Informix Migration Guide, December 1999

Informix
Migration Guide
Informix Dynamic Server.2000, Version 9.2
INFORMIX-Universal Server, Version 9.10 to 9.14
Informix Extended Parallel Server, Version 8.3
Informix Dynamic Server with Advanced Decision Support and Extended Parallel Options, Version 8.21
INFORMIX-OnLine XPS, Version 8.10 to 8.11
Informix Dynamic Server, Version 7.30 to 7.31
Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.30 to 7.31
Informix Dynamic Server, Linux Edition, Version 7.30 to 7.31
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 6.0 to 7.24
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server for Windows NT, Version 7.10 to 7.23
INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.12 and 7.22
INFORMIX-SE, Version 4.1 to 7.22
INFORMIX-OnLine, Version 4.1 to 5.0
December 1999
Part No. 000-6531
Published by Informix Press
Informix Corporation
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Documentation Team: Twila Booth, Mary Kraemer, Jennifer Leland, Bonnie Vaughan
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documentation marked with this legend must reproduce this legend.
ii Informix Migration Guide
Table of
Contents
Table of Contents
Introduction
In This Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Dependencies and Database Server Names . . . . .
Assumptions About Your Locale. . . . . . . . . . . .
Demonstration Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Features That Affect Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Icon Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command-Line Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample-Code Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printed Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Message Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, and Machine Notes . . .
Related Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compliance with Industry Standards . . . . . . . . . . .
Informix Welcomes Your Comments . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3
4
5
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10
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Section I
Overview of Informix Migration
Chapter 1
Database Server Migration
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Informix Database Server Versions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Database Server Migration Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating Between Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
Data Migration
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating a Database or Selected Data . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating Between Different Versions of a Database Server .
Changing Database Servers, Operating Systems,
or GLS Locales . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distributing a Client Application . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Non-Informix Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Environment Variables Before Using Utilities . . . . .
Choosing the Most Effective Data Migration Tools . . . . . .
Automatic Data Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
The onunload and onload Utilities . . . . . . . . . .
The dbexport and dbimport Utilities . . . . . . . . .
LOAD, UNLOAD, and dbload . . . . . . . . . . .
The dbschema Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The High-Performance Loader on UNIX. . . . . . . .
The onxfer Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Informix Enterprise Command Center . . . . . . . .
Moving Data Between Computers and Dbspaces . . . . . .
Importing Data from a Non-Informix Source . . . . . .
Importing Data with Informix Enterprise Gateway Products.
Chapter 3
Informix Migration Guide
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2-3
2-4
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2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-9
2-9
2-13
2-15
2-17
2-19
2-19
2-20
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-22
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3-3
Client Software Development Kit (SDK) Compatibility
In This Chapter .
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1-3
1-3
1-8
1-11
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Section II
Version 9.x Database Server Migration
Chapter 4
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2
Database Server
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Dynamic Server 2000 Introduced. . . .
Migration from Universal Server 9.10 to 9.13. . . . .
Migration from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 or OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 or 7.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation. . . . .
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000 from 9.14, D 7.3x, or 7.2x
Check and Configure Available Space . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . .
Stop Enterprise Replication. . . . . . . . . . .
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the Source
Database Server . . . . . . . . . . .
Check for Any Open Transactions . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Database Server Mode . . . . . . . . .
Make a Final Backup of the Source Database Server . .
Verify That the Source Database Server Is Off-Line . .
Modify UNIX Kernel Parameters. . . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server 2000 . . . . . . . . . .
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . . .
Add Any Communications Support Modules . . . .
For ON-Archive, Update Configuration Files . . . .
Install and Configure Any Datablade Modules . . . .
Initialize Dynamic Server 2000 . . . . . . . . .
Monitor the Upgrade Complete Status . . . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server 2000 . . .
Tune Dynamic Server 2000 for Performance . . . . .
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4-4
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4-5
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4-14
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-16
4-17
4-17
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-20
4-21
4-21
4-22
4-25
4-25
4-26
Table of Contents
v
Reverting to Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server 2000 . . . .
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Configuration Files . . . . . . . . .
Stop Enterprise Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Version 9.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Any Communications Support Module Settings . . .
Reinstall and Start the Target Database Server . . . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Target Database Server . . . . . . . . . .
Return the Target Database Server to On-Line Mode . . . .
Chapter 5
Migrating Between Versions of Universal Server
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to Universal Server 9.14 from Universal
Server 9.10 Through 9.13 . . . . . . . . . .
R-Tree Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tables That Contain Collection Columns . . . . . .
Reverting to Universal Server 9.10 Through 9.13 from Universal
Server 9.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6
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5-3
5-4
5-4
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5-5
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Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server
7.2x or 7.1x
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Universal Server Introduced . . . . . . . .
Reversion to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server 7.3x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to Universal Server from OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x or 7.1x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check Available Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . . . .
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server . . . .
vi
Informix Migration Guide
4-26
4-27
4-31
4-31
4-31
4-31
4-32
4-32
4-33
4-33
4-33
4-34
4-34
4-36
4-36
4-36
6-3
6-4
6-4
6-5
6-8
6-8
6-9
6-11
6-12
Put OnLine Dynamic Server in Quiescent Mode . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up OnLine Dynamic Server . . . . . . . .
Bring OnLine Dynamic Server Off-Line . . . . . .
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . . .
Install Universal Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . . . .
Add Any Communications Support Modules . . . .
Update the ON-Archive Configuration Files . . . . .
Bring Universal Server On-Line . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Universal Server . . . . . . . . . . .
Tune Universal Server for Performance . . . . . .
Install and Configure Any Datablade Modules . . . .
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x from
Universal Server . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible. . . . . .
Save Copies of the Configuration Files . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Universal Server . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove New Universal Server Features . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Any Communications Support Module Settings
Install and Start OnLine Dynamic Server . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up OnLine Dynamic Server . . . . . . . .
Return OnLine Dynamic Server to On-Line Mode . . .
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6-12
6-13
6-13
6-14
6-14
6-15
6-15
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-17
6-17
6-18
6-19
6-19
6-19
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6-27
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Table of Contents vii
Section III
Version 8.x Database Server Migration
Chapter 7
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server
AD/XP 8.21
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . .
Upgrade and Reversion Paths for 32-Bit and 64-Bit
Database Servers. . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . . . . .
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . . . . . .
Check the Available Space . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . .
Take the 8.21.UD4 Database Server to Quiescent Mode. .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Make a Final Backup of the 8.21.UD4 Database Server . .
Check for Open Transactions and Shut Down the
8.21.UD4 Database Server . . . . . . . .
Install Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . . . .
Copy the 8.21.UD4 Configuration Files . . . . . . .
Verify Environment Variable Settings on Each Node . .
Initialize Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server . . .
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance . . . .
Moving Extended Parallel Server Between 32-Bit and 64-Bit
Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 from
Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Script in Check Mode . . . . . .
Remove Features That Extended Parallel Server Introduced
Leave Extended Parallel Server in On-Line Mode . . .
Run the Reversion Script . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables. . . . . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . .
viii Informix Migration Guide
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7-19
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7-21
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7-25
Copy and Customize Configuration Files . . . . . . .
Initialize Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 Without
Initializing Disks . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . .
Return Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 to On-Line Mode
Chapter 8
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7-26
7-26
7-26
7-26
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2
Database Server
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Extended Parallel Server Introduces .
Upgrade to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from OnLine
Dynamic Server 4.1 to 7.1x . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation. . . .
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic
Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x . .
Configure and Check Available Space . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server .
Put the Source Database Server in Quiescent Mode .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Verify the Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server . . . . . .
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . .
Edit the Schema File to Suit Extended Parallel Server .
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Install Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . .
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node . . .
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . . .
Bring Extended Parallel Server On-Line . . . . .
Use onutil to Create Cogroups and Dbslices . . . .
Edit the onxfer Configuration File . . . . . . .
Unload the 7.3x or 7.2x Database Schema and Data .
Load the Database Schema and Data . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server .
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance . . .
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8-13
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-15
8-16
8-16
8-17
8-17
8-17
8-17
8-18
Table of Contents ix
Reverting to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x from Extended Parallel Server . . . . . .
Unloading Data to External Tables . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading Data from External Tables . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 9
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and OnLine
XPS 8.11
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . . . . . .
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 from
OnLine XPS 8.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check the Available Space and System Requirements . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . . .
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the 8.11 Database
Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
Moving Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 Between 32-Bit
and 64-Bit Operating Systems . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to an Earlier 8.x Database Server from Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 10
Informix Migration Guide
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9-8
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9-12
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9-12
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . . . .
Loading and Unloading Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Express Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deluxe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 from OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure and Check Available Space . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server .
Put OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x in Quiescent Mode .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
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10-20
10-23
10-24
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Verify the Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Make a Final Backup of OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x. . .
Unload the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Take OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x Off-Line . . . . . .
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 . . . . . . . . .
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node . . . . .
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . . . . .
Update the sqlhosts File or Registry Key . . . . . . .
Update the Backup and Restore Configuration Parameters .
Bring Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 On-Line . . . . . .
Use onutil to Create Cogroups and Dbslices . . . . . .
Create a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Data from External Tables . . . . . . . . . .
Run UPDATE STATISTICS and Build Indexes . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 . .
Check Rejection Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recompile ESQL/C Programs . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unloading Data to External Tables . . . . . . . . .
Loading Data from External Tables . . . . . . . . .
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10-27
10-27
10-28
10-28
10-29
10-29
10-30
10-31
10-31
10-31
10-31
10-32
10-32
10-33
10-33
10-36
10-36
10-37
10-37
10-38
10-38
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10-38
10-39
10-39
Section IV Version 7.x Database Server Migration
Chapter 11
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 to 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3
New Configuration Parameters in Dynamic Server 7.3
New SQL Reserved Words in Dynamic Server 7.3 . .
New Features in Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . .
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11-5
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11-6
11-6
11-7
11-7
11-8
Table of Contents xi
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-Place ALTER TABLE New in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.24
Enhancements to sqlhosts File or Registry Key in OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.23 . . . . . . . . . . .
Language Support Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server
6.0 to 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes to Blobspace Requirements in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ON-Archive Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.1 . . .
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install the Latest Maintenance Release for the Current
Version of OnLine Dynamic Server . . . . . .
Verify and Install a Validated Storage Manager . . . . .
Check Available Space and System Requirements . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . . .
Shut Down the Source Database Server . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server Files . . . . . . .
Begin Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
Save an Output File of SQL Statements for Access Paths . .
Bring the Source Database Server Off-Line . . . . . . .
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . . . . .
Install the Target Database Server . . . . . . . . . .
Install Informix Enterprise Command Center . . . . . .
Customize the Target Database Server Environment . . .
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration Parameters . . . .
Update the Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . .
xii
Informix Migration Guide
. 11-10
. 11-12
. 11-14
. 11-14
. 11-15
. 11-16
. 11-16
. 11-17
. 11-17
. 11-18
. 11-18
. 11-19
. 11-19
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11-20
11-21
11-21
11-22
11-23
11-24
11-25
11-25
11-26
11-27
11-27
11-27
11-27
11-28
11-29
11-29
11-30
Prepare the Target Database Server to Use Enterprise
Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure SNMP . . . . . . . . . . .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line. . . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Check Space Requirements for BYTE and TEXT Data . . .
Make an Initial Backup of the Target Database Server. . .
Verify the Access Path of the SQL Statements . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change Database Server Definitions . . . . . . . .
Migrating to a GLS Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to an Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic Server . .
Remove Unsupported SQL Features . . . . . . . .
Remove Fragmented Tables (Version 6.0 Only) . . . . .
Save System Catalog Information . . . . . . . . .
Stop Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
(Version 7.22 or Later) . . . . . . . . . .
Uninstall the Database Server and Informix Enterprise
Command Center . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify In-Place ALTER TABLE . . . . . . . . . .
Close All Transactions and Put the Source Database Server
in Quiescent Mode . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server . . . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove GLS Features . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify the sqlhosts File . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinstall the Earlier Version of the Database Server . . .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line. . . . . . .
Rename ON-Archive Files (Version 6.0 Only) . . . . .
Restore System Catalog Information (Version 6.0 Only) . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Target Database Server Files . . . . . . .
Return the Target Database Server to On-Line Mode . . .
Complete Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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11-30
11-31
11-32
11-33
11-33
11-33
11-33
11-34
11-34
11-35
11-35
11-36
11-38
11-38
11-38
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11-39
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11-40
11-40
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11-41
11-42
11-42
11-43
11-44
11-44
11-48
11-50
11-50
11-50
11-51
11-51
11-51
11-52
11-52
11-52
Table of Contents xiii
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UCx from OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.10.UDI Through 7.14 . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Target Database Server . . . . . . .
Complete Reversion. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 12
. . . 11-53
. . . 11-53
. . . 11-54
. . . 11-54
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1
Database Server
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 . . . . . . .
Operating-System Configuration Issues . . . . . . .
Disk-Utilization Issues
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Database Server Configuration Issues. . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . . . . .
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server
from OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
Install the Latest Maintenance Release for the Current
Version of OnLine . . . . . . . . . . .
Capture Configuration and Chunk-Layout Information .
Close All Transactions and Make a Final Backup of the
Source Database Server . . . . . . . . .
Bring OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 Off-Line . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure the Target Database Server . . . .
Reconfigure the UNIX Operating System . . . . . .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line . . . . . .
Upgrade User-Table Indexes . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of the Target Database Server . .
Add rowid Columns to Fragmented Tables . . . . . .
Complete Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert a Database to a Different Locale . . . . . .
Reverting to OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . .
Remove Database Server Users . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server . . . . . . . .
Remove Features That Later Versions Introduced . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . . .
xiv Informix Migration Guide
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. 12-3
. 12-3
. 12-4
. 12-4
. 12-6
. 12-12
. 12-20
. 12-23
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. 12-24
. . 12-24
. . 12-25
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12-26
12-28
12-29
12-31
12-32
12-33
12-37
12-37
12-37
12-38
12-38
12-39
12-39
12-40
12-40
12-40
12-40
12-41
Prepare the TBCONFIG Configuration File .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . .
Bring Up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 in Quiescent Mode
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . .
Back Up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 . . . . . . .
Return Online 5.0 or 4.1 to On-Line Mode. .
Chapter 13
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Migrating Between INFORMIX-SE Database Servers and Converting
C-ISAM Files
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing and Exporting Data . . . . . . . .
Migrating Between Different Versions of SE . . .
Preparing to Upgrade to SE 7.2 from SE 5.0 or 4.1
Preparing to Upgrade to SE 7.2 from SE 7.1 or 6.0
Reverting to an Earlier Version of SE . . . . . .
Converting C-ISAM Files to SE . . . . . . . .
Chapter 14
12-42
12-43
12-43
12-43
12-44
12-44
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13-3
13-3
13-4
13-4
13-5
13-6
13-6
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Data Between Database Servers . . . . . . . .
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD . . . . . . .
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload . . . . . . .
Migrating to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . .
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and Services File . . . . . . . .
Customize the Environment for Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions . . . . .
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
On-Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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14-5
14-6
14-6
14-8
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14-8
14-9
14-10
14-10
14-10
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14-12
14-12
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14-12
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14-13
14-13
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14-13
14-14
Table of Contents xv
Complete Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server, W/D . .
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and Services File . . . . . . . .
Customize the Environment for Dynamic Server 7.3 . . .
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 On-Line . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . .
Migrating Between Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, and OnLine Workgroup Server . . . . . .
Using Different Server and Client Configurations . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, Version 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Database Server Definitions on Windows NT . .
Migrating to a GLS Locale . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting the Database Server and IECC . . . . . . .
Moving Data Between SE and Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions
Moving Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions from SE .
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions . .
xvi Informix Migration Guide
. 14-14
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14-14
14-15
14-16
14-16
. 14-17
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14-17
14-18
14-19
14-19
14-19
14-20
14-20
14-20
14-20
14-21
. 14-21
. 14-22
. 14-23
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14-27
14-37
14-38
14-38
14-45
14-45
14-50
Section V
Migration Between Operating Systems
Chapter 15
Moving a Database Server to a Different Operating System
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Migration Method . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Database Tables for File-System Variations . .
Moving Data to a Database Server on a Different Operating
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Migration Utilities . . . . . . . . .
Adapting Your Programs for UNIX or Windows NT .
Completing Migration . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 16
. . .
. . .
. . .
15-3
15-3
15-5
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
15-5
15-6
15-7
15-7
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different
Environments
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Migration Method . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating Data to Dynamic Server, W/D from 7.3 on a Different
Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Data from Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and the Services File . . . . . .
Customize the Database Server Environment . . . . .
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
On-Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Import Data into Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . .
Run UPDATE STATISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . .
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16-3
16-4
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16-5
16-6
16-6
16-7
16-7
16-11
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16-12
16-12
16-12
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16-13
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16-13
16-14
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16-14
16-14
16-15
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16-15
Table of Contents
xvii
Migrating Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, on a Different
Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
eveloper Editions . . . . . . . . . .
Export Data from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and the Services File . . . . .
Customize the Database Server Environment . . . .
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 On-Line . . . . . . . .
Import the Data into the Target Database Server . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Target Database Server . . . . . . .
Run UPDATE STATISTICS . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . .
. . . 16-15
. . . 16-16
. . . 16-17
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16-20
16-21
16-21
16-21
16-22
16-22
16-22
16-23
16-23
16-23
16-24
Section VI Locale Changes
Chapter 17
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Informix Language Support . . . . . . . . . .
Global Language Support . . . . . . . . .
Native Language Support . . . . . . . . .
Asian Language Support . . . . . . . . . .
Language Support in Database Servers . . . . . .
Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server . . . .
Extended Parallel Server, Dynamic Server AD/XP,
and OnLine XPS . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server. .
INFORMIX-SE . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
and OnLine Workgroup Server . . . . .
xviii
Informix Migration Guide
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. 17-3
. 17-4
. 17-4
. 17-9
. 17-14
. 17-20
. 17-21
. . . . 17-22
. . . . 17-22
. . . . 17-23
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. 17-24
Chapter 18
Converting to GLS
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Existing Locale Support . . . . . .
Finding the Current Database Locale . . . . . .
Finding Available GLS Locales on UNIX . . . . .
Finding Available GLS Locales on Windows NT . .
Verifying GLS Database Locales . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to GLS from NLS . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Locale of the NLS Database . . .
Determining Whether a Compatible GLS Locale Exists
Opening an NLS Database . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to GLS from ALS . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating from Version 6.x ALS Products . . . . .
Migrating from Version 5.x ALS Products . . . . .
Migrating from Version 4.x ALS Products . . . . .
Migrating from Version 4.x ASCII Japanese Products .
Chapter 19
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18-3
18-3
18-4
18-4
18-5
18-5
18-6
18-6
18-8
18-11
18-13
18-13
18-15
18-17
18-19
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19-3
19-3
19-3
19-4
19-5
19-5
19-6
19-7
19-8
Reverting from GLS
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the onmode Utility for Reversion . . . . . . .
Reverting to NLS from GLS . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to an NLS Database Server . . . . . .
Reverting to an NLS Version of the SE Database Server
Reverting to ALS from GLS . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to Version 6.x ALS . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to Version 5.x ALS . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to Version 4.x ALS or ASCII Products . .
Table of Contents xix
Section VII Data Migration Utilities
Chapter 20
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities
In This Chapter . . . . . . .
Syntax of the dbexport Command
Syntax of the dbimport Command
Simple Large Objects . . . . .
Database Locale Changes . . .
Chapter 21
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. 20-3
. 20-5
. 20-11
. 20-19
. 20-20
Using the dbload Utility
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
Syntax of the dbload Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Command File for dbload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
Command File to Load Complex Data Types . . . . . . . . 21-21
Chapter 22
Using the dbschema Utility
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . .
Syntax of the dbschema Command . .
Database Schema Creation . . . . .
Server-Specific Information . . . .
User-Defined and Complex Data Types
Synonym Creation . . . . . . . .
Privileges . . . . . . . . . . .
Table, View, or Procedure Creation . .
Table Information . . . . . . . .
Role Creation . . . . . . . . .
Distribution Information for Tables . .
DB-Access Input from dbschema Output
Chapter 23
xx Informix Migration Guide
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22-3
22-4
22-6
22-8
22-9
22-11
22-12
22-14
22-16
22-17
22-18
22-22
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax of the UNLOAD Statement . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax of the LOAD Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23-3
23-4
23-5
Using the LOAD and UNLOAD Statements
Chapter 24
Using the onmode Utility
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use of the onmode -b Command for Reversion . . . . . . .
Preparation for Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax of the onmode -b Command . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 25
Using the onunload and onload Utilities
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . .
How onunload and onload Work . . . .
Syntax of the onunload Command . . .
Syntax of the onload Command . . . .
Constraints That Affect onload and onunload
Steps for Using onunload and onload . .
Chapter 26
24-3
24-4
24-4
24-5
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25-3
25-4
25-5
25-10
25-13
25-16
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26-3
26-4
26-5
26-7
26-17
Using the onxfer Utility
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variables for onxfer . . . .
Syntax of the onxfer Command . . . . .
Configuration File for onxfer . . . . .
Guidelines and Restrictions for Using onxfer
Appendix A
Database Server Environment Variables
Appendix B
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
Index
Table of Contents xxi
Introduction
Introduction
In This Introduction
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3
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Dependencies and Database Server Names .
Assumptions About Your Locale . . . . . . . .
Demonstration Databases . . . . . . . . . .
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6
New Features That Affect Migration .
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9
10
10
11
11
13
14
16
17
17
19
19
Additional Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printed Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On-Line Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Message Documentation . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, and Machine Notes .
Related Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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20
20
21
21
21
22
23
Documentation Conventions . . . . . . .
Typographical Conventions . . . . . .
Icon Conventions . . . . . . . . . .
Comment Icons . . . . . . . . .
Feature, Product, and Platform Icons . .
Syntax Conventions . . . . . . . . .
Syntax Elements in a Statement Path . .
How to Read a Syntax Diagram . . . .
Command-Line Conventions . . . . . .
Syntax Elements in a Command-Line Path
How to Read a Command-Line Diagram
Sample-Code Conventions . . . . . . .
2
Compliance with Industry Standards.
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23
Informix Welcomes Your Comments .
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24
Informix Migration Guide
In This Introduction
This introduction provides an overview of the information in this manual
and describes the conventions it uses.
About This Manual
This manual describes the migration procedures that you can use to upgrade
to or revert from one Informix database server to another, move data from
one database server to another, change locales, or move a database server to
a different operating system. This manual explains migration among
Version 9.x, Version 8.x, Version 7.x, and earlier Informix database servers. It
also explains how to use the dbschema, dbload, dbunload, dbexport,
dbimport, onunload, and onxfer data migration utilities and the LOAD and
UNLOAD SQL statements.
Migration includes upgrading to a newer version or different kind of
Informix database server, reversion to a previous database server, movement
of a database server to a different operating system, and movement of data
between database servers. Upgrading or reversion often involves changing
connectivity information in the sqlhosts file or registry key, host
environment variables, configuration parameters, and other database-serverspecific features.
Introduction 3
Types of Users
Types of Users
This manual is for the following users:
■
Database users
■
Database administrators
■
Database server administrators
■
System administrators
■
Database-application programmers
■
Backup operators
■
Performance engineers
Before reading this manual, you probably need the following background:
■
A working knowledge of your computer, your operating system,
and the utilities that your operating system provides
■
Some experience working with relational databases or exposure to
database concepts
■
Some experience with computer programming
■
Some experience with database server administration, operating
system administration, or network administration
If you have limited experience with relational databases, SQL, or your
operating system, refer to the Getting Started manual for your database server
for a list of supplementary titles.
4
Informix Migration Guide
Software Dependencies and Database Server Names
Software Dependencies and Database Server Names
This guide covers migration from one Informix database server to another or
from one version of an Informix database server to another. This guide uses
the following database server names, including abbreviations, short names,
and complete database server names with version numbers.
Abbreviation
Short Database Server Name
Complete Database Server Name
IDS 2000
Dynamic Server 2000
Informix Dynamic Server 2000, Version 9.2
IDS 7.3
Dynamic Server 7.3
Informix Dynamic Server, Version 7.30 or Version 7.31
XPS 8.3
Extended Parallel Server
Informix Extended Parallel Server, Version 8.30
IDS W/D
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, Version 7.30 or Version 7.31
LE
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
Informix Dynamic Server, Linux Edition, Version 7.30
or Version 7.31
IUS
Universal Server
INFORMIX-Universal Server, Version 9.14,
Version 9.13, Version 9.12, Version 9.11, or Version 9.10
IDS AD/XP
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options
Informix Dynamic Server with Advanced Decision
Support and Extended Parallel Options, Version 8.21
XPS 8.11
OnLine XPS
INFORMIX-OnLine XPS, Version 8.10 or Version 8.11
ODS
OnLine Dynamic Server
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.24,
Version 7.23, Version 7.22, Version 7.21, Version 7.20,
Version 7.14, Version 7.13, Version 7.12, Version 7.11,
Version 7.10, or Version 6.0
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server for
Windows NT, Version 7.23, Version 7.22, Version 7.20,
Version 7.12, or Version 7.10
OWS
OnLine Workgroup Server
INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.22
or Version 7.12
SE
SE
INFORMIX-SE, Version 7.22, Version 7.2x,
Version 7.1x, Version 6.0, Version 5.0, or Version 4.1
OL
OnLine
INFORMIX-OnLine, Version 5.0 or Version 4.1
Introduction 5
Assumptions About Your Locale
In this guide, a short database server name followed by a version number
refers only to that version, or set of versions, of the database server. For
example, Universal Server 9.14 refers only to INFORMIX-Universal Server,
Version 9.14, and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 refers to any of the following
database servers: INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.24,
Version 7.23, Version 7.22, Version 7.21, or Version 7.20 or INFORMIX-OnLine
Dynamic Server for Windows NT, Version 7.23, Version 7.22, or Version 7.20.
Assumptions About Your Locale
Informix products can support many languages, cultures, and code sets. A
single environment, called a Global Language Support (GLS) locale, brings all
culture-specific information together.
The examples in this manual use the default GLS locale, en_us.8859-1. This
locale supports U.S. English format conventions for dates, times, and
currency. In addition, this locale supports the ISO 8859-1 code set, which
includes the ASCII code set plus many 8-bit characters such as é, è, and ñ.
If you plan to use nondefault characters in your data or your SQL identifiers,
or if you want to conform to the nondefault collation rules of character data,
you need to specify the appropriate nondefault locale.
For instructions on how to specify a nondefault locale, additional syntax, and
other considerations related to GLS locales, see the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality.
Demonstration Databases
The DB-Access utility, which Informix provides with its database server
products, includes one or more of the following demonstration databases:
XPS 8.3
6
Informix Migration Guide
■
The stores_demo database illustrates a relational schema with information about a fictitious wholesale sporting-goods distributor.
Many examples in Informix manuals are based on the stores_demo
database.
■
The sales_demo database illustrates a dimensional schema for datawarehousing applications. For conceptual information about dimensional data modeling, see the Informix Guide to Database Design and
Implementation. ♦
New Features That Affect Migration
IDS
■
The superstores_demo database illustrates an object-relational
schema. The superstores_demo database contains examples of
extended data types, type and table inheritance, and user-defined
routines. ♦
For information about how to create and populate the demonstration
databases, see the DB-Access User’s Manual. For descriptions of the databases
and their contents, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
The scripts that you use to install the demonstration databases reside in the
$INFORMIXDIR/bin directory on UNIX platforms and in the
%INFORMIXDIR%\bin directory in Microsoft Windows environments.
New Features That Affect Migration
For a comprehensive list of new database server features, see your release
notes. This section lists new features relevant to this manual.
Dynamic Server 2000 has all the Universal Server 9.14 features plus the
following new features that affect migration:
■
Support for parallel user-defined routine (UDR) execution in the
High-Performance Loader (HPL)
■
Long identifiers
■
■
❑
128-character identifiers
❑
32-character user names
Environment variables
❑
IFX_LONGID
❑
STMT_CACHE
❑
STMT_CACHE_DEBUG
New SQL reserved words
Introduction 7
New Features That Affect Migration
■
Features from Dynamic Server 7.3
❑
ALTER FRAGMENT ATTACH/DETACH enhancements
❑
In-place ALTER TABLE MODIFY/DROP (for built-in types)
❑
Restartable restore
❑
External backup and restore
❑
Application migration features:
UPPER, LOWER, and INITCAP functions for case-insensitive
search (for built-in types)
REPLACE, SUBSTR, LPAD, and RPAD functions for string manip-
ulation (for built-in types)
UNION operator in CREATE VIEW statement
CASE expression
NVL and DECODE functions
TO_CHAR and TO_DATE date-conversion functions (for built-in
types)
IFX_UPDDESC environment variable to describe an UPDATE
statement
EXECUTE PROCEDURE syntax to update triggering columns
New arguments to the dbinfo() function to obtain the hostname
and version of the database server
❑
Manageability features:
Informix Storage Manager (ISM) to manage the storage devices
and media that contain backups
Additional information for onsnmp Management Information
Bases
❑
8
Informix Migration Guide
New SQL reserved words
Documentation Conventions
Extended Parallel Server has the following new features that affect
migration:
■
■
Data-migration enhancements
❑
onxfer data-movement utility to Extended Parallel Server from
Dynamic Server, Version 7.31 or Version 7.30, or OnLine
Dynamic Server
❑
Reversion utility for migrating to Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options, Version 8.21, from Extended Parallel Server
Configuration enhancements
❑
Configurable page size
❑
Large chunk size (greater than 2 gigabytes)
❑
64-bit very large memory (VLM)
❑
NODEFAC, DBCENTURY, SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL, and
XFER_CONFIG environment variables
Documentation Conventions
This section describes the conventions that this manual uses. These
conventions make it easier to gather information from this and other volumes
in the documentation set.
The following conventions are discussed:
■
Typographical conventions
■
Icon conventions
■
Syntax conventions
■
Command-line conventions
■
Sample-code conventions
Introduction 9
Typographical Conventions
Typographical Conventions
This manual uses the following conventions to introduce new terms,
illustrate screen displays, describe command syntax, and so forth.
Convention
Meaning
KEYWORD
All primary elements in a programming language statement
(keywords) appear in uppercase letters in a serif font.
italics
italics
Within text, new terms and emphasized words appear in italics.
Within syntax and code examples, variable values that you are
to specify appear in italics.
italics
boldface
boldface
Names of program entities (such as classes, events, and tables),
environment variables, file and pathnames, and interface
elements (such as icons, menu items, and buttons) appear in
boldface.
monospace
monospace
Information that the product displays and information that you
enter appear in a monospace typeface.
KEYSTROKE
Keys that you are to press appear in uppercase letters in a sans
serif font.
♦
This symbol indicates the end of one or more product- or
platform-specific paragraphs.
➞
This symbol indicates a menu item. For example, “Choose
Tools➞Options” means choose the Options item from the
Tools menu.
Tip: When you are instructed to “enter” characters or to “execute” a command,
immediately press RETURN after the entry. When you are instructed to “type” the
text or to “press” other keys, no RETURN is required.
Icon Conventions
Throughout this guide, several different icons identify comment text or text
that applies only to a specific product, feature, or computer platform. This
section describes these icons.
10
Informix Migration Guide
Icon Conventions
Comment Icons
Comment icons identify three types of information, as the following table
describes. This information always appears in italics.
Icon
Label
Description
Warning:
Identifies paragraphs that contain vital instructions,
cautions, or critical information
Important:
Identifies paragraphs that contain significant
information about the feature or operation that is
being described
Tip:
Identifies paragraphs that offer additional details or
shortcuts for the functionality that is being described
Feature, Product, and Platform Icons
Feature, product, and platform icons identify paragraphs that contain
feature-specific, product-specific, or platform-specific information.
Icon
Description
AD/XP
ALS
D/B
Identifies information or syntax that is specific to Informix
Dynamic Server with Advanced Decision Support and
Extended Parallel Options
Identifies information that is specific to an Asian Language
Support (ALS) database or application
Identifies information that is valid only for DB-Access
E/C
Identifies information that is specific to the Informix
ESQL/C product
GLS
Identifies information that relates to the Informix Global
Language Support (GLS) feature.
(1 of 2)
Introduction 11
Icon Conventions
Icon
Description
IDS
Identifies information that is specific to Informix Dynamic
Server 2000 or Informix Dynamic Server 7.3
IDS 2000
Identifies information that is specific to Informix Dynamic
Server 2000
IUS
Identifies information that is specific to INFORMIXUniversal Server
LE
Identifies information that is specific to Informix Dynamic
Server, Linux Edition
NLS
Identifies information that is specific to a Native Language
Support (NLS) database or application
ODS
Identifies information that is specific to
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server
OWS
Identifies information that is specific to
INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server
SE
UNIX
Identifies information that is specific to INFORMIX-SE
Identifies information that is specific to UNIX platforms
W/D
Identifies information that is specific to Informix Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
WIN NT
Identifies information that is specific to the Windows NT
environment
WIN NT/95
Identifies information that is specific to Windows NT and
Windows 95 environments
XPS 8.3
Identifies information that is specific to Extended Parallel
Server
XPS 8.11
Identifies information that is specific to
INFORMIX-OnLine XPS
(2 of 2)
12
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax Conventions
These icons can apply to an entire section or to one or more paragraphs
within a section. If an icon appears next to a section heading, the information
that applies to the indicated feature, product, or platform ends at the next
heading at the same or higher level. A ♦ symbol indicates the end of feature-,
product-, or platform-specific information that appears within one or more
paragraphs within a section.
Syntax Conventions
This section describes conventions for syntax diagrams. Each diagram
displays the sequences of required and optional keywords, terms, and
symbols that are valid in a given statement or segment, as Figure 1 shows.
SET EXPLAIN
ON
OFF
Figure 1
Example of a
Simple
Syntax Diagram
Each syntax diagram begins at the upper-left corner and ends at the upperright corner with a vertical terminator. Between these points, any path that
does not stop or reverse direction describes a possible form of the statement.
Syntax elements in a path represent terms, keywords, symbols, and segments
that can appear in your statement. The path always approaches elements
from the left and continues to the right, except in the case of separators in
loops. For separators in loops, the path approaches counterclockwise. Unless
otherwise noted, at least one blank character separates syntax elements.
Introduction 13
Syntax Conventions
Syntax Elements in a Statement Path
You might encounter one or more of the following syntax elements in the
diagram of a statement path.
Element
Description
KEYWORD
A word in UPPERCASE letters is a keyword. You must
spell the word exactly as shown; however, you can use
either uppercase or lowercase letters.
(.,;@+*-/)
Punctuation and other nonalphanumeric characters
are literal symbols that you must enter exactly as
shown.
' '
Single quotes are literal symbols that you must enter
as shown.
variable
A word in italics represents a value that you must
supply. A table immediately following the diagram
explains the value.
ADD
Clause
p. 3-288
A reference in a box represents a subdiagram. Imagine
that the subdiagram is spliced into the main diagram
at this point. When a page number is not specified, the
subdiagram appears on the same page.
ADD Clause
Back to ADD Clause
p. 1-14
E/C
A reference in a box in the upper-right corner of a
subdiagram refers to the next higher-level diagram of
which this subdiagram is a member.
An icon is a warning that this path is valid only for
some products, or only under certain conditions.
Characters on the icons indicate what products or
conditions support the path.
These icons might appear in a syntax diagram:
XPS 8.3
This path is valid only for Extended
Parallel Server.
AD/XP
This path is valid only for Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options.
(1 of 2)
14
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax Conventions
Element
Description
DB
This path is valid only for DB-Access.
E/C
This path is valid only for ESQL/C.
IDS
This path is valid only for Dynamic
Server 2000 or Dynamic Server 7.3.
A shaded option is the default action.
ALL
Syntax within a pair of arrows is a subdiagram.
The vertical line terminates the syntax diagram.
IS
NULL
NOT
NOT FOUND
ERROR
A branch below the main path indicates an optional
path. (Any term on the main path is required, unless
a branch can circumvent it.)
A set of multiple branches indicates that a choice
among more than two different paths is available.
WARNING
,
variable
A loop indicates a path that you can repeat.
Punctuation along the top of the loop indicates the
separator symbol for list items. If no symbol appears,
a blank space is the separator.
statement
,
3
size
A gate ( 3 ) on a path indicates that you can only use
that path the indicated number of times, even if it is
part of a larger loop. You can specify size no more than
three times within this statement segment.
(2 of 2)
Introduction 15
Syntax Conventions
How to Read a Syntax Diagram
Figure 1 shows a syntax diagram that uses most of the path elements that the
previous table lists.
Figure 1
Example of a Syntax Diagram
table
DELETE FROM
view
Condition
p. 4-5
WHERE
E/C
synonym
CURRENT OF
cursor
To use this diagram to construct a statement, start at the top left with the
keyword DELETE FROM. Then follow the diagram to the right, proceeding
through the options that you want.
Figure 1 illustrates the following steps:
1.
Type DELETE FROM.
2.
You can delete a table, view, or synonym:
3.
■
Type the table name, view name, or synonym, as you desire.
■
You can type WHERE to limit the rows to delete.
■
If you type WHERE and you are using DB-Access or the SQL Editor,
you must include the Condition clause to specify a condition to
delete. To find the syntax for specifying a condition, go to the
“Condition” segment on the specified page.
■
If you are using ESQL/C, you can include either the Condition
clause to delete a specific condition or the CURRENT OF cursor
clause to delete a row from the table.
Follow the diagram to the terminator.
Your DELETE statement is complete.
16
Informix Migration Guide
Command-Line Conventions
Command-Line Conventions
This section defines and illustrates the format of commands that are available
in Informix products. These commands have their own conventions, which
might include alternative forms of a command, required and optional parts
of the command, and so forth.
Each diagram displays the sequences of required and optional elements that
are valid in a command. A diagram begins at the upper-left corner with a
command. It ends at the upper-right corner with a vertical line. Between
these points, you can trace any path that does not stop or back up. Each path
describes a valid form of the command. You must supply a value for words
that are in italics.
Syntax Elements in a Command-Line Path
You might encounter one or more of the following syntax elements in the
diagram of a command-line path.
Element
Description
command
This required element is usually the product name or
other short word that invokes the product or calls the
compiler or preprocessor script for a compiled Informix
product. It might appear alone or precede one or more
options. You must spell a command exactly as shown
and use lowercase letters.
variable
A word in italics represents a value that you must
supply, such as a database, file, or program name. A table
following the diagram explains the value.
-flag
A flag is usually an abbreviation for a function, menu, or
option name, or for a compiler or preprocessor
argument. You must enter a flag exactly as shown,
including the preceding hyphen.
.ext
A filename extension, such as .sql or .cob, might follow
a variable that represents a filename. Type this extension
exactly as shown, immediately after the name of the file.
The extension might be optional in certain products.
(1 of 2)
Introduction 17
Command-Line Conventions
Element
Description
(.,;+*-/)
Punctuation and mathematical notations are literal
symbols that you must enter exactly as shown.
' '
Single quotes are literal symbols that you must enter as
shown.
A reference in a box represents a subdiagram. Imagine
that the subdiagram is spliced into the main diagram at
this point. When a page number is not specified, the
subdiagram appears on the same page.
Privileges
p. 5-17
Privileges
A shaded option is the default action.
ALL
Syntax within a pair of arrows indicates a subdiagram.
The vertical line terminates the command.
-f
OFF
ON
,
variable
,
3
size
A branch below the main path indicates an optional
path. (Any term on the main path is required, unless a
branch can circumvent it.)
A loop indicates a path that you can repeat. Punctuation
along the top of the loop indicates the separator symbol
for list items.
A gate ( 3 ) on a path indicates that you can only use
that path the indicated number of times, even if it is part
of a larger loop. You can specify size no more than three
times within this statement segment.
(2 of 2)
18
Informix Migration Guide
Sample-Code Conventions
How to Read a Command-Line Diagram
Figure 2 shows a command-line diagram that uses some of the elements that
are listed in the previous table.
Figure 2
Example of a Command-Line Diagram
setenv
INFORMIXC
compiler
pathname
To construct a command correctly, start at the top left with the command.
Follow the diagram to the right, including the elements that you want. The
elements in the diagram are case sensitive.
Figure 2 illustrates the following steps:
1.
Type setenv.
2.
Type INFORMIXC.
3.
Supply either a compiler name or a pathname.
After you choose compiler or pathname, you come to the terminator.
Your command is complete.
4.
Press RETURN to execute the command.
Sample-Code Conventions
Examples of SQL code occur throughout this manual. Except where noted,
the code is not specific to any single Informix application development tool.
If only SQL statements are listed in the example, they are not delimited by
semicolons. For instance, you might see the code in the following example:
CONNECT TO stores_demo
...
DELETE FROM customer
WHERE customer_num = 121
...
COMMIT WORK
DISCONNECT CURRENT
Introduction 19
Additional Documentation
To use this SQL code for a specific product, you must apply the syntax rules
for that product. For example, if you are using DB-Access, you must delimit
multiple statements with semicolons. If you are using an SQL API, you must
use EXEC SQL at the start of each statement and a semicolon (or other appropriate delimiter) at the end of the statement.
Tip: Ellipsis points in a code example indicate that more code would be added in a
full application, but it is not necessary to show it to describe the concept being
discussed.
For detailed directions on using SQL statements for a particular application
development tool or SQL API, see the manual for your product.
Additional Documentation
For additional information, you might want to refer to the following types of
documentation:
■
On-line manuals
■
Printed manuals
■
On-line help
■
Error message documentation
■
Documentation notes, release notes, and machine notes
■
Related reading
On-Line Manuals
An Answers OnLine CD that contains Informix manuals in electronic format
is provided with your Informix products. You can install the documentation
or access it directly from the CD. For information about how to install, read,
and print on-line manuals, see the installation insert that accompanies
Answers OnLine.
Informix on-line manuals are also available on the following Web site:
www.informix.com/answers
20
Informix Migration Guide
Printed Manuals
Printed Manuals
To order printed manuals, call 1-800-331-1763 or send email to
moreinfo@informix.com. Please provide the following information when
you place your order:
WIN NT
■
The documentation that you need
■
The quantity that you need
■
Your name, address, and telephone number
On-Line Help
Informix provides on-line help with each graphical user interface (GUI) that
displays information about those interfaces and the functions that they
perform. Use the help facilities that each GUI provides to display the on-line
help.
Error Message Documentation
Informix software products provide ASCII files that contain all of the
Informix error messages and their corrective actions.
UNIX
To read error messages and corrective actions on UNIX, use one of the
following utilities.
Utility
Description
finderr
Displays error messages on line
rofferr
Formats error messages for printing
♦
Introduction 21
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, and Machine Notes
WIN NT/95
To read error messages and corrective actions in Microsoft Windows environments, use the Informix Find Error utility. To display this utility, choose
Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar. ♦
Instructions for using the preceding utilities are available in Answers
OnLine. Answers OnLine also provides a listing of error messages and
corrective actions in HTML format.
Documentation Notes, Release Notes, and Machine Notes
In addition to printed documentation, the following sections describe the online files that supplement the information in this manual. Please examine
these files before you begin using your database server. They contain vital
information about application and performance issues.
UNIX
On UNIX, the following on-line files appear in the
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333 directory. Replace x.y in the filenames
with the version number of your database server.
On-Line File
Purpose
MIGRATEDOC_x.y
The documentation notes file for your version of this
manual describes topics that are not covered in the manual
or that were modified since publication.
SERVERS_x.y
The release notes file describes feature differences from
earlier versions of Informix products and how these differences might affect current products. This file also contains
information about any known problems and their
workarounds.
IDS_x.y or
The machine notes file describes any special actions that you
must take to configure and use Informix products on your
computer. Machine notes are named for the product
described.
XPS_x.y
♦
22
Informix Migration Guide
Related Reading
WIN NT
The following items appear in the Informix folder. To display this folder,
choose Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar.
Program Group Item
Description
Documentation Notes
This item includes additions or corrections to manuals
and information about features that might not be
covered in the manuals or that have been modified since
publication.
Release Notes
This item describes feature differences from earlier
versions of Informix products and how these differences might affect current products. This file also
contains information about any known problems and
their workarounds.
The machine notes do not apply to Windows NT. ♦
Related Reading
The following publications provide additional information about the topics
that this manual discusses:
■
Your Administrator’s Guide
■
The Administrator’s Reference
■
Your Installation Guide
For a list of publications that provide an introduction to database servers and
operating system environments, refer to your Getting Started manual.
Compliance with Industry Standards
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has established a set of
industry standards for SQL. Informix SQL-based products are fully compliant
with SQL-92 Entry Level (published as ANSI X3.135-1992), which is identical
to ISO 9075:1992. In addition, many features of Informix database servers
comply with the SQL-92 Intermediate and Full Level and X/Open SQL CAE
(common applications environment) standards.
Introduction 23
Informix Welcomes Your Comments
Informix Welcomes Your Comments
Let us know what you like or dislike about our manuals. To help us with
future versions of our manuals, we want to know about any corrections or
clarifications that you would find useful. Please include the following
information:
■
The name and version of the manual that you are using
■
Any comments that you have about the manual
■
Your name, address, and phone number
Send electronic mail to us at the following address:
doc@informix.com
The doc alias is reserved exclusively for reporting errors and omissions in our
documentation.
We appreciate your suggestions.
24
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter 1
Database Server Migration
Chapter 2
Data Migration
Chapter 3
Client Software Development Kit (SDK) Compatibility
Section I
Overview of Informix
Migration
Chapter
Database Server Migration
In This Chapter .
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1-3
Informix Database Server Versions .
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Database Server Migration Paths .
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Migrating Between Operating Systems .
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1-11
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1-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of database server migration, including
the following topics:
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Informix database server versions
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Database server migration paths
■
Migration between operating systems
Informix Database Server Versions
To become more familiar with the Informix client-server environment, read
Getting Started with Informix Database Server Products. It discusses the differences between Informix database servers and network and server
configurations. Also, read the Getting Started manual for your database
server.
Figure 1-1 on page 1-4 lists the Informix database servers by name and
version number, with the operating systems in which you can use them.
Figure 1-1 also gives the short form of the database server name in
parenthesis.
Database Server Migration
1-3
Informix Database Server Versions
Figure 1-1
Informix Database Servers
Database Server Name
Version
Number(s) Operating System(s)
9.20
UNIX, Windows NT
INFORMIX-Universal Server (Universal Server) 9.14
9.12
UNIX, Windows NT
INFORMIX-Universal Server (Universal Server) 9.13
9.11
9.10
UNIX
Informix Extended Parallel Server
(Extended Parallel Server)
8.30
UNIX
Informix Dynamic Server with Advanced
Decision Support and Extended Parallel
Options (Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options)
8.21
UNIX, Windows NT
INFORMIX-OnLine XPS (OnLine XPS)
8.11
8.10
UNIX
Informix Dynamic Server 7.3 (Dynamic Server
7.3) or
Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions (Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions)
7.30
7.31
UNIX, Windows NT
Informix Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
(Dynamic Server, Linux Edition)
7.30
7.31
Linux
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server
(OnLine Dynamic Server)
7.24
UNIX
7.23
7.22
7.21
7.20
7.14
7.13
7.12
7.11
7.10.UD1
7.10
6.0
Informix Dynamic Server 2000
(Dynamic Server 2000)
(1 of 2)
1-4
Informix Migration Guide
Informix Database Server Versions
Database Server Name
Version
Number(s) Operating System(s)
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server for
Windows NT (OnLine Dynamic Server)
7.24
7.23
7.22
7.20
7.12
7.10
Windows NT
INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server
(OnLine Workgroup Server)
7.22
Windows NT
INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server
(OnLine Workgroup Server)
7.12
UNIX, Windows NT
INFORMIX-SE (SE)
7.22
6.0
5.0
4.1
UNIX, Windows NT
INFORMIX-OnLine (OnLine)
5.0
4.1
UNIX
(2 of 2)
For installation instructions, refer to your Installation Guide. For information
on how to administer and configure your database server, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide.
UNIX
Figure 1-2 lists the source and target versions for migration of database
servers that Informix supports on UNIX. You might have previously
purchased another version of an Informix database server. If you have a
database server version that Figure 1-2 does not list, you can migrate to a
version that Informix supports.
To migrate between UNIX and Windows NT, see Chapter 15, “Moving a
Database Server to a Different Operating System.”
Database Server Migration
1-5
Informix Database Server Versions
Figure 1-2
Migrating Between Database Servers on UNIX
7.11.U
7.10.U
4.1x.U
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♦
1-6
Informix Migration Guide
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Source
Version
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Target Version
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Figure 1-3 lists the source and target versions for migration of database
servers that Informix supports on Windows NT.
WIN NT
Figure 1-3
Migrating Between Database Servers on Windows NT
7.12.T
7.10.T
7.20.T
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Source Version
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Target Version
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♦
Database Server Migration
1-7
Database Server Migration Paths
Database Server Migration Paths
This section summarizes the migration paths for Informix database servers.
Figure 1-4 on page 1-9 shows where you can find information in this book on
how to upgrade to another Informix database server. Figure 1-5 on page 1-10
shows where you can find information in this book on how to revert to a
previous Informix database server. The Source column shows the original
database server and environment. The Target column shows the new
database server and environment to which you are migrating. The Page
Reference column shows where you can find more information about the
specific migration path.
Important: To update your database server, you must first perform a clean shutdown.
Wait for all activity to cease before you proceed. Perform a level-0 backup as soon as
the new database server is on-line.
Figure 1-4 through Figure 1-6, and other figures in this guide, use the
following abbreviations for the database server names.
1-8
Database Server Name
Abbreviation
Informix Dynamic Server 2000
IDS 2000
INFORMIX-Universal Server
IUS
Informix Extended Parallel Server
XPS
Informix Dynamic Server with Advanced Decision
Support and Extended Parallel Options
AD/XP
INFORMIX-OnLine XPS
XPS
Informix Dynamic Server 7.3
IDS 7.3
Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions
W/D
Informix Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
LE
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server
ODS
INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server
OWS
INFORMIX-SE
SE
INFORMIX-OnLine
OL
Informix Migration Guide
Database Server Migration Paths
Figure 1-4
Upgrading Database Servers
Source
Target
Page Reference
IUS 9.14 on UNIX or Windows NT
IDS 2000 on UNIX or Windows NT
4-1
AD/XP 8.21 on UNIX or Windows NT
XPS 8.3 on UNIX
7-1
XPS 8.11 on UNIX
AD/XP 8.21 on UNIX or Windows NT
9-1
IDS 7.3x on UNIX or Windows NT
IDS 2000 on UNIX or Windows NT
IUS 9.14 on UNIX or Windows NT
XPS 8.3 on UNIX
Later IDS 7.3x on UNIX or Windows NT
4-1
6-1
8-1
11-1
LE 7.3x on Linux
IDS 2000 on UNIX or Windows NT
4-1
ODS 7.2x on UNIX or Windows NT
IDS 2000 on UNIX or Windows NT
IUS 9.14 on UNIX or Windows NT
XPS 8.3 on UNIX
AD/XP 8.21 on UNIX or Windows NT
IDS 7.3x on UNIX or Windows NT
Later ODS 7.2x on UNIX or Windows NT
4-1
6-1
8-1
10-1
11-1
11-1
ODS 6.0 to 7.1x on UNIX
IDS 7.3x on UNIX
11-1
ODS 7.12 on Windows NT
IDS 7.3x on Windows NT
11-1
OL 4.1 or 5.0x on UNIX
IDS 7.3x on UNIX
12-1
OWS 7.12 on UNIX
W/D 7.3x on UNIX
14-1
OWS 7.12 on Windows NT
OWS 7.22 on Windows NT
14-1
SE 7.2x or earlier
Later SE 7.2x
13-1
Database Server Migration
1-9
Database Server Migration Paths
Figure 1-5
Reverting Database Servers
Source
Target
Page Reference
IDS 2000 on UNIX or Windows NT
IUS 9.14 on UNIX or Windows NT
IDS 7.3x on UNIX or Windows NT
ODS 7.2x on UNIX or Windows NT
4-1
4-1
4-1
XPS 8.3 on UNIX
AD/XP 8.21 on UNIX or Windows NT
7-1
8-1
AD/XP 8.21 on UNIX or Windows NT
XPS 8.11 on UNIX
IDS 7.3x or ODS 7.2 x on UNIX or
Windows NT
9-1
10-1
IUS 9.14 on UNIX or Windows NT
Earlier IUS 9.1x on UNIX or Windows NT
IDS 7.3x on UNIX or Windows NT
ODS 7.2x on UNIX or Windows NT
5-1
6-1
6-1
IDS 7.31 on UNIX or Windows NT
IDS 7.30 on UNIX or Windows NT
ODS 7.2x to 6.0 on UNIX or Windows NT
OL 5.0x or 4.1 on UNIX
11-1
12-1
IDS 7.30 on UNIX or Windows NT
ODS 7.2x to 6.0 on UNIX or Windows NT
OL 5.0x or 4.1 on UNIX
11-1
12-1
ODS 7.22 on Windows NT
ODS 7.2x or 7.12 on Windows NT
11-1
OWS 7.22 on UNIX
OWS 7.12 on UNIX
14-1
W/D 7.3x on Windows NT
OWS 7.12 on Windows NT
14-1
SE 7.2x
Earlier SE 7.2x or earlier version
13-1
1-10
Informix Migration Guide
Migrating Between Operating Systems
Migrating Between Operating Systems
Figure 1-6 shows the paths for migrating to a different operating system. For
details, see Chapter 15, “Moving a Database Server to a Different Operating
System,” or Chapter 16, “Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its
Editions in Different Environments.”
Figure 1-6
Migrating to a Database Server in a Different Operating System
Source
Target
IDS 2000 on UNIX
IDS 2000 on Windows NT
IDS 2000 on Windows NT
IDS 2000 on UNIX
IUS on UNIX
IUS on Windows NT
IUS on Windows NT
IUS on UNIX
AD/XP on UNIX
AD/XP on Windows NT
AD/XP on Windows NT
AD/XP on UNIX
IDS 7.3 on UNIX
IDS 7.3, ODS, OWS, SE, or W/D on
Windows NT
IDS 7.3 on Windows NT
IDS 7.3, ODS, OWS, SE, or W/D on UNIX
ODS on UNIX
IDS 7.3, OWS, SE, or W/D on Windows NT
ODS on Windows NT
IDS 7.3, OWS, SE, or W/D on UNIX
OWS or W/D on UNIX
IDS 7.3, ODS, OWS, SE, or W/D on
Windows NT
OWS or W/D on Windows NT
IDS 7.3, ODS, OWS, SE, or W/D on UNIX
SE on UNIX
IDS 7.3, ODS, OWS, or W/D on
Windows NT
SE on Windows NT
IDS 7.3, ODS, OWS, or W/D on UNIX
C-ISAM
IDS 7.3, ODS, SE, OWS, or W/D
Database Server Migration
1-11
Chapter
Data Migration
In This Chapter .
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Migrating a Database or Selected Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating Between Different Versions of a Database Server . .
Changing Database Servers, Operating Systems, or GLS Locales .
Distributing a Client Application . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Non-Informix Data. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
Setting Environment Variables Before Using Utilities .
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Choosing the Most Effective Data Migration Tools .
Automatic Data Migration . . . . . . . .
The onunload and onload Utilities . . . . .
Constraints on Using onunload and onload
Restrictions on Using onunload and onload
The dbexport and dbimport Utilities . . . .
Destination Options . . . . . . . . .
Location Options . . . . . . . . . .
Database Server Options . . . . . . .
SE Options . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOAD, UNLOAD, and dbload . . . . . .
The dbschema Utility. . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Using dbschema . . . . .
DB-Access Input from dbschema Output .
Object Modes and Violation Detection . .
External Tables . . . . . . . . . . . .
The High-Performance Loader on UNIX . . .
HPL Tools . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Advantage of the HPL . . .
The onxfer Utility . . . . . . . . . . .
Informix Enterprise Command Center . . . .
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Moving Data Between Computers and Dbspaces . . . . . .
Importing Data from a Non-Informix Source. . . . . . .
Importing Data with Informix Enterprise Gateway Products .
2-2
Informix Migration Guide
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2-21
2-21
2-22
In This Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of data migration and compares the
Informix migration utilities. This chapter covers the following topics:
■
Migrating a database or selected data
■
Setting environment variables before using utilities
■
Choosing the most effective data migration tool
■
Moving data between computers and dbspaces
Migrating a Database or Selected Data
You might need to perform data migration on a database or selected data to
complete any of the following tasks:
■
Migrating between different versions of a database server
■
Changing database servers, operating systems, or GLS locales
■
Distributing a client application
■
Importing non-Informix data
Data Migration 2-3
Migrating Between Different Versions of a Database Server
Migrating Between Different Versions of a Database Server
When you upgrade to a newer version or revert to a previous version of a
database server, you need to consider the following data migration issues:
■
Changes in the configuration parameters and environment variables
■
Amount of memory and dbspace space required
■
Organization of the data
Chapters in Sections II, III, IV, and V discuss these issues in detail.
Changing Database Servers, Operating Systems, or GLS
Locales
You might want to move between database servers, to a different operating
system, or to a different GLS locale. You also might want to change the
database schema to accommodate more information, to provide for growth,
or to enhance performance.
AD/XP
SE
If you are migrating to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 in a
different operating system or to SE, you must unload the data into text files
and then load it back again into the target database server. ♦
For information about moving data to a different operating system, see
Section V, “Migration Between Operating Systems.”
GLS
For information about moving to a GLS locale, see Chapter 18, “Converting
to GLS.” ♦
Distributing a Client Application
After you upgrade a database server on the same operating system or move
the database server to another, compatible computer, review the client applications and sqlhosts file or registry-key connections. You might need to
recompile or modify client applications, or update the sqlhosts file or
registry key.
2-4
Informix Migration Guide
Importing Non-Informix Data
Verify that the client-application version you use is compatible with your
database server version. Update the sqlhosts file or registry key for the client
applications with the new database server information.
For more information about interactions between client applications and
different database servers, refer to a client manual, such as the Informix
ESQL/C Programmer’s Manual or the DataBlade API Programmer’s Manual.
Importing Non-Informix Data
You can use the dbimport and dbload utilities, the High-Performance
Loader (HPL), the Informix Enterprise Gateway products, or external tables
to import data from non-Informix sources.
Setting Environment Variables Before Using
Utilities
Before you use any data migration utility, you must set your PATH,
INFORMIXDIR, and INFORMIXSERVER environment variables. For information about environment variables, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
Tip: If you are using SE, Informix recommends that you not use the .dbs directory
as your current directory when you use a database-related utility. This practice keeps
the .dbs directory free from file clutter and prevents multiple users from overwriting
files that belong to other users.
SE
For information about SE administration utilities, see your INFORMIX-SE
Administrator’s Guide. ♦
Data Migration 2-5
Choosing the Most Effective Data Migration Tools
Choosing the Most Effective Data Migration Tools
You can use the following tools, utilities, and SQL statements to move data
from one database to another:
■
The onunload and onload utilities (only between database servers of
the same version)
■
The dbexport and dbimport utilities
■
UNLOAD and LOAD statements and the dbload utility
■
The dbschema utility
■
External tables
■
The High-Performance Loader (HPL)
■
The onxfer utility
■
Informix Enterprise Command Center (IECC), for Version 8.21,
Version 7.3x, and some earlier database servers
This section provides brief descriptions of these data migration tools and
information to help you choose the most effective ones to move your data.
For additional details about using these tools and for utility command and
statement syntax, see the chapters in Section VII, “Data Migration Utilities.”
For more information about external tables and the HPL, see the Administrator’s Reference, your Administrator’s Guide, or the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax. For more information about IECC, see the Informix Enterprise
Command Center User Guide.
Figure 2-1 on page 2-7 lists which tools you can use for each database server.
2-6
Informix Migration Guide
Choosing the Most Effective Data Migration Tools
Figure 2-1
Utilities for Moving Data
Database Server
IDS
2000
IUS
dbexport/dbimport
●
●
dbload
●
●
Utility
●
External tables
HPL
XPS
(8.3)
●
●
●
●
●
●
IDS 7.3
OWS
or W/D
ODS
OL
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
onxfer
UNLOAD/LOAD
●
XPS
(8.11)
●
IECC
onunload/onload
AD/XP
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
The best method for moving data depends on your operating system and
whether you want to move an entire database, selected tables, or selected
columns from a table. Figure 2-2 on page 2-8 summarizes the characteristics
of the methods for loading data and the constraints and advantages of each
method.
Data Migration 2-7
Choosing the Most Effective Data Migration Tools
Figure 2-2
Comparison of Tools for Loading Data
dbexport/
dbimport
Granularity
of Data
Database
only
Performance Moderate
Source of
Data
Usually
produced
by
dbexport
dbload
External
Tables
HPL
IECC
onunload/
onload
onxfer
Partial or
complete
table
Partial or
complete
table
Partial or
complete
table
Table or
database
Table or
database
Table or
database
Partial or
complete
table
Slow
Very fast
Fast
Moderate
Fast
Very fast
Moderate
Any data
in the
format
specified
by the
input file
Any data
in the
format
specified
by the
input file
Any
Data
must be
unloaded
by IECC
Must be
Table or
produced database
by
onunload
Any data
in the
specified
format,
usually
produced
by
ASCII or
COBOL
data.
User can
create
custom
read
capabilities.
UNLOAD/
LOAD
UNLOAD
Database
Schema
Can
modify
Can
modify
Can
modify
Can
modify
Cannot
modify
Cannot
modify
Can
modify
Can
modify
Location
of Data
Disk or
tape
Disk only
Disk,
tape, or
pipe
Disk,
tape, or
pipe
Disk or
tape
Disk or
tape
Disk or
pipe
Disk only
Type of File
Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
Binary
Text
Text
Logging
Status
Logging
optional
Logging
optional
Logging
optional
Logging
optional
Logging
optional
Logging
Logging
must be
optional
turned off
Logging
optional
Operating
System
Can use
when you
move
data
between
operating
systems
Can use
when you
move
data
between
operating
systems
Can use
when you
move
data
between
operating
systems
or from a
nonInformix
database
Can use
when you
move
data
between
operating
systems
or from a
nonInformix
database
Can use
when you
move
data
between
operating
systems
Cannot
use when
you move
data
between
operating
systems
Can use
when you
move
data
between
operating
systems
Can use
when you
move
between
operating
systems
Ease of Use
Moderate
Moderate
Most
difficult
Most
difficult
Easy to
use
More
difficult
Moderate
Easiest
2-8
Informix Migration Guide
Automatic Data Migration
The following subsections provide guidelines on how to choose the appropriate migration tool or tools.
Automatic Data Migration
Figure 2-3 shows situations where data migration is automatic. Automatic
data migration means that when you migrate from one database server to
another, you do not need to use any data migration tools to move the data.
The data migrates automatically from the source database server to the target
database server after you bring up the target database server. For example,
data migration between Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Workgroup Server
is automatic if the database servers use the same operating system.
Data migration can also be automatic when you move between different
versions of a database server in the same operating system.
Source
Target
Page Reference
ODS, IDS 7.3
OWS, W/D
14-1
OWS, W/D
ODS, IDS 7.3
14-1
Figure 2-3
Migrating Data Automatically
Between Different Database
Servers
The onunload and onload Utilities
The onunload and onload utilities provide the fastest way to move data, but
they do not let you modify the database schema or move from one operating
system or database server version to another. The onunload utility unloads
data from the specified database or table onto a tape or a file on disk in diskpage-sized units, making this utility more efficient than dbexport. The
onload utility takes a tape or a file that the onunload utility creates and recreates the database or the table. The onunload and onload utilities are faster
than dbimport, dbload, or LOAD but are much less flexible.
Data Migration 2-9
The onunload and onload Utilities
Because the data is written in page-sized units, you can use onunload and
onload only when certain constraints are met. For example, you cannot use
onunload and onload to move data between UNIX and Windows NT. You
can, however, use the onunload and onload utilities to move data between
computers. Figure 2-4 summarizes the questions that you must ask before
you use onunload and onload.
Figure 2-4
Criteria for Using the onunload and onload Utilities
Do you want to move to another database server of the same version?
no
yes
Do you want to move data between GLS and non-GLS databases?
yes
no
Do you want to modify the database schema?
yes
no
Do you want to move an entire database or an entire table?
no
yes
Are the page images compatible? Are the numeric representations the
same? Is the target database server on the same hardware platform?
no
yes
You can use onunload and onload.
2-10
Informix Migration Guide
You cannot use onunload and onload. Refer to
Figure 2-5 on page 2-16.
The onunload and onload Utilities
Constraints on Using onunload and onload
The onunload and onload utilities are the fastest way to unload and load
data, but you can use them only when all the following criteria are the same
for the source and target computers:
■
Page size
■
Representation of numeric data
■
Byte alignment for structures and unions
■
Informix database server version
You cannot use onunload and onload to move data between UNIX and
Windows NT because they use different page sizes. For example, the page
size is 2 kilobytes on some UNIX systems and 4 kilobytes on Windows NT.
You can use the onunload and onload utilities to unload from and load data
into the following database servers between operating systems.
Database Server
Operating System(s)
Dynamic Server 2000
UNIX or Windows NT (only if the
database does not contain extended
data types)
Universal Server
UNIX or Windows NT (only if the
database does not contain extended
data types)
Dynamic Server 7.3
UNIX or Windows NT
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
UNIX or Windows NT
OnLine Dynamic Server
UNIX or Windows NT
OnLine Workgroup Server
UNIX or Windows NT
Data Migration 2-11
The onunload and onload Utilities
For example, your site purchases a more powerful UNIX computer to allow
faster access for users. You need to transfer existing databases to the new
database server on the new computer. Use onunload to unload data from the
first database server and then use onload to load the data into the second
database server. Both database servers must have the same version number,
or they must have compatible version numbers. You can move the entire
database or selected tables only, but you cannot modify the database schema.
Restrictions on Using onunload and onload
The onunload and onload utilities have the following restrictions:
GLS
■
You cannot use onunload and onload to move data between nonGLS and GLS locales. ♦
IDS 2000
■
Do not use onunload and onload to move data between two
Dynamic Server 2000 or Universal Server databases if either
database contains an extended data type.
IUS
Use the HPL instead to move the data. However, you can use
onunload and onload with Dynamic Server 2000 or Universal Server
if the database contains only legacy data types. ♦
SE
■
AD/XP
■
SE does not support onunload and onload. However, you can use
dbexport and dbimport. ♦
XPS 8.3
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, Extended Parallel Server,
and OnLine XPS do not support onunload and onload.
For Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options or OnLine XPS, use
external tables to unload and load your data or to move data
between operating systems. For more information on how to unload
and load this data, see “External Tables” on page 2-19 and “Loading
and Unloading Data” on page 10-19. ♦
XPS 8.11
You can use onunload and onload to move data between databases if the NLS
and GLS locales are identical. For example, if user A has a French locale NLS
table on server A and tries to load data into a German locale GLS table on
server B, onload and onunload report errors. However, if both the NLS and
GLS tables were created with the same French locale, onload and onunload
would work.
2-12
Informix Migration Guide
The dbexport and dbimport Utilities
The tape that onload reads contains binary data that is stored in disk-pagesized units. For this reason, the computers where the original database
resides (where you use onunload) and where the target database will reside
(where you use onload) must have the following characteristics:
■
The same page size
■
The same representation of numeric data
■
The same byte alignment for structures and unions
If the page sizes are different, onload fails. If the alignment or numeric data
types on the two computers are different (for example, with the mostsignificant byte last instead of first or different float-type representations), the
contents of the data page could be misinterpreted.
Important: You cannot use the onload and onunload utilities to move data from
one version of a database server to another. You also cannot use these utilities to move
data between different types of database servers.
For additional constraints and restrictions, see Chapter 25, “Using the
onunload and onload Utilities.”
The dbexport and dbimport Utilities
If you cannot use onunload and onload, you must choose among the dbload
utility (to load), the dbexport and dbimport utilities, and the UNLOAD and
LOAD SQL statements. All these methods enable you to modify the database
schema. The dbexport and dbimport utilities provide some flexibility, but
you must move an entire database.
If you cannot use onunload and onload to export and import data, you can
unload your data to text files. You can use the dbexport utility to unload data
to tape from any of the following database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
Universal Server
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
■
SE
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
Data Migration 2-13
The dbexport and dbimport Utilities
The UNLOAD statement lets you manipulate the data as you unload it, but it
requires that you unload to files on disk instead of to tape. If you unload to
files, you might need to use UNIX or Windows NT utilities to load those files
onto tape.
The dbexport utility unloads a database into text files and creates a schema
file. You can use the schema file with dbimport to re-create the database
schema in another Informix environment. You can edit the schema file to
modify the database that dbimport creates. The dbexport utility supports
Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server data types. ♦
Destination Options
The dbexport utility supports the following destination options:
■
Unload a database and its schema file to disk
■
Unload a database and its schema file to tape
■
Unload the schema file to disk and unload the data to tape
The dbimport utility creates a database and loads it with data from text files.
The input files consist of a schema file that is used to re-create the database
and data files that contain the database data. Normally, you generate the
input files with the dbexport utility, but you can use any properly formatted
input files. The dbimport utility supports new data types in Dynamic Server
2000 and Universal Server.
Location Options
The dbimport utility can use files from the following location options:
2-14
■
All input files are located on disk
■
All input files are located on tape
■
The schema file is located on disk, and the data files are located on
tape
Informix Migration Guide
LOAD, UNLOAD, and dbload
Database Server Options
The dbimport utility supports the following options for a new Informix
database server (except SE):
SE
■
Create an ANSI-compliant database (includes unbuffered logging).
■
Establish transaction logging for a database (unbuffered or buffered
logging).
■
Specify the dbspace where the database will reside.
SE Options
The dbimport utility supports the following options for a new SE database:
■
Create an ANSI-compliant database (ANSI-compliant logging).
■
Establish transaction logging for a database (unbuffered logging).
LOAD, UNLOAD, and dbload
The LOAD statement is moderately fast and easy to use, but it can only accept
specified data formats. You usually use LOAD with data that is prepared with
an UNLOAD statement.
You can use the UNLOAD statement in DB-Access to unload selected rows
from a table into a text file.
To load tables, use LOAD or dbload. To manipulate a data file that you are
loading or to access a database while it is loading, use the dbload utility. The
cost of the flexibility is the time you spend creating the dbload command file
and slower execution. When possible, use the LOAD statement, which is
faster than dbload. Figure 2-5 summarizes questions to help you choose
among these methods.
Data Migration 2-15
LOAD, UNLOAD, and dbload
Figure 2-5
Choosing Among dbimport, dbload, and LOAD
Do you want to move an entire database?
yes
dbimport
no
Do you need to commit inserts during the load?
yes
no
Do you need to skip some rows before you start
to load the data?
yes
dbload
no
Is the data format acceptable to LOAD?
no
yes
LOAD
The dbload utility gives you a great deal of flexibility, but it is not as fast as
the other methods, and you must prepare a command file to control the
input. You can use dbload with data in a variety of formats.
2-16
Informix Migration Guide
The dbschema Utility
The dbload utility offers the following advantages over the LOAD statement:
■
You can use dbload to load data from input files that were created
with a variety of format arrangements. The dbload command file can
accommodate data from entirely different database management
systems.
■
You can specify a starting point in the load by directing dbload to
read but ignore x number of rows.
■
You can specify a batch size so that after every x number of rows are
inserted, the insert is committed.
■
You can limit the number of bad rows read, beyond which dbload
ends.
The cost of dbload flexibility is the time and effort spent creating the dbload
command file, which is required for dbload operation. The input files are not
specified as part of the dbload command line, and neither are the tables into
which the data is inserted. This information is contained in the command file.
The dbschema Utility
You can use the dbschema utility for the following purposes:
■
To display the SQL statements (the schema) that are required to
replicate a database or a specific table, view, or procedure
■
To display the schema for the Information Schema views
■
To display the distribution information that is stored for one or more
tables in the database
■
To display information on user-defined data types and row types
Guidelines for Using dbschema
AD/XP
XPS 8.3
XPS 8.11
For Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, Extended Parallel Server, or
OnLine XPS, you need to edit your schema files to incorporate the dbslices
feature and the syntax definition of dbspaces. In these database servers, the
dbschema utility produces dbslice information. For information on these
schema issues, see Section III, “Version 8.x Database Server Migration.” ♦
Data Migration 2-17
The dbschema Utility
SE
GLS
If you are using SE, the database must exist in your current directory or in a
directory that is cited in your DBPATH environment variable. ♦
When the GLS environment variables are set correctly, as the Informix Guide to
GLS Functionality describes, dbschema can handle foreign characters in
Dynamic Server 2000, Dynamic Server 7.3, Universal Server, or OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2 databases. ♦
You can use delimited identifiers with the dbschema utility. The utility
detects database objects that are keywords, mixed case, or have special
characters, and places double quotes around them.
DB-Access Input from dbschema Output
You can use the dbschema utility to get the schema of a database and redirect
the dbschema output to a file. Later, you can feed this file to DB-Access to recreate the database.
Object Modes and Violation Detection
The dbschema output supports object modes and violation detection, as
follows:
■
The output shows the names of not-null constraints after the not-null
specifications.
You can use the output of the utility as input to create another
database. If the same names were not used for not-null constraints in
both databases, problems could result.
■
The output shows the object mode of objects that are in the disabled
state. These objects can be constraints, triggers, or indexes.
■
The output shows the object mode of objects that are in the filtering
state. These objects can be constraints or unique indexes.
■
The output shows the violations and diagnostics tables that are
associated with a base table (if violations and diagnostics tables were
started for the base table).
For more information about object modes and violation detection, see the
SET, START VIOLATIONS TABLE, and STOP VIOLATIONS TABLE statements in
the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
2-18
Informix Migration Guide
External Tables
External Tables
You can use external tables to unload and load data when no other data
migration tool is available.
AD/XP
ODS
XPS 8.11
For Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options or OnLine XPS, you need to use
external tables to unload and load data. These database servers use highperformance parallel loading with external tables. External tables can hold
data that you back up from a database server. You can move the data from the
external tables to another database server.
To load and unload data in Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options or in
OnLine XPS, use external tables formatted in the Informix internal data representation format. You can load and unload files with the default delimiter (|)
format. ♦
Important: You do not need to use external tables to move data to Extended Parallel
Server from Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2. You can use the
onxfer utility instead. For information on using the onxfer utility, see Chapter 8,
“Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server.”
For detailed information on external tables, see the Administrator’s Reference
or your Administrator’s Guide. For syntax, see the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
UNIX
The High-Performance Loader on UNIX
The High-Performance Loader (HPL) uses parallel processing to perform fast
data loading and unloading. The HPL utility is available with the following
database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Universal Server
■
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
Only the UNIX versions of these database servers support the HPL.
The HPL requires significant preparation time but is fast. Use the HPL for
large migration jobs. The HPL can load data from any ASCII or COBOL file that
meets certain format requirements.
Data Migration 2-19
The onxfer Utility
You can use the HPL to load from large ASCII or COBOL databases. COBOL is
supported up to Version 7.3.
HPL Tools
In addition to the advantage of speed, the following HPL features provide
powerful tools for handling data from non-Informix sources:
■
Drivers to handle different database types
■
Filters and functions to manipulate data
■
Code-set conversion
The onpload utility is the command-line portion of the HPL.
Performance Advantage of the HPL
For extremely large databases, the HPL has a performance advantage over
other Informix data-migration utilities because it performs I/O and code-set
conversions in parallel. The user, however, must invest significant preparation time before using the HPL, and the HPL program has a significant startup time. Therefore, use the HPL only for large databases, for which the time
savings in the actual loading or unloading of data makes the preparation
time worthwhile.
For more information about the HPL, refer to the Guide to the High-Performance
Loader.
XPS 8.3
The onxfer Utility
For Extended Parallel Server, you can use the onxfer utility to move a
database or individual tables to Extended Parallel Server coservers from
Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2. You can use onxfer to
transfer a database or selected tables to disk. This data movement utility
combines the speed of the HPL and external tables functionality with the
usability of the dbexport and dbimport utilities.
2-20
Informix Migration Guide
Informix Enterprise Command Center
WIN NT
Informix Enterprise Command Center
Informix Enterprise Command Center (IECC) provides a graphical user
interface that you can use on 8.2x, 7.3x, and 7.2x database servers to load and
unload single tables or entire databases to and from Informix database
servers. For more information, refer to the Informix Enterprise Command Center
User Guide.
Moving Data Between Computers and Dbspaces
This section discusses moving data between different computers and
importing data from non-Informix environments. Except when you use the
HPL or external tables, you must unload your data to ASCII files before you
move the data to another computer.
If you are moving to an Informix database server on another computer, you
can use the dbimport and dbload utilities to load the data that you exported.
If you are moving data to a non-Informix application, you might need to use
the UNLOAD statement because it lets you specify the delimiter that is used
in the data files.
Importing Data from a Non-Informix Source
The dbimport and dbload utilities can import data from any ASCII file that is
properly formatted. Most applications that produce data can export the data
into files that have a suitable format for dbimport. If the format of the data is
not suitable, use UNIX or Windows NT utilities to reformat the data before
you import it into one of the following database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
Universal Server
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
■
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
SE
Data Migration 2-21
Importing Data with Informix Enterprise Gateway Products
In addition to dbimport and dbload, the Informix Enterprise Gateway
products and the HPL provide ways to access information from non-Informix
sources.
Importing Data with Informix Enterprise Gateway Products
Informix Enterprise Gateway with DRDA lets you query databases that
conform to the DRDA protocol published by IBM. You can use this Gateway
product to query a DRDA database and then insert the results into an
Informix database. For example, to import data, execute a SELECT statement
from the non-Informix database and then an INSERT statement into the
Informix database. For more information, refer to the Informix Enterprise
Gateway with DRDA User Manual.
Informix Enterprise Gateway for EDA/SQL lets you issue queries on a variety
of hardware platforms. It accesses an EDA/SQL database server from
Information Builders, Inc., which in turn accesses the data source. For more
information, refer to the INFORMIX-Enterprise Gateway for EDA/SQL User
Manual.
WIN
UNIX
NT
2-22
Informix Enterprise Gateway provides a single, standards-based gateway to
multiple data sources. Gateway Manager connects the Informix environment
with that of any shared-library ODBC Level 2-compliant driver manager and
driver(s) on UNIX. For instance, you can use Gateway Manager with the
Informix Enterprise Gateway driver products to access UNIX database server
products such as SYBASE SQL Server 10 and ORACLE7 Server. For more information, refer to the INFORMIX-Enterprise Gateway Manager User Manual. ♦
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Client Software Development
Kit (SDK) Compatibility
In This Chapter .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3
3-3
3-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter provides information about the compatibility of Informix Client
Software Developer’s Kit (Client SDK) with Informix database servers.
Figure 3-1 on page 3-4 shows which versions of the Client SDK you can use
with which database servers.
Client Software Development Kit (SDK) Compatibility
3-3
Figure 3-1
Client SDK Compatibility with Database Servers
Client SDK 2.30 Client SDK 2.20 Client SDK 2.10 Client SDK 2.01
Dynamic Server 2000
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Universal Server
Extended Parallel Server
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OnLine XPS
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Dynamic Server 7.3
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Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
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SE
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3-4
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter 4
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3,
or 7.2 Database Server
Chapter 5
Migrating Between Versions of Universal Server
Chapter 6
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x or 7.1x
Section II
Version 9.x Database Server
Migration
Chapter
Migrating Between Dynamic
Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or
7.2 Database Server
In This Chapter .
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4-3
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Dynamic Server 2000 Introduced . .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .
SQL Reserved Words . . . . . . . . . .
Migration from Universal Server 9.10 to 9.13 . . .
Migration from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 or OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 or 7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . . .
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4-8
4-8
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000 from 9.14, 7.3x, or 7.2x
Check and Configure Available Space . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Stop Enterprise Replication . . . . . . . . .
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the Source
Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check for Any Open Transactions . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Verify the Database Server Mode. . . . . . . .
Make a Final Backup of the Source Database Server .
Verify That the Source Database Server Is Off-Line .
Modify UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server 2000 . . . . . . . . .
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Customize the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . .
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4-9
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4-12
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4
Add Any Communications Support Modules .
For ON-Archive, Update Configuration Files .
Install and Configure Any Datablade Modules .
Initialize Dynamic Server 2000 . . . . . .
Monitor the Upgrade Complete Status . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server 2000
Tune Dynamic Server 2000 for Performance . .
4-2
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4-25
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4-26
Reverting to Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x,or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server 2000
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Configuration Files . . . . . . . .
Stop Enterprise Replication . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 2000 . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Version 9.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Any Communications Support Module Settings .
Reinstall and Start the Target Database Server . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Target Database Server . . . . . . . . .
Return the Target Database Server to On-Line Mode . . .
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4-36
Informix Migration Guide
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In This Chapter
This chapter describes migration between Dynamic Server 2000 and
Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x (Version 7.30 or Version 7.31), or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x. This chapter covers the following topics:
■
Preparing for migration
■
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000 from Universal Server 9.14,
Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
■
Reverting to Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server 2000
Important: To migrate to Dynamic Server 2000 from Universal Server 9.10, 9.11,
9.12, or 9.13, you must first upgrade to Universal Server 9.14. See “Upgrading to
Universal Server 9.14 from Universal Server 9.10 Through 9.13” on page 5-3.
To migrate to Dynamic Server 2000 from a version of OnLine Dynamic Server
earlier than Version 7.20, you must first upgrade to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or
Dynamic Server 7.3x. For more information, see Chapter 11, “Migrating Between
Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0.”
The instructions for Dynamic Server 7.3x also apply to Dynamic Server, Linux
Edition, Version 7.30 or Version 7.31, and to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, Version 7.30 or Version 7.31.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-3
Preparing for Migration
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server
9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2, you need to understand the Informix guidelines for migrating between database servers. You
also need to know about any new features that might affect migration.
To prepare for migration from Dynamic Server 7.3x or from OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x, see “Changes That Universal Server Introduced” on page 6-5. In
addition, for migration from OnLine Dynamic Server, see “Environment
Variable Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3” on page 11-6, “New Configuration
Parameters in Dynamic Server 7.3” on page 11-7, and “New Features in
Dynamic Server 7.3” on page 11-8.
To migrate from an earlier database server, you need to upgrade to Universal
Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x before you
upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000. To migrate from an earlier version of
Universal Server, see “Upgrading to Universal Server 9.14 from Universal
Server 9.10 Through 9.13” on page 5-3. To migrate from an earlier version of
OnLine Dynamic Server, see Chapter 11, “Migrating Between Versions of
Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0.”
Migration Guidelines
Informix suggests that you observe the following precautions when you
migrate to Dynamic Server 2000:
■
Check the release notes for information about the correct operatingsystem release and any patches that you need for successful installation and operation of the database server.
The release notes are in one of the following directories:
UNIX
WIN NT
❑
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333. ♦
❑
%INFORMIXDIR%\release\en_us\0333
Release notes are in the Informix folder. To display this folder,
choose Start➞Programs➞Informix from the task bar. ♦
■
4-4
Informix Migration Guide
On UNIX, retain both versions of the Informix product software on
disk, if you have enough disk resources. You cannot retain both
versions of the Informix product on disk on Windows NT.
Changes That Dynamic Server 2000 Introduced
■
Retain the installation media from both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Before you upgrade to the target database server from the source
database server, make sure that no open transactions exist in the
source database server.
Fast recovery will fail when rolling back open transactions during
the upgrade. For information about how to close the source database
server properly prior to upgrading, see “Close All Transactions and
Shut Down the Source Database Server” on page 4-14.
■
Before migration, perform a level-0 backup of all storage spaces with
the source database server. After you complete the migration,
perform another level-0 backup with Dynamic Server 2000.
■
Use a test instance of your database server to test the installation and
migration procedures.
■
Verify storage-manager validation for the target database server.
For details, see “Storage-Manager Validation and Installation” on
page 4-8.
For additional installation information and guidelines, refer to your Installation Guide and your Getting Started manual.
Changes That Dynamic Server 2000 Introduced
This section describes some of the changes in Dynamic Server 2000 that affect
migration or initial configuration.
Environment Variables
Dynamic Server 2000 introduced the following new environment variables
that were not available in Universal Server:
■
IFX_LONGID
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IFX_UPDDESC
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STMT_CACHE
■
STMT_CACHE DEBUG
Review the descriptions of these environment variables in the Informix Guide
to SQL: Reference to determine whether you need to set them.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-5
Changes That Dynamic Server 2000 Introduced
Configuration Parameters
Dynamic Server 2000 introduced new configuration parameters that might
affect your installation. You might also need to adjust the values of existing
parameters. The Administrator’s Reference describes the following new configuration parameters:
■
ALLOW_NEWLINE
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DD_HASHMAX
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DD_HASHSIZE
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OPT_GOAL
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PC_HASHSIZE
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PC_POOLSIZE
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STMT_CACHE
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STMT_CACHE_SIZE
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SYSSBSPACENAME
SQL Reserved Words
Dynamic Server 2000 supports new SQL keywords that are reserved words
and might affect migration of your applications. Although you can use
almost any word as an SQL identifier, syntactic ambiguities can occur. An
ambiguous statement might not produce the results you want.
This section lists the new SQL reserved words. For more information about
SQL reserved words, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
The following SQL keywords are new in Dynamic Server 2000:
4-6
■
CACHE
■
COSTFUNC
■
ITEM
■
SELCONST
Informix Migration Guide
Migration from Universal Server 9.10 to 9.13
The following SQL keywords are new in Dynamic Server 2000 and Dynamic
Server 7.31:
■
INNER
■
JOIN
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LEFT
■
LOCKS
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RETAIN
The following SQL keywords are new in Dynamic Server 2000 and Dynamic
Server 7.30:
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ALL_ROWS
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CASE
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CRCOLS
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DECODE
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FIRST_ROWS
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MEMORY_RESIDENT
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NON_RESIDENT
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NVL
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REPLICATION
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SUBSTR
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SUBSTRING
Migration from Universal Server 9.10 to 9.13
Before you upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000 from Universal Server 9.10, 9.11,
9.12, or 9.13, you need to upgrade to Universal Server 9.14. For more information, see “Upgrading to Universal Server 9.14 from Universal Server 9.10
Through 9.13” on page 5-3.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-7
Migration from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 or OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 or 7.1
Migration from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 or OnLine Dynamic Server
6.0 or 7.1
Before you upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000 from OnLine 4.1x or 5.0x or from
OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0x or 7.1x, you need to upgrade to Dynamic Server
7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x. For more information, see Chapter 11,
“Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.x and 6.0” or Chapter 12, “Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database
Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server.”
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
When you upgrade or revert an Informix database server, the storage
manager that you used on the source database server might not be validated
for the version of the database server to which you are migrating. Verify that
Informix has validated the storage manager for the target database server
version and platform. If not, you need to install a validated storage manager
before you perform backups with the ON-Bar backup and restore system.
When you migrate to a new database server version, install the storage
manager before you bring up the database server. That way, if you have
automatic log backup set up on the database server, ON-Bar can start backing
up the logs when the database server comes on-line.
Warning: If you migrate Informix Storage Manager (ISM) 1.0 catalogs to ISM 2.0
using the ism_catalog utility, the catalogs become corrupted. Once the ISM 2.0
server is restarted after catalog migration, error messages occur in various logs.
For information on how to install and upgrade the storage manager, see the
Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
4-8
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000 from 9.14, 7.3x, or 7.2x
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000 from
9.14, 7.3x, or 7.2x
This section describes the procedures for upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000
from any of the following database servers:
■
Universal Server 9.14
■
Dynamic Server 7.3x
■
❑
Dynamic Server, Version 7.30 or Version 7.31
❑
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
Version 7.30 or Version 7.31
❑
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition, Version 7.30 or Version 7.31
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
When you migrate to Dynamic Server 2000, you can install and test a
database server instance with the same configuration files, environment
variables, and sqlhosts information that you used for your source database
server. After you install Dynamic Server 2000 and verify that it works, you
might want to modify configuration files and environment variables to take
advantage of Dynamic Server 2000 features. For more information, refer to
your Getting Started manual and your Administrator’s Guide.
To upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000, you need to complete the following
steps. Later sections describe these steps in detail.
1.
Check and configure available space.
2.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
3.
Stop Enterprise Replication.
4.
Close all transactions and shut down the source database server.
5.
Check for any open transactions.
6.
Verify the integrity of the data.
7.
Verify the database server mode.
8.
Make a final backup of the source database server.
9.
Verify that the source database server is off-line.
Important: Repeat steps 2 through 9 for each instance of an earlier database server
that you are upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-9
Check and Configure Available Space
UNIX
10.
Modify UNIX kernel parameters. ♦
11.
Install Dynamic Server 2000.
Important: Monitor the message log, online.log, during the upgrade for any error
messages.
12.
Set environment variables.
13.
Customize the ONCONFIG configuration file.
14.
Add any Communications Support Modules.
15.
For ON-Archive, update configuration files.
16.
Install and configure any DataBlade modules.
17.
Initialize Dynamic Server 2000.
18.
Monitor the upgrade complete status.
19.
Update statistics.
20.
Verify the integrity of the data.
21.
Make an initial backup of Dynamic Server 2000.
22.
Tune Dynamic Server 2000 for performance
Important: Repeat steps 13 through 22 for each instance of Dynamic Server 2000
that you plan to run on the computer.
Warning: If a serious error occurs during the upgrade, it might be necessary to
return to the previous version, restore from tape, and then correct the problem prior
to restarting the update procedure at Step 9.
Check and Configure Available Space
UNIX
WIN NT
Dynamic Server 2000 requires 3000 free pages of logical-log space (approximately 6000 kilobytes for a 2-kilobyte page size) to build the sysmaster
database on UNIX. ♦
Dynamic Server 2000 requires 1500 to 3000 free pages of logical-log space
(approximately 6000 kilobytes for a 4-kilobyte page size) to build the
sysmaster database on Windows NT. ♦
You need to add any additional free space to the system prior to the upgrade.
If the dbspaces are full, you need to add space before you start the upgrade
procedure.
4-10
Informix Migration Guide
Check and Configure Available Space
When you initialize Dynamic Server 2000 on an existing Universal Server
root dbspace, the database server automatically upgrades the sysmaster
database and then each database individually. For a successful upgrade of
each database, you must ensure that 2000 kilobytes of free space per database
is available in each dbspace, as follows:
1.
Calculate the amount of free space that each dbspace requires. In the
following equation, n is the number of databases in the dbspace and
X is the kilobytes of free space they require:
X kilobytes free space = 2000 kilobytes * n
2.
Check the amount of free space in each dbspace to determine
whether you need to add more space.
Use the following SQL statements to determine the free space that each
dbspace requires and the free space available. These statements return the
free-space calculation in page-size units. The free_space_req column value is
the free-space requirement, and the free_space_avail column value is the free
space available.
The following SQL statement shows how to determine the free space that
each dbspace requires:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT partdbsnum(partnum) dbspace_num,
trunc(count(*) * 2000) free_space_req
FROM sysdatabases
GROUP BY 1
ORDER BY 1;
The following SQL statement queries the syschunks table and displays the
free space available for each dbspace:
SELECT dbsnum dbspace_num, sum(nfree) free_space_avail
FROM syschunks
GROUP BY 1
ORDER BY 1;
Important: If less free space is available than the dbspace requires, either move a table
from the dbspace to another dbspace or add a chunk to the dbspace.
The dbspace estimates could be higher if you have an unusually large
number of SPL routines or indexes in the database.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-11
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the configuration files for each instance of your source
database server. Keep the copies available to use later. Save the configuration
files that Figure 4-1 lists, if they exist.
Figure 4-1
IUS, IDS 7.3, or ODS Configuration Files
UNIX
Windows NT
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\ONCONFIG
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ONCONFIG.std %INFORMIXDIR%\etc\ONCONFIG.std
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sm_versions
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\sm_versions
$INFORMIXDIR/aaodir/adtcfg
%INFORMIXDIR%\aaodir\adtcfg.*
$INFORMIXDIR/dbssodir/adtmasks
%INFORMIXDIR%\dbssodir\adtmasks.*
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tctermcap
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file:
UNIX
UNIX:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ixbar.<servernum>
Windows NT
$INFORMIXDIR\etc\ixbar.<servernum>
If you use ON-Archive to back up your source database server and the logical
logs, you also need to save copies of the configuration files in the following
list:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ARC_CONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/config.arc
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oper_deflt.arc
♦
WIN NT
4-12
The Windows NT version of Dynamic Server 2000 does not use ON-Archive,
so you do not need to copy these files on Windows NT. ♦
Informix Migration Guide
Stop Enterprise Replication
Stop Enterprise Replication
If your database server uses Enterprise Replication, you need to stop any
applications that are doing replicatable transactions and then check that both
the TRG Send and the Control Send queues are empty.
To stop Enterprise Replication
1.
Stop the applications from performing replicatable transactions.
2.
Verify that the TRG Send and the Control Send queues are empty.
To verify this, run the onstat -g grp and onstat -g rqm commands, as
the following examples show:
% onstat -g grp
Informix Dynamic Server Version 7.30.UC3 -- On-Line - Up 00:28:15 -- 18752 Kbytes
Grouper:
Last Idle Time: 98/11/09 15:12:01
Log update buffers: 1024
Log update buffers in use: 0
Log update buffers in use should be zero.
% onstat -g rqm
RQM Statistics for Queue #3
Database name:
Table name:
Index name:
Flags:
Elements in memory:
Elements on disk only:
Memory used for data:
Total memory used:
Element high water mark:
Data high water mark:
Elements stored on disk:
syscdr
control_sendq
control sendq_key
0x00000301
0
0
0 Bytes
0 Bytes
2000
140000 Bytes
0
Elements in memory and Elements stored on disk should be
zero.
3.
Stop Enterprise Replication with the following command:
% cdr stop
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-13
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the Source Database Server
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the Source Database
Server
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and shut
down your source database server. This lets users exit and shuts down the
database server gracefully. If necessary, you can perform an immediate
shutdown of the database server.
Prior to upgrading the source system to the target system, make sure that no
open transactions exist. Otherwise, fast recovery will fail when rolling back
open transactions during the upgrade.
To let users exit and shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Execute the onmode –sy command to put the database server in
quiescent mode.
2.
Wait for all users to exit.
3.
Execute the onmode –l command to move to the next logical log.
4.
Execute the onmode -c to force a checkpoint.
5.
Make a level-0 backup of the database server.
6.
Execute the onmode –yuk command to shut down the system.
To perform an immediate shutdown of the database server
onmode -l
onmode -c
onmode -ky
Check for Any Open Transactions
A shutdown procedure does not guarantee to roll back all open transactions.
To guarantee that Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x has no open transactions prior to the upgrade, you need
to put the source database server in quiescent mode. Execute the following
command to enter quiescent mode and initiate a fast recovery:
oninit -s
4-14
Informix Migration Guide
Verify the Integrity of the Data
UNIX
On UNIX, The oninit –s command rolls forward all committed transactions
and rolls back all incomplete transactions since the last checkpoint and then
leaves a new checkpoint record in the log with no open transactions pending.
For more information about fast recovery, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
You need to execute oninit -s before you initialize Dynamic Server 2000. If
Universal Server, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x is not
left in quiescent mode, you will receive the following error when you attempt
to initialize the database server, and it goes off-line:
Open transaction detected when changing log versions.
♦
After you put the database server in quiescent mode and initiate fast
recovery, issue the onmode -yuk command again to shut down the database
server. Then review online.log for any possible problems and fix them.
Only after proper shutdown can you bring the new database server
(Dynamic Server 2000) through the upgrade path. Any open transaction
during the upgrade will cause an execution failure in fast recovery.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of the data before you make a
level-0 backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them before you
make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages, extents,
system catalog tables, data, and indexes.
To obtain the database names, use the following statements with DB-Access:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT name FROM sysdatabases;
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-15
Verify the Database Server Mode
Figure 4-2 lists the commands that verify the data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 4-2
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
For information on oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Verify the Database Server Mode
Before you make a backup, execute the following command to verify that
your source database server is in quiescent mode:
onstat -
The first line of the onstat output contains the status of your source database
server. Figure 4-3 shows that the database server is in quiescent mode.
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server
Version
x.xx.xxx
--
Quiescent
--
Up
xx:xx:xx
Figure 4-3
Example of onstat
Status Line
OnLine Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
-- xxxx Kbytes
Make a Final Backup of the Source Database Server
Use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to make a level-0 backup of the source
database server. After you make a level-0 backup, also perform a complete
backup of the logical log, including the current logical-log file. Be sure to
retain and properly label the tape volume that contains the backup. For more
information about making backups, refer to the Backup and Restore Guide.
4-16
Informix Migration Guide
Verify That the Source Database Server Is Off-Line
UNIX
If you use ON-Archive, execute the following command to make a fullsystem, level-0 backup:
Onarchive> ARCHIVE/DBSPACESET=*
♦
WIN NT
Do not use ON-Archive before you migrate to Windows NT. ♦
Important: Make a final backup for each source database server instance that you
plan to upgrade.
Verify That the Source Database Server Is Off-Line
The source database server must be off-line because the target database
server uses the same files. You cannot install the target database server if any
of the files that it uses are active.
Check the message log to verify that you obtain the message shared memory
not initialized… for off-line mode.
UNIX
Modify UNIX Kernel Parameters
You might need to change some of the kernel parameters for your UNIX
operating system before you install Dynamic Server 2000. To reconfigure the
operating system, follow the directions in the machine notes file included on
your database server distribution media and the kernel-configuration
instructions for your operating system.
Install Dynamic Server 2000
On UNIX, you must be logged in as user root to install Dynamic Server 2000.
On Windows NT, you must be a member of the Informix-Admin group. Set
the INFORMIXDIR environment variable to the directory where you plan to
install the database server.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-17
Set Environment Variables
Warning: If you install the target database server in the same directory where the
source database server resided, the installation script overwrites the older files. If you
want to preserve your source database server files, you must install the target
database server in a different directory. If you install the target database server in a
different directory, you need to change the value of the INFORMIXDIR environment
variable, or the older version of the database server will start up when you reboot.
Before you overwrite the source database server, you must take the following
precautions:
■
If you do not have the original media for the source database server,
back up the INFORMIXDIR directory before you install Dynamic
Server 2000.
■
Copy the configuration and sqlhosts files from the etc directory of
INFORMIXDIR to another location in the file system.
To install and configure Dynamic Server 2000, follow the directions in your
Installation Guide and in your Administrator’s Guide. The installation script
installs Dynamic Server 2000 into the INFORMIXDIR directory specified for
user root on UNIX or for the Informix-Admin group on Windows NT.
Important: Monitor the database server message log, online.log, during the
upgrade for any error messages. If you see an error message, resolve the error condition before you continue the upgrade procedure.
Set Environment Variables
After you install Dynamic Server 2000, verify that the following environment
variables are set to the correct values:
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS (if used)
Important: On UNIX, the client application looks for the sqlhosts file in the etc
directory in the INFORMIXDIR directory. However, you can use the INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change the location or name of the sqlhosts
file.
4-18
Informix Migration Guide
Customize the ONCONFIG Configuration File
Customize the ONCONFIG Configuration File
You can customize your ONCONFIG configuration file and environment
variables to take advantage of the new features that Dynamic Server 2000
introduced. When you initialize Dynamic Server 2000, use the same configuration that the source database server used. After you observe the
performance of Dynamic Server 2000, you might want to adjust the
configuration.
Informix recommends that you set the ALARMPROGRAM configuration
parameter to either nothing or no_log.sh to prevent the generation of errors
if the logical log fills during the upgrade. For more details, see “Initialize
Dynamic Server 2000” on page 4-21. After the upgrade, change the value of
ALARMPROGRAM to log_full.sh.
For information on how to configure Dynamic Server 2000, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide. For information about environment variables, refer to
the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference. For information about how to tune the
configuration parameters, refer to your Performance Guide.
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for the source database server. Also, keep
the same size for physical logs and logical logs, including the same number of logical
logs, and the same sqlhosts file.
UNIX
Add Any Communications Support Modules
You can use a Communications Support Module (CSM) with Dynamic Server
2000. After you install the CSM components, create entries in the concsm.cfg
file and in the options field of the sqlhosts file to configure the CSM. For information on how to set up the CSM, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Existing client applications do not need to be recompiled or relinked if your
database server does not use CSMs. If your database server uses a CSM, client
applications must relink with new Informix libraries. The client applications
must also have a CSM installed and configured.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-19
For ON-Archive, Update Configuration Files
UNIX
For ON-Archive, Update Configuration Files
If you use ON-Archive for your backup and restore tool on the source
database server and you will continue to use ON-Archive with Dynamic
Server 2000, you might need to update the ON-Archive configuration
parameters.
During the installation procedure for ON-Archive, the install script checks
the $INFORMIXDIR/etc directory for files named config.arc and
oper_deflt.arc. If the files do not exist, the install script provides them. If the
files already exist, the install script does not overwrite the files. Instead, the
install script provides additional files named Config.arc and Oper_deflt.arc
(initial uppercase letters). Compare your current versions (config.arc and
oper_deflt.arc) with the new versions (Config.arc and Oper_deflt.ar) and
determine whether new or changed configuration parameters or qualifiers
exist.
Install and Configure Any Datablade Modules
After you install Dynamic Server 2000 and before you initialize the database
server, install and register any DataBlade modules, supplied by Informix or
third-party vendors, that you want to add to the database server. Registration
is the process that makes the DataBlade module code available to use in a
particular database. For more information on how to use DataBlade modules,
refer to the DataBlade documentation.
Important: Test Dynamic Server 2000 completely with traditional relational data
before you start to use DataBlade modules. After you successfully use DataBlade
modules, you can begin to use extended data types, routines, and access methods.
Warning: An upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000 from Universal Server 9.14 might
fail if you do not install and set up DataBlade modules after installation of Dynamic
Server 2000 and before initialization.
4-20
Informix Migration Guide
Initialize Dynamic Server 2000
Initialize Dynamic Server 2000
Initialize Dynamic Server 2000 without disk initialization.
Warning: Dynamic Server 2000 writes to the logical logs with the transactions that
result from creating the sysmaster database. If you run out of log space before the
creation of the sysmaster database is complete, Dynamic Server 2000 halts and
indicates that you must back up the logical logs. After you back up the logical logs,
the database server can finish building the sysmaster database.
You cannot use ON-Bar or ON-Archive to back up the logical logs because the
database has not been upgraded yet.
If you have ALARMPROGRAM set to “log_full.sh” in the ONCONFIG configuration file, errors are generated as each log file fills during the upgrade. Informix
recommends that you change the value of ALARMPROGRAM to either nothing or
“no_log.sh” so that these errors are not generated.
If your logical log does fill up during the upgrade, you need to back it up with
ontape, the only backup tool you can use at this point. Issue the ontape -a
command.
Execute the following command to bring Dynamic Server 2000 on-line for the
first time:
oninit
As Dynamic Server 2000 comes on-line for the first time, it modifies certain
disk structures. This operation should extend the initialization process by
only a minute or two. In the unlikely event that your disks cannot accommodate the growth in disk structures, you will find a message in the messagelog file that instructs you to run oncheck on a table. The oncheck utility will
tell you that you need to rebuild an index. You should rebuild the index as
instructed.
Monitor the Upgrade Complete Status
Check your message log (online.log) for status messages that pertain to
bringing Dynamic Server 2000 on-line. The upgrade process ends when the
following message is written to online.log:
Conversion completed successfully
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-21
Update Statistics
This message indicates that the upgrade process completed successfully, but
it does not guarantee that each individual database was upgraded successfully. The message log could contain additional information regarding the
success or failure of each individual database upgrade. If a particular
database upgrade fails, then you should try to connect to the database to find
out the exact cause of the failure.
At the end of the upgrade of each individual database, the upgrade process
runs a script to update some system catalog table entries. The message log
includes messages related to this script. The success or failure of the script
does not prevent the usage of a database. If the script fails for a database,
however, for better performance Informix recommends that you run one of
the following scripts as user informix while connected to the database.
■
For upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000 from Universal Server 9.14:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/dummyupds914.sql
■
For upgrading to Dynamic Server 2000, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/dummyupds7x.sql
If you encounter a failure during the upgrade, Informix recommends that
you restore from backup.
The upgrade process involves two phases: internal conversion and external
conversion. Internal conversion is the process of upgrading each individual
database in the system. External conversion is the process of upgrading the
utilities, such as ON-Bar.
For information about any messages in the message log, refer to the Administrator’s Guide.
Important: If the message file notes problems, solve the problems before you continue
to the next step.
Update Statistics
After a successful upgrade, you need to run UPDATE STATISTICS on some of
the system catalog tables in your databases, as the following lists show.
4-22
Informix Migration Guide
Update Statistics
For an upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000 from a 7.3x or 7.2x database server,
run UPDATE STATISTICS on the following system catalog tables in Dynamic
Server 2000:
■
SYSBLOBS
■
SYSCOLAUTH
■
SYSCOLUMNS
■
SYSCONSTRAINTS
■
SYSDEFAULTS
■
SYSDISTRIB
■
SYSFRAGAUTH
■
SYSFRAGMENTS
■
SYSINDICES
■
SYSOBJSTATE
■
SYSOPCLSTR
■
SYSPROCAUTH
■
SYSPROCEDURES
■
SYSROLEAUTH
■
SYSSYNONYMS
■
SYSSYNTABLE
■
SYSTABAUTH
■
SYSTABLES
■
SYSTRIGGERS
■
SYSUSERS
For an upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000 from Universal Server 9.14, run
UPDATE STATISTICS on the following system catalog tables in Dynamic
Server 2000:
■
SYSAGGREGATES
■
SYSAMS
■
SYSATTRTYPES
■
SYSBLOBS
■
SYSCASTS
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-23
Update Statistics
4-24
■
SYSCOLATTRIBS
■
SYSCOLAUTH
■
SYSCOLUMNS
■
SYSCONSTRAINTS
■
SYSDEFAULTS
■
SYSDISTRIB
■
SYSFRAGAUTH
■
SYSFRAGMENTS
■
SYSINDICES
■
SYSLANGAUTH
■
SYSOBJSTATE
■
SYSOPCLASSES
■
SYSOPCLSTR
■
SYSPROCAUTH
■
SYSPROCEDURES
■
SYSROLEAUTH
■
SYSROUTINELANGS
■
SYSSYNONYMS
■
SYSSYNTABLE
■
SYSTABAMDATA
■
SYSTABAUTH
■
SYSTABLES
■
SYSTRACEMSGS
■
SYSTRIGGERS
■
SYSUSERS
■
SYSXTDTYPES
■
SYSXTDTYPEAUTH
Informix Migration Guide
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
After Dynamic Server 2000 finishes upgrading the system catalog tables,
open each database with DB-Access and use oncheck to verify that no data
was corrupted in the migration process. You can verify the integrity of the
reserve pages, extents, system catalog tables, data, indexes, and smart large
objects, as Figure 4-4 shows.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 4-4
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
Check smart large objects
oncheck -cs sbspace_name
Check smart large object
plus extents
oncheck -cS sbspace_name
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server 2000
Use your Dynamic Server 2000 backup and restore tool (ON-Bar or ontape)
to make a level-0 backup of the new database server. Do not use ON-Archive.
Do not overwrite the tapes that contain the final backup of the source
database server. If you use ON-Bar, refer to the Backup and Restore Guide. If
you use ontape, refer to the Archive and Backup Guide.
Important: Do not restore the backed up logical-log files from your source database
server for your target database server.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-25
Tune Dynamic Server 2000 for Performance
Tune Dynamic Server 2000 for Performance
When you finish the level-0 backup, the migration process is complete and
users can safely use Dynamic Server 2000 to access data.
After successful migration to Dynamic Server 2000, you can tune the
database server to obtain maximum performance. If you created sample
queries for comparison, you can use them to characterize the performance
differences between the source database server and Dynamic Server 2000.
The results of these comparisons might suggest adjustments to configuration
parameters or to the layout of databases, tables, and chunks. For details on
performance topics, refer to your Performance Guide.
Reverting to Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server
7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server 2000
This section describes the steps for reverting to Universal Server 9.14,
Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server
2000. For more information, see “Reverting to Universal Server 9.10 Through
9.13 from Universal Server 9.14” on page 5-5, “Reverting to an Earlier Version
of OnLine Dynamic Server” on page 11-36, or “Reverting to OnLine 5.0 or
4.1” on page 12-39.
Important: Before you revert to Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server 2000, you need to remove all
Version 9.2 objects from the databases except those created by the boot scripts in the
system catalog. Do not drop the objects that the boot90.sql and boot901.sql scripts
created because the reversion utility uses them. For Version 7.3x, also remove any
Version 9.1x features. For Version 7.2x, also remove any Version 9.1x or
Version 7.3x features.
4-26
Informix Migration Guide
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible
To revert to a Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x, complete the steps that the following sections describe:
1.
Review the database schema to determine whether reversion is
possible.
2.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
3.
Stop Enterprise Replication.
4.
Verify the integrity of the data.
5.
Back up Dynamic Server 2000.
6.
Remove Version 9.2 features.
7.
Run the reversion utility (onmode -b).
8.
Modify configuration parameters.
9.
Reset environment variables.
10.
Remove any Communications Support Module settings.
11.
Reinstall and start the target database server.
12.
Update statistics.
13.
Verify the integrity of the data.
14.
Back up the target database server.
15.
Return the target database server to on-line mode.
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible
The easiest reversion scenario is a Dynamic Server 2000 database that does
not contain any new features. Run the reversion utility and modify the values
of the configuration parameters.
Review the database schema to determine whether reversion to the earlier
database server is possible. Ask the following questions:
■
Does the schema file contain SQL statements that the earlier database
server does not support?
■
Does the database contain features that the earlier database server
does not support, such as long identifiers?
■
Have any new SPL routines been created in Dynamic Server 2000?
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-27
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible
To review the database schema, execute the dbschema utility command. The
following example displays complete information about the database db1:
dbschema -d db1 -ss
Database reversion occurs in two phases: a check phase and an actual
reversion phase. If a database cannot be reverted, the check phase would
highlight it and prevent reversion.
The following restrictions apply to reversion to a 9.14, 7.3x, or 7.2x database
server from Dynamic Server 2000:
1.
You cannot revert a database that was created with Dynamic Server
2000.
Drop the database before you attempt reversion.
2.
You cannot revert to a 9.14, 7.3x, or 7.2x database server from a 9.2
database server that has had extensions added unless you remove
the extensions.
You need to remove any new data types or routines that you created
either explicitly or by registering a different version of a DataBlade
module.
To be able to revert, you need to downgrade any DataBlade module
back to the version that was registered prior to reversion and
explicitly drop any data types and routines that were created outside
of any DataBlade registration. For information on how to use
DataBlade modules, see the DataBlade documentation.
3.
No new routines should have been created in the upgraded
databases (either implicitly or explicitly).
4.
No new triggers should be defined in the upgraded databases.
5.
Select triggers should not be in use.
6.
User-defined statistics should not be in use.
7.
No long identifiers or long usernames should be in use.
Before reversion, make sure that the R-tree indexes do not use long
identifiers as indexed column names, opclass names, or opclass
function names.
4-28
Informix Migration Guide
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible
Also, make sure that the following disk structures do not use long
identifiers:
■
database tablespaces (owner and database name length)
■
tablespace tablespaces (owner and tablespace name length)
■
dbspaces (owner and dbspace name length) and chunks (path
length)
8.
No storage space should have a name more than 18 characters long.
9.
No in-place ALTER TABLE statement should be pending against any
table.
If a user table has an incomplete in-place ALTER operation, then you
need to ensure that the in-place ALTER operation is complete by
running a dummy update statement against the table. If the
reversion process does not complete successfully because of in-place
ALTER operations, it lists all the tables that need dummy updates.
You need to perform a dummy update on each of the tables in the list
before you can revert to the older database server.
If an in-place ALTER operation is incomplete against a system table,
run one of the following scripts while connected to the database.
■
For reversion to Universal Server 9.14 from Dynamic Server
2000:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/dummyupds914.sql
■
For reversion to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server
7.2x from Dynamic Server 2000:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/dummyupds7x.sql
10.
No fragment expressions or constraints created on the 9.2 database
server should exist in the databases.
You cannot use ALTER TABLE or ALTER INDEX statements to change
fragment strategies that existed before the upgrade to Dynamic
Server 2000.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-29
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible
The following restrictions also apply to reversion to Universal Server 9.14
from Dynamic Server 2000:
1.
No new routine languages should be defined in the upgraded
databases.
2.
No new language authorizations must have been done in the
upgraded databases.
3.
No new operator classes, casts, or extended types should be defined
on the 9.2 database server.
The following restrictions also apply to reversion to Dynamic Server 7.3x or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server 2000:
1.
No semi-detached indexes should be in the databases.
2.
The databases cannot have tables whose primary access method is a
user-defined access method.
3.
Databases cannot have typed tables.
4.
Tables cannot have any user-defined type columns.
5.
Tables cannot have named row types with default values.
6.
All indexes must be B-tree indexes with a total key length less than
or equal to 255.
7.
Tables cannot have any functional or VII indexes.
8.
Databases cannot use any extensibility features, including userdefined access methods, user-defined types, aggregates, routine
languages, language authorizations, trace messages, trace message
classes, operator classes, errors, type authorizations, and casts.
Important: You can revert to Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server 2000 only if you remove all
Version 9.2 features from the databases. If a database contains any Version 9.2
feature, the reversion will fail.
4-30
Informix Migration Guide
Save Copies of the Configuration Files
UNIX
Save Copies of the Configuration Files
Save copies of the ONCONFIG and concsm.cfg files in case you decide to
upgrade to Dynamic Server 2000 again. Dynamic Server 2000 uses the
concsm.cfg file to configure CSMs.
Stop Enterprise Replication
If your database server uses Enterprise Replication, you need to stop any
applications that are doing replicatable transactions and then check that the
TRG Send and Control Send queues are empty.
To stop Enterprise Replication
1.
Stop the applications from performing replicatable transactions.
2.
Verify that the TRG Send and Control Send queues are empty.
To verify this, run the onstat -g grp and onstat -g rqm commands, as
the example on page 4-13 shows.
3.
Stop Enterprise Replication with the following command:
% cdr stop
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Execute the following commands to verify the integrity of the data:
oncheck
oncheck
oncheck
oncheck
-cI database_name
-cD database_name
-cr
-cc database_name
Back Up Dynamic Server 2000
Before you begin the reversion, make a complete backup of Dynamic Server
2000. If you use ON-Bar, refer to the Backup and Restore Guide. If you use
ontape, refer to the Archive and Backup Guide.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-31
Remove Version 9.2 Features
Remove Version 9.2 Features
Before you revert, remove any Version 9.2 features that Universal Server 9.14,
Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x does not support. For
Dynamic Server 7.3x, also remove any Version 9.1x features. For OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x, also remove any Version 9.1x and Version 7.3x features.
For a list of features that you need to remove before reversion, see
“Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible” on page 4-27.
Run the Reversion Utility
Dynamic Server 2000 must be running when you execute the reversion
utility. The reversion utility detects and lists any remaining features that are
specific to Dynamic Server 2000. You need to remove these features before
reversion can complete.
Execute the reversion utility with one of the following commands:
onmode -b 9.14
onmode -b 7.3
onmode -b 7.2
After the reversion is complete, Dynamic Server 2000 is off-line. The
reversion utility drops the Dynamic Server 2000 system catalog tables and
restores compatibility so that users can access the data with the earlier
database server. The reversion utility does not revert changes made to the
layout of the data that do not affect compatibility.
For more information about the onmode -b command, see Chapter 24,
“Using the onmode Utility.”
4-32
Informix Migration Guide
Modify Configuration Parameters
Modify Configuration Parameters
Replace the Dynamic Server 2000 ONCONFIG file with the ONCONFIG file
that you used before you upgraded. Alternatively, you can remove the
following configuration parameters that the earlier database server does not
support:
■
ALLOW_NEWLINE
■
DD_HASHMAX
■
DD_HASHSIZE
■
OPT_GOAL
■
PC_HASHSIZE
■
PC_POOLSIZE
■
STMT_CACHE
■
STMT_CACHE_SIZE
■
SYSSBSPACENAME
You might also need to adjust the values of existing configuration
parameters.
Reset Environment Variables
Reset the environment variables to values that are appropriate for the earlier
database server.
UNIX
Remove Any Communications Support Module Settings
If your Dynamic Server 2000 instance used CSMs, remove the csm option
settings from the sqlhosts file entries for the database server. Otherwise, the
older database server will return an invalid sqlhosts options error. Also
delete the concsm.cfg file.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-33
Reinstall and Start the Target Database Server
Reinstall and Start the Target Database Server
Install and configure Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x according to the instructions in your Installation Guide
and your Administrator’s Guide.
Execute the oninit -s command to put Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server
7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x in quiescent mode.
Update Statistics
After a successful reversion, you need to run UPDATE STATISTICS on some of
the system catalog tables in your databases when the database server starts.
For reversion to a 7.2x or 7.3x database server from Dynamic Server 2000, run
UPDATE STATISTICS on the following system catalog tables in Dynamic
Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x:
4-34
■
SYSBLOBS
■
SYSCOLAUTH
■
SYSCOLUMNS
■
SYSCONSTRAINTS
■
SYSDEFAULTS
■
SYSDISTRIB
■
SYSFRAGAUTH
■
SYSFRAGMENTS
■
SYSINDICES
■
SYSOBJSTATE
■
SYSOPCLSTR
■
SYSPROCAUTH
■
SYSPROCEDURES
■
SYSROLEAUTH
■
SYSSYNONYMS
■
SYSSYNTABLE
Informix Migration Guide
Update Statistics
■
SYSTABAUTH
■
SYSTABLES
■
SYSTRIGGERS
■
SYSUSERS
For reversion to a 9.14 database server from Dynamic Server 2000, run
UPDATE STATISTICS on the following system catalog tables in Universal
Server 9.14:
■
SYSAGGREGATES
■
SYSAMS
■
SYSATTRTYPES
■
SYSBLOBS
■
SYSCASTS
■
SYSCOLAUTH
■
SYSCOLATTRIBS
■
SYSCOLUMNS
■
SYSCONSTRAINTS
■
SYSDEFAULTS
■
SYSDISTRIB
■
SYSFRAGAUTH
■
SYSFRAGMENTS
■
SYSINDICES
■
SYSLANGAUTH
■
SYSOBJSTATE
■
SYSOPCLASSES
■
SYSOPCLSTR
■
SYSPROCAUTH
■
SYSPROCEDURES
■
SYSROLEAUTH
■
SYSROUTINELANGS
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 2000 and a 9.14, 7.3, or 7.2 Database Server 4-35
Verify the Integrity of the Data
■
SYSSYNONYMS
■
SYSSYNTABLE
■
SYSTABAMDATA
■
SYSTABAUTH
■
SYSTABLES
■
SYSTRACEMSGS
■
SYSTRIGGERS
■
SYSUSERS
■
■
SYSXTDTYPES
SYSXTDTYPEAUTH
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Before you allow users to access the databases, check the integrity of the data.
Follow the steps that “Verify the Integrity of the Data” on page 4-15
describes.
Back Up the Target Database Server
After you complete the reversion, use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to
make a level-0 backup of Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x. For more information about making backups,
if you use ON-Bar, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide, or if you use ontape
or ON-Archive, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide.
Important: Do not overwrite the tapes that you used to back up your source database
server.
Return the Target Database Server to On-Line Mode
To bring Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x on-line, execute the onmode -m command. The reversion is now
complete, and users can access the data.
4-36
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Migrating Between Versions of
Universal Server
In This Chapter .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5-3
Upgrading to Universal Server 9.14 from Universal Server 9.10
Through 9.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R-Tree Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tables That Contain Collection Columns . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5-3
5-4
5-4
Reverting to Universal Server 9.10 Through 9.13 from
Universal Server 9.14 . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
5-5
.
.
.
.
5
5-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes migration between Universal Server 9.14 and earlier
versions of Universal Server (Version 9.13, Version 9.12, Version 9.11, or
Version 9.10). The description covers the following topics:
■
Upgrading to Universal Server 9.14 from Universal Server 9.10
through 9.13
■
Reverting to Universal Server 9.10 through 9.13 from Universal
Server 9.14
You can use the same procedures to upgrade to or revert from 9.1x database
servers earlier than Version 9.14.
Upgrading to Universal Server 9.14 from Universal
Server 9.10 Through 9.13
You can upgrade to Universal Server 9.14 from an earlier database server
automatically when you first access your database. The upgrade occurs when
you bring up the target database server. No specific action is required.
Migrating Between Versions of Universal Server 5-3
R-Tree Indexes
After you upgrade, you can use oncheck to verify the integrity of the reserve
pages, extents, system catalog tables, data, indexes, and smart large objects.
Figure 5-1 shows the oncheck verification commands.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 5-1
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
Check smart large objects
oncheck -cs sbspace_name
Check smart large object
plus extents
oncheck -cS sbspace_name
R-Tree Indexes
The disk organization of R-tree indexes changed in Universal Server 9.14. If
you are upgrading to Universal Server 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, or 9.14 from Universal
Server 9.10, you must drop and re-create your R-tree indexes. Dropping and
re-creating R-tree indexes gives you larger indexes with faster searching
capabilities.
Tables That Contain Collection Columns
If a table column has a collection data type, you must unload the collection
data before you migrate from Universal Server 9.10, 9.11, or 9.12 and then
reload the data after the migration.
5-4
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting to Universal Server 9.10 Through 9.13 from Universal Server 9.14
Reverting to Universal Server 9.10 Through 9.13
from Universal Server 9.14
To revert to Universal Server 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, or 9.13 from Universal Server
9.14, perform the following steps:
1.
Shut down Universal Server 9.14.
2.
Back up Universal Server 9.14.
3.
Remove any 9.14 features that the earlier database server does not
support.
4.
Bring up the earlier database server.
Migrating Between Versions of Universal Server 5-5
Chapter
Migrating Between Universal
Server and OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x or 7.1x
In This Chapter .
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Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Universal Server Introduced . . . . . .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . . .
New Database Storage Spaces . . . . . . . . .
New Options Syntax in the sqlhosts File or Registry Key
Global Language Support . . . . . . . . . . .
Reversion to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server 7.3x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to Universal Server from OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x or 7.1x . . . . . . . . . . .
Check Available Space . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server.
Put OnLine Dynamic Server in Quiescent Mode . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Verify the Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up OnLine Dynamic Server . . . . . . .
Bring OnLine Dynamic Server Off-Line . . . . .
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . .
Install Universal Server . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . . .
Add Any Communications Support Modules . . .
Update the ON-Archive Configuration Files . . . .
Bring Universal Server On-Line . . . . . . . .
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6-17
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . .
Back Up Universal Server . . . . . . .
Tune Universal Server for Performance . .
Install and Configure Any Datablade Modules
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Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x from
Universal Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Configuration Files . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Universal Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove New Universal Server Features . . . . . . .
Uninstall Detachable Modules . . . . . . . . .
Remove User-Defined Routines and User-Defined
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drop Indexes over 255 Bytes . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Extended Data Types and Smart Large Objects
Remove Features Specific to Universal Server . . . .
Remove SPL Routines Created in Universal Server . .
Drop Secondary Access Methods (Indexes) . . . . .
Remove Virtual Tables in External Spaces . . . . .
Remove Sbspaces and External Spaces . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Any Communications Support Module Settings .
Install and Start OnLine Dynamic Server . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up OnLine Dynamic Server. . . . . . . . . .
Return OnLine Dynamic Server to On-Line Mode . . . .
6-2
Informix Migration Guide
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In This Chapter
This chapter describes the procedure to migrate between Universal Server
and OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.2x or Version 7.1x. This chapter
covers the following topics:
■
Preparing for migration
■
Upgrading to Universal Server from OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or
7.1x
■
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x from Universal
Server
Important: To migrate to Universal Server from Dynamic Server 7.3x, first revert to
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x. Then follow the instructions in this chapter to
upgrade to Universal Server.
You can migrate automatically between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic
Server, Version 7.10.UD1 through Version 7.2x. The migration occurs when you
bring up the target database server.
To migrate to Universal Server from a database server earlier than Version 7.10, first
upgrade to a 7.10 or later version of OnLine Dynamic Server and then follow the
instructions in this chapter to upgrade to Universal Server.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-3
Preparing for Migration
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between and a 7.2x or 7.1x database server, you
need to understand the Informix guidelines for migrating between database
servers. You also need to know about any new features that might affect
migration.
Migration Guidelines
Informix suggests that you observe the following precautions when you
migrate to Universal Server from OnLine Dynamic Server:
■
Check the release notes for information about the proper operatingsystem release and any patches that you need for successful installation and operation of the database server.
The release notes are in one of the following directories:
UNIX
WIN NT
❑
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333. ♦
❑
%INFORMIXDIR%\release\en_us\0333
Release Notes appear in the Informix folder. To display this
folder, choose Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar. ♦
On UNIX, retain both versions of the Informix product software on
disk (if you have enough disk resources). On Windows NT, for a
Version 7.2x or earlier database server, you cannot retain two
versions of the Informix product on disk.
■
Retain the installation media from both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Perform a level-0 backup of all dbspaces and blobspaces with
OnLine Dynamic Server. After you complete the migration, perform
another level-0 backup with Universal Server.
■
Use a test instance of your database server to test the installation and
migration procedures.
For additional information, refer to both the INFORMIX-Universal Server
Installation Guide and the Getting Started with INFORMIX-Universal Server
manual.
6-4
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Universal Server Introduced
Changes That Universal Server Introduced
This section describes the changes that Universal Server introduced that
affect either migration or initial configuration.
Environment Variables
Universal Server introduced the following new environment variables that
were not available in OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.2:
■
INFORMIXCONCSMCFG
■
INFORMIXKEYTAB
Review the descriptions of these environment variables for communications
support services (CSM) to determine whether you need to set them. The
Informix Guide to SQL: Reference describes these environment variables.
Configuration Parameters
Universal Server introduced new configuration parameters that might affect
your installation. You might also need to adjust the values of existing parameters. The INFORMIX-Universal Server Administrator’s Guide describes the
following new configuration parameters for Universal Server:
■
HETERO_COMMIT
■
SBSPACENAME
■
VPCLASS
The SBSPACENAME parameter specifies a default sbspace for the storage of
smart large objects. For more information on smart large objects and sbspaces,
refer to “New Database Storage Spaces” on page 6-6 and to your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-5
Changes That Universal Server Introduced
The VPCLASS parameter combines options from several virtual-processor
configuration parameters and enables you to configure a virtual processor
class with a single parameter. Consequently, if you use the VPCLASS
parameter, be aware that it affects the following parameters, which you
might need to change or delete:
■
AFF_NPROCS
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AFF_SPROC
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MULTIPROCESSOR
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NOAGE
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NUMAIOVPS
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NUMCPUVPS
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SINGLE_CPU_VP
New Database Storage Spaces
Universal Server introduced the following two new storage spaces:
■
Sbspace
■
External space
An sbspace provides storage space for smart large objects. An external space
is a space outside the direct control of Universal Server, and one that contains
data that you want to include in a database. If you use external spaces, you
must also define the access methods that Universal Server will use to retrieve
the external data. For more information on external spaces, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide. For more information on user-defined access methods,
refer to the Virtual-Table Interface Programmer’s Manual.
New Options Syntax in the sqlhosts File or Registry Key
Universal Server 9.13 introduced formatting changes and new options in the
sqlhosts file or registry key. The fifth field in the sqlhosts fields, the options
field, was modified to accommodate new options and future options.
The following table shows the sqlhosts file or registry key fields:
6-6
FIELD 1
FIELD 2
FIELD 3
FIELD 4
FIELD 5
dbservername
nettype
hostname
servicename
options
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Universal Server Introduced
The dbservername in field 1 is a key for connectivity information in the
remaining fields in the sqlhosts file or registry key.
The options field contains columns. To separate columns, a comma or white
space represents the end of each column. Client and database server applications check each column to determine whether the database server release
supports the option.
For Universal Server, Version 9.13 or higher, the sqlhosts file or registry key
contains a line for each connection type that the database server provides and
for each instance of Universal Server to which the client application connects.
Tip: If you maintain more than one version of the database server, use separate
sqlhosts files for older versions of the database server. Alternatively, you can use a
separate entry with an alias for each database server.
Important: Informix recommends that you use field 5, options, for Universal
Server, Version 9.13 or Version 9.14, for the following options only: b, k, r, s. If you
do not want any of these options but do want other options, use k=1 in column 5,
which is the default. Universal Server, Version 9.13 or Version 9.14, allows key
values with more than one character. Place other options in subsequent columns.
If you use multiple versions of the database server, you must maintain two
separate sqlhosts files. For more information on the components of the
sqlhosts file or on how to define two sqlhosts files, see your Administrator’s
Guide.
GLS
Global Language Support
Universal Server incorporates GLS, which enables Universal Server to handle
different languages, cultural conventions, and code sets for Asian, European,
Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. The Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality provides a full description of GLS.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-7
Reversion to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server 7.3x
Reversion to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server 7.3x
Before you can migrate to Universal Server from a 7.3 database server, you
need to revert to a 7.2 database server. See the reversion information in
Chapter 11, “Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0.” After you revert to OnLine Dynamic Server,
follow the instructions in this chapter for upgrading to Universal Server.
Upgrading to Universal Server from OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x or 7.1x
This section describes the migration procedures to Universal Server from
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.2x or Version 7.1x.
When you migrate to Universal Server, you can install and test a database
server instance with the same configuration files, environment variables, and
sqlhosts information that you used for your source database server. After
you install Universal Server and verify that it works, you might want to
modify configuration files and environment variables to take advantage of
the Universal Server features. For more information, refer to your Getting
Started manual and your Administrator’s Guide.
When you migrate to Universal Server, complete the following steps, which
the sections that follow describe in more detail:
1.
Check available space.
2.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
3.
Close all transactions in the source database server.
4.
Put OnLine Dynamic Server in quiescent mode.
5.
Verify the integrity of the data.
6.
Verify the mode.
7.
Make a final (level-0) backup.
8.
Bring OnLine Dynamic Server off-line.
Important: Repeat steps 2 through 8 for each instance of OnLine Dynamic Server
that you are migrating to Universal Server.
6-8
Informix Migration Guide
Check Available Space
9.
Change UNIX kernel parameters, if necessary.
10.
Install Universal Server.
11.
Verify that environment variables are set correctly.
12.
Update the ONCONFIG configuration files.
13.
Add any Communications Support Modules.
14.
Update the backup and restore configuration parameters.
15.
Bring the target database server on-line.
16.
Verify the integrity of the data.
17.
Make an initial (level-0) backup under your target database server.
18.
Tune Universal Server for performance.
Important: Repeat steps 12 through 18 for each instance of Universal Server.
19.
Install and configure any DataBlade modules that you are adding to
Universal Server.
Check Available Space
UNIX
WIN NT
Universal Server requires 3000 free pages of logical-log space (approximately
6000 kilobytes for a 2-kilobyte page size) to build the sysmaster database on
UNIX. ♦
Universal Server requires 1500 to 3000 free pages of logical-log space
(approximately 6000 kilobytes for a 4-kilobyte page size) to build the
sysmaster database on Windows NT. ♦
Universal Server requires approximately 2000 kilobytes more space per
database than OnLine Dynamic Server. The extra space is used for new
system catalog tables and built-in functions that support the extensibility
features of Universal Server.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-9
Check Available Space
When you initialize Universal Server on an existing OnLine Dynamic Server
root dbspace, the database server automatically upgrades the sysmaster
database. Each database is upgraded individually when it is first accessed.
For a successful upgrade of each database, you must ensure that the extra
2000 kilobytes per database is available in each dbspace, as follows:
1.
Calculate the amount of free space that each dbspace requires. In the
following equation, n is the number of databases in the dbspace and
X is the amount of free space they require:
X kilobytes free space = 2000 kilobytes * n
2.
Check the amount of free space in each dbspace to determine
whether you need to add more space.
Use the following SQL statements to determine the free space required and
the free space available. These statements return the free-space calculation in
page-size units. The free_space_req column value is the free space required
and the free_space_avail column value is the free space available.
The following SQL statement shows how to determine the free space that
each dbspace requires:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT partdbsnum(partnum) dbspace_num,
trunc(count(*) * 2000) free_space_req
FROM sysdatabases
GROUP BY 1
ORDER BY 1;
The following SQL statement queries the syschunks table and displays the
free space available for each dbspace:
SELECT dbsnum dbspace_num, sum(nfree) free_space_avail
FROM syschunks
GROUP BY 1
ORDER BY 1;
Important: If less free space is available than the dbspace requires, either move a table
from the dbspace to another dbspace or add a chunk to it.
The dbspace estimates could be higher if you have an unusually large
number of SPL routines or indexes in the database.
6-10
Informix Migration Guide
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the configuration files for each instance of your source
database server. Keep the copies available to use later. Save the configuration
files that Figure 6-1 lists, if they exist.
Figure 6-1
OnLine Dynamic Server Configuration Files
UNIX
Windows NT
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\ONCONFIG
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ONCONFIG.std %INFORMIXDIR%\etc\ONCONFIG.std
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sm_versions
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\sm_versions
$INFORMIXDIR/aaodir/adtcfg
%INFORMIXDIR%\aaodir\adtcfg.*
$INFORMIXDIR/dbssodir/adtmasks
%INFORMIXDIR%\dbssodir\adtmasks.*
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tctermcap
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file:
UNIX:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ixbar.<servernum>
Windows NT: $INFORMIXDIR\etc\ixbar.<servernum>
UNIX
WIN NT
If you use ON-Archive to back up and restore your source database server
and the logical logs, you must also copy and save the configuration files in
the following list:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ARC_CONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/config.arc
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oper_deflt.arc ♦
The Windows NT version of Universal Server does not use ON-Archive.
Therefore, you do not need to copy these files on Windows NT. ♦
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-11
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and shut
down your source database server. This lets users exit and shuts down the
database server gracefully. If necessary, you can perform an immediate
shutdown of the database server.
To let users exit and shut down the system gracefully
1.
Execute the onmode –sy command.
2.
Wait for all users to exit.
3.
Execute the onmode –ky command.
To perform an immediate shutdown
onmode -ky
Put OnLine Dynamic Server in Quiescent Mode
Execute the following command to enter quiescent mode and initiate a fast
recovery of your current database:
oninit -s
The oninit –s option rolls forward all committed transactions and rolls back
all incomplete transactions since the last checkpoint and then leaves a new
checkpoint record in the log with no open transactions pending. (For more
information about fast recovery, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.)
You must execute oninit -s before you initialize Universal Server. If the
system is not left in a quiescent state, you receive the following error when
you attempt to initialize the database server and it goes off-line:
Open transaction detected when changing log versions.
6-12
Informix Migration Guide
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of data before you make a
level-0 backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them before you
make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages, extents,
system catalog tables, data, and indexes.
To obtain the database names, use the following statements with DB-Access:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT name FROM sysdatabases;
Figure 6-2 lists the commands that verify data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 6-2
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Verify the Mode
Before you make a backup, execute the following command to verify that
your source database server is in quiescent mode:
onstat -
The first line of the onstat output contains the status of your source database
server. Figure 6-3 shows that the database server is in quiescent mode.
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server
Version
x.xx.xxx
--
Quiescent
--
Up
xx:xx:xx
Figure 6-3
Example of onstat
Status Line
OnLine Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
-- xxxx Kbytes
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-13
Back Up OnLine Dynamic Server
Back Up OnLine Dynamic Server
Use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to make a level-0 backup of OnLine
Dynamic Server. After you make a level-0 backup, also perform a complete
backup of the logical log, including the current logical-log file. Be sure to
retain and properly label the tape volume that contains the backup. For more
information about making backups, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
UNIX
If you use ON-Archive, execute the following command to make a fullsystem, level-0 backup:
Onarchive> ARCHIVE/DBSPACESET=*
♦
WIN NT
Do not use ON-Archive before you migrate to Windows NT. ♦
Bring OnLine Dynamic Server Off-Line
Execute the following command to bring the source database server to offline mode:
onmode -ky
Bring the source database server off-line to ensure that all common files are
inactive. The source database server must be off-line because the target
database server uses the same files. You cannot install the target database
server if any of the files that it uses are active.
After you shut down the source database server, execute the following
command to verify that it is off-line:
onstat -
Verify that you obtain the message shared memory not initialized… for
off-line mode.
Important: Make a final backup for each source database server instance that you
plan to upgrade.
6-14
Informix Migration Guide
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
UNIX
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
You might need to change some of the kernel parameters for your UNIX
operating system before you install Universal Server. To reconfigure the
operating system, follow the directions in the machine notes file included on
your database server distribution media and the kernel-configuration
instructions for your operating system. For information on the location of the
machine notes file, refer to “Documentation Notes, Release Notes, and
Machine Notes” on page 22 of the Introduction.
Install Universal Server
On UNIX, you must be logged in as user root. On Windows NT, you must be
a member of the Informix-Admin group to install Universal Server. Set the
INFORMIXDIR environment variable to the directory where you plan to
install Universal Server.
Warning: If you install the target database server in the same directory where the
source database server resided, the installation script overwrites the older files. If you
want to preserve your source database server files, you must install the target
database server in a different directory.
Before you overwrite the source database server, you must take the following
precautions:
■
If you do not have the original media for the source database server,
back up the INFORMIXDIR directory before you install Universal
Server.
■
Copy the configuration files in the etc directory of INFORMIXDIR to
another location on the file system.
Follow the directions in your Installation Guide to install Universal Server.
The installation script installs Universal Server into the INFORMIXDIR
directory specified for user root on UNIX or for the Informix-Admin group
on Windows NT. The installation script does not bring the target database
server on-line.
WIN NT
For information on how to install Universal Server on Windows NT, refer to
your Administrator’s Guide. ♦
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-15
Set Environment Variables
Set Environment Variables
After you install Universal Server, make sure that the following environment
variables are set to the correct values:
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS (if used)
Important: The client application looks for the sqlhosts file or registry in the etc
directory in the INFORMIXDIR directory. However, you can use the INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change the location or name of the sqlhosts file.
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File
You can customize your ONCONFIG configuration file and environment
variables to take advantage of the new features that Universal Server introduced. After you observe the performance of Universal Server, you might
want to make further adjustments.
For information on how to configure Universal Server, refer to your Administrator’s Guide. For information about environment variables, refer to the
Informix Guide to SQL: Reference. For information about how to tune the
configuration parameters, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for your source database server.
UNIX
Add Any Communications Support Modules
You can use the Communications Support Module (CSM) with Universal
Server. After you install the CSM components, create entries in the
concsm.cfg file and in the options field of the sqlhosts file to configure the
CSM. For information on how to set up the CSM, refer to your Administrator’s
Guide.
6-16
Informix Migration Guide
Update the ON-Archive Configuration Files
Existing client applications do not need to be recompiled or relinked if your
database server does not use CSMs. If your database server uses a CSM, client
applications must relink with new Informix libraries. The client applications
must also have a CSM installed and configured.
UNIX
Update the ON-Archive Configuration Files
If you use ON-Archive for your source database server backup and restore
tool, and you will continue to use it with Universal Server, you might need
to update ON-Archive configuration parameters.
During the installation procedure for ON-Archive, the install script checks
the $INFORMIXDIR/etc directory for files named config.arc and
oper_deflt.arc. If the files do not exist, the install script provides them. If the
files already exist, the install script does not overwrite the files. Instead, the
install script provides additional files named Config.arc and Oper_deflt.arc
(note the initial uppercase letters). Compare your current versions (config.arc
and oper_deflt.arc) with the new versions and determine whether new or
changed configuration parameters or qualifiers exist.
Bring Universal Server On-Line
Execute the following command to bring Universal Server on-line for the first
time:
oninit
As Universal Server comes on-line for the first time, it modifies certain disk
structures. This operation should extend the initialization process by only a
minute or two. In the unlikely event that your disks cannot accommodate the
growth in disk structures, you will find a message in the message-log file that
instructs you to run oncheck on a table. The oncheck utility will tell you that
you need to rebuild an index. You should rebuild the index as instructed.
Warning: Universal Server writes to the logical log with the transactions that result
from creating the sysmaster database. If you run out of log space before the creation
of the sysmaster database is complete, Universal Server halts and indicates that you
must back up the logical log. After you back up the logical log, Universal Server can
finish building the sysmaster database.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-17
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Check your Universal Server message log for status messages that pertain to
bringing Universal Server on-line. For information about any messages in the
message log, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Important: If the message file notes problems, solve the problems before you continue
to the next step.
Databases under Universal Server contain almost twice as many system
catalog tables than databases under OnLine Dynamic Server. The combined
size of the system catalog tables has grown about 2000 kilobytes per
database. You might need to account for this growth if you have many
databases and limited disk space.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
After Universal Server finishes upgrading the system catalog tables, open
each database with DB-Access and use oncheck to verify that no data was
corrupted in the migration process. You can verify the integrity of the reserve
pages, extents, system catalog tables, data, indexes, and smart large objects,
as Figure 6-4 shows.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc
6-18
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
Check smart large objects
oncheck -cs sbspace_name
Check smart large object
plus extents
oncheck -cS sbspace_name
Informix Migration Guide
Figure 6-4
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Back Up Universal Server
Back Up Universal Server
Use your Universal Server backup and restore tool (ON-Bar or ontape) to
make a level-0 backup. Do not use ON-Archive. Do not overwrite the tapes
you used earlier when you made your final backup of your source database
server. If you use ontape, refer to the INFORMIX-Universal Server Archive and
Backup Guide. If you use ON-Bar, refer to the INFORMIX-Universal Server
Backup and Restore Guide.
Important: Do not restore the backed up logical-log files from your source database
server for your target database server.
Tune Universal Server for Performance
When you finish the level-0 backup, the migration process is complete and
users can use Universal Server to access data safely.
After you successfully migrate to Universal Server, you might want to seek
ways to obtain maximum performance. If you created sample queries for
comparison, you can use them to characterize the performance differences
between OnLine Dynamic Server and Universal Server. The results of these
comparisons might suggest adjustments to configuration parameters or to
the layout of databases, tables, and chunks. For details on performance
topics, refer to your Performance Guide.
Install and Configure Any Datablade Modules
After you successfully migrate to Universal Server, install and register any
DataBlade modules, supplied by Informix or third-party vendors, that you
want to add to Universal Server. Registration is the process that makes the
DataBlade module code available to use in a particular database. For more
information on how to use DataBlade modules, refer to the DataBlade
documentation.
Important: Completely test Universal Server with traditional relational data before
you start to use DataBlade modules. After you successfully use DataBlade modules,
you can begin to use extended data types, routines, and access methods.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-19
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x from Universal Server
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x
from Universal Server
Before you can revert to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x, you need to
remove all Universal Server objects from the databases except those objects
that the boot scripts created in the system catalog. Do not drop any objects
that the boot90.sql and boot901.sql scripts created because the reversion
utility uses these objects.
To revert to Dynamic Server 7.3x from Universal Server, you need to revert
to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x first and then upgrade the 7.2x database
server to Version 7.3x. Follow the instructions for upgrading to Dynamic
Server 7.3x in Chapter 11, “Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server
7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0.”
This section describes the steps for reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
or 7.1x from Universal Server. The following sections describe these steps.
6-20
1.
Review the database schema to determine whether reversion is
possible.
2.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
3.
Verify the integrity of the data.
4.
Back up the Universal Server database.
5.
Remove Universal Server features.
6.
Run the reversion utility (onmode -b).
7.
Modify configuration parameters.
8.
Reset environment variables.
9.
Remove CSM settings.
10.
Start the desired version of your target database server.
11.
Verify the integrity of the data.
12.
Back up the target database server.
13.
Return the target database server to on-line mode.
Informix Migration Guide
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible
Determine Whether Reversion Is Possible
The easiest reversion scenario is a Universal Server database that does not
contain any new features. Run the onmode -b reversion utility and modify
the values of the configuration parameters.
Review the database schema to determine whether reversion to OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x is possible. Does the schema file contain SQL
statements that OnLine Dynamic Server does not support? Does the database
contain features that OnLine Dynamic Server does not support, such as
DataBlade modules, smart large objects, user-defined data types, and userdefined routines? Have any new SPL routines been created in Universal
Server?
To review the database schema, execute the dbschema utility. For a
description of the dbschema syntax, see Chapter 22, “Using the dbschema
Utility.” The following command displays complete information about the
database db1:
dbschema -d db1 -ss
Important: You can revert to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x from Universal
Server only if you remove all Universal Server features from the databases. If a
database contains any Version 9.1x feature, reversion to OnLine Dynamic Server
will fail.
UNIX
Save Copies of the Configuration Files
Save copies of the ONCONFIG and concsm.cfg files in case you decide to
upgrade to Universal Server again. Only Universal Server uses the
concsm.cfg file that is used to configure CSMs.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Execute the following commands to verify the integrity of the data:
oncheck
oncheck
oncheck
oncheck
-cI database_name
-cD database_name
-cr
-cc database_name
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-21
Back Up Universal Server
Back Up Universal Server
Before you begin the reversion, make a complete backup. If you use ontape
or ON-Archive, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide. If you use ON-Bar,
refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
Remove New Universal Server Features
Before you revert, you must remove any Universal Server features that
OnLine Dynamic Server does not support, as follows:
■
DataBlade modules
■
User-defined routines and user-defined functions
■
Indexes over 255 bytes
■
Extended data types
■
Smart large objects
■
Features specific to Universal Server
■
SPL routines created under Universal Server
■
Secondary access methods
■
Virtual tables in extspaces
■
Sbspaces and extspaces
Uninstall Detachable Modules
Use BladeManager to unregister all DataBlade modules. When you unregister DataBlade modules, you remove all data types and routines that the
DataBlade modules define.
UNIX
BladeManager is a command-line utility (blademgr) stored in the
$INFORMIXDIR/bin directory. ♦
WIN NT
BladeManager is a command-line utility (blademgr) stored in the
%INFORMIXDIR%\bin directory. ♦
6-22
Informix Migration Guide
Remove New Universal Server Features
For more information, refer to the BladeManager User’s Guide.
However, a few hidden tables and error messages remain in each database
that BladeManager connects to. These tables contain the list of DataBlade
modules and DataBlade module interfaces installed in the database. The
hidden table names are sysbldregistered, sysbldirequired, sysbldiprovided, sysbldobjects, and sysbldobjdepends. The error messages are in the
syserrors system catalog table and have the sqlstate field beginning with
UGENx.
After you unregister the DataBlade modules, execute the following SQL
script to delete the hidden tables and error messages from each database:
DROP TABLE sysbldregistered; --All DataBlades registered
DROP TABLE sysbldirequired; --Inter-DataBlade dependencies
DROP TABLE sysbldiprovided; --DataBlade interfaces
DROP TABLE sysbldobjects; --All objects created by DataBlade
DROP TABLE sysbldobjdepends; --Dependencies between objects
DELETE FROM syserrors WHERE sqlstate LIKE ‘UGEN_’;
Remove User-Defined Routines and User-Defined Functions
Remove all user-defined routines and functions created in Universal Server
because OnLine Dynamic Server does not support them. For information on
user-defined routines, refer to Extending INFORMIX-Universal Server: UserDefined Routines.
Drop Indexes over 255 Bytes
In OnLine Dynamic Server, the maximum key length of an index is 255 bytes.
In Universal Server, the maximum key length of an index is 390 bytes. If your
indexes have keys longer than 255 bytes, you must drop them before you
revert the database.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-23
Remove New Universal Server Features
Remove Extended Data Types and Smart Large Objects
Universal Server provides many data types that OnLine Dynamic Server
does not support. Before you revert, drop tables, columns, views, and
indexes that contain the following data types:
■
Built-in data types not available in OnLine Dynamic Server:
❑
BOOLEAN
❑
INT8
❑
LVARCHAR
❑
SERIAL8
■
Smart large objects (CLOB and BLOB)
■
User-defined data types (OPAQUE and DISTINCT)
■
Collection data types (SET, MULTISET, LIST)
■
Row data types (ROW)
■
Data types provided by DataBlade modules
If you do not want to drop the tables, columns, or views, you can change the
data to a type that OnLine Dynamic Server supports. For example, if the
database contains one new table with user-defined data types, either delete
that table or change the user-defined data types to legacy data types and drop
the user-defined data types from the system catalog before you revert.
For information on Universal Server data types, refer to the Informix Guide to
SQL: Reference and Extending INFORMIX-Universal Server: Data Types.
Remove Features Specific to Universal Server
Before you revert, you must remove features that are specific to Universal
Server from client applications and databases. For example, OnLine Dynamic
Server does not support operators and casts to any data type. For information
about Universal Server features, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax,
Extending INFORMIX-Universal Server: Data Types, and the INFORMIX-ESQL/C
Programmer’s Manual.
6-24
Informix Migration Guide
Remove New Universal Server Features
Remove SPL Routines Created in Universal Server
Before you revert, drop all SPL routines that were created in Universal Server.
OnLine Dynamic Server and Universal Server support SPL routines.
However, the internal structure of an SPL routine created in Universal Server
is not backward compatible and does not run under OnLine Dynamic Server.
For information on SPL routines, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Drop Secondary Access Methods (Indexes)
Drop the following secondary access methods (indexes), which OnLine
Dynamic Server does not support:
■
Generic B-tree indexes on user-defined and built-in data types
■
R-tree indexes on spatial data such as maps and diagrams
■
Functional indexes on values returned from user-defined functions
■
User-defined indexes that a DataBlade module (such as Excalibur
Text DataBlade) provides
For more information on indexes, refer to your Performance Guide.
Remove Virtual Tables in External Spaces
Drop all virtual tables stored in external spaces and remove the access
methods used to access the external data. For more information on primary
access methods, refer to the Virtual-Table Interface Programmer’s Manual.
Remove Sbspaces and External Spaces
You should already have deleted columns that contain smart large objects
(BLOB and CLOB) and all virtual tables. Now delete all sbspaces and
extspaces. To delete these spaces, execute the following command where
spacename is the name of the sbspace or extspace:
onspaces -d spacename
For more information on sbspaces and external spaces, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-25
Run the Reversion Utility
Run the Reversion Utility
Universal Server must be running when you execute the reversion utility. The
reversion utility detects and lists remaining features that are specific to
Universal Server that you should remove before reversion can complete.
Execute the reversion utility with the following command to revert Universal
Server to OnLine Dynamic Server:
onmode -b 7.2
After the reversion is complete, Universal Server is off-line. The reversion
utility drops the Universal Server system catalog tables and restores compatibility so that users can access the data with OnLine Dynamic Server. The
reversion utility does not revert changes made to the layout of the data that
do not affect compatibility.
After the system catalog tables are reverted, you can install OnLine Dynamic
Server or OnLine Workgroup Server 7.2, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, or 7.24.
You can also revert to another version of the database server, such as
Version 7.12, Version 7.22, or Version 7.24. For more information about the
onmode -b command, refer to Chapter 24, “Using the onmode Utility.”
Modify Configuration Parameters
Remove the following configuration parameters, which OnLine Dynamic
Server does not support:
■
SBSPACENAME
■
VPCLASS
You might also need to adjust the values of existing configuration parameters. Alternatively, you can replace the Universal Server ONCONFIG file
with the OnLine Dynamic Server ONCONFIG file that you used before you
upgraded.
6-26
Informix Migration Guide
Reset Environment Variables
Reset Environment Variables
Reset the environment variables to values that are appropriate for OnLine
Dynamic Server. Also remove the following environment variables, which
OnLine Dynamic Server does not support:
UNIX
■
INFORMIXCONCSMCFG
■
INFORMIXKEYTAB
Remove Any Communications Support Module Settings
If your Universal Server instance uses CSMs, remove the csm option settings
from the sqlhosts entries for the database server. Otherwise the older
database server will return an invalid sqlhosts options error. Also delete the
concsm.cfg file.
Install and Start OnLine Dynamic Server
Install and configure the target database server according to the instructions
in your Administrator’s Guide.
Execute the oninit -s command to bring your target database server to
quiescent mode.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Before you allow users to access the databases, check the integrity of the data.
Follow the steps described in “Verify the Integrity of the Data” on page 6-13.
Back Up OnLine Dynamic Server
After you complete the reversion, make a level-0 backup. Use either
ON-Archive or the ontape utility to make the backup. For information about
ON-Archive and ontape, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
Important: Do not overwrite the tapes that you used to back up your source database
server.
Migrating Between Universal Server and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x 6-27
Return OnLine Dynamic Server to On-Line Mode
Return OnLine Dynamic Server to On-Line Mode
To put OnLine Dynamic Server in on-line mode, execute the onmode -m
command. The reversion is now complete, and users can access the data.
6-28
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter 7
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21
Chapter 8
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or
7.2 Database Server
Chapter 9
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and
OnLine XPS 8.11
Chapter 10
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2
Section III
Version 8.x Database Server
Migration
Chapter
Migrating Between Extended
Parallel Server and Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21
In This Chapter .
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Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in Extended Parallel Server . . . . .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . .
Upgrade and Reversion Paths for 32-Bit and 64-Bit
Database Servers . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . .
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Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . . . . . . .
Check the Available Space . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . . .
Take the 8.21.UD4 Database Server to Quiescent Mode . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Make a Final Backup of the 8.21.UD4 Database Server . .
Check for Open Transactions and Shut Down the 8.21.UD4
Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . . . .
Copy the 8.21.UD4 Configuration Files . . . . . . .
Verify Environment Variable Settings on Each Node . . .
Initialize Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server . . .
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance. . . . .
Moving Extended Parallel Server Between 32-Bit and
64-Bit Operating Systems . . . . . . . .
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Reverting to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 from Enterprise
Decision Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Script in Check Mode . . . . . . .
Remove Features That Extended Parallel Server Introduced
Leave Extended Parallel Server in On-Line Mode . . . .
Run the Reversion Script . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . . .
Copy and Customize Configuration Files . . . . . . .
Initialize Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 Without
Initializing Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . .
Return Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 to On-Line Mode
7-2
Informix Migration Guide
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UNIX
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the following procedures for migrating between
Extended Parallel Server, Version 8.3, and Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options, Version 8.21.UD4. The description covers the following topics:
■
Preparing for migration
■
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4
■
Moving Extended Parallel Server between 32-bit and 64-bit
operating systems
■
Reverting to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 from
Extended Parallel Server
Important: You can upgrade directly to Extended Parallel Server only from a
Version 8.21.UD4 database server. For upgrading from an earlier Version 8.x
database server, you need to upgrade to Version 8.21.UD4 first. For details, see
Chapter 9, “Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and OnLine
XPS 8.11.”
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4, you need to understand the
Informix guidelines for migrating between database servers. You also need
to know about any new features that might affect migration.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-3
Migration Guidelines
Migration Guidelines
Informix recommends that you observe the following guidelines when you
migrate between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options 8.21.UD4:
■
Check the release notes and machine notes for information about the
correct operating-system release and any patches that you need for
successful installation and operation of the database server.
The release notes and machine notes are in the following directory:
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333
■
Retain the installation media for both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Before you upgrade to Extended Parallel Server from your 8.21.UD4
database server, make sure that no open transactions exist in the
source database server. Open transactions can cause problems
during the fast recovery phase when upgrading to Extended Parallel
Server.
For information about how to close the source database server
properly prior to migration, see “Take the 8.21.UD4 Database Server
to Quiescent Mode” on page 7-9.
■
Before the migration procedure, perform a level-0 backup of all
dbspaces of the source database server. After you complete the
migration, perform another level-0 backup of the target database
server.
For information about how to perform level-0 backups, see “Make a
Final Backup of the 8.21.UD4 Database Server” on page 7-11 and
“Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server” on page 7-16.
■
Use a test instance of your database server to test the migration
procedure.
■
Verify storage-manager validation for the target database server.
For details, see “Storage-Manager Validation and Installation” on
page 7-7.
For additional installation information and guidelines, refer to your Installation Guide and your Getting Started manual.
7-4
Informix Migration Guide
Changes in Extended Parallel Server
Changes in Extended Parallel Server
This section describes the changes in Extended Parallel Server that affect
either migration or initial configuration.
Environment Variables
Extended Parallel Server introduces the following new environment
variables:
■
DBCENTURY
■
NODEFDAC
■
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL
■
XFER_CONFIG
Configuration Parameters
Extended Parallel Server introduces new configuration parameters that
might affect your installation. You might also need to adjust the values of
existing parameters. The Administrator’s Reference describes the following
new configuration parameters:
■
DEADLOCK_DETECTION_INTERVAL
■
DEADLOCK_REPORT_METHOD
■
DEADLOCK_RESOLUTION
■
DEADLOCK_VICTIM
■
DS_TOTAL_MEMORY
■
PAGESIZE
■
SENDEPDS
■
TBLSPACE_STATS
You might also need to adjust platform-specific parameters that specify
communication buffers between coservers. For more information, refer to
your UNIX machine notes.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-5
Upgrade and Reversion Paths for 32-Bit and 64-Bit Database Servers
Upgrade and Reversion Paths for 32-Bit and 64-Bit
Database Servers
Extended Parallel Server offers a 32-bit or 64-bit database server and
supports the following upgrade paths.
Target Database Server
Source Database Server
Extended Parallel Server, 32 bit
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4, 32 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 64 bit
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4, 32 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 64 bit
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4, 64 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 64 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 32 bit
Extended Parallel Server supports the following reversion paths.
7-6
Source Database Server
Target Database Server
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4, 32 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 32 bit
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4, 32 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 64 bit
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4, 64 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 64 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 32 bit
Extended Parallel Server, 64 bit
Informix Migration Guide
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
When you upgrade or revert an Informix database server, the storage
manager that you used on the source database server might not be validated
for the version of the database server to which you are migrating. Verify that
Informix has validated the storage manager for the target database server
version and platform. If not, you need to install a validated storage manager
before you perform backups with the ON-Bar backup and restore system.
When you migrate to a new database server version, install the storage
manager before you bring up the database server. That way, if you have
automatic log backup set up on the database server, ON-Bar can start backing
up the logs when the database server comes on-line.
Warning: If you migrate Informix Storage Manager (ISM) 1.0 catalogs to ISM 2.0
using the ism_catalog utility, the catalogs become corrupted. Once the ISM 2.0
server is restarted after catalog migration, error messages occur in various logs.
For information on how to install and upgrade the storage manager, see the
Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from
Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
This section describes the procedures for upgrading to Extended Parallel
Server from Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, Version 8.21.UD4.
When you migrate to Extended Parallel Server, you must install a database
server instance with the same configuration files, environment variables, and
sqlhosts information that you used for your source database server. After
that, you might want to modify configuration files and environment
variables to take advantage of the Extended Parallel Server features. For
more information, refer to your Getting Started manual, your Performance
Guide, and your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-7
Check the Available Space
To migrate to Extended Parallel Server, complete the following steps, which
later sections describe in detail:
1.
Check the available space.
2.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
3.
Take the 8.21.UD4 database server to quiescent mode.
4.
Verify the integrity of the data.
5.
Make a final backup of the 8.21.UD4 database server.
6.
Check for open transactions and shut down the 8.21.UD4 database
server.
Important: Repeat steps 1 through 6 for each instance of Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options 8.21.UD4 that you are migrating to Extended Parallel Server.
7.
Install Extended Parallel Server.
8.
Copy the 8.21.UD4 configuration files.
9.
Verify environment variable settings on each node.
10.
Upgrade to Extended Parallel Server.
11.
Make an initial backup of Extended Parallel Server.
12.
Tune Extended Parallel Server for performance.
Important: Repeat steps 7 through 12 for each instance of Extended Parallel Server.
The sections that follow describe these steps in detail.
Important: The upgrade procedure might not be restartable. In case of a failure, you
might need to restore your source database server from a backup.
Check the Available Space
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server does not affect the data pages. A
minor amount of extra space is required for new and updated tables in the
sysmaster database and system catalogs.
To determine the minimum amount of free space required in the 8.21.UD4
database server before upgrading to Extended Parallel Server, use the
following formula:
freespace = (MAX_SYSIND_SIZE_BYTES + (MAX_SYSIND_NROWS * 4) + 16384) bytes
7-8
Informix Migration Guide
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
In the formula, MAX_SYSIND_SIZE_BYTES is the size of the biggest
SYSINDEXES table and MAX_SYSIND_NROWS is the number of rows in the
biggest SYSINDEXES table.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the configuration files, if they are present, for each instance of
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4. Keep the copies available
for later use. The configuration files for UNIX are as follows:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tctermcap
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oncfg*
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/xcfg*
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sm_versions
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file from all nodes:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/Bixbar_*.<servernum>
Take the 8.21.UD4 Database Server to Quiescent Mode
Before you upgrade to Extended Parallel Server, you need to make sure that
no connections exist to the source database server. Communicate to client
users how long you expect the database server to be off-line for the
migration.
You also need to make sure that no open transactions exist in the source
database server. Fast recovery would fail when rolling back open transactions during the upgrade.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-9
Verify the Integrity of the Data
To place the source database server in quiescent mode
1.
Make sure that there are no user sessions on the 8.21.UD4 database
server.
2.
Put the database server into quiescent mode with the following
command:
xctl onmode -sy
3.
Move the database server to the next logical log with the following
command:
4.
Force a checkpoint with the following command:
5.
Execute the following command to verify that your database server
is in quiescent mode:
xctl onmode -l
xctl onmode -c
onstat -
The first line of the onstat output contains the status of the database
server. Figure 7-1 shows that the database server is in quiescent
mode.
Informix Extended Parallel Server
Version
x.xx.xxx
--
Quiescent
--
Up
Figure 7-1
Example of onstat
Status Line
Extended Parallel Server is in quiescent mode.
xx:xx:xx -- xxxx Kbytes
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the onutil utility to verify the integrity of data before you make a level-0
backup of the source database server. If you find any problems with the data,
fix them before you make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the
reserve pages, extents, system catalog tables, data, and indexes.
To obtain the database names, use the following statements with DB-Access:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT name FROM sysdatabases;
Figure 7-2 lists the onutil commands you can use to verify data integrity.
7-10
Informix Migration Guide
Make a Final Backup of the 8.21.UD4 Database Server
Figure 7-2
Commands for Verifying Data Integrity
Action
onutil Command
Check reserve pages
onutil CHECK RESERVED;
Check extents
onutil CHECK SPACE;
Check system catalog tables
onutil CHECK CATALOGS;
Check indexes for every
onutil CHECK INDEX WITH DATA
database in the database server database_name
Informix recommends that you also run the following onutil command for
every table in the database server before the upgrade to make sure that all
data pages are in a consistent state:
CHECK DATA [WITH BLOBS] IN database_name.table_name
Important: If any of these integrity checks fails, you have to resolve the detected
integrity violations before you can proceed with the 8.3 upgrade.
You might want to test and run your queries on Extended Parallel Server and
make sure they produce the same results.
For more information about onutil, refer to the Administrator’s Reference.
Make a Final Backup of the 8.21.UD4 Database Server
Use ON-Bar or external tables to make a level-0 backup of the 8.21.UD4
database server. After you make a level-0 backup, perform a complete
backup of the logical log, including the current logical-log file.
To back up each instance of the 8.21.UD4 database server, execute the
following commands:
xctl onmode -l
xctl onmode -c
onbar -b -L 0
-- to advance server to the next logical log
-- to force a checkpoint
-- to take a level-0 backup
For more information about making backups, refer to your Backup and Restore
Guide.
Important: Make a final backup for each source database server instance that you
plan to upgrade.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-11
Check for Open Transactions and Shut Down the 8.21.UD4 Database Server
Check for Open Transactions and Shut Down the 8.21.UD4
Database Server
You should have no open transactions when you upgrade to Extended
Parallel Server from the 8.21.UD4 database server. To verify that no open
transactions remain, run the following commands:
xctl onstat -g xtm
grep IDLE
These commands should return the following status:
Coordinator state =
IDLE
If the coordinator state is IDLE, you can shut down the database server. If the
state is not IDLE, take the following steps:
1.
Make sure that the 8.21.UD4 database server is in quiescent mode, as
“Take the 8.21.UD4 Database Server to Quiescent Mode” on page 7-9
describes.
2.
Run xctl onmode –l.
3.
Run xctl onmode –c.
If coordinator state is IDLE, you can shut down the database server. If coordinator state is still not IDLE, contact Informix Technical Support.
You can let users exit and shut down the database server gracefully or, if
necessary, you can perform an immediate shutdown of the database server.
To let users exit and shut down the system gracefully
1.
Execute the xctl onmode –sy command.
2.
Wait for all users to exit.
3.
Execute the xctl onmode –l command.
4.
Execute the xctl onmode –c command.
5.
Execute the xctl onmode –yuk command.
To perform an immediate shutdown
xctl onmode -ky
7-12
Informix Migration Guide
Install Extended Parallel Server
Verify that you get the message shared memory not initialized... for
off-line mode, as follows:
onstat -
Install Extended Parallel Server
To install Extended Parallel Server, follow the instructions in your Installation
Guide.
Warning: If you install Extended Parallel Server in the same directory where the
8.21.UD4 database server resides, the installation script overwrites the older files. If
you want to preserve your 8.21.UD4 files, copy them to a different directory and then
install Extended Parallel Server in the same directory.
Check the machine notes and release notes for information about the correct
operating-system patches, recommended shared-memory parameters, and
configurations that successful installation and operation of the database
server requires. The release notes are in the following directory:
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333
Make any changes that the machine notes or release notes recommend on
every node. For more information on how to install Extended Parallel Server,
refer to your Installation Guide and your Performance Guide.
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4 begins when you initialize the 8.3 database server. It detects
an older version stamp and verifies that the last log record is an 8.21.UD4
checkpoint log record. The 8.21.UD4 database server needs to be shut down
before the upgrade because any open transactions would cause the upgrade
to fail in fast recovery.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-13
Copy the 8.21.UD4 Configuration Files
Copy the 8.21.UD4 Configuration Files
Before you start the upgrade to Extended Parallel Server, copy the following
files to the 8.3 installation from the 8.21.UD4 installation:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oncfg*
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/xcfg*
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
Informix recommends that the 8.3 ONCONFIG file be identical to the
8.21.UD4 ONCONFIG file before you start the upgrade to Extended Parallel
Server, except for necessary changes. You cannot change the values for some
of the ONCONFIG parameters until after the upgrade is complete.
After the upgrade, you can customize your configuration files and
environment variables to take advantage of the new features that Extended
Parallel Server introduced. After you observe the performance of Extended
Parallel Server, you might want to make further adjustments.
For configuration information, refer to your Administrator’s Guide. For information about environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL:
Reference. For performance monitoring and tuning information, refer to your
Performance Guide.
Verify Environment Variable Settings on Each Node
Verify that the following environment variables are set correctly on every
node:
■
INFORMIXDIR
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
The client applications look for the sqlhosts file in the
$INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. However, you can use the
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change the location
or name of the sqlhosts file.
7-14
Informix Migration Guide
Initialize Extended Parallel Server
Set the environment variable PATH so that the local directory is searched
before the INFORMIXDIR directory. The installation script installs Extended
Parallel Server into the INFORMIXDIR directory specified for user root or
informix.
You can change the values of these environment variables after you install
Extended Parallel Server and before you invoke DB-Access.
Important: If continuous logs backup was configured on the 8.21.UD4 database
server, you either have to switch logs backup to off by setting it to NONE in the
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG file or have a validated storage manager
installed and configured for Extended Parallel Server. Failure to take one of these
actions might cause upgrade errors.
Initialize Extended Parallel Server
Using the same configuration parameters as for the 8.21.UD4 database server,
initialize Extended Parallel Server without initializing the disks. To do this,
issue the following command:
xctl -C oninit
Warning: Do not use oninit -iy because the -iy option would initialize your disks,
which would erase your data.
Log messages that refer to the upgrade appear in the message log file. The
message log should contain transaction log records. The results of the
upgrade for each subsystem appear in the file until the upgrade is complete.
To view the message log, run the following command:
onstat -m
The following message indicates the end of the upgrade process:
Conversion to 8.3 completed successfully.
If the sysmaster database takes a while to build, the log file contains the
following message:
[001 11:48:33
External conversion thread is waiting for
‘sysmaster’ database to be converted/built.
This thread will wait for approximately 10
minutes before aborting.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-15
Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server
After the upgrade is complete, review the message log to verify that your
sysmaster and sysutils databases were created successfully.
Also check the message log for information about coservers. To verify that all
your coservers are up and running, execute the following command:
xctl onstat -
If the message log reports any upgrade failures, contact Informix Technical
Support.
For more information about messages in the message log, refer to Appendix
B, “Upgrade and Reversion Messages,” and your Administrator’s Guide.
Important: If the message log indicates any problems, solve each problem before you
continue with the next step.
Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server
Use the backup and restore tool (ON-Bar) to make a level-0 backup of
Extended Parallel Server. The 8.21 backups are not readable by Extended
Parallel Server. If the 8.3 upgrade completed successfully, you need to do a
level-0 backup of the new database server instance.
Make sure that the storage manager is installed and properly configured, as
“Storage-Manager Validation and Installation” on page 7-7 describes, Also
make sure that the 8.21 backup tapes will not be overwritten.
You can then take the database server to quiescent mode and run the
following command:
onbar -b -L 0
For more information about ON-Bar, see the Backup and Restore Guide.
Extended Parallel Server supports unloading directly to a pipe or to a tape
drive. You do not need to unload data first to disk.
Instead of ON-Bar, you can use external tables to perform a backup. For information about loading data to and unloading data from external tables, see the
Administrator’s Reference.
Important: Do not restore the backed up logical-log files from Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 for Extended Parallel Server.
7-16
Informix Migration Guide
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance
When you finish the level-0 backup, the migration process is complete and
users can use Extended Parallel Server to access data safely. After you have
your applications running normally on Extended Parallel Server, consider
using new 8.3 features to improve application performance.
If you created sample queries for comparison, you can use them to characterize the performance differences between Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4 and Extended Parallel Server. The results of these comparisons might suggest adjustments to configuration parameters or to the layout
of databases, tables, and chunks. For details on performance topics, refer to
your Performance Guide.
Moving Extended Parallel Server Between 32-Bit
and 64-Bit Operating Systems
To move Extended Parallel Server to a 64-bit operating system from a 32-bit
operating system, shut down the database server cleanly and bring it back up
on the 64-bit operating system. Similarly, to move Extended Parallel Server
to a 32-bit operating system from a 64-bit operating system, shut down the
database server cleanly and bring it back up on the 32-bit operating system.
Reverting to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 from
Extended Parallel Server
You can revert to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 from
Extended Parallel Server if you upgraded to Extended Parallel Server,
Version 8.3, from a Version 8.21.UD4 database server. Before the reversion,
you need to remove all Version 8.3 objects from the databases except those
created by the boot scripts in the system catalog.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-17
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
This section describes the steps for reverting to Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options 8.21.UD4 from Extended Parallel Server:
1.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
2.
Verify the integrity of the data.
3.
Back up Extended Parallel Server.
4.
Run the reversion script in check mode.
5.
Remove features that Extended Parallel Server introduced.
6.
Leave Extended Parallel Server in on-line mode.
7.
Run the reversion script.
8.
Reset environment variables.
9.
Install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4.
10.
Copy and customize configuration files.
11.
Initialize Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 without
initializing disks.
12.
Verify the integrity of the data.
13.
Back up Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4.
14.
Return Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 to on-line
mode.
The following sections describe these steps in detail.
Important: The reversion procedure might not be restartable. In case of a failure, you
might need to restore your database server from a backup.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the current configuration files for when you upgrade to
Extended Parallel Server again.
7-18
Informix Migration Guide
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Execute the following commands to check the integrity of the data:
onutil
onutil
onutil
onutil
onutil
CHECK
CHECK
CHECK
CHECK
CHECK
RESERVED DISPLAY DATA
SPACE DISPLAY DATA
CATALOGS
TABLE DATA DISPLAY DATA
INDEX DISPLAY DATA
For details about using these commands, see “Verify the Integrity of the
Data” on page 7-10.
Back Up Extended Parallel Server
Before you begin the reversion, make a complete backup of Extended Parallel
Server. You can use ON-Bar or external tables to make the backup. For information about using ON-Bar, see your Backup and Restore Guide. For
information about unloading data to external tables, see the Administrator’s
Reference.
Run the Reversion Script in Check Mode
You can run the revert_to reversion script in check mode to list the Extended
Parallel Server features that you need to remove before reverting to Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4. This script is in the $INFORMIXDIR/bin directory.
To execute this script, you must be user informix and you must be connected
to the primary coserver. Before you run the script, place Extended Parallel
Server in on-line mode. While the database server is in on-line mode, do not
allow any user activity because modified data would cause the check script
to fail. To run the script in check mode, issue either of the following
commands, depending on whether you are reverting to a 32-bit or 64-bit
database server:
revert_to 8.21 32b check
revert_to 8.21 64b check
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-19
Remove Features That Extended Parallel Server Introduced
Look in the message log file for messages about the progress of the operation.
The ONCONFIG parameter MSGPATH specifies the name of the message log
file.
Remove Features That Extended Parallel Server Introduced
Before you revert, remove any Extended Parallel Server features that the
8.21.UD4 database server does not support, according to the instructions in
the message log file. You need to remove any of the following Extended
Parallel Server features:
■
Violations table
To remove this feature, stop violations.
■
ON-Bar enhancements
Remove ON-Bar features new in Extended Parallel Server.
■
External BLOB columns
To remove this feature, use ALTER TABLE...DROP COLUMN
statements.
■
In-place ALTER operations
To remove this feature, perform a dummy update.
■
Triggers
To remove triggers, use the DROP TRIGGER statement.
■
SPL routine enhancements
■
Coarse grain locking
■
Range clustered indexes
To remove this feature, use the ALTER INDEX statement.
■
Range fragmentation
You can run the reversion script in check mode to determine what features
you need to remove from Extended Parallel Server. If you start the reversion
without removing an 8.3 feature that is incompatible with Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4, the message log will contain messages like
the following ones:
[001] 16:49:00
[001] 16:49:04
[001] 16:49:00
7-20
Informix Migration Guide
Trigger reversion test start.
** WARNING ** Please drop all triggers first and try again.
Trigger reversion test failed.
Leave Extended Parallel Server in On-Line Mode
The following message indicates that the reversion process has been
cancelled due to a failure in the test phase:
[001] 12:23:27
Reversion Cancelled due to Reversion Test Failure.
Such a failure means that you need to remove one or more incompatible
features before reversion can complete successfully. At this point Extended
Parallel Server is in on-line mode and none of the actual reversion changes
has taken place. You can remove the incompatible feature or features and
attempt reversion again.
Leave Extended Parallel Server in On-Line Mode
Before you start the reversion, execute the following command to verify that
Extended Parallel Server is in on-line mode:
onstat -
The first line of the onstat output contains the status of the database server.
Figure 7-3 shows that the database server is in on-line mode.
Informix Enterprise Decision
Server
Extended Parallel Server is in on-line mode.
Version
x.xx.xxx
--
On-line
--
Up
Figure 7-3
Verification of the
Database Server
Mode
xx:xx:xx -- xxxx Kbytes
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-21
Run the Reversion Script
Run the Reversion Script
The reversion script, revert_to, performs the reversion to Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 from Extended Parallel Server. This script
is in the $INFORMIXDIR/bin directory.
To execute this script, you must be user informix and you must be connected
to the primary coserver. Before you run the script, place Extended Parallel
Server in on-line mode. While the database server is in on-line mode, do not
allow any user activity because modified data would cause the check script
to fail. To run the script, issue either of the following commands, depending
on whether you are reverting to a 32-bit or 64-bit database server:
revert_to 8.21 32b
revert_to 8.21 64b
Before the reversion, the database server implicitly checks for any features
that are incompatible with Version 8.21.UD4 and reports them (similar to the
check mode, which “Run the Reversion Script in Check Mode” on page 7-19
describes). The database server will not proceed with the actual reversion
until all incompatibilities are resolved.
7-22
Informix Migration Guide
Run the Reversion Script
Messages like the following ones can appear in the message log file during
reversion:
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
[001]
11:34:30
11:35:19
11:35:19
11:35:24
11:35:25
11:35:26
11:35:27
11:35:33
11:35:35
11:35:40
11:35:42
11:35:47
11:35:49
11:35:54
11:35:56
11:36:03
11:36:04
11:36:08
11:36:50
11:36:57
11:37:02
11:37:02
11:37:02
11:37:02
11:37:04
11:37:04
11:37:04
11:37:04
11:37:05
11:37:06
11:37:06
11:37:11
11:37:11
11:37:11
11:37:11
11:37:11
[001] 11:37:11
[001] 11:37:16
On-Line mode.
Reversion test started...
Doing internal reversion test...
Internal reversion test complete.
CM reversion test start.
CM reversion test completed successfully.
Range fragmentation reversion test start.
Range fragmentation reversion test completed successfully.
External table blob reversion test start.
External table blob reversion test completed successfully.
Range clustered indexes reversion test start.
Range clustered indexes reversion test completed successfully.
Trigger reversion test start.
Trigger reversion test completed successfully.
Violations table reversion test start.
Violations table reversion test completed successfully.
SPL routine reversion test start.
SPL routine reversion test completed successfully.
Reversion test done.
Local table duplication reversion start.
Local table duplication reversion completed successfully.
External reversion done. Continuing with internal reversion....
Reverting system catalogs for database sysmaster started.
Quiescent mode.
Reverting system catalogs for database sysmaster succeeded.
Reverting system catalogs for database sysutils started.
Reverting system catalogs for database sysutils succeeded.
Reverting partition header pages started.
On-Line mode.
Reverting partition header pages started succeeded.
Reverting tables which underwent In-Place Alter.
Checkpoint completed: duration was 4 seconds.
Starting CM safewrite reversion.
CM safewrite reversion successfully completed.
Checkpoint completed: duration was 6 seconds.
Reversion complete.
WARNING: A restart of the current XPS version
will undo this reversion. Install the Informix
server (8.21) you reverted to.
Bringing coserver down.
Informix Extended Parallel Server stopped.
When reversion is complete, the database server writes a checkpoint log
record that is compatible with the Version 8.21.UD4 database server and shuts
down Extended Parallel Server.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-23
Run the Reversion Script
The syntax of the reversion script follows.
version #
revert_to
32b
64b
CHECK
HELP
Element
version #
32b
64b
CHECK
HELP
7-24
Purpose
Key Considerations
Specifies the version of the target
For reversion from Extended Parallel
database server for reversion.
Server, this value must be 8.21.
Indicates that the reversion is to a 32bit database server.
Indicates that the reversion is to a 64bit database server.
Displays the source database server
features that you need to remove
before reversion, with instructions for
removing the features.
Displays information about the
reversion script.
Informix Migration Guide
Reset Environment Variables
Reset Environment Variables
Reset the environment variables to values that are appropriate for the
8.21.UD4 database server.
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
Install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4, according to the
instructions in your Installation Guide.
Copy and Customize Configuration Files
After reversion is complete and before you bring up Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options 8.21.UD4, copy the following files to the 8.21.UD4 installation
from the 8.3 installation:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oncfg*
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/xcfg*
Remove any configuration parameters that the Version 8.21.UD4 database
server does not support, including the following parameters:
■
PAGESIZE
■
TBLSPACE_STATS
■
DS_TOTAL_MEMORY
■
DEADLOCK_DETECTION_INTERVAL
■
DEADLOCK_REPORT_METHOD
■
DEADLOCK_RESOLUTION
■
DEADLOCK_VICTIM
■
SENDEPDS
You might also need to adjust the values of existing configuration parameters. Alternatively, you can replace the 8.3 ONCONFIG file with the 8.21.UD4
ONCONFIG file that you used before you upgraded.
You can customize configuration files for Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4. Configure the database server according to the instructions in your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 7-25
Initialize Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 Without Initializing Disks
Initialize Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 Without
Initializing Disks
Using the same configuration parameters as for Extended Parallel Server,
initialize Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 without initializing the disks. To do this, issue the following command:
xctl -C oninit
Warning: Do not use oninit -iy because the -iy option will initialize your disks,
which will erase your data.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Before you allow users to access the databases, verify the integrity of the data
and fix any problems. Follow the steps under “Verify the Integrity of the
Data” on page 7-10.
Back Up Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
After you complete the reversion, make a level-0 backup. You can use ON-Bar
or external tables to make the backup. For information about using ON-Bar,
refer to your Backup and Restore Guide. For information about unloading data
to external tables, see the Administrator’s Reference.
Important: Do not overwrite the tapes that you used to back up Extended Parallel
Server.
Return Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 to On-Line Mode
To bring Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 on-line, execute
the xctl onmode -m command. The reversion is now complete, and users can
access the data.
7-26
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Migrating Between Extended
Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2
Database Server
In This Chapter .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Extended Parallel Server Introduces .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Data Movement Utility . . . . . . . . . .
Backup Tools and ON-Bar Configuration . . .
Upgrade to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from OnLine
Dynamic Server 4.1 to 7.1x . . . . . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . . .
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic
Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x . . .
Configure and Check Available Space . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server.
Put the Source Database Server in Quiescent Mode .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Verify the Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server . . . . . .
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . .
Edit the Schema File to Suit Extended Parallel Server.
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Install Extended Parallel Server . . . . . . . .
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node . . .
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . . .
Bring Extended Parallel Server On-Line . . . . .
Use onutil to Create Cogroups and Dbslices . . . .
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8-15
8-16
8-16
8
8-2
Edit the onxfer Configuration File . . . . . .
Unload the 7.3x or 7.2x Database Schema and Data
Load the Database Schema and Data . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance . .
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8-17
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8-18
Reverting to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x from Extended Parallel Server . .
Unloading Data to External Tables . . . . . .
Loading Data from External Tables . . . . . .
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8-18
8-19
8-19
Informix Migration Guide
UNIX
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the procedures to migrate between Extended Parallel
Server, Version 8.3, and Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic
Server, Version 7.2x. The description covers the following topics:
■
Preparing for migration
■
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic Server 7.3x or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x.
■
Reverting to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
from Extended Parallel Server
■
Reverting to an earlier 7.x database server from OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x
Tip: To migrate to Extended Parallel Server from a 7.0x or 7.1x database server, you
need to upgrade to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x first.
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between Extended Parallel Server and Dynamic
Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x, you need to understand the
Informix guidelines for migrating between database servers. You also need
to know about any new features that might affect migration. To migrate from
a 7.0x or 7.1x database server, you need to upgrade to a 7.2x database server
first. The new data movement utility, onxfer, facilitates database schema and
data transfer to Extended Parallel Server from a 7.3x or 7.2x database server.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-3
Migration Guidelines
Migration Guidelines
Informix suggests that you observe the following precautions when you
migrate between Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x and
Extended Parallel Server:
■
Check the release notes and machine notes for information about the
proper operating-system release and any patches that you need for
successful installation and operation of the database server.
The release notes and machine notes are in the following directory:
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333.
Retain both versions of the Informix product software on disk (if you
have enough disk resources).
■
Retain the installation media from both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Perform a level-0 backup with the 7.3x or 7.2x database server. After
you complete the migration, perform another level-0 backup with
Extended Parallel Server.
■
Use a test instance of your database server to test the installation and
migration procedures.
■
Verify storage-manager validation for the target database server.
For details, see, “Storage-Manager Validation and Installation” on
page 8-6.
For additional installation information and guidelines, refer to your Installation Guide and your Getting Started manual.
Changes That Extended Parallel Server Introduces
This section describes the changes that Extended Parallel Server introduces
that affect either migration or initial configuration.
The changes that Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, Version 8.21,
introduced also affect migration to Extended Parallel Server from a 7.3x or
7.2x database server. For information about Version 8.21 changes, see
“Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced” on page 10-5.
8-4
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Extended Parallel Server Introduces
Environment Variables
Extended Parallel Server introduces XFER_CONFIG and
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL, new environment variables that were not
available in Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server,
Version 7.2x.
The Informix Guide to SQL: Reference describes these environment variables.
For performance implications and guidelines, refer to your Performance
Guide.
Configuration Parameters
Extended Parallel Server introduces new configuration parameters that
might affect your installation. You might also need to adjust the values of
existing parameters. Your Administrator’s Guide describes the following new
configuration parameters:
■
MAX_CHUNKS
■
MAX_DBSLICES
■
MAX_DBSPACES
■
PAGESIZE
■
TBLSPACE_STATS
Data Movement Utility
The onxfer utility facilitates data movement to Extended Parallel Server from
a 7.3x or 7.2x database server. This chapter includes information about using
onxfer for unloading the 7.3x or 7.2x data and database schema and loading
them into Extended Parallel Server.
This utility can unload and load data between database servers in iterative
mode, when the source and target database servers are running simultaneously, or in staged mode, when the database servers are not running
simultaneously. For the iterative mode, you can configure onxfer to unload
and load a subset of the database tables.
For details about onxfer syntax and configuration parameters, see Chapter
26, “Using the onxfer Utility.”
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-5
Upgrade to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from OnLine Dynamic Server 4.1 to 7.1x
Backup Tools and ON-Bar Configuration
Extended Parallel Server does not support the ontape utility or ON-Archive.
To back up Extended Parallel Server, you need to use ON-Bar or data
migration tools.
If you use ON-Bar when you migrate to Extended Parallel Server from
Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x, you need to make
substantial changes in the ON-Bar configuration. For details about how to
configure ON-Bar, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
Upgrade to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from OnLine
Dynamic Server 4.1 to 7.1x
Before you upgrade to Extended Parallel Server from a 7.x database server
earlier than OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.20, you need to upgrade to
Version 7.2x. For instructions on how to upgrade from an earlier 7.x database
server, see Chapter 11, “Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3
and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0.”
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
When you upgrade or revert an Informix database server, the storage
manager that you used on the source database server might not be validated
for the version of the database server to which you are migrating. Verify that
Informix has validated the storage manager for the target database server
version and platform. If not, you need to install a validated storage manager
before you perform backups with the ON-Bar backup and restore system.
When you migrate to a new database server version, install the storage
manager before you bring up the database server. That way, if you have
automatic log backup set up on the database server, ON-Bar can start backing
up the logs when the database server comes on-line.
Warning: If you migrate Informix Storage Manager (ISM) 1.0 catalogs to ISM 2.0
using the ism_catalog utility, the catalogs become corrupted. Once the ISM 2.0
server is restarted after catalog migration, error messages occur in various logs.
For information on how to install and upgrade the storage manager, see the
Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
8-6
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine
Upgrading to Extended Parallel Server from
Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
This section describes the procedures for migrating to Extended Parallel
Server from Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server,
Version 7.2x.
When you migrate to Extended Parallel Server, complete the following steps,
which the sections that follow describe in more detail:
1.
Configure and check available space.
2.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
3.
Close all transactions in the source database server.
4.
Put the source database server in quiescent mode.
5.
Verify the integrity of the data.
6.
Verify the mode.
7.
Back up the source database server.
8.
Change UNIX kernel parameters.
9.
Edit the schema file to suit Extended Parallel Server.
10.
Set environment variables.
11.
Install Extended Parallel Server.
12.
Copy database server utilities to each node.
13.
Update the ONCONFIG configuration file.
14.
Bring Extended Parallel Server on-line.
15.
Use onutil to create cogroups and dbslices.
16.
Edit the onxfer configuration file.
17.
Unload the 7.3x or 7.2x database schema and data.
18.
Load the database schema and data.
19.
Make an initial backup of Extended Parallel Server.
20.
Tune Extended Parallel Server for performance.
Important: Repeat steps 12 through 20 for each instance of Extended Parallel Server.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-7
Configure and Check Available Space
Configure and Check Available Space
Configure your computer memory equally among all the nodes. Because
only one ONCONFIG file exists in Extended Parallel Server and the configuration parameter is configured globally, the amount of memory you
configure in your ONCONFIG file is limited to the node with the smallest
amount of memory. If your system memory is configured unequally,
Extended Parallel Server cannot take advantage of the nodes that have extra
memory.
If you want multiple coservers in Extended Parallel Server, add a COSERVER
section to the ONCONFIG file. You can copy the onconfig.xps template file
and customize it for your database server. For more information about
multiple coserver configuration, see your Administrator’s Guide and the
Administrator’s Reference.
When you calculate disk-space requirements for Extended Parallel Server,
take into account the size of your tables. You need additional space for
control information for your tables (approximately 60 bytes per page). Also
consider disk space for the following needs:
■
Root dbspace for all your nodes
■
Physical logs
■
Logical-log space
(If you require logging during loads, add the additional space.)
8-8
■
Temporary dbspace
■
Indexes
■
Summary tables and index from your on-line transaction processing
(OLAP) tools
■
Mirroring
■
Future growth
■
File-system space for your operating system and Informix products
■
Staging space for loading and unloading files
■
Safe write area
■
New system catalog tables
■
New sysmaster tables
Informix Migration Guide
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
For information on disk-space requirements for Extended Parallel Server,
refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
To ensure that sufficient space is available, check the amount of free space in
each dbspace to determine whether you need to add more space. Use the
following SQL statements to determine the free space you require and the free
space available. These statements return the free-space calculation in pagesize units. The free_space_req column value is the free space you require and
the free_space_avail column value is the free space available.
The following SQL statement shows how to determine the free space that
each dbspace requires:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT partdbsnum(partnum) dbspace_num,
trunc(count(*) * x) free_space_req
FROM sysdatabases
GROUP BY 1
ORDER BY 1;
The following SQL statement queries the syschunks table and displays the
free space available for each dbspace:
SELECT dbsnum dbspace_num, sum(nfree) free_space_avail
FROM syschunks
GROUP BY 1
ORDER BY 1;
Important: If a dbspace has less free space available than it requires, either move a
table from the dbspace to another dbspace or add a chunk to it. The dbspace estimates
could be higher if you have an unusually large number of SPL routines or indexes in
the database.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the configuration files for each instance of the 7.3x or 7.2x
database server. Keep the copies available to use later. Save the configuration
files that the following list shows, if they exist:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ONCONFIG.std
■
$INFORMIXDIR/aaodir/adtcfg
■
$INFORMIXDIR/dbssodir/adtmasks
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-9
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tctermcap
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ixbar.<servernum>
If you use ON-Archive to back up Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x and logical logs, you must also copy and save the configuration
files in the following list:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ARC_CONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/config.arc
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oper_deflt.arc
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and shut
down your source database server.
To let users exit and shut down the system gracefully
8-10
1.
Execute the onmode –sy command.
2.
Wait for all users to exit.
3.
Execute the onmode –ky command.
Informix Migration Guide
Put the Source Database Server in Quiescent Mode
Put the Source Database Server in Quiescent Mode
Execute the following command to put the source database server in
quiescent mode and initiate a fast recovery of your current database:
oninit -s
The oninit –s option rolls forward all committed transactions and rolls back
all incomplete transactions since the last checkpoint and then leaves a new
checkpoint record in the log with no open transactions pending. (For more
information about fast recovery, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.)
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the onutil utility to verify the integrity of data before you make a level-0
backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them before you make the
backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages, extents, system
catalog tables, data, and indexes.
To obtain the database names, use the following statements with DB-Access:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT name FROM sysdatabases;
Figure 8-1 lists the onutil commands you can use to verify data integrity.
Figure 8-1
Commands for Verifying Data Integrity
Action
onutil Command
Check reserve pages
onutil CHECK RESERVED DISPLAY DATA
Check extents
onutil CHECK SPACE DISPLAY DATA
Check system catalog tables
onutil CHECK CATALOGS
Check data
onutil CHECK TABLE DATA DISPLAY DATA
Check indexes
onutil CHECK INDEX DISPLAY DATA
For information about onutil, refer to the Administrator’s Reference.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-11
Verify the Mode
Verify the Mode
Before you make a backup, execute the following command to verify that
your source database server is in quiescent mode:
onstat -
The first line of the onstat output contains the status of your source database
server. Figure 8-2 shows that the database server is in quiescent mode.
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server
Version x.xx.xxx--Quiescent--Up
xx:xx:xx--xxxx
Figure 8-2 Example
of onstat Status Line
OnLine Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
Kbytes
Back Up the Source Database Server
Use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to make a level-0 backup and logical-log
backup of Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x. If you use
ontape, execute the following command to make a level-0 backup:
ontape -s
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup. (For more information about making backups, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide.)
After you make a level-0 backup, perform a complete backup of the logical
log, including the current logical-log file.
If you use ON-Archive, execute the following command to make a fullsystem, level-0 backup:
Onarchive> ARCHIVE/DBSPACESET=*
8-12
Informix Migration Guide
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
You might need to change some of the UNIX kernel parameters before you
install Extended Parallel Server. To reconfigure the operating system, follow
the directions in the machine notes file included on your database server
distribution media and the kernel-configuration instructions for your
operating system.
For information on the location of the machine notes file, refer to “Documentation Notes, Release Notes, and Machine Notes” on page 22 of the
Introduction.
Important: Make sure you modify the kernel parameters on every node.
Edit the Schema File to Suit Extended Parallel Server
Configure the downloaded schema for Extended Parallel Server. For information about schema configuration for Extended Parallel Server, refer to
“Database Schema” on page 10-11.
Set Environment Variables
Before you install Extended Parallel Server or invoke DB-Access, set up the
following environment variables on every node:
■
INFORMIXDIR
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
The client application looks for the sqlhosts file in the
$INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. However, you can use the INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change the location or name of
the sqlhosts file.
Set the environment variable PATH so that the local directory that contains
Informix commands is searched before the INFORMIXDIR directory.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-13
Install Extended Parallel Server
The installation script installs Extended Parallel Server into the
INFORMIXDIR directory specified for user root or informix on UNIX. The
installation script does not bring Extended Parallel Server on-line.
Install Extended Parallel Server
To install and configure Extended Parallel Server, follow the directions in
your Installation Guide and in your Administrator’s Guide.
You must log in as user root or informix and set the INFORMIXDIR
environment variable to the directory where you plan to install the database
server. Install it on the node that contains the connection coserver in the
directory that was NFS mounted on all the other nodes. Install the entire
distribution on a single node within a file system that is shared across all the
nodes that are assigned to Extended Parallel Server.
Check that the file system can hold the entire Extended Parallel Server distribution of approximately 180 megabytes. Export this file system with write
access as user root or informix over the NFS and mount it to the same mount
point on every node.
Warning: If you install Extended Parallel Server in the same directory where
Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x resides, the installation script
overwrites the older files. If you want to transfer data directly to Extended Parallel
Server from Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x, install Extended
Parallel Server in a different directory. If you want to install Extended Parallel
Server in the same directory, copy the Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2x files to a different directory before you begin the installation.
Before you overwrite the source database server, take the following
precautions:
8-14
■
If you do not have the original media for the source database server,
back up the INFORMIXDIR directory before you install Extended
Parallel Server.
■
Copy the configuration files in the etc directory of INFORMIXDIR to
another location on the file system.
Informix Migration Guide
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node
The installation script installs Extended Parallel Server into the
INFORMIXDIR directory specified for user root. The installation script does
not bring Extended Parallel Server on-line.
Check the release notes for information about the correct operating-system
patches, recommended shared-memory parameters, and configurations that
are required for successful installation and operation of the database server.
The machine notes and release notes are in the following directory:
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333 directory.
Make any changes that the machine notes and release notes recommend on
every node. For more information on how to install Extended Parallel Server,
refer to your Installation Guide and your Administrator’s Guide.
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node
To ensure rapid and proper initialization, create local copies of the following
utilities on each node:
■
oninit
■
onmode
■
onstat
When you finish copying the utilities to each node, log out as root.
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File
You can customize your ONCONFIG configuration file and environment
variables to take advantage of the new features that Extended Parallel Server
introduced. After you observe the performance of Extended Parallel Server,
you might want to make further adjustments.
For information on how to configure Extended Parallel Server, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide. For information about environment variables, refer to
the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference. For information about how to tune the
configuration parameters, refer to your Performance Guide.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-15
Bring Extended Parallel Server On-Line
Bring Extended Parallel Server On-Line
Execute the following command to bring Extended Parallel Server on-line for
the first time:
xctl -C oninit -iy
Check your database server message log to verify that all coservers are up. To
view the message log, execute:
onstat -m
To verify that all your coservers are up and running, execute:
xctl onstat -
For information about messages in the message log, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Important: If the message file notes problems, solve the problems before you continue
to the next step.
Use onutil to Create Cogroups and Dbslices
Create cogroups and dbslices of equal sizes across all coservers. When you
create a dbslice, you specify the cogroup name so that Extended Parallel
Server knows the coservers on which to create dbspaces. For example, you
might create a dbslice from an accounting cogroup. The following example
shows how to create a cogroup and a dbslice:
% onutil
1> CREATE COGROUP acctg_cogroup
2> FROM xps.%r(1..8);
Cogroup successfully created.
3> CREATE DBSLICE acctg_dbslc
6> FROM COGROUP acctg_cogroup ...
You do not need to specify the names explicitly for all the individual
dbspaces that are associated with the partitioned tables. Extended Parallel
Server generates the dbspace names for you.
Run xctl to verify that all your dbspaces were created correctly on each
coserver:
xctl onstat -d
8-16
Informix Migration Guide
Edit the onxfer Configuration File
Edit the onxfer Configuration File
You can configure each onxfer process by setting parameters in the configuration file before starting the utility. The default name of the onxfer
configuration file is xfer_config in the $INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. You can
specify a different directory in the XFER_CONFIG environment variable.
For details about onxfer configuration parameters, see Chapter 26, “Using
the onxfer Utility.”
Unload the 7.3x or 7.2x Database Schema and Data
Start the onxfer utility to unload the Version 7.3x or Version 7.2x schema and
data. For details about onxfer syntax, see Chapter 26, “Using the onxfer
Utility.”
The schema on the source database is downloaded into the directory that you
specified. The directory contains the following three unloaded files:
■
db_pre.sql
■
db_post.sql
■
db_incompat.sql
Load the Database Schema and Data
The schema is created based on the db_pre.sql and db_post.sql files. You
need to check the db_incompat.sql file for parts of the schema that you might
need to create after the initial loading.
Make an Initial Backup of Extended Parallel Server
Use the backup and restore tool (ON-Bar) to make a level-0 backup of
Extended Parallel Server. Do not overwrite the tapes you used to make the
final backup of Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x. For
more information about ON-Bar, see your Backup and Restore Guide.
Extended Parallel Server supports unloading directly to a pipe or to a tape
drive. You do not need to unload data first to disk.
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-17
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance
You can also use external tables to perform a backup. For information about
loading data into and unloading data from external tables, see your Administrator’s Guide.
Tune Extended Parallel Server for Performance
When you finish the level-0 backup, the migration process is complete and
users can use Extended Parallel Server to access data safely.
After you successfully migrate to Extended Parallel Server, you might want
to seek ways to obtain maximum performance. If you created sample queries
for comparison, you can use them to characterize the performance differences between the 7.x and 8.3 database servers. The results of these
comparisons might suggest adjustments to configuration parameters or to
the layout of databases, tables, and chunks. For details on performance
topics, refer to your Performance Guide.
Reverting to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x from Extended Parallel Server
After you migrate to Extended Parallel Server from Dynamic Server 7.3x or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x, you cannot revert back automatically. To revert,
you need to unload the data into an external table from the 8.3 database
server and then load it back into the 7.x database server.
Use the onutil utility to check for outstanding in-place ALTER TABLE
versions, as follows:
>onutil
>CHECK TABLE INFO
If pages exist with old table definitions, update and upgrade all data pages to
current table definitions. To do this, run a dummy update to change all data
pages to the latest definition, as your Performance Guide describes.
8-18
Informix Migration Guide
Unloading Data to External Tables
Unloading Data to External Tables
To unload data to an external file, issue SELECT with INTO EXTERNAL statements. You can implicitly or explicitly specify an external table. (If you are
loading data, an explicit definition is mandatory.) The SELECT with INTO
EXTERNAL statements create a default external table description for
unloading data. Issue the following SQL statement:
SELECT *
FROM customer
WHERE customerNum > 100
AND lastName [1] = “A”
INTO EXTERNAL TABLE custExtII
USING
(
FORMAT “informix”,
DATAFILES
( “DISK:1:/tmp/dat.out”,
“DISK:2:/tmp/dat.out”,
“DISK:3:/tmp/dat.out”
));
In this example, the external table is implicitly defined when the table is
unloaded. If the external table already exists, you can use the following
syntax:
INSERT INTO extTableName
SELECT *
FROM tableName
WHERE...;
For more information about external tables, see the Administrator’s Reference.
Loading Data from External Tables
After the data is unloaded into external tables, you can use the load utilities
in Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x to load the data. For
load-utility information, see Chapter 2, “Data Migration.”
Migrating Between Extended Parallel Server and a 7.3 or 7.2 Database Server 8-19
Chapter
Migrating Between Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and
OnLine XPS 8.11
In This Chapter .
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9
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9-3
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines. . . . . . . . .
Changes in Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
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9-3
9-4
9-4
9-5
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9-5
9-6
9-6
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9-7
9-8
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9-12
Moving Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 Between 32-Bit
and 64-Bit Operating Systems . . . . . . . .
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9-12
Reverting to an Earlier 8.x Database Server from
Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . .
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9-12
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 from
OnLine XPS 8.11 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check the Available Space and System Requirements
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the 8.11
Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server
AD/XP 8.21.UD4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9-2
Informix Migration Guide
UNIX
In This Chapter
This chapter describes how to migrate between Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options, Version 8.21.UD4, and OnLine XPS, Version 8.11. The following
topics are in this chapter:
■
Preparing for migration
■
Upgrading to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4
from OnLine XPS 8.11
■
Moving Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 between
32-bit and 64-bit operating systems
■
Reverting to OnLine XPS 8.11 from Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
8.21.UD4 and OnLine XPS 8.11, you need to understand the Informix guidelines for migrating between database servers. You also need to know about
any new features that might affect migration.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and OnLine XPS 8.11 9-3
Migration Guidelines
Migration Guidelines
Informix recommends that you observe the following guidelines when you
migrate between Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 and
OnLine XPS 8.11:
■
Review the release notes and machine notes for information about
the correct operating-system release, new 8.21 features, installation
procedures, and fixes to problem. For information on features not
covered in the manuals, check the documentation notes.
The release notes, machine notes, and documentation notes are in the
following directory:
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333
■
Retain the installation media for both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Before you upgrade to the target database server from the source
database server, make sure that there are no open transactions in the
source database server. Fast recovery will fail when rolling back open
transactions during the upgrade.
■
Before the migration procedure, perform a level-0 backup of all
dbspaces of the source database server. After you complete the
migration, perform another level-0 backup of the target database
server.
■
Use a test instance of the database server to test the installation and
migration procedures.
■
Verify storage-manager validation for the target database server.
For details, see “Storage-Manager Validation and Installation” on
page 9-5.
For additional installation information and guidelines, refer to your Installation Guide and your Getting Started manual.
Changes in Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21
For information about new and changed features, see the release notes for
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4.
9-4
Informix Migration Guide
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
When you upgrade or revert an Informix database server, the storage
manager that you used on the source database server might not be validated
for the version of the database server to which you are migrating. Verify that
Informix has validated the storage manager for the target database server
version and platform. If not, you need to install a validated storage manager
before you perform backups with the ON-Bar backup and restore system.
When you migrate to a new database server version, install the storage
manager before you bring up the database server. That way, if you have
automatic log backup set up on the database server, ON-Bar can start backing
up the logs when the database server comes on-line.
Warning: If you migrate Informix Storage Manager (ISM) 1.0 catalogs to ISM 2.0
using the ism_catalog utility, the catalogs become corrupted. Once the ISM 2.0
server is restarted after catalog migration, error messages occur in various logs.
For information on how to install and upgrade the storage manager, see the
Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 from
OnLine XPS 8.11
This section describes the procedures for upgrading to Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options, Version 8.21.UD4, from OnLine XPS, Version 8.11.
When you migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4, you
can install and test a database server instance with the same configuration
files, environment variables, and sqlhosts information that you used for your
source database server. After you install Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21.UD4 and verify that it works, you might want to modify configuration files and environment variables to take advantage of the Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 features. For more information,
refer to your Getting Started manual, your Performance Guide, and your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and OnLine XPS 8.11 9-5
Check the Available Space and System Requirements
To upgrade to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4, complete
the following steps, which later sections describe in detail:
1.
Install the latest maintenance release for the 8.11 database server.
2.
Check the available space and system requirements.
3.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
4.
Close all transactions and shut down the 8.11 database server.
5.
Install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4.
6.
Make an initial backup of the 8.21.UD4 database server.
Important: The upgrade procedure might not be restartable. In case of a failure, you
might need to restore your source database server from a backup.
Check the Available Space and System Requirements
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 requires approximately
2,500 free pages (10 megabytes) of logical-log space to build the sysmaster
database. Approximately 70 data pages (280 kilobytes) should be available
for each database.
The catalogs are created in the same dbspace in which the database was
created. If no dbspace was used to create the database, the root dbspace on
coserver 1 is used as the default. If there is not sufficient free space in the
affected dbspace, you should add a new chunk before you perform the
upgrade.
For more information on disk-space requirements for Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the configuration files and the sqlhosts information for each
instance of Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4. Keep the
copies available for later use. Save the configuration files that the following
list shows:
9-6
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig.xps
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig.std
Informix Migration Guide
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the 8.11 Database Server
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
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$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
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$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oncfg*
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/xcfg*
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file from all nodes:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/Bixbar_*.<servernum>
Informix recommends that you save the entire 8.11 installation directory tree.
The following example shows an easy way to do this on UNIX:
cd $INFORMIXDIR
tar -cvf /mybackupdir/informix811.tar
Running this tar command creates a single file that contains all the files in the
directory tree.
Close All Transactions and Shut Down the 8.11 Database
Server
Before you migrate to the 8.21.UD4 database server, make sure that no
connections exist to the source database server. Communicate to client users
how long you expect the database server to be off-line for the migration.
Terminate all database server processes and shut down the 8.11 database
server.
Before you upgrade your 8.11 database server to Version 8.21.UD4, make sure
that no open transactions exist. Fast recovery would fail when rolling back
open transactions during the upgrade.
To let users exit and shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Execute the following command to put the database server into
quiescent mode:
xctl .do onmode -sy
2.
Wait for all users to exit.
3.
Execute the following command to force a checkpoint:
xctl .do onmode -c
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and OnLine XPS 8.11 9-7
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
4.
Perform a level-0 backup of the database server.
5.
Execute the following command to shut down the system:
xctl .do onmode -yuk
6.
To guarantee that no open transactions exist, execute the following
command on all coservers to put the database server in quiescent
mode and initiate a fast recovery of your current database:
oninit -s
The oninit –s command rolls forward all committed transactions and
rolls back all incomplete transactions since the last checkpoint and
then leaves a new checkpoint record in the log with no open transactions pending. For more information about fast recovery and
quiescent mode, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
7.
Issue the following command again to shut down the database
server:
8.
To verify the mode of the database server, execute the following
command:
xctl .do onmode -yuk
xctl onstat -
9.
Check the message log to see that all coservers are shut down.
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
To install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 on UNIX, you
must log in as user root. Set the INFORMIXDIR environment variable to the
directory where you plan to install the 8.21.UD4 database server.
Warning: If you install the 8.21.UD4 database server in the same directory where the
8.11 database server resides, the installation script overwrites the older files. If you
want to preserve your 8.11 files, copy them to a different directory and then install
the 8.21.UD4 database server in the same directory.
Check the machine notes and release notes for information about the correct
operating-system patches, recommended shared-memory parameters, and
configurations that successful installation and operation of the database
server requires. The release notes are in the following directory:
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333
Make any changes that the machine notes or release notes recommend on
every node.
9-8
Informix Migration Guide
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
To install the 8.21.UD4 database server
1.
Verify that the following environment variables are set correctly by
reviewing the output of the env command on every node:
■
INFORMIXDIR
■
The installation script installs Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options into the INFORMIXDIR directory specified for user root
or informix.
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
The client applications look for the sqlhosts file in the
$INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. However, you can use the
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change the
location or name of the sqlhosts file.
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
Set the environment variable PATH so that the local directory is
searched before the INFORMIXDIR directory.
For the correct settings of these environment variables, refer to
your Administrator’s Guide. You can change the values of these
environment variables after you install Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options 8.21.UD4 and before you invoke DB-Access.
2.
Install the 8.21.UD4 database server after you install the Informix
Client Software Developer’s Kit (Client SDK):
a.
Change directory (cd) to the target directory and issue the
following command or commands to untar the Client SDK
product:
tar -svf file.tar
or
zcat file.tar.Z
tar -xvf -
b.
Install the Client SDK product (follow the installation
instructions).
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and OnLine XPS 8.11 9-9
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
c.
Change directory (cd) to the target directory and issue the
following command or commands to untar Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4:
tar -svf file.tar
or
zcat file.tar.Z
tar -xvf -
d.
3.
Install the database server as user root (follow the installation
instructions).
Check your PATH environment variable by running the following
command:
ls -l ‘which oninit’
The execution path should find the new 8.21.UD4 oninit. If you are
using NFS, copy the critical files (oninit, onstat, onutil, and onmode)
to the local file system on all nodes and insure that the PATH
environment variable points to the local files.
4.
Bring the 8.21.UD4 database server on-line with the new product.
Warning: Do not use the -i flag.
Start the database server as you normally would. The database
server will start the migration automatically. The migration process
occurs only the first time the database server is started. This phase
performs any disk conversion and rebuilds the sysmaster and
sysutils databases.
This process might run for an extended period of time. The database
server notes the progress in the online.log file. To monitor the
progress, run the following command:
tail -f online.log
The database server puts the following message in the log as each
dbspace conversion completes:
Conversion complete for dbspace dbspace_name.
The 8.21.UD4 initialization upgrades up to 20 dbspaces in parallel. To
verify that the upgrade is in process, you can use the iostat
command. Significant I/O occurs on a disk device during conversion
of a dbspace.
9-10
Informix Migration Guide
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
5.
Verify that the sysmaster and sysutils databases built successfully
and that all coservers are on-line.
If you are upgrading to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
8.21.UD4 from an 8.11 database server earlier than 8.11.UF1, and you
did not restart the database server with oninit -iy, drop and re-create
the sysutils database. A new column has been added to a table in the
sysutils database. Log in as user informix or root and execute
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/bldutil.sh. The bldutil.sh command destroys
all backup history.
For more information about the sysmaster and sysutils databases,
see your Administrator’s Guide and your Backup and Restore Guide.
6.
Access every database in the server sequentially using the following
command in DB-Access:
database database_name;
This phase performs the final upgrade steps for each database in the
server.
7.
Perform a level-0 backup of the newly upgraded database server
instance.
8.
Shut down the database server and then bring it back on-line.
9.
Set any new environment variables that you might need for your
database server prior to restarting it.
Informix recommends the following settings for the ONCONFIG
parameters LBUFFER and SBUFFER to achieve better performance:
■
LBUFFER = 12288
■
SBUFFER = 2048
For detailed information on these parameters, refer to the release
notes.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 and OnLine XPS 8.11 9-11
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
Use the backup and restore tool (ON-Bar) to make a level-0 backup of
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4. For more information
about ON-Bar, see your Backup and Restore Guide.
Instead of ON-Bar, you can use external tables to perform a backup. For information about loading data to and unloading data from external tables, see the
Administrator’s Reference.
Moving Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4 Between
32-Bit and 64-Bit Operating Systems
To move Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 from a 32-bit
operating system to a 64-bit operating system, shut down the database server
cleanly and bring it back up on the 64-bit operating system. Similarly, to
move Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 from a 64-bit
operating system to a 32-bit operating system, shut down the database server
cleanly and bring it back up on the 32-bit operating system.
Reverting to an Earlier 8.x Database Server from
Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21.UD4
After you migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.UD4 from
an earlier 8.x database server, you cannot revert back automatically. To revert,
you need to unload the data into an external table from the 8.21.UD4 database
server and then load it back into the earlier 8.x database server.
9-12
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Migrating Between Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2
In This Chapter .
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10-3
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . .
The sqlhosts File or Registry Key . . . . . . .
Database Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logging and Nonlogging Table Types . . . . .
Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Informix Enterprise Command Center . . . . .
New Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Language Support . . . . . . . . . .
Backup Tools and ON-Bar Configuration . . . .
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation . . . .
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10-4
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-8
10-11
10-13
10-15
10-17
10-17
10-18
10-18
10-18
Loading and Unloading Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
Express Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
Deluxe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 from OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x. . . . . . . . . . .
Configure and Check Available Space . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server.
Put OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x in Quiescent Mode .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Verify the Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Make a Final Backup of OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
Unload the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Take OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x Off-Line . . . .
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10-20
10-23
10-24
10-25
10-25
10-26
10-27
10-27
10-28
10-28
10
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters. . . . . . . . . .
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 . . . . . . . . .
Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node . . . . .
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File . . . . . .
Update the sqlhosts File or Registry Key . . . . . . .
Update the Backup and Restore Configuration Parameters .
Bring Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 On-Line . . . . . .
Use onutil to Create Cogroups and Dbslices . . . . . .
Create a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Data from External Tables . . . . . . . . . .
Specify DATAFILES . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Log File and Maximum Errors . . . . . . . .
Run UPDATE STATISTICS and Build Indexes . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 . .
Check Rejection Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recompile ESQL/C Programs . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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10-29
10-29
10-30
10-31
10-31
10-31
10-31
10-32
10-32
10-33
10-33
10-34
10-35
10-36
10-36
10-37
10-37
10-38
10-38
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server AD/XP 8.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-38
Unloading Data to External Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-39
Loading Data from External Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-39
10-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the procedure to migrate between Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options, Version 8.21, and OnLine Dynamic Server,
Version 7.2x.
This chapter covers the following topics:
■
Preparing for migration
■
Loading and unloading data
■
Upgrading to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 from
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
■
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options 8.21
Tip: To migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 from Dynamic
Server 7.3x, revert to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x first.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-3
Preparing for Migration
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x, you need to understand the Informix
guidelines for migrating between database servers. You also need to know
about any new features that might affect migration.
Informix suggests that you observe the following precautions when you
migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21:
■
Check the release notes for information about the proper operatingsystem release and any patches that you require for successful installation and operation of the database server.
The release notes are in one of the following directories:
UNIX
WIN NT
❑
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333 ♦
❑
%INFORMIXDIR%\release\en_us\0333.
Release notes appear in the Informix folder. To display this
folder, choose Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar. ♦
On UNIX, retain both versions of the Informix product software on
disk (if you have enough disk resources). On Windows NT, you
cannot retain two versions of the Informix product on disk.
■
Retain the installation media from both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Perform a level-0 backup of all dbspaces and blobspaces with
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x.
After you complete the migration, perform another level-0 backup
with Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.
■
Use a test instance of Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21
to test the installation and migration procedures.
Use a test instance in the desired communications mode to practice
bringing the new database server on-line before you attempt to
upgrade the production database.
■
Verify storage-manager validation for the target database server.
For details, see, “Storage-Manager Validation and Installation” on
page 10-18.
10-4
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
For additional installation information and guidelines, refer to your Installation Guide and your Getting Started manual.
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
This section describes the changes that Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21 introduced that affect initial configuration and migration.
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options introduced new features and
associated terminology, including coservers, cogroups, and dbslices that
facilitate a high degree of parallelism.
Environment Variables
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 introduced significant changes
to the following environment variables:
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
PDQPRIORITY
■
PSORT_NPROCS
The Informix Guide to SQL: Reference describes these environment variables.
For performance implications and guidelines, refer to the Performance Guide
for Informix Dynamic Server with Advanced Decision Support and Extended
Parallel Options.
Configuration Parameters
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 introduced new configuration
parameters that might affect installation. You might also need to adjust the
values of existing parameters. The following figures list the parameters. For
more information on these configuration parameters, see your Administrator’s Guide or the Administrator’s Reference.
Figure 10-1 lists the ON-Bar and ISM parameters for a database server.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-5
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Figure 10-1
ON-Bar and ISM Configuration Parameters for a Database Server
Parameters Added
Parameters Changed
Parameters Dropped
BAR_ACT_LOG
BAR_BSALIB_PATH
BAR_DBS_COSVR
BAR_LOG_COSVR
BAR_RETRY
BAR_SM
BAR_SM_NAME
BAR_WORKER_COSVR
BAR_WORKER_MAX
BAR_XFER_BUFSIZE
BAR_XPORT_COUNT
ISM_LOG_POOL
Single Coserver
For a single coserver configuration, use the default values in the onconfig.std
template in the etc directory in INFORMIXDIR.
Important: Do not modify onconfig.std. The database server provides the
onconfig.std configuration file as a template and not as a functional configuration.
Figure 10-2 lists the ONCONFIG parameters for a single coserver configuration for Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.
10-6
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Figure 10-2
Single Coserver Configuration Parameters
Parameters Added
Parameters Changed
Parameters Dropped
CONFIGSIZE
MIRRORPATH
DS_MAX_SCANS
PHYSDBS
ROOTNAME
ROOTNAME
ROOTPATH
ISO_CURLOCKS
DBTEMPSPACE
DS_ADM_POLICY
DS_TOTAL_MEMORY
BAR_ACT_LOG
MAX_PDQPRIORITY
BAR_RETRY
DBSERVERNAME
BAR_WORKER_MAX
BAR_WORKER_MAX
BAR_BSALIB_PATH
BAR_XPORT_COUNT
BAR_XFER_BUFSIZE
LOG_BACKUP_MODE
LOG_BACKUP_MODE
ISM_LOG_POOL
BAR_ACT_LOG
BAR_RETRY
BAR_WORKER_MAX
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-7
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Multiple Coservers
For a multiple coserver configuration, use the default values in the
onconfig.xps template that is located in the etc directory in INFORMIXDIR.
Important: Do not modify onconfig.xps. The database server provides the
onconfig.xps configuration file as a template and not as a functional configuration.
Figure 10-3 lists the ONCONFIG parameters for a multiple coserver configuration for Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.
Figure 10-3
Multiple Coserver Configuration Parameters
Parameters Added
Parameters Changed
Parameters Dropped
CONFIGSIZE
MIRRORPATH
DS_MAX_SCANS
COSERVER
ROOTNAME
END
ROOTPATH
PHYSSLICE
DBTEMPSPACE
NODE
DS_TOTAL_MEMORY
ROOTSLICE
MAX_PDQPRIORITY
ISO_CURLOCKS
DBSERVERNAME
DS_ADM_POLICY
LOG_BACKUP_MODE
LOG_BACKUP_MODE
The sqlhosts File or Registry Key
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 contains formatting changes
and new options in the sqlhosts file or registry key. The dbservername
format and the options within the options field are different from any prior
version.
10-8
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
The dbservername Identifier
Within the sqlhosts file or registry key for Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options, the dbservername identifies each connection coserver uniquely by
the following format:
dbservername.coserver-number
Element
Description
dbservername
The value that you specify in the DBSERVERNAME or
DBSERVERALIASES configuration parameter
coserver-number
The integer that you specify in each COSERVER configuration
parameter
This form of the dbservername is referred to as a coserver name. Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options uses the DBSERVERNAME and coserver
numbers specified in the ONCONFIG file to generate the following coserver
names automatically:
xps.1
.
.
.
xps.8
New Options Syntax
The fifth field in the sqlhosts or registry fields, the options field, accommodates new options and future options.
The following list is a review of the sqlhosts or registry key fields:
FIELD 1
DBSERVERNAME
FIELD 2
NETTYPE
FIELD 3
HOSTNAME
FIELD 4
SERVICENAME
FIELD 5
OPTIONS
The dbservername in field 1 is a key for connectivity information in the
remaining fields in the sqlhosts file or registry key.
The options field contains columns. Each column is separated by a comma or
white space that represents an end of the column. Client and database server
applications check each column to determine whether the option is
supported in the database server release.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-9
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Tip: If you maintain more than one version of the database server, use separate
sqlhosts files or registry entries for older versions of the database server. Alternatively, you can use separate entries with an alias to the appropriate database server.
For Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21, an sqlhosts entry must
exist for every coserver. The sqlhosts file or registry key contains a line for
each connection type that the database server provides, for each coserver that
makes up Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, and for each 8.21
database server to which a client connects.
Figure 10-4 lists the sqlhosts file or registry key fields for Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options 8.21.
Figure 10-4
sqlhosts File or Registry Fields
dbservername
nettype
hostname
servicename
options
dbservername.coserver_1
onsoctcp
node1
sqlexec.1
e=x100,r=1,s=1
dbservername.coserver_2
.
.
.
dbservername.coserver_8
onsoctcp
.
.
.
onsoctcp
node2
.
.
.
node8
sqlexec.2
.
.
.
sqlexec.8
k=1,r=1, b=200
.
.
.
g=abcd,i=2300
In the sample sqlhosts file, the options field for the first coserver contains
three options in three columns, as the following table shows.
Column
Option
Column 1
e=x100
Column 2
r=1
Column 3
s=1
Important: Informix recommends that you use field 5, options, for Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options 8.21 for the following options only: b, k, r, s, g, e, c, i. Place
any other options in subsequent columns. If you do not want any of these options but
do want other options, use k=1 in column 5, which is the default. For example, for
options for dbservername.cosever_8, use k=1, g=abcd,i=2300.
10-10
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
For more information on the components of the sqlhosts file or registry key,
see the Administrator’s Guide for Informix Dynamic Server with Advanced
Decision Support and Extended Parallel Options.
Database Schema
The Version 8.21 database schema supports flexible fragmentation strategies,
system-defined hash fragmentation, hybrid fragmentation, and unique serial
columns across coservers. When you migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options, make sure to configure your database schema to take advantage
of these features, which allow for a high degree of parallelism.
Hybrid Fragmentation
Hybrid fragmentation is a schema that incorporates multiple fragmentation
strategies. Prior to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21, tablefragmentation strategy was based on a single strategy, either hash,
expression, or round-robin. Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21
allows fragmentation by system-defined hash and you can combine two
fragmentation strategies on the same table.
When you prepare to migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
8.21, define the dbspace or dbspaces where your fragmented tables reside, as
the following example shows:
CREATE TABLE account
(account_id integer,
account_bal integer,
account_date date,
account_name char(30)
)
FRAGMENT BY HASH(account_date)
IN account_dbsp1,
account_dbsp2,
.
.
.
account_dbspn;
This CREATE TABLE statement fragments the table across multiple dbspaces,
which can reside on different coservers. You can create dbslices to manage
the multiple dbspaces across coservers. The dbslices simplify administration
of multiple dbspaces that reside on different coservers. For example, you can
create a dbslice account_dbslc that includes dbspaces account_dbsp1 to
account_dbspn.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-11
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
The following statement shows how the CREATE TABLE statement is simpler
with the IN dbslice clause:
CREATE TABLE account
(account_id integer,
account_bal integer,
account_date date,
account_name char(30)
) FRAGMENT BY HASH(account_date)
IN account_dbslc;
For more information on how to create a dbslice, refer to your Administrator’s
Guide.
Hybrid fragmentation allows you to further fragment the table within each
dbslice. You might want to fragment each time period by account number, as
the following sample CREATE TABLE statement shows:
CREATE TABLE account
(account_id integer,
account_bal integer,
account_date date,
account_name char(30)
)
FRAGMENT BY HYBRID (HASH (account_date)) EXPRESSION
account_id < 100 IN account_dbslc.1
account_id >= 100 AND account_id > 200 IN account_dbslc.2
.
.
.
<expression_n> in account_dbslc.n;
For more information on hybrid fragmentation syntax, see the Informix Guide
to SQL: Syntax. For more information and performance implications of using
various fragmentation strategies, see your Performance Guide.
Unique Record Identifiers: Serial Columns
Serial columns in Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options are unique identifiers across coservers. In OnLine Dynamic Server, ROWIDs uniquely identify
records, but Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 does not use
ROWIDs across multiple coservers as unique record identifiers. You can use
ROWIDs in Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, but they act as unique
identifiers only if your tables are not fragmented.
Tip: When you migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21, make sure
your applications do not assume that ROWIDs are unique.
10-12
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 uses serial columns that are
contiguous within each coserver to serve as unique identifiers, although a
gap in numbers between coservers might occur. You can load values into
serial columns, such as from the original data file, or use values that Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options generates automatically. However, when you
create a table, you must specify that you want serial columns.
Design your database schema to take advantage of fragmentation strategies
and serial columns before you migrate to it. For general information about
fragmentation and serial columns, see the Informix Guide to Database Design
and Implementation.
Logging and Nonlogging Table Types
In Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21, no method exists to create
a nonlogging database. The default logging mode is set to unbuffered
logging. This database server, however, offers the ability to have logging and
nonlogging tables, and you can mix logging and nonlogging tables within the
same database.
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 has permanent and temporary
tables with logging or nonlogging capabilities. Permanent tables have four
classes: raw, standard, operational, and static. Temporary tables have two
classes: scratch and temp. Both permanent and temporary tables can be altered
from one class to another.
The logging mode of a table restricts the type of data load you can use for a
table as well as the recoverability of the table.
Tip: Use raw tables to initially load and scrub data and later alter the tables to
another class, if necessary. Raw tables can be loaded in express mode only. For a
description of express-load mode, see “Express Mode” on page 10-19.
The following table lists the logging and loading characteristics of permanent
and temporary table types. Express- and deluxe-loading modes are
discussed in “Loading and Unloading Data” on page 10-19.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-13
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Table Type
Permanent
Temporary
Logging or Nonlogging
Load Mode Options
Raw
Nonlogging
Express
Standard
Logging
Deluxe
Operational
Logging
Express or deluxe
Static
Nonlogging
No loading
Scratch
Nonlogging
Temp
Logging
Permanent Tables
Use raw tables to initially load and scrub data. Raw tables use light appends
that bypass the buffer cache and allow fast loading. They do not support
indexes, referential constraints, rollback and recovery, or restoration from
backup. You can use raw tables only with express-mode loads. For a
description of express-load mode, see “Express Mode” on page 10-19.
Standard tables are similar to tables in a logged database in OnLine Dynamic
Server. They do not use light appends but support recovery and rollback.
Standard tables allow restores. However, you cannot use express mode to
load standard tables.
Use operational tables to load data from a source outside the database
system. Operational tables use light appends—unbuffered, unlogged insert
operations. They allow rollback and recovery but do not allow restoration
from backup. If indexes are enabled, deluxe-mode load is automatic. For
descriptions, see “Deluxe Mode” on page 10-20.
Use static tables for read-only operations. Static tables use light scans and do
not need locking. They allow constraints and nonclustered indexes but do
not allow rollback and recovery or restoration from backup. Static tables
permit advanced indexing methods created especially for decision-support
system (DSS) queries.
Static tables do not support data manipulation operations (inserts, updates,
and deletes) and they cannot be used for loading. To load the tables, alter the
table type to load and then change the table type back to static.
10-14
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Temporary Tables
Scratch tables are unlogged and use light appends. They do not support
indexes, referential constraints, or rollback.
Temporary tables are logged and support bulk operations, including light
appends. Temporary tables also support indexes, referential constraints, and
rollback but do not support recovery.
For information on correct SQL statement syntax and use when you create
and change tables, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax. For more details
about table characteristics, see your Administrator’s Guide. For more information on how to work with table types and fragmentation to design your
database, see the Informix Guide to Database Design and Implementation.
Utilities
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options uses new command-line utilities,
onutil and xctl. The onutil utility consolidates much of the functionality of
oncheck, onparams, and onspaces into one command. (Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options does not support the oncheck utility.)
For a multiple coserver configuration, the xctl utility lets you execute
command utilities and operating-system commands on one or more
coservers. Informix recommends that you use onutil in Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options rather than other command utilities.
onutil
For a single coserver, use onutil to define or modify the following objects in
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options:
■
Cogroups
■
Dbslices
■
Dbspaces
■
Logical logs
■
Logslices (an object name for a collection of logs)
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-15
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Tip: The onutil utility replaces the functionality of the -cd, -pd, -pt, -pT, -pr, -pd,
-cI, -ci, -pk, -pp, -pP, and -cc options of oncheck.
To define or modify physical logs, use onparams.
Figure 10-5 compares the oncheck commands to the onutil equivalent.
WIN NT
oncheck Command
onutil Command
-cd, -pd
CHECK TABLE DATA
-pt, -pT
CHECK TABLE INFO
-cr, -pr
CHECK RESERVED
-cI
CHECK INDEX WITH DATA
-ci, -pk
CHECK INDEX
-pp, -pP
DISPLAY PAGE
-cc
CHECK CATALOGS
-ce, -pe
CHECK SPACE
Figure 10-5
Comparable oncheck and
onutil Commands
The installation procedure prepares a file, setenv.cmd, that sets the
environment variables to their correct values. The setenv.cmd file is stored in
the %INFORMIXDIR% directory. You must execute setenv.cmd before you
can use any of the command-line utilities. You can execute the file automatically from Informix Enterprise Command Center (IECC). You can also
execute setenv.cmd from the command line. ♦
xctl
For a multiple coserver configuration, you can use xctl with onstat, oninit,
and onmode to execute command utilities and operating-system commands
on a per-coserver basis.
For example, use xctl to initiate Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options on
all your coservers:
xctl -C oninit -y
10-16
Informix Migration Guide
Changes That Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 Introduced
Several new options to onstat are available to check for OnLine XPS statistics.
Use the following command to view the new onstat options:
xctl -onstat --
The following command brings down all coservers on a Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options instance:
xctl onmode -ky
For more information on onutil and xctl, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
WIN NT
Informix Enterprise Command Center
IECC for Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options runs on Windows NT. It
enables the database server administrator to configure, control, and monitor
the status of Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options. IECC provides a
graphical interface that simplifies the process of database server administration and automates common database server administration functions.
IECC includes on-line help files. For additional information about IECC, see
the Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide.
New Indexes
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 supports generalized-key (GK)
and bitmap indexes. GK indexes allow you to create indexes with any of the
following key values:
■
Subset of rows from a table
■
Derived from an expression
■
Join of columns from multiple tables
■
Combination of various indexes on a table
Bitmap indexes can store a list of record identifiers (ROWIDS) for key values
in a compressed bitmap format. GK indexes can be bitmap indexes as well.
When you upgrade to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21, system
catalog tables are added automatically to support GK indexes. However,
because GK indexes are not supported in earlier versions of the database
server, if you revert to an earlier version of the database server, drop GK
indexes.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-17
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
When you migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21, bitmap
indexes that you create with the USING BITMAP syntax are not accessible by
older versions of the database server. If you revert to an earlier version of
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, drop bitmap indexes.
For more information on GK indexes and bitmap indexes, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide and your Performance Guide. For strategic use of
different index types, refer to the Informix Guide to Database Design and
Implementation.
GLS
Global Language Support
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options incorporates Global Language
Support (GLS). GLS enables Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options to
handle different languages, cultural conventions, and code sets for Asian,
European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. The Informix Guide
to GLS Functionality provides a full description of GLS.
Backup Tools and ON-Bar Configuration
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options does not support the ontape utility
or ON-Archive. To back up a Version 8.21 database server, you need to use
ON-Bar or data migration tools.
If you use ON-Bar, when you migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21 from OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x, you need to make
substantial changes in the ON-Bar configuration. For details about configuring ON-Bar, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
When you upgrade or revert an Informix database server, the storage
manager that you used on the source database server might not be validated
for the version of the database server to which you are migrating. Verify that
Informix has validated the storage manager for the target database server
version and platform. If not, you need to install a validated storage manager
before you perform backups with the ON-Bar backup and restore system.
10-18
Informix Migration Guide
Loading and Unloading Data
When you migrate to a new database server version, install the storage
manager before you bring up the database server. That way, if you have
automatic log backup set up on the database server, ON-Bar can start backing
up the logs when the database server comes on-line.
Warning: If you migrate Informix Storage Manager (ISM) 1.0 catalogs to ISM 2.0
using the ism_catalog utility, the catalogs become corrupted. Once the ISM 2.0
server is restarted after catalog migration, error messages occur in various logs.
For information on how to install and upgrade the storage manager, see the
Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
Loading and Unloading Data
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 uses high-performance parallel
loading with external tables to load and unload data. You can load tables from
different sources and perform a variety of data-format conversions with
external tables. The database server uses multiple threads to read data files in
parallel and then convert the data into internal Informix format. A roundrobin algorithm distributes the database server to the conversion threads.
You can use the default delimiter (|) format to load and unload files with
INSERT... SELECT statements. You can also use other formats. For loading
instructions, see “Create a Database” on page 10-33.
High-performance parallel loading in Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options uses two modes: express and deluxe.
Express Mode
Express mode provides the highest performance during loads because it uses
light appends. Light-append operations append rows to a table and bypass
the buffer cache that eliminates buffer-management overhead. The table is
locked exclusively during an express load so that no other user can access the
table during the load. You cannot use express mode on a table with BYTE and
TEXT data.
Use express mode on tables that do not have active indexes or referential
constraints. Express mode is the default mode.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-19
Deluxe Mode
Warning: Data is not logged during an express-mode load, so you cannot recover
data automatically.
Deluxe Mode
Deluxe mode combines fast parallel loading with an evaluation of indexes
and unique constraints on a per-row basis. Deluxe mode is preferred if the
cost of rebuilding an index is too high for the amount of data loaded. Data is
logged during the load. If errors occur during a deluxe load, the load fails.
You can lock the table in shared mode to allow concurrent access by users, or
alternatively, you can lock the table exclusively until the load is complete.
Use deluxe mode if indexes, triggers, and referential constraints are enabled.
For complete documentation on external tables and deluxe- and expressmode loading syntax, see your Administrator’s Guide and the Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax.
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 from
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
You can use four options to migrate data to Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21 from OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x. Your data-migration options
depend primarily on connectivity between the source and target database
servers and on the amount of disk space available for staging files.
Figure 10-6 illustrates the four options for migrating data to Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options 8.21 from OnLine Dynamic Server.
10-20
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 from OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
Figure 10-6
ODS to AD/XP Migration
1
Tape drive
Tape drive
2
FTP
FTP
ODS
AD/XP
3
Network
NFS
NFS
4
PIPE
■
■
■
■
Option 1. To migrate from OnLine Dynamic Server when no connectivity is available between source and target database servers,
unload tables to tape before you load to Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options.
Option 2. To migrate when the required disk space for staging files
is available on both the source database server and the target database
server, unload data from the source database to file.
Use file transfer protocol (FTP) to transfer the file to Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options to load.
Option 3. To migrate when you have sufficient disk space for staging
files only on Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options or the source
database, use network file system (NFS) mount points.
For example, if Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options has enough
disk space to handle your staging files, you can NFS mount a
directory from Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options to OnLine
Dynamic Server and unload your data from OnLine Dynamic Server
to that NFS mounted directory.
Option 4. You can use named pipes to support loading data to and
unloading data from storage devices, including tape drives and
direct network connections to mainframes.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-21
Upgrading to Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 from OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
UNIX
To upgrade data when you load, you can create a filter program that writes
upgraded data to a named pipe. The database server then reads its input
from the named pipe in one of the common formats. ♦
Tip: Option 4 is the fastest. Options 2 and 3 are faster than option 1 because of the
time required to read and write to tape.
This section describes the procedure for migrating to Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options, Version 8.21, from OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.2x.
When you migrate, complete the following steps, which the sections that
follow describe in more detail:
1.
Configure and check available space.
2.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
3.
Close all transactions in the source database server.
4.
Go to quiescent mode.
5.
Verify the integrity of the data.
6.
Verify the mode.
7.
Make a final (level-0) backup.
8.
Unload the data.
9.
Take the source database server off-line.
Important: Repeat steps 1 through 9 for each instance of OnLine Dynamic Server
that you are migrating to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21.
10-22
10.
Reconfigure the operating system, if necessary.
11.
Install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options and copy
INFORMIXDIR to each node.
12.
Set environment variables on each node.
13.
Copy database server utilities to each node.
14.
Update the ONCONFIG configuration files.
15.
Update the sqlhosts file or registry key.
16.
Update the backup and restore configuration parameters.
17.
Bring Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options on-line.
18.
Use onutil to create cogroups and dbslices.
19.
Create a database instance.
20.
Load data from external tables.
Informix Migration Guide
Configure and Check Available Space
21.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS and build indexes.
22.
Verify the integrity of the data.
23.
Make an initial backup of Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
8.21.
24.
Check rejection files for each table you load.
25.
Recompile ESQL/C programs.
26.
Complete migration.
Important: Repeat steps 11 through 23 for each instance of Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options.
Configure and Check Available Space
Configure your computer memory equally among all the nodes. Because
only one ONCONFIG file exists in Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
8.21 and the configuration parameter is configured globally, the amount of
memory you configure in your ONCONFIG file is limited to the node with the
smallest amount of memory. If your system memory is configured unequally,
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options 8.21 cannot take advantage of the
nodes that have extra memory.
When you calculate disk-space requirements for Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options 8.21, take into account the size of your tables. You need
additional space for control information for your tables (approximately 60
bytes per page). Also consider disk space for the following needs:
■
Root dbspace for all your nodes
■
Physical logs
■
Logical-log space
(If you require logging during loads, add the additional space.)
■
Temporary dbspace
■
Indexes
■
Summary tables and index from your on-line transaction processing
(OLTP) tools
■
Mirroring
■
Future growth
■
File-system space for your operating system and Informix products
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-23
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
UNIX
■
Staging space for loading and unloading files
■
Safe write area
■
New system catalog tables
■
New sysmaster tables
Make sure you modify the kernel parameter on every node. ♦
For information on disk-space requirements for Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Important: If a dbspace has less free space available than it requires, either move a
table from the dbspace to another dbspace or add a chunk to it. The dbspace estimates
could be higher if you have an unusually large number of SPL routines or indexes in
the database.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the configuration files, if they are present, for each instance of
OnLine Dynamic Server. Keep the copies available for later use. Figure 10-7
lists the configuration files for each operating system.
Figure 10-7
ODS Configuration Files
UNIX
Windows NT
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\ONCONFIG
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\onconfig\
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig.std
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\onconfig.std
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sm_versions
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\sm_versions
$INFORMIXDIR/aaodir/adtcfg
%INFORMIXDIR%\aaodir\adtcfg.*
$INFOMIXDIR/dbssodir/adtmasks
%INFORMIXDIR%\dbssodir\adtmasks.*
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tctermcap
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
10-24
Informix Migration Guide
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file:
UNIX:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ixbar.<servernum>
Windows NT: $INFORMIXDIR\etc\ixbar.<servernum>
UNIX
WIN NT
If you use ON-Archive to back up OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x and logical
logs, you must also copy and save the configuration files in the following list:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ARC_CONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/config.arc
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oper_deflt.arc ♦
For Windows NT you do not need to copy these files because the
Windows NT version of the 7.2x database server does not use ON-Archive. ♦
Close All Transactions in the Source Database Server
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and shut
down the source database server. This procedure lets users exit and shuts
down the system gracefully. If necessary, you can perform an immediate
shutdown.
To let users exit and shut down the system gracefully
1.
Execute the onmode –sy command.
2.
Wait for all users to exit.
3.
Execute the onmode –ky command.
To perform an immediate shutdown
onmode -ky
Put OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x in Quiescent Mode
Execute the following command to enter quiescent mode and initiate a fast
recovery of your current database:
oninit -s
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-25
Verify the Integrity of the Data
The oninit –s option rolls forward all committed transactions and rolls back
all incomplete transactions since the last checkpoint and then leaves a new
checkpoint record in the log with no open transactions pending. (For more
information about fast recovery and quiescent mode, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.)
You must execute oninit -s before you initialize your target database server.
If the system is not left in a quiescent state, you receive the following error
when you attempt to initialize Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options and
it goes off-line:
Open transaction detected when changing log versions.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of the data before you make a
level-0 backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them before you
make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages, extents,
system catalog tables, data, and indexes.
To obtain the database names, use the following statements with DB-Access:
DATABASE sysmaster;
SELECT name FROM sysdatabases;
Figure 10-8 lists the oncheck commands you can use to verify data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 10-8
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI
database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
10-26
Informix Migration Guide
Verify the Mode
Verify the Mode
Before you make a backup, execute the following command to verify that
your database server is in quiescent mode:
onstat -
The first line of the onstat output contains the status of the database server.
Figure 10-9 shows that the database server is in quiescent mode.
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server
Version x.xx.xxx
--
Quiescent
--
Up
xx:xx:xx -
Figure 10-9
Example of onstat
Status Line
OnLine Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
- xxxx Kbytes
Make a Final Backup of OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x
Use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to make a level-0 backup and logical-log
backup of OnLine Dynamic Server. If you use ontape, execute the following
command to make a level-0 backup:
ontape -s
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup.
After you make a level-0 backup, perform a complete backup of the logical
log, including the current logical-log file.
UNIX
If you use ON-Archive, execute the following command to make a fullsystem, level-0 backup:
Onarchive> ARCHIVE/DBSPACESET=*
♦
For details about making backups, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide for
ON-Bar information or to your Archive and Backup Guide for ontape or
ON-Archive information.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-27
Unload the Data
Unload the Data
You can unload your data from your source database server into ASCII or
internal Informix format, which yields the fastest unload. You can use the
UNLOAD statement, the High-Performance Loader (HPL), or dbexport. The
HPL is the fastest of these methods. For information about these options to
unload your data, refer to Chapter 2, “Data Migration.”
When unloading floats or small floats to a fixed-position file, if the internal
precision of the float is greater than the fixed field can support, the number is
truncated to fit the field. If you want more control over the formatted result
of a float, use the SQL functions ROUND() or TRUNC() to define the output
precision and to convert the float to a decimal.
Take OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x Off-Line
Execute the following command to take OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x to offline mode:
onmode -ky
Bring your source database server off-line to ensure that all common files are
inactive. Your source database server must be off-line because Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options uses the same files. You cannot install
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options if any of the files that it uses are
active.
After you shut down your source database server, execute the following
command to verify that it is off-line:
onstat -
Verify that you get the message shared memory not initialized... for
off-line mode.
Important: Make a final backup for each source database server instance that you
plan to upgrade.
10-28
Informix Migration Guide
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
UNIX
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
You might need to change some of the kernel parameters for your operating
system before you install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options. To reconfigure the operating system, follow the directions in the machine notes file
included in your distribution media for your operating system.
For information on the location of the machine notes file, refer to “Documentation Notes, Release Notes, and Machine Notes” on page 22 of the
Introduction.
Important: Make sure you modify the kernel parameters on every node.
Install Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21
To install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options on UNIX, you must log in
as user root or informix. To install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
on Windows NT, you must be a member of the Informix-Admin group. Set
the INFORMIXDIR environment variable to the directory where you plan to
install the database server. Install it on the node that contains the connection
coserver in the directory that was NFS mounted on all the other nodes. Install
the entire distribution on a single node within a file system that is shared
across all the nodes that are assigned to Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options.
Check that the file system can hold the entire Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options distribution of approximately 180 megabytes. Export this file
system with write access as user root or informix over the NFS and mount it
to the same mount point on every node.
Warning: If you install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options in the same
directory where OnLine Dynamic Server resides, the installation script overwrites
the older files. If you want to preserve your OnLine Dynamic Server files, you must
install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options in a different directory on UNIX or
on different computers on Windows NT.
Check the release notes for information about the proper operating-system
patches, recommended shared-memory parameters, and configurations that
are required for successful installation and operation of the database server.
UNIX
The release notes are in the $INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333 directory. ♦
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-29
Set Environment Variables
WIN NT
The release notes are in %INFORMIXDIR%\release\en_us\0333. ♦
Make any required changes that the release notes recommend on every node.
For more information on how to install Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options, refer to your Installation Guide and your Performance Guide.
Set Environment Variables
After you install Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options and before you
invoke DB-Access, set up the following environment variables on every node:
■
INFORMIXDIR
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
The client application looks for the sqlhosts file in the
$INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. However, you can use the INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change the location or name of
the sqlhosts file. ♦
UNIX
The client application looks for connectivity information in a key in
the Windows NT registry named
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Informix\SQLHOSTS. ♦
WIN NT
Set the environment variable PATH so that the local directory that contains
the Informix commands is searched before the INFORMIXDIR directory.
The installation script installs Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options into
the INFORMIXDIR directory specified for user root or informix on UNIX platforms or for a member of the Informix-Admin group on Windows NT
platforms. The installation script does not bring Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options on-line.
10-30
Informix Migration Guide
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node
Copy Database Server Utilities to Each Node
To ensure rapid and proper initialization, create local copies of the following
utilities on each node:
■
oninit
■
onmode
■
onstat
When you finish copying the utilities to each node, log out as root.
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration File
You can customize your ONCONFIG configuration file and environment
variables to take advantage of the new features that Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options introduced. After you observe the performance of Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options, you might want to make further
adjustments.
For configuration information, refer to your Administrator’s Guide. For information about environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL:
Reference.
Update the sqlhosts File or Registry Key
The sqlhosts file or registry key contains a line for each connection type that
the database server provides, for each coserver that makes up Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options, and for each 8.21 database server to which a
client connects. An sqlhosts entry must exist for every coserver.
For details, see “The sqlhosts File or Registry Key” on page 10-8.
Update the Backup and Restore Configuration Parameters
You might need to change the values of the backup and restore configuration
parameters. Figure 10-1 on page 10-6 lists these parameters.
For more information, see “Configuration Parameters” on page 10-5.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-31
Bring Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 On-Line
Bring Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 On-Line
Execute the following command to bring Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 8.21 on-line for the first time:
xctl -C oninit -iy
Review the message logs to verify that your sysmaster database and
sysmaster catalog tables were created successfully.
Check your database server message log to verify that all coservers are up. To
view the message log, run:
onstat -m
To verify that all your coservers are up and running, execute:
xctl onstat -
For information about messages in the message log, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Important: If the message file indicates problems, solve the problems before you
continue to the next step.
Use onutil to Create Cogroups and Dbslices
Create cogroups and dbslices of equal sizes across all coservers. When you
create a dbslice, you specify the cogroup name so that Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options knows the coservers on which to create dbspaces. For
example, you might create a dbslice from an accounting cogroup. The
following example shows how to create a cogroup and a dbslice:
% onutil
1> CREATE COGROUP acctg_group
.
.
.
5> CREATE DBSLICE acctg_dbslc
6>
FROM acctg_group ...
You do not need to specify the names explicitly for all the individual
dbspaces that are associated with the partitioned tables. Dynamic Server
with AD and XP Options generates the dbspace names for you.
10-32
Informix Migration Guide
Create a Database
Run xctl to verify that all your dbspaces were created correctly:
xctl onstat -d
Create a Database
Create a database instance on Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options and
choose the optimal loading scheme from the data-loading options discussed
in “Loading and Unloading Data” on page 10-19. After you install Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options, you can create a database using DB-Access
as your client application or issue SQL statements to connect to and
disconnect from Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options.
You can start IECC from a Windows NT console to customize one or more
database servers. For instructions on how to customize a database server, see
your Administrator’s Guide.
Load Data from External Tables
The following section describes how to load data into Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options external tables and convert it into internal Informix
format. You can issue these SQL statements in the DB-Access utility or embed
them in Informix ESQL/C.
Use a CREATE TABLE statement to create a table in your database to which
you plan to load the data from OnLine Dynamic Server. For example:
CREATE TABLE account
(account_id integer,
account_bal integer,
account_date date,
account_name char(30)
)
FRAGMENT BY HASH(account_date)
IN account_dbsp1,
account_dbsp2,
.
.
.
account_dbspn;
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-33
Load Data from External Tables
Issue a series of SQL statements to create external tables for loading data. The
CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE statement describes the location of the external file
(on file or from pipe) and the format of external data. When you load with
external tables, you can select FILE or PIPE for named pipes for your data
source. You can load DELIMITED format data, FIXED format data or Informix
internal format data (which is created when you unload data in this format).
Loading with Informix internal format is fast because no conversion is
required. Delimited or fixed-format data can be in ASCII or EBCDIC code sets.
The external table statement can also describe data-conversion information
and specify a file for error and diagnostic information.
For example:
Create EXTERNAL TABLE extTableName
SAME AS sourceTableName
USING
FORMAT “informix”,
DATAFILES
(
“DISK: COGROUP_ALL:/data/file.%c”,
REJECTFILE “/pload/reject”
);
If the files you are loading were unloaded from a database in Informix
internal format, specify an Informix format in the USING clause. The SAME
AS clause creates the external table with the same definitions for the columns
of the data files from the existing database.
Specify DATAFILES
The USING DATAFILES clause specifies the file type, coserver or cogroup, and
the location of the file, and the file format definition and location for a reject
file for error and diagnostic information. The USING DATAFILES clause takes
double quoted strings separated by commas. The DATAFILES statement has
three parts, separated by colons: the data type, the data location, and the
absolute path to the file.
10-34
Informix Migration Guide
Load Data from External Tables
To move data between external tables and internal tables, issue data manipulation language (DML) SQL statements. Load data files into the database by
issuing the INSERT AND SELECT statements. The INSERT and SELECT statements map the movement of the external data from or to the database table.
The data in the data files is loaded from the external table into an internal
table using the INSERT into SELECT statements. For example:
LOCK TABLE IN EXCLUSIVE MODE; # for deluxe mode
INSERT INTO account
(account_id, account_bal, account_date date, account_name)
SELECT *
FROM extTableName
USING
(FORMAT “informix”,
DATAFILES
(
“DISK:3:/tmp/data.1”
“DISK:5:/tmp/data.1”
)
WHERE account_name [1] = “A”;
Tip: Specify the format informix only for data files you unload from an Informix
database. The WHERE clause can specify which data file rows to load.
Set Log File and Maximum Errors
You can set a log file that stores session information and statistics gathered
about each load and unload when it completes. The log file also lists reject
files. For information on reject files, see “Check Rejection Files” on
page 10-37. If the WITH APPEND keywords are used, the new log information
is appended to an existing file; otherwise the file is truncated. To set this log
file, issue the following statement:
SET PLOAD FILE TO filename
[WITH APPEND];
Tip: You can only have one file open at a time. If you issue multiple SET PLOAD FILE
statements, the last one you issue is in effect.
To control the maximum number of errors allowed per coserver before a load
is aborted, you can set the MAXERRORS option in the external table. Include
the following statement in your CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE statement:
MAXERRORS maxNumErrPerCoserver
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-35
Run UPDATE STATISTICS and Build Indexes
For more information on the CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE statement, refer to
the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
You can also use onstat -g xmp and onstat -g dfm to monitor the query
segments and data flow. For more information, see your Performance Guide.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS and Build Indexes
Run UPDATE STATISTICS on all the tables you load into your database.
Build indexes on the tables in Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options that
were indexed in OnLine Dynamic Server. You might want to wait before you
build indexes to see if your queries run fast enough without them.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
After Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options finishes upgrading the
system catalog tables, use onutil to verify that no data was corrupted in the
migration process. The onutil commands are not SQL statements; neither
DB-Access nor any other SQL utility or application supports them. Only user
informix or root can use the CHECK and DISPLAY DATA clauses. The onutil
CHECK options place a shared lock on tables when they check indexes. They
also place shared locks on system catalog tables when they check them. You
can verify the integrity of the reserve pages, extents, system catalog tables,
data, and indexes, as Figure 10-10 shows.
Figure 10-10
Commands for Verifying Data Integrity
10-36
Action
onutil Command
Check reserve pages
onutil CHECK RESERVED DISPLAY DATA
Check extents
onutil CHECK SPACE DISPLAY DATA
Check system catalog tables
onutil CHECK CATALOGS
Check data
onutil CHECK TABLE DATA DISPLAY DATA
Check indexes
onutil CHECK INDEX DISPLAY DATA
Informix Migration Guide
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21
You might want to test and run your queries on Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options and make sure they produce the same results.
For more information about onutil, see your Administrator’s Guide.
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21
Use your backup and restore tool (ON-Bar) to make a level-0 backup. Do not
overwrite the tapes you used earlier when you made your final backup of
your source database server.
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options supports unloading to pipes, so
you can unload directly to a tape device. You do not need to unload data first
to disk.
You can use external tables to perform a backup. This process requires
adequate disk space to stage your data for loading and unloading. To back
up, unload a table to an external table and back up to tape. To restore, load
data from your external tables.
For more information about ON-Bar, see your Backup and Restore Guide.
Important: Do not restore the backed up logical-log files from OnLine Dynamic
Server for Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options.
Check Rejection Files
The REJECTFILE file specifies which rows were rejected during a load for each
coserver. Each coserver must have a unique REJECTFILE name. Enter the
REJECTFILE parameter in the USING clause of the EXTERNAL table definition
as the example on page 10-33 shows. For example:
REJECTFILE absolutePathName
Warning: Do not use shared files across coservers to ensure that the data in the reject
files retains integrity.
Check the REJECTFILE file from your load command and see if any records
were not loaded during the load. If necessary, manually update tables. You
can also monitor message files using onstat -g xmf. For more information on
how to monitor options, see your Performance Guide.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-37
Recompile ESQL/C Programs
Recompile ESQL/C Programs
Informix ESQL/C enables programmers to embed SQL statements directly
into a C program. Once your database server migration is complete,
recompile your ESQL/C programs. Make sure to set the environment
variables before you invoke an ESQL/C program.
When the ESQL/C program is recompiled, check the functionality of your
ESQL/C programs to make sure they run as you expect them to. For more
information, see your INFORMIX-ESQL/C Programmer’s Manual.
Complete Migration
When you finish the level-0 backup, the migration process is complete and
users can use Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options to access data safely.
Once you successfully migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options,
you might want to seek ways to obtain maximum performance. If you
created sample queries for comparison, you can use them to characterize the
performance differences between OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x and Dynamic
Server with AD and XP Options. The results of these comparisons might
suggest adjustments to configuration parameters or to the layout of
databases, tables, and chunks. For details on performance topics, refer to
your Performance Guide.
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from
Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21
After you migrate to Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options from OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x, you cannot revert back automatically. To revert, you
need to unload the data into an external table from Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options and then load it back into OnLine Dynamic Server.
10-38
Informix Migration Guide
Unloading Data to External Tables
Unloading Data to External Tables
To unload data to an external file, issue SELECT and INTO EXTERNAL statements. You can implicitly or explicitly specify an external table. (If you are
loading data, an explicit definition is mandatory.) The SELECT and INTO
EXTERNAL statements create a default external table description for
unloading data. Issue the following SQL statement:
SELECT *
FROM customer
WHERE customerNum > 100
AND lastName [1] = “A”
INTO EXTERNAL TABLE custExtII
USING
(
FORMAT “informix”,
DATAFILES
( “DISK:1:/tmp/dat.out”,
“DISK:2:/tmp/dat.out”,
“DSIK:3:/tmp/dat.out”
));
In this example, the external table is implicitly defined when the table is
unloaded. If the external table already exists, you can use the following
syntax:
INSERT INTO extTableName
SELECT *
FROM tableName
WHERE...;
For more information about external tables, see your Administrator’s Guide.
Loading Data from External Tables
After the data is unloaded into external tables, you can use OnLine Dynamic
Server load utilities to load the data. For load utility information, see Chapter
2, “Data Migration.”
Migrating Between Dynamic Server AD/XP 8.21 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 10-39
Chapter 11
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0
Chapter 12
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x
or 4.1 Database Server
Chapter 13
Migrating Between INFORMIX-SE Database Servers and
Converting C-ISAM Files
Chapter 14
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and
Editions
Section IV
Version 7.x Database Server
Migration
Chapter
Migrating Between Versions of
Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0
In This Chapter .
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Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 to 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . .
New Configuration Parameters in Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . .
New SQL Reserved Words in Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . .
New Features in Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
New Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to ON-Bar from ontape or ON-Archive . . . . .
Multiple Residency and High Availability . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Environment Variables in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variables for Backward Compatibility . . . . .
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Configuration Parameters in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Configuration Parameters in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters That Online Dynamic
Server 7.2 Dropped . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-Place ALTER TABLE New in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enhancements to sqlhosts File or Registry Key in OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-5
11-6
11-6
11-7
11-7
11-8
11-9
11-9
11-9
11-10
11-11
11-12
11-12
11-13
11-13
11-13
11-13
11-14
11-14
11
Language Support Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 to 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Configuration Parameters in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1. . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameters That Were Dropped. . .
Configuration Parameters That Were Moved . . .
Changes to Blobspace Requirements in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ON-Archive Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.1 . .
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install the Latest Maintenance Release for the Current
Version of OnLine Dynamic Server . . . . . .
Verify and Install a Validated Storage Manager . . .
Check Available Space and System Requirements . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Shut Down the Source Database Server . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server Files . . . . .
Begin Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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11-25
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26
Save an Output File of SQL Statements for Access Paths . . . . . 11-27
Bring the Source Database Server Off-Line . . . . . . . . . 11-27
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27
Install the Target Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27
Install Informix Enterprise Command Center . . . . . . . . 11-28
Customize the Target Database Server Environment . . . . . . 11-29
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration Parameters . . . . . . 11-29
11-2
Informix Migration Guide
Update the Configuration Files . . . . . . . .
Prepare the Target Database Server to Use Enterprise
Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure SNMP . . . . . . . . .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Check Space Requirements for BYTE and TEXT Data
Make an Initial Backup of the Target Database Server
Verify the Access Path of the SQL Statements . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change Database Server Definitions . . . . . .
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Reverting to an Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic Server . .
Remove Unsupported SQL Features . . . . . . . .
Remove Fragmented Tables (Version 6.0 Only) . . . .
Save System Catalog Information . . . . . . . . .
Stop Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
(Version 7.22 or Later) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uninstall the Database Server and Informix Enterprise
Command Center . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify In-Place ALTER TABLE . . . . . . . . . .
Close All Transactions and Put the Source Database Server
in Quiescent Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server . . . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove GLS Features . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.12 and 7.22 . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 Through 7.14 . . . . . .
.
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. 11-36
. 11-38
. 11-38
. 11-38
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. 11-41
. 11-42
. 11-42
. 11-43
. 11-44
. 11-44
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. 11-45
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. 11-45
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. 11-45
Migrating to a GLS Locale .
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Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-3
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UC1 . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1 Through 7.14 . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UC . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variable Changes for OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify the sqlhosts File . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinstall the Earlier Version of the Database Server . .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line. . . . . .
Rename ON-Archive Files (Version 6.0 Only) . . . .
Restore System Catalog Information (Version 6.0 Only) .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Target Database Server Files . . . . . .
Return the Target Database Server to On-Line Mode . .
Complete Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
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. 11-46
. . . . 11-47
. . . . 11-48
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11-49
11-50
11-50
11-50
11-51
11-51
11-51
11-52
11-52
11-52
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UCx from OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.10.UDI Through 7.14 . . . . . . . . . 11-53
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53
Back Up the Target Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-54
Complete Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-54
11-4
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the procedures to migrate between Dynamic Server,
Version 7.31, and Dynamic Server, Version 7.30, or between Dynamic Server,
Version 7.3x, and OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 6.0 to Version 7.24.
You can use the same migration procedures to upgrade to a 7.1x or 7.2x
database server from an earlier version or to revert to the earlier version, if
you note the version-specific features and any necessary additional steps.
When you upgrade to a newer version of a database server, you might want
to upgrade database applications to take advantage of new features. The
release notes files that accompany the software describe new features.
This chapter covers the following topics:
■
Changes introduced by versions 6.0 to 7.3 of the database server
■
Preparing for migration
■
Upgrading your database server to Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Migrating to a GLS locale
■
Reverting your database server to an earlier version
You can upgrade from or revert to the following versions:
■
WIN NT
■
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 6.0, Version 7.10.UCx, Version 7.10
UD1, (UNIX only) through Version 7.14, and Version 7.20 through
Version 7.24
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.12 ♦
Tip: For information on how to upgrade from a database server prior to Version 6.0,
refer to Chapter 12, “Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or
4.1 Database Server.” For information on how to move the database server data
between UNIX and Windows NT, refer to Chapter 15, “Moving a Database Server to
a Different Operating System.”
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-5
Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 to 7.2
Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 to 7.2
This section describes changes to environment variables and configuration
parameters and discusses database server functionality that affects
migration. Different versions of Informix database servers introduced the
changes, which this section describes in descending order, starting with the
changes to Dynamic Server 7.3. For each database server version, this section
discusses the environment variables and configuration parameters and lists
the new features or changes to existing features for that version.
Environment Variable Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3
Dynamic Server 7.3 introduced several new environment variables and
maintains several otherwise obsolete environment variables for backward
compatibility. The Informix Guide to SQL: Reference describes the following
new environment variables:
■
INFORMIXKEYTAB
■
IFX_DIRECTIVES
Dynamic Server 7.3 includes the Informix Storage Manager (ISM), a backup
and recovery media management utility, with new environment variables.
For more information, refer to the Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s
Guide.
11-6
Informix Migration Guide
New Configuration Parameters in Dynamic Server 7.3
New Configuration Parameters in Dynamic Server 7.3
Dynamic Server 7.3 introduced the following new configuration parameters.
The Guide to Informix Enterprise Replication describes configuration parameters that start with CDR. The Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide
describes ISM parameters. Your Performance Guide describes optimizer configuration parameters. Your Administrator’s Guide describes other parameters.
UNIX
WIN NT
■
CDR_DSLOCKWAIT
■
CDR_EVALTHREADS
■
CDR_LOGBUFFERS
■
CDR_QUEUEMEM
■
DIRECTIVES (Optimizer directives)
■
ISM_DATA_POOL
■
ISM_LOG_POOL
■
OPT_GOAL
■
RESTARTABLE_RESTORE (Defaults to Off)
■
SYSALARMPROGRAM
■
TBLSPACE_STATS ♦
■
LOG_BACKUP_MODE
■
OPTICAL_LIB_PATH (For new optical functionality)
■
STAGEBLOB (New for Windows NT) ♦
New SQL Reserved Words in Dynamic Server 7.3
Dynamic Server 7.3 supports new SQL keywords that are reserved words and
might affect migration of your applications. Although you can use almost
any word as an SQL identifier, syntactic ambiguities can occur. An ambiguous
statement might not produce the results you want.
This section lists the new SQL reserved words. For more information about
SQL reserved words, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-7
New Features in Dynamic Server 7.3
The following SQL keywords are new in Dynamic Server 7.31:
■
INNER
■
JOIN
■
LEFT
■
LOCKS
■
RETAIN
The following SQL keywords are new in Dynamic Server 7.30:
■
ALL_ROWS
■
CASE
■
CRCOLS
■
DECODE
■
FIRST_ROWS
■
MEMORY_RESIDENT
■
NON_RESIDENT
■
NVL
■
REPLICATION
■
SUBSTR
■
SUBSTRING
New Features in Dynamic Server 7.3
Dynamic Server 7.3 introduced several features that affect migration. These
features include new built-in functions to the database server, changes to
backup and restore mechanisms, and multiple residency options on
Windows NT. For Dynamic Server 7.3, the Informix Enterprise Command
Center (IECC) interface is available on UNIX and Windows NT.
11-8
Informix Migration Guide
New Features in Dynamic Server 7.3
New Functions
The following new built-in functions are available in Dynamic Server 7.3 to
facilitate migration to Informix database servers:
■
DECODE
■
TO_CHAR
■
SUBSTR
■
NVL
■
LPAD
■
SUBSTRING
■
TO_DATE
■
RPAD
■
REPLACE
The names of these functions are reserved words in the database server. For
more information on these functions, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
Upgrading to ON-Bar from ontape or ON-Archive
Dynamic Server 7.3 includes ON-Bar, ontape, and ON-Archive for backup
and recovery. If you migrate from a previous version of the database server,
you might want to upgrade from ontape or ON-Archive to ON-Bar. For more
information on ON-Bar, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
In Version 7.3, ON-Bar uses a new ISM to read data from or to write data to
tape or disk. You can administer ISM through the ISM Administrator, which
you can start from IECC. For more information on ISM, refer to the Informix
Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
Important: To restore data, always use the same backup and restore method you used
to create your backup.
WIN NT
Multiple Residency and High Availability
As of Dynamic Server 7.30, multiple residency is available on Windows NT.
Multiple residency allows multiple database servers and their associated
shared memory and disk structures to coexist on a single computer. Each
instance of the database server has its own INFORMIXSERVER,
INFORMIXDIR, and ONCONFIG values.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-9
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
In Dynamic Server 7.3 on Windows NT, multiple residency enables the
database server to be installed as a cluster-aware application, which in turn
can facilitate high availability. A cluster-aware application is an application
that is registered with the resource manager and provides dynamically
linked libraries (resource DLLs).
Tip: Prior database server versions cannot co-exist with Dynamic Server 7.3 because
multiple residency is available only as of Version 7.30. If a prior version is present,
you must uninstall and re-install the new version to migrate on Windows NT. The
installation process uses configuration files from the previous version. For more
information on how to install Version 7.3 on Windows NT, see your Installation
Guide.
High availability provides redundant components in a cluster of two or more
nodes at an operating-system level. Whenever a failure occurs on one node
(one Windows NT computer), the cluster manager restarts the failed application on the surviving node. The cluster manager and resource manager
detect failures and communicate to other subsystems and applications.
Tip: When you upgrade database server versions, you might need to reinstall
backups of the target database server to ensure that an entire cluster is upgraded.
For more information on multiple residency and high availability, refer to
your Administrator’s Guide.
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server
7.2
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 introduced several new environment variables
and maintains several otherwise obsolete environment variables for
backward compatibility.
11-10
Informix Migration Guide
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
New Environment Variables in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
Figure 11-1 shows new environment variables for Version 7.2. Review the
descriptions of these environment variables to determine whether you need
to set them. The Reference column in Figure 11-1 indicates the manuals that
provide information about these environment variables. Figure 11-1 uses the
following abbreviations for Informix manuals:
■
HPL: Guide to the High-Performance Loader (The High-Performance
Loader (HPL) is available on Windows NT as of Version 7.30.)
■
GLS: Informix Guide to GLS Functionality
■
ESQL/C: Informix ESQL/C Programmer’s Manual
■
REF: Informix Guide to SQL: Reference
Figure 11-1
Environment Variables Introduced in Version 7.2x
Environment Variable
Variable Affects
Reference
CC8BITLEVEL
ESQL/C only
GLS
CLIENT_LOCALE
Client applications only
GLS
DBCENTURY
SQL APIs only
REF, GLS
DBONPLOAD
High-Performance Loader only
REF, HPL
DB_LOCALE
Database locale
GLS
ESQLMF
ESQL/C compilation
GLS
GLS8BITFSYS
8-bit clean
GLS
GL_DATE
Date format
GLS
GL_DATETIME
Time format
GLS
IFX_AUTOFREE
ESQL/C compilation
ESQL/C
NODEFDAC
Default privileges
REF
ONPLOAD
High-Performance Loader
REF, HPL
OPTOFC
ESQL/C compilation
ESQL/C
(1 of 2)
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-11
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
Environment Variable
Variable Affects
Reference
PLCONFIG
High-Performance Loader
REF, HPL
SERVER_LOCALE
Database server locale
GLS
THREADLIB
ESQL/C only
REF, ESQL/C
(2 of 2)
Tip: The IFX_AUTOFREE environment variable introduced in Version 7.22 is
discontinued in future releases. If you want to take advantage of this feature, use SET
AUTOFREE syntax in your application.
NLS
Environment Variables for Backward Compatibility
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 supports the environment variables in the
following list for backward compatibility with earlier Informix products. If
you do not have databases and applications from pre-7.2 versions, you
would not use these environment variables. Version 7.1 of the Informix Guide
to SQL: Reference describes these environment variables. The Informix Guide to
GLS Functionality describes the interaction of these environment variables
with variables that control GLS. The following environment variables
maintain backward compatibility:
■
COLLCSHAR
■
LC_CTYPE
■
DBAPICODE
■
LC_MONETARY
■
DBNLS
■
LC_NUMERIC
■
LANG
■
LC_TIME
■
LC_COLLATE
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.2
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2 includes new configuration parameters that
might affect your installation. You might also need to adjust the values of
existing parameters. These configuration parameters are described in your
Administrator’s Guide.
11-12
Informix Migration Guide
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
New Configuration Parameters in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.22
Enterprise Replication (and Workgroup Replication for OnLine Workgroup
Server, Version 7.22, and OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.22, on
Windows NT only) use the following new configuration parameters:
■
CDR_LOGBUFFERS
■
CDR_NIFUSEHELP
■
CDR_EVALTHREADS
■
CDR_NIFMEMS
■
CDR_DSLOCKWAIT
■
CDR_NIFQUEUES
■
CDR_QUEUEMEM
For more information on these configuration parameters, see the Guide to
Informix Enterprise Replication.
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.22
The default value of ALARMPROGRAM has changed.
New Configuration Parameters in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
Version 7.20 or later uses the following new configuration parameters:
■
BUFFERS (new definition)
■
HETERO_COMMIT
■
MAX_PDQPRIORITY (new definition)
Configuration Parameters That Online Dynamic Server 7.2 Dropped
Version 7.20 or later does not use the following configuration parameters:
■
BUFFSIZE
■
PDQPRIORITY (the default value is always zero)
If you do not set PDQPRIORITY through the environment variable or SQL
statement, PDQPRIORITY is turned off for queries (PDQPRIORITY = 0). For
information on where to set environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide
to SQL: Reference.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-13
In-Place ALTER TABLE New in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.24
In-Place ALTER TABLE New in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.24
Version 7.24 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced an In-Place option to the
ALTER TABLE statements that was not available in previous versions. With
the In-Place modifier, you can change a table without creating a duplicate
copy of the table. For the procedure to revert to a version of the database
server earlier than Version 7.24, see “Modify In-Place ALTER TABLE” on
page 11-40. For more information on In-Place ALTER TABLE statements, see
your Performance Guide.
Enhancements to sqlhosts File or Registry Key in OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.23
Version 7.23 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced formatting changes and
new syntax options in the sqlhosts file or registry key. The fifth field, the
options field, was modified to accommodate new syntax options.
The following list is a review of the sqlhosts or registry fields:
FIELD 1
FIELD 2
FIELD 3
FIELD 4
FIELD 5
dbservername
nettype
hostname
servicename
options
The options field can contain columns separated by a comma or white space
that represents the end of the column. Client and database server applications check each column to determine whether the option is supported in the
database server release.
In earlier versions, the options field could contain only a single character.
Version 7.23 and later versions of the database server support longer names.
Earlier versions, such as Version 7.10, cannot process the longer syntax.
Tip: If you maintain more than one version of the database server on UNIX, use
separate sqlhosts file entries for each version. Alternatively, you can use separate
entries with an alias to the appropriate database server. You cannot maintain two
versions of the database server on Windows NT.
Figure 11-2 lists the OnLine Dynamic Server 7.23 and later sqlhosts file or
registry key components.
11-14
Informix Migration Guide
Language Support Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 to 7.2
Figure 11-2
sqlhosts File or Registry Fields
dbservername
nettype
hostname
servicename
options
dbservername.server1
olsoctcp
clipper
14000
k=1,r=1 b=2000
In the sample sqlhosts file, the options field contains three options in three
columns.
Column
Option
Column 1
k=1
Column 2
r=1
Column 3
b=2000
Important: Informix recommends that you use field 5, options, in Version 7.23 and
later, for the following options only: b, k, r, s. If you do not want any of these options
but do want other options, use k=1 in column 5, which is the default. Place other
options in subsequent columns.
For more information on the components of the sqlhosts file or registry key
or on how to define two sqlhosts files, see your Administrator’s Guide.
Language Support Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server
6.0 to 7.2
NLS
WIN NT
GLS
Version 6.0 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced Native Language Support
(NLS). NLS supports single-byte locales but not multibyte locales. ♦
Version 7.12 of OnLine Dynamic Server for Windows NT supports NLS. ♦
Informix Version 7.2x products use Global Language Support (GLS). GLS
enables Version 7.2x and later versions of the database server to handle
different languages, cultural conventions, and code sets for Asian, European,
Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. Chapter 17, “Understanding
Language Support in Informix Database Servers,” and Chapter 18,
“Converting to GLS,” discuss the migration implications of GLS. The Informix
Guide to GLS Functionality provides a full description of GLS. ♦
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-15
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UD1
WIN
UNIX
NT
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server
7.10.UD1
Version 7.10.UD1 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced the following new
environment variables:
■
INFORMIXOPCACHE
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
■
NODEFDAC
■
OPTCOMPIND (new definition)
■
PSORT_NPROCS (new definition)
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1
Version 7.10.UD1 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced several new configuration parameters and dropped several others.
New Configuration Parameters in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UD1
Version 7.10.UD1 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced the following
configuration parameters:
■
LBUPRESERVE
■
ONDBSPACEDOWN
■
OPCACHEMAX
■
OPTCOMPIND (new default value)
Configuration Parameters That Were Dropped
Version 7.10.UD1 of OnLine Dynamic Server dropped the following configuration parameters. OnLine Dynamic Server allocates resources dynamically
for the structures that these parameters controlled in previous releases.
11-16
■
CHUNKS
■
TBLSPACES
■
DBSPACES
■
TRANSACTIONS
■
USERTHREADS
Informix Migration Guide
Changes to Blobspace Requirements in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UD1
You might need to reset the value of the LOCKS configuration parameter
because it previously depended on the value of TRANSACTIONS.
Configuration Parameters That Were Moved
Version 7.10.UD1 of OnLine Dynamic Server moved the following configuration parameters from the ONCONFIG file:
UNIX
WIN NT
■
ADTPATH
■
ADTERR
■
ADTSIZE
■
ADTMODE
On UNIX, these configuration parameters are in the audit configuration file
($INFORMIXDIR/aaodir/adtcfg.std). ♦
On Windows NT, these configuration parameters are in the audit configuration file (%INFORMIXDIR%\aaodir\adtcfg). ♦
Changes to Blobspace Requirements in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10.UD1
Versions of OnLine Dynamic Server before 7.10.UD1 marked a partition blob
page as full if the page was more than one-third full. Version 7.10.UD1 uses a
threshold of one-half the page size.
In cases where partition blobs have a random size, both schemas use about
the same amount of disk space. However, in certain situations the required
disk space changes. If you have many partition blobs that are just larger than
one-third of a page but less than one-half of a page, the new schema reduces
your space requirements by a factor of two. On the other hand, if you have
partition blobs that are just less than one-third of a page and others that are
just less than two-thirds of a page, you might see an increase in disk
requirements of about 33 percent.
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.1
Version 7.1 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced the following
environment variables:
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-17
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.1
■
DELIMIDENT
■
FET_BUF_SIZE
Configuration Parameter Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.1
Version 7.1 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced the following configuration parameters:
■
ALARMPROGRAM
■
DS_TOTAL_MEMORY
■
DATASKIP
■
MAX_PDQPRIORITY
■
DS_MAX_QUERIES
■
OPTCOMPIND
■
DS_MAX_SCANS
In addition, the PDQPRIORITY configuration parameter was introduced in
Version 7.1 but dropped in Version 7.20.
In Version 7.1, the default values for the configuration parameters LTXHWM
and LTXEHWM changed from 80 and 90 to 50 and 60, respectively. OnLine
Dynamic Server initialization provides a warning if your ONCONFIG file
contains values for these parameters greater than 50 and 60.
UNIX
ON-Archive Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 7.1
The names of the ON-Archive error message and help files changed between
Version 6.0 and Version 7.10. If you use a config.arc file from Version 6.0, you
must change the filenames in $INFORMIXDIR/etc/config.arc. If you use the
default Config.arc file (with initial uppercase letter) that is installed with
Version 7.1, you do not need to make any changes. For more information,
refer to your Archive and Backup Guide.
11-18
Informix Migration Guide
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0
Environment Variable Changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0
Version 6.0 of OnLine Dynamic Server introduced name changes for
environment variables and utilities. Environment variable names that began
with TB in earlier versions begin with ON in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 or
later. For instance, the TBCONFIG environment variable was replaced by the
ONCONFIG environment variable.
Utility names that began with tb in earlier versions begin with on in OnLine
Dynamic Server 6.0 and later. For instance, tbcheck was replaced by
oncheck. For a complete list of utilities, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
If you have not already changed the names of these environment variables
and utilities in your shell scripts and in the login files of your users, make the
changes now.
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic
Server, you need to understand the Informix guidelines for migrating
between database servers. You also need to know about any new features
that might affect migration, which “Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3 and
OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 to 7.2” on page 11-6 describes.
When you migrate from one version of the database server to another,
Informix recommends that you consider the following guidelines:
■
Review the release notes for the version of your database server for
information about new features, installation, and fixes to problems.
Modify applications as needed.
The release notes are in one of the following directories:
UNIX
WIN NT
❑
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333. ♦
❑
%INFORMIXDIR%\release\en_us\0333 (as of Version 7.20)
Release Notes appear in the Informix folder. To display this
folder, choose Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar. ♦
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-19
Install the Latest Maintenance Release for the Current Version of OnLine Dynamic Server
■
Retain both versions of the Informix product software on disk, if
possible (if you have enough disk resources). On Windows NT, you
can retain multiple versions of Informix products as of Dynamic
Server 7.30.
■
Check the documentation notes for information about features not
covered in the manuals.
■
Retain the installation media from both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Make a level-0 backup of the database server before and after
migration.
■
Verify storage-manager validation for the target database server.
For details, see “Verify and Install a Validated Storage Manager” on
page 11-21.
For additional installation information and guidelines, refer to your Installation Guide and your Getting Started manual.
Before you migrate your database server, complete the following steps,
which the next sections describe:
1.
Install the latest maintenance release for the current version.
2.
For Dynamic Server 7.3x, verify and, if necessary, install a storage
manager.
3.
Check available space and system requirements.
4.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
5.
Shutdown your database server.
6.
Verify the integrity of the data.
7.
Back up your database server files.
Important: Repeat steps 4 through 7 for each instance of your database server that
you are migrating.
Install the Latest Maintenance Release for the Current
Version of OnLine Dynamic Server
Informix recommends that you install the latest maintenance release for your
current database server version before you migrate to a new version,
especially if you use Version 5.0x or Version 6.0.
11-20
Informix Migration Guide
Verify and Install a Validated Storage Manager
For example, to migrate to Dynamic Server 7.3 from OnLine 5.03 on UNIX,
first install the latest maintenance release for OnLine and then migrate to
Dynamic Server 7.3. Many minor changes to the 5.x versions are also in the
7.x versions.
For additional information, refer to the installation guide for your database
server and the chapters on installation and configuration in your Administrator’s Guide.
Verify and Install a Validated Storage Manager
When you upgrade or revert an Informix database server, the storage
manager that you used on the source database server might not be validated
for the version of the database server to which you are migrating. Verify that
Informix has validated the storage manager for the target database server
version and platform. If not, you need to install a validated storage manager
before you perform backups with the ON-Bar backup and restore system.
When you migrate to a new database server version, install the storage
manager before you bring up the database server. That way, if you have
automatic log backup set up on the database server, ON-Bar can start backing
up the logs when the database server comes on-line.
Warning: If you migrate Informix Storage Manager (ISM) 1.0 catalogs to ISM 2.0
using the ism_catalog utility, the catalogs become corrupted. Once the ISM 2.0
server is restarted after catalog migration, error messages occur in various logs.
For information on how to install and upgrade the storage manager, see the
Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
Check Available Space and System Requirements
The database server requires 1100 free pages of logical-log space (around
2000 kilobytes) to build the sysmaster database. The Informix Dynamic
Server 7.3 media is more than twice as large as previous versions because of
extra GLS files.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-21
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Before you install your database server and IECC, verify that your system
meets the minimum space and hardware requirements. Dynamic Server 7.3
requires 15 to 20 percent more space than the previous version because it
includes administration tools, such as IECC and the Relational Object
Manager.
WIN NT
The database server runs on Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 3 on an NTFS
drive. The administration tools run on Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0,
or Windows 95 on either a FAT drive or an NTFS drive. ♦
For information on the system requirements, refer to the read_ods.txt file in
Answers OnLine, Version 1.7, or earlier.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the configuration files for each instance of your database
server. Keep the copies available to use later. Save the configuration files that
Figure 11-3 lists, if they exist.
Figure 11-3
ODS or IDS Configuration Files
UNIX
Windows NT
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ONCONFIG
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\ONCONFIG
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\onconfig
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig.std
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\onconfig.std
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sm_versions
%INFORMIXDIR%\etc\sm_versions
$INFORMIXDIR/aaodir/adtcfg *
%INFORMIXDIR%\aaodir\adtcfg.*
$INFORMIXDIR/dbssodir/adtmasks *
%INFORMIXDIR%\dbssodir\adtmasks.*
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
$INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
11-22
Informix Migration Guide
Shut Down the Source Database Server
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file:
UNIX:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ixbar.<servernum>
Windows NT: $INFORMIXDIR\etc\ixbar.<servernum>
UNIX
If you use ON-Archive to back up and restore your database server and the
logical logs, you must also copy and save the configuration files in the
following list:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/$ARC_CONFIG
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/config.arc
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/oper_deflt.arc
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tctermcap ♦
If you use ON-Bar to back up and restore your database server and the logical
logs, you must also copy and save the configuration files in
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ixbar*.
Shut Down the Source Database Server
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and place
your database server in quiescent mode (also called administration mode).
To shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Warn all users that you plan to shut down the database server and
wait for them to exit.
2.
Become user informix on UNIX. On Windows NT, you must be a
member of the Informix-Admin group.
3.
Execute the following command to take the database server to
quiescent mode:
onmode –sy
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-23
Verify the Integrity of the Data
4.
Wait until your database server is in quiescent mode.
To verify the mode of your database server, execute the onstat command. The first line of the onstat output contains the status of
your database server. Figure 11-4 shows that the database server is in
quiescent mode.
INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server Version x.xx.xxx -- Quiescent -- Up xx:xx:xx -- xxxx
Figure 11-4
Example of onstat
Status Line
OnLine Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
Kbytes
5.
Execute the following command to force a new logical log:
6.
Execute the following command to force a checkpoint:
onmode -l
onmode-c
7.
Execute the following command to shut down the database server:
onmode -yuk
Tip: Monitor your log activity to verify that all commands were executed properly
and to check for inconsistencies prior to migration.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of data before you make a
level-0 (complete) backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them
before you make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages,
extents, system catalog tables, data, and indexes. First, you need to obtain a
list of the databases on your database server.
11-24
Informix Migration Guide
Back Up the Source Database Server Files
Figure 11-5 lists the oncheck commands that verify data integrity. Informix
recommends that at a minimum you run the -cr and -ce options.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 11-5
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Back Up the Source Database Server Files
Use your preferred backup method (ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive) to make
a complete (level-0) backup of each database server that you plan to migrate.
WIN NT
The Windows NT environment does not support ON-Archive. ♦
For more information about how to use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to
back up your database server, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
Warning: Backups that you make under older versions of your database server are
not compatible with the newer version. Do not try to restore these backups to the
newer version.
Begin Migration
Now you are ready to migrate your database server. For information on how
to upgrade, see “Change Database Server Definitions” on page 11-35. For
information on how to revert, see “Reverting to an Earlier Version of OnLine
Dynamic Server” on page 11-36.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-25
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3
This section describes how to upgrade to Dynamic Server 7.3 from OnLine
Dynamic Server 6.0 or later. You should have completed the preparatory
steps, described in “Preparing for Migration” on page 11-19.
When you upgrade, you can install and test Dynamic Server 7.3 with the
same database server name, configuration files, environment variables, and
sqlhosts information or registry information that you used for the earlier
version. After you install Dynamic Server 7.3 and verify that it works, you
might want to modify the configuration files and environment variables to
take advantage of new features.
When you upgrade your database server, complete the following steps,
which are described in more detail in the sections that follow:
UNIX
UNIX
WIN NT
11-26
1.
Save an output file of SQL statements for access paths.
2.
Bring the source database server off-line.
3.
Reconfigure the operating system, if necessary. ♦
4.
Install the target version of your database server.
5.
Install IECC.
6.
Customize the database server environment.
7.
Update the ONCONFIG configuration file.
8.
Update the ON-Archive configuration files. ♦
9.
Configure the database server for Enterprise Replication, if desired.
10.
Install and configure onsnmp. ♦
11.
Bring the target database server on-line.
12.
Update statistics.
13.
Verify the integrity of the data.
14.
Check space requirements for BYTE and TEXT data.
15.
Make an initial backup of your database server.
16.
Verify the access paths of your SQL statements.
17.
Complete migration.
18.
Change database server definitions.
Informix Migration Guide
Save an Output File of SQL Statements for Access Paths
Save an Output File of SQL Statements for Access Paths
Save a file of output from any SET EXPLAIN statements. Later you can use this
file to verify that access paths of your SQL statements do not change when
you migrate to your target database server. SET EXPLAIN writes the access
path that the optimizer chooses for each query to the SET EXPLAIN output
file. The optimizer chooses the fastest path of execution for table joins.
WIN NT
For Windows NT, the SET EXPLAIN output filename is %INFORMIXDIR%\
sqlexpln\username.out. ♦
Bring the Source Database Server Off-Line
Shut down your database server to ensure that all common files are inactive.
The database server must be off-line because the older and the newer
versions share common files. You cannot install the database server if any of
the common files are active.
WIN NT
UNIX
The installation program automatically shuts down the old database server
and starts the new database server. ♦
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
You might need to change some of the kernel parameters for your UNIX
operating system before you install Dynamic Server 7.3. To reconfigure the
operating system, follow the directions in the machine notes file included on
your Dynamic Server 7.3 distribution media and the kernel-configuration
instructions for your operating system.
Install the Target Database Server
On UNIX, you must be logged in as user root. On Windows NT, you must be
a member of the Administration group to install your database server. Set
the INFORMIXDIR environment variable to the directory where you plan to
install your database server.
UNIX
The installation script installs your database server into the INFORMIXDIR
directory specified for user root. The installation script does not bring the
database server on-line. ♦
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-27
Install Informix Enterprise Command Center
WIN NT
The setup program installs and brings up the database server on
Windows NT. Follow the directions in your Installation Guide to install your
database server. ♦
Warning: If you install your database server in the same directory where the earlier
version of the database server resides, the newer version overwrites the older files. If
you want to preserve the files for the earlier version, you must install the newer
database server in a different directory.
Before you overwrite the older version, you must take the following
precautions:
■
If you do not have the original media for the older version, back up
the INFORMIXDIR directory before you install your target database
server.
■
Copy the configuration file(s) in INFORMIXDIR in the etc directory
to another location on the file system.
UNIX
When you finish the installation and system reconfiguration, exit as user root
and log on as user informix. ♦
WIN NT
In Windows NT, you need to run the Installation wizard twice. First, upgrade
the database server and then install the administration tools.
The Installation wizard replaces the files but does not reconfigure the
database server. If a previous version of the database server is on the
computer, the Upgrade page appears when you install the new product.
The installation program automatically verifies and brings down your source
database server, copies the new files, and preserves the database configuration information. The installation program starts your target database
server with the same configuration and shared-server computer. ♦
Install Informix Enterprise Command Center
After you install the database server, install the administration tool, IECC.
WIN NT
After you install the database server or IECC or both, IECC is available in your
Windows NT environment. ♦
For information on how to install IECC, refer to the Informix Enterprise
Command Center Installation Guide. For information about how to use IECC,
refer to the Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide.
11-28
Informix Migration Guide
Customize the Target Database Server Environment
Customize the Target Database Server Environment
After you install your database server, ensure that the following environment
variables are set to the correct values:
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS (if used)
Important: On UNIX, the client application looks for the sqlhosts file in the etc
directory in the INFORMIXDIR directory. On Windows NT, INFORMIXSQLHOSTS points to the computer that contains the sqlhosts registry information.
However, you can use the INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change
the location or name of the sqlhosts file.
WIN NT
On Windows NT, the installation program sets the configuration parameters
and environment variables for you. However, you can customize the configuration parameters in the %ONCONFIG% file and environment variables for
your database server. In Windows NT, use Setnet32 to customize the
environment variables on the client computer. ♦
For information about environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to
SQL: Reference.
UNIX
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration Parameters
You can customize your ONCONFIG configuration file and environment
variables to take advantage of the new features that Dynamic Server 7.3
introduced.
For example, you can add and adjust new ISM configuration parameters.
After you observe the performance of your database server, you might want
to make further adjustments.
Important: Use the same values for the target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for the source database server. Also, use
the same values for size and number of physical logs, logical logs, and for mirroring
(if available).
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-29
Update the Configuration Files
For information on how to configure, refer to your Administrator’s Guide. For
information about how to tune the configuration parameters, refer to your
Performance Guide.
Update the Configuration Files
During the installation procedure, the install script checks the etc directory in
the INFORMIXDIR directory for files named config.arc, oper_deflt.arc,
termcap, logevent.sh, sessalrm, and permalrm. If these files do not exist, the
install script provides them. If the files do exist, the install script does not
overwrite the files. Instead, the install script provides additional files named
Config.arc, Oper_deflt.arc, Termcap, Logevent.sh, Sessalrm, and Permalrm
(note the initial uppercase letters).
Compare your current versions of the files with the new versions and
determine whether new or changed configuration parameters or qualifiers
exist.
Prepare the Target Database Server to Use Enterprise
Replication
Perform this step only if you plan to use Enterprise Replication with your
database server (Version 7.22 or later).
Before you can activate Enterprise Replication, you need to update the
sqlhosts file or registry key for each database server that participates in
Enterprise Replication.
To activate Enterprise Replication for the first time
11-30
1.
Bring your database server off-line.
2.
Define a group name for Enterprise Replication.
3.
Assign a group identifier to the group and include this group ID in
the sqlhosts option key or column
4.
Bring your database server on-line.
Informix Migration Guide
Install and Configure SNMP
5.
For upgrades to Versions 7.22 to 7.24, verify that the SNMP service is
installed on the host and that the SNMP subagents are registered.
In Dynamic Server 7.30, you need SNMP only if you plan to use the
Enterprise Replication Monitoring Program. (Version 7.31 does not
include the Enterprise Replication Monitoring Program.)
6.
Use the Replication Manager to define each database server for
replication.
This step starts Enterprise Replication.
When you upgrade to Dynamic Server 7.3x, the conversion upgrades the
syscdr database and the sysmaster and sysutils databases and system tables
to Version 7.3x.
When you upgrade to a Version 7.3x database server from a Version 7.2x
database server, the Enterprise Replication state is the same in Version 7.3x as
it was in Version 7.2x.
For information on how to configure Enterprise Replication, refer to the
Guide to Informix Enterprise Replication. For information on how to use SNMP,
refer to the Informix SNMP Subagent Guide.
WIN NT
Install and Configure SNMP
In Dynamic Server 7.30, if you plan to use the Enterprise Replication
Monitoring Program, you must install SNMP. Enterprise Replication in
Dynamic Server 7.30 does not require SNMP. The SNMP management tools
use the OnSnmpSubagent to respond to queries.
For Informix database servers Version 7.22 through Version 7.24, if you use
Workgroup Replication on Windows NT, the onsnmp utility requires
Windows NT SNMP. The installation and upgrade program checks the
registry for the SNMP master agent. If the master agent was not installed, the
program displays a warning message but does not configure the registry for
Workgroup Replication or onsnmp. If you later choose to install the SNMP
master agent, you must run the %INFORMIXDIR%\bin\inssnmp.exe
command-line utility to install the SNMP subagents. You do not need to
reinstall the database server.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-31
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line
When you bring your target database server on-line for the first time, bring it
first to quiescent mode and then to on-line mode.
UNIX
Execute the following command to bring your database server from off-line
mode to quiescent mode:
oninit
After the database server is in quiescent mode, check the message log for
status messages.
Important: If you note problems in the message file, solve the problems before you
continue to the next step.
Execute the following command to change your database server mode from
quiescent mode to on-line mode:
onmode -m
The sysmaster and sysutils databases are created once your database server
is brought on-line.
Warning: The logical logs continue to fill with the transactions that result from the
creation of the sysmaster database. If you run out of log space before the creation of
the sysmaster database is complete, the database server halts with a “Logs Full”
error. Thus, you must back up the logical logs.
Use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to back up logical logs. ♦
WIN NT
The setup program for Windows NT brings your database server on-line
automatically. ♦
If you customized the database server environment, you can bring down and
restart the database server using IECC. When you restart your database
server, the changes to the configuration parameters and environment
variables take effect.
You can start the database server with or without the IECC interface. For more
information, refer to your Installation Guide.
11-32
Informix Migration Guide
Update Statistics
Update Statistics
After you complete the migration procedure, run the UPDATE STATISTICS
statement according to the recommended procedure in the Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax. UPDATE STATISTICS updates the information that your database
server uses to plan efficient queries. For more information about UPDATE
STATISTICS, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Before you allow users to access the databases, use the oncheck utility to
verify that no data was corrupted in the migration process. You can verify the
integrity of the reserve pages, extents, system catalog tables, data, and
indexes. For more information, see “Verify the Integrity of the Data” on
page 11-24.
Check Space Requirements for BYTE and TEXT Data
If you are migrating from OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 or 7.1, the space
required for BYTE or TEXT data might have changed. Run oncheck -cD on the
tables that have BYTE or TEXT data. This oncheck command modifies the
internal bitmaps to show any changes in space availability. It also shows
warning messages when a bitmap has changed. For more information, refer
to “Changes to Blobspace Requirements in OnLine Dynamic Server
7.10.UD1” on page 11-17.
Make an Initial Backup of the Target Database Server
Use your database server backup utility (ON-Bar, ON-Archive, or ontape) to
make a level-0 backup. Do not overwrite the tapes you used earlier when you
made your final backup of your database server. For more information about
making a backup, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide or your Backup and
Restore Guide.
Important: Do not restore the backed-up logical logs from the earlier version of your
database server to the newer version of your database server.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-33
Verify the Access Path of the SQL Statements
Verify the Access Path of the SQL Statements
Use the SET EXPLAIN statement to verify that the access path of your SQL
statements did not change when you migrated to your target database server.
If you have SET EXPLAIN output from the source database server, run SET
EXPLAIN for your target database server. Compare the SET EXPLAIN output
from both the source and target database servers. SET EXPLAIN writes the
access path that the optimizer chooses for each query to the SET EXPLAIN
output file. The optimizer chooses the fastest path of execution for table joins.
WIN NT
For Windows NT, the SET EXPLAIN output filename is %INFORMIXDIR%\
sqlexpln\username.out. ♦
If the SET EXPLAIN output file shows that a different access path was used,
complete the following steps:
1.
Check the OPTCOMPIND environment variable or configuration
parameter.
2.
Check the DBSPACETEMP environment variable or configuration
parameter to ensure that adequate temporary dbspaces are defined.
You might need to define more temporary dbspaces.
3.
Analyze the query access paths and modify the schema to improve
the performance if necessary.
Complete Migration
The first time your database server is brought on-line, the sysmaster database
is built. Check the message log to ensure that the sysmaster database build is
complete before you allow users to access the database server. After you
complete a level-0 backup and you ensure that client users can access data on
your database server, the migration process is complete.
Once you successfully migrate to Dynamic Server 7.3, you might want to
seek ways to obtain maximum performance. If you created sample queries
for comparison, you can use them to characterize the performance differences between your earlier version and your new version. The results of these
comparisons might suggest adjustments to configuration parameters or to
the layout of databases, tables, and chunks. For details on topics related to
performance, refer to your Performance Guide.
11-34
Informix Migration Guide
Change Database Server Definitions
Change Database Server Definitions
Use IECC if you want to change the informix user password, specify a
different computer as the shared-server computer, or edit database server
definitions (the database server name, TCP/IP host names, network types,
and the service names). For example, you might specify a different sharedserver computer if you have migrated the database server to a new computer
or connected a single client to several database servers.
WIN NT
The installation program automatically updates the Windows NT registry
information. ♦
For information on how to use IECC to configure database servers, see the
Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide. For information on connectivity, see your Administrator’s Guide.
GLS
Migrating to a GLS Locale
If you want to migrate your database server to a non-English GLS locale, set
the DB_LOCALE and CLIENT_LOCALE environment variables before you
open the database in Version 7.3. If your previous database server version
used Native Language Support (NLS), replace the NLS environment
variables, such as COLLCHAR, with GLS environment variables. For information on how to work with locales and how to set GLS environment
variables, see the Informix Guide to GLS Functionality and Chapter 18,
“Converting to GLS.”
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-35
Reverting to an Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic Server
Reverting to an Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic
Server
This section covers the changes that occur when you revert to an earlier
version of a 7.x through 4.1 database server. You can revert to and from the
following versions of database servers.
Revert To
Revert From
Dynamic Server, Version 7.30
Dynamic Server, Version 7.31
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.2x
Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x
Later version of OnLine Dynamic
Server, Version 7.2x
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.10.UD1
through Version 7.14
Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 6.0
Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x
Later version of OnLine Dynamic
Server
Later version of OnLine Dynamic
Server
OnLine, Version 5.0x
Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 6.0
through Version 7.2x
OnLine, Version 4.1
Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 6.0
through Version 7.2x
This section describes the steps to revert to an earlier version of your
database server. When you revert, you must consider changes in the definitions of configuration parameters and environment variables.
11-36
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting to an Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic Server
Follow the preparatory steps, described in “Preparing for Migration” on
page 11-19 and then complete the following steps:
UNIX
UNIX
UNIX
1.
Remove unsupported SQL features.
1.
Remove fragmented tables (for reversion to Version 6.0). ♦
2.
Save system catalog information (for reversion to Version 7.x or
Version 6.0).
3.
Stop and uninstall Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication,
if it is installed (for reversion from Version 7.22 or later).
4.
Uninstall the database server and the administration tools.
5.
Modify In-Place ALTER TABLE (for reversion from Version 7.24 and
later).
6.
Close all transactions and put the source database server in quiescent
mode.
7.
Verify the integrity of the data.
8.
Back up your database server.
9.
Run the reversion utility (onmode -b).
10.
Remove GLS features (for reversion to Version 7.x or Version 6.0).
11.
Modify configuration parameters.
12.
Reset environment variables.
13.
Modify the sqlhosts file (for reversion to Version 7.x or
Version 6.0). ♦
14.
Reinstall the earlier version of the database server.
15.
Bring the target database server online.
16.
Rename ON-Archive files (for reversion to Version 6.0).
17.
Restore system catalog information (for reversion to Version 6.0). ♦
18.
Verify the integrity of the data.
19.
Back up the target database server files.
20.
Return the target database server to on-line mode.
21.
Complete reversion.
Warning: On Windows NT, you need to uninstall Enterprise Replication Manager
and your database server and then reinstall the old version of your database server.
You cannot have two versions installed concurrently.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-37
Remove Unsupported SQL Features
Remove Unsupported SQL Features
Before you revert, you must remove SQL features that the earlier version of
your database server does not support. See the “New Features of This
Product” section in the appropriate version of the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
UNIX
Remove Fragmented Tables (Version 6.0 Only)
If you are reverting to Version 6.0, you must change all fragmented tables
back into unfragmented tables. For information on how to defragment tables,
see your Administrator’s Guide.
Save System Catalog Information
If your current database server instance uses secure-auditing masks or
ON-Archive, and you want to preserve the associated catalog information,
you must unload these system catalog tables before you continue. Execute
the following command to unload the system catalog tables:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/smi_unld
When the smi_unld utility finishes unloading the information, the utility
displays instructions for reloading the information. Save these instructions.
After you complete the reversion and initialize your database server, you can
reload the data that you preserved. Follow the instructions given with the
smi_unld utility for reloading the information. Typically, you should execute
the following command:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/smi_load $INFORMIXDIR/etc/
11-38
Informix Migration Guide
Stop Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication (Version 7.22 or Later)
Stop Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
(Version 7.22 or Later)
Skip this section if Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication is not
installed on your system.
To revert to an earlier version if Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
is active
UNIX
1.
Stop Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication.
2.
For altered tables with CRCOLS, issue the command:
alter table drop CRCOLS
♦
3.
If you are reverting from Dynamic Server 7.3x, modify any SQL
SELECT statements that are larger than 255 bytes in the partdef table.
These SELECT statements are truncated during reversion so that they
fit into the table definition of the source version. Fix any SQL SELECT
statements that might have been truncated before making Enterprise
Replication active again.
4.
Execute the onmode -b command to revert to the earlier version of
your database server.
Warning: If you try to revert to a previous version of the database server while Enterprise Replication is active, the reversion will fail.
5.
After you bring up a 7.2x database server, type the following
command to change the Enterprise Replication state to ACTIVE:
start_cdr
To revert to an earlier version if Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
is inactive
UNIX
1.
In this situation, Enterprise Replication was previously active on this
database server. For altered tables with CRCOLS, issue the command:
alter table drop CRCOLS
♦
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-39
Uninstall the Database Server and Informix Enterprise Command Center
2.
If you are reverting from Dynamic Server 7.3x, modify any SQL
SELECT statements that are larger than 255 bytes in the partdef table.
These SELECT statements are truncated during reversion so that they
fit into the table definition for the older version. Fix any SQL SELECT
statements that might have been truncated before making Enterprise
Replication active again.
3.
Execute the onmode -b command to revert to the earlier version of
the database server. The syscdr database is dropped during
reversion.
For more information, see the Guide to Informix Enterprise Replication.
Uninstall the Database Server and Informix Enterprise
Command Center
Uninstall both the database server and the administration tool, IECC.
Warning: Do not check Remove all OnLine databases, supporting files and all
database information. If you check this option, your configuration, dbspaces, and
database information will be lost, making reversion impossible.
For more information, see the Informix Enterprise Command Center Installation
Guide.
Modify In-Place ALTER TABLE
Upgrading to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.24 or later versions of the database
server occurs automatically when you bring up the target database server.
However, reverting to an earlier version of the database server from
Version 7.24 or later is not possible if outstanding In-Place ALTER TABLE
statements exist. An In-Place ALTER TABLE statement is outstanding when
data pages exist with the old definition.
If you attempt to revert to a previous version, the code checks for outstanding
alter operations and lists any that it finds. You need to update every row of
each table in the outstanding alter list with an ALTER TABLE version and then
perform the reversion.
If an In-Place ALTER TABLE statement was performed on a table, you can
upgrade the older version to the latest version by running a test UPDATE
statement.
11-40
Informix Migration Guide
Close All Transactions and Put the Source Database Server in Quiescent Mode
For example, run the following test UPDATE statement:
update tab1 set column1 = column1
For more information on In-Place ALTER TABLE, see your Performance Guide.
Close All Transactions and Put the Source Database Server
in Quiescent Mode
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and place
your database server in quiescent mode (also called administration mode).
To shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Warn all users that you plan to shut down the database server and
wait for them to exit.
2.
Become user informix on UNIX platforms. On Windows NT, you
must be a member of the Informix-Admin group.
3.
Execute the onmode –sy command.
4.
To verify the mode of your database server, execute the onstat command.
The first line of the onstat output contains the status of your database
server. Figure 11-6 shows that the database server is in quiescent
mode.
Informix Dynamic Server Version x.xx.xxx
--
Quiescent
--
Up
xx:xx:xx -- xxxx
Figure 11-6
Example of onstat
Status Line
Informix Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
Kbytes
5.
Execute the following command to force a new logical log:
onmode -l
6.
Execute the following command to force a checkpoint:
onmode-c
Important: Monitor your log to verify that all commands were executed properly and
to check for inconsistencies prior to migration.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-41
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of data before you make a
level-0 (complete) backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them
before you make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages,
extents, system catalog tables, data, and indexes. First, you need to obtain a
list of the databases on your database server.
Figure 11-7 lists the oncheck commands that verify data integrity. Informix
recommends that at a minimum you run the -cr and -ce options.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 11-7
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Back Up the Source Database Server
Informix recommends that you make a level-0 backup of each database
server that you plan to migrate. Use ON-Bar, ON-Archive, or the ontape
utility to perform the backup.
WIN NT
The Windows NT environment does not support ON-Archive. ♦
For information about how to perform a backup, refer to your Archive and
Backup Guide.
Warning: Backups that you perform under older versions of your database server are
not compatible with the newer version. Do not try to restore these backups to the
newer version.
11-42
Informix Migration Guide
Run the Reversion Utility
Run the Reversion Utility
The database server must be running when you execute the reversion utility.
You must use this reversion utility to restore compatibility before users can
access the data with the earlier version. The onmode utility does not revert
changes made to the layout of the data that do not affect compatibility.
To revert to an earlier version of the database server
1.
Execute the reversion utility to revert the database, where
version_number is the earlier database server version (see
Figure 11-8):
2.
Drop the sysutils database if the earlier version does not support
ON-Bar.
onmode -b version_number
Version 7.22 and later database servers support ON-Bar.
The reversion utility forcibly removes all users and shuts down the database
server. After the reversion is complete, the database server ID is off-line. For
more information about the onmode -b command, refer to Chapter 24,
“Using the onmode Utility.”
Figure 11-8
Reverting to an Earlier Version of the Database Server
Revert To
Revert From
Command
Version 7.22 to
Version 7.24/NT/UNIX
Version 7.3x/NT/UNIX
onmode -b 7.24,
onmode -b 7.23, or
onmode -b 7.22
Version 7.22/NT/UNIX
Version 7.24/NT/UNIX
Reversion is automatic
Version 7.20.UC1 and
prior to
7.30UC1/NT/UNIX
Version 7.22/NT/UNIX
onmode -b 7.2
Version 7.10.UD1 and
prior to 7.20.UC1/UNIX
Version 7.2 through
7.22/UNIX
onmode -b 7.1.UD1
Version 7.10.UC1 and
prior to 7.10.UD1/UNIX
Version 7.2 through
7.22/UNIX
onmode -b 7.1
(1 of 2)
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-43
Remove GLS Features
Revert To
Revert From
Command
Version 7.10.UC1 and
prior to 7.10.UD1/UNIX
Version 7.10.UD1 through
7.14/UNIX
onmode -b 7.1
Version 6.0xx except
Version 6.0ALS/UNIX
Version 7.20 through
7.22/UNIX
onmode -b 6.0
Version 6.0/UNIX/ALS
Version 7.20 through
7.22/UNIX
onmode -b 6.0A
Version 7.10.UD1/UNIX
Version 7.12 through
7.14/UNIX
Reversion is automatic
The latest maintenance
Version 5.0x/UNIX
Version 6.0/UNIX
onmode -b 5.0
(2 of 2)
Tip: The onmode -b command also rebuilds the user-table indexes automatically.
Reversion to Version 6.0 from Version 7.3x performs the following actions:
■
Verifies that none of the existing tables or indexes are fragmented
■
Drops the sysmaster database
Remove GLS Features
Skip this step if your database server uses the default English locale
(en_us.8859-1). To revert the database server to Native Language Support
(NLS) or Asian Language Support (ALS) from GLS, set the appropriate NLS or
ALS locales and environment variables. For information on working with
locales, see Section VI, “Locale Changes,” and the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality.
Modify Configuration Parameters
Dynamic Server 7.3x uses configuration parameters that did not appear in
earlier versions of the database server. You might want to remove or modify
these configuration parameters. For more information, see “New Configuration Parameters in Dynamic Server 7.3” on page 11-7.
11-44
Informix Migration Guide
Modify Configuration Parameters
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.22
Remove the following configuration parameters from your ONCONFIG
configuration file:
■
CDR_LOGBUFFERS
■
CDR_NIFUSEHELP
■
CDR_EVALTHREADS
■
CDR_NIFMEMS
■
CDR_DSLOCKWAIT
■
SCDR_NIFQUEUES
■
CDR_QUEUEMEM
Version 7.22 changed the default value of the ALARMPROGRAM configuration parameter.
You might need to revise the values in your ONCONFIG file.
WIN NT
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.12 and 7.22
You must add the ONLANGMAP configuration parameter to your
ONCONFIG configuration file before you start OnLine Dynamic
Server, Version 7.12. ONLANGMAP takes the value en_US-English. For information on ONLANGMAP, see the documentation notes for INFORMIX-OnLine
Dynamic Server for Windows NT 3.51, Version 7.12.TC2.
If you are reverting to Version 7.12, remove the HETERO_COMMIT configuration parameter from your ONCONFIG file.
You might need to revise the values in your ONCONFIG file.
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UD1
Through 7.14
If you are reverting to Version 7.10.UD1 through Version 7.14, remove the
following parameters from your ONCONFIG configuration file:
■
CHUNKS
■
TBLSPACES
■
DBSPACES
■
TRANSACTIONS
■
HETERO_COMMIT
■
USERTHREADS
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-45
Modify Configuration Parameters
Version 7.2x changed the definition of the following two configuration
parameters. You might need to revise the values in your configuration file.
■
BUFFERS
■
MAX_PDQPRIORITY
Version 7.2x removed the following configuration parameters. If you do not
restore the parameters to your ONCONFIG file, OnLine Dynamic Server uses
the default values. You can add these parameters to your ONCONFIG file.
■
BUFFSIZE
■
PDQPRIORITY
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UC1
If you are reverting to Version 7.10.UC1, remove the following parameters
from your ONCONFIG configuration file:
■
LBUPRESERVE
■
ONDBSPACEDOWN
■
OPCACHEMAX
Version 7.10.UD1 and Version 7.2 changed the definition of the following
configuration parameters. You might need to revise the values in your configuration file.
11-46
■
BUFFERS (changed in 7.10.UD1)
■
LOCKS (changed in 7.2)
■
MAX_PDQPRIORITY (changed in 7.10.UD1)
■
OPTCOMPIND (changed in 7.2)
Informix Migration Guide
Modify Configuration Parameters
Version 7.10.UD1 removed the following configuration parameters. If you do
not restore the parameters to your ONCONFIG file, OnLine Dynamic Server
uses the default values. You should restore these parameters to your
ONCONFIG file.
UNIX
■
CHUNKS
■
DBSPACES
■
PDQPRIORITY (removed in Version 7.20)
■
TBLSPACES
■
TRANSACTIONS
■
USERTHREADS
Version 7.10.UD1 moved the following audit configuration parameters into
the audit configuration file ($INFORMIXDIR/aaodir/adtcfg.std). If you use
the ON-Audit utility, restore these configuration parameters to your
ONCONFIG file.
■
ADTPATH (UNIX only)
■
ADTSIZE (UNIX only) ♦
■
ADTERR
■
ADTMODE
Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0
If you are reverting to Version 6.0, make the changes specified in
“Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.12 and 7.22” and
“Configuration Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UC1” on
page 11-46. In addition, remove the following parameters from your
ONCONFIG configuration file:
■
ALARMPROGRAM
■
DS_TOTAL_MEMORY
■
DATASKIP
■
MAX_PDQPRIORITY
■
DS_MAX_QUERIES
■
OPTCOMPIND
■
DS_MAX_SCANS
■
PDQPRIORITY
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTPATH,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTOFFSET in your ONCONFIG configuration file that you used
for your source database server.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-47
Reset Environment Variables
Before you revert to OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0, you also need to free any
resources that you allocated beyond Version 6.0 limits. Observe the following
limits:
■
The number of page-cleaner threads is less than 33.
■
The number of LRU queues is less than 32.
You can set the maximum number of page-cleaner threads with the CLEANER
configuration parameter and the maximum number of LRU queues with the
LRUS configuration parameter.
Reset Environment Variables
Reset the environment variables to values that are appropriate for your
version of your database server. For information on environment variables,
refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
NLS
Environment Variable Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UD1
Through 7.14
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.10.UD1, through OnLine Dynamic Server,
Version 7.14, support NLS but do not support GLS. When you revert, delete
the following environment variables:
11-48
■
CC8BITLEVEL
■
GL_DATE
■
CLIENT_LOCALE
■
GL_DATETIME
■
DBCENTURY
■
NODEFDAC
■
DBFLTMASK
■
ONPLOAD
■
DBONPLOAD
■
PLCONFIG
■
DB_LOCALE
■
SERVER_LOCALE
■
ESQLMF
■
THREADLIB
■
GLS8BITFSYS
Informix Migration Guide
Reset Environment Variables
For reversion from Version 7.12, add the following environment variables:
■
DBNLS 1
■
COLLCHAR
■
LANG
Environment Variable Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UC
When you revert to Version 7.10.UCx, do not use the following environment
variables:
■
INFORMIXOPCACHE
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
■
NODEFDAC
The recommended settings of the following environment variables changed
between Version 7.1x and Version 7.2x. You might need to reset their values.
■
OPTCOMPIND
■
PSORT_NPROCS
Environment Variable Changes for OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0
When you revert to Version 6.0, make the environment variable changes that
are specified for Version 7.1x. In addition, do not use the following
environment variables:
■
DELIMIDENT
■
FET_BUF_SIZE
■
PDQPRIORITY
The PDQPRIORITY environment variable and the SQL SETPDQPRIORITY
statement were introduced after Version 6.0. The PDQPRIORITY
environment variable does not cause problems if you leave it set for
Version 6.0, but it might cause confusion. You must remove the
SETPDQPRIORITY statement from your Version 6.0 applications.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-49
Modify the sqlhosts File
UNIX
Modify the sqlhosts File
Version 7.10.UD1 introduced the following enhancements to the sqlhosts file.
If you use any of these enhancements, you must modify your sqlhosts file
before you run Version 7.10.UCx or Version 6.0.
■
Host-name length of 256 characters
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable
■
Stream pipes
■
Explicit addressing for TCP/IP
■
Options field
Reinstall the Earlier Version of the Database Server
Reinstall the earlier version of the database server in the same directory as the
files for the previous version.
For more information on installation, refer to your Installation Guide.
Warning: Do not select Copy all files and reconfigure the product. If you select
this option, your configuration and database information will be lost.
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line
Execute the following command to bring your database server to quiescent
mode:
oninit
The database server initializes the shared memory and builds the sysmaster
database. After the sysmaster database is built, the reversion process is
complete.
Important: You must add the ONLANGMAP parameter to the ONCONFIG file before
you start OnLine Dynamic Server 7.12 or earlier. ONLANGMAP takes the value
en_US-English. The ONLANGMAP configuration parameter ensures backward
compatibility with non-NLS locales on Windows NT. If the database server fails on
install, just restart it.
11-50
Informix Migration Guide
Rename ON-Archive Files (Version 6.0 Only)
WIN NT
To start a Version 7.12 database server on Windows NT
1.
From the Windows NT Main program group, double-click the
Control Panel icon.
2.
Double-click the Services icon.
3.
Select INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server from the Services list box.
4.
Click Start.
The Services dialog box displays the status of the database server.
If you revert to Version 7.22 on Windows NT, you can start the database
server from IECC. ♦
Warning: If you start the database server with the -iy parameters after the first time,
it will overwrite the existing root dbspace unless you first change the ROOTPATH
parameter in the ONCONFIG file. If the database server overwrites the existing root
dbspace, it destroys the information that the root dbspace contains, including information about any databases that you created. Consequently, you must then restore
the databases from backup tapes.
UNIX
Rename ON-Archive Files (Version 6.0 Only)
The names of the ON-Archive error message and help files changed between
Version 6.0 and Version 7.10. For the correct names for these files, refer to
your Archive and Backup Guide, Version 6.0.
UNIX
Restore System Catalog Information (Version 6.0 Only)
After you initialize your database server, you might need to restore system
catalog information. Follow the instructions in “Save System Catalog
Information” on page 11-38.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of data before you make a
level-0 (complete) backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them
before you make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages,
extents, system catalog tables, data, and indexes. First, you need to obtain a
list of the databases on your database server.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-51
Back Up the Target Database Server Files
Figure 11-9 lists the oncheck commands that verify data integrity. Informix
recommends that at a minimum you run the -cr and -ce options.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 11-9
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Back Up the Target Database Server Files
After you complete the reversion, Informix recommends that you make a
level-0 backup. Use your preferred backup administration utility, ON-Bar,
ON-Archive, or ontape, to make the backup. For information about how to
make a backup, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide.
Important: Do not overwrite the tapes that you used to back up your database server.
Return the Target Database Server to On-Line Mode
To bring the database server on-line, execute the following command:
onmode -m
Complete Reversion
To complete the reversion, ensure that client users can access data on the
earlier version of the database server.
11-52
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UCx from OnLine Dynamic Server
Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UCx from
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UDI Through 7.14
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UCx is not compatible with later 7.1x versions
of the product. For example, if you want to revert to Version 7.10.UCx from
Version 7.12, you must run the onmode -b command to restore the data to a
form that is compatible with the earlier version.
Versions 7.10.UD1 through 7.14 of OnLine Dynamic Server are compatible
with each other, so you do not need to use onmode -b to migrate the data.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of the data before you make a
level-0 (complete) backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them
before you make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages,
extents, system catalog tables, data, and indexes. First, you need to obtain a
list of the databases on your database server.
Figure 11-10 lists the oncheck commands that verify data integrity. Informix
recommends that at a minimum you run the -cr and -ce options.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 11-10
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and 6.0 11-53
Back Up the Target Database Server
Back Up the Target Database Server
After you complete the reversion, Informix recommends that you make a
complete backup. Use the ontape utility to make the backup. For information
about how to use ontape, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide.
Important: Do not overwrite the tapes that you used to back up your database server.
Complete Reversion
To complete the reversion, ensure that client users can access data on the
earlier version of your database server.
11-54
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0
Database Server and a 5.x or
4.1 Database Server
In This Chapter .
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Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 . . . . . . .
Major Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 . . . .
Changes to Database Utilities . . . . . . . . .
Operating-System Configuration Issues . . . . . . .
Estimating the Size and Number of Shared-Memory
Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Semaphore Parameters . . . . . . .
Configuring the Number of Open File Descriptors . .
Installing Operating-System Updates . . . . . . .
Disk-Utilization Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accommodating System Catalog Indexes . . . . .
Accommodating the sysmaster Database . . . . .
Locating Temporary Files and Tables . . . . . . .
Accommodating Data Distributions . . . . . . .
Accommodating User-Table Indexes . . . . . . .
Accommodating the Upgrading of User-Table Indexes .
Managing Secure-Auditing Log Files . . . . . . .
Database Server Configuration Issues . . . . . . . .
Changing Environment Variables . . . . . . . .
Revising Configuration Parameter Values . . . . .
Increasing Logical-Log Space . . . . . . . . .
Planning for Additional Shared-Memory Usage . . .
Saving Pre-Existing sysmaster Databases . . . . .
Configuring Secondary Database Servers for Data
Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Performance Comparisons . . . . . . .
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Storage-Manager Validation and Installation.
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Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server
from OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install the Latest Maintenance Release for the Current Version
of OnLine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capture Configuration and Chunk-Layout Information . . .
Close All Transactions and Make a Final Backup of
he Source Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bring OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 Off-Line . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure the Target Database Server . . . . .
Reconfigure the UNIX Operating System . . . . . . . .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line. . . . . . . .
Upgrade User-Table Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . .
Move Tables to Another dbspace . . . . . . . . .
Use the oncheck Utility to Upgrade Indexes. . . . . .
Use UPDATE STATISTICS to Upgrade Indexes . . . .
Use DROP INDEX and CREATE INDEX to
pgrade Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of the Target Database Server. . . .
Add rowid Columns to Fragmented Tables . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert a Database to a Different Locale . . . . . . . .
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Reverting to OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files .
Remove Database Server Users . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server . . . .
Remove Features That Later Versions Introduced
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . .
Prepare the TBCONFIG Configuration File . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . .
Bring Up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 in Quiescent Mode .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . .
Back Up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 . . . . . . . .
Return Online 5.0 or 4.1 to On-Line Mode. . .
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UNIX
In This Chapter
This chapter describes how to migrate between Dynamic Server,
Version 7.3x, or OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.2x, Version 7.1x, or
Version 6.0, and OnLine, Version 5.0x or Version 4.1.
For new features in Dynamic Server 7.3x, refer also to Chapter 11, “Migrating
Between Versions of Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x and
6.0.”
Preparing for Migration
To prepare for migration between a 7.x or 6.0 database server and a 5.x or 4.1
database server, you need to understand the Informix guidelines for
migration. You also need to know about any new features that might affect
migration.
This section describes the planning and preparations required to migrate to
a Version 6.0 or later database server because of the changes that occurred
between Version 5.0 and Version 6.0.
Tip: This chapter discusses migration only on UNIX. For information about
migration on Windows NT, see Chapter 14, “Migrating Between 7.x Database
Server Options and Editions.”
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-3
Migration Guidelines
Migration Guidelines
When you migrate from one version of a database server to another, Informix
recommends that you consider the following guidelines:
■
Review the release notes for the version of your database server for
information about new features, installation, and fixes to problems.
Modify applications as needed.
The release notes are in $INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333.
■
Retain both versions of the Informix product software on disk (if you
have enough disk resources).
■
Check the documentation notes for information about features not
covered in the manuals.
■
Retain the installation media from both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Make a level-0 backup of the database server before and after
migration.
■
For Dynamic Server 7.3x, verify storage-manager validation.
For details, see “Storage-Manager Validation and Installation” on
page 12-23.
In addition to the material in this chapter, read the following information in
“Changes in Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 to 7.2” on
page 11-6. For installation and configuration, refer to your Installation Guide
and your Administrator’s Guide.
Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0
In Version 6.0, OnLine Dynamic Server introduced an architecture that
differs greatly from the architecture used in OnLine 4.1 or 5.0x. This new
architecture requires significant changes in allocation and disk usage.
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Informix Migration Guide
Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0
Major Changes in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0
Figure 12-1 describes the major changes in OnLine Dynamic Server,
Version 6.0.
Figure 12-1
Changes Introduced in Version 6.0
Area of Change
Comments
Backup-tape
format
Backups and logical-log backups made with pre-6.0 tbtape are
not compatible with either of the two Version 7.2x tape utilities,
ON-Archive and ontape. Informix recommends that you make a
backup before you upgrade to Version 7.2x and then make a
second backup after you complete the upgrade.
sqlhosts file
The sqlhosts file is mandatory. You must create an sqlhosts file
or modify your current sqlhosts file to the format for OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x.
Utility names
Version 6.0 introduced a new naming convention for the
utilities. The OnLine Dynamic Server utilities use the prefix on
(for example, oninit) and the INFORMIX-SE utilities use the
prefix se (for example, selog).
sysmaster
database
When you initialize Dynamic Server 7.3x, a script automatically
creates the sysmaster and sysutils databases. You must ensure
that at least 1,100 free pages exist in the root dbspace to build this
database.
System
resources
The Version 6.0 changes include new requirements for system
resources such as shared memory, semaphores, and disk space.
When you migrate to a later version from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0, you
must reconfigure the operating-system kernel.
Index
requirements
To accommodate new features such as key-value locking, the
indexing scheme requires an additional 1 byte of disk space per
index-key entry. You must rebuild all user indexes after you
migrate from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0. An index on a table with one
million records requires approximately 1 additional megabyte of
disk space.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-5
Operating-System Configuration Issues
Changes to Database Utilities
Utility names that began with tb in pre-6.0 versions begin with on in OnLine
Dynamic Server 6.0 and later. For instance, tbcheck was replaced by
oncheck. For the complete list of utilities, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Tip: Plan to update all references to tb* utilities.
You cannot use utilities that use binary formats to load and unload data
between post-6.0 and pre-6.0 versions. To transfer data between post-6.0
versions and pre-6.0 versions, you can use only those utilities that load and
unload data in ASCII format. For instance, the tbload, tbunload, and tbtape
utilities in Version 4.1 and 5.0 use binary data and you cannot use them to
transfer data to Dynamic Server 7.3. The onload, onunload, and ontape
utilities in Version 7.3 use binary data and you cannot use them to transfer
data to earlier versions. You can use dbexport (pre-6.0 version) and dbimport
(Version 7.3) to transfer ASCII data to a Version 7.3 database server. You can
also use the SQL LOAD and UNLOAD statements to transfer data between
versions.
Operating-System Configuration Issues
Database servers later than Version 6.0 require system resources in addition
to those required in OnLine 4.1 or 5.0. These resources include additional
shared-memory segments, additional semaphores, and additional open-file
descriptors per process.
The specific tunable parameters and methods that you use to configure these
resources into the operating system vary from platform to platform. For more
information, consult the machine notes file that is installed with your distribution of your target database server and the configuration instructions for
your operating system.
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Operating-System Configuration Issues
Estimating the Size and Number of Shared-Memory Segments
When you move from Version 4.1 or 5.0, you must recalculate your memory
requirements. Database servers later than Version 6.0 make more extensive
use of shared memory than OnLine 4.1 or 5.0. For example, in database
servers later than Version 6.0, in addition to housing the buffer cache, virtual
processors use shared memory to manage user threads and other activities
that individual server processes handled in earlier versions. When you
upgrade to Version 7.20 or later from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0, add an additional 8
megabytes of shared memory.
From the standpoint of the operating system, virtual memory that previously
was allocated to individual server processes in Version 4.1 and 5.0 is now
included in the virtual segment attached by Version 7.20 or later.
This new arrangement requires a new method for calculating sharedmemory requirements in the target database server that takes the following
items into account:
■
The virtual segment, which is used to manage multiple user threads,
data distributions, and other data
■
The familiar RSAM or resident segment, which is used to manage the
buffer cache
■
A new message segment, which is used to support the shared-memory
communication interface
Tip: Data distributions in the database server provide the query optimizer with
statistical information about the contents of columns and tables. For information
about data distributions, refer to UPDATE STATISTICS in the “Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax.”
The overall system requirement for user virtual memory includes all three
shared-memory segments as well as the space that is needed to hold process
images. However, the system requirement for actual physical memory
includes only the resident segment and the working sets from other segments
and processes. Thus, the physical memory that the target database server
requires is proportional to the resident segment, while the requirement for
swap space is proportional to the total amount of shared memory that the
database server uses.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-7
Operating-System Configuration Issues
After Version 6.0, OnLine Dynamic Server and Dynamic Server 7.3x on UNIX
require at least one virtual shared-memory segment. The default size of a
shared-memory segment is 8 megabytes.
You can use the following steps to generate a rough estimate for the size and
number of shared-memory segments that are required for your instance of
your target database server:
1.
Estimate the total amount of shared memory that you need to
initialize the target database server. You must make separate
estimates for each of the three shared-memory segments, as
described in the following paragraphs, and add up the total:
■
For an initial estimate of the resident segment size, use the size
of shared memory as displayed in the output of tbmonitor under
OnLine 4.1 or 5.0. Because the resident segment in your target
database server does not include big buffers, you can deduct
4 kilobytes for each 100 buffers in the BUFFERS parameter of your
OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 tbconfig file.
■
Depending on your application, an initial estimate for the virtual
segment might be as low as 100 kilobytes per user, or as high as
500 kilobytes per user, plus up to 4 megabytes in addition if you
intend to use data distributions. You can obtain an estimate of
the number of users under your target database server by adding
12 to the value of the USERS parameter in your OnLine 4.1 or 5.0
tbconfig file. The initial size of the virtual segment corresponds
to the SHMVIRTSIZE configuration parameter in your target
database server configuration file.
■
Use the following formula to estimate the size of the message
segment:
msgseg = (10,531 * connections) + 50,000
connections
is the number of user sessions that can connect
through the shared-memory interface. You can set
the number of sessions with the NETTYPE
parameter in the OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2
ONCONFIG file.
After you start your target database server, you can obtain a
more precise value for SHMVIRTSIZE with onstat –g mem. You
can then reconfigure shared memory more precisely with the
actual value for SHMVIRTSIZE reported by this command.
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Informix Migration Guide
Operating-System Configuration Issues
2.
A Version 7.3 database server can attach additional shared-memory
resources during operation when it performs a large sort or other
operation that might require more memory than it has previously
acquired. To allow the database server to expand its use of shared
memory while it is operating, reserve a suitable margin of shared
memory over that which you estimate is necessary to initialize your
target database server. The SHMADD parameter in the ONCONFIG
file specifies the size of a dynamically added segment. If you do not
specify a value for this parameter in your ONCONFIG file, the
database server attempts to attach additional shared memory in 8megabyte segments.
The SHMTOTAL parameter in the ONCONFIG file places an absolute
maximum on the amount of shared memory that an instance of your
target database server can request. To avoid the risk of exceeding the
shared memory provided for a given instance of your target database
server, you can set this parameter to indicate the maximum amount
of shared memory for that instance. If you set SHMTOTAL to 0 or
leave it unassigned, the database server continues to attach
additional shared memory as needed until no more virtual memory
is available on the system.
3.
Estimate the size and number of shared-memory segments that the
operating system needs to provide and then modify your kernel.
If your operating system does not have a segment-size limit, take the
following actions:
a.
Set the maximum-segment-size parameter, typically SHMMAX
or SHMSIZE, to the total size that is required for your target
database server. Include both the amount of memory that is
required to initialize the database server as calculated in step 1
on page 12-8, and the amount of memory that you want to allow
for dynamic growth as described in step 2 on page 12-9.
b.
Set the operating-system configuration parameter for the
maximum number of segments, typically SHMMNI, to at least
1 per instance of the database server.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-9
Operating-System Configuration Issues
If your system does have a segment-size limit, take these actions:
a.
Set the maximum segment-size parameter for the operating
system, typically SHMMAX or SHMSIZE, to the largest value that
your system allows.
b.
Use the following formula to calculate the number of segments
for your instance of your target database server:
SHMMNI =((initial_segment) / SHMMAX) + dynamic_segments
initial_segment
is the segment size that is required to
initialize your target database server.
dynamic_segments
is the number of segments that you allow to
be added during operation of your target
database server.
If a remainder exists, round up to the nearest integer value.
4.
If your operating system uses the SHMSEG configuration parameter
to indicate the maximum number of shared-memory segments to
which a process can attach, set this system-configuration parameter
to a value that is equal to or greater than the largest number of
segments that you allocated for any one instance of your target
database server.
Configuring Semaphore Parameters
The operating-system configuration parameters for semaphores are
calculated differently for OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10 or later than for pre6.0 versions of the database server. On UNIX systems, the SEMMNI parameter
gives the number of semaphore sets. Each instance of your target database
server requires one set of semaphores for each group of (up to) 100 virtual
processors (VPs) that are initialized with the database server, one set for each
additional VP that you might add dynamically (while the database server is
running), and one set for each group of 100 (or fewer) user sessions that are
connected through the shared-memory communication interface. Because
the target database server utilities such as onmode use shared-memory
connections, you must configure a minimum of two semaphore sets for each
instance of your target database server: one for the initial set of VPs and one
for the shared-memory connections that the database server utilities use.
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Informix Migration Guide
Operating-System Configuration Issues
The SEMMSL operating-system configuration parameter typically gives the
maximum number of semaphores per set; set this parameter to (no less
than) 100.
On systems that require you to configure a maximum for the total number of
semaphores across all sets, typically given by the SEMMNS operating-system
configuration parameter, use the following formula to calculate the total
required for each instance of your target database server:
SEMMNS = init_vps + added_vps + shmem_users + concurrent_utils
init_vps
is the number of VPs that are initialized with your target
database server. This number includes CPU, PIO, LIO, AIO,
SHM, TLI, SOC, and ADM VPs. (For a description of these
virtual processors, see your Administrator’s Guide.) The
minimum value for this term is 15.
added_vps
is the number of VPs that you can add dynamically.
shmem_users
is the number of shared-memory connections that are
allowed for this instance of your target database server.
concurrent_utils
is the number of concurrent database server utilities that
can connect to this instance. Informix suggests that you
allow for a minimum of six utility connections: two for
onarchive and four for other utilities such as onmonitor,
oncheck, and onstat.
For example, if you start a single instance of your target database server with
two CPU VPs and 110 shared-memory users, and you intend to add two CPU
VPs dynamically as needed, you must include at least five semaphore sets in
the SEMMNI parameter: one set for the initial VPs, two sets for the dynamically added CPU VPs, and two sets for the shared-memory connections. You
must set the SEMMSL parameter to at least 100. If your system requires a
value for the SEMMNS parameter, you must indicate a total of no less than 133
(15 + 2 + 110 + 6).
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-11
Disk-Utilization Issues
If your system uses software packages that require semaphores in addition to
the ones that your target database server needs, you must include the total
number of semaphore sets that are required by both the database server and
your other software packages in the SEMMNI parameter. You must set the
SEMMSL parameter to the largest number of semaphores per set that any
package requires. For systems that require the SEMMNS parameter, you can
multiply SEMMNI by the value of SEMMSL to calculate an acceptable value.
Or, to arrive at a more precise value for SEMMNS, you can calculate the
number of semaphores that are needed for each software package and add
those numbers to obtain the total.
Configuring the Number of Open File Descriptors
Some operating systems require you to specify a limit on the number of file
descriptors that a process can have open at any one time. You specify this
limit with an operating-system configuration parameter, typically NOFILE,
NOFILES, NFILE, or NFILES. The number of open file descriptors that each
instance of your target database server needs is the number of chunks in your
database plus the number of network connections that your database server
instance must support.
Installing Operating-System Updates
The target database server might require you to install operating-system
updates or patch releases. For information about operating-system patches
that your target database server installation might require, refer to the
machine notes file.
Disk-Utilization Issues
When you upgrade from a pre-6.0 version of the database server, you must
allow for increased disk use both during and after the upgrade process. Some
disk resources that must be allocated to the root dbspace during the upgrade
process can be freed for other uses after the process completes. The additional
disk space that is required falls into the following categories:
12-12
■
Space for the upgrade processes
■
Space in each index entry
■
Space for data distributions
Informix Migration Guide
Disk-Utilization Issues
The initial requirements during the upgrade include 1,100 additional pages
in the root dbspace over its size under pre-6.0 versions of the database server.
The database server uses these added pages to build the sysmaster database.
You must also provide additional space in the root dbspace for automatic
upgrading of system catalog indexes.
An additional byte per index entry for each user-table index must be
allocated to the dbspace in which each corresponding table resides.
If you intend to use data distributions, you must provide enough temporary
space to hold the largest table for which you intend to establish a distribution.
For information about data distributions, refer to UPDATE STATISTICS in the
Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
The remainder of this section outlines the additional hard-disk requirements
for migration to your target database server. You need to examine carefully
the amount of disk space left in each dbspace.
The first time that you start up your target database server, the database
server performs the following tasks automatically:
■
Upgrading of system catalog indexes to your target database server,
(occurs at the start of quiescent mode)
■
Creation of sysmaster and sysutils databases (occurs at the start of
on-line mode)
You must provide enough space for these actions to take effect. After the
database server begins normal operation, you must rebuild the indexes for
user tables. You must allocate adequate disk resources for those indexes as
well.
Accommodating System Catalog Indexes
The following formula indicates how many additional pages you must
provide to accommodate the growth in system catalog indexes for a given
database:
growth_in_pages = (Total * .10) + (Largest * 1.10)
Total
is the total number of leaf pages for all system catalog indexes.
Largest
is the number of leaf pages in the largest index.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-13
Disk-Utilization Issues
The additional space that is available during the upgrade process must
include room for the following items:
■
■
A copy of the largest index plus 10 percent
10 percent of the current total of system catalog index pages
The database server requires this amount of additional space to accommodate those brief periods in which the old and new versions of an index
both reside on disk. The additional 10 percent allows for the case in which the
largest index also is the last one to be upgraded.
You can use the following SQL query within DB-Access or INFORMIX-SQL to
determine how many added pages the new system catalog indexes require:
UPDATE STATISTICS;
SELECT ((SUM(leaves) * 0.10) + (MAX(leaves) * 1.10)) sci_added
FROM sysindexes
WHERE tabid < 100;
Important: You must perform this query from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0.
If sufficient space is not already available in the root dbspace, you must
allocate additional chunks or move tables to other dbspaces to make room.
You can use the tbstat –d command to find the number of free pages in the
root dbspace. For details, refer to your Administrator’s Guide, Version 4.1
or 5.0.
Accommodating the sysmaster Database
The sysmaster database is created in the root dbspace and cannot be moved
or redirected. The sysmaster database contains pseudotables for monitoring
and real tables to store backup information for ON-Archive. To create the
sysmaster database, you need up to 1,100 free pages in the root dbspace.
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Informix Migration Guide
Disk-Utilization Issues
Locating Temporary Files and Tables
Version 6.0 and later versions of the database server let you use the
DBSPACETEMP configuration parameter or the DBSPACETEMP environment
variable to specify the location of temporary files and tables in either raw or
cooked space in UNIX. When you use Windows NT, you can specify the
locations of temporary files and tables in buffered and unbuffered space.
(Previous versions of the database server create temporary tables in the root
dbspace by default. Version 6.0 and later versions of the database server do
not use the DBPATH environment variable to locate sort files.) If your
computer has at least two hard disks, you might consider mirroring your root
dbspace and redirecting the temporary table creation elsewhere. This setup
prevents hard-disk failures on the root dbspace from affecting your day-today business activities.
Accommodating Data Distributions
If you intend to use data distributions, you must provide adequate space for
them in the dbspace that contains the system catalog tables for each database
in which they are used. (Use the UPDATE STATISTICS statement, described in
the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax, to create data distributions.) The following
formula gives the maximum amount of space in bytes that might be required
for a data distribution on an individual column. Add the results for each
column to obtain the total amount of additional space that is needed for the
distributions themselves:
dist_space = (ceil((4 * ((1/d_res) + 1) *
(4 + c_len))/765) * 1,116) + 2
ceil
represents a mathematical function that rounds its argument to the
next larger integer. On many systems, this function is called ceil or
ceiling.
d_res
is the decimal representation of the resolution that is specified in the
UPDATE STATISTICS statement. The default resolution for a HIGHmode data distribution is 0.5 percent, or 0.005 in this formula.
c_len
is the length in bytes for the column. A FLOAT column typically
contains 8 bytes; a CHAR 20 column contains 20 bytes.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-15
Disk-Utilization Issues
Tip: This formula yields the maximum possible size for a distribution that contains
a number of overflow entries. A typical distribution with few or no overflow entries
uses only 25 percent of the maximum space that this formula projects.
For MEDIUM-mode distributions, you must also provide sort space in the
dbspace equivalent to 3,000 rows of the widest table. For HIGH-mode distributions, you must provide space for a complete copy of the largest table for
which you want a HIGH-mode data distribution.
For example, if you intend to use a HIGH-mode data distribution with the
default resolution of 0.5 percent on a CHAR 20 column, the following
calculation shows the maximum space that is needed for that distribution in
bytes:
(ceil((4 * ((1/0.005) +1) * (4 + 20))/765) * 1,116) + 26
This formula works out to 29,042 bytes, as the following calculations show:
(ceil((4 * (200 +1) * 24)/765) * 1,116) + 26
(ceil((4 * 201 * 24)/765) * 1,116) + 26
(ceil(19,296/765) * 1,116) + 26
(ceil(25.223) * 1,116) + 26
(26 * 1,116) + 26
29,016 + 26
If this column appears in a table that contains 100,000 rows of 28 bytes each,
you must provide a minimum of approximately 2.8 megabytes of sort space
in the dbspace to build this distribution.
For a MEDIUM-mode distribution, calculate the required amount of sort
space as follows:
sort_space = 28B * 3,000 = 84,000B
Accommodating User-Table Indexes
The following formula indicates the number of additional pages necessary to
accommodate the growth in user-table indexes for a given database:
index_growth_pages = (total * 0.10)
total
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Informix Migration Guide
is the total number of leaf pages for all user-table indexes.
Disk-Utilization Issues
You might need to add chunks to your existing dbspaces or perhaps add new
dbspaces and move tables to that dbspace to provide additional room. You
can use the tbstat –d command to find out the number of free pages in the
current dbspace. For details, refer to your Administrator’s Guide, Version 4.1 or
5.0.
You can use the following SQL query in DB-Access or INFORMIX-SQL to
determine the number of additional pages that user-table indexes need for an
entire database:
SELECT (SUM(leaves) * 0.1) uti_added
FROM sysindexes
WHERE tabid >= 100;
Indexes reside in the same dbspace as the tables to which they refer. Tables
can be located in different dbspaces than the databases in which they are
managed. If all your tables reside in the current dbspace, the result of this
query indicates the number of pages to add to the database. However, if one
or more tables reside in separate dbspaces, you must make sure that those
dbspaces include enough room for the new indexes.
To find out the dbspace in which each external table resides, use the
following SQL query:
SELECT tabname, tabid, (partnum / "0x100000") dbspace_num
FROM systables
WHERE tabid >= 100
AND partnum > 0;
For each table that resides in a separate dbspace, use the following SQL query
to find out how many additional index pages must be added to the estimate
for its dbspace. Add the resulting number of pages to the estimate for that
dbspace and deduct it from your estimate for the current dbspace, as follows:
SELECT (leaves * 0.1) tbl_added
FROM sysindexes
WHERE tabid = alt_tabid;
alt_tabid
is the tabid (table ID number) of the table in a separate dbspace as
returned by the previous query.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-17
Disk-Utilization Issues
Accommodating the Upgrading of User-Table Indexes
The process of upgrading user-table indexes for your target database server
to use is not automatic and requires preliminary planning. You upgrade user
indexes in the last steps of the migration procedure, after you install the
target database server. For more information, refer to “Use the oncheck
Utility to Upgrade Indexes” on page 12-35.
You can choose from three different methods to upgrade indexes for a user
table. The method that you choose for a given table depends on the size of the
table, the degree to which availability of the table is seen as critical, the
logging mode of the database, and the time that you can allow for your target
database server to stay closed to other users.
You can use the following upgrade methods:
■
The oncheck –cI –y command
■
The UPDATE STATISTICS statement
■
The DROP INDEX and CREATE INDEX statements
Tip: The time you need to upgrade user-table indexes is proportional to the time you
need to rebuild indexes in pre-6.0 versions of the database server. Factors that affect
the upgrade time include the number of indexes per table, the size of each index, the
number of available CPUs, and the absence or presence of other user activity on the
system.
The oncheck –cI –y command upgrades indexes while the database is in
quiescent mode. This method is preferred for upgrading large or critical
tables. You can also use this method to upgrade an entire ANSI-compliant
database in a single operation. Usually, this method is also the easiest method
to use for any table or database. However, the database server remains
unavailable to other users as long as the oncheck utility is running. For more
information about the oncheck utility, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
The UPDATE STATISTICS statement provides added flexibility. You can use it
to upgrade indexes while other users are on-line. However, if you execute
this statement within a transaction while other users are working, you risk
bringing the database server off-line with a long-transaction error. Handle
small tables in ANSI-compliant databases one at a time if other users are
working on the database server. Do not use this method to upgrade large or
multiple tables in ANSI-compliant databases.
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Informix Migration Guide
Disk-Utilization Issues
Dropping and rebuilding indexes is another upgrade option that you can use
in place of UPDATE STATISTICS. Because the UPDATE STATISTICS statement
also allows you to generate data distributions, it is generally preferred over
dropping and rebuilding indexes with the DROP INDEX and CREATE INDEX
statements. For more information about these statements, refer to the
Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
To prepare for upgrading a user index
1.
Execute the following query in each database:
SELECT tabname
FROM systables
WHERE tabid >= 100
2.
Determine which method to use for each table in your list.
The following chart gives recommendations for tables depending on
their size, importance, the type of database in which they reside, and
the urgency with which the database server must be brought back
on-line. Use oncheck to upgrade large, critical tables. The choice for
small, but critical, or large, but noncritical tables depends on which
scenario produces the smaller effect: having the database server
unavailable or rebuilding indexes while your system is active.
Type of Table
Needed Quickly
Less Urgent
Large, critical
oncheck -cI -y
oncheck -cI -y
Small, critical
oncheck -cI -y
UPDATE STATISTICS
Large, noncritical
oncheck -cI -y
UPDATE STATISTICS
Small, noncritical
UPDATE STATISTICS
UPDATE STATISTICS
Tip: You might be able to use a single method to upgrade the indexes on all or most
tables within a database. Both the oncheck command and UPDATE STATISTICS
statement allow you to use a single command to upgrade the indexes for an entire
database. For details, see the “Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.”
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-19
Database Server Configuration Issues
Managing Secure-Auditing Log Files
If you intend to use the secure-auditing features of the target database server,
be advised that the database server audit-record log files can grow rapidly to
take up a significant amount of space in the file system. Be sure to allow
adequate space for the file system in which these files reside. You can
configure audit records to minimize the effect of secure auditing on disk use.
For details, refer to your Trusted Facility Manual.
Database Server Configuration Issues
This section provides an overview of database configuration issues involved
in the migration process. The following discussions describe only those
configuration issues that affect the migration process. For detailed information about the database server configuration parameters, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide.
Changing Environment Variables
Version 6.0 and later versions of the database server include new
environment variables that replace those in OnLine 4.1 and 5.0. Environment
variable names that began with TB in earlier versions begin with ON in the
database server versions 6.0 or later. For instance, the TBCONFIG
environment variable is replaced by the ONCONFIG variable. The SQLEXEC
environment variable is not used in Versions 6.0 and later.
When you initialize an instance of your target database server, you must set
the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to the dbservername of that
instance. Applications must also set the INFORMIXSERVER environment
variable to gain access to databases that your target database server manages.
Revising Configuration Parameter Values
The database server, Version 6.0 or later, recognizes new minimum values for
certain configuration parameters that existed prior to Version 6.0.
As of Version 7.10, the BUFFERS parameter indicates the maximum number
of buffers for disk I/O. To improve performance, increase the BUFFERS and
DBSPACETEMP values, if necessary.
12-20
Informix Migration Guide
Database Server Configuration Issues
You must increase the value of the LOCKS parameter to at least 2,000. The
database server puts a message in the message log if more locks are needed.
Increasing Logical-Log Space
Make sure that at least 2,000 total log pages are allocated and free for logical
logs because the building of the sysmaster database requires 1,000 log pages.
Informix recommends a 1,000 log-page safety factor. Run tbstat -l for your
current log-usage status.
Planning for Additional Shared-Memory Usage
The database server architecture, introduced with Version 6.0, combines all
the memory that sqlturbo processes use in previous versions of the database
server into a shared-memory section called the virtual segment of shared
memory. When you migrate from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0, you must allocate
enough shared memory with the SHMVIRTSIZE configuration parameter, in
the ONCONFIG file, to accommodate the user threads that separate database
server processes serviced in pre-6.0 versions. A reasonable initial estimate for
SHMVIRTSIZE is 500 kilobytes for each user thread. Additional space might
be required for use with data distributions. Use the SHMVIRTSIZE configuration parameter to specify the amount of shared memory for the database
server.
The database server requires three segments of shared memory as opposed
to the one segment that was required in pre-6.0 versions of the database
server. For information about how to configure shared-memory segments in
the operating system, refer to “Estimating the Size and Number of SharedMemory Segments” on page 12-7.
You use the SHMADD parameter in the ONCONFIG file to set the size of a
dynamically added segment. If you do not specify a value for this parameter,
the database server attempts to attach additional shared memory in
8-megabyte segments.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-21
Database Server Configuration Issues
The SHMTOTAL parameter in the ONCONFIG file places an absolute
maximum on the amount of shared memory that an instance of Dynamic
Server 7.3 can request. To avoid the risk of exceeding the shared memory
provided for the database server, set this parameter to the maximum amount
of shared memory for that instance requires. If you set SHMTOTAL to 0 or
leave it unassigned, the database server continues to attach additional shared
memory as needed until no more virtual memory is available on the system.
Saving Pre-Existing sysmaster Databases
Pre-6.0 versions of the database server include the makeps.sql script, which
creates a sysmaster database. If this database exists on your system, you can
run dropps.sql to drop it. If you do not drop the old sysmaster database, the
upgrade process renames it sysmaster_pre60.
Configuring Secondary Database Servers for Data Replication
When you configure a secondary database server for use in data replication,
the version of your target database server on the secondary host computer
must match that on the primary host computer. Chunk names and offsets
must also match between instances of your target database server on the
primary and secondary hosts. For more information about data replication,
refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Managing Backups
The ON-Archive backup-management system, introduced in OnLine
Dynamic Server 6.0, and table fragmentation, introduced in OnLine Dynamic
Server 7.10, might change the placement of databases and tables on disk.
The ON-Archive menu uses a special termcap file that is located in the
tctermcap file in $INFORMIXDIR/etc. If your terminal is not listed in this file,
you might need to add a new entry to use the menu interface. For more information about backup strategies, table organization, and the tctermcap file,
refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
12-22
Informix Migration Guide
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
Making Performance Comparisons
Informix recommends that you run and record time- and resource-use
statistics for sample queries and other operations to help you compare
performance before and after migration to your target database server. You
can compare these statistics with equivalent operations you perform after the
upgrade to characterize performance enhancement or degradation. The
comparison might help you identify database configuration parameters that
you can adjust to obtain better performance.
Storage-Manager Validation and Installation
When you upgrade or revert an Informix database server, the storage
manager that you used on the source database server might not be validated
for the version of the database server to which you are migrating. Verify that
Informix has validated the storage manager for the target database server
version and platform. If not, you need to install a validated storage manager
before you perform backups with the ON-Bar backup and restore system.
When you migrate to a new database server version, install the storage
manager before you bring up the database server. That way, if you have
automatic log backup set up on the database server, ON-Bar can start backing
up the logs when the database server comes on-line.
Warning: If you migrate Informix Storage Manager (ISM) 1.0 catalogs to ISM 2.0
using the ism_catalog utility, the catalogs become corrupted. Once the ISM 2.0
server is restarted after catalog migration, error messages occur in various logs.
For information on how to install and upgrade the storage manager, see the
Informix Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-23
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server from OnLine 5.0 or 4.1
Upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine
Dynamic Server from OnLine 5.0 or 4.1
The procedure for upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic
Server from a pre-6.0 database server on UNIX includes the following steps,
which the rest of this section describes:
1.
Install the latest maintenance release for the current version.
2.
Capture configuration and chunk-layout information in
OnLine, Version 4.1 or 5.0.
3.
Close all transactions and make a final (level-0) backup under
OnLine, Version 4.1 or 5.0.
4.
Bring OnLine, Version 4.1 or 5.0, off-line.
5.
Install and configure the target database server.
6.
Reconfigure the operating system.
7.
Bring your target database server on-line.
8.
Upgrade user-table indexes.
9.
Verify the integrity of the database.
10.
Make an initial (level-0) backup under your target database server.
11.
Add rowid columns to fragmented tables.
12.
Complete migration.
Install the Latest Maintenance Release for the Current
Version of OnLine
Informix recommends that you install the latest maintenance release for your
current database server version before you migrate to a new version,
especially if you are using Version 5.0.
For example, to migrate to Dynamic Server 7.3 or to OnLine Dynamic Server
from OnLine 5.03 on UNIX, first install the latest maintenance release for
OnLine and then migrate to Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server.
Many minor changes to the 5.x versions are also in the 7.x versions.
12-24
Informix Migration Guide
Capture Configuration and Chunk-Layout Information
Capture Configuration and Chunk-Layout Information
Before you can safely configure your target database server, you must
capture the configuration and chunk-layout information under OnLine 4.1 or
5.0. You use this information when you configure your target database server.
To copy database server configuration files
1.
Log in as user informix.
2.
Ask all OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 users to exit their applications.
3.
Rename or make a copy of the configuration file(s) if the current
name appears in the following list:
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/onconfig.std
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/sqlhosts
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tbconfig
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tbconfig.std
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/tctermcap
■
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/termcap
You must save these files because the installation procedure for your
target database server overwrites them during the installation. Keep
the copies available to use later.
To copy chunk-layout and space-use information
Execute the following command to save a listing of your chunk layout and
space use in case you need to refer to it:
tbstat -d > $INFORMIXDIR/chunk.layout
To add chunks or to move tables to accommodate your target database server
disk-use requirements
If you need to add chunks or move tables out of the root dbspace to make
room for the sysmaster database and system catalog indexes, you can do so
at this time. You can also add chunks or move tables in this and other
dbspaces to accommodate user-table indexes.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-25
Close All Transactions and Make a Final Backup of the Source Database Server
For more information about disk-space requirements in your target database
server, refer to “Disk-Utilization Issues” on page 12-12. For information
about adding chunks or moving tables, refer to your Administrator’s Guide,
Version 5.0 or 4.1.
Close All Transactions and Make a Final Backup of the
Source Database Server
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for migration. This procedure prepares the transaction log for
migration to your target database server and creates a final backup of the
database under OnLine 4.1 or 5.0.
To perform an immediate shutdown
Execute the following command to perform an immediate shutdown:
tbmode -k
Answer yes to all the prompts. This step terminates all database server
processes that might still be running.
To shut down the system gracefully
1.
Execute the tbmode –sy command.
2.
Wait for all users to exit.
3.
Execute the tbmode –k command and then answer yes to all the
prompts.
Make sure the system has shut down completely before you proceed to the
next step.
To initiate a fast recovery
Execute the following command to enter quiescent mode and initiate a fast
recovery:
tbinit -s
The tbinit –s option rolls forward all committed transactions, rolls back all
incomplete transactions since the last checkpoint, and leaves a new checkpoint record in the log with no open transactions pending. (Refer to your
Administrator’s Guide, Version 5.0 or 4.1.)
12-26
Informix Migration Guide
Close All Transactions and Make a Final Backup of the Source Database Server
To verify the operating mode
Execute the following command to verify that OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 is in
quiescent mode:
tbstat -
The first line of the tbstat output contains the status of OnLine 4.1 or 5.0.
Figure 12-2 shows that OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 is in quiescent mode.
RSAM Version x.xx.xxx
-
-
Quiescent
- -
OnLine Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
Up
xx:xx:xx
- - xxxx
Kbytes
Figure 12-2
Example of tbstat
Status Line
Record the shared-memory size for later use.
To verify the integrity of the data
Before you make a level-0 backup, you might want to verify the integrity of
the data.
Use the tbcheck utility to verify the integrity of data before you start the
backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages, system catalog
tables, data, and indexes. (Refer to your Administrator’s Guide, Version 4.1 or
5.0.) Execute the following commands.
To check
Use the command
Reserve pages
tbcheck -cr
System catalog tables
tbcheck -cc database_name
Data
tbcheck -cD database_name
Indexes
tbcheck -cI database_name
To make a final backup of OnLine 4.1 or 5.0
Use tbtape or tbmonitor to make a level-0 backup of OnLine 4.1 or 5.0. The
tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup. (For more information on making a level-0 tape backup, refer to your Administrator’s Guide,
Version 4.1 or 5.0.)
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-27
Bring OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 Off-Line
Important: Backups that you made under OnLine 4.1 and 5.0 are not compatible
with your target database server tape format. Use only the older version of the source
database server to restore the backup tape that you made in this step. You cannot use
this backup tape with your target database server.
Bring OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 Off-Line
This procedure shuts down the instance of OnLine 4.1 or 5.0.
To shut down the instance of OnLine
Execute the following command:
tbmode -k
Answer yes to all prompts.
To verify that OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 is off-line
Execute the following command to verify that OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 is in off-line
mode:
tbmonitor
Tip: Use tbmonitor instead of tbstat to verify the operating mode. The tbstat
utility is not designed to return the operating-mode status when the database server
is off-line.
The third line of the DB-Monitor main menu contains the status of OnLine 4.1
or 5.0. The screen in Figure 12-3 indicates that the database server is off-line.
(Refer to your Administrator’s Guide, Version 4.1 or 5.0.)
INFORMIX-OnLine:
Status
Parameters
Dbspaces
Mode
Force-Ckpt
Status menu to view INFORMIX-OnLine
-------------Off-Line--------------Press CRTL-W for Help ---------------------
Figure 12-3
DB-Monitor Main
Menu
The database server must be off-line because the older and the newer
versions share common files. You cannot install the database server if any of
the common files are active. Bring the database server off-line to ensure that
all common files are inactive.
Important: Repeat the previous three sections (pages 12-25 through 12-28) for each
database server instance that you want to upgrade.
12-28
Informix Migration Guide
Install and Configure the Target Database Server
Install and Configure the Target Database Server
You must be user root to install the target database server. Set the
$INFORMIXDIR environment variable to the directory where you plan to
install the database server.
Follow the directions in your Installation Guide and your Administrator’s Guide
to install the target database server. The installation script installs the
database server into the $INFORMIXDIR directory specified for user root. The
installation script does not bring the database server on-line.
Warning: If you install the target database server in the same directory where the
older version of the database server currently resides, the newer version overwrites
the older files. If you want to preserve your product files of earlier versions, you must
install your target database server in a different directory.
Before you overwrite the older version, you must take the following
precautions:
■
If you do not have the original media for the older version, back up
the $INFORMIXDIR directory before you install your target database
server.
■
Copy the configuration file(s) in $INFORMIXDIR/etc to another
location on the file system.
When the installation is complete, exit as user root and log in as user
informix.
Important: The target database server includes networking capabilities that are not
present in pre-6.0 versions. These capabilities use networking information from
configuration files such as the ONCONFIG and sqlhosts files to establish communications with application processes. You must ensure that these files are present and
contain the needed information. To verify these files, establish a connection from
DB-Access to test the database server instance before you proceed with your installation. If your configuration calls for it, you can also test a remote client-server
system.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-29
Install and Configure the Target Database Server
To set up the configuration file
Copy the standard Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server configuration file to the name of your working configuration file and then edit it. For
example, if your configuration filename is onconfig.1, you might use the
following commands:
cd $INFORMIXDIR/etc
cp onconfig.std onconfig.1
vi onconfig.1
Refer to the backed-up copy of the OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 configuration file that
you saved in “Capture Configuration and Chunk-Layout Information” on
page 12-25. Copy the values from matching parameters in the backed-up file
to your working configuration file (for example, onconfig.1). Modify those
values to conform with revised minimums for Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine
Dynamic Server as described in “Revising Configuration Parameter Values”
on page 12-20.
To set environment variables for the target database server
At this point, you must set up the environment variables that both the client
applications and your target database server need to communicate. Make
sure that the INFORMIXDIR and PATH environment variables were set
during the installation. (For more information, refer to your Administrator’s
Guide.)
Set the ONCONFIG environment variable to the name of your target database
server configuration file, as the following examples show:
C shell:
setenv ONCONFIG onconfig.1
Bourne shell:
NCONFIG=onconfig.1;
export ONCONFIG
Set the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable for all users that need to
access the target database server. Set this variable to the name that is listed in
the sqlhosts file and in the DBSERVERNAME or DBSERVERALIASES parameter
of your target database server configuration file, as follows:
12-30
C shell:
setenv INFORMIXSERVER dbserver1
Bourne shell:
INFORMIXSERVER=dbserver1;
export INFORMIXSERVER
Informix Migration Guide
Reconfigure the UNIX Operating System
If you use a dbspace or file to store temporary tables, set the DBSPACETEMP
configuration parameter or DBSPACETEMP environment variable to the
name of the dbspace or full pathname of that file.
To modify the sqlhosts file
The target database server requires an sqlhosts file. An sqlhosts.demo file is
included in $INFORMIXDIR/etc as an example of the setup that your target
database server requires. If you do not have an sqlhosts file already, the
installation program renames the sqlhosts.demo file to sqlhosts. The
sqlhosts file should include an entry with the following information for each
instance of your target database server:
dbservername
nettype
hostname
service_name
options
You must modify the entries in this file to support your configuration. For
more information on how to modify the sqlhosts file, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Important: The client application looks for the sqlhosts file in the
$INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. However, you can use the INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
environment variable to change the location or name of the sqlhosts file.
Reconfigure the UNIX Operating System
For this step, you need to reconfigure your operating system based on the
estimates that you determined in “Preparing for Migration” on page 12-3.
You need to provide additional shared memory, additional semaphores, and
possibly additional hardware resources such as disk drives. To reconfigure
the operating system, follow the directions in the machine notes file included
in your target database server distribution and the kernel-configuration
instructions for your operating system.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-31
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line
This step brings the database server to quiescent mode. The success of this
step depends on adequate operating-system and disk resources, as discussed
in “Preparing for Migration” on page 12-3. If the system is not brought up in
quiescent mode, you get the following error when you attempt to initialize
your target database server and the database server goes off-line:
Open transaction detected when changing log versions.
To bring the target database server from off-line to quiescent mode
To bring your target database server from off-line to quiescent mode, execute
the following command:
oninit -s
Execute the onstat -m command to check the message log for the status of the
mode change and to create the sysmaster database.
The system automatically creates the sysmaster database when the target
database server is brought on-line. If the system fails to create this database,
the root dbspace might not include the additional 550 pages that are needed
for the upgrade. Return to “Install and Configure the Target Database Server”
on page 12-29, provide enough space in the root dbspace, and repeat the
steps in this section. If the sysmaster database does not already exist, the
database server keeps trying to create it each time that you start the database
server.
Warning: The logical logs continue to fill with the transactions that result from the
creation of the sysmaster database. If you run out of log space before the creation
of the sysmaster database is complete, the database server halts with a longtransaction error. Thus, you must back up the logical logs.
Execute the ontape -a or ontape -c command. Once the logical logs are
backed up, processing resumes.
When the system reaches quiescent mode successfully, you can note whether
you need to adjust the shared memory and semaphore values for your
operating system, which you configured in “Reconfigure the UNIX
Operating System” on page 12-31. Check your database server message log
for status messages that pertain to the change to quiescent mode.
12-32
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrade User-Table Indexes
To bring the target database server from quiescent to on-line mode
To change the database server mode from quiescent to on-line, execute the
following command:
onmode -m
At this point, the system attempts to rebuild system catalog indexes. If you
try to access them at this time, you might find some of them locked. If these
catalogs cannot be rebuilt, you might need to allocate more space in your root
dbspace. Along with the 1,100 extra pages that you need to create the
sysmaster database, you must add the number of additional pages that the
formula gives in “Accommodating System Catalog Indexes” on page 12-13.
Return to this section and allocate sufficient space.
Upgrade User-Table Indexes
If you have not already done so, use the formula provided in “Accommodating User-Table Indexes” on page 12-16 to allocate the additional disk
space that you need for user-table indexes in your target database server. You
can now begin upgrading user-table indexes.
Upgrading user-table indexes requires planning. You can use several
methods to upgrade indexes for various tables. Depending on the size and
demand for a table, you might prefer one method over another. If you have
not already done so, generate a list of tables in each of your databases and
identify the appropriate upgrade method for each index, as described in
“Accommodating the Upgrading of User-Table Indexes” on page 12-18.
Before you make the database server available to regular users, execute the
oncheck -cI -y command to upgrade indexes for large or critical tables, as
described in “Use the oncheck Utility to Upgrade Indexes” on page 12-35.
You can defer smaller and less-critical tables until after the database server is
brought on-line. You can then upgrade these tables through SQL with the
UPDATE STATISTICS statement or the DROP INDEX and CREATE INDEX
statements.
You might be able to expedite the process of upgrading indexes by taking
advantage of enhanced features that are provided with your target database
server such as support for multiple CPUs, parallel index builds, and so on.
For more information, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-33
Upgrade User-Table Indexes
The new indexes will be larger than the old indexes no matter which method
you choose. Make sure that you allocate enough room in each dbspace for the
new indexes. Otherwise, you might need to move tables to other dbspaces
before you upgrade indexes, as described in the following section, “Move
Tables to Another dbspace.”
Move Tables to Another dbspace
If you neglected to make the proper adjustments to your dbspaces as
described under “Accommodating User-Table Indexes” on page 12-16, you
might need to move one or more tables to another dbspace to accommodate
the larger index in your target database server. If you know that you have
enough room for your new indexes, you can skip ahead to “Use the oncheck
Utility to Upgrade Indexes.”
You can use either of the following techniques to move tables during the
upgrade process:
■
The INSERT statement
■
The onunload and onload utilities
To use INSERT to move tables to a new dbspace
1.
Create a table in the new dbspace with a temporary name.
2.
Use INSERT INTO newtab SELECT * FROM oldtab.
3.
Drop the old table.
4.
Create all the indexes in the new table.
5.
Rename the new table to the original name.
To use onunload and onload to move tables to a new dbspace
12-34
1.
Create a new table in another dbspace.
2.
Drop all the indexes from the old table.
3.
Use onunload to copy the old table to a file.
4.
Drop the table and then update the database to create a new version
of the table in the new dbspace.
5.
Use onload to load the data back into the table.
6.
Create all the indexes in the new table.
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrade User-Table Indexes
Use the oncheck Utility to Upgrade Indexes
The oncheck utility can be helpful when you upgrade ANSI-compliant
databases, and in situations where critical tables must be made accessible as
soon as possible.
You can run oncheck –cI –y to upgrade indexes for a single table or an entire
database when your target database server is in quiescent mode. After you
make sure that no users are present, use onmode –s to bring the system into
quiescent mode.
To upgrade indexes for a single table
oncheck -cI -y database_name:table_name
database_name
is the name of the database.
table_name
is the name of the table.
To upgrade indexes for the entire database
oncheck -cI -y database_name
The oncheck command displays messages of the following form:
Index index-name is bad. OK to repair it?
This message indicates that the existing (4.1 or 5.0) index is not in the correct
format for your target database server. The –y option automatically answers
yes to this prompt, allowing your target database server to upgrade each
index in turn automatically.
Use UPDATE STATISTICS to Upgrade Indexes
Tip: The UPDATE STATISTICS statement includes new options that were introduced in OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0. For details, refer to the “Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax.”
You can execute an UPDATE STATISTICS statement to upgrade the indexes for
a single table or, in some circumstances, for an entire database. The target
database server UPDATE STATISTICS statement automatically upgrades
Version 4.1 and 5.0 indexes, provided that the dbspace has enough space. For
more information, see “Move Tables to Another dbspace” on page 12-34.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-35
Upgrade User-Table Indexes
This method is especially useful for nonlogging databases. Or you can use
UPDATE STATISTICS in a database without ANSI logging by issuing the
statement outside of a transaction. When you take the proper precautions, you
can even use this method within a transaction or an ANSI-compliant
database.
Warning: If you execute an UPDATE STATISTICS statement within a transaction,
you must follow up with a COMMIT WORK or ROLLBACK WORK statement to close
the transaction. Otherwise, the Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server
instance eventually halts with a long-transaction error.
When you upgrade indexes within a transaction or an ANSI-compliant
database, Informix recommends that you use one of the following
approaches to limit the risk of encountering a long transaction:
■
Limit the scope of each UPDATE STATISTICS statement to a single
table. This approach reduces your risk of encountering a long transaction. Execute separate UPDATE STATISTICS statements for each
table, followed by separate COMMIT WORK statements.
■
Update statistics for an entire database only when no other users
have access to the current instance of your target database server.
■
Use oncheck to upgrade indexes while the database server is in
quiescent mode. For more information, see “Use the oncheck Utility
to Upgrade Indexes” on page 12-35.
Use DROP INDEX and CREATE INDEX to Upgrade Indexes
If neither of the previous two methods seem suitable, you can drop and
rebuild the indexes for your tables individually. When you drop and rebuild
indexes, you can override the default fill factor that is specified in the
FILLFACTOR parameter of the ONCONFIG file. For details, refer to the
Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
12-36
Informix Migration Guide
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Informix recommends that you verify the integrity of your data before you
run the reversion utility. Figure 12-4 lists the oncheck commands for
verifying data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 12-4
Commands for
Verifying Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
Tip: You might see the following warning. It means that you have not defined any
synonyms.
WARNING: No syssyntable records found.
Make an Initial Backup of the Target Database Server
Use your target database server backup tool (ON-Bar, ON-Archive, or
ontape) to make a level-0 backup. Do not overwrite the tapes you used earlier
when you made your final backup of your database server. For more information, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide or your Backup and Restore
Guide.
Important: Do not restore the backed up logical logs to the newer version of your
database server from your source database server.
Add rowid Columns to Fragmented Tables
In the Version 7.x database servers, fragmented tables do not have a rowid
field by default. If you migrate fragmented data tables to Dynamic Server 7.3
or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.x, you must add a rowid column to each table
before you use applications that use rowid values to access data.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-37
Complete Migration
Complete Migration
When you finish the level-0 backup, the migration process is complete and
users can use your database server to access data safely.
The first time you bring up the target database server, the sysmaster database
is built in 15 to 30 minutes. Check the message log to ensure that the
sysmaster database build has completed before you allow users to access the
database server.
After you successfully migrate to your target database server, you might
want to seek ways to obtain maximum performance. If you created sample
queries for comparison, you can use them to characterize the performance
differences between your earlier version and your target database server. The
results of these comparisons might suggest adjustments to configuration
parameters or to the layout of databases, tables, and chunks. For details on
topics related to performance, refer to your Performance Guide.
GLS
Convert a Database to a Different Locale
When you complete the migration to Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic
Server from OnLine 4.1 or 5.0, your databases use the default locale, U.S.
English. When the target database server is running successfully, you can
take the following steps to convert a database to a non-default locale.
To convert a database to a non-default locale
1.
Use the UNLOAD statement or the dbexport utility to unload data
from the database to be converted.
2.
Set the CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE environment variables to
support the new GLS locale.
3.
Create a database with the new locale by issuing the CREATE
DATABASE statement from an application that has the correct client
locale variables set in its environment.
4.
Modify the schema representation to replace CHAR and VARCHAR
columns with NCHAR and NVARCHAR columns, respectively.
5.
Use the LOAD statement or the dbimport utility to load the data into
the new database.
For more information about the GLS feature, refer to Section VI, “Locale
Changes,” and to the Informix Guide to GLS Functionality.
12-38
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting to OnLine 5.0 or 4.1
Reverting to OnLine 5.0 or 4.1
This section describes the process to revert to OnLine, Version 5.0 or
Version 4.1, from Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server. These steps
also apply if you are reverting from Version 7.2x, 7.10.UD1, 7.10.UCx, or 6.0.
Before you can revert to OnLine 5.0 or OnLine 4.1 from Dynamic Server 7.3
or OnLine Dynamic Server, you must modify the configuration limits and
remove constructs that OnLine 5.0 or OnLine 4.1 does not support.
The procedure for reverting to OnLine includes the following steps, which
the rest of this section describes:
1.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
2.
Remove database server users.
3.
Verify the integrity of the data.
4.
Back up the source database server.
5.
Remove features that later versions introduced.
6.
Run the reversion utility (onmode -b).
7.
Prepare the TBCONFIG configuration file.
8.
Reset environment variables.
9.
Bring up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 in quiescent mode.
10.
Verify the integrity of the data.
11.
Back up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1.
12.
Return OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 to on-line mode.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Before you start the reversion process, save copies of your configuration files.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-39
Remove Database Server Users
Remove Database Server Users
Remove all users from the source database server before you begin the
reversion process. Warn the users that you plan to shut down the database
server and then execute the following command:
onmode -s
The -s flag on onmode restricts new access to the database server but allows
current processing to finish. When all processing is finished, the database
server goes to quiescent mode, and you can continue the reversion process.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Before you allow users to access the databases, use the oncheck utility to
verify that no data was corrupted in the migration process. You can verify the
integrity of the reserve pages, extents, system catalog tables, data, and
indexes. For more information, see “Verify the Integrity of the Data” on
page 12-37.
Back Up the Source Database Server
Informix recommends that you use ontape or ON-Archive to make a level-0
backup. For details on how to make backups, refer to your Archive and Backup
Guide.
Remove Features That Later Versions Introduced
Before you can revert to OnLine 5.0 or 4.1, you must remove features that
later versions of the database server introduced, as follows:
12-40
■
Remove NLS and GLS databases.
■
Disable data replication.
■
Change all fragmented tables back into unfragmented tables. See
your Administrator’s Guide for instructions on how to defragment
tables.
■
Disable role separation.
■
Remove unsupported SQL statements.
■
Adjust configuration parameters.
Informix Migration Guide
Run the Reversion Utility
Figure 12-5 and Figure 12-6 show configuration parameter limits for
Version 5.0 and Version 4.1.
Figure 12-5
Configuration Parameter Limits for Version 5.0
Resource
Parameter
5.0 Limit
Logical logs
LOGFILES, LOGSMAX
<= 1 page of entries
Dbspaces
DBSPACES
<= 40
Chunks
CHUNKS
<= 1 page of entries
Buffers
BUFFERS
<= 512 kilobytes
Figure 12-6
Configuration Parameter Limits for Version 4.1
Resource
Parameter
4.1 Limit
Logical logs
LOGFILES, LOGSMAX
<= 1 page of entries
Dbspaces
DBSPACES
<= 40
Chunks
CHUNKS
<= 1 page of entries
Buffers
BUFFERS
<= 32,000
The chunk limit depends on the length of the pathname that you choose for
the chunk. The limit could range from 13 to 58.
Tip: Logical-log files of differing sizes that were created after 6.0 initialization do not
impair the reversion.
Run the Reversion Utility
To restore the database server files to a form that is compatible with
OnLine 5.0, execute the following command:
onmode -b 5.0
The reversion utility includes an implicit onmode –yuk. This command
forcibly removes all users. After the reversion is complete, the system is in
off-line mode.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-41
Prepare the TBCONFIG Configuration File
Tip: The onmode -b command also rebuilds the user-table indexes automatically.
Depending on the version of the database server from which you are
reverting, the onmode utility performs the following actions:
■
Verifies that no GLS databases exist.
■
Verifies that data replication is off.
■
Removes the second slot in the archive reserved page for data
replication.
■
Drops the sysmaster database.
■
Rewrites leaf pages of all indexes.
■
Frees reserved-page extensions.
■
Removes the data-replication slot from the archive reserved page.
■
Rewrites all partnums on disk (systables, database tablespace,
tablespace pages, blob freemap pages) in their old formats.
■
Rewrites dbspace page in the old format.
■
Writes a checkpoint record in Version 5.0 format to a clean logical-log
file.
The reformatting does not make the data space identical to its earlier format.
Some of the changes made during an upgrade to Version 7.3 from an earlier
version do not make the space incompatible with earlier versions, and the -b
option does not modify these changes.
Prepare the TBCONFIG Configuration File
Modify the configuration file to eliminate parameters that OnLine 5.0 or 4.1
does not recognize. You might find it easier to compare your saved configuration file with the tbconfig.std file and make adjustments accordingly.
Be sure to include the USERS configuration parameter, which was replaced by
USERTHREADS in Version 6.0 and later.
Important: Use the same values for ROOTPATH, ROOTSIZE, and ROOTOFFSET for
both versions of your database server.
12-42
Informix Migration Guide
Reset Environment Variables
Reset Environment Variables
Reset the environment variables to values that are appropriate for the
selected version of your database server. Remember that in Version 5.0 and
Version 4.1 you specify the configuration file with the TBCONFIG
environment variable instead of ONCONFIG.
The PDQPRIORITY environment variable and the SQL SETPDQPRIORITY
statement were introduced after Version 6.0. If you set the PDQPRIORITY
environment variable, it does not cause problems but it might cause
confusion. You must remove the SETPDQPRIORITY statement from your
applications.
Bring Up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 in Quiescent Mode
Bring up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 from off-line to quiescent mode. Execute the
following command:
tbinit -s
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Before you allow users to access the databases, check the integrity of the data.
Figure 12-7 lists the tbcheck commands for verifying data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
tbcheck -cr
Figure 12-7
Commands for
Verifying the Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables tbcheck -cc database_name
Check data
tbcheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
tbcheck -cI
database_name
When you run tbcheck, you might see the following message:
OLD pn_bytes != NEW pn_nbytes
This message does not require any action on your part. It indicates that a later
version of the database server accessed your database.
Migrating Between a 7.x or 6.0 Database Server and a 5.x or 4.1 Database Server 12-43
Back Up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1
Back Up OnLine 5.0 or 4.1
After you complete the reversion, Informix recommends that you make a
level-0 backup. Use the tbtape utility to prepare backups. For details on
making backups, refer to the appropriate Administrator’s Guide.
Return Online 5.0 or 4.1 to On-Line Mode
To change your OnLine 5.0 or 4.1 mode from quiescent to on-line, execute the
following command:
tbmode -m
The reversion is now complete, and users can access the data.
12-44
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Migrating Between INFORMIXSE Database Servers and
Converting C-ISAM Files
In This Chapter .
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13-3
Importing and Exporting Data .
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13-3
Migrating Between Different Versions of SE . . .
Preparing to Upgrade to SE 7.2 from SE 5.0 or 4.1
The sqlhosts File . . . . . . . . . .
Environment Variables . . . . . . . .
SE Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing to Upgrade to SE 7.2 from SE 7.1 or 6.0
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13-4
13-4
13-4
13-4
13-5
13-5
Reverting to an Earlier Version of SE .
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13-6
Converting C-ISAM Files to SE.
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13-6
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13-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes how to migrate between different versions of
INFORMIX-SE database servers. The latest version of SE is Version 7.2x.
Chapter 14, “Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions,”
covers moving data between SE and Dynamic Server 7.3.
Importing and Exporting Data
You can use the following utilities to import data to and export data from an
SE database server:
■
dbexport/dbimport
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UNLOAD/dbschema/LOAD
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UNLOAD/dbschema/dbload
Let your target destination, performance, and ease-of-use requirements
determine the method that you use. Refer to Figure 2-2, “Comparison of
Tools for Loading Data” on page 2-8 for details. Chapter 14, “Migrating
Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions,” describes the procedures for exporting and importing data. Section VIII, “Data Migration
Utilities,” describes the syntax of the dbexport, dbimport, UNLOAD,
dbschema, LOAD, and dbload utilities.
Migrating Between INFORMIX-SE Database Servers and Converting C-ISAM Files 13-3
Migrating Between Different Versions of SE
Migrating Between Different Versions of SE
Unlike Dynamic Server 7.3 data, SE data is stored in ordinary UNIX files. The
structure of these files remained the same between versions of SE, so that
migrating from one version to a later version requires little preparation. SE
manages the file contents, but the operating system manages the I/O.
Preparing to Upgrade to SE 7.2 from SE 5.0 or 4.1
Version 6.0 of Informix products introduced changes in the way clients
connect to database servers. The names of database server utilities also
changed.
UNIX
The sqlhosts File
Pre-6.0 versions of SE did not require an sqlhosts file on UNIX unless you
used SE with INFORMIX-NET. Beginning with Version 6.0, Informix products
require an sqlhosts file to specify connections between clients and servers.
For information about how to prepare your sqlhosts file, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide.
Environment Variables
Beginning with Version 6.0, SE requires the following environment variables:
■
INFORMIXDIR
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSERVER
Depending on your network configuration, you might also need the
following environment variables:
■
SQLEXEC
■
SQLRMDIR
■
SQLRM
For information about how to set these environment variables, refer to your
Administrator’s Guide.
13-4
Informix Migration Guide
Preparing to Upgrade to SE 7.2 from SE 7.1 or 6.0
SE Utilities
Beginning with Version 6.0, the names of the SE utilities bcheck and dblog
changed to secheck and selog, respectively. If you have scripts that use these
utilities, you must update the names of the utilities.
To migrate to SE 7.2x from a pre-6.0 version of SE
1.
Ask all users to exit from their applications.
2.
Verify the validity of your data.
For Version 4.1 or 5.x, execute the following command for each table
in the database:
bcheck tablename
For more information about these utilities, refer to the appropriate
version of your Administrator’s Guide.
3.
Install SE, Version 7.2x.
For information about how to install SE, refer to your Installation
Guide.
Preparing to Upgrade to SE 7.2 from SE 7.1 or 6.0
When you migrate to SE 7.2x from a post-6.0 version of SE, you do not need
to change the environment variables or the sqlhosts file.
To migrate to SE 7.2x from a post-6.0 version of SE
1.
Ask all users to exit from their applications.
2.
Verify the validity of the data.
For Version 6.0 and later, execute the following command for each
table in the database:
secheck tablename
For more information about these utilities, refer to the appropriate
version of the INFORMIX-SE Administrator’s Guide.
3.
Install SE, Version 7.2x.
For information about how to install SE, refer to your Installation
Guide.
Migrating Between INFORMIX-SE Database Servers and Converting C-ISAM Files 13-5
Reverting to an Earlier Version of SE
Reverting to an Earlier Version of SE
Informix does not provide a reversion utility for SE. To move your database
to an earlier version of SE, you must unload and then reload your data. For
information about how to use dbexport, dbimport, and UNLOAD to move
your data, see “Migrating Between Different Versions of SE” on page 13-4.
Converting C-ISAM Files to SE
This section describes how to convert C-ISAM files to SE format. C-ISAM files
are organized differently than relational tables. C-ISAM files tend to be much
larger and are not normalized. Therefore, you need to convert C-ISAM applications to the SQL format that you can use with SE, as follows:
1.
In SE, use the SQL CREATE TABLE statement to create a table that
corresponds to the data fields in the C-ISAM application. (Do not use
the name of the C-ISAM file for the table name.)
2.
Delete the empty .dat file that SE created in the CREATE TABLE
statement. It has the name tabname|tabid|".dat". Also, delete the
empty .idx file.
3.
Either move the C-ISAM file to the .dbs directory or update the
systables system catalog with the name of the C-ISAM data file.
If you update both the C-ISAM and SE files with logging turned on,
you must use common logging.
13-6
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Migrating Between 7.x
Database Server Options and
Editions
In This Chapter .
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14-5
Moving Data Between Database Servers . .
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD .
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload .
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14-6
14-6
14-8
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. 14-14
Migrating to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . .
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files. . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and Services File . . . . . .
Customize the Environment for Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions . . . . .
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, On-Line. . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . .
Migrating to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server, W/D
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and Services File . . . . . . .
Customize the Environment for Dynamic Server 7.3 . .
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 On-Line . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . . .
Update Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . .
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Migrating Between Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, and OnLine Workgroup Server . . . . . .
Using Different Server and Client Configurations . . . .
Workgroup Edition 7.3 and OnLine Workgroup
Server 7.22 through 7.24 and IECC 3.0 . . . .
OnLine Workgroup Server 7.12 and IECC 2.0 . . . .
OnLine Workgroup Server 7.22 and IECC 2.0 . . . .
OnLine Workgroup Server 7.12 and IECC 1.0 . . . .
Preparing for Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check Available Space and System Requirements. . .
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Close All Transactions and Place the Source Database
Server in Quiescent Mode . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Source Database Server . . . . . . .
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, Version 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save an Output File of SQL Statements for Access Paths
Bring the Source Database Server Off-Line . . . . .
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters . . . . . . . .
Install the Target Database Server and Administration
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize the Database Server Environment . . . .
14-2
Informix Migration Guide
14-17
14-18
14-19
14-19
14-19
14-20
14-20
14-20
14-20
14-21
14-22
14-22
14-22
14-23
14-23
14-24
14-24
. . . 14-25
. . . 14-26
. . . 14-27
. . . 14-27
. . . 14-28
. . . 14-28
. . . 14-29
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. 14-29
. 14-31
Prepare the Target Database Server to Use Enterprise
Replication . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure SNMP . . . . . . . .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Complete Backup of the Target
Database Server . . . . . . . . . .
Run UPDATE STATISTICS . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Access Paths of Your SQL Statements . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Database Server Definitions on Windows NT
Migrating to a GLS Locale. . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting the Database Server and IECC . . . . .
Remove Unsupported SQL Features . . . . . .
Uninstall Enterprise Replication or Workgroup
Replication, Version 7.3 . . . . . . .
Run the Reversion Utility . . . . . . . . .
Uninstall the Database Server and IECC . . . .
Remove GLS Features (Only If Reverting to 7.12) .
Modify Configuration Parameters . . . . . .
Reset Environment Variables . . . . . . . .
Reinstall the Old Version of the Database Server. .
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Complete Backup of the Target
Database Server . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Reversion . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 14-32
. . . . . 14-33
. . . . . 14-34
. . . . . 14-35
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. 14-45
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. 14-47
. 14-49
Moving Data Between SE and Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its
Editions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions from SE .
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities . . . . .
Using the UNLOAD Statement . . . . . . . . .
Moving C-ISAM Data to Dynamic Server or Its Editions .
Adapting Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its
Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions . .
Eliminating Features That SE Does Not Support. . . .
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities . . . . .
Using the UNLOAD Statement . . . . . . . . .
Adapting Your Programs for SE . . . . . . . . .
. . . 14-49
. . . 14-50
. . . 14-50
. . . 14-50
. . . 14-52
. . . 14-53
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-3
14-4
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the steps for how to migrate between Version 7.x
database servers on the same operating system. Figure 1-2 on page 1-6 and
Figure 1-3 on page 1-7 show the paths for migrating between different
database servers in the same environment.
This chapter covers the following topics:
■
Moving data between database servers
■
Migrating to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
from Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Migrating to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
■
Migrating between Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, and OnLine Workgroup Server
■
Moving data between SE and Dynamic Server
Tip: For information on how to move the database server between UNIX and
Windows NT, refer to Chapter 15, “Moving a Database Server to a Different
Operating System.”
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-5
Moving Data Between Database Servers
Moving Data Between Database Servers
The method that you choose for moving data depends on how much data
you plan to move. All these methods deliver similar performance and allow
you to modify the schema of the database. You can use the following
migration methods to move data between database servers:
■
dbexport and dbimport
To move an entire database, use the dbexport and dbimport utilities.
■
UNLOAD, LOAD, and dbschema
To move selected columns or tables, use the UNLOAD statement. Use
LOAD when you do not want to change the data format.
■
UNLOAD, dbload, and dbschema
To move selected columns or tables, use the UNLOAD statement. Use
dbload to change the data format.
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onunload and onload
To move data in page-sized chunks, use the onunload utility. Use the
onunload utility to move data to an identical database server on a
computer of the same type.
■
The High-Performance Loader (HPL)
To move selected columns or tables or an entire database, use the
HPL.
SE stores data in a different format than does Dynamic Server 7.3. When your
migration involves SE, you must export data and its schema information
from one database server and import the exported data into the other
database server.
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD
The UNLOAD statement lets you retrieve selected rows from a database and
write those rows to a text file. If you want to move selected tables or columns
instead of an entire database between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, use the UNLOAD and LOAD
statements in the DB-Access utility with the dbschema utility.
14-6
Informix Migration Guide
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD
To use UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD to move data to Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3
1.
Make sure that you have sufficient disk space to store the unloaded
data. (The UNLOAD statement does not allow you to unload to tape.)
2.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
3.
To move the selected data into text files, use the UNLOAD statement.
Use a separate UNLOAD statement for each target table.
4.
Exit from DB-Access.
5.
If you plan to load data into a table or tables that do not exist, follow
these steps:
a.
Use the dbschema utility to create a schema file from the source
database server.
b.
Edit the schema file so that it describes the new table or tables.
If you prefer, you can omit this step and, in step 12, enter the
statements that create the tables.
6.
Follow the instructions in your Installation Guide and your Administrator’s Guide to install and configure the target database servers.
7.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
new database server.
8.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
9.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
10.
Select the target database.
11.
If you are creating a new database, execute the CREATE DATABASE
statement or choose Database➞Create from the DB-Access menu.
12.
If you plan to load data into a new table or tables, choose and run the
schema file that you prepared in step 5, or enter CREATE TABLE statements to create the new tables.
13.
If you created a new database, you might need to update the
DBPATH environment variable with the new database location.
14.
To load the data into the desired tables, use LOAD statements.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-7
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload
If you need to manipulate the data in the specified UNLOAD file before you
load it into a new table, use a combination of the UNLOAD statement and the
dbschema and dbload utilities.
To use UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload to move data between Dynamic Server and
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
1.
Follow steps 1 through 13 from “Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and
LOAD” on page 14-6.
2.
Build a command file to use with the dbload utility, which loads the
data files into the tables.
3.
Execute dbload to load the data as your command file directs.
For information on UNLOAD, LOAD, dbload, and dbschema, refer to
Section VIII, “Data Migration Utilities.” For information on how to use
DB-Access, refer to the DB-Access User Manual.
Migrating to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3
This section describes the steps for migrating to Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3 on the same operating
system.
Migration to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, from
Dynamic Server 7.3 is automatic if the database servers share the same
operating system. Automatic migration means you do not need to use a
migration utility such as dbexport to move the data; the migration occurs
automatically when you bring up the target database server. The same
operating system can be UNIX on the same computer, Windows NT on the
same computer, or the same version of Windows NT on different computers.
For information about migrating to a different operating system, see
“Moving Data to a Database Server on a Different Operating System” on
page 15-5.
14-8
Informix Migration Guide
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files
To migrate on the same operating system, complete the following migration
steps, which later sections describe in detail:
1.
Save a copy of the current configuration files.
2.
Verify the integrity of the data.
3.
Make a final complete backup of your source database server.
4.
Bring the source database server off-line.
5.
Install and configure the target database server.
6.
Verify port numbers and services file.
7.
Customize the database server environment. (This step is optional.)
8.
Bring the target database server on-line.
9.
Verify the integrity of the data.
10.
Make an initial, complete backup of the target database server.
11.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS.
12.
Complete migration.
13.
Adapt your programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions.
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files
Save a copy of the current configuration files that you have modified. These
should include the following files:
■
Current ONCONFIG file, located in the etc subdirectory of your
installation directory
■
sqlhosts information
■
adtcfg, located in the aaodir subdirectory
■
adtmasks.*, located in the dbssodir subdirectory
■
ON-Archive configuration files, located in the etc subdirectory
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-9
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of the data. Figure 14-1 lists the
commands for verifying data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 14-1
Commands for
Verifying Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables tbcheck -cc database_name
Check data
tbcheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
tbcheck -cI database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3
Use your preferred backup method to make a complete (level-0) backup of
Dynamic Server 7.3.
WIN NT
The Windows NT environment does not support ON-Archive. ♦
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup. For more information on how to make backups, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide.
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and place
your database server in quiescent mode (also called administration mode).
14-10
Informix Migration Guide
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3
To shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Warn all users that you plan to shut down the database server and
wait for them to exit.
2.
Become user informix on UNIX. On Windows NT, you must be a
member of the Informix-Admin group.
Use Services in the Windows NT Control Panel. ♦
WIN NT
3.
Execute the following command to take the database server to
quiescent mode:
4.
Wait until your database server is in quiescent mode.
onmode –sy
To verify the mode of your database server, execute the onstat command. The first line of the onstat output contains the status of
your database server. Figure 14-2 shows that the database server is in
quiescent mode.
Informix Dynamic Server Version x.xx.xxx -- Quiescent -- Up xx:xx:xx -- xxxx Kbytes
Figure 14-2
Example of onstat
Status Line
Informix Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
5.
Execute the following command to force a new logical log:
onmode -l
6.
Execute the following command to force a checkpoint:
onmode -c
7.
Execute the following command to shut down the database server:
onmode -yuk
Tip: Monitor your log activity to verify that all commands were executed properly
and to check for inconsistencies prior to migration.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-11
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
If you have not already done so, follow the instructions in your Installation
Guide to install and configure your target database server.
You can install Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, and
Informix Enterprise Command Center (IECC) either on the same computer or
on different computers. You can install IECC on a personal computer that
runs Windows 95 or Windows NT and the database server on a UNIX
computer. The installation program also starts the server agent, which is the
communications link between Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, and the IECC client.
Use the Setup program to specify the network protocol and the computer on
which Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, looks for the
database server definitions (sqlhosts and osahosts definitions).
Verify Port Numbers and Services File
The services file contains service names, port numbers, and protocol information. If you installed the database server and the administration tools on
different computers, verify that the port number listed in the services file is
the same on the client and on the server computers.
For UNIX operating systems not running NIS, the services file resides in the
/etc/services directory on the database server and in the \windir\services
directory on the Windows 95 client. ♦
UNIX
WIN NT
The services file resides in the \windir\system32\drivers\etc directory. ♦
Customize the Environment for Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
If you are an advanced user, you can customize the ONCONFIG configuration
file and environment variables for Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions. Use a text editor to edit the ONCONFIG file. For more
information on configuration parameters, refer to your Installation Guide.
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for your source database server.
14-12
Informix Migration Guide
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, On-Line
You might want to customize new environment variables on the client. For
more information on environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to
SQL: Reference.
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
On-Line
UNIX
To start your database server at the UNIX command line, enter oninit on the
server computer. ♦
WIN NT
The installation program on Windows NT brings the target database server
on-line automatically. ♦
If you customized the database server environment, you can bring down and
restart your database server with IECC. For more information, refer to the
Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide.
When you restart Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, the
changes to the configuration parameters and environment variables take
effect.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
To verify the integrity of data, use the oncheck utility, as “Verify the Integrity
of the Data” on page 14-10 describes.
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions
Make a complete, whole-system backup of your target database server.
UNIX
WIN NT
On UNIX, use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to make the backup. ♦
On Windows NT, double-click the Backup and Restore icon in the Informix
Administration Tools program group. ♦
For more information on backing up, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide
or Archive and Backup Guide.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-13
Update Statistics
Update Statistics
After you complete the migration procedure, run the UPDATE STATISTICS
statement on the database server. The UPDATE STATISTICS statement updates
the information that Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
uses to plan efficient queries. For more information about UPDATE
STATISTICS, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Complete Migration
The first time your target database server is brought on-line, the sysmaster
and the sysutils databases are built. Check the message log to ensure that the
sysutils and sysmaster databases are created successfully before you allow
users to access the database server. After you ensure that client users can
access data on your target database server, the migration process is complete.
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
After you successfully migrate the database server data, verify that your
application developers know the differences between the source and target
database servers. Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
supports the same features as Dynamic Server 7.3, except for the HighPerformance Loader (HPL) and the following features:
■
Fragmentation (also known as partitioning)
■
Parallel data query (PDQ)
■
Role separation
For information on the SQL statements that Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, supports, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax and
the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
14-14
Informix Migration Guide
Migrating to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server, W/D
Migrating to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic
Server, W/D
This section describes the steps for migrating to Dynamic Server 7.3 from
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, on the same operating
system.
Migration to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, is automatic if the database servers share the same
operating system. Automatic migration means you do not need to use a
migration utility such as dbexport to move the data; the migration occurs
automatically when you bring up the target database server. The same
operating system can be UNIX on the same computer, Windows NT on the
same computer, or the same version of Windows NT on different computers.
For information about migrating to a different operating system, see
“Moving Data to a Database Server on a Different Operating System” on
page 15-5.
To migrate on the same operating system, complete the following migration
steps, which later sections describe in detail:
1.
Save a copy of the current configuration files.
2.
Verify the integrity of the data.
3.
Make a final complete backup of your source database server.
4.
Bring your source database server off-line.
5.
Install and configure the target database server.
6.
Verify port numbers and services file.
7.
Customize the database server environment. (This step is optional.)
8.
Bring the target database server on-line.
9.
Verify the integrity of the data.
10.
Make an initial, complete backup of the target database server.
11.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS.
12.
Complete migration.
13.
Adapt your programs for Dynamic Server 7.3.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-15
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files
Important: If you want to install on Windows NT, select the Copy all files, but
leave configuration alone option on the Run Installation Again page. The
installation program automatically copies the new database server files and saves the
configuration and the database data.
Do not select the Copy all files and reconfigure the product option, or your
configuration and database information will be lost.
After you ensure that client users can access data on the target database
server, the migration process is complete.
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files
Save a copy of the current configuration files that you have modified. These
should include the following files:
■
Current ONCONFIG file, located in the etc subdirectory of your
installation directory
■
sqlhosts information
■
adtcfg, located in the aaodir subdirectory
■
adtmasks.*, located in the dbssodir subdirectory
■
ON-Archive configuration files, located in the etc subdirectory
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of the data. Figure 14-3 lists the
commands for verifying data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Check system catalog tables tbcheck -cc database_name
14-16
Check data
tbcheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
tbcheck -cI
Informix Migration Guide
database_name
Figure 14-3
Commands for
Verifying Data
Integrity
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
For information on oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions
Use your preferred backup method to make a complete (level-0) backup of
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions.
WIN NT
The Windows NT environment does not support ON-Archive. ♦
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup. For more information on how to make backups, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide.
Shut Down Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and place
your database server in quiescent mode (also called administration mode).
To shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Warn all users that you plan to shut down the database server and
wait for them to exit.
2.
Become user informix on UNIX. On Windows NT, you must be a
member of the Informix-Admin group.
Use Services in the Windows NT Control Panel. ♦
WIN NT
3.
Execute the following command to take the database server to
quiescent mode:
onmode –sy
4.
Wait until your database server is in quiescent mode.
To verify the mode of your database server, execute the onstat command. The first line of the onstat output contains the status of
your database server. Figure 14-4 shows that the database server is in
quiescent mode.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-17
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3
Informix Dynamic Server Version x.xx.xxx -- Quiescent -- Up xx:xx:xx -- xxxx Kbytes
Figure 14-4
Example of onstat
Status Line
Informix Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
5.
Execute the following command to force a new logical log:
6.
Execute the following command to force a checkpoint:
onmode -l
onmode -c
7.
Execute the following command to shut down the database server:
onmode -yuk
Tip: Monitor your log activity to verify that all commands were executed properly
and to check for inconsistencies prior to migration.
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3
If you have not already done so, follow the instructions in your Installation
Guide to install and configure your target database server.
You can install Dynamic Server 7.3 and IECC either on the same computer or
on different computers. You can install IECC on a personal computer that
runs Windows 95 or Windows NT and the database server on a UNIX
computer. The installation program also starts the server agent, which is the
communications link between Dynamic Server 7.3 and the IECC client.
Use the Setup program to specify the network protocol and the computer on
which Dynamic Server 7.3 looks for the database server definitions (sqlhosts
and osahosts definitions).
14-18
Informix Migration Guide
Verify Port Numbers and Services File
Verify Port Numbers and Services File
The services file contains service names, port numbers, and protocol information. If you installed the database server and the administration tools on
different computers, verify that the port number listed in the services file is
the same on the client and on the server computers.
UNIX
WIN NT
For UNIX operating systems not running NIS, the services file resides in the
/etc/services directory on the database server and in the \windir\services
directory on the Windows 95 client. ♦
The services file resides in the \windir\system32\drivers\etc directory. ♦
Customize the Environment for Dynamic Server 7.3
If you are an advanced user, you can customize the ONCONFIG configuration
file and environment variables for Dynamic Server 7.3. Use a text editor to
edit the ONCONFIG file. For more information on configuration parameters,
refer to your Installation Guide.
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for your source database server.
You might want to customize new environment variables on the client. For
more information on environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to
SQL: Reference.
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 On-Line
UNIX
To start your database server at the UNIX command line, enter oninit on the
server computer. ♦
WIN NT
The installation program on Windows NT brings the target database server
on-line automatically. ♦
If you customized the database server environment, you can bring down and
restart your database server with IECC. For more information, refer to the
Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide.
When you restart Dynamic Server 7.3, the changes to the configuration
parameters and environment variables take effect.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-19
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
To verify the integrity of data, use the oncheck utility, as “Verify the Integrity
of the Data” on page 14-10 describes.
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3
Make a complete, whole-system backup of your target database server.
On UNIX, use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to make the backup. ♦
UNIX
WIN NT
On Windows NT, double-click the Backup and Restore icon in the Informix
Administration Tools program group. ♦
For more information on backing up, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide
or Archive and Backup Guide.
Update Statistics
After you complete the migration procedure, run the UPDATE STATISTICS
statement on the server. The UPDATE STATISTICS statement updates the information that Dynamic Server 7.3 uses to plan efficient queries. For more
information about UPDATE STATISTICS, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
Complete Migration
The first time the target database server is brought on-line, the sysmaster and
sysutils databases are built. Check the message log to ensure that the
database builds are complete before you allow users to access the database
server. After you ensure that client users can access data on your target
database server, the migration process is complete.
14-20
Informix Migration Guide
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3
After you successfully migrate to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3, verify that your application
developers know the differences between both database servers. Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, supports the same features as
Dynamic Server 7.3 except for the High-Performance Loader (HPL) and the
following features:
■
Fragmentation (also known as partitioning)
■
Parallel data query (PDQ)
■
Role separation
For information on the SQL statements that Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, supports, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax
manual and the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, and OnLine Workgroup Server
This section covers the following topics:
■
Using different server and client configurations
■
Preparing for migration
■
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
Version 7.3
■
Reverting the database server and IECC
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-21
Using Different Server and Client Configurations
Using Different Server and Client Configurations
This section discusses the effect of different database server and client configurations. Informix supports the following configurations:
UNIX
WIN NT
■
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.2, and INFORMIX-Enterprise
Command Center, Version 1.0
■
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.12, and INFORMIX-Enterprise
Command Center, Version 2.0 or Version 1.0 ♦
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3,
and Informix Enterprise Command Center, Version 3.0
■
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.22 through Version 7.24, and
Informix Enterprise Command Center, Version 3.0
■
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.22, and INFORMIX-Enterprise
Command Center, Version 2.0 ♦
Workgroup Edition 7.3 and OnLine Workgroup Server 7.22 through
7.24 and IECC 3.0
Scenario: Upgrade the database server and administration tools. This configuration supports all the new database server and administration tool
functions. You can use IECC to display the version number and type of the
database server.
OnLine Workgroup Server 7.12 and IECC 2.0
Scenario: Upgrade the administration tools but not the database server. With
the 7.12 database server, you can use all the Version 2.0 administration tools
except Backup and Restore.
OnLine Workgroup Server 7.22 and IECC 2.0
Scenario: Upgrade the database server but not the administration tools. This
scenario could occur when your site has several client computers to upgrade
over a period of time. Users would be able to use all the Version 2.0 administration tools but not GLS on the clients.
14-22
Informix Migration Guide
Preparing for Migration
OnLine Workgroup Server 7.12 and IECC 1.0
Scenario: You decide not to upgrade the database server or administration
tools.
Preparing for Migration
Use these instructions to migrate to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, Version 7.3, from earlier versions on Windows NT or to
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.2, on UNIX. When you migrate a
database server, Informix suggests that you follow these guidelines:
■
Review the release notes for all versions of your database server for
information about new features, installation, and fixes to problems.
Modify applications as needed. Check the documentation notes for
information about features that the manuals do not discuss.
The release notes are in one of the following directories:
UNIX
❑
$INFORMIXDIR/release/en_us/0333 ♦
WIN NT
❑
%INFORMIXDIR%\release\en_us\0333 (as of Version 7.2)
Release notes appear in the Informix folder. To display this
folder, choose Start➞Programs➞Informix from the Task Bar. ♦
UNIX
■
Check the machine notes for special actions you need to perform to
configure and use your database server on your operating system. ♦
■
On UNIX, retain both versions of the Informix product software on
disk (if you have enough disk resources). On Windows NT, you
cannot retain two versions of the Informix product on disk, prior to
database server Version 7.3.
■
Check the documentation notes for information about features that
the manuals do not discuss.
■
Retain the installation media from both versions of the Informix
product software.
■
Make a level-0 backup of the database server before and after
migration.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-23
Preparing for Migration
Before you upgrade or revert your database server, complete the following
steps, which the following sections describe in detail:
WIN NT
1.
Check available space and system requirements.
2.
Save a copy of the current configuration files.
3.
Close all transactions and place the source database server in
quiescent (administration) mode.
4.
Verify the integrity of the data.
5.
Back up the source database server.
Check Available Space and System Requirements
Before you install your database server and the administration tools, verify
that your system meets the minimum space and hardware requirements.
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, runs on
Windows NT 3.51 and Windows NT 4.0 on an NTFS drive. IECC and the
Relational Object Manager run on Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, and
on either a FAT or NTFS drive.
For information on the system requirements, refer to your Installation Guide
and the read_ows.txt file in Answers OnLine, Version 1.7, and earlier.
Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files
Save a copy of the current ONCONFIG files, located in the etc subdirectory of
your installation directory, and the sqlhosts or registry information:
UNIX
■
$ONCONFIG, osahosts, sqlhosts, tctermcap, termcap ♦
WIN NT
■
%ONCONFIG% ♦
Save the following files, located in various subdirectories of your installation
directory (this step is optional):
14-24
■
adtcfg, located in the aaodir subdirectory
■
adtmasks.*, located in the dbssodir subdirectory
Informix Migration Guide
Preparing for Migration
Close All Transactions and Place the Source Database Server in
Quiescent Mode
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and place
your database server in quiescent mode (also called administration mode).
To shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Warn all users that you plan to shut down the database server and
wait for them to exit.
2.
Become user informix on UNIX. On Windows NT, you must be a
member of the Administration group.
3.
Execute the following command to take the database server to
quiescent mode:
onmode –sy
4.
Wait until your database server is in quiescent mode.
To verify the mode of your database server, execute the onstat command. The first line of the onstat output contains the status of
your database server.
Figure 14-5 shows that the database server is in quiescent mode.
INFORMIX-OnLine
Version
x.xx.xxx -- Quiescent -- Up xx:xx:xx -- xxxx Kbytes
Figure 14-5
Example of onstat
Status Line
OnLine Workgroup Server is in quiescent mode.
5.
Execute the following command to force a new logical log:
onmode -l
6.
Execute the following command to force a checkpoint:
7.
Execute the following command to shut down the database server:
onmode -c
onmode -yuk
Tip: Monitor your log activity to verify that all commands were executed properly
and to check for inconsistencies prior to migration.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-25
Preparing for Migration
To use IECC to place the system in administration mode
1.
Select Administration from the Server Mode list box on the General
page of Informix Enterprise Command Center to put the database
server in quiescent (administration) mode.
2.
Warn all users that you plan to shut down the database server and
wait for them to exit. If users are logged on, the Administration
wizard lets you notify users when their sessions are to be
disconnected.
Warning: User data can be lost or damaged if you interrupt data transactions. If data
transactions are interrupted, shut down and restart the database server in administration mode to initiate a fast recovery. A fast recovery rolls forward all committed
transactions and rolls back all incomplete transactions since the last checkpoint and
then leaves a new checkpoint record in the log with no open transactions pending.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of data before you make a
level-0 (complete) backup. If you find any problems with the data, fix them
before you make the backup. You can verify the integrity of the reserve pages,
extents, system catalog tables, data, and indexes. First, you need to obtain a
list of the databases on your database server.
WIN NT
To use oncheck on Windows NT
Open a Command Line Utilities window from the Informix Administration
Tools program group. ♦
Figure 14-6 lists the commands for verifying data integrity.
14-26
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Check system catalog tables
tbcheck -cc database_name
Check data
tbcheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
tbcheck -cI database_name
Informix Migration Guide
Figure 14-6
Commands for
Verifying the
Data Integrity
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Back Up the Source Database Server
Make a complete backup of your source database server.
WIN NT
UNIX
On Windows NT, double-click the Backup and Restore tool in the Informix
Enterprise Command Center program group. You can also use the command
line to back up with ontape and ON-Bar on Windows NT. ♦
To launch Backup and Restore, enter $INFORMIXDIR/bin/bar at the UNIX
prompt. You can also use ontape, ON-Bar, or ON-Archive to back up on
UNIX. ♦
Warning: The 7.12 and 7.22 and later versions of Backup and Restore are not
compatible. The 7.12 version uses ontape, but the 7.22 and later versions use
ON-Bar. Backups that you make under older versions of your database server are not
compatible with the newer version. Do not try to restore these backups to the newer
version.
For more information about how to use ontape, ON-Archive, or ON-Bar to
back up your database server, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide.
Now you are ready to upgrade or revert your database server. For information on how to upgrade, see “Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions, Version 7.3.” For information on how to revert, see
“Reverting the Database Server and IECC” on page 14-38.
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, Version 7.3
When you upgrade to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
Version 7.3, you can install and test the database server with the same
database server name, configuration files, environment variables, and
shared-server computer that you used for the earlier version. After you
install the target database server and verify that it works, you might want to
modify the configuration files and environment variables to take advantage
of new features.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-27
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
Complete the following migration steps:
1.
Save an output file of SQL statements for access paths.
2.
Bring the source database server off-line.
3.
Change UNIX kernel parameters.
4.
Install the target database server and administration tools.
5.
Customize the database server environment. (This step is optional.)
6.
Prepare the database server for Enterprise Replication. (This step is
optional.)
7.
Install and configure SNMP.
8.
Bring the target database server on-line.
9.
Verify the integrity of the data.
10.
Make an initial complete backup of the database server.
11.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS.
12.
Verify the access paths of your SQL statements.
13.
Complete migration.
Save an Output File of SQL Statements for Access Paths
Save a file of output from any SET EXPLAIN statements. Later you can use this
file to verify that access paths of your SQL statements do not change when
you migrate to your target database server. SET EXPLAIN writes the access
path that the optimizer chooses for each query to the SET EXPLAIN output
file. The optimizer chooses the fastest path of execution for table joins.
WIN NT
For Windows NT, the SET EXPLAIN output filename is
%INFORMIXDIR%\ sqlexpln\username.out. ♦
Bring the Source Database Server Off-Line
Shut down your database server to ensure that all common files are inactive.
The database server must be off-line because the older and newer versions
share common files. You cannot install the database server if any of the
common files are active.
14-28
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
WIN NT
UNIX
On Windows NT, the installation program automatically shuts down the old
database server and starts the new database server. ♦
Change UNIX Kernel Parameters
You might need to change some of the kernel parameters for your UNIX
operating system before you install the target database server. To reconfigure
the operating system, follow the directions in the machine notes file included
on your target database server distribution media and the kernel-configuration instructions for your operating system.
WIN NT
Install the Target Database Server and Administration Tools
You can upgrade the database server only, the administration tools only, or
both. If a previous version of the database server or administration tools is on
the computer, the Upgrade page appears when you install the new product.
The Installation wizard replaces the files but does not reconfigure the
database server.
To perform the upgrade
1.
When the Upgrade page appears, click Next for the
INFORMIX-OnLine Installation wizard. Click Next again to begin the
installation procedure.
2.
Enter the serial number and serial-number key.
The installation program automatically verifies and brings down OnLine
Workgroup Server, copies the new files, and preserves the database and
dbspace data. Then the installation program starts OnLine Workgroup
Server, Version 7.22, with the same configuration and shared-server
computer.
The Installation wizard updates the SQLHOSTS registry keys and OSAHOSTS
information automatically.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-29
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
Install and configure onsnmp
Workgroup Replication and the onsnmp utility require Windows NT SNMP.
The installation and upgrade program checks the registry for the SNMP
master agent. If the master agent was not installed, the program displays a
warning message but does not configure the registry for Workgroup Replication or onsnmp. If you later choose to install the SNMP master agent, you
must run the %INFORMIXDIR%\bin\inssnmp.exe command-line utility to
install the SNMP subagents. You need not reinstall the database server.
Install the Target Database Server
On UNIX, you must be logged in as user root. On Windows NT, you must be
a member of the Administration group to install your database server. Set
the INFORMIXDIR environment variable to the directory where you plan to
install your database server.
The installation script installs your database server into the INFORMIXDIR
directory specified for user root. The installation script does not bring the
database server on-line.
WIN NT
The setup program installs and brings up the database server on
Windows NT. Follow the directions in your Installation Guide to install your
database server. ♦
Warning: If you install your database server in the same directory where the earlier
version of the database server resides, the newer version overwrites the older files. If
you want to preserve the files for the earlier version, you must install the newer
database server in a different directory.
Before you overwrite the older version, you must take the following
precautions:
■
If you do not have the original media for the older version, back up
the INFORMIXDIR directory before you install your target database
server.
■
Copy the configuration file(s) in INFORMIXDIR in the etc directory
to another location on the file system.
When you finish the installation and system reconfiguration, exit as user root
and log on as user informix.
14-30
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
WIN NT
On Windows NT, you need to run the Installation wizard twice. First,
upgrade the database server and then install the administration tools.
The Installation wizard replaces the files but does not reconfigure the
database server. If a previous version of the database server is on the
computer, the Upgrade page appears when you install the new product.
The installation program automatically verifies and brings down your source
database server, copies the new files, and preserves the database configuration information. The installation program starts your target database
server with the same configuration and shared-server computer. ♦
Install IECC
After you install the database server, install the administration tool, IECC.
WIN NT
After you install the database server, IECC, or both, the Informix Administration Tools program group is available in your Windows NT environment.
For more information on installation, refer to your Installation Guide. ♦
Customize the Database Server Environment
After you install your database server, ensure that the following environment
variables are set to the correct values:
■
INFORMIXSERVER
■
ONCONFIG
■
PATH
■
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS (if used)
Important: On UNIX, the client application looks for the sqlhosts file in the etc
directory in the INFORMIXDIR directory. On Windows NT, INFORMIXSQLHOSTS points to the computer that contains the sqlhosts registry information.
However, you can use the INFORMIXSQLHOSTS environment variable to change
the location or name of the sqlhosts file.
WIN NT
On Windows NT, the installation program sets the configuration parameters
and environment variables for you. However, you can customize the configuration parameters in the %ONCONFIG% file and environment variables for
your database server. In Windows NT, use setnet32 to customize the
environment variables on the client computer. ♦
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-31
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
For information about environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to
SQL: Reference.
UNIX
Update the ONCONFIG Configuration Parameters
You can customize your ONCONFIG configuration file and environment
variables to take advantage of the new features that Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3 introduced.
After you observe the performance of your database server, you might want
to make further adjustments.
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for your source database server. Also use
the same values for size and number of physical logs, logical logs, and for mirroring
(if available).
For information on how to configure, refer to your Administrator’s Guide. For
information about how to tune the configuration parameters, refer to your
Performance Guide.
Update the Configuration Files
During the installation procedure, the install script checks the etc directory in
the INFORMIXDIR directory for files named config.arc, oper_deflt.arc,
termcap, logevent.sh, sessalrm, and permalrm. If these files do not exist, the
install script provides them. If the files do exist, the install script does not
overwrite the files. Instead, the install script provides additional files named
Config.arc, Oper_deflt.arc, Termcap, Logevent.sh, Sessalrm, and Permalrm
(note the initial uppercase letters).
Compare your current versions of the files with the new versions and
determine whether new or changed configuration parameters or qualifiers
exist.
Prepare the Target Database Server to Use Enterprise Replication
Perform this step only if you plan to use Enterprise Replication with your
database server (Version 7.22, or later).
14-32
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
Before you can activate Enterprise Replication, you need to update the
sqlhosts file or registry key for each database server that participates in
Enterprise Replication.
To activate Enterprise Replication for the first time
1.
Bring your database server off-line.
2.
Define a group name for Enterprise Replication.
3.
Assign a group identifier to the group and include this group ID in
the sqlhosts option key or column
4.
Bring your database server on-line.
5.
For upgrades to Versions 7.22 to 7.24, verify that the SNMP service is
installed on the host and that the SNMP subagents are registered.
In Dynamic Server 7.30, you need SNMP only if you plan to use the
Enterprise Replication Monitoring Program. (Version 7.31 does not
include the Enterprise Replication Monitoring Program.)
6.
Use the Replication Manager to define each database server for
replication.
This step starts Enterprise Replication.
When you upgrade to Dynamic Server 7.3x, the conversion upgrades the
syscdr database and the sysmaster and sysutils databases and system tables
to Version 7.3x.
When you upgrade to a Version 7.3x database server from a Version 7.2x
database server, the Enterprise Replication state is the same in Version 7.3x as
it was in Version 7.2x.
For information on how to configure Enterprise Replication, refer to the
Guide to Informix Enterprise Replication. For information on how to use SNMP,
refer to the Informix SNMP Subagent Guide.
WIN NT
Install and Configure SNMP
In Dynamic Server 7.30, if you plan to use the Enterprise Replication
Monitoring Program, you must install SNMP. Enterprise Replication in
Dynamic Server 7.30 does not require SNMP. The SNMP management tools
use the OnSnmpSubagent to respond to queries.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-33
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
For Informix database servers Version 7.22 through Version 7.24, if you use
Workgroup Replication on Windows NT, the onsnmp utility requires
Windows NT SNMP. The installation and upgrade program checks the
registry for the SNMP master agent. If the master agent was not installed, the
program displays a warning message but does not configure the registry for
Workgroup Replication or onsnmp. If you later choose to install the SNMP
master agent, you must run the %INFORMIXDIR%\bin\inssnmp.exe
command-line utility to install the SNMP subagents. You do not need to
reinstall the database server.
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line
When you bring your target database server on-line for the first time, bring it
first to quiescent mode and then to on-line mode.
On UNIX, execute the following command to bring your database server from
off-line to quiescent mode:
UNIX
oninit
Once the database server is in quiescent mode, check the message log for
status messages.
Important: If you note problems in the message file, solve the problems before you
continue to the next step.
Execute the following command to change your database server mode from
quiescent mode to on-line mode:
onmode -m
The sysmaster and sysutils databases are created once your database server
is brought on-line.
Warning: The logical logs continue to fill with the transactions that result from the
creation of the sysmaster database. If you run out of log space before the creation of
the sysmaster database is complete, the database server halts with a “Logs Full”
error. Thus, you must back up the logical logs.
Use ON-Bar, ON-Archive, or ontape to back up logical logs. ♦
WIN NT
14-34
On Windows NT, the setup program brings your database server on-line
automatically. ♦
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
If you customized the database server environment, bring down and restart
the database server with IECC. When you restart your database server, the
changes to the configuration parameters and environment variables take
effect.
To start your database server with IECC
1.
In the IECC Console program group, double-click the Informix
Enterprise Command Center icon.
2.
In IECC, select the database server in the tree view.
3.
Choose Server➞On-line.
You can start the database server with or without the IECC interface. For more
information, refer to the Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide. ♦
To start your database server with IECC
1.
In the INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server program group,
double-click the Command Center icon. In the Command Center,
choose a database server from the Servers menu.
2.
On the General page, select On-Line in the Server Mode list box.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Before you allow users to access the database, use the oncheck utility to
verify that no data was corrupted in the migration process. You can verify the
integrity of the reserve pages, extents, system catalog tables, data, and
indexes. For more information, see “Verify the Integrity of the Data” on
page 14-26.
Make an Initial Complete Backup of the Target Database Server
Use IECC to make a complete, whole-system backup of your database server.
For more information, see the Informix Enterprise Command Center User Guide.
Use your database server backup utility (ON-Bar, ON-Archive, or ontape) to
make a level-0 backup. Do not overwrite the tapes you used earlier when you
made the final backup of your database server. For more information about
how to make a backup, refer to your Archive and Backup Guide or your Backup
and Restore Guide.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-35
Upgrading to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3
Important: Do not restore the backed-up logical logs to the newer version of your
database server from the earlier version of your database server.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS
Run the UPDATE STATISTICS statement according to the recommended
procedure in the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax. UPDATE STATISTICS updates
the information that your database server uses to plan efficient queries. For
more information about UPDATE STATISTICS, refer to the Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax.
Verify the Access Paths of Your SQL Statements
Use the SET EXPLAIN statement to verify that the access paths of your SQL
statements did not change when you migrated to your target database server.
If you have SET EXPLAIN output from the source database server, run SET
EXPLAIN for your target database server. Compare the SET EXPLAIN output
from both the source and target database servers. SET EXPLAIN writes the
access path that the optimizer chooses for each query to the SET EXPLAIN
output file. The optimizer chooses the fastest path of execution for table joins.
The UNIX SET EXPLAIN output filename is sqexplain.out. ♦
UNIX
WIN NT
For Windows NT, the SET EXPLAIN output filename is %INFORMIXDIR%\
sqlexpln\<username>.out. ♦
If the SET EXPLAIN output file shows that a different access path was used,
complete the following steps:
14-36
1.
Check the OPTCOMPIND environment variable or configuration
parameter.
2.
Check the DBSPACETEMP environment variable or configuration
parameter to ensure that adequate temporary dbspaces are defined.
You might need to define more temporary dbspaces.
3.
Analyze the query access paths and modify the schema to improve
the performance, if necessary.
Informix Migration Guide
Changing Database Server Definitions on Windows NT
Complete Migration
The first time your database server is brought on-line, the sysmaster database
is built. Check the message log to ensure that the sysmaster database build is
complete before you allow users to access the database server. After you
complete a level-0 backup and you ensure that client users can access data on
your database server, the migration process is complete.
After you successfully upgrade to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, Version 7.3, you might want to seek ways to obtain
maximum performance. If you created sample queries for comparison, you
can use them to characterize the performance differences between your
earlier version and your new version. The results of these comparisons might
suggest adjustments to configuration parameters or to the layout of
databases, tables, and chunks. For details on topics related to performance,
refer to your Performance Guide.
WIN NT
Changing Database Server Definitions on Windows NT
The installation program automatically updates the registry information and
the database server definitions on the shared-server (SQLHOSTS) computer.
The database server definitions consist of the database server name, TCP/IP host
names, network types, and the service names.
Use IECC if you want to change the informix user password, specify a
different computer as the shared-server computer, or edit database server
definitions. For example, you might specify a different shared-server
computer if you have migrated the database server to a new computer or
connected a single client to several database servers.
For information on how to use the Client Control Panel folder in IECC to
configure database servers, see the Informix Enterprise Command Center User
Guide. For information on connectivity, see your Administrator’s Guide.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-37
Migrating to a GLS Locale
GLS
Migrating to a GLS Locale
If you want to migrate your database server to a non-English GLS locale, set
the DB_LOCALE and CLIENT_LOCALE environment variables before you
open the database in Version 7.3. If your previous database server version
used Native Language Support (NLS), replace the NLS environment
variables, such as COLLCHAR, with GLS environment variables. For information on how to work with locales and how to set GLS environment
variables, see the Informix Guide to GLS Functionality and Section VI “Locale
Changes.”
Reverting the Database Server and IECC
This section describes the steps for reverting to an earlier version from
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3, and IECC
3.0.
Follow the preparatory steps, described in “Preparing for Migration” on
page 14-23 and then complete the following steps:
1.
Remove unsupported SQL features.
2.
Uninstall Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication, if it is
installed.
3.
Run the reversion utility (onmode -b).
4.
Uninstall Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, and
IECC.
5.
Remove GLS features (only if GLS was used and you are reverting to
Version 7.12).
6.
Modify configuration parameters.
7.
Reset environment variables.
8.
Reinstall the old version of the database server and IECC.
9.
Bring the target database server on-line.
10.
Verify the integrity of the data.
11.
Make an initial complete backup of the target database server.
12.
Complete reversion.
The following sections describe these steps in detail.
14-38
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting the Database Server and IECC
Remove Unsupported SQL Features
Before you revert, you must remove SQL features that the earlier version of
your database server does not support. See the “New Features of This
Product” section in the appropriate version of the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
Uninstall Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication,
Version 7.3
Skip this section if Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication is not
installed on your system.
To revert to an earlier version if Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
is active
UNIX
1.
Stop Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication.
2.
For altered tables with CRCOLS, issue the command:
alter table drop CRCOLS
♦
3.
Execute the onmode -b command to revert to the earlier version of
your database server.
Warning: If you try to revert to a previous version of the database server while Enterprise Replication is active, the reversion will fail.
To revert to an earlier version if Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
is inactive
UNIX
1.
In this situation, Enterprise Replication or Workgroup Replication
was previously active on this database server.
2.
For altered tables with CRCOLS, issue the command:
alter table drop CRCOLS
♦
3.
Execute the onmode -b command to revert to the earlier version of
the database server. The syscdr database is dropped during
reversion.
For more information, see the Guide to Informix Enterprise Replication.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-39
Reverting the Database Server and IECC
Run the Reversion Utility
The database server must be running when you execute the reversion utility.
Execute the reversion utility to revert the database, where version_number is
the earlier database server version (see Figure 14-7), as follows:
onmode -b version_number
After the reversion is complete, your database server is off-line. For more
information about the onmode -b command, refer to Chapter 24, “Using the
onmode Utility.”
Revert To
Revert From
Command
Version 7.22
Version 7.3
onmode -b 7.22
Version 7.2
Version 7.22
onmode -b 7.2
Version 7.12
Version 7.2x
onmode -b 7.1
Figure 14-7
Reverting to an Earlier
Database Server
Uninstall the Database Server and IECC
Uninstall both the database server and IECC.
WIN NT
To uninstall the product
1.
Double-click the Uninstall icon in the IECC Console program group.
2.
In the Uninstall dialog box, check Remove OnLine Server.
Warning: Do not check Remove all OnLine databases, supporting files and all
database information. If you check this option, your configuration, dbspaces, and
database information will be lost, making reversion impossible.
3.
To uninstall the administration tools, check Remove Administration
Tools.
4.
Click OK to uninstall the database server.
For more information, see your Installation Guide.
14-40
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting the Database Server and IECC
GLS
Remove GLS Features (Only If Reverting to 7.12)
Skip this step if your database server uses the default English locale
(en_us.8859-1). To revert the database server to Native Language Support
(NLS) or Asian Language Support (ALS) from GLS, set the appropriate NLS or
ALS locales and environment variables. For information on how to work with
locales, see Section VI, “Locale Changes,” and the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality.
Modify Configuration Parameters
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3, uses
configuration parameters that did not appear in earlier versions of the
database server that you should remove or modify prior to reversion.
For more information on these configuration parameters, see “New Configuration Parameters in Dynamic Server 7.3” on page 11-7.
Configuration Changes for Version 7.12
WIN NT
You must add the ONLANGMAP configuration parameter to your
ONCONFIG file before you start OnLine Workgroup Server 7.12.
ONLANGMAP takes the value en_US-English. For information on
ONLANGMAP, see the OnLine Dynamic Server for Windows NT,
Version 7.12.TC2, documentation notes. ♦
If you are reverting to Version 7.12, remove the HETERO_COMMIT configuration parameter from your ONCONFIG file.
Configuration Changes for Version 7.22
You might need to revise the value of the ALARMPROGRAM configuration
parameter in your configuration file.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-41
Reverting the Database Server and IECC
If you used Enterprise Replication and are reverting to Version 7.12 or
Version 7.2, remove the following configuration parameters from your
ONCONFIG file:
■
CDR_LOGBUFFERS
■
CDR_EVALTHREADS
■
CDR_DSLOCKWAIT
■
CDR_QUEUEMEM
■
CDR_NIFUSEHELP
■
CDR_NIFMEMS
■
SCDR_NIFQUEUES
For more information on these configuration parameters, see the Guide to
Informix Enterprise Replication.
Reset Environment Variables
Reset the environment variables to values that are appropriate for your
version of your database server. For information on environment variables,
refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
NLS
Environment Variable Changes for Version 7.12
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.12, supports NLS but does not support
GLS. When you revert to Version 7.12, delete the following environment
variables:
14-42
■
CC8BITLEVEL
■
CLIENT_LOCALE
■
DBCENTURY
■
DBFLTMASK
■
DBONPLOAD
■
DB_LOCALE
■
ESQLMF
■
GLS8BITFSYS
■
GL_DATES
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting the Database Server and IECC
■
GL_DATETIME
■
ONPLOAD
■
PLCONFIG
■
SERVER_LOCALE
■
THREADLIB
Add the following environment variables:
■
DBNLS
■
COLLCHAR
■
LANG
Reinstall the Old Version of the Database Server
UNIX
On UNIX, you do not need to reinstall the administration tools because they
were not upgraded for Version 7.2.
To perform the installation
1.
Supply customer information.
2.
On the OnLine Workgroup Server Installation Options screen,
choose option 1, Install.
3.
On the Run Setup Again screen, choose option 1, Install All Files,
But Leave Configuration Alone. This option copies the new
database server files without changing the configuration and
sqlhosts file information.
4.
The installation program automatically verifies and brings down the
database server, copies the new files, and saves the database and
dbspace data. It starts the earlier version of your database server
with the old configuration.
Warning: Do not select option 2, Install OnLine Workgroup Server and Reconfigure. If you select option 2, your configuration and database information will be
lost. ♦
WIN NT
On Windows NT, reinstall the earlier version of the database server in the
same directory as the files for the previous version.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-43
Reverting the Database Server and IECC
To perform the installation
1.
On the Run Installation Again page, select the Copy all files, but
leave configuration alone installation option.
2.
Supply your serial number and serial number key, as shown on the
serial-number key card.
3.
Select one or both of the components you want to install: OnLine
Database Server or Administration Tools. Click Next.
4.
The installation program automatically copies the older database
server files and saves the configuration and the database data.
Warning: Do not select Copy all files and reconfigure the product. If you select
this option, your configuration and database information will be lost.
For more information on installation, refer to the INFORMIX-Enterprise
Command Center User Guide.
Warning: If you are reverting to database server Version 7.12, you must add the
ONLANGMAP parameter to the ONCONFIG file before you start the reverted
database server. ONLANGMAP takes the value en_US-English and ensures
backward compatibility with non-NLS locales. If the database server fails on install,
just restart it. ♦
Bring the Target Database Server On-Line
On UNIX, execute the following command to bring your database server to
quiescent mode:
UNIX
oninit
♦
WIN NT
On Windows NT, the installation program brings the database server on-line
automatically. ♦
The database server initializes the shared memory and builds the sysmaster
database. After the sysmaster database is built, the reversion process is
complete.
14-44
Informix Migration Guide
Moving Data Between SE and Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions
Verify the Integrity of the Data
To verify the integrity of your data, follow the steps as described in “Verify
the Integrity of the Data” on page 14-26.
Make an Initial Complete Backup of the Target Database Server
Informix recommends that you make a complete, level-0 backup of your
database server after you complete the reversion. You can use the ON-Bar,
ON-Archive, or ontape utility to make the backup. For information about
how to make a backup, see “Back Up the Source Database Server” on
page 14-27 or refer to your Backup and Restore Guide or Archive and Backup
Guide.
Important: Do not overwrite the tapes that you used to back up your database server.
Complete Reversion
After the sysmaster and sysutils databases are built, the reversion process is
complete. Ensure that client users can access data on the earlier version of
your database server.
Moving Data Between SE and Dynamic Server 7.3 or
Its Editions
This section describes the following procedures:
■
Moving data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or its editions from SE
■
Moving data to SE from Dynamic Server 7.3 or its editions
Moving Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions from SE
The following sections describe the steps for moving data to Dynamic Server
7.3 or Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, from SE. To move
the data, you need to choose a migration method, eliminate SE-specific
features, migrate the data from SE, and modify client applications.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-45
Moving Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions from SE
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities
If you intend to move an entire database to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, from SE, the dbexport and
dbimport combination is the easiest migration method.
To use dbexport and dbimport to move data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, from SE
1.
Use the dbexport utility to export the data from SE.
You can move the data to another directory or directly to tape.
Warning: Do not use the -ss option with dbexport when you move data between
database servers. The -ss option generates SE-specific syntax that Dynamic Server
7.3 or Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, does not recognize.
2.
Edit the database schema file (the.sql file that dbexport creates).
You might want to add information that Dynamic Server 7.3 (or
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions) databases and
tables can use, such as the following data:
3.
■
Initial- and next-extent values for a table
■
Lock mode for a table
■
Blobspace where TEXT or BYTE data types should reside
■
Dbspace where the tables should reside
■
VARCHAR or NVARCHAR column specifications
■
Fragmentation schemes
You can also make the following changes to the schema file:
■
Alter ownership or SQL privileges on specific tables and indexes.
■
Specify the dbspace location of the database.
■
Change the logging status of the database.
■
Change the ANSI-compliance status of the database.
■
Remove unsupported SQL syntax, if necessary. (You can write a
script to automate the task of modifying the SQL statements.)
For details about supported SQL statements, see the Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax.
14-46
Informix Migration Guide
Moving Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions from SE
4.
If necessary, install the new database server. For installation procedures, see your Installation Guide.
Important: For Dynamic Server 7.3 or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.1 or 7.2, you must
access rows that were fragmented using column values (primary key values) in a row
rather than ROWID.
5.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
target database server.
6.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
7.
Start the new database server.
8.
Use the dbimport utility to move the database data into the new
database server.
For detailed descriptions of the dbexport and dbimport utilities, refer to
Chapter 20, “Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities.”
Using the UNLOAD Statement
The UNLOAD statement lets you retrieve selected rows from a database and
write those rows into a text file.
Using UNLOAD, LOAD, and dbschema
If you want to move selected tables or columns instead of an entire SE database to your target database server, use the SQL statements UNLOAD and
LOAD in the DB-Access utility with the dbschema database utility.
To use UNLOAD, LOAD, and dbschema to move data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, from SE
1.
Make sure that you have sufficient disk space to store the unloaded
data. (You cannot unload data to tape with UNLOAD.)
2.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
3.
Use the UNLOAD statement to move the selected data into a text file.
Use a separate UNLOAD statement for each target table.
4.
Exit from DB-Access.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-47
Moving Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions from SE
5.
If you plan to load data into a table or tables that do not exist, follow
these steps:
a.
Use the dbschema utility to create a schema file from the SE
database.
b.
Edit the schema file so that it describes the new tables.
c.
Make any of the following changes to the schema file:
■
Alter ownership or SQL privileges on specific tables and
indexes.
■
Specify the dbspace location for the table.
■
Change the logging status of the database.
■
Change the ANSI-compliance status of the database.
■
Remove unsupported SQL syntax, if necessary.
For details about supported SQL statements, see the Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax.
If you prefer, you can omit this step and, in step 12, enter the
statements that create the tables.
6.
If necessary, install your target database server.
7.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
target database server.
8.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
9.
Start the new database server.
10.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
11.
Select the target database.
If you are creating a new database, execute the CREATE DATABASE
statement or choose Database➞Create from the DB-Access menu.
14-48
12.
If you plan to load data into a new table or tables, choose and run the
schema file that you prepared in step 5 or enter CREATE TABLE statements to create the new tables.
13.
If you created a new database, you might need to update the
DBPATH environment variable with the new database location.
14.
Use LOAD statements to load the data into the desired tables.
Informix Migration Guide
Moving Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions from SE
Using UNLOAD, dbload, and dbschema
If you need to manipulate the data before you load it into a new table, use a
combination of the UNLOAD statement and the dbschema and dbload
utilities.
To use UNLOAD, dbload, and dbschema to move data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, from SE
1.
Follow steps 1 through 13 of “Using UNLOAD, LOAD, and
dbschema” on page 14-47.
2.
Build a command file to use with the dbload utility, which loads the
data files into the tables.
3.
Execute dbload to load the data as your command file directs.
For information on UNLOAD, LOAD, dbload, and dbschema, refer to
Section VIII, “Data Migration Utilities.” For information on how to use
DB-Access, refer to the DB-Access User Manual.
Moving C-ISAM Data to Dynamic Server or Its Editions
After you convert the C-ISAM data files to SE format, use dbexport and
dbimport to move the data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, from SE. To convert the data files to SE
format, follow the procedure under “Converting C-ISAM Files to SE” on
page 13-6. For more information on how to work with C-ISAM files, see the
C-ISAM Programmer’s Manual.
Tip: For details on how to convert C-ISAM data files to SE, contact your local systems engineer for assistance.
Adapting Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3 or Its Editions
After you successfully move the SE data to Dynamic Server 7.3 or Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, verify that your application
developers know the differences between both database servers. For more
information about the server-specific limitations of SQL statements, refer to
the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax and the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference. For
information about environment variables, see the Informix Guide to SQL:
Reference.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-49
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions
For more information about how to configure your database server, refer to
your Administrator’s Guide.
SE
The following statements contain syntax and keywords that only SE
recognizes:
■
CHECK TABLE
■
CREATE AUDIT
■
DROP AUDIT
■
RECOVER TABLE
■
REPAIR TABLE
■
ROLLFORWARD DATABASE
■
START DATABASE ♦
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions
When you move data to SE from Dynamic Server 7.3 or Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, you must choose a migration method,
eliminate features that SE does not support, migrate the data, and modify
applications.
Eliminating Features That SE Does Not Support
Before you export your source database server data to SE, you must eliminate
or upgrade the following unsupported data types to a data type that SE
supports:
■
VARCHAR
■
BYTE
■
TEXT
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities
If you intend to move an entire database to SE, the dbexport and dbimport
combination is the easiest migration method.
14-50
Informix Migration Guide
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions
To use dbexport and dbimport to move data to SE from your source database server
1.
Use dbexport to export the data from your source database server.
You can move the data to a directory or directly to tape.
Warning: Do not use the -ss option with dbexport when you move data between
database servers. The -ss option generates syntax that is specific to Dynamic Server
7.3 or Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, that SE does not
recognize.
2.
3.
Remove the following information from the CREATE TABLE statements in the schema file (the.sql file that dbexport creates):
■
Initial- and next-extent sizes
■
Lock modes
■
Dbspace names
■
Blobspace names
■
Logging modes
■
Table-fragmentation expressions
You can also make the following changes in the schema file:
■
Alter ownership or SQL privileges on specific tables and indexes
■
Change the logging status of the database
■
Change the ANSI-compliance status of the database
4.
If necessary, install SE. For installation instructions, refer to your
Installation Guide.
5.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
new database server.
6.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
7.
Move to the directory where dbimport will store the SE database.
8.
Use dbimport to move the data into an SE database.
For detailed descriptions of the dbexport and dbimport utilities, refer to
Chapter 20, “Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities.”
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-51
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions
Using the UNLOAD Statement
The UNLOAD statement lets you retrieve selected rows from a database and
write those rows into a text file.
Using UNLOAD, LOAD, and dbschema
If you want to move selected tables or columns to SE instead of moving an
entire database, use the UNLOAD and LOAD statements in the DB-Access utility with the dbschema utility.
To use UNLOAD, LOAD, and dbschema to move data to SE
1.
Make sure that you have sufficient disk space to store the unloaded
data. (The UNLOAD statement does not allow you to unload to tape.)
2.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
3.
Use UNLOAD statements to move the selected data into text files. Use
a separate UNLOAD statement for each target table.
4.
Exit from DB-Access.
5.
If you plan to load data into a table or tables that do not exist, follow
these steps:
a.
Use the dbschema utility to create a schema file from the source
database server.
b.
Edit the schema file so that it describes the new tables.
If you prefer, you can omit this step and, in step 11, enter the statements that create the tables.
6.
If necessary, install SE.
7.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
new database server.
8.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
9.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
10.
Select the target database.
If you are creating a new database, execute the CREATE DATABASE
statement or choose Database➞Create from the DB-Access menu.
14-52
Informix Migration Guide
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions
11.
If you plan to load data into a new table, choose and run the schema
file that you prepared in step 5 or enter CREATE TABLE statements to
create the new tables.
12.
If you created a new database, you might need to update the
DBPATH environment variable with the new database location.
13.
Use LOAD statements to load the data into the desired tables.
Using UNLOAD, dbload, and dbschema
If you need to manipulate the data before you load it into a new table, use a
combination of the UNLOAD statement and the dbschema and dbload
utilities.
To use UNLOAD, dbload, and dbschema to move data to SE from Dynamic Server 7.3
or Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
1.
Follow steps 1 through 12 of “Using UNLOAD, LOAD, and
dbschema” on page 14-52.
2.
Build a command file to use with the dbload utility, which loads the
data files into the tables.
3.
Execute dbload to load the data as your command file directs.
For information on UNLOAD, LOAD, dbload, and dbschema, refer to Section
VIII, “Data Migration Utilities.” For information on how to use DB-Access,
refer to the DB-Access User Manual.
Adapting Your Programs for SE
After you migrate data to SE, verify that your application developers know
the differences between both database servers.
SE
SE does not use the ONCONFIG configuration file. SE supports a subset of the
environment variables that Dynamic Server and Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, support. For more information about
how to use SE, refer to the INFORMIX-SE Administrator’s Guide. ♦
For more information about the differences between database servers and
their interpretation of SQL, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
Migrating Between 7.x Database Server Options and Editions 14-53
Moving Data to SE from Dynamic Server or Its Editions
IDS 7.3
IDS 7.3
Dynamic Server 7.3 supports the following SQL statements, which SE does
not support:
■
ALTER FRAGMENT
■
GRANT FRAGMENT
■
REVOKE FRAGMENT
■
SET DATASKIP
■
SET PDQPRIORITY ♦
Dynamic Server 7.3 and Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, support the following SQL statements, which SE does not support:
W/D
■
CREATE ROLE
■
DROP ROLE
■
RENAME DATABASE
■
SET ISOLATION
■
SET LOG
■
SET ROLE
■
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION ♦
If you change the name or pathname of the database server, update the
DBPATH environment variable with the location of the new database. For
information about DBPATH, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
14-54
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter 15
Moving a Database Server to a Different Operating System
Chapter 16
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in
Different Environments
Section V
Migration Between Operating
Systems
Chapter
Moving a Database Server to a
Different Operating System
In This Chapter .
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15-3
Choosing a Migration Method .
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15-3
Adjusting Database Tables for File-System Variations .
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15-5
Moving Data to a Database Server on a Different
Operating System . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Migration Utilities . . . . . . . .
Adapting Your Programs for UNIX or Windows NT
Completing Migration . . . . . . . . . .
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15-5
15-6
15-7
15-7
15
15-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the steps for migrating between Informix database
servers in different operating systems. The description covers the following
topics:
■
Choosing a migration method
■
Adjusting database tables for file-system variations
■
Migrating a database server to a different operating system
Figure 1-6 on page 1-11 shows the paths for migrating to a different operating
system.
Choosing a Migration Method
UNIX and Windows NT store data in different page sizes. When your
migration involves different operating systems, you must export data and its
schema information from one database server and import the exported data
into the other database server.
Moving a Database Server to a Different Operating System 15-3
Choosing a Migration Method
The method that you choose for exporting and importing data depends on
how much data you plan to move. All these methods deliver similar performance and enable you to modify the schema of the database. You can use the
following migration methods:
■
dbexport and dbimport
To move an entire database, use the dbexport and dbimport utilities.
■
UNLOAD and LOAD
To move selected columns or tables, use the UNLOAD statement. Use
LOAD when you do not want to change the data format.
■
UNLOAD, dbload, and dbschema
To move selected columns or tables, use the UNLOAD statement. Use
dbload to change the data format.
■
onunload and onload
To unload data in page-sized chunks, use the onunload utility. Use
the onload utility to move data to an identical database server on a
computer of the same type.
■
The High-Performance Loader (HPL)
To move selected columns or tables or an entire database, use the
HPL.
AD/XP
■
External Tables
To load and unload data in Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
or OnLine XPS, use external tables. For more information on this
topic, see “External Tables” on page 2-19 and “Loading and
Unloading Data” on page 10-19. ♦
XPS 8.11
Important: Do not use onunload and/or onload with Dynamic Server 2000,
Universal Server, Extended Parallel Server, or Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options data. Instead, use the HPL for Dynamic Server 2000 or Universal Server,
onxfer for Extended Parallel Server, or external tables for Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options.
15-4
Informix Migration Guide
Adjusting Database Tables for File-System Variations
Adjusting Database Tables for File-System
Variations
File-system limitations vary between NFS and non-NFS file systems. You
might need to break up large tables when you migrate to a new operating
system.
For example, if you have a 3-gigabyte table, but your operating system only
allows 2-gigabyte files, break up your table into separate files before you
migrate. For more information, see your Administrator’s Guide.
Moving Data to a Database Server on a Different
Operating System
This section describes the steps for moving data between Informix database
servers in UNIX and Windows NT environments.
To move data to a database server on a different operating system
1.
Save a copy of the current configuration files. For detailed steps, see
“Save a Copy of the Current Configuration Files” on page 14-9.
2.
Use ON-Bar, ON-Archive, or ontape to make a final level-0 backup.
For more information, refer to your Backup and Restore Guide or your
Archive and Backup Guide.
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options, Extended Parallel Server,
and OnLine XPS do not support ON-Archive or ontape. ♦
AD/XP
XPS 8.3
3.
XPS 8.11
AD/XP
XPS 8.11
4.
Choose one of the following sets of migration utilities to unload the
databases:
■
dbexport and dbimport
■
UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD
■
UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload
■
External tables with dbschema (for Dynamic Server with AD
and XP Options or OnLine XPS) ♦
Bring the source database server off-line.
Moving a Database Server to a Different Operating System 15-5
Using the Migration Utilities
5.
Install and configure the target database server. If you are migrating
to Windows NT, also install the administration tools.
6.
Bring the target database server on-line.
7.
Use dbimport, LOAD, or dbload, or external tables to load the
databases into the target database server, depending on which utility
you used to export the databases.
8.
Make an initial level-0 backup of the target database server.
9.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS to update the information that the target
database server uses to plan efficient queries.
Using the Migration Utilities
Choose one of the following migration utilities:
IDS 2000
■
If you intend to move an entire database on Dynamic Server 2000 or
Dynamic Server 7.3 between different environments, the dbexport
and dbimport combination is the easiest migration method. Follow
the steps in “Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities” on
page 14-46. ♦
■
If you want to move selected tables or columns, instead of an entire
database, use the UNLOAD and LOAD statements with the dbschema
utility. Follow the steps in “Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD”
on page 14-6.
■
If you need to manipulate the data in the specified UNLOAD file
before you load it into a new table, use a combination of the UNLOAD
statement and the dbschema and dbload utilities. Follow the steps
in “Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload” on page 14-8.
■
For Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options or OnLine XPS, use
external tables, as the Administrator’s Reference describes. ♦
IDS 7.3
AD/XP
XPS 8.11
15-6
Informix Migration Guide
Adapting Your Programs for UNIX or Windows NT
Adapting Your Programs for UNIX or Windows NT
Certain database server configuration parameters and environment variables
are environment dependent, as follows:
■
Dynamic Server 2000 supports Enterprise Replication.
■
Dynamic Server 7.3 supports Enterprise Replication and uses
Version 3.0 of Informix Enterprise Command Center (IECC).
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, for UNIX is at
Version 7.2. It supports GLS and uses Version 1.0 of IECC.
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, for
Windows NT is at Version 7.3. It supports GLS, ON-Bar, Enterprise
Replication, and the Gateway products and uses Version 3.0 of IECC.
For details, see Appendix A, your Administrator’s Guide, or the Administrator’s
Reference.
Completing Migration
The first time the target database server is brought on-line, the sysmaster and
sysutils databases are built. Check the message log to ensure that the
sysmaster and sysutils databases have been created successfully before you
allow users to access the database server. After you ensure that client users
can access data on the database server, the migration process is complete.
Then you might want to seek ways to obtain maximum performance. For
details on topics related to performance, refer to your Performance Guide.
Moving a Database Server to a Different Operating System 15-7
Chapter
Migrating Between Dynamic
Server 7.3 and Its Editions in
Different Environments
In This Chapter .
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16-3
Choosing a Migration Method .
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16-4
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16-5
16-6
16-6
16-7
16-7
16-8
16-9
16-11
Migrating Data to Dynamic Server, W/D from 7.3 on a
Different Operating System . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . . .
Export Data from Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . .
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities . . .
Using the UNLOAD Statement . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and the Services File . . . .
Customize the Database Server Environment . . .
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, On-Line. . . . . . . . . . . .
Import Data into Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . .
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . .
Run UPDATE STATISTICS . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 16-12
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. 16-15
Migrating Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, on a Different
Operating System. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files . . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Data from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities . . . .
Using the UNLOAD Statement . . . . . . . .
Shut Down Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . . . .
Verify Port Numbers and the Services File . . . . .
Customize the Database Server Environment . . . .
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 On-Line . . . . . . . .
Import the Data into the Target Database Server . . .
Verify the Integrity of the Data . . . . . . . . .
Back Up the Target Database Server . . . . . . . .
Run UPDATE STATISTICS . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3 . . . .
16-2
Informix Migration Guide
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16-20
16-21
16-21
16-21
16-22
16-22
16-22
16-23
16-23
16-23
16-24
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the steps for migrating between Dynamic Server,
Version 7.3, and its editions in different operating systems. Figure 1-6 on
page 1-11 shows the paths for migrating to a different operating system. This
chapter covers the following topics:
■
Choosing a migration method
■
Migrating data to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3 on a different operating system
■
Migrating data to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, on a different operating system
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-3
Choosing a Migration Method
Choosing a Migration Method
UNIX and Windows NT store data in different page sizes. When your
migration involves different operating systems, you must export data and its
schema information from one database server and import the exported data
into the other database server.
The method that you choose for exporting and importing data depends on
how much data you plan to move. All these methods deliver similar performance and enable you to modify the schema of the database. You can use the
following migration methods:
■
dbexport and dbimport
To move an entire database, use the dbexport and dbimport utilities.
■
UNLOAD and LOAD
To move selected columns or tables, use the UNLOAD statement. Use
LOAD when you do not want to change the data format.
■
UNLOAD and dbload
To move selected columns or tables, use the UNLOAD statement. Use
dbload to change the data format.
■
onunload and onload
To unload data in page-sized chunks, use the onunload utility. Use
the onload utility to move data to an identical database server on a
computer of the same type.
■
The High-Performance Loader (HPL)
To move selected columns or tables or an entire database, use the
HPL.
16-4
Informix Migration Guide
Migrating Data to Dynamic Server, W/D, from 7.3 on a Different Operating System
Migrating Data to Dynamic Server, W/D, from 7.3 on
a Different Operating System
The following sections describe the steps for moving data to Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3 on a different
operating system.
When you move data between UNIX and Windows NT, you must choose a
migration utility, eliminate database server- and environment-specific
features, migrate the data, and modify applications. Complete the following
migration steps, which later subsections describe in detail:
1.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
2.
Verify the integrity of the data.
3.
Make a final backup of Dynamic Server 7.3.
4.
Export data from Dynamic Server 7.3.
5.
Shut down Dynamic Server 7.3.
6.
Install and configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions.
7.
Verify port numbers and the services file.
8.
Customize the database server environment (optional).
9.
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, on-line.
10.
Import data into Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions.
11.
Verify the integrity of the data.
12.
Make an initial backup of Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions.
13.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS.
14.
Complete migration.
15.
Adapt your programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-5
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the current configuration files that you modified. These should
include the following files:
■
Current ONCONFIG file, located in the etc subdirectory of your
installation directory
■
sqlhosts information
■
adtcfg, located in the aaodir subdirectory
■
adtmasks.*, located in the dbssodir subdirectory
■
ON-Archive configuration files, located in the etc subdirectory
If you use ON-Bar to back up your source database server and the logical logs,
you also need to save a copy of the following file:
UNIX:
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/ixbar.<servernum>
Windows NT: $INFORMIXDIR\etc\ixbar.<servernum>
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of the data. Figure 16-1 lists the
commands for verifying data integrity.
Action
oncheck Command
Check reserve pages
oncheck -cr
Check extents
oncheck -ce
Figure 16-1
Commands for
Verifying Data
Integrity
Check system catalog tables oncheck -cc database_name
Check data
oncheck -cD database_name
Check indexes
oncheck -cI database_name
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
16-6
Informix Migration Guide
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3
Back Up Dynamic Server 7.3
Use your preferred backup method to make a complete (level-0) backup of
your database server. You can use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to perform
a backup.
UNIX
WIN NT
To start a backup of the database server on UNIX, you can enter
$INFORMIXDIR/bin/bar where the database server is installed. ♦
On Windows NT, you can double-click the Backup and Restore icon in the
Informix Administration Tools program group.
Windows NT does not support ON-Archive. ♦
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup.
For more information on how to make backups, refer to your Backup and
Restore Guide or Archive and Backup Guide.
Export Data from Dynamic Server 7.3
If you are migrating to a different environment (for example, to UNIX from
Windows NT), choose one of the following sets of migration utilities:
■
dbexport and dbimport (see “Using the dbexport and dbimport
Utilities” on page 16-8)
■
UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD (see “Using UNLOAD, dbschema,
and LOAD” on page 16-9)
■
UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload (see “Using UNLOAD, dbschema,
and dbload” on page 16-10)
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-7
Export Data from Dynamic Server 7.3
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities
If you intend to move an entire database to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3 in different environments, the
dbexport and dbimport combination is the easiest migration method.
Perform the following steps:
1.
Use dbexport to export the data from Dynamic Server 7.3.
You can move the data to a directory or directly to tape. Do not use
the -ss option when you move data between database servers.
2.
Remove table-fragmentation expressions from the CREATE TABLE
statements in the schema file (the.sql file that dbexport creates).
If tables are fragmented, dbimport might not work. Informix recommends that you defragment the tables before you export the
database.
3.
You can also make the following changes in the schema file:
■
Alter ownership or SQL privileges for specific tables and indexes
■
Change the logging status of the database
■
Change the ANSI-compliance status of the database
■
Remove unsupported SQL syntax, if necessary
4.
Follow the instructions in your Installation Guide and your Administrator’s Guide to install and configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions.
5.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
target database server.
6.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
7.
Move to the directory where dbimport will store the Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, database.
8.
Use dbimport to move the data to a Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, database.
For detailed descriptions of the dbexport and dbimport utilities, refer to
Chapter 20, “Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities.”
16-8
Informix Migration Guide
Export Data from Dynamic Server 7.3
Using the UNLOAD Statement
The UNLOAD statement lets you retrieve selected rows from a database and
write those rows to a text file.
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD
If you want to move selected tables or columns instead of an entire Dynamic
Server 7.3 database to Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
use the UNLOAD and LOAD statements in the DB-Access utility with the
dbschema utility.
To use UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD to move data to Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3
1.
Make sure that you have sufficient disk space to store the unloaded
data. (The UNLOAD statement does not allow you to unload to tape.)
2.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
3.
To move the selected data into text files, use UNLOAD statements.
Use a separate UNLOAD statement for each target table.
4.
Exit DB-Access.
5.
If you plan to load data into a table or tables that do not exist, follow
these steps:
a.
To create a schema file from the source database server, use the
dbschema utility.
b.
Edit the schema file so that it describes the new tables.
If you prefer, you can omit this step and, in step 12, enter the
statements that create the tables.
6.
Follow the instructions in your Installation Guide and your Administrator’s Guide to install and configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions.
7.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
target database server.
8.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
9.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-9
Export Data from Dynamic Server 7.3
10.
Select the target database.
11.
If you are creating a new database, execute the CREATE DATABASE
statement or choose Database➞Create from the DB-Access menu.
12.
If you plan to load data into a new table, choose and run the schema
file that you prepared in step 5 or enter CREATE TABLE statements to
create the new tables.
13.
If you created a new database, you might need to update the
DBPATH environment variable with the new database location.
14.
To load the data into the desired tables, use LOAD statements.
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload
If you need to manipulate the data in the specified UNLOAD file before you
load it into a new table, use a combination of the UNLOAD statement and the
dbschema and dbload utilities.
To use UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload to move data to Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions, from Dynamic Server 7.3
1.
Follow steps 1 through 13 from “Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and
LOAD” on page 16-9.
2.
Build a command file to use with the dbload utility, which loads the
data files into the tables.
3.
Execute dbload to load the data as your command file directs.
For information on UNLOAD, LOAD, dbload, and dbschema, refer to
Section VIII, “Data Migration Utilities.” For information on how to use
DB-Access, refer to the DB-Access User’s Manual.
16-10
Informix Migration Guide
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3
Shut Down Dynamic Server 7.3
Communicate to client users how long you expect the database server to be
off-line for the migration. Terminate all database server processes and place
your database server in quiescent mode (also called administration mode).
To shut down the database server gracefully
1.
Warn all users that you plan to shut down the database server and
wait for them to exit.
2.
Become user informix on UNIX. On Windows NT, you must be a
member of the Informix-Admin group.
Use Services in the Windows NT Control Panel. ♦
WIN NT
3.
Execute the following command to take the database server to
quiescent mode:
4.
Wait until your database server is in quiescent mode.
onmode –sy
To verify the mode of your database server, execute the onstat command. The first line of the onstat output contains the status of
your database server. Figure 16-2 shows that the database server is in
quiescent mode.
Informix OnLine Dynamic Server Version x.xx.xxx -- Quiescent -- Up xx:xx:xx -- xxxx
Figure 16-2
Example of onstat
Status Line
Informix Dynamic Server is in quiescent mode.
Kbytes
5.
Execute the following command to force a new logical log:
6.
Execute the following command to force a checkpoint:
7.
Execute the following command to shut down the database server:
onmode -l
onmode -c
onmode -yuk
Tip: Monitor your log activity to verify that all commands were executed properly
and to check for inconsistencies prior to migration.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-11
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
Install and Configure Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
If you have not already done so, follow the instructions in your Installation
Guide to install and configure your target database server.
You can install Informix Enterprise Command Center (IECC) on a personal
computer that runs Windows 95 or Windows NT, and the database server on
a UNIX computer. The installation program also starts the server agent, which
is the communication link between Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, and the IECC client. ♦
UNIX
WIN NT
You can install Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, and
IECC on either the same or different computers. ♦
Use the Setup program to specify the network protocol and the computer on
which Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, looks for the
database server definitions (sqlhosts and osahosts definitions).
Verify Port Numbers and the Services File
The services file contains service names, port numbers, and protocol information. If you have installed the database server and the administration tools
on different computers, verify that the port number listed in the services file
is the same on the client and on the server computers.
For UNIX operating systems not running NIS, the services file resides in the
/etc/services directory on the database server and in the \windir\services
directory on the Windows 95 client. ♦
UNIX
WIN NT
The services file resides in the \windir\system32\drivers\etc directory. ♦
Customize the Database Server Environment
If you are an advanced user, you can customize the ONCONFIG configuration
file and environment variables for Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions. Use a text editor to edit the ONCONFIG file. For more
information on configuration parameters, refer to your Installation Guide.
16-12
Informix Migration Guide
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, On-Line
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for your source database server.
You might want to customize new environment variables on the client. For
more information on environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to
SQL: Reference.
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
On-Line
UNIX
To start your database server at the UNIX command line, enter oninit on the
server computer. ♦
If you customized the database server environment, you can bring down and
restart your database server with IECC. When you restart Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer Editions, the changes to the configuration parameters and environment variables take effect.
WIN NT
To start the database server with IECC on Windows NT
1.
In the Informix Administration Tools program group, double-click
the Command Center icon.
2.
In IECC, select the database server in the All Servers tree view or the
Servers list box.
3.
Choose Server➞On-line.
For more information, refer to the 7.3 IECC manual. ♦
Import Data into Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions
To load data into Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, use
dbimport, LOAD, or dbload, depending on which utility you used to export
the databases.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-13
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
To verify the integrity of data, use the oncheck utility, as described in your
Administrator’s Guide.
Make an Initial Backup of Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
Use your preferred backup method to make a complete (level-0) backup of
your database server. You can use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to perform
a backup.
To start a backup of the database server on UNIX, you can enter
$INFORMIXDIR/bin/bar where the database server is installed. ♦
UNIX
WIN NT
On Windows NT, you can double-click the Backup and Restore icon in the
Informix Administration Tools program group.
Windows NT does not support ON-Archive. ♦
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup.
For more information on how to make backups, refer to your Backup and
Restore Guide or Archive and Backup Guide.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS
After you complete the migration procedure, run the UPDATE STATISTICS
statement on the database server. The UPDATE STATISTICS statement updates
the information that Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
uses to plan efficient queries. For more information about UPDATE
STATISTICS, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
16-14
Informix Migration Guide
Complete Migration
Complete Migration
The first time your target database server is brought on-line, the sysmaster
and the sysutils databases are built. Check the message log to ensure that the
sysutils and sysmaster databases are created successfully before you allow
users to access the database server. After you ensure that client users can
access data on your target database server, the migration process is complete.
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
After you successfully migrate the database server data, verify that your
application developers know the differences between the source and target
database servers. Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
supports the same products and features as Dynamic Server 7.3, except for
the High-Performance Loader (HPL) and the following features:
■
Fragmentation (also known as partitioning)
■
Parallel data query (PDQ)
■
Role separation
For information on the SQL statements that Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions, supports, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax and
the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
Migrating Data to Dynamic Server 7.3 from Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, on a
Different Operating System
The following sections describe the steps for moving data to Dynamic
Server 7.3 from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, on a
different operating system.
When you move data between UNIX and Windows NT, you must choose a
migration utility, eliminate database server- and environment-specific
features, migrate the data, and modify applications.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-15
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Complete the following migration steps:
1.
Save copies of the current configuration files.
2.
Verify the integrity of the data.
3.
Make a final backup of Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions.
4.
Export data from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions.
5.
Bring Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, off-line.
6.
Install and configure Dynamic Server 7.3.
7.
Verify port numbers and the services file.
8.
Customize the database server environment (optional).
9.
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 on-line.
10.
Import data into Dynamic Server 7.3.
11.
Verify the integrity of the data.
12.
Make an initial backup of Dynamic Server 7.3.
13.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS.
14.
Complete migration.
15.
Adapt your programs for Dynamic Server 7.3.
Save Copies of the Current Configuration Files
Save copies of the current configuration files that you have modified, as
follows:
16-16
■
Current ONCONFIG file, located in the etc subdirectory of your
installation directory
■
sqlhosts information
■
adtcfg, located in the aaodir subdirectory
■
adtmasks.*, located in the dbssodir subdirectory
■
ON-Archive configuration files, located in the etc subdirectory
Informix Migration Guide
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of data, as described in your
Administrator’s Guide.
Back Up Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions
Use your preferred backup method to make a complete (level-0) backup of
your database server. You can use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to perform
a backup.
UNIX
WIN NT
To start a backup of the database server on UNIX, you can enter
$INFORMIXDIR/bin/bar where the database server is installed. ♦
On Windows NT, you can double-click the Backup and Restore icon in the
Informix Administration Tools program group.
Windows NT does not support ON-Archive. ♦
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup.
For more information on how to make backups, refer to your Backup and
Restore Guide or the Archive and Backup Guide.
Export Data from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
To migrate to a different operating system (such as to Windows NT from
UNIX), choose one of the following sets of data migration utilities:
■
dbexport and dbimport (see “Using the dbexport and dbimport
Utilities” on page 16-18)
■
UNLOAD, dbschema, and LOAD (see “Using UNLOAD, LOAD, and
dbschema” on page 16-19)
■
UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload (see “Using UNLOAD, dbschema,
and dbload” on page 16-20)
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-17
Export Data from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities
If you intend to move an entire database to Dynamic Server 7.3 from
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, in different environments, the dbexport and dbimport combination is the easiest migration
method. Follow these steps:
1.
Use dbexport to export the data from the source database server.
You can move the data to a directory or directly to tape. Do not use
the -ss option when you move data between database servers.
UNIX
2.
3.
You might want to add the following information that Dynamic
Server 7.3 databases and tables can use:
■
Fragmentation schemes
■
PDQ support ♦
You can also make the following changes in the schema file:
■
Alter ownership or SQL privileges for specific tables and indexes.
■
Change the logging status of the database.
■
Change the ANSI-compliance status of the database.
■
Remove unsupported SQL syntax, if necessary.
4.
Follow the instructions to install and configure Dynamic Server 7.3.
5.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
new database server.
6.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
7.
Move to the directory where dbimport will store the Dynamic Server
7.3 database.
8.
Use dbimport to move the data to a Dynamic Server 7.3 database.
For detailed descriptions of the dbexport and dbimport utilities, refer to
Chapter 20, “Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities.”
16-18
Informix Migration Guide
Export Data from Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
Using the UNLOAD Statement
The UNLOAD statement lets you retrieve selected rows from a database and
write those rows to a text file.
Using UNLOAD, LOAD, and dbschema
If you want to move selected tables or columns instead of an entire Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, database to Dynamic Server 7.3,
use the UNLOAD and LOAD statements in DB-Access with the dbschema
utility.
To use UNLOAD, LOAD, and dbschema to move data to Dynamic Server 7.3 from
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
1.
Make sure that you have sufficient disk space to store the unloaded
data. (The UNLOAD statement does not allow you to unload to tape.)
2.
Invoke DB-Access.
3.
Use UNLOAD statements to move the selected data into text files. Use
a separate UNLOAD statement for each target table.
4.
Exit from DB-Access.
5.
If you plan to load data into a table or tables that do not exist, follow
these steps:
a.
Use the dbschema utility to create a schema file from the
Dynamic Server 7.3 database.
b.
Edit the schema file so that it describes the new tables.
If you prefer, you can omit this step and, in step 12, enter the statements that create the tables.
6.
Follow the instructions to install and configure Dynamic Server 7.3.
7.
Change the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable to specify your
new database server.
8.
If necessary, use your standard file-transfer process to move the
export files to the target computer. Ensure that both database servers
use the same DBDATE and DBMONEY formats.
9.
Invoke the DB-Access utility.
10.
Select the target database.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-19
Shut Down Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
11.
If you are creating a new database, execute the CREATE DATABASE
statement or choose Database➞Create from the DB-Access menu.
12.
If you plan to load data into a new table, choose and run the schema
file that you prepared in step 5 or enter CREATE TABLE statements to
create the new tables.
13.
If you created a new database, you might need to update the
DBPATH environment variable with the new database location.
14.
Use LOAD statements to load the data into the desired tables.
Using UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload
If you need to manipulate the data in the specified UNLOAD file before you
load it into a new table, use a combination of the UNLOAD statement and the
dbschema and dbload utilities.
To use UNLOAD, dbschema, and dbload to move data to Dynamic Server 7.3 from
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
1.
Follow steps 1 through 13 from “Using UNLOAD, LOAD, and
dbschema” on page 16-19.
2.
Build a command file to use with the dbload utility, which loads the
data files into the tables.
3.
Execute dbload to load the data as your command file directs.
For information on UNLOAD, LOAD, dbload, and dbschema, refer to
Section VIII, “Data Migration Utilities.” For information on how to use
DB-Access, refer to the DB-Access User’s Manual.
Shut Down Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions
Select Off-Line from the Server Mode list box in the General tab of IECC. ♦
UNIX
WIN NT
16-20
In IECC, select the database server in the All Servers tree view or the Servers
list box. Choose Server➞Off-line. ♦
Informix Migration Guide
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3
Install and Configure Dynamic Server 7.3
Install and configure Dynamic Server 7.3 according to the instructions in
your Installation Guide.
UNIX
WIN NT
You must be user root to install the product. When you finish the installation
and system reconfiguration, exit as user root and log in as user informix. ♦
You can install the target database server and the administration tools on
either the same or different computers.
The installation program automatically starts the target database server.
Use Setup to specify the network protocol and the computer on which the
target database server looks for the database server definitions. ♦
Verify Port Numbers and the Services File
The services file contains service names, port numbers, and protocol information. If you have installed the database server and the administration tools
on different computers, verify that the port number listed in the services file
is the same on the client and the server computers.
UNIX
The services file resides in the /etc/services directory on the server and in the
\windir\services directory on the Windows NT client. ♦
WIN NT
The services file resides in the \windir\system32\drivers\etc directory. ♦
Customize the Database Server Environment
If you are an advanced user, you can customize the ONCONFIG configuration
file and environment variables for Dynamic Server 7.3. To edit the
ONCONFIG file, use a text editor. For more information on configuration
parameters, refer to your Administrator’s Guide. For more information on
environment variables, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
Important: Use the same values for your target database server for ROOTOFFSET,
ROOTSIZE, and ROOTPATH that you used for your source database server.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-21
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 On-Line
Bring Dynamic Server 7.3 On-Line
The installation program brings Dynamic Server 7.3 on-line automatically.
If you customized the database server environment, you can bring down and
restart the target database server with IECC. When you restart the target
database server, the changes to the configuration parameters and
environment variables take effect.
To start Dynamic Server 7.3 on UNIX
UNIX
WIN NT
1.
Enter oninit at the command-line prompt.
2.
If you want to initialize the database server, enter oninit -i. ♦
To start Dynamic Server 7.3 on Windows NT
1.
In the Informix Administration Tools program group, double-click
the IECC icon.
2.
In IECC, select the database server in the All Servers tree view or the
Servers list box.
3.
Choose Server➞On-line.
For more information, refer to the 7.3 IECC manual. ♦
Import the Data into the Target Database Server
Use dbimport, LOAD, or dbload to load the data into Dynamic Server 7.3,
depending on which utility you used to export the data.
Verify the Integrity of the Data
Use the oncheck utility to verify the integrity of data, as described in your
Administrator’s Guide.
16-22
Informix Migration Guide
Back Up the Target Database Server
Back Up the Target Database Server
Use your preferred backup method to make a complete (level-0) backup of
your database server. You can use ON-Bar, ontape, or ON-Archive to perform
a backup.
UNIX
WIN NT
To start a backup of the database server on UNIX, you can enter
$INFORMIXDIR/bin/bar where the database server is installed. ♦
On Windows NT, you can double-click the Backup and Restore icon in the
Informix Administration Tools program group.
Windows NT does not support ON-Archive. ♦
The tape parameters must specify a valid tape device. Be sure to retain and
properly label the tape volume that contains the backup.
For more information on how to make backups, refer to your Backup and
Restore Guide or Archive and Backup Guide.
Run UPDATE STATISTICS
After you complete the migration procedure, run the UPDATE STATISTICS
statement on the server. The UPDATE STATISTICS statement updates the information that Dynamic Server 7.3 uses to plan efficient queries. For more
information about UPDATE STATISTICS, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
Complete Migration
The first time the target database server is brought on-line, the sysmaster and
sysutils databases are built. Check the message log to ensure that the
database builds are complete before you allow users to access the database
server. After you ensure that client users can access data on your target
database server, the migration process is complete.
Migrating Between Dynamic Server 7.3 and Its Editions in Different Environments 16-23
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3
Adapt Your Programs for Dynamic Server 7.3
After you successfully move the data to Dynamic Server 7.3, verify that your
application developers know the differences between both database servers.
Dynamic Server 7.3 supports the same products and features as Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, plus the High-Performance
Loader (HPL) and the following features:
■
Fragmentation (also known as partitioning)
■
Parallel data query (PDQ)
■
Role separation
For information on the SQL statements that Dynamic Server 7.3 supports,
refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax and the Informix Guide to SQL:
Reference.
16-24
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter 17
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database
Servers
Chapter 18
Converting to GLS
Chapter 19
Reverting from GLS
Section VI
Locale Changes
Chapter
Understanding Language
Support in Informix Database
Servers
In This Chapter .
.
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17
17-3
Informix Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
Global Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
Informix GLS Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
GLS Locales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
GLS Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Code-Set Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Native Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9
Informix NLS Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
NLS Locales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-11
NLS Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-12
NLS Support by Informix GLS Products . . . . . . . . . 17-13
Asian Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14
Informix ALS Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-15
ALS Locales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-15
ALS Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-16
ALS Support by Informix GLS Products . . . . . . . . . 17-17
Language Support in Database Servers . . . . . . .
Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server . . . .
Extended Parallel Server, Dynamic Server AD/XP,
and OnLine XPS . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server . .
INFORMIX-SE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
and OnLine Workgroup Server . . . . . . .
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. 17-20
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. 17-22
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. 17-23
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. 17-24
17-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
Informix products use the following language-support features:
ALS
■
Informix Asian Language Support (ALS) provides support for Asian
(multibyte) characters. ♦
NLS
■
Informix Native Language Support (NLS) provides support for
single-byte, non-English characters. ♦
GLS
■
Informix Global Language Support (GLS) provides support for both
multibyte and single-byte characters. ♦
This chapter describes how to migrate a database that uses the NLS or ALS
feature for its language support to the new GLS support. The chapter
discusses the following topics:
■
Informix language support
■
Language support in database servers
For an introduction to the GLS feature, see the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-3
Informix Language Support
Informix Language Support
By default, most Informix products assume that a database contains
character data that follows the conventions of U.S. English. These conventions include the following:
■
Character data that uses a code set that supports U.S. English
characters (the ASCII code set)
■
Classification of character data into English categories
■
Collation of character data in ASCII code-set order
A non-English database is a database whose character data is in some language
other than English. Informix has provided the ALS language support for nonEnglish databases with Asian (multibyte) characters and NLS language
support for non-English databases with single-byte characters. With
Version 7.2, Informix created a single feature to provide support for singlebyte and multibyte data in non-English languages. This feature is called
Informix Global Language Support (GLS). The following sections summarize
each of the Informix language support features.
GLS
Global Language Support
The GLS feature provides support for both single-byte and multibyte nonEnglish data in a database application. This feature provides the following
advantages to a database application:
■
Truly internationalized support for languages
The database server that uses the GLS feature can support data in
both single-byte and multibyte code sets. You do not need to install
two different products.
■
Informix-specific locale files
The GLS locale is not operating-system dependent. Your database,
database server, and client applications are no longer dependent on
the language support that your operating system provides.
17-4
Informix Migration Guide
Global Language Support
This section provides the following information about the GLS feature:
■
■
■
■
Which Informix products support the GLS feature?
What is a GLS locale?
What are the GLS environment variables?
How do client applications perform code-set conversion with a GLS
database server?
For a more complete description of the GLS feature, see the Informix Guide to
GLS Functionality.
Informix GLS Products
Informix GLS products use the GLS feature to provide support for nonEnglish database applications. Informix supports the GLS feature in the
following types of products:
■
■
Database server products
Client products
Informix introduced GLS in its Version 7.2 database servers.
GLS Database Servers
A database server that uses the GLS feature for its language support is called
a GLS database server. A database server uses the GLS feature to correctly
manipulate character, numeric, and date quantities, as well as to sort
character data. As Figure 17-8 on page 17-21 shows, the following database
servers are GLS database servers:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Dynamic Server 2000
Universal Server
Extended Parallel Server
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, Version 7.3x
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 7.2x
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.2x
SE, Version 7.2x
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-5
Global Language Support
Informix GLS database servers create GLS databases. If you do not set the
CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE environment variables, a GLS database
server creates an English database (a database with the default locale, U.S.
English). For more information on these GLS environment variables, see
“GLS Environment Variables” on page 17-8.
GLS Client Products
A client product (such as Informix ESQL/C) that uses the GLS feature for its
language support is called a GLS client product. A client application uses the
GLS feature to provide end-user formats for date, time, monetary, and
numeric values.
Informix GLS includes the following client products:
■
Version 9.x ESQL/C
■
Version 8.2 ESQL/C
■
Version 7.2x ESQL/C and ESQL/COBOL
■
Version 7.1TD1 ESQL/C and ESQL/COBOL for Microsoft Windows
Environments
■
Version 5.x (WC1 and later) ESQL/C for Windows
GLS Locales
A GLS database server uses a GLS locale to provide language support for a
database. A GLS locale is a set of Informix files that bring together the information about data that is specific to a particular culture, language, or
territory. In particular, a GLS locale provides the following information:
17-6
■
The name of the code set that the application data uses
■
The collation order to use for character data
■
The format for different types of data to appear to end users
Informix Migration Guide
Global Language Support
A GLS locale file groups locale-specific information into the following locale
categories.
Locale Category
Description
CTYPE
Controls the behavior of character classification and case
conversion.
COLLATION
Controls the behavior of string comparisons.
NUMERIC
Controls the behavior of non-monetary numeric end-user
formats.
MONETARY
Controls the behavior of currency end-user formats.
TIME
Controls the behavior of date and time end-user formats.
MESSAGES
Controls the definitions of affirmative and negative responses to
messages.
For GLS databases, the database server stores a condensed version of the
database locale in the following two rows of the systables system catalog
table:
■
The row with tabid 90 stores the COLLATION category of the
database locale.
The COLLATION category of a locale determines the order in which
the characters of the code set collate. The database server uses the
COLLATION category of the database locale to collate character data.
The tabname value for this row is GLS_COLLATE.
■
The row with tabid 91 stores the CTYPE category of the database
locale.
The CTYPE category of a locale determines how characters of the
code set are classified. The database server uses character classification for case conversion and some regular-expression evaluation.
The tabname value for this row is GLS_CTYPE.
The rows with the values 90 and 91 in the tabid column of the systables
system catalog table store the condensed locale name in the site column.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-7
Global Language Support
GLS Environment Variables
Figure 17-1 shows the locale environment variables that GLS products
support.
Figure 17-1
GLS Environment Variables
GLS Environment
Variable
Purpose
CC8BITLEVEL
Specifies how the C compiler handles multibyte characters.
CLIENT_LOCALE
Specifies the name of the client locale.
DB_LOCALE
Specifies the name of the database locale.
ESQLMF
Specifies whether to invoke the ESQL/C multibyte filter,
esqlmf.
GL_DATE
Supports extended format strings for international formatting
of DATE values.
GL_DATETIME
Supports extended format strings for international formatting
of DATETIME values.
GLS8BITFSYS
Specifies how to handle filenames that contain non-ASCII
characters.
SERVER_LOCALE
Specifies the name of the database server locale.
For backward compatibility, GLS products also support all the NLS
environment variables (see Figure 17-3 on page 17-12) and a subset of the ALS
environment variables (see Figure 17-5 on page 17-16).
Code-Set Conversion
A client application performs code-set conversion when the client locale does
not match the database locale. In Figure 17-2, the Code-Set Conversion
column shows the environment variables that the NLS and ALS client
products use to perform code-set conversion. The Client Locale and
Database Locale columns show the environment variables from the client
application that the GLS database server uses to set the client and database
locale, respectively.
17-8
Informix Migration Guide
Native Language Support
Figure 17-2
Locale Information Sent to GLS Database Servers
GLS Database Server
Client Product
Client Locale
Database Locale
Code-Set Conversion
GLS client products:
CLIENT_LOCALE
DB_LOCALE
Between
CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE
(For a list of products, see
“GLS Client Products” on
page 17-6.)
NLS client products:
8.1x ESQL/C
6.x through 7.1x ESQL/C
and ESQL/COBOL
7.1TC1 ESQL/C for Win32
LANG, LC_*
(with DBNLS=1)
LANG, LC_*
(with DBNLS=1)
Between DBAPICODE
and LANG, LC_*
(WITH DBNLS=1)
LANG, LC_*
(with DBNLS=1)
LANG, LC_*
(with DBNLS=1)
Version 6.x ALS ESQL/C
CLIENT_LOCALE
DB_LOCALE
CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE
Version 5.x ALS ESQL/C
DBCODESET
DBCODESET
Between DBAPICODE
and DBCODESET
5.X (PRE-WG1) ESQL/C for
Windows
ALS client products:
Between
CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE
Between
Tip: In Figure 17-2, LC_* is an abbreviation for the following NLS environment
variables: LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC and
LC_TIME. For more information, see “NLS Environment Variables” on page 17-12.
For more information on code-set conversion, see the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality.
NLS
Native Language Support
The NLS feature provides support for single-byte, non-English data in a
database application. These code points are the ASCII code set. If a code set
contains more than 128 characters, some of its characters are 8-bit characters,
which indicates that the eighth bit of the byte is set. Both ASCII and 8-bit
characters are single-byte characters.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-9
Native Language Support
Tip: NLS products do not support multibyte code sets. Previously, users of multibyte
code sets relied on locally customized versions of the products such as the Informix
ALS products. For more information, see “Asian Language Support” on page 17-14.
This section provides the following information about the NLS feature:
■
Which Informix products support the NLS feature?
■
What is an NLS locale?
■
What are the NLS environment variables?
■
How do Informix GLS products support NLS products?
For more information about how to use NLS products, refer to the Informix
Guide to SQL: Reference, Version 7.1; the INFORMIX-ESQL/C Programmer’s
Manual, Version 6.0; and the INFORMIX-ESQL/COBOL Programmer’s Manual,
Version 6.0.
Informix NLS Products
Informix NLS products are those that use the NLS feature to provide support
for non-English database applications that use single-byte code sets.
Informix supports the NLS feature in the following types of products:
■
Database server products
■
Client products
Informix introduced Native Language Support (NLS) in its Version 6.0
products.
NLS Database Servers
A database server that uses the NLS feature for its language support is called
an NLS database server. A database server uses the NLS feature to provide the
code set for data, collation order, and character classification. The following
database servers are NLS database servers:
17-10
■
OnLine Dynamic Server, Version 6.0 through Version 7.1x
■
SE, Version 6.0 through Version 7.1x
■
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.12
Informix Migration Guide
Native Language Support
Informix NLS database servers create NLS databases. If you do not set the
LANG and DBNLS environment variables, an NLS database server creates an
English database (one that uses the default operating-system locale). For
more information on these NLS environment variables, see “NLS
Environment Variables” on page 17-12.
NLS Client Products
A client product (such as Informix ESQL/C) that uses the NLS feature for its
language support is called an NLS client product. A client application uses the
NLS feature to provide end-user formats for date, time, monetary, and
numeric values.
Informix NLS client products include the following list:
■
Version 7.1x ESQL/C and ESQL/COBOL
■
Version 6.x ESQL/C and ESQL/COBOL
■
Version 7.1TC1 ESQL/C and ESQL/COBOL for Microsoft Windows
Environments
■
Version 5.x (pre-WG1) ESQL/C for Windows
NLS Locales
An NLS product uses locales that are native to the operating system to
provide language support. These locales are called NLS locales (or operatingsystem locales). An NLS locale groups locale-specific information into the
following locale categories.
Locale Category
Description
CTYPE
Controls the behavior of character classification and case
conversion.
COLLATION
Controls the behavior of string comparisons.
NUMERIC
Controls the behavior of non-monetary numeric end-user
formats.
MONETARY
Controls the behavior of currency end-user formats.
TIME
Controls the behavior of date and time end-user formats.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-11
Native Language Support
For NLS databases, the database server stores the name of the database locale
in the following two rows of the systables system catalog table:
■
The row with tabid 90 stores the COLLATION category of the
database locale.
The COLLATION category of a locale determines the order in which
the characters of the code set collate. The database server uses the
COLLATION category of the database locale to collate character data.
The tabname value for this row is NLSCOLL.
■
The row with tabid 91 stores the CTYPE category of the database
locale.
The CTYPE category of a locale determines how characters of the
code set are classified. The database server uses character classification for case conversion and some regular-expression evaluation.
The tabname value for this row is NLSCTYPE.
The rows with the values 90 and 91 in the tabid column of the systables
system catalog table store the condensed locale name in the site column.
NLS Environment Variables
An NLS product uses both operating-system environment variables and
Informix NLS environment variables. Figure 17-3 lists Informix NLS
environment variables.
Figure 17-3
NLS Environment Variables
NLS Environment
Variable
Purpose
COLLCHAR
Allows client applications to use NLS collation.
DBAPICODE
Allows client applications to use a different code set than the
one that the database server uses.
DBDATE
Specifies an end-user format for values in DATE columns.
DBLANG
Specifies the location of product-specific message files.
DBMONEY
Specifies an end-user format for values in MONEY columns.
DBNLS
Enables NLS features.
(1 of 2)
17-12
Informix Migration Guide
Native Language Support
NLS Environment
Variable
Purpose
DBTIME
Specifies an end-user format for values in DATETIME
columns.
LANG
Specifies the operating-system locale for your NLS features.
LC_COLLATE
Specifies a collating sequence for your locale-sensitive data.
LC_CTYPE
Affects the behavior of regular expressions and characterevaluation functions.
LC_MONETARY
Specifies the format and national currency symbol for
monetary values.
LC_NUMERIC
Specifies the format and decimal separator for numeric
values.
LC_TIME
Specifies the format for national dates and times.
(2 of 2)
NLS Support by Informix GLS Products
Informix GLS products support all NLS environment variables. Therefore,
Informix products can provide the following support for NLS products:
■
An NLS client application can access a GLS database server.
The GLS database server receives the NLS environment variables and
uses them to determine client and database locale names
(CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE). It looks for NLS-compliant GLS
locales that have the same name. The client application performs any
code-set conversion between the DBAPICODE and LANG
environment variables. For more information, see Figure 17-2 on
page 17-9.
■
A GLS client application can access an NLS database server with
minimal modification.
If the DB_LOCALE environment variable is set, the GLS client application performs code-set conversion between the LC_CTYPE (or
LANG, if LC_CTYPE is not set) and DB_LOCALE locales. If
CLIENT_LOCALE is also set, the GLS client application performs
code-set conversion between the CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE
locales.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-13
Asian Language Support
To use the NLS feature, you must set the following environment variables in
the client environment:
■
Set the DBNLS environment variable to 1 or 2 to enable the NLS
feature.
■
Set the LANG environment variable to the name of the NLS locale
that the NLS database uses.
The remaining NLS environment variables in Figure 17-3 on page 17-12 can
override some or all of the basic NLS functionality that DBNLS and LANG
determine. The Informix Guide to GLS Functionality discusses the precedence
of NLS and GLS environment variables.
If you have installed a GLS database server and want your NLS database to
work with this new database server, you must upgrade the NLS database to
a GLS database. For more information, see “Upgrading to GLS from NLS” on
page 18-6.
ALS
Asian Language Support
The ALS feature provides support for multibyte Asian data in a database
application. If a character set contains more than 256 characters, the code set
must contain multibyte characters. A multibyte character might require from
2 to 4 bytes of storage.
Tip: ALS products support only multibyte code sets for several Asian languages. Previously, users of single-byte code sets relied on the Informix NLS products. For more
information, see “Native Language Support” on page 17-9.
This section provides the following information about the ALS feature:
■
Which Informix products support the ALS feature?
■
What is an ALS locale?
■
What are the ALS environment variables?
■
How do Informix GLS products support ALS products?
For more information about how to use ALS products, refer to your Informix
ALS documentation.
17-14
Informix Migration Guide
Asian Language Support
Informix ALS Products
Informix ALS products use the ALS feature to provide support for nonEnglish database applications that use Asian multibyte code sets. Before
Version 7.2x, the following locally customized versions of Informix products
supported Asian languages that use multibyte characters:
■
Version 4.x ASCII Japanese (4.s)
■
Informix ALS products, Versions 4.x, 5.x, and 6.x
An OnLine or SE database server that uses the ALS feature for its language
support is called an ALS database server. Informix ALS database servers create
ALS databases. A client product that uses the ALS feature for its language
support is called an ALS client product.
ALS Locales
An ALS product includes Asian locales for Asian-language support. For ALS
databases, the database server stores a condensed version of the database
locale in the systables system catalog table. The location of this information
depends on the version of the Informix ALS product, as Figure 17-4 shows.
Figure 17-4
Location in systables of ALS Locale Information
ALS Version Number
Location in systables
Version 6.x
In the rows whose tabid values are 95 and 96
Version 5.x
In the rows whose tabid values are 95, 96, and 97
Version 4.x
In a row whose tabid value is 98
Version 4.x ASCII
None (locale is always Japanese with the SJIS code set)
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-15
Asian Language Support
ALS Environment Variables
Figure 17-5 lists Informix ALS environment variables.
Figure 17-5
ALS Environment Variables
ALS Environment
Variable
Purpose
Supported by
GLS Products?
ALS8BITFSYS
Enables ALS products to handle 8-bit
filenames.
No
(use GLS8BITFSYS
instead)
CC8BITLEVEL
Specifies the preprocessing format for the
ESQL/C compiler.
Yes
CLIENT_LOCALE
For Version 5.x ALS, specifies the code set
that the client application uses.
Yes
For Version 6.x ALS, specifies the locale
that the client application uses.
DBCODESET
Similar to CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE; used by Version 5.x ALS.
No
DBCSOVERRIDE
Forces DB_LOCALE values to override
default restrictions on how to access
databases.
No
DBDATE
Specifies an end-user format for values in
DATE columns.
Yes (use GL_DATE
instead)
DBFORMAT
Specifies formats for INFORMIX-SQL and
No
INFORMIX-4GL.
DBINFXRC
Specifies the pathname of a user-defined
environment-variable configuration file.
No
DBLANG
Specifies the location of product-specific
message files.
Yes
(1 of 2)
17-16
Informix Migration Guide
Asian Language Support
ALS Environment
Variable
DB_LOCALE
Purpose
For Version 5.x ALS, specifies the code set
that locale-sensitive data in the database
uses.
Supported by
GLS Products?
Yes
For Version 6.x ALS, specifies the locale of
the database. You must set the
DB_LOCALE environment variable to
store and access multibyte Asian
characters in an ALS database. Otherwise,
the database server assumes the locale to
be U.S. English (en_US.8859-1).
DBMONEY
Specifies an end-user format for values in
MONEY columns.
Yes
DBTIME
Specifies an end-user format for values in
DATETIME columns.
Yes
(2 of 2)
ALS Support by Informix GLS Products
Informix GLS client applications support most ALS environment variables.
(For more information, see Figure 17-5 on page 17-16.) Therefore, Informix
GLS products provide the following support for ALS products:
■
An ALS client application can access a GLS database server.
For information on how a GLS database server supports ALS client
applications, see Figure 17-6.
■
A GLS client application can access an ALS database server.
For information on how GLS client applications support connections
to ALS database servers, see Figure 17-7 on page 17-19.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-17
Asian Language Support
Figure 17-6
GLS Database Server Support for ALS Client Applications
ALS Client Application
Support in GLS Database Server
Version 6.x ALS
ESQL/C applications
The database server obtains the database locale name from
the DB_LOCALE environment variable.
The client application performs code-set conversion
between the locales that CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE
specify.
Version 5.x ALS
ESQL/C applications
The database server obtains the database locale name from
the DBCODESET environment variable. It converts this
value to a valid GLS locale name and uses this locale name
for DB_LOCALE.
The client application performs code-set conversion
between the locales that DBAPICODE and DBCODESET
specify.
Version 4.x ALS
ESQL/C applications,
Version 4.x ALS
Viewpoint
The database server obtains the database locale name from
the DBCODESET environment variable. It converts this
value to a valid GLS locale name and uses this locale name
for DB_LOCALE.
The client application cannot perform code-set conversion.
Version 4.x ASCII
ESQL/C applications
The database server obtains the database locale name from
the DB_LOCALE environment variable on the server
computer. This environment variable must be set to the
Japanese locale, ja_jp.sjis, before the database server is
initialized.
The client application does not need to perform code-set
conversion.
17-18
Informix Migration Guide
Asian Language Support
Figure 17-7
GLS Client Application Support for ALS Database Servers
ALS Database Server
Support in GLS Client Application
Version 6.x ALS
database server
You must set the DB_LOCALE environment variable to the
name of the database locale for the ALS database.
Version 5.x ALS
database server
You must set the CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE
environment variables if the GLS client application is to
perform code-set conversion. The DBCODESET
environment variable enables the connection. This
environment does not affect the client application but is
sent on to the ALS database server for processing.
Version 4.x ALS
database server
You must set the DBCODESET environment variable to the
database locale name for the ALS database server.
The client application cannot perform code-set conversion.
Version 4.x ASCII
database server
You must set both CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE
environment variables to the Japanese locale, ja_jp.sjis.
The remaining ALS environment variables in Figure 17-5 on page 17-16 can
override some or all of the basic ALS functionality. The Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality discusses the precedence of ALS and GLS environment
variables.
If you have installed a GLS database server and want your ALS database to
work with this new database server, you must ensure that the GLS database
server can support the ALS database. For more information, see “Upgrading
to GLS from ALS” on page 18-13.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-19
Language Support in Database Servers
Language Support in Database Servers
When a database server creates a database, it assigns a database locale to that
database. The database locale determines the following information for the
database:
■
The code set whose characters are valid in any character column
■
The code set whose characters are valid in the names of database
objects such as databases, tables, columns, and views
■
The localized order to collate data from any NCHAR and NVARCHAR
columns (NLS products only)
Informix products use the database locale when they create new databases or
read existing databases. A database inherits its locale from the session that
creates it. When an application development tool issues the CREATE
DATABASE statement, the database server creates a new database and assigns
it a database locale.
The database server saves the database locale name in the system catalog of
the database. Special rows in the systables system catalog table contain information that is used throughout the lifetime of the database for such
operations as handling regular expressions, collating character strings, and
ensuring proper use of code sets. At runtime, the database server maps this
database locale to a locale file on the system where the database resides.
When you migrate an Informix database server whose databases contain
non-English data, you need to consider whether the upgrade involves a
change in Informix language support. Such a change might require any of the
following changes:
■
Migration of the database data
■
A change in the locale that the database uses
■
A change in the way locale information is stored in the systables
system catalog table
If the locale of the data is not compatible with the language support that the
database server uses, you might experience compatibility problems.
Figure 17-8 on page 17-21 shows the language support that different
Informix database servers use.
17-20
Informix Migration Guide
Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server
Figure 17-8
Language Support In Informix Database Servers
Database Server Version
Language Support
All versions
English
Dynamic Server 2000
GLS
Universal Server
GLS
Extended Parallel Server
GLS
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
GLS
OnLine XPS
English only
Dynamic Server, Version 7.3x
GLS
OnLine Dynamic Server
SE
GLS, NLS
GLS, NLS
OnLine, Version 5.0 and Version 4.1
English only
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
Version 7.3x
GLS
OnLine Workgroup Server, Version 7.12 through 7.22
GLS, NLS
OnLine and SE (with ALS), Version 4.1, 5.0x, and 6.0
ALS
The following sections provide a brief summary of the support that Informix
products provide for languages other than English.
Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server
Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server use the GLS feature to support
languages that use both single-byte and multibyte characters. When you
upgrade one of these database servers, you do not change language support
and therefore do not need to migrate databases.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-21
Extended Parallel Server, Dynamic Server AD/XP, and OnLine XPS
Extended Parallel Server, Dynamic Server AD/XP, and
OnLine XPS
The language support that Extended Parallel Server, Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options, and OnLine XPS use depends on the version of the
database server, as follows:
■
Version 8.2 and later products use the GLS feature to support
languages that use both single-byte and multibyte characters.
■
Versions through Version 8.1x use English only.
The following table summarizes whether you need to migrate databases
when you upgrade OnLine XPS or Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options.
Migrate To
Migrate From
Change Language
Support?
Extended Parallel
Server
Version 8.21
No
You do not need to migrate
databases.
Version 8.1x
Versions through
Version 8.1x
No
You do not need to migrate
databases.
Version 8.21
Versions through
Version 8.1x
To GLS from English
only
You do not need to migrate
databases.
More Information
Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server
Dynamic Server 7.3 uses GLS. The language support that OnLine Dynamic
Server uses depends on the version of the database server, as follows:
17-22
■
Version 7.2x and later use the GLS feature to support languages that
use both single-byte and multibyte characters.
■
Version 6.0 through Version 7.1x use the NLS feature to support
single-byte native languages.
Informix Migration Guide
INFORMIX-SE
■
Before Version 6.0, support for languages other than English
required locally customized versions of Informix products.
Versions 4.x, 5.x, and 6.x of Informix ALS products provided support
for multibyte characters. The standard English versions of pre-6.0
Informix products do not accommodate alternative languages. These
products use the default locale of the operating system for their
language support. In most cases, the default locale of the operating
system is English.
The following table summarizes whether you need to migrate databases
when you upgrade your Dynamic Server 7.3, OnLine Dynamic Server, or
OnLine database server.
Migrate To
Migrate From
Change Language
Support?
More Information
Version 7.2x and later Version 7.2x and later
No
You do not need to migrate
databases.
Version 6.0 through
Version 7.1x
No
You do not need to migrate
databases.
Version 7.2x and later Version 6.0 through
Version 7.1x
To GLS from NLS
“Upgrading to GLS from NLS” on
page 18-6
Version 7.2x and later Before Version 6.0
(Informix ALS
products only)
To GLS from ALS
“Upgrading to GLS from ALS” on
page 18-13
Version 7.2x and later Before Version 6.0
(English-language)
No
(English to English)
You do not need to migrate
databases.
Version 6.0 through
Version 7.1x
INFORMIX-SE
Versions of the INFORMIX-SE database server use the same language support
as the corresponding OnLine Dynamic Server version. For more information,
see “Dynamic Server 7.3 and OnLine Dynamic Server” on page 17-22.
Understanding Language Support in Informix Database Servers 17-23
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, and OnLine Workgroup Server
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, and
OnLine Workgroup Server
The language support that Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, or OnLine Workgroup Server uses depends on the version of the
database server, as follows:
■
Version 7.2 and later of Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer
Editions, or OnLine Workgroup Server products use the GLS feature
to support languages that use both single-byte and multibyte
characters.
■
Versions through Version 7.12x of OnLine Workgroup Server use the
NLS feature to support single-byte native languages.
The following table summarizes whether you need to migrate databases
when you upgrade Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions, or
OnLine Workgroup Server.
Migrate To
Migrate From
Change Language
Support?
Version 7.2 and later
Version 7.2 and later
No
You do not need to migrate
databases.
Versions through
Version 7.12
Versions through
Version 7.12
No
You do not need to migrate
databases.
Version 7.2 and later
Versions through
Version 7.12
To GLS from NLS
“Upgrading to GLS from NLS” on
page 18-6
17-24
Informix Migration Guide
More Information
Chapter
Converting to GLS
In This Chapter .
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18-3
Determining the Existing Locale Support . . . .
Finding the Current Database Locale . . . .
Finding Available GLS Locales on UNIX . . .
Finding Available GLS Locales on Windows NT
Verifying GLS Database Locales . . . . . .
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18-3
18-4
18-4
18-5
18-5
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18-6
18-6
18-8
18-11
Upgrading to GLS from NLS . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Locale of the NLS Database . . .
Determining Whether a Compatible GLS Locale Exists
Opening an NLS Database . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading to GLS from ALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13
Migrating from Version 6.x ALS Products. . . . . . . . . . 18-13
Migrating from Version 5.x ALS Products. . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Migrating from Version 4.x ALS Products. . . . . . . . . . 18-17
Migrating from Version 4.x ASCII Japanese Products . . . . . . 18-19
18-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes how to migrate a database that uses Native Language
Support (NLS) or Asian Language Support (ALS) for its language support to
the new Global Language Support (GLS) feature. For an introduction to the
GLS feature, see the Informix Guide to GLS Functionality.
To describe how to upgrade an NLS or ALS database to run under a GLS
database server, this chapter covers the following topics:
■
Determining the existing locale support
■
Upgrading to GLS from NLS language support
■
Upgrading to GLS from ALS language support
Determining the Existing Locale Support
To verify that a GLS database server supports the database locale of your NLS
or ALS database, you need the following information:
■
The current database locale that your database uses
■
The locales available to your GLS database server
Converting to GLS
18-3
Finding the Current Database Locale
Finding the Current Database Locale
The database locale information is stored in the system catalog of the NLS or
ALS database, in special rows of the systables system catalog table. The exact
location of this information depends on the particular database server you
currently use, as follows:
■
The NLS database stores database locale information in systables
rows with tabid values of 90 and 91.
■
The systables rows that an ALS database uses to store database locale
depends on the version of the ALS database server. For more information, see Figure 17-4 on page 17-15.
You can use a SELECT statement to query the systables system catalog table
for the database locale information of a database.
UNIX
Finding Available GLS Locales on UNIX
To find out what GLS locales are available on your UNIX system, you can run
the glfiles utility. This utility checks the GLS system directories and creates a
file listing for the locale files that these directories contain. The file listing is
in a file called lcX.txt, where X is the version of the locale files. For more information on glfiles, refer to the Informix Guide to GLS Functionality.
To run the glsfiles utility
1.
Set your INFORMIXDIR and PATH environment variables to point to
a GLS database server.
2.
Execute the glfiles utility.
3.
Examine the lcX.txt file for a GLS locale name that is compatible with
your NLS locale. If you do not find an operating-system-compatible
locale file for your NLS locale, try to find the closest fit.
Important: The glfiles utility is only available on UNIX platforms with products
that support the GLS feature.
18-4
Informix Migration Guide
Finding Available GLS Locales on Windows NT
WIN NT
Finding Available GLS Locales on Windows NT
To find out which GLS locales are available on your Windows NT system, you
must look in the GLS system directories. A GLS locale resides in the following
file:
%INFORMIXDIR%\gls\lcX\lg_tr\codemodf.lco
In this path, INFORMIXDIR is the environment variable that specifies the
directory in which you install the Informix product, gls is the subdirectory
that contains the GLS system files, X represents the version number for the
locale file format, lg is the 2-character language name, tr is the 2-character
territory name that the locale supports, and codemodf is the condensed locale
name. For more information on the location of the GLS locale files, see the
Informix Guide to GLS Functionality.
Verifying GLS Database Locales
To find the database locales for all databases that your GLS database server
supports, execute the following command in DB-Access:
SELECT * FROM sysmaster:sysdbslocale
The sysdbslocale system catalog table has the following two columns:
■
The dbs_dbsname column holds the name of the database.
■
The dbs_collate column holds the name of the database locale for the
database that the dbs_dbsname column specifies.
For example, suppose that your GLS database server (on a UNIX system)
supports the following databases: stores_demo and accounting. If the
stores_demo database uses the default locale (en_us.8859-1) and the
accounting database uses the French locale (fr_fr.8859-1), the preceding
query might return the following output:
dbs_dbsnamedbs_collate
sysmasteren_US.819
sysutilsen_US.819
stores_demoen_US.819
accountingfr_FR.819
Converting to GLS
18-5
Upgrading to GLS from NLS
Upgrading to GLS from NLS
NLS databases use locales that the operating system provides and single-byte
code sets. GLS databases use locales that Informix provides. Before you use
an NLS database with a GLS database server, follow these steps:
1.
Determine the database locale name of the current NLS database.
2.
Determine which GLS locale is compatible with the current NLS
database locale.
3.
Open the NLS database with the GLS database server.
Important: Check the availability of the GLS locale before you open NLS databases
with a GLS database server. A GLS database server cannot open an NLS database that
has an unsupported locale.
This section discusses how to change to GLS language support from NLS
language support when you migrate to a GLS database server from an NLS
database server.
Warning: Do not overwrite your NLS database server with the GLS database server
if you want to migrate a non-English NLS database to a GLS database. Migration of
a non-English NLS database requires that both the NLS and GLS database servers be
installed.
Determining the Locale of the NLS Database
To determine the current database locale for an NLS database, examine the
site column for rows 90 and 91 of the systables system catalog. For more
information on the use of systables by an NLS database, see “NLS Locales”
on page 17-11.
To determine the database locale of the NLS database
18-6
1.
Set the appropriate NLS environment variables (see page 17-12).
2.
Start an NLS database server.
3.
Launch DB-Access.
4.
Open your NLS database.
Informix Migration Guide
Determining the Locale of the NLS Database
5.
ODS
OWS
XPS 8.11
Use the DB-Access Query option to execute one of the following
commands, depending on your database server type.
To see the locale names of the COLLATION and CTYPE categories of a
database locale for an OnLine Dynamic Server, OnLine Workgroup
Server, or OnLine XPS database server, use the following SELECT
statement:
SELECT tabname, site FROM systables
WHERE tabid = 90 OR tabid = 91
The value displayed in the site column is the name of your current
NLS locale.
The following SELECT statement returns the name of the current
database locale for each database that the NLS database server
supports:
SELECT UNIQUE dbsname, collate
FROM sysmaster:systabnames
The dbsname column lists the databases on your database server.
The entry in the collate column shows the NLS locale of the database.
If the collate column is blank, the NLS database is an English
database. ♦
SE
To see the locale names of the COLLATION and CTYPE categories for
a database locale of an SE database, use the following SELECT
statement:
SELECT dirpath FROM systables
WHERE tabid = 90 OR tabid = 91
The value in the dirpath column is the name of your current NLS
locale. ♦
If you do not find a matching entry in systables, your database uses the
default locale for the operating system, which is usually U.S. English. An
English NLS database does not require conversion. For more information, see
“To open an English NLS database” on page 18-12.
Converting to GLS
18-7
Determining Whether a Compatible GLS Locale Exists
Determining Whether a Compatible GLS Locale Exists
To determine whether a compatible GLS locale exists for your non-English
NLS database, you need to determine the following information:
■
Which type of GLS locale do you want to use?
■
Which GLS locales are installed on your system?
GLS products provide the following two types of locales:
■
Operating-system-independent locales. The operating-systemindependent locales are the locales that Informix has developed to
provide a more portable way to support culture-specific information.
With these locales, GLS products can access culture-specific information regardless of the operating system under which they run.
■
Operating-system locales. The operating-system locales are special
GLS locales that are compatible with the locales native to different
operating systems. For a given language and territory, operatingsystem locales might have different definitions from one operating
system to another. GLS products provide operating-system locales
for backward compatibility with NLS databases.
Tip: In this manual, GLS operating-system-independent locales are usually referred
to simply as “GLS locales.” The operating-system locales are also GLS locales; they
share the same format as the operating-system-independent locales. However, they
are useful only for NLS databases that want to continue use of their NLS locale.
To migrate a non-English NLS database to a GLS database, you need to decide
which of these types of locales to use. Your decision is not irreversible. You
can also change the locale after you migrate to a GLS database server.
To use an operating-system locale
An upgrade of your NLS database to a GLS database that uses an operatingsystem locale requires little special action on your part.
Important: Use of an operating-system locale can result in incorrect results when
you perform distributed queries across dissimilar environments. The locale-category
definitions of one operating-system locale might differ from the locale-category definitions of the same locale on another operating system or in a GLS locale.
18-8
Informix Migration Guide
Determining Whether a Compatible GLS Locale Exists
To use the operating-system locale that is compatible with your current NLS
database locale, perform the following steps:
1.
Confirm that an operating-system locale exists for your current NLS
database locale.
For more information, see “Finding Available GLS Locales on UNIX”
on page 18-4.
2.
Set the appropriate NLS environment variables, such as LANG and
DBNLS, to indicate the NLS locale.
For more information, see “NLS Environment Variables” on
page 17-12.
3.
Open the NLS database with a GLS database server.
For more information, see “To open a non-English NLS database” on
page 18-11.
You do not need to perform any additional steps on the data or the system
catalog. If you set the CLIENT_LOCALE or DB_LOCALE environment
variables, make sure that you use the operating-system locale as the locale
name.
Warning: If your NLS database has a database locale name that is not a valid
operating-system locale, or if a GLS environment variable (CLIENT_LOCALE or
DB_LOCALE) is not a valid operating-system locale, the GLS database server cannot
open it. You must set the LANG and DBNLS environment variables correctly for the
GLS database server to open a non-English NLS database.
To use a GLS (operating-system-independent) locale
A conversion of your non-English NLS database to a GLS database that uses
a GLS (operating-system-independent) locale requires modification of the
data and the system catalog. To use a GLS locale for your database, perform
the following steps:
1.
Determine which GLS locale is compatible with your current
database locale.
For more information, see “Finding Available GLS Locales on UNIX”
on page 18-4.
Converting to GLS
18-9
Determining Whether a Compatible GLS Locale Exists
2.
Set the appropriate NLS environment variables, such as LANG and
DBNLS, to indicate the NLS locale.
Do not set the GLS environment variables, CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE, to the name of the new GLS locale. If you set one of
these GLS environment variables, use the name of the appropriate
operating-system locale. For more information on NLS environment
variables, see “NLS Environment Variables” on page 17-12.
3.
Unload the NLS database with the dbexport utility.
When you unload data from an NLS database that uses an Englishlanguage locale, the resulting text files are ASCII files. When you
unload data from an NLS database that uses a non-English-language
locale, the resulting text files might include 8-bit characters and
multibyte characters. For more information on how to use dbexport,
see Chapter 20, “Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities.”
4.
Drop the NLS database.
You must drop the old NLS database before you import the data so
that the dbimport utility can create a GLS database with the same
name.
5.
Set the GLS environment variables, CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE, to the name of the GLS database locale that you want to
use.
For more information on GLS environment variables, see “GLS
Environment Variables” on page 17-8.
6.
Create a new GLS database and load the data into this database with
the dbimport utility.
The dbimport utility determines the database locale from the
DB_LOCALE environment variable and makes the appropriate
corrections to the system catalog tables. For more information on
how to use dbimport, see Chapter 20, “Using the dbexport and
dbimport Utilities.”
You can now open the new GLS database with a GLS database server. You no
longer need to set the NLS environment variables.
18-10
Informix Migration Guide
Opening an NLS Database
Opening an NLS Database
If you choose to use an operating-system locale for an NLS database, a GLS
database server expects the NLS environment variables to indicate the locale
of the database, as follows:
■
For an English NLS database, no NLS environment variables need to
be set.
The default locale on most operating systems is U.S. English.
■
For a non-English NLS database, the LANG and DBNLS environment
variables must be set to indicate the operating-system locale.
You can set other NLS environment variables to provide additional
locale information.
With the NLS environment variables correctly set, you can open an NLS
database with a GLS database server. The GLS database server automatically
updates the systables system catalog table with its own database locale information when it opens the NLS database. For more information about the GLS
database locale information, see “GLS Locales” on page 17-6.
To open a non-English NLS database
If you choose to use an operating-system locale for your non-English NLS
database, you must always set the NLS environment variables (such as LANG
and DBNLS) appropriately. If you do not set these NLS environment variables,
neither a GLS database server nor GLS database utilities can access the
database. If you also set a GLS environment variable (CLIENT_LOCALE or
DB_LOCALE), you must ensure that it is set to the name of the appropriate
operating-system locale.
To open a non-English NLS database, follow these steps:
1.
Set the NLS environment variables, such as LANG and DBNLS, to
indicate use of an operating-system locale for the database.
For more information on NLS environment variables, see Figure 17-3
on page 17-12.
2.
You can optionally set the GLS environment variables,
CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE, to the name of the operatingsystem locale for the database.
For more information on GLS environment variables, see Figure 17-1
on page 17-8.
Converting to GLS
18-11
Opening an NLS Database
3.
When the GLS database server opens an NLS database, the database
server automatically updates the systables system catalog table, as
follows:
■
In the row whose tabid value is 90, the database server changes
the tabname value from NLSCOLL to GL_COLLATE.
■
In the row whose tabid value is 91, the database server changes
the tabname value from NLSCTYPE to GL_CTYPE.
■
The database server creates a condensed database locale name
from the locale name in rows 90 and 91 of systables.
If a locale exists that corresponds to the condensed name, the
database server stores the condensed locale name in rows 90 and 91.
If the existing locale does not have a condensed locale name, the
database server does not change the locale name in rows 90 and 91.
4.
If the GLS locale defines a localized collation order, the GLS database
server upgrades the data type of all CHAR and VARCHAR columns in
the system catalog tables to NCHAR and NVARCHAR.
If the GLS locale does not define a localized collation order, the
database server does not upgrade the data type of all CHAR and
VARCHAR columns in the system catalog tables.
Warning: If the systables rows with tabid values of 90 and 91 contain an invalid
operating-system locale name, the GLS database server cannot open the NLS database.
To open an English NLS database
GLS products use the default locale, U.S. English, automatically. Most NLS
products also use U.S. English by default because the default locale on most
operating systems is U.S. English. Therefore, you are not required to set the
GLS environment variables, CLIENT_LOCALE and DB_LOCALE, before you
open an English NLS database with a GLS database server. (If you do set these
environment variables, they must be set to the name of the default GLS
locale.)
When you open an English NLS database, the GLS database server changes
the systables system catalog table, as follows:
18-12
■
Creates a row with the tabname of GL_COLLATE and the tabid of 90.
■
Creates a row with the tabname of GL_CTYPE and the tabid of 91.
■
Stores a condensed locale name for the default locale in the site
column of rows 90 and 91.
Informix Migration Guide
Upgrading to GLS from ALS
The default locale, U.S. English, does not define a localized collation order.
Therefore, the GLS database server does not upgrade CHAR and VARCHAR
columns in the system catalog tables to NCHAR and NVARCHAR. For English
databases, the database server uses code-set collation order for collation of
data in all character columns (in the system catalog tables or user-defined
tables).
Upgrading to GLS from ALS
The Informix ALS products include ALS locales, which contain culturespecific information and the multibyte code sets that Asian languages
require. When a GLS database server opens an ALS database, the database
server automatically upgrades the database locale name to a GLS locale name
from its ALS locale name and then copies this GLS locale name into rows 90
and 91 of the systables system catalog table. Therefore, you do not need to
change the database locale name to a GLS locale from its ALS locale when you
upgrade to a GLS database from an ALS database.
This section discusses how to upgrade to GLS language support from ALS
language support for the following versions of ALS databases:
■
Version 6.x ALS databases
■
Version 5.x ALS databases
■
Version 4.x ALS databases
■
Version 4.x ASCII Japanese databases
Migrating from Version 6.x ALS Products
The GLS database server automatically migrates a Version 6.x ALS database
when it opens the database. Informix Version 6.x ALS databases store locale
information in the systables system catalog table in the rows whose tabid
values are 95 and 96. When you use a GLS database server to open a
Version 6.x ALS database, the database server copies this locale information
to rows in systables whose tabid values are 90 and 91, respectively.
Converting to GLS
18-13
Migrating from Version 6.x ALS Products
To open a Version 6.x ALS database
1.
Verify that the current ALS locale of your database is available to
your GLS database server.
Figure 18-1 shows the Version 6.x ALS locales. For more information
on how to determine which GLS locales are installed with your
database server, see “Finding Available GLS Locales on UNIX” on
page 18-4. If a compatible GLS locale is not available, you must obtain
this GLS locale before you proceed with the migration.
2.
Set the GLS environment variables, CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE, to the new GLS locale for the ALS database.
For more information on GLS environment variables, see Figure 17-1
on page 17-8.
3.
Set the GLS8BITFSYS environment variable to the same value as the
ALS8BITFSYS environment variable.
4.
When the GLS database server opens the Version 6.x ALS database,
the database server automatically updates the systables system
catalog table, as follows:
■
In the row whose tabid value is 90, the database server copies
the data from the row whose tabid is 95 and assigns the tabname
value of GL_COLLATE to row 90.
■
In the row whose tabid value is 91, the database server copies
the data from the row whose tabid is 96 and assigns the tabname
value of GL_CTYPE to row 91.
■
The database server creates a condensed database locale name
from the locale name in rows 90 and 91 of systables.
If a locale exists that corresponds to the condensed name, the
database server stores the condensed locale name in rows 90 and
91. If the existing locale does not have a condensed locale name,
the database server does not change the locale name in rows 90
and 91.
18-14
Informix Migration Guide
Migrating from Version 5.x ALS Products
Figure 18-1
Version 6.x ALS
Locale Names
Asian Language
6.x ALS Locale Name
English
en_us.8859-1
China
zh_CN.gb
Korea
ko_KR.ksc
Japan
ja_JP.sjis
ja_JP.sjis-s
ja_JP.ujis
Taiwan
zh_TW.big5
zh_TW.sbig5
zh_TW.ccdc
zh_TW.cccii
Migrating from Version 5.x ALS Products
The GLS database server automatically migrates a Version 5.x ALS database
when it opens the database. Version 5.x ALS databases store code-set aliases
in the database.
Warning: If your 5.x ALS database uses a DBCODESET of sjis and has user-defined
double-byte characters that are mapped between 0xf040 and 0xfcfc, the following
restrictions apply:
■
Do not open the 5.x ALS database with a GLS database server.
Instead, use the dbexport and dbimport utilities or the UNLOAD and
LOAD commands in DB-Access to migrate the 5.x ALS database to a GLS
database.
■
Do not issue the SQL statement CREATE DATABASE from 5.x ALS client
applications that use a DBCODESET of sjis.
Instead, use a GLS version of DB-Access to create new databases. However,
you can use 5.x ALS client applications to create new tables, indexes, views,
and so forth.
Converting to GLS
18-15
Migrating from Version 5.x ALS Products
To open a Version 5.x ALS database
1.
Verify that the current ALS code-set alias of your database is available
to your GLS database server.
Figure 18-2 shows the GLS locale names for the Version 5.x code-set
aliases. For more information on how to determine which GLS locales
are installed for your database server, see “Finding Available GLS
Locales on UNIX” on page 18-4. If the compatible GLS locale is not
available, you must obtain this GLS locale before you proceed with the
migration.
2.
Set the GLS environment variables CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE to the new GLS locale for the ALS database.
For more information on GLS environment variables, see Figure 17-1
on page 17-8.
3.
When the GLS database server opens the Version 5.x ALS database,
the database server automatically performs the following steps:
■
Maps the 5.x code-set alias to its GLS locale name, as Figure 18-2
shows.
If the code-set alias stored in the 5.x ALS database is not one of
these aliases, the conversion fails. The conversion also fails if the
code-set alias was customized.
■
Stores the mapped GLS locale name to rows in systables whose
tabid values are 90 and 91.
For more information on how a GLS database stores information
in systables, see “GLS Locales” on page 17-6.
18-16
Informix Migration Guide
Migrating from Version 4.x ALS Products
Figure 18-2
Locale-Name Conversion for a Version 5.x ALS Database
Version 5.x ALS Code-Set Name
GLS Locale Name
big5
zh_TW.big5
sbig5
zh_TW.sbig5
ccdc
zh_TW.ccdc
cccii
zh_TW.cccii
8859-1
en_us.8859-1
gb2312
zh_CN.gb
Migrating from Version 4.x ALS Products
The GLS database server automatically migrates a Version 4.x ALS database
when it opens the database. Informix Version 4.x ALS databases store locale
information in the systables system catalog table in a row whose tabid value
is 98. When you use a GLS database server to open a Version 4.x ALS
database, the database server copies this locale information to rows in
systables whose tabid values are 90 and 91.
Warning: If your 4.x ALS database uses a DBCODESET of sjis and has user-defined
double-byte characters that are mapped between 0xf040 and 0xfcfc, the following
restrictions apply:
■
Do not open this 4.x ALS database with a GLS database server.
Instead, use the dbexport and dbimport utilities or UNLOAD and LOAD
commands in DB-Access to migrate the 4.x ALS database to a GLS database.
■
Do not issue the SQL statement CREATE DATABASE from 4.x ALS client
applications that use a DBCODESET of sjis.
Instead, use a GLS version of DB-Access to create new databases. However,
you can use 4.x ALS client applications to create new tables, indexes, views,
and so forth.
Converting to GLS
18-17
Migrating from Version 4.x ALS Products
To open a Version 4.x ALS database
1.
Verify that the current ALS code-set name of your database is
available to your GLS database server.
Figure 18-3 shows the GLS locale names for the Version 4.x code-set
names. For more information on how to determine which GLS locales
are installed for your database server, see “Finding Available GLS
Locales on UNIX” on page 18-4. If the compatible GLS locale is not
available, you must obtain this GLS locale before you proceed with the
migration.
2.
Set the GLS environment variables CLIENT_LOCALE and
DB_LOCALE to the new GLS locale for the ALS database.
For more information on GLS environment variables, see Figure 17-1
on page 17-8.
3.
When the GLS database server opens the Version 4.x ALS database,
the database server automatically performs the following steps:
■
Maps the 4.x code-set name that is stored in row 98 of the
systables system catalog table to a GLS locale name, as
Figure 18-3 shows.
If the code set that is stored in the 4.x ALS database is not one of
these names, the conversion fails.
■
Stores the mapped GLS locale name in the site column of the
systables rows whose tabid values are 90 and 91.
For more information on how a GLS database stores information
in systables, see “GLS Locales” on page 17-6.
18-18
Informix Migration Guide
Migrating from Version 4.x ASCII Japanese Products
Figure 18-3
Locale-Name
Conversion for a
Version 4.x ALS
Database
Version 5.x ALS Code-Set Name
GLS Locale Name
ascii
en_us.8859-1
gb
zh_CN.gb
ksc
ko_KR.ksc
ksc1
ko_KR.ksc
big5
zh_TW.big5
sbig5
zh_TW.sbig5
ccdc
zh_TW.ccdc
cccii
zh_TW.cccii
Migrating from Version 4.x ASCII Japanese Products
The GLS database server cannot automatically upgrade 4.x ASCII databases
(Japanese-language version of 4.x ALS) to GLS databases. You must use the
dbexport and dbimport utilities or the UNLOAD and LOAD commands to
unload the 4.x ASCII database and then load it into a GLS database server.
Warning: Do not issue the SQL statement CREATE DATABASE from 4.x ASCII
client applications. Instead, use a GLS version of DB-Access to create new databases.
However, you can use 4.x ASCII client applications to create new tables, indexes,
views, and so forth.
Converting to GLS
18-19
Chapter
Reverting from GLS
In This Chapter .
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19-3
Using the onmode Utility for Reversion.
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19-3
Reverting to NLS from GLS . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to an NLS Database Server . . . . . . .
Reverting to an NLS Version of the SE Database Server .
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19-3
19-4
19-5
Reverting to ALS from GLS . . . . . . . . .
Reverting to Version 6.x ALS . . . . . . .
Reverting to Version 5.x ALS . . . . . . .
Reverting to Version 4.x ALS or ASCII Products
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19-5
19-6
19-7
19-8
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19-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes how to revert to a database that uses Native Language
Support (NLS) or Asian Language Support (ALS) for its language support
from the Global Language Support (GLS) feature.
Using the onmode Utility for Reversion
The onmode utility with its -b option reverts a GLS database with the
following syntax:
onmode -b reversion_level
In the preceding syntax, reversion_level indicates to which version of the
database server (and hence to which language support) onmode reverts all
databases that the GLS database server supports. For more information on the
onmode utility, see your GLS database server Administrator’s Guide.
The following sections describe how to use onmode to revert to an NLS
database or an ALS database from a GLS database.
Reverting to NLS from GLS
During the reversion process, the onmode utility moves the database locale
information in systables to its NLS location from its GLS location.
Warning: Before you revert a GLS database to an NLS database, verify that the GLS
databases use operating-system locales. Also verify that your operating system supports these locales. An NLS database server can open a reverted GLS database only if
the operating system supports the database locale.
Reverting from GLS 19-3
Reverting to an NLS Database Server
This section discusses how to revert a GLS database to an NLS database for
use with the following NLS database servers:
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
■
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
SE
ODS
Reverting to an NLS Database Server
OWS
You can use the onmode utility to revert to an NLS version of OnLine
Dynamic Server or OnLine Workgroup Server. OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0,
7.1, 7.1UD1, and 7.10.UCx and OnLine Workgroup Server 7.12 support only
the NLS feature for language support.
To revert to an NLS database server from a GLS database server
1.
Use the onmode utility with its -b option, as follows:
onmode -b version_number
In the previous syntax, version_number is one of the values that the
following table shows.
2.
OnLine Target Version
version_number
Value
6.0
6.0
7.1UC1
7.1
7.1UD1, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, or 7.14
7.1UD1
Set the appropriate NLS environment variables.
An NLS database server ignores the CLIENT_LOCALE, DB_LOCALE,
and SERVER_LOCALE environment variables. For more information
on NLS environment variables, see Figure 17-3 on page 17-12.
19-4
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting to an NLS Version of the SE Database Server
If the GLS database uses the default locale (U.S. English) and none of its userdefined tables have NCHAR or NVARCHAR columns, the onmode utility
performs the following actions to revert the database:
■
It deletes the locale entries in systables.
■
It upgrades any NCHAR and NVARCHAR columns in the system
catalog tables to CHAR and VARCHAR columns, respectively.
■
It remakes the indexes on the system catalog tables.
If the GLS database is a non-English database (it uses any nondefault locale),
or if any user-defined table has NCHAR or NVARCHAR columns, the onmode
utility changes the locale entries in systables to the NLS format (tabname
from rows 90 and 91 changes from GL_COLLATE and GL_CTYPE to NLSCOLL
and NLSCTYPE, respectively). You do not need to remake the indexes.
SE
Reverting to an NLS Version of the SE Database Server
SE does not provide a direct path for reverting to earlier NLS versions from a
GLS version of the product. For more information, refer to Chapter 13,
“Migrating Between INFORMIX-SE Database Servers and Converting CISAM Files.”
Reverting to ALS from GLS
During the reversion process, the onmode utility moves the database locale
information in the systables system catalog table to its ALS location from its
GLS location.
Warning: Before you revert a GLS database to an ALS database, verify that the GLS
database uses a locale that the ALS database server supports. An ALS database server
can open a reverted GLS database only if the database locale is one that the database
server supports.
Reverting from GLS 19-5
Reverting to Version 6.x ALS
This section discusses how to revert a GLS database to an ALS database for
use with the following Informix ALS products:
■
Version 6.x ALS database servers
■
Version 5.x ALS database servers
■
Version 4.x ALS database servers
Reverting to Version 6.x ALS
Use the -b 6.0A option of the onmode utility to revert a GLS database to a
Version 6.x ALS database. The onmode utility performs the following actions
to revert the database:
■
It moves the locale entries in systables to the 6.0 ALS database
location (from rows 90 and 91 to rows 95 and 96).
■
It upgrades NCHAR columns in the system catalog table to CHAR
columns.
■
It remakes the indexes in the system catalog tables.
Important: Only NCHAR and NVCHAR columns are affected by a collation order. A
collation order, specified in a locale, is ignored if the table does not contain NCHAR
or NVCHAR.
To revert to a Version 6.x ALS database from a GLS database
1.
Verify that the Version 6.x ALS database server supports the current
GLS database locale.
Figure 17-2 on page 17-9 shows the Version 6.x ALS locales. If the GLS
locale is not one of these locales, the reversion fails.
2.
Choose one of the following methods to handle any NCHAR or
NVARCHAR columns from your database:
■
Replace NCHAR columns with CHAR columns and NVARCHAR
columns with VARCHAR columns.
This solution means that you lose the locale-specific data, but it
ensures that the 6.x ALS database server supports the remaining
data.
■
Drop the NCHAR or NVARCHAR columns from your database.
This solution means that the database server no longer collates
character data in a localized order.
19-6
Informix Migration Guide
Reverting to Version 5.x ALS
3.
Use the following onmode command to perform the reversion:
onmode -b 6.0A
4.
Set the appropriate ALS environment variables.
For more information, see “ALS Environment Variables” on
page 17-16.
Warning: If the database has NCHAR or NVARCHAR in any user-defined table,
onmode fails.
Suppose you upgrade a 6.x ALS database to a GLS database and then revert it
back to 6.x ALS. This type of reversion does not pose a problem because the
database server did not remove the original ALS locale entries in rows 95 and
96 when it upgraded the ALS database to a GLS database.
However, when you revert a database that a GLS database server creates, the
onmode utility might encounter some problems. A GLS database server and
a Version 6.x ALS database server can support the same Asian locales. The
onmode utility moves the locale information from rows 90 and 91 to rows 95
and 96 of systables. However, the GLS database stores its database locale
name in a condensed format, which a Version 6.x ALS database server does
not recognize.
For example, both Version 6.x ALS products and GLS products support the
default locale, U.S. English. However, Version 6.x ALS products store the
name of this locale as en_us.8859-1, while GLS products (on a UNIX platform)
store it as en_us.819, which 6.x ALS products do not understand. You might
need to update the name of the database locale in systables to a form that the
Version 6.x ALS database server supports.
Reverting to Version 5.x ALS
Use the -b 5.0 option of the onmode utility to revert a GLS database to a
Version 5.x ALS database.
Important: You cannot revert to a 5.x ALS database server from a GLS database
server automatically.
Reverting from GLS 19-7
Reverting to Version 4.x ALS or ASCII Products
To revert to a 5.x ALS database from a GLS database
1.
Verify that the Version 5.x ALS database server supports the current
GLS database locale.
Figure 17-2 on page 17-9 shows the valid GLS locales for a Version 5.x
ALS database server. If the GLS locale is not one of these locales, the
reversion fails.
2.
Verify that the current GLS locale is supported in Version 5.x ALS.
(See Figure 17-2 on page 17-9.)
3.
Choose one of the following methods to handle any NCHAR or
NVARCHAR columns from your database:
■
Drop all NCHAR and NVARCHAR columns from the database.
This solution means that you lose the locale-specific data, but it
ensures that the 5.x ALS database server supports the remaining
data.
■
Upgrade the NCHAR columns to CHAR and NVARCHAR
columns to VARCHAR.
This solution means that the database server no longer collates
character data in a localized order.
4.
Use the following onmode command to revert the GLS databases:
onmode -b 5.0
5.
Set the appropriate ALS environment variables.
For more information, see Figure 17-5 on page 17-16.
All databases that use OnLine 5.0 have to be in en_us.8859-1 or en_us.819 for
both CTYPE and COLLATE.
If your GLS database contains locale-specific data (NCHAR and NVARCHAR
columns), and you revert to a database server that does not support nonEnglish data, you lose access to this data.
Warning: The onmode utility fails when it attempts to revert a GLS database that
contains NCHAR or NVARCHAR columns to a Version 5.x ALS database.
Reverting to Version 4.x ALS or ASCII Products
GLS products do not support reversion to Version 4.x ALS products or to
Version 4.x ASCII products.
19-8
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter 20
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities
Chapter 21
Using the dbload Utility
Chapter 22
Using the dbschema Utility
Chapter 23
Using the LOAD and UNLOAD Statements
Chapter 24
Using the onmode Utility
Chapter 25
Using the onunload and onload Utilities
Chapter 26
Using the onxfer Utility
Section VIII
Data Migration Utilities
Chapter
Using the dbexport and
dbimport Utilities
In This Chapter .
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20-3
Syntax of the dbexport Command
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20-5
Syntax of the dbimport Command
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20-11
Simple Large Objects .
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. 20-19
Database Locale Changes
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. 20-20
20-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the dbexport and dbimport utilities and how to use
them. You can use dbexport and dbimport with the following database
servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
Universal Server
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
■
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
SE
■
OnLine
The dbexport utility unloads a database into text files for later import into
another database and creates a schema file. The dbimport utility creates and
populates a database from text files. You can use the schema file with
dbimport to re-create the database schema in another Informix environment.
You can edit the schema file to modify the database that dbimport creates.
The dbexport and dbimport utilities support Dynamic Server 2000 and
Universal Server data types.
Informix stores dates in four-digit year dates. By default, dbexport exports
dates in four-digit year dates unless the environment variable DBDATE is set
to “mdy2”. Informix does not recommended this setting for exporting a
database because data imported back into the database depends on either the
DBCENTURY environment variable, if set, or the current century if
DBCENTURY is not set.
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-3
The dbexport and dbimport utilities are not part of the following database
servers:
■
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
■
Extended Parallel Server
■
OnLine XPS
Tip: The examples in this chapter apply to all other Informix database servers unless
they are marked specifically with an icon for SE.
20-4
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax of the dbexport Command
Syntax of the dbexport Command
database
dbexport
-c
-d
-q
Destination
Options
p. 20-7
-ss
-X
-V
Element
-c
-d
-q
-ss
Purpose
Makes dbexport complete exporting
unless a fatal error occurs.
Makes dbexport export simple-largeobject descriptors only, not simplelarge-object data.
Suppresses the display of error
messages, warnings, and generated
SQL data-definition statements.
Generates database server-specific
information for all tables in the
specified database.
Key Considerations
References: For details on this option, see “Errors” on
page 20-7.
References: For more information about simple-largeobject descriptors, refer to the Guide to the Optical
Subsystem.
Restrictions: Not supported by SE.
None.
References: For details on this option, see “ServerSpecific Information” on page 20-7.
(1 of 2)
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-5
Termination of dbexport
Element
-X
-V
database
Purpose
Recognizes HEX binary data in
character fields.
Displays product version
information.
Specifies the name of the database
that you want to export.
Key Considerations
None.
None.
Additional Information: If your locale is set to use
multibyte characters, you can use multibyte characters
for the database name.
References: If you want to use more than the simple
name of the database, refer to the Database Name
section of the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
(2 of 2)
You must have DBA privileges or log in as user informix to export a database.
GLS
When the environment variables are set correctly, as described in the Informix
Guide to GLS Functionality, dbexport can handle foreign characters in data and
export the data from GLS databases. For more information, refer to “Database
Renaming” on page 20-17. ♦
You can use delimited identifiers with the dbexport utility. The utility detects
database objects that are keywords, mixed case, or have special characters
and places double quotes around them.
In addition to the data files and the schema file, dbexport creates a file of
messages called dbexport.out in the current directory. This file contains error
messages, warnings, and a display of the SQL data definition statements that
it generates. The same material is also written to the standard output unless
you specify the -q option.
During the export, the database is locked in exclusive mode. If dbexport
cannot obtain an exclusive lock, it displays a diagnostic message and exits.
Termination of dbexport
You can press the INTERRUPT key at any time to cancel dbexport. The
dbexport utility asks for confirmation before it terminates.
20-6
Informix Migration Guide
Errors
Errors
The -c option tells dbexport to complete exporting unless a fatal error occurs.
Even if you use the -c option, dbimport interrupts processing if one of the
following fatal errors occurs:
■
Unable to open the tape device specified
■
Bad writes to the tape or disk
■
Invalid command parameters
■
Cannot open database or no system permission
Server-Specific Information
The -ss option generates server-specific information. The -ss option specifies
initial- and next-extent sizes, fragmentation information if the table is
fragmented, the locking mode, the dbspace for a table, the blobspace for any
simple large objects, and the dbspace for any smart large objects.
SE
For SE databases, the -ss option generates the pathname of each table that is
in a path other than the database directory. ♦
Destination Options
Destination
Options
-o directory name
-t device -b blocksize -s tapesize
-f pathname
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-7
Destination Options
Element
-b blocksize
-f pathname
-o directory name
-s tapesize
-t device
Purpose
Specifies, in kilobytes, the block
size of the tape device.
Specifies the pathname where
you want the schema file stored,
if you are storing the data files
on tape.
Names the directory on disk in
which dbexport creates the
database.exp directory. This
directory holds the data files
and the schema file that
dbexport creates for the
database.
Specifies, in kilobytes, the
amount of data that you can
store on the tape.
Key Considerations
None.
Additional Information: The pathname can be a
complete pathname or simply a filename. If only a
filename is given, the file is stored in the current
directory.
Restrictions: The directory specified as directory
name must already exist.
Restrictions: The tape size is limited to 2,097,151
kilobytes. The limit is required because of the way
dbexport and dbimport track their positions into
the tape.
Specifies the pathname of the
Restrictions: The -t option does not allow you to
tape device where you want the specify a remote tape device.
text files and, possibly, the
schema file stored.
When you write to disk, dbexport creates a subdirectory, database.exp, in the
directory that the -o option specifies. The dbexport utility creates a file with
the .unl extension for each table in the database. The schema file is written to
the file database.sql. The .unl and .sql files are stored in the database.exp
directory.
If you do not specify a destination for the data and schema files, the
subdirectory database.exp is placed in the current working directory.
When you write the data files to tape, you can use the -f option to store the
schema file to disk. You are not required to name the schema file database.sql.
You can give it any name.
20-8
Informix Migration Guide
Destination Options
SE
The following dbexport command creates a reports.exp subdirectory in the
current directory. It then unloads the reports database in the turku directory
on the SE database server called finland and places the resulting files in the
reports.exp directory, as follows:
dbexport //finland/turku/reports
♦
UNIX
For other non-SE database servers, the same command is as follows:
dbexport //finland/reports
The following command exports the database stores_demo to tape with a
block size of 16 kilobytes and a tape capacity of 24,000 kilobytes. The schema
file is written to /tmp/stores_demo.imp.
dbexport -t /dev/rmt0 -b 16 -s 24000 -f /tmp/stores_demo.imp
stores_demo
The following command exports the same stores_demo database to the
directory named /work/exports/stores_demo.exp. The resulting schema file
is /work/exports/stores_demo.exp/stores_demo.sql.
dbexport -o /work/exports stores_demo
♦
WIN NT
For Windows NT, the following command exports the database stores_demo
to tape with a block size of 16 kilobytes and a tape capacity of 24,000
kilobytes. The schema file is written to C:\temp\stores_demo.imp.
dbexport -t \\.\TAPE2 -b 16 -s 24000 -f
C:\temp\stores_demo.imp stores_demo
The following command exports the same stores_demo database to the
directory named D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp. The resulting schema
file is D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp\stores_demo.sql.
dbexport -o D:\work\exports stores_demo
♦
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-9
Contents of the Schema File
Contents of the Schema File
The schema file contains the SQL statements that you need to re-create the
exported database. You can edit the schema file to modify the schema of the
database.
IDS 2000
The schema file supports all Dynamic Server 2000 and Universal Server data
types. ♦
IUS
If you use the -ss option, the schema file contains server-specific information,
such as initial- and next-extent sizes, fragmentation information, lock mode,
the dbspace where each table resides, the blobspace where each simple-largeobject column resides, and the dbspace for smart large objects. The following
information is not retained:
■
Logging mode of the database (For information about logging
modes, refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.)
■
The starting values of SERIAL columns
The statements in the schema file that create tables, views, indexes, roles, and
grant privileges do so with the name of the user who originally created the
database. In this way, the original owner retains DBA privileges for the
database and is the owner of all the tables, indexes, and views. In addition,
the person who executes the dbimport command also has DBA privileges for
the database.
The schema file that dbexport creates contains comments, enclosed in curly
braces, with information about the number of rows, columns, and indexes in
tables, and information about the unload files. The dbimport utility uses the
information in these comments to load the database.
Warning: Do not delete any comments in the schema file. Informix strongly recommends that you do not change any existing comments or add any new comments, or
the dbimport might abort or produce unpredictable results.
The number of rows should match in the unload file and the corresponding
unload comment in the schema file. If you change the number of rows in the
unload file but not the number of rows in the schema file, a mismatch occurs.
Tip: If you delete some rows from an unload file, update the comment in the schema
file with the correct number of rows for that unload file. Then dbimport will be
successful.
20-10
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax of the dbimport Command
Syntax of the dbimport Command
dbimport
-c
Input-File
Location
p. 20-13
Create
Options
p. 20-15
database
-q
-X
-V
Element
-c
-q
-V
-X
database
Purpose
Instructs dbimport to complete
importing even though it encounters
certain nonfatal errors.
Suppresses the display of error
messages, warnings, and generated SQL
data-definition statements.
Displays product version information.
Recognizes HEX binary data in character
fields.
Specifies the name of the database to
create.
Key Considerations
References: For more information, refer to “Errors
and Warnings” on page 20-12.
None.
None.
None.
Additional Information: If you want to use more than
the simple name of the database, refer to the Database
Name section of the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
The dbimport utility can use files from the following location options:
■
All input files are located on disk.
■
All input files are located on tape.
■
The schema file is located on disk, and the data files are located on
tape.
Important: Do not put comments into your input file. Comments might cause
unpredictable results when the dbimport utility reads them.
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-11
Termination of dbimport
The dbimport utility supports the following options for a new Informix
database server (excluding SE):
SE
■
Create an ANSI-compliant database (includes unbuffered logging).
■
Establish transaction logging for a database (unbuffered or buffered
logging).
■
Specify the dbspace where the database will reside.
The dbimport utility supports the following options for a new SE database:
■
Create an ANSI-compliant database (ANSI-compliant logging).
■
Establish transaction logging for a database (unbuffered logging). ♦
The user who runs dbimport is granted the DBA privilege on the newly
created database. The dbimport process locks each table as it is being loaded
and unlocks the table when the loading is completed.
GLS
When the GLS environment variables are set correctly, as the Informix Guide to
GLS Functionality describes, dbimport can import data into database versions
that support GLS. ♦
Termination of dbimport
To cancel dbimport, press the INTERRUPT key at any time. The dbimport
program asks for confirmation before it terminates.
Errors and Warnings
If you include the -c option, dbimport ignores the following errors:
20-12
■
A data row that contains too many columns
■
Inability to put a lock on a table
■
Inability to release a lock
Informix Migration Guide
Input-File Location Options
Even if you use the -c option, dbimport interrupts processing if one of the
following fatal errors occurs:
■
Unable to open the tape device specified
■
Bad writes to the tape or disk
■
Invalid command parameters
■
Cannot open database or no system permission
■
Cannot convert the data
The dbimport utility creates a file of messages called dbimport.out in the
current directory. This file contains any error messages and warnings that are
related to dbimport processing. The same information is also written to the
standard output unless you specify the -q option.
Input-File Location Options
The input-file location tells dbimport where to look for the database.exp
directory, which contains the files that dbimport will import. If you do not
specify an input-file location, dbimport looks for data files in the directory
database.exp under the current directory and for the schema file in
database.exp/database.sql.
Input-File
Location
-i directory name
-t device -b blocksize -s tapesize
-f pathname
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-13
Input-File Location Options
Element
-b blocksize
-f pathname
-i directory name
-s tapesize
-t device
UNIX
Purpose
Specifies, in kilobytes, the block
size of the tape device.
Key Considerations
Restrictions: If you are importing from tape, you
must use the same block size that you used to export
the database.
Specifies where dbimport can find Additional Information: If you use the -f option to
the schema file to use as input to export a database, you typically use the same
create the database when the data pathname that you specified in the dbexport
files are read from tape.
command. If you specify only a filename, dbimport
looks for the file in the .exp subdirectory of your
current directory.
Specifies the complete pathname Additional Information: This directory should be
on disk of the database.exp
the same directory that you specified with the
directory, which holds the input
dbexport -o option. If you change the directory
data files and schema file that
name, you also rename your database.
dbimport uses to create and load
the new database. The directory
name should be the same as the
database name.
Specifies, in kilobytes, the amount Restrictions: If you are importing from tape, you
of data that you can store on the
must use the same tape size that you used to export
tape.
the database.
Specifies the pathname of the tape Restrictions: The -t option does not allow you to
device that holds the input files.
specify a remote tape device.
The following command imports the stores_demo database from a tape with
a block size of 16 kilobytes and a capacity of 24,000 kilobytes. The schema file
is read from /tmp/stores_demo.imp.
dbimport -c -t /dev/rmt0 -b 16 -s 24000 -f
/tmp/stores_demo.imp stores_demo
The following command imports the stores_demo database from the
stores_demo.exp directory under the /work/exports directory. The schema
file is assumed to be /work/exports/stores_demo.exp/stores_demo.sql.
dbimport -c -i /work/exports stores_demo
♦
20-14
Informix Migration Guide
Create Options
WIN NT
The following command imports the stores_demo database from a tape with
a block size of 16 kilobytes and a capacity of 24,000 kilobytes. The schema file
is read from C:\temp\stores_demo.imp.
dbimport -c -t \\.\TAPEDRIVE -b 16 -s 24000 -f
C:\temp\stores_demo.imp stores_demo
The following command imports the stores_demo database from the
stores_demo.exp directory under the D:\work\exports directory. The
schema file is assumed to be
D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp\stores_demo.sql.
dbimport -c -i D:\work\exports stores_demo
♦
Create Options
Create
Options
OL
-d dbspace
-l
buffered
-ansi
-l
SE
-l logfile
-ansi
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-15
Create Options
Element
-ansi
Purpose
Creates an ANSI-compliant database
in which the ANSI rules for transaction logging are enabled.
-d dbspace
Names the dbspace where the
database is created. The default
dbspace location is the rootdbs.
Establishes unbuffered transaction
logging for the imported database.
Establishes buffered transaction
logging for the imported database.
Establishes transaction logging for the
imported database and specifies the
name of the transaction-log file.
-l
-l buffered
-l logfile
Key Considerations
Additional Information: If you specify the -ansi
option, you must also specify the -l logfile option. For
more information about ANSI-compliant databases,
refer to the Informix Guide to SQL: Reference.
Additional Information: For SE, the database is
always in the current directory.
References: For more information, refer to
“Database-Logging Mode” on page 20-17.
References: For more information, refer to
“Database-Logging Mode” on page 20-17.
Restrictions: For SE, the logfile filename must be an
absolute pathname or in the current directory.
References: For more information, refer to
“Database-Logging Mode” on page 20-17.
The following command imports the stores_demo database from the
/usr/informix/port/stores_demo.exp directory. The new database is ANSI
compliant, and the transaction-log file is specified as stores_demo.log in
/usr/work.
UNIX
dbimport -c stores_demo -i /usr/informix/port -l
/usr/work/stores_demo.log -ansi
♦
WIN NT
The following command imports the stores_demo database from the
C:\USER\informix\port\stores_demo.exp directory. The new database is
ANSI compliant, and the transaction-log file is specified as stores_demo.log
in C:\USER\work.
dbimport -c stores_demo -i C:\USER\informix\port -l
C:\USER\work\stores_demo.log -ansi
♦
20-16
Informix Migration Guide
Database-Logging Mode
Database-Logging Mode
The logging mode is not retained in the schema file. You can specify any of
the following options when you use dbimport to import a database:
■
ANSI-compliant database with unbuffered logging
■
Unbuffered logging
■
Buffered logging
For more information, refer to “Create Options” on page 20-15.
The -l options are equivalent to the logging clauses of the CREATE DATABASE
statement, as follows:
SE
■
The -l option is equivalent to the WITH LOG clause.
■
The -l buffered option is equivalent to the WITH BUFFERED LOG.
■
The -l logfile option is equivalent to the WITH LOG IN clause. ♦
For more information about the CREATE DATABASE statement, see the
Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Database Renaming
The dbimport utility gives the new database the same name as the database
that you exported. If you export a database to tape, you cannot change its
name when you import it with dbimport.
If you export a database to disk, you can change the database name.
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-17
Database Renaming
To change the database name to newname on UNIX
UNIX
In the following example, assume that dbexport unloaded the database
stores_demo into the directory /work/exports/stores_demo.exp. Thus, the
data files (the .unl files) are stored in /work/exports/stores_demo.exp, and
the schema file is /work/exports/stores_demo.exp/stores_demo.sql.
1.
Change the name of the .exp directory. That is, change
/work/exports/stores_demo.exp to /work/exports/newname.exp.
2.
Change the name of the schema file. That is, change
/work/exports/stores_demo.exp/stores_demo.sql to
/work/exports/stores_demo.exp/newname.sql. Do not change the
names of the .unl files.
3.
Import the database with the following command:
dbimport -i /work/exports newname
♦
WIN NT
To change the database name to newname on Windows NT
In the following example, assume that dbexport unloaded the database
stores_demo into the directory D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp. Thus,
the data files (the .unl files) are stored in
D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp, and the schema file is
D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp\stores_demo.sql.
1.
Change the name of the .exp directory. That is, change
D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp to
D:\work\exports\newname.exp.
2.
Change the name of the schema file. That is, change
D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp\stores_demo.sql to
D:\work\exports\stores_demo.exp\newname.sql. Do not change
the names of the .unl files.
3.
Import the database with the following command:
dbimport -i D:\work\exports
♦
20-18
Informix Migration Guide
Simple Large Objects
IDS 2000
IUS
WIN NT
Simple Large Objects
When dbimport, dbexport, and DB-Access process simple-large-object data,
they create temporary files for that data. Before you export or import data
from tables that contain simple large objects, you must have one of the
following items:
■
A \tmp directory on your currently active drive
■
The DBTEMP environment variable set to point to a directory that is
available for temporary storage of the simple large objects
Windows NT sets the TMP and TEMP environment variables in the command
prompt sessions, by default. However, if the TMP, TEMP, and DBTEMP
environment variables are not set, dbimport places the temporary files for
the simple large objects in the \tmp directory. ♦
Warning: If a table has a CLOB or BLOB in a column, you cannot use dbexport to
export the table to a tape. If a table has a user-defined type in a column, using
dbexport to export the table to a tape might yield unpredictable results, depending
on the export function of the user-defined type. Exported CLOB sizes are stored in hex
format in the unload file.
Using the dbexport and dbimport Utilities 20-19
Database Locale Changes
Database Locale Changes
You can use dbimport to change the locale of a database.
To change the locale of a database
20-20
1.
Set the DB_LOCALE environment variable to the name of the current
database locale.
2.
Run dbexport on the database.
3.
Use the DROP DATABASE statement to drop the database that has
the current locale name.
4.
Set the DB_LOCALE environment variable to the desired database
locale for the database.
5.
Run dbimport to create a new database with the desired locale and
import the data into this database.
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Using the dbload Utility
In This Chapter .
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21-3
Syntax of the dbload Command .
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21-4
Command File for dbload
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21-9
Command File to Load Complex Data Types .
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21-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the dbload utility and how to use it. You can use
dbload with the following database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
Universal Server
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
■
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
SE
■
OnLine
The dbload utility loads data into databases or tables that Informix products
created. It transfers data from one or more text files into one or more existing
tables. This utility supports new data types in Dynamic Server 2000 and
Universal Server.
Using the dbload Utility 21-3
Syntax of the dbload Command
Syntax of the dbload Command
dbload
-d database
-c command file
-l error log file
-V
-s
-r
-k
-e errors
-p
-i ignore rows
-n commit interval
-X
Element
-c command file
-d database
-e errors
-i ignore rows
-k
Purpose
Specifies the filename or
pathname of a dbload
command file.
Specifies the name of the
database to receive the data.
Specifies the number of bad
rows that dbload reads before
terminating. The default value
for errors is 10.
Specifies the number of rows to
ignore in the input file.
Instructs dbload to lock the
tables listed in the command file
in exclusive mode during the
load operation.
Key Considerations
References: For information about building the
command file, refer to “Command File for dbload”
on page 21-9.
Additional Information: If you want to use more
than the simple name of the database, refer to the
Database Name section of the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
References: For more information, refer to “BadRow Limit” on page 21-6.
References: For more information, refer to “Rows to
Ignore” on page 21-6.
References: For more information, refer to “Table
Locking” on page 21-6.
Restrictions: You cannot use the -k option with the
-r option because the -r option specifies that no
tables are locked during the load operation.
(1 of 2)
21-4
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax of the dbload Command
Element
-l error log file
-n commit interval
-p
-r
-s
-V
-X
Purpose
Specifies the filename or
pathname of an error log file.
Key Considerations
Restrictions: If you specify an existing file, its
contents are overwritten. If you specify a file that
does not exist, dbload creates the file.
Additional Information: The error log file stores
diagnostic information and any input file rows that
dbload cannot insert into the database.
Specifies the commit interval in Additional Information: If your database supports
number of rows. The default
transactions, dbload commits a transaction after the
interval is 100 rows.
specified number of new rows is read and inserted.
A message appears after each commit.
References: For information about transactions, see
the Informix Guide to SQL: Tutorial.
Prompts for instructions if the References: For more information, refer to “Badnumber of bad rows exceeds the Row Limit” on page 21-6.
limit.
Prevents dbload from locking
Additional Information: For more information,
the tables during a load, thus
refer to “Table Locking” on page 21-6.
enabling other users to update Restrictions: You cannot use the -r option with the
data in the table during the
-k option because the -r option specifies that the
load.
tables are not locked during the load operation
while the -k option specifies that the tables are
locked in exclusive mode.
Checks the syntax of the
Additional Information: The standard output
statements in the command file displays the command file with any errors marked
without inserting data.
where they are found.
Displays product version
information.
Recognizes HEX binary data in
character fields.
(2 of 2)
Tip: If you specify part (but not all) of the required information, dbload prompts you
for additional specifications. The database name, command file, and error log file are
all required. If you are missing all three options, you receive an error message.
Using the dbload Utility 21-5
Table Locking
Table Locking
If you do not specify the -k option, the tables specified in the command file
are locked in shared mode. When tables are locked in shared mode, the
database server still has to acquire exclusive row or page locks when it inserts
rows into the table.
When you specify the -k option, the database server places an exclusive lock
on the entire table. The -k option increases performance for large loads
because the database server does not have to acquire exclusive locks on rows
or pages as it inserts rows during the load operation.
If you do not specify the -r option, the tables specified in the command file
are locked during loading so that other users cannot update data in the table.
Table locking reduces the number of locks needed during the load but
reduces concurrency. If you are planning to load a large number of rows, use
table locking and load during nonpeak hours.
To override this default lock mode, specify the -k option. The -k option
instructs dbload to lock the tables in exclusive mode rather than shared mode
during the load operation.
Rows to Ignore
The -i option instructs dbload to read and ignore the specified number of
new-line characters in the input file before it begins to process. This option is
useful if your most recent dbload session ended prematurely. For example, if
dbload ends after it inserts 240 lines of input, you can begin to load again at
line 241 if you set number rows ignore to 240. It is also useful if header information in the input file precedes the data records.
Bad-Row Limit
The -e option lets you specify how many bad rows to allow before dbload
terminates.
If you set errors to a positive integer, dbload terminates when it reads (errors
+ 1) bad rows. If you set errors to zero, dbload terminates when it reads the
first bad row.
21-6
Informix Migration Guide
Guidelines for Using dbload
If dbload exceeds the bad-row limit and the -p option is specified, dbload
prompts you for instructions before it terminates. The prompt asks whether
you want to roll back or to commit all rows that were inserted since the last
transaction.
If dbload exceeds the bad-row limit and the -p option is not specified, dbload
commits all rows that were inserted since the last transaction.
Guidelines for Using dbload
This section includes the following guidelines for using the dbload utility:
■
Termination of dbload
■
Network names
■
Simple large objects
■
Indexes
■
Delimited identifiers
■
SE Example
Termination of dbload
If you press the INTERRUPT key, dbload terminates and discards any new
rows that were inserted but not yet committed to the database (if the database
has transactions).
Network Names
If you are on a network, include the database server name and directory path
with the database name to specify a database on another database server or
coserver.
Simple Large Objects
You can load simple large objects with the dbload utility as long as the simple
large objects are in text files.
Using the dbload Utility 21-7
Guidelines for Using dbload
Indexes
The presence of indexes greatly affects the speed with which the dbload
utility loads data. For best performance, drop any indexes on the tables that
receive the data before you run dbload. You can create new indexes after
dbload has finished.
Delimited Identifiers
You can use delimited identifiers with the dbload utility. The utility detects
database objects that are keywords, mixed case, or have special characters,
and places double quotes around them.
If your most recent dbload session ended prematurely, specify the starting
line number in the command-line syntax to resume loading with the next
record in the file.
SE
SE Example
The following command loads data into the stores_demo database in the
turku directory on the SE database server finland:
dbload -d //finland/turku/stores_demo -c commands -l errlog
21-8
Informix Migration Guide
Command File for dbload
Command File for dbload
Before you use dbload, you must create a command file that names the input
data files and the tables that receive the data. The command file maps fields
from one or more input files into columns of one or more tables within your
database.
The command file contains only FILE and INSERT statements. Each FILE
statement names an input data file. The FILE statement also defines the data
fields from the input file that are inserted into the table. Each INSERT
statement names a table to receive the data. The INSERT statement also
defines how dbload places the data that is described in the FILE statement
into the table columns.
Within the command file, the FILE statement can appear in the following
forms:
■
Delimiter form
■
Character-position form
The FILE statement has a size limit of 4,096 bytes.
Use the delimiter form of the FILE statement when every field in the input
data row uses the same delimiter and every row ends with a new-line
character. This format is typical of data rows with variable-length fields. You
can also use the delimiter form of the FILE statement with fixed-length fields
as long as the data rows meet the delimiter and new-line requirements. The
delimiter form of the FILE and INSERT statements is easier to use than the
character-position form.
Use the character-position form of the FILE statement when you cannot rely
on delimiters and you need to identify the input data fields by character
position within the input row. For example, use this form to indicate that the
first input data field begins at character position 1 and continues until
character position 20. You can also use this form if you must translate a
character string into a null value. For example, if your input data file uses a
sequence of blanks to indicate a null value, you must use this form if you
want to instruct dbload to substitute null at every occurrence of the blankcharacter string.
Using the dbload Utility 21-9
FILE and INSERT Statements: Delimiter Form
You can use both forms of the FILE statement in a single command file.
However, for clarity, the two forms are described separately in the following
sections.
FILE and INSERT Statements: Delimiter Form
The following example of a dbload command file illustrates a simple
delimiter form of the FILE and INSERT statements. The example is based on
the stores_demo database. An UNLOAD statement created the three input
data files, stock.unl, customer.unl, and manufact.unl. To see the .unl input
data files, refer to the directory $INFORMIXDIR/demo/prod_name (UNIX) or
%INFORMIXDIR%\demo\prod_name (Windows NT).
FILE stock.unl DELIMITER '|' 6;
INSERT INTO stock;
FILE customer.unl DELIMITER '|' 10;
INSERT INTO customer;
FILE manufact.unl DELIMITER '|' 3;
INSERT INTO manufact;
Syntax for the Delimiter Form
The following diagram shows the syntax of the delimiter FILE statement.
FILE
filename
Element
c
Purpose
Defines the field delimiter for
the specific input file.
filename
nfields
Specifies the input file.
Indicates the number of fields
in each data row.
21-10
Informix Migration Guide
DELIMITER
'c'
nfields
Key Considerations
Restrictions: If the delimiter specified by c appears as a literal
character anywhere in the input file, the character must be
preceded with a backslash (\) in the input file. For example, if
the value of c is specified as a square bracket ([), you must place
a backslash before any literal square bracket that appears in the
input file. Similarly, you must precede any backslash that
appears in the input file with an additional backslash.
None.
None.
FILE and INSERT Statements: Delimiter Form
The dbload utility assigns the sequential names f01, f02, f03, and so on to
fields in the input file. You cannot see these names, but if you refer to these
fields to specify a value list in an associated INSERT statement, you must use
the f01, f02, f03 format. For details, refer to “How to Write a dbload
Command File in Delimiter Form” on page 21-13.
Two consecutive delimiters define a null field. As a precaution, you can place
a delimiter immediately before the new-line character that marks the end of
each data row. If the last field of a data row has data, you must use a delimiter.
If you omit this delimiter, an error results whenever the last field of a data
row is not empty.
Inserted data types correspond to the explicit or default column list. If the
data field width is different from its corresponding character column width,
the data is made to fit. That is, inserted values are padded with blanks if the
data is not wide enough for the column or truncated if the data is too wide
for the column.
If the number of columns named is fewer than the number of columns in the
table, dbload inserts the default value that was specified when the table was
created for the unnamed columns. If no default value is specified, dbload
attempts to insert a null value. If the attempt violates a not null restriction or
a unique constraint, the insert fails, and an error message is returned.
If the INSERT statement omits the column names, the default INSERT
specification is every column in the named table. If the INSERT statement
omits the VALUES clause, the default INSERT specification is every field of the
previous FILE statement.
An error results if the number of column names listed (or implied by default)
does not match the number of values listed (or implied by default).
The syntax of dbload INSERT statements resembles INSERT statements in
SQL, except that in dbload, INSERT statements cannot incorporate SELECT
statements.
Warning: Do not use the CURRENT, TODAY, and USER keywords of the INSERT
INTO statement in a dbload command file; they are not supported in the dbload
command file. These keywords are supported in SQL only.
Using the dbload Utility 21-11
FILE and INSERT Statements: Delimiter Form
For example, the following dbload command is not supported:
FILE "testtbl2.unl" DELIMITER '|' 1;
INSERT INTO testtbl
(testuser, testtime, testfield)
VALUES
('kae', CURRENT, f01);
Load the existing data first and then write an SQL query to insert or update
the data with the current time, date, or user login. You could write the
following SQL statement:
INSERT INTO testtbl
(testuser, testtime, testfield)
VALUES
('kae', CURRENT, f01);
The CURRENT keyword returns the system date and time. The TODAY
keyword returns the system date. The USER keyword returns the user login
name.
The following diagram shows the syntax of the dbload INSERT statement for
delimiter form.
INSERT INTO
table name
(
owner.
Element
column name
owner.
table name
;
,
column
name
)
Purpose
Specifies the column that receives the new data.
Specifies the user name of the table owner.
Specifies the table that receives the new data.
VALUES
clause
see SQLS
Key Considerations
None.
None.
None.
Users who execute dbload with this command file must have the Insert
privilege on the named table.
21-12
Informix Migration Guide
FILE and INSERT Statements: Delimiter Form
How to Write a dbload Command File in Delimiter Form
The first FILE AND INSERT statement set in the delimiter example on page 2110 is repeated in the following example:
FILE stock.unl DELIMITER '|' 6;
INSERT INTO stock;
The FILE statement describes the stock.unl data rows as composed of six
fields, each separated by a vertical bar (|) as the delimiter. Two consecutive
delimiters define a null field. As a precaution, you can place a delimiter
immediately before the new line character that marks the end of each data
row. If the last field of a data row has data, you must use a delimiter. If you
omit this delimiter, an error results.
Compare the FILE statement with the data rows in the following example,
which appear in the input file stock.unl. (Because the last field is not
followed by a delimiter, an error results if any data row ends with an empty
field.)
1|SMT|baseball gloves|450.00|case|10 gloves/case
2|HRO|baseball|126.00|case|24/case
3|SHK|baseball bat|240.00|case|12/case
The example INSERT statement contains only the required elements. Because
the column list is omitted, the INSERT statement implies that values are to be
inserted into every field in the stock table. Because the VALUES clause is
omitted, the INSERT statement implies that the input values for every field
are defined in the most-recent FILE statement. This INSERT statement is valid
because the stock table contains six fields, which is the same number of
values that the FILE statement defines. The following example shows the first
data row that is inserted into stock from this INSERT statement.
Field
Column
Value
f01
stock_num
1
f02
manu_code
SMT
f03
description
baseball gloves
(1 of 2)
Using the dbload Utility 21-13
FILE and INSERT Statements: Delimiter Form
Field
Column
Value
f04
unit_price
450.00
f05
unit
case
f06
unit_descr
10 gloves/case
(2 of 2)
The FILE and INSERT statement in the following example illustrates a more
complex INSERT statement syntax:
FILE stock.unl DELIMITER '|' 6;
INSERT INTO new_stock (col1, col2, col3, col5, col6)
VALUES (f01, f03, f02, f05, 'autographed');
In this example, the VALUES clause uses the field names that dbload assigns
automatically. You must reference the automatically assigned field names
with the letter f followed by a number: f01, f02, f10, f100, f999, f1000, and so
on. All other formats are incorrect.
Tip: The first nine fields must include a zero: f01, f02, ..., f09.
The user changed the column names, the order of the data, and the meaning
of col6 in the new stock table. Because the fourth column in new_stock (col4)
is not named in the column list, the new data row contains a null in the col4
position (assuming that the column permits nulls). If no default is specified
for col4, the inserted value is null.
The following table shows the first data row that is inserted into new_stock
from this INSERT statement.
21-14
Column
Value
col1
1
col2
baseball gloves
col3
SMT
col4
null
col5
case
col6
autographed
Informix Migration Guide
FILE and INSERT Statements: Character-Position Form
FILE and INSERT Statements: Character-Position Form
The examples in this section are based on an input data file, cust_loc_data,
that contains the last four columns (city, state, zipcode, and phone) of the
customer table. Fields in the input file are padded with blanks to create data
rows in which the location of data fields and the number of characters are the
same across all rows. The definitions for these fields are CHAR(15), CHAR(2),
CHAR(5), and CHAR(12), respectively. Figure 21-1 displays the character
positions and five example data rows from the cust_loc_data file.
Figure 21-1
A Sample Data File
1
2
3
1234567890123456789012345678901234
Sunnyvale
Denver
Blue Island
Brighton
Tempe
CA94086408-789-8075
CO80219303-936-7731
NY60406312-944-5691
MA02135617-232-4159
AZ85253xxx-xxx-xxxx
The following example of a dbload command file illustrates the characterposition form of the FILE and INSERT statements. The example includes two
new tables, cust_address and cust_sort, to receive the data. For the purpose
of this example, cust_address contains four columns, the second of which is
omitted from the column list. The cust_sort table contains two columns.
FILE cust_loc_data
(city 1-15,
state 16-17,
area_cd 23-25 NULL = 'xxx',
phone 23-34 NULL = 'xxx-xxx-xxxx',
zip 18-22,
state_area 16-17 : 23-25);
INSERT INTO cust_address (col1, col3, col4)
VALUES (city, state, zip);
INSERT INTO cust_sort
VALUES (area_cd, zip);
Using the dbload Utility 21-15
FILE and INSERT Statements: Character-Position Form
Syntax for the Character-Position Form
The following diagram shows the syntax of the character-position FILE
statement.
,
filename
FILE
(
fieldn
)
:
NULL = 'null string'
start
-end
Element
-end
fieldn
filename
null string
start
Purpose
Indicates the character position within a data row
that ends a range of character positions.
Assigns a name to the data field that you are
defining with the range of character positions.
Specifies the name of the input file.
Specifies the data value for which dbload should
substitute a null.
Indicates the character position within a data row
that starts a range of character positions. If you use
start without end, it represents a single character.
Key Considerations
Restrictions: A hyphen must precede the
end value.
None.
None.
Restrictions: Must be a quoted string.
None.
You can repeat the same character position in a data-field definition or in
different fields.
The null string scope of reference is the data field for which you define it. You
can define an explicit null string for each field that allows null entries.
Inserted data types correspond to the explicit or default column list. If the
data-field width is different from its corresponding character column,
inserted values are padded with blanks if the column is wider or are
truncated if the field is wider.
21-16
Informix Migration Guide
FILE and INSERT Statements: Character-Position Form
If the number of columns named is fewer than the number of columns in the
table, dbload inserts the default value that is specified for the unnamed
columns. If no default value is specified, dbload attempts to insert a null
value. If the attempt violates a not null restriction or a unique constraint, the
insert fails, and an error message is returned.
If the INSERT statement omits the column names, the default INSERT
specification is every column in the named table. If the INSERT statement
omits the VALUES clause, the default INSERT specification is every field of the
previous FILE statement.
An error results if the number of column names listed (or implied by default)
does not match the number of values listed (or implied by default).
The syntax of dbload INSERT statements resembles INSERT statements in
SQL, except that in dbload, INSERT statements cannot incorporate SELECT
statements. The following diagram shows the syntax of the dbload INSERT
statement for character-position form.
INSERT INTO
table name
(
owner.
Element
column name
table name
owner.
;
,
column
name
Purpose
Specifies the column that receives the new data.
Specifies the table that receives the new data.
Specifies the user name of the table owner.
)
VALUES clause
see SQLS
Key Considerations
None.
None.
None.
The syntax for character-position form is identical to the syntax for delimiter
form.
The user who executes dbload with this command file must have the Insert
privilege on the named table.
Using the dbload Utility 21-17
FILE and INSERT Statements: Character-Position Form
SE
In SE, the dbload utility recognizes valid SE table references, including owner
designations. That is, the owner name can precede the table name but the
database server name or the database name cannot precede the table name.
Valid table-name syntax is defined in detail in the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax. ♦
How to Write a dbload Command File in Character-Position Form
The first FILE AND INSERT statement set in the character-position example on
page 21-15 is repeated in the following example:
FILE cust_loc_data
(city 1-15,
state 16-17,
area_cd 23-25 NULL = 'xxx',
phone 23-34 NULL = 'xxx-xxx-xxxx',
zip 18-22,
state_area 16-17 : 23-25);
INSERT INTO cust_address (col1, col3, col4)
VALUES (city, state, zip);
The FILE statement defines six data fields from the cust_loc_data table data
rows. The statement names the fields and uses character positions to define
the length of each field. Compare the FILE statement in the preceding
example with the data rows in Figure 21-2.
Figure 21-2
A Sample Data File
1
2
3
1234567890123456789012345678901234
Sunnyvale++++++CA94086408-789-8075
Tempe++++++++++AZ85253xxx-xxx-xxxx
21-18
Informix Migration Guide
Data row 1
Data row 2
FILE and INSERT Statements: Character-Position Form
The FILE statement defines the following data fields, which are derived from
the data rows in Figure 21-2.
Column
Values from Data Row 1
Values from Data Row 2
city
Sunnyvale++++++
Tempe++++++++++
state
CA
AZ
area_cd
408
null
phone
408-789-8075
null
zip
94086
85253
state_area
CA408
AZxxx
The null strings that are defined for the phone and area_cd fields generate
the null values in those columns but do not affect the values that are stored
in the state_area column.
The INSERT statement uses the field names and values that are derived from
the FILE statement as the value-list input. Consider the following INSERT
statement:
INSERT INTO cust_address (col1, col3, col4)
VALUES (city, state, zip);
The INSERT statement uses the data in Figure 21-2 and the FILE statement on
page 21-18 to put the following information into the cust_address table.
Column
Values from Data Row 1
Values from Data Row 2
col1
Sunnyvale++++++
Tempe++++++++++
col2
null
null
col3
CA
AZ
col4
94086
85253
Because the second column (col2) in cust_address is not named, the new data
row contains a null (assuming that the column permits nulls).
Using the dbload Utility 21-19
FILE and INSERT Statements: Character-Position Form
Consider the following INSERT statement:
INSERT INTO cust_sort
VALUES (area_cd, zip);
This INSERT statement inserts the following data rows into the cust_sort
table.
Column
Values from Data Row 1
Values from Data Row 2
col1
408
NULL
col2
94086
85253
Because no column list is provided, dbload reads the names of all the
columns in cust_sort from the system catalog. (You cannot insert data into a
temporary table because temporary tables are not entered into the system
catalog.) Field names from the previous FILE statement specify the values to
load into each column. You do not need one FILE statement for each INSERT
statement.
21-20
Informix Migration Guide
Command File to Load Complex Data Types
IDS 2000
IUS
Command File to Load Complex Data Types
This section describes how to write dbload command files that load columns
that contain complex data types into tables. The examples cover how to use
dbload with named row types, unnamed row types, sets, and lists.
Using dbload with Named Row Types
The procedure for how to use dbload with named row types is somewhat
different than for other complex data types because named row types are
actually user-defined data types. In fact, you can follow these steps for any
user-defined data type.
This example uses a table person that contains one column with a named row
type. The person_t named row type contains six fields: name, address, city,
state, zip, and bdate.
The following syntax shows how to create the named row type and the table
used in this example:
CREATE ROW TYPE person_t
(
name VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
address VARCHAR(20),
city VARCHAR(20),
state CHAR(2),
zip VARCHAR(9),
bdate DATE
);
CREATE TABLE person of TYPE person_t;
To load the data, follow these steps:
1.
Use the UNLOAD statement to unload the table to an input file. In this
example, the input file sees the named row type as six separate fields:
Brown, James|13 First St.|San Francisco|CA|94070|01/04/1940|
Karen Smith|5820 Easy Ave #100|Fremont|CA|94502|01/13/1983|
2.
Use the dbschema utility to capture the schema of the table and the
row type. You must use the dbschema -u option to pick up the
named row type.
dbschema -d stores_demo -u person_t > schema.sql
dbschema -d stores_demo -t person > schema.sql
Using the dbload Utility 21-21
Using dbload with Unnamed Row Types
3.
Use DB-Access to re-create the person table in the new database.
For the detailed steps, see “DB-Access Input from dbschema
Output” on page 22-22.
4.
Create the dbload command file. This dbload command file inserts
two rows into the person table in the new database.
FILE person.unl DELIMITER '|' 6;
INSERT INTO person;
This dbload example shows how to insert new data rows into the
person table. The number of rows in the INSERT statement and the
dbload command file must match:
FILE person.unl DELIMITER '|' 6;
INSERT INTO person
VALUES ('Jones, Richard', '95 East Ave.', 'Philadelphia', 'PA',
'19115',
'03/15/97');
5.
Execute the dbload command:
dbload -d newdb -c uds_command -l errlog
Tip: To find the number of fields in an unloaded table that contains a named row type,
count the number of fields between each vertical bar (|) delimiter.
Using dbload with Unnamed Row Types
You can use dbload with unnamed row types. In the following example, the
devtest table contains two columns with unnamed row types, s_name and
s_address. The s_name column contains three fields: f_name, m_init, and
l_name. The s_address column contains four fields: street, city, state, and
zip.
CREATE TABLE devtest
(
s_name ROW(f_name varchar(20), m_init char(1), l_name
varchar(20) not null),
s_address ROW(street varchar(20), city varchar(20), state
char(20), zip varchar(9)
);
The data from the devtest table is unloaded into the devtest.unl file. Each
data row contains two delimited fields, one for each unnamed row type. The
ROW constructor precedes each unnamed row type, as follows:
ROW('Jim','K','Johnson')|ROW('10 Grove St.','Eldorado','CA','94108')|
ROW('Candy','S','Cane')|ROW('7 Willy Wonka
Ave.','Hershey','PA','17033')|
21-22
Informix Migration Guide
Using dbload with Collection Data Types
This dbload example shows how to insert data that contains unnamed row
types into the devtest table. Put double quotes around each unnamed row
type or the insert will not work.
FILE devtest.unl DELIMITER '|' 2;
INSERT INTO devtest (s_name, s_address)
VALUES ("row('Craig', 'X', 'Smith')",
"row('1200 Cheese Ave.', 'Rainy City', 'OR', '97200')");
Using dbload with Collection Data Types
You can use dbload with collection data types such as SET, LIST, and
MULTISET.
SET Data Type Example
In a SET, each element is unique, and no nulls are allowed. The numbers of
elements in a SET can vary. The following statement creates a table in which
the children column is defined as a SET:
CREATE TABLE employee
(
name char(30),
address char(40),
children SET (varchar(30) NOT NULL)
);
The data from the employee table is unloaded into the employee.unl file.
Each data row contains four delimited fields. The first set contains three
elements (Karen, Lauren, and Andrea) while the second set contains four
elements. The SET constructor precedes each SET data row.
Muriel|5555 SW Merry
SailingDr.|02/06/1926|SET{'Karen','Lauren','Andrea'}|
Larry|1234 Indian Lane|07/31/1927|SET{'Martha','Melissa','Craig','Larry'}|
This dbload example shows how to insert data that contains SET data types
into the employee table in the new database. Put double quotes around each
SET data type or the insert does not work.
FILE employee.unl DELIMITER '|' 4;
INSERT INTO employee
VALUES ('Marvin', '10734 Pardee', '06/17/27', "SET{'Joe', 'Ann'}");
Using the dbload Utility 21-23
Using dbload with Other Data Types
LIST Data Type Example
A list is an ordered collection of elements that allows duplicate values. The
following statement creates a table in which the month_sales column is
defined as a LIST:
CREATE TABLE sales_person
(
name CHAR(30),
month_sales LIST(MONEY NOT NULL)
);
The data from the sales_person table is unloaded into the sales.unl file. Each
data row contains two delimited fields, as follows:
Jane Doe|LIST{'4.00','20.45','000.99'}|
Big Earner|LIST{'0000.00','00000.00','999.99'}|
This dbload example shows how to insert data that contains LIST data types
into the sales_person table in the new database. Put double quotes around
each LIST data type or else the insert does not work.
FILE sales_person.unl DELIMITER '|' 2;
INSERT INTO sales_person
VALUES ('Jenny Chow', ”list{587900, 600000} ”);
You can load multisets in a similar manner.
Using dbload with Other Data Types
You can use dbload with the following data types:
■
■
A BLOB or CLOB
A SET inside a ROW type
The dbload utility does not work with the following data types:
■
■
A CLOB or BLOB inside a ROW type
A ROW type inside a SET
Warning: All the load utilities (dbexport, dbimport, load, unload, and dbload)
rely on an export and import function. If you do not define this function when you
write a user-defined type, you cannot use these utilities.
Loading a new data type inside another data type can cause problems if the representation of the data contains handles. If a string represents the data, you should be able
to load it.
21-24
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Using the dbschema Utility
In This Chapter .
.
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22-3
Syntax of the dbschema Command .
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22-4
Database Schema Creation .
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22-6
Server-Specific Information .
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22-8
User-Defined and Complex Data Types .
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22-9
Synonym Creation .
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22-11
Privileges .
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. 22-12
Table, View, or Procedure Creation .
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Table Information .
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Role Creation
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Distribution Information for Tables .
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DB-Access Input from dbschema Output .
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22
22-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the dbschema utility and how to use it. You can use
dbschema with the following database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
■
Universal Server
Extended Parallel Server
■
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
■
OnLine XPS
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
■
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
SE
■
OnLine
The dbschema utility prints SQL statements necessary to replicate a specified
table, view, or database. It also shows the distributions that UPDATE
STATISTICS creates.
You can use the dbschema utility for the following purposes:
■
To display the SQL statements (the schema) that are required to
replicate a database or a specific table, view, or procedure
■
To display the schema for the Information Schema views
■
To display the distribution information that is stored for one or more
tables in the database
■
To display information on user-defined data types and row types
Using the dbschema Utility 22-3
Syntax of the dbschema Command
Syntax of the dbschema Command
dbschema
Privileges
p. 22-12
Synonyms
p. 22-11
Tables, Views,
or Procedures
p. 22-14
Roles
p. 22-17
Table Name
see SQLS
-hd
all
-d database
-ss
filename
-x
UDTs
p. 22-9
-u
all
i
-V
22-4
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax of the dbschema Command
Element
-d database/co-server
-hd
-ss
-u
-ui
-V
-x
all
filename
Purpose
Specifies the database or co-server to
which the schema applies. The
database can be on a remote database
server.
Displays the distribution as data
values.
Key Considerations
References: If you want to use more than
the simple name of the database, refer to the
Database Name section of the Informix Guide
to SQL: Syntax.
References: For more information, refer to
“Distribution Information for Tables” on
page 22-18.
Generates server-specific information. Restrictions: This option is ignored if no
table schema is generated.
References: For more information, refer to
“Server-Specific Information” on page 22-8.
Prints the definitions of user-defined References: For more information, refer to
data types.
“User-Defined and Complex Data Types”
on page 22-9.
Prints the definitions of user-defined References: For more information, refer to
data types, including type inheritance. “User-Defined and Complex Data Types”
on page 22-9.
Displays product version information. None.
Expands dbslice names into dbspace None.
name lists in -ss output.
Directs dbschema to include all the
None.
tables in the database in the display of
distributions.
Specifies the filename to contain the
Additional Information: If you do not
dbschema output.
supply a filename, dbschema sends output to
the screen. If you do supply a filename,
dbschema creates a file to contain the
dbschema output and gives it the name you
specify.
You must be the DBA or have the Connect or Resource privilege to the
database before you can run dbschema on it.
Using the dbschema Utility 22-5
Database Schema Creation
Database Schema Creation
You can create the schema for an entire database or for a portion of the
database. The options for dbschema allow you to perform the following
actions:
IDS 2000
■
Display CREATE SYNONYM statements by owner, for a specific table
or for the entire database.
■
Display the CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, CREATE FUNCTION, or
CREATE PROCEDURE statements for a specific table or for the entire
database.
■
Display all GRANT privilege statements that affect a specified user or
that affect all users for a database or a specific table. The user can be
either a user name or role name.
■
Display user-defined and row data types with or without type
inheritance. ♦
IUS
When you use dbschema and specify only the database name, it is equivalent
to using dbschema with all its options (except for the -hd and -ss options). In
addition, if Information Schema views were created for the database, this
schema is shown. For example, the following two commands are equivalent:
dbschema -d stores_demo
dbschema -s all -p all -t all -f all -d stores_demo
The SERIAL fields included in CREATE TABLE statements that dbschema
displays do not specify a starting value. New SERIAL fields created with the
schema file have a starting value of 1, regardless of their starting value in the
original database. If this value is not acceptable, you must modify the schema
file.
22-6
Informix Migration Guide
Creating Schemas for Databases Across a Network
Creating Schemas for Databases Across a Network
UNIX
You can specify a database on any accessible non-SE Informix database
servers with the -d database syntax. The following command displays the
schema for the stores_demo database on the finland database server on the
UNIX system console:
dbschema -d //finland/stores_demo
♦
SE
To specify a database on an SE database server, include the database server
name and directory path with the database name. The command in the
following example displays the schema for the stores_demo database in the
turku directory on the finland database server on the system console:
dbschema -d //finland/turku/stores_demo
♦
Changing the Owner of an Object
The dbschema utility uses the owner.object convention when it generates any
CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX, CREATE SYNONYM, CREATE VIEW, CREATE
PROCEDURE, CREATE FUNCTION, or GRANT statements, and when it reproduces any unique, referential, or check constraints. As a result, if you use the
dbschema output to create a new object (table, index, view, procedure,
constraint, or synonym), the owner of the original object owns the new object.
If you want to change the owner of the new object, you must edit the
dbschema output before you run it as an SQL script.
You can use the output of dbschema to create a new function if you also
specify the pathname to a file in which compile-time warnings are stored. This
pathname is displayed in the dbschema output.
For more information about the CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX, CREATE
SYNONYM, CREATE VIEW, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE FUNCTION, and
GRANT statements, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Using the dbschema Utility 22-7
Server-Specific Information
Server-Specific Information
The -ss option generates server-specific information. In all Informix database
servers except SE, the -ss option always generates the lock mode, extent sizes,
and the dbspace name if the dbspace name is different from the database
dbspace. In addition, if tables are fragmented, the -ss option displays information about the fragmentation strategy.
When you specify the dbschema -ss option, the output also displays any
GRANT FRAGMENT statements that are issued for a particular user or in the
entire schema.
You can use the -x option to expand dbslice names into dbspace name lists in
the -ss output.
Important: Use the dbschema -ss option to obtain information specific to a database
server, including fragmentation and storage options.
For more information about fragment-level authority, see the GRANT
FRAGMENT and REVOKE FRAGMENT statements in the Informix Guide to SQL:
Syntax.
SE
22-8
In SE, the -ss option generates the pathname where the table was created if
the table is not in the database directory. ♦
Informix Migration Guide
User-Defined and Complex Data Types
IDS 2000
User-Defined and Complex Data Types
IUS
When you specify the dbschema -u option, the output displays the definitions of any user-defined and complex data types that the database contains.
The suboption i lets you display the type inheritance.
The following command displays all the user-defined and complex data
types for the stork database:
dbschema -d stork -u all
Output from dbschema that is executed with the specified option -u all
might appear as the following example shows:
create row type 'informix'.person_t
(
name varchar(30, 10) not null,
address varchar(20, 10),
city varchar(20, 10),
state char(2),
zip integer,
bdate date
);
create row type 'informix'.employee_t
(
salary integer,
manager varchar(30, 10)
) under person_t;
The following command displays the user-defined and complex data types,
as well as their type inheritance for the person_t table in the stork database:
dbschema -d stork -ui person_t
Using the dbschema Utility 22-9
User-Defined and Complex Data Types
Output from dbschema executed with the option -ui person_t might
appear as the following example shows:
create row type 'informix'.person_t
(
name varchar(30, 10) not null,
address varchar(20, 10),
city varchar(20, 10),
state char(2),
zip integer,
bdate date
);
create row type 'informix'.employee_t
(
salary integer,
manager varchar(30, 10)
) under person_t;
create row type 'informix'.sales_rep_t
(
rep_num integer,
region_num integer,
commission decimal(16),
home_office boolean
) under employee_t;
22-10
Informix Migration Guide
Synonym Creation
Synonym Creation
Synonyms
-s
ownername
all
Element
-s ownername
-s all
Purpose
Key Considerations
Displays the CREATE SYNONYM statements owned by ownername. None.
Displays all CREATE SYNONYM statements for the database, table, or None.
view specified.
Output from dbschema that is executed with the specified option -s alice
might appear as the following example shows:
CREATE SYNONYM 'alice'.cust FOR 'alice'.customer
For more information about the CREATE SYNONYM statement, see the
Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Using the dbschema Utility 22-11
Privileges
Privileges
Privileges
-p
user
all
Element
-p user
-p all
Purpose
Displays the GRANT statements that grant
privileges to a user where user can be a user
name or role name. Specify only one user or
role.
Displays the GRANT statements for all users
for the database, table, or view specified, or to
all roles for the table specified.
Key Considerations
Restriction: You cannot specify a specific list of
users with the -p option. You can specify either
one user or role, or all users and roles.
None.
The output also displays any GRANT FRAGMENT statements that are issued
for a particular user or role or the entire schema.
Granting Privileges
In the dbschema output, the AS keyword indicates the grantor of a GRANT
statement. The following example output indicates that norma issued the
GRANT statement:
GRANT ALL ON 'tom'.customer TO 'claire' AS 'norma'
22-12
Informix Migration Guide
Displaying Privilege Information for a Role
When the GRANT and AS keywords appear in the dbschema output, you
might need to grant privileges before you run the dbschema output as an
SQL script. Referring to the previous example output line, the following
conditions must be true before you can run the statement as part of a script:
■
User norma must have the Connect privilege to the database.
■
User norma must have all privileges WITH GRANT OPTION for the
table tom.customer.
For more information about the GRANT, GRANT FRAGMENT, and REVOKE
FRAGMENT statements, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Displaying Privilege Information for a Role
A role is a classification with privileges on database objects granted to the
role. The DBA can assign the privileges of a related work task, such as an
engineer, to a role and then grant that role to users, instead of granting the
same set of privileges to every user. After a role is created, the DBA can use
the GRANT statement to grant the role to users or to other roles.
The following dbschema command and output show the privileges that
were granted for the calen role:
sharky% dbschema -p calen -d stores_demo
DBSCHEMA Schema Utility
INFORMIX-SQL Version 7.22
Copyright (C) Informix Software, Inc., 1984-1996
Software Serial Number RDS#N000000
grant alter on table1 to 'calen'
Using the dbschema Utility 22-13
Table, View, or Procedure Creation
Table, View, or Procedure Creation
Tables,
Views, or
Procedures
table name
-t
i
view name
all
procedure name
-f
function name
f
all
p
Element
-f all
-f function name
-f procedure name
-ff all
-fp all
Purpose
Limits the SQL statement output to those statements that are
needed to replicate all functions and procedures.
Limits the SQL statement output to only those statements that
are needed to replicate the specified function.
Limits the SQL statement output to only those statements that
are needed to replicate the specified procedure.
Limits the SQL statement output to those statements that are
needed to replicate all functions.
Limits the SQL statement output to those statements that are
needed to replicate all procedures.
Key Considerations
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
(1 of 2)
22-14
Informix Migration Guide
Table, View, or Procedure Creation
Element
-t table name
-t view name
-t all
-ti table name
-ti all
Purpose
Limits the SQL statement output to only those statements that
are needed to replicate the specified table.
Limits the SQL statement output to only those statements that
are needed to replicate the specified view.
Includes in the SQL statement output all statements that are
needed to replicate all tables and views.
Includes in the SQL statement output all statements that are
needed to replicate all table levels.
Includes in the SQL statement output all statements that are
needed to replicate all tables and views. Functionally equivalent
to -t all.
Key Considerations
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
(2 of 2)
For more information about the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE
FUNCTION statements, see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Using the dbschema Utility 22-15
Table Information
Table Information
When you use the -ss option, you can retrieve information about fragmented
tables, the lock mode, and extent sizes.
The following dbschema output shows the expressions specified for
fragmented table.
DBSCHEMA Schema Utility
INFORMIX-SQL Version 7.20.UC1
Copyright (C) Informix Software, Inc., 1984-1995
{ TABLE “sallyc”.t1 row size = 8 number of columns = 1 index size = 0 }
create table “sallyc”.t1
(
c1 integer
) fragment by expression
(c1 < 100 ) in db1 ,
((c1 >= 100 ) AND (c1 < 200 ) ) in db2 ,
remainder in db4
extent size 16 next size 16 lock mode page;
revoke all on “sallyc”.t1 from “public”;
22-16
Informix Migration Guide
Role Creation
Role Creation
Roles
-r
role
all
Element
-r role
Purpose
Displays the CREATE ROLE and GRANT statements that are needed to replicate and grant
the specified role.
-r all
Displays all CREATE ROLE and GRANT statements that are needed to replicate and grant all
roles.
Key Considerations
Restriction: You cannot specify a list of users
or roles with the -r option. You can specify
either one role, or all roles. SE does not support
the -r option.
None.
The following dbschema command and output show that the role calen was
created and was granted to cathl, judith, and sallyc:
sharky% dbschema -r calen -d stores_demo
DBSCHEMA Schema Utility
INFORMIX-SQL Version 7.22
Copyright (C) Informix Software, Inc., 1984-1996
Software Serial Number RDS#N000000
create role calen;
grant calen to cathl with grant option;
grant calen to judith ;
grant calen to sallyc ;
Using the dbschema Utility 22-17
Distribution Information for Tables
Distribution Information for Tables
To display the distribution information that is stored for a table in a database,
use the -hd option with the name of the table. If you specify the ALL keyword
for the table name, the distributions for all the tables in the database are
displayed.
Distribution information is stored only if you have run the UPDATE
STATISTICS...MEDIUM or HIGH statement for one or more columns of a table.
For information about the UPDATE STATISTICS statement, refer to the Informix
Guide to SQL: Syntax.
The output of dbschema for distributions is provided in the following parts:
■
Distribution description
■
Distribution information
■
Overflow information
Each section of dbschema output is explained in the following sections. As
an example, the discussion uses the following distribution for the fictional
table called invoices. This table contains 165 rows, including duplicates.
You can generate the output for this discussion with a call to dbschema that
is similar to the following example:
dbschema -hd invoices -d pubs_stores_demo
22-18
Informix Migration Guide
Example Output
Example Output
DBSCHEMA Schema Utility
INFORMIX-SQL Version 7.20.UC1
Copyright (C) Informix Software, Inc., 1984-1995
{
Distribution for cathl.invoices.invoice_num
Constructed on 03/10/1995
High Mode, 10.000000 Resolution
--- DISTRIBUTION --1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
10,
7,
6,
8,
8,
7,
8,
12,
12,
11,
5,
5)
11)
17)
25)
38)
52)
73)
95)
139)
182)
200)
--- OVERFLOW --1: (
2: (
5,
6,
56)
63)
}
Distribution Description
The first part of the dbschema output describes which data distributions
have been created for the specified table. The name of the table is stated in the
following example:
Distribution for cathl.invoices.invoice_num
The output is for the invoices table, which is owned by the user cathl. This
data distribution describes the column invoice_num. If a table has distributions that are built on more than one column, dbschema lists the distributions
for each column separately.
Using the dbschema Utility 22-19
Distribution Information
The date on which the distributions are constructed is listed. In this example,
the date is 03/10/1995, which is the date when the UPDATE STATISTICS
statement that generated the distributions was executed. You can use this
date to tell how outdated your distributions are. Although the system records
the date, it does not record the time.
The last line of the description portion of the output describes the mode
(medium or high) in which the distributions were created, and the resolution.
If you create the distributions with medium mode, the confidence of the
sample is also listed. For example, if the UPDATE STATISTICS statement is
executed with high mode with a resolution of 10, the last line appears as the
following example shows:
High Mode, 10.000000 Resolution
Distribution Information
The distribution information describes the bins that are created for the distribution, the range of values in the table and in each bin, and the number of
distinct values in each bin. Consider the following example:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
16,
10,
7,
6,
8,
8,
7,
8,
12,
12,
11,
5,
5)
11)
17)
25)
38)
52)
73)
95)
139)
182)
200)
The first value in the rightmost column is the smallest value in this column.
In this example, it is 5.
The column on the left shows the bin number, in this case 1 through 10. The
first number in the parentheses shows how many values are in the bin. For
this table, 10 percent of the total number of rows (165), is rounded down
to 16. The first number is the same for all the bins except for the last. The last
row might have a smaller value, indicating that it does not have as many row
values. In this example, all the bins contain 16 rows except the last one, which
contains 10.
22-20
Informix Migration Guide
Overflow Information
The middle column within the parentheses indicates how many distinct
values are contained in this bin. Thus, if there are 11 distinct values for a 16value bin, it implies that one or more of those values are duplicated at least
once.
The right column within the parentheses is the highest value in the bin. The
highest value in the last bin is also the highest value in the table. For this
example, the highest value in the last bin is 200.
Overflow Information
The last portion of the dbschema output shows values that have many duplicates. The number of duplicates of indicated values must be greater than a
critical amount that is determined as approximately 25 percent of the
resolution times the number of rows. If left in the general distribution data,
the duplicates would skew the distribution, so they are moved from the
distribution to a separate list, as the following example shows:
--- OVERFLOW --1: (
2: (
5,
6,
56)
63)
For this example, the critical amount is 0.25 * 0.10 * 165, or 4.125.
Therefore, any value that is duplicated five or more times is listed in the
overflow section. Two values in this distribution are duplicated five or more
times in the table: the value 56 is duplicated five times, and the value 63 is
duplicated six times.
Using the dbschema Utility 22-21
DB-Access Input from dbschema Output
DB-Access Input from dbschema Output
You can use the dbschema utility to get the schema of a database and redirect
the dbschema output to a file. Later, you can feed this file to DB-Access to recreate the database.
Inserting a Table into a Database Example
The following example copies the CREATE TABLE statements for the
customer table into the dbschema output file, tab.sql:
dbschema -d db -t customer > tab.sql
Remove the header information about dbschema from the output file, db.sql
and then use DB-Access to re-create the table in another database, as follows:
dbaccess db1 tab.sql
Re-creating the Schema in Another Database
The following example puts the statements for creating the entire database
into the dbschema output file:
1.
Remove the header information about dbschema from the output
file, in this case, db.sql.
2.
Add a CREATE DATABASE statement at the beginning of the output
file or use DB-Access to create a new database.
3.
Use DB-Access to re-create the schema in a new database:
dbschema -d db > db.sql
dbaccess testdb db.sql
4.
You can also use the -ss option:
5.
Edit the file db.sql and remove the dbschema header information.
6.
Use DB-Access to re-create the schema in a new database:
dbscema -d db -ss > db.sql
dbschema testdb db.sql
When you use db.sql on another database server, confirm that
dbspaces exist.
Now you have databases db and testdb, which differ in name but have the
same schema.
22-22
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Using the LOAD and UNLOAD
Statements
In This Chapter .
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23
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23-3
Syntax of the UNLOAD Statement .
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23-4
Syntax of the LOAD Statement .
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23-5
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23-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter shows the syntax of the SQL UNLOAD and LOAD statements.
You can use UNLOAD and LOAD with the following database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
■
Universal Server
Extended Parallel Server
■
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options
■
OnLine XPS
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
■
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
SE
■
OnLine
Using the LOAD and UNLOAD Statements 23-3
Syntax of the UNLOAD Statement
Syntax of the UNLOAD Statement
You can use the UNLOAD statement in DB-Access to unload selected rows
from a table into a text file.
UNLOAD TO
'filename'
DELIMITER
23-4
Informix Migration Guide
'delimiter'
SELECT
Statement
see SQLS
Syntax of the LOAD Statement
Syntax of the LOAD Statement
You can use the LOAD statement in DB-Access to append rows to an existing
table of a database.
LOAD FROM
'filename'
DELIMITER
INSERT INTO
'delimiter'
Table
Name
see SQLS
,
)
Synonym
Name
see SQLS
column
name
)
View
Name
see SQLS
The preceding syntax diagrams are only for quick reference. For details about
the syntax and use of the UNLOAD and LOAD statements, refer to the Informix
Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Using the LOAD and UNLOAD Statements 23-5
Chapter
Using the onmode Utility
In This Chapter .
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24-3
Use of the onmode -b Command for Reversion .
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24-4
Preparation for Reversion
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24-4
Syntax of the onmode -b Command .
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24-5
24-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the -b option of the onmode utility and how to use it.
You can use onmode -b with the following database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
Universal Server
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
■
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
SE
■
OnLine
You can use the -b option of the onmode utility for reversion from an
upgraded database server to the earlier database server. The onmode utility
modifies the data in an Informix database so that the earlier version of the
database server can access it. For information about the other onmode
options, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
Using the onmode Utility 24-3
Use of the onmode -b Command for Reversion
Use of the onmode -b Command for Reversion
When you upgrade a database server, several modifications make the format
of the databases incompatible with the older version. The onmode -b
command restores the databases to a format that is compatible with the
earlier version. You must revert the databases before users can access the data
with the earlier database server version. The utility does not revert changes
made to the layout of the data that do not affect compatibility.
UNIX
WIN NT
You must be user root or user informix to execute onmode. ♦
You must be a member of the Informix-Admin group to execute onmode. ♦
Preparation for Reversion
Before you use the -b option, notify users that you are going to bring the
database server off-line. The reversion utility forcibly removes all users and
shuts down the database server. The -b option includes an implicit -yuk.
Make sure that the INFORMIXSERVER environment variable is set to the
correct database server.
24-4
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax of the onmode -b Command
Syntax of the onmode -b Command
onmode
-b
5.0
6.0
6.0A
7.1
7.1UD1
7.2
7.3
9.1
All other onmode options,
see your Administrator’s Guide
Element
-b 5.0
-b 6.0
-b 6.0A
-b 7.1
-b 7.1UD1
Purpose
Change the database to the Version 5.0
format.
Change the database to the Version 6.0
format.
Key Considerations
Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
OnLine 5.0 or 4.1” on page 12-39.
Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
an Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic Server”
on page 11-36.
Change the database to the Version 6.0 ALS Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
format.
Version 6.x ALS” on page 19-6.
Change the database to the
Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
Version 7.10.UC1 format, which is
an NLS Database Server” on page 19-4 and
compatible with all 7.10.UCx formats.
“Reverting to OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UCx
from OnLine Dynamic Server 7.10.UDI Through
7.14” on page 11-53.
Change the database to the Version 7.1UD1 Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
format, which is compatible with 7.11, 7.12, an Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic Server”
7.13, and 7.14 formats.
on page 11-36.
(1 of 2)
Using the onmode Utility 24-5
Syntax of the onmode -b Command
Element
-b 7.2
Purpose
Change the database to the Version 7.2x
format.
-b 7.3
Change the database to the Version 7.3x
format.
-b 9.1
Change the database to the Version 9.14
format.
Key Considerations
Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server 2000” on page 4-26, “Reverting to OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2x or 7.1x from Universal
Server” on page 6-20, and “Reverting to an
Earlier Version of OnLine Dynamic Server” on
page 11-36.
Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server 2000” on page 4-26.
Additional Information: Refer to “Reverting to
Universal Server 9.14, Dynamic Server 7.3x, or
OnLine Dynamic Server 7.2x from Dynamic
Server 2000” on page 4-26.
(2 of 2)
Tip: If you type onmode -b -, the available options appear.
Important: You cannot use redirection to a file when you execute onmode -b 7.2
because this command does not function with redirection.
24-6
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Using the onunload and onload
Utilities
In This Chapter .
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25-3
How onunload and onload Work .
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25-4
Syntax of the onunload Command
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25-5
Syntax of the onload Command .
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Constraints That Affect onload and onunload
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Steps for Using onunload and onload .
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25-2
Informix Migration Guide
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the onunload and onload utilities and how to use
them. You can use onunload and onload with the following database servers:
■
Dynamic Server 2000
■
Universal Server
■
Dynamic Server 7.3
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition
■
OnLine Dynamic Server
OnLine Workgroup Server
■
Important: You can use onunload and onload with Dynamic Server 2000 or
Universal Server if the databases contain only legacy data types and not any
extended data types.
XPS
8.3
ODS
AD/XP
ODS
XPS 8.11
To load and unload data in Extended Parallel Server, use the onxfer utility,
which Chapter 26 describes. ♦
To load and unload data in Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options or
OnLine XPS, use external tables formatted in the Informix internal data representation format. You can load and unload files with the default delimiter (|)
format. For more information on external tables, see your Administrator’s
Guide or the Administrator’s Reference. For syntax, see the Informix Guide to
SQL: Syntax. ♦
The onunload and onload utilities unload and load databases and tables.
Using the onunload and onload Utilities 25-3
How onunload and onload Work
How onunload and onload Work
The onunload utility unloads data from a database. The onunload utility
writes a database or table into a file on tape or disk. The onunload utility
unloads the data in binary form in disk-page units, making this utility more
efficient than dbexport. You can use the onunload utility to move data
between computers.
The onload utility loads data that was created with the onunload command
into the database server. The onload utility creates a database or table in a
specified dbspace. Then onload loads it with data from an input tape or disk
file that the onunload utility creates.
During the load, you can move simple large objects that are stored in a
blobspace to another blobspace.
25-4
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax of the onunload Command
Syntax of the onunload Command
database
onunload
Destination
Parameters
p. 25-6
Element
database
owner.
table
Purpose
Specifies the name of a database.
Specifies the owner of the table.
Specifies the name of the table.
:
table
owner.
Key Considerations
Additional Information: The database name cannot include
a database server name (database@dbservername).
References: Syntax must conform to the Identifier segment;
see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Additional Information: The owner name must not include
illegal characters.
References: For pathname syntax, see your operatingsystem documentation.
Restriction: The table must exist.
References: Syntax must conform to the Table Name
segment; see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
If you do not specify any destination parameter options, onunload uses the
device that TAPEDEV SPECIFIES. The block size and tape size are the values
specified as TAPEBLK and TAPESIZE, respectively. (For information about
TAPEDEV, TAPEBLK, and TAPESIZE, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.)
Using the onunload and onload Utilities 25-5
Destination Parameters
Destination Parameters
Destination
Parameters
Element
-b blocksize
-l
-s tapesize
-t source
25-6
1
-l
1
-b blocksize
1
-s tapesize
1
-t source
Purpose
Key Considerations
Specifies in kilobytes the block size of Restrictions: The blocksize must be an integer.
the tape device.
Additional Information: This option overrides the
default value in TAPEBLK or LTAPEBLK.
Directs onunload to read the values None.
for tape device, block size, and tape
size from LTAPEDEV, LTAPEBLK, and
LTAPESIZE, respectively.
Specifies in kilobytes the amount of
Restrictions: The tapesize must be an integer.
data that can be stored on the tape.
Additional Information: This option overrides the
Specifies the pathname of the file on
disk or of the tape device where the
input tape is mounted.
Informix Migration Guide
default value in TAPESIZE or LTAPESIZE.
Additional Information: This option overrides the
tape device specified by TAPEDEV or LTAPEDEV. It
must be a legal pathname.
Constraints That Affect onunload
Constraints That Affect onunload
The onunload utility can unload data more quickly than either dbexport or
the UNLOAD statement because it copies the data in binary and in page-sized
units. However, this feature places the following constraints on its use:
IDS 2000
IUS
■
You must load the data on the onunload tape into a database or table
that your database server (excluding SE) manages.
■
You can use onunload and onload with Dynamic Server 2000 or
Universal Server if the databases contain legacy data types. ♦
■
You must load the tape that onunload writes onto a computer with
the same page size and the same representation of numeric data as
the original computer.
■
You must read the file that onunload creates with the onload utility
of the same version of your database server. You cannot use
onunload and onload to move data from one version to another.
■
When you unload a complete database, you cannot modify the
ownership of database objects (such as tables, indexes, and views)
until after you finish reloading the database.
■
When you unload and load a table, onunload does not preserve
access privilege, synonyms, views, constraints, triggers, or default
values that were associated with the original tables. Before you run
onunload, use the dbschema utility to obtain a listing of the access
privilege, synonyms, views, constraints, triggers, or default values.
After you finish loading the table, use dbschema to re-create the
specific information for the table.
Database or Table Unloading
To unload a database, you must have DBA privileges for the database or be
user informix. To unload a table, you must either own the table, have DBA
privileges for the database in which the table resides, or be user informix.
(User root does not have special privileges with respect to onunload and
onload.)
Using the onunload and onload Utilities 25-7
Logging Mode
Unloading a Database
If you unload a database, all the tables in the database, including the system
catalog tables, are unloaded. All the triggers, SPL routines, defaults,
constraints, and synonyms for all the tables in the database are also
unloaded.
Unloading a Table
If you unload a table, onunload unloads the table data and information from
the following system catalog tables:
■
systables
■
syscolumns
■
sysindexes
■
sysblobs
When you unload a table, onunload does not unload information about
constraints, triggers, or default values that are associated with a table. In
addition, access privileges that are defined for the table and synonyms or
views that are associated with the table are not unloaded.
Logging Mode
The onunload utility does not preserve the logging mode of a database. After
you load the database with onload, you can make a database ANSI compliant
or add logging. For information about logging modes, refer to the Informix
Guide to SQL: Syntax.
During the load, you can move simple large objects that are stored in a
blobspace to another blobspace.
If you do not specify any source-parameter options, onload uses the device
that is specified as TAPEDEV. The block size and tape size are the values that
are specified as TAPEBLK and TAPESIZE, respectively. (For more information
about TAPEDEV, TAPEBLK, and TAPESIZE, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.)
If you do not specify creation options, onload stores the database or table in
the root dbspace.
25-8
Informix Migration Guide
Locking During Unload Operation
Locking During Unload Operation
During the unload operation, the database or table is locked in shared mode.
An error is returned if onunload cannot obtain a shared lock.
The onload utility creates a database or table in a specified dbspace
(excluding SE). Then onload loads it with data from an input tape or disk file
that the onunload utility creates.
Using the onunload and onload Utilities 25-9
Syntax of the onload Command
Syntax of the onload Command
database
onload
Source
Parameters
p. 25-10
Element
database
owner.
table
Create Options
p. 25-11
:
table
owner.
Purpose
Key Considerations
Specifies the name of the database. Restriction: The database name cannot include a database
server name (database@dbservername).
References: Syntax must conform to the Identifier
segment; see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Restriction: The owner name must not include illegal
characters.
Specifies the owner of the table.
References: For pathname syntax, refer to your operatingsystem documentation.
Restriction: The table must not exist.
Specifies the name of the table.
References: Syntax must conform to the Table Name
segment; see the Informix Guide to SQL: Syntax.
Source Parameters
Source
Parameters
1
25-10
Informix Migration Guide
-l
1
-b blocksize
1
-s tapesize
1
-t source
Create Options
Element
-b blocksize
-l
-s tapesize
-t source
Purpose
Key Considerations
Specifies in kilobytes the block size of Restrictions: Unsigned integer. Must specify the
the tape device.
block size of the tape device.
Additional Information: This option overrides the
default value in TAPEBLK or LTAPEBLK.
Additional Information: If you specify -l and then
-b, -s, or -t, the value that you specify overrides the
value in the configuration file.
Directs onload to read the values for
tape device, block size, and tape size
from the configuration parameters
LTAPEDEV, LTAPEBLK, and LTAPESIZE,
respectively.
Specifies in kilobytes the amount of
Restrictions: Unsigned integer. Must specify the
data that the database server can store amount of data that the database server can store on
on the tape.
the tape.
Specifies the pathname of the file on
disk or of the tape device where the
input tape is mounted.
Additional Information: This option overrides the
default value in TAPESIZE or LTAPESIZE.
Restriction: Must be a legal pathname.
Additional Information: This option overrides the
tape device that TAPEDEV or LTAPEDEV specifies.
References: For pathname syntax, see your
operating-system documentation.
Create Options
Create
Options
1
-d dbspace
-i oldindex newindex
-fd olddbsp newdbsp
-fi indexname olddbsp newdbsp
Using the onunload and onload Utilities 25-11
Constraints That Affect onload
If you do not specify any create options, the onload utility stores the database
or table in the root dbspace.
You can use the -d, -i, -fd, and -fi options in any order and as often as
necessary as long as you use unique pairs.
Constraints That Affect onload
The onload utility performs faster than the dbimport, dbload, or LOAD
methods. In exchange for this higher performance, onload has the following
constraints:
25-12
■
The onload utility can only create a new database or table; you must
drop or rename an existing database or table of the same name before
you run onload. The onload utility prompts you to rename
blobspaces during execution, if desired.
■
The onload utility places a shared lock on each of the tables in the
database during the load. While you cannot update a table row with
the lock in place, the database is available for queries.
■
When you load a complete database, the user who executes onload
becomes the owner of the database.
■
The onload utility creates a database without logging; you must
initiate logging after onload loads the database.
■
When you use onload to load a table into a logged database, you
must turn off logging for the database during the operation.
Informix Migration Guide
Constraints That Affect onload and onunload
Constraints That Affect onload and onunload
GLS
NLS
You can use onunload and onload to move data between databases if the NLS
and GLS locales are identical. For example, if user A has a French locale NLS
table on server A and tries to load data into a German locale GLS table on
server B, onload and onunload report errors. However, if both the NLS and
GLS tables were created with the same French locale, onload and onunload
would work. ♦
The tape that onload reads contains binary data that is stored in disk-pagesized units. For this reason, the computers where the original database
resides (where you use onunload) and where the target database will reside
(where you use onload) must have the following characteristics:
■
The same page size
■
The same representation of numeric data
■
The same byte alignment for structures and unions
If the page sizes are different, onload fails. If the alignment or numeric data
types on the two computers are different (for example, with the most
significant byte last instead of first, or different float-type representations),
the contents of the data page could be misinterpreted.
Restrictions That Affect onload and onunload
The onload and onunload utilities have the following restrictions:
■
The original database and the target database must be from the same
version of the database server.
GLS
■
You cannot use onload and onunload to move data between nonGLS and GLS locales. ♦
IDS 2000
■
Do not use onload and onunload to move data between two
Universal Server databases if they contain extended data types. Use
the HPL instead to move Dynamic Server 2000 or Universal Server
data. However, you can use onload and onunload with this data if
the databases contain only legacy data types. ♦
IUS
SE
■
SE does not support onload and onunload. ♦
Using the onunload and onload Utilities 25-13
Logging During Loading
Important: You cannot use the onload and onunload utilities to move data from
one version to another. You also cannot use these utilities to move data between
different types of servers.
Logging During Loading
The onload utility performs all its loading within a transaction. This feature
allows the changes to be rolled back if an error occurs.
When you use onload to create tables from an onunload input tape, onload
can only load information into a database without logging. Thus, before you
load a table into an existing, logged database, end logging for the database.
You also might want to consider loading during off-peak hours. Otherwise,
you might fill the logical-log files or consume excessive shared-memory
resources. After you load the table, create a level-0 dbspace backup before
you resume database logging.
When you use onload to create databases from an onunload input tape, the
databases that result are not ANSI compliant and do not use transaction
logging. You can make a database ANSI compliant or add logging after you
load the database. (For more information about logging, refer to the Informix
Guide to SQL: Reference.)
Movement of Simple Large Objects to a Blobspace
If you load a table that contains simple large objects stored in a blobspace,
onload asks you if you want to move them to another blobspace. If you
respond yes, onload displays the blobspace name where the simple large
objects were stored when the tape was created. It then asks you to enter the
name of the blobspace where you want the simple large objects stored. If you
enter a valid blobspace name, onload moves all simple-large-object columns
in the table to the new blobspace. Otherwise, onload prompts you again for
a valid blobspace name.
25-14
Informix Migration Guide
Ownership and Privileges
Ownership and Privileges
When you load a new database, the user who runs onload becomes the
owner. Ownership within the database (tables, views, and indexes) remains
the same as when the database was unloaded to tape with onunload.
To load a table, you must have the Resource privilege on the database. When
onload loads a new table, the user who runs onload becomes the owner
unless you specify an owner in the table name. (You need the DBA privilege
for the database to specify an owner in the table name.)
The onunload utility does not preserve synonyms or access privileges. To
obtain a listing of defined synonyms or access privileges, use the dbschema
utility, which Chapter 22, “Using the dbschema Utility,” describes, before you
run onunload.
Exclusive Locking During Load Operation
During the load operation, onload places an exclusive lock on the new
database or table. Loading proceeds as a single transaction, and onload drops
the new database or table if an error or system failure occurs.
Using the onunload and onload Utilities 25-15
Steps for Using onunload and onload
Steps for Using onunload and onload
This section describes the procedure for using onunload and onload to move
a database. You can use these commands to move either a complete database
or a table from one computer to another. The syntax and description of the
onunload utility starts on page 25-5. The syntax and description of the
onload utility starts on page 25-10.
To move a database from one computer to another
1.
Make sure that the page size, numeric representations, and byte
alignment on structures and unions are the same on both computers.
(The page size is 2 kilobytes on certain UNIX systems and 4 kilobytes
on Windows NT.) The page size is an Informix characteristic. For
information about page size, refer to your Administrator’s Guide. The
numeric representation and the byte alignment are characteristics of
your operating system. For information about numeric representation and byte alignment, refer to the manuals for your operating
systems.
2.
3.
Decide where to store the unloaded data.
On disk
Create an empty file for onunload to hold the data. Make
sure that you have write permission for the file.
On tape
Use the tape device and characteristics specified in the
ONCONFIG configuration file by either TAPEDEV or
LTAPEDEV or specify another tape device. Make sure that
the tape device that you specify is available for
onunload.
Run the oncheck utility to make sure that your database is
consistent.
For information about oncheck, refer to your Administrator’s Guide.
25-16
4.
If you want to save the triggers, access privileges, SPL routines,
defaults, constraints, and synonyms for the tables in the database,
run the dbschema utility.
5.
Run the onunload utility.
6.
If necessary, transfer the storage medium (tape or disk) to the new
computer.
Informix Migration Guide
Chapter
Using the onxfer Utility
In This Chapter .
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26-3
Environment Variables for onxfer .
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26-4
Syntax of the onxfer Command
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26-5
Configuration File for onxfer
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26-7
Guidelines and Restrictions for Using onxfer .
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26-2
Informix Migration Guide
UNIX
In This Chapter
This chapter describes the onxfer utility and how to use it. You can use onxfer
with the following database servers:
■
Extended Parallel Server (move data to only)
■
Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options (move data to only)
■
Dynamic Server 7.3 (move data from only)
■
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions (move data
from only)
■
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition (move data from only)
■
OnLine Dynamic Server (move data from only)
This chapter describes how to use the onxfer utility for moving data to
Extended Parallel Server or Dynamic Server with AD and XP Options from
Dynamic Server 7.3x or OnLine Dynamic Server 7.24 on UNIX. The onxfer
utility moves a database or tables to the target database server from the
source database server.
Using the onxfer Utility 26-3
Environment Variables for onxfer
Environment Variables for onxfer
The onxfer utility uses the following environment variables:
■
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL
■
XFER_CONFIG
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL Environment Variable
When the source and target database servers are installed on different
computers, onxfer might use a remote shell command on the source
computer to perform certain operations. However, the name of the remote
shell command might be different on different computers.
If the onxfer utility is not able to find the correct path name for the remote
shell command, onxfer uses rsh as the default remote shell command. You
can set the SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL environment variable to specify the
remote shell command that the operating system supports on the source
computer. If this environment variable is set, onxfer uses its value as the
remote shell command.
XFER_CONFIG Environment Variable
The default name of the onxfer configuration file is xfer_config in the
$INFORMIXDIR/etc directory. You can specify a different directory in the
XFER_CONFIG environment variable.
26-4
Informix Migration Guide
Syntax of the onxfer Command
Syntax of the onxfer Command
onxfer
-init cfgfile
-force
data
data load
data unload
load
move
schema load
schema unload
unload
Element
data
Purpose
Moves the data transparently.
data load
data unload
Loads data from disk.
Unloads all the specified files to disk.
-force
Before unloading data or schema onto
disks, onxfer checks to see if the directories
already contain previously unloaded
schema or data. If they do, the default
behavior is to not perform the unload
operation and to ask the user to validate the
unload operation by cleaning up the directories first.
Key Considerations
The onxfer utility moves the tables
iteratively.
You can use this option only when the
DEVICE configuration parameter is set to
DISK. See “DEVICE Configuration
Parameter” on page 7.
You can use the -force option to override the
default behavior and force the unload
operation even if the directories contain
unloaded schema or data. If you use this
option, onxfer deletes any previously
unloaded schema and data from the directories that you specify in the DISK option
and performs a fresh unload operation.
(1 of 2)
Using the onxfer Utility 26-5
Syntax of the onxfer Command
Element
-init cfgfile
Purpose
Specifies a configuration file that contains
parameters for onxfer.
Key Considerations
The default configuration file is xfer_config.
You can edit this file to change onxfer
parameters or make your own copy of the
file and specify it in the onxfer command.
The XFER_CONFIG environment variable
specifies the location of the xfer_config file.
The default location is
$INFORMIXDIR/etc.
Loads both the schema and the data from
disk.
Moves the data and the schema
transparently.
load
move
The onxfer utility moves the tables
iteratively.
You need to edit the schema.
Loads the schema into the target database The schema load option uses the same
server.
configuration file that schema unload used.
schema unload Unloads the source schema to a file.
unload
Unloads both the schema and the data from
disk.
schema load
(2 of 2)
26-6
Informix Migration Guide
Configuration File for onxfer
Configuration File for onxfer
You can specify a configuration file in the onxfer command. The configuration file includes the configuration parameters to use for data movement.
If you do not specify a configuration file, onxfer uses the default configuration file, xfer_config.
The default location of the xfer_config file is $INFORMIXDIR/etc. You can
specify a different location in the XFER_CONFIG environment variable.
An onxfer configuration file can include the following configuration
parameters:
■
DEVICE
■
FORMAT
■
MSGPATH
■
NSTREAMS
■
REJECT_DIR
■
SCHEMA_DIR
■
SOURCE and TARGET
■
SOURCE_DIR
■
TARGET_DIR
DEVICE Configuration Parameter
The DEVICE configuration parameter specifies a destination device and can
specify destination directories. This configuration parameter is optional.
DEVICE
DISK:directory_list
DIRECT
Using the onxfer Utility 26-7
DEVICE Configuration Parameter
Element
Purpose
DISK:directory_list Specifies the directories for unloading
data.
Key Considerations
The number of directories should equal the
value of NSTREAMS, which specifies the
number of parallel data streams. A directory
name cannot exceed 18 characters. See
“NSTREAMS Configuration Parameter” on
page 26-11.
The default directory_list is a number of
subdirectories under the SCHEMA_DIR
directory in the form database.data.suffix, in
which database is the name of the source
database and suffix ranges from 1 to
NSTREAMS. See “SCHEMA_DIR Configuration Parameter” on page 26-13.
The directories need enough disk space to
hold all the unloaded data.
DIRECT
Specifies direct transfer of table data
using the network and pipes.
You must specify DISK for all onxfer
command-line options except -move and
except when you use the -data option
without the load or unload suboption.
For schema transfer, onxfer uses the disk
directory that the SCHEMA_DIR parameter
specifies. See “SCHEMA_DIR Configuration
Parameter” on page 26-13.
You must specify DIRECT for the -move
command-line option and when you use the
-data option without the load or unload
suboption. See “Syntax of the onxfer
Command” on page 26-5.
26-8
Informix Migration Guide
FORMAT Configuration Parameter
FORMAT Configuration Parameter
The FORMAT configuration parameter specifies the format of the data during
transfer. This configuration parameter is optional.
FORMAT:
DELIMITED:delimiter
FIXED:ASCII
FIXED:INTERNAL
Element
Purpose
DELIMITED:delimiter Suggests the use of ASCII-delimited
format to transfer data. The value of
delimiter is a field delimiter.
FIXED:ASCII
Suggests the use of FIXED format ASCII
representation to transfer data.
FIXED:INTERNAL
Indicates that the loaders have to use
Informix internal format to transfer data.
Key Considerations
The row delimiter is always the new-line
character.
FIXED:INTERNAL, the default
FORMAT option, provides the fastest
transfer mechanism.
This format does not work well for
certain data types, such as DATETIME,
INTERVAL, and MONEY.
Using the onxfer Utility 26-9
MSGPATH Configuration Parameter
MSGPATH Configuration Parameter
The MSGPATH configuration parameter specifies the location of the onxfer
message log. This configuration parameter is optional. This onxfer configuration parameter is different from the onconfig MSGPATH configuration
parameter.
MSGPATH
pathname
Element
pathname
26-10
Purpose
Specifies the name of the message log where
the onxfer utility can log errors and post
progress messages.
Informix Migration Guide
Key Considerations
The default message log file is
database.msg in the SCHEMA_DIR
directory, in which database is the name of
the source database. See “SCHEMA_DIR
Configuration Parameter” on page 13.
NSTREAMS Configuration Parameter
NSTREAMS Configuration Parameter
The NSTREAMS configuration parameter specifies the number of parallel
streams for moving data, one stream for each coserver. This configuration
parameter is optional.
NSTREAMS
number
Element
number
Purpose
Suggests the number of parallel streams to
use for unloading or loading a table.
Key Considerations
The default value of NSTREAMS is the
number of coservers in Extended Parallel
Server. The onxfer utility feeds each stream
of data to one coserver.
Using the onxfer Utility 26-11
REJECT_DIR Configuration Parameter
REJECT_DIR Configuration Parameter
The REJECT_DIR configuration parameter specifies a location for reject files,
which contain incompatible SQL statements after data unloading or loading.
This configuration parameter is optional.
REJECT_DIR
pathname
Element
pathname
Purpose
Specifies the directory in which onxfer can
create reject files for unload and load
operations.
Key Considerations
The default directory for reject files is
SCHEMA_DIR. The REJECT_DIR
pathname cannot exceed 18 characters. See
“SCHEMA_DIR Configuration Parameter”
on page 26-13.
Reject file names are in the form
database.rej.suffix, in which database is the
name of the source database and suffix is a
number from 1 to the value of NSTREAMS.
See “NSTREAMS Configuration
Parameter” on page 26-11.
26-12
Informix Migration Guide
SCHEMA_DIR Configuration Parameter
SCHEMA_DIR Configuration Parameter
The SCHEMA_DIR configuration parameter specifies a destination directory
for the schema file. The path name for the destination directory is the path
from the computer on which the target database server is installed, where
onxfer is running. This configuration parameter is required.
SCHEMA_DIR
path_name
Element
path_name
Purpose
Key Considerations
Specifies the directory into which onxfer is The name of an unloaded schema file is
to unload the schema file.
database.sql, in which database is the
name of the source database.
You need to change the contents of the
schema file to suit your database server
requirements.
Using the onxfer Utility 26-13
SOURCE and TARGET Configuration Parameters
SOURCE and TARGET Configuration Parameters
The SOURCE configuration parameter can specify individual tables to
transfer as well as the source database and database server. The TARGET
configuration parameter can specify the target database and database server.
The onxfer configuration file can contain any number of SOURCE and
TARGET configuration parameters.
server_name
SOURCE
database @
TABLE LIST:table_list
%END-TABLE
TABLE QUERY tabname operator pattern
TARGET_DIR $INFORMIXDIR
SOURCE_DIR $INFORMIXDIR
%END-SOURCE
server_name
TARGET
database @
26-14
Informix Migration Guide
SOURCE and TARGET Configuration Parameters
Element
database @
Purpose
Names the source or target database.
Key Considerations
If you omit the source database name,
onxfer transfers the entire instance of the
source database server to the target. In
this case, the sysmaster database must
exist on the source database server.
The target database name can be the
same as or different from the source
name.
The onxfer utility transfers the schema
for the entire database and data from
selected tables. If you do not specify any
tables in the TABLE LIST or TABLE
QUERY option, onxfer transfers all the
data from the source database server.
server_name
Names the source or target database
server.
TABLE LIST table_list Lists the database tables from which to
transfer data.
TABLE QUERY
tabname operator
pattern
Specifies part of a WHERE clause for
table selection.
If you do not specify any tables, onxfer
transfers all the data from the source
database server.
If you do not specify any tables, onxfer
transfers all the data from the source
database server.
Using the onxfer Utility 26-15
SOURCE_DIR Configuration Parameter
SOURCE_DIR Configuration Parameter
The SOURCE_DIR configuration parameter specifies the source database
server. The path name for the source database server is the path from the
computer on which the source database server is installed. This configuration
parameter is required.
SOURCE_DIR
$INFORMIXDIR
TARGET_DIR Configuration Parameter
The TARGET_DIR configuration parameter specifies the target database and
database server. The path name for the target database server is the path from
the computer on which the target database server is installed, where onxfer
is running. This configuration parameter is required.
TARGET_DIR
26-16
Informix Migration Guide
$INFORMIXDIR
Guidelines and Restrictions for Using onxfer
Guidelines and Restrictions for Using onxfer
The following guidelines and restrictions provide information about using
onxfer:
■
You must execute the onxfer command from the computer on which
the target database server is installed. When invoked, the
$INFORMIXDIR environment variable should point to the installed
target database server distribution.
■
Currently, onxfer supports the unload and data unload commandline options when you execute it from the computer on which the
source database server is installed, the same computer on which the
target database server is installed.
■
For the load and data load command-line options, the directory path
names that you specify in the DISK device option must be the path
names as seen on the computer(s) on which the target database
server instance is installed. The directories, however can be NFS
mounted from other computers.
■
When you use the move command-line option, onxfer optimizes the
speed of data transfer by first creating all the tables with the RAW
type on the target database server instance, by executing the
<database>_pre.sql file from the SCHEMA_DIR destination
directory.
The onxfer utility then transfers data in iterative mode, one table at
a time, from the source database to the target database using the
EXPRESS mode of loading. Finally, onxfer creates the rest of the
schema by executing the <database>_post.sql file from the
SCHEMA_DIR destination directory.
When, however, you specify the data or data load command-line
option, onxfer cannot use the EXPRESS mode of loading because the
tables are typically not of the RAW type and there might be preexisting constructs like indexes, check constraints, and triggers
defined on the tables. Onxfer uses DELUXE mode to load data in such
cases.
Using the onxfer Utility 26-17
Guidelines and Restrictions for Using onxfer
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
26-18
Informix Migration Guide
The DELUXE mode of loading can be considerably slower than the
EXPRESS mode. Also, in DELUXE mode, the insertion of each record
into the table and corresponding index updates are logically logged.
Each table load is treated as a unit of transaction.
This requires creation of logical log space large enough to hold log
records for the single largest table load before an attempt to load data
with the data or data load option.
The NSTREAMS parameter, when specified, applies to all the tables in
the TABLE section.
The NSTREAMS parameter should not be set to a value greater than
((number of CPU VPs per co-server) * (number of co-servers)) as
configured on the target database server instance.
Do not use the co-server extension while specifying the TARGET
database server name (for example, do not use my_db@my_adxp.2).
Use the prefix without the extension instead (for example, use
my_db@my_adxp).
Do not modify or delete files under the directories that onxfer uses
to load or unload data.
Do not modify or delete any file under the SCHEMA_DIR destination
directory, except <database>_pre.sql and <database>_pre.sql,
which you can edit as needed.
Before completing execution, onxfer does the necessary cleanup
whether the operation was successful or not. In case of certain fatal
errors, onxfer might not be able to do so and can flag an error
message for users to perform cleanup manually.
In such cases, you might need to clean up the following objects:
❑
Source database server object
The onxfer database, typically set to xferdb_#####, in which
##### is the process ID of the onxfer program
❑
Target database server objects
The ifmx_xfer_status database, used to store results of pipebased data transfers
External table definitions in the target database that correspond
to the tables listed under TABLE section
❑
Disk objects
Files under the SCHEMA_DIR destination directory
Files under directories specified in the DISK option, if any
Appendix
Database Server
Environment Variables
Various environment variables affect the functionality of your
Informix products. You can set environment variables that
identify your terminal, specify the location of your software, and
define other parameters. The environment variables discussed in
this chapter are listed alphabetically beginning on page A-3.
Some environment variables are required, and others are
optional. For example, you must set or accept the default setting
for certain UNIX or Windows NT environment variables.
This chapter describes how to use the environment variables that
apply to Informix database servers and shows how to set them.
A
Types of Environment Variables
Types of Environment Variables
The environment variables discussed in this chapter fall into the following
categories:
■
Informix environment variables
Set these standard environment variables when you want to work
with Informix products. Each product manual specifies the
environment variables that you must set to use that product.
UNIX
■
UNIX environment variables
Informix products rely on the correct setting of certain standard
UNIX system environment variables. The PATH and TERM
environment variables must always be set. You might also have to set
the TERMCAP or TERMINFO environment variable to use some
products effectively. ♦
WIN NT
■
Windows NT environment variables
Informix products rely on the correct setting of certain standard
Windows NT system environment variables. The PATH environment
variable must always be set. ♦
GLS
■
GLS environment variables
The GLS environment variables that enable you to work in a nondefault locale are described in the Informix Guide to GLS Functionality.
However, these variables are also included in the list of environment
variables on page A-3. ♦
NLS
■
NLS environment variables (pre-7.2 products only)
You must set some or all of these X/Open standard environment
variables to benefit from NLS. These environment variables might
cause your product to behave differently than when their standard
Informix counterparts are set. Refer to “Native Language Support”
on page 17-9. ♦
A-2 Informix Migration Guide
List of Environment Variables
List of Environment Variables
Figure A¬1 contains an alphabetical list of the environment variables that
you can set for an Informix database server. For instructions and detailed
descriptions on setting these environment variables, see the Informix Guide to
SQL: Reference for your database server. The following table uses these abbreviations for the database server names and Informix manuals:
■
IDS 2000 (Informix Dynamic Server 2000)
■
XPS 8.3 (Informix Extended Parallel Server)
■
IDS 7.3 (Informix Dynamic Server 7.3)
■
IUS (INFORMIX-Universal Server)
■
OWS (Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup and Developer Editions,
or INFORMIX-OnLine Workgroup Server)
■
WE (Informix Dynamic Server, Workgroup Edition)
■
AD/XP (Informix Dynamic Server with Advanced Decision Support
and Extended Parallel Options)
GLS
■
XPS 8.11 (INFORMIX-OnLine XPS)
■
ODS (INFORMIX-OnLine Dynamic Server)
■
SE (INFORMIX-SE)
■
GLS (Informix Guide to GLS Functionality)
■
REF (Informix Guide to SQL: Reference)
■
ESQL/C (Informix ESQL/C Programmer’s Manual)
The GLS environment variables are discussed in the Informix Guide to GLS
Functionality. ♦
Database Server Environment Variables A-3
List of Environment Variables
Figure A¬1
Environment Variables for Informix Database Servers
Environment Variable
Restrictions
Reference
ARC_DEFAULT
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS only
(all platforms)
REF
ARC_KEYPAD
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS only
(all platforms)
REF
CC8BITLEVEL
ESQL/C only
REF
CLIENT_LOCALE
GLS only
GLS
COLLCHAR
NLS only
REF
REF
DBANSIWARN
DBAPICODE
NLS only
REF
DBBLOBBUF
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS only
(all platforms)
REF
DBCENTURY
SQL APIs only
REF
DBDATE
REF, GLS
DBDELIMITER
REF
DBEDIT
REF
DBFLTMASK
DB-Access only
REF
DBLANG
REF, GLS
DBMONEY
REF, GLS
DBNLS
NLS only
REF
DBONPLOAD
The High-Performance Loader only
REF
REF
DBPATH
DBPRINT
UNIX only
REF
DBREMOTECMD
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS, OWS only
(UNIX)
REF
(1 of 4)
A-4 Informix Migration Guide
List of Environment Variables
Environment Variable
Restrictions
Reference
DBSPACETEMP
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS, OWS only
REF
DBTEMP
SE only
REF
DBTIME
SQL APIs only
REF
REF
DBUPSPACE
DB_LOCALE
GLS only
GLS
DELIMIDENT
REF
ENVIGNORE
REF
ESQLMF
GLS only
GLS
FET_BUF_SIZE
SQL APIs and DB-Access only
REF
REF
FX_DIRECTIVES
GLS8BITFSYS
SE only, GLS only
GLS
GL_DATE
GLS only
GLS
GL_DATETIME
GLS only
GLS
IFX_AUTOFREE
Informix ESQL/C Version 7.23 or later
client applications
ESQL/C
IFX_DIRECTIVES
IDS 2000 only
REF
IFX_LONGID
IDS 2000 only
REF
INFORMIXC
ESQL/C only
REF
INFORMIXCONRETRY
REF
INFORMIXCONTIME
REF
INFORMIXCONCSMCFG
IDS 2000, IUS only
REF
INFORMIXDIR
REF
INFORMIXKEYTAB
REF
INFORMIXOPCACHE
OnLine/Optical only
REF
(2 of 4)
Database Server Environment Variables A-5
List of Environment Variables
Environment Variable
Restrictions
REF
INFORMIXSERVER
INFORMIXSHMBASE
Reference
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS, OWS only
(UNIX)
REF
REF
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
INFORMIXSTACKSIZE
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS, OWS only
(all platforms)
REF
INFORMIXTERM
DB-Access only
REF
INF_ROL_SEP
IDS 2000, IUS, ODS only
REF
LANG
NLS only
REF
LC_COLLATE
NLS only
REF
LC_CTYPE
NLS only
REF
LC_MONETARY
NLS only
REF
LC_NUMERIC
NLS only
REF
LC_TIME
NLS only
REF
REF
NODEFDAC
ONCONFIG
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS, OWS only
(all platforms)
REF
ONPLOAD
The High-Performance Loader only
REF, HPL
OPTCOMPIND
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS only
(all platforms)
REF
OPTOFC
Informix ESQL/C Version 7.23 or later
client applications
ESQL/C
REF
PATH
PDQPRIORITY
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS, XPS 8.3,
AD/XP, XPS 8.11 only
(all platforms)
REF
PLCONFIG
The High-Performance Loader only
REF
(3 of 4)
A-6 Informix Migration Guide
List of Environment Variables
Environment Variable
Restrictions
Reference
PSORT_DBTEMP
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS only
(all platforms)
REF
PSORT_NPROCS
IDS 2000, IDS 7.3, IUS, ODS, EDS,
AD/XP, XPS 8.11 only
(all platforms)
REF
REF
RESTARTABLE_RESTORE
SERVER_LOCALE
GLS only
GLS
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL XPS 8.3 and AD/XP only
REF
SQLEXEC
ODS, SE only
REF
STMT_CACHE
IDS 2000 only
REF
STMT_CACHE_DEBUG
IDS 2000 only
REF
TERM
UNIX only
REF
TERMCAP
UNIX only
REF
TERMINFO
UNIX only
REF
THREADLIB
ESQL/C only
REF
XFER_CONFIG
XPS 8.3 and AD/XP only
REF
(4 of 4)
Database Server Environment Variables A-7
Appendix
Upgrade and Reversion
Messages
The dummy updates succeeded while converting database
database-name.
Cause:
During the upgrade of a database from a version
earlier than Version 9.2, dummy update statements are run against the system tables in the
database being upgraded. This message indicates
successful completion of these updates.
Action:
None required.
The dummy updates failed while upgrading database databasename.
Cause:
During the upgrade of a database from a version
earlier than Version 9.2, dummy update statements are run against the system tables in the
database being upgraded. This message indicates
failure in running one of these update statements.
Action:
Based on the version from which you are
upgrading, you need to run a particular dummy
update script.
Converting database database-name.
Cause:
This message appears at the start of the upgrade of
each database in the system.
Action:
None required.
B
The database database-name has been converted successfully.
Cause:
This message indicates successful completion of an upgrade of
the specified database.
Action:
None required.
The conversion of the database database-name has failed.
Cause:
Indicates that an upgrade of the specified database has failed.
Action:
Connect to the database. This action triggers an upgrade of the
database. If it fails, the relevant error message appears.
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Must drop new database database-name before attempting reversion. Iserrno
error.
Cause:
The system contains a database that was created in a more
recent version of the database server.
Action:
Drop the new database and attempt reversion.
Cannot open sysams in database database-name, iserrno error.
Cause:
An error occurred when the database server opened the
sysams system table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Must drop newly created access methods in database database-name,
iserrno error.
Cause:
Some user-defined access methods are still present in the
sysams system catalog table. The version to which you are
reverting does not support access methods.
Action:
Query the sysams system table and delete the problem entries
and then attempt reversion.
B-2 Informix Migration Guide
Cannot open %s in database %s, iserrno %d.
Cause:
An error occurred when the database server attempted to open
the specified system table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Must drop records using new access methods from %s in database %s,
iserrno %d.
Cause:
The specified system table contains entries that use either
system-defined or user-defined access methods, but the
version to which you are reverting does not allow them.
Action:
Query the relevant system table, delete the problem entries,
and then attempt reversion.
Cannot open systriggers in database %s, iserrno %d.
Cause:
An error occurred when the database server accessed the
systriggers system table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Cannot open systrigbody in database %s, iserrno %d.
Cause:
An error occurred when the database server accessed the
systrigbody system table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Database %s: Must drop trigger (id = %d).
Cause:
The database contains a trigger that was created in a version
more recent than the one to which you are upgrading.
Action:
Drop the trigger with the specified trigger identification
number and then attempt reversion.
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
B-3
Cannot open sysdistrib in database %s, iserrno %d.
Cause:
An error occurred when the database server accessed the
sysdistrib system table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Must drop new user-defined statistics in database %s, iserrno %d.
Cause:
Some distributions in the sysdistrib system table use userdefined statistics. This feature is not supported in the version
to which you are reverting.
Action:
Ensure that no user-defined statistics are present or used in the
system and then attempt reversion.
Read failed. Table %s, Database %s, iserrno = %d.
Cause:
An error occurred reading the specified system table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Must drop long identifiers in table %s in database %s.
Cause:
Identifiers greater than 18 characters in length are not
supported in the database server version to which you are
reverting.
Action:
Make sure that all long identifiers in the system are either
dropped or renamed before you attempt reversion.
B-4 Informix Migration Guide
Memory allocation error.
Cause:
The database server ran out of shared memory.
Action:
Take one of the following actions:
1.
Increase swap space on the computer.
2.
Check kernel shared-memory parameters for limits on
shared memory.
3.
Decrease the size of the memory allocated with your
$ONCONFIG or %ONCONFIG settings such as
BUFFERS.
Error in renaming systdist.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while trying to find and rename the
Informix.systdist SPL routine.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Error in slow altering a system table.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while performing reversion.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Error in updating sysindices.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while updating the sysindices
table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Error renaming procedures.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while updating the sysprocedures
table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
B-5
Error in dropping hash access method.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while updating the sysams table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Error in dropping system defined type (Informix.stat).
Cause:
An internal error occurred during an update to the sysxtdtypes, sysctddesc, or sysxtdtypeauth system table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Error in updating R-tree records in the sysams system table.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while updating R-tree records in
the sysams system table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Cannot open sysxtdtypes in database %s, iserrno %d.
Cause:
An error occurred while accessing the sysxtdtypes system
table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Catalog reversion checks for database %s.
Cause:
This message indicates the start, success, or failure of the
database check phase during reversion.
Action:
None required.
Starting reversion of database %s.
Cause:
Indicates the start of actual reversion of the specified database.
Action:
None required.
B-6 Informix Migration Guide
Reversion of database %s FAILED.
Cause:
Indicates the failure of reversion of the specified database.
Action:
None required.
Database %s SUCCESSFULLY reverted.
Cause:
Indicates the success of reversion of the specified database.
Action:
None required.
Checking database %s for revertibility.
Cause:
Indicates that start of the reversion checks on the specified
database.
Action:
None required.
Database %s is revertible.
Cause:
The database has passed all reversion checks and is revertible
to the specified version.
Action:
None required.
Database %s is not revertible.
Cause:
The database has failed one of the reversion checks and is not
revertible.
Action:
Take action to correct the error displayed as a separate
message.
Error in updating system-defined views.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while updating the systables
system table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
B-7
Error updating rows in sysxtdtypes.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while updating the sysxtdtypes
system table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Cannot update syscasts in database %s. Iserrno %d.
Cause:
An internal error occurred while inserting data into the
syscasts system table.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Error in reverting R-tree index in database %s. Iserrno %d.
Cause:
An error resulted during an R-tree index reversion.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Internal server error.
Cause:
An unexpected error occurred during database reversion.
Action:
Contact Informix Technical Support.
Error removing sysdistrib row for tabid = %d, colid = %d in database %s.
iserrno = %d.
Cause:
An error occurred while updating the sysdistrib system table.
Action:
Note the error number and contact Informix Technical
Support.
Cannot revert constraint with id %d (in syschecks).
Cause:
The database has a constraint that was defined in a version
more recent than the one to which you are reverting.
Action:
Drop the specified constraint and retry reversion.
B-8 Informix Migration Guide
Cannot revert new table fragment expression for table with id %d.
Cause:
The fragmentation of this table was defined in a version more
recent than the one to which you are reverting.
Action:
Drop the problem table fragmentation scheme and retry
reversion.
Cannot revert new fragment expression for index %s, tabid %d.
Cause:
The index fragmentation was defined in a version more recent
than the one to which you are reverting.
Action:
Drop the problem index-fragmentation scheme and retry
reversion.
R-tree error message conversion completed successfully.
Cause:
The R-tree error message upgrade completed successfully.
Action:
None required
R-tree error message conversion started.
Cause:
The R-tree error message upgrade script is now running.
Action:
None required.
R-tree error message conversion failed (See /tmp/conR-tree.out,
/tmp/conR-tree.databases).
Cause:
R-tree error message upgrade failed.
Action:
See /tmp/conR-tree.out and /tmp/R-tree.databases.
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
B-9
WARNING: Target server version must have a certified storage manager
installed after conversion/reversion and before bringing up server.
Cause:
ON-Bar is being upgraded or reverted. You need to ensure that
a storage manager is installed. The storage manager must be
certified with the target database server version.
Action:
None.
ON-Bar conversion start.
Cause:
The ON-Bar upgrade script is now running.
Action:
None.
ON-Bar conversion failed; see /tmp/bar_conv.out.
Cause:
The ON-Bar upgrade failed.
Action:
For failure details, see /tmp/bar_conv.out.
ON-Bar conversion completed successfully.
Cause:
The ON-Bar upgrade completed successfully.
Action:
None.
ON-Bar reversion start.
Cause:
The ON-Bar reversion script is now running.
Action:
None.
ON-Bar reversion failed; see /tmp/bar_rev.out.
Cause:
ON-Bar reversion failed.
Action:
For failure details, see /tmp/bar_rev.out.
B-10 Informix Migration Guide
ON-Bar reversion completed successfully.
Cause:
ON-Bar reversion was completed successfully.
Action:
None.
ON-Bar reversion test start.
Cause:
ON-Bar reversion test script is now running.
Action:
None.
ON-Bar reversion test completed successfully.
Cause:
ON-Bar reversion test was completed successfully.
Action:
None.
There is a semidetached index in this table, which cannot be reverted. Drop
this index and retry reversion.
Cause:
A semidetached index on this table cannot be reverted.
Action:
To see the list of all semidetached indexes, refer to the database
server message log. These indexes cannot be reverted. To
continue reversion, drop these semidetached indexes and retry
reversion. If needed, you will need to re-create these indexes
after reversion is complete.
Converting 'onpload' database.
Cause:
This message appears in online.log at the beginning of an
onpload upgrade.
Action:
None required.
The 'onpload' conversion completed successfully.
Cause:
This message appears in online.log at the successful
completion of an onpload conversion.
Action:
None required.
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
B-11
The 'onpload' conversion failed. For details, look in
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/conpload.out.
Cause:
An upgrade of the onpload database failed.
Action:
Find out the cause of failure from
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/conpload.out. Fix the problem before you
reattempt the upgrade.
Reverting 'onpload' database.
Cause:
This message appears in online.log at the beginning of
onpload reversion.
Action:
None required.
The 'onpload' reversion completed successfully.
Cause:
Printed in online.log at the successful completion of reversion.
Action:
None required.
The 'onpload' reversion failed. For details, look in
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/revpload.out.
Cause:
Reversion of the onpload database failed.
Action:
Find the cause of failure in $INFORMIXDIR/etc/revpload.out.
Fix the problem before you reattempt reversion.
The 'onpload' reversion test start.
Cause:
Printed in online.log at the beginning of onpload reversion
testing.
Action:
None required.
The 'onpload' reversion test completed successfully.
Cause:
Printed in online.log if the onpload database is revertible.
Action:
None required.
B-12 Informix Migration Guide
The onpload database contains load/unload jobs referring to long table
names, column names, or database names. These jobs will not work as
expected until they are redefined.
Cause:
Printed during onpload reversion testing if the onpload
database contains references to long table names, column
names, or database names. But the reversion will complete.
Action:
Redefine the load and unload jobs in the onpload database
that have references to long identifiers.
Converting 'syscdr' database.
Cause:
This message appears in online.log at the beginning of an
Enterprise Replication upgrade.
Action:
None required.
The 'syscdr' conversion completed successfully.
Cause:
This message appears in online.log at the successful
completion of a syscdr database upgrade.
Action:
None required.
The 'syscdr' conversion failed. For details, look in
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/concdr.out.
Cause:
An upgrade of the syscdr database failed.
Action:
Find the cause of the failure in $INFORMIXDIR/etc/concdr.out.
Fix the problem before you reattempt the upgrade.
Reverting 'syscdr' database.
Cause:
This message appears in online.log at the beginning of an
Enterprise Replication upgrade.
Action:
None required.
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
B-13
The 'syscdr' reversion completed successfully.
Cause:
Printed in online.log at the successful completion of the
syscdr reversion.
Action:
None required.
The 'syscdr' reversion failed. For details, look in
$INFORMIXDIR/etc/revcdr.out.
Cause:
Reversion of the syscdr database failed.
Action:
Find the cause of failure in $INFORMIXDIR/etc/revcdr.out.
Fix the problem before you reattempt reversion.
CDR reversion test start.
Cause:
Printed in online.log at the beginning of Enterprise
Replication reversion testing.
Action:
None required.
CDR reversion test completed successfully.
Cause:
Printed in online.log if the syscdr database is revertible.
Action:
None required.
CDR reversion test failed.
Cause:
Printed in online.log if Enterprise Replication is not revertible.
Action:
For more information, look at the messages prior to this
message. Fix the reported problem before you attempt
reversion.
B-14 Informix Migration Guide
Enterprise Replication should be in a stopped state for conversion/reversion
to proceed.
Cause:
Enterprise Replication is not in a stopped state.
Action:
Stop Enterprise Replication before you proceed with an
upgrade or reversion.
The Control and TRG send queues should be empty for conversion/reversion
to proceed.
Cause:
The Control and TRG send queues are not empty.
Action:
Wait for these queues to drain before you attempt either an
upgrade or reversion.
The 'syscdr' database contains references to long server names that are not
supported in the earlier version(s) of the database server.
Cause:
The Enterprise Replication global catalog contains long
database server names.
Action:
Redefine database servers with short names before you
attempt reversion.
The dbspace names for send and receive queues or path names for ATS and
RIS directories exceed pre-9.2 limits for this server.
Cause:
The dbspace names for the send and receive queues for the
database server being reverted are longer than 18 bytes. Or the
path names for ATS and RIS directories are longer than 128
bytes.
Action:
Modify the database server definition with shorter names
before you attempt reversion.
Upgrade and Reversion Messages
B-15
The 'syscdr' database contains replicate definitions on long database, table, or
owner names.
Cause:
The global catalog has replicates defined on long table names,
database names, or owner names from the database server
being reverted.
Action:
Drop the participants with long identifiers and add them again
with shorter names.
The stored procedure specified for conflict resolution exceeds 18 bytes in
length.
Cause:
The SPL routine names specified for conflict resolution for
some of the replicates for which this database server is a participant exceeds 18 bytes.
Action:
Modify the replicate definitions with shorter SPL routine
names.
The 'syscdr' database contains references to long replicate names.
Cause:
The global catalog contains long replicate names.
Action:
Drop and redefine replicates with long names before you
attempt reversion.
The 'syscdr' database contains references to long group names.
Cause:
The global catalog contains long group names.
Action:
Drop and redefine groups with long names before you attempt
reversion.
B-16 Informix Migration Guide
A
B C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V W
X
Y
Z
@
Index
Index
A
aaodir subdirectory 14-9, 14-16,
14-24, 16-6, 16-16
Access methods
dropping indexes 6-25
retrieving external data 6-6
Administration mode 11-37, 11-41,
14-25
Administration tools 14-27
configuration 14-22
installing 14-12, 14-18, 16-12,
16-21
reverting 14-38
upgrading 14-27
Version 7.12 14-38
adtcfg files 14-9, 14-16, 14-24, 16-6,
16-16
adtmasks files 14-9, 14-16, 14-24,
16-6, 16-16
AFF_NPROCS configuration
parameter 6-6
AFF_SPROC configuration
parameter 6-6
ALARMPROGRAM configuration
parameter 11-45, 14-41
ALL keyword, with dbschema
utility 22-5
All Servers tree view 14-35
ALS client product 17-9, 17-15,
17-17, 17-18
ALS database
supporting multibyte data 17-15
ALS database server support for
GLS client 17-17, 17-19
ALS locale
description of 17-15
saving in system catalog 17-15
ALS. See Asian Language Support.
ALS8BITFSYS environment
variable 17-16, 18-14
ALTER FRAGMENT statement
14-54
ALTER TABLE statement 11-39,
14-39
ANSI compliance level Intro-23
ANSI database, moving 12-35
ANSI logging 12-36
Answers OnLine 11-22, 12-8, 14-24
Applications, client
Communications Support
Module 4-19, 6-17
See also Client applications.
ARC_CONFIG file
saving 4-12, 6-11, 8-10, 10-25,
11-23
updating 4-20, 6-17
Archive-management utility 12-22
ASCII file, produced by unloading
2-8
Asian Language Support (ALS)
ALS locale 17-15
client products 17-9, 17-15, 17-18
database servers 17-19
definition of 17-3, 17-14
description of 17-14
environment variables 17-16
GLS support for 17-17
locale 17-15
migrating from 4.x ASCII 18-19
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
migrating from Version 5.x 18-15
migrating from Version 6.x 18-13
migrating to Version 4.x 18-17
products 17-15
storing database locale 17-15
Audit configuration files 14-9,
14-16, 16-6, 16-16
Authentication policy 4-19, 4-33,
6-16, 6-27
B
Backing up
Dynamic Server 2000
after migration 4-25
before reversion 4-31
Dynamic Server 7.3
after migration 14-20, 16-23
before migration 4-16, 8-12,
11-25, 14-20
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options
after migration 9-12, 10-37
after reversion 7-26
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
after migration 14-13, 16-14
before migration 14-13, 14-27
Extended Parallel Server
after migration 7-16, 8-17
before reversion 7-19
logical logs 4-21, 6-17
OnLine Dynamic Server
after migration 11-33
after reversion 11-54
before migration 4-16, 6-13,
8-12, 10-27, 11-37, 11-42
Version 5.x 12-27, 12-44
OnLine Workgroup Server 14-27
Version 7.12 14-45
Version 7.22 14-35
Universal Server
after migration 6-19
before migration 4-16
before reversion 6-22
Backup and restore tool
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-20
2
Informix Migration Guide
I
J
K
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M
N
O
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Q
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Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions 14-13
OnLine Workgroup Server 14-22
Version 7.12 14-27, 14-45
Version 7.22 14-35
whole-system backup 14-13,
14-20, 16-14, 16-23
bcheck utility, changed to secheck
13-5
Binary files, loading 2-9, 2-13,
25-13
BladeManager
installing and registering
DataBlade modules 4-20, 6-19
unregistering DataBlade modules
6-22
blademgr utility 6-22
bldutil.sh 9-11
BLOB data type 6-24, 6-25
Blobs, moving with onload 25-16
Blobspace
adding 14-46
backing up 4-5, 6-4, 7-4, 8-4, 9-4,
10-4
disk space used 11-17
moving, with onunload and
onload 25-16
removing 14-51
Boldface type Intro-10
BOOLEAN data type 6-24
boot90.sql and boot901.sql 4-26,
6-20
Bringing down
Dynamic Server 7.3 4-14, 4-17
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 7-12
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions 16-20
OnLine Dynamic Server 4-14,
4-17, 6-14, 10-28, 11-27, 12-28
Online Workgroup Server 14-28
Universal Server 4-14, 4-17
Bringing up
Dynamic Server 2000 4-21
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-32, 14-19,
16-22
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 10-32
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions 14-13,
14-34, 16-13
Extended Parallel Server 8-16
OnLine Dynamic Server 4-34,
6-27, 12-32, 12-43
OnLine Workgroup Server 14-29
Universal Server 6-17
B-tree index 6-25
Buffer cache 12-7
BUFFERS configuration parameter
12-41
BYTE data type 14-46
C
Calculating memory requirements
for OnLine Dynamic Server 12-7
Casts 6-24
CC8BITLEVEL environment
variable 11-48, 14-42, 17-8,
17-16
CDR_DSLOCKWAIT configuration
parameter 11-13
CDR_EVALTHREADS
configuration parameter 11-13
CDR_LOGBUFFERS configuration
parameter 11-13
CDR_NIFMEMS configuration
parameter 11-13
CDR_NIFQUEUES configuration
parameter 11-13
CDR_NIFUSEHELP configuration
parameter 11-13
CDR_QUEUEMEM configuration
parameter 11-13
CHAR data type 18-12, 18-13, 19-8
Character-position form of FILE
and INSERT statements 21-15
CHECK TABLE statement 14-50
Checking available space
Dynamic Server 2000 4-10
Universal Server 6-9
Checking database integrity 4-25,
5-4, 6-18, 7-11, 8-11, 10-36,
11-25, 11-42, 11-53, 12-43,
14-10, 14-16, 14-26, 16-6
Choosing a migration method 1-3
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
CHUNKS configuration parameter
12-41
C-ISAM
converting to SE 13-6
migrating 1-11
Client applications
ALS support 17-9, 17-15, 17-17,
17-18
code-set conversion 17-8
Communications Support
Module 4-19, 6-17
GLS support 17-6, 17-9
NLS support 17-9, 17-11, 17-13
Client locale 17-8, 17-9
See also Locale.
Client product
ALS 17-9, 17-15, 17-18
GLS 17-6, 17-9
NLS 17-9, 17-11, 17-13
CLIENT_LOCALE environment
variable 11-35, 11-48, 14-38
ALS usage 17-9, 17-16
default locale 17-6
for NLS migration 18-10, 18-11
GLS usage 17-8, 17-9
set by database server 17-9
CLOB data type 6-24, 6-25
Code set
ASCII 17-9
converting 17-8
multibyte 17-4, 17-14
single-byte 17-4, 17-9
Code, sample, conventions for
Intro-19
Code-set conversion
HPL 2-20
performing 17-8
Cogroups, creating 8-16, 10-32
COLLATION locale category 17-7,
17-11
COLLCHAR environment variable
11-35, 11-49, 14-38, 14-43,
17-12
Collection data type 6-24
Command Center
installing 14-12, 14-18, 16-12,
16-21
Command file, dbload 21-9
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Command-line conventions
elements of Intro-17
example diagram Intro-19
how to read Intro-19
Command-line utilities 14-26
Commands
export 12-30
setenv 12-30
See also SQL statement.
Comment icons Intro-11
COMMIT WORK statement 12-36
Communications Support Module
client applications 4-19, 6-17
configuring 4-19, 6-16
removing 4-33, 6-27
saving configuration 4-31, 6-21,
7-18
Compliance, with industry
standards Intro-23
concsm.cfg file
creating 4-19, 6-16
deleting 4-33, 6-27
saving 4-31, 6-21, 7-18
config.arc file, updating 4-20, 6-17
Configuration file
customizing 11-29
Dynamic Server 2000
customizing 4-19, 4-33
saving a copy 4-31
Dynamic Server 7.3
customizing 11-26, 16-21
saving a copy 14-9, 16-6
Dynamic Server 7.3, customizing
14-19
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options, customizing 7-25,
10-31
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
customizing 14-12, 16-12
saving a copy 14-16
Extended Parallel Server
customizing 7-14, 8-15
saving a copy 7-18
OnLine Dynamic Server
saving a copy 10-24, 11-22,
12-25
setting up, example 12-30
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
OnLine Workgroup Server,
saving a copy 14-24
onxfer utility 26-4, 26-7
Universal Server
customizing 6-16, 6-26
saving a copy 6-21
Workgroup and Developer
Editions, customizing 14-31
Configuration parameter
AFF_NPROCS 6-6
AFF_SPROC 6-6
ALARMPROGRAM 11-45, 14-41
BUFFERS 12-41
CDR_DSLOCKWAIT 11-7
CDR_EVALTHREADS 11-7
CDR_LOGBUFFERS 11-7
CDR_QUEUEMEM 11-7
CHUNKS 12-41
CONFIGSIZE 10-7, 10-8
continuous data replication 11-13,
14-42
COSERVER 10-8
DBSERVERALIASES 12-30
DBSERVERNAME 10-7, 10-8,
12-30
DBSPACES 12-41
DBSPACETEMP 12-15, 12-31
DBTEMPSPACE 10-7, 10-8
DIRECTIVES 11-7
DS_ADM_POLICY 10-7, 10-8
DS_MAX_SCANS 10-7, 10-8
DS_TOTAL_MEMORY 10-7, 10-8
Dynamic Server 7.3 12-20
END 10-8
FILLFACTOR 12-36
HETERO_COMMIT 6-5, 11-45,
14-41
ISM_DATA_POOL 11-7
ISM_LOG_POOL 11-7
ISO_CURLOCKS 10-7, 10-8
LOCKS 12-21
LOG_BACKUP_MODE 11-7
LOGFILES 12-41
LOGSMAX 12-41
MAX_PDQPRIORITY 10-7, 10-8
MIRRORPATH 10-7, 10-8
MULTIPROCESSOR 6-6
NOAGE 6-6
NODE 10-8
Index 3
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
NUMAIOVPS 6-6
NUMCPUVPS 6-6
ONLANGMAP 11-45, 14-41
onxfer utility
configuration file contents 26-7
DEVICE 26-7
FORMAT 26-9
MSGPATH 26-10
NSTREAMS 26-11
REJECT_DIR 26-12
SCHEMA_DIR 26-13
SOURCE 26-14
SOURCE_DIR 26-16
TARGET 26-14
TARGET_DIR 26-16
OPT_GOAL 11-7
OPTCOMPIND 11-16, 11-47
PHYSSLICE 10-7, 10-8
RESTARTABLE_RESTORE 11-7
revised minimum values 12-20
ROOTNAME 10-7, 10-8
ROOTOFFSET 4-19, 6-16, 11-29,
11-47, 14-12, 14-19, 14-32,
16-12
ROOTPATH 4-19, 6-16, 10-7,
10-8, 11-29, 14-12, 14-19,
14-32, 16-12
ROOTSIZE 4-19, 6-16, 11-29,
14-12, 14-19, 14-32, 16-12
ROOTSLICE 10-7, 10-8
SBSPACENAME 6-5, 6-26, 7-25
SHMADD 12-9, 12-21
SHMTOTAL 12-9, 12-22
SHMVIRTSIZE 12-21
SINGLE_CPU_VP 6-6
SYSALARMPROGRAM 11-7
TBLSPACE_stats 11-7
VPCLASS 6-6, 6-26, 7-25
configuration parameter
FORMAT 26-9
MSGPATH 26-10
NSTREAMS 26-11
REJECT_DIR 26-12
SCHEMA_DIR 26-13
SOURCE 26-14
SOURCE_DIR 26-16
TARGET 26-14
TARGET_DIR 26-16
4
Informix Migration Guide
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Configurations
OnLine Workgroup Server 14-22
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-22
Configuring
open file descriptors 12-12
semaphore parameters 12-10,
12-24
Contact information Intro-24
Conventions, documentation
Intro-9
Converting. See Upgrading.
Coserver name, description of 10-9
Coserver number, part of coserver
name 10-9
CREATE AUDIT statement 14-50
CREATE DATABASE statement
14-7, 14-48, 14-52, 16-10, 16-20
CREATE INDEX statement 12-19,
12-36
CREATE PROCEDURE statement,
use of dbschema 22-6
CREATE ROLE statement 14-54
CREATE SYNONYM statement,
use of dbschema 22-6
CREATE TABLE statement
loading data 14-7, 14-48, 14-52,
16-10, 16-20
removing information 14-51, 16-8
use of dbschema 22-6
CREATE VIEW statement, use of
dbschema 22-6
Creating a dbload command file
21-9
CSM. See Communications Support
Module.
CTYPE locale category 17-7, 17-11
D
Data distributions and disk
utilization 12-13, 12-15
Data type
BOOLEAN 6-24
BYTE 14-46
CHAR 18-12, 18-13, 19-8
CLOB and BLOB 6-24, 6-25
collection 6-24
DISTINCT 6-24
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
INT8 6-24
LVARCHAR 6-24
NCHAR 12-38, 17-20, 18-12,
18-13, 19-6, 19-8
NVARCHAR 12-38, 17-20, 18-12,
18-13, 19-6, 19-8
OPAQUE 6-24
ROW 6-24
SERIAL8 6-24
TEXT 14-46
VARCHAR 14-50, 18-12, 18-13,
19-8
Database
English 17-4, 18-12
non-English 17-4
ownership, set by onload 25-15
verifying integrity of 4-25, 5-4,
6-18, 7-11, 8-11, 10-36, 11-24,
11-42, 11-51, 11-53, 12-40,
14-10, 14-16, 14-26, 16-6
Database locale
definition of 17-20
determining current 18-4
finding for ALS database 17-15
finding for NLS database 18-6
in ALS database 17-15
in GLS database 17-7
in NLS database 17-12
set by database server 17-9
specifying name of 17-8
storing in database 17-20
verifying 18-5
See also Locale.
Database server
administration mode 11-37,
11-41, 14-25
ALS 17-19
GLS 17-5
NLS 17-10, 17-13
platforms and versions 1-3, 1-11
reinstalling 11-50, 14-43
upgrading 14-27
Database server definitions 14-37
DataBlade modules
data types 6-24
deleting hidden tables 6-23
hidden tables 6-23
installing and registering 4-20,
6-19
unregistering 6-22
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
DATAFILES 10-34
Data-replication secondary server
guidelines 12-22
DB_LOCALE environment variable
11-35, 11-48, 14-38
ALS usage 17-9, 17-17
default locale 17-6
GLS usage 17-9
NLS usage 18-10, 18-11
set by database server 17-9
DB-Access utility Intro-6
dbaccess utility
creating a database 14-48, 14-52
estimating size of user table
indexes 12-17
updating statistics 12-14
using LOAD and UNLOAD
14-47, 14-52
DBAPICODE environment variable
11-12, 17-9, 17-12
DBCENTURY environment
variable 11-48, 14-42
DBCODESET environment variable
17-9, 17-16, 17-19, 18-15, 18-17
DBCSOVERRIDE environment
variable 17-16
DBDATE environment variable
14-47, 17-12, 17-16
dbexport and dbimport utilities
12-6
dbexport utility
-c option 20-7
description of 2-14, 20-3
destination options 20-7
migrating to GLS support from
NLS 18-10
moving a database to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-46
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-46, 16-8
SE 14-51
schema output 20-10
-ss option 14-46, 14-51, 20-7
DBFLTMASK environment
variable 11-48, 14-42
DBFORMAT environment variable
17-16
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Q
R
dbimport utility
-c option 20-12
changing the locale 20-20
create options 20-15
database logging mode 20-17
description of 2-14
importing from another computer
2-21
input file location options 20-13
Interrupt key 20-12
-l options 20-17
migrating to GLS support from
NLS 18-10
moving a database to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-47
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-47, 16-8
SE 14-51
using with GLS 20-12
using with NLS 20-20
DBINFXRC environment variable
17-16
DBLANG environment variable
17-12, 17-16
dbload utility
compared to LOAD 2-17
creating a command file 21-9
description of 21-3
-e option 21-6
FILE statement 21-9
-i option 21-6
importing from another computer
2-21
INSERT statement
compared to SQL INSERT
statement 21-17
using 21-9, 21-11
Interrupt key 21-7
moving data to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-49, 15-6
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-8, 14-49, 16-10
SE 14-53
number errors to allow 21-6
-r option 21-6
speed, increasing 21-8
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
syntax 21-3
writing a command file
in character-position form 21-18
in delimiter form 21-13
dblog utility, changed to selog 13-5
DBMONEY environment variable
14-47, 17-12, 17-17
DB-Monitor utility 12-28
DBNLS environment variable
11-49, 14-43, 17-9, 17-12, 17-14
DBONPLOAD environment
variable 11-48, 14-42
DBPATH environment variable
and sort files 12-15
updating 14-54
dbschema utility
create schema for a database 4-28,
6-21, 22-6
description of 2-17, 22-3
distribution information 22-18
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
moving data 14-8, 16-10
moving selected tables 14-6,
16-9
moving data to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-49, 15-6
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-49
SE 14-53
moving selected tables to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-47, 15-6
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-47
SE 14-52
obtaining
privilege schema 22-12
synonym schema 22-11
owner conventions 22-7
saving database information
25-16
specifying a table, view, or
procedure 22-14
specifying the role schema 22-17
-ss option 22-8
DBSERVERALIASES configuration
parameter 12-30
Index 5
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
dbservername
format and options 10-8
part of coserver name 10-9
DBSERVERNAME configuration
parameter 12-30
dbslices, creating 8-16, 10-32
Dbspace
adding 14-46
backing up 4-5, 6-4, 7-4, 8-4, 9-4,
10-4
defining disk space for
data distributions 12-15
upgrading 6-9, 12-12
user table indexes 12-17
defining temporary dbspaces
12-15
free pages 12-17
moving tables to another dbspace
25-16
removing 14-51
DBSPACES configuration
parameter 12-41
DBSPACETEMP configuration
parameter 12-15, 12-31
DBSPACETEMP environment
variable 12-31
dbssodir subdirectory 14-9, 14-16,
16-6, 16-16
DBTIME environment variable
17-13, 17-17
Default locale Intro-6, 17-6, 18-12
Delimiter form of FILE and INSERT
statements 21-10
Deluxe mode loading 10-20
Demonstration databases Intro-6
Dependencies, software Intro-5
DEVICE configuration parameter
26-7
Diagnostics table, displayed by
dbschema utility 2-18, 22-22
Directory, installation 4-18, 6-15,
7-13, 8-14, 9-8, 10-29, 11-28,
12-29, 14-30
Disk utilization
issues during upgrading 12-12
root dbspace 12-12
Display schema for a database 22-6
dist_pages formula 12-15
6
Informix Migration Guide
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M
N
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DISTINCT data type 6-24
Distribution information for tables
22-18
Documentation notes Intro-22,
11-20, 12-4, 14-23
Documentation, types of
documentation notes Intro-22
error message files Intro-21
machine notes Intro-22
on-line help Intro-21
on-line manuals Intro-20
printed manuals Intro-21
related reading Intro-23
release notes Intro-22
DRDA database 2-22
DROP AUDIT statement 14-50
DROP INDEX SQL statement
12-19, 12-36
DROP ROLE statement 14-54
dropps.sql script 12-22
Dynamic Server 2000
authentication policies 4-19, 4-33
backing up
after migration 4-25
before reversion 4-31
bringing up 4-21
DataBlade modules, installing
4-20
environments supported 1-4
GLS support 17-5
importing data 2-21
initializing 4-21
installing 4-17
language support 17-5
migration
between UNIX and Windows
NT 1-11
summary 1-11
migration guidelines 4-20
migration procedure 4-20
moving data between computers
2-11, 2-13, 2-21
onload and onunload 2-12
release notes 4-4
reverting 4-26, 4-36
space requirements 4-10
starting 4-21
using dbexport and dbimport
2-13
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
using dbimport 2-21
using dbload 2-21
using onload and onunload 2-11,
2-12
Dynamic Server 7.3
backing up
after migration 14-20, 16-23
before migration 4-16, 8-12,
11-25, 14-20
backup and restore tool 14-20
bringing down 4-17
bringing up 11-32, 14-19, 16-22
configuration issues 12-20
configuring
open file descriptors 12-12
semaphore parameters 12-10
environments supported 1-4
estimating
size of system catalog indexes
12-12
importing data 2-21
initiating fast recovery 4-14, 8-11
installing 11-27, 12-29, 14-18
migration
between UNIX and Windows
NT 1-11
C-ISAM to IDS 7.3 14-49
summary 1-11
to Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-14, 16-15
to SE 1-11, 14-54
migration paths
moving data between computers
2-13, 2-21
release notes 11-19
SQL syntax restrictions 14-54
starting 11-32
upgrading user table indexes
12-16–12-19
using data distributions 12-15
using dbexport and dbimport
2-13
using dbimport 2-21
using dbload 2-21
verifying
data 11-42
database integrity 11-24
verifying database integrity 14-10
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options
backing up
after migration 9-12, 10-37
after reversion 7-26
bringing down 7-12
bringing up 10-32
environments supported 1-4
GLS support 10-18, 17-5
initiating fast recovery 7-12
language support 17-5
release notes 7-13, 9-8, 10-4,
10-29
reverting to 7-26
starting 10-32
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options, release notes 9-4, 9-8
Dynamic Server, Linux Edition,
environments supported 1-4
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
backing up
after migration 14-13, 16-14
before migration 14-13, 14-27
backup and restore tool 14-13,
16-14
bringing up 14-13, 14-34, 16-13
environments supported 1-4
GLS support 17-5
initiating fast recovery 14-26
installing 14-12, 16-12
migration
C-ISAM to WD 14-49
to SE 14-54
SQL syntax restrictions 14-54
starting 14-34
verifying data integrity 14-26
verifying database integrity
14-16, 16-6
E
EDA/SQL server. See Enterprise
Gateway for EDA/SQL.
en_us.8859-1 locale Intro-6
See also U.S. English locale.
English database 17-4, 17-6, 18-7,
18-12
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Extended Parallel Server
backing up
after migration 7-16, 8-17
before reversion 7-19
bringing up 8-16
environments supported 1-4
installing 8-14
release notes 7-4, 7-13, 8-4, 8-15
reversion restrictions 7-17
reverting 8-18
starting 8-16
Enterprise Gateway for EDA/SQL
2-22
Enterprise Gateway Manager 2-22
Enterprise Gateway with DRDA
2-22
Enterprise Replication
configuration parameters 11-13
configuring 11-30, 14-33
stopping 11-39, 14-39
Environment variables
ALS8BITFSYS 17-16, 18-14
boldface type Intro-10
CC8BITLEVEL 11-48, 14-42,
17-8, 17-16
changes in OnLine Dynamic
Server 6.0 12-20
CLIENT_LOCALE 11-35, 11-48,
14-38, 17-8, 17-16
COLLCHAR 11-35, 11-49, 14-38,
14-43, 17-12
DB_LOCALE 11-35, 11-48, 14-38,
17-17
DBAPICODE 11-12, 17-9, 17-12
DBCENTURY 11-48, 14-42
DBCODESET 17-9, 17-16, 17-19
DBCSOVERRIDE 17-16
DBDATE 14-47, 17-12, 17-16
DBFLTMASK 11-48, 14-42
DBFORMAT 17-16
DBINFXRC 17-16
DBLANG 17-12, 17-16
DBMONEY 14-47, 17-12, 17-17
DBNLS 11-49, 14-43, 17-9, 17-12,
17-14
DBONPLOAD 11-48, 14-42
DBPATH 12-15, 14-54
DBSPACETEMP 12-15, 12-31
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
DBTIME 17-13, 17-17
definition of A-1
ESQLMF 11-48, 14-42, 17-8
for ALS support 17-16
for GLS support 17-8
for NLS support 17-12
GL_DATE 11-48, 14-42, 17-8
GL_DATETIME 11-48, 14-43,
17-8
GLS8BITFSYS 11-48, 14-42, 17-8,
18-14
ifx_directives 11-6
INFORMIXCONCSMCFG 6-5,
6-27
INFORMIXDIR 7-14, 8-13, 9-9,
10-30, 12-30
INFORMIXKEYTAB 6-5, 6-27,
11-6
INFORMIXSERVER 4-18, 6-16,
7-14, 8-13, 9-9, 10-5, 10-30,
12-20, 12-30, 14-47
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS 4-18,
6-16, 7-3, 7-7, 8-13, 10-30,
11-29, 14-31
LANG 11-49, 14-43, 17-9, 17-13,
17-14
LC_COLLATE 17-13
LC_CTYPE 17-13
LC_MONETARY 17-13
LC_NUMERIC 17-13
LC_TIME 17-13
list of A-4–A-7
LOG_BACKUP_MODE 11-9
new in Dynamic Server 2000 4-5
NODEFDAC 11-48
ONCONFIG 4-18, 6-16, 7-14,
8-13, 9-9, 10-30, 11-19, 12-20,
12-30
ONPLOAD 11-48, 14-43
OPTCOMPIND 11-16
PATH 4-18, 6-16, 7-14, 8-13, 9-9,
10-30, 12-30
PDQPRIORITY 10-5
PLCONFIG 11-48, 14-43
PSORT_NPROCS 10-5
reverting Dynamic Server 2000
4-33
reverting Dynamic Server with
AD and XP Options 7-25
Index 7
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
reverting OnLine Dynamic Server
11-48, 12-43
reverting OnLine Workgroup
Server 14-42
reverting Universal Server 6-27
SE, required 13-4
SERVER_LOCALE 11-48, 14-43,
17-8
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL 26-4
SQLEXEC 12-20
TBCONFIG 11-19, 12-20
THREADLIB 11-48, 14-43
types of A-2
UNIX A-2
Windows NT A-2
XFER_CONFIG 26-4
environment variables
XFER_CONFIG 26-4
Error message files Intro-21
Error messages, DataBlade
modules 6-23
ESQL/C
ALS support 17-18
GLS support 17-6
NLS support 17-11
ESQL/COBOL
GLS support 17-6
NLS support 17-11
ESQLMF environment variable
11-48, 14-42, 17-8
Example
calculating free space 4-11, 6-10,
8-9
DataBlade module cleanup 6-23
onstat output 4-16, 6-13, 7-10,
7-21, 8-12, 10-27
export command 12-30
Express Mode Loading 10-19
Extended data types 4-20, 6-19,
6-24
Extents, checking 4-25, 5-4, 6-18,
7-11, 8-11, 10-36, 11-25, 11-42,
11-53, 12-37, 14-10, 14-16,
14-26, 16-6
External data, storage space 6-6,
6-25
External spaces
creating 6-6
deleting 6-25
dropping virtual tables 6-25
8
Informix Migration Guide
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
External tables 10-33
Extracting schema information
14-6, 15-3, 16-4
Extspace. See External spaces.
F
Fast recovery, initiating 4-14, 6-12,
7-12, 8-11, 10-25, 14-26
Feature icons Intro-11
Features of this product, new
Intro-7
File descriptors 12-12
FILE statement
character-position form 21-15
delimiter form 21-10
syntax for
character-position form 21-16
delimiter form 21-10
with dbload 21-9
Files
documentation notes 11-20, 12-4,
14-23
editing OnLine Dynamic Server
configuration 12-30
oncfg 7-9, 7-14, 7-25, 9-7
onconfig
Dynamic Server 2000 4-19, 4-31
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-9, 16-6
Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options 10-31
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-16
Extended Parallel Server 7-14,
7-18, 8-15
OnLine Dynamic Server 10-24,
11-22, 12-25
OnLine Workgroup Server
14-24
Universal Server 6-16, 6-21
onconfig.std 10-24, 11-22, 12-25
readme 11-22, 12-8, 14-24
release notes 12-4, 14-23
secure auditing, growth of 12-20
setting up onconfig 12-30
sqlhosts 4-12, 4-18, 6-11, 6-16,
7-9, 7-14, 8-10, 8-13, 9-7, 9-9,
10-24, 10-30, 11-22, 12-31
sqlhosts.demo 12-31
S
T
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W
X
Y
Z
@
sysmaster_pre60 12-22
tbconfig 12-25
tbconfig.std 12-25
tctermcap
saving 4-12, 6-11, 7-9, 8-10,
10-24, 11-23, 12-25
used by ON-Archive 12-22
termcap 4-12, 6-11, 7-9, 8-10,
9-7, 11-22, 12-25
xcfg 7-9, 7-14, 7-25, 9-7
FILLFACTOR configuration
parameter 12-36
Find Error utility Intro-22
finderr utility Intro-21
FORMAT configuration parameter
26-9
Formula
dist_pages 12-15
for growth_in_pages 12-13
free space, Dynamic Server 2000
4-11
free space, Universal Server 6-10
idx_growth_pages 12-16
Fragmentation
adding 14-46, 15-4, 15-5
removing 14-51
Free space required
Dynamic Server 2000 4-11
Universal Server 6-10
Functional indexes, Universal
Server 6-25
Functions, user-defined 6-23
G
Gateway, importing from another
computer 2-21
Generic B-tree index 6-25
GL_DATE environment variable
11-48, 14-42, 17-8
GL_DATETIME environment
variable 11-48, 14-43, 17-8
glfiles utility 18-4
Global Language Support (GLS)
Intro-6, 17-8
and dbimport utility 20-12
client products 17-6, 17-9
code-set conversion 17-8
database servers 17-5
definition of 17-3, 17-4
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 10-18
environment variables 17-8, A-2
finding locales 18-4
glfiles utility 18-4
GLS file location 18-5
GLS locale 17-6
locale 17-6
migrating databases 11-35, 14-38
operating system locale 18-8
products 17-5
reverting databases 11-44, 14-41
reverting from 19-3
reverting to ALS database 19-5
reverting to NLS database 14-41,
19-3
storing database locale 17-7
support for ALS databases 17-17
support for NLS databases 17-13
Universal Server 6-7
upgrading to 18-3
using onload and onunload 2-12,
25-13
GLS client product 17-6, 17-9
GLS database
definition of 17-6
reverting to ALS 19-5
reverting to NLS 19-3
storing database locale 17-7
GLS database server
definition of 17-5
opening NLS database 18-11
setting client locale 17-9
setting database locale 17-9
GLS locale
definition of 17-6
finding available 18-4
locale categories 17-7
localized collation order 18-12,
18-13
operating system 18-8
operating-system-independent
18-8, 18-9
reverting to ALS 19-5
reverting to NLS 19-3
saving in system catalog 17-7
types of 18-8
verifying 18-5
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
GLS. See Global Language Support.
GLS8BITFSYS environment
variable 11-48, 14-42, 17-8,
18-14
GRANT FRAGMENT statement
14-54
GRANT statement
role privileges 22-13
use of dbschema 22-6
Group name 11-30, 14-32, 14-33
growth_in_pages formula 12-13
H
Hardware requirements
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-21
OnLine Workgroup Server 14-24
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-24
HETERO_COMMIT configuration
parameter 6-5, 11-45, 14-41
High Availability 11-10
High-Performance Loader (HPL)
loading ASCII or COBOL data
2-20
OnLine Workgroup Server, not
supported 16-15
onpload utility 2-20
using 2-20
Hybrid Fragmentation 10-11
I
Icons
feature Intro-11
Important Intro-11
platform Intro-11
product Intro-11
syntax diagram Intro-14
Tip Intro-11
Warning Intro-11
IDS 7.3 on NT. See Dynamic Server
7.3.
IDS 7.3 on UNIX. See Dynamic
Server 7.3.
IECC. See Informix Enterprise
Command Center.
Important paragraphs, icon for
Intro-11
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
Importing non-Informix data 2-21
Index
and dbload utility 21-6
bitmap 10-17
B-tree 6-25
checking 4-25, 5-4, 6-18, 7-11,
8-11, 10-36, 11-25, 11-42,
11-53, 12-43, 14-10, 14-16,
14-26, 16-6
rebuilding 4-21, 6-17
R-tree 6-25
Universal Server 6-23
Index space needed
idx_growth_pages formula 12-16
system catalog, disk utilization
12-13
Industry standards, compliance
with Intro-23
Information Builders, Inc. See
Gateway.
Informix Dynamic Server
GLS support 17-5
physical-memory requirement
12-7
Informix Enterprise Command
Center 2-6, 10-17
configurations 14-22
starting Dynamic Server 7.3 16-22
starting Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 16-13
Informix Enterprise Gateway. See
Gateway.
Informix language support. See
Language support.
Informix Storage Manager 4-8, 7-7,
8-6, 9-5, 10-18, 11-21, 12-23
informix user password 14-37
INFORMIXCONCSMCFG
environment variable 6-5, 6-27
INFORMIXDIR environment
variable 12-30
location of locale files 18-5
INFORMIXDIR/bin directory
Intro-7
INFORMIX-ESQL/C. See ESQL/C.
INFORMIX-ESQL/COBOL. See
ESQL/COBOL.
Index 9
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
INFORMIXKEYTAB environment
variable 6-5, 6-27, 11-6
INFORMIXSERVER environment
variable 7-14, 8-13, 9-9, 10-30
changing 14-47
Dynamic Server 2000 4-18
OnLine Dynamic Server 12-20,
12-30
Universal Server 6-16
INFORMIXSQLHOSTS
environment variable
Dynamic Server 2000 4-18
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-29
Universal Server 6-16
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-31
Initial- and next-extent values
14-46, 14-51
Initializing, Dynamic Server 2000
4-21
In-Place ALTER TABLE 11-37,
11-40
INSERT SQL statement 12-34
INSERT statement
character-position form 21-15
delimiter form 21-10
syntax for
character-position form 21-16
delimiter form 21-10
with dbload 21-9
inssnmp.exe utility 11-31, 14-30,
14-33
Installation directory 4-18, 6-15,
7-13, 8-14, 9-8, 10-29, 11-28,
12-29, 14-30
Installing
Command Center 14-12, 14-18,
16-12, 16-21
Dynamic Server 2000 4-17
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-27, 12-29,
14-18
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options
release notes 9-8, 10-29
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions 14-12,
16-12
10
Informix Migration Guide
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Extended Parallel Server, release
notes 7-13, 8-14
OnLine Dynamic Server 12-29
storage manager 4-8, 7-7, 8-6,
9-5, 10-18, 11-21, 12-23
Universal Server 6-15
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-29
INT8 data type 6-24
Interrupt key
with dbimport 20-12
with dbload 21-7
Interruptions, preventing 12-40
ISM. See Informix Storage Manager.
ISO 8859-1 code set Intro-6
isql utility 12-17
L
LANG environment variable 11-49,
14-43, 17-9, 17-13, 17-14
Language support
ALS 17-14
GLS 17-4, 17-13, 17-17
in database servers 17-20
NLS 17-9
types of 17-3
understanding 17-4
LC_COLLATE environment
variable 17-13
LC_CTYPE environment variable
17-13
LC_MONETARY environment
variable 17-13
LC_NUMERIC environment
variable 17-13
LC_TIME environment variable
17-13
Level-0 backup 14-27
after moving data 25-16
Dynamic Server 2000 4-25
Dynamic Server 7.3 4-16, 8-12
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 7-11
OnLine Dynamic Server 4-16,
4-36, 6-14, 8-12, 10-27, 12-26
Universal Server 4-16, 6-19
LIST data type 6-24
S
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X
Y
Z
@
LOAD SQL statement
converting to non-default locales
12-38
moving selected tables to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-48, 16-20
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-7, 14-48, 16-10
SE 14-53
restriction 12-6
syntax 23-5
Loading
ASCII files 2-8, 2-21
binary data 2-9, 2-13, 25-13
COBOL data 2-8, 2-20
Locale Intro-6
ALS 17-15
definition of 17-4
file location 18-5
finding information about 18-4
GLS 17-6
GLS locale categories 17-7
NLS 17-11
NLS locale categories 17-11
reverting to ALS from GLS 19-5
reverting to NLS from GLS 19-3
Lock mode for tables 14-46, 14-51
Locking, set by onload 25-15
LOCKS configuration parameter
11-17, 12-21
LOGFILES configuration parameter
12-41
Logging, and
ANSI compliance 12-36
onload and onunload 25-16
Logical logs
backing up 4-21, 6-17, 11-32,
12-32, 14-34
changing mode 14-51
logging status 16-8, 16-18
minimum page total in OnLine
Dynamic Server 12-21
out of space 4-21, 6-17
restoring 4-25, 6-19, 7-8, 7-16,
7-18, 9-6, 10-37, 11-33, 12-37,
14-36
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
space required for Dynamic
Server 2000 4-10
space required for Universal
Server 6-9
usage status 12-21
LOGSMAX configuration
parameter 12-41
Long transaction, risk when
upgrading indexes 12-36
LTAPEDEV parameter
with onunload/onload 25-16
LVARCHAR data type 6-24
M
Machine notes Intro-22
makeps.sql script 12-22
Message file for error messages
Intro-21
Message segment, estimating size
of 12-8
MESSAGES locale category 17-7
Messages, upgrade and reversion
B-1
Middle Eastern language support
11-35, 14-38
Migrating a database to
different operating system 1-11
Dynamic Server 7.3
using dbexport and dbimport
14-46, 15-6
using UNLOAD, dbschema, and
LOAD 14-47, 15-6
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions
using dbexport and dbimport
14-46, 16-8
using UNLOAD, dbschema, and
LOAD 14-6, 14-47, 16-9
overview 2-3
same platforms 2-9
SE
using dbexport and dbimport
14-50
using UNLOAD, dbschema, and
LOAD 14-52
Migration
onload utility 25-4, 25-9
onunload utility 25-4
paths 1-3
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Migration procedure
between UNIX and Windows NT
15-5
between versions of Dynamic
Server 7.3 11-34
between versions of OnLine
Dynamic Server 11-5, 11-34,
12-38
between versions of SE 13-4
Dynamic Server 7.3 to Dynamic
Server 2000 4-20
Dynamic Server 7.3 to Dynamic
Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions 14-8,
16-10
Dynamic Server 7.3 to SE 14-50–
14-54
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions to SE
14-50–14-54
GLS to ALS language support
19-5
GLS to NLS language support
19-3
OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 to Dynamic
Server 7.3 12-24
OnLine 4.1 or 5.0 to OnLine
Dynamic Server 7.2 12-24
OnLine Dynamic Server to
Dynamic Server 2000 4-20
OnLine Dynamic Server to
Universal Server 6-19
SE to Dynamic Server 7.3 14-45–
14-49
SE to Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-45–14-49
Universal Server to Dynamic
Server 2000 4-20
Mirroring 12-15
MONETARY locale category 17-7,
17-11
Moving data
blobspaces 25-16
choosing a migration method 1-3
C-ISAM, migrating 13-6
constraints 2-7
oncheck utility 25-16
steps for using onunload and
onload 25-16
S
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W
X
Y
Z
@
Moving to another operating
system, migration paths 1-11
MSGPATH configuration
parameter 26-10
Multibyte character 17-4, 17-14
Multiple residency, definition of
11-9
MULTIPROCESSOR configuration
parameter 6-6
MULTISET data type 6-24
N
Native Language Support (NLS)
client products 17-9, 17-11, 17-13
database servers 17-10, 17-13
definition of 17-3, 17-9
description of 17-9
determining compatible GLS
locales 18-8
environment variables 17-12, A-2
finding the database locale 18-6
GLS support for 12-38, 17-13
locale 17-11
NLS locale 17-11
populating with dbimport 20-20
products 17-10
setting NLS locales 14-41
setting NLS support 11-44, 14-41
storing database locale 17-12
NCHAR data type 12-38, 17-20,
18-12, 18-13, 19-6, 19-8
Network File System 10-21
New features of this product
Intro-7
NFILE, NFILES, NOFILE, NOFILES
OS parameters 12-12
NFS. See Network File System.
NLS client product 17-9, 17-11,
17-13
NLS database
definition of 17-11
English 18-7, 18-12
non-English 18-8, 18-11
opening 18-11
saving database locale 17-12
unloading 18-10
NLS database server
definition of 17-10
support for GLS client 17-13
Index 11
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
NLS locale
definition of 17-11
description of 17-11
locale categories 17-11
saving in system catalog 17-12,
18-6
NLS. See Native Language Support.
NOAGE configuration parameter
6-6
NODEFDAC environment variable
11-48
Non-English database
ALS support 17-15, 19-8
definition of 17-4
migration of 17-20
NLS support 17-10, 18-8, 18-11
onmode utility 19-5
Non-Informix data, importing 2-21
NSTREAMS configuration
parameter 26-11
NUMAIOVPS configuration
parameter 6-6
NUMCPUVPS configuration
parameter 6-6
NUMERIC locale category 17-7,
17-11
NVARCHAR data type 12-38,
17-20, 18-12, 18-13, 19-6, 19-8
O
Off-line mode, verifying 12-28
ON-Archive
backing up
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions 11-9
OnLine Workgroup Server
11-18
ON-Archive utility
and tctermcap file 12-22
and the sysmaster database 12-14
and Windows NT 11-25, 11-42,
14-10, 14-17, 16-7, 16-14,
16-17, 16-23
backing up 14-35
Dynamic Server 2000 4-31
Dynamic Server 7.3 8-12
12
Informix Migration Guide
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
OnLine Dynamic Server 4-17,
6-14, 8-12, 10-27, 11-33,
12-37
Universal Server 6-19, 6-22
updating configuration files 4-20,
6-17
ON-Bar utility 14-35
backing up
Dynamic Server 2000 4-25, 4-31
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-33
Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options 7-16, 7-26, 9-12,
10-37
Extended Parallel Server 7-19,
8-17
Universal Server 6-19, 6-22
oncfg file in $INFORMIXDIR/etc
7-9, 7-14, 7-25, 9-7
oncheck utility
before moving data 25-16
changed from tbcheck 12-6
rebuilding table indexes 4-21,
6-17
upgrading indexes 12-18, 12-35,
12-36
verifying database integrity 4-25,
6-18, 10-36, 11-24, 11-42,
11-51, 11-53, 12-40, 12-43,
14-26
ONCONFIG environment variable
Dynamic Server 2000 4-18
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-19
OnLine Dynamic Server 12-20,
12-30
Universal Server 6-16
onconfig file
customizing 11-29, 14-12, 14-19,
14-31, 16-12
saving
Dynamic Server 2000 4-31
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-9, 16-6
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-16
Extended Parallel Server 7-18
OnLine Dynamic Server 10-24,
11-22, 12-25
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
OnLine Workgroup Server
14-24
Universal Server 6-21
updating 11-45, 14-41
ONCONFIG file. See Configuration
file.
ONCONFIG parameters. See
Configuration parameter.
onconfig.std file 10-24, 11-22, 12-25
oninit
starting
Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options 9-8
OnLine Workgroup Server
11-32
oninit utility
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-19
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions for UNIX
14-13, 16-13
-s option 4-14, 6-12, 7-12, 8-11,
9-8, 10-25, 11-32, 14-34
starting
Dynamic Server 2000 4-21
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-32
Extended Parallel Server 8-16
OnLine Dynamic Server 11-32,
12-32
Universal Server 6-17
starting Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-34
ONLANGMAP configuration
parameter 11-45, 14-41
OnLine
environments supported 1-5
reverting to 4.x ALS 19-8
reverting to 5.x ALS 19-7
OnLine Dynamic Server
ALS support 17-15, 17-21
backing up
after migration 11-33
after reversion 11-54
before migration 4-16, 6-13,
8-12, 10-27, 11-37, 11-42
Version 5.x 12-27, 12-44
bringing down 4-17, 6-14, 10-28,
11-27, 12-28
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
bringing up 4-34, 6-27, 12-32,
12-43
configuring semaphore
parameters 12-10, 12-24
copying configuration files 12-25
environment variables A-4–A-7
environments supported 1-4
estimating memory requirements
12-7
GLS support 17-5
initiating fast recovery 4-14, 6-12,
8-11, 10-25
installing 12-29
language support 17-5, 17-10,
17-21, 17-22
migration
between ALS and GLS support
17-23
between NLS and GLS support
17-23
between UNIX and Windows
NT 15-5
to Dynamic Server 7.3 1-11
to OnLine Workgroup Server
1-11
to SE 1-11, 14-50
to UNIX 1-11
to Workgroup and Developer
Editions 1-11
NLS support 17-10
obtaining database locale 18-7
preventing interruption of users
12-40
reinstalling 11-50
reverting to
Version 4.x, 5.x 12-39–12-44
Version 6.0 or later 11-36–
11-53, 19-4
Version 6.x ALS 19-6
Version 7.1x NLS 19-4
revise configuration parameter
values 12-20
shutting down 12-40
starting 4-34, 6-27, 12-32, 12-43
UNIX versions 11-36
upgrading to 7.2x 17-22
upgrading user table indexes
12-33
verifying
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
database integrity 11-42, 11-51,
11-53, 12-40
off-line mode 12-28
warning 11-50
On-line help Intro-21
On-line manuals Intro-20
OnLine Workgroup Server
backing up 14-27
Version 7.12 14-45
Version 7.22 14-35
backup and restore tool 14-27
bringing down 16-20
environment variables A-4–A-7
environments supported 1-5
GLS support 17-5
language support 17-5, 17-10,
17-21, 17-24
migration
between NLS and GLS support
17-24
to SE 14-50
moving data between computers
2-13, 2-21
NLS support 17-10
obtaining database locale 18-7
PDQ support 14-14, 16-15
release notes 14-23
shutting down 16-20
upgrading to 7.2x 17-24
using onload and onunload 2-13,
2-21
verifying database integrity 14-26
versions 14-22
warning 14-44
OnLine XPS
environments supported 1-4
GLS support 17-5
language support 17-21
obtaining database locale 18-7
release notes 9-8
onload and onunload utilities 2-11,
12-6, 12-34, 25-16
onload utility
constraints on use 2-12, 25-13
create options 25-10, 25-11
logging status 25-14
moving a database 25-16
moving a table 25-16
moving locales 2-12, 25-13
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
moving to another dbspace 25-16
ownership and privileges 25-15
specifying tape parameters 25-10
steps for using 25-16
syntax 25-10
using between computers 2-9,
2-11
onmode utility
and shared-memory connections
12-10
-b 5.0 option 19-7
-b 6.0 option 19-4
-b 6.0A option 19-6
-b 7.1 option 19-4
-b 7.1UD1 option 19-4
-b option 14-40, 24-4
changing mode to quiescent 12-35
-ky option 4-14, 6-12, 7-12, 8-10,
10-25
-m option 4-36, 6-28, 7-26, 11-32,
12-33, 14-34
quiescent to on-line mode 11-32,
12-33, 14-34
reversion syntax 19-3
reverting to 5.x ALS 19-7
reverting to 6.x ALS 19-6
reverting to 6.x NLS 19-4
reverting to 7.1x NLS 19-4
reverting to NLS database server
11-43, 19-3, 19-4
reverting to OnLine 5.0 12-41
reverting to OnLine Workgroup
Server 7.12 14-40
reverting to Version 7.2 6-26
-s option 12-35
shutting down 16-20
Dynamic Server 7.3 4-14, 8-10
Dynamic Server with AD and
XP Options 7-12
OnLine Dynamic Server 4-14,
6-12, 8-10, 10-25
Universal Server 4-14
-sy option 4-14, 6-12, 7-12, 8-10,
10-25, 11-23, 11-41, 14-11,
14-17, 14-25, 16-11
treatment of systables 19-5
ONPLOAD environment variable
11-48, 14-43
onpload utility 2-20
Index 13
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
onsnmp utility, configuring 11-31,
14-30, 14-33
onspaces -d command 6-25
onstat utility 4-16, 6-13, 7-10, 7-13,
7-21, 8-12, 10-27, 11-24, 11-41,
14-11, 14-18, 14-25, 16-11
ontape utility
backing up
Dynamic Server 2000 4-25, 4-31
Dynamic Server 7.3 8-12
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-35
logical logs 11-32, 12-32, 14-34
OnLine Dynamic Server 4-16,
4-36, 6-14, 8-12, 10-27,
11-33, 12-37
Universal Server 6-19, 6-22
onunload and onload restriction
12-6
onunload utility
constraints on use 2-12, 25-7,
25-13
locking 25-9
logging mode 25-8
moving a database 25-16
moving a table 25-16
moving locales 2-12, 25-13
moving to another dbspace 25-16
ownership and privileges 25-7
steps for using 25-16
syntax 25-5
system catalog tables 25-8
use without tape parameters 25-5
using 2-9, 2-11
what is included with a
database 25-8
table 25-8
onutil 10-15
onxfer utility 26-9, 26-10, 26-11,
26-12, 26-13, 26-14, 26-16
command syntax 26-5
configuration file
default name 26-4, 26-7
description 26-7
configuration parameter
DEVICE 26-7
configuration parameters 26-7
14
Informix Migration Guide
I
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O
P
Q
data format 26-9
data streams 26-11
description 26-3
destination device 26-7
environment variables 26-4
guidelines 26-17
message log 26-10
moving data 26-3
reject file location 26-12
restrictions 26-17
schema file location 26-13
source data 26-14
source database server 26-16
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL
environment variable 26-4
target database or tables 26-14
target database server 26-16
XFER_CONFIG file 26-4
OPAQUE data type 6-24
oper_deflt.arc file
saving 4-12, 6-11, 8-10, 10-25,
11-23
updating 4-20, 6-17
Operating system
reconfiguring 4-17, 6-15, 8-13,
10-29, 11-27, 12-31, 14-29
updates 12-12
Operating-system locale. See NLS
locale.
Operating-system parameter
NFILE 12-12
NFILES 12-12
NOFILE 12-12
NOFILES 12-12
SEMMNI 12-10
SEMMNS 12-11
SEMMSL 12-11
SHMMAX 12-9
SHMMNI 12-9
SHMSEG 12-10
SHMSIZE 12-9
Operating-system resources
disk utilization 12-12
file descriptors 12-12
secure auditing log files 12-20
semaphores 12-10
shared memory 12-7–12-10
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
Operating-system-independent
locale. See GLS locale.
Operational table, description of
10-14
Operators 6-24
OPTCOMPIND configuration
parameter 11-16, 11-47
OPTCOMPIND environment
variable 11-16
options field 6-6, 10-9
osahosts 14-24, 14-29
Owner, in dbschema 22-7
P
Parallel data query (PDQ) 14-14,
16-15
PATH environment variable
Dynamic Server 2000 4-18
OnLine Dynamic Server 12-30
Universal Server 6-16
PDQ. See Parallel data query.
Performance comparison 4-25,
6-19, 12-23
Physical memory requirement for
Informix Dynamic Server 12-7
Planning
data migration overview 2-3
migrating to Workgroup and
Developer Editions 14-23
upgrading OnLine Dynamic
Server 12-3–12-23
upgrading to Dynamic Server 7.3
11-19
Platform icons Intro-11
Platforms, moving data between
compatible computers 2-9, 2-13,
2-21
operating systems 1-11
PLCONFIG environment variable
11-48, 14-43
Preparations for migrating to
OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0 12-3
Printed manuals Intro-21
Privileges
access privileges for tables 25-8
required for onload 25-15
required for onunload 25-7
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Product icons Intro-11
Program group
Documentation notes Intro-23
Release notes Intro-23
Pseudotables, in sysmaster
database 12-14
R
Raw table, description of 10-14
read_ods.txt file 11-22, 12-8
Readme file 11-22, 12-8, 14-24
Rebuild system catalog indexes
12-33
Reconfiguring the operating system
4-17, 6-15, 8-13, 10-29, 11-27,
12-31, 14-29
RECOVER TABLE statement 14-50
Registering DataBlade modules
4-20, 6-19
Registry keys
SNMP master agent 11-31, 14-30,
14-33
sqlhosts 14-29
Reinstalling OnLine Dynamic
Server 11-50
REJECT_DIR configuration
parameter 26-12
REJECTFILE 10-37
Related reading Intro-23
Release notes Intro-22, 12-4
Dynamic Server 2000 4-4
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 7-13, 9-4, 9-8, 10-4,
10-29
Extended Parallel Server 7-4,
7-13, 8-4, 8-15
Online Workgroup Server 14-23
OnLine XPS 9-8
Universal Server 6-4
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-23
RENAME DATABASE statement
14-54
REPAIR TABLE statement 14-50
Replication Manager 11-30, 14-32,
14-33
Requirements, system 11-21, 14-24
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Reserve pages, checking 4-25, 5-4,
6-18, 7-11, 8-11, 10-36, 11-25,
11-42, 11-53, 12-43, 14-10,
14-16, 14-26, 16-6
Resident segment, estimating size
of 12-8
Restoring
data 14-27
OnLine Dynamic Server data
11-52, 11-54
OnLine Workgroup Server data
14-45
Reversion messages B-1
Reverting
administration tools 14-38
Dynamic Server 2000 4-26, 4-36
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 7-26
Extended Parallel Server 8-18
Enterprise Replication 11-39,
14-39
GLS to ALS database 19-5
GLS to NLS database 19-3
modifying configuration
parameters 11-45, 14-41
OnLine Dynamic Server to
6.0 or later 11-36–11-52, 24-4
pre-6.0 12-39–12-44, 24-4
reinstalling the product 11-50
resetting environment variables
11-48
Universal Server 6-20, 6-28
REVOKE FRAGMENT statement
14-54
rofferr utility Intro-21
ROLLBACK WORK statement
12-36
ROLLFORWARD DATABASE
statement 14-50
Root dbspace
disk utilization 12-12
free pages 12-14
ROOTOFFSET configuration
parameter 4-19, 6-16, 11-29,
11-47, 14-12, 14-19, 14-32,
16-12
ROOTPATH configuration
parameter 4-19, 6-16, 11-29,
14-12, 14-19, 14-32, 16-12
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
ROOTSIZE configuration
parameter 4-19, 6-16, 11-29,
14-12, 14-19, 14-32, 16-12
Routines, user-defined 6-23
ROW data type 6-24
RSAM shared-memory segment
12-7
R-tree indexes 6-25
S
sales_demo database Intro-6
Sample-code conventions Intro-19
SBSPACENAME configuration
parameter 6-5, 6-26, 7-25
Sbspaces
about 6-6
deleting 6-25
SCHEMA_DIR configuration
parameter 26-13
SE
ALS support 17-15, 17-21
converting C-ISAM files 13-6
converting unsupported data
types 14-50
environment variables A-4–A-7
environments supported 1-5
GLS support 17-5
language support 17-5, 17-10,
17-21, 17-23
migration to
Dynamic Server 7.3 1-11,
14-45–14-49
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-45–14-49
GLS support 17-23
OnLine Dynamic Server 1-11
OnLine Workgroup Server 1-11
UNIX 1-11
Windows NT 1-11
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 1-11
NLS support 17-10
obtaining database locale 18-7
onload and onunload 2-12
reverting to 4.x ALS 19-8
reverting to 5.x ALS 19-7
reverting to 6.x ALS 19-6
Index 15
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
reverting to 6.x NLS 19-5
reverting to 7.1x NLS 19-5
reverting to 7.2x 18-11
reverting to an earlier version 13-6
SQL syntax restrictions 14-50
steps for migration 13-5
upgrading to 7.2x 17-23
version levels 1-5
Secure auditing, growth of log files
12-20
Segment
message 12-7
resident 12-7
virtual 12-7
SELECT statement 12-17, 12-19
Semaphores 12-10
SEMMNI OS parameter 12-10
SEMMNS OS parameter 12-11
SEMMSL OS parameter 12-11
Serial columns 10-12
SERIAL data type, treatment by
dbschema 22-6
Serial number and key 14-29
SERIAL8 data type 6-24
Server menu 14-35
SERVER_LOCALE environment
variable 11-48, 14-43, 17-8
Services file 14-12, 14-19, 16-12,
16-21
Services, Windows NT 14-11,
14-17, 16-11
SET CONSTRAINTS statement
14-54
SET data type 6-24
SET DATASKIP statement 14-54
SET ISOLATION statement 14-54
SET LOG statement 14-54
SET PDQPRIORITY statement
14-54
SET ROLE statement 14-54
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
statement 14-54
setenv command 12-30
setenv.cmd 10-16
Setnet32 tool 11-29, 14-31
Setup tool 14-37
Shared server machine 14-37
16
Informix Migration Guide
I
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M
N
O
P
Q
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Shared-memory communication
interface 12-10
Shared-memory segments
added at run time 12-9
estimating size of 12-7–12-10
in the operating system 12-9
SHMADD configuration parameter
12-9, 12-21
SHMMAX OS parameter 12-9
SHMMNI OS parameter 12-9
SHMSEG OS parameter 12-10
SHMSIZE OS parameter 12-9
SHMTOTAL configuration
parameter 12-9, 12-22
SHMVIRTSIZE configuration
parameter 12-8, 12-21
Shutting down
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions 16-20
Enterprise Replication 11-39,
14-39
OnLine Dynamic Server 12-40
Simple large objects, moving with
onload 25-16
SINGLE_CPU_VP configuration
parameter 6-6
Single-byte character 17-4, 17-9
Smart large objects
creating storage space 6-6
data types 6-24
deleting storage space 6-25
removing 6-24
smi_load utility 11-38
SNMP, configuring 11-31, 14-30,
14-33
Software dependencies Intro-5
Sort files and DBSPACETEMP
12-15
SOURCE configuration parameter
26-14
SOURCE_DIR configuration
parameter 26-16
SOURCE_REMOTE_SHELL
environment variable 26-4
Space
additional pages for system
catalog indexes 12-13
for sysmaster database 4-10, 6-9,
12-14
S
T
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W
X
Y
Z
@
Space requirements
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-21
Workgroup and Developer
Editions
OnLine Workgroup Server
14-24
SPL routines, Universal Server 6-25
SQL code Intro-19
SQL reserved words 4-6, 11-7
SQL statement
ALTER FRAGMENT 14-54
CHECK TABLE 14-50
COMMIT WORK 12-36
CREATE AUDIT 14-50
CREATE DATABASE 14-7,
14-48, 14-52, 16-10, 16-20
CREATE INDEX 12-19, 12-36
CREATE ROLE 14-54
CREATE TABLE
loading data 14-7, 14-48, 14-52,
16-10, 16-20
removing information 14-51,
16-8
DROP AUDIT 14-50
DROP INDEX 12-19, 12-36
DROP ROLE 14-54
FILE 21-9
GRANT FRAGMENT 14-54
INSERT 12-34, 21-9
LOAD 12-6, 12-38
RECOVER TABLE 14-50
remove unsupported syntax
14-39, 14-48, 16-8, 16-18
RENAME DATABASE 14-54
REPAIR TABLE 14-50
REVOKE FRAGMENT 14-54
ROLLBACK WORK 12-36
ROLLFORWARD DATABASE
14-50
SELECT 12-17, 12-19
SET DATASKIP 14-54
SET LOG 14-54
SET PDQPRIORITY 14-54
SET ROLE 14-54
SET SESSION
AUTHORIZATION 14-54
START DATABASE 14-50
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
syntax recognized by
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-54
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-54
SE 14-50
UNLOAD 12-6, 12-38
UPDATE STATISTICS
data distributions 12-15, 22-18
queries 11-33, 14-14, 14-20,
14-36, 16-14, 16-23
system catalog indexes 12-14
user table indexes 12-18, 12-35
SQLEXEC environment variable
12-20
sqlhosts file, UNIX
changing name or path 4-18,
6-16, 7-14, 8-13, 9-9, 10-30
csm option 4-19, 4-33, 6-16, 6-27
modify, example 12-30, 12-31
pre-6.0 OnLine Dynamic Server
13-4
save a copy when migrating 4-12,
6-11, 7-9, 8-10, 9-7, 10-24,
11-22, 12-25
sqlhosts, Windows NT
database server definitions 14-12,
14-18, 16-12, 16-21
registry 14-29
sqlhosts.demo file 12-31
sqlturbo processes 12-21
srv_agent2 16-21
Standard table, description of 10-14
START DATABASE statement
14-50
Starting
Dynamic Server 2000 4-21
Dynamic Server 7.3 11-32, 14-19,
16-22
Dynamic Server with AD and XP
Options 10-32
Dynamic Server, Workgroup and
Developer Editions 14-13,
14-34, 16-13
Extended Parallel Server 8-16
OnLine Dynamic Server 4-34,
6-27, 12-32, 12-43
OnLine Workgroup Server 6-26
Universal Server 6-17
I
J
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M
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O
P
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Static table, description of 10-14
Storage manager 4-8, 7-7, 8-6, 9-5,
10-18, 11-21, 12-23
stores_demo database Intro-6
superstores_demo database Intro-7
Swap space, size of 12-7
Syntax conventions
description of Intro-13
example diagram Intro-16
icons used in Intro-14
Syntax diagrams, elements in
Intro-14
sysbldiprovided table 6-23
sysbldirequired table 6-23
sysbldobjdepends table 6-23
sysbldobjects table 6-23
sysbldregistered table 6-23
sysdbslocale table 18-5
syserrors catalog, UGEN errors 6-23
sysmaster database
and disk utilization 12-13
and logical logs 4-21, 6-17, 12-21
automatic creation of 12-32
pre-existing 12-22
space required to build 4-10, 6-9,
11-21, 12-14
sysdbslocale table 18-5
systabnames table 18-7
sysmaster_pre60 file 12-22
systables table
ALS support 19-5
ALS usage 17-15, 18-4, 18-13
finding database locale 18-7
GLS usage 17-7
NLS usage 17-12, 18-4, 18-6,
18-12, 19-3
storing database locale 17-20
systabnames table 18-7
System catalog indexes
disk utilization 12-13
estimating pages needed 12-12
rebuild 12-33
System catalogs
boot scripts, Dynamic Server 2000
4-26
boot scripts, Universal Server 6-20
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
checking tables 4-25, 5-4, 6-18,
7-11, 8-11, 10-36, 11-25,
11-42, 11-53, 12-43, 14-10,
14-16, 14-26, 16-6
size of, Universal Server 6-18
storing database locale 17-20
System requirements
database Intro-5
software Intro-5
System resources, additional
required for 6.0 12-6
T
Table type
logging 10-13
nonlogging 10-13
operational 10-13
permanent 10-13
raw 10-13
scratch 10-13
standard 10-13
static 10-13
temp 10-13
temporary 10-13
Tables
estimate additional index pages
12-17
finding location of 12-17
in separate dbspaces, disk
utilization 12-17
moving to another dbspace 12-34
TAPEDEV parameter
with onunload and onload 25-16
TARGET configuration parameter
26-14
TARGET_DIR configuration
parameter 26-16
tbcheck utility
replaced by oncheck 11-19, 12-6
verifying the integrity of data
12-27
TBCONFIG environment variable
11-19, 12-20
tbconfig file 12-25
tbconfig.std file 12-25
tbinit utility 12-26, 12-43
tbload and tbunload utilities 12-6
Index 17
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
tbmode utility 12-26, 12-28
tbmonitor utility 12-28
tbstat utility
- option 12-27
-d option 12-14, 12-17, 12-25
-l option 12-21
tbtape utility 12-6
tctermcap file
saving 4-12, 6-11, 7-9, 8-10,
10-24, 11-23, 12-25
used by ON-Archive 12-22
Temporary files and tables 12-15
termcap file in $INFORMIXDIR/etc
4-12, 6-11, 7-9, 8-10, 9-7, 11-22,
12-25
TEXT data type 14-46
THREADLIB environment variable
11-48, 14-43
TIME locale category 17-7, 17-11
Tip icons Intro-11
Tools, migration 2-8
U
U.S. English locale 17-6, 18-17,
18-19, 19-7
Universal Server
authentication policies 4-33, 6-16,
6-27
backing up
after migration 6-19
before migration 4-16
before reversion 6-22
bringing down 4-17
bringing up 6-17
casts 6-24
DataBlade modules, installing
6-19
dropping indexes 6-23, 6-25
environments supported 1-4
extended data types 6-24
GLS support 6-7, 17-5
initiating fast recovery 4-14
installing 6-15
language support 17-5, 17-21
migration guidelines 6-19
migration procedure 6-19
onload and onunload 2-12
18
Informix Migration Guide
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
operators 6-24
release notes 6-4
reverting 6-20, 6-28
space requirements 6-9, 6-18
SPL routines 6-25
starting 6-17
system catalogs 6-18
user-defined data types 6-24
user-defined routines 6-23
using onload and onunload 2-12
UNIX
environment variables A-2
migration paths 1-11
OnLine Dynamic Server versions
11-36
SE versions 1-5
starting Dynamic Server 7.3 14-19
starting Dynamic Server,
Workgroup and Developer
Editions 14-13, 16-13
UNLOAD SQL statement
moving data 14-8, 16-10, 16-20
moving data to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-49, 15-6
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-49
SE 14-53
moving selected tables to
Dynamic Server 7.3 14-47
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-7, 14-47, 16-9
SE 14-52
restriction 12-6
syntax 2-15, 23-4
using nondefault locales 12-38
Unregistering DataBlade modules
6-22
UPDATE STATISTICS statement
data distributions 12-15, 22-18
queries 11-33, 14-14, 14-20,
14-36, 16-14
system catalog indexes 12-14
user table indexes 12-18, 12-35
Updating ON-Archive
configuration 4-20, 6-17
Upgrade messages B-1
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
Upgrade screen 14-29
Upgrading
from OnLine 5.0 12-38
from OnLine Dynamic Server 6.0
or later 11-5, 11-34
ISM 4-8, 7-7, 8-6, 9-5, 10-18,
11-21, 12-23
scenarios
Dynamic Server, Workgroup
and Developer Editions
14-22
OnLine Workgroup Server
14-22
to Dynamic Server 2000 4-20
to Universal Server 6-19
User-defined functions 6-23
User-defined index, Universal
Server 6-25
User-defined routines 6-23
USERS configuration parameter
12-8
Users, types of Intro-4
User-table indexes
and disk utilization 12-13
preparing for upgrading to 6.0 or
later 12-18
risk of long transaction when
upgrading 12-36
upgrading in OnLine Dynamic
Server 12-33
Utilities
changes, OnLine Dynamic Server
6.0 12-6
dbaccess 12-14, 12-17
dbexport 2-14, 12-6, 20-3
dbimport 2-14, 12-6
dbload 21-3
DB-Monitor 12-28
dbschema 2-17, 22-3
dropps.sql script 12-22
glfiles 18-4
isql 12-17
makeps.sql script 12-22
ON-Archive. See ON-Archive
utility.
ON-Bar. See ON-Bar utility.
oncheck. See oncheck utility.
oninit. See oninit utility.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
onload and onunload 2-11, 12-6,
12-34, 25-16
onmode. See onmode utility.
onpload 2-20
onspaces 6-25
onstat 4-16, 6-13, 7-10, 7-13,
7-21, 8-12, 10-27
ontape. See ontape utility.
onxfer. See onxfer utility.
smi_load 11-38
tbcheck 12-6, 12-27
tbinit 12-26, 12-43
tbload and tbunload 12-6
tbmode 12-26, 12-28
tbmonitor 12-28
tbstat. See tbstat utility.
tbtape 12-6
V
Validated storage manager 4-8,
7-7, 8-6, 9-5, 10-18, 11-21,
12-23
VARCHAR data type 14-50, 18-12,
18-13, 19-8
Verifying database integrity 4-25,
6-18, 10-36, 12-37, 14-26
Verifying storage-manager
validation 4-8, 7-7, 8-6, 9-5,
10-18, 11-21, 12-23
Versions, Informix database servers
1-3, 1-11
View, display description with
dbschema 22-6
Virtual processors 12-10
Virtual segment
estimating the size of 12-8
use of 12-7, 12-21
Virtual tables 6-25
VPCLASS configuration parameter
6-6, 6-26, 7-25
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
@
Workgroup and Developer Editions
installing 14-27, 14-29
release notes 14-23
upgrading 14-27
versions 14-22
Workgroup Replication
configuration parameters 11-13,
14-42
configuring 11-31, 14-30, 14-33
Writing a dbload command file
in character-position form 21-18
in delimiter form 21-13
X
X/Open compliance level Intro-23
xcfg file in $INFORMIXDIR/etc
7-9, 7-14, 7-25, 9-7
xctl 10-15
XFER_CONFIG environment
variable 26-4
xfer_config file 26-7
Symbols
$ARC_CONFIG. See ARC_CONFIG
file.
W
Warning icons Intro-11
Whole-system backup 14-35
Windows NT
environment variables A-2
migration paths 1-11
SE versions 1-5
Index 19
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