Cloudbursting Manual - Support

Bright Cluster Manager 7.1
Cloudbursting Manual
Revision: 6823
Date: Thu, 10 Dec 2015
©2015 Bright Computing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This manual or parts thereof may not be reproduced
in any form unless permitted by contract or by written permission of Bright Computing, Inc.
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All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Rights and Restrictions
All statements, specifications, recommendations, and technical information contained herein are current
or planned as of the date of publication of this document. They are reliable as of the time of this writing
and are presented without warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. Bright Computing, Inc. shall
not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions which may occur in this document. Bright
Computing, Inc. shall not be liable for any damages resulting from the use of this document.
Limitation of Liability and Damages Pertaining to Bright Computing, Inc.
The Bright Cluster Manager product principally consists of free software that is licensed by the Linux
authors free of charge. Bright Computing, Inc. shall have no liability nor will Bright Computing, Inc.
provide any warranty for the Bright Cluster Manager to the extent that is permitted by law. Unless
confirmed in writing, the Linux authors and/or third parties provide the program as is without any
warranty, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, marketability or suitability for a
specific purpose. The user of the Bright Cluster Manager product shall accept the full risk for the quality or performance of the product. Should the product malfunction, the costs for repair, service, or
correction will be borne by the user of the Bright Cluster Manager product. No copyright owner or
third party who has modified or distributed the program as permitted in this license shall be held liable
for damages, including general or specific damages, damages caused by side effects or consequential
damages, resulting from the use of the program or the un-usability of the program (including, but not
limited to, loss of data, incorrect processing of data, losses that must be borne by you or others, or the
inability of the program to work together with any other program), even if a copyright owner or third
party had been advised about the possibility of such damages unless such copyright owner or third
party has signed a writing to the contrary.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.1 About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . .
0.2 About The Manuals In General . . . .
0.3 Getting Administrator-Level Support
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1
Introduction
2
Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
2.1 Cluster-On-Demand: Launching The Head Node From The Cloud Provider . . . . .
2.1.1 Getting To The “Launch Instance” Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Launching The Head Node Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Managing A Head Node Instance With The AWS EC2 Management Console
2.2 Cluster-On-Demand: Head Node Login And Cluster Configuration . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Cluster-On-Demand: Connecting To The headnode Via cmsh or cmgui . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Cluster-On-Demand: Access With A Remote, Standalone cmgui . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Cluster-On-Demand: Access With A Local cmsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Cluster-On-Demand: Access With A Local cmgui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Cluster-On-Demand: Cloud Node Start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 IP Addresses In The Cluster-On-Demand Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
3.1 Cluster Extension: Cloud Provider Login And Cloud Director Configuration
3.2 Cluster Extension: Cloud Director Start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Setting The Cloud Director Disk Storage Device Type . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Setting The Cloud Director Disk Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Tracking Cloud Director Start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Cluster Extension: Cloud Node Start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Cloudbursting Using The Command Line And cmsh
4.1 The cm-cloud-setup Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Launching The Cloud Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Launching The Cloud Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Creating And Powering Up An Individual Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Creating And Powering Up Many Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Submitting Jobs With cmsub And Cloud Storage Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Installation And Configuration of cmsub For Data-aware Scheduling To The Cloud
4.5 Miscellaneous Cloud Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 The cm-cloud-copy Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 The cm-cloud-check Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.3 The cm-scale-cluster Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4 The cm-cloud-remove-all Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Table of Contents
Cloud Considerations And Issues With Bright Cluster Manager
5.1 Differences Between Cluster-On-Demand And Cluster Extension
5.2 Hardware And Software Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Reducing Running Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Spot Pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 Storage Space Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Address Resolution In Cluster Extension Networks . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Resolution And globalnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Resolution In And Out Of The Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Virtual Private Clouds
6.1 EC2-Classic And EC2-VPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 EC2-Classic Vs EC2-VPC Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 EC2-Classic Vs EC2-VPC And AWS Account Creation Date . . . . . . .
6.1.3 The Classic Cloud And The DefaultVPC Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.4 The Private Cloud And Custom VPC Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.5 Cloud Cluster Terminology Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Comparison Of EC2-Classic And EC2-VPC Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Setting Up And Creating A Custom VPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Subnets In A Custom VPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Creating The Custom VPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Elastic IP Addresses And Their Use In Configuring Static IP Addresses
6.3.4 Subnets With Static IP Addresses In A Custom VPC Recommendation .
6.3.5 Assignment Of Nodes To Subnets And Cloud Platforms . . . . . . . . .
6.3.6 Creating A Cloud Director In A Custom VPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.7 Creating Cloud Compute nodes In A Custom VPC . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.8 Moving Existing Nodes To A Custom VPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Preface
Welcome to the Cloudbursting Manual for Bright Cluster Manager 7.1.
0.1
About This Manual
This manual is aimed at helping cluster administrators install, understand, configure, and manage the
cloud capabilities of Bright Cluster Manager. The administrator is expected to be reasonably familiar
with the Administrator Manual.
0.2
About The Manuals In General
Regularly updated versions of the Bright Cluster Manager 7.1 manuals are available on updated clusters by default at /cm/shared/docs/cm. The latest updates are always online at http://support.
brightcomputing.com/manuals.
• The Installation Manual describes installation procedures for the basic cluster.
• The Administrator Manual describes the general management of the cluster.
• The User Manual describes the user environment and how to submit jobs for the end user.
• The Developer Manual has useful information for developers who would like to program with
Bright Cluster Manager.
• The OpenStack Deployment Manual describes how to deploy OpenStack with Bright Cluster Manager.
• The Hadoop Deployment Manual describes how to deploy Hadoop with Bright Cluster Manager.
• The UCS Deployment Manual describes how to deploy the Cisco UCS server with Bright Cluster
Manager.
If the manuals are downloaded and kept in one local directory, then in most pdf viewers, clicking
on a cross-reference in one manual that refers to a section in another manual opens and displays that
section in the second manual. Navigating back and forth between documents is usually possible with
keystrokes or mouse clicks.
For example: <Alt>-<Backarrow> in Acrobat Reader, or clicking on the bottom leftmost navigation button of xpdf, both navigate back to the previous document.
The manuals constantly evolve to keep up with the development of the Bright Cluster Manager environment and the addition of new hardware and/or applications. The manuals also regularly incorporate
customer feedback. Administrator and user input is greatly valued at Bright Computing. So any comments, suggestions or corrections will be very gratefully accepted at manuals@brightcomputing.
com.
0.3
Getting Administrator-Level Support
Unless the Bright Cluster Manager reseller offers support, support is provided by Bright Computing
over e-mail via support@brightcomputing.com. Section 10.2 of the Administrator Manual has more
details on working with support.
1
Introduction
In weather, a cloudburst is used to convey the idea that a sudden flood of cloud contents takes place. In
cluster computing, the term cloudbursting conveys the idea that a flood of extra cluster capacity is made
available when needed from a cloud computing services provider such as Amazon.
Bright Cluster Manager implements cloudbursting for two scenarios:
1. A “Cluster-On-Demand”, or a “pure” cloud cluster (chapter 2). In this scenario, the entire cluster
can be started up on demand from a state of non-existence. All nodes, including the head node,
are instances running in a coordinated manner entirely inside the cloud computing service.
2. A “Cluster Extension”, or a “hybrid” cloud cluster (chapter 3). In this scenario, the head node
is kept outside the cloud. Zero or more regular nodes are also run outside the cloud. When
additional capacity is required, the cluster is extended via cloudbursting to make additional nodes
available from within the cloud.
Chapters 2 and 3 deal with GUI configuration of the two cloudbursting scenarios.
Chapter 4 looks at cloudbursting configuration using command line tools.
Chapter 5 discusses some miscellaneous aspects of cloudbursting.
Chapter 6 describes the concepts, including networking, behind setting up a “private” cloud cluster
on a virtual private network using the Amazon VPC infrastructure.
© Bright Computing, Inc.
2
Cluster-On-Demand
Cloudbursting
Requirements
If the cloud provider is Amazon, then Cluster-On-Demand cloudbursting (the case of starting up a
“pure” cloud cluster) requires:
• an Amazon account
• registration on the Bright Computing Customer
brightcomputing.com/Customer-Login.php
Portal
website
at
http://www.
• a Bright Cluster Manager product key. The key is obtained at the Customer Portal website specifically for a Cluster-On-Demand setup, from the Burst! menu. This key is later activated when
the license is installed (section 2.2) on the head node. The head node and regular nodes in this case
are in the cloud.
Steps
The following steps are then carried out to start up the head node and regular nodes of the cloud cluster:
• a head node instance is launched from a browser, using the Amazon management console (section 2.1)
• the head node instance is logged into via ssh and the cluster is configured (section 2.2)
• the regular nodes are started up from the head node using cmsh or cmgui to power them up
(section 2.4)
These steps are now covered in more detail.
2.1
Cluster-On-Demand: Launching The Head Node From The Cloud Provider
Launching a head node from within Amazon is covered in this section.
2.1.1 Getting To The “Launch Instance” Button
The Amazon management console can be logged into from https://console.aws.amazon.com/
console/ by using the e-mail address and password of the Amazon account (figure 2.1).
© Bright Computing, Inc.
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Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
Figure 2.1: Logging Into The Amazon Management Console
By default, on login, the management console displays a list of accessible Amazon web services
(figure 2.2).
Figure 2.2: Amazon Management Console: Accessible Services
To set up the Cluster-On-Demand cluster, the EC2 service within the Compute & Networking
grouping should be clicked. This brings up the EC2 Dashboard, which is also the top link of a resource
tree that is displayed in a Navigation pane (figure 2.3).
© Bright Computing, Inc.
2.1 Cluster-On-Demand: Launching The Head Node From The Cloud Provider
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Figure 2.3: The EC2 Dashboard With The “Launch Instance” Button
In the main pane of the dashboard is the Launch Instance button. Clicking it starts up Amazon’s
Launch Instance Wizard. Amazon documentation for the wizard is at http://docs.aws.amazon.
com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/launching-instance.html.
Using the wizard to launch a head node instance is described next.
2.1.2 Launching The Head Node Instance
To start a Cluster-On-Demand cluster, a head node instance must first be launched. This can be done as
follows:
• Step 1: Choose an Amazon Machine Image (AMI): The first step in the wizard offers a
choice of Select buttons to launch an instance from an AMI image (figure 2.4).
© Bright Computing, Inc.
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Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
Figure 2.4: EC2: Choosing An AMI, Step 1
The default AMIs can be ignored. Clicking on the Community AMIs link in the left navigation
pane brings up a new display of community AMIs. Entering a search text of “brightheadnode”
then shows only the AMIs appropriate for a Bright Cluster Manager head node instance in a
Cluster-On-Demand cluster. These are:
1. An AMI that uses standard XEN paravirtualization technology. This is available for all regions. If this image is used, hardware virtualization extensions acceleration is not implemented, even if available in the underlying cloud node hardware.
2. An AMI with hvm in the name. This is available for some regions. It is intended for use in
regions that support HVM (Hardware Virtual Machines). HVM requires that the CPU used
has the Intel VT or AMD-V virtualization extensions, to implement hardware acceleration for
virtualized machines. At the time of checking (April 2013):
– Regions supporting HVM are eu-west-1, us-east-1, and us-west-2.
– Instance types supporting HVM are the m3.xlarge instance type, and higher. Instance
types (http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/) are a way of characterizing machine specifications, such as whether it has more RAM, more cores, or HVM.
Updated details on the regions and instance types that Amazon EC2 supports can
be found via the Amazon website, http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/
UserGuide/instance-types.html.
Clicking on the Select button for the appropriate XEN or HVM head node AMI then brings up
the next step in the launch wizard:
• Step 2:
Choose an Instance Type: This displays a micro instance by default (figure 2.5).
© Bright Computing, Inc.
2.1 Cluster-On-Demand: Launching The Head Node From The Cloud Provider
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Figure 2.5: EC2: Choosing An AMI, Step 2
The t1.micro is the smallest and least powerful type of instance that a head node can run as, but
is only useful for quite minor testing. It is likely to be overwhelmed when doing any significant
work. A more reasonable node type to use for testing is therefore the m1.small type, which is
available under the General purpose navigation option of this window.
Steps 3 to 6 that follow are optional and can be skipped, by going ahead to Step 7:
Instance Launch.
Review
• Step 3: Configure Instance Details: Among other instance options, this optional step
allows the following to be set:
– Purchasing option, for spot instances (section 5.3.1)
– Network This is a choice of EC2-Classic or EC2-VPC instances (section 6.1.1)
– Availability Zone, for if there is a preference for the location of the instance. Nodes
within the same availability zone can connect with low latency and high bandwidth to each
other. They are also isolated from other availability zones in the same region, which reduces
the risk of network outages from another zone affecting them. By default, no preference
is specified for the head node, nor for the cloud nodes later. This is because spot pricing
can increase as nodes from an availability zone become scarce, which may conflict with the
intention of the administrator. The default availability setting for a cloud account can be set
in cmsh from within cloud mode:
Example
© Bright Computing, Inc.
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Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
[bright71->cloud[Spare Capacity]]% set defaultavailabilityzone
– Shutdown behavior, to decide if the instance should be stopped (kept around) or terminated (removed).
• Step 4: Add Storage: Among other storage options, this optional step allows the following
options to be set:
– Size (GB): The size of storage to be added to the instance
– Type: Whether the storage is EBS or ephemeral
– Device: A device name, chosen from /dev/sdb onwards, since /dev/sda is already taken
– Delete on Termination: Whether the device is deleted when the instance terminates
By default, the instance has a Type called Root, which is a special EBS volume. It has a default
Size (GB) of 80, which can be edited.
For most instances other than micro, a certain amount of ephemeral storage is provided by Amazon for free, and can then be set for the root device in the Storage Device Configuration
options of this screen. The EBS and ephemeral storage types are described in section 3.2.1.
• Step 5: Tag instance: This optional step allows the addition of metadata to an instance, via
assignment of key-value pairs. A default key of Name is presented, and the administrator should
put in a name for the instance as the associated value. The associated value can be arbitrary.
• Step 6: Configure Security Group: This optional step allows a security group to be defined. A security group is a configuration that defines how network access to the instance is allowed. By default all access to the instance is blocked, apart from SSH access.
– Default: SSH inbound allowed. This means that cmsh can be used to control the Cluster-OnDemand cluster via SSH just like a regular cluster.
Inbound connections can be defined, based on protocol, packet type, port, and source in CIDR
specification. For example, allowing inbound connections via TCP port 8081 from anywhere
(0.0.0.0/0) allows cmgui to communicate via its custom protocol with the default CMDaemon
back end on the head node.
The default security group setting should also be modified by the administrator at this point if a
standalone cmgui is to be used to control the cluster (section 2.3). For regular use in a clusteron-demand setup, lag is reduced if a standalone cmgui is used rather than running a cmgui
originating from the head node via an ssh -X connection.
• Step 7: Review Instance Launch: The configuration so far can be reviewed. On clicking the Launch button, a pop-up dialog for "Select an existing key pair or create a
new key pair" is displayed (figure 2.6).
© Bright Computing, Inc.
2.1 Cluster-On-Demand: Launching The Head Node From The Cloud Provider
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Figure 2.6: EC2: Choosing An AMI, Step 7 - Keypair generation/creation dialog
This dialog allows the creation and storage of a cryptographic key pair. It can alternatively allow
an existing pair to be used from the “Select a key pair” selection. The private key of the key
pair is used in order to allow SSH access to the head node instance when it is up and running.
After the instance is launched, the web session displays a window informing that the instance is
being started up.
2.1.3 Managing A Head Node Instance With The AWS EC2 Management Console
A newly-launched head node instance, after it is fully up, is a fully-booted and running Linux instance,
but it is not yet a fully-configured head node. That is, it is capable of running Bright Cluster Manager,
but it is not yet running it, nor is it working with compute nodes at this point. The steps to make it a
fully-configured head node are covered in section 2.2.
For now, the newly-launched head node instance can be watched and managed without Bright Cluster Manager in the following ways.
Status checking via instance selection from instances list:
Clicking the Instances menu resource item from the navigation pane opens up the “Instances”
pane. This lists instances belonging to the account owner. An instance can be marked by ticking its
checkbox. Information for the selected instance is then displayed in the lower main pane (figure 2.7).
© Bright Computing, Inc.
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Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
Figure 2.7: The EC2 Instances List
System (Amazon machine infrastructure) and instance (instance running under the infrastructure)
reachabilities are similarly shown under the neighboring “Status Checks” tab (figure 2.8).
© Bright Computing, Inc.
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Figure 2.8: Reachability Status For An EC2 Instance
Acting on an instance from the AWS EC2 Management Console:
An instance can be marked by clicking on it. Clicking the Actions button near the top of the main
center pane, or equivalently from a right-mouse-button click in the pane, brings up a menu of possible
actions. These actions can be executed on the marked instance, and include the options to Start, Stop
or Terminate the instance.
Connecting to an instance from the AWS EC2 Management Console:
A marked and running instance can have an SSH connection made to it. Clicking on the Connect
button near the top of the main center pane displays a pop-up text that guides the user through the
connection options for a running instance. These connection options are via:
• a standalone SSH client
There is further documentation on this at:
– http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/
AccessingInstancesLinux.html for Linux clients
– http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/putty.html
PuTTY users
• a browser-based Java SSH client, MindTerm
There is further documentation on this at:
– http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/mindterm.html
© Bright Computing, Inc.
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Most administrators should find the pop-up text enough, and the further documentation unnecessary.
The standalone SSH client help text displays instructions (figure 2.9) on how to run ssh from the
command line to access the marked instance. If the launched head node is fully up then a login using
those instructions succeeds.
Figure 2.9: SSH Instructions To Connect To The Marked Instance
Viewing the head node console:
The head node takes about 2 minutes to start up. If, on following the instructions, an SSH connection
cannot be made, then it can be worth checking the head node system log to check if the head node has
started up correctly. The log is displayed on right-clicking on the “Actions” button and selecting the
“Get System Log” menu item (figure 2.10). A successful start of the system generates a log with a tail
similar to that of figure 2.10.
© Bright Computing, Inc.
2.2 Cluster-On-Demand: Head Node Login And Cluster Configuration
13
Figure 2.10: System Log Of The Checkboxed Instance
If the system and network are working as expected, then an SSH connection can be made to the head
node to carry out the next step, which is the configuration of the head node and cluster.
2.2
Cluster-On-Demand: Head Node Login And Cluster Configuration
After the Amazon console manager has started up a head node instance, the head node instance and
cluster must be configured. Logging into the head node via ssh allows this.
On logging in for the first time, the system suggests that the bright-setup script be run:
Example
pj@office:~$ ssh -i pjkeypair.pem root@ec2-176-34-160-197.eu-west-1.com\
pute.amazonaws.com
The authenticity of host ’ec2-176-34-160-197.eu-west-1.compute.amazonaw\
s.com (176.34.160.197)’ can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 66:1e:f3:77:83:f8:3f:42:c1:b7:d2:d5:56:d8:c3:58.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added ’ec2-176-34-160-197.eu-west-1.compute.amazon\
aws.com,176.34.160.197’ (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Welcome to Bright Cluster Manager
Based on Scientific Linux 5
Cluster Manager ID: #999915
-----------------------------------------------------------------------To set up your cluster, type
bright-setup
and follow the instructions
Creating DSA key for ssh
[root@headnode ~]#
Running the bright-setup script goes through several screens, some of which prompt for input.
At some prompts, it is hinted that typing “I” gives further explanation about the input.
The screens go through the following issues:
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Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
• The license agreement.
• Amazon Web Services account information. This asks for the AWS Username, AWS Account ID,
Access Key ID, and Secret Access Key. These are needed by Bright Cluster Manager to manage the
cloud node instances.
• The installation of the Bright Computing product key (formatted like 868868-797099-979199091301-134414). This is the cloud version of the request-license command in section 4.3 of
the Installation Manual, and asks for:
– The organization information for the license. This requires input for the fields: country, state,
locality, organizational unit, unit and cluster name.
– The values to be used for the head node machine name and its administrative password (used
for the root and MySQL passwords).
• Optionally, setting up the secondary drives using Amazon’s EBS service.
• Optionally, setting up extra storage for /home using Amazon’s EBS service.
• Optionally, setting up extra storage for monitoring data (recommended for more than 500 nodes).
• Setting up cloud node instance types. Amazon instance types (http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
instance-types/) are choices presented from node specifications consisting of memory, storage, cores, GPUs, and others. The setting up of the instance type step is looped through if necessary
to allow more than one instance type to be configured.
– Setting up
* the number <N> of cloud compute nodes and
* their base name (the cnode part of the name if the nodes have the names cnode001 to
cnode<N>).
– Setting up the amount of storage for the cloud compute node instance.
The default disk partitioning layout for nodes can be modified as described in Appendix D
of the Administrator Manual. Using diskless nodes is also possible if the cloud compute node
instance has enough RAM—about 2GB at the time of writing.
Setting these values causes the cloud node objects to be created in the CMDaemon database. Cloud
nodes are not however actually started up at this stage. Starting up must be done explicitly, and is
covered in section 2.4.
• Setting up the workload manager, along with the number of slots, and if the head node is to be
used for compute jobs too.
After accepting the input, the bright-setup script runs through the configuration of the head node
and the cloud nodes. Its progress is indicated by output similar to the following:
Example
[root@headnode ~]# bright-setup
Retrieving Amazon instance information
------------------------------------------------------------------------|
License agreements
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------The end user license agreement will be shown in a new screen. To exit
this screen, type ’q’. Press any key to continue
Do you agree with the license terms and conditions? (yes, no, show): yes
© Bright Computing, Inc.
2.2 Cluster-On-Demand: Head Node Login And Cluster Configuration
------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Amazon account information
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------AWS username (I for information): exampleuser@brightcomputing.com
AWS Account ID (I for information): 313234312222
Access Key ID (I for information): OUPOUASOUDSSSAOU
Secret Access Key (I for information): Aighei8EooLi1Dae8Nio5ohl4ieXiAiaiV
Verifying Amazon credentials
------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Bright License
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------Bright Product Key (I for information):
423112-231432-134234-132423-134221
Country: US
State: CA
Locality: San Francisco
Organization name: Bright Computing
Organizational Unit: Development
Cluster Name: demo-cluster
------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Head Node
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------Hostname: bright71
Administrative Password:
Verify password:
Do you want to create a second drive for more storage capacity?
(I for information) [YES|no] no
Extra storage for /home (I for information)? [NO|yes] n
Extra storage for monitoring data (I for information)? [NO|yes] n
------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Compute Nodes
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------Instance Type (I for information):
m1.small
m1.medium
c1.medium
m1.large
t1.micro
m2.xlarge
m2.2xlarge
m2.4xlarge
c1.xlarge
[t1.micro]
>
t1.micro
Node Count [2]:
2
Base name (I for information) [cnode]:
cnode
Instances of type t1.micro need to use EBS storage
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Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
Size of EBS (GB) [40]: 15
Do you want to configure more node types? [NO|yes]
no
------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Workload Management system
|
------------------------------------------------------------------------Which workload management system do you want to use? (I for information)?
slurm
sge
torque
[slurm]
>
slurm
Number of slots per node [8]:
8
Do you want to use the head node for compute jobs? [NO|yes]
no
The following information will be used to configure this head node:
Amazon information:
AWS username:
AWS Account ID:
Access Key ID:
Secret Access Key:
Bright Product Key:
License information
Country:
State:
Locality:
Organization name:
Organizational Unit:
Cluster Name:
Hostname:
Second drive size:
Instance Type:
Node Count:
Base name:
Storage type:
Size of storage:
Workload management system:
Number of slots:
Head node for compute jobs:
exampleuser@brightcomputing.com
313234312222
OUPOUASOUDSSSAOU
Aighei8EooLi1Dae8Nio5ohl4ieXiAin5eeRoaiV
423112-231432-134234-132423-134221
US
CA
San Francisco
Bright Computing
Development
demo-cluster
bright71
no
t1.micro
2
cnode
EBS
15 GB
slurm
8
no
The information to configure this head node has been collected, and shown
above. The next phase will be to process this information. A new Bright
license will be installed, the Bright Cluster Manager software will be
initialized and the workload management software will be initialized
Do you want to continue? [YES|no]
yes
Starting to configure this head node
Successfully retrieved the license
Installed license
© Bright Computing, Inc.
2.3 Cluster-On-Demand: Connecting To The headnode Via cmsh or cmgui
17
Initializing Bright Cluster Manager
Installing admin certificates
Configuring default scheduler, slurm
Set up finished
It is recommended that the system administrator log out and login again after the script has been
run, in order to enable the new environment for the shell that the administrator is in. If the hostname
was changed in the bright-setup script, for example, the name change shows up in the shell prompt
only after the re-login.
Once there is a head in the cloud, the other cloud nodes can be started up.
2.3
Cluster-On-Demand: Connecting To The headnode Via cmsh or cmgui
Amazon provides a security group to each instance. By default, this configures network access so that
only inbound SSH connections are allowed from outside the cloud. A new security group can be configured, or an existing one modified, using the Edit details button in figure 2.11. Security groups can
also be accessed from the navigation menu on the left side of the EC2 Management Console.
2.3.1 Cluster-On-Demand: Access With A Remote, Standalone cmgui
The security group defined by Amazon for the head node can be modified by the administrator to allow
remote connections to CMDaemon running on the head node (figure 2.11).
Figure 2.11: Security Group Network And Port Access Restriction
• To allow only a specific network block to access the instance, the network from which remote
connections are allowed can be specified in CIDR format.
• Explicitly allowing inbound connections to port 8081 on the head node allows the standalone
cmgui (section 2.4 of the Administrator Manual) to connect to the head node. This is because the
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Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
cmgui back end, which is CMDaemon, communicates via port 8081.
2.3.2 Cluster-On-Demand: Access With A Local cmsh
The security group created by Amazon by default already allows inbound SSH connections from outside
the cloud to the instance running in the cloud, even if the incoming port 8081 is blocked. Launching a
cmsh session within an SSH connection running to the head node is therefore possible, and works well.
2.3.3 Cluster-On-Demand: Access With A Local cmgui
It is possible to run an X-forwarded cmgui session from within an ssh -X connection that is already
running to the head node. However, it suffers from significant X-protocol lag due to the various network
encapsulation layers involved. The procedure described earlier for cluster-on-demand access with the
remote, standalone cmgui from outside the cloud is therefore recommended instead for a more pleasant
experience.
2.4
Cluster-On-Demand: Cloud Node Start-up
Cloud nodes must be explicitly started up. This is done by powering them up, assuming the associated
cloud node objects exist. The cloud node objects are typically specified in the bright-setup script—in
the preceding example the cloud node objects are cnode001 and cnode002.
However, more cloud node objects can be created if needed after the bright-setup script has run.
The maximum number that may be created is set by the license purchased.
Large numbers of cloud node objects can be created with Bright Cluster Manager as follows:
• In cmgui they are conveniently created with the Node Creation Wizard as described in section 3.3.
Several of the steps described in that section are specific to Cluster Extension clusters. These steps
are not needed for Cluster-On-Demand clusters, and therefore do not come up when the wizard is
used in this case.
• In cmsh a large number of cloud node objects can conveniently be created with the “foreach
--clone” command instead, as described in section 4.3.
After creation, individual cloud nodes can be powered up from within cmgui by a right-click on the
cloud node resource item (figure 2.12).
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2.4 Cluster-On-Demand: Cloud Node Start-up
19
Figure 2.12: Powering on a cloud node with cmgui
As with regular non-cloud nodes, multiple cloud nodes can be powered up in cmgui by selecting
them from the Overview tabbed pane. Switching to the Tasks tabbed pane and clicking on the power
on button then powers them up.
As with regular non-cloud nodes, cloud nodes can also be powered up from within the device
mode of cmsh. The initial power status (section 4.1 of the Administrator Manual) of cloud nodes is
FAILED, because they cannot be communicated with. As they start up, their power status changes to
OFF, and then to ON. Some time after that they are connected to the cluster and ready for use. The device
status (as opposed to the power status) remains DOWN until it is ready for use, at which point it switches
to UP:
Example
[head1->device]% power status
cloud ................. [ FAILED ] cnode001
cloud ................. [ FAILED ] cnode002
No power control ...... [ UNKNOWN ] head1
[head1->device]% power on -n cnode001
cloud ................. [
ON
] cnode001
[head1->device]% power status
cloud ................. [
OFF
] cnode001
cloud ................. [ FAILED ] cnode002
No power control ...... [ UNKNOWN ] head1
[head1->device]% power on -n cnode002
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(Cloud instance ID not set)
(Cloud instance ID not set)
(pending)
(Cloud instance ID not set)
20
Cluster-On-Demand Cloudbursting
cloud ................. [
ON
] cnode002
[head1->device]% power status
cloud ................. [
ON
] cnode001 (running)
cloud ................. [
OFF
] cnode002 (pending)
No power control ...... [ UNKNOWN ] head1
[head1->device]% !ping -c1 cnode001
ping: unknown host cnode001
[head1->device]% status
head1 .................... [
UP
]
node001 .................. [
UP
]
node002 .................. [ DOWN ]
[head1->device]% !ping -c1 cnode001
PING cnode001.cm.cluster (10.234.226.155) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from cnode001.cm.cluster (10.234.226.155): icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 t\
ime=3.94 ms
Multiple cloud nodes can be powered up at a time in cmsh with the “power on” command using
ranges and other options (section 4.2.2 of the Administrator Manual).
2.4.1 IP Addresses In The Cluster-On-Demand Cloud
• The IP addresses assigned to cloud nodes on powering them up are arbitrarily scattered over the
10.0.0.0/8 network and its subnets
– No pattern should therefore be relied upon in the addressing scheme of cloud nodes
• Shutting down and starting up head and regular cloud nodes can cause their IP address to change.
– However, Bright Cluster Manager managing the nodes means that a regular cloud node reestablishes its connection to the cluster when it comes up, and will have the same node name
as before.
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3
Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
Cluster Extension cloudbursting (“hybrid” cloudbursting) in Bright Cluster Manager is the case when
a cloud service provider is used to provide nodes that are in the cloud as an extension to the number
of regular nodes in a cluster. The head node in a Cluster Extension configuration is always outside the
cloud, and there may be some regular nodes that are outside the cloud too.
Requirements
Cluster Extension cloudbursting requires:
• An activated cluster license.
Some administrators skip on ahead to try out cloudbursting right away in a Cluster Extension
configuration, without having made the license active earlier on. That will not work.
A check on the state of the license can be carried out with:
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cmsh -c "main; licenseinfo"
License Information
---------------------------- --------------------------------------Licensee
/C=US/ST=NY/L=WS/O=Bright
Bitcoins/OU=Unit/CN=Bright 7.1 Cluster
Serial Number
19305
Start Time
Mon Dec 20 00:00:00 2015
End Time
Wed Jun 20 00:00:00 2018
Version
7.1
Edition
Advanced
Pre-paid Nodes
100
Max Pay-per-use Nodes
N/A
Max Hadoop Nodes
80
Max OpenStack
70
Node Count
4
...
If activation is indeed needed, then it is most likely a case of simply running the
request-license command with the product key. Further details on activating the license are
in section 4 of the Administrator Manual.
• Registration of the product key.
The product key must also be registered on the Bright Computing Customer Portal website at
http://www.brightcomputing.com/Customer-Login.php. A Customer Portal account is
needed to do this.
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Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
The product key is submitted at the Customer Portal website specifically for a Cluster Extension
setup, from the Burst! menu. The customer portal account is then automatically associated with
the license installed (section 2.2) on the head node. The key is also needed to activate the cluster
license, if that has not been done before.
• An Amazon account, if the cloud provider is Amazon.
• An open UDP port.
By default, this is port 1194. It is used for the OpenVPN connection from the head node to the
cloud and back. To use TCP, and/or ports other than 1194, the Bright Computing knowledgebase
at http://kb.brightcomputing.com can be consulted using the keywords “openvpn port”.
Outbound ssh access from the head node is also useful, but not strictly required.
By default, Shorewall as provided by Bright Cluster Manager on the head node is configured to
allow all outbound connections, but other firewalls may need to be considered too.
Steps
Cluster Extension cloudbursting uses a cloud director. A cloud director is a specially connected cloud
node used to manage regular cloud nodes, and is described more thoroughly in section 3.2. Assuming
the administrator has ownership of a cloud provider account, the following steps can be followed to
launch Cluster Extension cloud nodes:
1. The cloud provider is logged into from cmgui, and a cloud director is configured (section 3.1).
2. The cloud director is started up (section 3.2).
3. The cloud nodes are provisioned from the cloud director (section 3.3).
The cloud nodes then become available for general use by the cluster.
Cluster Extension Cloudbursting With A Hardware VPN
Bright Cluster Manager recommends, and provides, OpenVPN by default for Cluster Extension cloudbursting VPN connectivity. If there is a wish to use a hardware VPN, for example if there is an existing
hardware VPN network already in use at the deployment site, then Bright Cluster Manager can optionally be configured to work with the hardware VPN. The configuration details can be found in the Bright
Computing knowledgebase at http://kb.brightcomputing.com by carrying out a search on the
site using the keywords “cloudbursting without openvpn”.
3.1
Cluster Extension: Cloud Provider Login And Cloud Director
Configuration
To access the Amazon cloud service from cmgui, the “Cloud Nodes” resource is selected, and the
“Cloud Accounts” tabbed pane opened. This allows a cloud provider account to be edited or deleted
from the available ones already there.
It also allows a new cloud account provider to be added and configured. This is done by clicking
+ button beside the text “Add a new cloud account”, which opens up the “Add Cloud
on the Provider Wizard” window (figure 3.1).
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3.1 Cluster Extension: Cloud Provider Login And Cloud Director Configuration
23
Figure 3.1: Logging Into A Cloud Provider With cmgui
In the first screen, the cloud account subscription information is added. The subscription information
could be from Amazon or from another supported provider.
In the case of Amazon, the information is obtainable after signing up for Amazon Web
Services (AWS) at http://aws.amazon.com. After sign-up, the Access Identifiers section of
the subscription, at http://aws-portal.amazon.com/gp/aws/developer/account/index.
html?action=access-key, provides the required information. If that URL does not work,
then the Amazon documentation at http://docs.amazonwebservices.com/fws/latest/
GettingStartedGuide/index.html?AWSCredentials.html can be followed instead.
For Amazon, the fields to enter in the wizard are:
• The Name: A convenient, arbitrary value.
• The Username: The e-mail address associated with the AWS account.
• The AWS account ID: The AWS Account ID.
• The AWS account key ID: The AWS Access Key ID.
• The AWS secret access key ID: The AWS Secret Access Key.
The “show password” checkbox toggles the visibility of the sensitive input. Clicking the Next
button submits the details, and inputs for the next screen are retrieved from Amazon.
The next screen (figure 3.2) displays options for the Amazon cloud service.
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Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
Figure 3.2: Selecting Options At The Cloud Provider With cmgui
In figure 3.2, the following options are shown:
• Default region: These are regions from which the service can be provided. Amazon, for example, offers a choice out of capacity on the East Coast of the USA, Western Europe, the Asia Pacific
region and others.
• Default AMI: This is the Amazon Machine Instance image that Bright Computing provides. The
node-installer from this image installs the cloud director and cloud nodes.
• Default type: A choice out of a selection of possible virtual machine types (http://aws.
amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/) made available by Amazon for the cloud node. The
choices presented are from node specifications consisting of memory, storage, cores, GPUs, and
others. In cmsh, running cmsh -c "cloud types" also shows the types available.
• Default director type: A choice for the cloud director node, made from a selection of possible virtual machine types made available by Amazon. This virtual machine type usually needs
to be more powerful than a regular cloud node, and is by default set to m1.large.
The default settings are normally a good choice. On clicking the Next button, the choices are processed.
The next screen (figure 3.3) displays the NetMap network name and addressing scheme. This is
a network mapping that assigns extra IP addresses to local nodes to make them accessible from the
cloud. The addressing scheme can be changed if needed to another unused subnet. By default it uses
172.31.0.0/16.
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3.1 Cluster Extension: Cloud Provider Login And Cloud Director Configuration
25
Figure 3.3: Setting The NetMap Network With cmgui
The default values are normally a good choice. On clicking the Next button, the values are processed.
The next screen (figure 3.4) displays the cloud network name and addressing scheme. This can be
changed if needed, but for Amazon the 10.0.0.0/8 range is expected.
Figure 3.4: Setting The Cloud Network At The Cloud Provider With cmgui
On clicking the Next button, the configuration is processed.
The next screen (figure 3.5) displays a proposed Bright Cluster Manager tunnel network naming and
addressing scheme for each checkboxed cloud region. These can be changed if needed from the suggested defaults. For Amazon the us-east-1 region shown in the figure has a default tunnel network
value of 172.21.0.0/16.
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Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
Figure 3.5: Setting The Tunnel Network For Regions With cmgui
On clicking the Next button, the configuration is processed.
The next screen (figure 3.6) displays a proposed Bright Cluster Manager tunnel interface name and
IP address for the head node(s). A tunnel interface is defined for the head node for each tunnel network.
By default, the address ending in .255.254 is used, and appended to the first two parts of the dotted
quad (for example, 172.21 for us-east-1), so that the suggested default IP address in this case becomes
172.21.255.254. The default suggested device name is tun0.
These can be changed if needed from the suggested defaults.
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3.1 Cluster Extension: Cloud Provider Login And Cloud Director Configuration
27
Figure 3.6: Setting The Tunnel Network Interface For The Head Node(s) With cmgui
On clicking the Next button, the configuration is processed.
The next screen (figure 3.7) displays a proposed Bright Cluster Manager hostname and tunnel IP
address for the cloud director node(s). By default, the suggested hostname is the region name with
-director as the suffix. For example, us-east1-director for the region us-east1. By default,
an address ending in .255.251 is suggested for appending to the first two parts of the dotted quad (for
example, the prefix 172.21 for us-east-1), so that the suggested default IP address in this case becomes
172.21.255.251. The addresses ending in 252 and 253 may be required by head nodes that implement
failover (Chapter 12 of the Administrator Manual).
These can be changed if needed from the suggested defaults, but should be consistent with the network address.
Figure 3.7: Setting The Tunnel Network Interface For The Cloud Director(s) With cmgui
On clicking the Next button, the configuration is processed.
The next screen (figure 3.8) displays the proposed assignment of IP addresses in the NetMap network. These can be changed from the suggested defaults, but should be consistent with the addressing
schemes already defined.
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Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
Figure 3.8: Setting The Tunnel Network Interface IP Addresses With cmgui
On clicking the Next button, the configuration is processed.
It should be noted that the default suggested NetMap, cloud network, and cloud region addresses
configured by the wizard are all compliant with RFC1918 private network addressing, and are thus not
public IP addresses.
If all is well, the configuration is successfully processed. A message is then displayed indicating that
the cloud provider service has been added to the existing cluster and configured successfully, and that
the wizard is finished with its job.
No nodes are activated yet within the cloud provider service. To start them up, the components of
the cloud provider service must be started up by
• powering up the cloud directors (section 3.2)
• powering on the cloud nodes after the cloud directors are up. Often this involves creating new
cloud nodes by using the “Create Cloud Nodes” wizard (section 3.3).
3.2
Cluster Extension: Cloud Director Start-up
The cloud director can take some time to start up the first time. The bottleneck is usually due to several
provisioning stages, where the bandwidth between the head node and the cloud director means that the
provisioning runs typically take tens of minutes to complete. The progress of the cloud director can be
followed in the event viewer (section 9.6 of the Administrator Manual).
This bottleneck is one of the reasons why the cloud director is put in the cloud in the first place. The
next time the cloud director powers up, and assuming persistent storage is used—as is the default—the
cloud director runs through the provisioning stages much faster, and completes within a few minutes.
The cloud director acts as a helper instance in the cloud, providing some of the functions of the head
node within the cloud in order to speed up communications and ensure greater resource efficiency.
Amongst the functions it provides are:
• Cloud nodes provisioning
• Exporting a copy of the shared directory /cm/shared to the cloud nodes so that they can mount
it
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3.2 Cluster Extension: Cloud Director Start-up
29
• Providing routing services using an OpenVPN server. While cloud nodes within a region communicate directly with each other, cloud nodes in one region use the OpenVPN server of their cloud
director to communicate with the other cloud regions and to communicate with the head node of
the cluster.
Cloud directors are not regular nodes, so they have their own category, cloud-director, into
which they are placed by default.
The cloud-related properties of the cloud director are displayed in the “Cloud Settings” tab of
the Cloud Nodes director item.
The cloud director can be started up in cmgui by right-clicking on the cloud director item from the
Cloud Nodes resource, and selecting Power on from the menu. Any cloud settings options that have
been set are frozen as the instance starts up, until the instance terminates.
3.2.1 Setting The Cloud Director Disk Storage Device Type
Amazon provides two kinds of storage types as part of EC2:
1. Instance storage, using ephemeral devices: Instance storage is not provided for the following
instance types:
• t1.micro
• m3.xlarge
• m3.2xlarge
• cr1.8xlarge
However, Amazon by default currently provides 150GB or more of instance storage for all other
instance types.
Details on instance storage can be found at http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/
latest/UserGuide/InstanceStorage.html#StorageOnInstanceTypes.
Ephemeral
means that the device is temporary, which means that whatever is placed on it is lost on reboot.
2. Elastic Block Storage (EBS) volumes: Normally, EBS is suggested for cloud director and cloud
node use. The reasons for this include:
• it can be provided to all nodes in the same availability zone
• unlike instance storage, EBS remains available for use when an instance using it reboots
• instance storage is not available for some instances types such as t1.micro.
Using the ephemeral device as the drive for the cloud director:
Since the cloud provider instance type is essential, and contains so much data, it is rarely wise to use
ephemeral devices as the drive for the cloud provider.
However, if for some reason the administrator would like to avoid using EBS, and use the instance
storage, then this can be done by removing the default EBS volume suggestion for the cloud director
provided by Bright Cluster Manager. When doing this, the ephemeral device that is used as the replacement must be renamed. It must take over the name that the EBS volume device had before it was
removed.
• In cmgui, this can be done in the “Cloud Settings” tab of the Cloud Nodes director item.
• In cmsh, this can be done in device mode, by going into the cloudsettings submode for the
cloud director, and then going a level deeper into the storage submode. Within the storage
submode, the list command shows the values of the storage devices associated with the cloud
director. The values can be modified as required with the usual object commands. The set command can be used to modify the values.
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Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
Example
[bright71]% device use us-east-1-director
[bright71->device[us-east-1-director]]% cloudsettings
[bright71->device[us-east-1-director]->cloudsettings]% storage
[bright71->...->cloudsettings->storage]% list
Type
Name (key)
Drive
Size
Volume ID
---------- ------------ --------- ------- ---------ebs
ebs
sdb
42GB
ephemeral ephemeral0
sdc
0B
ephemeral0
[bright71->...->cloudsettings->storage]% remove ebs
[bright71->...->cloudsettings*->storage*]% set ephemeral0 drive sdb
[bright71->...->cloudsettings*->storage*]% list
Type
Name (key)
Drive
Size
Volume ID
---------- ------------ --------- ------- --------ephemeral ephemeral0
sdb
0B
ephemeral0
[bright71->...->cloudsettings*->storage*]% commit
3.2.2 Setting The Cloud Director Disk Size
The disk size for the cloud director can be set with cmgui in the Cloud Settings tab.
By default, an EBS volume size of 42GB is suggested. This is as for a standard node layout (section D.3 of the Administrator Manual), and no use is then made of the ephemeral device.
42GB on its own is unlikely to be enough for most purposes other than running basic hello world
tests. In actual use, the most important considerations are likely to be that the cloud director should
have enough space for:
• the user home directories (under /home/)
• the cluster manager shared directory contents, (under /cm/shared/)
• the software image directories (under /cm/images/)
The cluster administrator should therefore properly consider the allocation of space, and decide if
the disk layout should be modified. An example of how to access the disk setup XML file to modify the
disk layout is given in section 3.9.3 of the Administrator Manual.
For the cloud director, an additional sensible option may be to place /tmp and the swap space on an
ephemeral device, by appropriately modifying the XML layout for the cloud director.
3.2.3
Tracking Cloud Director Start-up
Tracking cloud director start-up from the EC2 management console:
the boot progress of the cloud director can be followed by watching the status of the instance in the Amazon EC2 management console, as illustrated in figure 2.8. The Instance ID that is used to identify the
instance can be found
• with cmgui, within the Cloud Settings tab for the cloud director node
• with cmsh, by running something like:
Example
[bright71]% device use us-east-1-director
[bright71->device[us-east-1-director]]% get cloudid
i-f98e7441
[bright71->device[us-east-1-director]]% cloudsettings
[bright71->device[us-east-1-director]-cloudsettings]% get instanceid
i-f98e7441
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3.2 Cluster Extension: Cloud Director Start-up
31
Tracking cloud director start-up from cmgui:
the boot progress of the cloud director can also be followed by
• watching the icon changes (as in section 5.5.1 of the Administrator Manual)
• watching the State in the Overview tabbed window
• watching the Console log from the Tasks tabbed window
Tracking cloud director start-up from the bash shell of the head node:
there are some further possibilities to view the progress of the cloud director after it has reached at least
the initrd stage. These possibilities include:
• an SSH connection to the cloud director can be made during the pre-init, initrd stage, after the
cloud director system has been set up via an rsync. This allows a login to the node-installer shell.
• an SSH connection to the cloud director can be also be made after the initrd stage has ended, after
the init process runs making an SSH daemon available again. This allows a login on the cloud
director when it is fully up.
During the initrd stage, the cloud director is provisioned first. The cloud node image(s) and shared
directory are then provisioned on the cloud director, still within the initrd stage. To see what rsync is
supplying to the cloud director, the command “ps uww -C rsync” can be run on the head node. Its
output can then be parsed to make obvious the source and target directories currently being transferred:
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# ps uww -C rsync | cut -f11- -d" " #11th part onwards
/cm/shared/ syncer@172.22.255.251::target//cm/shared/
Tracking cloud director start-up from cmsh:
the provisioningstatus command in cmsh can be used to view the provisioning status (some output elided):
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cmsh -c "softwareimage provisioningstatus"
...
+ us-east-1-director
...
Up to date images:
none
Out of date images:
default-image
In the preceding output, the absence of an entry for “Up to date images” shows that the cloud
director does not yet have an image that it can provision to the cloud nodes. After some time, the last
few lines of output should change to something like:
Example
+ us-east-1-director
...
Up to date images:
default-image
This indicates the image for the cloud nodes is now ready.
With the -a option, the provisioningstatus -a command gives details that may be helpful.
For example, while the cloud director is having the default software image placed on it for provisioning
purposes, the source and destination paths are /cm/images/default-image:
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Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cmsh -c "softwareimage provisioningstatus -a"
Request ID(s):
4
Source node:
bright71
Source path:
/cm/images/default-image
Destination node:
us-east-1-director
Destination path:
/cm/images/default-image
...
After some time, when the shared filesystem is being provisioned, the source and destination paths
should change to the /cm/shared directory:
[root@bright71 ~]# cmsh -c "softwareimage provisioningstatus -a"
Request ID(s):
5
Source node:
bright71
Source path:
/cm/shared
Destination node:
us-east-1-director
Destination path:
/cm/shared
...
After the shared directory and the cloud node software images are provisioned, the cloud director is
fully up. Cloud node instances can then be powered up and provisioned from the cloud director.
3.3
Cluster Extension: Cloud Node Start-up
The “Create Cloud Nodes” wizard button in cmgui conveniently creates cloud node objects. The
wizard is accessed from within the “Cloud Nodes” resource, by selecting the provider item, and then
choosing the Overview tab. Cloud node objects can also be created in cmsh as described in section 4.3.
A working cloud director is not needed to configure the regular cloud nodes. However the cloud
director must be up, and the associated networks to the regular cloud nodes and to the head node must
be configured correctly, in order for the regular cloud nodes to boot up properly. If needed, additional
cloud provisioning nodes (section 5.2 of the Administrator Manual) can be configured by assigning the
provisioning role to cloud nodes, along with appropriate nodegroups (page 153 of the Administrator
Manual) values, in order to create a provisioning hierarchy.
By default, the first screen of the wizard (figure 3.9) allows the administrator to do the following:
• The first regular cloud node and last regular cloud node can be set. By default, 16 regular cloud
nodes are suggested. The names of the nodes have a prefix of cnode by default, and end in three
digit numbers, for example cnode001, cnode002 and so on.
• The category can be set for these nodes. By default it is set to the default category
• The region for the regular cloud nodes can be set. By default it matches the cloud director region.
• The regular cloud node instance type can be set. By default, t1.micro is chosen.
• A spot price (section 5.3.1) can be set in this screen to take advantage of cheaper pricing to launch
regular cloud nodes. By default, no spot price is set.
• The storage type and size used can be set. By default, it is EBS, and 42GB. If the t1.micro
instance type has been chosen, then there is no ephemeral device storage available, in accordance
with Amazon policies.
The next screen of the wizard (figure 3.10) applies to the region chosen in the previous screen (in
figure 3.9 the region is us-east-1). Within the region, IP offsets (footnote on page 30 of the Installation
Manual) can be set:
© Bright Computing, Inc.
3.3 Cluster Extension: Cloud Node Start-up
Figure 3.9: Main Cloud Node Creation Wizard Configuration Screen
• for nodes in the associated cloud network
• for nodes in the associated tunnel network
By default, both these IP offsets are 0.0.0.0.
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34
Cluster Extension Cloudbursting
Figure 3.10: Cloud Node Wizard Network And IP Offset Configuration Screen
The last screen of the wizard (figure 3.11) shows a summary screen of the proposed IP address allocations. If the cloud IP addresses are to be assigned using DHCP, then their values are 0.0.0.0.
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3.3 Cluster Extension: Cloud Node Start-up
35
Figure 3.11: Cloud Node Wizard Network And IP Layout Screen
When the wizard is finished, the regular cloud nodes must be saved. This adds them to the default
category by default.
If the cloud director is up, then the cloud nodes can be booted up by powering them up (section 4.2
of the Administrator Manual) by category, or individually.
© Bright Computing, Inc.
4
Cloudbursting Using The
Command Line And cmsh
The command line and cmsh can be used to set up Cluster-On-Demand and Cluster Extension clusters.
For Cluster-On-Demand setups, a GUI web browser is needed initially to launch the head node
AMI from Amazon. However, once an ssh connection is made by the administrator to the head node,
cloudbursting can be continued from command line. Thus, the bright-setup script is run from the
command line as in section 2.2, and the cloud nodes can be powered up from the command line as in
section 2.4.
For Cluster Extension setups, cloudbursting can be carried out entirely from the command line. The
cm-cloud-setup script (section 4.1) sets up the cloud provider login and cloud director configuration GUI steps of section 3.1 in a guided manner on a command line dialog, after which cmsh power
commands can launch the required cloud nodes (sections 4.2 and 4.3).
4.1
The cm-cloud-setup Script
The cm-cloud-setup script is run on the head node, and allows the administrator to specify settings
to launch a cloud using the command line. The help text for this utility shows:
USAGE: /cm/local/apps/cluster-tools/bin/cm-cloud-setup <OPTIONS>
OPTIONS:
---------p | --provider <name>
-n | --name <name>
-u | --username <username>
-w | --password <password>
-a | --accountId
-k | --awskey <key>
-s | --secretkey <key>
Provider name (default: amazon)
Account name (default: Amazon EC2)
Username used in Amazon AWS console
Password used in Amazon AWS console (if
omitted you will be prompted, unless
account keys are provided)
Amazon account ID
AWS access key ID
AWS secret access ID
-d | --delete
-y | --yes
-h | --help
Delete Amazon account if it exists
Use all
Print this help
NOTES:
-------password option does not work yet
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Cloudbursting Using The Command Line And cmsh
It can be used as follows from the prompt:
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cm-cloud-setup -u rotwang@example.com -a 123923792991 \
-k OIQQOWU9LJJEI1232PJP -s ra9xaG7oUiy1uqu0ahW4aixuThee5ahmUGoh9cha
The administrator is then guided through the steps needed to launch the cloud. The session output
may show up as something like (some text elided):
Example
Connecting to cluster
Waiting for data from cluster
Adding cloud provider Amazon EC2 ... ok
Waiting for cloud provider data ...
Got 7 regions, 29 images, 12 types
Default region (default: eu-west-1), options:
ap-northeast-1,
...
us-west-2
> eu-west-1
Default AMI (default: latest), options
...
brightinstaller-074,
brightinstaller-075
>
Default type (default: t1.micro), options
c1.xlarge,
...
t1.micro
>
Default cloud director type (default: m1.large), options
c1.xlarge,
...
t1.micro
>
Update cloud provider Amazon EC2... ok
Got 6 networks
Found tunnel network for eu-west-1: 172.16.0.0/16
Using NetMap network: 172.31.0.0/16
Using cloud network: 10.0.0.0/8
Use regions: (default eu-west-1, space separated / all), options:
ap-northeast-1,
...
us-west-2
>
Updating head node bright71 ... ok
Updating tunnel network eu-west-1 ... ok
Cloud director ip on eu-west-1 (default 172.16.255.251)
>
Adding cloud director eu-west-1-director ... ok
Provisioning update started
[root@bright71 ~]#
After cm-cloud-setup has run, the cloud nodes (the cloud director and regular cloud nodes) can
be launched.
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4.2 Launching The Cloud Director
4.2
39
Launching The Cloud Director
Launching the cloud requires that the cloud director and cloud nodes be powered up. This can be done
using cmgui as described in sections 3.2 and 3.3. It can also be carried out in cmsh, for example, the
cloud director eu-west-1-director can be powered up from device mode with:
Example
cmsh -c "device power on -n eu-west-1-director"
If the administrator is unsure of the exact cloud director name, one way it can easily be found is via
tab-completion within the device mode of cmsh.
As explained in section 3.2, the cloud director takes some time to power up. Its status can be followed
in the notice messages sent to the cmsh session, or in the cmgui event viewer. The status can also be
queried via the status command in device node. For example, a watch instruction such as:
[root@bright71 ~]# watch ’cmsh -c "device status -n eu-west-1-director"
will show a series of outputs similar to:
eu-west-1-director
eu-west-1-director
eu-west-1-director
eu-west-1-director
eu-west-1-director
eu-west-1-director
eu-west-1-director
eu-west-1-director
...
4.3
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
PENDING ] (Waiting for instance to start)
PENDING ] (Waiting for instance to start)
PENDING ] (IP assigned: 54.220.240.166)
PENDING ] (setting up tunnel)
INSTALLER_REBOOTING ]
INSTALLING ] (recreating partitions)
INSTALLING ] (FULL provisioning to "/")
INSTALLING ] (provisioning started)
Launching The Cloud Nodes
Once the cloud director is up, the cloud nodes can be powered up. This first requires that the cloud
node objects exist and each have an IP address assigned to them that is consistent with that of the cloud
director that manages them. With cmgui, this can be done with the help of a wizard to assign the IP
addresses (section 3.3). With cmsh, assignment can be done for an individual cloud node, or for many
cloud nodes, as follows:
4.3.1 Creating And Powering Up An Individual Node
In the example that follows, a single cloud node is assigned a management network, a tunnel IP address,
and a tunnel network so that it can communicate with the cloud director.
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cmsh
[bright71]% device
[bright71->device]% add cloudnode cnode001
Warning: tunnel ip of cnode001 not set. This CloudNode will not start!
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]]% set managementnetwork eu-west-1
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]]% show
Parameter
Value
---------------------- -------------------------...
Management network
eu-west-1
Network
eu-west-1
...
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]]% interfaces
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Cloudbursting Using The Command Line And cmsh
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]->interfaces]% list
Type
Network device name
IP
Network
--------- --------------------- ----------- ---------------physical eth0 [prov,dhcp]
0.0.0.0
cloud-ec2classic
tunnel
tun0
0.0.0.0
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]->interfaces]% set tun0 ip 172.16.0.1
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]->interfaces*]% set tun0 network eu-west-1
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]->interfaces*]% list
Type
Network device name
IP
Network
--------- --------------------- ----------- ---------------physical eth0 [prov,dhcp]
0.0.0.0
cloud-ec2classic
tunnel
tun0
172.16.0.1 eu-west-1
[bright71->device*[cnode001*]->interfaces*]% commit
The preceding session completes the cloud node object configuration. The cloud node itself can now
be launched with an explicit power command such as:
[bright71->device[cnode001]->interfaces]% device power on -n cnode001
4.3.2 Creating And Powering Up Many Nodes
For a large number of cloud nodes, the creation and assignment of IP addresses can be done with the
clone option of the foreach command, (section 2.5.5 of the Administrator Manual), together with a
node range specification. This is the same syntax as used to create non-cloud regular nodes with cmsh.
Continuing on with the preceding session, where a node cnode001 was configured:
[bright71->device]% foreach --clone cnode001 -n cnode002..cnode010 ()
The IP of network interface: eth0 was not updated
Warning: The Ethernet switch settings were not cloned, and have to be set manually
...
[bright71->device*]% commit
Mon Apr 23 04:19:41 2012 [alert] cnode002: Check ’DeviceIsUp’ is in state FAIL on cnode002
[bright71->device]%
Mon Apr 23 04:19:41 2012 [alert] cnode003: Check ’DeviceIsUp’ is in state FAIL on cnode003
...
Successfully committed 9 Devices
[bright71->device]%
The IP addresses are assigned via heuristics based on the value of cnode001 and its cloud director.
As before, an alert warns each cloud node is down. The list of cloud nodes can be powered up using
cmsh with the node range option:
Example
[bright71->device]% foreach -n cnode002..cnode010 (power on)
4.4
Submitting Jobs With cmsub And Cloud Storage Nodes
The cmsub command is a user command wrapper that submit job scripts to a workload manager in a
Cluster Extension cluster, so that jobs are considered for running in the cloud. Its usage for an end user
is covered in section 4.7 of the User Manual.
The cmsub command is available from the Bright Cluster Manager repository as part of the
cmdaemon-cmsub package. The cmsub command needs the cmsub environment module (section 2.2
of the Administrator Manual) to be loaded by the user before use.
If the cmsub command is run by the user to submit a job, then the job is submitted to the workload
manager, and the data-aware scheduling mechanism is initiated.
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4.4 Submitting Jobs With cmsub And Cloud Storage Nodes
41
A cluster with data-aware scheduling is a cluster that ensures that it has the data needed for the
cloud computing job already accessible on cloud storage nodes.
Cloud storage nodes are nodes that are set up by the cluster manager, before the job is executed in
the cloud. Because data stored can be written and read from many cloud storage nodes for each job that
is placed in the cloud, the data throughput in the cloud becomes more efficient than if only one storage
space were used.
4.4.1 Installation And Configuration of cmsub For Data-aware Scheduling To The Cloud
The configuration of data-aware scheduling means configuring the cluster so that the tools that allow
data-aware scheduling to work correctly are configured. The configuration that is carried out depends
on the workload manager that is to be used.
If cmsub has not yet been set up, or if it needs reconfiguration, then the following steps should be
carried out:
1. The cmdaemon-cmsub package is installed. It must be installed on the head node and in the
software image that is to be used for compute cloud nodes and storage cloud nodes.
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# yum install cmdaemon-cmsub
[...]
[root@bright71 ~]# yum --installroot /cm/images/default-image cmdaemon-cmsub
[...]
2. The cmsub-cloud-storage-setup utility is run. Example runs are provided later, starting on
page 42, but an explanatory background is given here first.
The utility is part of the cluster-tools package, which is installed by default. The utility
• configures cmsub properties (page 42)
• creates (page 42)
– templates for cloud storage nodes
– storage polices for cmsub
Templates For Cloud Storage Nodes And Storage Policy
Templates for cloud storage nodes: are a cloud node definition associated with a cloud provider. Templates for cloud storage nodes, more conveniently called template nodes, provide a template that is used
by the cloud storage nodes. Template nodes, being templates, are never powered on, and are therefore
always in a Down state in cmsh and cmgui. Actual cloud storage nodes, on the other hand, can be
powered on by the cluster manager, so that they can be used to store cloud job data.
In addition, any network interfaces associated with a template node can generally be regarded are
non-functioning as far as the administrator is concerned. One feature of template nodes however is that
the tunnel IP address set in the template is an offset to the network address that will be used to assign
IP addresses to actual storage nodes.
A storage policy:
include:
defines other parameters for how storage for cloud jobs is handled. Its parameters
• Name: the name set for the policy
• Bucket Name: the S3 bucket used for cloud jobs to transfer input and output job data
• Default job output size: specifies the default free storage space that will be provisioned
for the result that a job produces
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Cloudbursting Using The Command Line And cmsh
• Storage node name prefix: specifies a prefix for how storage nodes are to be named. The
prefix is cstorage by default. The number suffix scheme is as for regular nodes. Thus, by default,
the storage nodes are cstorage001, cstorage002 and so on.
• Template for cloud nodes: the template to use as the prototype for storage nodes
Example
Configuration Of cmsub Properties
A session with cm-cloud-storage-setup that configures cmsub properties on a cloud deployment
is:
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cm-cloud-storage-setup configure
Specify workload manager (default: slurm; options: slurm, pbspro, torque, lsf, openlava,\
sge):
> slurm
Specify software image used for cloud nodes (default: default-image; options: default-im\
age):
>
Do you want to create job queues for cloud nodes (default: y; options: y, n):
>
Specify a comma-separated list of job queue names:
> cloudq,extracloudq
Create symlink: /cm/images/default-image/cm/local/apps/slurm/var/prologs/10-prolog-cmsub\
to /cm/local/apps/cmd/scripts/cloudjob/cmsub-prolog
Create symlink: /cm/images/default-image/cm/local/apps/slurm/var/epilogs/10-epilog-cmsub\
to /cm/local/apps/cmd/scripts/cloudjob/cmsub-epilog
------------------------------------------------------------------Please note that the changes in the software image(s) have not
been propagated to the running nodes. This will happen when
the node(s) is/are rebooted.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Creation Of Templates For Storage Nodes And Creation Of Storage Policy For cmsub
A session with cm-cloud-storage-setup that creates storage node templates, and that creates storage node policies, is:
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cm-cloud-storage-setup create
Specify a name for the storage node template you want to create / use:
> atemplate
Is this a new template (default: yes; options: yes, no) ?
>
Specify a name for the storage node policy you want to create / use:
> apolicy
Is this a new policy (default: yes; options: yes, no) ?
>
Specify category for storage nodes (default: default; options: default, cloud-director,\
us-east-1):
>
Tunnel interface was found on director node us-east-1-director. So storage nodes will a\
lso have a tunnel interface. Is this correct ? (default: yes; options: yes, no)
>
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4.4 Submitting Jobs With cmsub And Cloud Storage Nodes
43
Define a starting point for the IPs assigned to storage nodes on the tunnel network. Th\
is IP value must contain zeros as the network part. If there is no tunnel network, speci\
fy value 0.0.0.0 (default 0.0.100.0)
>
Specify the time a storage node can be idle before it gets automatically powered off (d\
efault 15m). Input format is "<value> [s|S|m|M|h|H|d|D]"
>
Specify the name of the S3 bucket to use for transferring input data, and results of jo\
bs.
> abucket
Adding cloud storage node template
The storage node policy settings can be modified via CMDaemon using cmsh:
[root@bright71 ~]# cmsh
[bright71]]% cloud
[bright71->cloud]% use amzazonec2
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]% storagenodepolicies
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]->storagenodepolicy% list
Name (key)
Template for cloud nodes
------------ ------------------------apolicy
atemplate
bpolicy
atemplate
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]->storagenodepolicy% use apolicy
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]->storagenodepolicy[apolicy]]% show
Parameter
Value
--------------------------------- -----------------------------Bucket Name
abucket
Default job output size
1GB
Disable cmsub
no
Maximum number of storage nodes
5
Minumum EBS volume size
1GB
Revision
Storage node name prefix
cstorage
Template for cloud nodes
atemplate
Tunnel IP start address
0.0.100.0
cloudOperationTimeout
0
exportedDirectories
home
maxDownloadTime
7200
maxUploadTime
7200
name
apolicy
storageNodeIdleTimeLimit
900
Only one policy can be active at a time for a cloud object. The cm-cloud-storage-setup
create session will prompt the administrator to set the policy to active during its session. A policy can also be set to active within cloud mode of cmsh, within the object, by setting the value of
activestoragenodepolicy to an existing policy:
Example
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]% get activestoragenodepolicy
apolicy
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]% set activestoragenodepolicy bpolicy
[bright71->cloud*[Amazon EC2*]]% commit; get activestoragenodepolicy
bpolicy
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4.5
Cloudbursting Using The Command Line And cmsh
Miscellaneous Cloud Commands
4.5.1 The cm-cloud-copy Tool
The cm-cloud-copy tool is automatically installed with the cmdaemon-cmsub package (section 4.4.1).
Its purpose is to transfer data to and from AWS storage.
It is used automatically as a backend to cmsub to create and remove AWS storage containers in AWS
S3, and to upload and download files and directories to those containers.
The cm-cloud-copy tool can also be used as a standalone tool by the cluster administrator directly.
However because its behavior may change due to development, it should only be used if the administrator has explicitly been instructed to do so by Bright Computing engineers. At the time of writing,
October 2015, its use requires that the cm-cloud-copy module is loaded. A short help can then be seen
on running cm-cloud-copy without options, while more information and examples can be found in
the cm-cloud-copy(1) man page.
4.5.2 The cm-cloud-check Utility
The cm-cloud-check utility checks the current cloud-bursting configuration for possible problems
and misconfigurations. It reports any potential issues. The tool also tests communications with Amazon
using some simple Amazon API calls.
Only a handful of tests are performed at present. More tests will be added over time.
4.5.3 The cm-scale-cluster Utility
The cm-scale-cluster utility is a Bright Cluster Manager utility that allows workload managers to
scale a cluster up or down in size, depending on job requirements and administrator preferences. This
can improve cluster efficiency by cutting down on needless energy consumption.
The development of the utility was originally aimed at cloud use, but it is now a general cluster
management utility. Its use is covered in section 7.9.2 of the Administrator Manual.
4.5.4 The cm-cloud-remove-all Utility
This utility simply removes all clouds and associated objects:
Example
[root@bright71 ~]# cm-cloud-remove-all
Connecting to cluster
Removing all normal cloud nodes ...
Removing all cloud director nodes ...
removed eu-west-1-director
Removing all netmap and tunnel interfaces ...
remove interface tun0 of bright71
remove interface map0 of bright71
remove interface map0:0 of bright71
updated bright71
remove interface map0 of node001
updated node001
remove interface map0 of node002
updated node002
Removing all tunnel networks ...
removed eu-west-1
Removing all cloud categories ...
removed cloud-director
Removing all cloud networks ...
removed cloud-ec2classic
Removing all netmap networks ...
removed netmap
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4.5 Miscellaneous Cloud Commands
45
Removing all cloud providers ...
removed Amazon EC2
Done.
[root@bright71 ~]#
If the -d|--dryrun option is used, then it shows what the utility intends to remove during a run,
but without actually removing it.
© Bright Computing, Inc.
5
Cloud Considerations And
Issues With Bright Cluster
Manager
5.1
Differences Between Cluster-On-Demand And Cluster Extension
Some explicit differences between Cluster-On-Demand and Cluster Extension clusters are:
Cluster-On-Demand
Cluster Extension
cloud nodes only in 1 region
cloud nodes can use many regions
no cloud director
uses one or more cloud directors per region
no failover head node
failover head node possible
no VPN or NetMap
VPN and NetMap
no externalnet interface on head
can have an external interface
cluster has publicly accessible IP address
cloud directors have publicly accessible IP addresses
A note about the last entry: The access to the cloud director addresses can be restricted to an
administrator-defined set of IP addresses, using the “Externally visible IP” entry in figure 3.1
of the Administrator Manual.
5.2
Hardware And Software Availability
Bright Computing head node AMIs are available for the following distributions: RHEL5/RHEL6,
SL5/SL6, CentOS5/CentOS6, and SLES 11 SP1/SP2.
AMIs with GPU computing instances are available with Amazon cloud computing services only in
the US East (Virginia) region the last time this was checked (April 2012). These can be used with Bright
Computing AMIs with hvm in the name (not xen in the name).
To power the system off, a shutdown -h now can be used, or the power commands for cmgui or
cmsh can be executed. These commands stop the instance, without terminating it. Any associated extra
drives that were created need to be removed manually, via the Volumes screen in the Elastic Block
Store resource item in the navigation menu of the AWS Management Console.
5.3
Reducing Running Costs
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Cloud Considerations And Issues With Bright Cluster Manager
5.3.1 Spot Pricing
The spot price field is a mechanism to take advantage of cheaper pricing made available at irregular1
times. The mechanism allows the user to decide a threshold spot price (a price quote) in US dollars per
hour for instances. Instances that run while under the threshold are called spot instances. Spot instances
are described further at http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/spot-instances/.
With the pricing threshold set:
• If the set spot price threshold is above the instantaneous spot price, then the spot instances run.
• If the set spot price threshold is below the instantaneous spot price, then the spot instances are
killed.
• If the set spot price threshold is N/A, then no conditions apply, and the instances will run on
demand regardless of the instantaneous spot price.
An on demand instance is one that runs regardless of the price, according to the pricing at http:
//aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/.
A persistent request is one that will retry running a spot instance if the conditions allow it.
5.3.2 Storage Space Reduction
Reducing the amount of EBS disk storage used per cloud node or per cloud director is often feasible. 15
GB is usually enough for a cloud director, and 5 GB is usually enough for a cloud node with common
requirements. In cmsh these values can be set with:
Example
[bright71]% device cloudsettings eu-west-1-director
[bright71->device[eu-west-1-director]->cloudsettings]% storage
[bright71->...->cloudsettings->storage]% set ebs size 15GB; commit
[bright71->...->cloudsettings->storage]% device cloudsettings cnode001
[bright71->device[cnode001]->cloudsettings]% storage
[bright71->...->cloudsettings->storage]% set ebs size 5GB; commit
The value for the cloud node EBS storage can also be set in the cloud node wizard (fig. 3.9) for a
Cluster Extension configuration.
5.4
Address Resolution In Cluster Extension Networks
5.4.1 Resolution And globalnet
The globalnet network is introduced in section 3.2.3 of the Administrator Manual. It allows an extra
level of redirection during node resolution. The reason for the redirection is that it allows the resolution
of node names across the entire cluster in a hybrid cluster, regardless of whether the node is a cloud
node (cloud director node or regular cloud node) or a non-cloud node (head node, regular node or
networked device). A special way of resolving nodes is needed because the Amazon IP addresses are
in the 10.0.0.0/8 network space, which conflicts with some of the address spaces used by Bright Cluster
Manager.
There are no IP addresses defined by globalnet itself. Instead, a node, with its domain defined by
the globalnet network parameters, has its name resolved by another network to an IP address. The
resolution is done by the nameserver on the head node for all nodes.
1 irregular turns out to be random within a tight range, bound to a reserve price. Or rather, that was the case during the
period 20th January–13th July, 2010 that was analyzed by Ben-Yehuda et al, http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/users/wwwb/
cgi-bin/tr-info.cgi/2011/CS/CS-2011-09
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5.4 Address Resolution In Cluster Extension Networks
49
5.4.2 Resolution In And Out Of The Cloud
The networks, their addresses, their types, and their domains can be listed from the network mode in
cmsh:
[bright71->network]% list
Name (key)
Type
Netmask bits
------------ --------- ------------bmcnet
Internal 16
cloud
Cloud
8
externalnet External 16
globalnet
Global
0
ibnet
Internal 16
internalnet Internal 16
netmap
NetMap
16
us-east-1
Tunnel
16
Base address
------------10.148.0.0
10.0.0.0
10.2.0.0
0.0.0.0
10.149.0.0
10.141.0.0
172.31.0.0
172.21.0.0
Domain name
----------bmc.cluster
cloud.cluster
brightcomputing.com
cm.cluster
ib.cluster
eth.cluster
In a Type 1 network (section 3.3.6 of the Installation Manual), the head node is connected to
internalnet. When a cloud service is configured, the head node is also “connected” to the
CMDaemon-managed NetMap “network”. It is useful to think of NetMap as a special network, although it is actually a network mapping from the cloud to internalnet. That is, it connects (maps)
from the nodes in one or more cloud networks such as the us-east-1 network provided by Amazon,
to IP addresses provided by netmap. The mapping is set up when a cloud extension is set up. With
this mapping, packets using NetMap go from the cloud, via an OpenVPN connection to the NetMap IP
address. Once the packets reach the OpenVPN interface for that address, which is actually on the head
node, they are forwarded via Shorewall’s IPtables rules to their destination nodes on internalnet.
With default settings, nodes on the network internalnet and nodes in a cloud network such as
us-east-1 are both resolved with the help of the cm.cluster domain defined in globalnet. For a
cluster with default settings and using the cloud network us-east-1, the resolution of the IP address
of 1. a regular node and 2. a regular cloud node, takes place as follows:
1. node001, a regular node in the internalnet network, is resolved for node001.cm.cluster
to
(a) 10.141.0.1, when at the head node. The cluster manager assigns this address, which is on
internalnet. It could also be an ibnet address instead, such as 10.149.0.1, if InfiniBand has been configured for the nodes instead of Ethernet.
(b) 172.31.0.1 when at the cloud director or regular cloud node. The cluster manager assigns
this address, which is a NetMap address. It helps route from the cloud to a regular node. It is
not actually an IP address on the interface of the regular node, but it is convenient to think of
it as being the IP address of the regular node.
2. cnode001, a regular cloud
cnode001.cm.cluster to:
node
in
the
us-east-1
network,
is
resolved
for
(a) 172.21.0.1 when at the head node. The cluster manager assigns this address, which is an
OpenVPN tunnel address on us-east-1.
(b) an IP address within 10.0.0.0/8 (10.0.0.1–10.255.255.254) when at a regular cloud node or at a
cloud director. The Amazon cloud network service assigns the addresses in this network to
the cloud director and regular cloud nodes.
An explanation of the networks mentioned in the preceding list follows:
• The nodes within all available cloud networks (all networks such as for example, us-east-1,
us-west-1, and so on) are given CMDaemon-assigned addresses in the cloud node space range
172.16.0.0–172.30.255.255. In CIDR notation that is: 172.16.0.0/12 (172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255), except for 172.31.0.0/16 (172.31.0.0–172.31.255.255).
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Cloud Considerations And Issues With Bright Cluster Manager
• The network address space 172.31.0.0/16 (172.31.0.0–172.31.255.255) is taken by the CMDaemonassigned NetMap network, explained shortly. The addressing scheme for each cloud network is
assigned as suggested in figure 3.5.
• Each node in a cloud network is also assigned an address in the network addressing space provided by Amazon. The assignment of IP addresses to nodes within the 10.0.0.0/8 range is decided
by Amazon via DHCP.
• The netmap “network” (figure 5.1) is a helper mapping reserved for use in routing from the
cloud (that is, from a cloud director or a cloud node) to a regular node. The mapping uses the
172.31.0.0/16 addressing scheme. Its routing is asymmetrical, that is, a NetMap mapping from a
regular node to the cloud does not exist. Packets from a regular node to the cloud do however
resolve to the cloud network as indicated by 2(a) in the preceding.
External Network
10.141.0.2
cnode001
172.21.0.1
Amazon IP (10.0.0.0/8)
cnode002
172.31.0.1
node002
10.141.0.1
node001
Internal Network
10.141.0.0/16
cloud director:
172.21.255.251
Amazon IP (10.0.0.0/8)
netmap
172.31.0.0/16
head node:
172.21.255.254
172.31.255.254
10.141.255.254
external IP
us-east-1 network
172.21.0.0
172.21.0.2
Amazon IP (10.0.0.0/8)
172.31.0.2
=route via netmap
Figure 5.1: NetMap In Relation To The General Network Scheme
As pointed out in the introduction to this section (5.4), the main reason for the IP addressing network
scheme used is to avoid IP address conflicts between nodes within the cloud and nodes outside the
cloud.
The difference in resolution of the IP address for the nodes as listed in points 1 and 2 in the preceding
text is primarily to get the lowest overhead route between the source and destination of the packet
being routed. Thus, for example, a packet gets from the regular cloud node to the cloud director with
less overhead if using the Amazon cloud IP addressing scheme (10.0.0.0/8) than if using the Bright
OpenVPN addressing scheme (172.21.0.0/16). A secondary reason is convenience and reduction of
networking complexity. For example, a node in the cloud may shut down and start up, and get an
arbitrary Amazon IP address, but using an OpenVPN network such as us-east-1 allows it to retain
its OpenVPN address and thus stay identified instead of having the properties that have been assigned
to it under Bright Cluster Manager become useless.
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Virtual Private Clouds
A virtual private cloud is an implementation of a cluster on a virtual network in a cloud service provider.
The Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) is an implementation of such a virtual private cloud.
The Amazon VPC is documented more fully at http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/
UserGuide/using-vpc.html.
Managing VPCs would normally require significant networking expertise. Bright Cluster Manager
makes it easier to do this, so that the administrator can focus on using them productively, instead of on
working out VPC configurations.
The following VPC-related terms are explained and compared in this chapter:
• EC2-Classic (page 51)
• EC2-VPC (page 51)
• classic cloud (page 52)
• defaultVPC (page 52)
• private cloud (page 52)
• custom VPC (page 52)
• elastic IP addresses (page 56)
6.1
EC2-Classic And EC2-VPC
6.1.1 EC2-Classic Vs EC2-VPC Overview
So far, this manual has discussed configuring clusters within Amazon EC2. The EC2 designation actually covers two kinds of platforms:
• EC2-Classic: This platform provides an environment that corresponds to a physical network. Instances in the same region exist on the same physical network and rely on explicitly configured
security groups to restrict unauthorized access from other instances on the same network. A cloud
instance that is created in such a network can be called a classic cloud cluster, or simply a cloud
cluster.
Amazon is gradually phasing out the EC2-Classic platform.
• EC2-VPC: This platform is replacing EC2-Classic. It provides an environment corresponding to an
isolated virtual network. A cloud cluster instance implemented on this virtual network is thus a
virtual private cloud, or VPC, as described at the start of this section (section 6).
The EC2-VPC platform offers some extra features that are not available, or not as easy to configure,
on the EC2-Classic platform:
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Virtual Private Clouds
– Multiple VPCs can be configured per region
– The inherent isolation of Amazon VPCs makes them more secure by default
– their network properties can be customized
The isolated network design of a VPC means that instances started within a VPC cannot by default
communicate with instances outside. Elastic IP addresses (page 56) are used to explicitly allow communication with the outside.
6.1.2 EC2-Classic Vs EC2-VPC And AWS Account Creation Date
The type of platform that can be accessed by an AWS account varies as indicated by the following table:
Account Creation Date
Typical Platform Offered
Before start of 2013
EC2-Classic only
In first half of 2013
EC2-Classic or EC2-VPC*
After first half of 2013
EC2-VPC only, in most or all regions
*Typically depends on the region accessed.
Most new AWS accounts do not provide an EC2-Classic platform. However, to maintain backward
compatibility for users who are migrating to EC2-VPC, and who have applications that run on the EC2Classic platform, Amazon provides the defaultVPC instance on the EC2-VPC platform.
6.1.3 The Classic Cloud And The DefaultVPC Instances
The classic cloud is a cloud instance that EC2-Classic supports.
The defaultVPC instance is a special VPC instance that emulates EC2-Classic behavior on the EC2VPC platform. This allows legacy applications that do not support EC2-VPC to run on it. A legacy
application that runs in a defaultVPC instance may be thought of as having its EC2-Classic API calls
translated into EC2-VPC API calls. The defaultVPC instance is available in all regions that do not offer
the EC2-Classic platform.
There is one major difference between the network environments of EC2-Classic and the defaultVPC instance: For EC2-Classic instances, the base address of network inside Amazon is 10.0.0.0/8. In
contrast, for defaultVPC instances the base address is 172.31.0.0/16.
When creating a new cloud provider account, Bright Cluster Manager automatically detects which
regions offer the EC2-Classic platform, and which do not. The suggested base address of the cloud
network that is to be created is then automatically matched according to the regions. The platform
supported, EC2-Classic or EC2-VPC, is also displayed in cmgui when the cloud director is being created.
A few Amazon AWS accounts provide the EC2-Classic platform for only a certain subset of all available regions, and provide EC2-VPC in other regions. In such a case, when a new cloud provider account
is created in Bright Cluster Manager with a cloud director in both types of platforms, then two cloud
networks can be created. If only a single cloud director is run, then only one network is created, and the
network base address in that case depends on the platform, EC2-Classic or EC2-VPC, that it is run on.
However, if two cloud directors are started up, with each cloud director on a different platform, then
one cloud director runs on one platform and associated network, and the other cloud director on the
other platform and associated network.
6.1.4 The Private Cloud And Custom VPC Instances
A private cloud (without the “virtual” in front) is the term used in the Bright Cluster Manager manuals,
as well as by Amazon, and in general, for a general VPC instance.
A custom VPC is the term used in the manual to mean a general VPC instance, but one that is not a
defaultVPC instance.
Thus, in terms of math sets:
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6.2 Comparison Of EC2-Classic And EC2-VPC Platforms
53
private clouds = custom VPCs + defaultVPCs
In the context of Amazon VPCs, the term private cloud is often used by administrators, by convention and for convenience, to mean the more precise term of custom VPC as defined here, implicitly ignoring possible defaultVPC instances. The Bright Cluster Manager software itself also follows
this convention. In this chapter of the manual (6), however, using the term “private cloud” for this is
avoided, and the terms are adhered to precisely as defined, in order to avoid confusion.
Attempting to change a defaultVPC instance to a custom VPC instance by editing defaultVPC properties directly with Bright Cluster Manager is not possible, because these properties are hidden behind
the EC2-Classic facade. This kind of change can be done via the Amazaon Webconsole instead. If Bright
Cluster Manager requires that the custom VPC functionality of a general VPC instance is needed in
Amazon VPC, then a custom VPC has to be created within Bright Cluster Manager. How to do this is
described in section 6.3.
6.1.5 Cloud Cluster Terminology Summary
The cluster terminology used so far can be summarized as follows:
cluster term
platform
type and connectivity
classic cloud
EC2-Classic
classic cloud cluster that has direct connectivity to the outside
defaultVPC
EC2-VPC
a VPC that looks like it has direct connectivity to the outside because
it emulates a classic cloud cluster
custom VPC
EC2-VPC
isolated VPC with no connectivity to the outside by default, and
NAT gateway connectivity to the outside when made to connect
private cloud
EC2-VPC
both defaultVPC and custom VPC
6.2
Comparison Of EC2-Classic And EC2-VPC Platforms
There are several differences between EC2-Classic and EC2-VPC platforms. The most important ones
are:
• Cloud nodes created inside the EC2-VPC platform do not have an external (public) IP address
assigned to them by default. An exception to this is the case of nodes running in a defaultVPC
instance, which emulates EC2-Classic network behaviour. Having no public IP address by default
allows for a greater degree of out-of-the-box security.
• Custom VPCs are self-contained and securely isolated from the instance of other users.
• Custom VPCs are partitioned into multiple network segments, called subnets (section 6.3.1).
• It is possible to specify a custom base network address for the custom VPC. This is in contrast to
the EC2-Classic platform, where a base network address always has the value of 10.0.0.0/8. For a
defaultVPC instance the base network address takes the value of 172.31.0.0/8.
6.3
Setting Up And Creating A Custom VPC
By default, when Bright Cluster Manager creates a new cloud provider account, the cloud nodes created
are EC2-Classic instances or defaultVPC instances inside the EC2-VPC platform. That is, they are not
nodes in a custom VPC instance. This default behavior is expect to change in a later version of Bright
Cluster Manager as Amazon and Bright Cluster Manager both evolve.
Bright Cluster Manager can be set to create custom VPC instances inside the EC2-VPC platform. The
EC2-VPC platform is recommended for all new cloudbursting setups.
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Virtual Private Clouds
6.3.1 Subnets In A Custom VPC
The components of a custom VPC include subnets, the nodes that run in them, and static IP addresses.
The subnets are logical network segments within the network range of that custom VPC. Subnets can be
thought of as interconnected with a central “magic” router, with Bright Cluster Manager managing the
routing tables on that router. The routing ensures correct subnet communication. Inside Bright Cluster
Manager, subnets are represented as a type of network (section 3.2 of the Administrator Manual), with a
value for type set to CLOUD.
Subnets for a custom VPC must have non-overlapping ranges. If there are multiple custom VPCs
being managed by Bright Cluster Manager, then a particular subnet may be assigned to one custom
VPC at the most.
Two series of valid network ranges could be:
Example
1.
10.0.0.0-10.0.31.255 (10.0.0.0/19),
10.0.32.0-10.0.63.255 (10.0.32.0/19),
10.0.64.0-10.0.95.255 (10.0.64.0/19).
2.
192.168.0.0-192.168.0.255 (192.168.0.0/24),
192.168.1.0-192.168.1.255 (192.168.1.0/24).
The sipcalc command (page 58 of the Administrator Manual) is a useful tool for calculating appropriate subnet ranges. At least one subnet must be assigned to a custom VPC before an instance can be
created in that cloud. Typically two or more subnets are assigned, as shown in the custom VPC creation
example in the following section.
6.3.2 Creating The Custom VPC
After subnets have been configured, a custom VPC can be created by specifying:
• the name
• the default region
• base address
• number of netmask bits
The network of the custom VPC must obviously be a superset of its subnets. Any subnets of the
custom VPC must also be specified. Subnets can be added to or removed from an already-created
custom VPC, but only if any cloud node instances within them are terminated first.
There are several ways to set up and create the subnets and custom VPC instance in Bright Cluster
Manager:
1. by using the command line cm-cloud-setup-private-cloud utility,
2. by using the cmgui private cloud creation dialog box,
3. by manually creating and configuring the private cloud object using cmsh.
These are described next:
1. Subnet Setup And Custom VPC Instance Creation Using cloud-setup-private-cloud
Once the cloud provider account has been configured, using the cm-cloud-setup utility (section 4.1),
or by using the cmgui wizard (section 3.1), the cm-cloud-setup-private-cloud utility can then
be run to set up a custom VPC.
The utility prompts the user to choose a cloud provider account, a region to create the VPC in, and
the base address of the VPC. It goes on to create the custom VPC, and finishes by prompting whether to
move any eligible cloud nodes to the custom VPC.
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6.3 Setting Up And Creating A Custom VPC
55
2. Subnet Setup And Custom VPC Creation Using cmgui
For the cloud provider resource item, inside the Private Clouds tab, clicking the Add button launches
a dialog box to create a custom VPC.
3. Subnet Setup And Custom VPC Creation Using cmsh
Similarly with cmsh, the subnets to be used for the custom VPC are created first, before creating the
private cloud, as shown in the following examples.
• Subnet creation and cloning: In the following example session, an arbitrary naming scheme is
used for subnets, with a pattern of: <name of custom VPC>-sn-<number>. Here, sn is an
arbitrary abbreviation for “subnet”:
Example
[bright71->network]% add vpc-0-sn-0
[bright71->network*[vpc-0-sn-0*]]% set type cloud
[bright71->network*[vpc-0-sn-0*]]% set baseaddress 10.0.0.0
[bright71->network*[vpc-0-sn-0*]]% set netmaskbits 24
[bright71->network*[vpc-0-sn-0*]]% set ec2availabilityzone eu-west-1a
[bright71->network*[vpc-0-sn-0*]]% commit
Setting the ec2availabilityzone property is optional. It causes the subnet to be created in a
specific availability zone. Leaving its value empty creates the subnet inside a randomly chosen
availability zone. Having all subnets of the custom VPC inside the same availability zone is advised for better network performance. The availability zone set for the network must be one of the
availability zones available for the region inside which the private cloud will be created.
Once the first subnet has been created, it can be cloned:
Example
[bright71->network]% clone vpc-0-sn-0 vpc-0-sn-1
[bright71->network*[vpc-0-sn-1*]]% set baseaddress 10.0.1.0
[bright71->network*[vpc-0-sn-1*]]% commit
• Custom VPC creation: The following example session in the privateclouds submode of the
cloud mode, creates a private cloud called vpc-0. The private cloud is actually a custom VPC
according to the strict definition of a private cloud instance in the section on page 52. It is of type
ec2 and within a network that contains the two subnets specified earlier.
Example
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]->privateclouds]%
[bright71->...->privateclouds]% add ec2privatecloud vpc-0
[bright71->...->privateclouds*[vpc-0*]]% set region eu-west-1
[bright71->...*[vpc-0*]]% set baseaddress 10.10.0.0
[bright71->...*[vpc-0*]]% set netmaskbits 16
[bright71->...*[vpc-0*]]% set subnets vpc-0-sn-0 vpc-0-sn-1
[bright71->...*[vpc-0*]]% commit
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Virtual Private Clouds
6.3.3 Elastic IP Addresses And Their Use In Configuring Static IP Addresses
Unlike defaultVPC and EC2-Classic instances, a custom VPC instance does not have an externally visible
(public) IP address assigned to it by Amazon by default. Without an externally visible IP address, the
custom VPC cannot communicate with the internet, and it cannot even be an endpoint to an outside
connection. To solve this issue, Amazon elastic IP addresses (EIPs) can be used to assign a public IP
address to a custom VPC cloud.
EIP addresses are the public IP addresses that Amazon provides for the AWS account. These addresses are associated with defaultVPC and EC2-Classic cloud instances by Amazon by default. These
addresses can also be associated with custom VPC instances. The public addresses in the set of addresses
can then be used to expose the custom VPC instance. In this manual and in Bright Cluster Manager, EIPs
are referred to as “static IPs” in the cloud context. When allocating a static IP addres, the exact IP address that is allocated is a random IP address from the set of all public IP addresses made available in
the specified region by the configured cloud provider.
Automatic allocation of static IP addresses:
When a cloud director instance is started inside a custom VPC, CMDaemon automatically allocates and
assigns a static IP address to it. By default, the static IP address is automatically released when the cloud
director instance is terminated. This behavior can be changed in the CMDaemon cloud settings for the
cloud director.
Manual allocation of static IP addresses:
It is also possible to manually allocate a static IP address to a cloud director using cmgui or cmsh.
Allocating a static IP address in cmsh is done using the staticip allocate command, followed
by the string indicating the region in which the static IP address is to be allocated. In cmsh, the command
is issued inside a cloud provider object. A new static IP address is then made available and can be
assigned to instances running within custom VPCs.
After allocation, the static IP address can be assigned and reassigned to any instance inside any
custom VPC created within the region in which the IP address was allocated.
Example
[bright71] cloud use amazonec2
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]% staticip allocate us-west-1
Allocating Static IP. Please wait...
Successfully allocated the following static IP: 54.215.158.42
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]% staticip list
Cloud Provider
Cloud Region Static IP
Assigned to
---------------- ------------- -------------- --------------Amazon EC2
us-west-1
54.215.158.42 <not assigned>
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]%
An allocated static IP can be released with the staticip release command in cmsh:
Example
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]% staticip release 54.215.158.42
Releasing static IP 54.215.158.42. Please wait...
Successfully released the static ip.
[bright71->cloud[Amazon EC2]]%
Once the IP address has been released, it may no longer be used for instances defined in the custom
VPC.
The staticips command lists all allocated static IPs for all configured cloud providers.
The staticip list command lists static IP addresses for the currently active cloud provider object.
In cmgui the static IPs can be managed via the “Static IPs” tab of a cloud provider object.
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6.3.4 Subnets With Static IP Addresses In A Custom VPC Recommendation
Subnets can be set up in many ways inside a custom VPC. The following is recommended:
• There must be exactly one network containing all the instances which have static IP addresses.
This network should contain the cloud director. The network with the cloud director is arbitrarily
referred to as the “public” network.
• There must be zero or more networks containing instances with no static IP addresses assigned to
them. Such networks are arbitrarily referred to as the “private” subnets.
Instances in the private subnets have no static IP addresses assigned to them, so by default they do
not communicate with outside networks. To allow them to connect to the outside, the cloud director
instance is automatically configured by CMDaemon as a NAT gateway for outside-bound traffic, for the
instances existing inside the private subnets.
6.3.5 Assignment Of Nodes To Subnets And Cloud Platforms
A cloud node instance is connected to a network by its eth0 interface. The network is one of those
covered in following table, that is: classic physical, classic emulated, or subnet of a custom VPC.
what cloud is the eth0
cloud instance type and network
interface connected to?
that the node joins
classic cloud
classic cloud cluster instance, in classic physical network (10.0.0.0/8)
defaultVPC
defaultVPC instance, in classic emulated network (172.31.0.0/8)
custom VPC
inside VPC instance, in the connected subnet (if any) of that network
Therefore, when the cloud node is being created inside EC2, the CMDaemon must tell the EC2 environment which of these networks is going to be attached to the eth0 interface of the newly created cloud
node.
This information is deduced by CMDaemon by looking at the interface configuration of the cloud
node Bright Cluster Manager. More specifically, it is deduced from the value set for network in the
cloud node’s eth0 interface settings.
If that network is part of a custom VPC, that is, if it is a subnet, then the node starts inside the custom
VPC instance. Otherwise, it starts inside the EC2-Classic or defaultVPC instance in that region.
For example, the cloud director node is started inside the vpc-0-sn-0 network in the following
session. It is considered a custom VPC node, and starts up inside the EC2-VPC platform:
Example
[bright71->device[us-west-1-director]->interfaces]% list
Type
Network device name IP
Network
------------ -------------------- ---------------- ---------physical
eth0 [dhcp]
0.0.0.0
vpc-0-sn-0
tunnel
tun0 [prov]
172.18.255.251
us-west-1
In contrast, if the cloud network assigned to the eth0 interface is the cloud network representing
the network environment of an EC2-Classic or defaultVPC cloud, then the node is considered to be an
EC2-Classic node. It then starts up inside the EC2-Classic platform by default:
Example
[bright71->device[us-west-1-director]->interfaces]% list
Type
Network device name IP
Network
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Virtual Private Clouds
------------ -------------------- ---------------- ---------physical
eth0 [dhcp]
0.0.0.0
cloud
tunnel
tun0 [prov]
172.18.255.251
us-west-1
Once a cloud node instance has been instantiated inside a specified subnet it cannot be reassigned to
a different subnet, nor can it be reassigned to a different custom VPC. The cloud instance must first be
terminated and reconfigured. Only then can it be powered on inside a different subnet.
6.3.6 Creating A Cloud Director In A Custom VPC
To create a cloud director in a custom VPC using cmgui, the cloud director must first be created inside
the EC2-Classic platform region in which the custom VPC is created. This can be done via the Add
Cloud Director button inside the Overview tab of a cloud provider account. After this has been
done, the cloud director must be moved from the EC2-Classic platform to the custom VPC, as explained
in section 6.3.8.
6.3.7 Creating Cloud Compute nodes In A Custom VPC
Creating cloud compute nodes inside a custom VPC can be done in a similar way to creating cloud
compute nodes for the EC2-Classic platform. That is, by clicking the Create Cloud Nodes button in
the overview tab of the cloud provider in cmgui. However, to create a cloud node inside the custom
VPC, a subnet of the custom VPC must be specified when selecting the network of the eth0 interface of
the node. To avoid confusion, it is sensible to make this a different subnet from the one in which the
cloud director node for that particular custome VPC is assigned.
An alternative solution to creating cloud compute nodes in a custom VPC is to instruct the cluster
manager to automatically move the existing ones while also moving the cloud director to the custom
VPC, as explained in the following section.
6.3.8 Moving Existing Nodes To A Custom VPC
After a custom VPC has been configured, it is possible to automatically reconfigure the existing cloud
nodes to make them start inside that custom VPC. This is an alternative to creating new nodes inside the
custom VPC from scratch. An existing cloud director can be moved to a custom VPC cloud using the
Move Cloud Director button in cmgui. This button can be clicked in the Overview tab of a cloud
provider account, and it opens up a dialog box. After completion of the dialog, the cloud director is
moved to a custom VPC in the same region. It can also move any other cloud compute nodes managed
by the selected cloud director.
Moving a node to a custom VPC effectively terminates the current EC2 instance, and creates a new
one inside the target custom VPC.
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