ZyXEL Communications SBG3500-N Series User`s guide

SBG3500-N000
Wireless N Fiber WAN Small Business Gateway
Version 1.00
Edition 2, 4/2014
Quick Start Guide
User’s Guide
Default Login Details
LAN IP Address
http://192.168.1.1
User Name
www.zyxel.com
Password
admin
1234
Copyright © 2014 ZyXEL Communications Corporation
IMPORTANT!
READ CAREFULLY BEFORE USE.
KEEP THIS GUIDE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
Screenshots and graphics in this book may differ slightly from your product due to differences in
your product firmware or your computer operating system. Every effort has been made to ensure
that the information in this manual is accurate.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide shows how to connect the SBG3500-N000 and access the Web
Configurator wizards. It contains information on setting up your network and configuring for
Internet access.
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
User’s Guide ........................................................................................................................... 15
Introducing the SBG3500-N .......................................................................................................17
The Web Configurator ................................................................................................................25
Quick Start ..................................................................................................................................32
Tutorials .....................................................................................................................................35
Technical Reference .............................................................................................................. 97
Status Screens ...........................................................................................................................99
Broadband ................................................................................................................................102
Wireless ...................................................................................................................................132
LAN ..........................................................................................................................................161
Routing .....................................................................................................................................183
Quality of Service (QoS) ..........................................................................................................189
Network Address Translation (NAT) .........................................................................................206
Dynamic DNS Setup ................................................................................................................222
Interface Group ........................................................................................................................226
USB Service .............................................................................................................................231
Firewall .....................................................................................................................................234
MAC Filter ................................................................................................................................243
User Access Control ................................................................................................................245
Scheduler Rules .......................................................................................................................248
Certificates ...............................................................................................................................250
IPSec VPN ...............................................................................................................................256
PPTP VPN ...............................................................................................................................275
L2TP VPN ................................................................................................................................280
Log ..........................................................................................................................................286
Network Status ........................................................................................................................289
ARP Table ................................................................................................................................292
Routing Table ...........................................................................................................................294
IGMP Status ............................................................................................................................296
xDSL Statistics .........................................................................................................................297
User Account ............................................................................................................................300
Remote Management ...............................................................................................................303
TR-069 Client ...........................................................................................................................305
SNMP .......................................................................................................................................307
Time .........................................................................................................................................309
E-mail Notification ....................................................................................................................312
Logs Setting ............................................................................................................................314
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
3
Contents Overview
Firmware Upgrade ...................................................................................................................317
Configuration ............................................................................................................................319
Diagnostic ................................................................................................................................322
Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................327
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Contents Overview .................................................................................................................. 3
Table of Contents ..................................................................................................................... 5
Part I: User’s Guide ................................................................................15
Chapter 1
Introducing the SBG3500-N ................................................................................................... 17
1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................17
1.2 Applications for the SBG3500-N .........................................................................................17
1.2.1 Internet Access ...........................................................................................................17
1.2.2 Wireless LAN ..............................................................................................................20
1.2.3 SBG3500-N’s USB Support ........................................................................................21
1.3 LEDs (Lights) .......................................................................................................................22
1.4 Ways to Manage the SBG3500-N ........................................................................................23
1.5 Good Habits for Managing the SBG3500-N .........................................................................23
1.6 The RESET Button ...............................................................................................................24
Chapter 2
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................ 25
2.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................25
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator ................................................................................25
2.2 Web Configurator Layout .....................................................................................................27
2.2.1 Title Bar ......................................................................................................................27
2.2.2 Main Window ..............................................................................................................28
2.2.3 Navigation Panel ........................................................................................................28
Chapter 3
Quick Start............................................................................................................................... 32
3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................32
3.2 Quick Start Setup .................................................................................................................32
Chapter 4
Tutorials ................................................................................................................................... 35
4.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................35
4.2 Setting Up an ADSL PPPoE Connection .............................................................................35
4.3 Setting Up a GbE WAN connection .....................................................................................38
4.4 Setting Up a 3G WAN connction ..........................................................................................40
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
4.5 Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network ................................................................................41
4.5.1 Configuring the Wireless Network Settings ................................................................41
4.5.2 Using WPS .................................................................................................................43
4.5.3 Without WPS ..............................................................................................................47
4.6 Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups ...................................................................................48
4.7 Configuring Static Route for Routing to Another Network ....................................................51
4.8 Configuring QoS Queue and Class Setup ...........................................................................54
4.9 Access the Device Using DDNS ..........................................................................................57
4.9.1 Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org .....................................................57
4.9.2 Configuring DDNS on Your Device .............................................................................58
4.9.3 Testing the DDNS Setting ...........................................................................................58
4.10 Configuring the MAC Address Filter ...................................................................................59
4.11 Access Your Shared Files From a Computer .....................................................................60
4.12 Certificate Configuration for VPN .......................................................................................61
4.13 Examples of Configuring IPSec VPN Rules .......................................................................64
4.13.1 Example 1: Use 3DES Encryption ............................................................................64
4.13.2 Example 2: Use AES128 Encryption ........................................................................67
4.13.3 Example 3: Configuring a Site-to-Site with Dynamic Peer Rule ...............................68
4.13.4 Example 4: Configuring a Remote Access Rule .......................................................68
4.14 PPTP VPN Tutorial ............................................................................................................69
4.14.1 Configuring PPTP VPN Setup (Server) ....................................................................69
4.14.2 Configuring PPTP VPN on Windows (Client) ...........................................................70
4.14.3 Configuring PPTP VPN on Android Devices (Client) ................................................77
4.14.4 Configuring PPTP VPN in iOS Devices (Client) .......................................................79
4.15 L2TP VPN Tutorial .............................................................................................................81
4.15.1 Configuring the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN Rule (Server) .................................82
4.15.2 Configuring the L2TP VPN Setup (Server) ...............................................................82
4.15.3 Configuring L2TP VPN in Windows (Client) .............................................................83
4.15.4 Configuring L2TP VPN on Windows 7 ......................................................................85
4.15.5 Configuring L2TP VPN on Android Devices (Client) ................................................92
4.15.6 Configuring L2TP VPN in iOS Devices (Client) ........................................................95
Part II: Technical Reference...................................................................97
Chapter 5
Status Screens ........................................................................................................................ 99
5.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................99
5.2 The Status Screen ................................................................................................................99
Chapter 6
Broadband............................................................................................................................. 102
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Table of Contents
6.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................102
6.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .............................................................................102
6.1.2 What You Need to Know ...........................................................................................103
6.1.3 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................106
6.2 The Broadband Screen ......................................................................................................106
6.2.1 Add/Edit Internet Connection ....................................................................................108
6.3 The 3G WAN Screen ......................................................................................................... 116
6.4 The Add New 3G Dongle Screen .......................................................................................120
6.4.1 Add 3G Dongle Information ......................................................................................120
6.5 The Advanced Screen ........................................................................................................121
6.6 The 802.1x Screen .............................................................................................................122
6.6.1 Edit 802.1x Settings ..................................................................................................123
6.7 The multi-WAN Screen ......................................................................................................124
6.7.1 Add/Edit multi-WAN ..................................................................................................125
6.7.2 How to Configure multi-WAN for Load-Balancing and Fail-Over ..............................126
6.8 Technical Reference ...........................................................................................................127
Chapter 7
Wireless ................................................................................................................................. 132
7.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................132
7.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .............................................................................132
7.1.2 What You Need to Know ...........................................................................................133
7.2 The General Screen ..........................................................................................................133
7.2.1 No Security ...............................................................................................................136
7.2.2 Basic (WEP Encryption) ...........................................................................................136
7.2.3 More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK) .....................................................................................138
7.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication ..............................................................................................139
7.3 The More AP Screen ..........................................................................................................140
7.3.1 Edit More AP ...........................................................................................................141
7.4 MAC Authentication ...........................................................................................................143
7.5 The WPS Screen ...............................................................................................................144
7.6 The WMM Screen ..............................................................................................................145
7.7 The Others Screen .............................................................................................................146
7.8 The Channel Status Screen ...............................................................................................148
7.9 Technical Reference ...........................................................................................................148
7.9.1 Wireless Network Overview ......................................................................................148
7.9.2 Additional Wireless Terms ........................................................................................150
7.9.3 Wireless Security Overview ......................................................................................150
7.9.4 Signal Problems .......................................................................................................152
7.9.5 BSS ..........................................................................................................................153
7.9.6 MBSSID ....................................................................................................................153
7.9.7 Preamble Type .........................................................................................................154
7.9.8 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) ....................................................................................154
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Table of Contents
Chapter 8
LAN ........................................................................................................................................ 161
8.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................161
8.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .............................................................................161
8.1.2 What You Need To Know ..........................................................................................162
8.1.3 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................163
8.2 The LAN Setup Screen ......................................................................................................163
8.3 The Static DHCP Screen ....................................................................................................167
8.4 The UPnP Screen ..............................................................................................................169
8.5 Installing UPnP in Windows Example ................................................................................169
8.6 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example ...............................................................................172
8.7 The Additional Subnet Screen ...........................................................................................178
8.8 The 5th Ethernet Port Screen ............................................................................................179
8.9 Technical Reference ...........................................................................................................179
8.9.1 LANs, WANs and the SBG3500-N ...........................................................................180
8.9.2 DHCP Setup .............................................................................................................180
8.9.3 DNS Server Addresses ............................................................................................180
8.9.4 LAN TCP/IP ..............................................................................................................181
Chapter 9
Routing .................................................................................................................................. 183
9.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................183
9.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .............................................................................183
9.2 The Routing Screen ...........................................................................................................184
9.2.1 Add/Edit Static Route ................................................................................................184
9.3 The Policy Forwarding Screen ...........................................................................................185
9.3.1 Add/Edit Policy Forwarding ......................................................................................186
9.4 The RIP Screen ..................................................................................................................187
Chapter 10
Quality of Service (QoS)....................................................................................................... 189
10.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................189
10.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................189
10.2 What You Need to Know ..................................................................................................190
10.3 The Quality of Service General Screen ...........................................................................191
10.4 The Queue Setup Screen ................................................................................................192
10.4.1 Adding a QoS Queue ............................................................................................194
10.5 The Class Setup Screen ..................................................................................................194
10.5.1 Add/Edit QoS Class ...............................................................................................196
10.6 The QoS Policer Setup Screen ........................................................................................199
10.6.1 Add/Edit a QoS Policer ..........................................................................................200
10.7 The QoS Monitor Screen ................................................................................................201
10.8 Technical Reference .........................................................................................................202
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Chapter 11
Network Address Translation (NAT).................................................................................... 206
11.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................206
11.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................206
11.1.2 What You Need To Know ........................................................................................206
11.2 The Port Forwarding Screen ...........................................................................................207
11.2.1 Add/Edit Port Forwarding .......................................................................................209
11.3 The Applications Screen ..................................................................................................210
11.3.1 Add New Application ............................................................................................... 211
11.4 The Port Triggering Screen .............................................................................................. 211
11.4.1 Add/Edit Port Triggering Rule ................................................................................213
11.5 The Default Server Screen ...............................................................................................214
11.6 The ALG Screen ...............................................................................................................215
11.7 The Address Mapping Screen ..........................................................................................215
11.7.1 Add/Edit Address Mapping Rule .............................................................................216
11.8 Technical Reference .........................................................................................................217
11.8.1 NAT Definitions .......................................................................................................217
11.8.2 What NAT Does ......................................................................................................218
11.8.3 How NAT Works ......................................................................................................219
11.8.4 NAT Application ......................................................................................................220
Chapter 12
Dynamic DNS Setup ............................................................................................................. 222
12.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................222
12.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................222
12.1.2 What You Need To Know ........................................................................................223
12.2 The DNS Entry Screen .....................................................................................................223
12.2.1 Add/Edit DNS Entry ................................................................................................223
12.3 The Dynamic DNS Screen ...............................................................................................224
Chapter 13
Interface Group ..................................................................................................................... 226
13.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................226
13.2 The Interface Group/VLAN Screen ..................................................................................226
13.2.1 Interface Group Configuration ................................................................................227
13.2.2 Interface Grouping Criteria ....................................................................................229
Chapter 14
USB Service .......................................................................................................................... 231
14.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................231
14.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................231
14.1.2 What You Need To Know ........................................................................................231
14.2 The File Sharing Screen ..................................................................................................232
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
14.2.1 Before You Begin ....................................................................................................232
Chapter 15
Firewall .................................................................................................................................. 234
15.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................234
15.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................234
15.1.2 What You Need to Know .........................................................................................235
15.2 The Firewall Screen .........................................................................................................236
15.3 The Service Screen .........................................................................................................237
15.3.1 Add/Edit a Service .................................................................................................238
15.4 The Access Control Screen .............................................................................................239
15.4.1 Add/Edit an ACL Rule ...........................................................................................240
15.5 The DoS Screen ...............................................................................................................241
Chapter 16
MAC Filter.............................................................................................................................. 243
16.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................243
16.2 The MAC Filter Screen .....................................................................................................244
Chapter 17
User Access Control ............................................................................................................ 245
17.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................245
17.2 The User Access Control Screen .....................................................................................245
17.2.1 Add/Edit a User Access Control Rule .....................................................................246
Chapter 18
Scheduler Rules.................................................................................................................... 248
18.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................248
18.2 The Scheduler Rules Screen ...........................................................................................248
18.2.1 Add/Edit a Schedule ...............................................................................................249
Chapter 19
Certificates ............................................................................................................................ 250
19.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................250
19.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................250
19.2 What You Need to Know ..................................................................................................250
19.3 The Local Certificates Screen ..........................................................................................251
19.3.1 Create Certificate Request ....................................................................................252
19.3.2 Load Signed Certificate .........................................................................................253
19.4 The Trusted CA Screen ...................................................................................................254
19.4.1 Import Trusted CA Certificate .................................................................................255
Chapter 20
IPSec VPN.............................................................................................................................. 256
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
20.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................256
20.2 What You Can Do in this Chapter ....................................................................................256
20.3 What You Need To Know .................................................................................................257
20.4 The Setup Screen ............................................................................................................257
20.4.1 Add/Edit VPN Rule .................................................................................................258
20.4.2 The VPN Connection Add/Edit Screen ...................................................................259
20.4.3 The Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN Rule ................................................................266
20.5 The IPSec VPN Monitor Screen .......................................................................................266
20.6 The Radius Screen ..........................................................................................................267
20.7 Technical Reference .........................................................................................................268
20.7.1 IPSec Architecture ..................................................................................................268
20.7.2 Encapsulation .........................................................................................................269
20.7.3 IKE Phases ............................................................................................................270
20.7.4 Negotiation Mode ...................................................................................................271
20.7.5 IPSec and NAT .......................................................................................................271
20.7.6 VPN, NAT, and NAT Traversal ................................................................................272
20.7.7 ID Type and Content ...............................................................................................273
20.7.8 Pre-Shared Key ......................................................................................................274
20.7.9 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups .............................................................................274
Chapter 21
PPTP VPN .............................................................................................................................. 275
21.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................275
21.2 What You Can Do in this Chapter ....................................................................................275
21.3 PPTP VPN Setup .............................................................................................................276
21.4 The PPTP VPN Monitor Screen .......................................................................................277
21.5 PPTP VPN Troubleshooting Tips .....................................................................................277
Chapter 22
L2TP VPN............................................................................................................................... 280
22.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................280
22.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................280
22.2 L2TP VPN Screen ............................................................................................................281
22.3 The L2TP VPN Monitor Screen ........................................................................................282
22.4 L2TP VPN Troubleshooting Tips ......................................................................................282
Chapter 23
Log ........................................................................................................................................ 286
23.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................286
23.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................286
23.1.2 What You Need To Know ........................................................................................286
23.2 The System Log Screen ...................................................................................................287
23.3 The Security Log Screen ..................................................................................................288
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
11
Table of Contents
Chapter 24
Network Status ..................................................................................................................... 289
24.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................289
24.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................289
24.2 The WAN Status Screen ..................................................................................................289
24.3 The LAN Status Screen ....................................................................................................290
24.4 The DHCP Client Screen .................................................................................................290
Chapter 25
ARP Table .............................................................................................................................. 292
25.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................292
25.1.1 How ARP Works .....................................................................................................292
25.2 ARP Table Screen ............................................................................................................292
Chapter 26
Routing Table ........................................................................................................................ 294
26.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................294
26.2 The Routing Table Screen ................................................................................................294
Chapter 27
IGMP Status .......................................................................................................................... 296
27.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................296
27.2 The IGMP Group Status Screen ......................................................................................296
Chapter 28
xDSL Statistics...................................................................................................................... 297
28.1 The xDSL Statistics Screen ..............................................................................................297
Chapter 29
User Account ........................................................................................................................ 300
29.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................300
29.2 The User Account Screen ................................................................................................300
29.2.1 Add/Edit a User Account .......................................................................................301
Chapter 30
Remote Management............................................................................................................ 303
30.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................303
30.2 The Remote MGMT Screen .............................................................................................303
Chapter 31
TR-069 Client......................................................................................................................... 305
31.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................305
31.2 The TR-069 Client Screen ...............................................................................................305
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Chapter 32
SNMP ..................................................................................................................................... 307
32.1 The SNMP Agent Screen .................................................................................................307
Chapter 33
Time ....................................................................................................................................... 309
33.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................309
33.2 The Time Screen .............................................................................................................309
Chapter 34
E-mail Notification ................................................................................................................ 312
34.1 Overview
.......................................................................................................................312
34.2 The Email Notification Screen ..........................................................................................312
34.2.1 Email Notification Edit ...........................................................................................313
Chapter 35
Logs Setting ......................................................................................................................... 314
35.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................314
35.2 The Log Setting Screen ...................................................................................................314
35.2.1 Example E-mail Log ...............................................................................................315
Chapter 36
Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................................ 317
36.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................317
36.2 The Firmware Screen .......................................................................................................317
Chapter 37
Configuration ........................................................................................................................ 319
37.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................319
37.2 The Configuration Screen ................................................................................................319
37.3 The Reboot Screen ..........................................................................................................321
Chapter 38
Diagnostic ............................................................................................................................. 322
38.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................322
38.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................322
38.2 What You Need to Know ..................................................................................................322
38.3 Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup ......................................................................................323
38.4 802.1ag ............................................................................................................................324
38.5 OAM Ping Test .................................................................................................................325
Chapter 39
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 327
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
39.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs .......................................................................327
39.2 Device Access and Login .................................................................................................328
39.3 Internet Access ................................................................................................................330
39.4 Wireless Internet Access ..................................................................................................331
39.5 USB Device Connection ...................................................................................................332
39.6 UPnP ................................................................................................................................333
Appendix A Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address ........................................................... 334
Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting........................................................................... 356
Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions ....................................... 364
Appendix D Wireless LANs.................................................................................................. 373
Appendix E IPv6 .................................................................................................................. 386
Appendix F Services............................................................................................................ 394
Appendix G Legal Information ............................................................................................. 399
Index ...................................................................................................................................... 403
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
P ART I
User’s Guide
15
16
C HAPT ER
1
Introducing the SBG3500-N
1.1 Overview
The SBG3500-N is a secure VPN (Virtual Private Network), multi-WAN gateway that provides highspeed Internet access for business users. It features not only VDSL2/ADSL2+ Bonding functionality,
but also one Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) WAN with Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP) interface. SFP is
also known as Fiber Optics interface. The GbE WAN with SFP is a dual-personality design (GbE +
Fiber) which enables increased bandwidth and extended coverage. Namely, the SBG3500-N can
adopt varied network environment and enable service providers to flexibly install this device for
VDSL, Fiber and 3G, in addition to provide load-balancing to ensure seamless Internet connectivity.
FEATURES
• Four GbE Ports for LAN Connection
• One USB Port for 3G Connection and File Sharing
• One SFP Port for Fiber Optic Internet Connection
• One GbE WAN Port
• Two VDSL2/ADSL2+ Integrated Ports (Bonding)
• Integrated Firewall with Secure Network Management
• IP secure VPN
Only use firmware for your SBG3500-N’s specific model. Refer to the
label on the bottom of your SBG3500-N.
Note: SFP and GbE connections cannot be used at the same time.
1.2 Applications for the SBG3500-N
Here are some example uses for which the SBG3500-N is well suited.
1.2.1 Internet Access
Your SBG3500-N provides multiple Internet access methods (up to two at a time), and you can use
them in the following combinations, if your ISP supports them.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
17
Chapter 1 Introducing the SBG3500-N
• ADSL2+ and VDSL, connect the DSL1 and/or DSL2 port using a phone cable to a DSL or MODEM
on a splitter or your telephone jack. For single DSL connection, use only DSL1 port. For DSL
bonding connection, use both DSL1 and DSL2 port at the same time. Refer to Section 6.2 on
page 106 for the Network Setting > Broadband screen. When using the DSL1/DSL2 ports
and VDSL connection is not available, then the ADSL2+ will automatically be the network
interface.
• DSL and GbE, connect the DSL port to the DSL or MODEM as described above and connect the
GbE port to a broadband router (if available) using an Ethernet cable. The 3G USB dongle is the
failover or a backup connection in case both the DSL and GbE fails. You can set the load balance
and failover in SBG3500-N to prioritize and redirect all traffic to the backup connection in case
the Internet access is down by clicking Network Settings > Broadband > Multi-WAN
• DSL and Fiber (SFP), connect the the DSL port to the DSL or MODEM and connect the SFP port
using a Fiber Optical module, also known as a mini-GBIC transceiver, to a Switch or Router. The
3G USB dongle is the failover or backup connection. Set load balance as described above and see
the SBG3500-N’s Quick Start Guide for details on how to install and remove a mini-GBIC
transceiver.
• DSL and 3G, connect the DSL port to the DSL or MODEM and connect the USB port using a USB
3G dongle. The Fiber/Ethernet is the failover. You can set the load balance/failover as described
above.
• Fiber and 3G, connect the SFP port using a mini-GBIC transceiver and the USB port using a USB
3G dongle as described above. The DSL is the failover in case both Fiber and 3G is unavailable.
• GbE and 3G, connect the GbE port to a broadband router and the USB port using a USB 3G
dongle. The DSL is the failover in case both Fiber and 3G is unavailable.
• WLAN or Wireless Internet access, Refer to Section 1.2.2 on page 20 for more information.
The below table is a summary of the SBG3500-N Multi-WAN combinations and failover.
DSL
SFP/ETHERNET WAN
3G
Active
Active
Failover
Active
Failover
Active
Failover
Active
Active
The following figure shows the possible internet access scenarios described above.
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Introducing the SBG3500-N
Computers can connect to the SBG3500-N’s LAN ports (or wirelessly).
Figure 1 SBG3500-N’s Internet Access Application
WLAN
WAN
Bridging
PPPoE
IPoE/IPoA
PPPoA
Load Balancing
LAN
A
ADSL2+/VDSL
WLAN
WAN
LAN
A
ADSL2+/VDSL and GbE
WAN
A
ADSL2+/VDSL and Fiber
WLAN
WAN
LAN
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
A
ADSL2+/VDSL and 3G
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Chapter 1 Introducing the SBG3500-N
Figure 2 SBG3500-N’s Internet Access Application (Continue)
WLAN
WAN
LAN
A
Fiber and 3G
WLAN
WAN
LAN
GbE and 3G
A
You can also configure IP filtering on the SBG3500-N for secure Internet access. Go to Security >
MAC Filter to do this task. When the IP filter is on, all incoming traffic from the Internet to your
network is blocked by default unless it is initiated from your network. This means that probes from
the outside to your network are not allowed, but you can safely browse the Internet and download
files.
1.2.2 Wireless LAN
The SBG3500-N is a wireless Access Point (AP) for wireless clients, such as notebook computers or
PDAs and iPads. It allows them to connect to the Internet without having to rely on inconvenient
Ethernet cables.
You can configure your wireless network in either the built-in Web Configurator.
Figure 3 Wireless Access Example
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Introducing the SBG3500-N
Using the WLAN Button
If the wireless network is turned off, press the WLAN button at the back of the SBG3500-N. Once
the WLAN LED turns green, the wireless network is active.
1.2.3 SBG3500-N’s USB Support
The USB port of the SBG3500-N is used for 3G Dongle and file-sharing.
3G Dongle
See the product page on ZyXEL’s website for the list of 3G Dongles that are compatible. To set up a
new 3G Dongle, click Network Settings > Broadband > 3G WAN, and to add new 3G Dongle,
click Network Settings > Broadband > Add new 3G Dongle.
File Sharing
Use the built-in USB 2.0 port to share files on a USB memory stick or a USB hard drive (B). You can
connect one USB hard drive to the SBG3500-N at a time. Use FTP to access the files on the USB
device.
Figure 4 USB File Sharing Application
B
A
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Chapter 1 Introducing the SBG3500-N
1.3 LEDs (Lights)
The following graphic displays the labels of the LEDs.
Figure 5 LEDs on the Device
None of the LEDs are on if the SBG3500-N is not receiving power.
Table 1 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
POWER
Green
On
The SBG3500-N is receiving power and ready for use.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is self-testing.
Off
The SBG3500-N is not receiving power.
On
The SBG3500-N detected an error while self-testing, or there is a device
malfunction.
Off
The SBG3500-N is not receiving power.
Left LED
(1000)
On
The SBG3500-N has a successful Ethernet connection with a device on
the Local Area Network (LAN).
Green
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is sending or receiving data to/from the LAN.
Off
The SBG3500-N does not have an Ethernet connection with the LAN.
Right
LED (10/
100)
On
The SBG3500-N has a successful Ethernet connection with a device on
the Local Area Network (LAN).
Blingking
The SBG3500-N is sending or receiving data to/from the LAN.
Orange
Off
The SBG3500-N does not have an Ethernet connection with the LAN.
Left LED
(1000)
On
The Gigabit Ethernet connection is working.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is sending or receiving data to/from the Gigabit
Ethernet link.
Red
ETHERNET
LAN 1-4
ETHERNET
WAN
Green
22
Off
There is no Gigabit Ethernet link.
Right
LED (10/
100)
On
The Gigabit Ethernet connection is working.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is sending or receiving data to/from the Gigabit
Ethernet link.
Orange
Off
There is no Gigabit Ethernet link.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the SBG3500-N
Table 1 LED Descriptions (continued)
LED
COLOR
DSL1 and
Green
DSL2
Orange
SFP
INTERNET
Green
Green
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
On
The ADSL2+ line is up.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is initializing the ADSL2+ line.
Off
The ADSL2+ line is down.
On
The VDSL line is up.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is initializing the VDSL line.
Off
The VDSL line is down.
On
The Fiber connection is working.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is sending or receiving data to/from the Fiber link.
Off
There is no Fiber link.
On
The SBG3500-N has an IP connection but no traffic.
Your device has a WAN IP address (either static or assigned by a DHCP
server), PPP negotiation was successfully completed (if used) and the
DSL connection is up.
Red
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is sending or receiving IP or 3G traffic.
Off
There is no Internet connection or the gateway is in bridged mode.
On
The SBG3500-N failed to establish an IP connection.
No WAN IP address (either static or assigned by a DHCP server), PPPoE
negotiation failed (if used) and there’s no DSL connection.
USB
WLAN
Green
Green
On
The SBG3500-N recognizes a 3G/USB connection.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is sending/receiving data to /from the USB device
connected to it.
Off
The SBG3500-N does not detect a USB connection.
On
The wireless network is activated.
Blinking
The SBG3500-N is communicating with other wireless clients and is
setting up a WPS connection.
Off
The wireless network is not activated.
1.4 Ways to Manage the SBG3500-N
Use any of the following methods to manage the SBG3500-N.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the SBG3500-N using a
(supported) web browser.
• TR-069. This is an auto-configuration server used to remotely configure your SBG3500-N.
1.5 Good Habits for Managing the SBG3500-N
Do the following things regularly to make the SBG3500-N more secure and to manage the
SBG3500-N more effectively.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the SBG3500-N
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of different
types of characters, such as numbers and letters. The password must have at least six
characters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an earlier
working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even crashes. If you
forget your password, you will have to reset the SBG3500-N to its factory default settings. If you
backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the SBG3500N. You could simply restore your last configuration.
1.6 The RESET Button
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to use the RESET
button at the front of the device to reload the factory-default configuration file. This means that you
will lose all configurations that you had previously and the password will be reset to “1234”.
24
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on (not blinking).
2
To set the device back to the factory default settings, press the RESET button for ten seconds or
until the POWER LED begins to blink and then release it. When the POWER LED begins to blink,
the defaults have been restored and the device restarts.
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The Web Configurator
2.1 Overview
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy device setup and
management of the SBG3500-N via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 11.0 and later versions
with JavaScript enabled, or Mozilla Firefox 21 and later versions or Safari 6.0 and later versions or
Google Chrome 26 and later versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by default in
Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
See Appendix C on page 364 if you need to make sure these functions are allowed in Internet
Explorer.
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator
1
Make sure your SBG3500-N hardware is properly connected (refer to the Quick Start Guide).
2
Launch your web browser. If the SBG3500-N does not automatically re-direct you to the login
screen, go to http://192.168.1.1.
3
A password screen displays. To access the administrative web configurator and manage the
SBG3500-N, type the default username admin and password 1234 in the password screen and
click Login. If advanced account security is enabled (see Section 29.2 on page 300) the number of
dots that appears when you type the password changes randomly to prevent anyone watching the
password field from knowing the length of your password. If you have changed the password, enter
your password and click Login.
Figure 6 Password Screen
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
4
The following screen displays if you have not yet changed your password. It is strongly
recommended you change the default password. Enter a new password, minding the rules in the
screen, retype it to confirm and click Apply; alternatively click Skip to proceed to the main menu if
you do not want to change the password now.
Figure 7 Change Password Screen
5
The Status page appears, where you can view the SBG3500-N’s interface and system information.
6
Click the Quick Start Wizard button on top of the page to configure the SBG3500-N’s time zone,
basic Internet access, and wireless settings. See Chapter 3 on page 32 for more information.
Figure 8 Status
26
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
2.2 Web Configurator Layout
Figure 9 Screen Layout
A
B
C
As illustrated above, the main screen is divided into these parts:
• A - title bar
• B - main window
• C - navigation panel
2.2.1 Title Bar
The title bar provides some icons in the upper right corner.
The icons provide the following functions.
Table 2 Web Configurator Icons in the Title Bar
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Quick Start: Click this icon to open screens where you can configure the SBG3500-N’s time
zone Internet access, and wireless settings.
Logout: Click this icon to log out of the web configurator.
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
2.2.2 Main Window
The main window displays information and configuration fields. It is discussed in the rest of this
document. See Chapter 5 on page 99 for more information about the Status screen.
If you click Virtual Device on the System Info screen, a graphic shows the connection status of
the Device’s ports. The connected interfaces are in color and disconnected interfaces are gray.
Figure 10 Virtual Device
2.2.3 Navigation Panel
Use the menu items on the navigation panel to open screens to configure SBG3500-N features. The
following tables describe each menu item.
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
TAB
Status
FUNCTION
Click this to go to the main Web Configurator screen.
Network Setting
Broadband
Wireless
28
Broadband
Use this screen to view and configure ISP parameters, WAN IP
address assignment, and other advanced properties. You can also add
new WAN connections.
3G WAN
Use this screen to configure 3G WAN connection.
Add New 3G
Dongle
Use this screen to view or add a new 3G dongle.
Advanced
Use this screen to enable or disable PTM over ADSL, Annex M, and
DSL PhyR functions.
802.1x
Use this screen to view and configure the IEEE 802.1x settings on the
Device.
Multi-WAN
Use this screen to configure the multiple WAN load balance and failover rules to distribute traffic among different interfaces.
General
Use this screen to configure the wireless LAN settings and WLAN
authentication/security settings.
More AP
Use this screen to configure multiple BSSs on the SBG3500-N.
MAC
Authentication
Use this screen to block or allow wireless traffic from wireless devices
of certain SSIDs and MAC addresses to the SBG3500-N.
WPS
Use this screen to configure and view your WPS (Wi-Fi Protected
Setup) settings.
WMM
Use this screen to enable or disable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM).
Others
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings.
Channel Status
Use this screen to scan wireless LAN channel noises and view the
results.
Scheduling
Use this screen to set a schedule to turn off wireless LAN for power
saving purposes.
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Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary (continued)
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
LAN Setup
Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP settings, and other advanced
properties.
Static DHCP
Use this screen to assign specific IP addresses to individual MAC
addresses.
UPnP
Use this screen to turn UPnP and UPnP NAT-T on or off.
Additional
Subnet
Use this screen to configure IP alias and public static IP.
5th Ethernet
Port
Use this screen to configure the Ethernet WAN port as a LAN port.
Static Route
Use this screen to view and set up static routes on the SBG3500-N.
Policy
Forwarding
Use this screen to configure policy routing on the SBG3500-N.
RIP
Use this screen to set up RIP settings on the SBG3500-N.
General
Use this screen to enable QoS and traffic prioritizing. You can also
configure the QoS rules and actions.
Queue Setup
Use this screen to configure QoS queues.
Class Setup
Use this screen to define a classifier.
Policer Setup
Use these screens to configure QoS policers.
Monitor
Use this screen to view QoS packets statistics.
Port Forwarding
Use this screen to make your local servers visible to the outside
world.
Applications
Use this screen to configure servers behind the SBG3500-N.
Port Triggering
Use this screen to change your SBG3500-N’s port triggering settings.
Default Server
Use this screen to configure a default server which receives packets
from ports that are not specified in the Port Forwarding screen.
ALG
Use this screen to enable or disable NAT ALG and SIP ALG.
Address Mapping
Use this screen to change your Device’s address mapping settings.
DNS Entry
Use this screen to view and configure DNS routes.
Dynamic DNS
Use this screen to allow a static hostname alias for a dynamic IP
address.
Interface
Group/VLAN
Interface Group/
VLAN
Use this screen to create a new interface group, which is a new LAN
bridge interface (subnet).
USB Service
USB Service
Use this screen to enable file sharing via the SBG3500-N.
General
Use this screen to configure the security level of your firewall.
Service
Use this screen to add Internet services and configure firewall rules.
Access Control
Use this screen to enable specific traffic directions for network
services.
DoS
Use this screen to activate protection against Denial of Service (DoS)
attacks.
MAC Filter
MAC Filter
Use this screen to block or allow traffic from devices of certain MAC
addresses to the SBG3500-N.
User Access
Control
User Access
Control
Use this screen to block web sites with the specific URL.
Scheduler Rule
Scheduler Rule
Use this screen to configure the days and times when a configured
restriction (such as User Access control) is enforced.
LAN
Routing
QoS
NAT
DNS
Security
Firewall
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary (continued)
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
Local Certificates
Use this screen to view a summary list of certificates and manage
certificates and certification requests.
Trusted CA
Use this screen to view and manage the list of the trusted CAs.
Setup
Use this screen to display and manage the SBG3500-N’s IPSec VPN
rules (tunnels).
Monitor
Use this screen to display and manage active IPSec VPN connections.
Radius
Use this screen to manage the list of RADIUS servers the SBG3500-N
can use in authenticating users.
Setup
Use this screen to configure the PPTP VPN settings in the SBG3500-N.
Monitor
Use this screen to view settings for PPTP clients.
Setup
Use this screen to configure the SBG3500-N’s L2TP VPN settings.
Monitor
Use this screen to view settings for L2TP clients.
System Log
Use this screen to view the status of events that occurred to the
SBG3500-N. You can export or e-mail the logs.
Security Log
Use this screen to view the login record of the SBG3500-N. You can
export or e-mail the logs.
WAN
Use this screen to view the status of all network traffic going through
the WAN port of the SBG3500-N.
LAN
Use this screen to view the status of all network traffic going through
the LAN ports of the SBG3500-N.
DHCP Client
Use this screen to view the status of all wired and wireless devices
connected to the SBG3500-N. You can also set screen refresh time to
see updates on new devices.
ARP Table
ARP Table
Use this screen to view the ARP table. It displays the IP and MAC
address of each DHCP connection.
Routing Table
Routing Table
Use this screen to view the routing table.
IGMP Group
Status
IGMP Group
Status
Use this screen to view the status of all IGMP settings on the
SBG3500-N.
xDSL Statistics
xDSL Statistics
Use this screen to view the Device’s xDSL traffic statistics.
User Account
User Account
Use this screen to manage user accounts, which includes configuring
the username, password, retry times, file sharing, captive portal, and
customizing the login message.
Remote MGMT
Remote MGMT
Use this screen to enable specific traffic directions for network
services.
TR-069 Client
TR-069 Clients
Use this screen to configure the SBG3500-N to be managed by an
Auto Configuration Server (ACS).
SNMP
SNMP
Use this screen to enable/disable and configure settings for SNMP.
Time
Time
Use this screen to change your SBG3500-N’s time and date.
Email
Notification
Email
Notification
Use this screen to configure up to two mail servers and sender
addresses on the SBG3500-N.
Log Setting
Log Setting
Use this screen to change your SBG3500-N’s log settings.
Firmware
Upgrade
Firmware
Upgrade
Use this screen to upload firmware to your device.
Certificates
VPN
IPSec VPN
PPTP VPN
L2TP VPN
System Monitor
Log
Network Status
Maintenance
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Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary (continued)
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
Configuration
Configuration
Use this screen to backup and restore your device’s configuration
(settings) or reset the factory default settings.
Reboot
Reboot
Use this screen to reboot the SBG3500-N without turning the power
off.
Diagnostic
Ping &
Traceroute &
Nslookup
Use this screen to identify problems with the DSL connection. You can
use Ping, TraceRoute, or Nslookup to help you identify problems.
802.1ag
Use this screen to configure CFM (Connectivity Fault Management)
MD (maintenance domain) and MA (maintenance association),
perform connectivity tests and view test reports.
OAM Ping
Use this screen to view information to help you identify problems with
the DSL connection.
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3
Quick Start
3.1 Overview
Use the Quick Start screens to configure the Device’s time zone, basic Internet access, and
wireless settings.
Note: See the technical reference chapters (starting on page 97) for background
information on the features in this chapter.
3.2 Quick Start Setup
1
The Quick Start Wizard appears automatically after login. Or you can click the Click Start icon in
the top right corner of the web configurator to open the quick start screens. Select the time zone of
the Device’s location and click Next.
Figure 11 Time Zone
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Chapter 3 Quick Start
2
Select your current WAN interface to configure its settings.
Figure 12 WAN Interface Selection
3
Enter your Internet connection information in this screen. The screen and fields to enter may vary
depending on your current connection type. Click Next.
Figure 13 Internet Connection
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Chapter 3 Quick Start
4
Turn the wireless LAN on or off. If you keep it on, record the security settings so you can configure
your wireless clients to connect to the Device. Click Save.
Figure 14 Internet Connection
5
34
Your Device saves your settings and attempts to connect to the Internet.
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Tutorials
4.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to use the Device’s various features.
• Setting Up an ADSL PPPoE Connection, see page 35
• Setting Up a GbE WAN connection, see page 38
• Setting Up a 3G WAN connction, see page 40
• Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network, see page 41
• Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups, see page 48
• Configuring Static Route for Routing to Another Network, see page 51
• Configuring QoS Queue and Class Setup, see page 54
• Access the Device Using DDNS, see page 57
• Configuring the MAC Address Filter, see page 59
• Access Your Shared Files From a Computer, see page 60
• Certificate Configuration for VPN, see page 61
• Examples of Configuring IPSec VPN Rules, see page 64
• PPTP VPN Tutorial, see page 69
• L2TP VPN Tutorial, see page 81
4.2 Setting Up an ADSL PPPoE Connection
This tutorial shows you how to set up your Internet connection using the Web Configurator.
If you connect to the Internet through an ADSL connection, use the information from your Internet
Service Provider (ISP) to configure the Device. Be sure to contact your service provider for any
information you need to configure the Broadband screens.
1
Click Network Setting > Broadband to open the following screen. Click Add New WAN
Interface.
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2
In this example, the DSL connection has the following information.
General
Name
MyDSLConnection
Type
ADSL
Connection Mode
Routing
Encapsulation
PPPoE
IPv6/IPv4 Mode
IPv4
ATM PVC Configuration
VPI/VCI
36/48
Encapsulation Mode
LLC/SNAP-Bridging
Service Category
UBR without PCR
Account Information
PPP User Name
1234@DSL-Ex.com
PPP Password
ABCDEF!
PPPoE Service Name
MyDSL
Static IP Address
192.168.1.32
Others
PPPoE Passthrough: Disabled
NAT: Enabled
IGMP Multicast Proxy: Enabled
Apply as Default Gateway: Enabled
3
Select the Active check box. Enter the General and ATM PVC Configuration settings as provided
above.
Set the Type to ADSL over ATM.
Choose the Encapsulation specified by your DSL service provider. For this example, the service
provider requires a username and password to establish Internet connection. Therefore, select
PPPoE as the WAN encapsulation type.
Set the IPv6/IPv4 Mode to IPv4 Only.
36
4
Enter the account information provided to you by your DSL service provider.
5
Configure this rule as your default Internet connection by selecting the Apply as Default Gateway
check box. Then select DNS as Static and enter the DNS server addresses provided to you, such as
192.168.5.2 (DNS server1)/192.168.5.1 (DNS server2).
6
Leave the rest of the fields to the default settings.
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7
Click Apply to save your settings.
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8
You should see a summary of your new DSL connection setup in the Broadband screen as follows.
Try to connect to a website to see if you have correctly set up your Internet connection. Be sure to
contact your service provider for any information you need to configure the WAN screens.
4.3 Setting Up a GbE WAN connection
This tutorial shows you how to set up your Gigabit Ethernet WAN connection using the Web
Configurator.
If you connect to the Internet through an Ethernet connection, use the information from your
Internet Service Provider (ISP) to configure the Device. Be sure to contact your service provider for
any information you need to configure the Broadband screens.
38
1
Click Network Setting > Broadband to open the following screen.
2
Next, click Add New WAN Interface to open the following screen.
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In this example, the Ethernet connection has the following information.
General
Name
MyETHER
Type
Ethernet
Mode
Routing
Service and
Encapsulation
PPPoE
IPv6/IPv4 Mode
IPv4
Account Information
802.1p
0
802.1q
1
QoS
300 kbps
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PPP User Name
1234@ETHER-Ex.com
PPP Password
ABCDEF!
PPP Auto Connect
Enabled
PPPoE Service name
ethertest
PPPoE Passthrough
Enabled
MTU
1492
IP Address
192.168.1.40
Primary DNS Server
192.168.5.5
Secondary DNS Server
192.168.5.6
Others
PPPoE Passthrough: Disabled
NAT: Enabled
IGMP Multicast Proxy: Enabled
Apply as Default Gateway: Enabled
You should see a summary of your new Ethernet connection setup in the Broadband screen as
follows.
4.4 Setting Up a 3G WAN connction
See the 3G WAN screen (Section 6.3 on page 116) for setting up a 3G WAN connection. Make sure
you insert a valid SIM card (with active data plan) into the 3G USB dongle before you inser the USB
dongle to the USB port of your computer.
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4.5 Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network
Thomas wants to set up a wireless network so that he can use his notebook to access the Internet.
In this wireless network, the Device serves as an access point (AP), and the notebook is the
wireless client. The wireless client can access the Internet through the AP.
Thomas has to configure the wireless network settings on the Device. Then he can set up a wireless
network using WPS (Section 4.5.2 on page 43) or manual configuration (Section 4.5.3 on page 47).
4.5.1 Configuring the Wireless Network Settings
This example uses the following parameters to set up a wireless network.
SSID
Example
Security Mode
WPA-PSK
Pre-Shared Key
DoNotStealMyWirelessNetwork
802.11 Mode
802.11b/g/n Mixed
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1
42
Click Network Setting > Wireless to open the General screen. Select More Secure as the
security level and WPA2-PSK as the security mode. Configure the screen using the provided
parameters (see page 41). Click Apply.
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2
Go to the Wireless > Others screen and select 802.11b/g/n Mixed in the 802.11 Mode field.
Click Apply.
Thomas can now use the WPS feature to establish a wireless connection between his notebook and
the Device (see Section 4.5.2 on page 43). He can also use the notebook’s wireless client to search
for the Device (see Section 4.5.3 on page 47).
4.5.2 Using WPS
This section shows you how to set up a wireless network using WPS. It uses the Device as the AP
and ZyXEL NWD210N as the wireless client which connects to the notebook.
Note: The wireless client must be a WPS-aware device (for example, a WPS USB adapter
or PCMCIA card).
There are two WPS methods to set up the wireless client settings:
• Push Button Configuration (PBC) - simply press a button. This is the easier of the two
methods.
• PIN Configuration - configure a Personal Identification Number (PIN) on the Device. A wireless
client must also use the same PIN in order to download the wireless network settings from the
Device.
Push Button Configuration (PBC)
1
Make sure that your Device is turned on and your notebook is within the cover range of the wireless
signal.
2
Make sure that you have installed the wireless client driver and utility in your notebook.
3
In the wireless client utility, go to the WPS setting page. Enable WPS and press the WPS button
(Start or WPS button).
4
Log into Device’s web configurator and go to the Network Setting > Wireless > WPS screen.
Enable the WPS function and click Apply. Then click the Connect button.
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Note: You must enable the Wireless function in the Network Setting > Wireless >
General screen before you can enable the WPS function.
Note: Your Device has a WPS button located on its front panel as well as a WPS button in
its configuration utility. Both buttons have exactly the same function: you can use
one or the other.
Note: It doesn’t matter which device’s WPS you enable first, but you must enable the
second device’s WPS within two minutes of enabling the first one.
The Device sends the proper configuration settings to the wireless client. This may take up to two
minutes. The wireless client is then able to communicate with the Device securely.
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The following figure shows you an example of how to set up a wireless network and its security.
Example WPS Process: PBC Method
Wireless Client
Device
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
Click “Connect”
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
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PIN Configuration
When you use the PIN configuration method, you need to use both the Device’s web configurator
and the wireless client’s utility.
1
Launch your wireless client’s configuration utility. Go to the WPS settings and select the PIN method
to get a PIN number.
2
Log into Device’s web configurator and go to the Network Setting > Wireless > WPS screen.
Enable the WPS function and click Apply.
3
Enter the PIN number of the wireless client and click the Register button. Activate WPS function on
the wireless client utility screen within two minutes.
The Device authenticates the wireless client and sends the proper configuration settings to the
wireless client. This may take up to two minutes. The wireless client is then able to communicate
with the Device securely.
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The following figure shows you how to set up a wireless network and its security on a Device and a
wireless client by using PIN method.
Example WPS Process: PIN Method
Wireless Client
ZyXEL Device
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
Authentication by PIN
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
4.5.3 Without WPS
Use the wireless adapter’s utility installed on the notebook to search for the “Example” SSID. Then
enter the “DoNotStealMyWirelessNetwork” pre-shared key to establish an wireless Internet
connection.
Note: The Device supports IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g, and IEEE 802.11n wireless
clients. Make sure that your notebook or computer’s wireless adapter supports one
of these standards.
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4.6 Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups
Company A wants to create different wireless network groups for different types of users as shown
in the following figure. Each group has its own SSID and security mode.
Company
Guest
VIP
• Employees in Company A will use a general Company wireless network group.
• Higher management level and important visitors will use the VIP group.
• Visiting guests will use the Guest group, which has a lower security mode.
Company A will use the following parameters to set up the wireless network groups.
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COMPANY
VIP
GUEST
SSID
Company
VIP
Guest
Security Level
More Secure
More Secure
Basic
Security Mode
WPA2-PSK
WPA2-PSK
Static WEP
Pre-Shared Key
ForCompanyOnly
ForVIPOnly
Guest12345678
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Click Network Setting > Wireless to open the General screen. Use this screen to set up the
company’s general wireless network group. Configure the screen using the provided parameters
and click Apply.
2
Click Network Setting > Wireless > More AP to open the following screen. Click the Edit icon to
configure the second wireless network group.
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3
Configure the screen using the provided parameters and click Apply.
4
In the More AP screen, click the Edit icon to configure the third wireless network group.
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Configure the screen using the provided parameters and click Apply.
6
Check the status of VIP and Guest in the More AP screen. The yellow bulbs signify that the SSIDs
are active and ready for wireless access.
4.7 Configuring Static Route for Routing to Another
Network
In order to extend your Intranet and control traffic flowing directions, you may connect a router to
the Device’s LAN. The router may be used to separate two department networks. This tutorial
shows how to configure a static routing rule for two network routings.
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In the following figure, router R is connected to the Device’s LAN. R connects to two networks, N1
(192.168.1.x/24) and N2 (192.168.10.x/24). If you want to send traffic from computer A (in N1
network) to computer B (in N2 network), the traffic is sent to the Device’s WAN default gateway by
default. In this case, B will never receive the traffic.
N1
A
R
N2
B
You need to specify a static routing rule on the Device to specify R as the router in charge of
forwarding traffic to N2. In this case, the Device routes traffic from A to R and then R routes the
traffic to B.
N1
A
R
N2
B
This tutorial uses the following example IP settings:
Table 4 IP Settings in this Tutorial
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DEVICE / COMPUTER
IP ADDRESS
The Device’s WAN
172.16.1.1
The Device’s LAN
192.168.1.1
IP Type
IPv4
Use Interface
ADSL/atm0
A
192.168.1.34
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Table 4 IP Settings in this Tutorial
DEVICE / COMPUTER
IP ADDRESS
R’s N1
192.168.1.253
R’s N2
192.168.10.2
B
192.168.10.33
To configure a static route to route traffic from N1 to N2:
1
Log into the Device’s Web Configurator in advanced mode.
2
Click Network Setting > Routing.
3
Click Add new static route in the Static Route screen.
4
Configure the Static Route Setup screen using the following settings:
4a
Select the Active check box. Enter the Route Name as R.
4b
Set IP Type to IPv4.
4c
Type 192.168.10.0 and subnet mask 255.255.255.0 for the destination, N2.
4d
Select Enable in the Use Gateway IP Address field. Type 192.168.1.253 (R’s N1 address)
in the Gateway IP Address field.
4e
Select ADSL/atm0 as the Use Interface.
4a
Click OK.
Now B should be able to receive traffic from A. You may need to additionally configure B’s firewall
settings to allow specific traffic to pass through.
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4.8 Configuring QoS Queue and Class Setup
This section contains tutorials on how you can configure the QoS screen.
Let’s say you are a team leader of a small sales branch office. You want to prioritize e-mail traffic
because your task includes sending urgent updates to clients at least twice every hour. You also
upload data files (such as logs and e-mail archives) to the FTP server throughout the day. Your
colleagues use the Internet for research, as well as chat applications for communicating with other
branch offices.
In the following figure, your Internet connection has an upstream transmission bandwidth of
10,000 kbps. For this example, you want to configure QoS so that e-mail traffic gets the highest
priority with at least 5,000 kbps. You can do the following:
• Configure a queue to assign the highest priority queue (1) to e-mail traffic going to the WAN
interface, so that e-mail traffic would not get delayed when there is network congestion.
• Note the IP address (192.168.1.23 for example) and/or MAC address (AA:FF:AA:FF:AA:FF for
example) of your computer and map it to queue 7.
Note: QoS is applied to traffic flowing out of the Device.
Traffic that does not match this class is assigned a priority queue based on the internal QoS
mapping table on the Device.
QoS Example
DSL
10,000 kbps
Your computer
IP=192.168.1.23
and/or
MAC=AA:FF:AA:FF:AA:FF
Email traffic: Highest priority
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A colleague’s computer
Other traffic: Automatic classifier
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1
Click Network Setting > QoS > General and select Enable. Set your WAN Managed Upstream
Bandwidth to 10,000 kbps (or leave this blank to have the Device automatically determine this
figure). Click Apply.
Tutorial: Advanced > QoS
2
Click Queue Setup > Add new Queue to create a new queue. In the screen that opens, check
Active and enter or select the following values:
• Name: E-mail
• Interface: WAN
• Priority: 1 (High)
• Weight: 8
• Rate Limit: 5,000 (kbps)
Tutorial: Advanced > QoS > Queue Setup
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3
Click Class Setup > Add new Classifier to create a new class. Check Active and follow the
settings as shown in the screen below.
Tutorial: Advanced > QoS > Class Setup
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Class Name
Give a class name to this traffic, such as E-mail in this example.
From
Interface
This is the interface from which the traffic will be coming from. Select LAN1 for this
example.
Ether Type
Select IP to identify the traffic source by its IP address or MAC address.
IP Address
Type the IP address of your computer - 192.168.1.23. Type the IP Subnet Mask if you
know it.
MAC Address
Type the MAC address of your computer - AA:FF:AA:FF:AA:FF. Type the MAC Mask if you
know it.
To Queue
Index
Link this to an item in the Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup screen, which is the Email queue created in this example.
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This maps e-mail traffic coming from port 25 to the highest priority, which you have created in the
previous screen (see the IP Protocol field). This also maps your computer’s IP address and MAC
address to the E-mail queue (see the Source fields).
4
Verify that the queue setup works by checking Network Setting > QoS > Monitor. This shows
the bandwidth allotted to e-mail traffic compared to other network traffic.
4.9 Access the Device Using DDNS
If you connect your Device to the Internet and it uses a dynamic WAN IP address, it is inconvenient
for you to manage the device from the Internet. The Device’s WAN IP address changes dynamically.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) allows you to access the Device using a domain name.
http://zyxelrouter.dyndns.org
A
w.x.y.z
a.b.c.d
To use this feature, you have to apply for DDNS service at www.dyndns.org.
This tutorial covers:
• Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org
• Configuring DDNS on Your Device
• Testing the DDNS Setting
Note: If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use DDNS.
4.9.1 Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org
1
Open a browser and type http://www.dyndns.org.
2
Apply for a user account. This tutorial uses UserName1 and 12345 as the username and
password.
3
Log into www.dyndns.org using your account.
4
Add a new DDNS host name. This tutorial uses the following settings as an example.
• Hostname: zyxelrouter.dyndns.org
• Service Type: Host with IP address
• IP Address: Enter the WAN IP address that your Device is currently using. You can find the IP
address on the Device’s Web Configurator Status page.
Then you will need to configure the same account and host name on the Device later.
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4.9.2 Configuring DDNS on Your Device
Configure the following settings in the Network Setting > DNS > Dynamic DNS screen.
• Select Enable Dynamic DNS.
• Select www.DynDNS.com as the service provider.
• Type zyxelrouter.dyndns.org in the Host Name field.
• Enter the user name (UserName1) and password (12345).
Click Apply.
4.9.3 Testing the DDNS Setting
Now you should be able to access the Device from the Internet. To test this:
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1
Open a web browser on the computer (using the IP address a.b.c.d) that is connected to the
Internet.
2
Type http://zyxelrouter.dyndns.org and press [Enter].
3
The Device’s login page should appear. You can then log into the Device and manage it.
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4.10 Configuring the MAC Address Filter
Thomas noticed that his daughter Josephine spends too much time surfing the web and
downloading media files. He decided to prevent Josephine from accessing the Internet so that she
can concentrate on preparing for her final exams.
Josephine’s computer connects wirelessly to the Internet through the Device. Thomas decides to
use the Security > MAC Filter screen to grant wireless network access to his computer but not to
Josephine’s computer.
Thomas
Josephine
1
Click Security > MAC Filter to open the MAC Filter screen. Select the Enable check box to
activate MAC filter function.
2
Select Allow. Then enter the host name and MAC address of Thomas’ computer in this screen. Click
Apply.
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Thomas can also grant access to the computers of other members of his family and friends.
However, Josephine and others not listed in this screen will no longer be able to access the Internet
through the Device.
4.11 Access Your Shared Files From a Computer
Here is how to enable the Samba feature on the Device and access a file storage device connected
to the Device’s USB port.
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1
Log into the web configurator and go to the Maintenance > User Account screen. Click the Edit
icon on the account you are currently using. In this example, the account in use is admin. Click the
Edit icon next to it.
2
Set the File Sharing Service (SAMBA) feature to Enable to allow uses to access shared files in
USB storage. Enter mnt as the File Share Name. Click Apply.
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In this example, the FileZilla program is used to browse shared files. In FileZilla, enter the IP
address of the Device (the default is 192.168.1.1), your account’s user name and password and
port 21 and click Quickconnect. A screen asking for password authentication appears.
File Sharing via Windows Explorer
4
Once you log in the USB device displays in the
mnt folder.
4.12 Certificate Configuration for VPN
You may generate a self-signed Certification Authority (CA) certificate using a third party tool or get
an official CA certificate from any trusted certificate agent. In this tutorial, a self-signed CA
certificate (cacert.pem) was created by using the openssl command in Fedora 10.
1
First, you need to import the CA certificate. Go to the Security > Certificates > Trusted CA
screen and click Import Certificate.
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2
Browse the directory in Fedora, or another system, which contains your CA certificate (e.g.,
cacert.pem), then click OK.
3
In the Security > Certificates > Local Certificates screen, click Create Certificate Request.
4
Enter your information as shown in the following screen and click Apply.
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The contents of the certificate display in the View Certificate screen. Copy the Signing Request
section and paste it to a file (for example, sbg.req) in Fedora, or another system, which contains
your original CA certificate.
6
In Fedora, issue the following openssl command to generate the host certificate for the Device:
openssl ca -config ./openssl.conf -policy policy_anything -out sbg.pem
-infiles sbg.req
7
Click the Load_Signed button in the View Certificate screen.
8
Cut the contents of sbg.pem (only the binary portion between BEGIN CERTIFICATE and END
CERTIFICATE). You can use "vi" or your favorite text editor to cut the portion, but do not use the
"cat" command.
9
Paste it to the indicated part of the Certificate section in the View Certificate screen. Click
Apply.
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10 Now you may configure VPN to use the new certificate for authentication in the VPN > IPSec VPN
> Monitor screen.
4.13 Examples of Configuring IPSec VPN Rules
The first two examples show how to configure Site-to-Site rules with pre-shared secrets. The first
example uses 3DES encryption and the second one uses AES128.
The third example shows how to configure a Site-to-Site with Dynamic Peer rule using pre-shared
secret keys.
Finally, the fourth example shows how to configure remote access using pre-shared secrets.
4.13.1 Example 1: Use 3DES Encryption
1
Click the Add New Entry button in the VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup screen and enter the following
parameters:
General
Connection Name
vpn1
Application Scenario
Site-to-Site
My Address
ETHWAN
Peer Gateway Address
22.23.24.25
Authentication
Key Exchange Mode
Auto
Pre-Shared Key
1234567890
Phase 1
64
SA Life Time
28800
Negotiation Mode
Main
Encryption
3DES
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Authentication
SHA1
Key Group
DH2
Phase 2
SA Life Time
3600
Tunnel Mode
ESP
Encapsulation
Tunnel
Encryption
3DES
Authentication
SHA1
PFS
DH2
Policy
Local IP Type
Subnet
Local IP Address
192.168.1.0
Local Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Remote IP Type
Subnet
Remote IP Address
172.23.9.0
Remote Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
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You can see the new IPSec VPN rule you’ve just created in the VPN > IPSec VPN > Monitor
screen.
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4.13.2 Example 2: Use AES128 Encryption
Here is another example of creating a Gateway-to-Gateway IPSec VPN rule with pre-shared secrets.
1
Click the Add New Entry button in the VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup screen.
2
Enter vpn2 as the Connection Name. Remove the existing encryption by clicking Remove icon or
Reset button. Then select AES128 and click the Add button in the Encryption fields of phase 1
and 2. Other parameters are the same as example 1’s.
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3
You can see the new IPSec VPN rule you’ve just created in the VPN > IPSec VPN > Monitor
screen.
4.13.3 Example 3: Configuring a Site-to-Site with Dynamic Peer Rule
Select Site-to-Site with Dynamic Peer in the Application Scenario field in the General
section. Other parameters are the same as example 1’s.
4.13.4 Example 4: Configuring a Remote Access Rule
Select Remote Access in the Application Scenario field in the General section. Other
parameters are the same as example 1’s.
Note: The Peer Gateway Address is not shown in the screen because it is an unknown
IP address to the remote access VPN client.
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Note: The policy for the remote VPN client is not shown in the screen because it is an
unknown to the remote access VPN client.
4.14 PPTP VPN Tutorial
The example uses the following settings in setting up a basic PPTP VPN tunnel.
Figure 15 PPTP VPN Example
172.16.1.2
PPTP VPN IP Address Pool:
10.1.1.1 - 10.1.1.32
LAN Subnet #1: 192.168.1.0/24
LAN Subnet #2: 192.168.2.0/24
• The Device has a static IP address of 172.16.1.2 for the DSL WAN interface.
• The remote user has a dynamic IP address and connects through the Internet.
• Use the default IP address pool to assign the remote users a point-to-point IP addresses from
10.1.1.1 to 10.1.1.32 for use in the PPTP VPN tunnel.
• The access group configuration allows the remote user to access only the LAN subnet #1
192.168.1.0/24.
4.14.1 Configuring PPTP VPN Setup (Server)
1.Go to the VPN > PPTP VPN > Setup screen and configure the following.
• Select the Enable checkbox.
• Set Access Group 1 to 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
• Select DNS as User Defined and enter a DNS server address. The DNS server address in this
example is 8.8.8.8.
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• Click Apply.
4.14.2 Configuring PPTP VPN on Windows (Client)
The following sections cover how to configure PPTP in remote user computers using Windows 7,
Vista and XP. The example settings in these sections match the PPTP VPN configuration example in
Section 4.14 on page 69.
On Windows 7
On Windows 7, do the following to establish a PPTP VPN connection.
1
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Click Start > Control Panel > Network and Sharing Center > Setup a new connection or
network > Connect to a workplace. Click Next.
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Select No, create a new connection. Click Next.
3
Select Use my Internet connection (VPN).
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4
Enter the domain name or WAN IP Address that you want to connect to (172.16.1.2 in this
example) and give this connection a name. Select Don't connect now; just set it up so I can
connect later. Click Next.
5
Click Create. Enter the user name and password later.
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Click Close. Do not connect yet.
7
Click the Network icon in your system tray, then click Connect to a Network and Sharing
Center on Windows 7.
8
Cick Change adapter settings.
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9
Double-click the new connection icon.
10 The connection screen appears. Click Properties.
11 The Properties window appears. Click Security.
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12 Select Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) as the Type of VPN. Select Maximum
strength encryption (disconnect if server declines) and the Allow these protocols radio
button. Select Microsoft CHAP Version 2 (MS-CHAP v2) and clear all of the other check boxes.
Do not click OK yet.
13 In the Connect window, enter the username and password of your Device’s account. Click
Connect.
Note: The user account must have been configured in the Maintenance > User
Account screen. Refer to Chapter 29 on page 300.
14 A window appears while the username and password are verified. The connection is then
established.
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15 The Network and Sharing Center windows appear. You can view the connection status or
disconnect the connection. Click View Status to open the connection status screen.
16 Click the Network icon in your system tray, then right click the PPTP connection and select Status
to open the connection status screen.
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17 From the status screen, you can disconnect this connection. Or you can click Details to see the
connection details. The address 10.1.1.1 and 10.1.1.17 are addresses allocated from the PPTP IP
Address Pool you configured on the Device (10.1.1.1 - 10.1.1.32).
18 Access a server or other network resource on subnet 192.168.1.0 behind the Device to make sure
your access works.
4.14.3 Configuring PPTP VPN on Android Devices (Client)
The following sections cover how to configure the built-in PPTP client in remote user’s Android
devices. Due to GUI difference among various Android devices, the figures may not exactly match
what your Android device displays. The example settings in these sections match the PPTP VPN
configuration example in Section 4.14 on page 69.
1
On your Android device, select Home > Settings > Wireless and network > VPN settings.
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2
Select Add VPN > Add PPTP VPN.
3
Fill out the following fields.
• VPN Name: Enter a name for your VPN configuration.
• Set VPN Server: This is the WAN IP address of the Device, in this example, 172.16.1.2
• Enable Encryption: checked.
• DNS search domains: not used.
4
The new configuration will appear on the VPN settings screen. You can click the VPN name to
begin PPTP connection.
5
Enter the username and password of your user account configured on the Device.
Note: The user account must have been configured in the Maintenance > User
Account screen. Refer to Chapter 29 on page 300.
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6
You can see Connected when the PPTP VPN connection has been established. Click the connection
name to get connection details. There you can also disconnect.
4.14.4 Configuring PPTP VPN in iOS Devices (Client)
The following sections cover how to configure the built-in PPTP client in iOS devices (iPhone, iPad,
iPod Touch, etc). Due to GUI difference among various iOS devices, the figures may not match what
your iOS device displays. The example settings in these sections match the PPTP VPN configuration
example in Section 4.14 on page 69.
1
On your iOS device, select Home > Settings > General > Network.
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2
Select VPN > Add VPN Configuration….
3
Select the PPTP tab. Enter the following fields.
• Description: Enter a name for your VPN configuration.
• Server: This is the WAN IP address of the Device, in this example, 172.16.1.2.
• Account: This is the user account created on Device for accessing the network via VPN.
• RSA SecurID: Not used in this configuration.
• Password: This is the password for account.
• Secret: This is your pre-shared key for your VPN connection, in this example, 1234567890.
• Send All Traffic: This example uses the route-all configuration (ON).
4
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Save the configuration.
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The saved configuration will appear on the VPN screen. Select it and then slide the VPN bar to the
ON position. Your iOS device will begin PPTP connection.
4.15 L2TP VPN Tutorial
This section illustrates how to set up a basic L2TP VPN tunnel between the Device and a remote
client.
The example uses the following settings in setting up a basic L2TP VPN tunnel.
Figure 16 L2TP VPN Example
172.16.1.2
L2TP VPN IP Address Pool:
10.2.1.1 - 10.2.1.32
LAN Subnet #1: 192.168.1.0/24
LAN Subnet #2: 192.168.2.0/24
• The Device has a static IP address of 172.16.1.2 for the DSL WAN interface.
• The remote user has a dynamic IP address and connects through the Internet.
• Use the default IP address pool to assign the remote users a point-to-point IP addresses from
10.2.1.1 to 10.2.1.32 for use in the L2TP VPN tunnel.
• The access group configuration allows the remote L2TP user to access only the LAN subnet
192.168.2.0/24.
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4.15.1 Configuring the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN Rule (Server)
1
Go to the VPN > IPSec VPN screen which lists the VPN rules. Click the Edit icon of the
Default_L2TPVPN entry.
2
Select the Enable checkbox.
3
Select Pre-Shared Key and configure a password. This example uses 1234567890.
4
Click Apply.
4.15.2 Configuring the L2TP VPN Setup (Server)
1
Go to the VPN > L2TP VPN > Setup screen and configure the following:
• Select the Enable checkbox.
• Set Access Group 1 to 192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0.
• Select DNS as User Defined and enter a DNS server address. The DNS server address in this
example is 8.8.8.8.
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• Click Apply.
4.15.3 Configuring L2TP VPN in Windows (Client)
The following sections cover how to configure L2TP on the remote user computers using Windows 7,
. The example settings in these sections match the L2TP VPN configuration example in Section on
page 81.
4.15.3.1 Enabling IPSec Service in Windows
By default, a Windows computer should have IPSec service enabled. However, before you configure
the client, it is suggested to make sure the computer is running the Microsoft IPSec service.
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For Windows 7
84
1
Click the Start button and enter “services” in the text box. Then click Services under the
Programs window.
2
In the Services window, scroll down to find IPsec Policy Agent. Make sure the status is Started.
If not, click Start the service in the left panel.
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4.15.4 Configuring L2TP VPN on Windows 7
In Windows 7 do the following to establish an L2TP VPN connection.
1
Click Start > Control Panel > Network and Internet.
2
Click Network and Sharing Center > Setup a new connection or network > Connect to a
workplace. Click Next.
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3
Select No, create a new connection. Click Next.
4
Select Use my Internet connection (VPN).
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Enter the domain name or WAN IP Address that you want to connect to (172.16.1.2 in this
example) and give this connection a name. Select Don't connect now; just set it up so I can
connect later. Click Next.
6
Click Create. Enter the user name and password later.
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7
Click Close. Do not connect yet.
8
Click the Network icon in your system tray, then click Open Network and Sharing Center .
9
Click Change adapter settings.
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10 Double-click the new connection icon.
11 The connection screen appears. Click Properties.
12 The Properties window appears. Click Security.
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13 Select Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol with IPsec (L2TP/IPsec) as the Type of VPN. Select the
Optional encryption (connect even if no encryption) and the Allow these protocols radio
button. Select Microsoft CHAP Version 2 (MS-CHAP v2) and clear all of other check boxes. Do
not click OK yet.
14 Click Advanced settings. Select the Use preshared key for authentication radio button. Enter
the pre-shared key used in the IPSec configuration that the Device is using for Default_L2TPVPN
IPSec VPN rule. In this example, enter 1234567890. Click OK to return to the Connect window.
15 Enter the username and password of your user account configured on the Device. Click Connect.
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Note: The user account must have been configured in the Maintenance > User
Account screen. Refer to Chapter 29 on page 300.
16 A window appears while the username and password are verified. The connection is then
established.
17 Click the Network icon in your system tray, then right click the L2TP connection and select Status
to open the connection status screen.
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18 From the status screen, you can disconnect this connection. Or you can click Details to see the
connection details. The address 10.2.1.2 and 10.2.1.12 are addresses allocated from the L2TP IP
Address Pool you configured on the Device (10.2.1.1 - 10.2.1.32).
4.15.5 Configuring L2TP VPN on Android Devices (Client)
The following sections cover how to configure the built-in L2TP client in remote user’s Android
devices. Due to GUI differences among various Android devices, the figures may not exactly match
what your Android device displays. The example settings in these sections match the L2TP VPN
configuration example in Section on page 81.
1
92
On your Android device, select Home > Settings > More > VPN.
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2
Select Add VPN profile.
On some Android versions, you may have to tap the
3
button instead
The Edit VPN profile screen appears. Fill out the following fields.
• Name: Enter a name for your VPN configuration.
• Type: Select L2TP/IPSec PSK.
• Server address: This is the WAN IP address of the Device, in this example, 172.16.1.2
• L2TP secret and IPSec identifier: Not used.
• IPSec pre-shared key: This is your pre-shared key for your VPN connection, in this example,
1234567890.
4
Save the configuration.
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5
The saved configuration appears on the VPN screen. Click the VPN name to use the L2TP
connection.
6
Enter the username and password of your user account configured on the Device.
Note: The user account must have been configured in the Maintenance > User
Account screen. Refer to Chapter 29 on page 300.
7
94
You can see Connected when the L2TP VPN connection has been established. Click the connection
name to get connection details. There you can also disconnect.
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4.15.6 Configuring L2TP VPN in iOS Devices (Client)
The following sections cover how to configure the built-in L2TP client in iOS devices (iPhone, iPad,
iPod Touch, etc). Due to GUI difference among various iOS devices, the figures may not match what
your iOS device displays. The example settings in these sections matches the L2TP VPN
configuration example in Section on page 81.
1
On your iOS device, select Home > Settings > General > Network.
2
Select VPN > Add VPN Configuration….
3
Select the L2TP tab. Enter the following fields.
• Description: Enter a name for your VPN configuration.
• Server: This is the WAN IP address of the Device, in this example, 172.16.1.2.
• Account: This is the user account created on Device for accessing the network via VPN.
• RSA SecurID: Not used in this configuration.
• Password: This is the password for account.
• Secret: This is your pre-shared key for your VPN connection, in this example, 1234567890.
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• Send All Traffic: This example uses the route-all configuration (ON).
96
4
Save the configuration.
5
The saved configuration appears on the VPN screen. Select it and then slide the VPN bar to the ON
position. Your iOS device will begin L2TP connection.
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5
Status Screens
5.1 Overview
After you log into the Web Configurator, the Status screen appears. You can use the Status screen
to look at the current status of the Device, system resources, and interfaces (LAN, WAN, and
WLAN).
5.2 The Status Screen
Use this screen to view the status of the Device. Click Status to open this screen.
Figure 17 Status Screen
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 5 Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval Select how often you want the Device to update this screen.
Device Information
Host Name
This field displays the Device system name. It is used for identification.
Model
Number
This shows the model number of your Device.
Firmware
Version
This is the current version of the firmware inside the Device.
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Table 5 Status Screen (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Information (These fields display when you have a WAN connection.)
WAN Type
This field displays the current WAN connection type.
MAC Address
This shows the WAN Ethernet adapter MAC (Media Access Control) Address of your Device.
IP Address
This field displays the current IP address of the Device in the WAN. Click Release to release
your IP address to 0.0.0.0. If you want to renew your IP address, click Renew.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the current subnet mask in the WAN.
Encapsulation
This field displays the current encapsulation method.
LAN Information
IP Address
This is the current IP address of the Device in the LAN.
IP Subnet
Mask
This is the current subnet mask in the LAN.
DHCP
This field displays what DHCP services the Device is providing to the LAN. Choices are:
Server - The Device is a DHCP server in the LAN. It assigns IP addresses to other
computers in the LAN.
Relay - The Device acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays DHCP requests and
responses between the remote server and the clients.
None - The Device is not providing any DHCP services to the LAN.
MAC
Address
This shows the LAN Ethernet adapter MAC (Media Access Control) Address of your Device.
WLAN Information
MAC
Address
This shows the wireless adapter MAC (Media Access Control) Address of your Device.
Status
This displays whether WLAN is activated.
SSID
This is the descriptive name used to identify the Device in a wireless LAN.
Channel
This is the channel number used by the Device now.
Security
This displays the type of security mode the Device is using in the wireless LAN.
802.11
Mode
This displays the type of 802.11 mode the Device is using in the wireless LAN.
WPS
This displays whether WPS is activated.
Security
Firewall
This displays the firewall’s current security level.
System Status
System Up
Time
This field displays how long the Device has been running since it last started up. The Device
starts up when you plug it in, when you restart it (Maintenance > Reboot), or when you
reset it.
Current
Date/Time
This field displays the current date and time in the Device. You can change this in
Maintenance> Time Setting.
System Resource
100
CPU Usage
This field displays what percentage of the Device’s processing ability is currently used. When
this percentage is close to 100%, the Device is running at full load, and the throughput is
not going to improve anymore. If you want some applications to have more throughput, you
should turn off other applications (for example, using QoS; see Chapter 10 on page 189).
Memory
Usage
This field displays what percentage of the Device’s memory is currently used. Usually, this
percentage should not increase much. If memory usage does get close to 100%, the Device
is probably becoming unstable, and you should restart the device. See Section 37.2 on page
319, or turn off the device (unplug the power) for a few seconds.
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Table 5 Status Screen (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Status
Status
The field displays Up when the Device is using the interface and Down when the Device is
Mode
The field displays whether the interface is in Active or Passive mode.
IP Address
The field displays the IP address of the interface.
Connection
The field displays the connection type of the interface.
Speed (DL/UL)
The field displays the speed of the interface’s connection.
IPSec VPN Status
#
This is the VPN policy index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for the IPSec SA.
Application
Scenario
This field displays the scenario type for the IPSec SA.
Remote
Gateway
Address
This field displays the remote gateway Address used in the SA.
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6
Broadband
6.1 Overview
This chapter discusses the SBG3500-N’s Broadband screens. Use these screens to configure your
SBG3500-N for Internet access.
A WAN (Wide Area Network) connection is an outside connection to another network or the
Internet. It connects your private networks, such as a LAN (Local Area Network) and other
networks, so that a computer in one location can communicate with computers in other locations.
Figure 18 LAN and WAN
WAN
3G (third generation) standards for the sending and receiving of voice, video, and data in a mobile
environment.
You can attach a 3G wireless adapter to the USB port and set the SBG3500-N to use this 3G
connection as your WAN or a backup when the wired WAN connection fails.
Figure 19 3G WAN Connection
6.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Broadband screen to view, remove or add a WAN interface. You can also configure the
WAN settings on the SBG3500-N for Internet access (Section 6.2 on page 106).
• Use the 3G WAN screen to configure 3G WAN connection (Section 6.3 on page 116).
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• Use the Add New 3G Dongle screen to view or add a new 3G dongle (Section 6.4 on page 120).
• Use the Advanced screen to enable or disable PTM over ADSL, Annex M, and DSL PhyR functions
(Section 6.4.1 on page 120).
• Use the 802.1x screen to view and configure the IEEE 802.1x settings on the SBG3500-N
(Section 6.6 on page 122).
• Use the multi-WAN screen to configure the multiple WAN load-balancing and fail-over rules to
distribute traffic among different interfaces (Section 6.7 on page 124).
Table 6 WAN Setup Overview
LAYER-2 INTERFACE
CONNECTION
ADSL/VDSL
over PTM
ADSL over ATM
GbE
3G
INTERNET CONNECTION
DSL LINK
TYPE
MODE
ENCAPSULATION
CONNECTION SETTINGS
N/A
Routing
PPPoE
PPP information, IPv4/IPv6 IP
address, routing feature, DNS
server, VLAN, QoS, and MTU
IPoE
IPv4/IPv6 IP address, routing
feature, DNS server, VLAN, QoS,
and MTU
Bridge
N/A
VLAN and QoS
Routing
PPPoE/PPP0A
ATM PCV configuration, PPP
information, IPv4/IPv6 IP address,
routing feature, DNS server, VLAN,
QoS, and MTU
IPoE/IPoA
ATM PCV configuration, IPv4/IPv6
IP address, routing feature, DNS
server, VLAN, QoS, and MTU
Bridge
N/A
ATM PCV configuration, and QoS
Routing
IPoE/PPPoE
PPP information, IPv4/IPv6 IP
address, routing feature, DNS
server, VLAN, QoS, and MTU
Bridge
N/A
VLAN and QoS
Nailed Up
PPP
Dial string, APN (Access Point
Name), IP address, DNS server
On Demand
PPP
Dial string, APN, Maximum idle
time out, DNS server, IP address
EoA
N/A
N/A
6.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read this chapter.
Encapsulation Method
Encapsulation is used to include data from an upper layer protocol into a lower layer protocol. To set
up a WAN connection to the Internet, you need to use the same encapsulation method used by your
ISP (Internet Service Provider). If your ISP offers a dial-up Internet connection using PPPoE (PPP
over Ethernet), they should also provide a username and password (and service name) for user
authentication.
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WAN IP Address
The WAN IP address is an IP address for the SBG3500-N, which makes it accessible from an outside
network. It is used by the SBG3500-N to communicate with other devices in other networks. It can
be static (fixed) or dynamically assigned by the ISP each time the SBG3500-N tries to access the
Internet.
If your ISP assigns you a static WAN IP address, they should also assign you the subnet mask and
DNS server IP address(es).
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a WAN networking technology that provides high-speed data
transfer. ATM uses fixed-size packets of information called cells. With ATM, a high QoS (Quality of
Service) can be guaranteed. ATM uses a connection-oriented model and establishes a virtual circuit
(VC) between Finding Out More
PTM
Packet Transfer Mode (PTM) is packet-oriented and supported by the VDSL2 standard. In PTM,
packets are encapsulated directly in the High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) frames. It is designed
to provide a low-overhead, transparent way of transporting packets over DSL links, as an
alternative to ATM.
3G
3G (Third Generation) is a digital, packet-switched wireless technology. Bandwidth usage is
optimized as multiple users share the same channel and bandwidth is only allocated to users when
they send data. It allows fast transfer of voice and non-voice data and provides broadband Internet
access to mobile devices.
IPv6 Introduction
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to enhance IP address size and features. The
increase in IPv6 address size to 128 bits (from the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows up to 3.4 x 1038 IP
addresses. The SBG3500-N can use IPv4/IPv6 dual stack to connect to IPv4 and IPv6 networks,
and supports IPv6 rapid deployment (6RD).
IPv6 Addressing
The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16-bit hexadecimal blocks separated by colons (:). This
is an example IPv6 address 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000.
IPv6 addresses can be abbreviated in two ways:
• Leading zeros in a block can be omitted. So
2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000 can be written as
2001:db8:1a2b:15:0:0:1a2f:0.
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• Any number of consecutive blocks of zeros can be replaced by a double colon. A double
colon can only appear once in an IPv6 address. So
2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f:0000:0000:0015 can be written as
2001:0db8::1a2f:0000:0000:0015, 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f::0015,
2001:db8::1a2f:0:0:15 or 2001:db8:0:0:1a2f::15.
IPv6 Prefix and Prefix Length
Similar to an IPv4 subnet mask, IPv6 uses an address prefix to represent the network address. An
IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (start from the left) in the address
compose the network address. The prefix length is written as “/x” where x is a number. For
example,
2001:db8:1a2b:15::1a2f:0/32
means that the first 32 bits (2001:db8) is the subnet prefix.
IPv6 Subnet Masking
Both an IPv6 address and IPv6 subnet mask compose of 128-bit binary digits, which are divided
into eight 16-bit blocks and written in hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal uses four bits for each
character (1 ~ 10, A ~ F). Each block’s 16 bits are then represented by four hexadecimal
characters. For example, FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FC00:0000:0000:0000.
IPv6 Rapid Deployment
Use IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd) when the local network uses IPv6 and the ISP has an IPv4
network. When the SBG3500-N has an IPv4 WAN address and you set IPv6/IPv4 Mode to IPv4
Only, you can enable 6rd to encapsulate IPv6 packets in IPv4 packets to cross the ISP’s IPv4
network.
The SBG3500-N generates a global IPv6 prefix from its IPv4 WAN address and tunnels IPv6 traffic
to the ISP’s Border Relay router (BR in the figure) to connect to the native IPv6 Internet. The local
network can also use IPv4 services. The SBG3500-N uses it’s configured IPv4 WAN IP to route IPv4
traffic to the IPv4 Internet.
Figure 20 IPv6 Rapid Deployment
LAN
- IPv6
- IPv4
WAN
- IPv4
- IPv6 in IPv4
ISP (IPv4)
IPv6 in IPv4
IPv6 + IPv4
BR
IPv6 Internet
IPv4
IPv4 Internet
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Dual Stack Lite
Use Dual Stack Lite when local network computers use IPv4 and the ISP has an IPv6 network.
When the SBG3500-N has an IPv6 WAN address and you set IPv6/IPv4 Mode to IPv6 Only, you
can enable Dual Stack Lite to use IPv4 computers and services.
The SBG3500-N tunnels IPv4 packets inside IPv6 encapsulation packets to the ISP’s Address Family
Transition Router (AFTR in the graphic) to connect to the IPv4 Internet. The local network can also
use IPv6 services. The VDSL Router uses it’s configured IPv6 WAN IP to route IPv6 traffic to the
IPv6 Internet.
Figure 21 Dual Stack Lite
LAN
- IPv6
- IPv4
IPv6 + IPv4
WAN
- IPv6
- IPv4 in IPv6
ISP (IPv6)
IPv6
IPv6 Internet
IPv4 in IPv6
AFTR
IPv4 Internet
6.1.3 Before You Begin
You need to know your Internet access settings such as encapsulation and WAN IP address. Get this
information from your ISP.
6.2 The Broadband Screen
Use this screen to change your SBG3500-N’s Internet access settings. Click Network Setting >
Broadband from the menu. The summary table shows you the configured WAN services
(connections) on the SBG3500-N.
Figure 22 Network Setting > Broadband
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 Network Setting > Broadband
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new WAN
Interface
Click this button to create a new connection.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Name
This is the service name of the connection.
Type
This shows whether it is an ATM, PTM, or Ethernet connection.
Mode
This shows whether the connection is in routing or bridge mode.
Encapsulation
This is the method of encapsulation used by this connection.
802.1p
This indicates the 802.1p priority level assigned to traffic sent through this connection. This
displays N/A when there is no priority level assigned.
802.1q
This indicates the VLAN ID number assigned to traffic sent through this connection. This
displays N/A when there is no VLAN ID number assigned.
IGMP Proxy
This shows whether the SBG3500-N act as an IGMP proxy on this connection.
NAT
This shows whether NAT is activated or not for this connection.
Default
Gateway
This shows whether the SBG3500-N use the WAN interface of this connection as the system
default gateway.
IPv6
This shows whether IPv6 is activated or not for this connection. IPv6 is not available when
the connection uses the bridging service.
MLD Proxy
This shows whether Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is activated or not for this
connection. MLD is not available when the connection uses the bridging service.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure the WAN connection.
Click the Delete icon to remove the WAN connection.
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6.2.1 Add/Edit Internet Connection
Click Add new WAN Interface in the Broadband screen or the Edit icon next to an existing WAN
interface to configure a WAN connection. The screen varies depending on the interface type, mode,
encapsulation, and IPv6/IPv4 mode you select.
6.2.1.1 Routing Mode
Use Routing mode if your ISP give you one IP address only and you want multiple computers to
share an Internet account.
The following example screen displays when you select the ADSL over ATM connection type,
Routing mode, and PPPoE encapsulation. The screen varies when you select other interface type,
encapsulation, and IPv6/IPv4 mode.
Figure 23 Routing Mode
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 Routing Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
108
Active
Select this to activate the WAN configuration settings.
Name
Specify a descriptive name for this connection.
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Table 8 Routing Mode (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Select whether it is ADSL/VDSL over PTM, ADSL over ATM, or Ethernet connection.
•
•
•
ADSL/VDSL over PTM: The SBG3500-N uses the VDSL technology for data
transmission over the DSL port.
ADSL over ATM: The SBG3500-N uses the ADSL technology for data transmission over
the DSL port.
Ethernet: The SBG3500-N transmits data over the Ethernet WAN port. Select this if you
have a DSL router or modem in your network already.
Mode
Select Routing if your ISP give you one IP address only and you want multiple computers to
share an Internet account.
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the drop-down list box. This
option is available only when you select Routing in the Mode field.
•
•
•
•
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE): PPPoE (Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet) provides
access control and billing functionality in a manner similar to dial-up services using PPP.
Select this if you have a username and password for Internet access.
IP over Ethernet (IPoE): In this type of Internet connection, IP packets are routed
between the Ethernet interface and the WAN interface and then formatted so that they
can be understood in a bridged environment.
PPP over ATM (PPPoA): PPPoA allows just one PPPoA connection over a PVC.
IP over ATM (IPoA): IPoA allows just one RFC 1483 routing connection over a PVC.
If your connection type is ADSL/VDSL over PTM or Ethernet, the choices are PPPoE and
IPoE.
If your connection type is ADSL over ATM, the choices are PPPoE, PPPoA, IPoE and
IPoA.
IPv6/IPv4 Mode Select IPv4 Only if you want the Device to run IPv4 only.
Select IPv6/IPv4 DualStack to allow the Device to run IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time.
Select IPv6 Only if you want the Device to run IPv6 only.
ATM PVC Configuration (These fields appear when the Type is set to ADSL over ATM.)
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management of ATM
traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
DSL Link Type
This field is not editable. The selection depends on the setting in the Encapsulation field.
EoA (Ethernet over ATM) uses an Ethernet header in the packet, so that you can have
multiple services/connections over one PVC. You can set each connection to have its own
MAC address or all connections share one MAC address but use different VLAN IDs for
different services. EoA supports ENET ENCAP (IPoE), PPPoE and RFC1483/2684 bridging
encapsulation methods.
PPPoA (PPP over ATM) allows just one PPPoA connection over a PVC.
IPoA (IP over ATM) allows just one RFC 1483 routing connection over a PVC.
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Table 8 Routing Mode (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
Mode
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the drop-down list box. Choices
are:
•
•
•
•
Service
Category
LLC/SNAP-BRIDGING: In LCC encapsulation, bridged PDUs are encapsulated by
identifying the type of the bridged media in the SNAP header. This is available only when
you select IPoE or PPPoE in the Select DSL Link Type field.
VC/MUX: In VC multiplexing, each protocol is carried on a single ATM virtual circuit
(VC). To transport multiple protocols, the SBG3500-N needs separate VCs. There is a
binding between a VC and the type of the network protocol carried on the VC. This
reduces payload overhead since there is no need to carry protocol information in each
Protocol Data Unit (PDU) payload.
LLC/ENCAPSULATION: More than one protocol can be carried over the same VC. This
is available only when you select PPPoA in the Encapsulation field.
LLC/SNAP-ROUTING: In LCC encapsulation, an IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC)
header is prefixed to each routed PDU to identify the PDUs. The LCC header can be
followed by an IEEE 802.1a SubNetwork Attachment Point (SNAP) header. This is
available only when you select IPoA in the Encapsulation field.
Select UBR Without PCR or UBR With PCR for applications that are non-time sensitive,
such as e-mail.
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on) bandwidth for voice or data
traffic.
Select Non Realtime VBR (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) for connections that do not
require closely controlled delay and delay variation.
Select Realtime VBR (real-time Variable Bit Rate) for applications with bursty connections
that require closely controlled delay and delay variation.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find the Peak Cell Rate
(PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. Type the PCR here.This
field is not available when you select UBR Without PCR.
Sustainable
Cell Rate
The Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that can be
transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR. Note that system default is 0
cells/sec.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or Realtime VBR.
Maximum Burst
Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the
peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or Realtime VBR.
PPP
Information
This is available only when you select PPPoE or PPPoA in the Mode field.
PPP User Name
Enter the user name exactly as your ISP assigned. If assigned a name in the form
user@domain where domain identifies a service name, then enter both components exactly
as given.
PPP Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
PPP Auto
Connect
Select this option if you do not want the connection to time out.
IDLE Timeout
This value specifies the time in minutes that elapses before the router automatically
disconnects from the PPPoE server.
This field is not configurable if you select PPP Auto Connect.
PPPoE Service
Name
110
Enter the name of your PPPoE service here.
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Table 8 Routing Mode (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PPPoE
Passthrough
This field is available when you select PPPoE encapsulation.
In addition to the SBG3500-N’s built-in PPPoE client, you can enable PPPoE pass through to
allow up to ten hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client software on their computers to connect
to the ISP via the SBG3500-N. Each host can have a separate account and a public WAN IP
address.
PPPoE pass through is an alternative to NAT for application where NAT is not appropriate.
Disable PPPoE pass through if you do not need to allow hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client
software on their computers to connect to the ISP.
IP Address
This is available only when you select IPv4 Only or IPv6/IPv4 DualStack in the IPv6/
IPv4 Mode field.
Obtain an IP
Address
Automatically
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not fixed;
the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet. Select this if you
have a dynamic IP address.
Static IP
Address
Select this option if the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
IP Address
Enter the static IP address provided by your ISP.
Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask provided by your ISP.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the gateway IP address provided by your ISP.
Routing Feature This is available only when you select IPv4 Only or IPv6/IPv4 DualStack in the IPv6/
IPv4 Mode field.
NAT Enable
Select this option to activate NAT on this connection.
IGMP Proxy
Enable
Internet Group Multicast Protocol (IGMP) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data.
Select this option to have the SBG3500-N act as an IGMP proxy on this connection. This
allows the SBG3500-N to get subscribing information and maintain a joined member list for
each multicast group. It can reduce multicast traffic significantly.
Apply as
Default
Gateway
Select this option to have the SBG3500-N use the WAN interface of this connection as the
system default gateway.
DNS Server
This is available only when you select IPv4 Only or IPv6/IPv4 DualStack in the IPv6/
IPv4 Mode field.
DNS
Select Dynamic if you want the SBG3500-N use the DNS server addresses assigned by your
ISP.
Select Static if you want the SBG3500-N use the DNS server addresses you configure
manually.
DNS Server 1
Enter the first DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
DNS Server 2
Enter the second DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
IPv6 Address
This is available only when you select IPv6/IPv4 DualStack or IPv6 Only in the IPv6/
IPv4 Mode field.
IPv6 Address
Select Automatic if you want to have the SBG3500-N use the IPv6 prefix from the
connected router’s Router Advertisement (RA) to generate an IPv6 address.
Select the Get IPv6 Address From DHCPv6 Server checkbox if you want to obtain an
IPv6 address from a DHCPv6 server. The IP address assigned by a DHCPv6 server has
priority over the IP address automatically generated by the SBG3500-N using the IPv6
prefix from an RA. This option is available only when you choose to get your IPv6 address
automatically.
Select Static if you have a fixed IPv6 address assigned by your ISP.
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Table 8 Routing Mode (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN IPv6
Address
Enter the IPv6 address assigned by your ISP.
Prefix
Length
Enter the address prefix length to specify how many most significant bits in an IPv6 address
compose the network address.
Next Hop
Enter the IP address of the next-hop gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the
same segment as your SBG3500-N's interface(s). The gateway helps forward packets to
their destinations.
IPv6 Routing
Feature
You can enable IPv6 routing features in the following section.
MLD Proxy
Enable
Select this checkbox to have the SBG3500-N act as an MLD proxy on this connection. This
allows the SBG3500-N to get subscription information and maintain a joined member list for
each multicast group. It can reduce multicast traffic significantly.
Apply as
Default
Gateway
Select this option to have the SBG3500-N use the WAN interface of this connection as the
system default gateway.
IPv6 DNS
Server
Configure the IPv6 DNS server in the following section.
IPv6 DNS
Select Dynamic to have the SBG3500-N get the IPv6 DNS server addresses from the ISP
automatically.
Select Static to have the SBG3500-N use the IPv6 DNS server addresses you configure
manually.
IPv6 DNS
Server 1
Enter the first IPv6 DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
IPv6 DNS
Server 2
Enter the second IPv6 DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
Tunnel
The IPv6 rapid deployment fields display when you set the IPv6/IPv4 Mode field to IPv4
Only. See IPv6 Rapid Deployment on page 105 for more information.
Enable 6RD
Enable IPv6 rapid deployment to tunnel IPv6 traffic from the local network through the ISP’s
IPv4 network.
6RD Type
Select Static if you have the IPv4 address of the relay server, otherwise select DHCP to
have the SBG3500-N detect it automatically through DHCP.
6RD Border
Relay
Server IP
When you set the 6RD Type to Static, specify the relay server IPv4 address.
6RD IPv6
Prefix
Enter an IPv6 prefix for tunneling IPv6 traffic to the ISP’s Border Relay router and
connecting to the native IPv6 Internet.
Tunnel
The Dual Stack Lite fields display when you set the IPv6/IPv4 Mode field to IPv6 Only.
Enable Dual Stack Lite to let local computers use IPv4 through an ISP’s IPv6 network. See
Dual Stack Lite on page 106 for more information.
Enable DSLite
Enable Dual Stack Lite to let local computers use IPv4 through an ISP’s IPv6 network.
DS-Lite
Relay
Server IP
Specify the transition router’s IPv6 address.
VLAN
These fields appear when the Type is set to ADSL/VDSL over PTM.
Active
Select this option to add the VLAN tag (specified below) to the outgoing traffic through this
connection.
802.1p
IEEE 802.1p defines up to 8 separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame
that contains bits to define class of service.
Select the IEEE 802.1p priority level (from 0 to 7) to add to traffic through this connection.
The greater the number, the higher the priority level.
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Table 8 Routing Mode (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
802.1q
Type the VLAN ID number (from 1 to 4094) for traffic through this connection.
QoS
Rate Limit
Enter the rate limit for the connection. This is the maximum transmission rate allowed for
traffic on this connection.
MTU
MTU Size
Enter the MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit) size for this traffic.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
6.2.1.2 Bridge Mode
Click the Add new WAN Interface in the Network Setting > Broadband screen or the Edit icon
next to the connection you want to configure. Select Bridge as the encapsulation mode. The screen
varies depending on the interface type you select.
If you select ADSL/VDSL over PTM as the interface type, the following screen appears.
Figure 24 Bridge Mode (ADSL/VDSL over PTM)
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 9 Bridge Mode (ADSL/VDSL over PTM)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Active
Select this to activate the WAN configuration settings.
Name
Enter a service name of the connection.
Type
Select ADSL/VDSL over PTM as the interface that you want to configure. The SBG3500-N
uses the VDSL technology for data transmission over the DSL port.
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Table 9 Bridge Mode (ADSL/VDSL over PTM) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Select Bridge when your ISP provides you more than one IP address and you want the
connected computers to get individual IP address from ISP’s DHCP server directly. If you
select Bridge, you cannot use routing functions, such as QoS, Firewall, DHCP server and
NAT on traffic from the selected LAN port(s).
VLAN
This section is available only when you select ADSL/VDSL over PTM in the Type field.
Active
Select this to add the VLAN Tag (specified below) to the outgoing traffic through this
connection.
802.1p
IEEE 802.1p defines up to 8 separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame
that contains bits to define class of service.
Select the IEEE 802.1p priority level (from 0 to 7) to add to traffic through this connection.
The greater the number, the higher the priority level.
802.1q
Type the VLAN ID number (from 0 to 4094) for traffic through this connection.
QoS
Rate Limit
Enter the rate limit for the connection. This is the maximum transmission rate allowed for
traffic on this connection.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
If you select ADSL over ATM as the interface type, the following screen appears.
Figure 25 Bridge Mode (ADSL over ATM)
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 10 Bridge Mode (ADSL over ATM)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Active
114
Select this to activate the WAN configuration settings.
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Table 10 Bridge Mode (ADSL over ATM) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a service name of the connection.
Type
Select ADSL over ATM as the interface for which you want to configure here. The
SBG3500-N uses the ADSL technology for data transmission over the DSL port.
Mode
Select Bridge when your ISP provides you more than one IP address and you want the
connected computers to get individual IP address from ISP’s DHCP server directly. If you
select Bridge, you cannot use routing functions, such as QoS, Firewall, DHCP server and
NAT on traffic from the selected LAN port(s).
ATM PVC Configuration (These fields appear when the Type is set to ADSL over ATM.)
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management of ATM
traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
DSL Link Type
This field is not editable. The selection depends on the setting in the Encapsulation field.
EoA (Ethernet over ATM) uses an Ethernet header in the packet, so that you can have
multiple services/connections over one PVC. You can set each connection to have its own
MAC address or all connections share one MAC address but use different VLAN IDs for
different services. EoA supports ENET ENCAP (IPoE), PPPoE and RFC1483/2684 bridging
encapsulation methods.
PPPoA (PPP over ATM) allows just one PPPoA connection over a PVC.
IPoA (IP over ATM) allows just one RFC 1483 routing connection over a PVC.
Encapsulation
Mode
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the drop-down list box. Choices
are:
•
•
•
•
Service
Category
LLC/SNAP-BRIDGING: In LCC encapsulation, bridged PDUs are encapsulated by
identifying the type of the bridged media in the SNAP header. This is available only when
you select IPoE or PPPoE in the Select DSL Link Type field.
VC/MUX: In VC multiplexing, each protocol is carried on a single ATM virtual circuit
(VC). To transport multiple protocols, the SBG3500-N needs separate VCs. There is a
binding between a VC and the type of the network protocol carried on the VC. This
reduces payload overhead since there is no need to carry protocol information in each
Protocol Data Unit (PDU) payload.
LLC/ENCAPSULATION: More than one protocol can be carried over the same VC. This
is available only when you select PPPoA in the Encapsulation field.
LLC/SNAP-ROUTING: In LCC encapsulation, an IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC)
header is prefixed to each routed PDU to identify the PDUs. The LCC header can be
followed by an IEEE 802.1a SubNetwork Attachment Point (SNAP) header. This is
available only when you select IPoA in the Encapsulation field.
Select UBR Without PCR or UBR With PCR for applications that are non-time sensitive,
such as e-mail.
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on) bandwidth for voice or data
traffic.
Select Non Realtime VBR (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) for connections that do not
require closely controlled delay and delay variation.
Select Realtime VBR (real-time Variable Bit Rate) for applications with bursty connections
that require closely controlled delay and delay variation.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find the Peak Cell Rate
(PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. Type the PCR here.This
field is not available when you select UBR Without PCR.
Sustainable Cell
Rate
The Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that can be
transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR. Note that system default is 0
cells/sec.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or Realtime VBR.
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Table 10 Bridge Mode (ADSL over ATM) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Maximum Burst
Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the
peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or Realtime VBR.
QoS
Rate Limit
Enter the rate limit for the connection. This is the maximum transmission rate allowed for
traffic on this connection.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
6.3 The 3G WAN Screen
Use this screen to configure your 3G settings. Click Network Setting > Broadband > 3G WAN.
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Note: The actual data rate you obtain varies depending the 3G card you use, the signal
strength to the service provider’s base station, and so on.
Figure 26 Network Setting > Broadband > 3G WAN
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Network Setting > Broadband > 3G WAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
3G Connection Settings
Card
description
This field displays the manufacturer and model name of your 3G card if you inserted one in
the SBG3500-N. Otherwise, it displays N/A.
Username
Type the user name (of up to 64 ASCII printable characters) given to you by your service
provider.
Password
Type the password (of up to 64 ASCII printable characters) associated with the user name
above.
PIN
A PIN (Personal Identification Number) code is a key to a 3G card. Without the PIN code,
you cannot use the 3G card.
If your ISP enabled PIN code authentication, enter the 4-digit PIN code (0000 for example)
provided by your ISP. If you enter the PIN code incorrectly, the 3G card may be blocked by
your ISP and you cannot use the account to access the Internet.
If your ISP disabled PIN code authentication, leave this field blank.
Dial string
Enter the phone number (dial string) used to dial up a connection to your service provider’s
base station. Your ISP should provide the phone number.
APN
Enter the APN (Access Point Name) provided by your service provider. Connections with
different APNs may provide different services (such as Internet access or MMS (Multi-Media
Messaging Service)) and charge method.
For example, *99# is the dial string to establish a GPRS or 3G connection in Taiwan.
You can enter up to 32 ASCII printable characters. Spaces are allowed.
Connection
Select Nailed UP if you do not want the connection to time out.
Select on Demand if you do not want the connection up all the time and specify an idle
time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field.
Max Idle
Timeout
This value specifies the time in minutes that elapses before the SBG3500-N automatically
disconnects from the ISP.
Obtain an IP
Address
Automatically
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address.
Use the
following static
IP address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
IP Address
Enter your WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use the following static IP
address.
Obtain DNS
info
dynamically
Select this to have the SBG3500-N get the DNS server addresses from the ISP
automatically.
Use the
following static
DNS IP address
Select this to have the SBG3500-N use the DNS server addresses you configure manually.
Primary DNS
server
Enter the first DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
Secondary DNS
server
Enter the second DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
Budget Setup
Enable Budget
Control
118
Click the radio buttons Enable to activate budget control or Disable to deactivate budget
control.
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Table 11 Network Setting > Broadband > 3G WAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Budget
Click the check box Time Budget to set the number of hours that the user account is
allowed per month.
Data Budget
Click the check box Data Budget to set the amount of data in Mbytes or kPackets that is
allowed for transmission for the user account. Choose Upload or Download from the dropdown list to indicate the data stream direction.
Reset Budget
You can choose Last or a Specific day of the month to reset all budget counters by
choosing the options from the drop-down list.
Reset time and
data budget
counters
Click the Reset time and data budget coutners button to reset the counters effective
immediately. The below window will appear to prompt you for confirmation. Click Confirm
for yes and Cancel for no.
Actions before over budget
Enable
Click the Enable check box and type a number (1-99) in the % box to set the amount of
data streams in time, Mbytes and Packets of the data budget.
Actions when over budget
Current 3G
connection
Choose Keep or Drop from the drop-down list to indicate whether to keep or drop the 3G
connection when the data transmission is over the set budget.
Enable Email
notification
Click the Enable Email Notification check box to active email notification when the data
transmission is over the set budget.
Mail Server
Click the mail server IP address from the drop-down list. You need to set the mail server
before this step at Maintenance > Email Notification.
Over budget
email title
Type in a string of characters (0-130) for the email title that will be sent when the 3G data
transmission usage is over the set budget.
Send
notification to
email
Type in the email address that corresponds to the mail server you set in Maintenance >
Email Notification.
Interval
Type a number (0-130 characters) for the frequency of the email notifications.
Enable Log
Click the Enable Log check box to have the SBG3500-N generate a log report when the 3G
data transmission usage is over the set budget. Type a number (0-9999) in the Minutes
field to indicate the frequency of the log generation.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previous configuration.
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6.4 The Add New 3G Dongle Screen
Use the Add New 3G Dongle screen to view and manage the list of 3G dongles the SBG3500-N
can use for a 3G backup connection.
Click Network Setting > Broadband > Add New 3G Dongle to display the following screen.
Figure 27 Network Setting > Broadband > Add New 3G Dongle
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Network Setting > Network Setting > Add New 3G Dongle
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New Entry
Click this to go to a screen where you can enter information for a new 3G dongle and add it.
See Section 6.4.1 on page 120 for more information
#
This is the number of the entry.
Default
VID:PID
This is the default vendor ID and product ID of the 3G dongle.
Target VID:PID
This is the target vendor ID and product ID of the 3G dongle.
Port
This is the specified device port of the 3G dongle.
Class
This is the target device class of the 3G dongle.
Message
Content
This shows the input message content of the 3G dongle.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to modify the information of a 3G dongle.
Click the Delete icon to remove it.
6.4.1 Add 3G Dongle Information
Click Add New Entry in the Add New 3G Dongle screen to show the following. Enter the
information for a new 3G dongle to add it.
Figure 28 Add 3G Dongle Information
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Add 3G Dongle Information
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default VID
Enter the default vendor ID of the 3G dongle.
Default PID
Enter the default product ID of the 3G dongle.
Target VID
Enter the target vendor ID of the 3G dongle.
Target PID
Enter the target product ID of the 3G dongle.
Port Number
Enter the specified device port of the 3G dongle.
Class
Enter the target device class of the 3G dongle.
Message
Content
Enter the input message content of the 3G dongle.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
6.5 The Advanced Screen
Use the Advanced screen to enable or disable DSL bonding, PTM over ADSL, Annex M, and DSL
PhyR functions. The SBG3500-N supports the PhyR retransmission scheme. PhyR is a
retransmission scheme designed to provide protection against noise on the DSL line. It improves
voice, video and data transmission resilience by utilizing a retransmission buffer.
Click Network Setting > Broadband > Advanced to display the following screen.
Figure 29 Network Setting > Broadband > Advanced
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Network Setting > Network Setting > Advanced
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
State
Select Enable to activate DSL bonding state and use both DSL1 and DSL2 ports at the same
time to increase data transfer rate.
PTM over ADSL
Select Enable to use PTM over ADSL. Since PTM has less overhead than ATM, some ISPs
use PTM over ADSL for better performance.
Annex M
You can enable Annex M for the SBG3500-N to use double upstream mode to increase the
maximum upstream transfer rate.
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Table 14 Network Setting > Network Setting > Advanced (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PhyR US
Enable or disable PhyR US (upstream) for upstream transmission to the WAN. PhyR US
should be enabled if data being transmitted upstream is sensitive to noise. However,
enabling PhyR US can decrease the US line rate. Enabling or disabling PhyR will require the
CPE to retrain. For PhyR to function, the DSLAM must also support PhyR and have it
enabled.
PhyR DS
Enable or disable PhyR DS (downstream) for downstream transmission from the WAN.
PhyR DS should be enabled if data being transmitted downstream is sensitive to noise.
However, enabling PhyR DS can decrease the DS line rate. Enabling or disabling PhyR will
require the CPE to retrain. For PhyR to function, the DSLAM must also support PhyR and
have it enabled.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previous configuration.
6.6 The 802.1x Screen
You can view and configure the 802.1x authentication settings in the 802.1x screen. Click
Network Setting > Broadband > 802.1x to display the following screen.
Figure 30 Network Setting > Broadband > 802.1x
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 Network Setting > Network Setting > 802.1x
122
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the authentication is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that
this authentication is active. A gray bulb signifies that this authentication is not active.
Interface
This is the interface that uses the authentication. This displays N/A when there is no
interface assigned.
EAP Identity
This shows the EAP identity of the authentication. This displays N/A when there is no EAP
identity assigned.
EAP method
This shows the EAP method used in the authentication. This displays N/A when there is no
EAP method assigned.
Bidirectional
Authentication
This shows whether bidirectional authentication is allowed.
Certificate
This shows the certificate used for this authentication. This displays N/A when there is no
certificate assigned.
Trusted CA
This shows the Trusted CA used for this authentication. This displays N/A when there is no
Trusted CA assigned.
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Table 15 Network Setting > Network Setting > 802.1x (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previous configuration.
6.6.1 Edit 802.1x Settings
Use this screen to edit a 802.1x authentication’s settings. Click the Edit icon next to the rule you
want to edit. The screen shown next appears.
Figure 31 802.1x: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 802.1x: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate the authentication.
Select this to enable the authentication. Clear this to disable this authentication without
having to delete the entry.
Interface
Select the interface that uses the authentication.
EAP Identity
Enter the EAP identity of the authentication.
EAP method
This is the EAP method used for this authentication.
Enable
Bidirectional
Authentication
Select this to allow bidirectional authentication.
Certificate
Select the certificate you want to assign to the authentication. You need to import the
certificate in the Security > Certificates > Local Certificates screen.
Trusted CA
Select the Trusted CA you want to assign to the authentication. You need to import the
certificate in the Security > Certificates > Trusted CA screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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6.7 The multi-WAN Screen
Use the multi-WAN screen to configure the multiple WAN load-balance and fail-over rules to
distribute traffic among different interfaces. This helps to increase overall network throughput and
reliability. Load-balancing divides traffic loads between multiple interfaces. This allows you to
improve quality of service and maximize bandwidth utilization for multiple ISP links.
You can only configure one rule for each interface. Click Network Setting > Broadband > multiWAN to display the following screen.
Figure 32 Network Setting > Broadband > multi-WAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Network Setting > Network Setting > multi-WAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New Entry
Click this button to add a previously removed multi-WAN rule entry. By default, adding new
WAN interfaces to the system will generate a corresponding rule entry on this page in active
mode with a weight of 1. Each interface can have only one rule. If the interface you want to
configure already has a rule, you can edit it, or you can delete it before configuring a new
rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Interface
This is the interface that uses the rule.
Mode
This shows whether the rule is Active or Passive.
Weight
This shows the weight of the rule.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure the multi-WAN rule.
Click the Delete icon to remove the multi-WAN rule.
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6.7.1 Add/Edit multi-WAN
Click Add New Entry in the multi-WAN screen or the Edit icon next to an existing multi-WAN rule
to configure it.
Figure 33 multi-WAN: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 multi-WAN: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
If you are adding a new entry, select the interface that you want to configure this rule for.
The list shows the interfaces that have not configured multi-WAN rules. If no interface is
shown in the list, this means all interfaces already have existing rules. You must delete an
old rule before adding a new one.
Mode
Select whether you want to configure the rule as Active or Passive. If you choose Active,
the SBG3500-N always attempt to use this connection. If you choose Passive, the
SBG3500-N only use this connection when all of the connections set to active are down. You
can only set one interface to passive mode.
Note: The mode of the 3G interface is locked to passive and cannot be changed to active. To
set another interface to passive mode, the 3G interface must be deleted first.
Weight
If you choose Active in the Mode field, specify the weight (1~10) for the interface. The
weights of the different member interfaces form a ratio. This ratio determines how much
traffic the SBG3500-N sends through each member interface. The higher an interface’s
weight is (relative to the weights of the interfaces), the more traffic the SBG3500-N sends
through that interface.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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6.7.2 How to Configure multi-WAN for Load-Balancing and Fail-Over
This example shows you how to configure multi-WAN for three WAN connections: an Ethernet WAN
connection, an ADSL WAN connection, and a 3G (cellular) WAN connection. The available bandwidth
for the Ethernet WAN connection is 3 Mbps, and the available bandwidth for the ADSL WAN
connection is 1 Mbps.
As these two wired WAN connections have different bandwidths, you can set multi-WAN to send
traffic over these WAN connections in a 3:1 ratio. Most 3G WAN connections charge the user for the
amount of data sent, so you can set multi-WAN to send traffic over the 3G WAN connection only if
all other WAN connections are unavailable.
6.7.2.1 Configuring multi-WAN
126
1
Click Network Setting > Broadband > multi-WAN. By default, all available WAN connections on
the SBG3500-N are in active mode with a weight of 1, except for the 3G WAN connection which is
set to passive mode.
2
Click the Delete icon next to the VDSL WAN connection as it is not needed in this example.
3
Click the Edit icon next to the ETHWAN-SFP WAN connection. This brings up the edit window.
Change the weight field to 3 and click the Apply button.
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4
You have finished the configuration. When both the ETHWAN-SFP and ADSL connections are up, the
SBG3500-N will send traffic over these two connections in a 3:1 ratio. When only one of these two
connections are up, the SBG3500-N will use that connection exclusively. Only when both of these
two connections are down will the SBG3500-N use the 3G connection.
6.7.2.2 What Can Go Wrong?
• There can only be one WAN connection configured as passive mode at a time. If there is already
a WAN connection configured as passive mode, you will not be able to add or edit another WAN
connection in passive mode until the aforementioned WAN connection is changed to active mode
or deleted.
• The SBG3500-N will automatically add newly created WAN connections (from the Network
Setting > Broadband > Broadband screen) to the multi-WAN configuration as active mode
with a weight of 1. If you are creating a new WAN connection for other purposes (such as
exclusive VPN use), you will need to delete that WAN connection from the multi-WAN
configuration. Deleting a WAN connection from the multi-WAN screen does not delete the WAN
connection from the Broadband page.
• A WAN connection can only be listed once in the multi-WAN configuration table. If you are trying
to add a new entry but do not see the desired WAN connection in the Interface drop-down list,
it is probably already in the multi-WAN configuration. The Interface drop-down list in the Add/
Edit screen only includes WAN connections which currently exist on the SBG3500-N but are not
currently configured in multi-WAN.
6.8 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the SBG3500-N features
described in this chapter.
Encapsulation
Be sure to use the encapsulation method required by your ISP. The SBG3500-N can work in bridge
mode or routing mode. When the SBG3500-N is in routing mode, it supports the following methods.
IP over Ethernet
IP over Ethernet (IPoE) is an alternative to PPPoE. IP packets are being delivered across an
Ethernet network, without using PPP encapsulation. They are routed between the Ethernet interface
and the WAN interface and then formatted so that they can be understood in a bridged
environment. For instance, it encapsulates routed Ethernet frames into bridged Ethernet cells.
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PPP over ATM (PPPoA)
PPPoA stands for Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5). A PPPoA connection
functions like a dial-up Internet connection. The SBG3500-N encapsulates the PPP session based on
RFC1483 and sends it through an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) to the Internet Service
Provider’s (ISP) DSLAM (digital access multiplexer). Please refer to RFC 2364 for more information
on PPPoA. Refer to RFC 1661 for more information on PPP.
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) provides access control and billing functionality in a
manner similar to dial-up services using PPP. PPPoE is an IETF standard (RFC 2516) specifying how
a personal computer (PC) interacts with a broadband modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.)
connection.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that works with existing
access control systems (for example RADIUS).
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network services, a
function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service provider to easily create and
offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as it requires no
specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the SBG3500-N (rather than individual computers), the
computers on the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed, since the SBG3500-N does that part of
the task. Furthermore, with NAT, all of the LANs’ computers will have access.
ATM Traffic Classes
These are the basic ATM traffic classes defined by the ATM Forum Traffic Management 4.0
Specification.
Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) provides fixed bandwidth that is always available even if no data is being
sent. CBR traffic is generally time-sensitive (doesn't tolerate delay). CBR is used for connections
that continuously require a specific amount of bandwidth. A PCR is specified and if traffic exceeds
this rate, cells may be dropped. Examples of connections that need CBR would be high-resolution
video and voice.
Variable Bit Rate (VBR)
The Variable Bit Rate (VBR) ATM traffic class is used with bursty connections. Connections that use
the Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic class can be grouped into real time (VBR-RT) or non-real time
(VBR-nRT) connections.
The VBR-RT (real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty connections that require closely
controlled delay and delay variation. It also provides a fixed amount of bandwidth (a PCR is
specified) but is only available when data is being sent. An example of an VBR-RT connection would
be video conferencing. Video conferencing requires real-time data transfers and the bandwidth
requirement varies in proportion to the video image's changing dynamics.
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The VBR-nRT (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty connections that do not
require closely controlled delay and delay variation. It is commonly used for "bursty" traffic typical
on LANs. PCR and MBS define the burst levels, SCR defines the minimum level. An example of an
VBR-nRT connection would be non-time sensitive data file transfers.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
The Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) ATM traffic class is for bursty data transfers. However, UBR doesn't
guarantee any bandwidth and only delivers traffic when the network has spare bandwidth. An
example application is background file transfer.
IP Address Assignment
A static IP is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP is not fixed; the ISP assigns you a
different one each time. The Single User Account feature can be enabled or disabled if you have
either a dynamic or static IP. However the encapsulation method assigned influences your choices
for IP address and default gateway.
Introduction to VLANs
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A device can belong to more than one
group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from devices that are not in the same
group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
In Multi-Tenant Unit (MTU) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and security among the
subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one subscriber from accessing the network
resources of another on the same LAN, thus a user will not see the printers and hard disks of
another user in the same building.
VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and more
manageable logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments, all broadcast packets
go to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a specific broadcast
domain.
Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN
A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the VLAN membership
of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch on which they were created. The
VLANs can be created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The VLAN ID associates a
frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that switches need to process the frame
across the network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an untagged frame and contains two
bytes of TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier), residing within the type/length field of the Ethernet frame)
and two bytes of TCI (Tag Control Information), starts after the source address field of the Ethernet
frame).
The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet switches. If
a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as
it is to an untagged port. The remaining twelve bits define the VLAN ID, giving a possible maximum
number of 4,096 VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID are independent of each other. A
frame with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a priority frame, meaning that only the priority
level is significant and the default VID of the ingress port is given as the VID of the frame. Of the
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4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to identify priority frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved,
so the maximum possible VLAN configurations are 4,094.
TPID
User Priority
CFI
VLAN ID
2 Bytes
3 Bits
1 Bit
12 Bits
Multicast
IP packets are transmitted in either one of two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1 recipient) or Broadcast
(1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of hosts on the
network - not everybody and not just 1.
Internet Group Multicast Protocol (IGMP) is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership
in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an
improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If you would like to
read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP version 2 and version 1, please
see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236. The class D IP address is used to identify host groups and can be
in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The address 224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group
and is used by IP multicast computers. The address 224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and is
assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts (including gateways). All hosts must join the
224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP. The address 224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast
routers group.
At start up, the SBG3500-N queries all directly connected networks to gather group membership.
After that, the SBG3500-N periodically updates this information.
DNS Server Address Assignment
Use Domain Name System (DNS) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and vice
versa, for instance, the IP address of www.zyxel.com is 204.217.0.2. The DNS server is extremely
important because without it, you must know the IP address of a computer before you can access
it.
The SBG3500-N can get the DNS server addresses in the following ways.
1
The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet, when you
sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, manually enter them in the DNS server fields.
2
If your ISP dynamically assigns the DNS server IP addresses (along with the SBG3500-N’s WAN IP
address), set the DNS server fields to get the DNS server address from the ISP.
IPv6 Addressing
The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16-bit hexadecimal blocks separated by colons (:). This
is an example IPv6 address 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000.
IPv6 addresses can be abbreviated in two ways:
• Leading zeros in a block can be omitted. So 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000 can
be written as 2001:db8:1a2b:15:0:0:1a2f:0.
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• Any number of consecutive blocks of zeros can be replaced by a double colon. A double colon can
only appear once in an IPv6 address. So 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f:0000:0000:0015 can be
written as 2001:0db8::1a2f:0000:0000:0015, 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f::0015,
2001:db8::1a2f:0:0:15 or 2001:db8:0:0:1a2f::15.
IPv6 Prefix and Prefix Length
Similar to an IPv4 subnet mask, IPv6 uses an address prefix to represent the network address. An
IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (start from the left) in the address
compose the network address. The prefix length is written as “/x” where x is a number. For
example,
2001:db8:1a2b:15::1a2f:0/32
means that the first 32 bits (2001:db8) is the subnet prefix.
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C HAPT ER
7
Wireless
7.1 Overview
This chapter describes the Device’s Network Setting > Wireless screens. Use these screens to
set up your Device’s wireless connection.
7.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
This section describes the Device’s Wireless screens. Use these screens to set up your Device’s
wireless connection.
• Use the General screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select the wireless
security mode (Section 7.2 on page 133).
• Use the More AP screen to set up multiple wireless networks on your Device (Section 7.3 on
page 140).
• Use the MAC Authentication screen to allow or deny wireless clients based on their MAC
addresses from connecting to the Device (Section 7.4 on page 143).
• Use the WPS screen to enable or disable WPS, view or generate a security PIN (Personal
Identification Number) (Section 7.5 on page 144).
• Use the WMM screen to enable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM) to ensure quality of service in wireless
networks for multimedia applications (Section 7.6 on page 145).
• Use the Others screen to configure wireless advanced features, such as the RTS/CTS Threshold
(Section 7.7 on page 146).
• Use the Channel Status screen to scan wireless LAN channel noises and view the results
(Section 7.8 on page 148).
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7.1.2 What You Need to Know
Wireless Basics
“Wireless” is essentially radio communication. In the same way that walkie-talkie radios send and
receive information over the airwaves, wireless networking devices exchange information with one
another. A wireless networking device is just like a radio that lets your computer exchange
information with radios attached to other computers. Like walkie-talkies, most wireless networking
devices operate at radio frequency bands that are open to the public and do not require a license to
use. However, wireless networking is different from that of most traditional radio communications in
that there a number of wireless networking standards available with different methods of data
encryption.
Finding Out More
See Section 7.9 on page 148 for advanced technical information on wireless networks.
7.2 The General Screen
Use this screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select the wireless security mode.
Note: If you are configuring the Device from a computer connected to the wireless LAN
and you change the Device’s SSID, channel or security settings, you will lose your
wireless connection when you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the
wireless settings of your computer to match the Device’s new settings.
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Click Network Setting > Wireless to open the General screen.
Figure 34 Network Setting > Wireless > General
The following table describes the general wireless LAN labels in this screen.
Table 19 Network Setting > Wireless > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Network Setup
Wireless
You can Enable or Disable the wireless LAN in this field.
Band
This shows the wireless band which this radio profile is using. 2.4GHz is the frequency used
by IEEE 802.11b/g/n wireless clients.
Channel
Set the channel depending on your particular region.
Select a channel or use Auto to have the Device automatically determine a channel to use.
If you are having problems with wireless interference, changing the channel may help. Try
to use a channel that is as many channels away from any channels used by neighboring APs
as possible. The channel number which the Device is currently using then displays next to
this field.
more.../less
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Table 19 Network Setting > Wireless > General (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Bandwidth
Select whether the Device uses a wireless channel width of 20MHz or 40MHz.
A standard 20MHz channel offers transfer speeds of up to 150Mbps whereas a 40MHz
channel uses two standard channels and offers speeds of up to 300 Mbps.
40MHz (channel bonding or dual channel) bonds two adjacent radio channels to increase
throughput. The wireless clients must also support 40 MHz. It is often better to use the 20
MHz setting in a location where the environment hinders the wireless signal.
Select 20MHz if you want to lessen radio interference with other wireless devices in your
neighborhood or the wireless clients do not support channel bonding.
Control
Sideband
This is available for some regions when you select a specific channel and set the Bandwidth
field to 40MHz. Set whether the control channel (set in the Channel field) should be in the
Lower or Upper range of channel bands.
Passphrase
Type
If you set security for the wireless LAN and have the Device generate a password, the
setting in this field determines how the Device generates the password.
Select None to set the Device’s password generation to not be based on a passphrase.
Select Fixed to use a 16 character passphrase for generating a password.
Select Variable to use a 16 to 63 character passphrase for generating a password.
Passphrase Key
For a fixed type passphrase enter 16 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, with no spaces). It
must contain both letters and numbers and is case-sensitive.
For a variable type passphrase enter 16 to 63 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, with no
spaces). It must contain both letters and numbers and is case-sensitive.
Wireless Network Settings
Wireless
Network Name
(SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which a wireless device is
associated. Wireless devices associating to the access point (AP) must have the same SSID.
Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a station cannot
obtain the SSID through scanning using a site survey tool.
Client Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with each other
through the Device.
MBSSID/LAN
Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with clients in other
SSIDs or wired LAN devices through the Device.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 English keyboard characters) for the wireless LAN.
Select both Client Isolation and MBSSID/LAN Isolation to allow this SSID’s wireless
clients to only connect to the Internet through the Device.
Enhanced
Multicast
Forwarding
Select this check box to allow the Device to convert wireless multicast traffic into wireless
unicast traffic.
BSSID
This shows the MAC address of the wireless interface on the Device when wireless LAN is
enabled.
Maximum
Bandwidth
Specify the maximum rate for wireless traffic in kilobits per second (Kbps).
Security Level
Security Mode
Select Basic (WEP) or More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK, WPA(2)) to add security on this
wireless network. The wireless clients which want to associate to this network must have
same wireless security settings as the Device. When you select to use a security, additional
options appears in this screen.
Or you can select No Security to allow any client to associate this network without any data
encryption or authentication.
See the following sections for more details about this field.
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Table 19 Network Setting > Wireless > General (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.2.1 No Security
Select No Security to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points without any
data encryption or authentication.
Note: If you do not enable any wireless security on your Device, your network is
accessible to any wireless networking device that is within range.
Figure 35 Wireless > General: No Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Wireless > General: No Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Choose No Security to allow all wireless connections without data encryption or
authentication.
7.2.2 Basic (WEP Encryption)
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access points
(AP) to keep network communications private. Both the wireless stations and the access points
must use the same WEP key.
Note: WEP is extremely insecure. Its encryption can be broken by an attacker, using
widely-available software. It is strongly recommended that you use a more
effective security mechanism. Use the strongest security mechanism that all the
wireless devices in your network support. For example, use WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK
if all your wireless devices support it, or use WPA or WPA2 if your wireless devices
support it and you have a RADIUS server. If your wireless devices support nothing
stronger than WEP, use the highest encryption level available.
Your Device allows you to configure up to four 64-bit or 128-bit WEP keys but only one key can be
enabled at any one time.
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In order to configure and enable WEP encryption, click Network Setting > Wireless to display the
General screen, then select Basic as the security level.
Figure 36 Wireless > General: Basic (WEP)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 Wireless > General: Basic (WEP)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select Basic to enable WEP data encryption.
Generate
password
automatically
Select this option to have the Device automatically generate a password. The password field
will not be configurable when you select this option.
Password 1~4
The password (WEP keys) are used to encrypt data. Both the Device and the wireless
stations must use the same password (WEP key) for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal characters
("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal characters
("0-9", "A-F").
You must configure at least one password, only one password can be activated at any one
time. The default password is Passowrd 1.
more.../less
Click more... to show more fields in this section. Click less to hide them.
WEP Encryption
Select 64-bits or 128-bits.
This dictates the length of the security key that the network is going to use.
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7.2.3 More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK)
The WPA-PSK security mode provides both improved data encryption and user authentication over
WEP. Using a Pre-Shared Key (PSK), both the Device and the connecting client share a common
password in order to validate the connection. This type of encryption, while robust, is not as strong
as WPA, WPA2 or even WPA2-PSK. The WPA2-PSK security mode is a newer, more robust version of
the WPA encryption standard. It offers slightly better security, although the use of PSK makes it
less robust than it could be.
Click Network Setting > Wireless to display the General screen. Select More Secure as the
security level. Then select WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK from the Security Mode list.
Figure 37 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select More Secure to enable WPA(2)-PSK data encryption.
Security Mode
Select WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK from the drop-down list box.
Generate
password
automatically
Select this option to have the Device automatically generate a password. The password field
will not be configurable when you select this option.
Password
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The only
difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of
user-specific credentials.
If you did not select Generate password automatically, you can manually type a preshared key from 8 to 64 case-sensitive keyboard characters.
138
more.../less
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WPA-PSK
Compatible
This field appears when you choose WPA-PSK2 as the Security Mode.
Check this field to allow wireless devices using WPA-PSK security mode to connect to your
Device. The Device supports WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK simultaneously.
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Table 22 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption
Select the encryption type (AES or TKIP+AES) for data encryption.
Select AES if your wireless clients can all use AES.
Select TKIP+AES to allow the wireless clients to use either TKIP or AES.
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the RADIUS server sends a new group
key out to all clients.
7.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication
The WPA2 security mode is currently the most robust form of encryption for wireless networks. It
requires a RADIUS server to authenticate user credentials and is a full implementation the security
protocol. Use this security option for maximum protection of your network. However, it is the least
backwards compatible with older devices.
The WPA security mode is a security subset of WPA2. It requires the presence of a RADIUS server
on your network in order to validate user credentials. This encryption standard is slightly older than
WPA2 and therefore is more compatible with older devices.
Click Network Setting > Wireless to display the General screen. Select More Secure as the
security level. Then select WPA or WPA2 from the Security Mode list.
Figure 38 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select More Secure to enable WPA(2)-PSK data encryption.
Security Mode
Choose WPA or WPA2 from the drop-down list box.
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Table 23 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal notation.
Port
Number
Enter the port number of the external authentication server. The default port number is
1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so
with additional information.
Shared
Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external authentication server and the Device.
The key must be the same on the external authentication server and your Device. The key is
not sent over the network.
more.../less
Click more... to show more fields in this section. Click less to hide them.
WPA
Compatible
This field is only available for WPA2. Select this if you want the Device to support WPA and
WPA2 simultaneously.
Encryption
Select the encryption type (AES or TKIP+AES) for data encryption.
Select AES if your wireless clients can all use AES.
Select TKIP+AES to allow the wireless clients to use either TKIP or AES.
WPA2 PreAuthentication
Network Reauth Interval
This field is available only when you select WPA2.
Pre-authentication enables fast roaming by allowing the wireless client (already connecting
to an AP) to perform IEEE 802.1x authentication with another AP before connecting to it.
Select Enabled to turn on preauthentication in WAP2. Otherwise, select Disabled.
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and passwords in order to
stay connected.
If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the reauthentication timer
on the RADIUS server has priority.
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the RADIUS server sends a new group
key out to all clients.
7.3 The More AP Screen
This screen allows you to enable and configure multiple Basic Service Sets (BSSs) on the Device.
Click Network Setting > Wireless > More AP. The following screen displays.
Figure 39 Network Setting > Wireless > More AP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Network Setting > Wireless > More AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field indicates whether this SSID is active. A yellow bulb signifies that this SSID is
active. A gray bulb signifies that this SSID is not active.
SSID
An SSID profile is the set of parameters relating to one of the Device’s BSSs. The SSID
(Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless device is associated.
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When a wireless client
scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that is broadcast and seen in the wireless
client utility.
Security
This field indicates the security mode of the SSID profile.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure the SSID profile.
7.3.1 Edit More AP
Use this screen to edit an SSID profile. Click the Edit icon next to an SSID in the More AP screen.
The following screen displays.
Figure 40 More AP: Edit
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 25 More AP: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Network Setup
Wireless
You can Enable or Disable the wireless LAN in this field.
Passphrase
Type
If you set security for the wireless LAN and have the Device generate a password, the
setting in this field determines how the Device generates the password.
Select None to set the Device’s password generation to not be based on a passphrase.
Select Fixed to use a 16 character passphrase for generating a password.
Select Variable to use a 16 to 63 character passphrase for generating a password.
Passphrase Key
For a fixed type passphrase enter 16 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, with no spaces). It
must contain both letters and numbers and is case-sensitive.
For a variable type passphrase enter 16 to 63 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, with no
spaces). It must contain both letters and numbers and is case-sensitive.
Wireless Network Settings
Wireless
Network Name
(SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which a wireless device is
associated. Wireless devices associating to the access point (AP) must have the same SSID.
Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a station cannot
obtain the SSID through scanning using a site survey tool.
Client Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with each other.
MBSSID/LAN
Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with clients in other
SSIDs or LAN devices.
Enhanced
Multicast
Forwarding
Select this check box to allow the Device to convert wireless multicast traffic into wireless
unicast traffic.
BSSID
This shows the MAC address of the wireless interface on the Device when wireless LAN is
enabled.
Maximum
Bandwidth
Specify the maximum rate for wireless traffic in kilobits per second (Kbps).
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 English keyboard characters) for the wireless LAN.
Security Level
Security Mode
Select Basic (WEP) or More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK, WPA(2)) to add security on this
wireless network. The wireless clients which want to associate to this network must have
same wireless security settings as the Device. After you select to use a security, additional
options appears in this screen.
Or you can select No Security to allow any client to associate this network without any data
encryption or authentication.
See Section 7.2.1 on page 136 for more details about this field.
142
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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7.4 MAC Authentication
This screen allows you to configure the ZyXEL Device to give exclusive access to specific devices
(Allow) or exclude specific devices from accessing the ZyXEL Device (Deny). Every Ethernet
device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is assigned at the
factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You
need to know the MAC addresses of the devices to configure this screen.
Use this screen to view your Device’s MAC filter settings and add new MAC filter rules. Click
Network Setting > Wireless > MAC Authentication. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 41 Wireless > MAC Authentication
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 26 Wireless > MAC Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
Select the SSID for which you want to configure MAC filter settings.
MAC Restrict
Mode
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC Address table.
Select Disable to turn off MAC filtering.
Select Deny to block access to the Device. MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to
access the Device.
Select Allow to permit access to the Device. MAC addresses not listed will be denied access
to the Device.
Add new MAC
address
Click this if you want to add a new MAC address entry to the MAC filter list below.
Enter the MAC addresses of the wireless devices that are allowed or denied access to the
Device in these address fields. Enter the MAC addresses in a valid MAC address format, that
is, six hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
MAC Address
This is the MAC addresses of the wireless devices that are allowed or denied access to the
Device.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to delete the entry.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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7.5 The WPS Screen
Use this screen to configure WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) on your Device.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without having to
configure security settings manually. Set up each WPS connection between two devices. Both
devices must support WPS. See Section 7.9.8.3 on page 156 for more information about WPS.
Note: To use the WPS feature, make sure you have wireless enabled in the Network
Setting > Wireless > General screen.
Note: The Device applies the security settings of the SSID1 profile (see Section 7.2 on
page 133). If you want to use the WPS feature set the security mode of SSID1 to
WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or No Security.
Click Network Setting > Wireless > WPS. The following screen displays. Select Enable and click
Apply to activate the WPS function. Then you can configure the WPS settings in this screen.
Figure 42 Network Setting > Wireless > WPS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Network Setting > Wireless > WPS
LABEL
144
DESCRIPTION
WPS
Select Enable to activate WPS on the Device.
Method 1
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network using Push Button Configuration (PBC).
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Table 27 Network Setting > Wireless > WPS (continued)
LABEL
Connect
DESCRIPTION
Click this button to add another WPS-enabled wireless device (within wireless range of the
Device) to your wireless network. This button may either be a physical button on the
outside of device, or a menu button similar to the Connect button on this screen.
Note: You must press the other wireless device’s WPS button within two minutes of pressing
this button.
Method 2
Register
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network by entering the PIN of the client into the
Device.
Enter the PIN of the device that you are setting up a WPS connection with and click
Register to authenticate and add the wireless device to your wireless network.
You can find the PIN either on the outside of the device, or by checking the device’s
settings.
Note: You must also activate WPS on that device within two minutes to have it present its PIN
to the Device.
Method 3
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network by entering the PIN of the Device into the
client.
Release
Configuratio
n
The default WPS status is configured.
Generate
New PIN
Number
The PIN (Personal Identification Number) of the Device is shown here. Enter this PIN in the
configuration utility of the device you want to connect to using WPS.
Click this button to remove all configured wireless and wireless security settings for WPS
connections on the Device.
The PIN is not necessary when you use WPS push-button method.
Click the Generate New PIN Number button to have the Device create a new PIN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.6 The WMM Screen
Use this screen to enable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM) and WMM Power Save in wireless networks for
multimedia applications.
Click Network Setting > Wireless > WMM. The following screen displays.
Figure 43 Network Setting > Wireless > WMM
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Network Setting > Wireless > WMM
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WMM
Select On to have the Device automatically give a service a priority level according to the
ToS value in the IP header of packets it sends. WMM QoS (Wifi MultiMedia Quality of
Service) gives high priority to voice and video, which makes them run more smoothly.
WMM
Automatic
Power Save
Delivery
Select this option to extend the battery life of your mobile devices (especially useful for
small devices that are running multimedia applications). The Device goes to sleep mode to
save power when it is not transmitting data. The AP buffers the packets sent to the Device
until the Device "wakes up". The Device wakes up periodically to check for incoming data.
Note: Note: This works only if the wireless device to which the Device is connected also
supports this feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.7 The Others Screen
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings. Click Network Setting > Wireless >
Others. The screen appears as shown.
See Section 7.9.2 on page 150 for detailed definitions of the terms listed in this screen.
Figure 44 Network Setting > Wireless > Others
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Network Setting > Wireless > Others
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS
Threshold
Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS
(Clear To Send) handshake.
Enter a value between 0 and 2347.
Fragmentation
Threshold
146
This is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value between 256 and
2346.
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Table 29 Network Setting > Wireless > Others (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Auto Channel
Timer
If you set the channel to Auto in the Network Setting > Wireless > General screen,
specify the interval in minutes for how often the Device scans for the best channel. Enter 0
to disable the periodical scan.
Output Power
Set the output power of the Device. If there is a high density of APs in an area, decrease
the output power to reduce interference with other APs. Select one of the following: 20%,
40%, 60%, 80% or 100%.
Beacon Interval
When a wirelessly networked device sends a beacon, it includes with it a beacon interval.
This specifies the time period before the device sends the beacon again.
The interval tells receiving devices on the network how long they can wait in low power
mode before waking up to handle the beacon. This value can be set from20ms to 1000ms.
A high value helps save current consumption of the access point.
DTIM Interval
Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM) is the time period after which broadcast and
multicast packets are transmitted to mobile clients in the Power Saving mode. A high DTIM
value can cause clients to lose connectivity with the network. This value can be set from 1
to 100.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to associate with
the Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to associate with
the Device.
Select 802.11n Only to allow only IEEE 802.11n compliant WLAN devices to associate with
the Device.
Select 802.11b/g Mixed to allow either IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the Device. The transmission rate of the Device might be reduced
when an 802.11b wireless client is associated with it.
Select 802.11b/g/n Mixed to allow IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g or IEEE802.11n
compliant WLAN devices to associate with the Device. The transmission rate of the Device
might be reduced when an 802.11b or 802.11g wireless client is associated with it.
802.11
Protection
Enabling this feature can help prevent collisions in mixed-mode networks (networks with
both IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g traffic).
Select Auto to have the wireless devices transmit data after a RTS/CTS handshake. This
helps improve IEEE 802.11g performance.
Select Off to disable 802.11 protection. The transmission rate of your Device might be
reduced in a mixed-mode network.
This field displays Off and is not configurable when you set 802.11 Mode to 802.11b
Only.
Preamble
Select a preamble type from the drop-down list box. Choices are Long or Short. See
Section 7.9.7 on page 154 for more information.
This field is configurable only when you set 802.11 Mode to 802.11b.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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7.8 The Channel Status Screen
Use the Channel Status screen to scan wireless LAN channel noises and view the results. Click
Network Setting > Wireless > Channel Status. The screen appears as shown. Click Scan to
scan the wireless LAN channels. You can view the results in the Channel Scan Result section.
Figure 45 Network Setting > Wireless > Channel Status
7.9 Technical Reference
This section discusses wireless LANs in depth. For more information, see Appendix D on page 373.
7.9.1 Wireless Network Overview
Wireless networks consist of wireless clients, access points and bridges.
• A wireless client is a radio connected to a user’s computer.
• An access point is a radio with a wired connection to a network, which can connect with
numerous wireless clients and let them access the network.
• A bridge is a radio that relays communications between access points and wireless clients,
extending a network’s range.
Traditionally, a wireless network operates in one of two ways.
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• An “infrastructure” type of network has one or more access points and one or more wireless
clients. The wireless clients connect to the access points.
• An “ad-hoc” type of network is one in which there is no access point. Wireless clients connect to
one another in order to exchange information.
The following figure provides an example of a wireless network.
Figure 46 Example of a Wireless Network
The wireless network is the part in the blue circle. In this wireless network, devices A and B use the
access point (AP) to interact with the other devices (such as the printer) or with the Internet. Your
Device is the AP.
Every wireless network must follow these basic guidelines.
• Every device in the same wireless network must use the same SSID.
The SSID is the name of the wireless network. It stands for Service Set IDentifier.
• If two wireless networks overlap, they should use a different channel.
Like radio stations or television channels, each wireless network uses a specific channel, or
frequency, to send and receive information.
• Every device in the same wireless network must use security compatible with the AP.
Security stops unauthorized devices from using the wireless network. It can also protect the
information that is sent in the wireless network.
Radio Channels
In the radio spectrum, there are certain frequency bands allocated for unlicensed, civilian use. For
the purposes of wireless networking, these bands are divided into numerous channels. This allows a
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variety of networks to exist in the same place without interfering with one another. When you
create a network, you must select a channel to use.
Since the available unlicensed spectrum varies from one country to another, the number of
available channels also varies.
7.9.2 Additional Wireless Terms
The following table describes some wireless network terms and acronyms used in the Device’s Web
Configurator.
Table 30 Additional Wireless Terms
TERM
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS Threshold
In a wireless network which covers a large area, wireless devices are sometimes not
aware of each other’s presence. This may cause them to send information to the AP
at the same time and result in information colliding and not getting through.
By setting this value lower than the default value, the wireless devices must
sometimes get permission to send information to the Device. The lower the value, the
more often the devices must get permission.
If this value is greater than the fragmentation threshold value (see below), then
wireless devices never have to get permission to send information to the Device.
Preamble
A preamble affects the timing in your wireless network. There are two preamble
modes: long and short. If a device uses a different preamble mode than the Device
does, it cannot communicate with the Device.
Authentication
The process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to use the wireless
network.
Fragmentation
Threshold
A small fragmentation threshold is recommended for busy networks, while a larger
threshold provides faster performance if the network is not very busy.
7.9.3 Wireless Security Overview
By their nature, radio communications are simple to intercept. For wireless data networks, this
means that anyone within range of a wireless network without security can not only read the data
passing over the airwaves, but also join the network. Once an unauthorized person has access to
the network, he or she can steal information or introduce malware (malicious software) intended to
compromise the network. For these reasons, a variety of security systems have been developed to
ensure that only authorized people can use a wireless data network, or understand the data carried
on it.
These security standards do two things. First, they authenticate. This means that only people
presenting the right credentials (often a username and password, or a “key” phrase) can access the
network. Second, they encrypt. This means that the information sent over the air is encoded. Only
people with the code key can understand the information, and only people who have been
authenticated are given the code key.
These security standards vary in effectiveness. Some can be broken, such as the old Wired
Equivalent Protocol (WEP). Using WEP is better than using no security at all, but it will not keep a
determined attacker out. Other security standards are secure in themselves but can be broken if a
user does not use them properly. For example, the WPA-PSK security standard is very secure if you
use a long key which is difficult for an attacker’s software to guess - for example, a twenty-letter
long string of apparently random numbers and letters - but it is not very secure if you use a short
key which is very easy to guess - for example, a three-letter word from the dictionary.
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Because of the damage that can be done by a malicious attacker, it’s not just people who have
sensitive information on their network who should use security. Everybody who uses any wireless
network should ensure that effective security is in place.
A good way to come up with effective security keys, passwords and so on is to use obscure
information that you personally will easily remember, and to enter it in a way that appears random
and does not include real words. For example, if your mother owns a 1970 Dodge Challenger and
her favorite movie is Vanishing Point (which you know was made in 1971) you could use
“70dodchal71vanpoi” as your security key.
The following sections introduce different types of wireless security you can set up in the wireless
network.
7.9.3.1 SSID
Normally, the Device acts like a beacon and regularly broadcasts the SSID in the area. You can hide
the SSID instead, in which case the Device does not broadcast the SSID. In addition, you should
change the default SSID to something that is difficult to guess.
This type of security is fairly weak, however, because there are ways for unauthorized wireless
devices to get the SSID. In addition, unauthorized wireless devices can still see the information that
is sent in the wireless network.
7.9.3.2 MAC Address Filter
Every device that can use a wireless network has a unique identification number, called a MAC
address.1 A MAC address is usually written using twelve hexadecimal characters2; for example,
00A0C5000002 or 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. To get the MAC address for each device in the wireless
network, see the device’s User’s Guide or other documentation.
You can use the MAC address filter to tell the Device which devices are allowed or not allowed to
use the wireless network. If a device is allowed to use the wireless network, it still has to have the
correct information (SSID, channel, and security). If a device is not allowed to use the wireless
network, it does not matter if it has the correct information.
This type of security does not protect the information that is sent in the wireless network.
Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized wireless devices to get the MAC address of an
authorized device. Then, they can use that MAC address to use the wireless network.
7.9.3.3 User Authentication
Authentication is the process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to use the wireless
network. You can make every user log in to the wireless network before using it. However, every
device in the wireless network has to support IEEE 802.1x to do this.
For wireless networks, you can store the user names and passwords for each user in a RADIUS
server. This is a server used in businesses more than in homes. If you do not have a RADIUS server,
you cannot set up user names and passwords for your users.
Unauthorized wireless devices can still see the information that is sent in the wireless network,
even if they cannot use the wireless network. Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized
1.
Some wireless devices, such as scanners, can detect wireless networks but cannot use wireless networks. These kinds
of wireless devices might not have MAC addresses.
2.
Hexadecimal characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
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wireless users to get a valid user name and password. Then, they can use that user name and
password to use the wireless network.
7.9.3.4 Encryption
Wireless networks can use encryption to protect the information that is sent in the wireless
network. Encryption is like a secret code. If you do not know the secret code, you cannot
understand the message.
The types of encryption you can choose depend on the type of authentication. (See Section 7.9.3.3
on page 151 for information about this.)
Table 31 Types of Encryption for Each Type of Authentication
Weakest
NO AUTHENTICATION
RADIUS SERVER
No Security
WPA
Static WEP
WPA-PSK
Strongest
WPA2-PSK
WPA2
For example, if the wireless network has a RADIUS server, you can choose WPA or WPA2. If users
do not log in to the wireless network, you can choose no encryption, Static WEP, WPA-PSK, or
WPA2-PSK.
Usually, you should set up the strongest encryption that every device in the wireless network
supports. For example, suppose you have a wireless network with the Device and you do not have
a RADIUS server. Therefore, there is no authentication. Suppose the wireless network has two
devices. Device A only supports WEP, and device B supports WEP and WPA. Therefore, you should
set up Static WEP in the wireless network.
Note: It is recommended that wireless networks use WPA-PSK, WPA, or stronger
encryption. The other types of encryption are better than none at all, but it is still
possible for unauthorized wireless devices to figure out the original information
pretty quickly.
When you select WPA2 or WPA2-PSK in your Device, you can also select an option (WPA
compatible) to support WPA as well. In this case, if some of the devices support WPA and some
support WPA2, you should set up WPA2-PSK or WPA2 (depending on the type of wireless network
login) and select the WPA compatible option in the Device.
Many types of encryption use a key to protect the information in the wireless network. The longer
the key, the stronger the encryption. Every device in the wireless network must have the same key.
7.9.4 Signal Problems
Because wireless networks are radio networks, their signals are subject to limitations of distance,
interference and absorption.
Problems with distance occur when the two radios are too far apart. Problems with interference
occur when other radio waves interrupt the data signal. Interference may come from other radio
transmissions, such as military or air traffic control communications, or from machines that are
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coincidental emitters such as electric motors or microwaves. Problems with absorption occur when
physical objects (such as thick walls) are between the two radios, muffling the signal.
7.9.5 BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or between a
wireless station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS traffic blocking is
disabled, wireless station A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other.
When Intra-BSS traffic blocking is enabled, wireless station A and B can still access the wired
network but cannot communicate with each other.
Figure 47 Basic Service set
7.9.6 MBSSID
Traditionally, you need to use different APs to configure different Basic Service Sets (BSSs). As well
as the cost of buying extra APs, there is also the possibility of channel interference. The Device’s
MBSSID (Multiple Basic Service Set IDentifier) function allows you to use one access point to
provide several BSSs simultaneously. You can then assign varying QoS priorities and/or security
modes to different SSIDs.
Wireless devices can use different BSSIDs to associate with the same AP.
7.9.6.1 Notes on Multiple BSSs
• A maximum of eight BSSs are allowed on one AP simultaneously.
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• You must use different keys for different BSSs. If two wireless devices have different BSSIDs
(they are in different BSSs), but have the same keys, they may hear each other’s
communications (but not communicate with each other).
• MBSSID should not replace but rather be used in conjunction with 802.1x security.
7.9.7 Preamble Type
Preamble is used to signal that data is coming to the receiver. Short and long refer to the length of
the synchronization field in a packet.
Short preamble increases performance as less time sending preamble means more time for sending
data. All IEEE 802.11 compliant wireless adapters support long preamble, but not all support short
preamble.
Use long preamble if you are unsure what preamble mode other wireless devices on the network
support, and to provide more reliable communications in busy wireless networks.
Use short preamble if you are sure all wireless devices on the network support it, and to provide
more efficient communications.
Use the dynamic setting to automatically use short preamble when all wireless devices on the
network support it, otherwise the Device uses long preamble.
Note: The wireless devices MUST use the same preamble mode in order to communicate.
7.9.8 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS)
Your Device supports WiFi Protected Setup (WPS), which is an easy way to set up a secure wireless
network. WPS is an industry standard specification, defined by the WiFi Alliance.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without having to
configure security settings manually. Each WPS connection works between two devices. Both
devices must support WPS (check each device’s documentation to make sure).
Depending on the devices you have, you can either press a button (on the device itself, or in its
configuration utility) or enter a PIN (a unique Personal Identification Number that allows one device
to authenticate the other) in each of the two devices. When WPS is activated on a device, it has two
minutes to find another device that also has WPS activated. Then, the two devices connect and set
up a secure network by themselves.
7.9.8.1 Push Button Configuration
WPS Push Button Configuration (PBC) is initiated by pressing a button on each WPS-enabled
device, and allowing them to connect automatically. You do not need to enter any information.
Not every WPS-enabled device has a physical WPS button. Some may have a WPS PBC button in
their configuration utilities instead of or in addition to the physical button.
Take the following steps to set up WPS using the button.
1
154
Ensure that the two devices you want to set up are within wireless range of one another.
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2
Look for a WPS button on each device. If the device does not have one, log into its configuration
utility and locate the button (see the device’s User’s Guide for how to do this - for the Device, see
Section 7.6 on page 145).
3
Press the button on one of the devices (it doesn’t matter which). For the Device you must press the
WPS button for more than three seconds.
4
Within two minutes, press the button on the other device. The registrar sends the network name
(SSID) and security key through an secure connection to the enrollee.
If you need to make sure that WPS worked, check the list of associated wireless clients in the AP’s
configuration utility. If you see the wireless client in the list, WPS was successful.
7.9.8.2 PIN Configuration
Each WPS-enabled device has its own PIN (Personal Identification Number). This may either be
static (it cannot be changed) or dynamic (in some devices you can generate a new PIN by clicking
on a button in the configuration interface).
Use the PIN method instead of the push-button configuration (PBC) method if you want to ensure
that the connection is established between the devices you specify, not just the first two devices to
activate WPS in range of each other. However, you need to log into the configuration interfaces of
both devices to use the PIN method.
When you use the PIN method, you must enter the PIN from one device (usually the wireless client)
into the second device (usually the Access Point or wireless router). Then, when WPS is activated
on the first device, it presents its PIN to the second device. If the PIN matches, one device sends
the network and security information to the other, allowing it to join the network.
Take the following steps to set up a WPS connection between an access point or wireless router
(referred to here as the AP) and a client device using the PIN method.
1
Ensure WPS is enabled on both devices.
2
Access the WPS section of the AP’s configuration interface. See the device’s User’s Guide for how to
do this.
3
Look for the client’s WPS PIN; it will be displayed either on the device, or in the WPS section of the
client’s configuration interface (see the device’s User’s Guide for how to find the WPS PIN - for the
Device, see Section 7.5 on page 144).
4
Enter the client’s PIN in the AP’s configuration interface.
5
If the client device’s configuration interface has an area for entering another device’s PIN, you can
either enter the client’s PIN in the AP, or enter the AP’s PIN in the client - it does not matter which.
6
Start WPS on both devices within two minutes.
7
Use the configuration utility to activate WPS, not the push-button on the device itself.
8
On a computer connected to the wireless client, try to connect to the Internet. If you can connect,
WPS was successful.
If you cannot connect, check the list of associated wireless clients in the AP’s configuration utility. If
you see the wireless client in the list, WPS was successful.
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The following figure shows a WPS-enabled wireless client (installed in a notebook computer)
connecting to the WPS-enabled AP via the PIN method.
Figure 48 Example WPS Process: PIN Method
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
WPS
This device’s
WPS PIN: 123456
WPS
Enter WPS PIN
from other device:
WPS
START
WPS
START
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
SECURE EAP TUNNEL
SSID
WPA(2)-PSK
COMMUNICATION
7.9.8.3 How WPS Works
When two WPS-enabled devices connect, each device must assume a specific role. One device acts
as the registrar (the device that supplies network and security settings) and the other device acts
as the enrollee (the device that receives network and security settings. The registrar creates a
secure EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) tunnel and sends the network name (SSID) and the
WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK pre-shared key to the enrollee. Whether WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK is used
depends on the standards supported by the devices. If the registrar is already part of a network, it
sends the existing information. If not, it generates the SSID and WPA(2)-PSK randomly.
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The following figure shows a WPS-enabled client (installed in a notebook computer) connecting to a
WPS-enabled access point.
Figure 49 How WPS works
ACTIVATE
WPS
ACTIVATE
WPS
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
WPS HANDSHAKE
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURE TUNNEL
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
The roles of registrar and enrollee last only as long as the WPS setup process is active (two
minutes). The next time you use WPS, a different device can be the registrar if necessary.
The WPS connection process is like a handshake; only two devices participate in each WPS
transaction. If you want to add more devices you should repeat the process with one of the existing
networked devices and the new device.
Note that the access point (AP) is not always the registrar, and the wireless client is not always the
enrollee. All WPS-certified APs can be a registrar, and so can some WPS-enabled wireless clients.
By default, a WPS devices is “unconfigured”. This means that it is not part of an existing network
and can act as either enrollee or registrar (if it supports both functions). If the registrar is
unconfigured, the security settings it transmits to the enrollee are randomly-generated. Once a
WPS-enabled device has connected to another device using WPS, it becomes “configured”. A
configured wireless client can still act as enrollee or registrar in subsequent WPS connections, but a
configured access point can no longer act as enrollee. It will be the registrar in all subsequent WPS
connections in which it is involved. If you want a configured AP to act as an enrollee, you must reset
it to its factory defaults.
7.9.8.4 Example WPS Network Setup
This section shows how security settings are distributed in an example WPS setup.
The following figure shows an example network. In step 1, both AP1 and Client 1 are
unconfigured. When WPS is activated on both, they perform the handshake. In this example, AP1
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is the registrar, and Client 1 is the enrollee. The registrar randomly generates the security
information to set up the network, since it is unconfigured and has no existing information.
Figure 50 WPS: Example Network Step 1
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURITY INFO
AP1
CLIENT 1
In step 2, you add another wireless client to the network. You know that Client 1 supports registrar
mode, but it is better to use AP1 for the WPS handshake with the new client since you must
connect to the access point anyway in order to use the network. In this case, AP1 must be the
registrar, since it is configured (it already has security information for the network). AP1 supplies
the existing security information to Client 2.
Figure 51 WPS: Example Network Step 2
REGISTRAR
EXISTING CONNECTION
AP1
CLIENT 1
ENROLLEE
O
INF
Y
T
RI
CU
SE
CLIENT 2
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In step 3, you add another access point (AP2) to your network. AP2 is out of range of AP1, so you
cannot use AP1 for the WPS handshake with the new access point. However, you know that Client
2 supports the registrar function, so you use it to perform the WPS handshake instead.
Figure 52 WPS: Example Network Step 3
EXISTING CONNECTION
CLIENT 1
IS
EX
O
GC
TIN
ION
CT
E
NN
AP1
REGISTRAR
CLIENT 2
SE
CU
RIT
Y
ENROLLEE
INF
O
AP2
7.9.8.5 Limitations of WPS
WPS has some limitations of which you should be aware.
• WPS works in Infrastructure networks only (where an AP and a wireless client communicate). It
does not work in Ad-Hoc networks (where there is no AP).
• When you use WPS, it works between two devices only. You cannot enroll multiple devices
simultaneously, you must enroll one after the other.
For instance, if you have two enrollees and one registrar you must set up the first enrollee (by
pressing the WPS button on the registrar and the first enrollee, for example), then check that it
successfully enrolled, then set up the second device in the same way.
• WPS works only with other WPS-enabled devices. However, you can still add non-WPS devices to
a network you already set up using WPS.
WPS works by automatically issuing a randomly-generated WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK pre-shared
key from the registrar device to the enrollee devices. Whether the network uses WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK depends on the device. You can check the configuration interface of the registrar
device to discover the key the network is using (if the device supports this feature). Then, you
can enter the key into the non-WPS device and join the network as normal (the non-WPS device
must also support WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK).
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• When you use the PBC method, there is a short period (from the moment you press the button
on one device to the moment you press the button on the other device) when any WPS-enabled
device could join the network. This is because the registrar has no way of identifying the
“correct” enrollee, and cannot differentiate between your enrollee and a rogue device. This is a
possible way for a hacker to gain access to a network.
You can easily check to see if this has happened. WPS works between only two devices
simultaneously, so if another device has enrolled your device will be unable to enroll, and will not
have access to the network. If this happens, open the access point’s configuration interface and
look at the list of associated clients (usually displayed by MAC address). It does not matter if the
access point is the WPS registrar, the enrollee, or was not involved in the WPS handshake; a
rogue device must still associate with the access point to gain access to the network. Check the
MAC addresses of your wireless clients (usually printed on a label on the bottom of the device). If
there is an unknown MAC address you can remove it or reset the AP.
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8
LAN
8.1 Overview
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many networking devices
are connected. It is usually located in one immediate area such as a building or floor of a building.
Use the LAN screens to help you configure a LAN DHCP server and manage IP addresses.
LAN
DSL
8.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the LAN Setup screen to set the LAN IP address, subnet mask, and DHCP settings of your
SBG3500-N (Section 8.2 on page 163).
• Use the Static DHCP screen to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual computers
based on their MAC Addresses (Section 8.3 on page 167).
• Use the UPnP screen to enable UPnP and UPnP NAT traversal on the SBG3500-N (Section 8.4 on
page 169).
• Use the Additional Subnet screen to configure IP alias and public static IP (Section 8.5 on page
169).
• Use the 5th Ethernet Port screen to configure the Ethernet WAN port as a LAN port (Section 8.8
on page 179).
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8.1.2 What You Need To Know
8.1.2.1 About LAN
IP Address
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet Mask
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also use
subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
DHCP
A DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server can assign your SBG3500-N an IP address,
subnet mask, DNS and other routing information when it's turned on.
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP
address of a networking device before you can access it.
RADVD (Router Advertisement Daemon)
When an IPv6 host sends a Router Solicitation (RS) request to discover the available routers,
RADVD with Router Advertisement (RA) messages in response to the request. It specifies the
minimum and maximum intervals of RA broadcasts. RA messages containing the address prefix.
IPv6 hosts can be generated with the IPv6 prefix an IPv6 address.
8.1.2.2 About UPnP
Identifying UPnP Devices
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder (Windows XP). Each UPnP
compatible device installed on your network will appear as a separate icon. Selecting the icon of a
UPnP device will allow you to access the information and properties of that device.
NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate through NAT. UPnP
network devices can automatically configure network addressing, announce their presence in the
network to other UPnP devices and enable exchange of simple product and service descriptions.
NAT traversal allows the following:
• Dynamic port mapping
• Learning public IP addresses
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• Assigning lease times to mappings
Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal and UPnP.
See the Chapter 11 on page 206 for more information on NAT.
Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own services and opening
firewall ports may present network security issues. Network information and configuration may also
be obtained and modified by users in some network environments.
When a UPnP device joins a network, it announces its presence with a multicast message. For
security reasons, the SBG3500-N allows multicast messages on the LAN only.
All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without additional configuration.
Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
UPnP and ZyXEL
ZyXEL has achieved UPnP certification from the Universal Plug and Play Forum UPnP™
Implementers Corp. (UIC). ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports Internet Gateway Device (IGD)
1.0.
See Section 8.5 on page 169 for examples of installing and using UPnP.
Finding Out More
See Section 8.9 on page 179 for technical background information on LANs.
8.1.3 Before You Begin
Find out the MAC addresses of your network devices if you intend to add them to the DHCP Client
List screen.
8.2 The LAN Setup Screen
Use this screen to set the Local Area Network IP address and subnet mask of your SBG3500-N.
Click Network Setting > LAN to open the LAN Setup screen.
Follow these steps to configure your LAN settings.
1
Enter an IP address into the IP Address field. The IP address must be in dotted decimal notation.
This will become the IP address of your SBG3500-N.
2
Enter the IP subnet mask into the IP Subnet Mask field. Unless instructed otherwise it is best to
leave this alone, the configurator will automatically compute a subnet mask based upon the IP
address you entered.
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3
Click Apply to save your settings.
Figure 53 Network Setting > LAN > LAN Setup
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 32 Network Setting > LAN > LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface Group
Group Name
Select the interface group name for which you want to configure LAN settings. See Chapter
13 on page 226 for how to create a new interface group.
Zone
Choose the zone for this interface group from the drop-down list.
LAN IP Setup
IP Address
Enter the LAN IP address you want to assign to your SBG3500-N in dotted decimal notation,
for example, 192.168.1.1 (factory default).
Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask of your network in dotted decimal notation, for example
255.255.255.0 (factory default). Your SBG3500-N automatically computes the subnet mask
based on the IP Address you enter, so do not change this field unless you are instructed to
do so.
IGMP Snooping
Status
Select the Enable IGMP Snooping checkbox to allows the SBG3500-N to passively learn
multicast group.
IGMP Mode
Select Standard Mode to have the SBG3500-N forward multicast packets to a port that
joins the multicast group and broadcast unknown multicast packets from the WAN to all LAN
ports.
Select Blocking Mode to have the SBG3500-N block all unknown multicast packets from
the WAN.
DHCP Server State
DHCP
Select Enable to have the SBG3500-N act as a DHCP server or DHCP relay agent.
Select Disable to stop the DHCP server on the SBG3500-N.
Select DHCP Relay to have the SBG3500-N forward DHCP request to the DHCP server.
DHCP Relay
Server Address
This field is only available when you select DHCP Relay in the DHCP field.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the actual remote DHCP server in this field.
IP Addressing
Values
This field is only available when you select Enable in the DHCP field.
Beginning IP
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Ending IP
Address
This field specifies the last of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
DHCP Option Setup
TFTP Server
Name (option
66)
Type a name for the TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) server. This field allows you to
access the TFTP server using DHCP option 66. However, option 66 (open stardard) supports
only the IP address of the hostname or a single TFTP server
Bootfile name
(option 67)
Type the bootfile name to access the TFTP server using DHCP option 67. Option 67 is a
bootstrap service that accesses the TFTP server dynamically at server startup.
TFTP Server
Address (option
150)
Type an IP address for the TFTP server. This field allows you to access multiple TFTP servers
using DHCP option 150. Option 150 is Cisco proprietary.
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Table 32 Network Setting > LAN > LAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP Server
Lease Time
This is the period of time DHCP-assigned addresses is used. DHCP automatically assigns IP
addresses to clients when they log in. DHCP centralizes IP address management on central
computers that run the DHCP server program. DHCP leases addresses, for a period of time,
which means that past addresses are “recycled” and made available for future reassignment
to other systems.
This field is only available when you select Enable in the DHCP field.
Days/Hours/
Minutes
Enter the lease time of the DHCP server.
DNS Values
This field is only available when you select Enable in the DHCP field.
DNS
Select the type of service that you are registered for from your Dynamic DNS service
provider.
Select Dynamic if you have the Dynamic DNS service.
Select Static if you have the Static DNS service.
DNS Server 1
DNS Server 2
Enter the first and second DNS (Domain Name System) server IP address the SBG3500-N
passes to the DHCP clients.
LAN IPv6 Mode Setup
IPv6 State
Select Enable to activate the IPv6 mode and configure IPv6 settings on the SBG3500-N.
LAN IPv6 Address Setup
Delegate prefix
from WAN
Select this option to automatically obtain an IPv6 network prefix from the service provider
or an uplink router.
Static
Select this option to configure a fixed IPv6 address for the SBG3500-N’s LAN IPv6 address.
Note: This fixed address is for local hosts to access the Web Configurator only as the global
LAN IPv6 address might be changed by your ISP any time. This address is not the
routing gateway’s address for LAN IPv6 hosts.
ULA PseudoRandom Global
ID
Select this option to get IP addresses with same prefix using the Unique Local Address
Random Global ID.
ULA IPv6 Address Setup
IPv6 Address
If you select static IPv6 address, enter the IPv6 address prefix that the SBG3500-N uses for
the LAN IPv6 address.
Prefix Length
If you select static IPv6 address, enter the IPv6 prefix length that the SBG3500-N uses to
generate the LAN IPv6 address.
An IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (starting from the left) in the
address compose the network address. This field displays the bit number of the IPv6 subnet
mask.
MLD Snooping
166
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) allows an IPv6 switch or router to discover the presence
of MLD hosts who wish to receive multicast packets and the IP addresses of multicast
groups the hosts want to join on its network. Select Enable MLD Snooping to activate MLD
Snooping on the SBG3500-N. This allows the SBG3500-N to check MLD packets passing
through it and learn the multicast group membership. It helps reduce multicast traffic.
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Table 32 Network Setting > LAN > LAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN IPv6
Address Assign
Setup
Select how you want to obtain an IPv6 address:
•
•
•
•
stateless + DNS send by RADVD: The SBG3500-N uses IPv6 stateless
autoconfiguration. RADVD (Router Advertisement Daemon) is enabled to have the
SBG3500-N send IPv6 prefix information in router advertisements periodically and in
response to router solicitations. DHCPv6 server is disabled. (See page 162 for more
information on RADVD.)
stateless + DNS send by DHCPv6: The SBG3500-N uses IPv6 stateless
autoconfiguration. The DNS is provided by a DHCPv6 server.
stateful + DHCPv6 server: The SBG3500-N uses IPv6 stateful autoconfiguration. The
DHCPv6 server is enabled to have the SBG3500-N act as a DHCPv6 server and pass IPv6
addresses, DNS server and domain name information to DHCPv6 clients.
stateful + DHCPv6 relay: The SBG3500-N uses IPv6 stateful autoconfiguration.
DHCPv6 Relay is enabled to have the SBG3500-N relay client DHCPv6 requests.
DHCPv6 Configuration
DHCPv6 State
This shows the status of the DHCPv6.
IPv6 DNS Values
IPv6 DNS
Server 1-3
Select From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns IPv6 DNS server information.
Select User-Defined if you have the IPv6 address of a DNS server. Enter the DNS server
IPv6 addresses the SBG3500-N passes to the DHCP clients.
Select None if you do not want to configure IPv6 DNS servers.
IPv6 Router Advertisement State
RADVD State
This shows the status of RADVD.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
8.3 The Static DHCP Screen
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual computers based on
their MAC Addresses.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is
assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
Use this screen to change your SBG3500-N’s static DHCP settings. Click Network Setting > LAN
> Static DHCP to open the following screen.
Figure 54 Network Setting > LAN > Static DHCP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Network Setting > LAN > Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new static
lease
Click this to add a new static DHCP entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the client is connected to the SBG3500-N.
MAC Address
The MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address on a LAN (Local Area Network) is
unique to your computer (six pairs of hexadecimal notation).
A network interface card such as an Ethernet adapter has a hardwired address that is
assigned at the factory. This address follows an industry standard that ensures no other
adapter has a similar address.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the # field listed above.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to have the IP address field editable and change it.
Click the Delete icon to delete a static DHCP entry. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the selected entry.
If you click Add new static lease in the Static DHCP screen or the Edit icon next to a static DHCP
entry, the following screen displays.
Figure 55 Static DHCP: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Static DHCP: Add/Edit
LABEL
168
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to activate the connection between the client and the SBG3500-N.
Group Name
Select the interface group name for which you want to configure static DHCP settings.
See Chapter 13 on page 226 for how to create a new interface group.
Select Device Info
If you select Manual Input, you can manually type in the MAC address and IP address of
a computer on your LAN. You can also choose the name of a computer from the drop list
and have the MAC Address and IP Address auto-detected.
MAC Address
If you select Manual Input, enter the MAC address of a computer on your LAN.
IP Address
If you select Manual Input, enter the IP address that you want to assign to the
computer on your LAN with the MAC address that you will also specify.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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8.4 The UPnP Screen
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that uses TCP/IP for
simple peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A UPnP device can dynamically join a
network, obtain an IP address, convey its capabilities and learn about other devices on the network.
In turn, a device can leave a network smoothly and automatically when it is no longer in use.
See page 162 for more information on UPnP.
Use the following screen to configure the UPnP settings on your SBG3500-N. Click Network
Setting > LAN > UPnP to display the screen shown next.
Figure 56 Network Setting > LAN > UPnP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 Network Setting > LAN > UPnP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
UPnP
Select Enable to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone could use a UPnP application to open
the web configurator's login screen without entering the SBG3500-N's IP address (although
you must still enter the password to access the web configurator).
UPnP NAT-T
Select Enable to allow UPnP-enabled applications to automatically configure the SBG3500N so that they can communicate through the SBG3500-N by using NAT traversal. UPnP
applications automatically reserve a NAT forwarding port in order to communicate with
another UPnP enabled device; this eliminates the need to manually configure port
forwarding for the UPnP enabled application.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.5 Installing UPnP in Windows Example
This section shows how to install UPnP in Windows Me and Windows XP.
Installing UPnP in Windows Me
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows Me.
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1
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Add/Remove Programs.
2
Click on the Windows Setup tab and select Communication in the Components selection box.
Click Details.
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3
In the Communications window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box in the
Components selection box.
Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication: Components
4
Click OK to go back to the Add/Remove Programs Properties window and click Next.
5
Restart the computer when prompted.
Installing UPnP in Windows XP
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows XP.
1
Click Start and Control Panel.
2
Double-click Network Connections.
3
In the Network Connections window, click Advanced in the main menu and select Optional
Networking Components ….
Network Connections
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4
The Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard window displays. Select Networking
Service in the Components selection box and click Details.
Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard
5
In the Networking Services window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box.
Networking Services
6
Click OK to go back to the Windows Optional Networking Component Wizard window and
click Next.
8.6 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example
This section shows you how to use the UPnP feature in Windows XP. You must already have UPnP
installed in Windows XP and UPnP activated on the SBG3500-N.
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Make sure the computer is connected to a LAN port of the SBG3500-N. Turn on your computer and
the SBG3500-N.
Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device
1
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Network Connections. An icon displays under
Internet Gateway.
2
Right-click the icon and select Properties.
Network Connections
3
In the Internet Connection Properties window, click Settings to see the port mappings there
were automatically created.
Internet Connection Properties
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4
You may edit or delete the port mappings or click Add to manually add port mappings.
Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings
Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add
5
When the UPnP-enabled device is disconnected from your computer, all port mappings will be
deleted automatically.
6
Select Show icon in notification area when connected option and click OK. An icon displays in
the system tray.
System Tray Icon
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7
Double-click on the icon to display your current Internet connection status.
Internet Connection Status
Web Configurator Easy Access
With UPnP, you can access the web-based configurator on the SBG3500-N without finding out the IP
address of the SBG3500-N first. This comes helpful if you do not know the IP address of the
SBG3500-N.
Follow the steps below to access the web configurator.
1
Click Start and then Control Panel.
2
Double-click Network Connections.
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3
Select My Network Places under Other Places.
Network Connections
4
An icon with the description for each UPnP-enabled device displays under Local Network.
5
Right-click on the icon for your SBG3500-N and select Invoke. The web configurator login screen
displays.
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6
Right-click on the icon for your SBG3500-N and select Properties. A properties window displays
with basic information about the SBG3500-N.
Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example
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8.7 The Additional Subnet Screen
Use the Additional Subnet screen to configure IP alias and public static IP.
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the same
Ethernet interface. The SBG3500-N supports multiple logical LAN interfaces via its physical Ethernet
interface with the SBG3500-N itself as the gateway for the LAN network. When you use IP alias,
you can also configure firewall rules to control access to the LAN's logical network (subnet).
If your ISP provides the Public LAN service, the SBG3500-N may use an LAN IP address that can be
accessed from the WAN.
Click Network Setting > LAN > Additional Subnet to display the screen shown next.
Figure 57 Network Setting > LAN > Additional Subnet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 Network Setting > LAN > Additional Subnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias Setup
Group Name
Select the interface group name for which you want to configure the IP alias settings. See
Chapter 13 on page 226 for how to create a new interface group.
Active
Select the checkbox to configure a LAN network for the SBG3500-N.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your SBG3500-N in dotted decimal notation.
IP Subnet Mask
Your SBG3500-N will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address that
you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask computed by the
SBG3500-N.
Public LAN
178
Active
Select the checkbox to enable the Public LAN feature. Your ISP must support Public LAN and
Static IP.
IP Address
Enter the public IP address provided by your ISP.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the public IP subnet mask provided by your ISP.
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Table 36 Network Setting > LAN > Additional Subnet (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Offer Public IP
by DHCP
Select the checkbox to enable the SBG3500-N to provide public IP addresses by DHCP
server.
Enable ARP
Proxy
Select the checkbox to enable the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) proxy.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.8 The 5th Ethernet Port Screen
If you are using DSL connection, you can configure your Ethernet WAN port as an extra LAN port.
This fifth Ethernet port is a Gigabit port. Click Network Settings > LAN > 5th Ethernet Port to
open this screen.
Figure 58 Network Settings > LAN > 5th Ethernet Port
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 37 Network Settings > LAN > 5th Ethernet Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
State
Select Enable to use the Ethernet WAN port as a LAN port on the SBG3500-N.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.9 Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics covered in this
chapter.
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8.9.1 LANs, WANs and the SBG3500-N
The actual physical connection determines whether the SBG3500-N ports are LAN or WAN ports.
There are two separate IP networks, one inside the LAN network and the other outside the WAN
network as shown next.
Figure 59 LAN and WAN IP Addresses
LAN
WAN
8.9.2 DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual clients to
obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the SBG3500-N as a DHCP
server or disable it. When configured as a server, the SBG3500-N provides the TCP/IP configuration
for the clients. If you turn DHCP service off, you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or
else the computer must be manually configured.
IP Pool Setup
The SBG3500-N is pre-configured with a pool of IP addresses for the DHCP clients (DHCP Pool). See
the product specifications in the appendices. Do not assign static IP addresses from the DHCP pool
to your LAN computers.
8.9.3 DNS Server Addresses
DNS (Domain Name System) maps a domain name to its corresponding IP address and vice versa.
The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP address of a
computer before you can access it. The DNS server addresses you enter when you set up DHCP are
passed to the client machines along with the assigned IP address and subnet mask.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses.
• The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet, when
you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS Server fields in
the DHCP Setup screen.
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• Some ISPs choose to disseminate the DNS server addresses using the DNS server extensions of
IPCP (IP Control Protocol) after the connection is up. If your ISP did not give you explicit DNS
servers, chances are the DNS servers are conveyed through IPCP negotiation. The SBG3500-N
supports the IPCP DNS server extensions through the DNS proxy feature.
Please note that DNS proxy works only when the ISP uses the IPCP DNS server extensions. It
does not mean you can leave the DNS servers out of the DHCP setup under all circumstances. If
your ISP gives you explicit DNS servers, make sure that you enter their IP addresses in the
DHCP Setup screen.
8.9.4 LAN TCP/IP
The SBG3500-N has built-in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses and DNS servers to
systems that support DHCP client capability.
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do computers on a LAN
share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or your
network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their instructions in
selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single user
account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is established. If this
is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from 192.168.0.0 to
192.168.255.0 and you must enable the Network Address Translation (NAT) feature of the
SBG3500-N. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses
specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise. Let's
say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254 individual addresses, from
192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In other words, the first three numbers
specify the network number while the last number identifies an individual computer on that
network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember, for
instance, 192.168.1.1, for your SBG3500-N, but make sure that no other device on your network is
using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your SBG3500-N will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't need
to change the subnet mask computed by the SBG3500-N unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from the
Internet, for example, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP addresses to
the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has
reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
• 172.16.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
— 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
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You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or it can be assigned from a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the ISP
can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if you are
part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for the
appropriate IP addresses.
Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address assignment,
please refer to RFC 1597, “Address Allocation for Private Internets” and RFC 1466,
“Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space”.
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C HAPT ER
9
Routing
9.1 Overview
The Device usually uses the default gateway to route outbound traffic from computers on the LAN
to the Internet. To have the Device send data to devices not reachable through the default gateway,
use static routes.
For example, the next figure shows a computer (A) connected to the Device’s LAN interface. The
Device routes most traffic from A to the Internet through the Device’s default gateway (R1). You
create one static route to connect to services offered by your ISP behind router R2. You create
another static route to communicate with a separate network behind a router R3 connected to the
LAN.
Figure 60 Example of Routing Topology
A
R1
LAN
WAN
R3
R2
9.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Static Route screen to view and set up static routes on the Device (Section 9.2 on page
184).
• Use the Policy Forwarding screen to configure policy routing on the Device. (Section 9.3 on
page 185).
• Use the RIP screen to set up RIP settings on the Device. (Section 9.4 on page 187).
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9.2 The Routing Screen
Use this screen to view and configure the static route rules on the Device. Click Network Setting
> Routing > Static Route to open the following screen.
Figure 61 Network Setting > Routing > Static Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 Network Setting > Routing > Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new static
route
Click this to configure a new static route.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the static route is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this
route is active. A gray bulb signifies that this route is not active.
Name
This is the name that describes or identifies this route.
Destination IP
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is always
based on network number.
Subnet Mask
This parameter specifies the IP network subnet mask of the final destination.
Gateway
This is the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway helps forward packets to
their destinations.
Interface
This is the WAN interface used for this static route.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the static route on the Device.
Click the Delete icon to remove a static route from the Device. A window displays asking
you to confirm that you want to delete the route.
9.2.1 Add/Edit Static Route
Use this screen to add or edit a static route. Click Add new static route in the Routing screen or
the Edit icon next to the static route you want to edit. The screen shown next appears.
Figure 62 Routing: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 Routing: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Select this to enable the static route. Clear this to disable this static route without having to
delete the entry.
Route Name
Enter a descriptive name for the static route.
IP Type
Select whether your IP type is IPv4 or IPv6.
Destination IP
Address
Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 network address of the final destination.
IP Subnet Mask
If you are using IPv4 and need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of
255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical to
the host ID. Enter the IP subnet mask here.
Use Gateway IP
Address
The gateway is a router or switch on the same network segment as the device's LAN or WAN
port. The gateway helps forward packets to their destinations.
If you want to use the gateway IP address, select Enable.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway.
Use Interface
Select the WAN interface you want to use for this static route.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
9.3 The Policy Forwarding Screen
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the Device takes the shortest
path to forward a packet. Policy forwarding allows the Device to override the default routing
behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy defined by the network administrator.
Policy-based routing is applied to outgoing packets, prior to the normal routing.
You can use source-based policy forwarding to direct traffic from different users through different
connections or distribute traffic among multiple paths for load sharing.
The Policy Forwarding screen let you view and configure routing policies on the Device. Click
Network Setting > Routing > Policy Forwarding to open the following screen.
Figure 63 Network Setting > Routing > Policy Forwarding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 Network Setting > Routing >Policy Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new Policy
Forward Rule
Click this to create a new policy forwarding rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
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Table 40 Network Setting > Routing >Policy Forwarding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Policy Name
This is the name of the rule.
Source IP
This is the source IP address.
Source Subnet
Mask
This is the source subnet mask address.
Protocol
This is the transport layer protocol.
Source Port
This is the source port number.
Source MAC
This is the source MAC address
Destination IP
This is the destination IP address.
Destination
Subnet Mask
This is the destination subnet mask address.
Destination
Port
This is the destination port number.
Destination
MAC
This is the destination MAC address.
WAN
This is the WAN interface through which the traffic is routed.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit this policy.
Click the Delete icon to remove a policy from the Device. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the policy.
9.3.1 Add/Edit Policy Forwarding
Click Add new Policy Forward Rule in the Policy Forwarding screen or click the Edit icon next
to a policy. Use this screen to configure the required information for a policy route.
Figure 64 Policy Forwarding: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Policy Forwarding: Add/Edit (Sheet 1 of 2)
186
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Policy Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 8 printable English keyboard characters, not including
spaces.
Source IP
Enter the source IP address.
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Table 41 Policy Forwarding: Add/Edit (Sheet 2 of 2)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source Subnet
Mask
Enter the source subnet mask address.
Protocol
Select the transport layer protocol (TCP or UDP).
Source Port
Enter the source port number.
Source MAC
Enter the source MAC address.
Destination IP
Enter the destination IP address.
Destination
Subnet Mask
Enter the destination subnet mask address.
Destination Port Enter the destination port.
Destination
MAC
Enter the destination MAC address.
WAN
Select a WAN interface through which the traffic is sent. You must have the WAN
interface(s) already configured in the Broadband screens.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
9.4 The RIP Screen
Routing Information Protocol (RIP, RFC 1058 and RFC 1389) allows a device to exchange routing
information with other routers.
Click Network Setting > Routing > RIP to open the RIP screen.
Figure 65 RIP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Network Setting > Routing > RIP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Interface
This is the name of the interface in which the RIP setting is used.
Version
The RIP version controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that
the Device sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP version 1 is universally
supported but RIP version 2 carries more information. RIP version 1 is probably adequate
for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology.
Operation
Select Passive to have the Device update the routing table based on the RIP packets
received from neighbors but not advertise its route information to other routers in this
interface.
Select Active to have the Device advertise its route information and also listen for routing
updates from neighboring routers.
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Table 42 Network Setting > Routing > RIP
188
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enabled
Select the check box to activate the settings.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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C HAPTER
10
Quality of Service (QoS)
10.1 Overview
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network’s ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and
the networking methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is
equally likely to be dropped when the network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network
performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as video-ondemand.
Configure QoS on the Device to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune network
performance. Setting up QoS involves these steps:
1
Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.
2
Assign priority and define actions to be performed for a classified traffic flow.
The Device assigns each packet a priority and then queues the packet accordingly. Packets assigned
a high priority are processed more quickly than those with low priority if there is congestion,
allowing time-sensitive applications to flow more smoothly. Time-sensitive applications include both
those that require a low level of latency (delay) and a low level of jitter (variations in delay) such as
Voice over IP (VoIP) or Internet gaming, and those for which jitter alone is a problem such as
Internet radio or streaming video.
This chapter contains information about configuring QoS and editing classifiers.
10.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• The General screen lets you enable or disable QoS and set the upstream bandwidth (Section
10.3 on page 191).
• The Queue Setup screen lets you configure QoS queue assignment (Section 10.4 on page 192).
• The Class Setup screen lets you add, edit or delete QoS classifiers (Section 10.5 on page 194).
• The Policer Setup screen lets you add, edit or delete QoS policers (Section 10.5 on page 194).
• The Monitor screen lets you view the Device's QoS-related packet statistics (Section 10.7 on
page 201).
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10.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
QoS versus Cos
QoS is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the same flow are given
the same priority. CoS (class of service) is a way of managing traffic in a network by grouping
similar types of traffic together and treating each type as a class. You can use CoS to give different
priorities to different packet types.
CoS technologies include IEEE 802.1p layer 2 tagging and DiffServ (Differentiated Services or DS).
IEEE 802.1p tagging makes use of three bits in the packet header, while DiffServ is a new protocol
and defines a new DS field, which replaces the eight-bit ToS (Type of Service) field in the IP header.
Tagging and Marking
In a QoS class, you can configure whether to add or change the DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) value,
IEEE 802.1p priority level and VLAN ID number in a matched packet. When the packet passes
through a compatible network, the networking device, such as a backbone switch, can provide
specific treatment or service based on the tag or marker.
Traffic Shaping
Bursty traffic may cause network congestion. Traffic shaping regulates packets to be transmitted
with a pre-configured data transmission rate using buffers (or queues). Your Device uses the Token
Bucket algorithm to allow a certain amount of large bursts while keeping a limit at the average rate.
Time
(Before Traffic Shaping)
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Traffic Rate
Traffic
Traffic
Traffic Rate
Time
(After Traffic Shaping)
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Traffic Policing
Traffic policing is the limiting of the input or output transmission rate of a class of traffic on the
basis of user-defined criteria. Traffic policing methods measure traffic flows against user-defined
criteria and identify it as either conforming, exceeding or violating the criteria.
Traffic Rate
Traffic
Traffic
Traffic Rate
Time
(Before Traffic Policing)
Time
(After Traffic Policing)
The Device supports three incoming traffic metering algorithms: Token Bucket Filter (TBF), Single
Rate Two Color Maker (srTCM), and Two Rate Two Color Marker (trTCM). You can specify actions
which are performed on the colored packets. See Section 10.8 on page 202 for more information on
each metering algorithm.
10.3 The Quality of Service General Screen
Click Network Setting > QoS > General to open the screen as shown next.
Use this screen to enable or disable QoS and set the upstream bandwidth. See Section 10.1 on
page 189 for more information.
Figure 66 Network Settings > QoS > General
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Network Setting > QoS > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
QoS
Select the Enable check box to turn on QoS to improve your network performance.
WAN Managed
Upstream
Bandwidth
Enter the amount of upstream bandwidth for the WAN interfaces that you want to allocate
using QoS.
The recommendation is to set this speed to match the interfaces’ actual transmission speed.
For example, set the WAN interfaces’ speed to 100000 kbps if your Internet connection has
an upstream transmission speed of 100 Mbps.
You can set this number higher than the interfaces’ actual transmission speed. The Device
uses up to 95% of the DSL port’s actual upstream transmission speed even if you set this
number higher than the DSL port’s actual transmission speed.
You can also set this number lower than the interfaces’ actual transmission speed. This will
cause the Device to not use some of the interfaces’ available bandwidth.
If you leave this field blank, the Device automatically sets this number to be 95% of the
WAN interfaces’ actual upstream transmission speed.
LAN Managed
Downstream
Bandwidth
Enter the amount of downstream bandwidth for the LAN interfaces (including WLAN) that
you want to allocate using QoS.
The recommendation is to set this speed to match the WAN interfaces’ actual transmission
speed. For example, set the LAN managed downstream bandwidth to 100000 kbps if you
use a 100 Mbps wired Ethernet WAN connection.
You can also set this number lower than the WAN interfaces’ actual transmission speed. This
will cause the Device to not use some of the interfaces’ available bandwidth.
If you leave this field blank, the Device automatically sets this to the LAN interfaces’
maximum supported connection speed.
Upstream
traffic priority
Assigned by
Select how the Device assigns priorities to various upstream traffic flows.
•
•
•
•
•
None: Disables auto priority mapping and has the Device put packets into the queues
according to your classification rules. Traffic which does not match any of the
classification rules is mapped into the default queue with the lowest priority.
Ethernet Priority: Automatically assign priority based on the IEEE 802.1p priority level.
IP Precedence: Automatically assign priority based on the first three bits of the TOS
field in the IP header.
Packet Length: Automatically assign priority based on the packet size. Smaller packets
get higher priority since control, signaling, VoIP, internet gaming, or other real-time
packets are usually small while larger packets are usually best effort
data packets like file transfers.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
10.4 The Queue Setup Screen
Click Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup to open the screen as shown next.
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Use this screen to configure QoS queue assignment.
Figure 67 Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new Queue
Click this button to create a new queue entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the queue is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this queue
is active. A gray bulb signifies that this queue is not active.
Name
This shows the descriptive name of this queue.
Interface
This shows the name of the Device’s interface through which traffic in this queue passes.
Priority
This shows the priority of this queue.
Weight
This shows the weight of this queue.
Buffer
Management
This shows the queue management algorithm used for this queue.
Rate Limit
This shows the maximum transmission rate allowed for traffic on this queue.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the queue.
Queue management algorithms determine how the Device should handle packets when it
receives too many (network congestion).
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing queue. Note that subsequent rules move up by
one when you take this action.
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10.4.1 Adding a QoS Queue
Click Add new Queue or the edit icon in the Queue Setup screen to configure a queue.
Figure 68 Queue Setup: Add
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Queue Setup: Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select to enable or disable this queue.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of this queue. Note that \"<>%\\^[]`\+\$\,='#&@.:() are not
allowed.
Interface
Select the interface to which this queue is applied.
This field is read-only if you are editing the queue.
Priority
Select the priority level (from 1 to 7) of this queue.
The smaller the number, the higher the priority level. Traffic assigned to higher priority
queues gets through faster while traffic in lower priority queues is dropped if the network is
congested.
Weight
Select the weight (from 1 to 8) of this queue.
If two queues have the same priority level, the Device divides the bandwidth across the
queues according to their weights. Queues with larger weights get more bandwidth than
queues with smaller weights.
Buffer
Management
This field displays Drop Tail (DT). Drop Tail (DT) is a simple queue management
algorithm that allows the Device buffer to accept as many packets as it can until it is full.
Once the buffer is full, new packets that arrive are dropped until there is space in the buffer
again (packets are transmitted out of it).
Rate Limit
Specify the maximum transmission rate (in Kbps) allowed for traffic on this queue.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
10.5 The Class Setup Screen
Use this screen to add, edit or delete QoS classifiers. A classifier groups traffic into data flows
according to specific criteria such as the source address, destination address, source port number,
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destination port number or incoming interface. For example, you can configure a classifier to select
traffic from the same protocol port (such as Telnet) to form a flow.
You can give different priorities to traffic that the Device forwards out through the WAN interface.
Give high priority to voice and video to make them run more smoothly. Similarly, give low priority
to many large file downloads so that they do not reduce the quality of other applications.
Click Network Setting > QoS > Class Setup to open the following screen.
Figure 69 Network Setting > QoS > Class Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Network Setting > QoS > Class Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new Classifier
Click this to create a new classifier.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the classifier is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this
classifier is active. A gray bulb signifies that this classifier is not active.
Class Name
This is the name of the classifier.
Classification
Criteria
This shows criteria specified in this classifier, for example the interface from which
traffic of this class should come and the source MAC address of traffic that matches this
classifier.
DSCP Mark
This is the DSCP number added to traffic of this classifier.
802.1P Mark
This is the IEEE 802.1p priority level assigned to traffic of this classifier.
VLAN ID Tag
This is the VLAN ID number assigned to traffic of this classifier.
To Queue
This is the name of the queue in which traffic of this classifier is put.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the classifier.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing classifier. Note that subsequent rules move
up by one when you take this action.
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10.5.1 Add/Edit QoS Class
Click Add new Classifier in the Class Setup screen or the Edit icon next to a classifier to open
the following screen.
Figure 70 Class Setup: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Class Setup: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable this classifier.
Class Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 15 printable English keyboard characters, not including
spaces.
Classification
Order
Select an existing number for where you want to put this classifier to move the classifier to
the number you selected after clicking Apply.
Select Last to put this rule in the back of the classifier list.
From Interface
If you want to classify the traffic by an ingress interface, select an interface from the From
Interface drop-down list box.
Ether Type
Select a predefined application to configure a class for the matched traffic.
If you select IP, you also need to configure source or destination MAC address, IP address,
DHCP options, DSCP value or the protocol type.
If you select 802.1Q, you can configure an 802.1p priority level.
Source
Address
Select the check box and enter the source IP address in dotted decimal notation. A blank
source IP address means any source IP address.
Subnet
Netmask
Enter the source subnet mask.
Port Range
If you select TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field, select the check box and enter the port
number(s) of the source.
MAC
Select the check box and enter the source MAC address of the packet.
MAC Mask
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC
address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address
should match. Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of
any hexadecimal character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of
00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified criteria from this classifier.
Destination
Address
Select the check box and enter the source IP address in dotted decimal notation. A blank
source IP address means any source IP address.
Subnet
Netmask
Enter the source subnet mask.
Port Range
If you select TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field, select the check box and enter the port
number(s) of the source.
MAC
Select the check box and enter the source MAC address of the packet.
MAC Mask
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC
address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address
should match. Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of
any hexadecimal character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of
00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified criteria from this classifier.
Others
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Table 47 Class Setup: Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
Service
DESCRIPTION
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
This field simplifies classifier configuration by allowing you to select a predefined
application. When you select a predefined application, you do not configure the rest of the
filter fields.
IP Protocol
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and select the protocol (service type) from TCP, UDP, ICMP or IGMP. If
you select User defined, enter the protocol (service type) number.
DHCP
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and select a DHCP option.
If you select Vendor Class ID (DHCP Option 60), enter the Vendor Class Identifier
(Option 60) of the matched traffic, such as the type of the hardware or firmware.
If you select User Class ID (DHCP Option 77), enter a string that identifies the user’s
category or application type in the matched DHCP packets.
Packet
Length
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
DSCP
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and enter the minimum and maximum packet length (from 46 to 1500) in
the fields provided.
Select this option and specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63 in the
field provided.
802.1P
This field is available only when you select 802.1Q in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and select a priority level (between 0 and 7) from the drop-down list box.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
VLAN ID
This field is available only when you select 802.1Q in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and specify a VLAN ID number.
TCP ACK
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
If you select this option, the matched TCP packets must contain the ACK (Acknowledge)
flag.
Exclude
DSCP Mark
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified criteria from this classifier.
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
If you select Mark, enter a DSCP value with which the Device replaces the DSCP field in the
packets.
If you select Unchange, the Device keep the DSCP field in the packets.
802.1P Mark
Select a priority level with which the Device replaces the IEEE 802.1p priority field in the
packets.
If you select Unchange, the Device keep the 802.1p priority field in the packets.
VLAN ID
If you select Remark, enter a VLAN ID number with which the Device replaces the VLAN ID
of the frames.
If you select Remove, the Device deletes the VLAN ID of the frames before forwarding
them out.
If you select Add, the Device treat all matched traffic untagged and add a second VLAN ID.
If you select Unchange, the Device keep the VLAN ID in the packets.
Forward to
Interface
198
Select a WAN interface through which traffic of this class will be forwarded out. If you select
Unchange, the Device forward traffic of this class according to the default routing table.
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Table 47 Class Setup: Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
To Queue Index
Select a queue that applies to this class.
You should have configured a queue in the Queue Setup screen already.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
10.6 The QoS Policer Setup Screen
Use this screen to configure QoS policers that allow you to limit the transmission rate of incoming
traffic. Click Network Setting > QoS > Policer Setup. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 71 Network Setting > QoS > Policer Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Network Setting > QoS > Policer Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new Policer
Click this to create a new entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the policer is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this
policer is active. A gray bulb signifies that this policer is not active.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name of this policer.
Regulated
Classes
This field displays the name of a QoS classifier.
Meter Type
This field displays the type of QoS metering algorithm used in this policer.
Rule
These are the rates and burst sizes against which the policer checks the traffic of the
member QoS classes.
Action
This shows the how the policer has the Device treat different types of traffic belonging to
the policer’s member QoS classes.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the policer.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing policer. Note that subsequent rules move up by
one when you take this action.
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10.6.1 Add/Edit a QoS Policer
Click Add new Policer in the Policer Setup screen or the Edit icon next to a policer to show the
following screen.
Figure 72 Policer Setup: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 Policer Setup: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the check box to activate this policer.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of this policer.
Meter Type
This shows the traffic metering algorithm used in this policer.
The Simple Token Bucket algorithm uses tokens in a bucket to control when traffic can be
transmitted. Each token represents one byte. The algorithm allows bursts of up to b bytes
which is also the bucket size.
The Single Rate Three Color Marker (srTCM) is based on the token bucket filter and
identifies packets by comparing them to the Committed Information Rate (CIR), the
Committed Burst Size (CBS) and the Excess Burst Size (EBS).
The Two Rate Three Color Marker (trTCM) is based on the token bucket filter and
identifies packets by comparing them to the Committed Information Rate (CIR) and the
Peak Information Rate (PIR).
Committed
Rate
Specify the committed rate. When the incoming traffic rate of the member QoS classes is
less than the committed rate, the device applies the conforming action to the traffic.
Committed
Burst Size
Specify the committed burst size for packet bursts. This must be equal to or less than the
peak burst size (two rate three color) or excess burst size (single rate three color) if it is also
configured.
This is the maximum size of the (first) token bucket in a traffic metering algorithm.
Conforming
Action
Specify what the Device does for packets within the committed rate and burst size (greenmarked packets).
•
•
200
Pass: Send the packets without modification.
DSCP Mark: Change the DSCP mark value of the packets. Enter the DSCP mark value to
use.
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Table 49 Policer Setup: Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
NonConforming
Action
Specify what the Device does for packets that exceed the excess burst size or peak rate and
burst size (red-marked packets).
Available Class
Select a QoS classifier to apply this QoS policer to traffic that matches the QoS classifier.
Selected Class
Highlight a QoS classifier in the Available Class box and use the > button to move it to the
Selected Class box.
•
•
Drop: Discard the packets.
DSCP Mark: Change the DSCP mark value of the packets. Enter the DSCP mark value to
use. The packets may be dropped if there is congestion on the network.
To remove a QoS classifier from the Selected Class box, select it and use the < button.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
10.7 The QoS Monitor Screen
To view the Device’s QoS packet statistics, click Network Setting > QoS > Monitor. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 73 Network Setting > QoS > Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Network Setting > QoS > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Enter how often you want the Device to update this screen. Select No Refresh to stop
refreshing statistics.
Interface Monitor
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Name
This shows the name of the interface on the Device.
Pass Rate
This shows how many packets forwarded to this interface are transmitted successfully.
Drop Rate
This shows how many packets forwarded to this interface are dropped.
Queue Monitor
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Name
This shows the name of the queue.
Pass Rate
This shows how many packets assigned to this queue are transmitted successfully.
Drop Rate
This shows how many packets assigned to this queue are dropped.
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10.8 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the Device features described
in this chapter.
IEEE 802.1Q Tag
The IEEE 802.1Q standard defines an explicit VLAN tag in the MAC header to identify the VLAN
membership of a frame across bridges. A VLAN tag includes the 12-bit VLAN ID and 3-bit user
priority. The VLAN ID associates a frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that
devices need to process the frame across the network.
IEEE 802.1p specifies the user priority field and defines up to eight separate traffic types. The
following table describes the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d standard (which incorporates
the 802.1p).
Table 51 IEEE 802.1p Priority Level and Traffic Type
PRIORITY
LEVEL
TRAFFIC TYPE
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the
variations in delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems
Network Architecture) transactions.
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would include
important business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk transfers that
are allowed but that should not affect other applications and users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
DiffServ
QoS is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the flow are given the
same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different priorities to different packet
types.
DiffServ (Differentiated Services) is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they
receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on
the application types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs)
indicating the level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network
devices to handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to
negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have
to request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new Differentiated Services (DS) field to replace the Type of Service (TOS) field
in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which can define
up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
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DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
DSCP (6 bits)
Unused (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet
gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic can be
marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP
values and the configured policies.
IP Precedence
Similar to IEEE 802.1p prioritization at layer-2, you can use IP precedence to prioritize packets in a
layer-3 network. IP precedence uses three bits of the eight-bit ToS (Type of Service) field in the IP
header. There are eight classes of services (ranging from zero to seven) in IP precedence. Zero is
the lowest priority level and seven is the highest.
Automatic Priority Queue Assignment
If you enable QoS on the Device, the Device can automatically base on the IEEE 802.1p priority
level, IP precedence and/or packet length to assign priority to traffic which does not match a class.
The following table shows you the internal layer-2 and layer-3 QoS mapping on the Device. On the
Device, traffic assigned to higher priority queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index
queues is dropped if the network is congested.
Table 52 Internal Layer2 and Layer3 QoS Mapping
LAYER 2
LAYER 3
PRIORITY
QUEUE
IEEE 802.1P USER
PRIORITY
(ETHERNET
PRIORITY)
TOS (IP
PRECEDENCE)
DSCP
0
1
0
000000
1
2
2
0
0
000000
>1100
3
3
1
001110
250~1100
IP PACKET
LENGTH (BYTE)
001100
001010
001000
4
4
2
010110
010100
010010
010000
5
5
3
011110
<250
011100
011010
011000
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Table 52 Internal Layer2 and Layer3 QoS Mapping
LAYER 2
LAYER 3
PRIORITY
QUEUE
IEEE 802.1P USER
PRIORITY
(ETHERNET
PRIORITY)
TOS (IP
PRECEDENCE)
DSCP
6
6
4
100110
IP PACKET
LENGTH (BYTE)
100100
100010
100000
5
101110
101000
7
7
6
110000
7
111000
Token Bucket
The token bucket algorithm uses tokens in a bucket to control when traffic can be transmitted. The
bucket stores tokens, each of which represents one byte. The algorithm allows bursts of up to b
bytes which is also the bucket size, so the bucket can hold up to b tokens. Tokens are generated
and added into the bucket at a constant rate. The following shows how tokens work with packets:
• A packet can be transmitted if the number of tokens in the bucket is equal to or greater than the
size of the packet (in bytes).
• After a packet is transmitted, a number of tokens corresponding to the packet size is removed
from the bucket.
• If there are no tokens in the bucket, the Device stops transmitting until enough tokens are
generated.
• If not enough tokens are available, the Device treats the packet in either one of the following
ways:
In traffic shaping:
• Holds it in the queue until enough tokens are available in the bucket.
In traffic policing:
• Drops it.
• Transmits it but adds a DSCP mark. The Device may drop these marked packets if the network
is overloaded.
Configure the bucket size to be equal to or less than the amount of the bandwidth that the interface
can support. It does not help if you set it to a bucket size over the interface’s capability. The smaller
the bucket size, the lower the data transmission rate and that may cause outgoing packets to be
dropped. A larger transmission rate requires a big bucket size. For example, use a bucket size of 10
kbytes to get the transmission rate up to 10 Mbps.
Single Rate Three Color Marker
The Single Rate Three Color Marker (srTCM, defined in RFC 2697) is a type of traffic policing that
identifies packets by comparing them to one user-defined rate, the Committed Information Rate
(CIR), and two burst sizes: the Committed Burst Size (CBS) and Excess Burst Size (EBS).
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The srTCM evaluates incoming packets and marks them with one of three colors which refer to
packet loss priority levels. High packet loss priority level is referred to as red, medium is referred to
as yellow and low is referred to as green.
The srTCM is based on the token bucket filter and has two token buckets (CBS and EBS). Tokens
are generated and added into the bucket at a constant rate, called Committed Information Rate
(CIR). When the first bucket (CBS) is full, new tokens overflow into the second bucket (EBS).
All packets are evaluated against the CBS. If a packet does not exceed the CBS it is marked green.
Otherwise it is evaluated against the EBS. If it is below the EBS then it is marked yellow. If it
exceeds the EBS then it is marked red.
The following shows how tokens work with incoming packets in srTCM:
• A packet arrives. The packet is marked green and can be transmitted if the number of tokens in
the CBS bucket is equal to or greater than the size of the packet (in bytes).
• After a packet is transmitted, a number of tokens corresponding to the packet size is removed
from the CBS bucket.
• If there are not enough tokens in the CBS bucket, the Device checks the EBS bucket. The packet
is marked yellow if there are sufficient tokens in the EBS bucket. Otherwise, the packet is marked
red. No tokens are removed if the packet is dropped.
Two Rate Three Color Marker
The Two Rate Three Color Marker (trTCM, defined in RFC 2698) is a type of traffic policing that
identifies packets by comparing them to two user-defined rates: the Committed Information Rate
(CIR) and the Peak Information Rate (PIR). The CIR specifies the average rate at which packets are
admitted to the network. The PIR is greater than or equal to the CIR. CIR and PIR values are based
on the guaranteed and maximum bandwidth respectively as negotiated between a service provider
and client.
The trTCM evaluates incoming packets and marks them with one of three colors which refer to
packet loss priority levels. High packet loss priority level is referred to as red, medium is referred to
as yellow and low is referred to as green.
The trTCM is based on the token bucket filter and has two token buckets (Committed Burst Size
(CBS) and Peak Burst Size (PBS)). Tokens are generated and added into the two buckets at the CIR
and PIR respectively.
All packets are evaluated against the PIR. If a packet exceeds the PIR it is marked red. Otherwise it
is evaluated against the CIR. If it exceeds the CIR then it is marked yellow. Finally, if it is below the
CIR then it is marked green.
The following shows how tokens work with incoming packets in trTCM:
• A packet arrives. If the number of tokens in the PBS bucket is less than the size of the packet (in
bytes), the packet is marked red and may be dropped regardless of the CBS bucket. No tokens
are removed if the packet is dropped.
• If the PBS bucket has enough tokens, the Device checks the CBS bucket. The packet is marked
green and can be transmitted if the number of tokens in the CBS bucket is equal to or greater
than the size of the packet (in bytes). Otherwise, the packet is marked yellow.
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C HAPTER
11
Network Address Translation (NAT)
11.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the Device. NAT (Network Address Translation NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a host in a packet, for example, the source
address of an outgoing packet, used within one network to a different IP address known within
another network.
11.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Port Forwarding screen to configure forward incoming service requests to the server(s)
on your local network (Section 11.2 on page 207).
• Use the Applications screen to forward incoming service requests to the server(s) on your local
network (Section 11.3 on page 210).
• Use the Port Triggering screen to add and configure the Device’s trigger port settings (Section
11.4 on page 211).
• Use the Default Server screen to configure a default server (Section 11.5 on page 214).
• Use the ALG screen to enable and disable the NAT and SIP (VoIP) ALG in the Device (Section
11.6 on page 215).
• Use the Address Mapping screen to configure the Device's address mapping settings (Section
11.7 on page 215).
11.1.2 What You Need To Know
Inside/Outside
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the Device, for example, the computers
of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are the outside
hosts.
Global/Local
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router, for
example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local
network, while the global address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is
traveling in the WAN side.
NAT
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a subscriber
(the inside local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding the packet to the
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WAN side. When the response comes back, NAT translates the destination address (the inside
global address) back to the inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host.
Port Forwarding
A port forwarding set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or FTP,
that you can make visible to the outside world even though NAT makes your whole inside network
appear as a single computer to the outside world.
Finding Out More
See Section 11.8 on page 217 for advanced technical information on NAT.
11.2 The Port Forwarding Screen
Use the Port Forwarding screen to forward incoming service requests to the server(s) on your
local network.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local IP
address of the desired server. The port number identifies a service; for example, web service is on
port 80 and FTP on port 21. In some cases, such as for unknown services or where one server can
support more than one service (for example both FTP and web service), it might be better to
specify a range of port numbers. You can allocate a server IP address that corresponds to a port or
a range of ports.
The most often used port numbers and services are shown in Appendix F on page 394. Please refer
to RFC 1700 for further information about port numbers.
Note: Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server
processes (such as a Web or FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may
periodically check for servers and may suspend your account if it discovers any
active services at your location. If you are unsure, refer to your ISP.
Configuring Servers Behind Port Forwarding (Example)
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the example),
port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP address of 192.168.1.35 to a
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third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address.
The NAT network appears as a single host on the Internet.
Figure 74 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
A=192.168.1.33
LAN
WAN
B=192.168.1.34
192.168.1.1
IP Address assigned by ISP
C=192.168.1.3
D=192.168.1.36
Click Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding to open the following screen.
See Appendix F on page 394 for port numbers commonly used for particular services.
Figure 75 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 53 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding
208
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to add a new rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the NAT rule is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this rule
is active. A gray bulb signifies that this rule is not active.
Service Name
This shows the service’s name.
WAN Interface
This shows the WAN interface through which the service is forwarded.
WAN IP
This field displays the incoming packet’s destination IP address.
Server IP
Address
This is the server’s IP address.
Start Port
This is the first external port number that identifies a service.
End Port
This is the last external port number that identifies a service.
Translation
Start Port
This is the first internal port number that identifies a service.
Translation End
Port
This is the last internal port number that identifies a service.
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Table 53 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Protocol
This shows the IP protocol supported by this virtual server, whether it is TCP, UDP, or TCP/
UDP.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit this rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
11.2.1 Add/Edit Port Forwarding
Click Add new rule in the Port Forwarding screen or click the Edit icon next to an existing rule to
open the following screen.
Figure 76 Port Forwarding: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 Port Forwarding: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Clear the checkbox to disable the rule. Select the check box to enable it.
Service Name
Enter a name to identify this rule using keyboard characters (A-Z, a-z, 1-2 and so on).
WAN Interface
Select the WAN interface through which the service is forwarded.
You must have already configured a WAN connection with NAT enabled.
WAN IP
Enter the WAN IP address for which the incoming service is destined. If the packet’s
destination IP address doesn’t match the one specified here, the port forwarding rule will
not be applied.
Start Port
Enter the original destination port for the packets.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the End Port field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the start port number here and the end port number in
the End Port field.
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Table 54 Port Forwarding: Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End Port
Enter the last port of the original destination port range.
To forward only one port, enter the port number in the Start Port field above and then
enter it again in this field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the last port number in a series that begins with the port
number in the Start Port field above.
Translation
Start Port
This shows the port number to which you want the Device to translate the incoming port.
For a range of ports, enter the first number of the range to which you want the incoming
ports translated.
Translation End
Port
This shows the last port of the translated port range.
Server IP
Address
Enter the inside IP address of the virtual server here.
Protocol
Select the protocol supported by this virtual server. Choices are TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
11.3 The Applications Screen
This screen provides a summary of all NAT applications and their configuration. In addition, this
screen allows you to create new applications and/or remove existing ones.
To access this screen, click Network Setting > NAT > Applications. The following screen
appears.
Figure 77 Network Setting > NAT > Applications
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Network Setting > NAT > Applications
210
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new
application
Click this to add a new NAT application rule.
#
This field displays the index number of the application rule.
Application
Forwarded
This field shows the type of application that the service forwards.
WAN Interface
This field shows the WAN interface through which the service is forwarded.
Server IP
Address
This field displays the destination IP address for the service.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to delete the rule.
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11.3.1 Add New Application
This screen lets you create new NAT application rules. Click Add new application in the
Applications screen to open the following screen.
Figure 78 Applications: Add
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 56 Applications: Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Interface
Select the WAN interface that you want to apply this NAT rule to.
Server IP
Address
Enter the inside IP address of the application here.
Application
Category
Select the category of the application from the drop-down list box.
Application
Forwarded
Select a service from the drop-down list box and the Device automatically configures the
protocol, start, end, and map port number that define the service.
View Rule
Click this to display the configuration of the service that you have chosen in Application
Fowarded.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
11.4 The Port Triggering Screen
Some services use a dedicated range of ports on the client side and a dedicated range of ports on
the server side. With regular port forwarding you set a forwarding port in NAT to forward a service
(coming in from the server on the WAN) to the IP address of a computer on the client side (LAN).
The problem is that port forwarding only forwards a service to a single LAN IP address. In order to
use the same service on a different LAN computer, you have to manually replace the LAN
computer's IP address in the forwarding port with another LAN computer's IP address.
Trigger port forwarding solves this problem by allowing computers on the LAN to dynamically take
turns using the service. The Device records the IP address of a LAN computer that sends traffic to
the WAN to request a service with a specific port number and protocol (a "trigger" port). When the
Device's WAN port receives a response with a specific port number and protocol ("open" port), the
Device forwards the traffic to the LAN IP address of the computer that sent the request. After that
computer’s connection for that service closes, another computer on the LAN can use the service in
the same manner. This way you do not need to configure a new IP address each time you want a
different LAN computer to use the application.
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For example:
Figure 79 Trigger Port Forwarding Process: Example
1
Jane requests a file from the Real Audio server (port 7070).
2
Port 7070 is a “trigger” port and causes the Device to record Jane’s computer IP address. The
Device associates Jane's computer IP address with the "open" port range of 6970-7170.
3
The Real Audio server responds using a port number ranging between 6970-7170.
4
The Device forwards the traffic to Jane’s computer IP address.
5
Only Jane can connect to the Real Audio server until the connection is closed or times out. The
Device times out in three minutes with UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or two hours with TCP/IP
(Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
Click Network Setting > NAT > Port Triggering to open the following screen. Use this screen to
view your Device’s trigger port settings.
Figure 80 Network Setting > NAT > Port Triggering
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 Network Setting > NAT > Port Triggering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to create a new rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the port triggering rule is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies
that this rule is active. A gray bulb signifies that this rule is not active.
Service Name
This field displays the name of the service used by this rule.
WAN Interface
This field shows the WAN interface through which the service is forwarded.
Trigger Start
Port
The trigger port is a port (or a range of ports) that causes (or triggers) the Device to record
the IP address of the LAN computer that sent the traffic to a server on the WAN.
This is the first port number that identifies a service.
212
Trigger End
Port
This is the last port number that identifies a service.
Trigger Proto.
This is the trigger transport layer protocol.
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Table 57 Network Setting > NAT > Port Triggering (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Open Start Port
The open port is a port (or a range of ports) that a server on the WAN uses when it sends
out a particular service. The Device forwards the traffic with this port (or range of ports) to
the client computer on the LAN that requested the service.
This is the first port number that identifies a service.
Open End Port
This is the last port number that identifies a service.
Open Proto.
This is the open transport layer protocol.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit this rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
11.4.1 Add/Edit Port Triggering Rule
This screen lets you create new port triggering rules. Click Add new rule in the Port Triggering
screen or click a rule’s Edit icon to open the following screen.
Figure 81 Port Triggering: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 Port Triggering: Configuration Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the check box to enable this rule.
Service Name
Enter a name to identify this rule using keyboard characters (A-Z, a-z, 1-2 and so on).
WAN Interface
Select a WAN interface for which you want to configure port triggering rules.
Trigger Start
Port
The trigger port is a port (or a range of ports) that causes (or triggers) the Device to record
the IP address of the LAN computer that sent the traffic to a server on the WAN.
Type a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
Trigger End
Port
Type a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
Trigger Protocol
Select the transport layer protocol from TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP.
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Table 58 Port Triggering: Configuration Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Open Start Port
The open port is a port (or a range of ports) that a server on the WAN uses when it sends
out a particular service. The Device forwards the traffic with this port (or range of ports) to
the client computer on the LAN that requested the service.
Type a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
Open End Port
Type a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
Open Protocol
Select the transport layer protocol from TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
11.5 The Default Server Screen
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP address. A default
server receives packets from ports that are not specified in the NAT Port Forwarding Setup
screen.
Figure 82 Network Setting > NAT > Default Server
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 59 Network Setting > NAT > Default Server
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Name
Select the name of an interface group that was created in the Network Setting >
Interface Group screen. The DMZ host must be in the same subnet as the selected
interface group.
Default Server
Address
Enter the IP address of the default server which receives packets from ports that are not
specified in the NAT Port Forwarding screen.
Note: If you do not assign a Default Server Address, the Device discards all packets
received for ports that are not specified in the NAT Port Forwarding screen.
214
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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11.6 The ALG Screen
Some NAT routers may include a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). A SIP ALG allows SIP calls
to pass through NAT by examining and translating IP addresses embedded in the data stream.
When the Device registers with the SIP register server, the SIP ALG translates the Device’s private
IP address inside the SIP data stream to a public IP address. You do not need to use STUN or an
outbound proxy if your Device is behind a SIP ALG.
Use this screen to enable and disable the NAT and SIP (VoIP) ALG in the Device. To access this
screen, click Network Setting > NAT > ALG.
Figure 83 Network Setting > NAT > ALG
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 60 Network Setting > NAT > ALG
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
NAT ALG
Enable this to make sure applications such as FTP and file transfer in IM applications work
correctly with port-forwarding and address-mapping rules.
SIP ALG
Enable this to make sure SIP (VoIP) works correctly with port-forwarding and addressmapping rules.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
11.7 The Address Mapping Screen
Ordering your rules is important because the Device applies the rules in the order that you specify.
When a rule matches the current packet, the Device takes the corresponding action and the
remaining rules are ignored.
Click Network Setting > NAT > Address Mapping to display the following screen.
Figure 84 Network Setting > NAT > Address Mapping
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 61 Network Setting > NAT > Address Mapping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to create a new rule.
Set
This is the index number of the address mapping set.
Local Start IP
This is the starting Inside Local IP Address (ILA).
Local End IP
This is the ending Inside Local IP Address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IP addresses, then
this field displays 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255 as the Local
End IP address. This field is blank for One-to-One mapping types.
Global Start IP
This is the starting Inside Global IP Address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have a dynamic
IP address from your ISP. You can only do this for the Many-to-One mapping type.
Global End IP
This is the ending Inside Global IP Address (IGA). This field is blank for One-to-One and
Many-to-One mapping types.
Type
This is the address mapping type.
One-to-One: This mode maps one local IP address to one global IP address. Note that port
numbers do not change for the One-to-one NAT mapping type.
Many-to-One: This mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one global IP address. This is
equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation), the Device's Single User Account
feature that previous routers supported only.
Many-to-Many: This mode maps multiple local IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the address mapping rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing address mapping rule. Note that subsequent
address mapping rules move up by one when you take this action.
11.7.1 Add/Edit Address Mapping Rule
To add or edit an address mapping rule, click Add new rule or the rule’s edit icon in the Address
Mapping screen to display the screen shown next.
Figure 85 Address Mapping: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 62 Address Mapping: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Choose the IP/port mapping type from one of the following.
One-to-One: This mode maps one local IP address to one global IP address. Note that port
numbers do not change for the One-to-one NAT mapping type.
Many-to-One: This mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one global IP address. This is
equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation), the Device's Single User Account
feature that previous routers supported only.
Many-to-Many: This mode maps multiple local IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
Local Start IP
Enter the starting Inside Local IP Address (ILA).
Local End IP
Enter the ending Inside Local IP Address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IP addresses, then
this field displays 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255 as the Local
End IP address. This field is blank for One-to-One mapping types.
Global Start IP
Enter the starting Inside Global IP Address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have a dynamic
IP address from your ISP. You can only do this for the Many-to-One mapping type.
Global End IP
Enter the ending Inside Global IP Address (IGA). This field is blank for One-to-One and
Many-to-One mapping types.
Set
Select the number of the mapping set for which you want to configure.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
11.8 Technical Reference
This part contains more information regarding NAT.
11.8.1 NAT Definitions
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the Device, for example, the computers
of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are the outside
hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router, for
example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local
network, while the global address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is
traveling in the WAN side.
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Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to the IP address
of a host used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the IP address of an inside host in
a packet when the packet is still in the local network, while an inside global address (IGA) is the IP
address of the same inside host when the packet is on the WAN side. The following table
summarizes this information.
Table 63 NAT Definitions
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
WAN.
NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
11.8.2 What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a subscriber
(the inside local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding the packet to the
WAN side. When the response comes back, NAT translates the destination address (the inside
global address) back to the inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host. Note
that the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host is never changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically assigned by the ISP.
In addition, you can designate servers, for example, a web server and a telnet server, on your local
network and make them accessible to the outside world. If you do not define any servers (for Manyto-One and Many-to-Many Overload mapping), NAT offers the additional benefit of firewall
protection. With no servers defined, your Device filters out all incoming inquiries, thus preventing
intruders from probing your network. For more information on IP address translation, refer to RFC
1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).
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11.8.3 How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For outgoing packets,
the ILA (Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN, and the IGA (Inside Global
Address) is the source address on the WAN. For incoming packets, the ILA is the destination
address on the LAN, and the IGA is the destination address on the WAN. NAT maps private (local)
IP addresses to globally unique ones required for communication with hosts on other networks. It
replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP source port numbers for Many-to-One and
Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet and then forwards it to the Internet. The
Device keeps track of the original addresses and port numbers so incoming reply packets can have
their original values restored. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 86 How NAT Works
NAT Table
LAN
Inside Local
IP Address
192.168.1.10
192.168.1.11
192.168.1.12
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.12
SA
SA
192.168.1.10
IGA1
Inside Local
Address (ILA)
192.168.1.11
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Inside Global
IP Address
IGA 1
IGA 2
IGA 3
IGA 4
WAN
Inside Global
Address (IGA)
192.168.1.10
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11.8.4 NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs (logical LANs
using IP alias) behind the Device can communicate with three distinct WAN networks.
Figure 87 NAT Application With IP Alias
Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers
The most often used port numbers are shown in the following table. Please refer to RFC 1700 for
further information about port numbers. Please also refer to the Supporting CD for more examples
and details on port forwarding and NAT.
Table 64 Services and Port Numbers
220
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
161
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
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Port Forwarding Example
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the example),
port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP address of 192.168.1.35 to a
third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address.
The NAT network appears as a single host on the Internet.
Figure 88 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
A=192.168.1.33
192.168.1.1
B=192.168.1.34
IP address assigned by ISP
C=192.168.1.35
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D=192.168.1.36
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12
Dynamic DNS Setup
12.1 Overview
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP
address of a machine before you can access it.
In addition to the system DNS server(s), each WAN interface (service) is set to have its own static
or dynamic DNS server list. You can configure a DNS static route to forward DNS queries for certain
domain names through a specific WAN interface to its DNS server(s). The Device uses a system
DNS server (in the order you specify in the Broadband screen) to resolve domain names that do
not match any DNS routing entry. After the Device receives a DNS reply from a DNS server, it
creates a new entry for the resolved IP address in the routing table.
Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or many dynamic
DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CU-SeeMe, etc.). You can also access
your FTP server or Web site on your own computer using a domain name (for instance
myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a name of your choice) that will never change instead of using an
IP address that changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or relatives will always be able to
call you even if they don't know your IP address.
First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with www.dyndns.org. This is for
people with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP server that would still like to have a domain name.
The Dynamic DNS service provider will give you a password or key.
12.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the DNS Entry screen to view, configure, or remove DNS routes (Section 12.2 on page
223).
• Use the Dynamic DNS screen to enable DDNS and configure the DDNS settings on the Device
(Section 12.3 on page 224).
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Chapter 12 Dynamic DNS Setup
12.1.2 What You Need To Know
DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the same
IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use, for example,
www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
12.2 The DNS Entry Screen
Use this screen to view and configure DNS routes on the Device. Click Network Setting > DNS to
open the DNS Entry screen.
Figure 89 Network Setting > DNS > DNS Entry
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 65 Network Setting > DNS > DNS Entry
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new DNS
entry
Click this to create a new DNS entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Hostname
This indicates the host name or domain name.
IP Address
This indicates the IP address assigned to this computer.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
12.2.1 Add/Edit DNS Entry
You can manually add or edit the Device’s DNS name and IP address entry. Click Add new DNS
entry in the DNS Entry screen or the Edit icon next to the entry you want to edit. The screen
shown next appears.
Figure 90 DNS Entry: Add/Edit
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Chapter 12 Dynamic DNS Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 DNS Entry: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
FQDN
Enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the DNS entry. For example, if your
hostname is myhost and a parent domain name is example.com, then your FQDN is
myhost.example.com.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the DNS entry.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
12.3 The Dynamic DNS Screen
Use this screen to change your Device’s DDNS. Click Network Setting > DNS > Dynamic DNS.
The screen appears as shown.
Figure 91 Network Setting > DNS > Dynamic DNS
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 67 Network Setting > DNS > > Dynamic DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dynamic DNS
Select Enable to use dynamic DNS.
Service
Provider
Select your Dynamic DNS service provider from the drop-down list box.
Hostname
Type the domain name assigned to your Device by your Dynamic DNS provider.
You can specify up to two host names in the field separated by a comma (",").
224
Username
Type your user name.
Password
Type the password assigned to you.
Email
If you select TZO in the Service Provider field, enter the user name you used to register
for this service.
Key
If you select TZO in the Service Provider field, enter the password you used to register for
this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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13
Interface Group
13.1 Overview
By default, the four LAN interfaces on the Device are in the same group and can communicate with
each other. Creating a new interface will create a new LAN bridge interface (subnet) (for example,
192.168.2.0/24) that acts as a dependent LAN network, and is a different subnet from default LAN
subnet (192.168.1.0/24).
13.2 The Interface Group/VLAN Screen
You can manually add a LAN interface to a new group. Alternatively, you can have the Device
automatically add the incoming traffic and the LAN interface on which traffic is received to an
interface group when its DHCP Vendor ID option information matches one listed for the interface
group.
Use the LAN screen to configure the private IP addresses the DHCP server on the Device assigns to
the clients in the default and/or user-defined groups. If you set the Device to assign IP addresses
based on the client’s DHCP Vendor ID option information, you must enable DHCP server and
configure LAN TCP/IP settings for both the default and user-defined groups. See Chapter 8 on page
161 for more information.
Use the Interface Group/VLAN screen to create a new interface group, which is a new LAN bridge
interface (subnet). Click Network Setting > Interface Group/VLAN to open the following
screen.
Figure 92 Network Setting > Interface Group/VLAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 68 Network Setting > Interface Group/VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New
Interface Group
Click this button to create a new interface group.
Status
This field displays whether the interface group is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that
this group is active. A gray bulb signifies that the group is not active.
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Chapter 13 Interface Group
Table 68 Network Setting > Interface Group/VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Name
This shows the descriptive name of the group.
802.1q
This shows the VLAN ID number (from 0 to 4094) of the interface group.
IPv4
This shows the IP address of the interface group where the traffic passes through.
Port Members
This shows the tagged and untagged ports of the interface group.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to remove the group.
13.2.1 Interface Group Configuration
Click the Add New Interface Group button in the Interface Group/VLAN screen to open the
following screen. Use this screen to create a new interface group.
Note: An interface can belong to only one group at a time.
Figure 93 Interface Group Configuration
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Chapter 13 Interface Group
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 69 Interface Group Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Name
Enter a name to identify this group. You can enter up to 30 characters. You can use letters,
numbers, hyphens (-) and underscores (_). Spaces are not allowed.
802.1p
IEEE 802.1p defines up to 8 separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame
that contains bits to define class of service.
Select the IEEE 802.1p priority level (from 0 to 7) to add to traffic through this connection.
The greater the number, the higher the priority level.
802.1q
Type the VLAN ID number (from 0 to 4094) for traffic through this connection.
VLAN Port Membership
228
Port
This is the available LAN interface (Ethernet LAN or Wireless LAN) that can be selected to
form a VLAN interface group.
Member
Click the check box to select the LAN port as a member of the VLAN interface group.
Tagged
Click the check box to set the port to tag or not to tag all outgoing traffic with the VLAN ID.
#
This shows the index number of the rule.
Filter Criteria
This shows the filtering criteria. The LAN interface on which the matched traffic is received
will belong to this group automatically.
WildCard
Support
This shows if wildcard on DHCP option 60 is enabled.
Remove
Click the Remove icon to delete this rule from the Device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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Chapter 13 Interface Group
13.2.2 Interface Grouping Criteria
Click the Add button in the Interface Grouping Configuration screen to open the following
screen.
Figure 94 Interface Grouping Criteria
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 70 Interface Grouping Criteria
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source MAC
Address
Enter the source MAC address of the packet.
DHCP Option
60
Select this option and enter the Vendor Class Identifier (Option 60) of the matched traffic,
such as the type of the hardware or firmware.
Enable
wildcard on
DHCP
option 60
option
DHCP Option
61
Select this option to be able to use wildcards in the Vendor Class Identifier configured for
DHCP option 60.
Select this and enter the device identity of the matched traffic.
IAID
Enter the Identity Association Identifier (IAID) of the device, for example, the WAN
connection index number.
DUID type
Select DUID-LLT (DUID Based on Link-layer Address Plus Time) to enter the hardware
type, a time value and the MAC address of the device.
Select DUID-EN (DUID Assigned by Vendor Based upon Enterprise Number) to enter the
vendor’s registered enterprise number.
Select DUID-LL (DUID Based on Link-layer Address) to enter the device’s hardware type
and hardware address (MAC address) in the following fields.
Select Other to enter any string that identifies the device in the DUID field.
DHCP Option
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Select this and enter vendor specific information of the matched traffic.
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Table 70 Interface Grouping Criteria (continued)
LABEL
230
DESCRIPTION
Enterprise
Number
Enter the vendor’s 32-bit enterprise number registered with the IANA (Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority).
Manufactur
er OUI
Specify the vendor’s OUI (Organization Unique Identifier). It is usually the first three bytes
of the MAC address.
Product
Class
Enter the product class of the device.
Model
Name
Enter the model name of the device.
Serial
Number
Enter the serial number of the device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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14
USB Service
14.1 Overview
The Device has a USB port used to share files via a USB memory stick or a USB hard drive. In the
USB Service screens, you can enable the file-sharing server.
14.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the File Sharing screen to enable file-sharing server (Section 14.2 on page 232).
14.1.2 What You Need To Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read this chapter.
Workgroup name
This is the name given to a set of computers that are connected on a network and share resources
such as a printer or files. Windows automatically assigns the workgroup name when you set up a
network.
Shares
When settings are set to default, each USB device connected to the Device is given a folder, called
a “share”. If a USB hard drive connected to the Device has more than one partition, then each
partition will be allocated a share. You can also configure a “share” to be a sub-folder or file on the
USB device.
File Systems
A file system is a way of storing and organizing files on your hard drive and storage device. Often
different operating systems such as Windows or Linux have different file systems. The file sharing
feature on your Device supports File Allocation Table (FAT) and FAT32.
Common Internet File System
The Device uses Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocol for its file sharing functions. CIFS
compatible computers can access the USB file storage devices connected to the Device. CIFS
protocol is supported on Microsoft Windows, Linux Samba and other operating systems (refer to
your systems specifications for CIFS compatibility).
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Chapter 14 USB Service
Samba
SMB is a client-server protocol used by Microsoft Windows systems for sharing files, printers, and
so on.
Samba is a free SMB server that runs on most Unix and Unix-like systems. It provides an
implementation of an SMB client and server for use with non-Microsoft operating systems. It allows
file and print sharing between computers running Windows and computers running Unix.
14.2 The File Sharing Screen
You can share files on a USB memory stick or hard drive connected to your Device with users on
your network.
The Device supports Samba. This allows network users to access shared files in USB storage. To use
file sharing you must enable it in the file sharing screen and also edit individual user accounts in the
Maintenance > User Account screen. See Chapter 29 on page 300 for more information.
The following figure is an overview of the Device’s file server feature. Computers A and B can
access files on a USB device (C) which is connected to the Device.
Figure 95 File Sharing Overview
B
C
A
The Device will not be able to join the workgroup if your local area network has restrictions
set up that do not allow devices to join a workgroup. In this case, contact your network
administrator.
14.2.1 Before You Begin
Make sure the Device is connected to your network and turned on.
1
232
Connect the USB device to one of the Device’s USB port. Make sure the Device is connected to your
network.
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2
The Device detects the USB device and makes its contents available for browsing. If you are
connecting a USB hard drive that comes with an external power supply, make sure it is connected
to an appropriate power source that is on.
Note: If your USB device cannot be detected by the Device, see the troubleshooting for
suggestions.
Use this screen to set up file sharing using the Device. To access this screen, click Network
Setting > USB Service > File Sharing.
Figure 96 Network Setting > USB Service > File Sharing
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 71 Network Setting > LAN > File Sharing
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Sharing
Services
Select Enable to activate file sharing through the Device.
Host Name
Enter the host name on the share.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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15
Firewall
15.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to enable and configure the SBG3500-N’s security settings. Use the
firewall to protect your SBG3500-N and network from attacks by hackers on the Internet and
control access to it. By default the firewall:
• allows traffic that originates from your LAN computers to go to all other networks.
• blocks traffic that originates on other networks from going to the LAN.
The following figure illustrates the default firewall action. User A can initiate an IM (Instant
Messaging) session from the LAN to the WAN (1). Return traffic for this session is also allowed (2).
However other traffic initiated from the WAN is blocked (3 and 4).
Figure 97 Default Firewall Action
WAN
LAN
A
1
2
3
4
15.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the General screen to configure the security level of the firewall on the SBG3500-N (Section
15.2 on page 236).
• Use the Service screen to add or remove predefined Internet services and configure firewall
rules (Section 15.3 on page 237).
• Use the Access Control screen to view and configure incoming/outgoing filtering rules (Section
15.4 on page 239).
• Use the DoS screen to activate protection against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks (Section 15.5
on page 241).
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15.1.2 What You Need to Know
SYN Attack
A SYN attack floods a targeted system with a series of SYN packets. Each packet causes the
targeted system to issue a SYN-ACK response. While the targeted system waits for the ACK that
follows the SYN-ACK, it queues up all outstanding SYN-ACK responses on a backlog queue. SYNACKs are moved off the queue only when an ACK comes back or when an internal timer terminates
the three-way handshake. Once the queue is full, the system will ignore all incoming SYN requests,
making the system unavailable for legitimate users.
DoS
Denials of Service (DoS) attacks are aimed at devices and networks with a connection to the
Internet. Their goal is not to steal information, but to disable a device or network so users no longer
have access to network resources. The ZyXEL Device is pre-configured to automatically detect and
thwart all known DoS attacks.
DDoS
A DDoS attack is one in which multiple compromised systems attack a single target, thereby
causing denial of service for users of the targeted system.
LAND Attack
In a LAND attack, hackers flood SYN packets into the network with a spoofed source IP address of
the target system. This makes it appear as if the host computer sent the packets to itself, making
the system unavailable while the target system tries to respond to itself.
Ping of Death
Ping of Death uses a "ping" utility to create and send an IP packet that exceeds the maximum
65,536 bytes of data allowed by the IP specification. This may cause systems to crash, hang or
reboot.
SPI
Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) tracks each connection crossing the firewall and makes sure it is
valid. Filtering decisions are based not only on rules but also context. For example, traffic from the
WAN may only be allowed to cross the firewall in response to a request from the LAN.
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15.2 The Firewall Screen
Use this screen to set the security level of the firewall on the SBG3500-N. Firewall rules are
grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they apply.
Click Security > Firewall to display the General screen.
Figure 98 Security > Firewall > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 Security > Firewall > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Firewall
Select Enable to activate the firewall feature on the SBG3500-N.
From/To
The firewall rules are grouped by the direction of packet travel and their zones (WAN, LAN,
WLAN, DMZ, EXTRA and Router). By default, the firewall allows passage of packets traveling
in the same zone (a LAN to a LAN, a WAN to a WAN). Here are some example descriptions
of the directions of travel.
From LAN To LAN means packets traveling from a computer on one LAN subnet to a
computer on another LAN subnet on the LAN interface of the device.
You can define the EXTRA zone to include the VPN connection. The Router zone can only be
controlled in ingress direction “to” because it is reserved for the router’s CPU. However,
packets sent from the router zone are always permitted. For example, if your packet come
from a LAN zone and is going to the Router zone. The SBG3500-N will apply the firewall
rules to the LAN packets if you did not click the Permit check box.
When Permit box is unchecked and Log box is checked, it means the “dropped” packets
will be logged. When both Permit and Log boxes are checked, it means the “permitted”
packets will be logged.
236
Permit
Click the check box Permit to allow the passage of the packets.
Log
Click the check box Log to create a log when an action from Firewall rule is taken.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 15 Firewall
15.3 The Service Screen
You can configure customized services and port numbers in the Service screen. For a
comprehensive list of port numbers and services, visit the IANA (Internet Assigned Number
Authority) website. See Appendix F on page 394 for some examples.
Click Security > Firewall > Service to display the following screen.
Figure 99 Security > Firewall > Service
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 Security > Firewall > Service
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new
service entry
Click this to add a new service.
Name
This is the name of your customized service.
Description
This is the description of your customized service.
Ports/Protocol
Number
This shows the IP protocol (TCP, UDP, ICMP, or TCP/UDP) and the port number or range
of ports that defines your customized service. Other and the protocol number displays if the
service uses another IP protocol.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the entry.
Click the Delete icon to remove this entry.
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15.3.1 Add/Edit a Service
Use this screen to add a customized service rule that you can use in the firewall’s ACL rule
configuration. Click Add new service entry or the edit icon next to an existing service rule in the
Service screen to display the following screen.
Figure 100 Service: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 Service: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Protocol
Choose the IP protocol (TCP, UDP, ICMP, or Other) that defines your customized port from
the drop-down list box. Select Other to be able to enter a protocol number.
Source/
These fields are displayed if you select TCP or UDP as the IP port.
Destination Port
Select Single to specify one port only or Range to specify a span of ports that define your
customized service. If you select Any, the service is applied to all ports.
Type a single port number or the range of port numbers that define your customized
service.
Protocol
Number
This field is displayed if you select Other as the protocol.
Add
Click this to add the protocol to the Rule List below.
Enter the protocol number of your customized port.
Rule List
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Protocol
This is the IP port (TCP, UDP, ICMP, or Other) that defines your customized port.
Ports/Protocol
Number
For TCP, UDP, ICMP, or TCP/UDP protocol rules this shows the port number or range that
defines the custom service. For other IP protocol rules this shows the protocol number.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to remove the rule.
Service Name
Enter a unique name (up to 32 printable English keyboard characters, including spaces) for
your customized port.
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Table 74 Service: Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service
Description
Enter a description for your customized port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
15.4 The Access Control Screen
Click Security > Firewall > Access Control to display the following screen. This screen displays a
list of the configured incoming or outgoing filtering rules.
Figure 101 Security > Firewall > Access Control
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 Security > Firewall > Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rules Storage
Space usage
This bar shows the percentage of the SBG3500-N’s space has been used. If the usage is
almost full, you may need to remove an existing filter rule before you create a new one.
Direction
This displays the direction of the ACL rule.
Add new ACL
rule
Click this to go to add a filter rule for incoming or outgoing IP traffic.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Enable
This field displays whether the ACL rule is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this rule
is active. A gray bulb signifies that this rule is not active.
Name
This displays the name of the rule.
From/To
This is the packet direction. Choose the interfaces from the drop-down list to set the
direction of the packet that the ACL rule applies.
Src IP
This displays the source IP addresses to which this rule applies. Please note that a blank
source address is equivalent to Any.
Dst IP
This displays the destination IP addresses to which this rule applies. Please note that a
blank destination address is equivalent to Any.
Service
This displays the transport layer protocol that defines the service and the direction of traffic
to which this rule applies.
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Table 75 Security > Firewall > Access Control (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Action
This is the policy of the access control. Choose the following option from the drop-down list:
Select Drop to silently discard the packets without sending a TCP reset packet or an ICMP
destination-unreachable message to the sender.
Select Reject to deny the packets and send a TCP reset packet (for a TCP packet) or an
ICMP destination-unreachable message (for a UDP packet) to the sender.
Select Accept to allow the passage of the packets.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule. Note that subsequent rules move up by one
when you take this action.
Click the Move To icon to change the order of the rule. Enter the number in the # field.
15.4.1 Add/Edit an ACL Rule
Click Add new ACL rule or the Edit icon next to an existing ACL rule in the Access Control
screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 102 Access Control: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 Access Control: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable
Click the check box to activate the ACL.
Logging
Click the check box if you want to log the packet throughput in this ACL.
Filter Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 16 alphanumeric characters, not including spaces,
underscores, and dashes.
You must enter the filter name to add an ACL rule. This field is read-only if you are editing
the ACL rule.
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Table 76 Access Control: Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Order
Select the order of the ACL rule.
Direction
Select the direction of the ACL rule. You may select from WAN to LAN, WAN to Router,
WAN to DMZ, LAN to WAN, LAN to Router, LAN to DMZ, DMZ to WAN, DMZ to LAN,
and DMZ to Router. The DMZ zone is available when there's a specified DMZ group.
Select Source
Device
Select the source device to which the ACL rule applies. If you select Specific IP Address,
enter the source IP address in the field below.
Source IP
Address
Enter the source IP address.
Select
Destination
DevicSBG3500Ne
Select the destination device to which the ACL rule applies. If you select Specific IP
Address, enter the destiniation IP address in the field below.
Destination IP
Address
Enter the destination IP address.
IP Type
Select whether your IP type is IPv4 or IPv6.
Select Service
Select the transport layer protocol that defines your customized port from the drop-down
list box. The specific protocol rule sets you add in the Security > Firewall > Service >
Add screen display in this list.
If you want to configure a customized protocol, select Specific Service.
Protocol
This field is displayed only when you select Specific Protocol in Select Protocol.
Choose the IP port (TCP/UDP, TCP, UDP, ICMP, or ICMPv6) that defines your customized
port from the drop-down list box.
Custom Source
Port
This field is displayed only when you select Specific Protocol in Select Protocol.
Enter a single port number or the range of port numbers of the source.
Custom
This field is displayed only when you select Specific Protocol in Select Protocol.
Destination Port
Enter a single port number or the range of port numbers of the destination.
Policy
Use the drop-down list box to select whether to discard (DROP), deny and send an ICMP
destination-unreachable message to the sender of (REJECT) or allow the passage of
(ACCEPT) packets that match this rule.
Enable Rate
Limit
Select this check box to set a limit on the upstream/downstream transmission rate for the
specified protocol.
Specify how many packets per minute or second the transmission rate is.
Scheduler Rules Select a schedule rule for this ACL rule form the drop-down list box. You can configure a
new schedule rule by click Add New Rule. This will bring you to the Security > Scheduler
Rules screen.
Filter
Description
Type a description of the Filter of this ACL rule. This field is optional.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
15.5 The DoS Screen
DoS (Denial of Service) attacks can flood your Internet connection with invalid packets and
connection requests, using so much bandwidth and so many resources that Internet access
becomes unavailable.
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Use the DoS screen to activate protection against DoS attacks. Click Security > Firewall > DoS
to display the following screen.
Figure 103 Security > Firewall > DoS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 Security > Firewall > DoS
242
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DoS Protection
Blocking
Select Enable to enable protection against DoS attacks.
Deny Ping
Response
Select Enable to block ping request packets.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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16
MAC Filter
16.1 Overview
You can configure the Device to permit access to clients based on their MAC addresses in the MAC
Filter screen. This applies to wired and wireless connections. Every Ethernet device has a unique
MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is assigned at the factory and consists of six
pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC
addresses of the devices to configure this screen.
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Chapter 16 MAC Filter
16.2 The MAC Filter Screen
Use this screen to allow wireless and LAN clients access to the Device. Click Security > MAC Filter.
The screen appears as shown.
Figure 104 Security > MAC Filter
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 Security > MAC Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address Filter
Select Enable to activate the MAC filter function.
Set
This is the index number of the MAC address.
Allow
Select Allow to permit access to the Device. MAC addresses not listed will be denied
access to the Device.
If you clear this, the MAC Address field for this set clears.
244
Host name
Enter the host name of the wireless or LAN clients that are allowed access to the Device.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC addresses of the wireless or LAN clients that are allowed access to the
Device in these address fields. Enter the MAC addresses in a valid MAC address format,
that is, six hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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User Access Control
17.1 Overview
User Access control allows you to block web sites with the specific URL. You can also define time
periods and days during which the Device performs User Access control on a specific user.
17.2 The User Access Control Screen
Use this screen to enable User Access control, view the User Access control rules and schedules.
Click Security > User Access Control to open the following screen.
Figure 105 Security > User Access Control
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 79 Security > User Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Access
Control
Select Enable to activate User Access control.
Add new profile
Click this if you want to configure a new User Access control rule.
#
This shows the index number of the rule.
Status
This indicates whether the rule is active or not.
A yellow bulb signifies that this rule is active. A gray bulb signifies that this rule is not active.
Name
This shows the name of the rule.
Network User
(MAC)
This shows the MAC address of the LAN user’s computer to which this rule applies.
Internet Access
Schedule
This shows the day(s) and time on which User Access control is enabled.
Network
Service
This shows whether the network service is configured. If not, None will be shown.
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Table 79 Security > User Access Control (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Website Block
This shows whether the website block is configured. If not, None will be shown.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
17.2.1 Add/Edit a User Access Control Rule
Click Add new profile in the User Access Control screen to add a new rule or click the Edit icon
next to an existing rule to edit it. Use this screen to configure a restricted access schedule and/or
URL filtering settings to block the users on your network from accessing certain web sites.
Figure 106 User Access Control Rule: Add/Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 80 User Access Control Rule: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
246
Active
Select the checkbox to activate this User Access control rule.
User Access
Control Profile
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the rule.
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Table 80 User Access Control Rule: Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Network User
Select the LAN user that you want to apply this rule to from the drop-down list box. If you
select Custom, enter the LAN user’s MAC address. If you select All, the rule applies to all
LAN users.
Internet Access Schedule
Day
Select check boxes for the days that you want the Device to perform User Access control.
Time
Drag the time bar to define the time that the LAN user is allowed access.
Network Service
Network
Service Setting
If you select Block, the Device prohibits the users from viewing the Web sites with the URLs
listed below.
If you select Allow, the Device blocks access to all URLs except ones listed below.
Add new
service
Click this to show a screen in which you can add a new service rule. You can configure the
Service Name, Protocol, and Name of the new rule.
#
This shows the index number of the rule. Select the checkbox next to the rule to activate it.
Service Name
This shows the name of the rule.
Protocol:Port
This shows the protocol and the port of the rule.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
Blocked Site/
URL Keyword
Click Add to show a screen to enter the URL of web site or URL keyword to which the Device
blocks access. Click Delete to remove it.
Apply
Click this button to save your settings back to the Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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18
Scheduler Rules
18.1 Overview
You can define time periods and days during which the Device performs scheduled rules of certain
features (such as Firewall Access Control, User Access Control) on a specific user in the Scheduler
Rules screen.
18.2 The Scheduler Rules Screen
Use this screen to view, add, or edit time schedule rules.
Click Security > Scheduler Rules to open the following screen.
Figure 107 Security > Scheduler Rules
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 81 Security > Scheduler Rules
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to create a new rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Rule Name
This shows the name of the rule.
Day
This shows the day(s) on which this rule is enabled.
Time
This shows the period of time on which this rule is enabled.
Description
This shows the description of this rule.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the schedule.
Click the Delete icon to delete a scheduler rule.
Note: You cannot delete a scheduler rule once it is applied to a certain feature.
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Chapter 18 Scheduler Rules
18.2.1 Add/Edit a Schedule
Click the Add button in the Scheduler Rules screen or click the Edit icon next to a schedule rule
to open the following screen. Use this screen to configure a restricted access schedule for a specific
user on your network.
Figure 108 Scheduler Rules: Add/Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 82 Scheduler Rules: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Name
Enter a name (up to 31 printable English keyboard characters, not including spaces) for this
schedule.
Day
Select check boxes for the days that you want the Device to perform this scheduler rule.
Time if Day
Range
Enter the time period of each day, in 24-hour format, during which User Access control will
be enforced.
Description
Enter a description for this scheduler rule.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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19
Certificates
19.1 Overview
The Device can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate users. Certificates are based
on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the certificate owner’s identity and public key.
Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys for use in authentication.
19.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• The Local Certificates screen lets you generate certification requests and import the Device's
CA-signed certificates (Section 19.4 on page 254).
• The Trusted CA screen lets you save the certificates of trusted CAs to the Device (Section 19.4
on page 254).
19.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Certification Authority
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each certificate
owner. There are commercial certification authorities like CyberTrust or VeriSign and government
certification authorities. The certification authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone
can then use the certification authority's public key to verify the certificates. You can use the Device
to generate certification requests that contain identifying information and public keys and then send
the certification requests to a certification authority.
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19.3 The Local Certificates Screen
Click Security > Certificates to open the Local Certificates screen. This is the Device’s summary
list of certificates and certification requests.
Figure 109 Security > Certificates > Local Certificates
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 Security > Certificates > Local Certificates
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Private Key is
protected by a
password?
Select the checkbox and enter the private key into the text box to store it on the Device.
The private key should not exceed 63 ASCII characters (not including spaces).
Browse...
Click this to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Import Certificate
Click this button to save the certificate that you have enrolled from a certification
authority from your computer to the Device.
Create Certificate
Request
Click this button to go to the screen where you can have the Device generate a
certification request.
Current File
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that you
give each certificate a unique name.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or company)
and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique subject
information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department, organization or
company and country.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text displays in
red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet become
applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or has
already expired.
Modify
Click the View icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate (or certification request).
For a certification request, click Load Signed to import the signed certificate.
Click the Remove icon to delete the certificate (or certification request). You cannot
delete a certificate that one or more features is configured to use.
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19.3.1 Create Certificate Request
Click Security > Certificates > Local Certificates and then Create Certificate Request to
open the following screen. Use this screen to have the Device generate a certification request.
Figure 110 Create Certificate Request
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Create Certificate Request
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate
Name
Type up to 63 ASCII characters (not including spaces) to identify this certificate.
Common Name
Select Auto to have the Device configure this field automatically. Or select Customize to
enter it manually.
Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation), domain name or e-mail address in the field
provided. The domain name or e-mail address can be up to 63 ASCII characters. The
domain name or e-mail address is for identification purposes only and can be any string.
Organization
Name
Type up to 63 characters to identify the company or group to which the certificate owner
belongs. You may use any character, including spaces, but the Device drops trailing spaces.
State/Province
Name
Type up to 32 characters to identify the state or province where the certificate owner is
located. You may use any character, including spaces, but the Device drops trailing spaces.
Country/Region
Name
Select a country to identify the nation where the certificate owner is located.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
After you click Apply, the following screen displays to notify you that you need to get the certificate
request signed by a Certificate Authority. If you already have, click Load_Signed to import the
signed certificate into the Device. Otherwise click Back to return to the Local Certificates screen.
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Figure 111 Certificate Request Created
19.3.2 Load Signed Certificate
After you create a certificate request and have it signed by a Certificate Authority, in the Local
Certificates screen click the certificate request’s Load Signed icon to import the signed certificate
into the Device.
Note: You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can import
it.
Figure 112 Load Signed Certificate
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 85 Load Signed Certificate
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate
Name
This is the name of the signed certificate.
Certificate
Copy and paste the signed certificate into the text box to store it on the Device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
19.4 The Trusted CA Screen
Click Security > Certificates > Trusted CA to open the following screen. This screen displays a
summary list of certificates of the certification authorities that you have set the Device to accept as
trusted. The Device accepts any valid certificate signed by a certification authority on this list as
being trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any certificate that is signed by one of these
certification authorities.
Figure 113 Security > Certificates > Trusted CA
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 86 Security > Certificates > Trusted CA
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Import
Certificate
Click this button to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a certification
authority that you trust to the Device.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as Common
Name (CN), OU (Organizational Unit or department), Organization (O), State (ST) and
Country (C). It is recommended that each certificate have unique subject information.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. ca means that a Certification
Authority signed the certificate.
Modify
Click the View icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate (or certification request).
Click the Remove button to delete the certificate (or certification request). You cannot
delete a certificate that one or more features is configured to use.
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19.4.1 Import Trusted CA Certificate
Click the Import Certificate button in the Trusted CA screen to open the following screen. The
Device trusts any valid certificate signed by any of the imported trusted CA certificates.
Figure 114 Trusted CA: Import Certificate
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 87 Trusted CA: Import Certificate
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate File
Path
Type in the location of the certificate you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to
find it.
Enable Trusted
CA for 802.1x
Authentication
If you select this checkbox, the trusted CA will be used for 802.1x authentication. The
selected trusted CA will be displayed in the Network Setting > Broadband > 802.1x:
Edit screen.
Certificate
Copy and paste the certificate into the text box to store it on the Device.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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20
IPSec VPN
20.1 Overview
A virtual private network (VPN) provides secure communications between sites without the expense
of leased site-to-site lines. A secure VPN is a combination of tunneling, encryption, authentication,
access control and auditing. It is used to transport traffic over the Internet or any insecure network
that uses TCP/IP for communication.
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a standards-based VPN that offers flexible solutions for secure
data communications across a public network like the Internet. IPSec is built around a number of
standardized cryptographic techniques to provide confidentiality, data integrity and authentication
at the IP layer.
The following figure provides one perspective of a VPN tunnel.
Figure 115 IPSec VPN: Overview
Network A
Network B
VPN Tunnel
X
Y
The VPN tunnel connects the SBG3500-N (X) and the remote IPSec router (Y). These routers then
connect the local network (A) and remote network (B).
20.2 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Setup screen to display and manage the SBG3500-N’s IPSec VPN rules (tunnels)
(Section 20.4 on page 257).
• Use the Monitor screen to display and manage active IPSec VPN connections (Section 20.5 on
page 266).
• Use the Radius screen to manage the list of RADIUS servers the SBG3500-N can use in
authenticating users (Section 20.6 on page 267).
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20.3 What You Need To Know
A VPN tunnel is usually established in two phases. Each phase establishes a security association
(SA), a contract indicating what security parameters the SBG3500-N and the remote IPSec router
will use.
The first phase establishes an Internet Key Exchange (IKE) SA between the SBG3500-N and remote
IPSec router. The second phase uses the IKE SA to securely establish an IPSec SA through which
the SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router can send data between computers on the local network
and remote network. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 116 VPN: IKE SA and IPSec SA
Network B
NETWORK
Network
A
IPSec SA
X
IKE SA
Y
In this example, a computer in network A is exchanging data with a computer in network B. Inside
networks A and B, the data is transmitted the same way data is normally transmitted in the
networks. Between routers X and Y, the data is protected by tunneling, encryption, authentication,
and other security features of the IPSec SA. The IPSec SA is established securely using the IKE SA
that routers X and Y established first.
20.4 The Setup Screen
The following figure helps explain the main fields in the web configurator.
Figure 117 IPSec Fields Summary
Remote Network
Local Network
Remote
IPSec Router
VPN Tunnel
Local IP Address
Remote IP Address
Local and remote IP addresses must be static.
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Click VPN > IPSec VPN to display the Setup screen. This is a read-only menu of your IPSec VPN
rules (tunnels). Edit a VPN rule by clicking the Edit icon.
Note: The default IPsec rule Default_L2TPVPN cannot be disconnected on the VPN >
IPSec VPN > Monitor screen. However, you may disconnect L2TP tunnels in the
VPN > L2TP > Monitor screen.
Figure 118 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 88 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New Entry
Click this button to set up VPN policies for a new tunnel.
#
This is the VPN policy index number.
Enable
This field displays whether the VPN policy is active or not.
This icon is turned on when the rule is enabled.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Remote Gateway
Address
This field displays the Secure Gateway Address of the IPSec router with which you're
making the VPN connection.
Local Gateway
Address
This field displays the IP address used by the SBG3500-N. If the selected interface is
not available, this field will display 0.0.0.0.
Remote Policy
This field displays the remote policy.
Local Policy
This field displays the local policy.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the VPN rule.
Click the Remove icon to remove an existing VPN rule.
20.4.1 Add/Edit VPN Rule
You can click the Add New Entry button or a policy’s Edit icon in the IPSec VPN > Setup screen
to either add or edit a VPN policy.
Note: The SBG3500-N uses the system default gateway interface’s WAN IP address as its
WAN IP address to set up a VPN tunnel.
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20.4.2 The VPN Connection Add/Edit Screen
Configure the VPN connection settings in the IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit screen.
Figure 119 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 89 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Enable
Select the checkbox to activate this VPN policy.
Connection Name
Enter a name to identify this VPN policy. If you are editing an existing policy, this field is
not editable.
Note: The Connection Name of an IPsec rule must be unique and cannot be changed
once it has been created.
Nailed-up
Select this if you want the SBG3500-N to automatically renegotiate the IPSec SA when
the VPN connection is down.
This feature is only applicable if you set the Application Scenario to Site-to-Site.
When Nailed-up is enabled, you cannot disconnect the specified IPsec VPN tunnel in
the VPN > IPSec VPN > Monitor screen.
NAT Traversal (NATT)
Select this check box to enable NAT traversal. NAT traversal allows you to set up a VPN
connection when there are NAT routers between the two IPSec routers.
The remote IPSec router must also have NAT traversal enabled.
You can use NAT traversal with ESP protocol using Transport or Tunnel mode, but not
with AH protocol nor with manual key management. In order for an IPSec router
behind a NAT router to receive an initiating IPSec packet, set the NAT router to forward
UDP ports 500 and 4500 to the IPSec router behind the NAT router.
Note: It is suggested to always enable the NAT Traversal (NAT-T) feature if you are not
sure if a NAT device is connected to your VPN gateway. Once this feature is
enabled, it will automatically detect connected NAT devices for you.
Application Scenario
Select the scenario that best describes your intended VPN connection.
Site-to-Site - Choose this if the remote IPSec router has a static IP address or a
domain name. This SBG3500-N can initiate the VPN tunnel.
Site-to-Site with Dynamic Peer - Choose this if the remote IPSec router has a
dynamic IP address. Only the remote IPSec router can initiate the VPN tunnel.
Remote Access - Choose this to allow incoming connections from IPSec VPN clients.
The clients have dynamic IP addresses and are also known as dial-in users. Only the
clients can initiate the VPN tunnel.
My Address
Select an interface from the drop-down list and its IP address will be shown. The IP
address of the SBG3500-N is the IP address of the interface.
Note:
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Primary Peer
Gateway Address
Type a primary gateway address in this field. The primary peer gateway address is
applicable (and required) when you choose Site-to-Site in the Application Scenario
field. The SBG3500-N primarily attempts to establish the VPN tunnel with this remote
address. The peer gateway address can be either an IP address or FQDN.
Secondary Peer
Gateway Address
Type a secondary gateway address in this field. The secondary peer gateway IP address
is applicable (and optional) if you choose Site-to-Site in the Application Scenario field.
The SBG3500-N attempts to establish the VPN tunnel with this remote address if it fails
to connect to the primary peer gateway address. The secondary peer gateway address
can be either an IP address or FQDN.
Fall Back to Primary
Peer Gateway when
possible
When this box is checked, the SBG3500-N attempts to re-connect to the primary peer
gateway address again when it is back up. The SBG3500-N will use secondary gateway
address when the primary address is down. The VPN connection is briefly lost when
SBG3500-N tries to reconnect using the primary address. Note that the peer devices
using the secondary address cannot use a nailed-up VPN connecton setting.
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Table 89 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit (continued)
LABEL
Authentication
DESCRIPTION
Note: The SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router must use the same authentication
method to establish the IKE SA.
Key Exchange Mode: Auto, Manual.
Auto
Pre-Shared Key
Select this to have the SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router use a pre-shared key
(password) to identify each other when they negotiate the IKE SA. Type the pre-shared
key in the field to the right. The pre-shared key can be
•
•
8 - 32 alphanumeric characters or ,;|`~!@#$%^&*()_+\{}':./<>=-".
8 - 32 pairs of hexadecimal (0-9, A-F) characters, preceded by “0x”.
If you want to enter the key in hexadecimal, type “0x” at the beginning of the key. For
example, "0x0123456789ABCDEF" is in hexadecimal format; in “0123456789ABCDEF”
is in ASCII format. If you use hexadecimal, you must enter twice as many characters
since you need to enter pairs.
The SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router must use the same pre-shared key.
Note: All remote access application scenario of IPsec rules must use the same preshared key.
Certificate
In order to use Certificate for IPsec authentication, you need to add new host
certificates in the Security > Certificates screen. See a tutorial on how to add new
host certificates in Chapter 4 on page 61.
Select this to have the SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router use certificates to
authenticate each other when they negotiate the IKE SA. Then select the certificate the
SBG3500-N uses to identify itself to the remote IPsec router.
This certificate is one of the certificates in Certificates. If this certificate is self-signed,
import it into the remote IPsec router. If this certificate is signed by a CA, the remote
IPsec router must trust that CA.
Note: The IPSec routers must trust each other’s certificates.
The SBG3500-N uses one of its Trusted Certificates to authenticate the remote IPSec
router’s certificate. The trusted certificate can be a self-signed certificate or that of a
trusted CA that signed the remote IPSec router’s certificate.
Local/Remote ID
Type
Select which type of identification is used to identify the SBG3500-N during
authentication.
Any - The SBG3500-N does not check the identity of the itself/remote IPSec router.
IP - The SBG3500-N/remote IPSec router is identified by its IP address.
FQDN - The SBG3500-N/remote IPSec router is identified by a domain name.
User-FQDN - The SBG3500-N/remote IPSec router is identified by an e-mail address.
Note: The options FQDN and User-FQDN of Local ID Type and Remote ID Type are not
applicable if you select Main as the Negotiation Mode with Pre-Shared Key.
Manual
SPI (HEX)
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Type a hexadecimal value (between 256 and 4095) for the Security Parameter Index
(SPI). Make sure the remote VPN endpoint has the same value in its SPI field.
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Table 89 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Tunnel Mode
Choose from the following tunnel modes in the drop-down list.
•
•
Encapsulation
Encasulated Security Payload (ESP) - provides encrytption and the same services
offered by AH, but its authentication is weaker. If you select ESP, you must select an
Encryption algorithm and Authentication algorithm.
Authenticating Header (AH) - provides integrity, authentication, sequence integrity
(replay resistance), and non-repudiation but not encryption. If you select AH, you
must select an Authentication algorith. specifies the authentication protocol for the
VPN header. Note the AH settings must match the remote VPN endpoint.
Choose the encapsulation method for the VPN from the drop-down list.
•
•
Tunnel - encrypts the IP header information and the data.
Transport - encrypts the data.
The SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router must use the same encapsulation.
Encryption
Choose the encryption algorithm for the ESP mode from the drop-down list.
DES - a 56-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm, the default
3DES - a 168-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm, more secure
AES128 - a 128-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
AES192 - a 192-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
AES256 - a 256-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
The SBG3500-N and the remote IPSec router must use the same algorithms and keys.
Longer keys require more processing power, resulting in increased latency and
decreased throughput.
Encryption Key
(CHAR)
Type the encryption key (any alphanumeric characters or
,;|’~!@#$%^&*()_+\{}”:<>/=) in the field per following rule.
DES - 8-31 characters
3DES - 24-31 characters
AES128 - 16-32 characters
AES192 - 24-31 characters
AES256 - 31 characters
You can also use hexadecimal by typing “0x” in the beginning of the key.
The remote IPSec router must have the same encryption key.
Authentication
Choose the authentication algorithm from the drop-down list.
•
•
Authentication
Key
MD5 - default
SHA1 - more secure
Tye the encryption key (any alphanumeric characters or ,;|’~!@#$%^&*()_+\{}”:<>/
=) in the field per following rule.
MD5 - 16-20 characters
SHA1 - 20 characters
You can also use hexadecimal by typing “0x” in the beginning of the key.
The remote IPSec router must have the same encryption key.
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Table 89 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Phase 1
Phase 1 Encryption and Authentication can have up to 3 algorithm pairs. You cannot
use phase 1 Encryption, Authentication, and Key Group pairs that already exist in
other enabled IPsec rules with Remote Access selected as the Application Scenario.
AES is considered as the same encryption regardless of bit length. The following are
two examples:
1. Example1: An IPsec rule remote1 has phase 1 Encryption, Authentication, and
Key Group set as 3DES, SHA1, and DH2. You cannot add new IPsec rule remote2
to have the same algorithm pair. You can change either one algorithm to make it
unique, such as using 3DES, SHA1, and DH1 for remote2.
2. IPsec rule remote1 has phase1 Encryption, Authentication, and Key Group set
as AES256, SHA1, and DH2. You cannot use AES128, SHA1, and DH2 to add
new IPsec rule remote2 because AES is considered as the same regardless of bit
length.
Note: When the default IPsec rule Default_L2TPVPN is enabled, if you want to add a
new Remote Access IPsec rule, you can use phase 1 Encryption,
Authentication, and Key Group pair DES, MD5, and DH2 or DES, SHA1, and
DH2, or any algorithm combination with DH1 or DH5.
SA Life Time
Define the length of time before an IKE or IPSec SA automatically renegotiates in this
field. It may range from 1 to 99,999 seconds.
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to update the
encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN tunnel renegotiates,
all users accessing remote resources are temporarily disconnected.
Negotiation Mode
Select the negotiation mode to use to negotiate the IKE SA. Choices are:
Main - this encrypts the SBG3500-N’s and remote IPSec router’s identities but takes
more time to establish the IKE SA.
Aggressive - this is faster but does not encrypt the identities
The SBG3500-N and the remote IPSec router must use the same negotiation mode.
Encryption
Select which key size and encryption algorithm to use in the IKE SA.
Choices are:
DES - a 56-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
3DES - a 168-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
AES128 - a 128-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
AES192 - a 192-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
AES256 - a 256-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
The SBG3500-N and the remote IPSec router must use the same algorithms and keys.
Longer keys require more processing power, resulting in increased latency and
decreased throughput.
Authentication
Select which hash algorithm to use to authenticate packet data in the IKE SA. Choices
are SHA1 and MD5. SHA1 is generally considered stronger than MD5, but it is also
slower.
Add
Click this to add phase 1 Encryption and Authentication.
Modify
Select an entry and click the delete icon to remove it.
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Table 89 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Group
Select which Diffie-Hellman key group (DHx) you want to use for encryption keys.
Choices are:
DH1 - use a 768-bit random number
DH2 - use a 1024-bit random number
DH5 - use a 1536-bit random number
The longer the key, the more secure the encryption, but also the longer it takes to
encrypt and decrypt information. Both routers must use the same DH key group.
Dead Peer Detection
(DPD)
Select this check box if you want the SBG3500-N to make sure the remote IPSec router
is there before it transmits data through the IKE SA. The remote IPSec router must
support DPD. If there has been no traffic for at least 15 seconds, the SBG3500-N sends
a message to the remote IPSec router. If the remote IPSec router responds, the
SBG3500-N transmits the data. If the remote IPSec router does not respond, the
SBG3500-N shuts down the IKE SA.
Extended
Authentication
(XAUTH)
When multiple IPSec routers use the same VPN tunnel to connect to a single VPN tunnel
(telecommuters sharing a tunnel for example), use extended authentication to enforce
a user name and password check. This way even though they all know the VPN tunnel’s
security settings, each still has to provide a unique user name and password.
Select the checkbox if one of the routers (the SBG3500-N or the remote IPSec router)
verifies a user name and password from the other router using the local user database
and/or an external server.
Note: If you want to use Radius for Extended Authentication (XAUTH), you need to
configure the settings in the VPN > IPSecVPN > Radius screen beforehand. See
Section 20.6 on page 267.
Note: If you want to use Local DB for Extended Authentication (XAUTH), make sure
the user account exists in the Maintenance > User Account screen.
Phase 2
Phase 2 Encryption can have up to 3 different algorithms and Authentication can
have up to 2 different algorithms. To add new algorithms, click the Add button next to
Encryption or Authentication.
SA Life Time
Type the maximum number of seconds the IPSec SA can last. Shorter life times provide
better security. The SBG3500-N automatically negotiates a new IPSec SA before the
current one expires, if there are users who are accessing remote resources.
Tunnel Mode
Select the security protocols used for an SA. Choices are:
AH (RFC 2402) - provides integrity, authentication, sequence integrity (replay
resistance), and non-repudiation but not encryption. If you select AH, you must select
an Authentication algorithm.
ESP (RFC 2406) - provides encryption and the same services offered by AH, but its
authentication is weaker. If you select ESP, you must select an Encryption algorithm
and Authentication algorithm.
Both AH and ESP increase processing requirements and latency (delay).
The SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router must use the same active protocol.
Encapsulation
Select which type of encapsulation the IPSec SA uses. Choices are:
Tunnel - this mode encrypts the IP header information and the data.
Transport - this mode only encrypts the data. If you set Encapsulation to
Transport, Policy (Local and Remote) is not applicable.
The SBG3500-N and remote IPSec router must use the same encapsulation.
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Table 89 VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption
Select which key size and encryption algorithm to use in the IKE SA.
Choices are:
DES - a 56-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
3DES - a 168-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
AES128 - a 128-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
AES192 - a 192-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
AES256 - a 256-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
The SBG3500-N and the remote IPSec router must use the same algorithms and keys.
Longer keys require more processing power, resulting in increased latency and
decreased throughput.
Authentication
Select which hash algorithm to use to authenticate packet data in the IKE SA. Choices
are SHA1 and MD5. SHA1 is generally considered stronger than MD5, but it is also
slower.
Perfect Forward
Secrecy (PFS)
Select whether or not you want to enable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) and, if you do,
which Diffie-Hellman key group to use for encryption. Choices are:
DH1 - enable PFS and use a 768-bit random number
DH2 - enable PFS and use a 1024-bit random number
DH5 - enable PFS and use a 1536-bit random number
PFS changes the root key that is used to generate encryption keys for each IPSec SA.
The longer the key, the more secure the encryption, but also the longer it takes to
encrypt and decrypt information. Both routers must use the same DH key group.
Policy
Local IP Type
Select the IP type of the local device that is linked to the IPSec router.
•
•
•
Subnet - you will need to enter the network mask address
Single - only a single PC (no LAN) at the remote endpoint
Range - you will need to enter a starting IP address and a finishing IP address
Local IP Address
Type the IP address of the device linked to the local IPSec router. This must match the
remote IP address configured on the remote IPSec device.
Local Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask address of the device linked to the local IPSec router. This must
match the remote IP address configure on the remote IPSec device.
Remote IP Type
Choose the remote IP type of the device linked to the remote IPSec router.
•
•
•
Subnet - you will need to enter the network mask address
Single - only a single PC (no LAN) at the remote endpoint
Range - you will need to enter a starting IP address and a finishing IP address
Remote IP Address
Type the IP address of the device linked to the remote IPSec router. This must match
the local IP address configured on the remote IPSec device.
Remote Subnet
Mask
Type the subnet mask address of a device linked to the remote IPSec router. This must
match the local IP address configured on the remote IPSec device.
Force SBG Go VPN
Tunnel
Click this checkbox to force data traffic to go through VPN tunnel when its destination IP
address matches an entry in the IPSec VPN policy rule.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previous settings.
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20.4.3 The Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN Rule
A default IPSec VPN rule (Default_L2TP_VPN) is predefined. It can be edited but cannot be
removed. This rule is used for L2TP VPN exclusively and is disabled by default.
The following table lists the default settings for the Default_L2TP_VPN IPSec VPN.
Table 90 Default settings for Default_L2TP_VPN
GENERAL
AUTHENTICATION
Enabled
No
Pre-Shared Key
selected (text) 12345678
Nailed-up
No
Certificate
none
NAT Traversal
Yes
Local ID Type
IP
Application Scenario
Remote Access
Content
0.0.0.0
My Address
Any
Remote ID Type
Any
PHASE 1
PHASE 2
Life time
86400
Life time
3600
Negotiation Mode
Main
Tunnel Mode
ESP
Encryption /
Authentication
3DES / SHA1
Encryption
DES
3DES
3DES / MD5
AES256
AES256 / SHA1
Authentication
MD5
SHA1
Key Group
DH2
Perfect Forward Secrecy
(PFS)
No
Dead Peer Detection
(DPD)
Yes
Encapsulation
Transport
XAUTH
No
20.5 The IPSec VPN Monitor Screen
In the Web Configurator, click VPN > IPSec VPN > Monitor. Use this screen to display and
manage active VPN connections.
Figure 120 VPN > IPSec VPN > Monitor
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 91 VPN > IPSec VPN > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Radio Buttons
Click the radio button to choose the VPN client you want to connect or disconnect.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this IPSec VPN policy.
Status
This field displays whether the IPSec VPN connection is up (yellow bulb) or down (gray
bulb).
Application Scenario
This field displays the encryption algorithm used for an SA.
Remote Gateway
Address
This is the WAN IP address of the remote IPSec Gateway device.
Local Gateway
Address
This is the WAN IP address of the local IPSec Gateway device.
Connect
Click this to connect.
Disconnect
Click this to disconnect.
20.6 The Radius Screen
Use the Radius screen to manage the list of RADIUS servers the SBG3500-N can use in
authenticating users. In the Web Configurator, click VPN > IPSec VPN > Radius.
Figure 121 VPN > IPSec VPN > Radius
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 92 VPN > IPSec VPN > Radius
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Radius Setup
Server Address
Enter the address of the RADIUS server.
Authentication Port
Specify the port number on the RADIUS server to which the SBG3500-N sends
authentication requests. Enter a number between 1 and 65535.
Backup Server
Address
If the RADIUS server has a backup server, enter its address here.
Backup
Authentication Port
Specify the port number on the RADIUS server to which the SBG3500-N sends
authentication requests. Enter a number between 1 and 65535.
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Table 92 VPN > IPSec VPN > Radius (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key
Enter a password (up to 15 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between
the external authentication server and the SBG3500-N.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the external
authentication server and the SBG3500-N.
Timeout
Specify the timeout period (between 1 and 300 seconds) before the SBG3500-N
disconnects from the RADIUS server. In this case, user authentication fails.
Search timeout occurs when either the user information is not in the RADIUS server or
the RADIUS server is down.
Retries
Specify the number of connection retries before the SBG3500-N disconnects from the
RADIUS server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previous settings.
20.7 Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics covered in this
chapter.
20.7.1 IPSec Architecture
The overall IPSec architecture is shown as follows.
Figure 122 IPSec Architecture
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IPSec Algorithms
The ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol (RFC 2406) and AH (Authentication Header)
protocol (RFC 2402) describe the packet formats and the default standards for packet structure
(including implementation algorithms).
The Encryption Algorithm describes the use of encryption techniques such as DES (Data Encryption
Standard) and Triple DES algorithms.
The Authentication Algorithms, HMAC-MD5 (RFC 2403) and HMAC-SHA-1 (RFC 2404, provide an
authentication mechanism for the AH and ESP protocols.
Key Management
Key management allows you to determine whether to use IKE (ISAKMP) or manual key
configuration in order to set up a VPN.
20.7.2 Encapsulation
The two modes of operation for IPSec VPNs are Transport mode and Tunnel mode. At the time of
writing, the SBG3500-N supports Tunnel mode only.
Figure 123 Transport and Tunnel Mode IPSec Encapsulation
Transport Mode
Transport mode is used to protect upper layer protocols and only affects the data in the IP packet.
In Transport mode, the IP packet contains the security protocol (AH or ESP) located after the
original IP header and options, but before any upper layer protocols contained in the packet (such
as TCP and UDP).
With ESP, protection is applied only to the upper layer protocols contained in the packet. The IP
header information and options are not used in the authentication process. Therefore, the
originating IP address cannot be verified for integrity against the data.
With the use of AH as the security protocol, protection is extended forward into the IP header to
verify the integrity of the entire packet by use of portions of the original IP header in the hashing
process.
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Tunnel Mode
Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire IP packet to transmit it securely. A Tunnel mode is required
for gateway services to provide access to internal systems. Tunnel mode is fundamentally an IP
tunnel with authentication and encryption. This is the most common mode of operation. Tunnel
mode is required for gateway to gateway and host to gateway communications. Tunnel mode
communications have two sets of IP headers:
• Outside header: The outside IP header contains the destination IP address of the VPN gateway.
• Inside header: The inside IP header contains the destination IP address of the final system
behind the VPN gateway. The security protocol appears after the outer IP header and before the
inside IP header.
20.7.3 IKE Phases
There are two phases to every IKE (Internet Key Exchange) negotiation – phase 1 (Authentication)
and phase 2 (Key Exchange). A phase 1 exchange establishes an IKE SA and the second one uses
that SA to negotiate SAs for IPSec.
Figure 124 Two Phases to Set Up the IPSec SA
In phase 1 you must:
• Choose a negotiation mode.
• Authenticate the connection by entering a pre-shared key.
• Choose an encryption algorithm.
• Choose an authentication algorithm.
• Choose a Diffie-Hellman public-key cryptography key group (DH1 or DH2).
• Set the IKE SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long an IKE SA should stay up
before it times out. An IKE SA times out when the IKE SA lifetime period expires. If an IKE SA
times out when an IPSec SA is already established, the IPSec SA stays connected.
In phase 2 you must:
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• Choose an encryption algorithm.
• Choose an authentication algorithm
• Choose a Diffie-Hellman public-key cryptography key group.
• Set the IPSec SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long the IPSec SA should stay
up before it times out. The SBG3500-N automatically renegotiates the IPSec SA if there is traffic
when the IPSec SA lifetime period expires. If an IPSec SA times out, then the IPSec router must
renegotiate the SA the next time someone attempts to send traffic.
20.7.4 Negotiation Mode
The phase 1 Negotiation Mode you select determines how the Security Association (SA) will be
established for each connection through IKE negotiations.
• Main Mode ensures the highest level of security when the communicating parties are
negotiating authentication (phase 1). It uses 6 messages in three round trips: SA negotiation,
Diffie-Hellman exchange and an exchange of nonces (a nonce is a random number). This mode
features identity protection (your identity is not revealed in the negotiation).
• Aggressive Mode is quicker than Main Mode because it eliminates several steps when the
communicating parties are negotiating authentication (phase 1). However the trade-off is that
faster speed limits its negotiating power and it also does not provide identity protection. It is
useful in remote access situations where the address of the initiator is not know by the responder
and both parties want to use pre-shared key authentication.
20.7.5 IPSec and NAT
Read this section if you are running IPSec on a host computer behind the SBG3500-N.
NAT is incompatible with the AH protocol in both Transport and Tunnel mode. An IPSec VPN using
the AH protocol digitally signs the outbound packet, both data payload and headers, with a hash
value appended to the packet. When using AH protocol, packet contents (the data payload) are not
encrypted.
A NAT device in between the IPSec endpoints will rewrite either the source or destination address
with one of its own choosing. The VPN device at the receiving end will verify the integrity of the
incoming packet by computing its own hash value, and complain that the hash value appended to
the received packet doesn't match. The VPN device at the receiving end doesn't know about the
NAT in the middle, so it assumes that the data has been maliciously altered.
IPSec using ESP in Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire original packet (including headers) in a
new IP packet. The new IP packet's source address is the outbound address of the sending VPN
gateway, and its destination address is the inbound address of the VPN device at the receiving end.
When using ESP protocol with authentication, the packet contents (in this case, the entire original
packet) are encrypted. The encrypted contents, but not the new headers, are signed with a hash
value appended to the packet.
Tunnel mode ESP with authentication is compatible with NAT because integrity checks are
performed over the combination of the "original header plus original payload," which is unchanged
by a NAT device.
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Transport mode ESP with authentication is not compatible with NAT.
Table 93 VPN and NAT
SECURITY PROTOCOL
MODE
NAT
AH
Transport
N
AH
Tunnel
N
ESP
Transport
N
ESP
Tunnel
Y
20.7.6 VPN, NAT, and NAT Traversal
NAT is incompatible with the AH protocol in both transport and tunnel mode. An IPSec VPN using
the AH protocol digitally signs the outbound packet, both data payload and headers, with a hash
value appended to the packet, but a NAT device between the IPSec endpoints rewrites the source or
destination address. As a result, the VPN device at the receiving end finds a mismatch between the
hash value and the data and assumes that the data has been maliciously altered.
NAT is not normally compatible with ESP in transport mode either, but the SBG3500-N’s NAT
Traversal feature provides a way to handle this. NAT traversal allows you to set up an IKE SA when
there are NAT routers between the two IPSec routers.
Figure 125 NAT Router Between IPSec Routers
A
B
NAT Router
Normally you cannot set up an IKE SA with a NAT router between the two IPSec routers because
the NAT router changes the header of the IPSec packet. NAT traversal solves the problem by adding
a UDP port 500 header to the IPSec packet. The NAT router forwards the IPSec packet with the UDP
port 500 header unchanged. In the above figure, when IPSec router A tries to establish an IKE SA,
IPSec router B checks the UDP port 500 header, and IPSec routers A and B build the IKE SA.
For NAT traversal to work, you must:
• Use ESP security protocol (in either transport or tunnel mode).
• Use IKE keying mode.
• Enable NAT traversal on both IPSec endpoints.
• Set the NAT router to forward UDP port 500 to IPSec router A.
Finally, NAT is compatible with ESP in tunnel mode because integrity checks are performed over the
combination of the "original header plus original payload," which is unchanged by a NAT device. The
compatibility of AH and ESP with NAT in tunnel and transport modes is summarized in the following
table.
Table 94 VPN and NAT
272
SECURITY PROTOCOL
MODE
NAT
AH
Transport
N
AH
Tunnel
N
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Table 94 VPN and NAT
SECURITY PROTOCOL
MODE
NAT
ESP
Transport
Y*
ESP
Tunnel
Y
Y* - This is supported in the SBG3500-N if you enable NAT traversal.
20.7.7 ID Type and Content
With aggressive negotiation mode (see Section 20.7.4 on page 271), the SBG3500-N identifies
incoming SAs by ID type and content since this identifying information is not encrypted. This
enables the SBG3500-N to distinguish between multiple rules for SAs that connect from remote
IPSec routers that have dynamic WAN IP addresses.
Regardless of the ID type and content configuration, the SBG3500-N does not allow you to save
multiple active rules with overlapping local and remote IP addresses.
With main mode (see Section 20.7.4 on page 271), the ID type and content are encrypted to
provide identity protection. In this case the SBG3500-N can only distinguish between different
incoming SAs that connect from remote IPSec routers that have dynamic WAN IP addresses. The
SBG3500-N can distinguish incoming SAs because you can select between three encryption
algorithms (DES, 3DES and AES), two authentication algorithms (MD5 and SHA1) and eight key
groups when you configure a VPN rule (see Section 20.4 on page 257). The ID type and content act
as an extra level of identification for incoming SAs.
The type of ID can be a domain name, an IP address or an e-mail address. The content is the IP
address, domain name, or e-mail address.
Table 95 Local ID Type and Content Fields
LOCAL ID TYPE= CONTENT=
IP
Type the IP address of your computer.
FQDN
Type a domain name (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this SBG3500-N.
User-FQDN
Type an e-mail address (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this SBG3500N.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Local ID Content field
is used for identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain
name or e-mail address.
20.7.7.1 ID Type and Content Examples
Two IPSec routers must have matching ID type and content configuration in order to set up a VPN
tunnel.
The two SBG3500-Ns in this example can complete negotiation and establish a VPN tunnel.
Table 96 Matching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
SBG3500-N A
SBG3500-N B
Local ID type: User-FQDN
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Remote ID type: IP
Remote ID type: E-mail
Remote ID content: 1.1.1.2
Remote ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
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The two SBG3500-Ns in this example cannot complete their negotiation because SBG3500-N B’s
Local ID type is IP, but SBG3500-N A’s Remote ID type is set to E-mail. An “ID mismatched”
message displays in the IPSEC LOG.
Table 97 Mismatching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
SBG3500-N A
SBG3500-N B
Local ID type: IP
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: 1.1.1.10
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Remote ID type: User-FQDN
Remote ID type: IP
Remote ID content: aa@yahoo.com
Remote ID content: 1.1.1.0
20.7.8 Pre-Shared Key
A pre-shared key identifies a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation (see Section
20.7.3 on page 270 for more on IKE phases). It is called “pre-shared” because you have to share it
with another party before you can communicate with them over a secure connection.
20.7.9 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups
Diffie-Hellman (DH) is a public-key cryptography protocol that allows two parties to establish a
shared secret over an unsecured communications channel. Diffie-Hellman is used within IKE SA
setup to establish session keys. 768-bit, 1024-bit 1536-bit, 2048-bit, and 3072-bit Diffie-Hellman
groups are supported. Upon completion of the Diffie-Hellman exchange, the two peers have a
shared secret, but the IKE SA is not authenticated. For authentication, use pre-shared keys.
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21
PPTP VPN
21.1 Overview
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a network protocol that enables secure transfer of data
from a remote client to a private server, creating a VPN using TCP/IP-based networks. PPTP
supports on-demand, multi-protocol and virtual private networking over public networks, such as
the Internet.
PPTP sets up two sessions and uses Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE, RFC 2890) to transfer
information between the computers. It is convenient and easy-to-use, but you have to make sure
that firewalls support both PPTP sessions.
PPTP works on a client-server model and is suitable for remote access applications. For example, an
employee (A) can connect to the PPTP VPN gateway (X) as a PPTP client to gain access to the
company network resources from outside the office. When you connect to a remote network (B)
through a PPTP VPN, all of your traffic goes through the PPTP VPN gateway (X).
Figure 126 PPTP VPN Example
21.2 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Setup screen to configure the PPTP VPN settings in the SBG3500-N (Section 21.3 on
page 276).
• Use the Monitor screen to view settings for PPTP clients (Section 21.4 on page 277).
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21.3 PPTP VPN Setup
Use this screen to configure settings for a Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) server.
Click VPN > PPTP VPN to open the Setup screen as shown next.
Figure 127 VPN > PPTP VPN > Setup
This screen contains the following fields:
Table 98 VPN > PPTP VPN > Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PPTP Setup
Enable
Use this field to turn the SBG3500-N’S PPTP VPN function on or off.
Local WAN Interface
Select an interface from the drop-down list and its IP address will be shown. This is the
WAN interface upon which PPTP VPN listens to a client’s connection request.
IP Address Pool
Enter the pool of IP addresses that the SBG3500-N uses to assign to the PPTP VPN
clients.
Note: This is with a 24-bit netmask and should not conflict with any configured WAN,
LAN, DMZ, WLAN, or L2TP VPN subnet even if they are not in use.
Access Group
(Optional)
276
Specify up to 2 LAN groups (subnets) which a PPTP VPN client is allowed to access. If
none is specified, all LAN groups can be accessed. Enter the IP address and subnet
mask for the LAN group(s).
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Table 98 VPN > PPTP VPN > Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Method
Select how the SBG3500-N authenticates a remote user before allowing access to the
PPTP VPN tunnel.
The authentication method has the SBG3500-N check a user’s user name and password
against the SBG3500-N’s local database, which is configured in the Maintenance >
User Account screen.
Keep Alive Timer
The SBG3500-N sends a Hello message after waiting this long without receiving any
traffic from the remote user. The SBG3500-N disconnects the VPN tunnel if the remote
user does not respond.
DNS Server
(Optional)
Specify the IP addresses of DNS servers to assign to the remote users.
WINS Server
(Optional)
You can choose from one of the DNS servers from the list, or choose User Defined to
enter the static IP addresses for the first and second DNS servers manually.
The WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) server keeps a mapping table of the
computer names on your network and the IP addresses that they are currently using.
Type the IP addresses of up to two WINS servers to assign to the remote users.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previous settings.
21.4 The PPTP VPN Monitor Screen
In the Web Configurator, click VPN > PPTP VPN > Monitor. Use this screen to view settings for
PPTP clients.
Figure 128 VPN > PPTP VPN > Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 99 VPN > PPTP VPN > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
This field displays the client’s login name for this connection.
Hostname
This is the client's host name of this connection.
Assigned IP
This is the local point-to-point IP address assigned to the client.
Public IP
This is the client’s public IP address for this connection.
Disconnect
Select a VPN client connection and click this to disconnect.
21.5 PPTP VPN Troubleshooting Tips
This section lists the common troubleshooting tips for PPTP VPN.
1
A PPTP client device (such as a PC, smart phone, tablet) cannot connect to the SBG3500-N.
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TIP: This could be due to one of the following reasons:
a. The client device is not connected to the Internet successfully.
Action: Check the client device’s Internet connection.
b. Incorrect server address configured on the client device.
(1) If the Local WAN Interface is “Any”:
From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click Status. The client device should be configured with one of
the WAN interface IP addresses.
(2) If the Local WAN Interface is an interface (IP address shown to the right):
Use that IP address for the client device to connect.
c. The WAN interface which the SBG3500-N’s PPTP VPN is using is not connected.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click Status. Check if the WAN interface the client device is
connected has an IP address present.
d. The PPTP VPN is not enabled.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click VPN > PPTP VPN. Check Enable checkbox and click
Apply.
e. PPTP is not configured correctly on the client device.
Action: Refer to Section 4.14 on page 69 for an example of PPTP VPN.
f. The client entered an incorrect username or password.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click Maintenance > User Account. The client should use
one of the accounts to make the connection.
g. The SBG3500-N has already reached the maximum number of concurrent PPTP VPN connections.
Action: There are too many clients connected. Wait a while and then retry.
2
A PPTP client is disconnected unexpectedly.
Tip: A PPTP connection will be dropped when one of the followings occurs on the SBG3500-N:
a. The client has no activity for a period of time.
b. The client loses connectivity to the SBG3500-N for a period of time.
c. PPTP VPN is disabled on the SBG3500-N.
d. When any one of these configuration changes is applied on the SBG3500-N: WAN interface used
for PPTP VPN, IP address pool, access group.
e. The SBG3500-N’s WAN interface on which the PPTP connection is established is disconnected.
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3
A PPTP client is connected successfully but cannot access the local host or server behind the
SBG3500-N.
Tip: This may be caused by one of the followings:
a. The local host or server is disconnected.
b. The access group is not configured correctly. From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, go to VPN > PPTP
VPN > Setup to check. Note that all local hosts are by default accessible unless access group is
configured.
c. IP Address Pool for PPTP VPN conflicts with any WAN, LAN, DMZ, WLAN, or L2TP VPN subnet
configured on the SBG3500-N. Note that the IP Address Pool for PPTP VPN has a 24-bit netmask
and should not conflict with any others listed above even if they are not in use.
4
A PPTP client is connected successfully but cannot browse the Internet.
Tip: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click VPN > PPTP VPN > Setup. Check if DNS Server is
configured. A client cannot browse the Internet without DNS resolved. Note that when a new DNS
server is configured, the client must disconnect then reconnect in order for the new DNS Server to
take effect.
5
An Android device cannot connect to the SBG3500-N’s PPTP VPN.
Tip: Devices running an Android OS older than version 4.1 have issues with PPTP/MPPE encryption.
Avoid using devices that run an Android OS older than version 4.1 for PPTP VPN connection.
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L2TP VPN
22.1 Overview
The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) works at layer 2 (the data link layer) to tunnel network traffic
between two peers over another network (like the Internet). In L2TP VPN, an IPSec VPN tunnel
(defined by the IPSec VPN rule Default_L2TPVPN, refer to Section 20.4.3 on page 266) is
established first and then an L2TP tunnel is built inside it. See Chapter 20 on page 256 for
information on IPSec VPN.
L2TP VPN lets remote users use the L2TP and IPSec client software included with their computers’
operating systems to securely connect to the network behind the SBG3500-N. The remote users do
not need their own IPSec gateways or VPN client software.
Figure 129 L2TP VPN Overview
22.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the L2TP VPN screen to configure the SBG3500-N’s L2TP VPN settings (Section 22.2 on
page 281).
• Use the Monitor screen to view settings for L2TP clients (Chapter 22 on page 282).
Note: You need to configure the Default_L2TPVPN VPN rule in the VPN > IPSec >
IPSec Setup screen. See Chapter 20 on page 256 for information on IPSec VPN.
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22.2 L2TP VPN Screen
Click VPN > L2TP VPN to open the Setup screen. Use this screen to configure the SBG3500-N’s
L2TP VPN settings.
Figure 130 VPN > L2TP VPN > Setup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 100 VPN > L2TP VPN > Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable
Select the checkbox to enable the SBG3500-N’s L2TP VPN function.
VPN Connection
This is the WAN interface where L2TP VPN listens for a client connection request. It is
configured in the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN rule in the VPN > IPSec > IPSec
Setup screen. See Chapter 20 on page 256 for information on IPSec VPN.
IP Address Pool
Enter the pool of IP addresses that the SBG3500-N uses to assign to the L2TP VPN
clients.
Note: These addresses use a 24-bit netmask and should not conflict with any WAN, LAN,
DMZ, WLAN, or PPTP VPN subnet even if they are not in use.
Access Group
(Optional)
Specify up to 2 LAN groups (subnets) which a L2TP VPN client is allowed to access. If
none is specified, all LAN groups can be accessed. Enter the IP address and subnet
mask for the LAN group(s).
Authentication
Method
Select how the SBG3500-N authenticates a remote user before allowing access to the
L2TP VPN tunnel.
The authentication method has the SBG3500-N check a user’s user name and password
against the SBG3500-N’s local database, which is configured in the Maintenance >
User Account screen.
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Table 100 VPN > L2TP VPN > Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Keep Alive Timer
The SBG3500-N sends a Hello message after waiting this long without receiving any
traffic from the remote user. The SBG3500-N disconnects the VPN tunnel if the remote
user does not respond.
DNS Server
(Optional)
Specify the IP addresses of DNS servers to assign to the remote users.
WINS Server
(Optional)
The WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) server keeps a mapping table of the
computer names on your network and the IP addresses that they are currently using.
You can choose from one of the DNS servers from the list, or choose User Defined to
enter the static IP addresses for the first and second DNS servers manually.
Type the IP addresses of up to two WINS servers to assign to the remote users.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previous settings.
22.3 The L2TP VPN Monitor Screen
In the Web Configurator, click VPN > L2TP VPN > Monitor. Use this screen to view settings for
PPTP clients.
Figure 131 VPN > L2TP VPN > Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 101 VPN > L2TP VPN > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
This field displays the client's login name for this connection.
Hostname
This is the client's host name of this connection.
Assigned IP
This is the local point-to-point IP address assigned to the client.
Public IP
This is the client’s public IP address for this connection.
Disconnect
Select a VPN client connection and click this to disconnect.
22.4 L2TP VPN Troubleshooting Tips
This section lists the common troubleshooting tips for L2TP VPN.
1
A L2TP client device (such as a PC, smart phone, tablet) cannot connect to the SBG3500-N.
TIP: This could be due to one of the following reasons:
a. The client device is not connected to the Internet successfully.
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Action: Check the client device’s Internet connection.
b. Incorrect server address configured on the client device.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click VPN > IPSec VPN > Setup.
(1) If the Local Gateway Address for Default_L2TPVPN is set to “Any”:
From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click Status. The client device should be configured with one of
the WAN interface IP addresses.
(2) If the Local Gateway Address for Default_L2TPVPN is an IP address:
Use that IP address for the client device to connect.
c. The WAN interface which the SBG3500-N’s L2TP VPN is using is not connected.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click Status. Check if the WAN interface used by L2TP VPN is
connected.
d. The client device has an incorrect IPSec pre-shared key configured.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click VPN > IPSec VPN > Edit Default_L2TPVPN. The
client device should use the same pre-shared key.
e. The L2TP VPN is not fully enabled.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI,
(1) Click VPN > IPSec > Edit Default_L2TPVPN. Select the Enable checkbox and click Apply.
(2) Click VPN > L2TP VPN > Setup. Select the Enable checkbox and click Apply.
f. L2TP or IPSec is not configured correctly on the client device.
Action: Refer to Section 4.15 on page 81 for an example of L2TP VPN.
g. The client entered an incorrect username or password.
Action: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click Maintenance > User Account. The client should use
one of the accounts to make the connection.
h. The SBG3500-N exceeds the maximum number of concurrent L2TP VPN connections.
Action: There are too many clients connected. Wait a while and then retry.
2
A windows L2TP client fails to connect to the SBG3500-N with an "invalid certificate" message.
Tip: Windows sometimes may show this error even if the client device has been configured with a
correct pre-shared key for authentication. This usually happens at the first connection attempt after
a new connection profile is created. Reconfigure the pre-shared key on the client Windows device
and retry the connection.
3
An L2TP client device cannot reconnect after it is disconnected.
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Tip: If a client reconnects right after it is disconnected, the reconnection may fail. Wait 60 seconds
before reconnecting.
4
An L2TP client is disconnected unexpectedly.
Tip: An L2TP connection will be dropped when one of the followings occurs on the SBG3500-N:
(1) Client has no activity for a period of time.
(2) Client loses connectivity to the SBG3500-N for a period of time.
(3) Any IPSec VPN configuration change is applied on the SBG3500-N.
(4) Either Default_L2TPVPN IPSec configuration or L2TP VPN is disabled on the SBG3500-N.
(5) When any one of these configuration changes is applied on the SBG3500-N: WAN Interface
used for L2TP VPN, IP Address Pool, Access Group.
(6) The SBG3500-N WAN interface on which the L2TP connection established is disconnected.
5
An L2TP client is connected successfully but cannot access the local host or server behind the
SBG3500-N.
Tip: This may be caused by one of the followings:
(1) The local host or server is disconnected.
(2) The Access Group is not configured correctly. From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, go to the VPN >
L2TP VPN > Setup screen to check. Note that all local hosts are by default accessible unless
Access Group is configured.
(3) IP Address Pool for L2TP VPN is conflicting with any WAN, LAN, DMZ, WLAN, or PPTP VPN
subnet configured on the SBG3500-N. Note that IP Address Pool for L2TP VPN has 24-bit netmask
and should not conflict with any others listed above even if they are not in use.
6
An L2TP client is connected successfully but cannot browse Internet.
Tip: From the SBG3500-N’s GUI, click VPN > L2TP VPN > Setup. Check if DNS Server is
configured. A client cannot browse Internet without DNS resolved. Note that when a new DNS
Server is configured, the client must disconnect then reconnect in order for the new DNS Server to
take effect.
7
The L2TP client can no longer connect to SBG3500-N after the Encryption or Authentication for
the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN rule is changed.
Tip: A user usually do not need change the default Encryption or Authentication algorithms in
the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN rule. The default Encryption and Authentication algorithms
should support the built-in L2TP/IPSec client software in the popular operating systems (Windows
(XP, Vista, 7), Android, and iOS).
Refer to Table 90 on page 266 for the default setting of the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN rule.
As a reference, Table 102 on page 285 lists the IPSec proposals provided by a built-in L2TP client in
the popular operating systems during IPSec phase 1 negotiation. The first proposal that can be
supported by the phase 1 setting in the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec VPN rule will be accepted by the
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SBG3500-N. The algorithms in red in Table 102 on page 285 indicate the ones that will be accepted
based on Table 90 on page 266.
Table 102 Phase 1 IPSec proposals provided by the built-in L2TP client in popular operating systems
(Encryption/Authentication/Key Group)
WINDOWS XP
WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS 7
IOS 5.1
ANDROID 4.1
1
3DES/SHA1/
DH15
3DES/SHA1/
DH15
AES/SHA1/DH15
AES/SHA1/DH2
AES/SHA1/DH2
2
3DES/SHA1/DH2
3DES/SHA1/DH2
3DES/SHA1/
DH15
AES/MD5/DH2
AES/MD5/DH2
3
3DES/MD5/DH2
3DES/SHA1/DH2
3DES/SHA1/DH2
3DES/SHA1/DH2
4
DES/SHA1/DH1
3DES/MD5/DH2
3DES/MD5/DH2
5
DES/MD5/DH1
DES/SHA1/DH2
6
DES/MD5/DH2
After phase 1 tunnel is established, IPSec phase 2 negotiations begin. Table 103 on page 285 lists
the IPSec phase 2 proposals provided by a built-in L2TP client in the popular operating systems.
The first proposal that can be supported by the phase 2 setting in the Default_L2TPVPN IPSec
VPN rule will be accepted by the SBG3500-N. The algorithms in red in Table 103 on page 285
indicate the ones that will be accepted based on Table 90 on page 266.
Table 103 Phase 2 IPSec proposals provided by the built-in L2TP client in popular operating systems (Tunnel
Mode/Encryption/Authentication) [Encapsulation = Transport]
1
WINDOWS XP
WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS 7
IOS 5.1
ANDROID 4.1
ESP/3DES/MD5
ESP/AES/SHA1
ESP/AES/SHA1
ESP/AES/SHA1
ESP/AES/SHA1
ESP/AES/MD5
ESP/AES/MD5
ESP/3DES/SHA1
ESP/3DES/SHA1
ESP/3DES/MD5
ESP/3DES/MD5
ESP/3DES/SHA1
ESP/DES/SHA1
ESP/DES/MD5
2
AH/-/SHA1 and
ESP/3DES/-
ESP/3DES/SHA1
ESP/3DES/SHA1
3
AH/-/MD5 and
ESP/3DES/-
AH/-/SHA1 and
ESP/AES/-
ESP/DES/SHA1
4
AH/-/SHA1 and
ESP/3DES/SHA1
AH/-/SHA1 and
ESP/3DES/-
ESP/-/SHA1
5
AH/-/MD5 and
ESP/3DES/MD5
AH/-/SHA1 and
ESP/3DES/SHA1
AH/-/SHA1
6
ESP/DES/MD5
ESP/DES/SHA1
ESP/-/SHA1
AH/-/SHA1
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23
Log
23.1 Overview
The web configurator allows you to choose which categories of events and/or alerts to have the
Device log and then display the logs or have the Device send them to an administrator (as e-mail)
or to a syslog server.
23.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the System Log screen to see the system logs (Section 23.2 on page 287).
• Use the Security Log screen to see the security-related logs for the categories that you select
(Section 23.3 on page 288).
23.1.2 What You Need To Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read this chapter.
Alerts and Logs
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. They include system errors, attacks
(access control) and attempted access to blocked web sites. Some categories such as System
Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may differentiate them by their color in the View Log
screen. Alerts display in red and logs display in black.
Syslog Overview
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network to
syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a syslog
message and send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log related
information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level. The syslog
facility identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for
details. The following table describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 104 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
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Table 104 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
23.2 The System Log Screen
Use the System Log screen to see the system logs. Click System Monitor > Log to open the
System Log screen.
Figure 132 System Monitor > Log > System Log
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 105 System Monitor > Log > System Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Level
Select a severity level from the drop-down list box. This filters search results according
to the severity level you have selected. When you select a severity, the Device searches
through all logs of that severity or higher.
Category
Select the type of logs to display.
Clear Log
Click this to delete all the logs.
Refresh
Click this to renew the log screen.
Export Log
Click this to export the selected log(s).
System Log
#
This field is a sequential value and is not associated with a specific entry.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this syslog
server.
Messages
This field states the reason for the log.
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23.3 The Security Log Screen
Use the Security Log screen to see the security-related logs for the categories that you select.
Click System Monitor > Log > Security Log to open the following screen.
Figure 133 System Monitor > Log > Security Log
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 106 System Monitor > Log > Security Log
288
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Level
Select a severity level from the drop-down list box. This filters search results according
to the severity level you have selected. When you select a severity, the Device searches
through all logs of that severity or higher.
Category
Select the type of logs to display.
Clear Log
Click this to delete all the logs.
Refresh
Click this to renew the log screen.
Export Log
Click this to export the selected log(s).
Email Log Now
Click this to send the log file(s) to the E-mail address you specify in the Maintenance
> Logs Setting screen.
#
This field is a sequential value and is not associated with a specific entry.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this syslog
server.
Messages
This field states the reason for the log.
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Network Status
24.1 Overview
Use the Network Status screens to look at network Network Status and statistics of the WAN and
LAN interfaces.
24.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the WAN screen to view the WAN traffic statistics (Section 24.2 on page 289).
• Use the LAN screen to view the LAN traffic statistics (Section 24.3 on page 290).
• Use the DHCP Client screen to view the DHCP Client list (Section 24.4 on page 290).
24.2 The WAN Status Screen
Click System Monitor > Network Status to open the WAN screen. The figure in this screen
shows the number of bytes received and sent on the SBG3500-N.
Figure 134 System Monitor > Network Status > WAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 107 System Monitor > Network Status > WAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Connected Interface
This shows the name of the WAN interface that is currently connected.
Packets Sent
Data
This indicates the number of transmitted packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors transmitted on this interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of outgoing packets dropped on this interface.
Packets Received
Data
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This indicates the number of received packets on this interface.
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Table 107 System Monitor > Network Status > WAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors received on this interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of received packets dropped on this interface.
24.3 The LAN Status Screen
Click System Monitor > Network Status > LAN to open the following screen. The figure in this
screen shows the interface that is currently connected on the SBG3500-N.
Figure 135 System Monitor > Network Status > LAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 108 System Monitor > Network Status > LAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Select how often you want the SBG3500-N to update this screen.
Interface
This shows the LAN or WLAN interface.
Bytes Sent
This indicates the number of bytes transmitted on this interface.
24.4 The DHCP Client Screen
Click System Monitor > Network Status > DHCP Client to open the following screen. The
figure in this screen shows the number of client devices that are connected to the SBG3500
System Monitor > Network Status > DHCP Client
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 109 System Monitor > Network Status > LAN
290
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Choose the screen refresh time (15, 30, 60 seconds) from the
drop-down list to see changes in the devices that are on the
network.
#
This displays the device that is connected to the SBG3500-N.
Device Name
This displays the system name of the device on the SBG3500-N.
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Table 109 System Monitor > Network Status > LAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
This displays the IP address of the device on the SBG3500-N.
MAC Address
This displays the MAC address of the device on the SBG3500-N.
Connection Type
This displays the connection type that the device is using to
connect to the SBG3500-N.
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ARP Table
25.1 Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC address, on
the local area network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits long. The
ARP Table maintains an association between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address.
25.1.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the device,
the device's ARP program looks in the ARP Table and, if it finds the address, sends it to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the LAN.
The device fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts the known IP
address of the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the device puts all ones in the target
MAC field (FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The replying device (which is either
the IP address of the device being sought or the router that knows the way) replaces the broadcast
address with the target's MAC address, swaps the sender and target pairs, and unicasts the answer
directly back to the requesting machine. ARP updates the ARP Table for future reference and then
sends the packet to the MAC address that replied.
25.2 ARP Table Screen
Use the ARP table to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s). To open this screen, click System
Monitor > ARP Table.
Figure 136 System Monitor > ARP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 110 System Monitor > ARP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the ARP table entry number.
IP Address
This is the learned IP address of a device connected to a port.
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Table 110 System Monitor > ARP Table (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with the listed IP address.
Device
This is the type of interface used by the device. You can click on the device type to go to
its configuration screen.
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Routing Table
26.1 Overview
Routing is based on the destination address only and the Device takes the shortest path to forward
a packet.
26.2 The Routing Table Screen
Click System Monitor > Routing Table to open the following screen.
Figure 137 System Monitor > Routing Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 111 System Monitor > Routing Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Destination
This indicates the destination IP address of this route.
Gateway
This indicates the IP address of the gateway that helps forward this route’s traffic.
Subnet Mask
This indicates the destination subnet mask of this route.
Flag
This indicates the route status.
U-Up: The route is up.
!-Reject: The route is blocked and will force a route lookup to fail.
G-Gateway: The route uses a gateway to forward traffic.
H-Host: The target of the route is a host.
R-Reinstate: The route is reinstated for dynamic routing.
D-Dynamic (redirect): The route is dynamically installed by a routing daemon or redirect.
M-Modified (redirect): The route is modified from a routing daemon or redirect.
Metric
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The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route for
transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". The smaller the number, the lower
the "cost".
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Table 111 System Monitor > Routing Table (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service
This indicates the name of the service used to forward the route.
Interface
This indicates the name of the interface through which the route is forwarded.
br0 indicates the LAN interface.
ptm0 indicates the WAN interface using IPoE or in bridge mode.
ppp0 indicates the WAN interface using PPPoE.
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IGMP Status
27.1 Overview
Use the IGMP Status screens to look at IGMP group status and traffic statistics.
27.2 The IGMP Group Status Screen
Use this screen to look at the current list of multicast groups the Device has joined and which ports
have joined it. To open this screen, click System Monitor > IGMP Group Status.
Figure 138 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 112 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
This field displays the name of an interface on the Device that belongs to an IGMP
multicast group.
Multicast Group
This field displays the name of the IGMP multicast group to which the interface belongs.
Filter Mode
INCLUDE means that only the IP addresses in the Source List get to receive the
multicast group’s traffic.
EXCLUDE means that the IP addresses in the Source List are not allowed to receive
the multicast group’s traffic but other IP addresses can.
Source List
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This is the list of IP addresses that are allowed or not allowed to receive the multicast
group’s traffic depending on the filter mode.
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xDSL Statistics
28.1 The xDSL Statistics Screen
Use this screen to view detailed DSL statistics. Click System Monitor > xDSL Statistics to open
the following screen.
Figure 139 System Monitor > xDSL Statistics
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 113 System Monitor > xDSL Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Select the time interval for refreshing statistics.
xDSL Training
Status
This displays the current state of setting up the DSL connection.
Mode
This displays the ITU standard used for this connection.
Traffic Type
This displays the type of traffic the DSL port is sending and receiving. Inactive displays if
the DSL port is not currently sending or receiving traffic.
Link Uptime
This displays how long the port has been running (or connected) since the last time it was
started.
xDSL Port Details
Upstream
These are the statistics for the traffic direction going out from the port to the service
provider.
Downstream
These are the statistics for the traffic direction coming into the port from the service
provider.
Line Rate
These are the data transfer rates at which the port is sending and receiving data.
Actual Net Data
Rate
These are the rates at which the port is sending and receiving the payload data without
transport layer protocol headers and traffic.
Trellis Coding
This displays whether or not the port is using Trellis coding for traffic it is sending and
receiving. Trellis coding helps to reduce the noise in ADSL transmissions. Trellis may reduce
throughput but it makes the connection more stable.
SNR Margin
This is the upstream and downstream Signal-to-Noise Ratio margin (in dB). A DMT subcarrier’s SNR is the ratio between the received signal power and the received noise power.
The signal-to-noise ratio margin is the maximum that the received noise power could
increase with the system still being able to meet its transmission targets.
Actual Delay
This is the upstream and downstream interleave delay. It is the wait (in milliseconds) that
determines the size of a single block of data to be interleaved (assembled) and then
transmitted. Interleave delay is used when transmission error correction (Reed- Solomon)
is necessary due to a less than ideal telephone line. The bigger the delay, the bigger the
data block size, allowing better error correction to be performed.
Transmit Power
This is the upstream and downstream far end actual aggregate transmit power (in dBm).
Upstream is how much power the port is using to transmit to the service provider.
Downstream is how much port the service provider is using to transmit to the port.
Receive Power
Upstream is how much power the service provider is receiving from the port. Downstream
is how much power the port is receiving from the service provider.
Actual INP
Sudden spikes in the line’s level of external noise (impulse noise) can cause errors and
result in lost packets. This could especially impact the quality of multimedia traffic such as
voice or video. Impulse noise protection (INP) provides a buffer to allow for correction of
errors caused by error correction to deal with this. The number of DMT (Discrete MultiTone) symbols shows the level of impulse noise protection for the upstream and
downstream traffic. A higher symbol value provides higher error correction capability, but it
causes overhead and higher delay which may increase error rates in received multimedia
data.
Total Attenuation
This is the upstream and downstream line attenuation, measured in decibels (dB). This
attenuation is the difference between the power transmitted at the near-end and the power
received at the far-end. Attenuation is affected by the channel characteristics (wire gauge,
quality, condition and length of the physical line).
Attainable Net
Data Rate
These are the highest theoretically possible transfer rates at which the port could send and
receive payload data without transport layer protocol headers and traffic.
xDSL Counters
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Table 113 System Monitor > xDSL Statistics (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Downstream
These are the statistics for the traffic direction coming into the port from the service
provider.
Upstream
These are the statistics for the traffic direction going out from the port to the service
provider.
FEC
This is the number of Far End Corrected blocks.
CRC
This is the number of Cyclic Redundancy Checks.
ES
This is the number of Errored Seconds meaning the number of seconds containing at least
one errored block or at least one defect.
SES
This is the number of Severely Errored Seconds meaning the number of seconds containing
30% or more errored blocks or at least one defect. This is a subset of ES.
UAS
This is the number of UnAvailable Seconds.
LOS
This is the number of Loss Of Signal seconds.
LOF
This is the number of Loss Of Frame seconds.
LOM
This is the number of Loss of Margin seconds.
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User Account
29.1 Overview
Use the User Account screen to manage user accounts, which includes configuring the username,
password, retry times, file sharing, captive portal, and customizing the login message.
29.2 The User Account Screen
Click Maintenance > User Account to open the following screen.
Figure 140 Maintenance > User Account
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 114 Maintenance > User Account
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new user
Click this to configure a new user account.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
User Name
This field displays the name of the user.
Retry Times
This field indicates how many times a user can re-enter his/her account information
before the Device locks the user out.
Idle Timeout
This field indicates the number of minutes that the system can idle before being logged
out.
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Table 114 Maintenance > User Account (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Lock Period
This field indicates the number of minutes for the lockout period. A user cannot log into
the Device during the lockout period, even if he/she enters correct account information.
Group
This field displays the login account type of the user.
Different login account types have different privilege levels. The web configurator
screens and privileges vary depending on which account type you use to log in.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit this user account.
Click the Delete icon to remove an account.
Web Captive Portal
Enable this feature to redirect each LAN host to the Device’s login page for user
authentication during its first connection to the Internet. The authentication time will be
valid for 1 day after the user logs in successfully.
Customize Login
Message
You can customize a message to display in the Login screen.
29.2.1 Add/Edit a User Account
Use this screen to add or edit a users account. Click Add new user in the User Account screen or
the Edit icon next to the user account you want to edit. The screen shown next appears.
Figure 141 User Account: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 115 User Account: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
This field is read-only if you are editing the user account.
Enter a descriptive name for the user account. The user name can be up to 15
alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, a-z, -, _ with no spaces). With advanced account
security enabled, the user names must be a minimum length of six characters and
include both letters and numbers.
Password
Specify the password associated to this account. The password can be 6 to 15
alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, a-z, -, _ with no spaces), not containing the user
name. It must contain both letters and numbers.
The characters are displayed as asterisks (*) in this field.
Verify Password
Enter the exact same password that you just entered in the above field.
New Password
This field is displayed only when you are editing the user account.
Type your new system password (6 to 15 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, a-z, -, _
with no spaces), not containing the user name).
Verify Password
This field is displayed only when you are editing the user account.
Enter the exact same password that you just entered in the above field.
Retry Times
The Device can lock a user out if you use a wrong user name or password to log in the
Device.
Enter up to how many times a user can re-enter his/her account information before the
Device locks the user out.
Idle Timeout
Enter the number of minutes that the system can idle before being logged out.
Lock Period
Enter the number of minutes for the lockout period. A user cannot log into the Device
during the lockout period, even if he/she enters correct account information.
Group
This field is read-only if you are editing the user account.
Select a type of login account. The web configurator screens and privileges vary
depending on which account type you use to log in. Administrator accounts can
configure the Device while User accounts can only view some status information.
Users logged in with either type of account can access the Internet.
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File Sharing Service
(SAMBA)
Select Enable to allow the file sharing feature with this user account. This allows the
user to access shared files in USB storage. Samba allows file and print sharing between
computers running Windows and computers running Unix.
File Share Name
Enter a name for the shared resource (profile). For example, the user can connect to
192.168.1.1/<File Share Name>.
File Share Directory
Enter the shared root directory.
File Sharing
Writable
Select if you want the files in the shared directory to be writable or not.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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Remote Management
30.1 Overview
Remote Management allows you to manage your SBG3500-N from a remote location through the
following interfaces:
• LAN
• WAN
• Trust Domain
Note: The SBG3500-N is managed using the Web Configurator.
30.2 The Remote MGMT Screen
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) users can use which service(s) to manage
the SBG3500-N.
Click Maintenance > Remote MGMT to open the following screen.
Figure 142 Maintenance > Remote MGMT
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 116 Maintenance > Remote MGMT
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trust Domain
Status
This field displays whether the Trust Domain is active or not.
IP Address
Enter the Trust Domain IP address.
Add
Click Add to add an IP address which the computer is allowed to access and manage the the
SBG3500-N.
Delete
Click Delete to remove an IP address which the computer is not allowed to access and
manage the the SBG3500-N.
Edit
Click Edit to make changes to the IP addresses which the computer is allowed to access and
manage the the SBG3500-N.
Services
This is the service you may use to access the SBG3500-N.
LAN/WLAN
Select the Enable check box for the corresponding services that you want to allow access to
the SBG3500-N from the LAN/WLAN.
WAN
Select the Enable check box for the corresponding services that you want to allow access to
the SBG3500-N from the WAN.
Trust Domain
Select the Enable check box for the corresponding services that you want to allow access to
the SBG3500-N from the Trust Domain.
Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must use the
same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Certificate
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HTTPS
Certificate
Select a certificate the HTTPS server (the SBG3500-N) uses to authenticate itself to the
HTTPS client. You must have certificates already configured in the Certificates screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the SBG3500-N.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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TR-069 Client
31.1 Overview
This chapter explains how to configure the Device’s TR-069 auto-configuration settings.
31.2 The TR-069 Client Screen
TR-069 defines how Customer Premise Equipment (CPE), for example your Device, can be managed
over the WAN by an Auto Configuration Server (ACS). TR-069 is based on sending Remote
Procedure Calls (RPCs) between an ACS and a client device. RPCs are sent in Extensible Markup
Language (XML) format over HTTP or HTTPS.
An administrator can use an ACS to remotely set up the Device, modify settings, perform firmware
upgrades as well as monitor and diagnose the Device. You have to enable the device to be managed
by the ACS and specify the ACS IP address or domain name and username and password.
Click Maintenance > TR-069 Client to open the following screen. Use this screen to configure
your Device to be managed by an ACS.
Figure 143 Maintenance > TR-069 Client
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 117 Maintenance > TR-069 Client
306
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Inform
Select Enable for the Device to send periodic inform via TR-069 on the WAN.
Otherwise, select Disable.
Inform Interval
Enter the time interval (in seconds) at which the Device sends information to the autoconfiguration server.
ACS URL
Enter the URL or IP address of the auto-configuration server.
ACS User Name
Enter the TR-069 user name for authentication with the auto-configuration server.
ACS Password
Enter the TR-069 password for authentication with the auto-configuration server.
WAN Interface used
by TR-069 client
Select a WAN interface through which the TR-069 traffic passes.
Display SOAP
messages on serial
console
Select Enable to show the SOAP messages on the console.
Connection Request
Authentication
Select this option to enable authentication when there is a connection request from the
ACS.
Connection Request
User Name
Enter the connection request user name.
Connection Request
Password
Enter the connection request password.
Connection Request
URL
This shows the connection request URL.
Local certificate
used by TR-069
client
You can choose a local certificate used by TR-069 client. The local certificate should be
imported in the Security > Certificates > Local Certificates screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
If you select Any_WAN, you should also select the pre-configured WAN connection(s).
When the ACS makes a connection request to the Device, this user name is used to
authenticate the ACS.
When the ACS makes a connection request to the Device, this password is used to
authenticate the ACS.
The ACS can use this URL to make a connection request to the Device.
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SNMP
32.1 The SNMP Agent Screen
Simple Network Management Protocol is a protocol used for exchanging management information
between network devices. Your Device supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manager
station to manage and monitor the Device through the network. The Device supports SNMP version
one (SNMPv1) and version two (SNMPv2c). The next figure illustrates an SNMP management
operation.
Figure 144 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main types of component: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the Device). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed device into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators perform
network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor managed
devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include such as number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of
managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of accessing
these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol operations:
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• Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
• GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an
agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an agent, it
initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
• Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
• Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
Click Maintenance > SNMP to open the following screen. Use this screen to configure the Device
SNMP settings.
Figure 145 Maintenance > SNMP
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 118 Maintenance > SNMP
308
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SNMP Agent
Select Enable to allow a manager station to manage and monitor the Device through
the network via SNMP. Otherwise, select Disable.
Get Community
Enter the password for the incoming Get and GetNext requests from the management
station. The default is public and allows all requests.
Set Community
Enter the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from the
management station. The default is public and allows all requests.
System Name
Enter the system name of the Device.
System Location
Specify the geographic location of the Device.
System Contact
Enter the name of the person in charge of the Device.
Trap Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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Time
33.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure system related settings, such as system time, password,
name, the domain name and the inactivity timeout interval.
33.2 The Time Screen
To change your Device’s time and date, click Maintenance > Time. The screen appears as shown.
Use this screen to configure the Device’s time based on your local time zone.
Figure 146 Maintenance > Time
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 119 Maintenance > Time
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Date/Time
Current Time
This field displays the time of your Device.
Each time you reload this page, the Device synchronizes the time with the time server.
Current Date
This field displays the date of your Device.
Each time you reload this page, the Device synchronizes the date with the time server.
NTP Time Server
First ~ Fifth NTP
time server
Select an NTP time server from the drop-down list box.
Otherwise, select Other and enter the IP address or URL (up to 29 extended ASCII
characters in length) of your time server.
Select None if you don’t want to configure the time server.
Check with your ISP/network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Time Zone
Time zone offset
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference between your
time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
Daylight Saving Time is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set
their clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the
evening.
State
Select Enable if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start rule:
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you enabled Daylight
Saving. You can select a specific date in a particular month or a specific day of a specific
week in a particular month. The Time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple
of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second Sunday of
March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States, set the day to Second, Sunday, the month to
March and the time to 2 in the Hour field.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All of
the time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the same
moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would set the day to Last,
Sunday and the month to March. The time you select in the o'clock field depends on
your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2 in the Hour field because
Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End rule
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you enabled Daylight
Saving. You can select a specific date in a particular month or a specific day of a specific
week in a particular month. The Time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple
of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of November. Each
time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So
in the United States you would set the day to First, Sunday, the month to November
and the time to 2 in the Hour field.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October. All of
the time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the same
moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would set the day to Last,
Sunday, and the month to October. The time you select in the o'clock field depends
on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2 in the Hour field
because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
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Table 119 Maintenance > Time (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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E-mail Notification
34.1 Overview
A mail server is an application or a computer that runs such an application to receive, forward and
deliver e-mail messages.
To have the Device send reports, logs or notifications via e-mail, you must specify an e-mail server
and the e-mail addresses of the sender and receiver.
34.2 The Email Notification Screen
Click Maintenance > Email Notification to open the Email Notification screen. Use this screen
to view, remove and add mail server information on the Device.
Figure 147 Maintenance > Email Notification
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 120 Maintenance > Email Notification
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New Email
Click this button to create a new entry.
Mail Server Address
This field displays the server name or the IP address of the mail server.
Username
This field displays the user name of the sender’s mail account.
Password
This field displays the password of the sender’s mail account.
Email Address
This field displays the e-mail address that you want to be in the from/sender line of the
e-mail that the Device sends.
Remove
Click this button to delete the selected entry(ies).
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Chapter 34 E-mail Notification
34.2.1 Email Notification Edit
Click the Add button in the Email Notification screen. Use this screen to configure the required
information for sending e-mail via a mail server.
Figure 148 Email Notification > Add
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 121 Email Notification > Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mail Server Address
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail address
specified in the Account Email Address field.
If this field is left blank, reports, logs or notifications will not be sent via e-mail.
Mail Server Port
Choose a mail server port 25 or 587 from the drop-down list. Choose Port 25 if you’re
using mail server from your ISP. Choose port 587 if you are using your own mailserver
that is out of network with your ISP.
Authentication
Username
Enter the user name (up to 32 characters). This is usually the user name of a mail
account you specified in the Account Email Address field.
Authentication
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
Account Email
Address
Enter the e-mail address that you want to be in the from/sender line of the e-mail
notification that the Device sends.
If you activate SSL/TLS authentication, the e-mail address must be able to be
authenticated by the mail server as well.
Apply
Click this button to save your changes and return to the previous screen.
Cancel
Click this button to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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35
Logs Setting
35.1 Overview
You can configure where the Device sends logs and which logs and/or immediate alerts the Device
records in the Logs Setting screen.
35.2 The Log Setting Screen
To change your Device’s log settings, click Maintenance > Logs Setting. The screen appears as
shown.
Figure 149 Maintenance > Logs Setting
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 122 Maintenance > Logs Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog Setting
Syslog Logging
The Device sends a log to an external syslog server. Select Enable to enable syslog
logging.
Mode
Select the syslog destination from the drop-down list box.
If you select Remote, the log(s) will be sent to a remote syslog server. If you select
Local File, the log(s) will be saved in a local file. If you want to send the log(s) to a
remote syslog server and save it in a local file, select Local File and Remote.
Syslog Server
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the selected
categories of logs.
UDP Port
Enter the port number used by the syslog server.
E-mail Log Settings
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail addresses
specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages will not be sent via Email.
System Log Mail
Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the system log e-mail message
that the Device sends.
Security Log Mail
Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the security log e-mail message
that the Device sends.
Send Log to
The Device sends logs to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left
blank, the Device does not send logs via E-mail.
Send Alarm to
Alerts are real-time notifications that are sent as soon as an event, such as a DoS
attack, system error, or forbidden web access attempt occurs. Enter the E-mail address
where the alert messages will be sent. Alerts include system errors, attacks and
attempted access to blocked web sites. If this field is left blank, alert messages will not
be sent via E-mail.
Alarm Interval
Specify how often the alarm should be updated.
Allowed Capacity
Before Email
Set what percent of the Device’s log storage space can be filled before the Device sends
a log e-mail.
Clear log after
sending mail
Select this to delete all the logs after the Device sends an E-mail of the logs.
Active Log and Alert
System Log
Select the categories of system logs that you want to record.
Security Log
Select the categories of security logs that you want to record.
Send immediate
alert
Select log categories for which you want the Device to send E-mail alerts immediately.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
35.2.1 Example E-mail Log
An "End of Log" message displays for each mail in which a complete log has been sent. The
following is an example of a log sent by e-mail.
• You may edit the subject title.
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• The date format here is Day-Month-Year.
• The date format here is Month-Day-Year. The time format is Hour-Minute-Second.
• "End of Log" message shows that a complete log has been sent.
Figure 150 E-mail Log Example
Subject:
Firewall Alert From
Date:
Fri, 07 Apr 2000 10:05:42
From:
user@zyxel.com
To:
user@zyxel.com
1|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy |forward
| 09:54:03 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
2|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy |forward
| 09:54:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
3|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.6
To:10.10.10.10 |match
|forward
| 09:54:19 |UDP
src port:03516 dest port:00053 |<1,01>
|
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
126|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:00 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
127|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
128|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:30 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
End of Firewall Log
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36
Firmware Upgrade
36.1 Overview
This chapter explains how to upload new firmware to your Device. You can download new firmware
releases from your nearest ZyXEL FTP site (or www.zyxel.com) to use to upgrade your device’s
performance.
Only use firmware for your device’s specific model. Refer to the label on
the bottom of your Device.
36.2 The Firmware Screen
Click Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to open the following screen. The upload process uses
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload, the
system will reboot.
Do NOT turn off the Device while firmware upload is in progress!
Figure 151 Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 123 Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Firmware
Version
This is the present Firmware version and the date created.
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find
it.
Browse...
Click this to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must decompress
compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two minutes.
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Chapter 36 Firmware Upgrade
After you see the firmware updating screen, wait two minutes before logging into the Device again.
Figure 152 Firmware Uploading
The Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In some
operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 153 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the Status screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click OK to go back to the
Firmware Upgrade screen.
Figure 154 Error Message
318
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37
Configuration
37.1 Overview
The Configuration screen allows you to backup and restore device configurations. You can also
reset your device settings back to the factory default.
37.2 The Configuration Screen
Click Maintenance > Configuration. Information related to factory defaults, backup
configuration, and restoring configuration appears in this screen, as shown next.
Figure 155 Maintenance > Configuration
Backup Configuration
Backup Configuration allows you to back up (save) the Device’s current configuration to a file on
your computer. The configuration file should be saved and edited in UTF-8 (without BOM) format, if
you’re using Windows Notepad, make sure you choose File > Save as UTF-8 in the text editor.
Once your Device is configured and functioning properly, it is highly recommended that you back up
your configuration file before making configuration changes. The backup configuration file will be
useful in case you need to return to your previous settings.
Click Backup to save the Device’s current configuration to your computer.
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Chapter 37 Configuration
Restore Configuration
Restore Configuration allows you to upload a new or previously saved configuration file from your
computer to your Device.
Table 124 Restore Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click this to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must decompress
compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process.
Do not turn off the Device while configuration file upload is in progress.
After the Device configuration has been restored successfully, the login screen appears. Login again
to restart the Device.
The Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In some
operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 156 Network Temporarily Disconnected
If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP address of your
computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default device IP address (192.168.1.1). See
Appendix A on page 334 for details on how to set up your computer’s IP address.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click OK to go back to the
Configuration screen.
Figure 157 Configuration Upload Error
320
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Chapter 37 Configuration
Reset to Factory Defaults
Click the Reset button to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the Device to
its factory defaults. The following warning screen appears.
Figure 158 Reset Warning Message
Figure 159 Reset In Process Message
You can also press the RESET button on the rear panel to reset the factory defaults of your Device.
Refer to Section 1.6 on page 24 for more information on the RESET button.
37.3 The Reboot Screen
System restart allows you to reboot the Device remotely without turning the power off. You may
need to do this if the Device hangs, for example.
Click Maintenance > Reboot. Click Reboot to have the Device reboot. This does not affect the
Device's configuration.
Figure 160 Maintenance > Reboot
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38
Diagnostic
38.1 Overview
The Diagnostic screens display information to help you identify problems with the Device.
The route between a CO VDSL switch and one of its CPE may go through switches owned by
independent organizations. A connectivity fault point generally takes time to discover and impacts
subscriber’s network access. In order to eliminate the management and maintenance efforts, IEEE
802.1ag is a Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) specification which allows network
administrators to identify and manage connection faults. Through discovery and verification of the
path, CFM can detect, analyze and isolate connectivity faults in bridged LANs.
38.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• The Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup screen lets you ping an IP address or trace the route
packets take to a host (Section 38.3 on page 323).
• The 802.1ag screen lets you perform CFM actions (Section 38.5 on page 325).
• The OAM Ping Test screen lets you send an ATM OAM (Operation, Administration and
Maintenance) packet to verify the connectivity of a specific PVC. (Section 38.5 on page 325).
38.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
How CFM Works
A Maintenance Association (MA) defines a VLAN and associated Maintenance End Point (MEP) ports
on the device under a Maintenance Domain (MD) level. An MEP port has the ability to send
Connectivity Check Messages (CCMs) and get other MEP ports information from neighbor devices’
CCMs within an MA.
CFM provides two tests to discover connectivity faults.
• Loopback test - checks if the MEP port receives its Loop Back Response (LBR) from its target
after it sends the Loop Back Message (LBM). If no response is received, there might be a
connectivity fault between them.
• Link trace test - provides additional connectivity fault analysis to get more information on where
the fault is. If an MEP port does not respond to the source MEP, this may indicate a fault.
Administrators can take further action to check and resume services from the fault according to
the line connectivity status report.
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38.3 Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup
Use this screen to ping, traceroute, or nslookup an IP address. Click Maintenance > Diagnostic >
Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup to open the screen shown next.
Figure 161 Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 125 Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
URL or IP Address
Type the IP address of a computer that you want to perform ping, traceroute, or
nslookup in order to test a connection.
Ping
Click this to ping the IP address that you entered.
TraceRoute
Click this button to perform the traceroute function. This determines the path a packet
takes to the specified computer.
Nslookup
Click this button to perform a DNS lookup on the IP address of a computer you enter.
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38.4 802.1ag
Click Maintenance > Diagnostic > 8.2.1ag to open the following screen. Use this screen to
perform CFM actions.
Figure 162 Maintenance > Diagnostic > 802.1ag
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 126 Maintenance > Diagnostic > 802.1ag
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
802.1ag Connectivity Fault Management
324
Maintenance
Domain (MD) Level
Select a level (0-7) under which you want to create an MA.
Destination MAC
Address
Enter the target device’s MAC address to which the Device performs a CFM loopback
test.
802.1Q VLAN ID
Type a VLAN ID (0-4095) for this MA.
VDSL Traffic Type
This shows whether the VDSL traffic is activated.
Loopback Message
(LBM)
This shows how many Loop Back Messages (LBMs) are sent and if there is any inorder
or outorder Loop Back Response (LBR) received from a remote MEP.
Linktrace Message
(LTM)
This shows the destination MAC address in the Link Trace Response (LTR).
Set MD Level
Click this button to configure the MD (Maintenance Domain) level.
Send Loopback
Click this button to have the selected MEP send the LBM (Loop Back Message) to a
specified remote end point.
Send Linktrace
Click this button to have the selected MEP send the LTMs (Link Trace Messages) to a
specified remote end point.
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38.5 OAM Ping Test
Click Maintenance > Diagnostic > OAM Ping Test to open the screen shown next. Use this
screen to perform an OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance) F4 or F5 loopback test on a
PVC. The Device sends an OAM F4 or F5 packet to the DSLAM or ATM switch and then returns it to
the Device. The test result then displays in the text box.
ATM sets up virtual circuits over which end systems communicate. The terminology for virtual
circuits is as follows:
•
Virtual Channel (VC)
Logical connections between ATM devices
•
Virtual Path (VP)
A bundle of virtual channels
•
Virtual Circuits
A series of virtual paths between circuit end points
Figure 163 Virtual Circuit Topology
Think of a virtual path as a cable that contains a bundle of wires. The cable connects two points and
wires within the cable provide individual circuits between the two points. In an ATM cell header, a
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) identifies a link formed by a virtual path; a VCI (Virtual Channel
Identifier) identifies a channel within a virtual path. A series of virtual paths make up a virtual
circuit.
F4 cells operate at the virtual path (VP) level, while F5 cells operate at the virtual channel (VC)
level. F4 cells use the same VPI as the user data cells on VP connections, but use different
predefined VCI values. F5 cells use the same VPI and VCI as the user data cells on the VC
connections, and are distinguished from data cells by a predefinded Payload Type Identifier (PTI) in
the cell header. Both F4 flows and F5 flows are bidirectional and have two types.
• segment F4 flows (VCI=3)
• end-to-end F4 flows (VCI=4)
• segment F5 flows (PTI=100)
• end-to-end F5 flows (PTI=101)
OAM F4 or F5 tests are used to check virtual path or virtual channel availability between two DSL
devices. Segment flows are terminated at the connecting point which terminates a VP or VC
segment. End-to-end flows are terminated at the end point of a VP or VC connection, where an ATM
link is terminated. Segment loopback tests allow you to verify integrity of a PVC to the nearest
neighboring ATM device. End-to-end loopback tests allow you to verify integrity of an end-to-end
PVC.
Note: The DSLAM to which the Device is connected must also support ATM F4 and/or F5
to use this test.
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Note: This screen is available only when you configure an ATM layer-2 interface.
Figure 164 Maintenance > Diagnostic > OAM Ping Test
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 127 Maintenance > Diagnostic > OAM Ping Test
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select a PVC on which you want to perform the loopback test.
326
F4 segment
Press this to perform an OAM F4 segment loopback test.
F4 end-end
Press this to perform an OAM F4 end-to-end loopback test.
F5 segment
Press this to perform an OAM F5 segment loopback test.
F5 end-end
Press this to perform an OAM F5 end-to-end loopback test.
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39
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• Device Access and Login
• Internet Access
• Wireless Internet Access
• USB Device Connection
• UPnP
39.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
The Device does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure the Device is turned on.
2
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the Device.
3
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the Device and plugged in to an appropriate
power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
4
Turn the Device off and on.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 1.3 on page 22.
2
Check the hardware connections.
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4
Turn the Device off and on.
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5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
39.2 Device Access and Login
I forgot the IP address for the Device.
1
The default LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1.
2
If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address of the Device by
looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your computer. To do this in most Windows
computers, click Start > Run, enter cmd, and then enter ipconfig. The IP address of the Default
Gateway might be the IP address of the Device (it depends on the network), so enter this IP
address in your Internet browser.
3
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 1.6 on page
24.
I forgot the password.
1
The default admin password is 1234.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 1.6 on page
24.
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is 192.168.1.1.
• If you changed the IP address (Section 8.2 on page 163), use the new IP address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting suggestions for I
forgot the IP address for the Device.
328
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See Section
1.3 on page 22.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts and Java
enabled. See Appendix C on page 364.
4
If it is possible to log in from another interface, check the service control settings for HTTP and
HTTPS (Maintenance > Remote MGMT).
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5
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the Device with the default IP address.
See Section 1.6 on page 24.
6
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the advanced
suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Make sure you have logged out of any earlier management sessions using the same user account
even if they were through a different interface or using a different browser.
• Try to access the Device using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access the Device,
check the remote management settings and firewall rules to find out why the Device does not
respond to HTTP.
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the Device.
1
Make sure you have entered the password correctly. The default admin password is 1234. The field
is case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2
You cannot log in to the web configurator while someone is using Telnet to access the Device. Log
out of the Device in the other session, or ask the person who is logged in to log out.
3
Turn the Device off and on.
4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 39.1 on page
327.
I cannot Telnet to the Device.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
I cannot use FTP to upload / download the configuration file. / I cannot use FTP to upload
new firmware.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
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39.3 Internet Access
I cannot access the Internet.
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See the
Quick Start Guide and Section 1.3 on page 22.
2
Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly in the Network Setting >
Broadband screen. These fields are case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
3
If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure that you enabled the wireless LAN in
the Device and your wireless client and that the wireless settings in the wireless client are the same
as the settings in the Device.
4
Disconnect all the cables from your device and reconnect them.
5
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
I cannot access the Internet through a DSL connection.
1
Make sure you have the DSL WAN port connected to a telephone jack (or the DSL or modem jack
on a splitter if you have one).
2
Make sure you configured a proper DSL WAN interface (Network Setting > Broadband screen)
with the Internet account information provided by your ISP and that it is enabled.
3
Check that the LAN interface you are connected to is in the same interface group as the DSL
connection (Network Setting > Interface Group).
4
If you set up a WAN connection using bridging service, make sure you turn off the DHCP feature in
the LAN screen to have the clients get WAN IP addresses directly from your ISP’s DHCP server.
I cannot connect to the Internet using a second DSL connection.
ADSL and VDSL connections cannot work at the same time. You can only use one type of DSL
connection, either ADSL or VDSL connection at one time.
I cannot connect to the Internet using a Ethernet connection.
1
330
Make sure you have the Ethernet WAN port connected to a MODEM or Router.
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2
Make sure you configured a proper EthernetWAN interface (Network Setting > Broadband >
Multi-WAN screen) with the Internet account information provided by your ISP and that it is
enabled.
3
Check that the WAN interface you are connected to is in the same interface group as the Ethernet
connection (Network Setting > Interface Group/VLAN).
4
If you set up a WAN connection using bridging service, make sure you turn off the DHCP feature in
the LAN screen to have the clients get WAN IP addresses directly from your ISP’s DHCP server.
I cannot access the Internet anymore. I had access to the Internet (with the Device), but my
Internet connection is not available anymore.
1
Your session with the Device may have expired. Try logging into the Device again.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See the
Quick Start Guide and Section 1.3 on page 22.
3
Turn the Device off and on.
4
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
39.4 Wireless Internet Access
What factors may cause intermittent or unstabled wireless connection? How can I solve this
problem?
The following factors may cause interference:
• Obstacles: walls, ceilings, furniture, and so on.
• Building Materials: metal doors, aluminum studs.
• Electrical devices: microwaves, monitors, electric motors, cordless phones, and other wireless
devices.
To optimize the speed and quality of your wireless connection, you can:
• Move your wireless device closer to the AP if the signal strength is low.
• Reduce wireless interference that may be caused by other wireless networks or surrounding
wireless electronics such as cordless phones.
• Place the AP where there are minimum obstacles (such as walls and ceilings) between the AP and
the wireless client.
• Reduce the number of wireless clients connecting to the same AP simultaneously, or add
additional APs if necessary.
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• Try closing some programs that use the Internet, especially peer-to-peer applications. If the
wireless client is sending or receiving a lot of information, it may have too many programs open
that use the Internet.
What is a Server Set ID (SSID)?
An SSID is a name that uniquely identifies a wireless network. The AP and all the clients within a
wireless network must use the same SSID.
What wireless security modes does my Device support?
Wireless security is vital to your network. It protects communications between wireless stations,
access points and the wired network.
The available security modes in your Device are as follows:
• WPA2-PSK: (recommended) This uses a pre-shared key with the WPA2 standard.
• WPA-PSK: This has the device use either WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK depending on which security
mode the wireless client uses.
• WPA2: WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption,
authentication and key management than WPA. It requires the use of a RADIUS server and is
mostly used in business networks.
• WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. It requires the use
of a RADIUS server and is mostly used in business networks.
• WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the
wireless stations and the access points to keep network communications private.
39.5 USB Device Connection
The Device fails to detect my USB device.
332
1
Disconnect the USB device.
2
Reboot the Device.
3
Log into the web configurator and go to the Maintenance > User Account screen. Click the Edit
icon on the account you are currently using. Check if the File Sharing Service (SAMBA) feature is
enabled. You need to enable it to allow uses to access shared files in USB storage.
4
If you are connecting a USB hard drive that comes with an external power supply, make sure it is
connected to an appropriate power source that is on.
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5
Re-connect your USB device to the Device.
39.6 UPnP
When using UPnP and the Device reboots, my computer cannot detect UPnP and refresh My
Network Places > Local Network.
1
Disconnect the Ethernet cable from the Device’s LAN port or from your computer.
2
Re-connect the Ethernet cable.
The Local Area Connection icon for UPnP disappears in the screen.
Restart your computer.
I cannot open special applications such as white board, file transfer and video when I use the
MSN messenger.
1
Wait more than three minutes.
2
Restart the applications.
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A
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/Vista, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all versions
of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/IP on your
computer. Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and
later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order to
"communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that your
computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the Device’s LAN port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open the Network
window.
Figure 165 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
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Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a
network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Adapter and then click Add.
3
Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Protocol and then click Add.
3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1
Click Add.
2
Select Client and then click Add.
3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click OK.
5
Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
Configuring
1
In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP entry and click
Properties
2
Click the IP Address tab.
• If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address automatically.
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• If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type your information into
the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 166 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
3
Click the DNS Configuration tab.
• If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
• If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the information in the fields
below (you may not need to fill them all in).
Figure 167 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
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4
Click the Gateway tab.
• If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously installed gateways.
• If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field and click Add.
5
Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6
Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7
Turn on your Device and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start and then Run.
2
In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration window.
3
Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask and default
gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
The following example figures use the default Windows XP GUI theme.
1
Click start (Start in Windows 2000/NT), Settings, Control Panel.
Figure 168 Windows XP: Start Menu
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2
In the Control Panel, double-click Network Connections (Network and Dial-up Connections
in Windows 2000/NT).
Figure 169 Windows XP: Control Panel
3
Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
Figure 170 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
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4
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and then click Properties.
Figure 171 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5
The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in Windows XP).
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address and fill in the IP address,
Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
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• Click Advanced.
Figure 172 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
6
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed gateways in the IP
Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in Subnet mask,
and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add in Default
gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in Gateway. To
manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission hops), clear the Automatic
metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
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• Click OK when finished.
Figure 173 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
7
In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in Windows XP):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your DNS server IP
address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS server
addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and Alternate DNS server fields.
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If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the DNS tab to order
them.
Figure 174 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8
Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9
Click Close (OK in Windows 2000/NT) to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
10
Close the Network Connections window (Network and Dial-up Connections in Windows
2000/NT).
11 Turn on your Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can also open
Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and then click the Support
tab.
Windows Vista
This section shows screens from Windows Vista Enterprise Version 6.0.
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1
Click the Start icon, Control Panel.
Figure 175 Windows Vista: Start Menu
2
In the Control Panel, double-click Network and Internet.
Figure 176 Windows Vista: Control Panel
3
Click Network and Sharing Center.
Figure 177 Windows Vista: Network And Internet
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4
Click Manage network connections.
Figure 178 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
5
Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
Note: During this procedure, click Continue whenever Windows displays a screen saying
that it needs your permission to continue.
Figure 179 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
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6
Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click Properties.
Figure 180 Windows Vista: Local Area Connection Properties
7
The Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window opens (the General tab).
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP address and fill in the IP address,
Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
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• Click Advanced.
Figure 181 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
8
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed gateways in the IP
Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in Subnet mask,
and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add in Default
gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in Gateway. To
manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission hops), clear the Automatic
metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
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• Click OK when finished.
Figure 182 Windows Vista: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
9
In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window, (the General tab):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your DNS server IP
address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS server
addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and Alternate DNS server fields.
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If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the DNS tab to order
them.
Figure 183 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
10 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window.
11 Click Close to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
12
Close the Network Connections window.
13 Turn on your Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
348
1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can also open
Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and then click the Support
tab.
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Macintosh OS 8/9
1
Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP Control
Panel.
Figure 184 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
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2
Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
Figure 185 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure: list.
4
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your Device in the Router address box.
5
Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6
Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7
Turn on your Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1
Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System Preferences window.
Figure 186 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2
Click Network in the icon bar.
• Select Automatic from the Location list.
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• Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
• Click the TCP/IP tab.
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
Figure 187 Macintosh OS X: Network
4
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your Device in the Router address box.
5
Click Apply Now and close the window.
6
Turn on your Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
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Linux
This section shows you how to configure your computer’s TCP/IP settings in Red Hat Linux 9.0.
Procedure, screens and file location may vary depending on your Linux distribution and release
version.
Note: Make sure you are logged in as the root administrator.
Using the K Desktop Environment (KDE)
Follow the steps below to configure your computer IP address using the KDE.
1
Click the Red Hat button (located on the bottom left corner), select System Setting and click
Network.
Figure 188 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Devices
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2
Double-click on the profile of the network card you wish to configure. The Ethernet Device
General screen displays as shown.
Figure 189 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Ethernet Device: General
• If you have a dynamic IP address, click Automatically obtain IP address settings with and
select dhcp from the drop-down list.
• If you have a static IP address, click Statically set IP Addresses and fill in the Address,
Subnet mask, and Default Gateway Address fields.
3
Click OK to save the changes and close the Ethernet Device General screen.
4
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click the DNS tab in the Network Configuration
screen. Enter the DNS server information in the fields provided.
Figure 190 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: DNS
5
Click the Devices tab.
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6
Click the Activate button to apply the changes. The following screen displays. Click Yes to save
the changes in all screens.
Figure 191 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Activate
7
After the network card restart process is complete, make sure the Status is Active in the Network
Configuration screen.
Using Configuration Files
Follow the steps below to edit the network configuration files and set your computer IP address.
1
Assuming that you have only one network card on the computer, locate the ifconfig-eth0
configuration file (where eth0 is the name of the Ethernet card). Open the configuration file with
any plain text editor.
• If you have a dynamic IP address, enter dhcp in the BOOTPROTO= field. The following figure
shows an example.
Figure 192 Red Hat 9.0: Dynamic IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
• If you have a static IP address, enter static in the BOOTPROTO= field. Type IPADDR= followed
by the IP address (in dotted decimal notation) and type NETMASK= followed by the subnet
mask. The following example shows an example where the static IP address is 192.168.1.10
and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
Figure 193 Red Hat 9.0: Static IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.1.10
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
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2
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), enter the DNS server information in the resolv.conf
file in the /etc directory. The following figure shows an example where two DNS server IP
addresses are specified.
Figure 194 Red Hat 9.0: DNS Settings in resolv.conf
nameserver 172.23.5.1
nameserver 172.23.5.2
3
After you edit and save the configuration files, you must restart the network card. Enter ./network
restart in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. The following figure shows an example.
Figure 195 Red Hat 9.0: Restart Ethernet Card
[root@localhost init.d]# network restart
Shutting down interface eth0:
Shutting down loopback interface:
Setting network parameters:
Bringing up loopback interface:
Bringing up interface eth0:
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
Verifying Settings
Enter ifconfig in a terminal screen to check your TCP/IP properties.
Figure 196 Red Hat 9.0: Checking TCP/IP Properties
[root@localhost]# ifconfig
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:72:5B:44
inet addr:172.23.19.129 Bcast:172.23.19.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:717 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:13 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:730412 (713.2 Kb) TX bytes:1570 (1.5 Kb)
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x1000
[root@localhost]#
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B
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also use
subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host ID. In the same
way that houses on a street share a common street name, the hosts on a network share a common
network number. Similarly, as each house has its own house number, each host on the network has
its own unique identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network number to send packets
to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on the network the packets are
delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for example,
192.168.1.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is an eight-digit binary
number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or 0 to 255 in
decimal.
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The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets (192.168.1) are
the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
Figure 197 Network Number and Host ID
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID varies according
to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits are
part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term “subnet” is short for “sub-network”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the IP
address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the corresponding bit
in the IP address is part of the host ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in bold text) and host
ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
Table 128 Subnet Masks
1ST OCTET: 2ND
OCTET:
(192)
(168)
3RD
OCTET:
4TH OCTET
(1)
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
00000010
By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from the
leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of 32 bits.
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Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits with a “1” value).
For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the mask are ones and the remaining 24
bits are zeroes.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The following
examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit and 29-bit subnet masks.
Table 129 Subnet Masks
BINARY
DECIMAL
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH OCTET
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
24-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.248
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible hosts you can have
on your network. The larger the number of network number bits, the smaller the number of
remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network (192.168.1.0 with a 24-bit
subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host IDs of all ones is the broadcast address for that
network (192.168.1.255 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the maximum number of
possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 130 Maximum Host Numbers
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HOSTS
24
8 bits
255.0.0.0
24 bits
2
16 bits
255.255.0.0
16 bits
216 – 2
65534
24 bits
255.255.255.0
8 bits
28 – 2
254
29 bits
255.255.255.24
8
3 bits
3
–2
2 –2
16777214
6
Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing a “/”
followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask 255.255.255.128.
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The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 131 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the following example
a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a group of servers from the rest of the
company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three octets of the address
(192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining octet is the host ID, allowing a maximum
of 28 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 198 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate subnetworks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or /25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two subnets; 192.168.1.0 /25
and 192.168.1.128 /25.
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The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now two subnetworks, A and B.
Figure 199 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of 27 – 2 or 126
possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself, all ones is the subnet’s
broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP address that can be assigned to
an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.1.1 and the highest is 192.168.1.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit address into two
subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets, you need to “borrow” two host ID
bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01, 10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a host ID of all
zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
Table 132 Subnet 1
360
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
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Table 132 Subnet 1 (continued)
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
Table 133 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 134 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Table 135 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 136 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
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Table 136 Eight Subnets (continued)
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit network number.
Table 137 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit network number.
Table 138 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
362
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
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Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or your
network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their instructions in
selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single user
account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is established. If this
is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from 192.168.0.0 to
192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses
specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise. You
must also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the Device.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your Device that is easy to
remember (for instance, 192.168.1.1) but make sure that no other device on your network is using
that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your Device will compute
the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't need to change
the subnet mask computed by the Device unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from the
Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example) you can assign any IP addresses to
the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has
reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
• 172.16.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
— 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned from a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the ISP
can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if you are
part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for the
appropriate IP addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the
guidelines above. For more information on address assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, Address
Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
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A PPENDIX
C
Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java
Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
Note: Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2) or allow
pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP address.
Disable Pop-up Blockers
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off Pop-up Blocker.
Figure 200 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the Privacy tab.
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions
2
Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen. This disables any
web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 201 Internet Options: Privacy
3
Click Apply to save this setting.
Enable Pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the following steps.
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions
2
Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
Figure 202 Internet Options: Privacy
3
366
Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have blocked) with the
prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.167.1.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions
4
Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
Figure 203 Pop-up Blocker Settings
5
Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6
Click Apply to save this setting.
JavaScript
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check that JavaScript
are allowed.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions
1
In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Figure 204 Internet Options: Security
368
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Scripting.
4
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
5
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions
6
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 205 Security Settings - Java Scripting
Java Permissions
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
4
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
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5
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 206 Security Settings - Java
JAVA (Sun)
370
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced tab.
2
Make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions
3
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 207 Java (Sun)
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Firefox 2.0 screens are used here. Screens for other versions may vary.
You can enable Java, Javascript and pop-ups in one screen. Click Tools, then click Options in the
screen that appears.
Figure 208 Mozilla Firefox: Tools > Options
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScript and Java Permissions
Click Content.to show the screen below. Select the check boxes as shown in the following screen.
Figure 209 Mozilla Firefox Content Security
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A PPENDIX
D
Wireless LANs
Wireless LAN Topologies
This section discusses ad-hoc and infrastructure wireless LAN topologies.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects a set of
computers with wireless adapters (A, B, C). Any time two or more wireless adapters are within
range of each other, they can set up an independent network, which is commonly referred to as an
ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an example
of notebook computers using wireless adapters to form an ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 210 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless clients or between a
wireless client and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless clients in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is enabled, wireless
client A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other. When Intra-BSS is
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
disabled, wireless client A and B can still access the wired network but cannot communicate with
each other.
Figure 211 Basic Service Set
ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an access
point, with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired connection
between APs is called a Distribution System (DS).
This type of wireless LAN topology is called an Infrastructure WLAN. The Access Points not only
provide communication with the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic in the
immediate neighborhood.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and their associated
wireless clients within the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to communicate.
Figure 212 Infrastructure WLAN
Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by wireless devices to transmit and receive data.
Channels available depend on your geographical area. You may have a choice of channels (for your
region) so you should use a channel different from an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce
interference. Interference occurs when radio signals from different access points overlap causing
interference and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP should
be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using. For
example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you need to
select a channel between 6 or 11.
RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not
within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations (STA) are
within range of the access point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other, so they
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
cannot "hear" each other, that is they do not know if the channel is currently being used. Therefore,
they are considered hidden from each other.
Figure 213
RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is already using the
channel. If these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both sets of
data arrive at the AP at the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS defines the biggest
size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake is
invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station
that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP for
permission to send it. The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all other
stations within its range to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and confirms
with the requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP without the RTS
(Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network and
the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in the RTS
(Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will be
fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Note: Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432 bytes)
that can be sent in the wireless network before the AP will fragment the packet into smaller data
frames.
A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference while
you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to interference.
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If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see previously) you
set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames
will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN
IEEE 802.11g is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.11b standard. This means an IEEE 802.11b
adapter can interface directly with an IEEE 802.11g access point (and vice versa) at 11 Mbps or
lower depending on range. IEEE 802.11g has several intermediate rate steps between the
maximum and minimum data rates. The IEEE 802.11g data rate and modulation are as follows:
Table 139 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE (MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
6/9/12/18/24/36/48/
54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless
clients, access points and the wired network.
Wireless security methods available on the Device are data encryption, wireless client
authentication, restricting access by device MAC address and hiding the Device identity.
The following figure shows the relative effectiveness of these wireless security methods available on
your Device.
Table 140 Wireless Security Levels
SECURITY
LEVEL
Least
Secure
SECURITY TYPE
Unique SSID (Default)
Unique SSID with Hide SSID Enabled
MAC Address Filtering
WEP Encryption
IEEE802.1x EAP with RADIUS Server Authentication
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
WPA2
Most Secure
Note: You must enable the same wireless security settings on the Device and on all
wireless clients that you want to associate with it.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of IEEE 802.11 to
support extended authentication as well as providing additional accounting and control features. It
is supported by Windows XP and a number of network devices. Some advantages of IEEE 802.1x
are:
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for
centralized user profile and accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows additional
authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access point or the wireless
clients.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication, authorization and
accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server
handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected to the
network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your AP acts as a message relay between the
wireless client and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the RADIUS
server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The access point
sends a proper response from the user and then sends another Access-Request message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the RADIUS
server for user accounting:
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared secret
key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In addition to the
shared key, password information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the network from
unauthorized access.
Types of EAP Authentication
This section discusses some popular authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, PEAP and
LEAP. Your wireless LAN device may not support all authentication types.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on top of the IEEE
802.1x transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of user authentication. By using EAP
to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, an access point helps a wireless station and a
RADIUS server perform authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server and an intermediary AP(s) that
supports IEEE 802.1x.
For EAP-TLS authentication type, you must first have a wired connection to the network and obtain
the certificate(s) from a certificate authority (CA). A certificate (also called digital IDs) can be used
to authenticate users and a CA issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each certificate
owner.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The authentication server
sends a challenge to the wireless client. The wireless client ‘proves’ that it knows the password by
encrypting the password with the challenge and sends back the information. Password is not sent in
plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication server needs to get
the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus someone other than the
authentication server may access the password file. In addition, it is possible to impersonate an
authentication server as MD5 authentication method does not perform mutual authentication.
Finally, MD5 authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session key. You
must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless clients for
mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the identity of
the server, the client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of certificates is done
in the open before a secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity vulnerable to passive
attacks. A digital certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the sender’s identity.
However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to handle certificates, which
imposes a management overhead.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the serverside authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done by sending
username and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is protected. For client
authentication, EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy authentication methods such as PAP,
CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure connection, then
use simple username and password methods through the secured connection to authenticate the
clients, thus hiding client identity. However, PEAP only supports EAP methods, such as EAP-MD5,
EAP-MSCHAPv2 and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card), for client authentication. EAP-GTC is
implemented only by Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of IEEE 802.1x.
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key expires when the
wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication times out. A new WEP key is
generated each time reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key in the wireless
security configuration screen. You may still configure and store keys, but they will not be used while
dynamic WEP is enabled.
Note: EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP) use dynamic
keys for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate environments, but for public
deployment, a simple user name and password pair is more practical. The following table is a
comparison of the features of authentication types.
Table 141 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
380
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
WPA and WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i) is a
wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption, authentication and key management
than WPA.
Key differences between WPA or WPA2 and WEP are improved data encryption and user
authentication.
If both an AP and the wireless clients support WPA2 and you have an external RADIUS server, use
WPA2 for stronger data encryption. If you don't have an external RADIUS server, you should use
WPA2-PSK (WPA2-Pre-Shared Key) that only requires a single (identical) password entered into
each access point, wireless gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a wireless
client will be granted access to a WLAN.
If the AP or the wireless clients do not support WPA2, just use WPA or WPA-PSK depending on
whether you have an external RADIUS server or not.
Select WEP only when the AP and/or wireless clients do not support WPA or WPA2. WEP is less
secure than WPA or WPA2.
Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Message Integrity
Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. WPA2 also uses TKIP when required for compatibility reasons, but
offers stronger encryption than TKIP with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter
mode with Cipher block chaining Message authentication code Protocol (CCMP).
TKIP uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and distributed by the authentication server.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a block cipher that uses a 256-bit mathematical algorithm
called Rijndael. They both include a per-packet key mixing function, a Message Integrity Check
(MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying
mechanism.
WPA and WPA2 regularly change and rotate the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is
never used twice.
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up a key
hierarchy and management system, using the PMK to dynamically generate unique data encryption
keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless
clients. This all happens in the background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data packets,
altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function in which the
receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do not match, it is
assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), with TKIP and AES it is more difficult to decrypt data on a Wi-Fi
network than WEP and difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The only difference
between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific
credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA(2)-PSK susceptible to brute-force
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
password-guessing attacks but it’s still an improvement over WEP as it employs a consistent,
single, alphanumeric password to derive a PMK which is used to generate unique temporal
encryption keys. This prevent all wireless devices sharing the same encryption keys. (a weakness of
WEP)
User Authentication
WPA and WPA2 apply IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate
wireless clients using an external RADIUS database. WPA2 reduces the number of key exchange
messages from six to four (CCMP 4-way handshake) and shortens the time required to connect to a
network. Other WPA2 authentication features that are different from WPA include key caching and
pre-authentication. These two features are optional and may not be supported in all wireless
devices.
Key caching allows a wireless client to store the PMK it derived through a successful authentication
with an AP. The wireless client uses the PMK when it tries to connect to the same AP and does not
need to go with the authentication process again.
Pre-authentication enables fast roaming by allowing the wireless client (already connecting to an
AP) to perform IEEE 802.1x authentication with another AP before connecting to it.
Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the wireless
client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most widely available supplicant is the WPA patch
for Windows XP, Funk Software's Odyssey client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows XP's built-in "Zero
Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows XP to use it.
WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
To set up WPA(2), you need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812),
and the RADIUS shared secret. A WPA(2) application example with an external RADIUS server
looks as follows. "A" is the RADIUS server. "DS" is the distribution system.
382
1
The AP passes the wireless client's authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2
The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants or denies
network access accordingly.
3
A 256-bit Pairwise Master Key (PMK) is derived from the authentication process by the RADIUS
server and the client.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
4
The RADIUS server distributes the PMK to the AP. The AP then sets up a key hierarchy and
management system, using the PMK to dynamically generate unique data encryption keys. The
keys are used to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the AP and
the wireless clients.
Figure 214 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
WPA(2)-PSK Application Example
A WPA(2)-PSK application looks as follows.
1
First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key (PSK) must
consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters or 64 hexadecimal characters (including spaces and
symbols).
2
The AP checks each wireless client's password and allows it to join the network only if the password
matches.
3
The AP and wireless clients generate a common PMK (Pairwise Master Key). The key itself is not
sent over the network, but is derived from the PSK and the SSID.
4
The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP or AES encryption process, the PMK and information
exchanged in a handshake to create temporal encryption keys. They use these keys to encrypt data
exchanged between them.
Figure 215 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for each
authentication method or key management protocol type. MAC address filters are not dependent on
how you configure these security features.
Table 142 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
ENCRYPTIO
METHOD/ KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL N METHOD
ENTER
MANUAL KEY
IEEE 802.1X
Open
No
Disable
None
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Open
Shared
WEP
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
WPA
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
WPA2
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA2-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
Antenna Overview
An antenna couples RF signals onto air. A transmitter within a wireless device sends an RF signal to
the antenna, which propagates the signal through the air. The antenna also operates in reverse by
capturing RF signals from the air.
Positioning the antennas properly increases the range and coverage area of a wireless LAN.
Antenna Characteristics
Frequency
An antenna in the frequency of 2.4GHz (IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g) or 5GHz (IEEE 802.11a)
is needed to communicate efficiently in a wireless LAN
Radiation Pattern
A radiation pattern is a diagram that allows you to visualize the shape of the antenna’s coverage
area.
Antenna Gain
Antenna gain, measured in dB (decibel), is the increase in coverage within the RF beam width.
Higher antenna gain improves the range of the signal for better communications.
For an indoor site, each 1 dB increase in antenna gain results in a range increase of approximately
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Appendix D Wireless LANs
2.5%. For an unobstructed outdoor site, each 1dB increase in gain results in a range increase of
approximately 5%. Actual results may vary depending on the network environment.
Antenna gain is sometimes specified in dBi, which is how much the antenna increases the signal
power compared to using an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna is a theoretical perfect antenna
that sends out radio signals equally well in all directions. dBi represents the true gain that the
antenna provides.
Types of Antennas for WLAN
There are two types of antennas used for wireless LAN applications.
• Omni-directional antennas send the RF signal out in all directions on a horizontal plane. The
coverage area is torus-shaped (like a donut) which makes these antennas ideal for a room
environment. With a wide coverage area, it is possible to make circular overlapping coverage
areas with multiple access points.
• Directional antennas concentrate the RF signal in a beam, like a flashlight does with the light
from its bulb. The angle of the beam determines the width of the coverage pattern. Angles
typically range from 20 degrees (very directional) to 120 degrees (less directional). Directional
antennas are ideal for hallways and outdoor point-to-point applications.
Positioning Antennas
In general, antennas should be mounted as high as practically possible and free of obstructions. In
point-to–point application, position both antennas at the same height and in a direct line of sight to
each other to attain the best performance.
For omni-directional antennas mounted on a table, desk, and so on, point the antenna up. For
omni-directional antennas mounted on a wall or ceiling, point the antenna down. For a single AP
application, place omni-directional antennas as close to the center of the coverage area as possible.
For directional antennas, point the antenna in the direction of the desired coverage area.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
385
A PPENDIX
E
IPv6
Overview
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to enhance IP address size and features. The
increase in IPv6 address size to 128 bits (from the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows up to 3.4 x 1038 IP
addresses.
IPv6 Addressing
The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16-bit hexadecimal blocks separated by colons (:). This
is an example IPv6 address 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000.
IPv6 addresses can be abbreviated in two ways:
• Leading zeros in a block can be omitted. So 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000 can
be written as 2001:db8:1a2b:15:0:0:1a2f:0.
• Any number of consecutive blocks of zeros can be replaced by a double colon. A double colon can
only appear once in an IPv6 address. So 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f:0000:0000:0015 can be
written as 2001:0db8::1a2f:0000:0000:0015, 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f::0015,
2001:db8::1a2f:0:0:15 or 2001:db8:0:0:1a2f::15.
Prefix and Prefix Length
Similar to an IPv4 subnet mask, IPv6 uses an address prefix to represent the network address. An
IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (start from the left) in the address
compose the network address. The prefix length is written as “/x” where x is a number. For
example,
2001:db8:1a2b:15::1a2f:0/32
means that the first 32 bits (2001:db8) is the subnet prefix.
Link-local Address
A link-local address uniquely identifies a device on the local network (the LAN). It is similar to a
“private IP address” in IPv4. You can have the same link-local address on multiple interfaces on a
device. A link-local unicast address has a predefined prefix of fe80::/10. The link-local unicast
address format is as follows.
Table 143 Link-local Unicast Address Format
1111 1110 10
0
Interface ID
10 bits
54 bits
64 bits
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
386
Appendix E IPv6
Global Address
A global address uniquely identifies a device on the Internet. It is similar to a “public IP address” in
IPv4. A global unicast address starts with a 2 or 3.
Unspecified Address
An unspecified address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or ::) is used as the source address when a device does
not have its own address. It is similar to “0.0.0.0” in IPv4.
Loopback Address
A loopback address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1) allows a host to send packets to itself. It is similar to
“127.0.0.1” in IPv4.
Multicast Address
In IPv6, multicast addresses provide the same functionality as IPv4 broadcast addresses.
Broadcasting is not supported in IPv6. A multicast address allows a host to send packets to all hosts
in a multicast group.
Multicast scope allows you to determine the size of the multicast group. A multicast address has a
predefined prefix of ff00::/8. The following table describes some of the predefined multicast
addresses.
Table 144 Predefined Multicast Address
MULTICAST ADDRESS
DESCRIPTION
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
All hosts on a local node.
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local node.
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
All hosts on a local connected link.
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local connected link.
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local site.
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:3
All DHCP severs on a local site.
The following table describes the multicast addresses which are reserved and can not be assigned
to a multicast group.
Table 145 Reserved Multicast Address
MULTICAST ADDRESS
FF00:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF03:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF04:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF06:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF07:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
387
Appendix E IPv6
Table 145 Reserved Multicast Address (continued)
MULTICAST ADDRESS
FF08:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF09:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0A:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0B:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0C:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0D:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0F:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
Subnet Masking
Both an IPv6 address and IPv6 subnet mask compose of 128-bit binary digits, which are divided
into eight 16-bit blocks and written in hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal uses four bits for each
character (1 ~ 10, A ~ F). Each block’s 16 bits are then represented by four hexadecimal
characters. For example, FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FC00:0000:0000:0000.
Interface ID
In IPv6, an interface ID is a 64-bit identifier. It identifies a physical interface (for example, an
Ethernet port) or a virtual interface (for example, the management IP address for a VLAN). One
interface should have a unique interface ID.
EUI-64
The EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) defined by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) is an interface ID format designed to adapt with IPv6. It is derived from the 48-bit (6byte) Ethernet MAC address as shown next. EUI-64 inserts the hex digits fffe between the third and
fourth bytes of the MAC address and complements the seventh bit of the first byte of the MAC
address. See the following example.
MAC
EUI-64
02
00
: 13
: 49
: 12
: 34
: 56
: 13
: 49
: FF
: FE
: 12
: 34
: 56
Identity Association
An Identity Association (IA) is a collection of addresses assigned to a DHCP client, through which
the server and client can manage a set of related IP addresses. Each IA must be associated with
exactly one interface. The DHCP client uses the IA assigned to an interface to obtain configuration
from a DHCP server for that interface. Each IA consists of a unique IAID and associated IP
information.
The IA type is the type of address in the IA. Each IA holds one type of address. IA_NA means an
identity association for non-temporary addresses and IA_TA is an identity association for temporary
addresses. An IA_NA option contains the T1 and T2 fields, but an IA_TA option does not. The
DHCPv6 server uses T1 and T2 to control the time at which the client contacts with the server to
extend the lifetimes on any addresses in the IA_NA before the lifetimes expire. After T1, the client
sends the server (S1) (from which the addresses in the IA_NA were obtained) a Renew message. If
388
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Appendix E IPv6
the time T2 is reached and the server does not respond, the client sends a Rebind message to any
available server (S2). For an IA_TA, the client may send a Renew or Rebind message at the client's
discretion.
T2
T1
Renew Renew
to S1
to S1
Renew Renew
to S1
to S1
Renew
to S1
Renew
to S1
Rebind
to S2
Rebind
to S2
DHCP Relay Agent
A DHCP relay agent is on the same network as the DHCP clients and helps forward messages
between the DHCP server and clients. When a client cannot use its link-local address and a wellknown multicast address to locate a DHCP server on its network, it then needs a DHCP relay agent
to send a message to a DHCP server that is not attached to the same network.
The DHCP relay agent can add the remote identification (remote-ID) option and the interface-ID
option to the Relay-Forward DHCPv6 messages. The remote-ID option carries a user-defined string,
such as the system name. The interface-ID option provides slot number, port information and the
VLAN ID to the DHCPv6 server. The remote-ID option (if any) is stripped from the Relay-Reply
messages before the relay agent sends the packets to the clients. The DHCP server copies the
interface-ID option from the Relay-Forward message into the Relay-Reply message and sends it to
the relay agent. The interface-ID should not change even after the relay agent restarts.
Prefix Delegation
Prefix delegation enables an IPv6 router to use the IPv6 prefix (network address) received from the
ISP (or a connected uplink router) for its LAN. The Device uses the received IPv6 prefix (for
example, 2001:db2::/48) to generate its LAN IP address. Through sending Router Advertisements
(RAs) regularly by multicast, the Device passes the IPv6 prefix information to its LAN hosts. The
hosts then can use the prefix to generate their IPv6 addresses.
ICMPv6
Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6 or ICMP for IPv6) is defined in RFC 4443.
ICMPv6 has a preceding Next Header value of 58, which is different from the value used to identify
ICMP for IPv4. ICMPv6 is an integral part of IPv6. IPv6 nodes use ICMPv6 to report errors
encountered in packet processing and perform other diagnostic functions, such as "ping".
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a protocol used to discover other IPv6 devices and track
neighbor’s reachability in a network. An IPv6 device uses the following ICMPv6 messages types:
• Neighbor solicitation: A request from a host to determine a neighbor’s link-layer address (MAC
address) and detect if the neighbor is still reachable. A neighbor being “reachable” means it
responds to a neighbor solicitation message (from the host) with a neighbor advertisement
message.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
389
Appendix E IPv6
• Neighbor advertisement: A response from a node to announce its link-layer address.
• Router solicitation: A request from a host to locate a router that can act as the default router and
forward packets.
• Router advertisement: A response to a router solicitation or a periodical multicast advertisement
from a router to advertise its presence and other parameters.
IPv6 Cache
An IPv6 host is required to have a neighbor cache, destination cache, prefix list and default router
list. The Device maintains and updates its IPv6 caches constantly using the information from
response messages. In IPv6, the Device configures a link-local address automatically, and then
sends a neighbor solicitation message to check if the address is unique. If there is an address to be
resolved or verified, the Device also sends out a neighbor solicitation message. When the Device
receives a neighbor advertisement in response, it stores the neighbor’s link-layer address in the
neighbor cache. When the Device uses a router solicitation message to query for a router and
receives a router advertisement message, it adds the router’s information to the neighbor cache,
prefix list and destination cache. The Device creates an entry in the default router list cache if the
router can be used as a default router.
When the Device needs to send a packet, it first consults the destination cache to determine the
next hop. If there is no matching entry in the destination cache, the Device uses the prefix list to
determine whether the destination address is on-link and can be reached directly without passing
through a router. If the address is unlink, the address is considered as the next hop. Otherwise, the
Device determines the next-hop from the default router list or routing table. Once the next hop IP
address is known, the Device looks into the neighbor cache to get the link-layer address and sends
the packet when the neighbor is reachable. If the Device cannot find an entry in the neighbor cache
or the state for the neighbor is not reachable, it starts the address resolution process. This helps
reduce the number of IPv6 solicitation and advertisement messages.
Multicast Listener Discovery
The Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) protocol (defined in RFC 2710) is derived from IPv4's
Internet Group Management Protocol version 2 (IGMPv2). MLD uses ICMPv6 message types, rather
than IGMP message types. MLDv1 is equivalent to IGMPv2 and MLDv2 is equivalent to IGMPv3.
MLD allows an IPv6 switch or router to discover the presence of MLD listeners who wish to receive
multicast packets and the IP addresses of multicast groups the hosts want to join on its network.
MLD snooping and MLD proxy are analogous to IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy in IPv4.
MLD filtering controls which multicast groups a port can join.
MLD Messages
A multicast router or switch periodically sends general queries to MLD hosts to update the multicast
forwarding table. When an MLD host wants to join a multicast group, it sends an MLD Report
message for that address.
An MLD Done message is equivalent to an IGMP Leave message. When an MLD host wants to leave
a multicast group, it can send a Done message to the router or switch. The router or switch then
sends a group-specific query to the port on which the Done message is received to determine if
other devices connected to this port should remain in the group.
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Appendix E IPv6
Example - Enabling IPv6 on Windows XP/2003/Vista
By default, Windows XP and Windows 2003 support IPv6. This example shows you how to use the
ipv6 install command on Windows XP/2003 to enable IPv6. This also displays how to use the
ipconfig command to see auto-generated IP addresses.
C:\>ipv6 install
Installing...
Succeeded.
C:\>ipconfig
Windows IP Configuration
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific
IP Address. . . . .
Subnet Mask . . . .
IP Address. . . . .
Default Gateway . .
DNS
. .
. .
. .
. .
Suffix
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
10.1.1.46
255.255.255.0
fe80::2d0:59ff:feb8:103c%4
10.1.1.254
IPv6 is installed and enabled by default in Windows Vista. Use the ipconfig command to check
your automatic configured IPv6 address as well. You should see at least one IPv6 address available
for the interface on your computer.
Example - Enabling DHCPv6 on Windows XP
Windows XP does not support DHCPv6. If your network uses DHCPv6 for IP address assignment,
you have to additionally install a DHCPv6 client software on your Windows XP. (Note: If you use
static IP addresses or Router Advertisement for IPv6 address assignment in your network, ignore
this section.)
This example uses Dibbler as the DHCPv6 client. To enable DHCPv6 client on your computer:
1
Install Dibbler and select the DHCPv6 client option on your computer.
2
After the installation is complete, select Start > All Programs > Dibbler-DHCPv6 > Client
Install as service.
3
Select Start > Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Services.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
391
Appendix E IPv6
4
Double click Dibbler - a DHCPv6 client.
5
Click Start and then OK.
6
Now your computer can obtain an IPv6 address from a DHCPv6 server.
Example - Enabling IPv6 on Windows 7
Windows 7 supports IPv6 by default. DHCPv6 is also enabled when you enable IPv6 on a Windows 7
computer.
To enable IPv6 in Windows 7:
392
1
Select Control Panel > Network and Sharing Center > Local Area Connection.
2
Select the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) checkbox to enable it.
3
Click OK to save the change.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Appendix E IPv6
4
Click Close to exit the Local Area Connection Status screen.
5
Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
6
Use the ipconfig command to check your dynamic IPv6 address. This example shows a global
address (2001:b021:2d::1000) obtained from a DHCP server.
C:\>ipconfig
Windows IP Configuration
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific DNS
IPv6 Address. . . . . .
Link-local IPv6 Address
IPv4 Address. . . . . .
Subnet Mask . . . . . .
Default Gateway . . . .
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Suffix
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
2001:b021:2d::1000
fe80::25d8:dcab:c80a:5189%11
172.16.100.61
255.255.255.0
fe80::213:49ff:feaa:7125%11
172.16.100.254
393
A PPENDIX
F
Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port
numbers.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a
different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the service
uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is USER-DEFINED, the Port(s) is the IP
protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the situations
in which this service is used.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
394
Appendix F Services
Table 146 Examples of Services
NAME
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH (IPSEC_TUNNEL) User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some
servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP/UDP
7648
TCP/UDP
24032
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that
matches web names (for instance
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
ESP
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security
Protocol) tunneling protocol uses this
service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related
command that can be used to find out if a
user is logged on.
FTP
TCP
20
TCP
21
File Transfer Protocol, a program to enable
fast transfer of files, including large files
that may not be possible by e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/
server protocol for the world wide web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often used
in e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often
used for diagnostic purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IGMP (MULTICAST)
User-Defined
2
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used
when sending packets to a specific group
of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is
used for key distribution and management.
IMAP4
TCP
143
The Internet Message Access Protocol is
used for e-mail.
IMAP4S
TCP
993
This is a more secure version of IMAP4 that
runs over SSL.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat
program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service
uses this protocol.
NetBIOS
TCP/UDP
137
TCP/UDP
138
The Network Basic Input/Output System is
used for communication between
computers in a LAN.
TCP/UDP
139
TCP/UDP
445
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
PROTOCOL
395
Appendix F Services
Table 146 Examples of Services (continued)
396
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/
server distributed file service that provides
transparent file sharing for network
environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the
delivery mechanism for the USENET
newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that
sends out ICMP echo requests to test
whether or not a remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server
through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or
other).
POP3S
TCP
995
This is a more secure version of POP3 that
runs over SSL.
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables
secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL (GRE) User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables real
time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
ROADRUNNER
TCP/UDP
1026
This is an ISP that provides services mainly
for cable modems.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for
multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
The Simple File Transfer Protocol is an old
way of transferring files between
computers.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the
message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move
messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SMTPS
TCP
465
This is a more secure version of SMTP that
runs over SSL.
SMTP
TCP
587
This is a more secure version of SMTP that
authenticates sender from out of network
mailservers.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Appendix F Services
Table 146 Examples of Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface
to access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and
network servers.
SSDP
UDP
1900
The Simple Service Discovery Protocol
supports Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP).
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a
UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal
Access Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in
UNIX environments. It operates over TCP/
IP networks. Its primary function is to
allow users to log into remote host
systems.
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
UDP
userdefined
A videoconferencing solution. The UDP port
number is specified in the application.
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SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
A PPENDIX
G
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, translated into
any language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or software described herein. Neither does it
convey any license under its patent rights nor the patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any
products described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
The device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operations.
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These
limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This device generates, uses,
and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference
to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this device does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be determined by turning the device off and on, the
user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
1
2
3
4
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
•
•
•
This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
This IEEE 802.11 b/g/n product can only use channels 1 to 11 (frequency bands 2.412 to 2.462) in the United States of America.
To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, a separation distance of at least 20 cm must be maintained between the
antenna of this device and all persons.
注意 !
依據
低功率電波輻射性電機管理辦法
第十二條 經型式認證合格之低功率射頻電機,非經許可,公司、商號或使用
者均不得擅自變更頻率、加大功率或變更原設計之特性及功能。
第十四條 低功率射頻電機之使用不得影響飛航安全及干擾合法通信;經發現
有干擾現象時,應立即停用,並改善至無干擾時方得繼續使用。
前項合法通信,指依電信規定作業之無線電信。低功率射頻電機須忍
受合法通信或工業、科學及醫療用電波輻射性電機設備之干擾。
本機限在不干擾合法電臺與不受被干擾保障條件下於室內使用。
減少電磁波影響,請妥適使用。
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user's authority to operate the
equipment.
This Class [*] digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe [*] est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
399
Appendix G Legal Information
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in materials or workmanship for a period of
up to two years from the date of purchase. During the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications
of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the defective products or components
without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper
operating condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent product of equal or higher value,
and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused, tampered with,
damaged by an act of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other
warranties, express or implied, including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return Material Authorization number (RMA). Products
must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of
purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for
parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This
warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to country.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at
www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
Regulatory Information
European Union
The following information applies if you use the product within the European Union.
Declaration of Conformity with Regard to EU Directive 2012/19/UE (R&TTE Directive)
Compliance Information for 2.4GHz and 5GHz Wireless Products Relevant to the EU and Other Countries Following the EU Directive 2012/19/
UE (R&TTE Directive)
400
[Czech]
ZyXEL tímto prohlašuje, že tento zařízení je ve shodě se základními požadavky a dalšími příslušnými ustanoveními
směrnice 2012/19/UE.
[Danish]
Undertegnede ZyXEL erklærer herved, at følgende udstyr udstyr overholder de væsentlige krav og øvrige relevante
krav i direktiv 2012/5/EF.
[German]
Hiermit erklärt ZyXEL, dass sich das Gerät Ausstattung in Übereinstimmung mit den grundlegenden Anforderungen
und den übrigen einschlägigen Bestimmungen der Richtlinie 2012/5/EU befindet.
[Estonian]
Käesolevaga kinnitab ZyXEL seadme seadmed vastavust direktiivi 2012/19/EÜ põhinõuetele ja nimetatud direktiivist
tulenevatele teistele asjakohastele sätetele.
English
Hereby, ZyXEL declares that this equipment is in compliance with the essential requirements and other relevant
provisions of Directive 2012/19/UE.
[Spanish]
Por medio de la presente ZyXEL declara que el equipo cumple con los requisitos esenciales y cualesquiera otras
disposiciones aplicables o exigibles de la Directiva 2012/19/CE.
[Greek]
ΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΠΑΡΟΥΣΑ ZyXEL ∆ΗΛΩΝΕΙ ΟΤΙ εξοπλισμός ΣΥΜΜΟΡΦΩΝΕΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΙΣ ΟΥΣΙΩ∆ΕΙΣ ΑΠΑΙΤΗΣΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΣ
ΛΟΙΠΕΣ ΣΧΕΤΙΚΕΣ ∆ΙΑΤΑΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ Ο∆ΗΓΙΑΣ 2012/19/ΕC.
[French]
Par la présente ZyXEL déclare que l'appareil équipements est conforme aux exigences essentielles et aux autres
dispositions pertinentes de la directive 2012/19/UE.
[Italian]
Con la presente ZyXEL dichiara che questo attrezzatura è conforme ai requisiti essenziali ed alle altre disposizioni
pertinenti stabilite dalla direttiva 2012/19/UE del Parlamento eruopeo e del Consiglio, del 4 luglio 2012, sui rifiuti di
apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche (RAEE).
[Latvian]
Ar šo ZyXEL deklarē, ka iekārtas atbilst Direktīvas 2012/19/EK būtiskajām prasībām un citiem ar to saistītajiem
noteikumiem.
[Lithuanian]
Šiuo ZyXEL deklaruoja, kad šis įranga atitinka esminius reikalavimus ir kitas 2012/19/EB Direktyvos nuostatas.
[Dutch]
Hierbij verklaart ZyXEL dat het toestel uitrusting in overeenstemming is met de essentiële eisen en de andere
relevante bepalingen van richtlijn 2012/19/UE.
[Maltese]
Hawnhekk, ZyXEL, jiddikjara li dan tagħmir jikkonforma mal-ħtiġijiet essenzjali u ma provvedimenti oħrajn relevanti li
hemm fid-Dirrettiva 2012/19/UE.
[Hungarian]
Alulírott, ZyXEL nyilatkozom, hogy a berendezés megfelel a vonatkozó alapvetõ követelményeknek és az 2012/19/EK
irányelv egyéb elõírásainak.
[Polish]
Niniejszym ZyXEL oświadcza, że sprzęt jest zgodny z zasadniczymi wymogami oraz pozostałymi stosownymi
postanowieniami Dyrektywy 2012/19/UE.
[Portuguese]
ZyXEL declara que este equipamento está conforme com os requisitos essenciais e outras disposições da Directiva
2012/19/UE.
[Slovenian]
ZyXEL izjavlja, da je ta oprema v skladu z bistvenimi zahtevami in ostalimi relevantnimi določili direktive 2012/19/UE.
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Appendix G Legal Information
[Slovak]
ZyXEL týmto vyhlasuje, že zariadenia spĺňa základné požiadavky a všetky príslušné ustanovenia Smernice 2012/19/
UE.
[Finnish]
ZyXEL vakuuttaa täten että laitteet tyyppinen laite on direktiivin 2012/19/EY oleellisten vaatimusten ja sitä koskevien
direktiivin muiden ehtojen mukainen.
[Swedish]
Härmed intygar ZyXEL att denna utrustning står I överensstämmelse med de väsentliga egenskapskrav och övriga
relevanta bestämmelser som framgår av direktiv 2012/19/UE.
[Bulgarian]
С настоящото ZyXEL декларира, че това оборудване е в съответствие със съществените изисквания и другите
приложими разпоредбите на Директива 2012/19/ЕC.
[Icelandic]
Hér með lýsir, ZyXEL því yfir að þessi búnaður er í samræmi við grunnkröfur og önnur viðeigandi ákvæði tilskipunar
2012/19/UE.
[Norwegian]
Erklærer herved ZyXEL at dette utstyret er I samsvar med de grunnleggende kravene og andre relevante
bestemmelser I direktiv 2012/19/EF.
[Romanian]
Prin prezenta, ZyXEL declară că acest echipament este în conformitate cu cerinţele esenţiale şi alte prevederi
relevante ale Directivei 2012/19/UE.
National Restrictions
This product may be used in all EU countries (and other countries following the EU directive 2012/19/UE) without any limitation except for
the countries mentioned below:
Ce produit peut être utilisé dans tous les pays de l’UE (et dans tous les pays ayant transposés la directive 2012/19/UE) sans aucune
limitation, excepté pour les pays mentionnés ci-dessous:
Questo prodotto è utilizzabile in tutte i paesi EU (ed in tutti gli altri paesi che seguono le direttive EU 2012/19/UE) senza nessuna
limitazione, eccetto per i paesii menzionati di seguito:
Das Produkt kann in allen EU Staaten ohne Einschränkungen eingesetzt werden (sowie in anderen Staaten die der EU Direktive 1995/5/CE
folgen) mit Außnahme der folgenden aufgeführten Staaten:
In the majority of the EU and other European countries, the 2, 4- and 5-GHz bands have been made available for the use of wireless local
area networks (LANs). Later in this document you will find an overview of countries inwhich additional restrictions or requirements or both
are applicable.
The requirements for any country may evolve. ZyXEL recommends that you check with the local authorities for the latest status of their
national regulations for both the 2,4- and 5-GHz wireless LANs.
The following countries have restrictions and/or requirements in addition to those given in the table labeled “Overview of Regulatory
Requirements for Wireless LANs”:.
Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Wireless LANs
Frequency Band (MHz)
Max Power Level
(EIRP)1 (mW)
2400-2483.5
100
5150-5350
200
5470-5725
1000
Indoor ONLY
Indoor and Outdoor
V
V
V
Belgium
The Belgian Institute for Postal Services and Telecommunications (BIPT) must be notified of any outdoor wireless link having a range
exceeding 300 meters. Please check http://www.bipt.be for more details.
Draadloze verbindingen voor buitengebruik en met een reikwijdte van meer dan 300 meter dienen aangemeld te worden bij het Belgisch
Instituut voor postdiensten en telecommunicatie (BIPT). Zie http://www.bipt.be voor meer gegevens.
Les liaisons sans fil pour une utilisation en extérieur d’une distance supérieure à 300 mètres doivent être notifiées à l’Institut Belge des
services Postaux et des Télécommunications (IBPT). Visitez http://www.ibpt.be pour de plus amples détails.
Denmark
In Denmark, the band 5150 - 5350 MHz is also allowed for outdoor usage.
I Danmark må frekvensbåndet 5150 - 5350 også anvendes udendørs.
Italy
This product meets the National Radio Interface and the requirements specified in the National Frequency Allocation Table for Italy. Unless
this wireless LAN product is operating within the boundaries of the owner's property, its use requires a “general authorization.” Please
check http://www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/ for more details.
Questo prodotto è conforme alla specifiche di Interfaccia Radio Nazionali e rispetta il Piano Nazionale di ripartizione delle frequenze in
Italia. Se non viene installato all 'interno del proprio fondo, l'utilizzo di prodotti Wireless LAN richiede una “Autorizzazione Generale”.
Consultare http://www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/ per maggiori dettagli.
Latvia
The outdoor usage of the 2.4 GHz band requires an authorization from the Electronic Communications Office. Please check http://
www.esd.lv for more details.
2.4 GHz frekvenèu joslas izmantoðanai ârpus telpâm nepiecieðama atïauja no Elektronisko sakaru direkcijas. Vairâk informâcijas: http://www.esd.lv.
Notes:
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
401
Appendix G Legal Information
1. Although Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein are not EU member states, the EU Directive 2012/19/UE has also been implemented in
those countries.
2. The regulatory limits for maximum output power are specified in EIRP. The EIRP level (in dBm) of a device can be calculated by adding
the gain of the antenna used(specified in dBi) to the output power available at the connector (specified in dBm).
List of national codes
COUNTRY
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
COUNTRY
Austria
AT
Malta
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
MT
Belgium
BE
Netherlands
NL
Cyprus
CY
Poland
PL
Czech Republic
CR
Portugal
PT
Denmark
DK
Slovakia
SK
Estonia
EE
Slovenia
SI
Finland
FI
Spain
ES
France
FR
Sweden
SE
Germany
DE
United Kingdom
GB
Greece
GR
Iceland
IS
Hungary
HU
Liechtenstein
LI
Ireland
IE
Norway
NO
Italy
IT
Switzerland
CH
Latvia
LV
Bulgaria
BG
Lithuania
LT
Romania
RO
Luxembourg
LU
Turkey
TR
Safety Warnings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
Do NOT store things on the device.
Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY
qualified service personnel should service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device.
Connect the power adaptor or cord to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in North America or 230V AC in Europe).
Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the product where anyone can walk on the power
adaptor or cord.
Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause electrocution.
If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power source.
Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a new one.
Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your device.
Use only No. 26 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger telecommunication line cord.
Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when using the included antenna(s). Only use the
included antenna(s).
This product is for indoor use only (utilisation intérieure exclusivement).
Your product is marked with this symbol, which is known as the WEEE mark. WEEE stands for Waste Electronics and
Electrical Equipment. It means that used electrical and electronic products should not be mixed with general waste. Used
electrical and electronic equipment should be treated separately.
402
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Index
Index
A
C
ACL rule 240
CA 250, 379
ACS 305
Canonical Format Indicator See CFI
activation
firewalls 236
SIP ALG 215
SSID 141
CCMs 322
Address Resolution Protocol 292
administrator password 26
AH 269
algorithms 269
alternative subnet mask notation 359
antenna
directional 385
gain 384
omni-directional 385
certificate
factory default 251
Certificate Authority
See CA.
certificates 250
authentication 250
CA
creating 252
public key 250
replacing 251
storage space 251
Certification Authority 250
AP (access point) 375
Certification Authority. see CA
applications
Internet access 17
certifications 399
notices 399
applications, NAT 220
CFI 129
ARP Table 292, 294
CFM 322
CCMs 322
link trace test 322
loopback test 322
MA 322
MD 322
MEP 322
MIP 322
authentication 150, 151
RADIUS server 151
Auto Configuration Server, see ACS 305
B
channel 375
interference 375
backup
configuration 319
channel, wireless LAN 149
Basic Service Set, See BSS 373
client list 167
Basic Service Set, see BSS
configuration
backup 319
firewalls 236
reset 321
restoring 320
static route 123, 184, 223, 301
blinking LEDs 22
Broadband 102
broadcast 130
BSS 153, 373
example 153
Connectivity Check Messages, see CCMs
copyright 399
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
403
Index
CoS 202
ECHO 220
CoS technologies 190
e-mail
log example 315
creating certificates 252
CTS (Clear to Send) 376
CTS threshold 146, 150
Encapsulation 127
MER 127
PPP over Ethernet 128
encapsulation 103, 269
D
data fragment threshold 146, 150
DDoS 235
default server address 214
encryption 152, 381
ESP 269
ESS 374
Extended Service Set IDentification 135, 142
Extended Service Set, See ESS 374
Denials of Service, see DoS
DH 274
DHCP 162, 180
Differentiated Services, see DiffServ 202
Diffie-Hellman key groups 274
DiffServ 202
marking rule 203
digital IDs 250
disclaimer 399
DMZ 214
DNS 162, 180
DNS server address assignment 130
documentation
related 2
Domain Name 220
Domain Name System, see DNS
Domain Name System. See DNS.
DoS 235
DS field 202
DS, dee differentiated services
DSCP 202
dynamic DNS 222
wildcard 223
F
FCC interference statement 399
File Sharing 232
file sharing 21
filters
MAC address 143, 151
Finger 220
firewalls 234
add protocols 237
configuration 236
DDoS 235
DoS 235
LAND attack 235
Ping of Death 235
SYN attack 235
firmware 317
version 99
forwarding ports 207
fragmentation threshold 146, 150, 376
FTP 207, 220
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, see DHCP
dynamic WEP key exchange 380
G
DYNDNS wildcard 223
General wireless LAN screen 133
E
Guide
Quick Start 2
EAP Authentication 379
404
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Index
H
hidden node 375
HTTP 220
IPSec 256
algorithms 269
architecture 268
NAT 271
IPSec. See also VPN.
IEEE 802.1Q 129
IPv6 104, 386
addressing 104, 130, 386
EUI-64 388
global address 387
interface ID 388
link-local address 386
Neighbor Discovery Protocol 386
ping 386
prefix 105, 131, 386
prefix delegation 106
prefix length 105, 131, 386
unspecified address 387
IGA 218
ISP 103
I
IANA 363
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
see IANA
IBSS 373
ID type and content 273
IEEE 802.11g 377
IGMP 130
multicast group list 296
version 130
IKE phases 270
ILA 218
Independent Basic Service Set
See IBSS 373
initialization vector (IV) 381
Inside Global Address, see IGA
inside header 270
Inside Local Address, see ILA
interface group 226
Internet
wizard setup 32
L
L2TP VPN 280
LAN 161
client list 167
DHCP 162, 180
DNS 162, 180
IP address 162, 163, 181
MAC address 168
status 100
subnet mask 162, 163, 181
LAND attack 235
Internet access 17
wizard setup 32
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Virtual Private Network,
see L2TP VPN 280
Internet Key Exchange 270
LBR 322
Internet Protocol Security. See IPSec.
limitations
wireless LAN 152
WPS 159
Internet Protocol version 6 104
Internet Protocol version 6, see IPv6
Internet Service Provider, see ISP
IP address 162, 181
ping 323
private 181
WAN 104
link trace 322
Link Trace Message, see LTM
Link Trace Response, see LTR
login 25
passwords 25, 26
IP Address Assignment 129
logs 286, 289, 296, 314
IP alias
NAT applications 220
Loop Back Response, see LBR
loopback 322
LTM 322
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
405
Index
LTR 322
Network Address Translation
see NAT
Network Address Translation, see NAT
M
Network Map 99
NNTP 220
MA 322
MAC address 143, 168
filter 143, 151
O
MAC authentication 143
Mac filter 244
other documentation 2
Maintenance Association, see MA
outside header 270
Maintenance Domain, see MD
Maintenance End Point, see MEP
Management Information Base (MIB) 307
managing the device
good habits 23
P
Pairwise Master Key (PMK) 381, 383
MBSSID 153
passwords 25, 26
MD 322
PBC 154
MEP 322
Per-Hop Behavior, see PHB 203
MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) 129
PHB 203
multicast 130
PIN, WPS 155
example 156
Multiple BSS, see MBSSID
Ping of Death 235
N
Point to Point Tunneling Protocol VPN
see PPTP VPN
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol 220
NAT 206, 208, 217, 218, 363
applications 220
IP alias 220
example 219
global 218
IGA 218
ILA 218
inside 218
IPSec 271
local 218
outside 218
port forwarding 207
port number 220
services 220
SIP ALG 215
activation 215
traversal 272
POP3 220
NAT example 221
PSK 381
negotiation mode 271
push button 21
port forwarding 207
ports 22
PPP over Ethernet, see PPPoE
PPPoE 103, 128
Benefits 128
PPTP 220
PPTP VPN 275
preamble 147, 150
preamble mode 154
prefix delegation 106
pre-shared key 274
private IP address 181
product registration 400
protocol 103
Push Button Configuration, see PBC
406
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Index
push button, WPS 154
Q
QoS 189, 202
marking 190
setup 189
tagging 190
versus CoS 190
Quality of Service, see QoS
Quick Start Guide 2
S
security
wireless LAN 150
security associations. See VPN.
Security Log 288
Security Parameter Index, see SPI
service access control 303
Service Set 135, 142
Services 220
setup
firewalls 236
static route 123, 184, 223, 301
Simple Network Management Protocol, see SNMP
R
RADIUS 378
message types 378
messages 378
shared secret key 379
RADIUS server 151
registration
product 400
related documentation 2
remote management
TR-069 305
Remote Procedure Calls, see RPCs 305
reset 24, 321
restart 321
restoring configuration 320
RFC 1058. See RIP.
RFC 1389. See RIP.
RFC 3164 286
RIP 187
Single Rate Three Color Marker, see srTCM
SIP ALG 215
activation 215
SMTP 220
SNMP 220, 307
agents 307
Get 308
GetNext 308
Manager 307
managers 307
MIB 307
Set 308
Trap 308
versions 307
SNMP trap 220
SPI 235
srTCM 204
SSID 151
activation 141
MBSSID 153
Routing Information Protocol. See RIP
static route 183, 312
configuration 123, 184, 223, 301
example 183
RPPCs 305
static VLAN
RTS (Request To Send) 376
threshold 375, 376
status 99
firmware version 99
LAN 100
WAN 100
wireless LAN 100
router features 17
RTS threshold 146, 150
status indicators 22
subnet 356
subnet mask 162, 181, 357
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
407
Index
subnetting 359
example 169
installation 169
NAT traversal 162
SYN attack 235
syslog
protocol 286
severity levels 286
system
firmware 317
version 99
passwords 25, 26
reset 24
status 99
LAN 100
WAN 100
wireless LAN 100
time 309
T
Tag Control Information See TCI
Tag Protocol Identifier See TPID
TCI
The 104
The DHCP Client 290
thresholds
data fragment 146, 150
RTS/CTS 146, 150
USB features 21
V
VID
Virtual Local Area Network See VLAN
Virtual Private Network. See VPN.
VLAN 129
Introduction 129
number of possible VIDs
priority frame
static
VLAN ID 129
VLAN Identifier See VID
VLAN tag 129
VPN 256
established in two phases 257
IPSec 256
local network 256
remote IPSec router 256
remote network 256
security associations (SA) 257
VPN. See also IKE SA, IPSec SA.
time 309
TPID 129
TR-069 305
ACS setup 305
authentication 306
transport mode 269
trTCM 205
tunnel mode 270
Two Rate Three Color Marker, see trTCM
U
W
WAN
status 100
Wide Area Network, see WAN 102
warranty
note 400
web configurator 25
login 25
passwords 25, 26
WEP 152
unicast 130
WEP Encryption 137, 138
Universal Plug and Play, see UPnP
WEP encryption 136
upgrading firmware 317
WEP key 136
UPnP 169
cautions 163
Wi-Fi Protected Access 381
408
wireless client WPA supplicants 382
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
Index
wireless LAN 132, 148
authentication 150, 151
BSS 153
example 153
channel 149
encryption 152
example 149
fragmentation threshold 146, 150
limitations 152
MAC address filter 143, 151
MBSSID 153
preamble 147, 150
RADIUS server 151
RTS/CTS threshold 146, 150
security 150
SSID 151
activation 141
status 100
WEP 152
WPA 152
WPA-PSK 152
WPS 154, 156
example 157
limitations 159
PIN 155
push button 21, 154
WPA-PSK 152, 381
application example 383
WPS 154, 156
example 157
limitations 159
PIN 155
example 156
push button 21, 154
wireless security 377
Wireless tutorial 43
wizard setup
Internet 32
WLAN
interference 375
security parameters 384
WPA 152, 381
key caching 382
pre-authentication 382
user authentication 382
vs WPA-PSK 381
wireless client supplicant 382
with RADIUS application example 382
WPA2 381
user authentication 382
vs WPA2-PSK 381
wireless client supplicant 382
with RADIUS application example 382
WPA2-Pre-Shared Key 381
WPA2-PSK 381
application example 383
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide
409
Index
410
SBG3500-N000 User’s Guide