Pneumocystis

In vitro Diagnostic Use:
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx3000 series
Respiratory Samples
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx 3000 series
Respiratory Samples
REF 080-035
Intended Use:
MycAssay™ Pneumocystis is indicated for use by qualified laboratory professionals for
the qualitative detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii genomic DNA extracted from
respiratory specimens from the lower respiratory tract (e.g., bronchial samples) as an
aid to diagnosis in adult patients suspected of having P. jirovecii pneumonia.
MycAssay™ Pneumocystis has been validated for use with the Stratagene Mx3000
series instruments, either Mx3000P® or Mx3005P®, in combination with MxPro software
version 4.10.
Summary and Explanation
Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly carinii) pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic
pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, especially those with advanced HIV
infection and AIDS1. It is typically community acquired, and sub-acute in presentation,
leading to progressive respiratory failure and death2 if untreated. Prophylaxis with
trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (Bactrim or Septrin) is routinely given to many at risk
patients, a practice which has substantially reduced the incidence of PCP, but
breakthrough occurs and those who do not know they are HIV positive may present with
1
Morris A, Lundgren JD, Masur H, Walzer PD, Hanson DL, Frederick T, Huang L, Beard CB, Kaplan
JE. (2004). Current epidemiology of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis: 10: 1713-20.
2
Miller RF, Allen E, Copas A, Singer M, Edwards SG. Improved survival for HIV infected patients
with severe Pneumocystis jirovecii. pneumonia is independent of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Thorax 2006; 61:716-21.
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AIDS with PCP3. PCP also occurs in other immunocompromised patients, including
recipients of solid organ transplants, hypogammaglobulinaemia and chronic leukaemia.
Currently the diagnosis of PCP relies on microscopic methods as P. jirovecii cannot be
cultured in routine microbiology laboratories. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is the
preferred means of sample collection. Common methods for diagnosis include
immunofluorescence (IF) or direct fluorescence and histological staining of samples 4.
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis is a molecular diagnostic kit for the detection of P. jirovecii
based on Molecular Beacon5 PCR technology. The whole test procedure, including
extraction of DNA from the clinical sample, can be completed within 4 hours, or only 2
hours if extracted DNA is already available. This assay brings the direct benefit of
enhanced laboratory efficiency combined with a rapid test leading to likely clinical
benefits. The diagnostic accuracy of the test depends to a great extent on sample
quality.
Principles of the Assay
Following mixing of the reagents in the MycAssayTM Pneumocystis kit with a sample
containing Pneumocystis target DNA sequence, (a portion of the Pneumocystis
mitochondrial ribosomal large sub-unit), thermocycling will result in DNA amplification
occurring. The assay also contains an Internal Amplification Control (IAC) sequence, a
DNA fragment not present in Pneumocystis, other fungal, bacterial or human genomes,
to detect PCR inhibitory substances and confirm the functionality of the assay reagents.
The amplified DNA targets are detected with Molecular Beacons, single-stranded
oligonucleotide hybridization probes that form a stem-and-loop structure. The loop
contains a probe sequence that is complementary to a target sequence, and the stem is
formed by the annealing of complementary arm sequences that are located on either
side of the probe sequence. A fluorophore, which fluoresces when excited by light of the
appropriate wavelength, is covalently linked to the end of one arm and a quencher,
which suppresses the fluorescence of the fluorophore when in close physical proximity,
is covalently linked to the end of the other arm. Molecular Beacons do not fluoresce
when they are free in solution. However, when they hybridise to a nucleic acid strand
containing a target sequence they undergo a conformational change that enables them
3
Kovacs JA, Gill VJ, Meshnick S, Masur H. (2001). New insights into transmission, diagnosis, and
drug treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. JAMA: 286: 2450-60.
4
Huang L, Morris A, Limper AH, Beck JM; ATS Pneumocystis Workshop Participants. An Official
ATS Workshop Summary: Recent advances and future directions in pneumocystis pneumonia
(PCP). Proc Am Thorac Soc 2006;3:655-64.
5
Tyagi S, Kramer FR. (1996). Molecular beacons: Probes that fluoresce upon hybridization. Nature
Biotechnology: 14: 303-308.
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to fluoresce. The amount of fluorescence at any given cycle, or following cycling,
depends on the amount of specific amplicons present at that time. The Stratagene RealTime PCR System simultaneously monitors the fluorescence emitted by each beacon.
Precautions
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The kit is for in vitro diagnostic use.
The kit is intended for use only by laboratory professionals. Procedures are required
for non-aerosol manipulations of specimens. Standard precautions and institutional
guidelines should be followed in handling all samples. A Material Safety Data Sheet
is available from Myconostica Ltd.
This test is only for use with the Stratagene Mx3000 series with MxPro software
version 4.10.
During validation studies we have noted the following specific to this
instrument;
o
If the instrument has been used immediately before, please allow the
lamp to cool for at least 1 hour before setting up a MycAssayTM
Pneumocystis run, otherwise there can be a loss in sensitivity resulting
in false negatives.
o There is less precision at low concentrations at and around the clinical
cut-off relative to other instruments we have tested
Do not use reagents or controls if the protective pouches are open or broken upon
arrival.
Reagents and controls are not interchangeable between kits with differing lot
numbers.
Never pool reagents or controls from different tubes even if they are from the same
lot.
Never use the reagents or controls after their expiry date.
Reagents and controls should not be refrozen or reused after opening.
Wear protective clothing and disposable gloves while handling kit reagents.
Avoid microbial and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) contamination of reagents when
removing aliquots from tubes.
The use of sterile DNase-free, low-retention disposable filter-tipped or positive
displacement pipette tips is recommended.
Use a new tip for each specimen or reagent.
Dispose of unused reagents and waste in accordance with country, federal, state
and local regulations.
To avoid contamination with Pneumocystis or IAC amplicons, do not open the
reaction tubes post-amplification.
Do not eat, drink or smoke in areas where specimens or kit reagents are being
handled.
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 Low concentrations of DNA can be unstable if not stored correctly. It is
recommended that DNA extractions are stored at -80oC to preserve their integrity.
Multiple rounds of thawing and refreezing should also be avoided whenever
possible.
 This kit was validated using 0.2ml 8-strip optical PCR tubes and caps (Agilent
Technologies Cat # 401428 & 401425). Use of other sources/types of plastic could
invalidate the thresholds and, therefore, the claims made in the IFU. It is
recommended that should an alternative source be used, that local validation
should be conducted with the positive and negative control reactions.
Kit Contents
Description
The kit consists of five 3-compartment sealed foil pouches, each of which can be used
separately. Each pouch contains sufficient reagents for 8 reactions.
Volume
Tube 1
dNTPs
(Orange Cap) MgCl2
Buffered solution of DNA Polymerase complex
66 µL
Tube 2
(Blue Cap)
<0.01% Primers
<0.01% Molecular Beacons
<0.0001% Internal Amplification Control (IAC)
The IAC is a recombinant DNA plasmid harbouring a noninfective sequence unrelated to either target (Pneumocystis)
sequence
Tris-HCl Buffer
66 µL
Tube 3
(Clear Cap)
Negative Control
Water
25 µL
Tube 4
(Black Cap)
Positive Control
<0.0001% Positive Control DNA
The Positive Control molecule is a recombinant plasmid
harbouring the Pneumocystis target sequences
Tris-HCl Buffer
25 µL
The kit also contains:
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MycAssayTM Pneumocystis Myconostica Protocol CD-ROM

Instructions for Use

Certificate of Analysis
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MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx 3000 series
Storage
The kit should be stored frozen (-15 to -25 °C) until the expiry date indicated on the kit
box label, at which time it should be disposed of according to local regulations.
Once a pouch has been opened, the contents must be used immediately, not re-frozen
or re-used.
Equipment/Materials required and not provided
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Stratagene Mx3000 series Real-Time PCR System (including user manual,
attached computer and MxPro software version 4.10).
Optical PCR strip tubes (Agilent Technologies, Cat. no: 401428)
Optical PCR strip caps (Agilent Technologies, Cat. no: 401425)
Micro centrifuge with 0.2 mL PCR tube adapter.
Vortex mixer
Support rack for PCR tubes.
Micropipettes (volumes required 7.5 µL – 20 µL)
Sterile low-retention filtertips
Disposable gloves, powderless
Proprietary DNA decontaminating solution
Permanent marker pen
DNA isolation kit (see below)
Specimen
The specimen for the MycAssayTM Pneumocystis assay is total DNA extracted from
clinical BAL samples. The following DNA isolation kit and equipment, supplied by
Myconostica Ltd., is recommended for this purpose and was used during validation:
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MycXtra® Fungal DNA Extraction kit (REF: 080-005 available from
Myconostica)
Vortex-Genie 2 (Scientific Industries Inc., New York, USA)
Vortex Adapter Plate (REF: 080-015 available from Myconostica)
Procedural Notes
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Read the entire protocol before commencing
The entire MycAssayTM Pneumocystis process (excluding DNA extraction) takes
approximately 2 hours, dependent on the number of samples tested.
Setting up of the test should be performed in a PCR workstation or pre-PCR
laboratory. If a PCR workstation is not available, then the test should be set-up in a
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dedicated area of the laboratory6, which is regularly cleaned with DNA
decontaminating reagents.
 However, avoid using DNA decontaminating reagents during the Real-Time PCR
set-up as they can inhibit the assay.
 Use micropipettes for the transfer of fluids. Dedicated micropipettes should be used
for the set-up of these reactions and they should be regularly decontaminated.
 Low-retention filter-tips are recommended for use to ensure that no DNA is lost
during the set-up procedure.
 Exercise caution when handling Tube 4. This contains template DNA material
and contamination could result in false positive test results.
 Wear gloves at all times.
 All tubes must be capped following use and prior to disposal.
 Accurately note the positions of samples when multiple samples are being
processed.
 Please allow the lamp to cool for at least 1 hour after a run before setting up
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis to minimise false negative results. Following this
cooling period, the lamp will require a 20 minute warm up period as noted in 1.1
below.
Procedure for Use:
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
Real-Time PCR Set-Up
To begin, switch on the Stratagene Mx3000 series Real-Time PCR System
(instrument and associated computer) and launch the MxPro 4.10 software.
Enter usernames and passwords if required. The lamp will require 20 minutes
to warm up. Do not start the run until the lamp is ready.
Ensure the work area has been cleaned using DNA decontaminating reagents
and allowed to dry completely; avoid use during assay set-up as excess
cleaning solution may inhibit the PCR reactions.
A pouch contains one each of Tube 1, Tube 2, Tube 3 and Tube 4. There are
sufficient reagents in one pouch to run 8 reactions. At least one positive
control and one negative control reaction must be performed per run where
the reagents are from a single kit lot. One pouch therefore can analyse 6 test
samples. If more than 6 Patient samples need to be tested, more than one
pouch can be used if the pouches used are from the same kit lot. A maximum
of 38 Patient samples may be tested using the 5 pouches in a kit.
6
For example see Mifflin, T. E. (2003). Setting up a PCR Laboratory. In PCR Primer, 2nd Ed. (eds.
Dieffenbach and Dveksler). Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbour, NY. USA.
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1.4
Calculate the number of reactions required, referring to the table below:
Number of Pouches
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
Maximum number of Patient samples
1
6
2
14
3
22
4
30
5
38
Remove the appropriate number of pouches from the freezer. Do not use any
pouch that is no longer sealed. If the Patient samples were frozen after
extraction, also remove these from the freezer.
Tear open the required number of pouches and remove the tubes. If more
than one pouch is being used, but only one set of positive and negative
controls are being run, it is only necessary to remove Tubes 3 and 4 from one
pouch. Exercise caution when handling Tube 4. This contains positive
control DNA material and contamination could cause false positive test
results.
Allow the tubes’ contents to thaw by placing on the laboratory bench for 5-10
minutes, ensuring that the contents of each tube are completely thawed
before proceeding. Vortex to mix the tubes’ contents and the Patient samples;
follow by a short spin in a microcentrifuge to ensure collection of all the
contents at the base of the tubes before use.
Place the required number of PCR tubes in the support rack.
Always set up the negative control first, followed by the test samples. The
positive control should always be set up last.
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1.10
Reagent and DNA volumes are shown in the table below:
Reaction
Reagent
Negative
control
Patient
sample
Positive
control
Tube 1 (Orange cap)
7.5 µL
7.5 µL
7.5 µL
Tube 2 (Blue cap)
7.5 µL
7.5 µL
7.5 µL
Tube 3 (Clear cap)
10 µL
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Patient Sample
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10 µL
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Tube 4 (Black cap)
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10 µL
25 µL
25 µL
25 µL
Total volume
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
Add reagents in the order shown in the table above; Tube 1, then Tube 2,
followed by the template (Negative control, Test sample, or Positive control).
Take care when taking aliquots from Tube 1; the liquid is slightly viscous and
can stick on the inner ridge of the tube. If this happens, re-spin to collect the
final contents in the base of the tube before attempting to remove the final
aliquots.
Use a new pipette tip for every liquid transfer. Re-cap each reagent tube after
use and immediately discard it, and any remaining contents, into a sealable
clinical waste container. Unused reagents cannot be saved for later use.
Take extra care when pipetting Tube 4 (positive control DNA) to ensure it
does not contaminate any other reaction tube. Closing the lids on the other
reaction tubes before opening Tube 4 can reduce the risk of crosscontamination.
Make sure all reaction tube caps are firmly closed. Make a note of the
positions of each sample in the strip tubes. Label the first tube of each strip if
more than one strip tubes are used. Spin down the reaction tubes for 10
seconds using a mini centrifuge with 0.2 mL PCR tube adapter. Visually check
that there are no bubbles present in the reaction mixtures.
Proceed to Section 2 promptly. MycAssayTM Pneumocystis reactions are
stable on the bench for up to 60 minutes.
Following the PCR set-up ensure the work area is thoroughly cleaned using
DNA decontaminating reagents.
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2.
Performing the run
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx 3000 series
2.1
2.2
2.3
Open up the MxPro software, version 4.10.
Insert the MycAssay Pneumocystis Myconostica Protocol CD-ROM
In the New Options menu, select the first option: Real Time: Quantitative
PCR (Multiple Standards), and click OK, as shown:
2.4
In the Plate Setup tab, click on the Import button on the right. Select the
MycAssay PNE Myconostica Protocol CD-ROM from the drop-down list in
Look-In: and then import the file named MycAssay Pneumocystis
v3_1.mxp. Click Finish. Once this is completed the Plate Setup should look
like this example;
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It is recommended that in those wells which are empty that the Well Type be
set to <blank> (from the Well Type drop-down list) to prevent refraction of
light from the plastic interfering with the signals from those wells which do
contain reactions.
Repeat the import process in the Thermal Profile Setup tab to import the
PCR program for this assay; set the Thermal Profile Design to Custom and
then Import from the same file as described in 2.4. Once this is completed
the Thermal Profile Setup should look like this example;
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2.7
2.8
2.9
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx 3000 series
In the Plate Setup tab, name the wells appropriately; Right click on a
highlighted well (or group of wells if replicates) and select Well Information
from the list of options. Type in the name of the sample used in that well in
the Name: section.
When all the wells are named appropriately, save the run, giving it an
appropriate file name that includes the date and the operator’s initials, and
then start the run by selecting the Run button on the top right of the screen in
the Instrument tab, followed by clicking on the Start button in the bottom
right corner.
Remember to allow the instrument to cool for at least 1 hour before starting at
step 1.1 again.
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3.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
3.1
Once the run has finished, the results can be viewed by selecting the
Analysis button on the top right of the screen, followed by the Results tab.
With the Amplification Plots analysis area selected, set the thresholds for
each channel as follows, and lock by clicking on the padlock icon;
PNE = 500
IAC = 100
The Adaptive Baseline should also be selected; this is usually the default
setting for this software.
Save the changes. Each channel can be viewed separately by clicking the
boxes in the Assays Shown section in the bottom left of the screen on or off.
Data can be exported for further manipulation in to Excel by File>Export Text
Report>Export Text Report to Excel. Only those wells/dyes which have
been highlighted will be exported, so ensure that all relevant/required
wells/dyes are selected.
Open the saved .csv file with Excel or similar spreadsheet software.
Analyse each sample, starting with the controls, as shown in the flowchart
below (details can also be found in the table shown beneath the flowchart):
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
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Stratagene Mx 3000 series
For in vitro Diagnostic Use
Respiratory Samples
Check the Negative Control
NO
Is the PNE Ct 39.0 or recorded as
No Ct?
Run is contaminated
ACTION: Repeat the run
YES
Check the Negative Control
NO
Is the IAC Ct 29.3-33.3?
Run failure
ACTION: Repeat the run
Run failure
YES
Check the Positive Control
NO
ACTION: Repeat the run
Is the PNE Ct 20.0-25.0?
YES
Positive for Pneumocystis DNA
YES
Check the Patient Sample
Is the PNE Ct < 39.0?
NO
Negative for Pneumocystis DNA
YES
Check the Patient Sample
Is the IAC Ct 29.3-33.3?
NO
IAC failure
ACTION: Repeat sample. If the same
result again suspect inhibitor present
in sample
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Sample
Negative
Control
Negative
Control
Negative
Control
Positive
Control
Positive
Control
Patient
Patient
Patient
PNE
MycAssay Ct
39.0 or
Undetected
39.0 or
Undetected
<39.0
For in vitro Diagnostic Use
Respiratory Samples
IAC
MycAssay Ct
Within 29.333.3
<29.3 or >33.3
Interpretation
Further Action
Negative Control
acceptable
Patient results
are valid
Repeat entire
run
Repeat entire
run
Patient results
are valid
Repeat entire
run
Report result:
Outcome 1
Report result:
Outcome 2
Repeat sample:
Outcome 3
Failure in
Negative Control
Within 29.333.3
N/A
Contamination
N/A
Failure in
Positive Control
39.0 or
Undetected
<39.0
Within 29.333.3.
N/A
39.0 or
Undetected
<29.3 or >33.3
Negative for
Pneumocystis
Positive for
Pneumocystis
IAC failure in
sample
Within 20.025.0
<20.0 or >25.0
Positive Control
acceptable
See Clinical Reporting (Outcome 1, 2 or 3)
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4.
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx 3000 series
Troubleshooting
4.1 The Negative Control has generated a positive signal in the FAM channel:

Contamination occurred during the set up. Results from the entire run cannot
be relied upon as accurate.

Repeat the entire run taking great care when adding the templates, in
particular, the Positive Control (Tube 4), to ensure that cross-contamination
does not occur.
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Make sure that the work area and instruments are properly decontaminated
before and after use.

The Negative Control was incorrectly positioned in the instrument.
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Take care that all the reactions are correctly annotated within the software,
and that the tube strips are placed into the machine in the correct orientation.

Non-recommended tubes or plates were used.
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Thresholds are only valid when using the recommended Agilent Technologies
PCR strip tubes and caps (Cat. # 401428 and 401425).
4.2 The Negative Control IAC Ct value is not within the acceptable range:

The PCR has been inhibited.
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Ensure that the work area and instruments are thoroughly dry after the use of
decontaminating agents prior to PCR set up.

The storage conditions of the kit did not comply with the instructions in the
Storage section of this IFU, or the kit has expired.

Please check correct storage conditions of the kit have been followed. Check
the expiry date of the reagents (see the kit box / pouch label) and repeat with
unexpired kit if necessary.

Either Tube 1 or 2 reagent was not added to the PCR reaction, or double the
amount of Tube 2 was added.

Repeat the run taking care in the set-up stage. Such errors can be detected
by seeing higher or lower levels of liquid in one reaction tube compared to
others.

Non-recommended tubes or plates were used.
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 Thresholds are only valid when using the recommended Agilent Technologies
PCR strip tubes and caps (Cat. # 401428 and 401425).
4.3 The Positive Control is negative/out of range:

The storage conditions of the kit did not comply with the instructions in the
Storage section of this IFU, or the kit has expired.

Please check correct storage conditions of the kit have been followed. Check
the expiry date of the reagents (see the kit box / pouch label) and repeat with
an unexpired kit if necessary.

An error occurred during setup and the Positive Control template (Tube 4)
was placed in the wrong reaction tube.

Repeat the run, taking great care during the set-up stage. Such errors can be
detected by seeing a higher level of liquid in one reaction, and a lower level in
another, compared to normal.

Either Tube 1 or 2 reagent was not added to the reaction.

Repeat the run taking care in the set-up stage. Such errors can be detected
by seeing lower levels of liquid in this reaction compared to others.

The Positive Control was incorrectly positioned in the instrument.

Take care that all the reactions are correctly annotated within the software,
and that the tube strips are placed into the machine in the correct orientation.

Non-recommended tubes or plates were used.

Thresholds are only valid when using the recommended Agilent Technologies
PCR strip tubes and caps (Cat. # 401428 and 401425).
4.4 Patient sample(s) gives “IAC failure”:

It is likely that the extracted test sample(s) contain PCR inhibitors.

We recommend that DNA is extracted using the MycXtra™ Fungal DNA
Extraction kit.
4.5 There are no results for any channel with any samples or controls:
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
The storage conditions of the kit did not comply with the instructions in the
Storage section of this IFU, or the kit has expired.

Please check correct storage conditions of the kit have been followed. Check
the expiry date of the reagents (see the kit box / pouch label) and repeat with
an unexpired kit if necessary.

The equipment used is not functioning optimally.

Please check that your Real-Time PCR instrument has an up-to-date service
history and has been fully calibrated as described in its Installation and
Maintenance Guide.

An incorrect protocol file was used during the software set up.

Please refer to Section 2 and choose the correct Protocol file, as specified for
each software type/version, from the Myconostica Protocol CD-ROM. Only
the file appropriate to the software can be loaded. Repeat the run using the
correct protocol file.
If you have further questions, or you experience any problems, please contact Technical
Support (productsupport@lab21.com)
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Performance Characteristics and Limitations
Mx3000 series Analytical Performance Data
The kit was initially validated using the Cepheid SmartCycler®. Certain of the assay
performance claims were re-validated on the Mx3005P® platform, using Optical PCR
tubes and caps (Agilent Technologies Cat # 401428 & 401425), and are reported below.
Analytical Sensitivity
Using the protocol described above, and a recombinant Pneumocystis DNA molecule
generated at Myconostica, the Limit of Detection (LoD) for Pneumocystis was
determined to be < 50 copies. This value was determined using a recombinant DNA
plasmid harboring the target sequence. The Pneumocystis target sequence is
mitochondrial, therefore, there will be numerous copies per cell, but it is not known how
many.
The following Performance Claims were established using the Cepheid
®
SmartCycler
Analytical Selectivity
Analytical selectivity was tested using DNA extracted from a variety of different fungal
and non-fungal species. The following species did not report out a positive result;
Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Blastomyces
capitatus, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cladosporium
spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Doratomyces microsporus, Fusarium solani,
Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhodotonila rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scedosporium
apiospermum, S. prolificans, Sporothrix schenkii, Trichosporon capitatum The following
bacterial species did not report a positive result; Bordetella pertussis, Corynebacterium
diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Lactobacillus plantarum,
Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Neisseria
meningitidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus
pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. salivarius.
Human genomic DNA does not report a positive result with this assay.
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Interfering Substances (contraindications for use)
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx 3000 series
The following compounds were tested at clinically relevant concentrations, and found
not to inhibit the assay; acteylcysteine, amphotericin, beclometasone dipropionate,
budesonide, colistimethate sodium, fluticasone propionate, formoterol fumarate
dehydrate, ipratropium bromide, lidocaine, mannitol, salbutamol sulphate, salmerterol,
septrin (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole), sodium chloride, sodium cromoglicate,
terbutaline and tobramycin.
Performance Evaluation
The clinical cut-off at a Ct of 39.0 was established following analysis of a set of clinical
samples sourced from different patient populations.
Clinical samples collected by bronchoaleveolar lavage (BAL) that had been obtained at
2 hospitals, extracted using the MycXtra® kit, and stored, were used to evaluate the
performance of the MycAssayTM Pneumocystis kit. Comparisons were made of the PCR
results to immunofluorescent microscopy.
PCR v Microscopy Diagnosis
Microscopy positive
PCR positive
45
PCR negative
2
0.96
Sensitivity
Microscopy negative
8
33
0.80
Specificity
0.85
0.94
PPV
NPV
Table 1: Diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MycAssay TM Pneumocystis kit
compared to immunofluorescent microscopy.
Table 1 represents data obtained from patients with diagnosed HIV, patients not
infected with HIV and patients with undetermined HIV status.
Patients with
Pneumocystis pneumonia have highly variable amounts of organism detectable; the
lower the Ct value the higher the likelihood of disease. Patients with HIV and
Pneumocystis pneumonia tend to have higher numbers of organisms detectable than
patients who are not infected with the virus, but the overlap is considerable. The scatter
plot in Figure 1 below demonstrates this overlap. For completion, as the data-set in
Table 1 included patients whose HIV status was unknown, the scatter plot for this group
is included in Figure 1 (column 3):
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For in vitro Diagnostic Use
Respiratory Samples
Category
1 = HIV+ / Microscopy+ ; 2 = HIV- / Microscopy+ ;
3 = HIV Unknown / Microscopy+ ; 4 = All Microscopy-
Figure 1: Scatter plot of Ct values obtained from DNA extracted from patient respiratory
samples. Four groups are described.
Clinical Reporting
The MycAssayTM Pneumocystis kit is intended as an aid to diagnosis of Pneumocystis
pneumonia. The results need to be taken in context of the clinical condition of the
patient and other diagnostic tests results.
The following are recommended reports, each depending on the assay result
interpretation.
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Outcome No 1
“Pneumocystis jirovecii not detected.”
MycAssayTM Pneumocystis
Stratagene Mx 3000 series
Outcome No 2
“Pneumocystis jirovecii detected. Positive result. State Ct value”
Outcome No 3
“Test failed; inhibitors or other unknown substance present.”
The lower the Ct value the higher the probability of disease. Ct values close to the cutoff of 39.0 are more likely to represent colonisation than infection, but some patients
may have disease with very little P. jirovecii present, representing a poor specimen,
prior treatment or the nature of fungal load in that particular patient.
Limitations of Procedure

The principal limitation of this procedure relates to the quality of the primary sample:
- If the sample is very small or not collected from the affected area of lung, the
test will be less sensitive and may be falsely negative.
- BAL samples should be centrifuged prior to DNA extraction from the pellet.
- Data also demonstrated that a reduction in the volume of supernatant used in
the extraction process, achieved by the centrifugation step, decreases the
proportion of inhibitors entering the system.

Clinical Performance Evaluation has not been confirmed using the MX3005P®
instrument.

While the MycXtra™ Fungal DNA extraction procedure is designed to remove PCR
inhibitors, not all drugs or patient populations have been evaluated.

The procedure has not been fully assessed with sputa nor has it been assessed
with induced saline samples or on samples from children.

False positive results may arise from external contamination of the original sample
or test. Such contamination could arise from P. jirovecii contaminated air, poor
experimental technique with respect to the positive control or external (especially
pipette) contamination with P. jirovecii DNA.
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Stratagene Mx3000 series
Respiratory Samples
 As a true positive result may be obtained from patients who are transiently or
persistently colonized by P. jirovecii; clinical judgment is required in interpretation of
the test result.
LICENSING
TopTaqTM Hot Start provided by QIAGEN. QIAGEN® is a registered trade mark of
Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany.
SmartCycler® is a registered Trademark of Cepheid, 904 Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale,
CA, 94089, USA.
This product is sold under license from the Public Health Research Institute, Newark,
New Jersey, USA and may be used under PHRI patent rights only for human in vitro
diagnostics.
Mx3000P® and Mx3005P® are registered trademarks of Stratagene. MxProTM is a
trademark of Stratagene.
Lab21,184 Cambridge Science Park,
Cambridge CB4 0GA , United Kingdom.
Telephone: +44 (0) 1638 552 882 Facsimile: +44 (0) 1638 552
375
Email: productsupport@lab21.com
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