Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small

20/10/2011
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scal…
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Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
(introduction...)
Acknowledgements
Preface
Guide to the user
Introduction
A. Analysis
Technical Chapter 1: Analysis
B. Underground mining
Technical Chapter 2: Safety Techniques
Technical Chapter 3: Ventilation
Technical Chapter 4: Water supply and drainage
Technical Chapter 5: Support
Technical Chapter 6: Lighting
Technical Chapter 7: Stoping
Technical Chapter 8: Loading
Technical Chapter 9: Hauling
C. Surface mining
Technical Chapter 10: Surface Mining Equipment
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Technical
Chapter 11: Other special techniques
D. Beneficiation
Technical Chapter 12: Crushing
Technical Chapter 13: Classification
Technical Chapter 14: Sorting
Technical Chapter 15: Gold Benefication
Technical Chapter 16: 0ther Sorting and Separating
Techniques
Technical Chapter 17: Drying
Technical Chapter 18: Clarification
E. Mechanization and energy supply
Technical Chapter 19: Energy Techniques
Bibliography
List of manufacturers and suppliers
List of abbreviations
Bibliography
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Home"" """"> ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
(introduction...)
Acknowledgements
Preface
Guide to the user
Introduction
A. Analysis
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Technical
Chapter
1: Analysis
B. Underground
mining
Technical Chapter 2: Safety Techniques
Technical Chapter 3: Ventilation
Technical Chapter 4: Water supply and drainage
Technical Chapter 5: Support
Technical Chapter 6: Lighting
Technical Chapter 7: Stoping
Technical Chapter 8: Loading
Technical Chapter 9: Hauling
C. Surface mining
Technical Chapter 10: Surface Mining Equipment
Technical Chapter 11: Other special techniques
D. Beneficiation
Technical Chapter 12: Crushing
Technical Chapter 13: Classification
Technical Chapter 14: Sorting
Technical Chapter 15: Gold Benefication
Technical Chapter 16: 0ther Sorting and Separating
Techniques
Technical Chapter 17: Drying
Technical Chapter 18: Clarification
E. Mechanization and energy supply
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Technical Chapter 19: Energy Techniques
Bibliography
List of manufacturers and suppliers
List of abbreviations
List of manufacturers and suppliers
Aceros del Sur S.A. ADESUR
Jacinto ibanez 131, Parque Industrial M-2, Arequipa Peru
(51 ·54) 23 28 55,23 26 40,23 47 05, Fax (51-54) 23 28 55,
Telex 51214 PE ADESUR
AEG
Goldsteinstrae 238,6000 Frankfurt am Main 71, Germany,
(069) 6699-0, Fax (069) 66 99 205, Telex 413 382
Aker-Minpro
Sandgt 33, Trondheim, Norway
(07) 51 35 22, Telex 55 083 Minpr n
AKW
Posttach 11 69,8452 Hirschau, Germany
(09622) 1 03 30, Fax (09622) 1 83 76, Telex 17 962 282 akwav
Alquexco S.A,
Av.81 N° 69 B-40, Apart.53920, Bogota, Colombia,
223 91 46,251 86 00, Telex 45480
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Arcotex
Padre Tadeo No 4920, Casilla 12083, Santiago, Chile
73 55 26, Telex 294 311
ASEA, Perini Hermanos
Cra.19N°,22 B 03, AA.472, Pasto, Colombia
32 449,38 337, Fax 32 449
Atlas Copco,
Ernestinenstrae 155,4300 Essen 1, Germany
(0201) 247-0, Fax (0201) 21 67 07, Telex 857 467
Barrenas Sandvik Andina S.A.
Fermin Tanguis 160 Urb. Santa Catalina - La Victoria
Apart.6183 Lima 1 do, Lima, Peru,
(51-54) 70 58 85,70 80 30, Fax 70 58 78, Telex 25406 PE
Becorit, siehe KHD
Berry Neu Turbomachines
47 rue Fourier, B.P.327, 59020 Lille, France
(033) 20 09 68 58, Fax (033) 20 92 90 76, Telex 820 257
Bhler
Postfach 80,8605 Kapfenberg, Austria
(03862) 291 85 85, Fax (03862) 33 i 97, Telex 36 529
Bosch
Postfach 10 01 56,7022 Leinfelden-Echterdingen 1, Germany,
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(0711) 7 90 31, Telex 72 527 500
Brauer
Goethestrae 11, 6140 Bensheim 3, Germany
(06251) 7 30 68, Fax (06251) 7 39 55
Campo Nuevo,
Cas.4365 La Paz, Bolivia,
350409
CEAG
Postfach 305.4600 Dortmund 1, Germany
(0231) 5 17 30, Fax (0231) 517 31 89, Telex 8227 575
Compaa Minera Industrial Buena Fortuna S.R.L
Juan L. Miller 175, Urb. La Chalaca, Callao, Peru
65 72 03,65 99 65, Fax 65 99 65
Consorcio Metalurgico S.A. COMESA
Calle Omega 215, Parque Internacional de la Industria y Comercio
Apart.3528, Callao, Peru,
52 68 43,52 12 29,51 09 20, Fax 51 09 20, Telex 26992 PE HILCO,
30300 CP SMGL
Continental
Konigsworther Platz 1,3000 Hannover 1, Germany
(05 M ) 765-1, Fax (05 M ) 765 27 66, Telex 92 170
Cyphelly & Cie,
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Techniques Hydro-mechaniques, 1588 Cudrefin, Switzerland
DeBeSa
Burqplatz 4,5 144 Kreuzau, Germany
(02422) 80 85, Fax (02422) 80 84. Telex 833 944
Denver Equipment Division Joy Manufacturing Company
621 South Sierra Madre, P.O. Box 340, Colorado Springs, CO 80901,
USA,
(303) 471 -3443, TWX 910-920-4999, Telex 45-2442
Desarrollo de Recursos Nacionales DERENA S.A,
Jiron Rodolfo Beltran 929 Lima 1, Peru
2386 12,23 15 18,Fax (51-14) 31 08 48,Telex 25656
Dopke,
Postfach 150,2980 Norden, Germany
(04931) 1 20 36
Dorr-Oliver
Friedrich-Bergius-Strae 5,6200 Wiesbaden 12, Germany,
(06121) 70 41, Telex 04 186 756
Dragas HG LtDA
A.A.56650, Medellin, Colombia
277 95 69,255 78 05, Fax 255 77 88, Telex 66 878 Draco,
Dragas HG LtDA
Orfebres del Pacifico, Ed. San Francisco 300, Pisa 19, Of. No.1,
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Guayaquil, Ecuador
300671
Eduardo S.A.
Avenida N° 1 Parque Industrial Liviano, Apart..1947, Santa Cruz, Bolivia,
2 28 97,3 76 53, Fax 4 93 44, Telex 4395 Eduardo BV
Equipos Industriales Astecnia Ltd
Carrera 52-A N° 42-A-07 Sur., Apart.19784, Bogota, Colombia,
238 36 19,270 13 94,270 36 68, Telex 42218 ASTEC-CO
Fabrica de Herramientas Nacionales S.A. FAHENA,
Calle Las Fraguas 191, Urbanizacion Ind. El Naranjal, Apart.813 Lima
100,
Lima 31, Peru
81 59 13,81 50 61, Fax 72 08 88, Telex 20250 STEEL IND
Fabricacion Industrial de Maquinarias S.A. FIMA,
Av. Materiales 2632, Apart.3111 Lima 100, Lima, Peru,
52 61 35,52 99 62, Fax 52 91 22, Telex 25389 PE FIALFA
Fabricaciones Mecanicas S.A. FAMESA
Jiron Chavez Tueros 1266 Chacra Rios Sur, Lima Peru,
31 02 16,31 67 41, Fax 3; 67 41, Telex 25582 PE IMEMSA
Fabricaciones Mineras Industriales Comerciales FAMINCO S.A.,
Carlos Villaran 876, Piso 3 Santa Catalina, Apart.5952, Lima 13, Peru
727183,727064,Faxil 1463
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FACO Fabrica de Ago Paulista
Ave. Pres. Wilson, 1.716, CEP 0310; Caixa Postal 3190, Sao Paulo,
Brasil
274-6055, Telex 0 M 331 86 FACO BR
Fagersta Secoroc del Peru S.A
Calle Omega 167, Carmen de la Legua, Callao, Peru,
51 7700, 51 7682,Fax 52 4209
Falcon Concentratos,
9807 · 196 · Street, Langley B.C, Canada Y3A 4P8,
(604) 888-55 68, Fax (604) 888-52 82
Famia Industrial S.A.,
Heroes de la Brena 2790, Ate. Lima, Peru
32 99 23,32 99 24,31 22 07, Fax 31 89 14, Telex 25074 PE
FCAP-UMSS,
Casilla 4740, Cochabamba, Bolivia,
2 44 69, Telex 6220 CPBX
Flygt
Bayernstrae 11,3012 Langenhagen, Germany
(05 11) 7 80 00, Fax (0511) 78 28 93, Telex 924 059
Frantz
Hinschstrae 45, 6000 Frankfurt am Main 60, Germany
(069) 4089-0 Telex 417 355
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Friemann + Wolf,
Meidericher Strae 6-8,4100 Duisburg 1, Germany
(0203) 3002-0, Fax (0203) 3002 240, Telex 855 543
FUNDEMIN,
Av. Jimenez No.4-03 OF.1006, AA 20030, Bogota, Colombia,
Fundicion Callao S.A.,
Av. Argentina 3719 Apart.111 Callao, Callao, Peru
51 29 90, Fax 51 59 87, Telex 26003
Fundicion de Hierro Sud America FUNSA
Calle Roberto Hinojosa Esq. Av.31 de Octubre, Apart.1872, Villa San
Antonio, La Paz, Bolivia,
330451,81 0325
Fundacion Ventanilla S.A. FUNVESA,
Av. La Marina 1353 San Miguel Lima, Peru
62 64 92, 62 65 47, 61 91 00 , Telex 25257 PE PB SIS
Gebruder Abt,
8948 Mindelheim/Schwaben, Germany
Goldfield,
P.O.Box 117, Provo, Utah 84603. USA
801 374-66 11, Fax 801 374-66 2
GOLDSPEAR (UK) LTD
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Box 203 Beaconsfield, Bucks HP9 2TQ, Great Britain
(0494) 67 84 11, Fax (0494) 67 87 31
Grauvogel
B.P.63 67702 Saverne Cedex, France
(88) 9 i 12 53, Telex 89 0681
H.M. Representaciones S.A.
Av. Contralmirante Mora 590, Apart. 520 - Callao Callao, Peru
65 30 68,65 14 17,65 93 55, Fax 65 i 4 17, Telex 26002 PE PB - CALLAO
Haver + Boecker
Postfach 33 20, Enningerloher Strae 64,4740 Oelde
Westfalen, Germany
(02522) 301, Fax (02522) 3 04 04, Telex 89 476 haverd
HBS-Equipment Div.,
3000 Supply Ave., Los Angeles, CA.90040. USA
(213) 726-3033
Hoechst,
Verkauf Chemikalien, Postfach 80 03 20,6230 Frankfurt am Main 80
Germany
Humphrey Mineral Industries, Inc.
2219 Market Street, Denver CO 80205 USA
(303) 296-8000, Telex 45-588
IHGC Sliedrecht BV,
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P.O. Box 3,3360 AA, Sliedrecht, Netherland
Impler,
Hummelhausen 3, 8201 Au b. Bad Feilnbach, Germany,
INCOMEC Ltda.,
M. Melgarejo E.1713, Cochabamba, Bolivia
43045
Industria Acero de los Andes S.A. IAA
Av. Eloy Alfaro 939 y Av. Amazonas, Ed. Finandes 1er. piso,
Apart. 235 A, Quito, Ecuador
50 36 00,50 36 01,50 36 02, Fax (59 32) 50 36 33, Telex 2 M 98 IlA ED
Industria Constructora de Maquinaria INCOMAQ
Sambrano s/n · Comite del Pueblo, Apart.706, Quito, Ecuador,
Industrias Metalrgicas Van Dam C.A.,
2a Av. de Campo Alegre, Torre Credival, Piso 2 of. B., Apart. 1169
Caracas 1010A, Caracas, Venezuela
62 59 94,62 97 10, Telex 21245 VD, 21480 VD
Ingenieria de Proyectos y Construccin S.R.L. IMPROCON
Av,20 de octubre 2618, Edificio Kantuta - Mezzanine Of.5, La Paz Bolivia,
Ingersoll-Rand,
Siemensstrae 16-20,4040 Neuss 21, Germany
(02107) 10 09-0, Telex 8 585 006
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Ingersoll -Rand
100 Thanet Circle, Suit 300, Princeton, N.J., 08540 - 3662, USA,
(609) 921 86 88
Inteco
68 Rajendra Market, Tiz Nahir, Dehli 54, India
italvibras
Via Pualia 36,41049 Sassuolo, Italy
(0536) 80 46 34, Telex 5 10 887 itvbra i
John Blake Ltd,
PB 43, Accrington, Lancashire, Great Britain
Jost,
Hammer Strae 95,4400 Munster, Germany
(0251) 7797-0, Fax (0251) 77 97 101, Telex 892 7 16
Kaeser
Postfach 21 43,8630 Coburg, Germany
(09561) 640-0, Fax (09561) 64 01 30, Telex 663 264
Keene,
9330 Corbin Ave., Northridge, California 91324, USA,
(818) 933-0411
KHD
Postfach 91 04 57,5000 Kln 91, Germany
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(0221) 82 30, Telex 8812 267
Kleenoil,
30a Robert Street, Harrogate, North Yorkshire HG1 IHP Great Britain
(0432) 52 29 11, Fax (0423) 53 00 43, Telex 57 784 MCCL G
Knelson, Lee-Mar Industries Ltd
R.R. # 11 20313 86th Avenue, Langley, B.C., Canada V3A 6Y3
(604) 888 4000/(604) 421 -3255, Fax (604) 888-4001,
Telex 04-35 12 79 ab
Krantz, Rheinisches Mineralien-Kontor KG,
Fraunhoterstrae 7,5300 Bonn 1, Germany,
(0228) 66 20 55, Fax (0228) 66 72 66
Krug,
Bornstrae 291 4600 Dortmund 1, Germany
(0231) 83 80 to Fax (0231) 83 80 727, Telex 822 578
Krupp Widia
Munchener St;aBe 90,4300 Essen 1, Germany
(0201) 725-0,Fax(0201) 725-3035,Telex85718 14
Krupp,
Franz-Schubert-Strae 1-3,Postfach 14 19 60, 4100 Duisburg 14,Germany
(02135) 78-0, Fax (02135) 75191, Telex 855 486-0
Las Gaviotas,
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calle 18A, No. 1E, Apdo.4976, Ap. Aereo 18261, E;ogot3, Colombia
lenoir et merrier
BP 80,08120 Bogny-sur-Meuse France
2432 1332, Fax 2432 1378, Telex 840 392 lenoir f
MAD (Vorholt & Schega)
Postfach 151,4358Haltern Germany,
(02364) 10 10, Telex 829 888 vasch d
Maestranza General S.A. MAGENSA
Jiron Rodolfo Beltran 631, Apart.1075, Lima 1 Peru
32 36 36,32 37 53, Telex 25820 PE COMETRU, 20141 PE PRUTRAD,
Maestranza Industrial S.A. MAENSA
Av. Las Vegas 845, Zona Industrial San Juan de Miraflores Lima, Peru
67 82 06,67 66 05, Fax (51 · 14) 67 82 07, Telex 21583 PE RGTRADE
Maestranza y Fundicion Quillacollo MAFUQUI
Av. Albina Km.4,5 Quillacollo, Apart.2024, Cochabamba, Bolivia
6 03 02,6 01 71, Cables MAFUOUI
Mannesmann Demag
Solmstrae 2-26,6000 Frankfurt am Main 90, Germany
(069) 7901-0, Fax (069) 707 24 33, Telex 411 172
Maquinarias y Equipos Peruanos S.A. MAEPSA,
Av. La Marina 1353, San Miguel, Lima, Peru,
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62 64 92,61 91 00,62 65 47, Fax 6 i 91 do. Telex 25257 PE PB SIS
Merck,
Frankfurter Strae 250,6100 Darmstadt, Germany
(06151) 720,Fax [06151) 72 33 68, Telex 4193 280 em d
Metal Callao E.P.S.,
Av. Los Ferroles 301 Urb. Bocanegra Apart.488 Callao Peru, 29 66 69,29 91 37
Metal Mecnica Soriano S.A.,
Av. Costanera 708, San Miguel, Lima, Peru,
5245 19
Metalmecanica Milag - Millan
Landaeta 1084, La Paz, Bolivia,
78 54 78,35 78 71
Metalurgica Lacha,
Arawi 243 Cala-Cala, Cochabamba, Bolivia
45067,4 1202
Metalurgica Peruana S.A. MEPSA,
Placido Jimenez 1051 Apart. 5193 Lima 100 Lima 1, Peru,
28 32 85,28 62 97,28 62 98, Fax 32 66 66 Telex 25793
Mineral Deposits,
81 Ashmore Road, Southport, Qld.4215, Australia,
(075) 39 90 55, Fax (075) 39 98 63, Telex AA 40 438
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Mineral Equipment, Inc.
Precious Metals Extraction (PMX), 3740 Rocklin Road, Rocklin, CA
95677,
California, USA,
(916) 624-4577
Mogensen
Kronskamp; 26,2000 Wedel/Hamburg, Germany,
(04103) 8042-0, Fax (04103) 80 42 40
Mainzer Strae 118,6200 Wiesbaden, Germany
(06121)702891,Fax(06121) 71 3702, Telex 4186220
Mozley,
Cardrew, Redruth, Cornwall TR 15 ISS, Great Britain,
(0209) 21 10 81, Fax (0209) 21 10 68, Telex 45 735 mozley 9
Netter
Hasengartenstrae 40,6200 Wiesbaden, Germany,
(06121)700051,Fax(06121)71 3858, Telex 4186697
Northern Light,
1 A 3781 Victoria Park Ave., Scarborough,
Ontario M/W 3K5, Canada
Oldorid
Hulsbergstrae 255,4370 Marl/Westfalen, Germany,
(02365) 8508-9, Fax (02365) 8 28 71, Telex 829 411 olver d
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Oliver Manufacturing Company,
P.O. Box 512, Rocky Ford, CO 81067, Colorado. USA,
(303) 254-6371
Ossberger,
Otto Rieder-Strae 7,8832 Weissenburg/Bayern, Germany,
(09141) 40 91, Telex 624 672
Outokumpu,
Ritritontuntie 7D, P.O. Box 84.02201 Espoo, Finlandia
04211, Fax 042 i 24 34, Telex 121 461 autosf
Pfister & Langhanss,
Sandstrae 2-8,8500 Nurnberg, Germany
Pleiger,
Postfach 32 63,5810 Witten 3, Germany
(02324) 398-0, Fax (02324) 39 83 28, Telex 8229 964
Productos Perfilados S.A. PROPER
Enrique Meiggs 262, Parque Int. Industria y Comercio, Callao, Peru,
52 1755,51 5944
Rife Hydraulic Engine Man.,
PB 367, Millburn, New Jersey 07041, USA
Sala,
73300 Sala, Sweden,
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(0224) 1 32 20, Telex 7536 sala s
Salzgitter,
Postfach 12 63.4408 Dulmen, Germany,
(02594) 77-0, Fax (02594) 7 72 96, Telex 89 813 epr d
Schauenburg,
Weseler Strae 35,4330 Mulheim/Ruhr, Germany,
(0208) 588-0, Telex 0856 787
Schenck,
Postfach 40 18,6100 Darmstadt, Germany,
(06151) 32-0, Fax (06151) 32 32 24, Telex 4196 940 cs d
Schlumpf AG,
Bahnhofstrae; 5,6312 Steinhausen/Zug, Switzerland,
41 (42) 41 43 43, Fax 41 (42) 41 18 66, Telex 868 968
Sermitec,
Los Platanos 2729, Macul, Santiago, Chile,
2219 597, Fax 2215 783, Telex 346 257 stager ck
Siebtechnik,
Postfach 10 17 51, Platanenallee 46,4330 Mulheim/Ruhr, Germany,
(0208) 587-0. Fax (0208) 58 73 00, Telex 856 825
SIG,
Bereich Bergbau, 8212 Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Switzerland,
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(053) 21 61 11, Fax (053) 21 66 06, Telex 896 027 sig ch
SOTEEL S.R.L.
J.A. de Padilla Calle 3 entre Heroes del Chaco, Corretera La Paz km
3,
Oruro, Bolivia,
10801
Postfach i 1 02 09, Fellerstrae 4,5620 Velbert 11, Germany,
(02052) 605-0, Telex 8516 795
Steve and Duke's Manufacturing Co.,
2500-Z Valley Road, Reno, NV 89512, Nevada, USA,
(702) 322-1629
SVALCOR,
Andrade Duenas, Barrio La Cristiania, Casilla 6070 CCI, Quito,
Ecuador,
473-200,243-731
T. Heintzmann,
Bessemerstrae 80, Postfach 10 1029,4630Bochum 1,Germany,
(0234) 619-1, Telex 0825 879 heco-d
Taller "Centro del Muchacho Trabajador",
Plaza Marin, Quito, Ecuador
Talleres J.G.,
Casilla 226, Machala, Ecuador,
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922-299
Talleres Mejia,
Turuhuayco 270, Apart. 36-A, Cuenca, Ecuador,
800361,800297
P.O.B. 512,33101 Tampere, Finlandia
(0358) 31 32 400, Telex 22 616 tools sf
Telsmith,
Smith engineering works, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Turmag,
Postfach 13 80,4322 Sprockhover 1, Germany,
(02324) 7003-0, Fax (02324) 70 03 27, Telex 8229 953
Vardax,
3025 Eldridge Ave, Bellingham WA 98225, USA,
(206) 671 -7817, (206) 671 -7820
Vautid-Verschleitechnik,
Postfach 41 10,7302 Stuttgart-Ruit, Germany,
(0711) 44 20 31, Fax (0711) 44 20 39, Telex 722 687
Volcan S.A.,
Av. Chacaltaya 1350, Apart.214, La Paz, Bolivia,
34 03 84,35 50 94, Telex 3460
WAMA,
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Th.-Mayr Strae 5,8018 Grafing. Germany
(08092) 45 08
Hunderstae 13,7100 Heilbronn, Germany,
(07131)42561,Fax(07131)4831 65,Telex728 137
Wilfley Mining Machinery Co. Ltd.,
Cambridge Street, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, NN8 1 DW,
Great Britain
44 (933) 22 63 68, Fax 44 (933) 44 13 77, Telex 31 7220 WILMIN G
Wolff,
Wolfbankring 38.4300 Essen 1, Germany,
(0201) 67 10 11, Fax (0201) 68 10 1 1
Zutta Hermanos,
Calle 13A,No 17-25-59,AA.325,Pasto,Colombia,
322-27
Home"" """"> ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
(introduction...)
Acknowledgements
Preface
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Guide to the user
Introduction
A. Analysis
Technical Chapter 1: Analysis
B. Underground mining
Technical Chapter 2: Safety Techniques
Technical Chapter 3: Ventilation
Technical Chapter 4: Water supply and drainage
Technical Chapter 5: Support
Technical Chapter 6: Lighting
Technical Chapter 7: Stoping
Technical Chapter 8: Loading
Technical Chapter 9: Hauling
C. Surface mining
Technical Chapter 10: Surface Mining Equipment
Technical Chapter 11: Other special techniques
D. Beneficiation
Technical Chapter 12: Crushing
Technical Chapter 13: Classification
Technical Chapter 14: Sorting
Technical Chapter 15: Gold Benefication
Technical Chapter 16: 0ther Sorting and Separating
Techniques
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Technical Chapter 17: Drying
Technical Chapter 18: Clarification
E. Mechanization and energy supply
Technical Chapter 19: Energy Techniques
Bibliography
List of manufacturers and suppliers
List of abbreviations
List of abbreviations
A.D.
Anno Domini
AGID
Association of Geoscientists for International Development
AKW
Amberger Kaolinwerke
approx. Aproximate
B.C.
Before Christ
BGR
German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw
Material
cif
Cost insurance freight
COMIBOL Coorporacion Minera de Bolivia
Coop.
Cooperative
Cord.
Cordillera
CSMRI
Colorado School of Mines
DAV
German Alpine Club
DBM
German Mines Museum
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DBM
DDR
DE
Dept.
DM
e.g.
E/MJ
Ed.
EP
etc.
Fig.
fob.
FONEM
GATE
GFK
GTZ
KfW
KHD
LA
M.S.L.
MAK
max.
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scal…
German Mines Museum
German Democrate Republic
German Patent
Departamento
Deutsch Mark
Exempli grati (lat. = for instance)
Engineering Mining Journal
Edition
European Patente
Etcetera
Figure(s)
Free on board
Fondo Nacional de Exploracion Minera, La Paz
German Appropiate Technology Exchange
Glasfaserverstarkter Kunststoff (glass fibre-reinforced synthetic)
Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (German Technical Cooperation)
Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau
Klockner Humboldt Deutz
Latin-America
Mean Sea Level
Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentration (maximum concentration at work place)
Maximum
min.
MWSt
Minimum
Mehrwertsteuer (value added taxes)
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MWSt
NE
No.
P,
PAAC
PE
PGM
PVC
R+D
RFA
SKAT
SM
TMM
TZ
US $
UV
VDI
VITA
WHO
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scal…
Mehrwertsteuer (value
added taxes)
Nichteisen (non-ferrous)
Number
Page
Programa de Asistencia Agrobioenergetica al Campesino
Polyethylene
Platin Group Metals
Polyviniychlorid
Research and Development
X-rayfluorescentanalyses
Schweizerische Kontaktstelle fur Angepate Technik (Swiss Contact Agency for
Appropriate Technology)
Schwermineral (heavy mineral)
Taller Metal Mecanico
Technische Zusammenarbeit (Technical Cooperation)
American Dollar
Ultra-violet
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (Association of German Engineers)
Volunteers in Technical Assistance
World Heath Organisation
PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, SIMBOLS OF FORMULAE AND UNITS
“
%
Inch, approx. 2.5 cm
Per-cen
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%
Per-cen
‘
<
>
A
a
W
bar
Be
C
cd
cm
cm³
d
D
die
En
F
f (...)
ft.
g
Foot, approx. 30 cm
Smaller then
Bigger then
Difference
Ampere
Year
Width
Bar-pressure
Beaume
Degree Celsius
Candela, measurement for degree of luminosity
Centimetre
Cubic centimetre
Diameter, density
Diameter, Depth
Diameter
Electrons' potential
Force
Function of
Foot
Earth acceleration, 9.81 m/sec²
g
G
Gramne
Weight
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G
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scal…
Weight
h
Hour
H
Height
HP
Horse-Power
in
Inch
kg
Kilogramme
km
Kilometre
KW
Kilowatts
I
Litre
L
Length
lb.
Libra = pound
m
Metre
M
Man
m³
Cubic metre
min-1 Per minute
min.
Minute
mm
Milimetre
MP
Intermediary (middle) product
MS
Man Shift
Mstat
Statistical moment
µ
Micro
µm
Micro meter
n
Amount
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n
N
Amount
Newton
oz
p
pH
ppb
ppm
q
R, r
rpm
sec.
t
TMF
v
V
W
E
0
°
°C
Ounze
Pressure
Negative decadic log of hydrogen ions or proton concentration
Parts per billion
Parts per million
Constant factor
Radius
Revolutions per minute
Second
Metric ton
Tonelade metrica fina
Speed
Voltage
Watt
Sum
Diameter
Degree
Degree Celsius
CHEMICAL SYMBOLS
Ag
Al
Silver
Aluminium
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Al
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scal…
Aluminium
Au Gold
Bi Bismuth
C
Carbon
Ca Calcium
Cd Cadmium
Cu Copper
Fe Iron
H
Hydrogen
Hg Mercury
M²+ Metalion with double valence
N
Nitrogen
O
Oxygen
Pb Lead
S
Sulphur
Sb Antimony
Si Silicon
Sn Tin
W Tungsten
Zn Zin
Home"" """"> ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw
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Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
(introduction...)
Acknowledgements
Preface
Guide to the user
Introduction
A. Analysis
Technical Chapter 1: Analysis
B. Underground mining
Technical Chapter 2: Safety Techniques
Technical Chapter 3: Ventilation
Technical Chapter 4: Water supply and drainage
Technical Chapter 5: Support
Technical Chapter 6: Lighting
Technical Chapter 7: Stoping
Technical Chapter 8: Loading
Technical Chapter 9: Hauling
C. Surface mining
Technical Chapter 10: Surface Mining Equipment
Technical Chapter 11: Other special techniques
D. Beneficiation
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Technical Chapter 12: Crushing
Technical Chapter 13: Classification
Technical Chapter 14: Sorting
Technical Chapter 15: Gold Benefication
Technical Chapter 16: 0ther Sorting and Separating
Techniques
Technical Chapter 17: Drying
Technical Chapter 18: Clarification
E. Mechanization and energy supply
Technical Chapter 19: Energy Techniques
Bibliography
List of manufacturers and suppliers
List of abbreviations
Guide to the user
This technical handbook on small-scale mining in developing countries serves as a
general source of information and as a planning and consulting guide for mining,
exploration and beneficiation engineers as well as other technical-staff members
of planning and consulting companies and organizations both in developing and in
developed countries. Although the handbook caters to the special needs of smallscale mining in Latin American countries, incorporating particularly the traditional
techniques employed in countries in the Andean region, it has a worldwide
application. Included in this handbook are also guidelines for craftsmen and
artisans and their affiliated consulting organizations who are interested in
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diversifying their product line.
Prerequisites for the successful application of this handbook include a technical
knowledge on the part of the reader, as well as the ability to think abstractly and
the capability to understand and interpret technical sketches and drawings.
Due to the large quantity of information which has emerged from the complex
array of mining activities, a structuring of the data is crucial to ensure the
convenient use of the handbook. The handbook covers all basic information about
mining, in particular focusing on the extraction and beneficiation of ores, precious
metals, coal, salt, industrial minerals, and precious stones. Since the selection of
mining and processing equipment relies more upon specific operational data, such
as production rate and the degree of mechanization, rather than the type of
mineral being extracted, the information given in this handbook is divided into five
main chapters according to the following five categories: Analysis, Underground
Mining, Surface Mining, Beneficiation and Energy.
Each of these five chapters includes an introduction containing definitions,
problem areas, environmental and health risks, and organizational advice. This is
followed by a presentation of technical information on individual techniques and
procedures, which in some cases is divided into specific work categories. Each of
these techniques is summarized in a technical outline containing a compact
presentation of the technical data, costs, and conditions and restrictions of
application. Especially with regard to the conditions for application, the evaluation
of these techniques is based on more subjective criteria; for example, service and
maintenance costs can only be approximated in a small-scale mining handbook
through comparison with costs for equipment which perform comparable
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functions. As a result, these evaluations cannot be universally correlated with
each other.
The degree of environmental impact is presented on a linear scale, providing an
initial basis for defining the technology's effect on the environment. Negative
environmental effects through the depletion of mineral resources, or those
associated with the supplying of energy, were not taken into consideration here;
these effects are discussed in the chapter on Energy. Those techniques that are
energy intensive and cannot utilize regenerative sources of energy are included in
the environmental impact evaluation. Damage to the environment caused by the
manufacture of spare parts for mining equipment are not considered here unless
the production pertains to major machinery components. The environmental
material-balance sheet for reagents has, however, been incorporated into the data
analysis for the most part.
The section on suitability for local production examines the possibilities for
manufacturing at the local level. The investigation does not focus on
manufacturing by the mines directly, but rather production in non-mining
industries such as wood, metal and other special machine-manufacturing shops
which, due to the fact that they do not belong to the mining sector, are not
equipped with special machines or special knowledge in the manufacture of such
mining equipment. Besides providing information on the local conditions required
for machine manufacturers, the handbook also includes photos, drawings and
simple dimensioning aids. Every technical outline has a numbered title and name
of the technique or technology, mining sector and work category, enabling rapid
identification and classification of the technique or technology according to its
area of application.
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The technical section of the handbook also includes names of manufacturers and
bibliography for further information. Abbreviations used in the handbook are
explained in the List of Abbreviations.
A Subject Index is provided at the end of the handbook to assist the reader in
quickly locating particular text subjects within the work-organization and
technical sections.
Those mineral resources which require special mining or processing techniques
are presented in the handbook separately:
- industrial minerals extraction in the chapter on Surface Mining, since this
primarily involves the mining of bulk materials. The techniques presented in
Chapter D are suitable for the processing of raw materials for industrial and
construction purposes, and can normally be used without difficulty.
- techniques for diamond processing are presented in Chapter D, whereby sorting
of raw materials is the main difficulty since in some cases the feed material
contains significantly less than 1 g/ton valuable mineral.
- gold beneficiation is also contained in the section on beneficiation and
processing. This additionally includes information concerning the problems and
risks of contamination in the amalgamation process as well as a collection of
flowsheets from various gold-processing plants. Special separation techniques for
gold extraction are described in Subchapter 15. Crushing, classification and some
sorting processes employed in gold beneficiation are not gold-specific techniques
and are therefore found in a beneficiation of the handbook. The mining of gold,
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whether surface or underground, likewise does not need to be addressed
separately.
Some of the described modern techniques for smallscale mining are under patent
protection in case of local production. The valid legal requirements must be
considered.
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Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
(introduction...)
Acknowledgements
Preface
Guide to the user
Introduction
A. Analysis
Technical Chapter 1: Analysis
B. Underground mining
Technical Chapter 2: Safety Techniques
Technical Chapter 3: Ventilation
Technical Chapter 4: Water supply and drainage
Technical Chapter 5: Support
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Technical Chapter 6: Lighting
Technical Chapter 7: Stoping
Technical Chapter 8: Loading
Technical Chapter 9: Hauling
C. Surface mining
Technical Chapter 10: Surface Mining Equipment
Technical Chapter 11: Other special techniques
D. Beneficiation
Technical Chapter 12: Crushing
Technical Chapter 13: Classification
Technical Chapter 14: Sorting
Technical Chapter 15: Gold Benefication
Technical Chapter 16: 0ther Sorting and Separating
Techniques
Technical Chapter 17: Drying
Technical Chapter 18: Clarification
E. Mechanization and energy supply
Technical Chapter 19: Energy Techniques
Bibliography
List of manufacturers and suppliers
List of abbreviations
Introduction
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The role of small-scale mining worldwide, both in developed and developing
countries, should not be underestimated. It must be taken into consideration that
the definition "small-scale mining" varies greatly from country to country. The
criteria used here are cost of investment (less than 1,000,000- US$), number of
employees (up to 100 employees), crude ore production rate (less than 100,000
t/a), annual sales, size of the mining concession, amount of reserves, or a
combination of these individual criteria. These criteria are still under discussion,
and uniform guidelines based on objective criteria have not yet been established.
Consequently small-scale mining in developing countries is defined by subjective
criteria, some of which characterize this sector as a craft-activity:
- the absence or low degree of mechanization due to a high proportion of heavy
manual labor,
- low safety standards,
- poorly-trained personnel,
- lack of technical personnel in the plant, resulting in deficient planning in both
mining and processing activities,
- comparatively poor utilization of resources due to nonselective mining of highgrade ores and poor recovery,
- low pay scale,
- low work productivity,
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- periods of non-continuous mining, as a result of mining only seasonally or when
world market prices reach a certain minimum level,
- insufficient consideration of environmental impact
- chronic lack of capital,
- some illegal operations due to mining without concession rights.
In general, the situation in small-scale mining can be characterized as a vicious
circle that, without external assistance, can hardly be broken:
Figure
Despite the difficult conditions that beset small-scale mining, the industry holds a
substantial position in mining worldwide. Of the total world mining production, a
considerable proportion is accounted for by small-scale mining.
Table: Precentage of Total World Production of Selected Raw Materials/Minerals
represented by Small-Scale Mining (Source: Noetstaller)
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Metals
Industrial minerals
beryllium
100 % iron
12 % fluorite
90 % barite
60 %
mercury
90 % lead
11 % graphite
90 % sand and gravel
30 %
tungsten
80 % zinc
11 % talc
90 % stones for building 30 %
chrome
50 % cobalt 10 % vermiculite 90 % salt
20 %
antimony
45 % gold
90 % coal
20 %
manganese 18 % silver 10 % feldespar
80 % asbestos
10 %
tin
75 % phosphate
10 %
10 % pumice
15 % copper 8 % clay
gypsum
70 %
For many developing countries throughout the world, small-scale mining provides
an important source of income as well as a significant source of foreign monetary
exchange.
Table: The Most Important Small-Scale Mining Countries and Coresponding
Minerals Processed (Source: Noetstaller)
Country
Raw Material mined by Small-Scale Mining
Latin America
Argentine
antimony, asbestos, beryl, lithium, mercury, bismuth, tungsten
Bolivia
antimony, lead, gold, sulphur, silver, tungsten, zinc, tin
Brazil
beryl, chromite, gold, precious stones, titanium, tin
Chile
Dominican
barite, lead, gold, copper, manganese, mercury, sulphur, coal
gold
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Dominican
Republic
gold
Guatemala
antimony, lead, mica, manganese, tin, tungsten
Colombia
antimony, lead, chromite, precious stones, iron, gold, coal, platinum
mercury, zinc,
Cuba
copper, manganese, pyrite
Mexico
fluorite, mercury, sulphur, uranium, tin
Peru
antimony, lead, diatomite, gold, copper, manganese, molybdenum, silver,
bismuth, zinc, tin
Venezuela
asbestos, diamonds, gold
Ecuador
gold
Asia
Myanmar
antimony, manganese, tin, tungsten
China
antimony, iron, coal, tin, tungsten
India
barite, borates, iron, mica, coal, manganese, tin
Indonesia
gold, tin
Iran
barite, lead, copper, zinc
Malaysia
gold, iron, manganese, zinc, tin, tungsten
Papua-New
Guinea
gold
Philippines
chromite, gold, coal, copper, silver, zinc
Thailand
antimony, tin, tungsten
Turkey
lead, chromite, copper, magnesite, mercury, zinc
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Turkey
Africa
Tools
for Mining: Techniques
and Processes
for Small Scal… zinc
lead, chromite,
copper,
magnesite,
mercury,
Algeria
antimony, barite, diatomite, mercury, zinc
Ethiopia
gold, manganese, platinum
Gabon
gold
Ghana
diamonds, gold
Kenya
beryl, precious stones, gold, copper, silver
Lesotho
diamonds
Liberia
diamonds, gold
Madagaskar
gold, rare earth, bismuth
Morocco
antimony, barite, lead, manganese, zinc, tin
Nigeria
asbestos, barite, lead, gold, zinc, tin
Rwanda
beryl, gold, tin, tungsten
Sierra Leone
diamonds
Tunesia
lead, mercury, zinc
Tanzania
diamonds, mica, gold, magnesite, precious stones, tin, tungsten
Uganda
beryl, bismuth, tungsten
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Central African diamonds, gold
Rep.
Zimbabwe
antimony, beryl, chromite, precious stones, mica, gold, copper, lithium,
manganese, silver
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Small-scale mining activities and mine workers have an integral interrelationship
with their surroundings -nature, culture and people, technology and economy:
mining disturbs nature through the depletion of its natural resources and its
deleterious impact on the environment, which it is dependent upon for its energy
and raw materials. Mining on the one hand, and culture and people on the other,
have greatly influenced each other since prehistoric times: mining activities
provided culturally significant metals and precious stones; mining has always, still
to this day, led the way for rural and technological development. Mining, with its
tools and equipment, utilizes this technology to generate income through the
materials it produces. This interrelationship can be depicted as follows:
Figure
A comprehensive promotion of small-scale mining must consider the social
suitability, assessed needs, profitability and environmental compatibility; only
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then can subsequent improvements in the working conditions of small-scale
miners be achieved. In particular, the following measures are essential:
Table: Catalogue of possible Promotion Measures for the various Stages of
Production
Exploration
On-site technical and
organizational
consultation
Research and development Policy on raw
materials
Training in:
- analysis
- deposit geology and
mineralogy
- geological mapping
Development of appropriate: National
assistance
- methods of analysis
- instrument kits
through:
- regional
exploration
programs
- providing suitable
maps
- service facilities
- reducing
bureaucratic
requirements
Mining,
Training in organization
Exploitation and implementation of:
- exploration activities
- safety measures
- mining operation
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Development of appropriate:
- mining methods and
equipment
- haulage facilities
- safety procedures
Implementation
of:
- security and
health control
- technical advice
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- ventilation methods
- mecanization
- training in the operation
of machines
Beneficiation Training in:
- operation of machines
- planning, operation,
optimization and
supervision of
beneficiation plants
- water management
- handling/treatment of
chemicals which are
hazardous to health and
the environment
Development of appropriate:
- crushing and grinding
equipment
- beneficiation techniques and
machines for small-scale
mining, e.g.:
- mobile
systems
- heap
leaching
- flotation
mechanization
of equipment
Devising a social
security system for
small-scale mining
Promotion and
construction of:
- central processing
plants
- infrastructure for
- transportation
- water source
facilities
- analysis of concentrates
Marketing, Training in:
Investments - plant management
- marketing
- accounting
- profitability calculations
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Development of appropriate:
- credit schemes for smallscale mining
- organizational structures
- advertising
formulation of raw
material policy
suited to smallscale mining
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- credit/loan facilitation
- cooperatives
debureaucratization
- legalizing small
mines
- government
purchase of
products at market
prices
- management
consulting
- credit and tax
incentives
The objective of this technical handbook on small-scale mining is to provide
technical alternatives and organizational improvements for small-scale mining.
The goal of these technical innovations is to assist the small-scale mining industry
in numerous ways in solving its problems; specifically, this can be accomplished
by:
- improving operational success by increasing mine output,
- job generation with low specific cost,
- improving the quality of social and economic living conditions,
- increasing production through semi-mechanization1) using regenerative sources
of energy,
- improving job safety, and
- minimizing environmental impact.
1)Semi-mecanization is defined here as a form of mechanization in which only
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individual steps of the total mining and beneficiation operations are mechyanized
(e.g. mechanization of the crushing process by use of a breaker). Additionally,
semi-mechanization also defines an operation in which the control and feeding of
the machine are performed entirely manually.
The techniques or methods discussed in this handbook are summarized according
to five categories: analysis, surface and underground mining, beneficiation, and
energy supply. In addition to purely technical solutions, the handbook also
provides alternatives for improvement of organizational problems typical to smallscale mining. In conjunction with that, historical mining machines, modern smallscale mining equipment, and traditional techniques were examined within the
scope of the investigation. The integration of the historical, modern and traditional
elements serves as the basis here for the development of an appropriate
technology.
This technology is aimed not only at the small-scale miners themselves. The
majority of the mining and dressing techniques identified to be applicable for
small-scale mining, due to their suitability for local production, offer various
approaches to the promotion of crafts and small manufacturing industries.
The craftsmen and the small to medium-scale manufacturers can especially profit
from the production of machines and facilities for the small-scale mining industry
and resulting diversification of product lines when
- competetive products do not yet exist on the local market, and
- if the local market for mining and processing equipment is protected from the
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import market as a result of, amongst others, import duties, shortage of foreign
exchange, and high transportation costs.
Small-scale craftmen or manufacturers associated with the mining industry can:
- deliver faster and cheaper
- more accurately meet the customers needs
- benefit from the relationship to become independent and self-organized
- shorten repair and maintenance time, which is especially important in seasonal
small-scale mining operations.
The following results are expected from the application of the recommended
technical and organizational improvements for small-scale mining in developing
countries:
- local production of equipment for appropriate mining and beneficiation
technology by craftshops and small-scale manufacturers. This would be developed
to meet demand within the country itself and, in addition, could lead to the
intensification of a South-South cooperation
- consultancy for small-scale mining operations, accompanied by installation of
appropriate equipment, support for adaption developments, etc.
- educational measures; training of small-scale mining personnel, planners and
consultants in suitable educational facilities, for example in the areas of analysis,
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geology, mineral-deposit geology, work organization and techniques in mining and
beneficiation, work safety, marketing and economics
- development of new concepts for environmentally and economically
advantageous energy supply systems, such as the use of renewable energy
sources
- development and implementation of environmental protection measures in
small-scale mining (e.g. decreasing the amount of lumber needed for mine
supports, reducing or even eliminating mercury emissions in the gold
amalgamation process, addressing problems of cyanide-leaching in gold-ore
processing, reducing contamination of waste water by, for example, reagents from
flotation processing or slurry effluents from beneficiation operations).
The effects of such a politically-instigated developmental program would include
creating and securing jobs in the non-agricultural sector, qualifying workers in the
mining and craft industries, import-substitution of raw materials in the industrial,
energy, and agricultural sectors, substituting locally- manufactured for imported
machinery and equipment, as well as contributing to regional development.
As a whole, these measures lead to the internalizing of costs and income in the
areas influenced by mining i.e. the mines themselves, the craft and manufacturing
industries, as well as the suppliers of raw materials.
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Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
A. Analysis
A.1. Definition
A.2. Initial conditions and problem areas
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining (GTZ, 1993,
538 p.)
A. Analysis
A.1. Definition
The section on analysis includes the determination of the chemical and physical
properties of soil, rock and ore samples as well as of concentrates, middlings and
tailings from beneficiation processing. The analytical procedure used here consists
of the following four steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
sampling,
chemical or physical analysis of sample material,
classification and statistical analysis of data, and
interpretation of the results.
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The application of analytical procedures in the small-scale mining industry are
particularly significant for prospecting, exploration, quality control during mining,
beneficiation, marketing and environmental protection.
A.2. Initial conditions and problem areas
Small-scale mining in developing countries suffers from a lack of knowledge
concerning crude ore reserves as well as product composition. The situation is
worsened by the fact that ihomogeneous mineralization exists, especially in
deposits of sub-volcanic genesis as are characteristic of the Andean region. As a
result, variations in mineralization occur within small proximities with regard to
both geological relationships and mineralogical and geo-chemical compositions. A
good example of this can be seen in Bolivian tin deposits, where the tin source can
be Cassiterite (for chemical composition see Table), Cylindrite, Teallite or
Frankeite (three Sulfostannates) or Stannite. Knowledge of the entire geological
relationship is critical for planning. not only the mining procedure but especially
the beneficiation processing.
The composition of concentrates is frequently not known by the small-scale
mining operators, which can be disadvantageous for selling the products.
Impurities in the concentrates result in lower prices for the product following high
penalty deductions assessed by the buyers or the beneficiation plant, and further
impairing the marketing of profitable by-products. The Cascabel Mine in Bolivia
(Dept. La Paz) serves as an example, which, despite higher lead, silver and tin
contents in its concentrates, is only able to market its products with great
difficulty, suffering large penalty assessments (price discounts) due to abnormally
high levels of mercury contamination. These mineralization problems occur not
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only in the primary vein ore deposits, but are also present in placer deposits;
deficient product knowledge is the reason why valuable platinum contents in
alluvial gold deposits (e.g. in Colombia) are not being mined and consequently not
being separately marketed.
Another characteristic problem of small-scale mining in developing countries is
the questionable credibility of the analyses, which, as a rule, are performed by the
buyer himself. Control checks have shown that results of the analyses are being
manipulated to the advantage of the buyer and to the disadvantage of the smallscale mine operators. Primarily, the silver contents were given as too low, and the
residual moisture levels as too high, which is difficult to prove in the absence of
control measures.
The resulting conclusion is that the small-scale mining industry needs to
implement its own control program. In addition to quality control during mining
(grade control) and beneficiation and marketing planning, analytical procedures
suitable for small-scale mining are also important for prospecting and exploration
activities.
The use of centralized analytical methods becomes inconvenient or even
impossible for small-scale mining due to the location-dependency of stationary
analytical techniques, and the lack of infrastructure in the remotely-located,
isolated small-scale mining operations.
The need exists within the small-scale mining industry for a simple, portable
analyitical procedure. The main criteria should include low cost and quick
performance with limited equipment and time requirements while avoiding
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unnecessary measuring precision. The extent to which the analytical results are
representative and are reproducable is determined more through the quality and
preciseness of the sampling rather than the application of the most optimal
method of analysis. An analysis which is precise to several places behind the
decimal point is worthless when an improper sampling procedure results in
inaccurate figures in front of the decimal point.
The lack of simple analysing procedures for smallscale mining is not limited just to
developing countries; this is an area calling for research-anddevelopment efforts.
A.2.1 SAMPLING
The sampling procedure is of primary importance for the technical planning of
mining and beneficiation operations. However, a very precise and exact analysis is
of no value if the sample being analyzed is not representative. A sample is
representative of its original geologic environment only when the same chemical,
mineralogical and physical relationships characteristic of the specific geologic
area are exhibited in the sample. These relationships are defined by the mineral or
element distribution, humidity, granulation and grain-size distribution,
permeability, etc. When a waste dump, mineral deposit or beneficiation product is
analyzed, it is not possible to examine the entire dump or deposit, or the total
product quantity, but only portions of the whole. Proper conclusions can only be
made from these sampled portions when they are representative of the whole.
In the testing of a pile of crude ore, for example, it is not sufficient to take only
one chunk of ore from the pile, which may be representative of only the countryrock or the mineralization itself. An analysis of this sample alone would result in
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erroneous conclusions concerning the metal-content of the deposit in general.
Several sampling techniques which consistently produce representative results are
discussed below:
Bulk sampling is employed for the sampling of loose fine-to-coarse-grained
materials, such as in the analysis of tailings, waste dumps, products, and crude
ores. Numerous smaller samples are taken from a number of various arbitrary
locations throughout the material pile without preference to any particularly richer
or poorer regions. The sampling procedure should not only include numerous
different sample locations but should also ensure that the grain-size of the
samples also vary, in that samples of the finer fractions and the fines are also
collected along with the large pieces of ore. In so doing, the sample volume or
quantity should always be at least ten times greater than that of the largest
individual sample in order to assure that the effects of classification, whether from
deposition in the pile or from selectivity during blasting, are statistically
compensated.
Channel sampling is a method of sampling exposed in-situ ore-bodies. In this
procedure, sample material is obtained from a groove, constant in width and
depth, cut into the rock over a specific length, for example from the hanging wall
to the foot wall across the width of the face during drifting; for example, a slit 10cm in height and 5-cm in depth is cut out along the entire stope width with the
sample material being collected on a tarp spread on the roadway floor below.
In-situ ore bodies can also be tested by grab sampling. Over the affected sample
area, for example the area of the face, numerous equally-sized samples are
randomly taken by hammering, digging or prying off loosened chunks without any
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locational preference for richer or poorer zones of mineralization. This sampling
method is considerably easier to carry out than channel sampling, especially in
hard ore bodies.
Cuttings-sampling recovers sample material from the washed drill dust or drill
cuttings which are produced during drill-and-blast drifting and mining. As a result,
the collected sample material originates not just from exposed surfaces, but rather
represents a three-dimensional sampling area when an entire drilling-grid is
sampled. An additional advantage of this method is that the sample material
already exists in a finely-comminuted form.
In order to avoid systematic causes of errors, sampling should always be
conducted by only one and the same person.
Fig.: Manual quartering of sample material by mixing, coning, mixing, flattening,
quartering, and discarding of two opposite-lying quarters. Source: Schroll
For further treatment larger-sized samples are crushed and subsequently
quartered. This is performed by heaping the crushed sample material into a cone,
thoroughly mixing it several times via shovelling, and again heaping it into a cone
by pouring. The cone is then pressed or stomped flat, and the resulting flat cone
base is divided into four equal segments. Two of the quarters, located opposite
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one another, are analogously processed further, while the remaining two quarters
are discarded. This procedure is repeated as often as required until the desired
sample quantity has been reached. The conical pouring of the sample material
assures the homogeneity of the sample.
The homogeneity of ores, alluvial deposits, tailings or other mined waste, and the
degree to which the samples are representative, is particularly important where
the element or mineral-content is low. This occurs in discrete aggregates, where
the valuable mineral exists as separate grains independent of the mineralized
matrix. An important example is gold. Gold analysis demands values of a
magnitude of less than 1 g/t. Gold particles can appear as gold glitters or nuggets
with individual weights of up to more than 1 9. If, for example, one ton of crude
ore which has only a single 1-9 gold nugget is analyzed by using 100kg of sample
material which happens to contain this nugget, the results will indicate 10 9 of
gold/l, which of course is too high. Statistically, in 9 out of 10 cases the nugget
would not be contained in a 100-kg crudeore sample, so that the gold content is
then assessed at 0 g/t. This effect is known as the nugget effect and requires, in
such cases, multiple samples of large quantities. The more nonhomogeneous the
sample material, the higher the number of samples required in order to obtain a
statistical median value which approaches the true value for the material as a
whole.
A.2.2 MINERALOGICAL EXAMINATION
Under certain conditions, an optical measuring or visual estimation of the ore
content underground can serve as a substitute for an analysis. The prerequisites
for this are:
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- a relatively high proportion of ore minerals in the total material, since only then
is the measured or estimated value of sufficient accuracy, and
- high visibility of the ore mineral under the conditions of examination. This
requires clean working faces or sampling surfaces, perhaps involving the use of
artificial methods to improve visibility, for example with ultra-violet lamps to
detect mineral luminescence.
The visual evaluation is significant in lead-zinc mining in hydrothermal deposits
with classic vein patterns. As a rule, testing is combined in this case with
geological mapping of the hanging or footwalls. In so doing, the total width of the
wall and the width of the ore veins are measured onto one profile. The profile
must run vertically along the strike and dip of the vein; otherwise the values
appear unrealistically high. If the profile is divided into several fragments, the sum
of the individual vein thicknesses can be determined (for example, 25 cm galena,
15 cm sphalerite over a thickness of 175 cm). From this information, the
volumetric proportion of the various ore minerals can be calculated. When the
densities of each ore mineral and host rock are included, the total weight
proportion of the ore minerals can then be established. With this information, and
the additional knowledge of the metal content in each ore mineral, the metalcontent distribution (% by weight) of the sampled profile can be determined. The
incorporation of correction factors to account for mineral intergrowths, etc., can
increase the accuracy of this method. This form of sampling or testing has proven
itself even in highly mechanized operations in industrialized countries where it
competes against modern procedures, such as portable X-ray fluorescent analysis.
Another mining sector which employs optical evaluation is scheelite mining,
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where the mine face is irradiated with an ultra-violet lamp which induces
fluorescence of the scheelite.
As is true for sampling procedures, a high degree of accuracy in the optical test
results can only be attained through disciplined work procedures and a great deal
of experience.
A.2.3 ADVANTAGES OF MINIMIZING ACCURACY
All analysing procedures and evaluation methods exhibit a linear relationship
between degree of accuracy and the cost of analysis, or, in other words, the more
accurate the analysis, the more complex the equipment and the higher the costs.
The lower the detection limit of the analytical method, i.e. the smaller the
analyzed value is, the more expensive the analysis will be. Looking at this fact, it
is absolutely necessary from an economical standpoint that the small-scale mining
industry employs the cheapest method of analysing available within the desired
accuracy and metal-content limits.
A.2.4 DETERMINATION OF ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION IN RAW ORE AND
CONCENTRATES
Lack of knowledge about the contents of the different elements in raw ore, mine
waste and concentrates is frequently the cause for the inefficient or uneconomic
performance of small-scale mining operations. As a rule, only the contents of the
desired metals in the ore and concentrate are examined. Consequently, the causes
for undesired metal contents in the products, and subsequent penalty
assessments, are not known by the small-scale miner. Additionally the accounting
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statements from the ore buyer do not explicitly indicate the reasons for penalty
deductions. Commercially marketable byproducts also remain unidentified.
A number of various contaminating metals and elements which may be present in
the mine products lead to penalties, assessed by the smelters in the form of price
reduction, when the content of these metals exceed a maximum tolerance level.
These elements, their maximum tolerance limits, and the penalty amounts are
established by the smelting standards, varying according to smelting process,
market situation and buyer. Consequently, a definite statement concerning these
elements and tolerance limits cannot be made; however, as a general reference,
the following table lists some critical elements which are deleterious to nonferrous metal ore concentrates:
As a rule, non-ferrous metal smelters penalize:
Bi In almost all concentrates
Hg in almost all concentrates
S
in concentrates of valuable oxide minerals
As in Pb-Ag-concentrates
Cu in Pb-Ag-concentrates
Cd in Pb-Ag-concentrates
Se in almost all concentrates
Penalties can lead to a considerable decrease in profit for small-scale mining
operations. Therefore, knowledge of the element and trace-element distribution
should be obtained, as much as possible, before initiating any mining activities or
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planning the beneficiation plant in order to establish a marketing strategy.
Similar to the deleterious metals, element contents which would be worth
recovering and marketing in the form of by-products are also often overlooked; for
example, zircon sand from alluvial deposits, gold-containing pyrite and
arsenopyrite from complex sulphide veins. Here, as well, a knowledge of the
element distribution prior to the start of any mining activities is crucial in order to
formulate an optimal marketing strategy.
The practice of performing complete analyses on a concentrate sample and on a
mixed raw-ore sample, conducted by a competent laboratory for the purpose of
determining the contents of all relevant metals, trace-elements and cations,
should become standard procedure for the small-scale mining industry.
Governmental support of these needs, for example by providing inexpensive
analyses, would significantly contribute to promoting the small-scale mining
industry.
The performing of mineral analyses also serves an important function from an
environmental-protection viewpoint by identifying environmentally-damaging
components such as sulfur in coal, residual mercury in gold tailings, cyanide and
arsenic contents in mining wastes, etc.
A.2.5 DETERMINATION OF THE VALUABLE-MINERAL SOURCE
In addition to a purely geochemical examination of the raw materials, a
mineralogical knowledge, especially of the valuable-mineral sources, is of major
priority in small-scale mining. Since beneficiation processing in small-scale mining
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usually leaves the material components of the minerals unchanged, this
identification of the valuable-mineral source is particularly important for planning
and marketing. This can be accomplished through microscopic examination of
polished sections, which enables experienced microscope analysts to quickly and
easily semi-quantitatively recognize segregations, trace element minerals, etc.
The question, for example, of whether silver appears as a silver mineral or as a
lattice element of lead or zinc minerals can strongly influence the beneficiation,
marketing and profitability of a mining operation.
Equally important is the mineralogical composition of the raw material in primary
gold deposits, in which the gold can occur as free gold or bound to pyrite or
arsenopyrite as "refractory ore".
Whatever the situation, it is essential that the major ore minerals can be
marketed. Some ore deposits produce main valuable minerals which are sellable
only with great difficulty, if at all; such as the complex ore deposits with spienles
sulfades (antimony and arsenic) as the metal source.
One example is the Taricoya Mine in Bolivia, whose raw ore reserves are relatively
promising according to FONEM, as here shown in the Table:
Pb: 3.45 %
Ag: 379 g/t
Sb: 6.48 %
Au: 7 g/t
However, because the main ore mineral is composed of specular jamsonite (Pb4FeSb6S14)
selling the concentrates is very difficult.
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The above example shows that the results of mineralogical studies play an
important role in determining whether or not an ore deposit can be mined
profitably using the simple mining methods characteristic of small-scale mining.
A.2.6 OTHER RAW MATERIAL STUDIES
In addition to chemical and mineralogical composition, other characteristic data
are also important, depending upon the material, for the analysis of raw mineral
reserves. Examples are:
- ash content' thermal value, sulfur content, caking capacity, etc. for fossil fuels
(coal, peat);
- compressive strength of a cube, cleavability and permeability for construction
materials;
- swelling characteristic for certain clays (vermiculite);
- weaving characteristic for asbestos;
- coloration for pigment raw materials (barite, kaolin);
- grain sizes for many raw materials (large grain size for graphite and mica, fine
grain size for kaolin;
- hardness for grinding material (corundum, garnet).
The following table presents a list of essential ore minerals including primary
physical characteristics and types of veins and host rocks.
Table: Characteristics of Ore Minerals including Vein Types, Gangue or Matrix,
Asociated Minerals and Host Rocks:
Name
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Composition
Content of valuable Density Tennnacity
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Composition
Content of valuable Density Tennnacity
minerals
1)
Name
Ordinary lead-zinc mineralization:
galena
PbS
Pb: 86.6 %
7.2-7.6
4
sphalerite
ZnS
Zn: 67.0 %
3.9-4.1
2
wurtzite
ZnS
Zn: 67.0 %
4.0-4.1
2
greenockite
CdS
4.8
*
cerussite
PbCO3
Pb: 77.5 %
6.4-6.6
1
anglesite
PbSO4
Pb: 68.3 %
6.3-6.4
1
smithsonite
ZnCO3
Zn: 52.1 %
4.0-4.5
2
Mixed lead-silver-zinc-gold mineralization:
bournonite
CuPbSbS3
Pb: 42 %
5.75.9
3
boulangerite
Pb5Sb4S11
Pb: 55 %
5.9-6.5
2
jamesonite
Pb4FeSb6S14
Pb: 40 %
5.6
4
tetrahedrite
Cu12Sb4S13
Ag: up to 19 %
4.6-5.1
2
free silver
Ag
Ag: up to 100 %
10.1-11.1 6
stephanite
Ag5SbS4
Ag: 68 %
6.2-6.4
2-4
argentite
Ag2S
Ag: 87 %
7.2-7.4
6
proustite
Ag3AsS3
Ag: 65 %
5.6
2
pyrargyrite
Ag3SbS3
Ag: 60 %
5.8
2
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pyrargyrite
petzite
5.8
2
Au: 25.4 %
8.7-9.1
5
Au
Au: up to 100 %
15.5-19.3 6
free copper
Cu
Cu: up to 100 %
8.5-9.0
6
covellite
CuS
Cu: 66.5 %
4.6-4.8
4
chalcocite
Cu2S
Cu: 79.9 %
5.5-5.8
4
bornite
Cu5FeS4
Cu: 63 %
4.9-5.3
2-4
chalcopyrite
CuFeS2
Cu: 34.7 %
4.1-4.3
3
enargite
Cu3AsS4
Cu: 48 %
4.4-4.5
2
cuprite
Cu2O
Cu: 88.8 %
6.1
2
malachite
Cu2(OH)2CO3
Cu: 57 %
4.0-4.1
azurite
CU2(OH/CO3)2 Cu:
55 %
3.8
2
cassiterite
SnO2
Sn: 78.1 %
6.8-7.1
2
teallite
PbSnS2
Sn: 30%
6.4
4
franckeite
Pb5Sn3Sb2S14 Sn:
17 %
59
4
stannite
Cu2FeSnS4
Sn: 27.5 %
4.3-4.5
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free gold
and Processes
for Small Scal…
Ag3SbS3Tools for Mining: TechniquesAg:
60 %
Ag3AuTe2
Ag: 41.8 %
copper minerals:
tin minerals:
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Cu2FeSnS
Sn: 27.5 %
4
4.3-4.5
2
antimonite
Sb2S3
Sb: 71.4 %
4.6-4.7
4
antimonochre
Sb2O3(H2O)
Sb: var.
5.6-6.6
**
free bismuth
Bi
Bi: up to 100 %
9.7-9.8
2
bismuthinite
Bi2S3
Bi: 81 %
6.8
4
6.7-7.5
**
stannite
antimony minerals:
bismuth minerals:
bismuthochre/bismite Bi2O3
tungsten minerals:
scheelite
CaWO4
W: 63.8 %
6.1
2
wolframite
(Fe,Mn)WO4
WO3: 76 %
7.1-7.5
2
ferberite
FeWO4
WO3: 76.4 %
7.5
2
huebrerite
MnWO4
WO3: 76.6 %
7.1
2
tungstic
ochre/tungstite
WO2(OH)2
4.0-4.5
**
additional and accompanying minerals:
realgar
As4S4
As: 70 %
3.6
orpiment
As2S3
As: 61 %
35
molybdenite
MoS2
Mo: 60 %
4.6-5.0
pyrite
FeS2
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pyrrhotite
FeS
4.6-4.8
haematite
Fe2O3
4.9--5.3
arsenopyrite
FeAsS
5.9-6.2
limonite
FeOOH
aprooox.4
jarosite
KFe3((OH)6/(SO4)2) 3.1-3.3
argentojarosite
AgFe3((OH)6/(SO4)2) ?
plumbojarosite
PbFe6((OH)6/(SO4)2) ?
1)Tenacity characterizes brittleness or breaking characteristics of the mineral
Explanation of tenacity/Remarks:
1 very brittle
2 brittle
3 less brittle
4 mild
5 ductile
6 very ductile
* exists as fine intergrowths
** exists in pulverized form due to weathering
1) Tenacity characterizes brittleness or breaking characteristics of the mineral
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Table: Characteristics of Ore Minerals including Vein Types, Gangue or Matrix,
Associated Minerals and Host Rocks:
Name
Composition
Density
quartz
SiO2
2.6-2.7
calcite
CaCO3
2.6-2.8
siderite
FeCO3
3.7-3.9
dolomite
CaMg(CO3)2
2.8-2.9
fluorite
CaF2
3.1-3.2
barite
BaSO4
4.3-4.7
vivianite
Fe3PO4 8H2O
2.6-2.7
apatite
Ca5(F,Cl,OH)(PO4)3
2.9-3.1
epidote
(Ca2Fe)(AI2O)(OH)Si2O7SiO4
3.4-3.5
tourmaline Complex boron-hydroxylic silicate 3.0-3.1
orthoclase (K,Na)AISi3O8
2.5-2.7
plagioclase (Ca,Na)(Al,Si)4O8
2.6-2.7
alunite
2.6-2.9
KAI3(OH)6(SO4)2
HOST ROCK
Name
Density
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Name
Density
granite
2.6-2.7
diorite
2.8-2.9
syenite
2.6-2.8
dacite
2.6-2.7
andecite
2.5-2.6
trachyte
2.6-2.8
basalt
2.7-3.2
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porphyry 2.7-2.9
gneiss
2.4-2.7
quartzite 2.3-2.6
sandstone 2.2-2.5
clay shale 2.6-2.7
Home"" """"> ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
Technical Chapter 1: Analysis
1.1 Blow pipe assaying
1.2 Pycnometer
1.3 Manual magnetic separator by Dr A. Wilke
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1.4 Quick-test-strips merckoquant
1.5 Rifflebox
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining (GTZ, 1993,
538 p.)
Technical Chapter 1: Analysis
1.1 Blow pipe assaying
General Ore Mining
Analysis
germ.:
Lotrohrprobierkunde
span.:
analisis con soplete
Manufacturer: Krantz
TECHNICAL DATA:
Dimensions:
approx. 20 - 25 cm long, pointed nozzle with 0.4 - 0.5 mm jet of platinum
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Dimensions:
Toolscm
for Mining:
Techniques
and Processes
for Small
Scal… 0.4 - 0.5 mm jet of platinum
approx. 20 - 25
long,
pointed
nozzle
with
or nickel
Weight:
approx. 50 grams
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Degree of
not mechanized
Mechanization:
Form of Driving either blown by mouth or
Energy:
Alternative
Forms:
driven by compressed air
Mode of
Operation:
intermittent
Materials for
operation:
Type:
charcoal, clay vessel, glass tube, fuel Na2CO3 (soda) K2C2O2
(sorrel-
salt) Na2B4Ox7 × 10 H2O (borax) Na(NHg)HPO4 × 4H2O(microcosmic
salt)
ECONOMIC DATA:
Investment
Costs:
blowpipe approx. 30 DM
Operating
Costs:
predominantly determined by cost of reagents and labor costs
Related costs:
very accurate weighing scale (to ± 0.1 mg), lineal scale for determinin
small silver and gold grains, magnifying lens
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CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:
Operating
Expenditure:
Maintenance
Expenditure:
Personnel
Requirements:
Type of Analysis:
Accuracy of
Results:
On-site
Performability:
Replaces other
equipment:
Regional
Distribution:
Operating
Experience:
Environmental
Impact:
Suitability for
Local Production:
low |————|———| high
low |———|————| high
highly experienced analyst
semi-quantitative and qualitative
+ 2 g/t for Au and Ag
Ag, Au, Cu, Pb, Bi, Sn, Co, Ni, Hg can be determined quantitatively
all other analytical-chemical methods such as RFA, liquid chemicals
previously widely-distributed sampling and analyzing method in
industrialized countries; has since been replaced by new methods.
very good |———|————| bad
low |———|————| very high
very good |————|———| bad
Parts of the blowpipe and the heater, possibly the stand as well as the
small-scale compressor could be locally produced.
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Lifespan:
very long |———|————| very short
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Lifespan:
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scal…
very long |———|————| very short
Bibliography, Source: Plattner, Wehrle, Kest, Kolbeck, Frick-Dausch
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
Blowpipe analysis is a multiple-step procedure for qualitatively or semiquantitatively determining the individual elements contained within a small
quantity of sample. The process involves dry thermal procedures, sometimes in
combination with wet testing methods. The sample is heated in an open or halfclosed pipe, melted to a bead with borax (Na2B4O7 × 10 H2O) or microcosmic salt
(NaNH4HPO4 × 4 H2O) under oxidizing and reducing conditions, burned directly
in a flame to determine flame color, or heated with coal under oxidizing and
reducing conditions. A small flame torch serves as the energy source, which is
intensified by blowing into it through a tapered tube, the blowpipe. The
discoloration of smelt, sublimate, corona or flame in each particular assay or
experiment, together with any distinct odors and/or reactions which may appear,
provide Information on the chemical composition of the sample.
REMARKS:
Of importance is a waterbag, which is an extension of the pipe for collecting
condensed water, to prevent It being expelled during blowing.
Lamps with cotton wick and rape-oil, paraffin, tree oil and mixtures of alcohol
(spirits) with gasoline (benzine) or oil of turpentine are suitable.
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Polished pieces of charcoal of approx. 30 × 30 × 40 mm are employed as a base. If
charcoal is not available, the foundation or base can be prepared using coal dust
and starch paste.
In 1670, Erasmus Bartholin conducted the first scientific research on the use of
the blowpipe. A homogeneous air current can be achieved during blowing by
connecting the blowpipe to an available compressed air line. If this is not possible,
a pumped-up tire, for example from a wheel barrow or automobile, can be used as
a compressed air tank.
The advantages of blowpipe analysis are the simplicity of both the determination
and the required equipment. Samples can be analyzed very quickly and
comparatively accurately, which is particularly important in an operating mine.
Special sample preparation, such as extensive crushing, etc. are not necessary.
The analysis methods, which appear complex in their description, can be greatly
simplified when standard assays are conducted on known metals.
SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:
Semi-quantitative and qualitative analytical technique requiring simple and lowcost equipment; demands, however, a highly-experienced operator. In metal
mining, the blowpipe analysis is suitable for grade control and for assaying during
prospecting and exploration.
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Fig.: View of blowpipe with changeable precious-metal nozzle (above left).
Source: Frick-Dausch
Table: The primary chemical reactions of blowpipe analysis. Source: Frick-Dausch
A. Heating of the substance in a half-closed pipe
1. A distillate develops: water.
2.
A pure white sublimate develops:
Salts of ammonia: simultaneous occurrence of NH3 odor.
Mercury chloride: melts, evaporates and condenses in a needle-like form.
Mercury all-chloride: sublimates without melting; hot sublimate is yellow, cold is
white.
Arsenic tri-oxide: fine-crystalline white sublimate.
Antimony tri-oxide: melts to a yellow liquid and sublimates at higher
temperatures.
3.
A coloured sublimate develops:
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Arsenic and high-grade arsenic ores: mirror of arsenic, garlic odor.
Antimony: mirror of antimony.
Arsenic sulphides, arsenopyrite: hot sublimate is dark, cold varies from yellow to
red.
Antimony sulphides: at higher temperatures; hot sublimate is black, cold is redbrown.
Sulphur: melts easily, condenses as a yellow sublimate.
Mercury sulphide: black sublimate which when rubbed with a match changes only
very slowly into a red modification.
Mercury grey sublimate from metallic mercury.
4.
A gas develops:
Oxygen: from chlorates and peroxides.
Carbon all-oxide: from carbonates and bi-carbonates. CO2-gas put into lime water
produces a white precipitate, which then dissipates when acidified with HCI,
contrary to CaSO4.
Ammonia: from salts of ammonia
Hydrogen sulphide: from water-bearing sulphides.
B. Heating in a half-closed pipe with potassium-bisulphate
Nitrate and nitrite form NO2.
Bromides emit red-brown bromine vapors.
Iodides release violet-colored iodine vapors.
Chlorides form hydrogen chloride.
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C. Heating in a pipe open on both sides (calcination test)
Free sulphur and metal sulphides form SO2.
Tellurium emits white smoke, which partially condenses.
Selenium sublimates black, on the upper edge often reddish, Selenium odor.
Arsenic substances emit white, volatile, cristalline arsenic tri-oxide.
D. Bead test
a) Borax bead: borax Na2B4O7 10 H2O
Borax bead
Coloring
element
Oxidation bead
Reduction bead
hot
cold
hot
cold
Mn
violet1)
red-violet
colorless
colorless
Ni
violet (recognizeable only for
a short time)
red-brown
cooolorless colorless or
or
grey2)
grey
Co
blue
blue
blue
blue
Cu
green
blue-green to
light blue
colorless
sealing-tax red
opaque3)
green-yellowish brownish
green
green
lllight greenish
green
Vd
yellowish
Cr
dark yellow to red
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Cr
dark yellow to red
green
green
green
U
yellow-red
yellowish
green4)
green4)
Mo
yellowish5)
colorless
yellow
light brownyellow
Wo
yellow to colorless
colorless
yellow
light brownyellow
Ti
yellowish
colorless
yellowbrown
yellow-brown
Fe
yellow-red
yellow to
colorless
greenish
greenish
1) black when solution is too strong
2) from finely-divided metallic nickel
3) easy to produce with tin, highly characteristic
4) when saturation is too strong and by whirling, greenish-black and muddy
5) only in a very pure oxidizing flame completely free of reducing components
b) Phosphor salt test; phosphor salt (= microcosmic salt) NaNH4HPO4 × 4H2O
Phosphor salt bead
coloring
element
oxidation bead
hot
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cold
reduction bead
hot
cold
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hot
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cold
hot
cold
Mn
violet
violet
colorless
colorless
Co
blue
blue
blue
blue
Cu
green
blue-green to light blue
colorless to sealing-wax
greenish
red opaque1)
Mo
yellowish2)
colorless2)
brownishgreen
green
Cr
red, then dirty green,
finally clear green
as with oxidation bead, but
colors more intense
Vd
dark yellow
yellow
brownish
green
U
yellow
yellow-green
dirty green green
Ti
yellowish to colorless
colorless
yellow
Wo
yellowish to colorless
colorless
dirty green blue4)
Ni
reddish-brown
yellow to reddish-yellow
reddish to yellowish with
SnCl2 grey and muddy
Fe
red-yellow, then green-yellow, finally brownish
violet3)
like oxidation bead, but
colors less intense
1) with the help of tin
2) only in a very pure oxidizing flame completely free of reducing components
3) calcined with a trace of ferro sulphate, blood red; very sensitive!
4) with a trace of ferro sulphate, blood red; also very sensitive (e.g. wolframite!).
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With SnCl2 and without Fe-additive, dark green.
E. Flame coloration
Yellow flame:
sodium
Reddish-yellow flame: calcium
Red flame: lithium;
strontium
Differentiation between Li and Sr:
LiCl is more volatile than SrCI2. LiCI develops at once and does not last.
Green flame: barium: yellowish-red lasting coloration.
Boric acid: very sensitive when sample is mixed with CaF2 and H2SO4;
evaporates as BF3
Copper nitrate: pure green (copper chloride: blue).
Phosphoric acid: light bluish-green, especially after moistening the sample
with H2SO4.
Blue flame: copper chloride.
Selenium: selenium odor.
Violet flame: potassium; rubidium; caesium.
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Separation of Na and K: viewed through a cobalt glass, the light from Na
fades, and the potassium flame appears purple-violet.
F. Sample with cobalt solution
The sample is soaked with a cobalt solution (1:10) and heated on a magnesia stick
in the oxidizing flame.
Blue coloration: silicic acid and silicates: light blue.
alumina: dark blue (Thenard's-blue).
Green coloration: zinc oxide, pure green (Rinnmann's-green).
Tin oxide: blue-green.
G. Soda-saltpeter-melt
Light yellow melt: chrome.
Light reddish-yellow melt: uranium.
Vanadium produces a very pale-yellowish-colored melt; colorless when
cold.
Ferro oxide does not go into solution.
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Greenish-blue melt: manganese.
Testing for: molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, columbium, titanium
The soda-salpeter-melt is rubbed with water in a flask filtered, and the
filtrate is acidified with H2SO4. A piece of metallic zinc is soaked in the
solution for a longer period of time.
Tungsten: The solution slowly turns sky-blue
Molybdenum: solution slowly turns brownish-black.
Vanadium: solution becomes light blue, then later green. If the sulphuric solution
is treated with hydrogen peroxide, vanadium causes a yellow-brown coloration.
Columbium: the dry mass is treated with concentrated H2SO4. When cooled, the
solution is poured into a threefold volume of water and zinc is added. In the
presence of columbium the solution first becomes blue and then changes to a
turbid brownish-black
Titanium: present if a white powder, which slowly turns violet, precipitates out
when an aqueous solution of the melt is acidified.
Special reaction for titanium: potassium bisulphate bead is dissolved in water and
hydrogen peroxide is added; if the solution becomes brownish-yellow, titanium is
present.
To test for manganese, alcohol is added to an aqueous solution of the melt and the
precipitated manganese dioxide is filtered off. In the presence of chrome, testing
for the other metals according to the described method is not possible.
H. Testing on Coal
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1. Sublimates
Yellow sublimate: hot - dark yellow lead, bismuth (often bead).
White sublimate: hot - yellow zinc; when moistened with cobalt nitrate and
strongly annealed: green.Blue sublimate: cadmium.
White sublimate, adhering to sample: tin (involatile).
White sublimate: hot - yellow. molybdenum. When a reducing flame is briefly held
over a molybdenum sublimate, perpendicular to longitudinal direction of coal, a
dark blue band of Mo3O2 develops in the middle of the white sublimate. Highly
characteristic.
Brownish sublimate: silver (silver bead).
Grey sublimate and odorous fumes: selenium.
White sublimate and arsenic odor: arsenic.
White sublimate, slightly volatile and thick fumes: antimony.
2. Reduction with soda
White bead: silver, lead, bismuth, antimony, tin.
Colored bead: copper, gold.
Grey metallic spangle: iron, nickel, cobalt (magnetic) and platinum metals (nonmagnetic).
Important special samples: sulphur (Hepar test). The substance is melted with
soda under reducing conditions and placed on a thin sheet of silver. After
moistening, a brownish-black coating develops on the silver sheet in the presence
of sulphur.
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Flourine: heating of the sample substance in a lead crucible with SiO2 and H2SO4
(Browning test, see below).
Tellurium: when tellurium ores are slightly warmed with concentrated H2SO4, the
sulphuric acid turns red.
Uranium: the sample substance is first melted with soda, then with saltpeter; the
melt is mixed with water to a pulp, which is then placed on a filter; acetic acid and
solution of ferro potassium cyanide are added, which produces a brownish-red
spot in the presence of uranium.
Silicic acid and flourine: Browning Test: the sample is mixed with calcium chloride
and sulphuric acid to a pulp in a thimble-shaped lead crucible which is then
covered by a lead lid with a hole in the middle. A wet piece of black filter paper
(available by Schleicher and Schull) is placed over the hole, and a second,
standard filter paper (wet and folded) is placed on top to keep the black paper
wet. Following warming of the crucible in a water bath for about 10 minutes,
silicon flouride escapes which hydrolytically dissociates during deposition of white
silicic acid when it comes in contact with the moisture of the black filter paper.
Upon completion of testing, the presence of silicic acid in the sample is revealed
by a white spot on the black filter paper where it covers the hole in the lid. Very
characteristic and highly sensitive. The procedure can also be used to test for
flourine by mixing the sample substance with silicic acid and sulphuric acid. Boric
acid can be disruptive since it similarly volatilizes.
1.2 Pycnometer
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General Ore Mining
Analysis
engl.: specific gravity bottle
germ.: Pyknometer
span.: picnometro (densimetro)
TECHNICAL DATA:
Dimensions:
available in volumes from approx. 10 ml to 1,000 ml
Weight: 50 ml-size:
16 grams
Extent of Mechanization: not mechanized
Mode of Operation:
intermittent
Throughput/Performance: approx. 10 - 12 measurements/h
Operating Materials:
Type:
water
ECONOMIC DATA:
Investment Costs:
30 to 100 DM
Operating Costs:
predominantly labor cost
Related Costs:
weighing scale with minimum accuracy of ±0.1g, cost approx.
200 DM
CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:
Operating
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Expenditure:
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low |———|————| high
Maintenance
low |———|————| high
Expenditure:
Personnel
experience in collecting and evaluating test data
Requirements:
Type of
quantitative/qualitative
Analysis:
Accuracy of
dependent weighing accuracy.
Results:
Time
approx. 5 min.
Requirement:
On-site
pycnometric determination of density through the use of mechanical scales
Performability: can easily be performed in the field, especially when at least 10 g of
material is available for testing. The weighed sample for determining
density should be dry and must be insoluble in a medium (e.g. water).
Operating
very good |———|————| bad
Experience:
Environmental
low |———|————| very high
Impact:
Suitability for
very good |————|———| bad
Local
Production:
Precision instrument made of glass which cannot be manufactured
locally; the mechanical scale also cannot, in most instances, be locally
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Lifespan:
Tools for Mining:scale
Techniques
and Processes
for Small
locally; the mechanical
also
cannot,
inScal…
most instances, be locally
manufactured.
very long |———|————| very short
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
The pycnometer determines the density or specific weight of insoluble mineral
fragments or powder. It is a carefully calibrated, very precise volumetric
measuring apparatus. Three weighings to determine the density are taken as
follows:
- with the dry, empty container (tare)
- with the container filled with dry mineral sample and
- with the container including sample filled with water in the absence of
bubbles
The density is determined according to the following formula:
SPECIAL APPLICATIONS:
Determination of mineral density (mineral-identification method) and
determination of beneficiation product densities.
REMARKS:
The accuracy of determination is particularly high when the differential quantities
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to be measured are not too small, such as when the pycnometer is half-full with
sample material.
This measuring method, which measures density to an accuracy of ±0.1 g/m³ and
therefore meets mining requirements, necessitates only minor equipment
expenditures. A mechanical weighing scale accurate to ±0.1 g has been proven
sufficient and enables this method to be applied in the field.
SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:
Pycnometer assaying is a simple and accurate method for determining density and
is therefore well-suited for the evaluation of product quality and for mineral
determination.
1.3 Manual magnetic separator by Dr A. Wilke
Metal Mining
General Analysis
germ.:
Handmagnetscheider nach Dr. Wilke
span.:
separador magnetico manual segun Dr. A. Wilke, separador magnetico manual
Producer: Krantz
TECHNICAL DATA:
Dimensions:
Dia: approx. 3 cm, H: approx. 8 cm
Weight:
approx. 150 g
Externa power needs:
none, due to permanent magnet
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Externa power needs:
Toolsdue
for Mining:
and Processes
for Small Scal…
none,
to Techniques
permanent
magnet
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Throughput/Performance: for example, 30 min required for the quantitative separation of
a 5-g heavy-mineral sample into five portions of differing
magnetic susceptibility
Technical Efficiency:
relatively high selectivity
Operating Materials:
none .
ECONOMIC DATA:
Investment Costs:
approx. 200 DM
Operating Costs:
no operating materials, therefore only labor costs
Related Costs:
for quantitative determination: weighing scale
CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:
Operating
Expenditure:
Maintenance
Expenditure:
Location
Requirements:
Sample Requirements:
Period of Analysis:
Accuracy:
low |———|————| high
low |———|————| high
none
sample must be dry and dissociated.
several minutes
quantitative analysis is possible with liberated sample material.
Probability of error ± 10 %
Regional Distribution: not yet employed in small-scale mining in South America
Operating Experience:
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Operating Experience:
very good |———|————| bad
Environmental Impact:
low |———|————| very high
Suitability for Local
very good |————|———| bad
Production:
Under What
requires a very strong, homogeneous permanent magnet and good
Conditions:
membrane material.
Lifespan:
very long |———|————| very short
Bibliography, Source: Manufacturer information
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
The pocket magnetic separator by A. Wilke is made of a strong, cylindrical
permanent magnet with a cylindrical pole gap which can be moved up and down in
a brass container by means of a pull rod. The container is covered by a transparent
graduated plastic tube with increments in millimeters, and by means of screwing
can be adjusted within this plastic tube to change the height of the magnetic
surface above the sample material being separated. In this way the separation
capability of the magnetic separator is varied, being greatest at the greatest
height and smallest at the smallest height (thus biotite is Just barely separable).
To perform the analysis, the sample is thinly spread over a smooth, non-magnetic
plate (glass, wood) and magnetically separated over the entire surface by placing
the magnetic separator on the plate. The magnetic particles are attracted by and
adhere to the magnet. The magnetic separator is then placed on another plate, and
the enclosed magnet is lifted by the pull rod, resulting in the release of the
magnetic particles. Starting with the minerals exhibiting the highest magnetic
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susceptibility, the magnetic separator can selectively separate a number of
different magnetic fractions. Weighing the entire sample and the products can
provide quantitative results when the sample material is completely analyzed.
AREAS OF APPLICATION:
Apparatus for selective separation of magnetic components of mineral sands,
ground minerals and ores (beneficiation products).
Generation of monomineralic specimen for microscopic and chemical analysis.
Quantitative determination of composition of mineral mixtures.
Highly magnetic substances which can be separated:
Magnetite, maghemite, franklinite, pyrrhotine;
Moderately or weakly magnetic substances:
arsenopyrite, chromite, hematite, ilmenite, limonite, manganite, wolframite,
rhodochrosite, garnet, amphiboles and pyroxenes.
DESIGN INSTRUCTIONS:
In addition to its analytical application, locally-manufactured pocket magnetic
separators can be used in beneficiation for the purpose of recleaning concentrates,
for example to separate out magnetic heavy-mineral particles from precious metal
concentrates. Loud-speaker magnets (strong permanent magnets), placed in a
plastic container and calibrated with distance washers made of cardboard, paper,
wood, plastic or similar material, are suitable for this purpose.
SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:
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Pocket magnetic separators are ideally suited for quick quantitative determination
of magnetic mineral contents in raw ores and beneficiation products.
The simplest magnetic separators are well suited, depending upon the situation,
for recleaning concentrates by removing magnetic components.
1.4 Quick-test-strips merckoquant
General Ore Mining
Analysis
germ.:
Schnellteststreifen Merckoquant
span.:
tire de prueba rapida Merckoquant
Manufacturer: Merck
TECHNICAL DATA:
Dimensions:
Dia 3 cm, H: approx. 10 cm for 100 test-strips
Weight:
approx. 100 - 150 g
Throughput/Performance: one analysis per test-strip
ECONOMIC DATA:
Investment Costs:
between 20 and 35 DM/100 quick-test-strips
Operating Costs:
none
Related Costs:
laboratory equipment to bring mineral samples into solution:
mortar, acids, glass flasks and possibly an alcohol burner for
quantitative analyses; analytical balance for samples in an
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aqueous solution.
CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:
Operating
Expenditure:
Maintenance
Expenditure:
Personnel
Requirements:
Location
Requirements:
Sample
Requirements:
Duration of
Analysis:
Accuracy of
Analysis:
Regional
Distribution:
Operator
Experience:
Environmental
Impact:
low |———|————| high
low |———|————| high
highly precise weighing scale necessary for quantitative determination
none
sample must be completely dissolved in an aqueous solution.
several seconds
varies depending upon the type of substances being analyzed; values for
arsenic, for example, are accurate to ±0.1 ppm, for pH-values to 0.5 pH.
not widely distributed to date.
very good |———|————| bad
low |———————| very high
depending upon type and degree of sample preparation (sample solution).
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Suitability for
Local
Production:
Toolstype
for Mining:
Techniques
and Processes
for Small Scal…
depending upon
and
degree
of sample
preparation (sample solution).
very good |————|———| bad
not possible
Bibliography, Source: Manufacturer information
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
Merckoquant quick-test-strips consist of plastic strips which have a sealed testzone on one end impregnated with reagents, buffers and other compounds. These
provide a quick preliminary identification in the range 2 1 mg/l (ppm). Application
involves dipping the reaction-zone end into the aqueous sample solution for 1 to 2
seconds, and then comparing it to a color scale (included with the strips).
AREAS OF APPLICATION:
For quick determination of metal-contents in water (environmental impact
assessments), raw-ore solutions, beneficiation products, etc. Control of reagents
during simple cyanide leaching of gold.
REMARKS:
The following can be determined:
arsenic:
0.1 - 3 ppm
cobalt:
copper:
10
ppm
10 -- 1000
300 ppm
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copper:
10 - 300 ppm
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scal…
molybdenum: 5 - 250 ppm
nickel:
10 - 500 ppm
silver:
0.5 - 10 g/l
zinc:
10 - 250 ppm
tin:
10 - 200 ppm
Total hardness: 4 - 25
pH-value:
0 - 14
Solutions which are too highly concentrated can be diluted with distilled water
until the measureable concentration range is reached.
SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:
Highly suitable for environmental impact assessment (water) in that it provides
fast and location-independent analysis and is very simple to use; unsuitable for
raw-material analysis due to substantial difficulties in sample preparation.
1.5 Rifflebox
Metal Mining General
Analysing
germ.:
span.:
Riffelteiler
partidor de muestras acanalado
Manufacturer: Haver + Boecker, Siebtechnik
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TECHNICAL DATA:
Dimensions:
approx. 30 cm H × 60 cm W × 30 cm D
Weight:
approx. 2 - 5 kg depending on thickness of material
External power needs:
not mechanized
Throughput/Performance: several hundred kg/in
Technical Efficiency:
good representation of sub-samples
ECONOMIC DATA:
Investment Costs:
300 to 1200 DM for equipment manufactured in the FRG;
approx. 100 DM when locally manufactured
Operating Costs:
labor costs only
Related Costs:
none
CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:
Operating Expenditure:
low |———|————| high
Maintenance
low |———|————| high
Expenditure:
Location Requirements: none
Sample Requirements: sample must be crushed to a size less than half the riffle width.
Duration of Separation: very short
Replaces other
mechanized sample-divider
Equipment:
Regional Distribution: already distributed in the laboratories of organizations involved
with small-scale mining.
Operating Experience:
very good |———|————| bad
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Operating Experience:
very good |———|————| bad
Environmental Impact:
low |———|————| very high
Suitability for Local
very good |———|————| bad
Production:
Under What
ordinary metal-working shops
Conditions:
Lifespan:
very long |———|————| very short
Bibliography, Source: Schroll, manufacturer information
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
The sample-divider directs the sample material over riffles which alternately
distribute the sample to one side or the other, thereby guiding it into two separate
compartments; the sample material of one container is then retained for testing,
that of the other is discarded.
AREAS OF APPLICATION:
Sample preparation through a stepwise halving of sample material from individual
or composite samples of raw-ores from ore-vein or alluvial deposits, or of
beneficiation products.
REMARKS:
Riffleboxes are very simple dividers which are known for their success in
producing highly representative sub-samples.
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SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:
Riffleboxes are highly suitable for small-scale mining application especially since
they can be locally manufactured and because they offer an easily-operable
method for improving sample preparation, which increases the analytical accuracy
associated with small-scale mining.
Fig: Physical Principle of the Rifflebox. Source: Lauer
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Fig.: Rifflebox for example preparation. Source: Armstrong
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Fig.: Rifflebox with (1) sample divider, (2) feed tray and (3) receiving tray, from
Schubert.
Home"" """"> ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
B. Underground mining
B.1. Definition
B.2. Existing situation and problem areas
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B.3.
Organizationaland
measures
B.4 Environmental
health aspects
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining (GTZ, 1993,
538 p.)
B. Underground mining
B.1. Definition
Underground mining includes all aspects of raw mineral extraction by man
assisted by the use of technical aids. In addition to the activities involving mining
and haulage, it also includes exploration and provision of the necessary
infrastructure as well as all measures for the miner's safety. Included among
these are:
- drilling - drainage
- blasting - ventilation
- loading - lighting
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- loading - lighting
- haulage - roof support.
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The frequently-used small-scale mining method in developing countries,
characterized as a shallow digging or excavating (cateo), can be regarded as a
transitory form of open-pit mining.
Deposit exploration in small-scale mining in Latin America and other developing
countries is performed using underground mining development methods
(tunnelling), due to the comparatively high cost of core drilling.
B.2. Existing situation and problem areas
Small-scale mining in the developing countries extracts raw ores from extremely
varying deposit types. The following ore-deposit types can be considered suitable
for small-scale mining methods:
- alluvial or placer deposits,
- oxidation zones,
- magmatic hydrothermal vein ore deposits with defined veins (which,
however, frequently contain complex mineralizations as a result of extreme
telescoping),
- pegmatite veins,
- low-sulphide gold-quartz-veins,
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- veins with high-grade gold-containing sulphides (which can be enriched
into a sulphide concentrate by flotation),
- pneumatolytic and metasomatic deposits.
In can generally be stated that in small-scale mining the individual mineralized
parts or excavations are of small dimension. The mine buildings are sometimes so
small that the use of technical improve meets in the form of standardized,
mechaninized mining equipment is impossible. An example of this is the large
tungsten deposit Kami in Bolivia, where numerous small veinlets and associated
difficulties in mechanizing the operation have led to a predominantly manual
extraction of the ore.
Besides the purely technical problems accompanying nonmechanized mining,
small-scale mines, particularly the cooperative mining operations (span:
Cooperativas Mineras), also encounter a multitude of organizational difficulties,
namely;
- inappropriate extracting/ mining methods,
- low degree of division of labor,
- lack of coordinated efforts.
The organizational problems are especially apparent in the structure devided in
"cuadrillas", typically four-man mining teams in the cooperatives. At the
Cooperativa Minera Progreso in Kami, it could be observed that every cuadrilla in
the cooperative was given the right to mine the portion of the deposit extending
above or below of 15 meters drift. This results in unplanned, irregular and totally
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varying mining activities which have limited advance rates due to the lack of
ventilation, supports, etc.
These technical and organizational deficits are responsible for the especially low
specific performance rates characteristic of small-scale mining in developing
countries. As a result, many small mines, although rich in ore, must be classified
as economically marginal operations.
These economical inefficiencies lead to further problems specific to small-scale
mining:
- Insufficient safety measures. Deficient cash availability has caused mine
operators to save on expenses, particularly in the areas of ventilation and
support, as well as in supplying safety equipment for miners.
- The economic problems of miners' families force the women and children
to work in the mines (see photo). While women, due to tradition and
religious beliefs, are only allowed to work above ground, i.e. in the
beneficiation processing activities, children as young as 10 - 12 years old
are already working underground mining the ore. These children frequently
work in extremely small holes which are inaccessible to adult miners.
- The high exploitation costs and related costs incurred in poorlyorganized, manual small-scale underground mining force the operators to
more selectively mine only the high-grade zones in the vein. This
screening-out method of mining (= highgrading) which follows only the
rich portions of ore veins is a form of destructive exploitation which can
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lead to substantial macro-economic damages. In areas where poorer
deposits become inaccessible or are abandoned due to destructive
exploitation of rich ores, a later mining becomes technically difficult or if
not impossible. Even under changing economic conditions (as for example
higher world market prices for mineral resources), the deposits that have
been destroyed through exploitation mining practices still may not be
mineable. This situation applies only to unorganized small-scale mining of
large deposits; the unique macro-economic value of small-scale mining lies
in its ability to adapt to small deposits which could not be mined by any
other organinized form of mining.
A further goal of the handbook "Tools for Mining" is to help solve the problems
associated with small-scale underground mining. Recommended workorganization improvements are presented below which can benefit small-scale
mining operators without requiring additional investment costs:
- lowering the cut-off grade,
- extending the life-span of the deposits,
- improving work conditions (increased safety, elimination of child labor
practices),
- improving mine productivity,
- increasing incomes, and
- stimulating the economy through job security.
B.3. Organizational measures
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B.3.1 USE OF GRAVITY TO REDUCE HANDLING
Small-scale mining frequently employs inefficient loading and transport methods.
Loose material is rehandled a number of times through reloading, redumping,
relocating. Particularly primitive and unproductive are the mining methods
practiced in the small-scale mining cooperatives where the miners are organized
into small mining teams (cuadrilla) which work from the haulage level downward.
In these mines, hoists are the standard form of ore transport (see photo,
Technical Outline 9.1), sometimes being found every 15 - 20 meters. This is a
situation in which changes in mining procedures in order to increase production,
listed below as a three-fold concept, are not only logical but also necessary:
1. A reorganization which incorporates division of work duties (job
specialization) should be established.
2. A mining procedure should be chosen which employs gravity to increase
the efficiency of loading and transport activities.
3. Shaft haulage should be centralized where possible; this involves
planning and driving of haulage drifts for the transport of raw ore to the
haulage shaft or blind shaft.
A planned loading procedure through the use of loading platforms, raise chutes
and bunkers can significantly increase mine productivity and reduce loading and
transportation costs. Furthermore, a centralization of shaft haulage can simplify a
mechanization of the hoisting equipment.
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B.3.2 BACKFILL WITH HAND-PICKED ROCKS
Another method for reducing haulage costs is the hand-sorting of waste rocks
underground for further use as packing or backfill material in the excavations. In
deposits where portions of unmineralized hanging or foot wall also need to be
mined, hand sorting can significantly decrease the volume of raw-ore to be
transported. Although hand-sorting in small-scale underground mines in
developing countries is a frequent occurrence (see photo, bottom), the sorted-out
waste material is not always used in the excavations for backfill, but rather hauled
separately out of the mine and deposited on the surface. A change in this practice
could contribute significantly to lowering transport costs, improving safety at the
mining face and, especially in the small manually-operated mines, alleviating drift
and shaft haulage activities. Aside from these, a systematic back-filling can also
contribute towards improving the ventilation in the mine, for example by filling in
old man (abandoned) workings and thereby preventing short circuits in the
ventilation flow.
B.3.3 DIVISION OF LABOR IN UNDERGROUND MINING
One basic organizational deficiency in small-scale mining is the frequent lack of
work specialization. Especially the cooperatives' "cuadrilla" work procedures
repeatedly lead to difficulties due to the parallellism or duplication of work
performed by these small mining teams. As a result, a continuous working
operation is not possible, and due to economic and organizational necessities, the
work activities are limited to a few critical areas. Mining, haulage and
beneficiation are performed sequentially, and other essential tasks are negelected
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for the present time; as a result, work activities such as development of deposits
(even where this is possible internally inside the ore-body structure), timbering
and maintenance of galleries (see photo) are not performed.
This has the following effects:
- lack of safety in the mining operations
- a steadily worsening mineral-reserves situation which further lowers the
ability of the operations to receive credits and further impedes potential
investment through exploration funds (e.g. from the Fondo Nacional de
Exploracion Minera, FONEM, Bolivia).
These problems can be countered by a systematic division of labor in the mining
operations. This normally requires, however, that the existing distrust first be
eliminated. This lack of confidence has been the primary cause of failure so far for
numerous projects which attempted to promote a cooperative work system,
despite the fact that a concept incorporating rotating job responsibilities not only
contains components for specialized training, but also most ideally encompasses
the cooperative idea.
Furthermore, a system of work specialization could also facilitate essential
planning and coordination activities such as ventilation, supply of energy, mine
planning and mine safety.
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The introduction of work specialization should include the negociation of
personnel salaries based on performance or productivity.
B.3.4 COST REDUCTION IN DRILLING, BLASTING, MAULING, CRUSHING
Depending upon deposit geology and existing mechanization and equipment both
on the surface and underground, possibilities exist for reducing costs for drilling,
blasting, hauling and crushing. The following relationships regulate potential
savings within these cost categories:
fewer drill holes per drilling round (lower drilling costs) produces coarser
material (higher crushing costs), stronger explosives (higher blasting costs)
results in fewer and/or smaller drill holes (lower drilling costs), electrical milksecond detonator (higher detonator costs) yields finer-grained material (lower
loading and crushing costs).
In mines with defined veins without impregnation zones, coarser mined materials
can make the hand-sorting or backfilling work easier. Optimization possibilities
are dependent on the specific mineralization conditions and the technical
capabilities of the mine operation.
B.3.5 SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE STOPING METHOD
The primary deficiency in underground mining operations is the lack of mine
planning. As a rule, a type of exploitation mining in the form of irregular
excavating or room-and-pillar mining is practiced without any prior planning. This
results in lower recovery, lack of safety, and adverse macroeconomic effects due
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to a partial destruction of the deposits. The different mining methods can be
classified according to the type of mine development and support and roof-control
measures as follows:
Table: Main Classification of Mining Methods
Mining Method
Roof Control
with pillars with
backfilling
with roof
caving
Longwall type (50 m and longer advancing
face)
longwall mining longwall
inclined cutmining
and-fill mining
overhand
stoping
cut-and-fill
stoping
drift type (2-4 m face width, gallery driving)
drift stoping
cut-and-fill
stoping
cross cut
stoping
cross cut
stoping
room-and-pillar type (drifts separated by
pillars which are mined in retreat)
pillar mining
cross-cut
stoping
pillar mining
sublevel
caving
cross cut
stoping
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panel type (large axially-expanding rooms
extending to mine limits boundary)
block type(excavation chamber not open or
visible)
panel mining
room and
pillar stoping
stall pillar
stoping
glory hole
sublevel
stoping
panel mining
room-andpillar mining
breast
stoping
block caving
with
square sets
block caving
In the following sections, mining methods are presented (according to Stoces)
which, under the special conditions of small-scale mining in the Andean region,
contribute to lowering costs, increasing productivity, improving the use of
resources (through higher recovery) and decreasing the effort required to extract
the ore (consequently increasing mine safety).
Pillar mining
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Fig.: Development of pillar mining in an inclined deposit. Source: Stoces
Pillar mining is characterized by irregular forms and arrangements of the
excavation chambers, determined by the characteristics of the deposit, the
chambers being separated by pillars of varying shapes to support the roof.
It can be applied in deposits with competent mineral and host rock.
Room-and-pillar method
Fig.: Room-and-pillar method. Source: Stoces
This mining method is characterized by the development of parallel headings
which resemble long drifts in their form and dimensions. The width of the
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headings depends upon the competence of the host rock and can reach 10 meters;
the height can total up to 3 meters.
The individual headings are laid out either parallel to each other, or either
perpendicularly or diagonally crossing each other. Support pillars are left between
the headings to support the roof. The roof and floor of the headings usually
correlate with the hanging and foot walls of the vein being mined; in some cases,
however, the mineralization may extend beyond the upper and lower heading
boundaries.
This mining method can be applied in flat or slightly-inclined deposits with
competent ore and country-rock.
Panel mining
Fig.: Panel mining. Source: Stoces
Within the deposits, only the narrow, long panels are mined, the valuable mineral
contained in the support pillars between panels is left unmined. The deposit is
normally developed by a main gallery from which other drifts branch off. These
drifts are then widened into panels, leaving a stretch of unwidened drift between
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the main gallery and the panel for support reasons.
This method of mining is characterized by the construction of panels of regular,
mostly rectangular shape. These panels are usually larger than headings, being
developed according to preplanned, defined measurements.
Support pillars are left between the panels, consisting of either a solid wall
(without cross-cuts), or a row of singular pillars (separated by cross-cuts
connecting adjacent panels), depending on the method of ecavation employed.
In gently-dipping deposits, either the hanging wall and foot wall, or portions of
the mineralized ore itself, form the roof and floor of the panels. In steeply-dipping
or massive deposits, the mineralization can extend beyond the chamber
boundaries in all directions. The panels can be mined by various methods, for
example, a full advance to the final dimension, or with overhand or bench stoping,
with or without backfilling or roof caving.
Panel mining can be applied in thick and massive deposits with competent mineral
and host rock regardless of dip.
Shrinkage stoping
The blasting is performed from small chambers in the roof of the stope itself which
are sunk from the overlying drifts.
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Fig.: Shrinkage stope. Source: Stoces
With this procedure, the extracted ores are stored in the excavation chamber for
the duration of mining of the individual slopes. The advantages of shrinkage
stoping lie in the fact that no support measures are required and recovery is very
high. Shrinkage stoping in small-scale mining in the Andean region is particularly
suitable where local conditions permit only seasonal execution of certain
processing steps; for example where there is a lack of processing water during the
dry season, so that raw-ore beneficiation can only be performed in those months
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with sufficient rainfall.
Sub-level stoping
Sub-level stoping is an irregular form of panel mining.
This method is characterized by the blasting of large chambers, varying in size
depending upon the structure and stability of the deposit and the host rock, and
therefore, contrary to panel mining, not precisely defined prior to mining. The
excavation chamber must be designed so that gravitational forces alone enable the
blasted ore to slide down out of the chamber. Only in rare exceptions (for
example, in particularly competent host rock) in only slightly inclined deposits,
can a scraper be installed to assist in removing the blasted ore from the chamber.
The stoping, contrary to that in the panel stoping method, does not occur within
the chamber itself, but rather at the chamber perimeter, either from horizontal
sublevels or through long drillholes, since for safety reasons the chamber may not
be entered.
The sublevel stoping can be performed either with roof-caving or with backfilling.
It is applicable in steeply-diping deposits of lesser or greater thickness, and in
flatter, more massive deposits where a required minimum stope height of around
15 meters can be realized.
A sufficient host-rock stability is important since the stopes can only be worked as
long as they remain open. Due to the specified minimum sizes of the chambers and
the corresponding greater degree of mechanization, sublevel stoping cannot be
considered suitable for small-scale mining.
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Fig.: Sublevel stoping. Source: Stoces.
Sublevel stoping (sublevel widening and sublevel caving). When competent ore is
being mined from sublevel drifts, then mining from the lower sublevels can
proceed.
Cut-and-fill stoping
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Fig.: One-Sided cut-and-fill stoping of overhand faces with brace support. Source:
Stoces.
This type of stoping is defined primarily according to the type of advance and not
the shape of the excavated chamber. The overhand stope, which aside from bench
stoping is the oldest form of mining, is characterized by the arrangement of the
overhand-stope faces in a step-like pattern of advance whereby each stope cuts
into the roof of the preceding stope. The floor of the stope generally is constructed
with backfill' although in rare cases square sets are employed for chamber
support.
Bench stoping (Underhand stoping)
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Figure
Bench stoping is sometimes employed for mining smaller regions of deposits
which lie below the haulage level where it would be uneconomical to develop
additional levels.
Fig.: Bench (or underhand) stoping. Source: Stoces
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Fig.: underground bench stoping or glory-hole mining in a steeply-dipplig coal
mine in Checua Region, Cundinamarca, Colombia.
This mining method is the graphic opposite of overhand stoping. Here also, the
type of development rather than cavity shape characterizes this mining method.
The step-like stoping advances in such a manner that each face mines the floor of
the preceding one.
In more massive deposits, the bench stoping develops into an underground gloryhole mining without backfill. It is applicable in deposits of smaller thickness and
steep dip, and also as underground glory-hole mining in more massive deposits.
Inclined cut-and-fill mining is differentiated from the regular cut-and-fill method
only by the inclined position of the face, which occurs as a result of applying this
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stoping method in steeply dipping deposits.
This method is only applied in steeply-dipping seamlike deposits of smaller
thickness.
Inclined cut-and-fill mining
Fig.: Example of double-sided inclined cut-and-fill mining. Source: Stoces
Sub-level caving
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Fig.: Sub-level caving. Source: Stoces
This form of stoping is characterized by the drifting of underground sub-levels,
aligned underneath each other, separated by vertical distances of two to three
times the height of the roadway. Mining progresses, as the name implies, from the
top downwards, followed by caving which automatically also advances downward
from sublevel to sub-level.
At each sublevel, the mineral is mined by a two-step form of "small panel mining"
as follows:
advance mining involving the driving of individual parallel headings (similar to
drifts in height and width), which is then immediately followed by retreat mining
whereby the in-situ mineral above the sub-level is mined and the pillars between
the drifts simultaneously weakened to the furthest extent possible. The stoping
can be performed either sequentially, one sublevel after the next, or
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simultaneously with several staggered sublevels in deposits of sufficient
thickness.
The sub-level caving method is predominantly applied in steeply inclined deposits,
of smaller or greater thickness, or in rare cases in thick flat deposits.
A comparison of the various mining methods with regard to their technical and
economic characteristics is presented below:
In any case, the application of a systematic mining method leads to a reduction in
costs and improved mine saftey compared to the visual mining methods currently
being used. The selection of one of the above-mentioned mining methods must
give serious consideration according to the deposit characteristics.
Table: Compasion of the essential mining parameters of the major mining methods
Mining Costs:
Productivity per man:
(low) panel mining
(high) panel mining
pillar mining
pillar mining
|
abandoned pillar mining
|
abandoneeed pillar mining
|
shrinkage stoping
|
shrinkage stoping
|
overhand cut-and-fill
|
overhand cut-and-fill
|
bench stoping
|
sublevel caving
↓
sublevel caving
↓
inclined cut-and-fill
(high) inclined cut-and-fill
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Recovery
Preparation:
(high) cut-and-fill mining
(low) panel mining
shrinkage stoping
pillar mining
|
sublevel caving
|
abandoneeed pillar mining
|
pillar mining
|
bench stoping
|
abandoned pillar mining
|
cut-and-fill mining
|
panel mining
|
shrinkage stoping
↓
↓
sublevel caving
Timber Consumption:
Ore Dilution:
(low) panel mining
(low) panel mining
abandoned pillar mining
abandoned pillar mining
|
pillar mining
|
pillar mining
|
shrinkage stoping
|
shrinkage stoping
|
bench stoping
|
cut-and-fill mining
|
cut-and-fill mining
|
bench stoping
↓
inclined cut-and-fill mining. ↓
(high) sublevel caving
sublevel stoping(high)
(high) Number of drills
B.3.6 DEVELOPMENT OF FURTHER PORTIONS OF THE DEPOSIT
A factor worth considering for increasing the economically mineable reserves is
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the possibility of developing parallel mineable seams or areas of the deposit. In
the small-scale mining industry in developing countries, exploration of the mined
areas of the deposit is only performed where very massive seams or veins are
being mined. Only in a few mines are the mine workings designed to accommodate
mining of parallel seams or veins. This would be especially favorable, from an
economic-geology point of view, for operations where steeply to moderatelyinclined seams or veins are being mined, since the steep country-rock layers
between the mineralized seams or veins could be penetrated by horizontal crosscuts. Furthermore, cross-cuts could be driven through the country-rock
simultaneously with the ongoing mining activities.
From a mining perspective, the development of parallel seams offers the following
advantages:
-
simplification of ventilation
centralization of haulage
reduction of exploration and extraction costs
avoidance of water supply and drainage problems.
The mining of parallel seams or veins also permits a postponement of
development at greater depths, which characteristically encounters substantial
technical difficulties such as advancing into water-bearing levels, higher mining
costs due to greater ground pressure, or higher transport costs due to longer
haulage distances.
Without exception, the development of the mine should begin with the upper
seams or veins, especially in flat or moderately-inclined strata. The mining of
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underlying seams occurs only after mining and caving of the upper seams has
been completed. Only in this way can damage to overlying mineable seams be
avoided, caused by fracturing or caving of the roof of the underlying mined seams
which results in the overlying seams becoming incompetent and therefore
unsuitable for mining. A fracturing and caving of the exposed rock surfaces also in
large mined stopes as well can affect the competency of massive country-rock
over a distance of several hundred meters. As a result, complete portions of the
overlying veins or seams can fracture or cave, rendering them in any event
unsuitable for mining. Given this fact, the mining of only one mineralization, for
example the thickest seam, can under certain conditions cause major irreversible
damage to the economy as a whole.
On the one hand, mine operators should be motivated through consulting efforts
to design their mine workings to accommodate parallel mining activities, even if
this results, under the circumstances, in temporary economic disadvantages such
as postponement in the mining of explored sections. On the other hand, it remains
to be investigated whether a small revolving fund with pre-financing capabilities
for the purpose of developing the cross-cuts traversing the country-rock could
offer sufficient support to the mines in their exploration activities.
B.4 Environmental and health aspects
Mining activities adversely affect the environment both underground and on the
surface by polluting air and water.
a) Air Pollution: Contamination of the mine air in small-scale mining of non-iron
metallic ores in developing countries is not, as a rule, due to natural causes.
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Radon emission from host rock and natural radioactivity which occurs, for
example, in uranium mining, firedamp gas from methane emission which occurs in
coal mining, or CO2 blow outs which occur in salt mining can be disregarded. The
main causes of mine-air contamination are man-made, produced by gas emissions
from mechanized diesel equipment and vehicles, by oil aerosols generated by
direct oiling of compressed-air equipment, and also by blasting fumes. As a result
of the explosive reaction of blasting materials, highly toxic nitrous gases are
released. To solve these air-quality problems, artificial ventilation is employed,
which in small-scale mines in developing countries is often employed insufficiently
and operated inadequately. Standard values for minimum air volume should be
incorporated here according to the specifications applicable in Europe:
6m³ / man × min plus
3-6m³/ PS × min for diesel equipment underground.
In addition, high dust levels further contaminate the mine-air. Quartz-containing
country-rock is particularly problematic, in that the respirable quartz fines cause
the lung disease silicosis. These respirable dusts are generated during drilling and
blasting activities. Wet drilling, wearing of masks, and sprinkling of blasted muck
are attempts to minimize these problems. In general, growing mechanization
increases dust levels and the associated health hazards.
b) Water Pollution: Contrary to mine-air pollution underground, pollution of mine
water directly affects the above-ground ecosystem. Almost without exception, the
vein deposits in smaller non-ferrous metal ore mines contain more or less high
proportions of sulphide ore minerals or other accompanying minerals. In
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permeable zones of the vein mineralization, soluble sulfate compounds are formed
through oxidation processes (partially stimulated by microbial calatytic
reactions); in combination with water these compounds form sulphuric-acidic
mine water. The pH-value of this acidic water can reach levels below pH 2. Besides
being acidic and containing high levels of sulfates, these waters form solutions
containing high levels of heavy metals, some of which are toxic. Furthermore,
these waters may also be contaminated with oil from diesel-operated equipment
and lubrication of compressed-air machine-tools. One lifer of oil poisons one
million lifers of water. This polluted water becomes hazardous when it ends up on
the surface or when it comes into contact with the ground water. Serious impacts
on unstable, vulnerable ecosystems, for example in the semi-arid high Andean
region, cannot be ruled out. Surface water not only serves as processing water for
mining and beneficiation, but is also used as a source for drinking water and for
irrigation purposes.
Quantitative statements regarding the degree of environmental impact cannot be
made since measurement values of pollution levels outside regions of greater
population density in developing countries are not available. Measures to alleviate
this deficiency are greatly needed.
In addition, general deficiencies are apparent in terms of work safety, namely:
- noise protection during drilling or other mining and transport activities is
rare
- safety shoes and helmets (see photo) are not standard equipment
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- no safety measures are provided during personnel transport
- safety measures during blasting operations (for example, detonating
fuses are too short, etc.) are lacking
- lighting is inadequate (e.g. candles).
The cause for this deplorable state of affairs is not the negligence or mentality of
the miners but rather the result of economic pressures.
Increased mine productivity and improvements in ore beneficiation should, above
all, also place priority on the implementation and financing of miner health and
safety measures.
c) Destruction of Trees and Forests: Lumbering for purposes is one of the major
causes of massive destruction of forests in Latin America and elsewhere. This can
be countered by application of cheaper, reusable support elements (individual
props, such as railroad ties; see technical chapter).
Home"" """"> ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale
Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
Technical Chapter 2: Safety Techniques
(introduction...)
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2.1 Safety kit
Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining (GTZ, 1993,
538 p.)
Technical Chapter 2: Safety Techniques
TECHNIQUES APPLIED IN UNDERGROUND MINING
2.1 Safety kit
General Ore Mininig
Underground Mining Safety Technology
Mining and work safety, especially in small-scale mining in developing countries,
are sensitive areas frequently characterized by major deficiencies due to cost
factors or negligence. The following section presents the safety-equipment
components for small-scale mining, categorized according to personnel equipment
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and general mine equipment. The personal safety equipment should ideally consist
of the following:
Helmet - serves as the primary protection from head injuries caused, for example,
by falling stones and debris, roof-falls or supports. Mining helmets are made of
thermoplastic, such as PE, or fiber-reinforced synthetic resin and are
predominantly produced in the developing countries. They have an adjustable
inset mounted inside the helmet, with several centimeters of space left in between
to accommodate a first-aid kit. The external helmet surface is affixed with a
fastener for a cap lamp. The cost of one helmet ranges between 10 and 20 DM.
Safety shoes - with steel-reinforced cap and sole to protect against crushing of the
toes or cutting of the foot from sharp objects. In dry working areas leather shoes
are preferable, and rubber boots in wet or moist working areas. Locallymanufactured boots are available in most of the mining countries. The cost for one
pair varies between 20 and 40 DM.
Ear protectors - against health-damaging noise levels such as those produced by
pneumatic drilling. They are available either in the form of a head-piece with
attached ear-covers, or in a simpler and cheaper form as absorptive foam-plastic
ear plugs which are independently placed directly into the ear.
The following safety items are also necessary, depending upon the type of
potential dangers present in the particular work-area:
Shinbone protector - protects against shinbone injuries. It consists of a hard
plastic shield placed over the clothing on the shinbone and fastended with two
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straps.
Hand gloves - to protect hands and fingers from injury.
Protective goggles/glasses - to be worn when danger of eye injuries exists due to
flying objects, stone splitters or other particles (e.g. dust from drilling or grinding
activities).
Face Mask/Oxygen Mask - with replaceable filter which is placed over the mouth
and nose. Especially dangerous is air-transmittable stone dust, which can cut the
pulmonary alveolus in the lungs when inhaled. This disease, known as silicosis or
"mal de mines", is the most common occupational disease in mining. Dry drilling,
blasting and caving are activities which produce extreme amounts of stone dust,
requiring not only the use of breathing masks for personal protection, but also
sprinkling of the dust sources with water. In less dangerous working areas where
smaller levels of dust are prevalent, a soft cloth tied over the mouth and nose
frequently serves as a temporary protection.
Knee protectors/Knee shoes - these are only needed as protection in drifts of low
roof height where longer stretches need to be travelled via crawling. Knee shoes
are made of rubber (sometimes from parts of car tires) and fastened in place with
an attached rubber belt.
Filter-Self-rescuer - In some branches of mining, particularly coal and certain salt
deposits, dangers to the miner exist in the form of toxic or explosive gas
emissions from the country-rock during mining underground. In salt deposits,
especially those of tectonic or vulcanic origin, the accumulation of CO2-gas under
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conditions of high ground pressure can lead to a sudden explosion. CO2 is a toxic,
odourless, respiration-inhibiting gas which is heavier than air and therefore
collects in the deepest locations. Since the danger of gas explosion is the greatest
when the country-rock is loosened by blasting, it is standard practice that blasting
in underground salt mines occur during shift change in the absence of mining
personnel. As a protection again these gases, every miner carries a filter-selfrescuer which allows him to escape from the toxic fumes to the surface in the
event of an explosion. In coal mining, the occurrence of underground fires can
likewise lead to the danger of high levels of CO and CO2 gas in the mine air, use of
the filter-self-rescuer offers protection against these gases during escape as well.
CO and methane gas, emitted from the seam or country-rock, are both explosive
as fire damp in certain concentrations. In order to avoid mine gas explosions,
flameproof electrical equipment, permissable explosives, continual measurement
of the gas content in the mine air, and extensive ventilation of the gob are
necessary. Coal dust can also become explosive when present in whirling air
vortexes.
Gas Measuring Devices - to measure mine gas concentrations. Measuring
appratuses are available on the market either as small rechargeable electrical
meters for taking single or continual measurements, or as larger measuring
devices equipped with a graduated pipe and bellow pump for taking single
measurements.
For the first device, the investment costs are higher, whereas for the second, the
operating costs are higher. For the Indirect measurement of methane gas,
gasoline safety lamps can also be used (see 6.1).
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The mine safety equipment should include the following items:
Personnel tags - small numbered metal tags which hang on a check-in/check-out
board near the shaft or mine entrance. One side of the board holds the tokens for
those workers currently in the mine, the other side for miners who are not in the
mine at the time. Every miner has a tag with his own number or name, and
personally hangs it on the appropriate board every time he enters or leaves the
mine. In the event of an accident, or prior to blasting, this personnel-control
system allows immediate determination of which workers are currently in the
mine.
Scaling rods · a basic component of the safety equipment in underground mining,
used to pry off loose rock pieces from the roof and headings caused by blasting or
the effects of ground-pressure. Scaling rods, like crow bars, are applied by
inserting the tip in the fracture between the loosened portion and the countryrock, and prying until the loose rock falls. Old drill-rods with a sharpened tip can
be employed as scaling bars in small openings or drifts, whereas lighter, longer
aluminum pipes with a chisel tip are used in larger cavities. Fundamentally,
scaling should be performed after every blasting round before any other activity is
undertaken. Thereby, the blasted debris provides easier access to the roof. These
simple safety precautions significantly Increase work safety, decreasing the risk of
accidents.
First-Aid Kit - with an assortment of medicines and adhesive plasters, bandages
and splints for treatment of injuries.
Stretcher - to rescue injured miners.
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Gas Protection Equipment - for use by the mine-rescue team in emergency
situations, these are practical in small-scale mining In developing countries only if
miners are trained in mine-rescue operations. This safety measure, however, is
frequently not implemented by the individual mine operators in developing
countries.
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