WiMAP-4G User Manual - brown

Release 6.1 - User Manual
brown-iposs GmbH
User Manual WiMAP-4G 6.1
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broadband wireless networks - investigations ● planning ● operations support systems
Copyright
 brown-iposs GmbH 2015
Copyright at brown-iposs GmbH. All rights reserved. Translation, reprinting, copying of illustrations, broadcasting, photomechanical or similar reproduction always requires the permission by brown-iposs GmbH. Storage, also on data-processing
systems, even of parts, is allowed only for documenting. As long as not otherwise indicated this document and all of its parts
are confidential and might not be distributed to third parties.
Label
WiMAP-4G is a registered label of brown-iposs GmbH.
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Contents
ABOUT THIS MANUAL ................................................................................................................ 10
CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 10
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE.............................................................................................................. 11
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 12
1.1 WIMAP-4G .............................................................................................................................. 12
1.2 WIMAP-4G EDITIONS ................................................................................................................. 12
1.2.1
WiMAP-4G Community-Edition ....................................................................................... 12
1.2.2
WiMAP-4G Professional-Edition ...................................................................................... 13
1.3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................... 14
1.4 INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................................. 15
1.4.1
How to Install WiMAP-4G ................................................................................................ 15
1.5 LAUNCHING WIMAP-4G FOR THE FIRST TIME ................................................................................. 16
1.5.1
Get a License for the Professional-Edition ....................................................................... 17
1.5.2
Get a License for the Community-Edition ........................................................................ 17
1.6 GLOBAL SETTINGS ....................................................................................................................... 18
2 FIRST STEPS ......................................................................................................................... 23
2.1 THE FIRST PROJECT ...................................................................................................................... 23
2.2 WORK AREA ............................................................................................................................... 25
2.2.1
Work Area Basics ............................................................................................................. 25
2.2.2
Elements of the Control-Bar ............................................................................................ 26
2.2.3
The Rectangle Zoom Tool ................................................................................................ 28
2.2.4
The Distance/Measurement Tool .................................................................................... 29
2.2.5
The Terrain-Profiler .......................................................................................................... 30
2.2.5.1
2.2.5.2
2.2.5.3
2.2.5.4
How to Use the Terrain-Profiler ................................................................................................................ 30
Configuring the Terrain-Profiler ................................................................................................................ 32
Additional Terrain-Profiler Zoom ............................................................................................................... 35
Terrain-Profiler Export Features ................................................................................................................ 36
2.3 CUSTOMIZING THE WORK AREA..................................................................................................... 37
2.3.1
Transfix the Windows ...................................................................................................... 37
2.3.2
Adjustment and Zoom Customization ............................................................................. 38
2.4 THE PROJECT-EXPLORER ............................................................................................................... 39
2.4.1
The Sites Tab .................................................................................................................... 40
2.4.2
The Layers Tab ................................................................................................................. 40
2.4.3
The Points Tab ................................................................................................................. 42
2.4.4
The Calculation Tab ......................................................................................................... 43
2.4.5
The Elevation Model Tab ................................................................................................. 44
2.4.6
The Cadastral Data Tab ................................................................................................... 45
2.4.7
The Clients Tab................................................................................................................. 45
2.4.8
The Link Budget Tab ........................................................................................................ 46
3 PROJECTS ............................................................................................................................ 47
3.1 PROJECT SETTINGS....................................................................................................................... 47
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3.1.1
3.1.2
General ............................................................................................................................ 47
Calculation ....................................................................................................................... 47
3.1.2.1
Themes ...................................................................................................................................................... 49
3.1.2.1.1 How to Change a Colour Profile ........................................................................................................... 50
3.1.2.1.2 How to Add a New Colour Profile ........................................................................................................ 51
3.1.2.2
Empirical Models ....................................................................................................................................... 52
3.1.2.2.1 Free Space Propagation ....................................................................................................................... 54
3.1.2.2.1.1 How to Add a New Frequency Dependent Parameter for Free Space Propagation ..................... 55
3.1.2.2.2 ITU-R P.1411-3 ..................................................................................................................................... 56
3.1.2.2.3 Erceg Model ......................................................................................................................................... 57
3.1.2.2.4 Visibility................................................................................................................................................ 58
3.1.2.2.4.1 How to Add a New Frequency Dependent Parameter for Building Intersection .......................... 59
3.1.2.3
CORLA (Raylauncher) ................................................................................................................................. 60
3.1.2.3.1 Algorithm ............................................................................................................................................. 61
3.1.2.3.2 Model Parameters ............................................................................................................................... 62
3.1.2.4
WinProp ..................................................................................................................................................... 63
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
Elevation Model ............................................................................................................... 63
DXF ................................................................................................................................... 64
Building Classes ............................................................................................................... 64
3.1.5.1
How to Add a Building or Wood Profile ..................................................................................................... 65
3.2 CREATE PROJECTS........................................................................................................................ 67
3.2.1
Create Preconfigured Projects ......................................................................................... 68
3.2.1.1
How to Create a Preconfigured Project ..................................................................................................... 69
3.2.1.1.1 How to Find Specific Geographic Coordinates with Google Maps™ .................................................... 72
3.2.2
Create Empty Projects...................................................................................................... 73
3.2.2.1
How to Create an Empty Project ............................................................................................................... 73
3.3
LOAD PROJECTS .......................................................................................................................... 74
3.4
SAVE PROJECTS .......................................................................................................................... 75
3.5 THE LOG .................................................................................................................................... 75
4 GEODATA ............................................................................................................................ 76
4.1 CADASTRAL DATA ........................................................................................................................ 76
4.1.1
How to Import Cadastral Data ........................................................................................ 76
4.1.2
DXF Settings ..................................................................................................................... 78
4.1.2.1
How to Edit Cadastral Data Layers............................................................................................................. 79
4.2 ELEVATION MODELS .................................................................................................................... 81
4.2.1
How to Import an Elevation Model.................................................................................. 81
4.2.2
How to Reload an Elevation Model from Web ................................................................ 82
4.3 BACKGROUND IMAGES ................................................................................................................. 83
4.3.1
How to Import a Background Image ............................................................................... 84
4.4 LOCATION IMAGES....................................................................................................................... 84
4.4.1
How to Import a Location Image/Images ........................................................................ 85
4.4.2
How to View a Location Image/Images ........................................................................... 87
4.4.3
How to Delete a Location Image/Images ........................................................................ 88
4.4.4
How to Import as Background Image .............................................................................. 89
5 BUILDINGS .......................................................................................................................... 91
5.1 CREATE BUILDINGS ...................................................................................................................... 92
5.1.1
How to Create Buildings .................................................................................................. 92
5.1.2
Advanced Buildings .......................................................................................................... 96
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5.1.2.1
5.1.2.2
How to Create Courtyard or Similar in Buildings ....................................................................................... 96
How to Add Intersecting Buildings ............................................................................................................ 97
5.2 EDIT BUILDINGS .......................................................................................................................... 99
5.2.1
How to Edit a Building ..................................................................................................... 99
5.3 EXPORT BUILDINGS ...................................................................................................................... 99
5.3.1
How to Export Buildings ................................................................................................ 100
5.4 IMPORT BUILDINGS .................................................................................................................... 100
5.4.1
How to Import Buildings ................................................................................................ 100
5.5 CREATE BUILDINGS USING CADASTRAL DATA (PROFESSIONAL-EDITION) ............................................. 101
5.5.1
How to Create Buildings Using Cadastral Data ............................................................. 101
5.6 CREATE BUILDINGS USING CORINE (PROFESSIONAL-EDITION) ......................................................... 102
5.6.1
How to Create Buildings Using CORINE Data ................................................................ 102
5.7
DELETE BUILDINGS .................................................................................................................... 105
5.7.1
How to Delete Building manually .................................................................................. 105
5.8 CLEAR BUILDING CACHE ............................................................................................................. 105
5.8.1
How to Clear Building Cache.......................................................................................... 106
6 CARRIER .............................................................................................................................107
6.1
HOW TO CREATE OR EDIT CARRIER .............................................................................................. 108
6.2 IMPORT CARRIER ....................................................................................................................... 111
6.2.1
How to Import Carrier.................................................................................................... 111
7 SITES, RADIO UNITS AND ANTENNAS...................................................................................113
7.1 ANTENNAS ............................................................................................................................... 113
7.1.1
Create Antennas ............................................................................................................ 113
7.1.1.1
7.1.1.2
7.1.2
How to Create Antennas ......................................................................................................................... 113
How to Create Antenna Types ................................................................................................................. 115
Editing Antennas............................................................................................................ 118
7.1.2.1
7.1.2.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.1.5
7.1.6
How to Edit Antennas .............................................................................................................................. 118
How to Edit Antenna Types ..................................................................................................................... 120
How to Copy Antennas .................................................................................................. 121
How to Change all Antennas Faster .............................................................................. 122
How to Create a Pattern File ......................................................................................... 123
Export Antennas ............................................................................................................ 127
7.1.6.1
7.1.7
How to Export Antennas .......................................................................................................................... 127
Import Antennas ............................................................................................................ 127
7.1.7.1
7.1.7.2
7.1.8
How to Import Antennas ......................................................................................................................... 128
How to Import Antenna Types ................................................................................................................ 129
Activate or Deactivate Antennas ................................................................................... 130
7.1.8.1
7.1.8.2
7.1.8.3
7.1.9
7.1.10
How to Activate/Deactivate Antennas .................................................................................................... 130
How to Invert Activation.......................................................................................................................... 131
How to Activate Antennas by a Filter ...................................................................................................... 131
Invalid Antennas ............................................................................................................ 132
Distributed/MIMO Antennas ......................................................................................... 135
7.1.10.1
How to Create Distributed/MIMO Antennas ...................................................................................... 135
7.2 RADIO UNITS ............................................................................................................................ 137
7.2.1
How to Create a Radio Unit ........................................................................................... 138
7.2.2
How to Edit a Radio Unit ............................................................................................... 139
7.2.3
How to Copy a Radio Unit .............................................................................................. 140
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7.2.4
7.2.5
7.2.6
How to Change Carrier in a Radio Unit .......................................................................... 142
How to Change Radio Units faster................................................................................. 144
Activate or Deactivate Radio Units ................................................................................ 144
7.2.6.1
7.2.6.2
7.2.6.3
How to Activate or Deactivate Radio Units at once ................................................................................. 145
How to Activate or Deactivate Radio Units manually .............................................................................. 145
How to Invert Activation.......................................................................................................................... 146
7.3 SITES ....................................................................................................................................... 146
7.3.1
How to Create Sites ....................................................................................................... 146
7.3.2
How to Edit Sites ............................................................................................................ 152
7.3.3
How to Copy Sites .......................................................................................................... 154
7.3.4
Activate or Deactivate Sites ........................................................................................... 156
7.3.4.1
7.3.4.2
How to Activate or Deactivate all Sites at Once ...................................................................................... 156
How to Activate or Deactivate Sites Manually ........................................................................................ 157
8
POINTS ...............................................................................................................................158
8.1 MEASUREMENT POINTS ............................................................................................................. 158
8.2 POINT CATEGORIES .................................................................................................................... 160
8.2.1
How to Edit Point Categories ......................................................................................... 161
8.2.2
How to Create a Point Category .................................................................................... 162
8.3 CREATE POINTS ......................................................................................................................... 164
8.3.1
How to Create Points ..................................................................................................... 164
8.3.2
How to Edit Single Points ............................................................................................... 166
8.3.3
How to Edit Multiple Points ........................................................................................... 167
8.4 POINT ACTIVATION .................................................................................................................... 168
8.4.1
How to Activate or Deactivate Points ............................................................................ 168
8.5 EXPORT AND IMPORT OF POINTS .................................................................................................. 169
8.5.1
How to Export Points as .csv file .................................................................................... 169
8.5.2
How to Export Points as .kml file ................................................................................... 170
8.5.3
How to Import Points ..................................................................................................... 171
8.6 POINTS COLOUR ASSIGNMENT ..................................................................................................... 172
8.6.1
How to Change the Colour of a Point manually ............................................................ 173
8.6.2
Change Colour of Points temporary by Visualisation tab .............................................. 173
8.6.3
Change Colour of Points by Coverage tab ..................................................................... 173
8.6.4
Change Colour of Points according to Theme Calculation ............................................. 174
8.7 CLIENTS AND POINTS.................................................................................................................. 174
8.7.1
How to Create Clients from Points ................................................................................. 175
8.7.2
How to Convert Clients to Points ................................................................................... 176
8.8 POINT PARAMETERS .................................................................................................................. 178
8.8.1
How to Assign carrier..................................................................................................... 178
9 CLIENTS ..............................................................................................................................179
9.1 CLIENT PROFILES ....................................................................................................................... 179
9.1.1
How to Create Client Profiles ......................................................................................... 179
9.1.2
How to Edit Client Profiles ............................................................................................. 181
9.2 CLIENT CREATION ...................................................................................................................... 182
9.2.1
How to Create Clients .................................................................................................... 182
9.3 EDIT CLIENTS ............................................................................................................................ 184
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9.3.1
How to Edit Clients......................................................................................................... 184
9.4 ASSIGN CLIENTS TO SITES............................................................................................................ 186
9.4.1
How to Assign Clients to Sites ........................................................................................ 186
9.5 HOW TO USE THE TERRAIN-PROFILER FOR CLIENT TO SITE................................................................ 186
9.6 INVALID CLIENTS ....................................................................................................................... 187
10
CALCULATIONS AND THEMES ..........................................................................................188
10.1
CALCULATIONS AND THEME TYPES............................................................................................ 188
10.2
THE FIELD STRENGTH AREA CALCULATION ................................................................................. 189
10.2.1 How to Make a Field Strength Area Calculation............................................................ 189
10.2.1.1
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
10.2.1.4
10.2.1.5
10.2.1.6
With the Erceg Model ......................................................................................................................... 190
With the CORLA Raylauncher Model................................................................................................... 192
With the ITU-R P.1411-3 Model .......................................................................................................... 193
With the Free Space Propagation Model ............................................................................................ 194
With WinProp...................................................................................................................................... 195
General Settings .................................................................................................................................. 196
10.3
THE CLIENT COVERAGE CALCULATION ....................................................................................... 196
10.3.1 How to Make a Client Coverage Calculation ................................................................. 197
10.3.1.1
10.3.1.2
10.3.1.3
10.3.1.4
10.3.1.5
With the Erceg Model ......................................................................................................................... 198
With the CORLA Raylauncher Model................................................................................................... 200
With the ITU-R P.1411-3 Model .......................................................................................................... 201
With the Free Space Propagation Model ............................................................................................ 202
With WinProp...................................................................................................................................... 203
10.4
THE POINT FIELD STRENGTH CALCULATION ................................................................................ 204
10.4.1 How to Make a Point Field Strength Calculation ........................................................... 206
10.4.1.1
10.4.1.2
10.4.1.3
10.4.1.4
10.4.1.5
10.4.1.6
10.4.2
With the Erceg Model ......................................................................................................................... 207
With the CORLA Raylauncher Model................................................................................................... 209
With the ITU-R P.1411-3 Model .......................................................................................................... 211
With the Free Space Propagation Model ............................................................................................ 212
With WinProp...................................................................................................................................... 213
General Settings .................................................................................................................................. 214
Compare all Propagation Models .................................................................................. 214
10.4.2.1
How to Use all Propagation Models for a Point Field Strength Calculation ........................................ 214
10.5
THE SITE TO SITE CALCULATION................................................................................................ 217
10.5.1 How to Make a Site to Site Calculation ......................................................................... 217
10.6
THE COVERAGE THEME........................................................................................................... 219
10.6.1 How to Create a Coverage Theme ................................................................................. 220
10.7
THE BEST SERVER THEME ........................................................................................................ 223
10.7.1 How to Create a Best Server Theme .............................................................................. 223
10.8
THE CARRIER TO INTERFERER THEME ........................................................................................ 226
10.8.1 How to Create a Carrier to Interferer Theme................................................................. 227
10.9
THE POWER LEVEL THEME ...................................................................................................... 231
10.9.1 How to Create a Power Level Theme ............................................................................. 231
10.10 THE SUB-CARRIER INTERFERENCE THEME .................................................................................. 234
10.10.1 How to Create a Sub-Carrier Interference Theme ...................................................... 235
10.11 THE FIELD STRENGTH THEME ................................................................................................... 239
10.11.1 How to Create a Field Strength Theme ...................................................................... 239
10.12 THE ELEVATION THEME .......................................................................................................... 243
10.12.1 How to Create an Elevation Theme............................................................................ 244
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10.13 THE VISIBILITY THEME ............................................................................................................ 245
10.13.1 How to Create a Visibility Theme ............................................................................... 246
10.13.1.1
How to Clear the Visibility Cache ........................................................................................................ 247
10.14 EXPORT CALCULATION THEME ................................................................................................. 248
10.14.1 How to Export a Theme.............................................................................................. 248
10.15 CLEAR AND DELETE CALCULATION ............................................................................................ 250
10.15.1 How to Clear the Calculation and Theme Layer ......................................................... 251
10.15.2 How to Delete the Calculation ................................................................................... 251
10.16 CALCULATION WITH DESIRED/MIMO ANTENNAS ....................................................................... 253
10.16.1 How to Create a Power Level Theme with Desired/MIMO Antennas ........................ 253
11
ISOLINES .........................................................................................................................255
11.1
THEME ISOLINES .................................................................................................................... 255
11.1.1 How to Create Theme Isolines ....................................................................................... 255
11.2
ELEVATION ISOLINES............................................................................................................... 257
11.2.1 How to Create Elevation Isolines ................................................................................... 257
11.3
ISOLINE EXPORT..................................................................................................................... 258
11.3.1 How to Export Isolines as MIF........................................................................................ 259
11.3.2 How to Export Isolines as KML ....................................................................................... 259
12
ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................261
12.1
SHOW ON GOOGLE MAPS™ .................................................................................................... 261
12.1.1 How to Use the function Show on Google Maps ........................................................... 261
12.2
ACTIVATION/DEACTIVATION .................................................................................................... 261
12.2.1 How to Activate und Deactivate Layers ......................................................................... 261
12.3
COLOUR ............................................................................................................................... 263
12.3.1 How to Make a Site coloured......................................................................................... 263
12.3.2 How to Make a Radio Unit coloured.............................................................................. 264
12.3.3 How to Make an Antenna coloured ............................................................................... 265
12.3.4 How to Make a Point coloured ...................................................................................... 265
13
LINK BUDGET ..................................................................................................................266
13.1
HOW TO MAKE A LINK BUDGET CALCULATION............................................................................ 267
13.1.1 Manually ........................................................................................................................ 268
13.1.2 Automatically by Using the Terrain-Profiler .................................................................. 268
14
3D VIEW..........................................................................................................................272
14.1
HOW TO CREATE A 3D VIEW ................................................................................................... 272
14.2
NAVIGATE THE 3D-VIEW ........................................................................................................ 273
14.2.1 Navigation Specials........................................................................................................ 274
14.3
EXPORT A 3D VIEW ................................................................................................................ 275
14.3.1 How to Export a 3D View ............................................................................................... 275
15
GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................................276
16
FAQ ................................................................................................................................281
16.1.1 What is WiMAP-4G? ...................................................................................................... 281
16.1.2 Does WiMAP-4G supports 64-bit operating systems?................................................... 281
16.1.3 Which languages does WiMAP-4G support? ................................................................. 281
16.1.4 Do I have to be online to use WiMAP-4G?..................................................................... 281
16.1.5 What file formats does WiMAP-4G support? ................................................................ 281
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16.1.6 How much does WiMAP-4G cost? ................................................................................. 282
16.1.7 What is the difference between WiMAP-4G Editions? .................................................. 282
16.1.8 What are the requirements to get a license? ................................................................ 282
16.1.9 Can I upgrade my Community-Edition to Professional-Edition at a later date within the
program?...................................................................................................................................... 282
16.1.10 Do I have to update my WiMAP-4G from time to time? ............................................ 282
17
TROUBLESHOOTING ........................................................................................................283
18
IMAGE DIRECTORY ..........................................................................................................287
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About this Manual
This user manual describes the setup and operation of the WiMAP-4G software. The WiMAP4G user manual requires a basic understanding of the Windows operating system. If you are
not familiar with this system, refer to the documentation provided by Microsoft.
Newcomer of WiMAP-4G software should read

Chapter 1 to learn about the program, requirements and installation

Chapters 2 and 3 to learn about WiMAP-4G essentials
Conventions
Convention
Notice Type
Use
Italic
User actions
Bold
Marks user interface elements
such as buttons, menus, label,
tabs
brown-iposs GmbH
Caution
Describes important features,
instructions or limitations
Tipp
Highlights features or hints
that can save time and
prevent difficulties
Step by Step
Step by step explanation
Info
Additional information
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Technical Assistance
For technical questions or problem solving assistance, read the section which is related to
your performing operation.
If additional assistance is needed, contact the brown-iposs support.
Have following information ready for the brown-iposs support to detect a problem:

any error messages

details of recent system performance

WiMAP-4G version number (can be found under HelpInfo)

operating system on your computer
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1 Introduction
1.1 WiMAP-4G
WiMAP-4G is the radio network planning software by brown-iposs. It is developed
particularly for planning the air interface of wireless broadband access networks, e.g. based
on WiMAX and WLAN standard. Also other carriers are supported. The software is Javabased and able to run on every modern standard computer. WiMAP-4G is suitable for both,
beginners as well as experienced users and offers sufficient possibilities to plan even the
largest projects.
Figure 1: The WiMAP-4G working interface
1.2 WiMAP-4G Editions
Currently there are two different versions of WiMAP-4G available. The Professional-Edition
offers additional features and supports more objects in the same project.
1.2.1 WiMAP-4G Community-Edition
The WiMAP-4G Community-Edition is a free version, which contains most of the functionality,
but with specific restrictions.
Features of the Community-Edition:

a configurable and clean interface
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
easy generation of new projects

import of cadastral data

import of elevation models

lists buildings and wood

provides a large number of different antennas

constructing clients and points

measurement points

import of location images

extensive calculation options

many different themes

a 3D view of the terrain

the Terrain-Profiler to keep track of the area

detailed calculations with the link budget

isolines

export of isolines

propagation models
o
Erceg model (provides three different patterns or individual creation)
o
ITU-R P.1411-3
o
Free Space Propagation
The Community-Edition allows a maximum of 12 radio stations and 50 points of
the same type within one project. Moreover, it is not possible to use the highest
accuracy level for calculations. Some import and export functions are working in
the Professional-Edition only. This version is a sample of the software which
gives the user an opportunity to try it out without having to purchase a
complete version. It is completely suitable for smaller projects.
1.2.2 WiMAP-4G Professional-Edition
The WiMAP-4G Professional-Edition is the chargeable version of the program. It contains all
functions of the WiMAP-4G Community-Edition including the following additional features:

generates buildings and wood from cadastral data

imports CORINE data

provides calculations with the highest accuracy
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
CORLA-Raylauncher (Cube Oriented Ray Launching Algorithm) as an additional
propagation model

WinProp as an additional propagation model

large selection of antenna patterns

extended export formats
The WiMAP-4G Professional-Edition offers high flexibility and delivers additional tools for
planning carrier networks.
Figure 2: The Professional-Edition offers CORLA as an additional propagation
model.
1.3 System Requirements
WiMAP-4G is a Java based software and therefore compatible with every windows operating
system. 64-bit systems are supported, too.
Minimum system requirements:

Operating System: Windows XP/7/8 or similar (has to be windows)

Computer Processor: Pentium III with at least 1 GHz or equivalent

Computer Memory: 2048 MB or more

Internet: connection is required to get a license file (Community-Edition) and to
use OpenStreetMap™
Since WiMAP-4G is Java-based, other platforms may be supported on request. A
64-bit-Java-Runtime-Environment is included in WiMAP-4G.
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1.4 Installation
On http://www.brown-iposs.com/en/wimap4g/download.php you will find all required
installation files, a list of features and the WiMAP-4G software license agreement.
The windows installer file WiMAP-4G Professional-/Community-Edition is required for
installation. It is a zip file which needs to be unzipped before the installation.
1.4.1 How to Install WiMAP-4G
1. Unzip the downloaded WiMAP-4G-v6_1_0-setupNN.zip. (NN=32 or 64 according
to your choice)
2. Start installation by double-clicking the extracted setup.exe.
Figure 3: Installation has been started
3. Choose installation directory.
Figure 4: Installation directory
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Figure 5: Start menu folder selection
4. Select program icon locations.
Figure 6: Program icon location
5. Click Next to start installation.
1.5 Launching WiMAP-4G for the First Time
After the installation is completed successfully, the program can be started for the first time.
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Figure 7: License agreement
WiMAP-4G needs a license to run. There are licenses for Community-Edition and
Professional-Edition. For using the Community-Edition, a name and a valid e-mail address
are sufficient. A license file is send by e-mail and is available immediately.
1.5.1 Get a License for the Professional-Edition
A license for the Professional-Edition can be purchased later. To run the
Professional-Edition an USB-Dongle is needed, which is provided by
brown-iposs.
1.5.2 Get a License for the Community-Edition
Figure 8: Program edition/License request
After completing the required fields with valid information, an e-mail will be sent to the
named e-mail address. This license file is required so it is ought to be downloaded first.
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After downloading the file it can be selected by clicking Choose and entering the correct file
path. If this is a valid license file, WiMAP-4G will start for the first time.
Figure 9: Choose location of your license file
If there are any problems, try to find a solution in the FAQ at the end of the user manual
first.
1.6Global Settings
Here you can specify the global settings for WiMAP-4G. These settings effect on the whole
program, not only on your individual project. Therefore check chapter 3.1 in this manual.
Go to Extras -> Global Settings.
Figure 10: Global Settings
The following settings can be made:

Startup
WiMAP-4G offers you by default a welcome screen where you can select to create a new
project, open a previously saved one or use a sample project. In this menu it can be defined
how WiMAP-4G shall behave on startup and how many recent projects shall be shown in the
list.
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Figure 11: Startup menu

Database
WiMAP-4G uses a default database file for every project, but you can select your own
database file instead. In addition you can choose to load Carriers, Antenna Types and
Point Categories.
Figure 12: Database menu

Plot
When you select Intelligent Label Arrangement the label will be arranged so that there
is no overlapping of text. You can also specify to draw objects always in black or grey (this
overrides the detailed colour settings for antennas or buildings).
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For explanation of Translation Factor and Zoom Factor see chapter 2.3.2.
Figure 13: Plot menu

Plot -> Export
Here you can select which information shall be shown when you plot your project.
Figure 14: Plot -> Export menu
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
Units
The calculation units for Field Strength, Power Level, Power Rate and Data Rate can
be set here.
Figure 15: Units menu
These settings will only effect after restarting WiMAP-4G.

Check for New Version
When starting up WiMAP-4G it will be checked whether a new version is available. Here you
can enable to use a proxy server for the internet connection, depending on your system
configuration.
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Figure 16: Check for New Version menu
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2 First Steps
2.1 The First Project
After installation and activation are successfully completed the program launches and a new
project can be created.
Figure 17: WiMAP-4G launches for the first time
After launching WiMAP-4G for the first time there are three possibilities:

Create a new project.

Load a project from a .rad file.

Have a look at the demo project "Munich".
Newcomers should take a look at the demo project to get an impression of the program and
its possibilities.
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Figure 18: Demo project "Munich"
The demo project is a complete project including sites, different carriers and an elevation
model. The Terrain-Profiler can be tested as well as different propagation models.
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2.2 Work Area
WiMAP-4G is clearly arranged to make work easier for experienced users and even for
newcomers.
2.2.1 Work Area Basics
Control-Bar
Project-Explorer
Terrain-Explorer
Terrain-Profiler
At the Project-Explorer,
different views can be
chosen.
Cursor-Point
Figure 19: Graphical user interface/work area
Almost all functions can be reached within one or two mouse clicks. The Project-Explorer is
on the right side and offers the following views:

Sites

Layers

Points

Calculation

Elevation models

Cadastral data
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
Clients

Link Budget calculation
The view can be changed at every time. At the bottom of the screen the Terrain-Profiler can
be found as well as the log and cursor windows. Access the control-bar below the menu bar.
The control-bar enables a boundless moving around the terrain, including buttons for all
essential functions.
2.2.2 Elements of the Control-Bar
Create a new project. An open project can be saved or discarded.
Load a project from a .rad file. An open project can be saved or
discarded.
Save the current project.
One step back. This function affects only changes on the work area.
Calculations and object actions cannot be reverted.
One step forward. This function affects only changes on the work area.
Calculations and object actions cannot be reverted.
Shift the visible area to west.
Shift the visible area to north.
Shift the visible area to east.
Shift the visible area to south.
Shift the area to center the cursor.
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Scale up the visible area. Options can be found at
ExtrasGlobal SettingsPlot
Scale down the visible area. Options can be found at
ExtrasGlobal SettingsPlot
Optimal adjustment of the visible area. Scales up or down and shift to put
all objects to the plot.
Centers up the selected object. While activated, objects chosen from the
Project-Explorer become centered on the screen.
The rectangle-zoom tool.
The distance/measurement tool.
Simply changes object positions with the drag and drop function.
Activates the Terrain-Profiler.
Opens the field strength area calculation. Now the field strength can be
calculated with different propagation models.
Export the plot with components to file or to clipboard
This function can be enabled or disabled.
Only one of these functions can be enabled at a time.
Furthermore, any essential function can be found in the submenus. Detailed explanations
can be found in the following chapters. The bulk of the screen is filled with the TerrainExplorer.
As mentioned, there are four functions run by the left mouse button:

rectangle zoom

distance/measurement tool

Terrain-Profiler
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
drag and drop function
For shifting the terrain around without using the arrow buttons in the control
bar, push and hold the right mouse button.
The blue frame inside the Terrain-Explorer shows the maximum area for calculating a
propagation model. This blue frame compiles while creating a new project and cannot be
changed subsequently.
Originally the propagation models are calculated for the actual image selection.
So it is advisable to choose a larger area for this frame than necessary.
The cursor can be set to a specific point by clicking the left mouse button. This can be
instrumental in preventing the user from losing track on large projects.
Use the
function to mark a point for easily returning the cursor to at any time or insert
coordinates by Cursor Point and click on Adjust to center the map by this coordinates.
Figure 20: Cursor Point
2.2.3 The Rectangle Zoom Tool
The rectangle zoom tool is a useful feature of WiMAP-4G to zoom into the right area on the
map.
Just click on the
button on the control bar to activate the rectangle zoom. Choose a
point on the map, hold the left mouse button and drag the cursor to mark the exact area.
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Figure 21: Rectangle Zoom
Figure 22: Mark an area
The rectangle zoom tool can also be activated by choosing ToolsRectangle Zoom.
2.2.4 The Distance/Measurement Tool
The distance/measurement tool is useful to get a distance or a specific angle of the map.
Click the
button on the control bar to activate the distance/measurement tool. Choose
and click on a desired point on the map with the left mouse button, hold the button and drag
the cursor to the desired position.
See the distance and angle difference beside the line that connects the start and target
point.
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Figure 23: Distance/measurement tool
The distance/measurement tool can also be activated by choosing ToolsDistance/Angle
Measurement.
2.2.5 The Terrain-Profiler
The Terrain-Profiler is a powerful feature which allows the user to take a snapshot of the
environment and watch out for obstacles like mountains or buildings which could interrupt
the signal of antennas or disrupt intervisibility. The Terrain-Profiler consists of two parts, the
tool itself that can be used to drag around the map and watch out for obstacles and the
Terrain-Profiler tab which shows the territory inside the dragged zone. The Terrain-Profiler
basically works similar to the distance measurement tool, except the additional tab that
shows the territory.
2.2.5.1 How to Use the Terrain-Profiler
1. Click on the
button on the control bar to activate the Terrain-Profiler tool. Click on
a desired point on the map, hold the left mouse button and drag the cursor to the
desired position.
See the distance and angle difference beside the line that connects the start and target
point.
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Figure 24: The Terrain-Profiler looks like the distance/measurement tool.
2. For additional information look in the Terrain-Profiler tab which is at the bottom of
the WiMAP-4G window by default. The graph in Figure 25 shows how the TerrainProfiler projects the territory into the Terrain-Profiler tab.
Figure 25: The Terrain-Profiler tab
On the right side of the Terrain-Profiler tab is a legend that shows all relevant information:
elevation, buildings, the Fresnel Zone and the pathloss. The circle will automatically change
its colour to red if there is any disruption in the Fresnel Zone.
This will help the user to see automatically if the desired path is possible or not.
Figure 26: The Fresnel Zone is interrupted.
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2.2.5.2 Configuring the Terrain-Profiler
The Terrain-Profiler offers a few settings which can be changed to get a better overview and
to make the result descriptive for presentations.
Click on the right mouse button to open a menu that contains the function Properties. A
click on that button will open the property configuration window.
Figure 27: The Terrain-Profiler configuration menu
A figure can be named in the title tab. This could be useful for presentation or further
information if the results of the Terrain-Profiler are exported. Activate shows the title.
Enter the desired title in the Text field. To choose a font, click on Select next to the font
field and choose the desired text font, the text size and a format. Click on OK to save the
alterations.
Figure 28: Change title, font and colour
Click on Plot tab to make some additional configurations.
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Figure 29: The plot menu
The Plot tab contains all settings according to the axes.
Change the label text by editing the label field. Font and text colour can also be changed
within the tab.
There are some additional settings provided at the bottom of the window. Tick labels can
be enabled or disabled.
Figure 30: Disabled tick labels
Figure 31: Enabled tick labels
Tick label marks can also be enabled or disabled.
Figure 32: Enabled tick marks
Figure 33: Disabled tick marks
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In the range tab at the bottom of the window, the range value can be modified. If there
are no specific circumstances, auto adjust range should be activated.
Figure 34: The range tab
All these settings also work for the range axis. At last, there is the appearance tab which
contains settings to change the layout of the Terrain-Profiler.
Figure 35: The appearance tab
The outline stroke defines the thickness of the outline.
For changing the colour of the outline click on the Select button next to the Outline paint
row and choose a desired colour.
The background paint defines the background colour of the plot itself. Preferably pick a
neutral colour like white in order to not interfere the overview. The orientation of the plot
can also be changed to vertical or horizontal. The other tab offers the following additional
settings:
Figure 36: The other tab
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Anti-aliasing can be activated or deactivated. If there are no specific circumstances, antialiasing should always be enabled.
Figure 37: Anti-aliasing enabled
Figure 38: Anti-aliasing disabled
The background paint defines the colour of the Terrain-Profiler, not the colour of the plot.
Figure 39: A configured Terrain-Profiler tab
2.2.5.3 Additional Terrain-Profiler Zoom
The Terrain-Profiler offers some additional functions for better analysis. Both axes can be
zoomed in/out independently. A right mouse click on the Terrain-Profiler tab opens the
menu that contains all zoom functions.
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Figure 40: Terrain-Profiler zoom functions
Each zoom submenu contains these three possibilities:

both axes: zooms in/out the full image considering the x/y-ratio

domain axis: zooms in/out the y-axis

range axis: zooms in/out the x-axis
The auto range submenu assures that all content of the marked terrain segment is shown.
2.2.5.4 Terrain-Profiler Export Features
Export functions are available for the Terrain-Profiler, too. Results can be printed or exported
for other applications or presentations. A right mouse click on the Terrain-Profiler tab
opens the menu window containing the possibilities to Print or Save the Terrain-Profiler
results:
Figure 41: A plot can be saved or printed.
By clicking on Print, the printer window opens:
Figure 42: The printer window
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Depending on the installed Java version, the window can have different looks, but settings
are the same.
After choosing the desired settings, a click on OK opens the printer menu.
Printing can be started. Another way to export the Terrain-Profiler results is the Save as
option which allows the user to store the plot as an image file on his hard drive.
Figure 43: The plot can be saved as a .png-file.
After choosing the file path and file name, click on Save to store the Terrain-Profiler results
in a .png file.
2.3 Customizing the Work Area
There are settings in WiMAP-4G that make work easier. These settings will be explained in
this section. Generally WiMAP-4G is designed for working on a large screen. If that is not the
case or the user works on a screen with a low resolution, it is necessary to customize the
program.
2.3.1 Transfix the Windows
The Project-Explorer, the Terrain-Profiler and also the log and cursor window can be
transfixed by clicking on
. When windows are transfixed, they only expand getting
focused by the mouse cursor. This option can be reverted by only one mouse click on
or
choosing WindowReset Layout to reset all windows. The window size can also be
changed by simply holding the left mouse button on a border of a window to drag it to the
desired size.
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Figure 44: Transfixing the windows results in a much bigger work area
2.3.2 Adjustment and Zoom Customization
More settings can be found in ExtrasGlobal Settings. The following settings can be set
up in the submenu Plot.
Translation factor: This setting is essential for the four arrows in the control bar. The
translation factor gives information about how far the map is shifted by using these arrowbuttons.
A 1 means the whole map is shifted by an entire size of the screen.
A 0.1 means the map is shifted by 10 % of the size of the screen.
Boundary: 0.1 – 10
Zoom factor: The zoom factor option is important for the two zoom button in the control
bar. It shows how much the map is up- or downscaled.
A 1 simply means that the map is zoomed in by factor one, so nothing will happen with a 1.
Values between 0.1 and 0.9 invert the zoom functions so that the scale up button scales
down for example.
With a 1.1 the entire map scales up or down by 10 %.
Boundary: 0.1 - 10
Below, the labels can be configured to show objects and/or antennas coloured black and
buildings gray. There is also an option for the intelligent label arrangement which gives the
program the privilege to ignore the label standards if necessary.
The size of pixel and labels can be changed in the submenu medium. Label size can be
changed between 0.5 and 30 mm variably. The pixel size should only be changed if
presentation errors occur.
It is possible to change position and visibility of the legend in the submenu Legend.
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2.4 The Project-Explorer
The Project-Explorer combines every object used in the actual project for a quite good
overview. Each created, edited or imported case can be found in the Project-Explorer for
detailed actions.
Figure 45: The Project-Explorer
The following tabs can be found in the Project-Explorer:

Sites

Layers

Points

Calculation

Elevation model

Cadastral data

Clients

Link budget calculation
Every tab is designed individually to offer a good orientation and to keep all actions as
simple as possible.
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2.4.1 The Sites Tab
The Sites tab in the Project-Explorer gives an overview of all sites, radio units and
antennas used in the project.
Figure 46: The Sites tab
The upper part of the Sites tab shows all sites used in the project.
If you right click on one element in the upper part site, radio unit or antenna offers a few
options for creation, deletion, activation, change multiple etc. More information can be found
in the corresponding chapter in this manual.
The lower part of the Sites tab shows all the antennas used in the project with their
corresponding sites, radio unit and used carriers. If a site, radio unit or antenna is chosen in
the upper part, the matching antenna(s) in the lower part are marked.
Sites and antennas can be activated or deactivated just by checking or unchecking the boxes
beside the desired antenna, radio unit or site. A deactivated antenna does not appear neither
in a calculation nor on the map.
2.4.2 The Layers Tab
The important thing to understand while working with WiMAP-4G: All things managed by the
program are organized in layers and can be deactivated or activated as desired. Layers will
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be created in WiMAP-4G for every single case created or edited by program: buildings,
calculations, elevation, sites, clients, points etc.
In the Project-Explorer of the Layers tab, all layers are listed.
Figure 47: The Layers tab
In Figure 47 you can see the Layers tab in the Project-Explorer, where everything is
activated except debug and building heights.
To deactivate a layer simply uncheck the box next to the layer name. Layers will be created
automatically while performing actions such as calculations or building creation. The layers
given in this example are the standard layers preconfigured for every project. Not all of them
are used while creating a new project.
Figure 48: Buildings layer enabled and disabled
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2.4.3 The Points Tab
The Points tab has three subtabs: List, Coverage and Visualisation. The List tab shows
all points used in the project sorted by the point category. Points can be activated or
deactivated. If the used points are not listed in the Points tab, make sure to choose the
correct point category.
Figure 49: All used points will be shown in a list.
A right click on a point offers the possibilities to create, edit, or delete a point. The little icons
in the right upper corner allow export and calculation of the points and gives the possibility
to edit the point classes. More information can be found in the corresponding chapter in this
manual.
The Coverage tab is for showing the colour of coverage levels based on the colour diagram
of the carrier.
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Figure 50: The Points tab – Coverage
The Visualisation tab is for colouring points based on the category, the parameter that is
visualised and the colouring which are shown in a table by Intervals. With one click on Adjust
the colour is set. With Reset colour settings are restored back to the latter colouring.
Figure 51: The Points tab – Visualisation
2.4.4 The Calculation Tab
The Calculation tab is one of the most important tabs and shows all done calculation in the
actual project.
If a calculation is done, all sites and antennas used in this calculation will be shown in the
Calculation tab. Single sites or antennas can be activated or deactivated for getting better
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calculation results or even finding an interfering one. The upper part of the calculation tab
offers all important calculations that are possible with WiMAP-4G.
Right click on sites, radio unit or antennas offers many features described in corresponding
chapters of this manual.
Figure 52: The Calculation tab
2.4.5 The Elevation Model Tab
The Elevation Model tab shows all elevation data that is used in the actual project. The
elevation model file name and the file path are shown.
A right click on an elevation model file offers the possibility to unload the file. More
information about elevation models, elevation model import and editing elevation models can
be found in the corresponding chapters of this manual.
Figure 53: The Elevation Model tab
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2.4.6 The Cadastral Data Tab
The Cadastral Data tab shows all the cadastral data which is used in the actual project.
The cadastral data file name and the file path are shown.
A right click on a cadastral data file offers the possibility to unload this file. More information
about cadastral data and cadastral data import can be found in the corresponding chapters
of this manual.
Figure 54: The Cadastral Data tab
2.4.7 The Clients Tab
The Clients tab shows all created clients in the actual project with their corresponding
profile, height, coverage, power level, and carrier to interfere values.
A right click on a client offers all the possibilities to create, edit or delete the client and to
choose the Terrain-Explorer to show the environment between the client and his
corresponding site. More information about clients and associated possible actions can be
found in the corresponding chapters of this manual.
Figure 55: The Clients tab
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2.4.8 The Link Budget Tab
The Link Budget tab offers the user the possibility to calculate a detailed link budget for a
desired situation.
Many variables can be inserted to guarantee the most precise results. The Link Budget tab
will be explained later in this manual so take a look on the corresponding chapters.
Figure 56: The Link Budget tab
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3 Projects
3.1 Project Settings
Before creating a new project, some adjustments should be done. Extensive adjustments can
be made in ProjectProperties and ExtrasProject Defaults. The properties refer to
the actual project in case it is already open. Project defaults are pre-configured settings. It
is easier to use those than configure every single project individually. However the layout is
the same for both.
3.1.1 General
The following coordinate system types can be chosen:

UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator)

Gauss-Krueger

Geographic
By choosing UTM or Gauss-Krueger a start zone/stripe from the coordinate system can be
selected. The earth is scaled in 60 stripes, Germany stands in stripe 32 for example. The
cursor is placed on the chosen zone at equator level. The coordinate system type can also be
chosen while creating a new project.
Figure 57: The General Settings tab
3.1.2 Calculation
In the Calculation tab it is possible to choose a default propagation model. The default
setting is the Erceg Model. These propagation models can also be chosen while calculating.
The Maximum and Minimum Antenna Area can be changed if necessary.
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A license file is needed to use CORLA. This license is limited to a project and
can be ordered at WIMAP-4G product support (info@brown-iposs.eu).
The elevation theme provides bilinear interpolation or nearest neighbour. The
elevation model can also be chosen during a calculation.

Nearest neighbour: Nearest neighbour is an imprecise algorithm. It takes the
height of the nearest point which got a value in the elevation model.

Bilinear interpolation: This algorithm is more precise. It considers the closest
four neighbours and calculates the average value of their height. That is why it is
recommended even if it needs a little bit more processing time (which should not
be registered on actual computer systems).
Figure 58: Bilinear interpolation
Figure 59: Nearest neighbour
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Figure 60: The Calculation Settings tab
3.1.2.1 Themes
The Theme tab contains all colour settings of the program. Some improvements should be
done if larger projects shall be planned. Default settings are preset for every theme. For
large projects additional colours should be added as well as some presets for different
locations. Theme settings should always be made in Project Defaults to keep them saved
for future projects.
Colour profiles can be changed for

Best Server

Field Strength

Power Level

Sub Carrier Interference

Carrier to Interferer (C/I)

Elevation

Visibility

Ec/IO
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Figure 61: The Theme Settings tab
3.1.2.1.1
How to Change a Colour Profile
1. Open Extras->Project Defaults->Calculation->Theme.
Figure 62: Selecting a theme
2. Select the desired theme, for example Field Strength.
Figure 63: Selecting the desired theme
3. Press Edit to open the configuration window.
Now there are different possibilities to change a colour profile: Renaming profiles, changing
transparency or adding new intervals are possible. Colour From and Colour To are the
colours shown beyond the intervals.
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Figure 64: A changed profile
4. Click on OK to save the changes.
3.1.2.1.2
How to Add a New Colour Profile
1. Open Extras->Project Defaults->Calculation->Theme
Figure 65: Selecting a theme
2. Select the desired theme, for example Field Strength.
3. Press New to open the configuration window.
Figure 66: Click on New
4. Name the new profile and change colour. (These are the colours shown beyond the
intervals.)
5. Add intervals by selecting Add.
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Figure 67: Click Add to add new intervals
6. Fill the required fields (From, To).
Figure 68: Fill in all fields
7. Choose colours.
8. Name the interval if desired.
9. After adding all desired intervals, press OK.
10. Choose a profile for your project.
Figure 69: The created profile appears in the list.
All settings can be reset at the bottom by clicking Reset To Defaults.
3.1.2.2 Empirical Models
Empirical models are used for propagation calculation. The resolution is preconfigured or
can be configured manually for new projects. The resolution can be calculated absolutely
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(in m) or relatively (in %). A resolution can also be chosen during a propagation
calculation. The WiMAP-4G Community-Edition only allows an absolute value of 50 m. The
Professional-Edition allows also resolutions up to centimeters. Furthermore, the attenuation
interpolation can be changed, too.
The standard setting is the bilinear interpolation. It should be the proper setting in
general.
Other interpolation models should only be chosen if necessary.

Bilinear interpolation: A precise algorithm that considers the closest four
neighbours and calculates the average value of their heights.

Nearer of both: Considers the nearest neighbour and carries its value.

Maximum of both: Considers the closest neighbour with the highest value
(best case).

Minimum of both: Considers the closest neighbour with the lowest value
(worst case).
The Pathloss Storage Precision can be changed to one, two, and four bytes. One byte
should only be chosen if there is a large project to plan and only obsolete hardware can be
used. There could be an aberration up to half a dB if 1 Byte is chosen for pathloss. 4 Byte
is very precise but it could take a long time to calculate large projects. With current
hardware 4 Byte is fine.
Figure 70: The Empirical Models Settings tab
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3.1.2.2.1
Free Space Propagation
The Free Space Propagation is a simple but effective propagation model. It is also called
equation of radio wave propagation or Friss Model. The free space propagation model is
primarily based on the elevation model. Optionally it takes into account visibility restrictions
regarding the elevation model and the building model. While this model is not eligible for city
centers and strongly cultured regions, it produces good results for suburban and rural
regions, plus it is a very fast algorithm. It can help to identify critical regions where detailed
measurements need to be done.
Figure 71: The Free Space Propagation Settings tab
There are two possibilities to calculate the path loss:

Power Law (Lee's model)
o
Calculates the path loss with the power law. To use this option a path loss
exponent is required. The path loss exponent comes in 1.6 to 6 depending
on the terrain conditions.
Terrain-Type
Free space
Plain surface
City
City with shadowing effects
Buildings with line of sight
Buildings without line of sight
Table 1: Path loss exponent

Path loss exponent
2
4
2.7 – 3.5
3–5
1.6 – 1.8
4-6
Exponential Law
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o
Calculates the path loss with the exponential law. To use this option a path
loss factor is required. The standard path loss should only be changed by
experienced users.
The Elevation Model Attenuation can be set to a specific value to take account of
obstacles like buildings and mountains or other line of sight interference. The value depends
on the structure and its physical conditions. With the help of frequency dependent
parameters it is possible to create profiles for every frequency in separate. Building
intersection can be included in calculations at the bottom. It influences the calculation of a
project in city areas and considers the fact that structures could stand in line.
3.1.2.2.1.1
How to Add a New Frequency Dependent Parameter for Free Space Propagation
1. Open Extras->Project Defaults->Calculation->Empirical Models->Free
Space Propagation
Figure 72: Choose free space propagation model
2. At the bottom of the window click Add.
Figure 73: Click Add to add new parameters
3. Choose a Maximum Frequency for the profile.
4. Enter a Pathloss Exponent and a Pathloss Factor and press OK. Specific
Pathloss Exponents can be found at 3.1.2.2.1. The Pathloss Factor should be
0.00230 for free space propagation.
Figure 74: Pathloss exponents and factor
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3.1.2.2.2
ITU-R P.1411-3
ITU-R P.1411-3 is a semi-empirical model based on COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami and
enhanced by ITU-R. The model considers detailed input data like average height and
separation of buildings, street data (width, direction), BS and MS antenna height, length of
the path covered by buildings as well as distance from BS to MS.
Figure 75: The ITU-R P.1411-3 settings tab
The ITU-R P.1411-3 settings offer a few settings according to the environment:

Maximum height of buildings
o

Widths of roads
o

The building separation describes gap distance between buildings. It is
expressed in meters.
Road orientation
o

The width of roads can vary in different cities or villages. It is expressed in
meters.
Building separation
o

This height is only used if there is no elevation model that can be used for
calculations. Basically, calculation is more detailed and offers precise results
with elevation models.
The road orientation describes the angle between crossing roads. It is
expressed in degrees.
Frequency Loss Factor
o
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There is the frequency loss factor that should be either 0.7 or 1.5 according
to the environment. 0.7 is used for medium sized city centers whereas 1.5
is used for metropolitan city centers.
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3.1.2.2.3
Erceg Model
The IEEE 802.16.3c proposes this model developed by Victor Erceg for WiMAX planning. It is
designed for suburban and urban areas and considers three Non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS)scenarios A, B and C:

Terrain type A is a hilly terrain with moderate to heavy tree density and is
associated with the highest path loss.

Terrain type B is characterised as a mostly flat terrain with moderate to heavy
tree density or a hilly terrain with light tree density.

Terrain type C is a flat terrain with light tree density, producing the lowest path
loss.
Figure 76: The Erceg Model Settings tab
First of all the decision can be made, which Erceg model should be used by default. If there
are only a few trees there is no need to use type A by default, in that case Type C would be
the right decision. Furthermore the coverage probability can be set to a specific value. This
probability identifies the chance that gives the customer a specified link quality.
At the bottom all the parameters can be changed for each Erceg model. Changing the
parameters from Erceg A, B and C should only be done by experienced users. All other users
could get some experience in changing the custom model.
These three parameters for the path loss exponent, which is variable over the population of
macro cells within each terrain category should only be changed for extreme terrain
conditions.
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Antenna-Term Factor:
Sigma-Gamma:
Sigma-Mu:
Data derived constant for each terrain
type
Sigma-Sigma:
Only experienced users should change these.
3.1.2.2.4
Visibility
Some visibility settings can be changed according to the elevation theme and building
intersection. First of all it is possible to change the Elevation Model Visibility type. The
types, Bilinear Stepwise or Bilinear Cellwise, can be chosen.
Figure 77: Elevation model visibility
The next settings concentrate on the Building Intersection. These settings would be
important if the project was planned in areas with a lot of buildings like city centres. First
thing to decide is the Maximum Building Count for the building intersection. This
parameter depends on the Maximum Attenuation per Building and the Maximum
Overall Attenuation. The maximum building count multiplied with the maximum
attenuation per building should not be higher than the maximum overall attenuation. This
feature should only be used if the maximum attenuation per building is known. For the
advanced user it is also possible to add Frequency Dependent Parameters. If the
attenuation is well-known, frequency dependent parameters can help a lot in getting results
close to reality.
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3.1.2.2.4.1
How to Add a New Frequency Dependent Parameter for Building Intersection
1. Open Extras->Project Defaults->Calculation->Empirical Models->Visibility
Figure 78: Visibility of empirical models
2. At the bottom part of the window in the frequency dependent parameters window,
click on Add.
Figure 79: Click Add to add new parameters
3. A new window opens and some values need to be added.
Figure 80: Fill in all fields

To Frequency: The maximum frequency for attenuation (for example 2.4 GHz)

Maximum Building Count: The maximum count of intersecting buildings

Maximum Attenuation per Building: The maximum attenuation one building
can achieve

Maximum Overall Attenuation: The maximum attenuation that can be
reached if a lot of buildings intersect
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Figure 81: Click OK to save the changes
4. Click on OK to add the new frequency dependent parameter.
The new parameter is created and will be used in the project.
Figure 82: The created parameter appears in the list
3.1.2.3 CORLA (Raylauncher)
CORLA (Cube Oriented Ray Launching Algorithm) is a powerful propagation model based on
the 3D raylaunching technology. CORLA provides a cube based representation of the area
which leads to fast identification, processing of diffraction and reflection sources. Different
antenna patterns, delay spread and building penetration are inherent features of the
algorithm. Hence CORLA is optimized for speed, it is 20 to 40 times faster than other ray
launching solutions and therefore qualified to be used in WiMAP-4G. Due to the complexity
of the CORLA Raylauncher, there are many adjustments to be done to optimise it for a better
use in the current project.
Figure 83: The CORLA Settings tab
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First of all the executable path to the CORLA.exe needs to be set. This always needs to
be done prior to make a calculation with the CORLA raylaunching algorithm.
The CORLA Raylauncher requires an extra license. It can be ordered at the
WiMAP-4G product support. Contact info@brown-iposs.eu for more information.
The next two options deal with the resolution used while calculating something with the
CORLA Raylauncher:

Resample Elevation Model To Cube X/Y Size: Activating this option forces
the CORLA algorithm to load and resample the elevation model. This is important
for small areas since CORLA needs a specific minimal resolution of the elevation
model to be able to calculate. If this resolution cannot be provided of the
elevation model used in the project, activate this option.

Calculate in Buildings: Choose whether to calculate inside buildings or not. At
the bottom of the window antenna pattern options can be found. As already
mentioned, CORLA holds antenna patterns, which can be used in case
ambiguous antenna patterns are used in the current project. Choose between
Create pattern leading to maximum power level or Create pattern
leading to minimum power level.
3.1.2.3.1
Algorithm
The Algorithm tab offers a few possibilities to adjust the accuracy of the CORLA
Raylauncher.
Figure 84: The CORLA Algorithm tab
The parameters are mostly self-explanatory:
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
Recursion Depth For Wall Diffraction: The number of walls which could
diffract the signal

Recursion Depth For Roof Diffraction: The number of roofs which could
diffract the signal

Recursion Depth For Ground Diffraction: Maximum number of signal
diffraction by the ground

Recursion Depth For Reflection: Maximum number of signal reflection by
anything

Relative Recursion Depth For Reflection: Relative number of signal
reflection by anything

Minimum Receiver Power: Minimum receiver power that can be transformed
into a usable signal
Editing these parameters should only be done by experienced users who are familiar with
the CORLA algorithm and can assess the consequences of changing these parameters. The
default parameters offer a good quality and also a fast calculation. Choosing higher numbers
for reflections or diffractions can extend the calculation time for many hours or even days.
3.1.2.3.2
Model Parameters
The model parameters offer full access to the algorithm parameters. Hence this algorithm is
very complicated, the model parameters should only be changed by experienced users.
Figure 85: The CORLA Model Parameters tab
At the bottom of the window, it is possible to import a model parameter file in the actual
project. This enables the user to share configuration files between projects. The actual
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configuration can also be saved by clicking on Save. Furthermore it is possible to set the
configuration to the default parameters by clicking on Load Default.
Do not change CORLA parameters if you are not 100 % sure what you are
doing. Since the CORLA Raylauncher is not developed by brown-iposs, further
information can only be gathered from TNC. The WiMAP-4G product support
(info@brown-iposs.eu) will open the contact on request.
3.1.2.4 WinProp
WinProp is for propagation modeling in different scenarios (like rural, indoor, and outdoor).
In this version, only click on Rural.
The Dominant Path Model which is included in WinProp calculates the path loss on the
main paths between transmitter and each receiver pixel by high precision like the ray
tracing.
Figure 86: The WinProp properties
OLOS: = NLOS = non-light-of-sight connection
LOS: light-of-sight connection
WG: Waveguiding
3.1.3 Elevation Model
In the Elevation Model settings the standard environment elevation can be changed in
case of there is no elevation model data available for the project. Elevation can be changed
by activating Use default elevation in case of missing elevation data and specifying a
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value. Furthermore, it can be decided if ASCII grid files should be specified on xllcenter or
xllcorner.
Figure 87: The Elevation Model settings
3.1.4 DXF
There is no need for explaining .DXF settings here. It gets important while importing
cadastral data. For .DXF settings see 4.1.2.
3.1.5 Building Classes
The Building Classes submenu allows the user to create new buildings or wood profiles.
This is important while creating buildings or wood. For example one class of buildings cannot
overlap itself, so if the user wants to create nested buildings he needs to create more than
one class of buildings. It is the same for wood.
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Figure 88: The Building Classes settings
3.1.5.1 How to Add a Building or Wood Profile
1. Open ExtrasProject DefaultsBuilding Classes.
Figure 89: Select building classes
2. Click on Add.
Figure 90: Click Add to add a new building class
3. Type in next ID and Name and click on OK. Indoor loss should be applied except
when there are no walls or doors etc.
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Figure 91: Click OK to save the changes
4. Select the new building from the list and click on Attenuations and then on Add.
Figure 92: Add new attenuation parameters
5. Add new Frequency and Attenuation. The second field should only be filled if
there are some special circumstances inside the building. Double-click on OK.
Figure 93: Save the changes with OK
6. Click on Color and Add.
Figure 94: Colours need to be added
7. Gradually insert building heights and the related desired colours. After this is done,
double-click on OK.
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Figure 95: Click OK to save all changes
This works for wood, too.
3.2 Create Projects
After configuring the project settings, it is time to create a real project.
A new project can be created:

during the start of WiMAP-4G
Figure 96: The start dialogue

by choosing Project  New while WiMAP-4G is running. Current projects can
be saved or discarded.
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Figure 97: Create a new project
The Create Project Dialogue appears.
Figure 98: Dialogue for creating a project
There are two ways to create a new project:

Create a preconfigured project with elevation model.

Create an empty project.
3.2.1 Create Preconfigured Projects
This option creates a new project with a geographic coordinate system. An elevation model
can optionally be initialized from SRTM data and a basic satellite image can be downloaded.
This is the easiest way to create a project because the elevation model can be initialized
during creation.
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Creating a preconfigured project requires internet connection. If a proxy is in
use, optional proxy settings should be done by clicking "Configure Proxy…".
3.2.1.1 How to Create a Preconfigured Project
1. Open ProjectNew or choose
from the Control Bar.
2. Choose Create preconfigured project, using geodata available online and
click on Next. If a proxy server is in use, configure WiMAP-4G by clicking on
Configure Proxy.
Figure 99: Choose this type and click Next
3. Specify the area by address or by coordinates.
These are the two possibilities to specify an area for the geodata download. Specifying an
area by address is the easiest method which allows the user to enter a name of a place or
a zip-code or to choose an area from the result list. To specify an area by coordinates the
correct longitude and latitude is required.
If coordinates are unknown they can be found easily by using
http://maps.bing.com or Google Earth™. Look at 3.2.1.1.1 for more
information.
3.1
Specify area by address
Insert name of a place or zip code and click on Search.
Figure 100: Specify an area by address
Choose from the result list and click on Next.
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Figure 101: Choose a result from the list
3.2
Specify area by coordinates
Insert longitude and latitude into the corresponding fields and click on Next.
Figure 102: Specify an area by coordinates
4. Here it is possible to download the geodata from the internet. Missing SRTM
(Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) values can also be selected, which induces
the program to interpolate the missing areas.
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is a NASA mission conducted in
2000 to obtain elevation data for most of the world. It is the current dataset of
choice for digital elevation model data (DEM) since it has a fairly high resolution
(about 90 meters at the equator, and <30 meters in the U.S.), has near-global
coverage (from 56° S to 60° N), and is released into the public domain.
Furthermore a satellite image can be downloaded from OnEarth. The last setting is the
radius in meters. It specifies the maximum area which propagation models can be calculated
in.
If all settings are done, click on Next.
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Figure 103: Choose the radius of the area
Changing the maximum size of an area at a later date is possible by deleting
elevation and loading it newly from internet. However a bigger area is always a
good choice even if the download takes a little bit longer to avoid the need for
later modification.
5. Choose if an example site should appear on the map or not. If yes, choose whether it
should be a site with three sector antennas or one omega antenna and decide on one
of the technologies.
Click on Next.
Figure 104: Choose an example site
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6. Choose a project folder. A folder for a new project must be an empty folder.
New folders can be created by right-clicking on the desired location and clicking on
Create. Select this new Folder and press Finish.
Now the project has been created successfully and the user can start working.
3.2.1.1.1
How to Find Specific Geographic Coordinates with Google Maps™
1. Open http://maps.google.com and search for the specific area.
Example: Bonn, Germany
Figure 105: Open Google Maps™
2. Right click on the red marker and select What’s here?
Figure 106: Right-click the red marker
3. Now the specific coordinates appear in the search bar whereat 50.639062 is the
latitude and 7.094765 is the longitude.
Figure 107: The coordinates
4. Copy longitude and latitude to WiMAP-4G (Please make sure that project coordinates
are set to Geographic Coordinates).
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3.2.2 Create Empty Projects
This option creates a new empty project. The coordinate system type can be specified,
elevation model and satellite images can be imported later.
An empty project does not need to be saved while creation.
3.2.2.1 How to Create an Empty Project
1. Open ProjectNew or choose
from the Control Bar.
2. Choose Create empty project.
3. Choose a coordinate system (UTM, Gauss-Krueger, Geographic).
Figure 108: Choose a coordinate system type
UTM: The "Universal Transverse Mercator" System is a coordinate system that
makes it possible to locate every point on earth with the help of two length
declaration. Therefore it splits the earth in 6° wide zones. The X-value
represents the distance between a point and the meridian of origin while the Yvalue represents the distance between a point and the equator. Both values are
specified in meter. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate System more
and more displaces the Gauss-Krueger system.
Gauss-Krueger: The Gauss-Krueger system is based on the same technique
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as UTM but splits the earth in 3° wide Zones instead of 6° like UTM.
Geographic: The geographic coordinate system is the standard system used
by OpenStreetMap™ and Google™. Every point on earth can be specified by an
X- and Y-coordinate which are specified in degree. The X-coordinate can have a
value between -180° and 180° while the Y-value can be everything between
-90° and 90°. A location can be specified more precisely by using angular
minutes and seconds (angular seconds are decimal numbers, too).
0.001 angular second = 0.5 m.
4. If UTM is chosen, decide on a zone/stripe, if this zone/stripe in the south of the
equator, select this option and insert coordinates of a specified area. The default
zone 32 is the zone where Germany is located in.
If Gauss-Krueger is chosen, select the option south of the equator if the area is there and
optionally insert coordinates of the specified area.
If Geographic is chosen, it is sufficient to insert coordinates of the specified area only.
5. Click on Finish.
An empty project is created and imports can be done later. For more information see the
following chapters.
3.3 Load Projects
Projects can be loaded by choosing ProjectLoad or clicking
on the Control-Bar. The
File Explorer will open and a project file (.rap) can be chosen. If there is an active project,
it is possible to save or discard it, before loading a new project. Recent projects are shown
on the project submenu at the bottom.
Figure 109: The easy way to load projects
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3.4 Save Projects
Projects can be saved by choosing ProjectSave or clicking
on the Control-Bar. Save
as can also be chosen from the Project submenu. With Save as, a project can be renamed
or saved at another location.
Projects can also be saved with the Shortcut STRG+S.
3.5 The Log
The log is an useful tool to help the user identify problems if something does not work. It is
a separate window and therefore it can be observed while working in the program. The log
can be found at the bottom of the user interface of WiMAP-4G (by default).
Figure 110: The log window
After loading a project, the log starts protocolling everything for a better overview to relate
to every step of the work. Nearly every action of the log except interface actions will be
protocolled, for example shifting the area or zooming in and out. To learn what happened or
what caused a problem take a look at the log first. Errors are written in red colour for better
identification. Warning messages are highlighted in blue.
Figure 111: Errors are shown in red in the log window.
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4 Geodata
Importing geodata is one of the most important things to bear in mind while working on a
project. Geodata makes sure that the user takes account of elevation, buildings, wood and
other environmental factors. Cadastral data, elevation models and background images can
be imported in WiMAP-4G.
A professional project should never be planned without geodata import because
it affects the results in a certain extent.
4.1 Cadastral Data
Cadastral data is a comprehensive register of the land parcels of a country or parts of a
country. It includes the precise location, dimension and the cultivation of an individual
parcel. Cadastral data can be purchased at the local land survey register. For presentations,
it can be useful to see the exact data signal power for a customer. The destination of a site
can be planned better if the user knows what is out there. Cadastral data is not as important
as a good elevation model, but it can help the user to get an idea of the environment and
take account of some special circumstances which may exist. Import cadastral data in .dxf,
meaning "direct interchange format".
4.1.1 How to Import Cadastral Data
1. Open Geodata and choose Load Cadastral Data.
Figure 112: Load cadastral data
2. When the configuration window appears some settings need to be done. It is possible
to import single as well as multiple cadasters.
Activate single or multiple file import and click on Choose. Choose a file or a folder
to import multiple files. If the file path is known, it can be entered directly into the
box.
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Figure 113: Choose a file
3. Choose the transformation settings and click on OK. Transformation need to be
made according to the coordinate system used by the project. In most times a
translation needs to be made because .dxf files do not hold specific location
coordinates.
Figure 114: Add the cadastral data to the project
Subsequent a cadastral model appears at the specific place and additional layers appear at
the project explorer. The number of layers differ in .dxf files depending on the specific data
ordered by the land survey register.
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Figure 115: Unmodified cadastral data
Figure 116: Additional cadastral layers
In this example there are six different layers available for the cadastral data. They include
the 0-layer which is always available in cadastral data and some special layers like land
name, land border or vegetation.
4.1.2 DXF Settings
The DXF settings can be found in ProjectPropertiesDXF. At the top it can be chosen
whether .dxf files should be enabled or not. This is simply the same option as activating or
deactivating the .dxf layers in the Project-Explorer. Below this option a scale of cadastral
data can be set to a minimum or maximum value. Both values are set to maximum and
minimum scale by default. With these values, the cadastral model can always be seen
independently from the zoom factor.
At the bottom of the DXF settings the specific layers can be edited. Colours can be changed
as well as priority of the specific layer or the visibility. If desired, layers can be deleted, too.
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Figure 117: DXF settings
4.1.2.1 How to Edit Cadastral Data Layers
1. Open ProjectPropertiesDXF.
Figure 118: Edit cadastral data layers
2. At the bottom of the window, double-click the desired layer or choose the layer and
click on Edit. The layer configuration window appears.
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Figure 119: Choose Visualisation or Ignore
3. Decide whether a layer should be visible or not by choosing Visualisation or
Ignore.
4. Rename the layer. This is useful to keep track if there are many layers.
5. Change the colour, transparency and priority of the layer. Priority can be set
between 0 and 1.000. Layers with higher priority always crossfade layers with lower
priority.
Click on OK.
Figure 120: Edited cadastral layers
6. If everything went well, the cadastral model should have changed colours.
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Figure 121: Cadastral data changed colour
In the cadastral data tab of the Project-Explorer, the cadastral data can be deleted
from the project.
Figure 122: The Cadastral Data tab
4.2 Elevation Models
Elevation models are a basic feature of WiMAP-4G. They are essential in a project. They
should ideally be imported when creating a preconfigured project. Elevation models are
needed for proper use of the Terrain-Profiler and propagation model calculations. They will
always be more efficient if an elevation model is available. Elevation models show the
heights of every point in the selected area within the Terrain-Profiler. A manual import is
hypothetically possible but the .asc or .asg file format which is required is not available on
the free market.
4.2.1 How to Import an Elevation Model
1. Open GeodataElevation ModelLoad From File.
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Figure 123: Load an elevation model
2. Choose File and click on OK to import the elevation model.
If the elevation model was imported successfully, it should be shown in the elevation tab
of the Project-Explorer.
Figure 124: The elevation model tab after importing elevation models
4.2.2 How to Reload an Elevation Model from Web
1. Choose GeodataElevation ModelLoad from Web.
Figure 125: Reload elevation model from web
The current elevation model will be replaced by the new one.
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2. Choose Replace to delete the old elevation model.
Figure 126: Replace the current elevation model
3. Choose the Radius for the new elevation model and decide whether the missing
SRTM values should be added or not.
Figure 127: Choose Radius for the new model
Click on OK to load the elevation model.
WiMAP-4G will automatically replace the old one.
Figure 128: The new model will replace the old one
4.3 Background Images
The next object that can be imported is a background image. After creating an empty project
a background image can be downloaded manually using Onearth or other providers of
satellite images. Format can be .tif, .tiff, .gif or .png.
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4.3.1 How to Import a Background Image
1. Open GeodataMapsLoad Background Image.
Figure 129: The import dialogue for a background image
Figure 130: Load a background image.
2. Choose a file with Choose or enter a File path.
3. Enter the coordinates where the image should be placed at and click OK.
The Min. X and Min. Y coordinates are found in the lower left corner. The Max. X is
the coordinate in the upper left corner.
Figure 131: Fill in all fields and click OK
4.4Location Images
The location images are georeferenced images that contain coordinate information. They can
easily imported in WiMAP-4G and viewed there. WiMAP-4G supports the import of location
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images as .jpeg. It is possible to browse and to rotate through multiple images from one
location while watching.
4.4.1 How to Import a Location Image/Images
1. Select GeodataImagesImport
Figure 132: Import of location images
2. Enter Layer Name, choose One File and set a File path.
Figure 133: Import of one file
3. For importing more than one file: Enter Layer Name, choose More Files and then
enter a Directory path.
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Figure 134: Import of more than one file
Figure 135: Imported location images are shown on the map
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4.4.2 How to View a Location Image/Images
1. Right-click the desired location image on the map and click on Show.
Figure 136: Show a location image
2. Click Prev or Next button to browse the images or click Rotate Counterclockwise
or Rotate Clockwise button to rotate them.
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Figure 137: Browse or rotate location images
4.4.3 How to Delete a Location Image/Images
1. Select GeodataImagesDelete
Figure 138: Delete location images from menu
2. Choose the desired layer of location images and click OK.
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Figure 139: Choosing the image layer
3. As an alternative right-click the desired location image on the map and click on
Delete.
Figure 140: Delete location image from context menu
4.4.4 How to Import as Background Image
1. Select GeodataImagesImport
Figure 141: Import of location images
2. Choose the desired file and activate option Use as Background Image. Set
coordinates to locate the image.
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Figure 142: The import as background image
3. Follow the steps described above (like in 4.3.1).
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5 Buildings
Buildings and wood are structures needed for detailed calculations. Creating and/or
importing those structures is necessary to achieve exact calculations. Every calculation is
nearly useless if buildings and/or wood have not been included. There are different methods
to create or import these structures - they are explained in this chapter.
Figure 143: ITU-R P.1411-3 field strength calculation including buildings
Figure 144: ITU-R P.1411-3 field strength calculation without buildings
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5.1 Create Buildings
Create buildings is a matter of importance but it is not as easy as some users may think. For
a proper creation of structures the correct coordinates, length and height should be known.
Create buildings, where there are no actual buildings, or shift buildings a few meters away
due to incorrect coordinates, can doom a project to failure. Shifting may cause bad results
which makes it hard to realize the project. In the last resort a project seems to work in the
program but in reality there are big field strength problems.
This section refers to buildings, but wood can be imported in the very same
way.
Buildings should be created to the best of ones knowledge to eliminate
possibility of future problems.
5.1.1 How to Create Buildings
1. Open GeodataBuildingsCapture.
Figure 145: Capture buildings
2. There are two ways to create buildings or wood:

For the exact but slow method watch a-d.

For the fast method watch e-f.
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a. Add buildings by entering the exact coordinates: This is for sure the more
precise method to create buildings but therefore it is more time-consuming.
Click Add and enter the building coordinates. These have to be the
coordinates of the building corners. For example a rectangular building needs
four coordinates whereas a roundel needs much more depending on the
precision that should be reached.
The first and the last coordinates connect each other automatically. That is why
there are only four coordinates for example for a rectangular building instead of
five.
Figure 146: Add the first coordinates.
b. Click OK to set the first coordinates.
A blue dot should appear to show the entered coordinates.
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Figure 147: The blue dot shows the coordinates.
c. Add more coordinates depending on the building type.
Note, that the coordinate order should be consistent. The order can be
modified afterwards by clicking on the specific coordinate pair, hold the mouse
button and shift the coordinates to the desired position.
Figure 148: All coordinates added
After all coordinates have been entered there should be blue lines which border the building.
d. Make sure to apply the right height for the building.
Click on Create Building.
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Figure 149: A created building
e. Add buildings with drag and drop: This is the fast method. It can also be
precise if it is done correctly. OpenStreetMap™ offers the exact coordinates
for a specific environment. Simply click on the corners of buildings in the
exact order to connect the points automatically.
Figure 150: Add all corners
f. After all coordinates have been captured, make sure to apply the right height
for the building.
Click on Create Building.
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Figure 151: Building added via drag and drop
5.1.2 Advanced Buildings
As many users realize in a project, there is more than just create a building. Maybe there are
buildings with a courtyard or something similar.
5.1.2.1 How to Create Courtyard or Similar in Buildings
1. Open GeodataBuildingsCapture.
2. Choose the building class that is used for the building wanted to edit.
3. Simply add the coordinates of the courtyard or drag and drop it.
Figure 152: Add the courtyard
4. Click Create Building.
Figure 153: Courtyard
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Sometimes there are buildings inside other buildings, buildings intersect other buildings or
even there are towers on the roof of buildings. These buildings cannot be created without
making a few arrangements.
Figure 154: Intersecting buildings of the same type is not possible
Each building has a type id. The problem is that buildings with the same type id cannot
intersect. As mentioned in chapter 3.1.5 there are building classes which need to be created
for intersection. For bigger projects many building classes are needed as well as many wood
classes.
Figure 155: Building classes
These building classes are available in the capture building dialogue. They can be used to
create nested buildings or woods.
Figure 156: Capture buildings
5.1.2.2 How to Add Intersecting Buildings
Assuming that more building classes has been added.
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1. Open GeodataBuildingsCapture.
2. Create a building as described in 5.1.1.
Figure 157: A new building
3. Choose other building classes, for example a tower, and build it inside the first
building.
Figure 158: Intersecting buildings and wood
Figure 159: Building in a building
A tower has been created and placed inside the other building without any error or warning
message.
To make buildings inside other buildings clearly visible, just make a few visibility
adjustments in the building classes settings.
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5.2 Edit Buildings
The building size can be changed as well. Please keep in mind that building needs at least
three coordinates.
5.2.1 How to Edit a Building
1. Take a right click on an existing building and select Edit Building… and the Edit
Building window will be opened.
Figure 160: Context menu of a building
Figure 161: Edit building window
2. After changing, click on Change Building to save the changes.
5.3 Export Buildings
Buildings can be exported from WiMAP-4G to import buildings to other programs or to
WiMAP-4G itself for a different project.
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5.3.1 How to Export Buildings
1. Choose Geodata->BuildingsSave Buildings.
Figure 162: Choose Save Buildings to export buildings
2. Choose a directory, pick a desired name for the export file and click on OK
After exporting the .mif file can be found in the chosen save directory.
5.4 Import Buildings
Buildings can be imported as easy as they can be exported. The files have to be .mif files.
5.4.1 How to Import Buildings
1. Choose GeodataBuildingsLoad Buildings.
Figure 163: Choose Load Buildings to import buildings
2. Choose the desired .mif file and click OK.
All buildings included in the .mif file has been imported now and can be edited and/or
deleted as usual.
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5.5 Create Buildings Using Cadastral Data
(Professional-Edition)
Buildings can be created using the cadastral data. This is an advanced feature and
therefore only available for Professional-Edition customers. Only the cadastral data is needed
which can be purchased at the local land survey register. Import buildings with cadastral
data is more precise than creating them, because the cadastral data is a professional product
made by engineers. OpenStreetMap™, which is mostly used to get an impression where to
create buildings, is an open project and therefore not immune against individual caused
errors.
5.5.1 How to Create Buildings Using Cadastral Data
Assuming, that cadastral data has been loaded and contains a building layer.
1. Choose GeodataBuildingsCreate from Cadastral Data.
Figure 164: Create buildings from cadastral data
2. Choose the layer that contains the structures in the appearing window. Choose the
structure depending on the available building classes. The last important
information is the structure height. The height of 8 m is default and should be used,
if the user is not sure how high the buildings are.
Figure 165: Import settings
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3. There are advanced settings for imports, too. Decide what happens in case new
buildings intersect old buildings, in the replacement options.
Replacement options:

Take new building: Old buildings will be overwritten if new buildings intersect
them.

Take new building with old height: Old buildings will be overwritten by new
but they keep their height.

Keep existing building: Old buildings cannot be overwritten.
The exact coordinates of the cadastral data position is needed to place the buildings on the
right position of the map.
After filling in all the needed information, click on OK to create the buildings.
All the buildings in the building layer are created.
Figure 166: Buildings created from cadastral data
5.6 Create Buildings Using CORINE
(Professional-Edition)
Creating buildings with CORINE data is a feature of the Professional-Edition. The CORINE
Land Cover is a project established by the European Environment Agency to classify a
computerized inventory of the land cover in European countries. Therefore, it is an optimal
source for buildings, wood and other important objects needed by WiMAP-4G to create a
proper calculation. CORINE data can be downloaded from the EEA-Website.
5.6.1 How to Create Buildings Using CORINE Data
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1. Choose GeodataBuildingsCORINE Import.
Figure 167: CORINE import
2. Choose a file, fill in the coordinates of the desired environment and click on Next.
Figure 168: CORINE settings
3. After the environment details are loaded, the following window should appear:
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Figure 169: Imported structures
The building count shows the actual number of structures imported from the CORINE data
file.
4. All structures are ignored by default because the user should choose by himself,
which buildings he wishes to import.
Simply double-click on the desired structure or select it and click on Edit.
Figure 170: CORINE imports need to be mapped to a building class
Set Action to Map To and select the corresponding structure.
Additional structures can be added or edited in the WiMAP-4G settings. See
chapter 3.1.5 for more information.
5. After mapping all desired structures to the corresponding building class, click on
Finish. The imported structures appear on the map.
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Figure 171: A whole region created with CORINE imports
Additional buildings can be added by loading the same CORINE file again.
5.7 Delete Buildings
5.7.1 How to Delete Building manually
1. Take a right click on the building which you want to delete and select in the context
menu Delete Building….
Figure 172: Context menu of a building
2. The building is deleted successfully.
5.8 Clear Building Cache
Clearing the building cache deletes all buildings from the project.
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5.8.1 How to Clear Building Cache
1. Choose GeodataBuildingsClear.
All buildings will be deleted.
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6 Carrier
Carriers are waveforms modulated with a specific input signal for the purpose of conveying
information on the air-interface in the case of WiMAP-4G. The following carrier types are
available and preconfigured in WiMAP-4G:


WLAN 2.4 GHz:
o
100 mW (10 mW) allowed transmission power, high availability and
therefore lower costs for equipment
o
Sharing channels with other sites is expected
o
13 (11) overlapping and/or 3 non-overlapping channels
o
2.400-2.484 MHz spectrum
WLAN 5.0 GHz:
o
1.000 mW allowed transmission power outdoor, less used frequency band
and therefore interference-free connection possible
o
In general, equipment needs to provide dynamic frequency selection and
transmission power control. It is expensive compared to the 2.4 GHz
technology.
o
24 non-overlapping channels:
o




8 indoor channels (200 mW power)

11 outdoor channels (1 W power)

5 FBWA (4 W power)
5.180-5.870 MHz spectrum
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access):
o
Microwave signals for connection range up to 50 km therefore suitable for
poorly accessible regions
o
Comparable to WLAN except the range is much higher
o
3.400-3.700 MHz spectrum
Backhaul:
o
Connection between core network and small sub networks
o
Point to point and/or point to multipoint radio relay
o
Frequency spectrum different, up to 38.5 GHz
Tetra (terrestrial trunked radio, also known as Trans European Trunked Radio
Access):
o
Designed for use by government agencies, emergency services and military
o
Low frequency spectrum and therefore huge range with high coverage
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
o
Expensive and can interfere other sensible electronic devices like TV
receiver
o
380-470 MHz spectrum
Generic OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex):
o
High efficiency caused by nearly constant spectral power density
o
Tough against interference
o
Needs exact time and frequency synchronization
o
470-870 MHz spectrum
6.1 How to Create or Edit Carrier
1. Choose CarriersEdit.
Figure 173: Click Edit to show a list of all carriers
2. To create a new carrier click New and select the desired carrier type. To edit a
carrier type, double-click it or choose it and click on Edit. A carrier can be deleted by
selecting it and click Delete.
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Figure 174: Choose New to create a new carrier
Figure 175: The Carrier Settings window
A carrier can be created by choosing CarriersCreate, too.
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Figure 176: The fast way to create a carrier
3. Configure the carrier and always keep the specifications for the specific carrier in
mind. A 2.4 GHz WLAN should not have a frequency spectrum up to 5 GHz.
Figure 177: Configured carrier
4. Click Coverage and edit the coverage options according to the chosen carrier type.
Figure 178: Coverage settings
Coverage is preconfigured for every carrier type but the specific values can be changed by
clicking Edit. Colour options can be changed by clicking on Levels. To add a new value, a
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level needs to be created first. Click LevelsAdd, add the specific values and click on OK.
Now the parameters of this new value can be set with Edit.
5. If all necessary carriers have been created or edited, click on OK.
6.2 Import Carrier
Importing carrier is possible with WiMAP-4G. Both, importing carrier information from other
projects to the active working set and importing carrier data from other programs that allow
exporting data in .rad format is provided. This feature can be useful to import carriers for the
specific country and restrictions of this country. Carriers used in European projects and also
the program defaults may be useless in other country for example in America. With this
feature the American carriers can be imported and do not need to be created for every
project.
6.2.1 How to Import Carrier
1. Choose CarriersImport.
Figure 179: Import carriers
2. Choose the .rad file that holds the new carriers and click on OK to import these
carriers. If everything worked out successful, the log shows the following information
and the imported carriers are available now.
Figure 180: Log information for the current import
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Existing carrier will not be replaced. Instead of replacing the log shows the following
information:
Figure 181: Existing carriers cannot be replaced
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7 Sites, Radio Units and
Antennas
Sites are one of the most important things that WiMAP-4G depends on. A project cannot be
planned without sites because they are the main aspect of every calculation. There are
different types of sites, radio units, and antennas available and they have all their
advantages and disadvantages. An advanced knowledge of antenna types is useful to make
projects succeed. For example since the costs of each antenna type differ, a project should
not be expensive if that is not necessary. So every user should make some investigations on
sites, radio units, and antennas before continuing with this chapter. It is also necessary to
take a look at the involved parameters used for antennas and calculations.
7.1 Antennas
There are a few preconfigured antennas, but depending on the project other may be needed
to make a proper calculation. Different companies offer different antennas with different
parameters. Antennas should be created to design the project as close to reality as possible.
7.1.1 Create Antennas
As mentioned before, new antennas sometimes need to be added to make calculations with
the exact antenna type for a proper result. WiMAP-4G allows the creation of antennas with
the help of patterns.
7.1.1.1 How to Create Antennas
1. Open a site or radio unit (like in 7.3.2 or 7.2.2) or right-click any antenna in the Sites
tab and click on New.
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Figure 182: Right-click in sites tab and click on New in context menu
2. The antenna settings window will be opened.
Figure 183: Antenna Settings window
3. If all parameter are set, click on OK. To save the antenna completely, the setting
windows of radio unit and site has also to be closed with the OK button.
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4. The new antenna will appear on the map and in the Sites-tab.
Figure 184: View of site with antenna on the map
7.1.1.2 How to Create Antenna Types
1. Choose Antenna-TypesCreate or Antenna-TypesEdit and click on New.
Figure 185: Create antenna-types
2. The antenna-type settings window will be opened. The antenna pattern can be
imported while creating antennas.
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Figure 186: Antenna-type settings with importing the antenna pattern
It is necessary to create an antenna pattern which contains all information about the vertical
and horizontal attenuation. These patterns can be loaded from files. The data type needs to
be .msi, .dat or .adf. The patterns can be downloaded from the manufacturer site, but
sometimes they need to be created manually. The pattern files can be chosen later. Pattern
files contain antenna names so there would be less input needed, if a pattern file was chosen
right away.
Choose a file and click on OK respectively Cancel to cancel the import.
A short introduction how to create pattern files can be found in chapter 7.1.5
3. If no pattern file has been imported, edit the name and manufacturer according to
the desired antenna and choose electrical downtilt. Advanced users can add
Maximum Power and Antenna Type Height.
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Figure 187: Antenna-type Settings
4. To complete antenna creation a pattern is now necessary. Trying to complete the
creation without a pattern brings up the following message:
Figure 188: A pattern is required for antenna creation
To load a pattern, click PatternsLoad Single Pattern. If there are more than one
pattern available for the same antenna, click PatternsLoad Coupled Patterns.
Figure 189: Load single or multiple patterns
5. Select a pattern which is either a .mis or a .dat or an .adf file and click on OK. If this
is a valid pattern, a line will be added in the attenuation table.
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Figure 190: A valid pattern
6. The electrical downtilt for a pattern can be edited by selecting the pattern and
clicking on OK. A window appears and the downtilt can be changed for +/-45° and
other.
Figure 191: Antenna attenuation
If everything is edited and a pattern has been imported, click OK to complete. If there are
any error messages, follow the instructions from 1-6. If everything went fine, the new
antenna can be used while creating sites.
7.1.2 Editing Antennas
Sometimes antennas need to be edited. The next chapter will explain how to edit an antenna
setting.
7.1.2.1 How to Edit Antennas
1. Open a site or radio unit (like in 7.3.2 or 7.2.2), select an antenna or right-click the
desired antenna in Sites tab and click on Edit.
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Figure 192: Right-click in sites tab and click on Edit in context menu
2. Change the desired parameters and click on OK.
Figure 193: Antenna Settings window
3. To save the changes, the setting windows of radio unit and site has also to be closed
with the OK button. By clicking Cancel, all changes will be lost.
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Antennas can be deleted. In this case follow the steps described above and
click on Delete.
7.1.2.2 How to Edit Antenna Types
1. Choose Antenna TypesEdit.
Figure 194: Edit antenna-types
2. Choose the antenna-type from the list and click on Edit.
Figure 195: Antenna-type Settings
3. Edit the parameters and click on OK.
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Antennas can be deleted. In this case follow the steps described above and
click on Delete.
7.1.3 How to Copy Antennas
1. Right-click the desired antenna in the Sites tab and choose Create Copy.
Figure 196: Right-click in the sites tab and click on Create Copy in context menu
2. The setting window of an antenna with the same parameter like the selected antenna
will be opened and can be edited.
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Figure 197: Antenna settings of a copied antenna
3. After all changes, click on OK to save the settings. This new antenna will be added to
the radio unit and site of the selected antenna.
7.1.4 How to Change all Antennas Faster
1. Choose SitesChange MultipleAntennas.
Figure 198: Change multiple antennas
2. Choose which specific antennas should be edited (effects antennas of a whole site),
or choose all antennas alternatively all active antennas for editing.
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Figure 199: Choosing all antennas option
3. Choose the desired parameter by changing the option to Set to and change the
parameter.
Figure 200: Setting the new carrier for all antennas
4. Click on OK to save changes for the desired antennas.
7.1.5 How to Create a Pattern File
Creating a pattern file is necessary for importing an antenna in case the manufacturer does
not offer pattern files for download. Only a text editor is needed to create those pattern files.
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1. Open editor (Hold down Win-Button and press R, type Notepad and click on OK).
The editor should appear at once:
Figure 201: The windows editor
2. Parameter needed for pattern creation:

Description of the antenna

Name of the antenna

Frequency

Horizontal and vertical angle of the signal created from the antenna

Front to back ratio (power gain between front and rear of the antenna)

Antenna gain

Tilt (mechanical or electrical)

Polarization of the antenna (horizontal or vertical)

Attenuation parameters for 360° horizontal and vertical
These parameters are all you need to create a valid antenna pattern with a text editor.
Add the following lines to the editor:


Description of the antenna:
o
NAME 24.120.10.15
o
This is the standard description for antenna in WiMAP-4G.
o
24: Antenna frequency (for this antenna 2.4 GHz)
o
120: Horizontal angle
o
10: Vertical angle
o
15: Antenna gain in dBi
Name of the antenna:
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



o
MAKE Stella Doradus
o
In this case Stella Doradus is the name of the antenna.
Antenna frequency:
o
FREQUENCY 2442
o
Depending on the frequency used change 2.442 to 3.500 for 3.5 GHz.
Horizontal angle:
o
H_WIDTH 360
o
Horizontal angle can be a value between 0 and 360°.
Vertical Angle:
o
V_WIDTH 9
o
Vertical angle can be a value between 0 and 360°.
Front to back:
o

Antenna gain:
o

GAIN 10 dBi
Tilt:
o

FRONT_TO_BACK 10
TILT MECHANICAL
Polarization:
o
POLARIZATION V
o
Set POLARIAZTION H for horizontal polarization.
The editor should look like this:
Figure 202: Editor with a few settings
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3. Add the horizontal and vertical attenuation parameters from 0 to 360 using this style.
HORIZONTAL
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
…
360
360
0
0
0
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
…
0
VERTICAL
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
…
360
360
0
0.03
0.5
1.46
2.972
5.203
8.489
12.752
25.13
20.546
14.395
11.95524
11.1492
…
0
Figure 203: Editor with attenuation parameters
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4. Choose FileSave as and save file as .msi.
Figure 204: Save the new file as .msi
There is a .msi file in the chosen file path right away, which can be used as a pattern for this
antenna.
7.1.6 Export Antennas
To export antenna information from an existing project it might be necessary to work in
other projects with the same antenna set or to work with these antennas in other programs
that allow antenna-import.
7.1.6.1 How to Export Antennas
1. Choose SitesExport Antennas.
Figure 205: Export antennas
2. Choose whether to export all antennas which is set by default or only the active
antennas. The decimal separator only affects the layout of the created .csv file.
Click on Choose to browse folders and enter a file name.
3. Click OK to export the antennas.
7.1.7 Import Antennas
Importing antennas is possible with WiMAP-4G. Both, importing antenna information from
other projects to the active working set and importing antennas data from other programs
that allow exporting data in .csv format is provided.
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7.1.7.1 How to Import Antennas
1. Choose SitesImport Antennas.
Figure 206: Import antennas
2. Set Decimal Separator for the imported parameters and choose file.
Figure 207: Dialogue for setting the decimal separator
3. The imported antennas appear on the map:
Figure 208: Imported antennas shown up on the map with their corresponding
sites
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7.1.7.2 How to Import Antenna Types
Importing antenna types is possible with WiMAP-4G, too. Antenna types can be imported
from other projects or from other programs that support the .rad export. With this feature,
specific antenna types can be imported and do not need to be created for every project
again and again.
1. Choose Antenna-TypesImport.
Figure 209: Import antenna-types
2. Choose the .rad file that holds the new antenna types and click on OK to import
these antenna types.
Figure 210: Choosing file
3. If everything worked out successfully, the log shows the following information and
the imported antenna types are available now.
Figure 211: Log information for the current import
A possible scenario: Existing antenna types will not be replaced. Instead of replacing the log
shows the following information:
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Figure 212: Log with warning message
7.1.8 Activate or Deactivate Antennas
Sometimes antennas need to be activated or deactivated, for instance, to make calculations
faster. This is important for larger projects. There are several ways to activate or deactivate
antennas. One of these ways is described in the next chapter.
7.1.8.1 How to Activate/Deactivate Antennas
3. To set antennas active or inactive, open the Sites tab in the Project-Explorer.
Figure 213: The sites tab
4. In a table or a tree data of the window, all antennas can be activated or deactivated.
5. As an alternative choose SitesActivationAntennasActivate All/Deactivate
All
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7.1.8.2 How to Invert Activation
1. Open the Site tab in the Project-Explorer and right-click on an antenna.
2. Select ActivationInvert Activation.
Figure 214: Invert activation of an antenna
3. Invert Activation function activates all deactivate antennas, if the selected antenna
was activated or vice versa.
7.1.8.3 How to Activate Antennas by a Filter
1. Open the Site tab in the Project-Explorer and right-click on an antenna.
2. Select ActivationFilter Activation.
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Figure 215: Context menu for filter activation
3. Select and set the filter parameters and click on OK to select and apply the filter.
Figure 216: Filter activation
4. After applying the filter parameter will activate all affected antennas.
7.1.9 Invalid Antennas
An antenna will be invalid if the carrier of the radio unit or the associated antenna type does
not match. The colour font of the antenna will change to red and the antenna is deactivated
for calculation. The following figures show clearly how the invalid antennas look in WiMAP4G projects.
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Figure 217: Site settings with invalid antennas
Figure 218: Site tab with invalid antennas
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Figure 219: Radio unit with invalid antennas
Figure 220: Invalid antenna
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Figure 221: Log message about invalid antennas
7.1.10Distributed/MIMO Antennas
WiMAP-4G supports distributed antennas for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) technology.
MIMO technology is used to enhance the performance of signal transmission. In practice the
distributed antennas can interfere with each other although their signals are transmitted over
different mediums. To create distributed antennas at least two antennas per radio unit are
required.
7.1.10.1
How to Create Distributed/MIMO Antennas
1. Open a radio unit that should have the distributed antennas and click on New to
create new antenna.
Figure 222: Creating a new antenna
2. The antenna settings window will be opened. Edit the settings and click on OK.
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3. If the radio unit has one antenna follow the steps described above.
4. Now the desired radio unit has the distributed antennas.
Figure 223: Radio unit with distributed antennas
5. View of the distributed antennas on the map as follows:
Figure 224: Distributed antennas with same directions
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Figure 225: Distributed antennas with different directions
An introduction how to calculate with desired antennas can be found in chapter
10.16
7.2 Radio Units
Radio Unit represents an antenna set which can be used for distributed antennas. The radio
unit can have one or more antennas but one antenna can only be combined with one radio
unit. In the radio unit one can determine the carrier. The carrier consists of a channel and a
technology.
The parameters of a radio unit are:
Carrier: Select a carrier for the antenna. If there is no carrier available for
the specific purpose, create one by clicking on OptionsCarriers.
o
To create or edit carriers see chapter 6.1.
o
Power (dBm): The power of the carrier specified in dBm.
Note that there are limitations according to the power in each country (20 dBm
maximum channel power for 2.4 GHz for example).
o
Pilot (%): The pilot power of the carrier. Affects the signal radius.
Value: 1-100 %
o
Colour: Represents the colour of a radio unit.
o
Antennas: List of the associated antennas.
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7.2.1 How to Create a Radio Unit
1. Open a site (like in 7.3.1 and 7.3.2) and choose NewCreate Radio Unit or right-
click any radio unit of the desired site in the Sites tab and click on New.
Figure 226: Site Settings window
2. Edit the parameters of new radio unit, to create antennas click on New.
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Figure 227: Radio unit settings window
3. For saving the new radio unit click on OK. To save the changes of the site click again
on OK in the site settings window.
Take a look in chapter 7.1.1.1 for creating an antenna in a radio unit.
7.2.2 How to Edit a Radio Unit
1. Open the edit window of a site (like in 7.3.2) or right-click the desired radio unit in
the Sites tab and click on Edit.
2. The radio unit settings window will be open.
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Figure 228: Edit a radio unit
3. If all changes are done, click on OK to save the changes. By clicking Cancel, all
changes will be lost.
7.2.3 How to Copy a Radio Unit
1. Right-click the desired radio unit in the Sites-tab and choose Create Copy.
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Figure 229: Copy a radio unit
2. The radio unit settings window will be opened.
Figure 230: Edit the radio unit
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3. Antennas can be created/edited/removed by clicking on New/Edit/Delete.
4. Click on OK to save changes.
7.2.4 How to Change Carrier in a Radio Unit
1. Open the desired radio unit (like in 7.2.2).
2. In the drop down menu there are only the active carriers of the radio unit. To add
another carrier choose OptionsCarriers.
.
Figure 231: Radio unit settings for changing the carrier
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Figure 232: List of carriers
3. Select one or more carrier to import and click on Add, for instance the WLAN 5 GHz
Channel 112.
Figure 233: Radio unit settings after adding another carrier
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4. Select now the added carrier. Whether the "new" carrier matches to the antenna type
can be seen in the pattern tab. If the carrier and the antenna type do not match, the
antenna will be deactivated and the font will be changed to red.
If the carrier is changed, the antenna type of each antenna must be also
adapted.
7.2.5 How to Change Radio Units faster
1. Choose SiteChange MultipleRadio Units.
Figure 234: Change multiple radio units
2. Select the radio unit(s) and the parameter that has to be changed.
Figure 235: Change multiple radio units window
3. Click on OK to save the changes.
7.2.6 Activate or Deactivate Radio Units
Radio units can be activated and deactivated on two ways: at once or manually.
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7.2.6.1 How to Activate or Deactivate Radio Units at once
1. Choose SitesActivationRadio UnitsActivate All or Deactivate All.
Figure 236: Activate or deactivate all radio units
This option could be useful if a calculation needs to be done only with a few radio units
whereat a lot of radio units need to be deactivated.
Simply choose Deactivate All and activate manually the few radio units needed. By the
time a calculation is done, all radio units can be activated with Activate All.
7.2.6.2 How to Activate or Deactivate Radio Units manually
1. For manually setting radio units active or inactive simply open the Sites tab in the
Project-Explorer.
Figure 237: The sites tab
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2. All radio units are listed at the top of the tab. They can be activated or deactivated by a
click on the checkboxes.
7.2.6.3 How to Invert Activation
1. Open the Sites tab in the Project-Explorer and take a right click on a radio unit.
2. Select ActivationInvert Activation.
Figure 238: Site tab context menu for activation of a radio unit
3. After selecting Invert Activation, all active radio units are deactivated and all
deactivate radio units are activated.
7.3 Sites
If all radio units and antennas are created and/or edited, sites are needed to make the
antennas and radio units work in the environment.
7.3.1 How to Create Sites
Creating sites is a main aspect of WiMAP-4G. Radio units with antennas should be preconfigured before creating sites.
1. Choose SitesCreate Site and choose either Empty Site or Preconfigured Site.
If the pre-configured site was chosen, the carrier and site height can be set.
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Figure 239: Create empty or 3-sector example sites
A site can also be created by right-clicking the desired point on the map and
click on "Create Site".
Figure 240: Create a site on the map
If there are no carrier and antennas pre-configured only an empty site can be created. In
that case radio units, carriers, and antennas must be created while creating this site.
To create radio units, carriers, and antennas see the chapters 6, 7.1.1, and
7.2.10.
2. Choose a name for the new site and type in the correct coordinates where the site
should be placed.
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Figure 241: Create a new site
A new site has been created, now radio units and antennas must be placed to make it work.
3. Choose NewCreate Radio Unit.
Figure 242: Create a new radio unit
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4. Set the carrier type and add new antennas to the radio unit. Click on New for that.
Parameter of a radio unit:
Carrier: Select a carrier for the antenna. If there is no carrier available for
the specific purpose, create one by clicking on OptionsCarriers.
o
To edit carriers see chapter 6.1.
o
Power (dBm): The power of the carrier specified in dBm.
Note that there are limitations according to the power in each country (20 dBm
maximum channel power for 2.4 GHz for example).
o
Pilot Power (%): The pilot power of the carrier. Affects the signal radius.
Value: 1-100 %
Figure 243: Radio Unit Settings window
5. Set the parameter of the antenna.
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Figure 244: Add antennas to the radio unit

Parameter:
o
Height (Above ground level): Height of the antenna
o
Set Height Refers To whether to Lower Edge or Center. This is
important for a hilly environment.
o
Direction: Direction of the antenna. If the antennas has a 360° angle, the
direction does not need to set to a specific value. Note that signals that use
the same channel interfere each other when they overlap.
Value: 0-360°
o
Downtilt: Set the downtilt of an antenna. This is important for
interconnection or hilly environment.
o
Auto-Adjust: Can be set to let the program manage the downtilt
automatically.
Value: 0-360°
o
Cable Loss: Cable loss for the antennas. The exact value can be obtained
from the manufacturer of the antenna.
o
Antenna Type: Choose the antenna of your choice. Make sure the
antenna correspond to the conditions. A 5.4 GHz antenna may not be used
for a 2.4 GHz carrier.
At the bottom of the window is a short list containing four entries. Proper technology pattern
is of particular importance. If it is highlighted, the antenna does not achieve the
requirements for the current configuration.
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Figure 245: Invalid antenna pattern
Change either Antenna Type or Carrier Type.
If there is no antenna available for the specific scenario, it can be created by choosing
OptionNew or OptionsAntenna TypesNew.
Figure 246: Create a new antenna-type
A short introduction how to create antennas can be found in chapter 7.1.1.1
o
Antenna Name: Choose a name for the antenna. This name appears in
the Project-Explorer and is useful to locate antennas.
There are two more categories at the bottom of the window:
o
Pattern: There is no need to edit those, because a pattern for the antenna
is imported already.
o
Position: Edit the position of the antenna. If there is no good reason to
change this, the antenna should remain in the position of the site.
Click on OK to create and place the antenna at the specific radio unit. Click again on OK to
create and place the radio unit at the selected site.
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Figure 247: The created antenna in the list
6. If all needed antennas have been created, click on OK to place the site on the map.
Figure 248: The created site on the map
7.3.2 How to Edit Sites
1. Right-click the desired site on the map or select the site in the Sites-tab and choose
Edit.
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Figure 249: Select the site by right-click on the map or in the sites tab.
2. The sites settings window will be opened and offering access to site-description and
antennas.
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Figure 250: Edit the site and click OK to save changes.
3. Antennas and radio units can be edited by choosing Edit function.
A short introduction how to edit antennas and radio units can be found in
chapter 7.1.2.1 respectively in chapter 7.2.2.
4. Click on OK to save changes.
7.3.3 How to Copy Sites
1. Right-click the desired site in the Sites-tab and choose Create Copy.
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Figure 251: Select the site by right-click in the sites tab
2. The sites settings window will be opened and offer access to site-description, radio
units and antennas.
Figure 252: Site Settings window
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3. Edit the site settings.
4. Antennas and radio units can be edited/removed by choosing the antenna or radio
unit and clicking on Edit/Delete.
A short introduction how to copy antennas and radio units can be found in
chapter 7.1.3 respectively in chapter 7.2.3.
5. Click on OK to save changes.
7.3.4 Activate or Deactivate Sites
Sites can be activated or deactivated. This may be important if the user wants to make a
calculation that does not include all antennas. A lot of antennas need a long time to calculate
and if only a little detail has been changed, the user does not want to make a two hour
calculation to see the mistake.
There are two methods to activate or deactivate sites: at once or manually.
7.3.4.1 How to Activate or Deactivate all Sites at Once
1. Choose SitesActivationSitesActivate All or Deactivate All.
Figure 253: Activate or deactivate all sites
2. As an alternative, use the icons on tool panel in the site tab of the Project-
Explorer.
Figure 254: The tool panel of sites tab
This option could be useful if a calculation needs to be done only with a few sites whereat a
lot of sites need to be deactivated.
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Simply choose Deactivate All and activate manually the needed sites. By the time a
calculation is done, all sites can be activated with Activate All.
7.3.4.2 How to Activate or Deactivate Sites Manually
1. To set sites active or inactive manually simply open the Sites Tab in the Project-
Explorer.
Figure 255: The Sites tab
2. All sites are listed at the top of the tab. They can be activated or deactivated.
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8 Points
Points have a lot in common with clients but they are a little bit different. Points can be
placed everywhere on the map. They represent for example potential customers or
measurement points for the wireless solution created with WiMAP-4G. There are less
calculation possibilities for points than for carriers. A point should be set if there is no further
information on a client about what technique he uses.
8.1 Measurement Points
A measurement point is defined by coordinates and other parameters like Power Level or
SNR. This used measurement point is for radiowave measurement like WLAN or WiMAX. The
category Measurement is an example for a point category that can be used to define a
measurement point. Measurement points can be imported from a measurement data file in
.csv format, see Figure 256 for an example. Each point must have a minimum of attributes
like Name and Coordinates.
If no suitable converter is available, contact us at info@brown-iposs.eu.
Figure 256: Supported .csv file with measurement information
A measurement file can be imported by a normal import of points (look at 8.5.3). But there
is a little difference. Each measurement point gets his own point, so that one point can
overlap another point. After an import it should be checked if the imported carrier is existing.
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If this carrier does not exist, the carrier must be created. With the function PointsEdit
multiple… (look at 8.3.3) it is also possible to change the carrier to an available carrier.
Figure 257: Measurement points from a measurement without colour information
If there is no colour information in the .csv file all points are black. The colour can be set by
the functions coverage and/or visualisation (look at 8.6.2 and 8.6.3).
Figure 258: Measurement points from a measurement coloured by visualisation
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Figure 259: Measurement points from a measurement coloured by coverage
8.2 Point Categories
Point categories are essential to create points. Before creating a point on the map, the
point category needs to be created or edited for specific needs. Add all columns that can be
described while a point is created. If the height of the customer antenna is known, add a
column of type Meter and name it Height for example.
All category parameter types that can be added:
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
C/I

Data rate

Degree

Field strength

Meter

Ordinal

Power level

Text

URL

X-coordinate

Y-coordinate
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The default category Measurement is a category that has the following default parameter:
Power Level, SNR, Carrier and Height. But the parameter can be extended with e.g. Field
Strength, Data rate and more.
The demo project "Munich" has the category Potential Customer with the parameters Height
and Y/N (Text). This category can be added also to other projects by importing it from the
demo project or by defining it manually.
8.2.1 How to Edit Point Categories
If a new value type for a point is necessary, the point category has to be edited first.
1. Choose PointsEdit Categories.
Figure 260: Edit point categories
2. Choose the category that needs to be edited and click on Edit. The point category
window opens and columns can be added, edited, deleted or moved up and down.
When all changes are done, click on OK to save the changes.
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Figure 261: Point category windows
8.2.2 How to Create a Point Category
1. Choose PointsEdit Categories.
Figure 262: Create new point categories
2. One point category is preconfigured. You can use or edit it or create a new one.
To create a new point category, click on New.
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Figure 263: A new point category
3. Choose a name for the point and click on Add to create new columns for this point.
Figure 264: New type and name
In case there are no special circumstances, it is recommended to choose the type as the
name.
Add all desired columns and press OK to save the point category.
Figure 265: Save the new category
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8.3 Create Points
When all point required categories are created, a point can be set.
8.3.1 How to Create Points
1. There are three possibilities to create points:

Choose PointsCreate.
Figure 266: Create points from the menu

Right-click the desired position on the map and choose Create Point.
Figure 267: Create a point on the map

Choose the point tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click there and choose
New.
Figure 268: Create a point in the points tab
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2. Choose a point category in the appearing window and click on OK.
Figure 269: Choose a category
If there is no point category, it needs to be created. This can be done by choosing
OptionsNew.
A short introduction how to create point categories can be found in chapter
8.2.2
3. The next window shows all the columns created in the chosen point category. Feel
free to fill as many as you can. The X/Y coordinates can be manually set to make
sure the point position hits the actual position of the customer exactly. If the
coordinates are only known from a different coordinate system, press Browse to set
them correctly. Please note that Carrier List appears as soon as a column Carrier
exists in the point category. While changing the text in the column Carrier, the
suitable carrier will be automatically searched in the Carrier List. If nothing can be
found, it is marked in red and an error message is issued. A check whether the
project has sites with carrier is included.
Figure 270: Fields for creating a point
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If everything is done, press OK to create the point.
Figure 271: The new point appears on the map.
8.3.2 How to Edit Single Points
Sometimes points need to be edited because there may be more information about the
customer available. If this includes a new type of value, edit the point category first and edit
the point afterwards.
1. There are two possibilities to edit a single point:

Right-click on the point on the map and choose Edit.
Figure 272: Editing a point on the map

Right-click on the point in the Project-Explorer and click on Edit.
Figure 273: Editing a point with the help of the points tab
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The points in the point tab are shown by category. The right point category needs to be
selected to show the desired point in the list.
2. In the appearing window, edit the columns of the point and click on OK to save the
changes.
Figure 274: Edit the desired fields
8.3.3 How to Edit Multiple Points
Points can also be edited in groups, which means that a value can be set for all members of
a point category. This could be very useful if a value of a whole group has to be changed,
for example, the power level.
1. Choose PointsEdit Multiple.
Figure 275: Edit multiple points at once
2. Choose the desired point category and choose either all points to be edited or only
active points. Choose a column that should be edited for all members of the point
category and insert a new value. Click on OK to save the changes.
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Figure 276: Choose column and value
8.4 Point Activation
Points can be active or inactive as well as antennas, sites and clients. This can be beneficial,
for example, for making a calculation.
8.4.1 How to Activate or Deactivate Points
Points can be activated or deactivated in different ways depending on the user.
Fast way:
1. Choose PointsActivation and one of these options:

Activate all: All points of a chosen point category will be set to active.

Deactivate all: All points of a chosen point category will be set to inactive.

Invert activation: All active points will be inactivated and all inactive will be
activated (point category needs to be chosen).

Rectangular activation: After choosing a point category, the four vertices of a
rectangle can be altered to coordinates and all points inside will be activated.

Circular activation: After choosing a point category, both center coordinates
and radius can be set and all points inside the circle will be activated.

Filter activation: Points can be activated based on a filter with the following
parameters: Power Level, SNR and Carrier.
Slow but precise way:
2. All points of the specific category are shown in the point tab of the ProjectExplorer. They can be activated or deactivated by checking or unchecking them.
Figure 277: Slow way to activate/deactivate points
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Alternative way:
3. All points can be activated using the icons on the tool panel in the points tab of the
Project-Explorer.
Figure 278: The tool panel of points tab
8.5 Export and Import of Points
Points can be imported and exported. This could be useful if these points are used in other
projects or if there were other projects with a lot of already constructed points. It is not
necessary to create them twice. Furthermore it is necessary to import or to export the
measurement data.
8.5.1 How to Export Points as .csv file
1. Choose PointsExportAs CSV… to open the export window.
Figure 279: Export points as .csv file
2. Choose the point category that should be exported and set a decimal separator.
This decimal separator is used in the created file to separate numbers. The null value
will be used for lacking point columns and hence is only useful to convey readability
of the created .csv file.
Choose a filename and path for the created file. If the file path is unknown, click on
Choose to open the explorer browser window. Then select the parameters of point
category that are needed to export. If everything is done, click on OK to export all
points of that point category.
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Figure 280: Export points dialogue window
Note that not all symbols are supported. An unsupported symbol prevents the
user from importing a .csv-file to another project. It is always secure to choose
"999".
3. The created .csv file can be found at the chosen file path.
8.5.2 How to Export Points as .kml file
1. Choose PointsExportAs KML… to open the export window.
Figure 281: Export points as .kml file
2. Select the path where the .kml file should be saved.
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Figure 282: Select path for export as .kml file
3. The export of points is finished and the .kml file can be used in other programs like
Google Earth™.
8.5.3 How to Import Points
1. Choose PointsImport to open the import window.
Figure 283: Import points
2. Choose Existing Category that already exists in the actual project or choose New
Category to create the new point category. The decimal separator should not be
edited. The null value can be edited to set columns to a specific value with none
exported value. Choose the file and click on OK to start the point import.
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Figure 284: Import points dialog window
3. The types of column which are not recognized by import are highlighted in red.
Double-click on the warning field and set the appropriate type of parameter. Then
click on OK to import the points.
Figure 285: Set the types of parameters
4. The imported points are shown on the map now.
8.6 Points colour assignment
The colour of a point can be changed manually for a better overview. With the functions
visualisation and coverage the colour can be set based on a parameter, for example Power,
SNR or Coverage.
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8.6.1 How to Change the Colour of a Point manually
1. Open the edit-window of a point like described in 8.3.2 for edit a single point or open
the menu PointsAssign colour to edit multiple points.
2. Select ColourChange… for editing only active points (left), for editing all points
(right), select ColourChange manually and click on Change…. Now a window
with a colour palette will be open.
Figure 286: left: Edit single point | right: Edit multiple points
3. Click on OK to close the colour palette and to apply the selected colour. Click on OK
again to close and apply the settings in the edit window.
8.6.2 Change Colour of Points temporary by Visualisation tab
The Visualisation tab changes the colour of points based on the category, parameter and the
colouring. In this tab only those parameters can be selected which have colour as a trait.
The colouring of a parameter can be set at Edit categoriesEdit a selected
categoryEdit a selected ParameterColouringEdit or New.
8.6.3 Change Colour of Points by Coverage tab
For colouring with the coverage each point must be activated for this function. This works by
editing a point (EditColourCoverage) or by activating multiple points by PointsAssign
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colourColourAdopt with coverage (like in Figure 248). In the points tab coverage can
show the colour levels.
8.6.4 Change Colour of Points according to Theme Calculation
One result of theme calculation is needed to colour the points.
1. Make any theme calculation (like in 10.6.1, 10.7.1, 10.8.1, 10.9.1, 10.10.1)
2. Choose ThemesXXXPoints Colour
Figure 287: Choosing Points Colour from menu
3. Select Points of Category/All/Active and click OK.
Figure 288: Points Colour Setting
8.7 Clients and Points
It is possible to convert clients to points or to create clients from points. This can be used if
the user does not want clients on his project anymore and wants to convert them to simple
points. This can also be a benefit for the overview. As mentioned, there is a small area with
about 100 clients. For a better overview it is necessary to convert the clients temporarily
otherwise all associated lines would simply flood the screen. The other way is to convert
points to clients in a future stage of the project.
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8.7.1 How to Create Clients from Points
1. Choose ClientsConvert from Points.
Figure 289: Convert points to client from menu
2. Now, there are a few settings that need to be done to create clients from points. At
first, it should be decided whether all points or only active points should be
converted. At second, site and client profile assignment should be set.
Choose the option Nearest with if the converted objects should be linked to the
next obvious site or choose the desired site from list, with which should be linked.
Please note that site list will be created automatically as soon as the client profile is
known. If the profile editor is empty, add new profiles by clicking on OptionsNew
or OptionsClient Profiles.
Figure 290: Create clients from points settings
Converting is only possible with a certain point category, not with all. Next thing to choose is
the height column from the chosen point category. So if there are a few columns from type
"meter", choose the one that describes the height above ground level. Before finishing the
conversion, choose the points to be deleted after creating the clients or still to occur
afterwards.
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Figure 291: Option Remove Points
3. Click on OK to convert all the chosen points to clients.
If everything worked out, the points will be clients and will show a blue dashed line in
the chosen site.
Figure 292: The created clients appear on the map
Figure 293: The created clients on clients tab
8.7.2 How to Convert Clients to Points
1. Choose ClientsConvert to Points.
Figure 294: Convert clients to points
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2. At first it needs to be decided whether a selected client or all active clients should be
converted. To use the first option, a client needs to be selected in the ProjectExplorer in the Clients Tab before choosing ClientsConvert to Points.
Figure 295: Mark a client and choose Convert to Points
Choose the point category that should be created from the clients and choose the Height
Column of this point category. You can still uncheck the Convert Height checkbox. Feel
free to create or edit new point categories by clicking on OptionsNew or
OptionsPoint Categories.
Before finishing the conversion, choose the clients to be deleted after creating the points or
still to occur afterwards.
Figure 296: Remove clients after the conversion
3. Click OK to convert the clients to points.
Figure 297: The points appear on the map
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8.8 Point Parameters
8.8.1 How to Assign carrier
1. Take a right click on the point on the map or in the list tab of the points tab and click
on Edit….
Figure 298: The edit window of a point
2. Carrier List selects the carrier of a list, a change will be applied in the text box
Carrier. The text box can be changed manually but if the Carrier and the selected
carrier by Carrier List are different, the function coverage cannot be used.
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9 Clients
Clients can be set to a specific point to make some additional calculations to see if this exact
point is covered with a specific power level and which station should be used to get a good
signal. It can also be used for customer presentations. Clients can be arranged in different
client profiles or newly created. This makes sure, that, for example, the user does not plan a
project for customers which uses the 5 GHz technology with a 2.4 GHz technology. It is more
attracting for a customer to see everything work out fine with using the specific real values.
9.1 Client Profiles
As mentioned before, the client profiles help the user to categorize customers in special
groups that maybe only use a special technology like WiMAX or 5 GHz WLAN.
9.1.1 How to Create Client Profiles
1. Choose ClientsEdit Profiles.
Figure 299: Create new client profiles
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2. Choose New to create a new client profile.
Figure 300: Fill in all fields
3. Name the new profile and choose the specific antenna type, technology and the
power of the site.
If there are no antennas available, they have to be created before creating a client
profile.
A short introduction how to create antennas can be found in chapter 7.1.1.2
Figure 301: Fill in all fields
4. Click OK to add this profile to the project.
Generally the user needs to generate more than one profile, so create as many as
you need.
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Figure 302: Created carriers
5. Click on Close to return to the map.
9.1.2 How to Edit Client Profiles
1. Choose ClientsEdit Profiles.
Figure 303: Edit carriers
2. Select a profile and click OK to edit it. If all settings are done, click OK to save the
changes.
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9.2 Client Creation
Assuming that all necessary client profiles have been added, a client can be created now.
9.2.1 How to Create Clients
1. There are three possibilities to create a client in WiMAP-4G:

Choose ClientsCreate.
Figure 304: Create clients from the menu

Right-click the desired position on the map and click on Create Client.
Figure 305: Create clients on the map

Right-click in the Clients Tab and choose New.
Figure 306: Create clients from the clients tab
Clients can also be created in the Project-Explorer by clicking "Insert".
2. In the appearing windows, enter the following values:
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
Name of the client (usually the customer)

The site which should be used by the client.

The Client profile - A client profile needs to be chosen. In case there is none, it
needs to be created here.
A short introduction how to create client profiles can be found in chapter 9.1.1.

The carrier that should be used by the client. - The carrier needs to be
chosen to continue. It needs to be created if none is existing.
A short introduction how to create carrier profiles can be found in chapter 6.1.

The Height of the Clients Antenna - This value is really important according
to the site position.

X- and Y-coordinates of the Client - If the client was created with a right
click on the map, the coordinates should be precise, but it is the same as for the
height. Minimal changes can be important to get a signal, so try to use exact
coordinates.
Beside the rows, there is a Browse Button which allows to enter the coordinates. If the
user knows client coordinates of a coordinate system which is not used for the actual
project, he can use them anyway. The program itself will translate them to the actual project
coordinate system.

The Z-coordinate is the height of the ground itself. If an elevation model
exists, the Z-coordinate will be set automatically to a value.
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Figure 307: Fill in all fields
3. If everything is set, click on OK to create the client.
Figure 308: The client appears on the map
The client will show up on the map and a solid line connects him with the site that he has
been assigned to.
9.3 Edit Clients
Sometimes it is necessary to edit clients, for instance, a customer has changed his position
on the map or he uses a different technology now.
9.3.1 How to Edit Clients
1. There are three possibilities to edit clients:

Right-click on the client on the map and click on Edit.
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Figure 309: Edit clients from the menu

Choose the Client Tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click on the client and
choose Edit.
Figure 310: Edit clients in the clients tab

Choose ClientsEdit.
(This is the fastest way to edit clients, because all clients are listed in the
appearing window. The desired one can be chosen and edited by double clicking
on it.)
Figure 311: Choose the client and click on Edit.
2. Change the values for the client and click on OK to save the settings.
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9.4 Assign Clients to Sites
Clients can be assigned to the nearest site. To make it easier for the user, there is a setting
to do that.
9.4.1 How to Assign Clients to Sites
1. Choose ClientsAssign to Sites and click on OK.
Figure 312: Assign clients to the nearest site
9.5 How to Use the Terrain-Profiler for Client to
Site
1. Create a client like in 9.2.1 described.
2. Take a right click on a client and select Terrain-Profiler in the context menu.
Figure 313: Context menu of a client
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Figure 314: Terrain-Profile between client and site
9.6 Invalid Clients
An invalid client is marked in the client tab with red colour and a dashed line between the
client and a site. A client is invalid if the carriers of the radio units of a site do not match with
the carrier of the client.
Figure 315: Invalid client on the map
Figure 316: Invalid client in the clients tab
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10 Calculations and Themes
Calculations and themes are the most interesting part of WiMAP-4G. Basically this is the
aspect WiMAP-4G is in use. There are many detailed calculations and themes with a lot of
settings that help to refine the result to the desired level. Before making any useful
calculations or themes, the following things should be done:

elevation model imported

correct sites created

correct antennas created and used

correct coordinates for antennas and sites
Considering those as done, a proper calculation or theme can be made and the results can
be used without any doubt. If there is no elevation model imported, the calculations or
themes will be imprecise. These results should never be used to make a decision whether to
build a planned scenario in reality or not.
10.1
Calculations and Theme Types
The following calculations are possible with WiMAP-4G:

field strength area

client coverage

point field strength

site to site
The follow themes are possible with WiMAP-4G:

coverage

best server

carrier to interferer

power level

sub carrier interference

field strength

elevation

visibility
Themes always need results from a basic calculation to start calculating itself. So if an error
occurs or nothing is shown after creating a theme, the first thing to check is whether the
corresponding basic calculations have been done or not.
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10.2
The Field Strength Area Calculation
The field strength area calculation is the most used calculation and always the basic
calculation that has to be done before creating a theme. It shows the field strength for the
whole marked blue area or if zoomed in, for the whole screen. The field strength area
calculation can be made with all propagation models, except CORLA, where a license is
needed for.
A license file is needed to use CORLA. This license is limited to a project and
can be ordered at WIMAP-4G product support (info@brown-iposs.eu).
10.2.1How to Make a Field Strength Area Calculation
1. There are three possibilities to open the field strength area calculation window:

Choose CalculationArea Field Strength.
Figure 317: Make a field strength area calculation

Click on
in the control bar.

The shortcut for the field strength area calculation is CTRL+F.
2. The field strength area calculation window opens and some settings according to the
situation have to be done.
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Figure 318: Field strength area calculation settings for the Erceg model
At first it has to be decided which propagation model should be used. All remaining settings
depend on the specific propagation model.
10.2.1.1
With the Erceg Model
The first thing to decide is whether the calculation should be made with the Erceg A, B or C
model. It depends on the environmental circumstances.
A:
Hilly terrain with moderate to heavy tree density. This model is associated with the
highest path loss.
B:
Terrain type B is characterized by mostly flat terrain with moderate to heavy tree
densities or a hilly terrain with light tree densities.
C:
Terrain type C is used for flat terrain with light tree densities, producing the lowest
path loss.
Custom: It is also possible to create a custom profile in the WiMAP-4G settings. This is only
recommended for experienced users, who know the used parameters exactly and can handle
them correctly.
For Community-Edition users, the calculation cannot be more precise than
50 m, which is usually enough to get an overview but not enough for a precise
calculation.
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Figure 319: Calculation with Erceg model Type A
The coverage probability has to be set. It can be set to a standard value in the WiMAP-4Gsettings. The function of that value is a little bit tricky to understand. It describes the chance
that - considering all circumstances - a specific point receives the calculated field strength in
real terms. The coverage is always based on probability theory and cannot be guaranteed
100 % of the time. This probability may be affected by weather or atmospheric conditions.
For high frequency carriers the weather can make the little difference between a working
and a useless signal. The temperature is able to affect the coverage, too. Depending on this,
it is always recommended to set this value not too low. The calculation result may look very
nice in theory, but in reality none of the customers may receive a satisfying signal. A good
result with a high value as for example 70 % is a good basis for a real project.
Figure 320: 50 % coverage probability
For example the rectangle in Figure 320 has a 50 % chance receiving a signal, which can be
demodulated with QAM 64.
To change the model parameters or the standard coverage probability, see
chapter 3.1.2.2.3
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The resolution of the calculation can be set to % or meter. Higher % means higher precision
whereas the value in m needs to be low for higher precision. Note that a higher precision
always requires more time for calculation.
It can take hours or even days if the project is large. So keep in mind to run a test
calculation with a low precision first. Nothing is more frustrating than to calculate a project
for a few hours when the result looks bad because something has been overlooked.
Figure 321: A field strength area calculation example: Munich, Erceg A, coverage
probability: 50 %, resolution: absolute 5 m
10.2.1.2
With the CORLA Raylauncher Model
The CORLA Raylauncher settings which can be made during a field strength area calculation
are limited. First of all, the precision in X/Y-direction and in Z-direction can be set in meter.
Note that a higher precision always requires more time for calculation. This can take hours
or even days if the project is large. So keep in mind to run a test calculation with a low
precision first. Nothing is more frustrating than to calculate a project for a few hours when
the result looks bad because something has been overlooked.
Choose a working directory for CORLA. Usually it does not need to be edited. CORLA only
needs to create a few temporary files while calculating.
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Figure 322: Field strength area calculation settings for CORLA Raylauncher
To configure the CORLA Raylauncher, see chapter 3.1.2.3.
Note that the CORLA Raylauncher needs a license for a specific environment
and can only be used by Professional-Edition users.
10.2.1.3
With the ITU-R P.1411-3 Model
Choose the average road orientation in °. This can be set to a standard value in the
settings.
The resolution of the calculation can be set to % or meter. Higher % means higher precision
whereas the value in m needs to be low for higher precision. Note, that a higher precision
always requires more time for calculation. This can take hours or even days if the project is
large. So keep in mind to run a test calculation with a low precision first. Nothing is more
frustrating than to calculate a project for a few hours when the result looks bad because
something has been overlooked.
Figure 323: Field strength area calculation settings for ITU-R P.1411-3
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To configure the ITU-R P.1411-3, see chapter 3.1.2.2.2.
Figure 324: A field strength area calculation example: Munich, ITU-R P.1411-3,
road orientation: 90°, resolution: absolute 5 m
10.2.1.4
With the Free Space Propagation Model
The Free Space Propagation Model is the easiest model of all and therefore it does not need
a lot of adjustments. The resolution of the calculation can be set either in % or in meter.
Higher % means higher precision whereas the value in m needs to be low for a good
precision. Note, that a higher precision always requires more time for calculation. This can
take hours or even days if the project is large. So keep in mind to run a test calculation with
a low precision first. Nothing is more frustrating than to calculate a project for a few hours
when the result looks bad because something has been overlooked.
Figure 325: Field strength area calculation settings for Free Space Propagation
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To configure the Free Space Propagation Model, see chapter 3.1.2.2.1.
Figure 326: A field strength area calculation example: Munich, Free Space
Propagation, Resolution: absolute 5 m
10.2.1.5
With WinProp
WinProp is for propagation modeling in different scenarios with different model types of
calculation.
Figure 327: WinProp field strength calculations settings
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The Dominant Path Model calculates the path loss on the main paths between transmitter
and each receiver pixel by high precision like the ray tracing.
The Empirical Two Ray Model calculates the path loss by each pixel on the map without
looking if the point is hidden or unreachable.
The Deterministic Two Ray Model calculates the path loss by each pixel on the map with
checking whether the point is not hidden and reachable.
A special license is needed to use WinProp models, which can be ordered at
WIMAP-4G product support (info@brown-iposs.eu).
10.2.1.6
General Settings
After deciding on a propagation model and configuring it, there are a few additional settings
that need to be done. First of all, we need to set the height of the calculation above ground
level. Usually this value should be something as the antenna height or corresponding. A low
value, 1 m for example, could cause a bad result because at this height there are a lot of
interferers for the signal.
Next thing to decide is if the calculation is restricted to a specific technology. This can be
useful in large projects with many different technologies in use. Note that the program will
simply calculate in all technologies without a restriction which may double or multiply the
calculation time in some cases.
At last, the specific coordinates of the calculated area can be set. If the blue area frame is
shown on the screen, the coordinates will always be the coordinates of the vertices of that
blue frame.
When all settings are done, click on OK to start the calculation. As mentioned above, a
calculation can take some time, so do not close the program.
10.3
The Client Coverage Calculation
The client coverage calculation is a useful feature of WiMAP-4G, for example, to
calculate the exact power level for the real position of a client. The alternative to get a
power level for a client is simply to read them on the map after doing a power level
calculation. This alternative will not be exact as long as the user does not specify a few 1000
colour profiles. It is not necessary because of the client coverage calculation.
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The client tab in the Project-Explorer shows all clients used in the current project and the
according values: coverage, power level, C/I (carrier to interferer).
Figure 328: The clients tab in the Project-Explorer
Note that the client coverage calculation does not show any visual effects in the TerrainExplorer. Only the clients tab in the Project-Explorer will change during a calculation.
If not all columns are visible, the Project-Explorer needs to be dragged to the
right width.
10.3.1How to Make a Client Coverage Calculation
1. Choose CalculationClient Coverage.
Figure 329: Open the client coverage calculation settings
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2. The client coverage calculation window opens and some settings according to the
situation have to be done.
Figure 330: The coverage calculation settings
First of all, a propagation model needs to be chosen. The rest of the settings depends on the
specific propagation model.
10.3.1.1
With the Erceg Model
The first thing to decide is whether the calculation should be made with the Erceg A, B or C
model. It depends on the environmental circumstances.
A:
Hilly terrain with moderate to heavy tree density. This model is associated with the
highest path loss.
B:
Terrain type B is characterized by mostly flat terrain with moderate to heavy tree
densities or a hilly terrain with light tree densities.
C:
Terrain type C is used for flat terrain with light tree densities, producing the lowest
path loss.
Custom: It is also possible to create a custom profile in the WiMAP-4G settings. This is only
recommended for experienced users, who know the exact used parameters and can handle
them correctly.
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Figure 331: Calculation with Erceg model type A
The coverage probability has to be set. It can also be set to a standard value in the WiMAP4G-settings. The function of that value is a little bit tricky to understand. It describes the
chance that - considering all circumstances - a specific point receives the calculated field
strength in real terms. The coverage is always based on probability theory and cannot be
guaranteed 100 % of the time. This probability maybe affected by weather or atmospheric
conditions.
For high frequency carriers the weather can make the little difference between a working
and a useless signal. The temperature is able to affect the coverage, too. Depending on this,
it is always recommended to set this value not too low. The calculation result may look very
nice in theory, but in reality none of the customers may receive a satisfying signal. A good
result with a high value as for example 70 % is a good basis for a real project.
Figure 332: 50 % coverage probability
For example the rectangle in Figure 332 has a 50 % chance for this area receiving a signal,
which can be demodulated with QAM 64.
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To change the model parameters or the standard coverage probability, see
chapter 3.1.2.2.3.
Figure 333: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, Erceg A, coverage
probability: 50 %
10.3.1.2
With the CORLA Raylauncher Model
The CORLA Raylauncher settings which can be made during a client coverage calculation are
limited. First of all, the precision in X-/Y-direction and in Z-direction can be set in meter.
Note that a higher precision always requires more time for calculation. This can take hours
or even days if the project is large. So keep in mind to run a test calculation with a low
precision first. Nothing is more frustrating than to calculate a project for a few hours when
the result looks bad because something has been overlooked.
Figure 334: Client coverage calculation settings for CORLA
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Choose a working directory for CORLA. Usually it does not need to be edited. CORLA only
needs to create a few temporary files while calculating.
To configure the CORLA Raylauncher, see chapter 3.1.2.3.
Note that the CORLA Raylauncher needs a license for a specific environment
and can only be used by Professional-Edition users.
Figure 335: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, CORLA, resolution
x/y: 3, resolution z: 3, point extent: 1
10.3.1.3
With the ITU-R P.1411-3 Model
Choose the average road orientation in °. This can be set to a standard value in the
settings.
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Figure 336: Client coverage calculation settings for ITU-R P.1411-3
To configure the ITU-R P.1411-3, see Chapter 3.1.2.2.2.
Figure 337: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, ITU-R P.1411-3, road
orientation: 90°
10.3.1.4
With the Free Space Propagation Model
The Free Space Propagation Model is the easiest model, it does not need any parameters.
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Figure 338: Client coverage calculation settings for Free Space Propagation
To configure the Free Space Propagation model, see chapter 3.1.2.2.1.
Figure 339: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, Free Space
Propagation
10.3.1.5
With WinProp
WinProp is for propagation modeling in different scenarios.
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Figure 340: WinProp field strength calculations settings
The Dominant Path Model calculates the main paths between transmitter and each
receiver pixel by high precision like the ray tracing.
The Empirical Two Ray Model calculates the path loss by each pixel on the map, without
looking for the point is hidden or unreachable.
The Deterministic Two Ray Model calculates the path loss by each pixel on the map with
checking whether the point is not hidden and reachable.
A special license is needed to use WinProp models. This license can be ordered
at WIMAP-4G product support (info@brown-iposs.eu).
10.4
The Point Field Strength Calculation
The point field strength calculation works similar to the client coverage calculation and
therefore it is a powerful tool. The exact field strength and power level for each point on the
map can be calculated easily using this feature. The alternative to get a power level and field
strength for points is to just read them on the map after creating a power level theme. This
will not be exact as long as the user does not specify a few 1000 colour profiles. The field
strength of a point can be calculated instead. The points tab in the Project-Explorer shows all
points used in the current project.
To create points on the map see chapter 8.3.1
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Figure 341: The points tab in the Project-Explorer
Figure 342: The points on the Terrain-Explorer
Figure 342 shows the points of the corresponding point category. A field strength or power
level column is required for this calculation to make sense. They need to be created for the
corresponding point category before making a point field strength calculation.
To edit point classes see chapter 9.1.1 and 9.1.2.
If the point categories have been edited correctly, the Points tab should look like in Figure
343:
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Figure 343: The points tab in the Project-Explorer with additional power level and
field strength columns
The height of a point also influences the calculation result and should be entered into the
corresponding field.
10.4.1How to Make a Point Field Strength Calculation
After editing the point categories and the correct information to the corresponding fields, a
point field strength calculation can be done.
1. There are two possibilities to make a point field strength calculation:

Choose CalculationPoint Field Strength.
Figure 344: Open the settings from menu

Click on the
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Figure 345: Open the settings from points tab
2. When the point field strength calculation window opens, some settings according to
the situation have to be done.
Figure 346: The point field strength calculation settings
First of all, it needs to be decided which points should be calculated. All points corresponding
to the same point category can be calculated at one time. In this tutorial, all points
associated with the point category Potential Customer will be calculated.
10.4.1.1
With the Erceg Model
The first thing to decide is whether the calculation should be made with the Erceg A, B or C
model. It depends on the environmental circumstances.
A:
Hilly terrain with moderate to heavy tree density. This model is associated with the
highest path loss.
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B:
Terrain type B is characterized by mostly flat terrain with moderate to heavy tree
densities or a hilly terrain with light tree densities.
C:
Terrain type C is used for flat terrain with light tree densities, producing the lowest
path loss.
Custom: It is also possible to create a custom profile in the WiMAP-4G settings. This is only
recommended for experienced users, who know the used parameters exactly and can handle
them correctly.
For Community-Edition users, the calculation cannot be more precise than
50 m, which is usually enough to get an overview but not enough for a precise
calculation.
Figure 347: Choose the type that fits the situation
The coverage probability has to be set. It can be set to a standard value in the WiMAP-4Gsettings. The function of that value is a little bit tricky to understand. It describes the chance
that - considering all circumstances - a specific point receives the calculated field strength in
real terms. The coverage is always based on probability theory and cannot be guaranteed
100 % of the time. This probability may be affected by weather or atmospheric conditions.
For high frequency carriers the weather can make the little difference between a working
and a useless signal. The temperature is able to affect the coverage, too. Depending on this,
it is always recommended to set this value not too low. The calculation result may look very
nice in theory, but in reality none of the customers may receive a satisfying signal. A good
result with a high value as for example 70 % is a good basis for a real project.
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Figure 348: 50 % coverage probability
For example the rectangle in Figure 348 has a 50 % chance for this area receiving a signal,
which can be demodulated with QAM 64.
To change the model parameters or the standard coverage probability, see
chapter 3.1.2.2.3.
Figure 349: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, Erceg A, coverage
probability: 50 %, resolution: absolute 5 m
10.4.1.2
With the CORLA Raylauncher Model
3.2.1 The CORLA Raylauncher settings which can be made during a point field strength
calculation are limited. First of all, the precision in X-/Y-direction and in Z-direction can be
set in meter. Note that a higher precision always requires more time for calculation. This can
take hours or even days if the project is large. So keep in mind to run a test calculation with
a low precision first. Nothing is more frustrating than to calculate a project for a few hours
when the result looks bad because something has been overlooked.
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Figure 350: Point field strength calculation settings for CORLA
3.2.2 Choose a working directory for CORLA.
Usually it does not need to be edited. CORLA only needs to create a few temporary files
while calculating.
To configure the CORLA Raylauncher, see chapter 3.1.2.3.
Note that the CORLA Raylauncher needs a license for a specific environment
and can only be used by Professional-Edition users.
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Figure 351: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, CORLA, resolution
x/y: 3, resolution z: 3, point extent: 1
10.4.1.3
With the ITU-R P.1411-3 Model
Choose the average road orientation in °. This can be set to a standard value in the
settings.
Figure 352: Point field strength calculation settings for ITU-R P.1411-3
To configure the ITU-R P.1411-3, see chapter 3.1.2.2.2.
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Figure 353: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, ITU-R P.1411-3,
road orientation: 90°
10.4.1.4
With the Free Space Propagation Model
The Free Space Propagation Model is the easiest model, it does not need any parameters.
Figure 354: Point field strength calculation settings for Free Space Propagation
To configure the Free Space Propagation Model, see Chapter 3.1.2.2.1.
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Figure 355: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, Free Space
Propagation
10.4.1.5
With WinProp
WinProp is for propagation modeling in different scenarios with different model types of
calculation.
Figure 356: WinProp field strength calculations settings
The Dominant Path Model calculates the main paths between transmitter and each
receiver pixel by high precision like the ray tracing.
The Empirical Two Ray Model calculates the path loss by each pixel on the map, without
looking if the point is hidden or unreachable.
The Deterministic Two Ray Model calculates the path loss by each pixel on the map with
checking whether the point is not hidden and reachable.
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A special license is needed to use WinProp models, which can be ordered at
WIMAP-4G product support (info@brown-iposs.eu).
10.4.1.6
General Settings
After choosing and configuring the desired propagation model, there are a few settings that
have to be done for all models. The values which should be calculated can be chosen at the
bottom of the window.
Figure 357: General settings for point field strength calculation
Make sure to assign the calculated value to the correct point category column. For the
height column, choose the height column that is used from the points. Do not use the Z
column because this will distort the results.
At last, choose the carrier for the calculation and press OK to start the calculation.
10.4.2Compare all Propagation Models
With the help of the point categories it is also possible to compare the propagation models.
A propagation model may give good results whereas another does not offer good results for
a special case. With some modifications the results of all propagation models can be
compared to make a decision.
10.4.2.1
How to Use all Propagation Models for a Point Field Strength
Calculation
1. Choose PointsEdit Categories.
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Figure 358: Open the point category settings
2. Choose the desired point category (in this case Potential Customer was chosen). Add
columns for all propagation models.
To edit point classes see chapter 9.1.1 and 9.1.2.
3. The result should look like this:
Figure 359: Columns for all propagation models
4. Click on OK, close all windows and return to the project.
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5. Choose CalculationPoint Field Strength Calculation and make a calculation
for every model.
Make sure to choose the right column at the bottom of the window and start the
calculations.
Figure 360: Make point field strength calculations for every propagation model
6. All columns are shown in the points tab of the Project-Explorer. Results can be
compared after doing all calculations.
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Figure 361: Comparison of the propagation models
10.5
The Site to Site Calculation
The Site to Site Calculation feature calculates the pathloss between two antennas. This
can be useful to determine whether two antennas can cooperate in a specific area or not.
10.5.1How to Make a Site to Site Calculation
There are a few requirements to make a site to site calculation successful. Possibly the most
common reason to get a bad result respectively no result in a site to site calculation is when
both antennas use the same carrier. Another source of errors is the angle between two
antennas.
Figure 362: Example for a site to site calculation
1. There are two possibilities to make a site to site calculation:

Choose CalculationSite-to-Site.
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Figure 363: Start site to site calculation

Right click on a site on the map and choose Site-to-Site Calculation.
Figure 364: Start site to site calculation from the map
2. The Site-to-Site calculation window opens:
Figure 365: The site to site calculation settings
3. Choose technology and carrier used by the desired antennas, select if the
antennas are active or non-active and insert maximum distance and maximum
angle difference and click on OK.
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Figure 366: Fill in all the fields and click OK to start the calculation.
The pathloss will be shown beside the line which connects the antennas. In this case it is
-57.9 dB.
Figure 367 shows a few antennas involved in a site to site calculation. If a blue line connects
antennas after doing a site to site calculation, everything worked out fine. If a black line is
shown, the antenna is not placed well. Take a look at the environment with the help of the
Terrain-Profiler to find out what happened. In most cases a mountain or a building
interferes the connection.
Figure 367: A black line signalizes problems
10.6
The Coverage Theme
This theme is the basic theme used by the field strength area calculation. The coverage
theme provides a margin that can be determined for the project. It is a useful feature to run
some tests to find out how the coverage changes by using different margins.
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Note that the coverage theme will be created at that height the field strength
area calculation was made.
10.6.1How to Create a Coverage Theme
1. Make a field strength area calculation.
(A more precise calculation offers a better overview but takes more time to
calculate.)
To make a field strength area calculation see chapter 10.2.1.
2. There are three possibilities to create a coverage theme:

Choose ThemesCoverageDisplay.
Figure 368: Create coverage theme from menu

Choose the Calculation tab in the Project-Explorer and click on
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Figure 369: Create coverage theme from Calculation tab

Choose the Calculation tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click and choose
Coverage.
Figure 370: Create coverage theme from Calculation tab by right-clicking
antennas
3. The coverage theme window opens:
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Figure 371: Coverage theme settings
4. Choose to create the theme for all antennas or only for the actual antenna.
(Only works by right-clicking on antennas in the Project-Explorer and choosing
Coverage or marking the antennas and clicking on
). WiMAP-4G will
automatically assign the grayed values.
5. Choose a margin and click on OK.
Figure 372: A coverage theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin
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Figure 373: A coverage theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin
10.7
The Best Server Theme
Learned from its name, the best server theme shows the antenna that offers the best signal
for a specific area. In most cases, the nearest antenna is not the best choice for a customer.
A few circumstances, for example the environment and the buildings, need to be considered
while calculating the best antenna. WiMAP-4G offers the best server theme to maintain the
best signal for a specific area. The best server theme needs a field strength area calculation
to offer results.
Note that the best server theme will be created at that height the field strength
area calculation was made.
10.7.1How to Create a Best Server Theme
1. Make a field strength area calculation.
(A more precise calculation offers better overview but takes more time to calculate.)
To make a field strength area calculation see chapter 10.2.1.
2. There are three possibilities to create a best server theme:

Choose ThemesBest ServerDisplay.
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Figure 374: Create best server theme from menu

Choose the Calculation tab in the Project-Explorer and click on
.
Figure 375: Create best server theme from calculation tab

Choose the Calculation tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click and choose
Best Server.
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Figure 376: Create best server theme from calculation tab by right-clicking
antennas
3. The best server theme window opens:
Figure 377: Best server theme settings
4. Choose to create the theme for all antennas or only for the actual antenna.
(Only works by right-clicking on antennas in the Project-Explorer and choosing Best
Server or marking the antennas and clicking on
.)
5. Choose a colour profile and a margin.
Including areas without coverage forces WiMAP-4G to calculate the theoretical best
server for that area assuming there would be coverage. (If the included area
without coverage option is enabled, the margin will be ignored.)
To change colour profiles, see chapter 3.1.2.1.1.
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Figure 378: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A
Figure 379: A best server theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin
Figure 380: A best server theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin
10.8
The Carrier to Interferer Theme
The carrier to interferer theme is a useful feature of WiMAP-4G to detect uncovered
areas on the map because of interference between antennas. If two antennas use the same
carrier at the same frequency and power they interfere with each other. This could end in a
complete signal loss. WiMAP-4G shows the ratio between carrier signal and interference
signal. The minimal value acceptable as a result of a carrier to interference theme depends
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on the used technology. Areas that offer a carrier to interference below 0 mostly do not
receive a useable signal. For example, for LTE and a QAM64 modulation a minimum ratio of
10 is required.
Note that the carrier to interferer is based on the field strength area calculation
done before and is limited to its parameters (e.g. calculation height).
10.8.1How to Create a Carrier to Interferer Theme
1. Make a field strength area calculation.
(A more precise calculation offers better overview but takes more time to calculate.)
To make a field strength area calculation see chapter 10.2.1.
2. There are three possibilities to create a carrier to interferer theme:

Choose ThemesCarrier to InterfererDisplay.
Figure 381: Create carrier to interferer theme from menu

Choose the calculation tab in the Project-Explorer and click
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Figure 382: Create carrier to interferer theme from calculation tab

Choose the calculation tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click and choose
Carrier-To-Interferer.
Figure 383: Create carrier to interferer theme from calculation tab by rightclicking antennas
3. The carrier-to-interferer theme window opens:
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Figure 384: Carrier-to-interferer theme settings
4. Choose to create the theme for all antennas or only for the actual antenna.
(Only works by right-clicking on antennas in the Project-Explorer and choosing
Carrier-to-Interferer or marking the antennas and clicking on
.)
5. Choose a colour profile and a margin.
To change colour profiles, see chapter 3.1.2.1.1.
The sites can run in maximum load or base load modus during a calculation.
Choose one of them.
The maximum load is default because in extreme situations the ratio is always more
significant than it would be in base load situations. Including areas without coverage forces
WiMAP-4G to show the theoretical carrier-to-interferer value for an area assuming there
would be coverage. (If the included area without coverage option is enabled, the margin will
be ignored.)
Figure 385: Field strength area calculation Erceg A
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Figure 386: A carrier-to-interferer theme example: 10 dB margin
Figure 387: A carrier-to-interferer theme example: 0 dB margin
As described in the legend, the yellow areas on the map do not have a usable signal. Green
zones are more efficient.
A little green circle on the map marks the area with the best carrier to interference ratio.
Drag the mouse cursor over that circle to show the ratio.
Figure 388: Marker for the best C/I
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10.9
The Power Level Theme
The power level theme helps to determine the exact values for the power level in specific
areas. Another way to show those values are points used to calculate the power level. Points
only show the power level on a precise point on the map whereas the power level theme
shows the power level for all zones that are covered by a carrier.
Note that the power level theme will be created at that height the field strength
area calculation was made.
10.9.1How to Create a Power Level Theme
1. Make a field strength area calculation.
(A more precise calculation offers a better overview but takes more time to calculate.)
To make a power field strength area calculation see chapter 10.2.1.
2. There are three possibilities to create a power level theme:

Choose ThemesPower LevelDisplay.
Figure 389: Create power level theme from menu

Choose the calculation tab in the Project-Explorer and click on
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Figure 390: Create power level theme from calculation tab

Choose the calculation tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click and choose
Power Level.
Figure 391: Create power level theme from calculation tab by right-clicking
antennas
3. The power level theme window opens:
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Figure 392: Power level theme settings
4. Choose to create the theme for all activated antennas or only a specific
technology. If the theme is restricted to a specific technology, choose whether the
actual antenna or all antennas with that technology should be shown (only works with
right-clicking on antennas in the Project-Explorer and choosing Power Level or
choosing antenna and clicking
.)
5. Choose a colour profile and a margin.
To change the colour profiles see chapter 3.1.2.1.1.
Figure 393: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A
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Figure 394: A power level theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin
Figure 395: A power level theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin
In this example, the colour profile has been modified to visualize the differences. A little
green circle on the map marks the area with the best power level.
Drag the mouse cursor over that circle to see the exact power.
Figure 396: Marker for the best power level
10.10
The Sub-Carrier Interference Theme
The sub-carrier interference theme is a useful tool to explore the interference for any
activated sub-carrier in the project. The primary benefit is to see the sub-carrier interference
of the strongest received signal from an antenna carrying the selected sub-carrier to any inband interferer in the area of comparison. E.g. if WLAN 2.4 GHz channel 1 is the selected
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sub-carrier also interferences from overlapping channels like channel 2 are considered. This
feature helps to create a clear footprint for your covering cells.
Note that the sub-carrier interference theme is created at that height the field
strength area calculation was made.
10.10.1
How to Create a Sub-Carrier Interference Theme
1. Make a field strength area calculation.
(A more precise calculation offers better overview but takes more time to calculate.)
To make a field strength area calculation see chapter 10.2.1.
2. There are two possibilities to create a sub-carrier interference theme:

Choose ThemesSub Carrier InterferenceDisplay.
Figure 397: Creating a sub-carrier interference theme from menu

Choose the calculation tab in the Project-Explorer and click on
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Figure 398: Creating a sub-carrier interference theme from calculation tab

Choose the Calculation tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click and choose
Sub Carrier Interference.
Figure 399: Creating a sub-carrier interference theme from calculation tab by
right-clicking antennas
3. The sub-carrier interference theme window opens:
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Figure 400: Sub-carrier interference theme settings
4. Choose to create the theme for all activated antennas or only for a specific
technology. If the theme is restricted to a specific technology, choose whether the
actual antenna or all antennas with that technology should be shown (only works
with right-clicking on antennas in the Project-Explorer and choosing Sub Carrier
Interference). Key for this theme is to select the Sub-Carrier accordingly.
5. Choose a colour profile.
To change colour profiles, see chapter 3.1.2.1.1.
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Figure 401: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A
Figure 402: A sub carrier interference theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin
As shown in Figure 402 most of the area is shaded in light green which means that the
signal for sub carrier "WLAN 2.4GHz Channel 1" is faced not too much with interference. In
contrary to the carrier-to-interference the whole consideration is done for the selected subcarrier (independent of being the sub-carrier the best server or not). With the help of this
theme areas of high interference for a given sub carrier and its carrying frequency can easily
be explored.
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A little green circle on the map marks the area with the best sub-carrier interference. Drag
the mouse cursor over that circle to see the exact power.
Figure 403: Marker for best sub-carrier interference
10.11 The Field Strength Theme
The field strength theme is useful to determine for example the power density in a
specific area around antennas. This can be used to see if the power density fulfils the
conditions given by the specific environment. A high power density can cause damage on
human health so a power density theme should always be made to check out the field
strength and to see if the critical values do not get exceeded.
Note that the field strength theme is created at that height the field strength
area calculation was made.
10.11.1
How to Create a Field Strength Theme
1. Make a field strength area calculation.
(A more precise calculation offers better overview but takes more time to calculate.)
To make a field strength area calculation see chapter 10.2.1.
2. There are three possibilities to create a field strength theme:

Choose ThemesField StrengthDisplay.
Figure 404: Create field strength theme from menu
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
Choose the calculation tab in the Project-Explorer and click
.
Figure 405: Creating field strength theme from calculation tab

Choose the calculation tab in the Project-Explorer, right-click and choose
Field Strength.
Figure 406: Creating field strength theme from calculation tab by right-clicking
antennas
3. The field strength theme window opens:
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Figure 407: Field strength theme settings
4. Choose the maximum load or the base load to be used for the theme.
The maximum load is recommended to see results in extreme situations.
5. Choose RMS (root mean square) or peak level to be used.
Peak level is recommended to see results in extreme situations.
6. Choose to create the theme for all activated antennas or only a specific
technology.
If the theme is restricted to a specific technology, choose whether the actual antenna
or all antennas with that technology should be shown (only works with right-clicking
on antennas in the Project-Explorer and choosing Field Strength Calculation or
choosing antenna and click
).
7. Choose a colour profile and a margin.
To change colour profiles, see chapter 3.1.2.1.1.
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Figure 408: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A
Figure 409: A field strength theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin, maximum load,
peak level
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Figure 410: A field strength theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin, maximum
load, peak level
In our demo project Munich everything works fine and most of the area has a power density
< 1 µW/m².
Figure 411: Marker for the best field strength
A little green circle on the map marks the area with the highest power density.
Drag the mouse cursor over that circle to show the exact power density.
10.12 The Elevation Theme
The elevation theme shows all the elevation differences in the terrain and therefore it is
useful for presentations and for a better overview. It is also useful in the beginning of a
project when the antennas and sites are placed. Environmental interferers like mountains are
not visible without an elevation theme. The elevation theme can be used to create isolines
for the desired terrain. These isolines can be exported into other programs for example
Google Earth™ for a better presentation.
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An elevation model is required for the elevation theme. For more information
see chapter 4.2.
10.12.1
How to Create an Elevation Theme
1. Import an elevation model.
2. Choose ThemesElevationDisplay.
Figure 412: Creating an elevation theme from menu
3. The elevation theme window opens and some settings have to be done.
Figure 413: Elevation theme settings
Choose whether to use the bilinear interpolation or the nearest neighbour algorithm
for the theme.
The bilinear interpolation is a much more precise algorithm and without special
circumstances it should be used. The nearest neighbour algorithm is really
imprecise but therefore the system requirements for this algorithm are very
low.
The resolution can be chosen between absolute or relative.
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Finally a colour profile needs to be set.
To change colour profiles, see chapter 3.1.2.1.1.
4. Press OK to create the theme.
In our example, the colour profile has been changed for a better overview.
Figure 414: Elevation theme example, nearest neighbour, resolution relative 100
%
Figure 415: Elevation theme example, bilinear interpolation, resolution relative
100 %
10.13 The Visibility Theme
The visibility theme shows the visibility of a point in the users current view. With the help
of this theme, the user can check the line of sight between two locations on the map. This
can help to determine the exact coordinates for a site which should be planned. In addition,
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the visibility theme will take account for both the elevation attenuation and buildings if there
is no line of sight between the chosen points.
An elevation model is required to create a visibility theme. For more information
see chapter 4.2.
10.13.1
How to Create a Visibility Theme
1. Import an elevation model.
Only this is required for a visibility theme.
2. Choose ThemesElevation/Building VisibilityDisplay.
Figure 416: Creating a visibility theme
3. The visibility theme window opens and some settings have to be done.
Figure 417: Visibility theme settings
Choose whether to use bilinear cell- or stepwise for the theme. Enter a value for the
chosen technique and change the resolution to your needs. The resolution can be
absolute or relative. At last, a colour profile needs to be set.
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To change the colour profiles, see chapter 3.1.2.1.1.
4. Make some position settings to meet your special case.

EYE X: The x-coordinate of the imaginary eye.

EYE Y: The y-coordinate of the imaginary eye. These coordinates are set to the
position of the cursor, by default.

Eye Height specifies the height of the imaginary eye above the ground.

Height (AGL) specifies the height above the ground onto which the imaginary
eye looks.

Elevation Attenuation specifies the attenuation that is considered in case of
NLOS.

Include Building Intersection considers visibility restrictions arising from the
building model.

In this case, a frequency needs to be specified for the special case.
5. Press OK to create the theme.
In our example, the colour profile has been changed for a better overview.
Figure 418: Visibility theme example, bilinear cellwise 1000, resolution relative
100 %
10.13.1.1 How to Clear the Visibility Cache
1. Choose ThemesClear.
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Figure 419: Clear the visibility layer
This will delete the whole theme from the project. Keep in mind that the
theme cannot be returned and that this operation cannot be reverted.
Time consuming calculations may have to be made again.
The more elegant way to hide themes is to deactivate the corresponding layers
in the layer tab. For more information about layers, layer activation and
deactivation, see chapter 2.4.2.
10.14 Export Calculation Theme
Export is an extension of the themes tab which does export the current visualization as
presented in the GUI in one of the available formats (Image, ASCII, or KML). It is only
available with a valid field strength calculation and visualization. Some formats (ASCII) are
limited to Professional licensees.
Export requires a previous selected visualization theme and is restricted to the
presented result. Please select the required theme accordingly before running
the export.
10.14.1
How to Export a Theme
1. Start a field strength area calculation and select a visualization theme.
How to run a field strength calculation is described in 10.2. Available visualization
themes and its selection are discussed in 10.6ff.
2. Choose ThemesCoverage (e.g.) Export.
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Figure 420: Submenu for elevation export
3. Choose the export format.
Figure 421: Available export (themes) formats (left: Professional-Edition | right:
Community-Edition)

To Clipboard:
The actual map will be copied in the system buffer like a screenshot and can be worked on
Paint, for example.

As Image:
The actual map will be saved in a .png or .jpg file.
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Figure 422: Export settings by export as image

As ASCII Grid: (not for Elevation)
Export to ASCII requires a Professional license. The ASCII grid format can be imported by
almost any GIS software.

As KML:
The actual map will be saved in a .kml file. This file can be used in other programs like
Google Earth™.
10.15 Clear and Delete Calculation
Clearing the calculation and theme cache is a fundamental thing that has to be done
regularly to keep an overview on the project. There are a few possibilities to clear the
calculation and theme cache or even to disable calculations or themes from time to time. An
important fact to keep in mind: WiMAP-4G operates on different layers which can be
activated or deactivated as desired.
Clearing the calculation and theme cache works for the following calculations:

coverage theme

best server theme

carrier-to-interferer theme

power level theme

sub-carrier interference theme

field strength theme

theme isolines
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
elevation isolines
The clear cache feature does not work for the field strength area calculation.
10.15.1
How to Clear the Calculation and Theme Layer
1. Choose ThemesClear.
Figure 423: Clear the calculation layer
This will delete the whole calculation or theme from the project. Keep in
mind that the calculations or themes cannot be returned and that this
operation cannot be reverted. Time consuming calculations may have to
be made again.
The more elegant way to hide themes is to deactivate the corresponding layers
in the layer tab. For more information about layers, layer activation and
deactivation see chapter 2.4.2.
10.15.2
How to Delete the Calculation
1. Take a right click on calculation data in the Calculation tab and click on Delete
Calculation.
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Figure 424: Delete calculation
2. The following delete calculation dialogue appears, if the calculation has not been
saved before. It will get the same result like in 10.15.1
Figure 425: Deletion of the actual calculation
3. This dialogue appears, if the calculation has already been saved as a file.
Figure 426: Delete calculation with/without file
4. Click on Delete with, if the file must be deleted.
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10.16 Calculation with Desired/MIMO Antennas
10.16.1
How to Create a Power Level Theme with Desired/MIMO
Antennas
1. Create MIMO antennas like in 7.1.10.1.
2. Open a carrier and select MIMO mode Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC).
Figure 427: MIMO Mode Selection: Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)
3. Make the Powel Level Theme Calculation like in 10.9.
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Figure 428: Calculation with Maximum Selection Combining (MSC)
Figure 429: Calculation with Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)
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11
Isolines
Isolines connect points of equal value on the map. The prefix iso means equal. Isolines can
be used for presentation and to keep track on a project. They can be exported and imported
to other programs, for example, Google Earth™.
There are two different types of isolines in WiMAP-4G:

theme isolines

elevation isolines
11.1
Theme Isolines
Theme isolines are used to show the coverage of an area. They are geared to the coverage
theme or the field strength area calculation. Therefore it is necessary to make a field
strength area calculation before creating theme isolines.
11.1.1How to Create Theme Isolines
1. Make a field strength area calculation and create a theme.
(A more precise calculation offers better overview but takes more time to calculate.)
To make a field strength area calculation see chapter 10.2.1.
2. Choose Themes*kind of themes* Display Isoline…
Figure 430: Create isolines
3. The theme isolines window opens and some configuration have to be made.
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Just check the states which should be marked with isolines, change the colour and press OK
to start the calculation. Checking Remove existing isolines deletes former isolines from
the project while calculating new isolines.
Figure 431: Choose the states for the isolines
It should be clear that all checked states will be included in the mark on the map. So if all
states are activated, only a square will be marked because all the states are included. It is
recommended to make isolines for the desired states separately and in different colours for a
better overview. In our example, the colours have been taken from the coverage colour
profile.
Figure 432: Theme isolines example, Munich, coverage
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Buildings make the isoline calculation more detailed but the overview can get lost fast,
because there are so many labels around buildings. Keep in mind that the elevation labels
can be deactivated in the layers tab of the Project-Explorer.
11.2
Elevation Isolines
The elevation isolines can be used to mark different heights in the environment. They can be
exported and guide themselves on the elevation model. An elevation model is required to
create elevation isolines.
11.2.1How to Create Elevation Isolines
1. Import an elevation model.
To import an elevation model, see chapter 4.2.1.
2. Create an elevation theme.
To make an elevation calculation, see chapter 10.12.1.
3. Choose ThemesElevationDisplay Isoline…
Figure 433: Create elevation isolines
4. The elevation isolines window opens and some adjustments have to be done.
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Figure 434: Fill in the desired values
Choose the resolution (a more precise resolution takes more time to calculate but offers
better results) and the colour and transparency for the isolines.
The step size describes the difference between two isolines on the same environment in m.
If there is a height difference of 8 m all around the environment, only one isoline will be
shown while using the default 10 m. With a step size of 2 m, four different isolines will pop
up for the same environment, each of them for a different height level.
Figure 435: Elevation isolines example, Munich
11.3
Isoline Export
Sometimes it could be necessary to export created isolines for theme or elevation.
Exporting isolines is possible with WiMAP-4G. It is especially helpful exporting these
isolines to other programs, for example to show them in presentations or joining programs
that work with isolines, like Google Earth™.
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11.3.1How to Export Isolines as MIF
Assuming that isolines have been created. Otherwise the export may be possible but it would
not offer any usable data.
1. Choose Themes*kind of theme*ExportIsoline as MIF.
Figure 436: Export isolines as .mif
2. Choose a filepath and a filename and press OK to save the file.
There is no need to do any settings. All displayed isolines will be exported. All theme
isolines will be exported to the .mif format and can be used in other programs that
can handle the .mif format.
11.3.2How to Export Isolines as KML
Assuming that isolines have been created. Otherwise the export may be possible but it would
not offer any usable data.
1. Choose Themes*kind of theme*ExportIsoline as MIF.
Figure 437: Export isolines as .kml
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2. Choose a filepath, filename and press OK to save the file.
There is no need to do any settings. All displayed isolines will be exported. All theme
isolines will be exported to the .kml format and can be used in other programs that
support the .kml format.
Unlike the .mif format, the .kml format can be used with many programs. The
most common is Google Earth™ which can import and display .kml isolines.
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12
12.1
Additional Functions
Show on Google Maps™
Google Maps™ is a map service of Google™. With the option Show on Google Maps… a
chosen point can be shown on Google Maps™.
12.1.1How to Use the function Show on Google Maps
1. Take a right-click on a point of the map and select the option Show on Google
Maps….
Figure 438: Show on Google Maps
2. An internet browser will be opened and load the website of Google Maps™. After this
the selected point of the WiMAP-4G project is the center of the map of Google Maps™.
12.2
Activation/Deactivation
Many objects in WiMAP-4G can be activated/deactivated on GUI. There are various methods
to do it. How to activate/deactivate Sites/Radio Units/Antennas/Points/Clients can be read in
the previous chapters.
12.2.1How to Activate und Deactivate Layers
1. Open the Layers Tab in the Project-Explorer.
2. Right-click any entry on the Layers Tab and click on Filter-Activation…
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Figure 439: Right-click on Layers Tab
3. Choose Activate to activate the desired layers or the other way around. Enter the
layers at the Start With field which should be activated/deactivated and click OK.
Figure 440: Filter Activation dialogue window
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12.3
Colour
Sites, antennas and points can be coloured for a better overview. Changing the colour of a
site leads to a colour change of all radio units and antennas of the selected site.
12.3.1How to Make a Site coloured
1. Open the setting of a site or create a new site.
Figure 441: Settings of a site
2. Under the heading Colour the colour and the transparency can be changed (in %).
Click on Change to change the colour.
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Figure 442: Select the colour
3. Select your new colour, click on OK. On site settings click again on OK. Now your
selected site is in the desired colour.
The colour of clients change to the colour of the site automatically.
The colour of radio units and antennas of a site change their colour to the site
colour.
12.3.2 How to Make a Radio Unit coloured
The colour change of a radio unit is the result of a colour change by all antennas of the
selected radio unit.
1. Open radio unit settings.
Figure 443: Radio unit settings
2. Click on Change on the colour field.
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3. Choose the new colour and click on OK. To save new colour click on OK in the radio
unit settings.
12.3.3How to Make an Antenna coloured
The colour of antennas can be set on the sites colour, radio unit colour and antennas. If the
colour of the upper elements is changed, the antenna colour will be changed, too.
1. Open antenna settings.
Figure 444: Antenna settings
2. Under the Option Colour the colour and the transparency (in %) can be changed.
Click on Change to change the colour.
3. Select your new colour and click on OK to close setting panel. Now your selected
antenna is displayed on the Terrain-Exlorer with new colour.
To change multiple antennas look at chapter 7.1.4. For changing the colour of
radio units look at chapter 7.2.5.
12.3.4How to Make a Point coloured
Look at chapter 8.6.
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13
Link Budget
The link budget is the account of all the losses and gains during a transmission inside the
medium, antennas, cable etc. The way to calculate the link budget basically is:
Received Power = Transmitted Power + Gains – Losses
WiMAP-4G offers many parameters for the link budget calculation and therefore the most
precise result is guaranteed.
The following parameters can be adjusted:

Max. Total Power: Maximum power of the base station

Max. Pilot Power: Maximum pilot power of the base station

Power Splitter Loss: Loss of splitter

Antenna Gain Tx: Antenna gain for the specific transmission (vertical and
horizontal tilt involved)

Cable Loss Tx: The used cables loss

Tx Loss: The power which could get lost between two transmission points

EIRP: Equivalent isotropically radiated power (the result)

Noise Density: Noise power per unit of bandwidth

Noise Figure Rx: Difference between the output of the receiver and the output
of an ideal receiver with same gain

Signal Bandwidth: Signal bandwidth from the carrier

Rx Loss: Receive loss between the stations

Required C/I: The minimum desired C/I

Rx Sensitivity: The minimum signal power that is needed to create the
required SNR (the result)

Antenna Gain Rx: Antenna gain TX of the corresponding station

Cable Loss Rx: Cable loss of the corresponding station

Total available path loss: Maximum path loss between stations

Own source interference: Interference from the sending antenna itself

Own source interference margin: Interference margin from the sending
antenna itself

Fast fading margin: Margin required to compensate fades

Log normal fading margin: Margin to guarantee coverage probability

Indoor Loss: Loss caused by walls or vehicles

Environmental Loss: Loss caused by the environment
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
Performance Gains: Performance gains added with special antennas or
configurations

Max. permitted propagation loss: Result of total available path loss and
dimensioning parameters

Free Space cell range: Maximum cell range using Free Space Propagation

Erceg C cell range: Maximum cell range using Erceg propagation model

Carrier Frequency: Frequency used by the antennas (2.4 GHz, 5.4 GHz, …)
Figure 445: The Link Budget tab
13.1
How to Make a Link Budget Calculation
Basically there are two different methods to make a link budget calculation: Use the TerrainProfiler to make a calculation or calculate manually. The manual way is useful to make
calculations that cannot be done with the Terrain-Profiler or ad-hoc calculations without
having planned any sites, antennas, etc.
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13.1.1Manually
1. Open the Link Budget calculation tab in the Project-Explorer or choose LinkLink
Budget.
2. Enter the corresponding values into the link budget tab.
Existing values are set by default while starting the link budget calculation to match the
standard values for the corresponding parameter. Do not change these parameters if you are
not sure what they do or which more specific values could match your special case.
3. WiMAP-4G automatically changes the results while you insert the values.
Figure 446: The Link Budget tab
13.1.2Automatically by Using the Terrain-Profiler
To calculate the link budget automatically, two sites need to be created.
1. Choose the Terrain-Profiler on tool panel, click on the first station and drag the
mouse cursor to the desired second station. Click the mouse button to open the snap
window. The easiest way to calculate the link budget of two stations is to drag the
Terrain-Profiler from one object to another and to pick both objects in the snap
window.
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Figure 447: Select objects with Terrain-Profiler
2. Now choose between coordinate or object options and select similar snap objects.
If snap objects are incompatible, the link budget calculation is impossible. In this
case WiMAP-4G logs out with the error message "The selected carrier does not
match."
Figure 448: The snap window appears after connecting two points
3. After choosing objects or coordinates, click on OK to start the link budget
calculation.
The values for the two objects are inserted automatically - the calculation is done.
Manual adjustments are possible only for the default values and the dimensioning
parameters. All values that have been gathered from the stations cannot be edited.
The antennas of a radio unit can be chosen but you can select only one antenna per
radio unit for calculation. If the antenna selection is changing, the parameters of
Terrain-Profiler and Link Budget refresh themselves automatically.
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Figure 449: Link Budget calculation
4. Find the button Adjust Antennas in the lower left corner of the link calculation tab.
Click on this button and the selected antennas of the radio unit will be adjusted
automatically by WiMAP-4G to guarantee the best results for the link budget
calculation and also for common. It is not recommended to adjust the antennas if
they have already been planned for a specific scenario. With these adjustments the
link budget seems to look better but hence problems can occur. If an adjustment is
made for the antennas or the stations, click on the Refresh button in the lower left
corner of the link budget to assign these new values to the link budget calculation.
Figure 450: Adjust antennas
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Figure 451: Adjust antennas – select options
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14
3D View
With the 3-dimensional view, impressing presentations can be done for various projects. A
3D environment will be rendered for the actual project, showing all objects that have been
placed and all calculations that have been done in the project. This is useful to get a good
overview about the real look. It is also possible to determine potential problems with the 3Dview.
14.1
How to Create a 3D View
1. Choose ViewCreate 3D View.
Figure 452: Create a 3D view
The 3D view window opens and the actual project will be shown in 3D. Every calculation can
be shown in a 3D model, so feel free to make a few calculations before creating a 3D view.
This will give you a much better view. Problems can be also determined much better with
the corresponding calculation, shown in the 3D view.
Figure 453: Example of a 3D view
As shown in Figure 453, all buildings are created in the 3D view. A coverage calculation with
the typical parameters and colours can be seen here.
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14.2
Navigate the 3D-View
Navigation inside the 3D-view is quite simple. Holding down the right mouse button enables
the "look"-function. Simply slide the mouse to change the camera view. Holding down the
left mouse button enables the "move"-function. Slide the mouse to move around the map.
With these two functions, nearly every move can be done on the map. On the bottom at the
window the values for the 3D-view can be changed. These seven values allow to view
everything on the map from every angle and distance. If you have changed one of the
values click with the left mouse button in the 3D-view.
X and Y describe the actual coordinates of the camera.
Horizontal and vertical describe the angle of the camera. Experimenting a little with these
values make it quite clear how to use them.
Z, spin and distension are interesting labels. They can make it much easier to locate and
show specific objects. These labels are for experienced user. Keep in mind that they can also
cause the whole view to vanish from the screen if useless values were inserted.
Figure 454: Values for 3D-View
Distension is the axial extension of the Z-axis. Therefore a higher value stretches the
buildings and makes them higher for the human eye. This is useful if the project only holds
buildings with small heights. The distension will stretch them a little bit and gives them
better visibility. The maximum value of distension is 10, which means a building will be
shown 10 times higher than in reality.
Spin just spins the view a little bit to the desired angle. Playing with that value shows
effects quite clear.
The Z label is the most interesting because it allows the user to zoom in and out. This
function could sometimes be required to show specific objects or discover problems that
might be hidden in detail.
The first thing to understand is that a 3D view cannot exist with only a X- and Y-axis. A third
axis is required to add a steric component. This required axis is the Z-axis. Playing a little bit
with this value should show the effect.
Keep in mind that a value smaller than the average area height used in the project will make
the project disappear in the 3D view.
Always use a value higher than the highest point in your project.
An elevation calculation may help to determine the height of that highest point.
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14.2.1Navigation Specials
Integrated into the 3D-View window, there is a menu named Navigation which offers a few
possibilities to navigate through a 3-dimensional environment:

Camera Platform: The standard view which allows the user to navigate with
the mouse buttons and the labels at the bottom of the window.

Autopilot: Starts a camera flight over the environment - a good application for
presentations.

Center Antenna: Opening the 3D view is sometimes quite confusing. Antennas
cannot be found really fast because they are hidden between the buildings. A
field strength area calculation maybe helps to locate the antennas a little bit
better, but it is not the optimal solution for presentations. The Center Antennas
Option opens a window, showing all the antennas used in the current project.
Now a specific antenna can be selected and the view will change to the antenna
residence.
Figure 455: Choose the desired antenna
Figure 456: The antenna will be focused
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Figure 457: Navigation specials: Center Antenna
14.3
Export a 3D View
A 3D view can also be exported.
14.3.1How to Export a 3D View
Assuming that a 3D view has been created. The export of a 3D view is only possible from
within the 3D view window.
1. Choose PlotExport.
Figure 458: Export of a 3D View
2. Decide to export the picture directly to a file or to the clipboard.
The clipboard option allows the user to paste the picture in another program, for
example, Microsoft Word. If you want to export the picture directly to a file, choose a
filepath by entering the path or click on Choose to navigate through the computer.
Click on OK to export the picture.
A .png file is saved at the specific filepath now and can be opened with every
program that supports the .png format.
Figure 459: Exported .png
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15
Glossary
3D view: It is possible to create a 3D view of the current project in WiMAP-4G. A better
observation is possible with the help of the 3D view. Calculation results will also be shown in
the 3D view.
Antennas: WiMAP-4G supports every kind of antenna (for example omni, yagi). Antennas
will be considered with the help of antenna diagrams. These diagrams contain a detailed
description of the vertical and horizontal attenuation which will be provided by the
manufacturer in most cases. Antenna information can be imported in several ways (Planetformat) like .dat, .adf, .msi. Each antenna needs to be assigned to exactly one antenna type.
Background Image: Background images can be imported in WiMAP-4G. They can hold all
desired information, for example satellite photography of the calculated terrain. The
orientation will become much better with a background image showing the actual surface,
buildings, wood etc. WiMAP-4G supports .tif, .tiff, .jpg and .png format for a background
image import.
Best Server: With the help of the best server calculation, it can be determined which site
(best server) offers the best signal for a specific area.
Building Classes: For a better overview, WiMAP-4G offers the possibility to arrange
buildings in building classes. This is also necessary to create advanced buildings with towers
or courtyards. Building classes can be differentiated by colours.
C/I: The carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I, CIR) is the quotient between the average
received modulated carrier power S or C and the average received co-channel interference
power I, i.e. cross-talk, from other transmitters than the useful signal.
Cadastral Data: Cadastral Data is vectored graphical information which typically consists of
many layers. Cadastral data is used to get an overview on the environment and especially on
buildings and boundaries in the project. WiMAP-4G supports the .dxf format. Cadastral data
can be purchased from the local land survey register.
Calculation Layer: After a field strength calculation has been done, the results are
conditioned and can be presented in different ways. These results will be constantly
available, even in case of changing some network parameters. It is also possible to make
different field strength calculations for different network parameters. The results can be
activated at the calculation layer at any time. To obtain a good overview, calculations are
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always temporary and will be deleted after making a new calculation of the same type. To
keep a calculation available at any time, it can be saved in the calculation tab of the ProjectExplorer.
Carrier: In telecommunication a carrier wave or carrier is a waveform that is modulated
with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information. This carrier wave is usually of
much higher frequency than the input signal. The purpose of the carrier is usually either to
transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave or to allow several
carriers at different frequencies to share a common physical transmission medium by
frequency division multiplexing.
Client: A client is usually used to refer to a current or potential buyer or user of the
connection.
Community-Edition: The Community-Edition is the free version of WiMAP-4G. It offers all
the important features but with certain limitations, for example, only 12 antennas in the
same project. The Community-Edition was released to give potential customers a good
overview on the flexibility of WiMAP-4G.
CORINE: The CORINE land cover is referring to an European program establishing a
computerized inventory on land cover of the 27 EC member states and other European
countries, at an original scale of 1:100.000, using 44 classes of the 3-level CORINE
nomenclature. It is produced by the European Environment Agency and its member
countries and is based on the results of IMAGE2000, a satellite imaging program undertaken
jointly by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission and the EEA. CORINE data
can be downloaded from the EEA-Website.
Coverage: Based on the field strength calculation results that can be achieved by clicking
CalculationField Strength Area Calculation, the coverage can be displayed.
Elevation Model: Elevation models describe the topography of the ground surface. The
elevation model is represented as a raster with a fixed cell size. The cell size characterizes
the quality of the elevation model. A smaller cell size results in a higher precision. The
elevation model is a very critical part of the project because imprecise data can cause
problems, not during planning but in reality. Always try to find a highly precise elevation
model to get the best results possible. The Terrain-Profiler cannot work properly without an
elevation model.
Field Strength: The field strength is the quantitative expression of an electric field on a
specific point. The unit is volt per meter (V/m). The strength of the electric field depends on
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many factors especially the transmission power, the distance between station and receiver
and inferences between those. With these parameters, the field strength can also differ on
the same location, probably influenced by weather effects or vegetation. To prevent
malfunction, WiMAP-4G always calculates the average achieved field strength. All themes are
based on a field strength calculation which needs to be made before calculating, for example
the power level or carrier to interferer.
Field Strength Area Calculation: WiMAP-4G offers two different kinds of field strength
calculations. The field strength area calculation shows the field strength prognostic for every
pixel in a huge area. However the point field strength calculation offers a field strength
prognostic for specific denoted points (for example potential customer locations).
Geodata: Geodata are computerized geographical information which can help the user to
get a better overview of the environment and the buildings in the project area. There are
many types of geodata available on the internet. Special data like elevation models or
cadastral data can be imported and used in WiMAP-4G projects. These data sometimes need
to be purchased due to the high expense of creating them. Therefore they are very precise
and qualified to be used in WiMAP-4G to achieve better results.
Graphic: Graphics in WiMAP-4G include all details associated with georeferenced display of
background data, network and calculation results. These are displayed in the Project- and
Terrain-Explorer and can be printed and plotted.
Isolines: An isoline is drawn around an area that contains the same value of a parameter.
WiMAP-4G supports isolines for all calculation that have a graphical output. Isolines can also
be exported and imported in other programs that support the .mif or .kml format.
Layer: WiMAP-4G works with layers. That means that every information, calculation,
structure is drawn or calculated in its own layer which can be activated respectively
deactivated for a better overview. The Project-Explorer holds a tab called the layer tab. This
layer tab lists all the layers used in the current project and every layer can be checked or
unchecked. Every action or import adds a separate layer.
License: A license is required for the Professional-Edition. It can be ordered at the WiMAP4G product support. Latest pricing information are available at www.wimap-4g.com.
Contact info@brown-iposs.eu for more information and for ordering a license.
Log: While making calculations with WiMAP-4G, many different things are done in the
background, invisible for the user. The background actions will be protocolled and shown in
the log. If an error occurs or a calculation does not seem to offer proper results, the log may
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throw out some exceptions or warnings. With the help of these exceptions or warnings, it is
sometimes possible for the user to fix the problems.
Network: A network contains all the locations and sites with their corresponding antennas.
Point: Among the sites, WiMAP-4G supports another essential data type: the points. Points
can be used to get an overview on special places like potential customer locations or other
site locations for the future. There are calculations for these points to check, for instance the
field strength on a special place or area.
Point Categories: To create different types of points, WiMAP-4G offers the possibility to
create point categories. This helps the user to differentiate the points.
Power Level: To rate the coverage on a specific point, it is necessary to determine the
power level on that area. The power level calculates the power received from a normal
receiver for the observed system at the radio frequency input in dBm.
Professional-Edition: The Professional-Edition is the purchased version of WiMAP-4G. It
offers all features of the Community-Edition plus additional features, for example, more
antenna pattern. There are no limitations in the Professional-Edition which make it the
perfect tool to plan even large projects.
Project: A project includes a network which consists of all locations with their systems (for
example WLAN, WiMAX…), antennas and the included data (for example geodata,
background image…). A project also includes all settings done within it (for example
propagation settings or graphical settings).
Site: A site is a base station holding active antennas. This can include many different
systems, carrier and antennas.
Site to Site: Connecting two sites requires a fixed network connection or a dedicated
wireless interface. Sites with a direct connection to the core network are named master sites.
Sites which have no directly connection to the core network are called clients. For clients it is
important to come down with a good radio link (most if the time with beam radio), to
redirect all incoming traffic to a master site. The master site finally transfers all incoming
data to the core network. Connections between sites are called site-to-site connection.
WiMAP-4G offers the possibility to make a site-to-site calculation to determine the path loss
between two sites. This can be useful to decide whether two sites can cooperate in a specific
area or not.
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System: In most cases, a network consists of different system technology, in short
"systems". Especially for last mile connections, many different types of hardware and
frequencies are in use (for example WLAN based on the 802.11a standard) compared to the
connections between the sites (they will be connected for example with a radio relay system
based on the 802.16a standard).
Terrain-Profiler: The Terrain-Profiler is a useful tool to get an overview of the environment
and the elevation of the project. It can be used in several ways. The main aspect of the
Terrain-Profiler is the ability to detect problems in the terrain while linking two sites. The
Terrain-Profiler is a drag and drop tool which detects buildings, mountains or even trees that
could interfere the connection. It is also possible to start a link budget calculation with the
Terrain-Profiler. Results can be plotted or exported for presentations.
Themes: WiMAP-4G offers a lot of possibilities to visualize or display georeferenced results
of field strength calculations and the resulting conclusions (for example coverage, power
level…).
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16
FAQ
16.1.1What is WiMAP-4G?
WiMAP-4G is the radio network planning tool by brown-iposs. It offers a simplified, engaging
way to plan, investigate, manage and analyse wireless networks.
16.1.2Does WiMAP-4G supports 64-bit operating systems?
Yes, on Windows 64-bit OS versions. To start the 64-bit version please select "wimap-4g64bit.exe" instead of "wimap-4g.exe". A 64-bit Java Runtime Environment is included in
WiMAP-4G.
16.1.3Which languages does WiMAP-4G support?
In the current version, WiMAP-4G supports English language only. Other languages can be
supported on request.
16.1.4Do I have to be online to use WiMAP-4G?
No, but: You need to be online to get a license for your WiMAP-4G installation. An internet
connection is also necessary if you want to use OpenStreetMap™ to plan your maps.
Additional satellite photos and elevation models can be downloaded from within the program
if an internet connection is available.
16.1.5What file formats does WiMAP-4G support?
File format
.rap
.dxf
.asc, .asg
.gif, .tif, .tiff, .png
Use
project import/export, save/load projects
cadastral data import
elevation data import
background image export/import
plot, Terrain-Profiler diagram export
3D-view export
.mif
import/export buildings/structures
export isolines
.shp
CORINE data import
.csv
antennas/points import/export
.kml
plot export
.zip
calculation import/export
.msi, .dat, .adf
antenna pattern import/export
Table 2: File formats supported by WiMAP-4G
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16.1.6How much does WiMAP-4G cost?
The costs of WiMAP-4G depend on the used edition, number of licenses and selected
propagation models that shall be planned with WiMAP-4G. Since there is no constant price
for all these features, a detailed price list can be obtained from the WiMAP-4G website.
16.1.7What is the difference between WiMAP-4G Editions?
The Professional-Edition offers the complete feature set, apart from services that need to be
licensed against third parties. The Community-Edition has additional project orientated
limitations. The number of sites and of points in the same project is limited. Also the
resolution for displaying the calculation results is limited and parts of the import/export
functions are inaccessible. We reserve us the right to restrict new and more functionalities in
future releases of WiMAP-4G Community-Edition.
16.1.8What are the requirements to get a license?
Activation is necessary for the Professional-Edition as well as for the Community-Edition.
After purchasing the WiMAP-4G Professional-Edition, a USB-dongle carrying the license will
be delivered to you for the activation of your Professional-Edition. The Community-Edition
also needs activation, but the only requirement is a valid e-mail address because we send
the license file by e-mail.
16.1.9 Can I upgrade my Community-Edition to Professional-Edition at a
later date within the program?
Yes, it is possible to use the Community-Edition and make an upgrade at any date later. It is
sufficient just to plug in the USB-dongle (having the CodeMeter runtime environment
installed) into your computer and start WiMAP-4G.
16.1.10 Do I have to update my WiMAP-4G from time to time?
WiMAP-4G will automatically search for updates from time to time. If a new update has been
found, WiMAP-4G will ask you to download and install the update.
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17
Troubleshooting
P: I cannot install WiMAP-4G: You do not have the required permission to run this
file.
S: Administrative permission is needed to install WiMAP-4G. Please contact your system
administrator for further information.
P: WiMAP-4G does not start.
S1: Check out if you have the right permission to run this program. Contact your system
administrator for further instructions.
S2: Installation may be broken, try to reinstall WiMAP-4G.
P: I cannot activate my Professional-Edition: Your license file is damaged.
S: Your license file is not valid. Activation by license file (like done for Community edition) is
no longer supported. Please contact info@brown-iposs.eu for a new license file.
P: CORINE does not show any data.
S1: The CORINE data is corrupted. Please contact the EEA for a solution.
S2: The CORINE data does not contain any information for the actual content (the blue
frame). Make sure that the downloaded CORINE data is valid for your project.
P: Calculation takes very long time.
S1: If the workstation is an older one, calculation can take some time due to the hardware
that is used. Try a faster system to get a faster calculation.
S2: Try another quality for the calculation. A higher precision takes a lot more time to
calculate. Make sure that the used precision level is in need for your requirements.
P: New preconfigured Project: I cannot find the desired place via specified
address.
S1: Try other keywords for your desired place.
S2: Try also zip codes.
S3: Take another place near the desired one and choose a bigger frame for the project.
P: Not enough memory for calculation.
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S1: This usually happens while making calculation with very high quality on a low memory
machine. Making a detailed calculation using the CORLA Raylauncher can consume far more
than 4 Gigabyte of RAM.
S2: The used memory can be set to a specific maximum value in the
wimap-4g.vmoptions
.
Open the file using the windows editor and change the maximum Java heap size.
P: OpenStreetMap™: Tile X/Y/Z could not be loaded.
S: OpenStreetMap™ is not reachable at the moment. Check your internet connection or try it
again later. This can also indicate a problem with your firewall. Contact your system
administrator for further information or support.
P: I cannot use CORLA Raylauncher.
S: Since the CORLA Raylauncher is not a brown-iposs application, it is a third party software
and needs a license to work for every special scenario. If you need a license, contact
info@brown-iposs.eu for further information.
P: Cadastral data does not show up after import.
S1: Make sure the cadastral data layers are activated. Check the layer tab in the ProjectExplorer.
S2: Cadastral data needs specific coordinates while import. If you do not have specified any
coordinates for the cadastral data position, it can be found at the coordinates 0,0.
P: Building intersects buildings of the same type
S: This usually happens if you want to construct buildings inside other buildings using the
same building class. Create a new building class and use that new one while construct the
new building inside the old one.
P: Points does not shown up in the points tab.
S: Make sure that the right point-category has been chosen on top of the point tab in the
Project-Explorer.
P: Antenna Pattern: An I/O error occurred due to following reason: Pattern
"…….." could not be read.
S: The antenna pattern is corrupt. Depending on the source off the file, contact the
manufacturer of the antenna for a new pattern. You can also try to repair the corrupt file.
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Detailed instructions in how an antenna patter should look like can be found in chapter
7.1.5.
P: Load Project: org.xml.sax.SAXParseException: Premature end of file.
S: The project file is damaged.
P: Load Cadastral: An I/O error occurred due to following reason: Error
encountered in line -x: Unexpected EOF encountered in line -x.
S: The cadastral data file is damaged. Depending on the source, get a new fresh file and try
it again.
P: Load Corine: An I/O error occurred due to following reason: Premature end of
header.
S: The CORINE file is damaged. Depending on the source, get a new fresh file and try it
again.
P: Specified Address: An I/O Error occurred due to following reason:
gazetteer.openstreetmap.org
S: Check your internet connection. Connection to OpenStreetMap™ cannot be established. If
your internet connection is working, the OpenStreetMap server is down at the moment. Try
again later.
P: An internal error has been detected.
S: WiMAP-4G always saves a copy of the error in the folder WiMAP-4G/Profile. Feel free to
send this error report to info@brown-iposs.eu.
P: I cannot choose a calculation from the menu.
S: A field strength area calculation needs to be done to enable other calculations. Choose
Calculation->Field Strength Area Calculation.
P: The Elevation Model does not load, by a created project: An I/O Error occurred
due to following reason: [Data Path] (The system cannot find the data path).
S: Delete the folder of the data path. If the path cannot found, search for hidden folder.
After deletion, the project could been imported again.
P: I cannot select antennas and carriers (lists are empty)
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S: Delete the default.rad data in C:\Users\"UserName"\AppData\Roaming\bips\WiMAP-4G. If
the path cannot found, search for hidden folder.
P: Starting calculation: An internal error has been detected!
S: Check whether all sites are inside the blue area (Elevation Model).
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1: The WiMAP-4G working interface ..................................................................... 12
2: The Professional-Edition offers CORLA as an additional propagation model.......... 14
3: Installation has been started ........................................................................... 15
4: Installation directory ....................................................................................... 15
5: Start menu folder selection ............................................................................. 16
6: Program icon location ..................................................................................... 16
7: License agreement ......................................................................................... 17
8: Program edition/License request ...................................................................... 17
9: Choose location of your license file .................................................................. 18
10: Global Settings ............................................................................................. 18
11: Startup menu ............................................................................................... 19
12: Database menu ............................................................................................ 19
13: Plot menu .................................................................................................... 20
14: Plot -> Export menu ..................................................................................... 20
15: Units menu .................................................................................................. 21
16: Check for New Version menu ......................................................................... 22
17: WiMAP-4G launches for the first time ............................................................. 23
18: Demo project "Munich" ................................................................................. 24
19: Graphical user interface/work area ................................................................. 25
20: Cursor Point ................................................................................................. 28
21: Rectangle Zoom ........................................................................................... 29
22: Mark an area ................................................................................................ 29
23: Distance/measurement tool ........................................................................... 30
24: The Terrain-Profiler looks like the distance/measurement tool. ......................... 31
25: The Terrain-Profiler tab ................................................................................. 31
26: The Fresnel Zone is interrupted. .................................................................... 31
27: The Terrain-Profiler configuration menu ......................................................... 32
28: Change title, font and colour ......................................................................... 32
29: The plot menu.............................................................................................. 33
30: Disabled tick labels ....................................................................................... 33
31: Enabled tick labels ........................................................................................ 33
32: Enabled tick marks ....................................................................................... 33
33: Disabled tick marks ....................................................................................... 33
34: The range tab .............................................................................................. 34
35: The appearance tab ...................................................................................... 34
36: The other tab ............................................................................................... 34
37: Anti-aliasing enabled ..................................................................................... 35
38: Anti-aliasing disabled .................................................................................... 35
39: A configured Terrain-Profiler tab .................................................................... 35
40: Terrain-Profiler zoom functions ...................................................................... 36
41: A plot can be saved or printed. ...................................................................... 36
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The printer window....................................................................................... 36
The plot can be saved as a .png-file. .............................................................. 37
Transfixing the windows results in a much bigger work area ............................ 38
The Project-Explorer ..................................................................................... 39
The Sites tab ................................................................................................ 40
The Layers tab ............................................................................................. 41
Buildings layer enabled and disabled .............................................................. 41
All used points will be shown in a list.............................................................. 42
The Points tab – Coverage ............................................................................ 43
The Points tab – Visualisation ........................................................................ 43
The Calculation tab ....................................................................................... 44
The Elevation Model tab ................................................................................ 44
The Cadastral Data tab ................................................................................. 45
The Clients tab ............................................................................................. 45
The Link Budget tab ..................................................................................... 46
The General Settings tab ............................................................................... 47
Bilinear interpolation ..................................................................................... 48
Nearest neighbour ........................................................................................ 48
The Calculation Settings tab .......................................................................... 49
The Theme Settings tab ................................................................................ 50
Selecting a theme ......................................................................................... 50
Selecting the desired theme .......................................................................... 50
A changed profile ......................................................................................... 51
Selecting a theme ......................................................................................... 51
Click on New ................................................................................................ 51
Click Add to add new intervals ....................................................................... 52
Fill in all fields .............................................................................................. 52
The created profile appears in the list............................................................. 52
The Empirical Models Settings tab .................................................................. 53
The Free Space Propagation Settings tab ........................................................ 54
Choose free space propagation model ............................................................ 55
Click Add to add new parameters ................................................................... 55
Pathloss exponents and factor ....................................................................... 55
The ITU-R P.1411-3 settings tab .................................................................... 56
The Erceg Model Settings tab ........................................................................ 57
Elevation model visibility ............................................................................... 58
Visibility of empirical models .......................................................................... 59
Click Add to add new parameters ................................................................... 59
Fill in all fields .............................................................................................. 59
Click OK to save the changes ......................................................................... 60
The created parameter appears in the list ....................................................... 60
The CORLA Settings tab ................................................................................ 60
The CORLA Algorithm tab .............................................................................. 61
The CORLA Model Parameters tab.................................................................. 62
The WinProp properties................................................................................. 63
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User Manual WiMAP-4G 6.1
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87: The Elevation Model settings ......................................................................... 64
88: The Building Classes settings ......................................................................... 65
89: Select building classes................................................................................... 65
90: Click Add to add a new building class ............................................................. 65
91: Click OK to save the changes ......................................................................... 66
92: Add new attenuation parameters ................................................................... 66
93: Save the changes with OK ............................................................................. 66
94: Colours need to be added ............................................................................. 66
95: Click OK to save all changes .......................................................................... 67
96: The start dialogue ........................................................................................ 67
97: Create a new project .................................................................................... 68
98: Dialogue for creating a project....................................................................... 68
99: Choose this type and click Next ..................................................................... 69
100: Specify an area by address .......................................................................... 69
101: Choose a result from the list ........................................................................ 70
102: Specify an area by coordinates..................................................................... 70
103: Choose the radius of the area ...................................................................... 71
104: Choose an example site............................................................................... 71
105: Open Google Maps™ ................................................................................... 72
106: Right-click the red marker ........................................................................... 72
107: The coordinates .......................................................................................... 72
108: Choose a coordinate system type ................................................................. 73
109: The easy way to load projects...................................................................... 74
110: The log window .......................................................................................... 75
111: Errors are shown in red in the log window. ................................................... 75
112: Load cadastral data..................................................................................... 76
113: Choose a file .............................................................................................. 77
114: Add the cadastral data to the project ............................................................ 77
115: Unmodified cadastral data ........................................................................... 78
116: Additional cadastral layers ........................................................................... 78
117: DXF settings ............................................................................................... 79
118: Edit cadastral data layers............................................................................. 79
119: Choose Visualisation or Ignore ..................................................................... 80
120: Edited cadastral layers ................................................................................ 80
121: Cadastral data changed colour ..................................................................... 81
122: The Cadastral Data tab................................................................................ 81
123: Load an elevation model ............................................................................. 82
124: The elevation model tab after importing elevation models .............................. 82
125: Reload elevation model from web ................................................................ 82
126: Replace the current elevation model ............................................................. 83
127: Choose Radius for the new model ................................................................ 83
128: The new model will replace the old one ........................................................ 83
129: The import dialogue for a background image ................................................ 84
130: Load a background image. .......................................................................... 84
131: Fill in all fields and click OK .......................................................................... 84
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Import of location images ............................................................................ 85
Import of one file........................................................................................ 85
Import of more than one file........................................................................ 86
Imported location images are shown on the map .......................................... 86
Show a location image ................................................................................ 87
Browse or rotate location images ................................................................. 88
Delete location images from menu ............................................................... 88
Choosing the image layer ............................................................................ 89
Delete location image from context menu ..................................................... 89
Import of location images ............................................................................ 89
The import as background image ................................................................. 90
ITU-R P.1411-3 field strength calculation including buildings .......................... 91
ITU-R P.1411-3 field strength calculation without buildings ............................ 91
Capture buildings ........................................................................................ 92
Add the first coordinates. ............................................................................ 93
The blue dot shows the coordinates. ............................................................ 94
All coordinates added .................................................................................. 94
A created building ....................................................................................... 95
Add all corners ........................................................................................... 95
Building added via drag and drop ................................................................. 96
Add the courtyard ....................................................................................... 96
Courtyard ................................................................................................... 96
Intersecting buildings of the same type is not possible ................................... 97
Building classes .......................................................................................... 97
Capture buildings ........................................................................................ 97
A new building............................................................................................ 98
Intersecting buildings and wood ................................................................... 98
Building in a building ................................................................................... 98
Context menu of a building .......................................................................... 99
Edit building window ................................................................................... 99
Choose Save Buildings to export buildings................................................... 100
Choose Load Buildings to import buildings .................................................. 100
Create buildings from cadastral data........................................................... 101
Import settings ......................................................................................... 101
Buildings created from cadastral data ......................................................... 102
CORINE import ......................................................................................... 103
CORINE settings ....................................................................................... 103
Imported structures .................................................................................. 104
CORINE imports need to be mapped to a building class ............................... 104
A whole region created with CORINE imports .............................................. 105
Context menu of a building ........................................................................ 105
Click Edit to show a list of all carriers .......................................................... 108
Choose New to create a new carrier ........................................................... 109
The Carrier Settings window ...................................................................... 109
The fast way to create a carrier ................................................................. 110
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Configured carrier ..................................................................................... 110
Coverage settings ..................................................................................... 110
Import carriers ......................................................................................... 111
Log information for the current import ........................................................ 111
Existing carriers cannot be replaced ........................................................... 112
Right-click in sites tab and click on New in context menu ............................. 114
Antenna Settings window .......................................................................... 114
View of site with antenna on the map......................................................... 115
Create antenna-types ................................................................................ 115
Antenna-type settings with importing the antenna pattern ........................... 116
Antenna-type Settings ............................................................................... 117
A pattern is required for antenna creation ................................................... 117
Load single or multiple patterns ................................................................. 117
A valid pattern .......................................................................................... 118
Antenna attenuation ................................................................................. 118
Right-click in sites tab and click on Edit in context menu .............................. 119
Antenna Settings window .......................................................................... 119
Edit antenna-types .................................................................................... 120
Antenna-type Settings ............................................................................... 120
Right-click in the sites tab and click on Create Copy in context menu ............ 121
Antenna settings of a copied antenna ......................................................... 122
Change multiple antennas ......................................................................... 122
Choosing all antennas option ..................................................................... 123
Setting the new carrier for all antennas ...................................................... 123
The windows editor................................................................................... 124
Editor with a few settings .......................................................................... 125
Editor with attenuation parameters ............................................................ 126
Save the new file as .msi ........................................................................... 127
Export antennas ....................................................................................... 127
Import antennas ....................................................................................... 128
Dialogue for setting the decimal separator .................................................. 128
Imported antennas shown up on the map with their corresponding sites ....... 128
Import antenna-types ............................................................................... 129
Choosing file ............................................................................................ 129
Log information for the current import ........................................................ 129
Log with warning message ........................................................................ 130
The sites tab ............................................................................................ 130
Invert activation of an antenna .................................................................. 131
Context menu for filter activation ............................................................... 132
Filter activation ......................................................................................... 132
Site settings with invalid antennas .............................................................. 133
Site tab with invalid antennas .................................................................... 133
Radio unit with invalid antennas ................................................................. 134
Invalid antenna ........................................................................................ 134
Log message about invalid antennas .......................................................... 135
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Creating a new antenna ............................................................................ 135
Radio unit with distributed antennas........................................................... 136
Distributed antennas with same directions .................................................. 136
Distributed antennas with different directions .............................................. 137
Site Settings window ................................................................................. 138
Radio unit settings window ........................................................................ 139
Edit a radio unit ........................................................................................ 140
Copy a radio unit ...................................................................................... 141
Edit the radio unit ..................................................................................... 141
Radio unit settings for changing the carrier ................................................. 142
List of carriers .......................................................................................... 143
Radio unit settings after adding another carrier ........................................... 143
Change multiple radio units ....................................................................... 144
Change multiple radio units window ........................................................... 144
Activate or deactivate all radio units ........................................................... 145
The sites tab ............................................................................................ 145
Site tab context menu for activation of a radio unit ...................................... 146
Create empty or 3-sector example sites ...................................................... 147
Create a site on the map ........................................................................... 147
Create a new site ...................................................................................... 148
Create a new radio unit ............................................................................. 148
Radio Unit Settings window ....................................................................... 149
Add antennas to the radio unit ................................................................... 150
Invalid antenna pattern ............................................................................. 151
Create a new antenna-type ....................................................................... 151
The created antenna in the list................................................................... 152
The created site on the map ...................................................................... 152
Select the site by right-click on the map or in the sites tab. .......................... 153
Edit the site and click OK to save changes. ................................................. 154
Select the site by right-click in the sites tab................................................. 155
Site Settings window ................................................................................. 155
Activate or deactivate all sites .................................................................... 156
The tool panel of sites tab ......................................................................... 156
The Sites tab ............................................................................................ 157
Supported .csv file with measurement information ....................................... 158
Measurement points from a measurement without colour information ........... 159
Measurement points from a measurement coloured by visualisation .............. 159
Measurement points from a measurement coloured by coverage .................. 160
Edit point categories ................................................................................. 161
Point category windows............................................................................. 162
Create new point categories ...................................................................... 162
A new point category ................................................................................ 163
New type and name .................................................................................. 163
Save the new category .............................................................................. 163
Create points from the menu ..................................................................... 164
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Create a point on the map ......................................................................... 164
Create a point in the points tab .................................................................. 164
Choose a category .................................................................................... 165
Fields for creating a point .......................................................................... 165
The new point appears on the map. ........................................................... 166
Editing a point on the map ........................................................................ 166
Editing a point with the help of the points tab ............................................. 166
Edit the desired fields ................................................................................ 167
Edit multiple points at once ....................................................................... 167
Choose column and value .......................................................................... 168
Slow way to activate/deactivate points ....................................................... 168
The tool panel of points tab ....................................................................... 169
Export points as .csv file ............................................................................ 169
Export points dialogue window................................................................... 170
Export points as .kml file ........................................................................... 170
Select path for export as .kml file ............................................................... 171
Import points ........................................................................................... 171
Import points dialog window...................................................................... 172
Set the types of parameters....................................................................... 172
left: Edit single point | right: Edit multiple points ......................................... 173
Choosing Points Colour from menu ............................................................. 174
Points Colour Setting ................................................................................. 174
Convert points to client from menu ............................................................ 175
Create clients from points settings.............................................................. 175
Option Remove Points ............................................................................... 176
The created clients appear on the map ....................................................... 176
The created clients on clients tab ............................................................... 176
Convert clients to points ............................................................................ 176
Mark a client and choose Convert to Points ................................................. 177
Remove clients after the conversion ........................................................... 177
The points appear on the map ................................................................... 177
The edit window of a point ........................................................................ 178
Create new client profiles .......................................................................... 179
Fill in all fields........................................................................................... 180
Fill in all fields........................................................................................... 180
Created carriers ........................................................................................ 181
Edit carriers .............................................................................................. 181
Create clients from the menu ..................................................................... 182
Create clients on the map .......................................................................... 182
Create clients from the clients tab .............................................................. 182
Fill in all fields........................................................................................... 184
The client appears on the map ................................................................... 184
Edit clients from the menu ......................................................................... 185
Edit clients in the clients tab ...................................................................... 185
Choose the client and click on Edit. ............................................................ 185
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Figure 312: Assign clients to the nearest site ................................................................ 186
Figure 313: Context menu of a client ........................................................................... 186
Figure 314: Terrain-Profile between client and site ........................................................ 187
Figure 315: Invalid client on the map ........................................................................... 187
Figure 316: Invalid client in the clients tab ................................................................... 187
Figure 317: Make a field strength area calculation ......................................................... 189
Figure 318: Field strength area calculation settings for the Erceg model.......................... 190
Figure 319: Calculation with Erceg model Type A .......................................................... 191
Figure 320: 50 % coverage probability ......................................................................... 191
Figure 321: A field strength area calculation example: Munich, Erceg A, coverage probability:
50 %, resolution: absolute 5 m.................................................................................... 192
Figure 322: Field strength area calculation settings for CORLA Raylauncher..................... 193
Figure 323: Field strength area calculation settings for ITU-R P.1411-3 ........................... 193
Figure 324: A field strength area calculation example: Munich, ITU-R P.1411-3, road
orientation: 90°, resolution: absolute 5 m .................................................................... 194
Figure 325: Field strength area calculation settings for Free Space Propagation ............... 194
Figure 326: A field strength area calculation example: Munich, Free Space Propagation,
Resolution: absolute 5 m ............................................................................................ 195
Figure 327: WinProp field strength calculations settings ................................................. 195
Figure 328: The clients tab in the Project-Explorer ........................................................ 197
Figure 329: Open the client coverage calculation settings .............................................. 197
Figure 330: The coverage calculation settings ............................................................... 198
Figure 331: Calculation with Erceg model type A ........................................................... 199
Figure 332: 50 % coverage probability ......................................................................... 199
Figure 333: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, Erceg A, coverage probability: 50
% ............................................................................................................................. 200
Figure 334: Client coverage calculation settings for CORLA ............................................ 200
Figure 335: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, CORLA, resolution x/y: 3,
resolution z: 3, point extent: 1 .................................................................................... 201
Figure 336: Client coverage calculation settings for ITU-R P.1411-3 ................................ 202
Figure 337: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, ITU-R P.1411-3, road orientation:
90° ........................................................................................................................... 202
Figure 338: Client coverage calculation settings for Free Space Propagation .................... 203
Figure 339: A client coverage calculation example: Munich, Free Space Propagation ........ 203
Figure 340: WinProp field strength calculations settings ................................................. 204
Figure 341: The points tab in the Project-Explorer ......................................................... 205
Figure 342: The points on the Terrain-Explorer ............................................................. 205
Figure 343: The points tab in the Project-Explorer with additional power level and field
strength columns ....................................................................................................... 206
Figure 344: Open the settings from menu .................................................................... 206
Figure 345: Open the settings from points tab .............................................................. 207
Figure 346: The point field strength calculation settings ................................................ 207
Figure 347: Choose the type that fits the situation ........................................................ 208
Figure 348: 50 % coverage probability ......................................................................... 209
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Figure 349: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, Erceg A, coverage
probability: 50 %, resolution: absolute 5 m .................................................................. 209
Figure 350: Point field strength calculation settings for CORLA ....................................... 210
Figure 351: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, CORLA, resolution x/y: 3,
resolution z: 3, point extent: 1 .................................................................................... 211
Figure 352: Point field strength calculation settings for ITU-R P.1411-3 .......................... 211
Figure 353: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, ITU-R P.1411-3, road
orientation: 90°.......................................................................................................... 212
Figure 354: Point field strength calculation settings for Free Space Propagation ............... 212
Figure 355: A point field strength calculation example: Munich, Free Space Propagation .. 213
Figure 356: WinProp field strength calculations settings ................................................. 213
Figure 357: General settings for point field strength calculation ...................................... 214
Figure 358: Open the point category settings................................................................ 215
Figure 359: Columns for all propagation models ............................................................ 215
Figure 360: Make point field strength calculations for every propagation model ............... 216
Figure 361: Comparison of the propagation models ....................................................... 217
Figure 362: Example for a site to site calculation........................................................... 217
Figure 363: Start site to site calculation ........................................................................ 218
Figure 364: Start site to site calculation from the map ................................................... 218
Figure 365: The site to site calculation settings ............................................................. 218
Figure 366: Fill in all the fields and click OK to start the calculation. ................................ 219
Figure 367: A black line signalizes problems ................................................................. 219
Figure 368: Create coverage theme from menu ............................................................ 220
Figure 369: Create coverage theme from Calculation tab ............................................... 221
Figure 370: Create coverage theme from Calculation tab by right-clicking antennas ......... 221
Figure 371: Coverage theme settings ........................................................................... 222
Figure 372: A coverage theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin ...................................... 222
Figure 373: A coverage theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin ....................................... 223
Figure 374: Create best server theme from menu ......................................................... 224
Figure 375: Create best server theme from calculation tab............................................. 224
Figure 376: Create best server theme from calculation tab by right-clicking antennas....... 225
Figure 377: Best server theme settings ........................................................................ 225
Figure 378: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A ........................................... 226
Figure 379: A best server theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin ................................... 226
Figure 380: A best server theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin..................................... 226
Figure 381: Create carrier to interferer theme from menu .............................................. 227
Figure 382: Create carrier to interferer theme from calculation tab ................................. 228
Figure 383: Create carrier to interferer theme from calculation tab by right-clicking antennas
................................................................................................................................ 228
Figure 384: Carrier-to-interferer theme settings ............................................................ 229
Figure 385: Field strength area calculation Erceg A ....................................................... 229
Figure 386: A carrier-to-interferer theme example: 10 dB margin ................................... 230
Figure 387: A carrier-to-interferer theme example: 0 dB margin ..................................... 230
Figure 388: Marker for the best C/I .............................................................................. 230
Figure 389: Create power level theme from menu ......................................................... 231
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Figure 390: Create power level theme from calculation tab ............................................ 232
Figure 391: Create power level theme from calculation tab by right-clicking antennas ...... 232
Figure 392: Power level theme settings ........................................................................ 233
Figure 393: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A ........................................... 233
Figure 394: A power level theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin .................................. 234
Figure 395: A power level theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin .................................... 234
Figure 396: Marker for the best power level.................................................................. 234
Figure 397: Creating a sub-carrier interference theme from menu .................................. 235
Figure 398: Creating a sub-carrier interference theme from calculation tab ..................... 236
Figure 399: Creating a sub-carrier interference theme from calculation tab by right-clicking
antennas ................................................................................................................... 236
Figure 400: Sub-carrier interference theme settings ...................................................... 237
Figure 401: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A ........................................... 238
Figure 402: A sub carrier interference theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin ................... 238
Figure 403: Marker for best sub-carrier interference ...................................................... 239
Figure 404: Create field strength theme from menu ...................................................... 239
Figure 405: Creating field strength theme from calculation tab ....................................... 240
Figure 406: Creating field strength theme from calculation tab by right-clicking antennas . 240
Figure 407: Field strength theme settings ..................................................................... 241
Figure 408: Munich: Field strength area calculation Erceg A ........................................... 242
Figure 409: A field strength theme example: Munich, 0 dB margin, maximum load, peak level
................................................................................................................................ 242
Figure 410: A field strength theme example: Munich, 10 dB margin, maximum load, peak
level .......................................................................................................................... 243
Figure 411: Marker for the best field strength ............................................................... 243
Figure 412: Creating an elevation theme from menu ..................................................... 244
Figure 413: Elevation theme settings ........................................................................... 244
Figure 414: Elevation theme example, nearest neighbour, resolution relative 100 % ........ 245
Figure 415: Elevation theme example, bilinear interpolation, resolution relative 100 % .... 245
Figure 416: Creating a visibility theme ......................................................................... 246
Figure 417: Visibility theme settings ............................................................................. 246
Figure 418: Visibility theme example, bilinear cellwise 1000, resolution relative 100 % ..... 247
Figure 419: Clear the visibility layer ............................................................................. 248
Figure 420: Submenu for elevation export .................................................................... 249
Figure 421: Available export (themes) formats (left: Professional-Edition | right: CommunityEdition) ..................................................................................................................... 249
Figure 422: Export settings by export as image............................................................. 250
Figure 423: Clear the calculation layer.......................................................................... 251
Figure 424: Delete calculation ..................................................................................... 252
Figure 425: Deletion of the actual calculation................................................................ 252
Figure 426: Delete calculation with/without file ............................................................. 252
Figure 427: MIMO Mode Selection: Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)............................. 253
Figure 428: Calculation with Maximum Selection Combining (MSC) ................................. 254
Figure 429: Calculation with Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) ...................................... 254
Figure 430: Create isolines .......................................................................................... 255
brown-iposs GmbH
User Manual WiMAP-4G 6.1
Page 296 of 297
broadband wireless networks - investigations ● planning ● operations support systems
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Choose the states for the isolines ............................................................... 256
Theme isolines example, Munich, coverage ................................................. 256
Create elevation isolines ............................................................................ 257
Fill in the desired values ............................................................................ 258
Elevation isolines example, Munich ............................................................. 258
Export isolines as .mif ............................................................................... 259
Export isolines as .kml ............................................................................... 259
Show on Google Maps ............................................................................... 261
Right-click on Layers Tab........................................................................... 262
Filter Activation dialogue window ............................................................... 262
Settings of a site ....................................................................................... 263
Select the colour ....................................................................................... 264
Radio unit settings .................................................................................... 264
Antenna settings ....................................................................................... 265
The Link Budget tab .................................................................................. 267
The Link Budget tab .................................................................................. 268
Select objects with Terrain-Profiler ............................................................. 269
The snap window appears after connecting two points................................. 269
Link Budget calculation.............................................................................. 270
Adjust antennas........................................................................................ 270
Adjust antennas – select options ................................................................ 271
Create a 3D view ...................................................................................... 272
Example of a 3D view ............................................................................... 272
Values for 3D-View ................................................................................... 273
Choose the desired antenna ...................................................................... 274
The antenna will be focused ...................................................................... 274
Navigation specials: Center Antenna ........................................................... 275
Export of a 3D View .................................................................................. 275
Exported .png........................................................................................... 275
brown-iposs GmbH
User Manual WiMAP-4G 6.1
Page 297 of 297