of a suitable antenna rotator was one of the important aim
for this study. There were two possibilities of using the antenna rotator.
The first idea was to use two different rotators for the azimuth and elevation
control, and the second was to use a single rotator which can provide the
azimuth and elevation movement all together like old antenna rotator “EGIS
EPSR-203 mod” used in the Ground Station.
The options were:
1. Creative ERC5A, elevation antenna rotator.
2. Creative RC5A, azimuth antenna rotator.
3. Creative RC5B-3P, azimuth antenna rotator.
4. Yaesu G-550, elevation antenna rotator.
5. Yaesu G-2300DXA, azimuth antenna rotator.
6. Yaesu G-5500, azimuth and elevation rotator.
7. Emotator EV-800D, elevation rotator.
10
Figure 1.2: Ground Station Structural Study.
11
For the Ground Station at University of Wuerzburg the antenna structure is
situated on a tower, for ease in maintenance and installation a single rotator
for both elevation and azimuth control is selected. Yaesu G-5500 Azimuth
and Elevation rotator is fast, light weight and maintenance free and is available with three possible options of computer interfaces: Yaesu G-232A or
GS-232B, Uni-trac computer interface and WinRotor computer interface.
Out of these options, “WinRotor” was easily available and came up with
driver software “WinRotor XP” to control antenna rotator.
More about Yaesu G-5500 and WinRotor Interface, specifications are available in chapter two.
12
1.3
New Planned Structure
Figure 1.3: New design of the Ground Station.
The new planned structure had many changes as compared to the Old
structure. It has two antennas in place of four, one 2 meter and one 70
cm antenna to reduce the wait of the antenna assembly on the rotator to
increase the rotator efficiency and speed.
After studying the “Yaesu G-5500” rotator’s specifications and the performance details from the internet, it is selected as a new rotator and controller for the ground station at Department of Informatics VII, University
of Wuerzburg.
The next selection was about the computer interface for the Yaesu G-5500
rotator. The easy availability of the computer interface leads us to go with
“WinRotor computer interface for G-5500/K-5500”. It comes with
the driver software WinRotor XP.
13
“Nova for Windows” was the new selected satellite tracking software. The
reason was the compatibility of this software with the WinRotor computer
interface for automatic satellite tracking. Also Nova for Windows provides
live update from Internet and is easy to configure.
Figure 1.4: Block Diagram of the Ground Station.
Department of Informatics VII- “Robotics and Telematics” at the University of Wuerzburg is the financing body for this Ground Station project.
14
Chapter 2
Construction
Construction followed in two parts, first one covered the “Hardware and
Electronics” and the second covered the “Software” requirements of the GS
Package.
2.1
Hardware Specifications
Altitude
Tower
Operating frequencies
One 2 meter antenna
One 70 cms antenna
Antenna rotator and Controller
Rotator-Computer Interface
Rotator-Computer Interface driver
Radio
Polarisation switch
Preamplifiers
Tranceiver
Power Supply
Two PCs
310 meters
Hummel Teletower Jumbo III
2m and 70 cms amateur bands
M2 2MCP22
M2 436CP42U/G
Yaesu G-5500
WinRotor
WinRotor XP
TNC4e
WiMO
LNA-145, SLN Series
ICOM IC-910H
Microset 13.5 Volts
Fujitsu Siemens
Table 2.1: Hardware Specifications Table.
15
2.1.1
Hummel Teletower Jumbo III
The Hummel Tower is the main base of the Ground Station, which is located
on the roof of the Department of Informatics VII- Robotics and Telematics,
at University of Wuerzburg, Germany. It provides the platform to the GS to
perform the tracking and telemetry operations.
The Hummel Teletower lifts the antennas up to a height of approximately
12 meters above the roof terrace, with which the antenna achieves its own
functional height.
A transportation carriage is installed to the Teletower, which carries entire antenna construction including the antenna rotator. On the back of the
transportation carriage a switchbox is installed, which can be moved together
with the carriage and in which some electronic components necessary for the
signal receptions such as Preamplifiers are accommodated.
Hummel Al-Towers
Teletower Jumbo III
310 meters
Manufacturer
Model Number
Altitude
Table 2.2: Hummel Teletower Jumbo III.
The antenna assembly is moved down with the help of transportation
carriage when not in use, to a park position, which is on roof height and at
which antennas are not exposed to strongly arising storms.
The Parking Position is:
Azimuth
Elevation
90 Degrees
120 Degrees
Table 2.3: Parking Position.
Parking position is for maintenance and repair work and for the protection of
the antennas against strong wind and weather. The software at the Ground
16
Figure 2.1: Hummel Teletower Jumbo III.
Station is set to bring the antennas to their Parking positions, immediately
after quitting the tracking application.
2.1.2
Antennas
The ground station of the Informatics VII, University of Wuerzburg, is
equipped with two antennas of the company M2. The two antennas works
in the 2m and in the 70cm frequency bands.
17
M2 Products of this company belong in the range of the amateur radio technology and are the qualitatively best products and permit very good straight
receiving powers within the satellite communication service range
The 2 meter antenna is M2 2MCP22.
This cross polarized yagi was computer designed for the serious OSCAR
user. The average side and back lobes power have been reduced by approximately 10 dB over any previous design, enhancing signal to noise ratio and
putting all your power where it will do the most good. The 2MCP22 is ideal
for general use over the entire two meter band. The unique Driven Element
Modules are CNC machined and feature O-ring sealed connectors. Internal
connections are encapsulated in a space age silicone gel with nearly 4 times
the dielectric strength of air. The 2MCP22 is the finest circular polarized
antenna.
Figure 2.2: 2 m Antenna
The 70 centimetre antenna is M2 436CP42U/G.
The 436-CP42 U/G (Ultra-Gain) sets a new performance standard for
UHF circular polarized antennas. Gain and Feedback are excellent. The
boom length is matched to the 2MCP22, and together they form an unbeatable satellite communications package. The extremely clean pattern maximizes forward gain and feedback. The pattern is important in order to match
the antennas noise temperature with modern low-noise preamps. The driven
18
2 m Antenna
Manufacturer
Model
Frequency range
Gain @ 145.9 MHz
Front to back
Beamwidth
Feed impedance
VSWR
Input Connector
Power Handling
Stacking Distance
Boom length
Boom Diameter
Elements/Type
Turning radius
Wind Area
Weight/ShipWt.
M2 2MCP22
M2 Antenna Systems, Inc.
2MCP22
144 TO 148 MHz
12.25 dBdc
25 dB Typical
38
50 Ohms Unbal.
1.4: Max
’N’ Female
1.5 KW
9.5 to 10 feet
18’7”
1-1/2, Tapering to 1”
22/3/16” Alum Rod
10 ft.
2.5 sq.ft
12.5 lbs 14 lbs UPS
Table 2.4: 2 meter Antenna Specifications.
element and ’T’ blocks are CNC machined, with connectors O-ring sealed for
low maintenance and long-term peak performance.
For further specifications refer Table 2.4 and 2.5.
The minimum distance between the antennas should be 1 meter for distortion free transmission and reception of the signals, but to keep the movement
of the antennas flexible enough up to 360 degrees in azimuth, both of the antennas are mounted on a six meters long aluminium rod keeping the antennas
four meters apart.
19
Figure 2.3: 70 cms Antenna
2.1.3
Yaesu G-5500- Azimuth-Elevation Rotator and
Controller
The Yaesu G-5500 provides 450 degrees azimuth and 180 degrees elevation
control of medium and large sized unidirectional satellite antenna arrays under remote control from the station operating position.
The two factory-lubricated rotator units are housed in weatherproof melamine
resin coated die-cast aluminium, to provide maintenance-free operation under all climatic conditions.
The rotators may be mounted together on a mast, or independently with
the azimuth rotator inside a tower and the elevation rotator on the must.
The controller unit is a desktop unit with dual meters and direction controls for azimuth, in compass direction and degrees and elevation, from 0 to
180 degrees. An external control jack is provided on the rear of the controller
for interfacing via D-to-A converters to an external microcomputer or other
display/controller.
The Yaesu G5500 requires two six conductor control cables. The rear panel
of the control box has six screw terminals for azimuth and six terminals for
elevation. Two 7 conductor metal plugs with weather-boots are included.
These two plugs will require careful soldering. It is important to test the
20
70 cm Antenna
Manufacturer
Model
Frequency range
Gain @ 145.9 MHz
Front to back
Beamwidth
Polarity
Ellipticity
Feed impedance
VSWR
Input Connector
Power Handling
Turning radius
Wind Area
Mast Size
Weight/ShipWt.
M2 436CP42U/G
M2 Antenna Systems, Inc.
2MCP22
430 - 438 MHz
16.8 dBdc
25 dB Typical
21 circular
Circular, RHC or LHC
1.5 dB Typical
50 W, Unbalanced
1.5:1 and better
’N’ Female
1.0 KW
88” El, 138” Az
2 sq.ft.
1.5 to 2 Inches
7.8 lbs /10 lbs UPS
Table 2.5: 70 cms Antenna Specifications.
rotator and wirings on the ground, before installing it on the tower.
Please refer Appendix B for the connection documentation.
2.1.4
Rotator Plate
The antenna rotator Yaesu G-5500 is installed onto a metal plate, which
serves as connecting piece between rotator and Hummel Teletower. This
metal plate guarantees a fixed connection between the antenna rotator and
the Hummel Teletower. Thus will at the same time structurally separate the
antenna construction from the Hummel Teletower.
The old rotator’s plate is redesigned for the new rotator with few modifications as per requirement.
Figures 2.5 and 2.6 can more illustrate it.
21
Figure 2.4: Yaesu G-5500 Rotator and Controller.
Figure 2.5: Rotator Plate - Old design.
This plate is fixed on the tower using M10 screws which provides it stability to hold the rotator and antenna while the tracking movement.
22
Power Supply Voltage
Power Supply Current Consumption
Rotor Voltage
Cable Conductors Required
Rotation Time (Non Loaded)
Rotation Time (Non Loaded)
Rotation Range
Rotation Torque
Rotation Torque
Braking Torque
Braking Torque
Maximum Vertical Load
Maximum Vertical Load
Mast Outside Diameter
Boom Outside Diameter
Braking Type
Wind Loading Area
Maximum Continuous Duty
Operating Temperature Range
Operating Temperature Range
Rotator Dimension
Rotator Weight
Controller Dimension (WHD)
Controller Weight
117 VAC, 50-60 Hz
120 VA
24 VAC
6 and 6
Elevation (180): 67 sec at 60 Hz
Azimuth (360): 58 sec at 60 Hz
Elevation: 180, Azimuth: 450
Elevation: 101 foot-pounds (14 kg-m)
Azimuth: 44 foot-pounds (6 kg-m)
Elevation : 289 foot-pounds (4 kg-m)
Azimuth: 289 foot-pounds (4 kg-m)
Elevation: 30 kg or less
Azimuth: 440 Lbs. (200 kg) or less
1.5-2.5 inches (38 to 63mm)
1.24-1.675 inches (32 to 43mm)
Mechanical and Electrical stoppers
1.0 square meter or less
5 minutes
0 deg C to +40 deg C (Controller)
-20 deg C to +40 deg C (Rotator)
10x13.75x7.5 inches
20 Lbs (9 kg)
200 x 130 x 193 mm
6.6 Lbs (3 kg)
Table 2.6: Yaesu G-5500 Rotator and Controller’s Specifications.
The Yaesu G-5500 is attached on the top of the rotator plate using M8
screws.
2.1.5
Rotator-Computer Interface
The computer Interface for the Yaesu G-5500 rotator controller is “Die Funkbox
- WinRotor”. It provides an USB connection to the computer. Yaesu G-5500
23
Figure 2.6: Rotator Plate - New design.
controller and WinRotor Interface is shown in figure 2.7.
Figure 2.7: WinRotor Computer Interface.
24
2.1.6
Cabling
Cabling pattern is another basic requirement of the Ground Station. This
is important to bind the Antenna and Rotator cables in a pattern, so that
it will not stuck at any time during the tracking operation of 0-360 degrees
azimuth and 0-180 degrees elevation movements all together.
2.1.7
Preamplifiers
The LNA series for 2 m and 70 cm has a silver plated brass housing and a
tuneable nand pass filter with air coils and high Q trimmers at the output.
The amplifiers are not used only for amateur radio but on different frequencies also for professional applications, for example in radio astronomy, as
preamplifiers in company radio networks and for increasing the sensitivity of
repeaters.
In addition to the extremely low noise figure also the good electrical stability (no self-excitation) should be emphasised as well as the very large signal
behaviour.
Preamplifier Specifications:
LNA 145 MK II
Frequency Range
Noise Figure, typical @ 20 deg.C
Gain, typical
Socket
Operating Voltage
Current Drain
Dimensions
Weight
144 - 148 MHz
0.2 dB
23 dB
N-Female
15 V DC
25 mAmp
74 x 56 x 30 mm
150 gms
Table 2.7: Specification Table - Preamplifier LNA 145 MK II.
25
Figure 2.8: Preamplifiers.
LNA 435 MK II
Frequency Range
Noise Figure, typical @ 20 deg.C
Gain, typical
Socket
Operating Voltage
Current Drain
Dimensions
Weight
430 - 440 MHz
0.25 dB
22 dB
N-Female
15 V DC
25 mAmp
74 x 56 x 30 mm
150 gms
Table 2.8: Specification Table - Preamplifier LNA 435 MK II.
2.1.8
Transceiver - IC-910H and TNC4e
The IC-910H is an all mode satellite radio. It is compact and lightweight
for field operation. The IC-910H features a powerful 100 W of output on
2 meter band, and 75 W on 430/440 band provided by the newly designed
power amplifier circuit, which employs bipolar transistors in parallel. The
combination of the aluminium die-cast chassis and effective cooling fan ensures stable output for continuous operation.
26
In the satellite mode, the downlink and uplink frequencies are displayed
simultaneously on the main and sub bands respectively. Doppler shift compensation is also available. Up to ten satellites memory channels are there to
store uplink downlink frequencies and operating mode. Also the Transceiver
IC-910H can also be connected with a PC using a RS-232 cable.
TNC is Terminal Node Controller, In 1983 the TAPR (Tucson amateur
packed radio) developed a computer map TNC1 which could send and receive the data in the AX.25 minutes. With the TNC2 the mode of operation
packing radio is introduced in 1985. Different advancements of the TNC2
followed and in 1993 the TNC3S, and in 1997 TNC4e were developed in Germany.
The TNC4e is attached with a serial cable to the ground station PC. The
use of a MC68EN302 integrated with Ethernet interface is available in the
version TNC4e which provides coupling of several TNCs and the PC all together.
Dimensions
Input voltage
Input Power excluding modems
Max Input Power
Radio Ports
Ethernet-Port
Asynchronous Transmission
Real-Time Clock
Memory
RAM
218 x 67 x 124 mm
8-16 V DC
130 mA
300 mA
max. 3 x 1.2 MBauds
Twisted Pair (RJ45) 10 MBaud
max. 115.2 kBaud
Epson RTC 64613
1 MByte 5V-Flash
1 MByte intern + 3 MByte optional
Table 2.9: Specifications Table - TNC4e.
27
Figure 2.9: Specifications of Transceiver - IC910H.
28
2.2
Software Specifications
Satellite Tracking Programme
Rotator-Computer Interfacing software
Operating System
Nova for Windows
WinRotor XP
Windows XP
Table 2.10: Software Specifications Table.
2.2.1
Nova for Windows
“Nova for Windows” is owned by Northern Lights Software Associates (NLSA)
and is an innovative map-based satellite tracking system. It features over 150
realistic 256-color and 16-bit colour maps, unlimited numbers of satellites,
observers, and views, as well as real-time control of antennas through several
popular hardware interfaces.
Figure 2.10: Nova for Windows
29
Some Useful features:
1. Visually stunning maps, multiple sizes.
2. Unlimited numbers of satellites, observers, and views simultaneously.
3. Tracks all artificial satellites, Moon, Sun, planets, and celestial noise
sources.
4. Fast, accurate, clear satellite positions.
5. Built-in Auto-Tracking support for all popular antenna control interfaces.
6. Floating/docking toolbar for easy access to common functions.
7. Context-sensitive online help.
8. Multi-level configuration setup screens.
9. Text listings to screen, printer, or disk file.
10. Configurable Satellite Script for priority tracking.
11. Two-satellite mutual visibility, including 1 and 2-observer 2-satellite
mutual windows
12. Satellite eclipse predictions.
13. Full Moon data for EME.
14. 2,000-city, DXCC, and EME databases included.
15. Fully Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant.
16. Sound alarms for AOS and LOS.
17. Built-in FTP for download of Keplerian elements.
18. 1,600 stars and constellations included.
System requirements:
1. Pentium or similar fast processor (a 386 or 486 will work, but slowly).
2. Microsoft Windows ’95, 98, ME, NT, 2000 or Windows XP.
3. Video: 640x480, 256 colours required; 1024x768, 16-bit colour preferred.
4. At least 12 MB hard disk drive storage for full installation.
30
2.2.2
Die Funkbox - WinRotor XP
WinRotor XP is a software driver for the WinRotor computer Interface manufactured by “Die Funkbox” in Germany. WinRotor XP provides the control
to the antenna rotator movements with the help of WinRotor computer interface and also works under DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) mode with
“Nova for Windows” to provide complete automatic script tracking.
Software Installations.
Insert “WinRotor XP” CD-ROM and click once on setup, which will install
the software. One can install the icon “WinRotor” on the system on the
screen from which it will be possible to start it.
For General rotator settings, the path is “Options” and then “General”.
Refer figure 2.23. Settings for the Ground Station at Informatics VII, University of Wuerzburg are as follows:
1. “USB IF 1” is the type of Interface connection used.
2. Azimuth rotator (horizontal) is enabled and stops at North 0 degrees
with a tolerance of +/- 2 degrees. Limit is from 0 to 360 degrees.
3. Elevation rotator (vertical) is enabled with tolerance of +/- 1 degrees.
Limit is from 0 to 180 degrees.
4. Then click on “Save settings” to keep the adjustments chosen and quit
the window.
Software Calibration is the most important part of this Interface software in order to get the precise and accurate antenna position.
It is necessary to calibrate WinRotor XP in case of a new software installation
and in case of a new rotor, it is also recommended to check the calibration
from time to time. Make sure all connections are correct, Interface on USB
port and the cable between the interface and the command box of the rotor.
Switch on the rotor command box and start WinRotor XP. Go to the menu
“Options” and open the window “calibration”.
Follow these steps:1. Using the manual settings of the rotor command box set, the azimuth
value to the full left (0 degrees) and elevation to 0 degrees. Now click
on the box “New Value”, a set of new values of azimuth and elevation
31
Figure 2.11: WinRotorXP - General Configuration.
are displayed next to the box “new value”. Inscribe these values on the
line “left border”.
2. Set azimuth to 180 degrees and elevation to 90 degrees, click on the box
“new value” and inscribe the values thus obtained on the line “middle
value”.
3. Carry out the same operation for azimuth at full right (360 degrees)
and elevation 180 degrees, inscribe the values on the line “right border”.
Click on the box “save values” which will put the measured values in
the memory and quit the window “Calibration”.
Important:
The WinRotor interface must be connected to the USB port of the computer
before running WinRotor XP software. The connection must be done when
the computer is off.
32
Figure 2.12: WinRotorXP - Rotator Calibration.
For computer Interface WinRotor and antenna rotator Yaesu G-5500 calibrated values for the Ground Station at Informatics VII, University of Wuerzburg
is shown in the Figure 2.24.
Automatic tracking with “Nova for Windows”
WinRotor XP provides a feature of using “Nova for Windows” as a Satellite
tracking tool under DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) mode.
After selecting the satellite tracking tool and saving the new settings the
screen will look like the Figure 2.25.
33
Figure 2.13: WinRotorXP - Tracking Modus.
Tracking position can be defined by going on menu “Options” and then
“Tracking position”.
Parking position is said to be a final position of antennas at parking and
while quitting the application. For the Ground Station at Informatics VII,
University of Wuerzburg Parking position is set at 90 degrees Azimuth and
120 degrees Elevation. Refer figure 2.26.
And when the tracking command is ON, It can be stopped at any point of
time by clicking on the cancel button. Also current azimuth and elevation
positions of antennas can also be seen manually on the rotator controller
screen, during the tracking process.
34
Figure 2.14: WinRotorXP - Tracking and Parking Positions.
2.2.3
Why Windows XP..??
1. As it matched with the “WinRotor XP” and “Nova for Windows” system’s requirements.
2. Reinstallations of the software are easy.
3. Easy to maintain.
35
Figure 2.15: WinRotorXP - Satellite Tracking with NOVA.
36
Chapter 3
Testing and Optimization of
Ground Station
Testing of the Ground Station is done with a CubeSat Satellite “QuakeSat”.
QuakeSat is a small satellite, 4”x4”x12”, launched on June 30, 2003, and
provides a “proof-of-concept” for collecting ULF earthquake precursor signals from space. The design was based on the CubeSat concept where each
CubeSat is 4”x4”x4”. QuakeSat is in fact a triple CubeSat to provide a
large enough size to include a one-foot long magnetometer that extends on
a telescoping boom.
The satellite was built by the Space Systems Development Laboratory at
Stanford University, under the direction of Professor Robert Twiggs, with
the receiver unit provided by QuakeFinder.
QUAKESAT
NORAD ID: 27845
Int’l Code: 2003-031F
Perigee: 818 km
Apogee: 832 km
Inclination: 98.7 Degrees
Period: 101.4 min
Launch date: 2003-06-30
Source: United States (US)
Comments: Nanosatellite; research on early warning for earthquakes.
Beacons Frequency: 436.675 MHz, AX.25 packets at a baudrate of 9600bps.
While testing the first problem resolved was the matching values of the
actual elevation and azimuth positions with the software values.
Calibrated the software for rotator movement to work exactly from 0 to 180
37
degrees in elevation and 0 to 360 degrees in azimuth.
Resolved was related to the cabling pattern. Cables are binded in a way
that it will never stuck during an automatic tracking movement of 0 to 180
degrees in elevation and 0 to 360 degrees in azimuth.
The problem was Yaesu G-5500 rotator has a maximum continous duty of 5
minutes, and the satelite flyby time is about 15 mins. To optimize it while
testing WinRotor XP software is optimized to track for the satellite position
in every 10 seconds, only if the change in Azimuth is more than +/- 2 degress
and in Elevation +/-1 degrees. These values are tested and worked with all
satellite passes. Thus the current supply to the rotator is limited for a small
period of time and thus it never exceeds the maximum continous duty level.
3.1
Testing Summary
While testing the Ground Station, several conclusions are made. The evaluation is as follows:
1. The testing of the Ground Station is done without installing preamplifiers and is working well in almost all weather conditions and can
said to be completely operational. But it is recommanded not to use
Ground Station in high winds. This is for the safety reasons. Also high
winds effets antenna’s pointing towards the satellite, resulting in low
signal strength.
2. Ground Station can start sensing satellite from a low elevation of about
(less than) 10 degrees, but to decode the beacons the minimum signal
strength required is more than 4 dB. This signal strength is available
at an elevation of about 15 degrees or higher. So this is recommanded
to always go with the passes having maximum elevation of 15 degrees
or more.
38
Chapter 4
Conclusion
(a) New deign of the Ground Station is implemented sucessfully, which
removed some of its old pitfalls.
(b) Automatic satellite tracking is now possible.
(c) Satellite Tracking with hign elevations are now possible.
(d) Problems related to cabling pattern is also resolved.
(e) Ground Station is again operational.
39
Appendix A
Hardware Documentation
Connections at Yaesu G-5500 Antenna rotator and controller: To follow reusability, the old Rotors cable of 18 wires is used,
and out of its 18 wires six wires are connected to azimuth control and
six wires to elevation control, of the Yaesu G-5500 Controller.
For the Ground Station at the University of Wuerzburg, connections
are documented in Tables A.1, A.2, A.3 and A.4.
Azimuth
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 4
Pin 5
Pin 6
Control
Wire 1
Wire 2
Wire 3
Wire 4
Wire 5
Wire 6
Table A.1: Connections at Rotator Controller.
Elevation Control
Pin 1
Wire 9
Pin 2
Wire 10
Pin 3
Wire 7
Pin 4
Wire 12
Pin 5
Wire 13
Pin 6
Wire 14
Table A.2: Connections at Rotator Controller.
40
Figure A.1: Connections at Yaesu Rotator and Controller.
Azimuth
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 4
Pin 5
Pin 6
Pin 7
Control
Wire 1
Wire 2
Wire 3
Wire 4
Wire 5
Wire 6
Unused
Table A.3: Connections at Rotator’s Metal Plug.
41
Elevation Control
Pin 1
Wire 9
Pin 2
Wire 10
Pin 3
Wire 7
Pin 4
Wire 12
Pin 5
Wire 13
Pin 6
Wire 14
Pin 7
Unused
Table A.4: Connections at Rotator’s Metal Plug.
42
Appendix B
Configurations for “Nova for
Windows”.
Installing Nova for Windows
(a) Insert the Nova for Windows CD into the CD-ROM drive of your
computer.
(b) If the setup program doesnt start automatically, click on the Start
button (lower left corner of the desktop).
(c) Click on Run.
(d) In the file name box, type Setup.EXE.
(e) Follow the directions in the Nova for Windows Setup.
Important:
Be sure to enter the serial number carefully. Serial number must include
the NLD- prefix.
First step is to set the type of Map. In the screenshots shown below
“Large Rectangular Map” is selected for convenience.
To choose the new map setting the path is“Views” then “Configure current view” and then Choose “Map display”
and “Map Size”.
Refer figure 2.11.
Second step is to set the position of the Ground Station in “Nova for
Windows”. The path is- “Setup” and then “Observers”.
43
Figure B.1: Nova for Windwos - Configuring View.
Figure B.2: Nova for Windows - Configuring Observer.
In our case it is:
Location: “Informatics VII, Uni-Wuerzburg, Germany.”
Elevation is of 310 meters.
Latitude is 49 degrees 47 minutes 49.20 seconds North.
44
Longitude is 9 degrees 56 minutes 56.40 seconds East.
Refer figure 2.12.
Third step is to check the availability of the specific satellite from
the Satellite Editor in the database of “Nova for Windows”.
In this editor, new satellite names and its Keplerian elements can also
be added. Also “Update Keplerian Elements” button provides the online update.
The path is “Setup” and then “Satellites”.
Refer figure 2.13.
Figure B.3: Nova for Windows - Configuring Satellites.
To update Keplerian elements or to get related help click on “Kep Elements”. Refer figure 2.14.
Fourth step is to choose the “Current View” in order to see Satellite
and Observer (Ground Station position) all together.
This provides a feature of selecting multiple Satellites and Observation
points on the map at the same time.
The path is “Views” and then “Configure current view” and then
“Satellites” or “Observes” or “Map” or “Text”. Refer figures 2.15 and
2.16.
45
Figure B.4: Nova for Windows - TLE Updation
Figure B.5: Nova for Windows - Current View Observer.
On the Map, Footprint of the satellite/s and the Ground Station’s position/s can be easily found. Refer figure 2.17.
On the Right hand side of the screen, Real-time text data of the con-
46
Figure B.6: Nova for Windows - Current View Satellite.
cerning satellite is available. The number of columns in the real-time
text window depends on the number of satellites in the view.
Figure B.7: Nova for Windows - Satellite Footprints.
Satellite Script.
47
“Satellite Script” features the prediction of the flyby time of the satellite or satellites over a particular Observer (Ground Station) up to 48
hours in advance.
This also enables “automatic script tracking”. Refer figure 2.19.
Figure B.8: Nova for Windows - Floating Toolbar.
48
Figure B.9: Nova for Windows - Satellite Script.
Frequency display.
It also displays the Uplink and Downlink Frequencies, with the Doppler
value for the particular selected satellite.
To check this, the path is “Utilities” and then “Frequency display”.
Refer figure 2.20.
49
Figure B.10: Nova for Windows - Frequency Display.
To enable Auto-Tracking with “Nova for Windows”, the first step is
to select the type of Antenna Rotator from the Rotator Interface list.
The path is “AutoTracking” and then “Antenna Rotator Setup” and
then “Interface”.
Select the Rotator Interface from the available list.
For the Ground Station at Informatics VII, University of Wuerzburg,
“WinRotor” is the Rotator Interface.
For Yaesu G-5500 azimuth rotator range is 0 to 360 degrees and
elevation rotator range is 0 to 180 degrees. Refer figure 2.21.
50
Figure B.11: Nova for Windows - Antenna-Rotator Setup.
More help regarding “Nova for Windows” can be available from “help”
of the display window or please refer its detailed brochure. Refer figure
2.22.
Figure B.12: Nova for Windows - Further Help.
51
Appendix C
Test Results
Eleven tests are documented in a duration of 10 days from 08 Dec 2006
to 18 Dec 2006. Testing summary is as follows:
08 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
16:04:08 Local Time
16:17:42 Local Time
00:13:33 hrs
118 degrees
21 degress
355 degress
Table C.1: Testing - Satellite Script 08Dec2006.
Number of Beacons received : 3.
tnc4e2: fm KD7OVB to QST ctl UI pid=BB len 255 16:10:18
tnc4e2: fm KD7OVB to QST ctl UI pid=BB len 255 16:10:28
tnc4e2: fm KD7OVB to QST ctl UI pid=BB len 255 16:10:57
52
Figure C.1: Test Beacons on 08Dec2006.
11 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
15:08:46 Local Time
15:19:13 Local Time
00:10:26 hrs
87 degrees
8 degress
1 degress
Table C.2: Testing - Satellite Script 11Dec2006.
11 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
16:45:23 Local Time
17:00:18 Local Time
00:14:55 hrs
139 degrees
40 degress
351 degress
Table C.3: Testing - Satellite Script 11Dec2006.
53
Number of Beacons received : 1.
tnc4e2: fm KD7OVB to QST ctl UI pid=BB len 255 15:13:45
Number of Beacons received : 14.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
Figure C.2: Test Beacons on 11Dec2006.
Number of Beacons received : 13.
54
16:50:41
16:50:51
16:51:01
16:51:11
16:51:20
16:51:31
16:51:40
16:51:51
16:52:01
16:52:12
16:52:20
16:52:31
16:52:41
16:53:31
12 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
18:05:56 Local Time
18:21:18 Local Time
00:15:22 hrs
178 degrees
52 degress
342 degress
Table C.4: Testing - Satellite Script 12Dec2006.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
18:10:52
18:11:23
18:11:32
18:11:43
18:11:52
18:12:02
18:12:13
18:12:24
18:12:42
18:12:53
18:13:02
18:13:12
18:13:22
13 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
16:07:43 Local Time
16:21:26 Local Time
00:13:43 hrs
120 degrees
22 degress
354 degress
Table C.5: Testing - Satellite Script 13Dec2006.
55
Figure C.3: Test Beacons 12Dec2006.
Number of Beacons received : 14.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
56
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
16:11:42
16:11:53
16:12:12
16:12:23
16:12:43
16:13:12
16:13:22
16:13:32
16:13:42
16:13:52
16:14:02
16:14:13
16:14:23
16:14:42
Figure C.4: Test Beacons on 13Dec2006.
13 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
17:46:29 Local Time
18:02:01 Local Time
00:15:32 hrs
169 degrees
73 degress
344 degress
Table C.6: Testing - Satellite Script 13Dec2006.
Number of Beacons received : 12.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
57
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
17:51:48
17:51:58
17:52:08
17:52:18
17:52:28
17:52:38
17:52:49
17:52:58
17:53:08
17:53:18
tnc4e2: fm KD7OVB to QST ctl UI pid=BB len 255 17:53:30
tnc4e2: fm KD7OVB to QST ctl UI pid=BB len 255 17:53:38
Figure C.5: Test Beacons on 13Dec2006.
14 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
15:49:05 Local Time
16:01:58 Local Time
00:12:53 hrs
110 degrees
17 degress
356 degress
Table C.7: Testing - Satellite Script 14Dec2006.
58
Number of Beacons received : 4.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
15:49:39
15:54:58
15:55:09
15:55:29
Figure C.6: Test Beacons on 14Dec2006.
14 December 2006
17:27:10 Local Time
17:42:42 Local Time
00:15:31 hrs
159 degrees
81 degress
346 degress
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
Table C.8: Testing - Satellite Script 14Dec2006.
59
Number of Beacons received : 12.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
Figure C.7: Test Beacons on 14Dec2006.
60
17:32:33
17:32:44
17:32:55
17:33:03
17:33:14
17:33:23
17:33:34
17:33:54
17:34:04
17:34:13
17:34:24
17:34:34
15 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
17:08:00 Local Time
17:23:21 Local Time
00:15:21 hrs
150 degrees
58 degress
348 degress
Table C.9: Testing - Satellite Script 15Dec2006.
Number of Beacons received : 13.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
61
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
17:13:10
17:13:19
17:13:29
17:13:41
17:13:51
17:14:01
17:14:10
17:14:20
17:14:30
17:14:40
17:14:50
17:14:59
17:15:10
Figure C.8: Test Beacons on 15Dec2006.
18 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
17:27:10 Local Time
17:42:42 Local Time
00:15:31 hrs
159 degrees
81 degress
346 degress
Table C.10: Testing - Satellite Script 18Dec2006.
Number of Beacons received : 6.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
62
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
16:16:07
16:16:57
16:17:08
16:17:17
16:17:27
16:17:47
Figure C.9: Test Beacons on 18Dec2006.
18 December 2006
AOS Time
LOS Time
Duration
AOS Azimuth
Maximum Elevation
LOS Azimuth
17:27:10 Local Time
17:42:42 Local Time
00:15:31 hrs
159 degrees
81 degress
346 degress
Table C.11: Testing - Satellite Script 18Dec2006.
63
Number of Beacons received : 12.
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
tnc4e2:
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
fm
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
KD7OVB
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
QST
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
ctl
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
UI
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
pid=BB
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
len
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
Figure C.10: Test Beacons on 18Dec2006.
64
16:50:41
16:50:51
16:51:01
16:51:11
16:51:20
16:51:31
16:51:40
16:51:51
16:52:01
16:52:12
16:52:20
16:52:31
Bibliography
[1] Armin Lediger Master Thesis: “Aufbau einer Bodenstation.” August 2005: Lehrstuhl for Robotik und Telematik, Bayerische JuliusMaximilians University of Wuerzburg.
[2] Rajesh Shankar Priya, Dr. Prof. Klaus Schilling “Component Based
Ground Station Network using Modular and Distributed Systems”
July 2006. at “The 1st International Workshop on Ground Station Network, University Space Engineering Consortium, July 2006,
Tokyo, Japan”.
[3] Ground Station Presentation documents: “The 1st International
Workshop on Ground Station Network, University Space Engineering Consortium, July 2006, Tokyo, Japan”. July 2006.
[4] Wikipedia, The online encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/
[5] Hummel Al-Towers “Hummel Teletower Jumbo III”
http://www.hummel-towers.de/ , Germany.
[6] M2 Antenna Systems, Inc. “2MCP22 Circ. Pol. Antenna”
http://www.m2inc.com/products/vhf/2m/2mcp22.html
and “436CP42 U/G Circ. Pol. Yagi”
http://www.m2inc.com/products/uhf/70cm/436ug.html
[7] Yaesu Musen Co., Ltd. “Instruction Manual G-5500.”
http://www.yaesu.com/
[8] Die Funkbox. “WinRotor Interface and WinRotor XP.”
http://www.funkbox.de/ , Germany.
[9] SSB-Electronic
GmbH,
Iserlohn
Germany.
“Preamplifiers:
LNA
and
SLN
Series.”
http://www.ssbamateur.de/englisch/amsat/lnpreampe .html
[10] ICOM Inc,Osaka Japan. “Instruction Manual VHF/UHF All mode
Transceiver IC-910H” http://www.icomeurope.com/
65
[11] Michael R. Owen, PhD “User’s Manual - Nova for Windows”, Northern
Lights Software Associates, USA: Year 2000. http://www.nlsa.com/
[12] QuakeFinder, Inc. “QuakeSat - Earthquake Monitoring CubeSat”
http://www.quakefinder.com/quakesat.htm
[13] Real
Time
Satellite
http://www.n2yo.com/
Tracking
66
“Online
Satellite
Tracking”,