OPERATING MANUAL Horizon® 11.14 #11068020 Horizon® 20.25

OPERATING MANUAL
Horizon® 11.14
#11068020
Horizon® 20.25
#21069026
Horizontal
Electrophoresis
Apparatus
H11.14 Shown
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HORIZONTAL APPARATUS OPERATING MANUAL - TABLE OF CONTENTS
Before You Begin
1.0
Important Information
1.1
Safety Warnings
1.2
Components
1.3
Operating Instructions
Gel Casting
2.0
2.1
Assembly for Gel Casting
2.1.1
Gel Casting Procedure
2.1.2
Electrophoresis
Post-Electrophoresis
2.2
2.2.1
Troubleshooting Guide
3.0
Applications
4.0
Considerations for Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
4.1
Selecting Gel Concentration
4.1.1
Preparing Agarose for Gels
4.1.2
Preparing Samples and Loading the Gel
4.1.3
Using Multiple Combs
4.1.4
Considerations for Electrophoresis Buffers
4.2
Resolution Effects
4.2.1
Heat Effects
4.2.2
Ethidium Bromide Staining of Double-Stranded DNA
4.3
Gel Photography
4.4
Related Products
5.0
H11.14 Accessories and Replacement Parts
5.1
H20.25 Accessories and Replacement Parts
5.2
Care and Handling
6.0
Materials and Care
6.1
General Specifications
6.2
Technical Support and Service
6.3
Instructions for Return Shipment
6.4
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Cleaning and Decontamination for Return Shipment
6.4.1
Notice Regarding the Return of Apparatus Products
6.4.2
Warranty
7.0
Warranty
7.1
Declaration of Conformity and CE Mark
7.2
Decontamination Declaration
8.0
FIGURES
1. Horizon 11.14, 20.25 Apparatus Components
2. Horizon 11.14, 20.25 Gel Casting Configuration
TABLES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
10X TAE Electrophoresis Buffer
10X TBE Electrophoresis Buffer
Agarose Volume Requirement for Different Gel Thicknesses
10X Sample Loading Buffer
Sample Volumes for Horizon 11.14 Apparatus Combs as a Function of Gel Thickness
Sample Volumes for Horizon 20.25 Apparatus Combs as a Function of Gel Thickness
Nominal Electrophoresis Times for 1% Agarose Gels at Various Voltages
HORIZON® is a registered trademark of Apogee Designs, Ltd.
DELRIN® is a registered trademark of E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co.
Tygon® is a registered trademark of Norton Company.
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1.0
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
1.1
IMPORTANT INFORMATION
Horizon® H11.14 and H20.25 electrophoresis units are authorized for laboratory research use only.
They have not been qualified for use in any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic application. Use
for other than the intended use may be a violation of applicable law.
The H11.14 and H20.25 Horizontal Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus are designed for separation of
preparative and analytical quantities of nucleic acids. They are suitable for agarose gel electrophoresis
procedures. Because of the double-wall construction of the H11.14 and H20.25 Apparatus, the heat
generated by electrophoresis does not dissipate as quickly as with Models H4 and H5. With the Horizon
Apparatus, gels electrophoresed at the same voltage will be warmer, and samples will move faster.
These effects are particularly evident at higher voltages, and may necessitate buffer cooling steps to
avoid melting the gel. Consult Chapter 4, Table 7, for further information.
If the product is used in a manner not specified by Apogee, the protection provided by safety features
of the product may be impaired. Please carefully follow the manual’s instructions. Do not alter
equipment or operate with broken components. Failure to adhere to these directions could result in
personal and/or laboratory hazards as well as invalidate the equipment warranty.
1.2
SAFETY WARNINGS

CAUTION: SHOCK HAZARD Although equipped with a safety interlock system, this apparatus
should always be operated with extreme caution. Careless handling could result in electrical
shock. The power supply should have open-circuit sensing.

This apparatus should always be operated with caution. Careless handling can result in
electrical shock.

The system should be operated by trained personnel only.

Some reagents indicated for use in this manual may be hazardous (e.g., ethidium bromide,
acetic acid, and boric acid, etc.); exercise care with these reagents.

Always follow the power supply manufacturer’s recommendations for use and follow safety
procedures.

Always turn off the DC power source before disconnecting the power cords from the apparatus.

Never operate damaged or leaking equipment. Inspect the apparatus, electrical connections
and power cords prior to use.

For maximum safety, always operate this apparatus in an area that is not accessible to
unauthorized personnel.
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1.3 COMPONENTS
The H11.14 and H20.25 Apparatus are designed for simplified gel casting and electrophoresis. These
apparatus are engineered for durable performance and easy storage. Refer to Figures 1 and 2 to
identify the following features and components:

One ABS electrophoresis tank with clear acrylic safety interlock lid, adjustable leveling feet, selfsealing ports for buffer circulation, molded V-grooves for placement of gel casting dams, and a
tray support platform with red well- visualization strips and black centimeter graduations

One UVT tray (11  14 cm or 20  25 cm gel bed) with multiple positioning slots for well-forming
combs

One pair of aluminum gel casting dams

One precision machined Delrin® well-forming comb:
o
with H11.14 Apparatus: one 14 tooth, 1 mm-thick
o
with H20.25 Apparatus: one 20 tooth, 1 mm-thick

One pair of tubing barb adapters for use with 6 mm (0.25-in) I.D. recirculation tubing

One pair of pipe plugs to seal the buffer circulation ports if recirculation is not used

One bull’s eye level

One pair of 122 cm, Red & Black power cords

One instruction manual
Many of these components are also available separately.
This chapter provides operating instructions for the H11.14 and H20.25 Apparatus. Refer to Chapter 4
for information on commonly used buffers, agarose concentrations, sample volumes, and postelectrophoresis handling of the gel. Review Figure 1 to identify the features and components discussed
in these instructions.
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2.0 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
2.1 GEL CASTING
Note: If you are using gels cast in advance with the Horizon 11.14 or 20.25 Gel Casting System, proceed
to Section 2.2.
2.1.1 ASSEMBLY FOR GEL CASTING
1. Place the apparatus on a flat, level surface. Open the safety interlock lid. Place the UVT tray in
the electrophoresis tank on the tray support platform. The red well-visualization strips should be
visible through the tray.
2. Slide the gel casting dams simultaneously into the V-grooves in the electrophoresis tank. Make
sure that the tops of the dams are level. Apply even, gentle downward pressure to both dams
to seat the sealing surfaces of the dams against the ends of the UVT tray. Do not force the dams
down since this can displace the tray out of level.
3. Place the bull’s-eye level in the center of the UVT tray and turn the adjustable feet, as needed,
to level the apparatus.
4. Insert a comb or combs into the preferred alignment slots of the UVT tray. The teeth of each
comb should line up over one of the well-visualization strips. Ensure that each comb rests
unobstructed and squarely in its slots. The apparatus is now ready for gel casting (figure 3).
Note: Nucleic acids will migrate toward the positive (red) electrodes at the right side of the
Horizon Apparatus.
2.1.2 GEL CASTING PROCEDURE
1. Prepare the desired volume of molten agarose in electrophoresis buffer in a bottle or
Erlenmeyer flask. For information on agarose preparation, buffer formulation, and the effects of
varying gel concentration and volume, see Chapter 5.
2. Loosely cap the container. Allow the molten agarose to cool to 50°C to 60°C.
Caution: Casting gels with agarose above 60°C will result in poor sealing at the gel casting dams
and may cause the bottom of the UVT tray to bow.
3. Pour the measured volume of molten agarose into the center of the UVT tray. Use a pipette tip
to distribute the agarose evenly over the surface of the UVT tray and to remove any air bubbles,
particularly from around comb teeth.
Note: If molten agarose leaks from below gel casting dams, be sure dams are seated properly
(see Section 3.1).
4. Allow the agarose to cool until thoroughly solidified, usually 15 to 30 min.
5. To store gels prior to electrophoresis, gently remove gel casting dams and comb(s), wet the gel
surface with a small amount of electrophoresis buffer and wrap the UVT tray (with the gel still in
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place) with plastic wrap or seal in a plastic bag. Store at 4°C. Gels can be stored for 1 to 2 days
or longer, if well sealed.
2.2 ELECTROPHORESIS
1. Remove the gel casting dams, rinse them with deionized water and wipe them dry before
storing.
2. When transferring a gel from the Horizon 11.14 or 20.25 Gel Casting System, verify that the UVT
tray is oriented so that the sample wells are in the desired alignment. Check that the sample
wells line up over one of the well-visualization strips and that the UVT tray is seated flush on the
tray support platform.
Note: Nucleic acids will migrate toward the positive (red) electrodes at the right side of the
apparatus.
3. Pour sufficient electrophoresis buffer into the electrophoresis tank to cover the gel to a depth of
1 to 2 mm. This requires ~700 ml for the H11.14 Apparatus and ~1.55 L for the H20.25
Apparatus.
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4. To use the buffer circulation system (especially important when using TAE electrophoresis buffer
– see Chapter 4), use the supplied tubing barb adapters to connect 6 mm (0.25-in) I.D. tubing to
the fittings on the rear of the H11.14 or H20.25. Connect a circulation pump to the tubing and
set for low speed.
5. Gently remove the comb(s). To avoid tearing the bottom of the wells, gently wiggle each comb
to free the teeth from the gel. Slightly lift up one side of the comb, then the other. Rinse each
comb with deionized water and wipe dry before storing.
6. Remove any trapped air bubbles to ensure that the wells fill completely with buffer.
7. Use a micro-pipet or automatic pipet to load the samples on the floor of the wells. Samples
should contain sufficient glycerol or sucrose to be denser than the electrophoresis buffer. For
sample loading buffer formulation and the loading capacities for each comb relative to various
gel thicknesses, see Tables 5 and 6 in Chapter 4.
8. Close the safety interlock lid.
9. Connect the power cords to the electrophoresis tank and a 250 VDC power supply. Connect the
positive (red) lead at the right side of the apparatus and the negative (black) lead at the left.
10. If you are using the buffer circulation feature, start the pump.
11. Turn on the power supply and select the desired voltage. Small bubbles will rise from the
electrodes when the unit is properly connected. Nominal electrophoresis times for TAE and TBE
buffers are listed in Table 7 in Chapter 4.
12. Monitor electrophoresis by following the migration of the bromophenol blue (BPB) dye.
Movement should be in the direction of the positive electrodes at the right side of the
apparatus. Use the black 1 cm graduations visible below the UVT tray to determine
approximate migration rates.
13. When electrophoresis is complete, turn off the power supply. Disconnect the power cords from
the power supply and the apparatus. Turn off the circulation pump.
2.2.1 POST-ELECTROPHORESIS
1. Open the safety interlock lid. Lift out the UVT tray and gel.
2. Slide the gel out of the UVT tray for staining or subsequent analysis for further information.
Remove the gel with care; agarose gels tear easily if not properly supported.
3. Properly discard the electrophoresis buffer. Use the pouring spouts at the front corners of the
unit to transfer the buffer to a waste receptacle. Do not reuse the buffer. Disconnect the buffer
circulation pump by pressing the metal tab on each buffer port to release the quick-connect
fittings.
4. Thoroughly rinse the electrophoresis tank, quick-connect fittings, and tubing with deionized
water.
5. Remove any residual agarose from the UVT tray by rinsing with deionized water. Wipe dry or
allow to air dry before storing.
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3.0 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Some suggestions for resolving common problems are given below. Should these suggestions not
resolve the problem, please call Technical Support (see Section 6.3 for numbers). If the unit must be
returned for repair, also contact our service department, the technical support or your local distributor
for shipping instructions. Please include a full description of the problem.
PROBLEM
COMMENTS
Bubbles do not appear on the electrodes
when DC voltage is connected.
Verify that the DC power supply is operating properly.
Verify continuity of the power cords with an
ohmmeter.
Electrodes turn gray.
This occurs under normal operating conditions.
Performance is not affected.
Agarose solution leaks during casting.
the gel casting dams are clean.
Verify that the sealing surfaces of the UVT tray and
Verify that the gel casting dams are properly seated.
Verify that the ends of the UVT tray are flat and free
of nicks.
Cool the agarose to 50°C to 60°C before pouring.
BPB dye turns yellow (pH change) during
electrophoresis. Results are uninterpretable.
Check the pH of the electrophoresis buffer (refer to
tables 1 and 2). Be sure to use Tris Base and not Tris-HCl.
Mix the buffer periodically during electrophoresis.
Connect a pump to circulate the buffer.
Samples leak underneath the gel upon
loading.
The bottom of the wells were torn when the comb was
removed. See 2.2, #5 for recommended comb
removal procedure.
Gel melts or becomes soft near sample wells.
This is due to the combination of pH drift and high
temperature. Circulate or remix buffer periodically.
Reduce the electrophoretic voltage.
Pronounced ‘smiling’ along one edge of the
gel occurs (corresponding bands in different
lanes migrate slower toward one edge).
Gel was cast or electrophoresed out of level.
Use the ‘bull’s eye’ level to verify that the apparatus
is level prior to gel casting and electrophoresis.
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PROBLEM
COMMENTS
S-shaped lanes (anomalous migration-front
results in lanes that are not all running at a
uniform speed).
Mix the buffer periodically during electrophoresis.
Switch to a low conductivity/high buffering capacity
buffer (0.5X TBE).
Reduce the salt concentration of the sample.
Connect a pump to circulate the buffer.
‘Flaming’ bands (excessive fluorescence
appearing as a trail above the band)
Reduce the amount of DNA in the sample.
Reduce the amount of protein and/or glycerol in the sample.
‘Wiggly’ or ‘slanting’ bands (bands are not
straight lines or parallel to the top edges of
the gel).
Verify that the wells are free of particles and bubbles
before and after loading samples.
Verify that the agarose is completely dissolved before
casting gels.
Remove any particulate matter from the agarose
before casting gels.
Be sure that bubbles are not trapped against the comb
during gel casting.
All bands appear as ‘doublets’ (each band is
represented twice within the same lane).
Concentrate the sample and use a thin (2 to 3 mm)
gel with a thin (1 mm) comb.
Prevent gel movement during photography.
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4.0 APPLICATIONS
4.1
CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
4.1.1 SELECTING GEL CONCENTRATION
The choice of agarose concentration for a gel depends on the range of fragment sizes to be separated.
The typical agarose concentration is 0.3% to 2.0%. Large DNA fragments require low-percentage gels,
while small DNA fragments resolve best on high-percentage gels. Gels containing <0.5% agarose are
very weak and should be electrophoresed at a low temperature (~4°C). For routine electrophoresis,
0.75% to 1.0% agarose gels provide a wide range of separation (0.15 to 15 kb). For a more complete
treatment of factors that affect the separation of nucleic acids in agarose gels, see Section 4.2. Thin (2
to 3 mm thick) and low-percentage agarose gels yield better photographs than thick or high-percentage
gels, which exhibit increased opaqueness and auto-fluorescence.
4.1.2 PREPARING AGAROSE FOR GELS
The following protocol yields a 1% (w/v) agarose gel. Varying the amount of agarose added in step 1 will
produce gels of higher or lower concentration. See Section 4.2 to determine whether Tris-acetate/EDTA
(TAE) buffer or Tris-borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer (formulas in tables 1 and 2) is preferable for your specific
application. To determine the volume of agarose solution required to produce gels of various
thicknesses, see table 3.
Table 1. 10X TAE Electrophoresis Buffer
Component
Tris base
Na2EDTA•2H2O
Sodium acetate, anhydrous
Glacial acetic acid
Deionized water
Amount
48.4 g
7.4 g
16.4 g
17.0 ml
to 1 L
Concentration
400 mM
20 mM
200 mM
296 mM
-----
Note: This is a 10X concentration solution. Dilute with deionized water prior to use. Final pH should be
7.8 at 25°C.
Table 2. 10X TBE Electrophoresis Buffer
Component
Tris base
Boric acid, anhydrous
Na2EDTA•2H2O
Deionized water
Amount
121.1 g
55.6 g
3.7 g
to 1 L
Concentration
1M
0.9 M
10 mM
-----
Note: This is a 10X concentration solution. Dilute with deionized water prior to use. Final pH should be
8.3 at 25°C.
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Table 3. Agarose Volume Requirement for Different Gel Thicknesses
Gel Dimensions (cm)
Gel Thickness (mm)
3
4
5
3
4
5
11 x 14
20 x 25
Agarose Volume (ml)
50
65
80
150
200
250
Note: Volumes given are approximate.
1. Add 1 g of agarose per 100 ml of 1X TAE or 1X TBE electrophoresis buffer (see tables 1 and 2 for
buffer formulas) in a bottle or Erlenmeyer flask of at least twice the final volume of solution.
2. Loosely cap and weigh the flask.
3. Dissolve the agarose in electrophoresis buffer by heating in a microwave oven or boiling water
bath with occasional mixing until no granules of agarose are visible.
4. Weigh the flask and adjust to the original weight with deionized water to compensate for
evaporation.
5. Put the capped flask in a water bath at 50°C to 60°C, and allow the agarose to equilibrate at that
temperature before pouring gels.
4.1.3 PREPARING SAMPLES AND LOADING THE GEL
The amount of DNA that can be loaded per well is variable and depends upon the number and size of
the DNA fragments and the cross-sectional area of the well (well width  gel thickness). As a general
rule, the minimum amount of DNA detectable by ethidium bromide staining is 1 ng in a 5 mm wide band
on a 3 mm thick gel. For preparative purposes on a 3 mm thick gel, the amount of DNA loaded should
not exceed 50 ng per 5 mm wide band. Overloading the gel may cause trailing and distortion of bands.
Table 4 contains a formula for a sample loading buffer, which should be added to DNA samples prior to
loading. For alternative formulas for sample loading buffers, see Section 4.4, References 1 and 2.
Table 4. 10X Sample Loading Buffer
Component
Glycerol
Na2EDTA•2H2O
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Bromophenol blue
Deionized water
Amount
5 ml
0.37 g
0.1 g
0.01 g
to 10 ml
Concentration
50% (v/v)
100 mM
1% (w/v)
0.1% (w/v)
------
Note: This is a 10X concentration solution. Add 0.1 volume of buffer to samples and apply directly to
gel. If the samples contain l-cohesive ends, as with l DNA restriction fragments, the samples in buffer
should be heated at 65°C for 5 to 10 min prior to loading.
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The sample volumes that can be loaded per well for each standard Horizon Apparatus comb are listed in
tables 5 and 6. For analytical purposes, keep sample volumes to a minimum. Generally, 1 mm thick
combs provide sharper band definition than 2 mm thick combs.
Table 5. Sample Volumes for Horizon 11.14 Apparatus Combs
as a Function of Gel Thickness
Comb Type
Tooth Width (mm)
Comb Thickness
(mm)
Prep*
92
2
1
10 Tooth
7.9
2
1
14 Tooth
4.7
2
1
20 Tooth
3.8
2
Gel Thickness
(mm)
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
Capacity/Well (ul)
410
600
780
17
25
33
34
50
66
10
15
20
20
30
40
8
12
16
16
24
32
3
4
5
3
4
5
15
23
30
11
17
22
Multichannel Pipet Combs
12 Tooth
7.2
1
24 Tooth
2.7
2
Note: Volumes given are approximate. Low-percentage gels (<0.6%) and low-melting-point agarose gels
may have lower sample well volumes.
*Tooth width and capacity values are for the central, preparative well.
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Table 6. Sample Volumes for Horizon 20.25 Apparatus Combs
as a Function of Gel Thickness
Comb Type
Tooth Width (mm)
Comb Thickness
(mm)
Prep*
165
2
1
12 Tooth
12.7
2
1
15 Tooth
9.5
2
1
20 Tooth
6.4
2
3
1
30 Tooth
4.7
2
3
Gel Thickness
(mm)
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
Capacity/Well (ul)
1,100
1,600
2,100
28
41
54
57
82
108
21
31
40
42
62
80
14
21
27
28
42
54
42
63
81
10
15
20
21
30
40
31
45
60
3
4
5
3
4
5
15
23
30
11
17
22
Multichannel Pipette Combs
21 Tooth
7.2
1
42 Tooth
2.7
2
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Note: Volumes given are approximate. Low-percentage gels (<0.6%) and low-melting-point agarose
gels may have lower sample well volumes.
*Tooth width and capacity values are for the central, preparative well.
4.1.4 USING MULTIPLE COMBS
The multiple comb alignment slots in the Horizon 11.14 and 20.25 Apparatus lend themselves to a
variety of applications. For example, using two rows of wells on the same gel doubles the number of
samples of ‘mini-prep’ plasmid DNA that can be screened. A row of wells at the bottom of the gel
provides a convenient way to include quantitative standards on a gel for Southern blot hybridization.
Note: To use this feature, add the standards to the bottom row and let them migrate into the gel for
just a few minutes before electrophoresis is complete.
4.2
CONSIDERATIONS FOR ELECTROPHORESIS BUFFERS
4.2.1 RESOLUTION EFFECTS
For electrophoresis of agarose gels of the same concentration and at a fixed voltage, TAE buffer provides
better resolution of fragments >4 kb in length, while TBE buffer offers better resolution of 0.1 to 3 kb
fragments. TBE has a higher buffering capacity and lower conductivity than TAE and is therefore better
suited for high voltage (>150 V) electrophoresis. TBE buffer also generates less heat at an equivalent
voltage and does not allow a significant pH drift.
Note: Because of its lower buffering capacity, TAE requires circulation or mixing periodically for fulllength electrophoresis, particularly at higher voltages.
Band compression of fragments of high molecular weight (>5 kb) occurs as voltage increases. This effect
is observed with both TBE and TAE buffers. Band definition remains sharp, even above 200 V, provided
that the gel is not over-loaded. Linear DNA fragments from 0.15 to 10 kb (25 ng total) are easily resolved
on a 0.8% agarose gel in 0.5X TBE buffer electrophoresed for 30 min at 200 V.
TAE buffer provides better results for analysis of supercoiled DNA. Anomalous migration of supercoiled
DNA, particularly with high molecular weight (>7 kb) fragments, occurs when TBE buffer is used at >75
V. Use of TBE buffer also reduces the ability to resolve supercoiled DNA from nicked circular and linear
DNA in the absence of ethidium bromide. For accurate size determination with supercoiled DNA,
supercoiled DNA of known sizes must be electrophoresed in an adjacent lane of the gel.
4.2.2 HEAT EFFECTS
Electrophoresis at high voltages generates heat, and high conductivity buffers such as TAE generate
more heat than low conductivity buffers. Caution should be exercised in agarose gel electrophoresis at
>175 V. Heat buildup can cause gel artifacts such as S-shaped migration fronts, and in prolonged
electrophoresis, can melt the agarose gel. Low-melting-point agarose gels should never be
electrophoresed at high voltages. Nominal electrophoresis times for agarose gels in TBE and TAE buffers
at various voltages are listed in table 7.
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Note: Electrophoretic procedures originally developed with Models H4 and H5 often generate
additional heat when performed with Horizon Apparatus. At higher voltages, these heat effects can
melt the agarose gel. Additional buffer circulation and cooling steps may be necessary to adapt such
procedures for use with Horizon Apparatus.
To prevent drying of the gel and ensure an even voltage gradient across the gel bed, submerge the gel
with electrophoresis buffer to a depth of only 1 to 2 mm. Submerging the gel at a depth >2 mm is
unnecessary and increases electrical current and heat.
Table 7. Nominal Electrophoresis Times for 1% Agarose Gels at Various Voltages
Electrophoresis voltage
(V)
25
50
100
150
250
Buffer
TBE
TAE
0.5X TBE
TBE
TAE
TBE
TAE
0.5X TBE
TBE
TAE
TBE
TAE
0.5X TBE
Time in Hours for the
11.14
18
30
17
7.4
7.0
3.4
2.7
3.6
2.0
1.4
0.9
ND
1.1
Time in Hours for the
20.25
60
76
50
26
29
11
12
11
7.2
4.4
3.0
ND
2.8
Note: Values were determined with the gel submerged 1.5 mm; the operating current ranged from 4 to
360 mA. Current and electrophoresis time vary with buffer volume, gel thickness, and applied voltage.

Formulations for TAE and TBE electrophoresis buffers are listed in tables 1 and 2.

Values represent the time required for BPB dye to migrate 13 cm from the origin in the H11.14
and 22 cm in the H20.25. In a 1% agarose gel, BPB comigrates with DNA fragments of
approximately 200 bp in 1X TBE buffer and 400 bp in 1X TAE buffer.
4.3 ETHIDIUM BROMIDE STAINING OF DOUBLE-STRANDED DNA
To visualize double-stranded DNA after electrophoresis, the gel should be transferred from the UVT tray
to a 0.5 µg/ml solution of ethidium bromide in deionized water. Approximate staining time is 10 to 15
min for a 3 mm thick gel and longer for thicker gels. As an optional subsequent step to reduce
background fluorescence, the gel can be destained in deionized water for 15 to 30 min.
Alternatively, ethidium bromide may be added directly to the agarose prior to casting, so that the gel is
electrophoresed in the presence of ethidium bromide. However, this procedure reduces the migration
rate and may alter the relative electrophoretic mobility of nucleic acids (reference 3).
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com
4.4 GEL PHOTOGRAPHY
A darkroom or light-tight enclosure, camera, digital camera and UV light source are required for
photography of gels stained with ethidium bromide. For best results, place the stained gel directly on
top of a 300 nm or 254 nm transilluminator. If the camera contains ASA 3000 or equivalent film the
required exposure at maximum aperture (f/4.5) should be between 1/4 and 2 seconds. The intensity of
the light source, distance between the gel and the camera lens, film or shutter speed, lens aperture, and
choice of photographic filters will all affect the exposure time. Use of a 300 nm transilluminator allows
gels to be photographed while in place in the UVT tray, although this will increase the required exposure
time.
Transmitted UV light yields the highest sensitivities (1 ng of DNA in a 5 mm wide band) in photographing
gels. Photography under incident UV light is approximately 10 times less sensitive. A UV-blocking
filter (Kodak 2B Wratten filter) used in conjunction with a red gelatin filter (Kodak 23A Wratten filter)
provides the highest contrast. Due to the fluorescence of the 2B filter, the two filters must be oriented
so that the red 23A filter is adjacent to the camera lens. The ethidium bromide-DNA complex fluoresces
at 590 nm upon excitation at 302 nm (2). Short-wave (254 nm) sources provide an equivalent level of
sensitivity; however, high-energy UV causes photodimerization and nicking of the DNA. Long-wave
transilluminators (366 nm) are much less efficient.
REFERENCES
1. Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F., and Sambrook, J. (1982) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
2. Rickwood, D. and Hames, B.D. (eds.) (1982) Gel Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids: A Practical
Approach, IRL Press, Oxford, England.
3. Longo, M.C. and Hartley, J.L. (1986) LTI FOCUS® 8:3.
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5.0 RELATED PRODUCTS AND REPLACEMENT PARTS
5.1 H11.14 ACCESSORIES
DESCRIPTION
CATALOG #
10 well precision machined white Delrin comb
1.0 mm thick
2.0 mm thick
11956026
11956059
14 well precision machined white Delrin comb
1.0 mm thick
2.0 mm thick
11956042
11956075
20 well precision machined white Delrin comb
1.0 mm thick
2.0 mm thick
21076013
21076021
Horizon 11.14 Gel Casting Apparatus
(Base, UVT tray, 2 casting dams)
System
11068046
H11.14 UVT Tray
Each
11084019
H11.14 Aluminum Casting Dams
Package of 2
11068053
Power Cord Replacements 1 black & 1 red, 122 cm long
Package of 2
11099025
H11.14 Pt/Nb Electrode Replacement
Includes all necessary components
Kit
11958061
5.2 H20.25 ACCESSORIES
DESCRIPTION
CATALOG #
12 well precision machined white Delrin comb
1.0 mm thick
2.0 mm thick
11953064
11953080
15 well precision machined white Delrin comb
1.0 mm thick
2.0 mm thick
11953072
11953098
20 well precision machined white Delrin comb
1.0 mm thick
2.0 mm thick
3.0 mm thick
41007014
41007022
41007030
30 well precision machined white Delrin comb
1.0 mm thick
2.0 mm thick
3.0 mm thick
11951043
11951019
11951050
H20.25 Gel Casting Apparatus
(Base, UVT tray, 2 casting dams)
System
21069067
H20.25 UVT Tray
Each
31006026
H20.25 Aluminum Casting Dams
Package of 2
21069059
Power Cord Replacements 1 black & 1 red, 122 cm long
H20.25 Pt/Nb Electrode Replacement
Package of 2
Kit
11099025
21069042
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com
Includes all necessary components
6.0 CARE AND HANDLING
6.1 MATERIALS AND CARE
Each H11.14 and H20.25 apparatus is fabricated from high quality ABS and acrylic plastic. Acrylic and
ABS both have very good heat, impact, and chemical resistance but will not withstand autoclaving.
Caution: Both electrodes are made from Pt/Nb strip for durability. Use care when cleaning this
apparatus to prevent breakage of the electrodes because they are not warranted against breakage.
All components may be washed with water and a detergent. To remove grease and oils, use a hexane,
kerosene, or aliphatic naphtha. Never use abrasive cleaners, window sprays, or any fluid that may
contain toluene, methylene chloride, phenol, acetone, benzene, halogenated hydrocarbon solvents, or
undiluted laboratory alcohols.
Routine inspection and maintenance will ensure both the safety and the performance of your horizontal
gel apparatus. For replacement parts, call your distributor or Apogee Technical Support.

Because of the relatively high voltages that may be used, inspect electrical connections and
power cords often. If power cords show any signs of wear or damage (e.g., cracks, nicks,
abrasions, melted insulation or bare wire), replace immediately.

Examine the electrode banana plugs and connection nuts to ensure that they are free of
corrosion or they may offer higher resistance thus heating up and risking sparks and fire.
6.2 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Type
Dimensions (W × L x H)
Gel Dimensions
Maximum gel thickness
Voltage Range
Current Range
Electrode material
Operating Temperature Range
Construction
H11.14
21.5 x 31.5 10.5 cm
11 x 14 cm
10 mm
250 VDC Max
4 – 360 mA, 0.5 Max
Pt/Nb strip
4-30°C
ABS, acrylic, aluminum
H20.25
32.0 x 42.5 12.0 cm
20 x 25 cm
10 mm
250 VDC Max
4 – 360 mA, 0.5 Max
Pt/Nb strip
4-30°C
ABS, acrylic, aluminum
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com
6.3 TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND SERVICE
Should you have any problems with this unit, please contact:
Apogee Designs, Ltd.
Attn: Electrophoresis Support
101 Kane Street
Baltimore, MD 21224 USA
Phone:
Fax:
Email:
443.744.0368
9 to 5PM EST, Monday through Friday
410.633.3666
info@apogeephoresis.com
6.4 INSTRUCTIONS FOR RETURN SHIPMENT
IMPORTANT: Before sending the unit back to us, it is absolutely necessary to call our Technical
Support department to get authorization to return products!

Return only defective devices. For technical problems which are not definitively recognizable as
device faults please contact Apogee Technical Support.

Use the original box or a similarly sturdy one.

Label the outside of the box with CAUTION! SENSITIVE INSTRUMENT!

Please enclose a detailed description of the fault and when, or how, the problem occurred.
Important: Clean all parts of the instrument from residues and of biologically dangerous, chemical and
radioactive contaminants. Please include a written confirmation (use the respective Decontamination
Declaration/Certificate following in Section 8 that the device is free of biologically dangerous and
radioactive contaminants in each shipment. If the device is contaminated, it is possible that Apogee will
be forced to refuse to accept the device. The sender of the repair order will be held liable for possible
damages resulting from insufficient decontamination of the device.
Please enclose a note which contains the following:
1. Sender's name and address and,
2. Name of a contact person for further inquiries with telephone number.
6.4.1 CLEANING AND DECONTAMINATION FOR RETURN OF PRODUCTS
Use the original product packaging whenever possible, to avoid damage to the unit being returned. All
returned material must be cleaned and decontaminated prior to shipping. The components of
apparatus products are fabricated from a variety of materials including: ABS, acrylic, vinyl, glass, silicone,
aluminum and stainless steel.
Please clean any unit or product to be returned using the following three step procedure.
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com
STEP 1: GENERAL CLEANING PROCEDURE
For materials not contaminated with biological or radiological substances, components may be gently
washed with water and a non-abrasive detergent, and rinsed with deionized water. Dry using a soft
cloth, paper towel or allow to air dry. A light application of hexane, kerosene, or aliphatic naphtha will
remove grease.
To prevent surface damage, never use abrasive cleaners, window sprays or scouring pads to clean these
products. Avoid excessive exposure to UV light, phenol, acetone, benzene, halogenated hydrocarbon
solvents, or undiluted alcohols because they may cause crazing.
STEP 2: BIOLOGICAL CLEANING PROCEDURE
Using a solution of either 5% household bleach in water or 70% ethanol in water, wipe down the
apparatus using a clean cloth or sponge. Neutralize the solution by wiping the surface with a mild,
nonabrasive detergent and rinse well with water.
STEP 3: RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURE
To meet various regulatory and safety standards, please follow the decontamination procedure given
here if radioactive materials are used with this product or are used in the vicinity of where this
apparatus has been used or stored.
WARNING: We cannot and will not accept return of products that are contaminated with any
radioactivity.
For beta emitting isotopes such as 32P, use a GM-type radioactivity meter calibrated in counts per
minute (CPM) to determine the background readings for your work area. Wearing latex gloves, survey
the unit to be returned with the GM meter. If any part of the unit is found to show readings higher than
background, wash the area using Radiacwash© (Atomic Products Corp.) and paper towels, or another
similar commercially available detergent. If none are available, a mild detergent or a Formula 409© like
solution will do. As you clean, discard liquid and solid waste (gloves and paper towels) according to your
local and institutional regulations for radioactive material disposal. Continue washing until the GMmeter reading for the contaminated area(s) is equal to or below background.
To decontaminate units where a GM-meter is not as useful for detection, as with 'H, or "S, it will be
necessary to perform swipes of the unit and detect using a scintillation counter. The unit should be dry.
Wipe surfaces with dry paper circles (these are commercially available or you can make your own).
Areas can be charted, so that individual swipes can be done on different surfaces to better isolate areas
of contamination.
Swipes should be placed into individual scintillation vials with an appropriate floor and then analyzed on
a properly programmed scintillation counter. If contamination above 100 disintegrations per minute
dpm/100cm2 (dpm=CPM/efficiency) is found, wash the area as described above in 32P decontamination.
After cleaning the area, swipe it a second time to determine the amount of contamination remaining. If
the area still has greater than 100 dpm/cm2, continue the cycle of swipes and washing until you achieve
a reading of less than 100 dpm/cm2.
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com
Once the unit has been determined to be radiation free (<100dpm/cm2) remove all the hazardous and
radioactive labels from the unit. If the labels cannot be removed, deface them. Failure to do so may
result in a significant delay or refusal of repair. If your unit has non removable contamination
(detectable with a GM-meter and not with paper swipes, or detectable with paper swipes but after
continued washing the dpm/cm2 remains constant and above 100) of a short half life isotope such as 32P,
it may be stored for ten half lives of isotopic decay and the decontamination procedure repeated.
Note: Units contaminated with non removable, long half life isotopes may not be returned.
If questions still persist, please contact:
Apogee Designs, Ltd.
Attn: Electrophoresis Support
101 Kane Street
Baltimore, MD 21224 USA
Phone:
Fax:
Email:
443.744.0368
9 to 5PM EST, Monday through Friday
410.633.3666
info@apogeephoresis.com
6.4.2 NOTICE REGARDING THE RETURN OF APPARATUS PRODUCTS
US Federal Regulations
In order to comply with US federal regulations and to protect the health and safety of employees, it is
imperative that all customers read this notice and adhere to the requirements regarding the return of
apparatus products. The US Department of Transportation, the Department of Health and Human
Services, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have strict regulations on the shipment of hazardous
materials (49 CFR Part 173) including etiologic agents (49 CFR Part 173 and 42 CFR Part 72) and
radioactive materials (CFR 49 Part 173 and 10 CFR Part 20).
German Law
To comply with German law (i.e. §71 StrlSchV, §17 GefStoffV and §19 ChemG) and to avoid exposure to
hazardous materials during handling or repair, completion of this form is required before equipment
leaves your laboratory. When equipment is returned for repair, evaluation, credit or exchange, the
customer becomes the shipper and must ensure that the item is free of contamination whether
chemical, biological or radioactive. Procedures for decontamination are described above.
Materials received that have not been properly decontaminated or units which do not have hazard
labels (such as ‘caution radioactive materials’) may be decontaminated at the customer's expense
(approximately $350) and may result in delay or refusal of repair. In addition, in the case of radioactive
contamination, Apogee may be required to notify a licensing authority who in turn may be required to
notify the customer's licensing authority.
Please carefully follow the instructions on decontamination and fill out the Decontamination Declaration
that follows. Place the Decontamination Declaration inside the top flap of the box where it can be
immediately noticed by the receiver. Any change to this procedure may result in service delay.
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com
7.0 WARRANTY
7.1 WARRANTY
Apogee warrants apparatus of its manufacture against defects in materials and workmanship, under
normal service, for one year from the date of receipt by the purchaser. This warranty excludes damages
resulting from shipping, misuse, carelessness, or neglect and does not include breakage of the
electrodes or crazing from cleaning with solvents that attack ABS or acrylic. Apogee’s liability under the
warranty is limited to the repair of such defects or the replacement of the product, at its option, and is
subject to receipt of reasonable proof by the customer that the defect is embraced within the terms of
the warranty. All claims made under this warranty must be presented to within three years following the
date of delivery of the product to the customer.
This warranty is in lieu of any other warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, arising by law or
otherwise. Apogee makes no other warranty, expressed or implied, including warranties of
merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Under no circumstances shall Apogee be liable for
damages either consequential, compensatory, incidental or special, sounding in negligence, strict
liability, breach of warranty or any other theory, arising out of the use of the product listed herein.
In the interest of bettering performance, Apogee reserves the right to make improvements to the
design, construction, and appearance without notice.
7.2 DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY AND CE MARK
Note: The information outlined in this section applies only to customers located in the European Union
(EU).
This laboratory apparatus is identified with the CE mark. This mark indicates that the product complies
with the following EU Directives and Standards:
APPLICATION OF COUNCIL DIRECTIVE(S):
89/336/EEC
73/23/EEC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Low Voltage Directive
STANDARDS:
EN 50081-1:1992
EN 50082-1:1992
EN 61010-1:1993
Emissions
Immunity
Product Safety
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com
8.0 DECONTAMINATION DECLARATION
RGA Number (IMPORTANT): ___________________________________________________________
Customer Name: ____________________________________________________________________
Institute: ___________________________________________________________________________
Address: ___________________________________________________________________________
TEL #: ____________________________________ FAX #: __________________________________
E-mail: ____________________________________________________________________________
Unit type: _________________________________ Serial number: ___________________________
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURES USED TO DECONTAMINATE UNIT (LOOK AT6.4.1)
□ 1. Gently washed with water and a non-abrasive detergent, and rinsed with deionized water.
□ 2. Using a solution of 5% household bleach in water or 70% ethanol in water, the unit was wiped
down using a clean cloth or sponge and neutralized with deionized water.
□ 3. To meet various regulatory and safety standards, please follow the decontamination procedures
given in 6.4.1 if radioactive materials were used with this product.
This piece of equipment has not been decontaminated. Reason:
□ To the best of my knowledge, unit is free of chemical, biological, or radioactive contamination.
I understand that if the equipment is found to be contaminated, regardless of the signature on this
document, the equipment may be decontaminated at my expense. Also, if the equipment is found to be
contaminated, the response time for repairs will be delayed.
Signature: __________________________________________________________________________
Title: ________________________________________
Date: ________________________________________
Please place completed and signed form inside the box with the equipment where it can
immediately be noticed by the receiver. We appreciate you taking the time to perform
the necessary precautions to ensure that equipment being returned can be safely
handled by our employees.
Apogee Electrophoresis | 101 Kane Street | Baltimore, MD 21224 USA | apogeephoresis.com