User Manual: - Electrospinz

User Manual:
The electrospinning platforms ES1a and ES4
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents .......................................................... 3
1. Overview of the electrospinning platform ............... 5
1.1. Purpose ......................................................................... 5
1.2. Principle ........................................................................ 5
1.3. Warnings ....................................................................... 6
1.4. Specifications ................................................................ 6
2.1. Directions of use ........................................................... 7
3. General Guide ........................................................... 8
3.1. Parts checklist ............................................................... 8
3.2. Initial Assembly ............................................................. 9
3.2.1. The Assembly Test ............................................................ 10
3.3. Places of the other elements needed for
electrospinning................................................................... 10
3.4. Operation .................................................................... 11
3.5. Maintenance ............................................................... 14
4. FAQ ......................................................................... 17
4.1. How do I make up a solution of PVOH? ...................... 17
4.2. What can I use for a target?........................................ 17
4.3. Can I use a syringe pump? .......................................... 17
4.4. What is the rate of deposition? .................................. 17
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4.5. Why doesn’t the machine need an enclosure to be
safe? ................................................................................... 18
5. Glossary .................................................................. 19
6. Appendix................................................................. 23
Appendix I - How to specify a ventilation system when using
hazardous solvents? ........................................................... 23
Appendix II - Why doesn’t the machine need an enclosure
to be safe?.......................................................................... 25
Appendix III – Electrospinnable materials and conditions . 27
References ................................................................................... 37
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1. Overview of the electrospinning platform
The aim of this manual is to explain safe operating procedures for the
electrospinning machine (ES4 and ES1a).
Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine micro or nanofibres from
a polymer in a liquid solution or melt. The process is non-invasive and does not require the
use of coagulation chemistry or high temperatures to produce solid threads from solution.
This makes the process particularly suited to the production of fibres using large and
complex molecules.
When a sufficiently high voltage is applied to a liquid droplet, the body of the liquid
becomes charged, and electrostatic repulsion counteracts the surface tension and droplet is
stretched, and a Taylor cone appears, at a critical point a stream of liquid erupts from the
surface, at the tip of the Taylor cone.
If the molecular cohesion of the liquid is sufficiently high, stream breakup does not
occur (if it does, droplets are electrosprayed) and a charged liquid jet is formed. As the jet
dries out in flight, the mode of current flow changes from ohmic to convective as the charge
migrates to the surface of the fibre.
The jet is then elongated by a whipping process caused by electrostatic repulsion
initiated at small bends in the fibre, until it is finally deposited on the grounded collector.
The elongation and thinning of the fibre resulting from this bending instability leads to the
formation of uniform fibres with nanometre-scale diameters.
A typical electrospinning jet
Photo by R.Lamberts - PFR
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This is a research machine designed to allow maximum access to the process for
research purposes. The only pieces that are significantly live during operation are the
pipette tip, the transfer pipe and liquid within the reservoir.
The electrospinning machine runs at between 0-33,000 volts, the maximum current
delivered by the machine is 0.3mA, a level of current much lower than that required for
injuring a human. However, a shock from the machine is disagreeable – like a shock from
static discharge.
The ES1a and ES4 are designed to be used by competent operators in a laboratory
environment, using an aqueous solution. Other solutions may be spun but the materials of
the header tank, hose and spinning tip may need to be changed or adapted.
The ES1a, and ES4, is a one or two-part machine with a solid, easy to clean base. The
constant head system is adjustable and has both coarse and fine adjustment. The moveable
spinning head can be set from zero to 150mm for the ES1 and from zero to 200mm for the
ES4, from the fixed target plane; this can be adjusted during operation. The power to the
spinning head is adjustable from zero to + or -33,000 VDC from the separate control box.
 Base and Control Box are constructed from stainless steel
 Insulating materials are made of Polyoxymethylene (POM)
 Target plane 300mm x 350mm x 10mm is made of polyethylene (PE)
 Electrical connection fittings are made of brass
 Header tank is made of borosilicate glass
 Hose is made of Silicone rubber
 Spinning tip is made of high density polypropylene
Power Supply:
Single phase 100 to 240 VAC, 1 amp maximum.
Power supply socket is a DIN standard fitting; most computer cords will fit this.
Electrospinz Limited
44 Lee Street
Blenheim 7301
New Zealand
Phone: +64 3578 8092
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2. Safety
Directions of use
High voltage power can present a serious risk of personal injury if not used in
accordance with these safety instructions. All users of this equipment must have read and
understood the contents of this manual before operation is begun.
The ES1a, and ES4, complies with the relevant New Zealand standards and has been
constructed to comply with the electrical part of the BS EN 50 059: 1991 specification for
hand-held spraying equipment for non-flammable material for painting and finishing.
Although the output voltage can be as high as 33,000 Volts, the maximum output current
cannot exceed 0.3mA. No conducting parts of the machine that are not earthed can be
touched by the operator during normal operation, provided that these instructions are
correctly followed.
 Static charges may be present on insulated components, even when the equipment
is turned off.
 Users MUST ALWAYS earth themselves by holding the metal frame of the ES1a or
ES4 before touching any other part of the equipment.
 Electrospun fibres are charged during manufacture, this charge may be transferred
to the depositing area. This charge is very low and provided the user is earthed,
should be safe to handle.
 After the equipment is turned off, the high voltage system will take about 2 seconds
to discharge; do not touch the spinning bush during this time.
 Do not use this equipment unless the spinning tip and the feed hose are in place.
 Always ensure that there are no volatile gases near the ES1a or ES4 during operation
as the spark from a static discharge could cause ignition.
When using hazardous chemicals:
Read the Material Safety Data Sheet of each hazardous products;
If there is no other way to be safe, use the personal protective equipment such as
gloves, respiratory masks, protective glasses, lab coat and shoes.
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3. General Guide
Parts checklist (furnished with the spinning platform ES1a and ES4)
Electrospinning platform ES1a
Electrospinning platform ES4
1 1 ES1a spinning platform
2 1 ES1a Control Box
3 1 300x350mm Target plane with 4
1 ES4 spinning platform
1 ES4 Control Box
1 300x350mm Target plane with 4 machine screws
machine screws
1 Power cable
1 Constant Head system
2m Hose (to be cut to appropriate length
to be use)
2 Glass Header tank
1 Toolbox containing
1x Allen key set,
1x 10mm spanner,
1x 11mm spanner
1 Power cable
2 Constant Head system
2m Hose (to be cut to appropriate length to be use)
2 Glass Header tank
1 Toolbox containing
1x Allen key set,
1x 10mm spanner,
1x 11mm spanner
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Initial Assembly
A. Unpack and check that the parts are all present.
B. Remove the four machine screws and mount the target plane to the end of the
spinning platform (in the middle for ES4), do not over tighten the screws.
C. Install the constant head system as shown.
D. Plug the spinning platform lead into the back of the control box.
E. Plug the power cable into the back of the control box, and to the power supply.
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3.2.1. The Assembly Test
F. Check that the earthed power outlet has a good earth by plugging in the power lead
with the switch OFF and checking for Voltage to another earthed point. This check
should be repeated each time the ES1a is used, to keep the power supply.
G. Turn on the power at the wall, ensure that the HV Adj. Knob is turned to Zero and
turn on the ES1a, the blue light on top of the control box should light up.
H. Turn the HV Adjuster knob slowly to full power and back, the meter should
smoothly move between 0 and 33kV.
I. Turn off the ES1a or the ES4, it is ready to use.
Places of the other elements needed for electrospinning
Spinning Tip
Control Box
Spinning Bush
Earth Stud
Spinning Post
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Silicone Hose
1. Perform the previous assembly test F. to I.
2. Place the glass header tank between the tongs of the constant head system.
3. Insert the spinning bush at the top of the spinning post.
4. Connect the hose from the header tank to the spinning bush.
5. Insert the spinning tip over the spigot on the other side of the spinning bush.
6. Place a collector on the target, such as an aluminium foil or a metallic plate.
7. Earth the target area: connect the target to the ES1a or ES4 metallic platform. If
this is not done then the fibres will be drawn to the nearest earthed thing. This is
not necessarily the ES1a or ES4; it may be any structure within reach.
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8. Pour the prepared polymer into the header tank.
9. Raise the header tank to allow the liquid to flow to the tip of the spinning needle,
with the course or manually.
10. Maintain the header tank to hold a small droplet of polymer at the spinning tip.
A piece of paper towel may be placed on the ES1a or ES4 bed between the
spinning tip and the target plane to assist with cleaning.
11. When the polymer is seen to be almost at the spinning tip lower the header tank
to provide a head of about 15mm above the spinning tip. This will need to be
adjusted once spinning has begun.
15 mm
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12. With the HV Adj. knob turned to zero, turn on the switch. While watching closely
to the tip of the electrospinning needle; raise the voltage until the Taylor cone
appears this is normally visible with the naked eye. Normally only a very slight
increase in voltage will initiate the spinning process.
The Taylor Cone
a typical stable jet
If spinning is continued too long then the build up of fibre on the target can be
enough to insulate the target and fibres may be deposited in other areas.
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A. Remove the header tank, hose and spinning tip. Move these to the cleaning area.
B. Remove the spinning bush; use the 10mm spanner if required.
C. Do not remove the brass spinning bush holder!
D. The spinning bush is made from stainless steel and should be thoroughly washed and
dried before reassembly.
E. The spinning tip may be cleaned but is designed as a disposable item.
F. Clean the base of the machine with a damp cloth or a cloth dampened with a little
solvent. Be careful with solvents around the plastic components as these may be
damaged by some solvents.
G. Reassemble in the reverse order, be careful not to over tighten the nut on the
spinning bush, finger tight is usually enough.
The ES1a and ES4 have been designed to be serviced without returning it to
Electrospinz Limited.
The electrical system must be serviced only by qualified personal and must be
maintained in compliance with the relevant local legislation. Replacement components are
available worldwide and should be obtained locally.
The mechanical components should be serviced by a competent person, any
required special parts can be ordered from Electrospinz Limited.
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Circuit Diagram
Any servicing of the electrical system must be done by a qualified person in
accordance with local requirements.
Wire numbers shown are for the Plug, socket, multi-core cable and HV power supply.
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How do I make up a solution of PVOH?
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH) is soluble in water, but you should heat the
distilled water to 60°C, and the powdered polymer (7-8wt %) should be
stirred in very gradually to avoid the formation of lumps.
What can I use for a target?
Domestic aluminium foil works very well and sets of identified sample
plates are available. Handle with gloves to avoid the transfer of grease and
moisture from your hands. The target will need to be connected to earth
through any part of electrospinner chassis, or the earth stud.
Can I use a syringe pump?
If you wish – the Electrospinz platform works by the constant pressure
feed header tank with a wide range of polymers and solvent, but if you are
working with an exceptionally viscous material, a syringe pump may be the
answer. The pump can be connected through the spinning bush and pipette
in the normal way.
What is the rate of deposition?
The rate is dependent on your choice of polymer system, but will
decline with time, as the deposited fibre acts as an insulator, and allows a
charge to build up on the target, The PVOH supplied will initially deposit at
about 140µg/s after about 10 minutes.
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Why doesn’t the machine need an enclosure to be safe?
The Electrospinz machines are designed to have an intrinsic low
capacitance. This is achieved by minimising the amount of metal surfaces that
are charged by the power supply and the bonding to earth of all the metal
surfaces of the machine. Good bond continuity is ensured by welding the
component parts of the structure together. These design principles result in
a machine capacitance of less than 10pF. Surrounding the machine with an
insulating cabinet would increase the capacitance of the system.
Low machine capacitance is an important safety feature for the
following reasons. When the machine capacitance (>10pF) is considered in
connection with a human body, resistance of approximately 500 ohms (IEC
2005), this means the capacitive charge will discharge in under a millisecond
leaving only the continuous supply capacity of the power supply to contend
with in terms of risk of ventricular fibrillation (disruption of the activity of the
heart). - Cf. Appendix II:Why doesn’t the machine need an enclosure to be
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Aligned fibres: electrospun nanofibres which are parallel to each other.
(Applied) Voltage/Potential Difference: The voltage applied to the solution via the
control box. A typical voltage used for electrospinning is 10kV.
Control Box: regulates the applied voltage and therefore the electrospinning
Deposition Process: how the fibres are depositing on the target.
Earth Stud/Electric Current Collector: connected to the earth, this device allows the
current to circulate, and therefore, electrospinning to occur. This system is also
designed to electrically discharge each metallic part of the platform is an important
safety part of the machine.
Electrospinning: The operation of creating nanofibres from a polymer dissolved in a
solution by applying a voltage to that liquid.
Electrospinning Jet: the jet formed by the liquid at the tip of the needle, between
the Taylor cone and the whipping instability.
Laboratory Electrospinning Platform: the name of the machine for electrospinning.
“platform” indicates that the machine is designed to be modified for research
Electrospun nanofibres: nanofibres which are created through an electrospinning
process. Nanofibres are considered to be less than 100nm in diameter.
Electrospraying: the operation of creating droplets with a nano-size through a
similar process used for electrospinning.
Feed Pipe/Silicone Pipe/Feed Hose: a plastic hose used to connect the reservoir to
the spinning tip via the metallic spinning bush.
Flow Rate/ Mass Flow Rate: The flow speed of the liquid, effectively the spinning
speed of the process.
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Fluid Pressure: Pressure applied to the fluid to regulate the flow, and therefore,
stabilize the electrospinning process. This can be controlled in increasing or
decreasing the height of the Header Tank.
Grounded Collector/Target Substrate/Grounded Electrode: the object used to
collect the fibres; it may different shapes according to the kind of fibres wanted: a
simple metallic plate or aluminium foil results in the creation of random fibres but a
metallic wire frame results in the creation of aligned fibres. This collector must be
connected to the earth to avoid charge accumulation.
High Voltage Electric Current: The electric current that circulates between the
spinning tip and the grounded collector. The maximum current which can be
produced is under 0.33 mA. (See FAQ: Why doesn’t the machine need an enclosure
to be safe?)
Mass Deposition Rate: The mass of fibres produced within a certain amount of time.
Magnetisation: While using a metallic plate as a collector, using a magnet to keep
the plate vertical will be useful. However, during the process, the plate will acquire a
certain magnetisation that may interfere with the weighing process and
misrepresents the real amount of fibres which have been deposited on the plate.
Using a demagnetizer after electrospinning can prevent interferences while weighing
the plate. This effect is only noticeable when using a 4 figure balance.
Nanofibres: Fibres which diameter of less than 100 nanometres.
Porous surface and smooth fibres: Nanofibres can have varying surface’s
morphologies for example the fibre surface may be pitted or smooth.
Removable Spinning Bush/Metallic Connector: This element makes the connexion
between the silicone hose and the spinning tip. It is connected to the high voltage
Reservoir/Header Tank: contains a certain amount of liquid and by varying the
height of the reservoir controls the pressure or head of the flowing liquid.
SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope): A type of electron microscope that produces
images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons
interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that can be detected
and that contain information about the sample's surface topography and
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composition. The electron beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and
the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM
can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometre.
Spinning Post or Electrode/High Voltage Electrode: This part of the electrospinning
platform keep the spinning bush and tip straight at a certain height aligned with the
target. An electric wire is inside making the contact between the high voltage supply
and the metallic connector, allowing the current to circulate.
Spinning Tip or Needle/Spinneret: A conic tube with a very small exit at the tip,
reducing considerably the flow of liquid allowing adjustments to the flow just by
modifying the height of the header tank. It is positioned at the tip of the metallic
connector. A micropipette tip or hypodermic syringe needle is often used.
Stable or continuous jets: The stable part of the jet starts with a Taylor cone at the
tip of the spinning needle. To achieve this, it is necessary to adjust the flow of liquid:
if it is too quick, there will be a large droplet at the tip of the needle and the jet will
not be continuous, if it is too slow, there will be a too small Taylor cone and the jet
will not be continuous either. It is also possible to modify the tension applied to the
fluid to obtain the Taylor cone, the higher the voltage will be, the higher the fluid
consumption and flow rate will be.
Straight Jet/Axisymetric Jet: The straight jet is a jet usually formed after the Taylor,
before it begins to whip. This or those jet(s) is/are more or less longer depending in
the parameters: the kind of solution used, the distance between the needle tip and
the collector, the kind of collector and the applied voltage.
Surface tension: The surface tension of a liquid is an important parameter while
doing electrospinning. It is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that
allows it to resist an external force. This property is caused by cohesion of similar
molecules, and is responsible for certain of liquids’ properties. Therefore it is a useful
parameter to know while creating solutions for electrospinning. Surface tension has
the dimension of force per unit length or of energy per unit area.
Taylor Cone: The cone observed at the tip of the spinning needle when high voltage
is applied to the liquid, it is apparent as a deformation at the end of the liquid
meniscus at the spinning tip. The apex of the cone is the point of ejection of the
liquid stream what forms the jet. The cone is named after Sir Geoffroy Ingram Taylor
(1886 – 1975) who first described it.
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TCD (Tip to Collector Distance): It’s the distance between the spinning tip and the
grounded collector, a typical TCD used for electrospinning is 10 cm.
Uniform fibres: fibres are uniform when they have the same characteristics:
diameter, alignment, and morphology.
Whipping or Bending Instability/Whipping Envelope: During its flight, the jet is
drying out and at a variable distance from the needle, the jet starts to whip and bend
until it arrives at the collector. At its arrival, the jet is ideally only composed by the
polymer; the solvent has all been lost in flight. Strictly speaking the flight path of the
jet is an expanding helix, but this is commonly called the whipping instability.
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4. Appendix
Appendix I - How to specify a ventilation system when using
hazardous solvents?
Some solvent and diluents systems used in electrospinning are hazardous by contact
or inhalation. To limit any hazards caused by the normal evaporation rate of the solvent to
the atmosphere, it is recommended to use a lid on the header tank – usually a watch glass.
The Electrospinz machine is designed to fit inside standard laboratory fume
cupboards. This is the recommended method of limiting operator exposure to solvents
fumes. It may be necessary to switch off the fume cupboard ventilation during spinning to
avoid the fibres being sucked away by the ventilation fan. The fume cupboard door should
therefore be kept closed during spinning.
The laboratory ventilation system should be checked if such solvents are used. If you
do not have access to a fume cupboard, you should assess if the ventilation in your
laboratory is adequate.
To do this you need to know the safe exposure limit of the solvent. This can be found
in the Material Safety Data sheet for the solvent. It is also important to know the volume of
the room where the electrospinning will occur.
As an example, we will consider the use the Hexafluroisopropanol in a room with a
volume of 140 m3. The exposure limit of this solution is 2.5 mg/m3, so the limit will be
reached when 3500 mg of solvent has evaporated. (140 m3 * 2.5mg/m3)
What we need to know next, is the amount of time necessary to reach that limit, for
that purpose we can use the evaporation rate of PVOH in water which is 60 mg/h, during
Then we can calculate the amount of time to reach the limit:
But this evaporation rate is true only for the PVOH so we must apply safety
coefficients to that calculation, x5 or x10 are a safe allowance.
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With an evaporation rate multiplied by 5, we find this result:
With an evaporation rate of 10, we find this result:
Those times means that the room air would need to be completely renewed within
1h or 35 minutes depending on the safety level required. Depending on the hazards and the
amount of product used, it would be better to apply the safety rating of 5 or 10. Even if the
spinning platform is completely isolated, it is strongly recommended to always wear a
respirator when using these kinds of hazardous chemicals.
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Appendix II - Why doesn’t the machine need an enclosure to be
An Electrospinz machine, at maximum current output (short circuit conditions) cannot
produce enough current to disrupt the action of the heart [1]. It can be calculated that for
the supply to produce enough energy to disrupt the activity of the heart, the victim [2]
would need to be in contact with a live part of the machine for more than five hours [3].
[1] Minimum current required to produce Ventricular Fibrillation irrespective of voltage
A s
A s
A s
Note: The EMCO high voltage power supply cannot supply more than 0.33mA or
0.33 x 10-3A.
[2] There may be potential danger to those with a very weak heart or a pacemaker;
users who fall into either of these categories are advised to consult their doctor as to
the likely risk in their particular case.
[3] For an impulse current I Amps of short duration t < 10ms through the body, the
principal factor for the initiation of ventricular fibrillation is the value of I x t
(Intensity x time) or I2t (IEC 2007). At high applied voltages, the resistance of the
adult body (left hand to right hand) is at least 575 ohms for 95% of the population
(IEC 2005). Note that the figures quoted for resistance are typical for a healthy adult,
and refer to the resistance measured through dry skin, if the skin is punctured or
wet, then the resistance is reduced.
The IEC gives a threshold value of Specific Fibrillation Energy, for a 1 ms current
impulse, of 2 x 10-3 A2s. Below this threshold there is no evidence of fibrillation. The
Specific Fibrillation Energy can be regarded as the energy dissipated per unit
resistance of the body through which the current flows. Note that ‘specific’ here
means ‘per unit resistance’ rather than ‘per unit mass’.
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Time required producing Ventricular Fibrillation with EMCO supply:
A s
A s
A s
IEC 2007. IEC/TS 60479-2:2007. Effects of human beings and livestock – Part 2: Special
IEC 2005. IEC/TS 60479-1:2005. Effects of human beings and livestock – Part 1: General
Page 26 of 43
Appendix III – Electrospinnable materials and conditions
Synthetic Polymers
Polyethylene oxide (PEO)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
Water, Acetone
Concentration: ~10% Conc.: 1% (Doshi and (Bhattarai et al., 2005,
(Megelski et al., (Megelski et al., Reneker, 1995) - 10% Deitzel et al., 2001a,
(Deitzel et al., 2001b)
Deitzel et al., 2001b,
Doshi and Reneker, 1995,
Chloroform, Ethanol, Molecular Weight: Mw: 300,000 (Sun et al., Fong et al., 1999,
– ~400,000
2006) -2,000,000 (Shin Hohman et al., 2001,
Dimethylformamide (Deitzel
al., et al., 2001b)
Huang et al., 2003,
Kessick et al., 2004,
(Son et al., 2004a)
Voltage: 1 kV (Sun et Kessick and Tepper, 2004,
Voltage: 10 kV – 20 al., 2006) – 30 kV Kidoaki et al., 2005,
0.5 M Acetic Acid
(Kidoaki et al., 2005)
Megelski et al., 2002,
(Bhattarai et al., (Son et al., 2004a)
Reneker et al., 2000, Shin
Distance: 5 cm (Kidoaki et al., 2001a, Shin et al.,
Distance: ~15 cm
et al., 2005) -40 cm 2001b, Son et al., 2004a,
al., (Theron et al., 2005)
Spivak et al., 2000, Sun et
al., 2006, Theron et al.,
(Kessick and Tepper,
Electric Field: 0.2 (Doshi 2005, Wang et al., 2004,
Electric Field: 0.5 and Reneker, 1995) – Yarin et al., 2001, Yarin
kV/cm – 1 kV/cm
3.2 kV/cm (Yarin and and Zussman, 2004)
(Shin et al., 2001a)
Zussman, 2004)
(Reneker et al.,
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Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)
(Koski et al., 2004)
Ethanol/Water (1:1)
(Theron et al., 2004)
Aqueous Acetic Acid
(Duan et al., 2006)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
Concentration: ~ 8%
(Wang et al., 2006b)
Conc.: 4.1% (Shao et (Ding et al., 2002, Ding et
al., 2003) - 18% (Ding al., 2004, Duan et al.,
et al., 2002)
2006, Guan et al., 2003a,
Molecular Weight: ~
Guan et al., 2003b, Guan
Conc.: 2.8e
mol/L et al., 2003c, Koski et al.,
(Guan et al., 2003b) (Ding et al., 2002) – 2004, Lee et al., 2004,
2.9e-6 mol/L (Lee et al., Morozov et al., 1998,
Voltage: ~ 20kV
Ohkawa et al., 2004,
(Ding et al., 2002)
Ristolainen et al., 2006,
Mw: 10,000 (Theron et Shao et al., 2003, Shenoy
Distance: ~ 10cm
al., 2004) -185,000 et al., 2005b, Son et al.,
(Son et al., 2005)
(Koski et al., 2004)
2005, Theron et al., 2004,
Wang et al., 2006b,
Electric Field: ~ 1.5 Voltage: 5kV (Zhang et Wang et al., 2004, Yao et
al., 2005) – 100kV al., 2003, Zhang et al.,
(Duan et al., 2006)
(Theron et al., 2004)
(Morozov et al., 1998) 25 cm (Wang et al.,
kV/cm (Zhang et al.,
2005) – 4 kV/cm (Lee et
al., 2004)
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Polystyrene (PS)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
(Megelski et al.,
Concentration: ~20% Conc.: 2.5% (Eda et al.,
(Shin et al., 2005)
2007a) - 35% (Casper et
al., 2004)
Molecular Weight:
200,000 – 300,000
Conc.: 1.4e-8 mol/L (Eda
(Jarusuwannapoom et al., 2007a) – 1.7e-5
Disulfide et al., 2005)
mol/L (Casper et al.,
(Eda et al., 2007b)
Voltage: ~30 kV
(Eda et al., 2007b)
Mw: 4,000 (Wang et al.,
2006a) – 1,880,000
Distance: ~15 cm
(Wang et al., 2006a)
(Wang et al., 2006a)
Voltage: 3 kV (Sundaray
(Jarusuwannapoom Electric Field: ~1 et al., 2004) – 30 kV
et al., 2005)
(Wannatong et al.,
(Sundaray et al., 2004)
Acetic Acid
(Wannatong et al.,
(Sundaray et al., 2004)
– 35 cm (Casper et al.,
Electric Field: 0.14
kV/cm (Megelski et al.,
2002) – 3 kV/cm (Eda et
al., 2007b)
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(Casper et al., 2004, Eda
et al., 2007b, Eda et al.,
Jarusuwannapoom et al.,
2005, Megelski et al.,
2002, Shenoy et al.,
2005a, Shin et al., 2005,
Sundaray et al., 2004,
Wang et al., 2006a,
Wannatong et al., 2004)
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
– Concentration: 10% Conc.: 4% (Qin et al.,
Dimethylformamide (Kim and Yang, 2007) - 14% (Qin et al.,
(Smit et al., 2005)
Molecular Weight: Conc.: 3.8e-4 mol/L
(Qin et al., 2004)
al., 2006) – 3.2e mol/L
Voltage: 10-25 kV
al., 2006)
(Kim and Yang,
M w:
Distance: ~16cm
al., 2006) – 210,000
and (Smit et al., 2005)
Kim., 2006)
Voltage: 5 kV (Qin et
Electric Field: ~1.7 al., 2004) – 40 kV (Qin
et al., 2007)
(Ko et al., 2003)
Distance: 10 cm –
al., 2006) 30 cm
al., 2006)
kV/cm (Samatham and
Kim., 2006) – 3 kV/cm
al., 2006)
Page 30 of 43
(Ko et al., 2003, Smit et
Sutasinpromprae et al.,
2006, Qin et al., 2007,
Kim and Yang, 2003,
Samatham and Kim.,
2006, Qin et al., 2004,
Qin et al., 2005)
Polycaprolactone (PCL)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
ol (3:1)
(Dalton et al., 2005)
Concentration: ~10% Conc.: 5% (Lee et al.,
(Theron et al., 2004) 2008)
- 12% (Fridrikh et al.,
Molecular Weight: 2003)
(Zhang et al., 2004)
Conc.: 2.5e-4 (Lee et al.,
2008) - 1.3e-3 (Zhang et
(3:1), Voltage: ~15 kV
al., 2004)
(Dalton et al., 2005)
(Theron et al., 2004)
Mw: 80,000 (Theron et
Distance: ~12 cm
al., 2004) – 200,000
(Zhang et al., 2004)
(Lee et al., 2008)
Electric Field: ~1 Voltage: 12 kV (Theron
et al., 2004) – 20 kV
(Duling et al., 2008) (Lee et al., 2008)
Distance: 10 cm (Lee et
al., 2008) – 15cm
(Dalton et al., 2005)
Electric Field: 1 kV/cm
(Dalton et al., 2005) – 2
kV/cm (Lee et al., 2008)
Page 31 of 43
(Dalton et al., 2005,
Fridrikh et al., 2003,
Theron et al., 2004,
Zhang et al., 2004, Lee et
al., 2008, Duling et al.,
Polylactic acid (PLA, PLLA, PDLA)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
(DMF) / Methylene
(Zong et al., 2002)
Concentration: ~10% Conc.: 3% (Shenoy et
(Zeng et al., 2003a)
al., 2005a) - 40% (Zong
et al., 2002)
Molecular Weight:
Conc.: 4.5e-5 (Shenoy et
(Zong et al., 2002)
al., 2005a) – 4.0e-3
(Zong et al., 2002)
Voltage: ~25 kV
(Ko et al., 2003)
Mw: 48,000 (Zeng et al.,
al., Distance: ~15 cm
(Shenoy et al., 2005a)
(Zong et al., 2002)
Voltage: 20 kV (Zong et
Electric Field: ~2 al., 2002) – 41 kV (Zeng
et al., 2003b)
(Zeng et al., 2003a)
(Zong et al., 2002)
Distance: 15 cm (Ko et
al., 2003) – 20 cm (Zeng
et al., 2003b)
Electric Field: 0.75
kV/cm (Zeng et al.,
2003a) – 2 kV/cm (Zeng
et al., 2003b)
Page 32 of 43
(Ko et al., 2003, Zong et
al., 2002, Zeng et al.,
2003b, Shenoy et al.,
2005a, Zeng et al.,
Cellulose Acetate (CAc)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
Acetone/Dimethylac Concentration: ~16% Conc.: 3% (Chen et al., (Ding et al., 2004, Son et
etimide (DMAc) (2:1) (Tungprapa et al., 2008) - 21% (Son et al., al., 2004b, Chen et al.,
(Ding et al., 2004)
2008, Han et al., 2008,
Tungprapa et al., 2007)
Acetone/water (5- Molecular Weight: Conc.: 6.0e (Chen et
20% wt water)
al., 2008) – 7.0e-3 (Son
(Son et al., 2004b)
(Han et al., 2008)
et al., 2004b)
Acetic Acid
(Han et al., 2008)
Voltage: ~16 kV
(Chen et al., 2008)
Dimethylformamide Distance: ~15 cm
(Tungprapa et al., (Ding et al., 2004)
Electric Field: ~1.3
(Ding et al., 2004)
Mw: 30,000 (Son et al.,
2004b) – 50,000 (Chen
et al., 2008)
Voltage: 8 kV (Son et
al., 2004b) – 25 kV (Han
et al., 2008)
Distance: 6 cm (Son et
al., 2004b) – 45 cm
(Chen et al., 2008)
kV/cm (Chen et al.,
2008) – 2.5 kV/cm (Han
et al., 2008)
Page 33 of 43
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
(Li et al., 2006)
- Concentration: ~10% Conc.: 5% (Huang et al.,
(Zhang et al., 2004)
Voltage: ~15 kV
al., 2008)
(Zhang et al., 2004)
Voltage: 10 kV (Li et al.,
Distance: ~12 cm
2006) – 28 kV (Powell
(Huang et al., 2004) (Huang et al., 2004) and Boyce, 2008)
Acetic Acid, Formic Electric Field:
(Songchotikunpan et (Li et al., 2006)
al., 2008)
~1 Distance: 10 cm (Li et
al., 2006) – 15 cm
al., 2008)
kV/cm (Huang et al.,
2004) – 1.3 kV/cm
(Huang et al., 2004)
Page 34 of 43
(Huang et al., 2004, Li et
al., 2006, Zhang et al.,
2004, Songchotikunpan
et al., 2008, Powell and
Boyce, 2008)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
Ethanol/Water (4:1) Concentration: ~25% Conc.: 17% (Selling et
(Miyoshi et al., 2005) (Miyoshi et al., 2005) al., 2008) - 50% (Yao et
al., 2007)
Acid, Voltage: ~20 kV
(Jiang et al., 2007)
Voltage: 8 kV (Miyoshi
Alcohol/Water (4:1),
et al., 2005) – 40 kV
Ethanol/Water (3:2) Distance: ~10 cm
(Selling et al., 2007)
(Selling et al., 2007) (Selling et al., 2008)
Distance: 5 cm (Selling
Dimethylformamide Electric Field: ~2 et al., 2007) – 25 cm
(Jiang et al., 2007)
(Jiang et al., 2007)
(Yao et al., 2007)
kV/cm (Jiang et al.,
2007) – 4 kV/cm
(Selling et al., 2007)
Page 35 of 43
(Miyoshi et al., 2005,
Selling et al., 2007, Jiang
et al., 2007, Yao et al.,
2007, Selling et al., 2008)
Melt Spinning
Polypropylene (PP)
Typical Processing
Processing Parameters
Temp: Polymer Temp: 200oC (Lee and Obendorf, 2006,
(Lyons et al., 2004) – Lyons et al., 2004, Dalton
(Lee and Obendorf, 320oC (Dalton et al., et al., 2007)
Molecular Weight: Mw: 14,000 (Lyons et
al., 2004) – 580,000
(Dalton et al., 2007) (Lyons et al., 2004)
Voltage: ~20 kV
(Dalton et al., 2007)
Voltage: 10 kV (Lee and
Obendorf, 2006) – 30
kV (Lyons et al., 2004)
Distance: ~4 cm
(Dalton et al., 2007)
Distance: 2 cm (Lyons
et al., 2004) – 7 cm (Lee
Electric Field: ~ 5 and Obendorf, 2006)
(Dalton et al., 2007) Electric
Obendorf, 2006) – 15
kV/cm (Lyons et al.,
Page 36 of 43
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