Epson CW3S20C Canadian Product Specifications

SX386MC
OPERATIONS
GUIDE
SX386MC
OPERATIONS
GUIDE
GERMAN RFI DECLARATION FOR CLASS B SELF
CERTIFICATION
Hiermit wird bescheinigt, dass der TriGem SX386MC in
Übereinstimmung mit den Bestimmungen der Vfg 1046/1984
funk-entstort ist.
Der Deutschen Bundespost wurde das Inverkehrbringen dieses
Gerätes angezeigt und die Berechtigung zur Überprüfung der
Serie auf Einhaltung der Bestimmungen eingeräumt.
TriGem Inc.
4 NaengChun-Dong, Seodaemun-Ku
Seoul, Korea
English translation:
We hereby certify that the TriGem SX386MC complies
with the RFI suppression requirements of Vfg 1046/1984. The
German Postal Service was thenotified that equipment is being
marketed; The German Postal Service has the right to re-test
the equipment and verify compliance.
Note: Replace 1046 with 1045 for household appliances tested
per VDE 0875.
ii
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
TriGem Computer, Inc. makes no representations or warranties with
respect to this manual, and shall not be held liable for technical or
editorial omissions made herein; nor incidental or consequential
damages resulting from the furnishing, performance, or use of this
manual. Further, TriGem Computer, Inc. reserves the right to make
changes in the specifications of the product described within this
manual at any time without notice and without obligation of
TriGem Computer, Inc. to notify any person of such revision or
changes.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright (C) 1990 by TriGem Computer, Inc. All rights are
reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, transmitted,
transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any
language or computer language, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of TriGem
Computer, Inc.
iii
TRADEMARKS
TriGem is a registered trademark of TriGem Computer, Inc.
AMI BIOS is a trademark of American Megatrends Inc.
IBM, PC, PC/XT, PC/AT, MDA, Monochrome Display Adaptor,
EGA, Enhanced Graphics Adaptor, VGA, and Video Graphics
Array are trademarks of International Business Machines
Corporation.
Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
Intel 386sx is a trademark of Intel Corp.
Intel 387sx is a trademark of Intel Corp.
AMD is a registered trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
EGA Wonder is a trademark of ATI Technologies, Inc.
HP LaserJet Series II is a product of HewlettPackard, Inc.
MS-DOS and GW-Basic are trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Seagate is a registered trademark of Seagate Technologies, Inc.
Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer
Technology, Inc.
Norton SI is a trademark of Peter Norton Computing, Inc.
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
CP/M and CP/M-86 are trademarks of Digital Research, Inc.
Western Digital is a registered trademark of Western Digital Inc.
MultiSync is a trademark of NEC information Systems, Inc.
MultiScan is a trademark of Sony Corporation.
iv
FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits
for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment
generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not
installed and used in accordance with the instructions may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
l
l
l
l
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from
that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for
help.
If you experience problems with radio and/or television reception
through the use of this product, the following booklet, published by
the FCC, may prove helpful:
How to identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems
(Stock No. 004-000-00398-5)
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.
V
SAFETY
The following instructions pertain to the risk of fire, electric shock
or bodily injury. Please read all of these instructions carefully.
Follow all of the instructions and warnings marked on this
product or included in this manual.
Do not use this computer on an unstable cart, stand or table.
Slots and openings in the cabinet and the back have been
provided for ventilation. To ensure the reliable operation of your
computer, and to protect it from overheating, these openings
must not be blocked or covered. Don’t use this product on a
bed, sofa, rug, or other similar surface.
Never push objects of any kind into the computer through the
cabinet openings, as they may touch dangerous voltage points or
short out parts that could result in a fire or electrical shock.
This computer should only be connected to the AC power
source indicated on your computer system’s information label. If
you are not sure of the type of AC power available, consult your
dealer or local power company. Only connect this computer to a
power outlet that matches the power requirements of this
computer.
Do not allow anything to rest on the power cord. Do not locate
this product where people will walk on the cord.
If you have to use an extension cord with this computer, make
sure that the total amperage rating of all equipment plugged into
it does not exceed the amperage rating of the extension cord.
Also, make sure that the total of all products plugged into the
main AC power outlet does not exceed 15 amps.
Unplug your computer from the main electrical power outlet
before cleaning.
Do not use this computer near water.
vi
MAINTENANCE
Except as explained in Chapter 7, “Expanding Your System,” do
not attempt to modify or service this product yourself. Opening or
removing those covers that are marked “DO NOT REMOVE” may
expose you to dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all
servicing problems to qualified service personnel.
If the product does not operate normally, adjust only those controls
that are covered by the operating instructions. Improper adjustment
of other controls may result in damage and may require extensive
repair work to restore the product to normal operation.
Unplug this product from the main power outlet and call for service
under any of the following conditions:
If the power cord or plug is damaged or frayed
If liquid has been spilled into the product
If the product has been exposed to rain or water
If the product has been dropped or the cabinet has been
damaged
If the product exhibits a distinct change in performance,
indicating a need for service
vii
Stop!
If you ever have to remove the main system unit cover, observe the
following precautions:
The power supply cord must be unplugged before the main
system unit cover is removed. (Separe le cordon d’alimentation
et puis enleve le couvercle.)
Once removed, the cover must be replaced and screwed in
position before the power supply cord is plugged back in. (Apresle couvercle a enleve, visse le couvercle en place et remettre le
cordon d’alimentation.)
RELATED READING
For more information about MS-DOS commands and GW-Basic
programming, please refer to the user’s manuals provided with this
computer.
Wichtige Sicherheitsvorschriften
Unbedingt beachten!
Allgemeine Sicherheit
Die nachfolgenden Anweisungen betreffen die Gefahr von
Verletzungen durch elektrische Spannung, Feuer und mechanische
Einwirkung. Bitte lesen Sie diese Anweisungen sorgfältig.
Beachten Sie alle Hinweise, die am Gerät selbst angebracht oder
in den zugehörigen Handbüchem vermerkt sind.
Stellen Sie das Gerät an einem sicheren, stabilen Arbeitsplatz
auf.
Am Gerät angebrachte Öffnungen (Schlitze und sonstige
Offnungen) dienen der Belüftung des Gerätes. Um ein
zuverlässiges Arbeiten des Geräts zu gewährleisten und um
Überhitzung zu vermeiden, müßen diese Öffnungen unbedingt
freigehalten werden. Betreiben Sie das Gerät nie auf Betten,
Sofas oder anderen, wiechen Unterlagen.
Stecken keine Gegegenstände (Schraubenzieher, Büroklammem
etc.) in die Öffnungen. Sie würden damit Kurzschlüsse
herbeiführen die zur Zerstörung des Geräts führen, sich der
Gefahr eines Stromschlages aussetzen oder das Gerät in Brand
setzen.
Das Gerät darf nur an vorschriftmäßige Steckdosen mit der auf
dem Gerät angegebenen Netzspannung angeschlossen werden.
Wenn Sie nicht sicher sind, welche Netzspannung richtig ist,
wenden Sie sich an den Lieferanten des Gerätes oder an das
zuständige Elektriziträtswerk. Bitte nur an genügend stark
abgesicherte Steckdosen anschließen, die der Leistungsaufnahme
des Gerätes entsprechen.
ix
Auf das Netzanschlußkabel dürfen keine Gegenstände gestellt
werden. Legen sie das Netzkabel so, daß niemand darauftreten
oder darüber stolpem kann.
Wenn Sie Verlängerungskabel benutzen, müßen Sie sicher sein,
daß die gesamte Leistungsaufnahme nicht größer ist als das
Verlängerungskabel zuläßt. Der gesamte Stromverbrauch aller
angeschlossenen Geräte darf nicht mehr als 15 A betragen.
Wenn Sie das Gerät reinigen, muß das Netzkabel aus der
Steckdose gezogen werden.
Das Gerät dürfen Sie nicht in der Nähe von Wasserleitungen
benutzen.
Wartung des Computers
Wenn der Computer nicht ordnungsgemäß arbeitet, durfen Sie nur
die Finstellungen vomehmen, die im Handbuch genannt werden.
Andere Einstellungen oder Veränderungen können den Computer
beschädigen oder zerstören. Umfangreiche und kostspielige
Reparaturen würden notwendig werden, um das Gerät wieder
betriebsfähig zu machen.
Ziehen Sie den Netzstecker aus der Steckdose und verständigen Sie
den zuständigen Kundendienst bei folgenden Störungen:
netzkabel ist defekt oder strak abgenutzt.
Flüssigkeit ist in dassGerät geschüttet worden.
Das Gerät war Regen oder Leitungswasser aus-gesetzt.
Das Gerät ist heruntergefallen oder das Gehäuse ist beschädigt.
Das Gerät arbeit nicht mehr richtig.
X
ACHTUNG:
Wenn Sie das Gerät öffnen mößen (Abnahme der verschraubten
Haube), ist unbedingt folgendes zu beachten:
Das Netzkabel muß aus der Steckdose gezogen werden und zwar
bevor Sie das Gerät öffnen.
Die Haube muss wieder monitert und verschraubt werden. Erst
dann darf das Netzkabel wieder eingesteckt werden.
xi
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
1. Unpacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Choosing a Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Connecting a Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Connecting a Printer, Mouse, or Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Connecting the Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Connecting the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Keyboard Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Turning On the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Command Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Copying System Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. Resetting Your Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
1-1
1-2
1-4
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-15
1-15
1-18
The CMOS Setup Program
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Run Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaving the Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-5
2-10
Contents xiii
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
Changing the Operating Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Special Keys on Your Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Stopping a Command or Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Using Disks and Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
How Disks Store Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Types of Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Inserting and Removing Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Write-protecting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Making Backup Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Using a Single Diskette Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Using a Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Chapter 4
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Inserting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 2
Disk Drive Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 2
Starting MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 4
System Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 5
Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 6
MS-DOS Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 6
Case Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 7
Function Keys and MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 7
BACKSPACE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 8
Default Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Copying Your MS-DOS Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Copying on Single Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Copying on Dual Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
4-19
Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-20
FileTypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filenames and Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Disk Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
The DIR Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
File Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
xiv Contents
Multiple Disk Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Wildcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Application Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Chapter 5
Using Floppy Disks
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HOW Floppy Disks Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The FORMAT Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WiIdcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6
5-l
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-6
5-10
5-12
Using Your Hard Disk
What is a Hard Disk Drive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Hard Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Your SETUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Partitioning Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organizing Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The BACKUP Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Many Diskettes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The RESTORE Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-l
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-7
6-9
6-11
6-16
6-16
6-17
6-19
Contents xv
Chapter 7
Expanding Your System
Connecting Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 1
Serial Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 3
Parallel Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 4
Connecting Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 4
Connecting Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 4
Connecting External Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 5
System Expansion & Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 4
Tools Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 4
General Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 6
Opening and Closing the Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 8
Installing Circuit Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 1 0
Disk Drive Compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Internal Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 1 5
Appendix A
Specifications
Computer System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System MotherBoard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPU Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SystemTiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Address Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
System MotherBoard
Hardware Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the MotherBoard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xvi
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-4
A-4
C o n t e n t s
B-1
B-3
B-3
B-4
Appendix C
Video Monitor Systems
Monitor System Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Video Controller Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Monitor Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
Appendix D
Connector Pinouts
D-1
I/O Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expansion Slot Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5
Appendix E
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Run Advanced Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting Advanced ROM Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced ROM Diagnostics Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floppy Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents
E-1
E-1
E-2
E-4
E-5
E-32
E-48
E-49
E-5I
xvii
Introduction
Your TriGem computer is powerful, versatile, and easy to use.
After setting up your system with the simple instructions in this
manual, you’ll soon be using your favorite software programs.
This computer is available in these configurations:
The System provides one 1.2MB (megabyte) diskette drive
and an optional 40MB (or 80MB) hard disk drive.
You can operate a lot of application programs very fastly
and efficiently with this system because it provides 32KB
cache memory.
This model comes with 2MB of internal memory, a total of five
internal option slots, a System Motherboard an on board IDE
type HDC and built-in serial and parallel interfaces.
Your computer comes with MS-DOS — the operating system
by Microsoft. In addition to the introduction to MS-DOS
provided in this manual, you’ll find a complete reference
manual for the operating system packed in the box with the
computer.
As your needs grow, so can your computer; you can expand
your system by adding a wide variety of options. You can install
most option cards compatible with the IBM Personal
Computer. If you use software that executes lengthy
mathematical calculations, you may want to install an 387sx™
math coprocessor to speed up processing.
Introduction 1
How to Use This Manual
This manual explains how to set up and care for your
computer.
It also describes how to use your computer.
The instructions in this manual apply to your system, except
where otherwise indicated.
You probably don’t need to read everything in this book; see
the following chapter summaries.
Chapter 1 provides simple step-by-step instructions for setting
up your computer.
Chapter 2 describes how to run the Setup program to setup
your computer’s configuration.
Chapter 3 covers some general operating procedures, including
how to use and care for your disks and disk drives.
Chapter 4 provides basic instructions for using MS-DOS with
your computer.
Chapter 5 takes you into the more advanced techniques of
floppy disk file manipulation, such as formatting and copying.
Chapter 6 shows you how to set up and use the vast storage
capabilites of this system device.
Chapter 7 contains “how-to” information on adding
components (such as additional disk drives or expansion
boards), to your computer.
At the end of this guide is a set of Appendices which contain
technical information for the advanced user or field technician.
2 Contents
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your personal computer is easy. Just follow the nine
steps in this chapter.
When you finish setting up your computer, go on to Chapter 2
and follow the instructions there to run the Setup program.
The Setup program updates the list of equipment installed in
the computer and any time options are added or changed.
1
Unpacking
As you unpack the different parts of your computer system, be
sure to inspect each piece. If anything is missing or looks
damaged, contact the place where it was purchased for missing
items or replacements. If you cannot obtain the necessary part
of parts, call your TriGem Computer dealer for assistance.
Please have the computer’s serial number ready when you call.
Figure 1-1. Unpacking Your System
Setting Up Your System
1-1
Besides this manual, you should have the following:
The computer and power cord
The Keyboard with attached cable
MS-DOS diskettes
GW-BASIC diskette
MS-DOS User’s Guide
GW-BASIC User’s Guide
In addition to these items, you need a compatible monitor to
use with the computer.
Be sure to keep your packing materials. They provide the best
protection for your computer if you need to transport it later.
2
Choosing a location
Before you set up your computer, it is important to choose the
right location. Select a spot that provides the following:
A large, sturdy desk or table that can easily support the
weight of your system, including all of its components:
Make sure the surface is hard and flat. Soft surfaces like
beds and carpeted floors can generate static electricity,
which may erase data on your disks and damage the
computer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces also prevent proper
ventilation.
Good air circulation: Air must be able to move freely
under the system as well as behind it. Leave several inches
of space around the computer to allow ventilation.
Moderate environmental conditions: Protect your computer
from extremes in temperature, direct sunlight, or any other
1-2
Setting Up Your System
source of heat. High humidity also hinders operation, so
select a cool, dry area. Avoid dust and smoke, which can
damage disks and disk drives and cause you to lose valuable
data.
Appropriate power sources: To prevent static charges,
connect all your equipment to three-prong, grounded
outlets. You need one outlet for the computer, one for the
monitor, and additional outlets for a printer and any other
peripherals.
If it has the appropriate power cord, you can plug the
monitor into the auxiliary power outlet on the back panel
of the computer,. reducing the number of wall outlets you
need. (The current required by the peripheral must not
exceed 1 amp.) If you need more outlets, you may want to
buy a power strip-available at any electronics store-to
provide extra outlets. A power strip with surge suppression
is recommended.
No electromagnetic interference: Locate your system away
from any electrical device, such as a telephone, that
generates an electromagnetic field.
Setting Up Your System
1-3
3
Connecting a Monitor
The video display monitor is the device used by-the computer
to communicate with you. Your software will use the screen to
display information, such as prompts, text, graphics (charts and
pictures), etc.
Several types of monitor are available as options. A typical
video display system provides a high resolution monochrome
(green or amber screen) screen display. Your computer can be
with either monochrome, color video monitors, EGA or VGA
monitor.
In addition to the display monitor itself, the video system
includes a video controller board. This board generates the
letters, numbers, and graphics symbols displayed on the
monitor screen.
Connectors are provided for the display type that is supported
by the board (monochrome, RGB color, high resolution EGA,
VGA etc.). Certain boards support more than one type of
display, and may provide a switch to select either color or
monochrome modes.
The procedure you use to connect your monitor to the
computer depends on the type of monitor you have. See your
monitor manual for detailed instructions, or follow these
general guidelines:
1. Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. It is
easiest to connect the monitor cable if you are facing the
back panels of both the monitor and the computer.
1-4
Setting Up Your System
2. If necessary, connect the monitor cable to the monitor.
(Some monitors come with permanently attatched cables.)
3. Connect the monitor cable to the video connector on the
back of the computer, as shown below. If the plug has
retaining screws, tighten them securely.
Figure 1-2. Connecting the Monitor
4. Plug the other end of monitor’s power cord into an
electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System
1-5
4
Connecting a Printer, Mouse, or Modem
The computer has a parallel interface and two serial interfaces
on the back panel, so you can easily connect a printer or other
type of device with either type of interface.
For example, you can use the parallel port to connect a parallel
printer (most printers have a parallel interface). You can use ,
the serial port to connect a serial printer, a serial mouse, or an
external modem.
Follow the steps in this section to connect a printer or other
peripheral device to either the parallel or serial interface.
Using the Parallel Interface
The parallel interface on your computer is Centronics
compatible and uses a 25-pin connector. To connect a parallel
printer to your computer, you need an IBM-compatible printer
cable. If you are not sure which one you need, or whether you
have the right one, check with the store where you purchased
the printer.
Once you have the correct printer cable, follow these steps to
connect the printer to the parallel interface on the computer.
1. Place the printer next to your computer.
2. One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin, male connector.
Connect this end to the parallel port on the back panel of
the computer, as shown below.
If the plug has retaining screws, tighten them securely.
1-6
Setting Up Your System
Figure 1-3. Connecting the Printer
3. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, as
shown below. If the printer has retaining clips on each side
of the printer port, squeeze the clips together to secure the
cable.
4. Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet.
Using the serial Interface
If you have a serial printer, modem, mouse, or any other
peripheral with a serial interface, you can connect it to one of
two serial (RS232C) ports on the back of the computer. Your
computer uses IBM-compatible, 9-pin, male connector, so be
sure you have the proper cable. If you are not sure which one
you need, or whether you have the right one, check with the
store where you bought the cable.
To connect a serial device, follow the same steps outlined
above for a parallel device, but connect the cable to the serial
port, shown below.
Setting Up Your System
1-7
Figure 1-4. Serial Port
Setting up-the serial port for a printer
If you are using a serial printer but your software does not
support a serial printer, you must do two things before you can
print:
o Set up the data transmission parameters for the serial port.
0
Tell the computer to redirect printer data from the parallel
port to the serial port.
Connecting the Power Cord
Follow these steps to connect the power cord:
1. Insert the power cord into the AC inlet on the computer’s
back panel, as shown below. To avoid an electric shock, be
sure to plug the cord into the computer before plugging it
into the wall socket.
1-8
Setting Up Your System
Figure 1-5. AC Power Connections
2. Plug the other end of the power cord into a three-prong,
grounded electrical outlet.
Note
The socket-c&let should be installed near the equipment
and should be easily accessible.
Die Verbindung zwischen Steckdose solite mölichst Kurz
sein. Die steckdose sollte frei zugäglich sein.
For units to be installed in European countries, a power
supply cord of type HAR, with H05W-F should be
used.
Für Geräte, die in europäschen Ländern eingesetzt werden,
sollte ein Netzkabel Typ HAR mit der Mummer H05 W-F
benutzt werden.
Setting Up Your System
1-9
6
Connecting the Keyboard
Your keyboard has only one cable to connect.
This simply plugs into the keyboard connector located at the
bottom of the main system unit’s rear panel. This connector is
designed to prevent insertion if the pins don’t line up, so it
may be necessary to rotate the cable connector until it plugs in
easily.
Figure l-6. Connecting the Keyboard
l-l0
Setting Up Your System
Adjusting the Keyboard Angle
You can change the angle of the keyboard by adjusting the legs
on the bottom. Turn the keyboard over and lift each leg
upward until it locks into place, as shown below. You lock the
legs into a low or high position, or leave them flat.
Figure 1-7. Adjusting the Keyboard Angle
Setting Up Your System
1-11
7
Turning On the Computer
Before you turn on your computer, read the following safety
rules to avoide accidentally damaging the computer or injuring
yourself:
Do not unplug cables from the computer when the power
switch is on.
Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on disk or make an
entire disk unusable. Similary, never remove a diskette
from a diskette drive while the drive light is on.
Always wait at least five seconds after you switch off the
power before you switch it on again. Turning the power off
and on rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
Do not leave a beverage on top of or next to your system
or any of its components. Spilled liquid can damage the
circuitry of your equipment.
Do not attempt to dismantle any part of the computer.
Only remove the cover to install and remove optional
devices.
1-12
Setting Up Your System
Follow these steps to turn on your system:
1. Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheral
devices connected to the computer.
2. To turn on the computer, press the power switch.
Figure 1-8. Power Switch
The power indicator on the front panel lights up. After a few
seconds, the computer starts to perform an internal self test.
This is a series of checks the computer completes each time
you turn it on to make sure everything is working correctly.
If anything is wrong, an error message appears on the screen.
After the self test is complete, you see a message on the screen
smiliar to this:
Setting Up Your System
1-13
388-BIOS (C) 1989 American Megatrends Inc.
(C) 1989 TriGem Computer Inc.
XXXX KB OK
Press <ESC> to bypass MEMORY test
SIZING CACHE MEMORY, 32KB FOUND
TESTING CACHE MEMORY, 32KB OK
CACHE TEST COMPLETED
(C) American Megatrends Inc,.
DVSX-6080-060290-KB
The computer continually updates this display as it tests its
memory. This test takes about 1.5 seconds to complete.
You may see a message similar to this:
This means that the computer is not yet set up for the
equipment you have installed and you must run the Setup
program, described in Chapter 2. For now, press the Fl key on
the upper left comer of the keyboard to acknowledge the
message and continue.
If you cannot see the screen display clearly, use the controls on
you monitor to adjust the brightness and contrast until
characters on the screen are clear and bright.
The computer then loads MS-DOS, the operating system, from
the hard disk into memory. MS-DOS must be in the
computer’s memory before you can run any program, such as a
word processing program or a spreadsheet program.
1-14
Setting Up Your System
The Command Prompt
After the computer has loaded MS-DOS from the hard disk,
you see the MS-DOS command prompt on the screen:
The command prompt tells you that your computer is ready to
receive instructions. It also identifies the current operating
drive: A or C, for example. The command prompt appears on
the screen whenever you load MS-DOS, complete an MS-DOS
command, or exit an application.
In your computer, the diskette drive is A and the hard disk is
drive C. If you have an optional second diskette drive, MS-DOS
identifies it as B.
8
Copying System Diskettes
Now that you have started your system and loaded MS-DOS, it
is important that you make copies of your MS-DOS diskettes
right away. Use the copies (called working copies) as they are
needed and store the originals in a safe place.
Each of the system diskettes is formatted for 1.2MB.
(Formatting prepares a diskette to store data and is described in
Chapter 3 and Chapter 5.)
To copy them, you need eleven 1.2MB highdensity, 51/4inch
diskettes.
Note
If you do not have any 1.2MB diskettes, you can use
unformatted 360KB diskettes. When copying from 1.2MB
diskettes, the DISKCOPY program formats the 360KB
diskettes for 1.2MB.
Setting Up Your System
l-15
Follow these steps:
1. The C > prompt should be on the screen. If not, type C:
and press Enter.
2. Type the following and press Enter:
The screen displays this message:
3. Insert the MS-DOS diskette in drive A, as shown below.
Hold the diskette with the label facing up and the
read/write slot into the drive.
Figure 1-9. Inserting a Floppy Disk
1-16
Setting Up Your System
4. Press any key. The DISKCOPY program copies the
contents of the MS-DOS diskette to the computer’s
memory, and then you see the following:
If the diskette is not formatted, the DISKCOPY program
formats it. Then the program begins copying the data from
the computer’s memory to the formatted diskette. When
the copy is complete, you see this prompt:
5. Remove the MS-DOS diskette and insert a blank diskette
(which is to be the target diskette) in drive A. Then press
any key.
6. Press Y so you can make a copy of another MS-DOS diskette.
Again, you see the prompt to insert the source diskette.
7. Remove the copy of the MS-DOS diskette which you just
made and insert the another MS-DOS diskette into drive A.
Then press any key. Follow the prompts on the screen to
make a copy of this diskette as you did for the first MS-DOS
diskette.
8. When you finish copying the last diskette and the
prompt appears, press N to return to the MS-DOS
command prompt C > .
After you have copied the MS-DOS diskettes, be sure to label
them carefully so you know which one is which. Write on the
Setting Up Your System
1-17
labels before you attach them to the diskettes in order to
prevent damaging the diskettes. Store the originals in a safe
place and use the copies as they needed.
9
Resetting Your Computer
If your computer system should “lockup”, it may be necessary
to reset the computer. Resetting the computer causes the CPU
to clear its instruction set and the system memory. This ensures
there is no “garbage” left in memory to interfere with new
program information.
There are two basic ways to reset your computer. They are:
CONTROL-ALT-DEL (Keyboard Reset)
Press the CONTROL key and the ALT key at the same
time. While holding these keys down, press the DELETE
key, then release all three keys. This will reset your
computer without running the full self-test diagnostics.
The POWER Switch
Turn the main system POWER switch off, wait ten
seconds, then turn it back on. The computer will then run
the complete self-test diagonistic routine.
Caution!
Any time you RESET your computer, the memory will be
cleared. This will erase any software programs loaded into
the system RAM. You may lose important data or have
problems using your software after the system re-boots.
Only RESET your system if you are sure that all of your
data has been: saved to disk, or is is no other way
escape a “lockup condition,
You should now be able to reset your computer if you run into
trouble. At this point, you can complete the installation of
your system by running the SETUP program. For detailed
information on the SETUP program, see the following chapter.
1-18
Setting Up Your System
Chapter 2
The CMOS Setup Program
Introduction
The Setup program keeps a record of the host computer’s
system parameters (such as memory amounts, disk drives, video
displays, and numeric coprocessors). Setup resides in the Read
Only Memory Basic Input/Output System (ROM BIOS) so that
it is available each time the host is turned on. Setup stores the
information in the complementary metal oxide semiconductor
(CMOS) memory. When the host is turned off, a back-up
battery retains system parameters in the CMOS memory.
As soon as the host is turned on, the power-on diagnostics
routines check memory, attempt to prepare peripheral devices
for action, and offer you the option of pressing <DEL> to
run Setup.
When to Run Setup
During normal daily operation, you do not have to run Setup
when you start the host computer.
Under the abnornal conditions, an appropriate message
displays, advising you to run the Setup program. These
conditions indicate that an error has occurred during the
power-on self-tests (POSTS).
The CMOS Setup Program
2-1
Note
Note that you can bypass the memory test by pressing the
< ESC > key. This option would be useful when the
memory on the system is quite large. You should hit the
<ESC> key when the following message appears on the
screen.
Press <ESC> to bypass MEMORY test
Using Setup
Immediately after the memory test, you will get the following
prompt on the screen depending upon the type of BIOS you
have:
Press <DEL> if you want to run SETUP or DIAGS
Hit <DEL > key to get into the Setup Mode
Note
<DEL > key will get you into the setup mode, only when the
above message is displayed on the screen.
If you hit < DEL > key, a menu appears on the screen giving
you the option of
2-2
The CMOS Setup Program
Use <Up “ > and <Down ” > keys to set the reverse video
cursor on the option you want to select and use < Enter > to
get into the option.
This means that the SETUP program options have been set at
the factory. Since there were no errors detected, the computer
tried to load MS-DOS from the floppy disk drive, before you
have inserted the MS-DOS main system diskette. For now
ignore this message.
If you want to run the “DIAGNOSTICS” program, see
Appendix E for the detailed description of it.
Entering SETUP
To enter the setup program, hit < DEL > key at the time the
following prompt is displayed on the screen immediately after
the memory test.
The CMOS Setup Program
2-3
If you hit <DEL> key, you will see a menu like as following.
Set the reverse video cursor on the “RUN CMOS SETUP”
using <Up “ > and < Down ” > and press <ENTER>. Then
the screen will be replaced by the following.
This screen is the SETUP MENU. ‘This lists the parameters
you can change with the SETUP program. A solid cursor bar
highlights the parameter currently available to be changed. You
can use the following key conventions.
2-4
‘The CMOS Setup Program
< Enter > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
< ‘ > < ’ > ..................
< PgUp > < PgDn > . . . . . . ...
<ESC> ..........................
< Ctrl > < Alt > < Del > . . .
moves the selection bar
moves the selection bar
scrolls allowable settings
exit and save CMOS register
exit without save
Parameters
0 Date and Time Setup
The first entry in the Setup screen is current date. A
calendar has been provided for the user to facilitate him in
this procedure. Again, simply press the < PgUp > or
< PgDn > keys to select the appropriate value for the
month, date and year.
The procedure for setting the time is similar to that of
setting the date. The time here is 24-hour time so don’t be
alarmed when hour 13 shows up on the screen. Simply
highlight either the hours, minutes, or the seconds and
press the <PgUp >/ < PgDn > keys to step through the
numbers.
Cl Floppy Disk Drive Setup
Drives a: and/or b: may be one of the following types:
Allowable Drive Types
36OKB
1.2MB
720KB
1.44KB
not installed
51/4"
51/4"
31/2"
31/2"
The CMOS Setup Program
2-5
Hard Disk Drive Setup
Drives c: and d: are the hard disk drives in the system. 46
drive types have been defined by AMI. If for some reason
or other your particular drive is not one of the 46 pre-defined
types, simply scroll down to type 47 and enter the
following drive specifications: cylinders, heads, WPcom,
LZone, and sectors. Please consult the documentation
received with the drive for the specific values that will give
you optimum performance.
Display Type Setup
The next option is primary display selection. The options
are as follows:
Type of Display Allowed
Monochrome
Color 40 x 25
Color 80 x 25
VGA or EGA
Not Installed
Keyboard Setup
The keyboard Setup is the next option for the user. You
may either choose to enable or disable the Keyboard test
during Power On Self Test by setting keyboard as
“Installed” or “Not Installed”.
Scratch RAM Option.
The next option is the setting of the scratch RAM. The
purpose of this element is to
(1) Save the user definable drive type 47
(2) Translate 80386 Loadall function for programs like
OS/2, RAMDRIVE etc.
2-6
The CMOS Setup Program
If Shadow RAM is not enabled, the parameters of the drive
must be stored in normal RAM, but the integrity of the
data must be maintained. The options you have are the
following:
1. The BIOS to use 100 bytes at 30h:0
2. The BIOS to reduce the size of the base memory by 1KB.
The default is 1. If you are not using Drive type 47 or not
running programs like OS/2, RAMDRIVE this RAM will
never be used by so you may leave the value as 1.
P start-up speed
This parameter is used to select the system’s default speed.
The options are:
l
l
High speed
Under this option, your system is initially booting with
20MHz CPU speed when you turn the power on.
Low speed
Select this option is to boot your system with 6MHz
CPU speed as turning the power on.
00 Special Memory
This parameter is used to boost your system’s performance
by loading the BIOS and/or VIDEO controller code into
the RAM space between 640K and lM-byte. The options
are:
l
l
None
Select this option is you are not going to use shadow
RAM.
BIOS
Use this parameter to copy the system BIOS into shadow
RAM during the start-up routine.
The CMOS Setup Program
2-7
l
l
l
l
Video
This parameter loads the program code from your video
card into shadow RAM during system start up.
BIOS + Video
This option loads the BIOS and video code into shadow
RAM.
Ext. Memory
If you use the extended memory on your system, select
this option. The Ext. Memory size is determined
according to the EMS Size and displays on the upper
right comer of the Setup message.
EMS Memory
You can use the EMS memory using this option.
0 EMS Size
The options available are used to describe how your system
will use the EMS memory above lM-byte, as follows:
l
2-8
The EMS memory size is preset according to the on
board memory size. If you want to use EMS memory, you
should select the EMS memory size you are using in this
option.
The CMOS Setup Program
0 Peripheral Setup
When you scroll down to this parameter, the following
message will be displayed on the right side of the Setup
message.
Peripheral Setup
Serial 1: Enabled
Serial 2: Enabled
Parallel: Enabled
FDC: Enabled
HDC: Enabled
l
l
Serial 1
If you’d like to the on board serial port 1 for COM 1, set
this option “Enable”. But, when you install the external
card to use another serial port for COM 1, you should
select “Disable” on this option to disable the on board
serial port.
Serial 2
Set this option “Enable” if you want to use the on board
serial port 2 for COM2. Like as serial 1, you should also
disable this option when you install the external card to
use another serial port for COM2.
Note
Although you need only the on board serial 2 port for
COM2, do not disable the serial 1. If you disable serial 1
and enable aerial 2 when you don’t have any external I/0
adapter, the serial 2 automatically set to CDM1.
l
Parallel
If you use on board parallel port, enable this option.
However if you want to use another parallel port using
external I/O card, you should disable this option.
The CMOS Setup Program 2-9
l FDC
Your system provide on board FDC and it supports two
floppy disk drive to your system. If you use another FDC
in your system using external Card, you should disable
this option.
l HDC
The system has on bord IDE type HDC. If you’d like to
another type of HDC (for example, SCSI, or ESDI etc.),
disable this option and install your HDC Card to the
expansion slot on the backplane board.
Leaving the Setup Program
When you have completed the changes, press the < ESC >
key. The SETUP program will display the message:
Write data into CMOS and exit (Y/N)?
If you have made any mistakes, press N for No, then move the
cursor back up to the beginning and verify each parameter,
making any corrections necessary. When you are satisfied with
the option settings, press the <ESC> key, then press Y to
write the new settings into the configuration RAM. Your
computer will run through the self test diagnostics again and
try to read a diskette in the first floppy disk drive.
As mentioned above, you may see an error message if you don’t
have a system diskette inserted into the floppy disk drive.
2-10
The CMOS Setup Program
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
This chapter covers the following basic procedure for using
your computer:
00 Changing the operating speed
00 Using special keys on the keyboard
Cl Stopping a command or program
00 Using disks and disk drives.
Changing the Operating Speed
Your computer can operate two speeds; 8MHz or 20MHz.
At 20MHz, the computer performs all tasks faster, and almost
all programs may be run at 20MHz. However, some option
cards and application programs require the lower speed. See
your option card or application program manual to make sure
that you can use the higher speed before selecting it.
Keyboard Method
The following keystroke sequences can be used to set the
processor clock speed.
l
Ctrl-Alt- < - >
Hold down the < Ctrl > and < Alt >
keys and press < - > on the numeric
keypad to place the system in low speed
mode.
Using Your Computer 3-1
l
Ctrl-Alt- < + >
Hold down the < Ctrl > and < Alt >
keys and press < + > on the numeric
keypad to place the system in high
speed.
Changing the operating speed may be performed with the
TriGem Utility TGSS.COM. This program is located on the
MS-DOS diskette supplied with the system. You can find the
detailed description of TGSS.COM in your MS-DOS User’s
Guide.
Special Keys on your Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when
your computer is running programs. The illustration below
shows the TriGem keyboard, and the table that follows
describes the special keys.
Figure 3-1. Keyboard (101 key)
3-2
Using Your Computer
Key
Purpose
F1-F12
Perform special functions within application program
(Some keys also function with MS-DOS. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information.)
Tab
Moves the cursor one table to the right in normal
mode (and one tab the left in shift mode when using
some application programs.)
Ctrl
Works with other key to perform special (control)
function, such as editing operations.
Shift
Produces uppercase characters or the top symbols
on the keys when used with the main character keys.
Produces lowercase characters when Caps Lock is
on.
Alt
Works with other keys to enter alternate character
codes or functions.
Backspace
( - )
Moves the cursor back one space, deleting the
character to the left of the cursor
Enter
Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a
command (may be called the Return key in some
application program manuals).
Caps Lock
Changes the letter keys from lower-to uppercase;
changes back to lowercase when pressed again.
The numeric/symbol keys on the top row of the
keyboard are not affected.
Esc
Cancels the current command line or operation in
MS-DOS. Esc can also have special uses in
application programs.
Num Lock
Changes the function of the keys on the
numeric/cursor keypad from numeric entry to cursor
positioning; changes back when pressed again.
Scroll Lock
Controls scrolling in some application programs.
Break
When pressed with the Ctrl key (hold down Ctrl and
press Break), sends a break signal to the computer
to terminate the current operation.
Using Your Computer 3-3
Key
Purpose
SYS Req
Produces the system request function in certain
applications.
PrtSc
Prints the screen display on a dot-matrix printer
Home, End,
PgUp, PgDn
et-1
Control cursor location in some applications, such as
word processors, game programs, and
spreadsheets.
Ins
Turns the insert function on and off in some
application programs.
Del
Deletes the character at the cursor position.
The Num Lock, Scroll Lock, and Caps Lock keys work as
toggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again to
turn it off. When the function is enabled, the corresponding
light on the top right comer of the keyboard is on. When the
function is disabled, the light is off.
Figure 3-2. Keyboard LED
3-4
Using Your Computer
Stopping a Command or Program
You may sometimes need to stop a command or program while
it is running. Many application programs provide a command
you can use to stop or even cancel (undo) an operation. If you
have entered an MS-DOS command that you want to stop, try
one of the following commands:
0 Hold down the Ctrl key and press C
0 Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break
These methods may also work in your application program.
If you cannot stop a particular operation, however, you may
need to reset the computer, as described in the following
section.
caution!
It is best not to run off the computer to stop a program or
command. If you have created new data that you have not
yet stored, it will be erased if you turn off the computer.
Your computer stores data in its memory until you save it;
but the memory area is erased each time you turn off or.
reset the computer.
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on
disk and retrieve it when you want it.
This section explains how disks work and tells you how to do
the following:
0 Choose diskettes
Using Your Computer
3-5
o Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
0 Insert and remove diskettes
0 Write-protect diskettes
0 Make backup copies of your diskettes
0 Use a single diskette drive
0 Use a hard disk drive
How Disks Store Data
The diskette you insert in your computer’s diskette drive is
made of flexible plastic, coated with magnetic material. It is
enclosed in a square jacket. Your computer stores data on the
diskette by recording on the magnetic surface.
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is
sealed in a protective case to keep it free from dust and dirt. A
hard disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it
works faster and has much larger storage capacity.
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,
tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes - like the ones you
use in your computer - store data on both sides. On your disk
there are concentric rings, called tracks, in which a disk can
store data. Double-density diskettes (such as 360KB diskettes)
have 40 tracks, and high-density diskettes (such as 1.2MB or
1.44MB diskettes) have 80 tracks. But 720KB double density
diskette has 80 tracks.
A hard disk consists of two or more magnetically-coated
platters stacked on top of one another, so it has four or more
sides with many more tracks than a diskette.
3-6
Using Your Computer
A disk is further divided by sectors. To understand what a
sector is, picture the spokes on a bicycle wheel radiating from
the center of the wheel to the tire. The space between one
spoke and the next is like a sector on a diskette. (See the figure
below.) Each track on a 1.2MB diskette has 15 sectors, and
each sector holds 512 bytes.
Figure 3-3. Sectors and Tracks
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to store
and retrieve data on a disk. There is one head above the
diskette and one below, so the drive can write to both sides of
the diskette. To write to a disk, the computer spins it in the
drive to a position where one of the read/write heads can access
the diskette through the read/write slot. The read/write slot on
a diskette exposes the diskette’s magnetic surface so the
read/write head can write on the appropriate area.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record
over it, and erase it - just as you play, record, and erase music
on a cassette tape.
Using Your Computer 3-7
Types of Diskette Drives
You computer has at least one 1.2MB diskette drive. With this
drive, use 51/4+inch, double-sided, high-density, 96 TPI, 1.2MB
diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 15 sectors
per track, and hold up to 1.2MB of information, which is
approximately 500 pages of text. You can also format these
diskettes for 360KB - see your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
more information.
In addition, you may have a diskette drive of a different type.
The following list describes the types of optional diskette drives
you can use in your computer and which diskettes you should
use with them:
0 360KB drive - With this drive, use 51/4-inch, doublesided, doubledensity, 48 TPI (tracks per inch), 360KB
diskettes. (You can also use single-sided, 160KB or 180KB
diskettes). These diskettes contain 40 tracks per side, 8 or 9
sectors per track, and hold up to 360KB of information,
which is approximately 150 pages of text. (With 8 sectors
per track, a diskette holds up to 320KB.)
cl 720KB drive - With this drive, use 3l/2-inch, doublesided, double-density, 135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These
diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 9 sectors per track, and
hold up to 720KB of information - approximately 300
pages of text.
0 1.44MB drive - With this drive, use 3l/2-inch, doublesided, highdensity, 135 TPI, 1.44MB diskettes. These
diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 18 sectors per track,
and hold up to 1.44MB of information, which is
approximately 600 pages of text.
If your computer has more than one type of these drives or if
you use diskettes from other computers, you need to be aware
of certain incompatibilities between the drives and the
diskettes they use.
3-8
Using Your Computer
Note
You must format new diskettes before you can use them
with an operating system. Formatting erases all the data on
a diskette and prepares it to receive new data, so be sure to
format only new blank diskettes or diskettes that contain
data you want to erase. See Chapter 5 for instructions on
formatting diskettes.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
Because of the size difference, you cannot use 31/2-inch
diskettes in a 51/4-inch drive or vice versa. There are also
certain limitations on using diskettes that are the same size as
the drive but have different capacities. The following tables
summarize the possiblities and limitations.
5l/4-inch drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
360KB
1.2MB
180KB, or 360KB
180KB, 360KB, or 1.2MB
31/2-inch drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
720KB
1.44MB
720KB
720KB, or 1.44MB
Using Your Computer
3-9
Because of these incompatibilities, you should indicate the
density and diskette type when you label your diskettes.
(Usually this information appears on the manufacturer’s label.)
If you have any combination of the above drives (360KB,
1.2MB, 720KB, or l.44MB), you can copy files from one drive
to another - using the COPY or XCOPY command - as long
as the correct diskette type is in each drive. You can use these
commands to copy files between the hard disk and any type of
diskette. You cannot use the DISKCOPY to copy from one
drive to another if the two drives are not the same type.
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskette and
avoid losing data:
Cl Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or turn
off the computer while the drive light is on. This light
indicates that the computer is copying data to or from a
diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
0 Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
0 Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles of
dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface and destroy
data. Dust can also ruin the read/write heads in a diskette
drive.
D Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
0 Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. They work best
at normal room temperature and in normal humidity. Do
not leave your diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extreme
cold or heat.
3-10
Using Your Computer
Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields. (Remember that
diskettes store information magnetically.) There are many
sources of magnetism in your home or office, such as
electrical appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers.
Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near an
external disk drive.
Never touch a diskette’s magnetic surface. The oils on your
fingertips can damage it. Always hold a diskette by its
protective jacket. If you are using a 31/2-inch diskette, do
not slide the metal shutter; this exposes the diskette’s
surface.
Do not place anything on top of your diskettes and be sure
they do not get bent. A diskette does not rotate properly in
the drive if it has been damaged.
Carefully label your diskettes. Attach labels firmly but
gently, and only along the top of a diskette (next to the
manufacturer’s label). Do not stick several labels on top of
one another-too many labels can make it difficult to insert
the diskette into the drive.
It is best to write on the label before you attach it to the
diskette. If you need to write on a label that is already on a
diskette, use only a soft-tip pen, not a ballpoint pen or a
pencil. Always indicate the storage capacity and density
type on the label.
Store diskettes in a proper location, such as a diskette
container. Do not store diskettes flat or stack them on top
of each other. When you are not using them, keep your
diskettes in their protective envelopes.
Follow these additional precautions to protect your hard disk
drive and its data:
Using Your Computer
3-13
0 Never turn off the computer when the hard disk drive light
is on. This light indicates that the computer is copying
data to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt this process,
you can lose data.
Cl Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk itself
is enclosed in a sealed container to protect it from dust.
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
To insert a diskette into the drive, hold it with the label facing
up and the read/write slot leading into the drive, as shown
below.
Figure 3-4. Inserting a Diskette (5 1/4”)
Slide the diskette into the slot until it is in all the way. Then
turn the drive latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This
keeps the diskette in place and enables the read/write heads in
the diskette drive to access the diskette.
3-12
Using Your Computer
If a diskette is in the drive but the latch is up (horizontal) and
you enter a command for that drive, the computer cannot tell
there is a diskette in the drive and displays an error message
such as:
Close the latch and press R.
To remove the diskette, turn the drive latch up until it is
horizontal and the edge of the diskette pops out. Carefully pull
out the diskette, place it in its protective envelope, and store it
in a proper location, such as a diskette container.
If you have an optional 31/2-inch diskette drive, insert the
diskette with the label facing up and the metal shutter leading
into the drive, as shown below. Slide the diskette into the
drive until it clicks into place.
Figure 3-5. Inserting a Diskette (31/2”)
Using Your Computer
3-13
To remove a 3’/2-inch diskette, press the release button to
release it. When the edge pops out of the drive, pull out the
diskette and store it properly.
warning
Never remove a diskette or turn off the computer while the
drive indicator light is on. You could lose data, Also be
sure to remove all diskettes before you turn off the
computer.
Write-protecting Diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being
altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read it and
copy data from it, but you cannot store new data on the
diskette or delete any files it contains. If you try to change data
stored on a write-protected diskette, MS-DOS displays an error
message.
To write-protect a 51/4-inch diskette, cover the small,
rectangular notch (shown below) with an adhesive write-protect
tab. Write-protect tabs usually come with new 51/2inch
diskettes when you buy them.
Figure 3-6. 5’/4” Diskettes & Write-Protect Tab
3-14
Using Your Computer
Some program diskettes, such as your MS-DOS diskettes,
have no notch so they any permanently write-protected.
This protects them from being accidentally erased or
altered.
On a 31/2inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small
switch on the lower-right comer on the back, shown below. To
write-protect a 3l/2-inch diskette, slide the switch toward the
edge of the diskette until it clicks into position, exposing a hole
in the comer.
Figure 3-7. 3’/2” Diskette & Write-Protect SW
To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the
center of the diskette so the hole is covered.
Making Backup Copies
It is important to make copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Copy all diskettes that contain programs, such as the
original MS-DOS diskettes that come with your computer, and
use only the copies. Store your original MS-DOS diskettes in a
Using Your Computer 3-15
safe place away from your working copies. Backup your data
diskettes regularly, whenever you revise them, to keep them
up-todate, and store them away from your originals.
Chapter 1 describes how to use DISKCOPY to copy your
MS-DOS diskette. For more detailed information to make
backups of other diskettes, refer to Chapter 4 “Using MS-DOS
with your computer”.
It is best to put most of the programs and data files you use
regularly on the hard disk. Keep backup copies of all your
program files on diskettes, however, and regularly copy
important data files to diskettes as well.
Using a Single Diskette Drive
The operating system expects the computer to have at least
two diskette drives, and it displays prompts and messages
accordingly. If the computer has only one diskette drive, MS-DOS
treats the one drive like two logical drives. This helps you
perform operations that normally require two diskette drives.
Usually, MS-DOS recognizes the first diskette drive (the top
drive) as drive A and the second diskette drive as drive B.
If you have only one diskette drive, MS-DOS recognizes it as
both A and B.
For example, if you give a command to copy from A to B,
MS-DOS copies data from the diskette you place in the single
drive (A) to the computer’s memory. Then MS-DOS
automatically prompts you to insert another diskette in the
same drive, which it now identifies as drive B. It copies the
data from memory to the new diskette. When the copying is
complete, MS-DOS identifies the drive as drive A again, and
you see a prompt to insert the original diskette into drive A.
3-16
Using Your Computer
You can load the opeating system and application programs
from the hard disk, create and store your data there, and use
the diskette drive just for copying data to and from diskettes.
Note
If you only have one diskette drive and no hard disk, you
need to use that drive to load the operating system as well
as the application programs you are using. First load the
operating system; this copies it into the computer’s memory
(RAM) so you do not need to leave the diskette in the drive.
Then you can remove that diskette and insert the program
diskette you want to use, and load that into memory too.
See your application program manual for detailed
instructions.
Using the Hard Disk Drive
You can create and revise files on a hard disk just as you can
on a diskette. The hard disk, however, provides several
advantages:
Cl The 20MB hard disk can store more data than 16x 1.2MB
diskettes and the 40MB hard disk can store twice as much.
0 Your computer can perform all disk-related operations faster.
0 You can store all your frequency used programs and data
files on the hard disk, eliminating the inconvenience of
inserting and removing diskettes to access different files.
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and
forth between different programs and data files. However,
because it is so easy to add programs and files to your hard disk,
you may find yourself trying to organize hundreds of files.
MS-DOS lets you keep related files together in directories and
subdirectories so they are easier to find and use.
Using Your Computer 3-17
Backing up hard disk Ales
While the hard disk is very reliable, it is essential to back up
your hard disk files to diskettes in case you lose some data
accidentally. Make copies of all your system and application
program diskettes before copying the programs to the hard disk.
After you create data files on the hard disk, be sure to copy
them to diskettes whenever you revise them to keep your
backup diskettes up-todate.
You can see the more detailed information of backing up hard
disk files on the Chapter 6.
Preparing the hard disk for moving
Before you move the computer, you need to secure the
read/write heads inside the hard disk drive. Securing the
read/write heads moves them to a region of the disk surface
that does not contain data, and locks them in position. This
prevents the disk from being damaged if it is bumped
accidentally.
To secure the read/write heads for moving, run the TGSHIP
program. Follow these steps to run TGSHIP:
1. Exit any program you are using so the MS-DOS command
prompt is on the screen.
2. Insert the MS-DOS diskette in drive A.
3. Type the following and press Enter:
3-18
Using Your Computer
You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s
read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the
computer or turn the power off and on again. The computer
locks the heads and disables the keyboard. You can now turn
off the computer and prepare to move it to the new location.
The TGSHIP command should be run whenever you are going
to move the main system unit. This command moves the
read/write heads inside the hard disk drive to a “safety zone,”
where they won’t accidentally scratch the surface of the drive
platters. TGSHIP.COM is a special DOS command file
included with your system. You should copy this file into the
root directory of your hard disk drive.
See MS-DOS reference manual for more information of
TGSHIP command.
Using Your Computer
3-19
Chapter 4
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Once you have your computer system “up-and-running,” you
may begin to work with MS-DOS.
Virtually all application software available for IBM PCiXT and
PC/AT-compatible computer systems runs “under” MS-DOS.
Therefore, in order to use these programs, you need to learn
how to use MS-DOS. This chapter will give you a basic
understanding of MS-DOS and provide you with the basic
tools you need run application software on your computer
system. For more detailed explanation of the MS-DOS
operating system, see your MS-DOS USER’S GUIDE.
MS-DOS is an acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System.
The disk operating system is a collection of programs that allow
you to control all the elements of your computer. When booting
up, the MS-DOS command file is copied from the MS-DOS
main disk into your computer’s memory. From there, it
controls the rest of the system.
During a normal operating session, you will want your
computer system to boot up in MS-DOS. Before that can
happen, however, you may need to install MS-DOS on your
system.
If your system does not have a hard disk system, you must
perform the installation routine to configure MS-DOS for
floppy disk-based operation.
If you do have a hard disk drive, but MS-DOS has not been
installed you must perform the installation routine to configure
MS-DOS for use on the hard disk system.
For complete instructions on installing MS-DOS, see your
MS-DOS User’s manual.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-1
Inserting Diskettes
Your MS-DOS software package contains of the following items:
a
One MS-DOS Install Diskettes
0 One MS-DOS Select Diskette
0 Three MS-DOS Operating Diskettes
Q One MS-DOS Shell Diskette
0 The MS-DOS User’s Guide & User’s Reference
0 The MS-DOS Shell User’s Guide
Begin the installation procedure by placing the MS-DOS
Install diskette in the A drive and turning your computer on.
Disk Drive Letters
The various disk drives on your computer are assigned letters.
As you work with MS-DOS, you will see that these letters are
used to identify which drive is to be used at any given time.
The microcomputer industry has standardized the use of letter
identification for MS-DOS-type machines as follows:
4-2
0
The first floppy disk drive is referred to as the “A:” drive.
Cl
The second floppy disk drive is referred to as the “B:”
drive.
0
The first hard disk drive is referred to as the “C:” drive.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
To insert a diskette into the drive:
0 Open the drive door
0 If you haven’t already done so, remove the protective
cardboard insert from the drive.
0 Gently insert the diskette into the drive entry slot with its
label facing up, and the write protect notch to the left.
Cl When the diskette is all the way in, close the drive door by
turning the door latch handle down.
Caution!
If any resistance is felt when closing the drive door, stop
and reinsert the diskette.
To remove a diskette from a floppy disk drive:
0
Be sure the drive indicator light is off
Caution !
It is very important that you never remove a diskette from
an active drive. Doing so can destroy the information on
the diskette. If the computer. system is “locked-up” with
the drive indicator light on, RESET the computer before
removing the diskette.
0
Turn the door latch to open the drive.
0
Remove the diskette and insert it into its protective
envelope.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-3
Starting MS-DOS
To start MS-DOS 4.01 on a floppy disk-based system (that is,
one without a hard disk drive), follow these steps given below.
For a detailed description of how to start MS-DOS 4.01,
consult the Getting Started section in your MS-DOS 4.01
User’s Guide.
Cl
Remove the MS-DOS Install diskette from its protective
envelope and insert it into the A drive.
Cl
Close the disk door and turn your computer on.
0
Remove the Install disk and insert the Select disk.
Cl Press ENTER.
CI
Remove the Select disk and insert the Install disk.
D Press ENTER.
The Welcome screen appears. This screen contains information
about the number of disks required to install the operating
system.
0 Press ENTER
The Introduction screen appears. This screen contains
information about the function keys used to run the Select
program.
Cl Press ENTER
The first screen of the Select program appears. For more
information about the Select program, consult the Getting
Started section in your MS-DOS 4.01 User’s Guide.
If your computer has a hard disk drive, and MS-DOS has been
installed, simply turn your system on. Your computer will
perform its self-test diagnostics and display the DOS Shell
menu screen.
4-4 Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Notice that the words “Command Prompt” are highlighted by
a solid bar. This is a DOS Shell option that allows you to work
directly with MS-DOS.
Your computer system is now “running under DOS.”
For now, press ENTER to run the Command Prompt option.
System Prompt
After you press the ENTER key to either accept the time
shown or enter a new one, MS-DOS will show a new prompt
on the monitor:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-5
This is the system prompt. When it is displayed, it means
that MS-DOS is waiting for you to tell it what to do. This is
done by typing a DOS command, then pressing the ENTER
key.
Cursor
Following the system prompt, you will see a blinking underline
( _ ) character.
This is the “cursor”. The cursor shows you where the next
character you type will appear on the screen. As you can see
here, any command you type will appear immediately to the
right of the system prompt and on the same line. Application
software often uses the cursor as well, allowing you to use the
cursor control keys to move the cursor around on the screen.
MS-DOS Commands
DOS commands instruct your computer to perform tasks such
as display a disk directory, copy a file, delete a program, etc.
These are called internal commands and can be used anytime
after the system has loaded MS-DOS into memory. They do
not require the MS-DOS main system diskette to function.
More complex DOS commands are actually separate programs
that provide powerful features for your computer. These are
called external commands, and perform such tasks as
formatting a diskette, comparing files on different disks,
backing up a hard disk, etc. These commands require one or
more of the MS-DOS diskettes.
Hard disk system user’s can run any DOS command without
diskettes because the programs are stored on the hard disk
drive.
4-6
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Case Sensitivity
MS-DOS does not differentiate between upper and lower case
letters in commands and filenames. This manual will show
commands in upper case for clarity, but you may enter them
either way. For example, both of these commands will generate
a directory listing of a diskette:
and
Function Keys and MS-DOS
As mentioned earlier, MS-DOS uses several of your keyboard’s
function keys to provide you with shortcuts. When you press
the ENTER key after typing a command, MS-DOS copies the
command into a “buffer” memory. By using the function keys,
you can edit and reuse the command without having to retype
the entire line.
- Fl key
Copies one character at a time from the buffer to the command
line
- F2 key
Copies the entire buffer up to the next character you type
- F3 key
Copies the entire buffer to the command line
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-7
- F4 key
The opposite of F2, deletes all characters from the buffer up to,
but not including, the next character you type
- F5 key
Moves the current line you are typing into the buffer without
ENTERing it
- F6 key
Places an “end-of-file” marker when you copy from the
monitor to a disk file
- ESC key
Cancels the current command line without changing the buffer
- INS key
Inserts characters into the command line as you copy
characters from the buffer
- DEL key
Deletes characters from the buffer
BACKSPACE Key
From time to time, you may make a typing error. This is not
usually a problem if you correct the error before you ENTER
the command. You can use the BACKSPACE key for this
purpose.
Note
Occasionally, you might happen to enter the wrong
command by mistake. If this incorrect command will result
in the loss of data, MS-DOS will Usually warn you, and
give you a change to change your mind.
4-8
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
The BACKSPACE key on your keyboard works just like a
backspace key on a regular typewriter: it moves the cursor back
one position. In addition, however, it erases the last character
typed. Press the BACKSPACE key as many times as necessary
to erase the typing mistake, then type out the command
correctly. For instance, type the following (but do not press
ENTER):
Press the BACKSPACE key twice to erase the I and the R.
Retype:
Then press the ENTER key. Your computer will respond by
producing the directory of the disk in the A drive. Now type
this:
Then press the ENTER key. Your computer will respond:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-9
Default Drive
MS-DOS will only look at one disk drive at a time. Normally,
this is the “default” drive. You can tell which disk drive is the
current default drive by looking at the system prompt.
For example:
indicates that the “A” drive is currently the default drive.
Unless you specify otherwise, MS-DOS will direct any disk
activity to the “A” floppy disk drive.
You can easily change the default drive with an internal DOS
command. For instance, to change from the “A” drive (floppy
disk), to the C drive (hard disk), enter:
The computer will respond:
As you can see, the system prompt has changed to show the
new default drive letter.
Note
If the computer responds:
Invalid Drive Specification
it may mean that either there is no hard disk system
installed, or your hard disk drive has not been configured
yet. See Chapter 6, “Using Your Hard Disk,” for
instructions.
4-10
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
From the A. prompt command, try the command:
The computer will respond:
Press ENTER after you insert the diskette into the drive, then
the system prompt will be:
If you have a dual floppy disk drive system, the second, or “B”
drive is now the system default drive, as indicated by the new
system prompt. If performed on a single drive computer system,
this command will still change the system prompt to B > , even
though there is only one physical drive present.
The BIOS “pretends” there are two disk drives present. It
routes all commands intended for the B drive back to the A
drive.
This feature is intended to allow owners of single drive systems
to use application software designed for dual drive systems.
Copying Your MS-DOS Diskettes
The first important task you must complete with your new
system is to make a “backup” copy of your MS-DOS diskettes.
To do this, you will need seven blank diskettes. It is a good
idea to prepare seven diskette labels at this time. Write the
following on those diskette labels, using a felt tipped pen:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-11
Write down the MS-DOS version number on each diskette
labels. This will avoid confusion later if you upgrade your
operating system to a new version. As you finish copying and
checking each MS-DOS master diskette, peel the correct label
off of the backing paper and place it on the upper left-hand
side of the front face of the new diskette.
The following procedures will show you how to make backup
copies of your MS-DOS master diskettes on both single and
dualdrive systems.
Copying on Single Drive systems
MS-DOS uses the external command DISKCOPY to copy
entire diskettes. DISKCOMP is used to compare the original
and backup diskettes to ensure that the copy is accurate.
To copy your master diskettes, first turn your computer on and
boot up MS-DOS. Choose the Command Prompt option from
the DOS shell menu. The system prompt will appear.
Enter the following command:
The following message will be displayed:
4-12
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
The “SOURCE” diskette is the disk that you will be copying
from. Insert the MS-DOS master diskette into the A drive.
Press any key, such as the % SPACEBAR. The floppy disk drive
will be activated, and your computer will display:
The contents of the disk are being read into your computer’s
memory. After a few moments, the following message will
appear:
When the drive indicator light goes out, remove the MS-DOS
master diskette from the floppy disk drive. Insert a new, blank
diskette into the drive. This is the “TARGET” diskette.
Press the SPACEBAR key. The drive will turn on, indicating
that the computer formatting the new diskette, then writing
the copied information onto it. After a few moments, the drive
will turn off, and the system will display:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-13
For now, type N. The system prompt will reappear. To
compare the backup diskette with the original, you will use the
DISKCOMP command. Enter the command at the system
prompt:
The computer will respond:
Remove the backup diskette from the drive, and put it in its
protective jacket. Set it aside for a moment, making sure that
you don’t mix it up with the second blank diskette. Put the
original “master” MS-DOS main system diskette back into the
floppy disk drive, then press the SPACEBAR key. As with the
DISKCOPY command, your computer will read the entire
contents of the diskette into system memory, and will display:
When the computer is finished reading, the drive will turn off,
and the following message will appear:
4-14
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Remove the master MS-DOS diskette from the floppy disk
drive, and put it in its protective envelope. Take out the
backup copy diskette, insert it into the disk drive, and press the
SPACEBAR key.
The computer will read the contents of the backup diskette,
and compare them with the copy of the master diskette that it
has stored in memory. If the information on the two diskettes
is identical, the computer will respond:
Type N to return to the system prompt.
If there is a problem with the backup diskette, or if you put the
wrong diskette into the drive by mistake, the computer will
respond:
Compare error on
side x, track x
If the computer shows compare errors, start the copying
procedure over again at the beginning. The backup copy of the
MS-DOS diskette must be identical to the original. After you
have confirmed that the backup diskette is a good copy of the
master MS-DOS diskette, you may put your master diskette
away in a safe place. From now on, only use the master MS-DOS
diskette to make copies. For all other purposes, use the backup
copy of the MS-DOS diskette. By using the backup copy, you
ensure that any accidental erasures can be replaced.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-15
Copying on Dual Drive Systems
To make backup copies of your MS-DOS diskettes on a dualdrive
system, follow the instructions below:
First, turn your computer on and boot up MS-DOS. Choose
the Command Prompt option from the DOS shell menu.
The system prompt will appear. Enter the following command:
This command indicates to MS-DOS that you want to copy
the contents of a diskette in the A drive to a new diskette
located in the B drive.
The following message will be displayed:
The “SOURCE” diskette is the disk that you will be copying
from. The “TARGET” diskette is the one you will be copying to.
Put your master MS-DOS diskette in the A drive, and a new,
blank diskette in the B drive.
Warning!
If you have any doubts about which diskette goes in which
drive, check them carefully. Make sure that the write
protect notch on the master MS-DOS diskette is covered
with a write protect tab.
4-16
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Close bath drive doors. Press any key, such as the
SPACEBAR. The A drive will be activated, and your
computer will display:
The contents of the disk are being read into your computer’s
memory. After a few moments, the following message will
appear:
For now, type N. The system prompt will reappear. To
compare the backup diskette with the original, you will use the
DISKCOMP command. Enter the command at the system
prompt:
The computer will respond:
Since both diskettes are already in their correct locations, press
the SPACEBAR key. While the comparisons are being made,
the computer will display:
Using MS-DOS with Your Computer
4-17
When the computer is finished comparing the diskettes, the
drives will turn off, and the following message will appear:
Type N to return to the system prompt.
If there is a problem with the backup diskette or if you put the
wrong diskette into the drive by mistake, the computer will
respond:
After you have confirmed that the backup diskette is a good
copy of the master MS-DOS diskette, you may put your master
diskette away in a safe place and put the label on the backup
diskette. From now on, only use the master MS-DOS diskette
to make copies. For all other purposes, use the backup copy of
the MS-DOS diskette. By using the backup copy for everyday
computing, and saving the master diskette, you ensure that any
accidental erasures can be replaced.
From now on, when this manual refers to the “main system
diskette,” use the backup MS-DOS diskette.
4- 18
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
FILES
In the same way that you can keep information grouped
together in manila folders, MS-DOS organizes data into files.
While you may store these folders in a cabinet, your computer
stores these files on disks. Separating information into files
allows you to work with that information more efficiently.
File Types
There are two basic file types:
B Program files
0 Data files
Program files are files that perform a task. They manipulate the
computer and data files in order to achieve a result. MS-DOS is
a collection of program files, as are the control programs found
in application software.
Data files are files that contain the information (data) used by
program files. A file containing a list of names and addresses
would be a data file.
The two types of files are closely related. Program files usually
create data files. These may be the documents created by a
word processor, the numerical array created by a spreadsheet, or
some other collection of information.
A data file containing a written report can’t do anything by
itself. On the other hand, a word processor is useless without
documents to work on.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4- 19
Filenames and Extensions
Needless to say, each file on a disk must be uniquely
identifiable. To achieve this, MS-DOS requires that you name
every file you create, as you create it.
In order to be able to manipulate files easily, MS-DOS has
certain rules that you must follow when naming files. As you
will see, these rules leave you a great deal of freedom in your
selection of filenames.
Each filename can be up to eight characters long. To this eight
character name can be added an “extension ‘.’ Extensions
always begin with a period ( . ) which is followed by up to three
characters.
The format for a valid MS-DOS filename is:
ABCDEFGH.JKL
Most of the characters and symbols on your keyboard are
available for use in filenames. These are:
Cl The letters A through Z
0 The numbers 0 through 9
0 The following symbols:
4-20
!
(exclamation point)
@
(“at” sign)
#
(number sign)
$
(dollar sign)
O/O
(percent sign)
&
(ampersand)
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
(and) (parenthesis)
-
{ and }
-
(minus sign or hyphen)
(brackets)
(underline character)
The following are examples of allowable filenames:
JANUARY
CHAPTER.001
MEMO.APR
MAYSALES.$
$$,SALES.OCT
These filenames are valid because none of them are too long,
and only legal characters have been used. The following are
examples of illegal filenames, along with an explanation:
3RDQUARTER.SALES
This is too long. MS-DOS will accept this filename, but it
will be shortened to fit the size limits. The altered filename
would read 3RDQUART.SAL. As you can see, both the
filename and its extension have been shortened to the legal
length.
CHAPTER/4
The slash ( I ) is an illegal filename character. MS-DOS
will reject the filename and ask for another.
NEW EMPL.LTR
This would be rejected by MS-DOS because of the space in
the filename.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-21
Certain filename extensions have been set aside so that MS-DOS
can recognize program files. These are:
Cl C O M
(for COMMAND file)
Cl E X E
(for EXECUTABLE file)
0 BAT
(for BATCH file)
Program files should always have one of these three filename
extensions. Data files should never use these reserved
extensions. They can, however, use any other extension.
Filename extensions are optional with data files, so you can
leave them off entirely, if you want. Using filename extensions
with data files allows you to have many different variations for
a set of filenames. For instance, different chapters of a book
might be named:
CHAPTER.001
CHAPTER.002
CHAPTER.003
and so on.
Like MS-DOS commands, filenames and extensions can be
entered in either upper or lower case, but are always displayed
on the screen in upper case. However, since MS-DOS converts
lower case filenames into upper case, it is possible to
inadvertently erase an existing file by saving a new file with a
lower case name. To be safe, always make sure that you have
given a unique name to each file on a disk.
4-22
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Disk Directories
MS-DOS keeps track of the files stored on your disks by
maintaining a “directory” on each disk. These directories are
listings of the filenames and extensions, along with certain
information about the files themselves, such as when the file
was created or updated last.
The DIR Command
MS-DOS provides a simple command that allows you to look
at the directory of any particular disk. This is the DIR
command. Enter the command as follows:
The computer will display a listing similar to the following:
Some of the names and symbols may be different, but the
screen should show these five columns, and a similar last line.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-23
The information presented by the DIR command is as follows:
D The filename & extension
Cl The file size (in bytes)
Q The date the file was created or last updated
Q The time the file was created or last updated
0 The number of files listed in the directory
0 The number of unused bytes of space remaining on the disk
File Searches
You can also use the DIR command to search for specific files
on a disk. To do this, enter the DIR command in the following
format:
For instance, if you want to find the directory entry for a file
named “MAYSALES.RFT” on the diskette in drive A, enter
the command:
The computer will search the entire directory of the diskette
for a file named MAYSALESRPT. If a file is found, it will
appear as the only entry in the diskette’s directory. If there is
no MAYSALES.RPT file on the diskette, the computer will
display:
4-24
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Multiple Disk Drive Systems
The DIR command can be used to read the directories of other
drives in your system, if any are installed. For instance, to read
the directory of the B drive, when you are logged onto drive A,
enter the command:
The computer will display the directory of the diskette inserted
in the B drive. A similar command:
will cause the computer to display the directory of your hard
disk.
Note that in both examples, the A drive remains the default
drive. To change the default drive from A to B, and then
display a directory listing, enter the command series:
The computer will display the B drive diskette’s directory, then
remain logged to the B drive.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-25
Wildcards
Quite often, when dealing with disk files, you may find yourself
looking through directories for a particular file or group of files.
MS-DOS has a way to help you sort out those files you want
without having to read through the entire directory listing.
This is through the use of “wildcard” characters. Wildcard
characters are used to make a single command cover a number
of similarly named files.
While MS-DOS provides several wildcard characters, the most
one you will be using most often is the asterisk ( * ). The
asterisk matches any number of sequential characters in a
filename or extension.
For instance, to look at a listing of all the .EXE program files
on your main system diskette, enter the command:
This will produce a directory that looks like this:
4-26
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Application Software
Now that you know how to make backup copies of your
diskettes and how to work with MS-DOS, you can proceed to
use application software. Most software packages come with
detailed instructions for their set-up and use. These instructions
will often ask you to use the information in this chapter to find
specific files in the disk directories, or back up the master
diskettes provided with each package. Most software packages
can be backed up simply by using the MS-DOS DISKCOPY
command, as described above.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-27
Chapter 5
Using Floppy Disks
Description
Your computer works with a large electronic memory array
called RAM. This stands for Random Access Memory. Your
system’s RAM is actually an array of electronic circuits. As
long as the computer is powered up, this circuit array will
“remember” whatever is placed in it. When you turn the
power off, however, these circuits will “forget.” Therefore, you
need some way of retaining your programs and data after you
turn the system off. The most usual way of storing data, at least
on DOS-based computer systems, is on floppy disks.
Virtually all commercially available programs are distributed on
floppy diskettes. Before you buy an application software
package for your computer, you should make sure that it will
run under MS-DOS. Products labeled “for IBM PC,” “for IBM
PC/AT,” “PC-compatible,” or “MS-DOS-compatible” should
run properly. Products intended for other types of computer
operating systems, such as CP/M or Apple, will not run on
your system.
Note
If you should accidentally try to run CP/M or Apple
software, your computer will inform you that you are using
non-DOS diskettes. This will not damage your computer.
The most frequent use that you will have for diskettes is to save
the data, text, files, etc. that you create. You will use diskettes
to store your data between sessions on the computer, as well as
to back up your valuable software.
Using Floppy Disks
5-1
How Floppy Disks Work
Floppy disks, or diskettes, are made from a flexible plastic that
is coated with a magnetic oxide. The floppy disk drive encodes
this oxide with the data generated by the computer. After you
turn your system off, unlike electronic RAM, the encoded
oxide retains this data. Your data can then be read by the
floppy disk drive at a later time.
The magnetic oxide coating on the floppy disk will hold its
encoded data almost indefinitely unless you deliberately erase
it. This is done intentionally when you want to update the
information stored on the diskette.
The plastic disk is safely protected by a thin cardboard jacket.
The diskette spins inside this jacket, allowing the entire surface
of the diskette to be scanned by the drive’s circuitry. Data is
read from or written onto the diskette through the oval-shaped
slots in the jacket.
Normally, the computer will write new information onto the
unused space on the diskette. If there is no unused space, your
computer will inform you that the disk is full. You can instruct
the computer to write over the information that is already on
the diskette. You might do this to update an inventory file, or
change an address and phone number in a database.
5-2
Using Floppy Disks
Formatting Diskettes
When you get a new carton of diskettes, they are not yet ready
to be used. First, they must be prepared to accept data. This is
called “formatting” the diskette.
MS-DOS uses the same formatting method regardless of the
computer used. This is one of the keys to intermachine
compatibility. Since all PC-compatible computers use MS-DOS,
they can read all disks created by any other PC-compatible
machine.
To see what happens when you attempt to use an unformatted
disk, insert a new blank diskette into the A drive and close the
drive door. Then enter the following command:
Since the new disk hasn’t been formatted yet, your computer
cannot read it. After failing three times, your computer will
respond:
If you type R (for Retry), or A (for Abort), the computer will
attempt to read the diskette again, and will finally display the
same message.
Using Floppy Disks
5-3
I
When you type F (for Failure), the computer will automatically
cancel the attempt and will display the following message.
Remove the unformatted disk from the drive.
The FORMAT Command
MS-DOS provides an external command program called
FORMAT.COM, that will format your blank diskettes. When
running this program, there are options available that allow
you to format several different types of diskette.
The following routines will show you how to use the
FORMAT command. These procedures assume that you are
formatting double-sided, high-density, 1.2M-byte diskettes
(AT-compatible). Information on formatting 180K-byte and
360K-byte diskette will be discussed under the /l and /4
switch options below.
First, if you have a hard disk installed MS-DOS on your system,
then enter:
The computer will load the FORMAT command file into
system memory, then will respond:
5-4
Using Floppy Disks
Insert the new diskette to be formatted and press the ENTER
key.
The computer will display:
The formatting process takes a minute or two. The computer
will wait until the formatting process is complete, then display:
Press ENTER if you don’t want to have a label of your disk.
Then the screen will display the following message.
XXXXXXX bytes total disk space
XXXXXXX bytes available on disk
XXX bytes in each allocation unit
XXXXX allocation units available on disk
Volume Serial Number is XXXX-XXXX
Format another (Y/N)?
Don’t be concerned if the message displayed is slightly different
from the example. Enter N to return to the system prompt.
The new disk is now formatted and is ready for use. Remove it
from the disk drive and replace it in its protective envelope.
Using Floppy Disks
5-5
Option Switches
To format 180K-byte sigle-sided, sigle-density diskettes in the
computer’s high capacity disk drive, enter the FORMAT
command using the 11 option switch:
The computer will proceed to format the diskette. Upon
completion, you will see this message:
And the following screen will appear if you press ENTER.
(If you want to have a volume label, type the characters and
enter.)
XXXXXXX bytes total disk space
XXXXXXX bytes available on disk
XXX bytes in each allocation unit
XXXXX allocation units available on disk
Volume Serial Number is XXXX-XXXX
Format another (Y/N)?
5-6
Using Floppy Disks
The /4 option switch is used to format 360K-byte double-sided,
double-density diskettes in the computer’s high capacity disk
drive. To do this enter the command:
The computer will proceed to format the diskette. Upon
completion, you will see this message:
Press ENTER not to have a label of your disk. Then the screen
will display;
XXXXXXX bytes total disk space
XXXXXXX bytes available on disk
XXX bytes In each allocation unit
XXXXX allocation unite available on disk
Volume Serial Number is XXXX-XXXX
Format another (Y/N)?
Enter N to return to the system prompt. Remove the diskette
from the drive and place it in its protective envelope.
Using Floppy Disks
5-7
Caution!
360K-byte diskettes formatted on 1.2M-byte high density,
AT-style drives may not be reliable when used on some
360K-byte, XT-style drives. The 14 option switch is
primarily intended to permit the use of less expensive
diskettes with AT-compatible systems like this one. If you
need to have diskettes that can be safely read from and
written to by both styles of computer, you should format
the lower capacity diskettes on the XT-compatible system
where they will be used.
Formatting a diskette allows you to use it by providing
predetermined locations for certain files used by MS-DOS.
Once formatted, the disk directory space is created, as well as
additional areas reserved for use by MS-DOS. One of these
areas is the File Allocation Table, or FAT. This part of the
diskette contains a list of all of the files on the disk, and where
they are physically stored on the diskette.
The other area is the system area. On your MS-DOS main
system diskette, this area is occupied by the parts of MS-DOS
that are copied into your computer’s memory during the startup routine. During the start-up procedure, the BIOS program,
stored on the system motherboard, looks at this part of the
diskette to retrieve the active parts of the disk operating
system.
If these MS-DOS routines are not present in the system area of
a diskette, the BIOS cannot startup the computer. This is what
causes the error message:
5-8
Using Floppy Disks
You normally boot the system up from the MS-DOS main
system diskette. The DISKCOPY command copied these files
when you created the backup copy of the master diskette.
Sometimes, though, you may want to create a “boot disk” that
doesn’t have all of the external DOS commands on it. For
instance, you may want to make an “autoboot” copy of an
application software diskette.
To format a new diskette while placing the active MS-DOS
routines in the system area, enter the following command at the
system prompt:
The computer will load the FORMAT command file into
system memory, then respond:
Insert a new, blank diskette and press the enter key to start the
formatting process. After the new diskette is formatted the
active MS-DOS routines will be copied into its system area.
When the copying is finished the computer will display:
And the following screen will be appeared if you press ENTER.
(If you want to have a volume label, type the characters and
enter.)
Using Floppy Disks
5-9
XXXXXXX bytes total disk space
XXXXXXX bytes available on disk
XXX bytes in each allocation unit
XXXXX allocation units available on disk
Volume Serial Number is XXXX-XXXX
Format another (Y/N)?
Enter N to return to the system prompt. Then enter:
The directory listing should appear similar to the following:
Copying Files
If you have a dual drive system, it is easy to copy program and
data files from one diskette to another. This involves the
internal MS-DOS command, COPY.
Put the “source” diskette in drive A, and the “target” diskette
in drive B. At this time, you may want to check the directories
of both diskettes in order to make sure you will not overwrite a
file on the target diskette with the same name at the one you
want to copy.
Once you’re sure it’s safe to copy, enter the COPY command
with the following format:
5-10
Using Floppy Disks
For example, to copy the file “MAYSALES.RPT” from drive
A to drive B, enter the command:
When the copying process is done, the computer will display:
You can also enter this command without the default drive
letter, as:
When no drive letter is specified for the source drive, MS-DOS
assumes that you want to copy a file from the default drive.
To perform the operation in reverse, that is, to copy from the B
drive to the default drive, enter the command:
Note that this time, you were required to enter the source drive
letter before the filename. This is because, in this example,
drive B is not the default drive. However, since no drive letter
was specified for the target drive, MS-DOS copied the file onto
the default, or in this case, A drive.
Using Floppy Disks
5- 2 1
It is also possible to copy a file between two disks when neither
one is the default drive. For instance:
will copy the MAYSALES.RPT file from the hard disk onto a
diskette in the B drive. This time, note that both source and
target drive letters were used. This is because neither drive was
the system default drive.
Wildcards
Copying files using wildcards in the filenames can be efficient,
but it can also be dangerous. When using wildcards, always
make sure you won’t overwrite or erase another file. For
example:
will copy all of the files ending in SALES.RPT to the B drive.
The command:
will copy all files about MAYSALES to the B drive.
A final example:
will copy all of the files on a diskette in the A drive to the
hard disk drive. This command is useful when backing up
diskettes containing data files.
5-12
Using Floppy Disks
Chapter 6
Using your Hard Disk
Depending on the model, your computer system can be
expanded to included an optional hard disk drive. This chapter
will give you a basic understanding of its operation and show
you how to configure it. Information is also provided on how
MS-DOS works with your hard disk drive.
What is a Hard Disk Drive?
As mentioned in Chapter 5, “Using Floppy Disks,” your
computer uses an electronic memory array called RAM. This
memory is temporary and will only “remember” data as long as
the system power is on. When you turn off your computer, any
information stored in RAM is lost.
You have learned how to use floppy disks, or diskettes, to store
data and program files between computing sessions. It is more
convenient, however, to store your files on a hard disk drive.
The main reason for this is the speed of the hard disk drive.
Files are read off from the hard disk faster than from floppy
diskettes. Also, using a hard disk reduces the amount of time
spent inserting and removing diskettes from floppy disk drives.
A hard disk is very similar to a floppy disk. It is a plastic disk
that has been coated with a magnetic oxide. A hard disk will
store data indefinitely, until it is erased. Data is read from or
written onto a hard disk in the exactly same way as with a
floppy diskette.
There are differences between hard and floppy disks, though.
First of all, a hard disk “non-removable.” Unlike a floppy
diskette, which can be taken out of its drive, the hard disk is
Using Your Hard Disk
6-1
permanently mounted inside the drive housing. Several hard
disk platters are stacked vertically in the drive housing and
sealed in a dustproof casing.
Second, a hard disk holds much more information than a
diskette. The “high-capacity” diskettes used in your computer
can only hold a little over one million bytes. The hard disk can
hold up much more data than floppy disk.
Finally, as mentioned above, a hard disk is much faster than a
floppy disk drive. The main reason for this is that the hard disk
platters are rigid, allowing them to be rotated at a much higher
rate than floppy diskettes, which have to move relatively slowly
so as to avoid damage.
Care of Hard Disk Drives
As you can see, hard disk drives are very precise devices. This
precision makes for a delicate mechanism. Even though your
hard disk drive is built to withstand the rigors of shipping, it
should be moved as little, and as gently, as possible. If you need
to move your computer system a short distance, be careful not
to drop or bump it. For greater protection, if you need to
transport the computer in a car, or ship it by truck or plane,
pack your system in its original shipping boxes.
The TGSHIP command should be run whenever you are going
to move the main system unit. This command moves the
read/write heads inside the hard disk drive to a “safety zone,”
where they won’t accidentally scratch the surface of the drive
platters. TGSHIP.COM is a special DOS command file
included with your system. You should copy this file into the
root directory of your hard disk drive. For information on hard
disk directory structures, see the “Organizing Your Hard Disk”
section of this chapter.
6-2
Using Your Hard Disk
Preparing Your Hard Disk
This section assumes that you have a hard disk drive system
physically installed in your main system unit. If you haven’t
installed your hard disk drive yet, see Chapter 7, “Expanding
Your System,” for information how to do this.
To begin, boot up your system using your MS-DOS as
explained in Chapter 4, “Using MS-DOS.’ Then enter this
command:
If the computer responds with:
enter:
If a directory listing is displayed, even if there are no files
shown, it means that your hard disk system has already been
partitioned and formatted. You will see the
COMMAND.COM file at the top of the directory listing if the
MS-DOS active routines have been loaded onto the hard disk.
If your hard disk has been partitioned and formatted, skip this
section on installing your hard disk.
If the computer responded to the A > C: command with:
Invalid drive specification
Using Your Hard Disk
6-3
it means that MS-DOS can’t “find” the hard disk drive. This
is either because the drive controller board has been incorrectly
set up, or more likely, the hard disk drive has not yet been
partitioned.
If the computer correctly executed the C: command, but failed
to display a directory, it probably means that the hard disk has
been partitioned, but not yet formatted. The next sections
describe how to partition and format your hard disk system.
Changing Your SETUP
Before you can partition and format your hard disk, you have
to let your computer know that you have one. This is done
with the SETUP program. Once you have determined that
your hard disk is “clean,” that is to say neither partitioned nor
formatted, you should enter the SETUP program.
Turn your computer on. When you see the following mesage,
Press <DEL> if you want to run SETUP or DIAGS
press <DEL> key. Move the cursor to the RUN SETUP
option and press Enter. The system displays the Setup Menu.
For now, look at the information on the left side of the screen.
6-4
Using Your Hard Disk
Move the screen cursor bar down to the Hard Disk C
parameter. Using the PgUp and PgDn keys, scroll through the
options to disk type number matched with the hard disk you
have. If you select the type number 17 for 41MB hard disk, it
provides the following information under the right hand
headings:
This should match the information provided with your hard
disk drive. Other hard disk drives may require a different disk
type number. See the instructions provided with your hard disk
drive or call your dealer for assistance. After verifying the hard
disk drive type number, press the ESC key. The computer
responds with:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-5
Press Y. The computer will update the information in its
configuration RAM, and will go through the start-up routine
again. Make sure MS-DOS is installed on floppy disk or hard
disk of your system, so the system will boot up in MS-DOS.
Note
Your system has an on board IDE type HDC and if you
want to install the another type of HDD except IDE, you
must disable the on board IDE HDC using the BIOS setup
program. See Chapter 2 for the detailed information of it.
6-6
Using Your Hard Disk
Partitioning Your Hard Disk
After the DOS Shell screen appears, select the Command
Prompt option. At this point your are ready to initialize your
hard disk drive. To do this, enter the command:
After loading the FDISK program, the computer will display
information on the hard disk drive installed in the system, as
follows:
MS-DOS Version x.xx
Fixed Disk Setup Program
(C) Copyright Microsoft Corp. 19xx, 19xx
FDISK Options
Current fixed disk drive: 1
Choose one of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS Drive
Set active partition
Delete DOS Partition or Logical DOS Drive
Display Partition information
Select Next fixed disk drive
Enter choice: [I]
Press ESC to exit FDISK
Using Your Hard Disk
6-7
Note
If you only have one hard disk drive, option 5 will not be
displayed.
Press ENTER to choose the default selection, “Create a DOS
Partition.” The FDISK menu will disappear, and be replaced
by:
Create DOS Partition
Or
Logical DOS Drive
Current fIxed disk drive 1
Choose one of the following
1 Create Primary DOS Partition
2 Create Extended DOS Partition
3. Create Logical DOS Drive(s) in the Extended DOS partition
Enter choice [1]
Press ESC to return to FDISK options
To create a single MS-DOS partition for your entire hard disk
drive, select the default option (#l) by pressing ENTER. The
Create Primary DOS partition menu appears next:
Create Primary DOS partition
Current, Fixed Disk Drive: 1
Do you wish to use the maximum size
for a DOS partition and make the DOS
partition active (Y/N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? [Y]
Press ESC to return to Fdisk Options
6-8
Using Your Hard Disk
To reserve the entire hard disk for MS-DOS, press the ENTER.
FDISK now displays the following message:
It is common to use FDISK to create an MS-DOS partition
that takes up the entire hard disk drive and then make that
partition bootable. Now that you have completed these tasks,
you can restart your system using your MS-DOS Install
diskette.
Note
For information on the remaining FDISK menu selections,
see your MS-DOS User’s Guide.
Make sure the MS-DOS install is in the A drive, then press the
ENTER key. Your system will now reboot. It does this to
update the new partition information in its configuration
RAM. You may now format yor hard disk, and load the MSDOS system files onto it.
Formatting Your Hard Disk
Now that your hard disk is partitioned, you need format it.
Note
If your hard disk drive has already been partitioned for
MS-DOS, it may have been formatted at the same time.
Use the DIR command to check the contents of the drive.
If your hard disk is formatted, there may be files stored on
it that you will need. Skip this section on formatting and
proceed to the next section, “Organizing Your Hard Disk.”
Using Your Hard Disk
6-9
If your hard disk needs to be formatted, begin by selecting the
Command Prompt option from the DOS shell. Enter the
following command:
A > FORMAT C: /S/V
The floppy disk drive indicator will come on for a few seconds,
while the FORMAT command is into memory. When the
light goes out, the computer will display:
WARNING, ALL DATA ON NON-REMOVABLE DISK
DRIVE C: WILL BE LOST!
Proceed with Format (Y/N)?
You should already have made sure that there is no information
stored on the hard disk that you want to save. Press Y to begin
formatting. The formatting process takes several minutes.
When it is completed, the system will display:
Formatting
System transferred
Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for none)?
Here, your computer is asking you to name your hard disk
drive. This is a result of the N switch used with the FORMAT
command. A disk label can be useful when sorting directories,
so you may want to enter one now.
A volume label can use up to eleven characters. See Chapter
4, “Using MS-DOS,” for a list of valid label characters. When
you have entered the drive label, your computer will respond:
6-10
Using Your Hard Disk
The IS switch in the FORMAT command caused the active
portions of MS-DOS to be loaded onto the system area of the
hard disk. At this point you can boot the system from the hard
disk.
Organizing Your Hard Disk
This section provides you with a sample directory structure for
use with your hard disk. It will provide step-by-step instructions
that will create several files and subdirectories.
First, make sure your hard disk is formatted, and that the active
MS-DOS routines have been loaded into the system area of
your hard disk. The easiest way to check this is to boot the
system from the hard disk. Make sure that floppy drive A is
empty and turn your computer on. After going through the
start-up diagnostic routines, the computer will look at the A
drive to find the MS-DOS install diskette. Since the drive is
empty, it will then look at the hard disk drive. If the hard disk
drive is installed and formatted correctly, the system will boot
up and display the DOS shell screen.
If your system does not boot up from the hard disk, refer to the
previous section, “Formatting Your Hard Disk” for
instructions.
Assuming MS-DOS has booted correctly from the hard disk,
select the Command Prompt option from the DOS shell menu.
When you see the system prompt:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-11
you are ready to begin.
First, you will create several subdirectories. These will be used
shortly to contain useful files. Begin by entering the command:
The MD command is a short form of MKDIR. This internal
DOS command creates a subdirectory under the directory you
are currently in. Since your computer boots up in the hard disk
root directory, the command you just entered created a
subdirectory named DOS4 under the root directory.
Note
If you don’t understand the term “root directory” refer to
your MS-DOS User’s Guide, “Files and Directories.”
When the computer displays the C > prompt again, enter:
to see what you have done. You should see a directory listing
similar to the following:
6- 12
Using Your Hard Disk
Just as MS-DOS commands usually look at the “current” disk
drive, they also look at the current directory. Since you can
change the current, “1ogged” disk drive, you would expect to
be able to change the current, logged directory. You can, using
the CD (CHDIR) command. Enter the command series:
The directory listing displayed should look like this:
You have just moved to the DOS4 subdirectory. The two
<DIR > entries indicate that you are currently logged onto a
disk subdirectory. The period (.) entry represents the current
directory, while the double period (..) entry represents the
parent directory for the current subdirectory. These shorthand
entries allow you to move up and down through a directory
tree rapidly. To see how these shortcuts work, enter the
command series:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-13
You will see that you are back in the hard disk root directory.
Now return to the DOS subdirectory by entering the
command:
Another way of moving through the directory tree quickly
involves the use of a similar command:
This command will take you directly to the root directory of
the current disk drive. This can be useful if you get “lost” in a
large directory tree.
The next step in organizing your hard disk involves copying
the external command files from the MS-DOS main system
diskette into the DOS4 subdirectory on the hard disk. First,
make sure you are currently logged into the DOS4 subdirectory
by entering the command sequence:
Insert the MS-DOS install diskette into the A drive.
Close the door, then enter:
This command will copy the entire contents of the MS-DOS
install diskette into the DOS4 subdirectory on the hard disk.
‘When the copying process is complete, your computer will
6- 14
Using Your Hard Disk
display the following message:
Using the DIR command, run a directory to verify that you
have copied the MS-DOS diskette.
Remove the MS-DOS install diskette from drive A and replace
it with the MS-DOS select diskette into the DOS4
subdirectory on the hard disk by entering the command.
. When the copying process is done, carefully enter the following
series of commands:
These commands will remove the COMMAND.COM files
from the DOS4 subdirectory. Since the files is available in your
hard disk root directory, it is not necessary to include it in the
DOS4 subdirectory. Later, as your hard disk gets filled up with
application software program and data files, the disk space
saved by deleting such duplicate files might become useful,
Repeat the copy procedure described above for the remaining
disks in the MS-DOS package.
Return to the root directory by entering:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-15
You have now completed organizing your hard disk and
installing the MS-DOS files into subdirectories. As you can see,
the files have been placed in subdirectories according to the
type of activity you will doing when using them. As you add
application programs to the hard disk, it is a good idea to
create subdirectories to store them in, so as to keep different
program groups separated.
For more information on directory and subdirectory
organization with MS-DOS, see your MS-DOS User’s Guide.
Backing Up Your Hard Disk
It is highly recommended that you make back up copies of your
valuable hard disk files regularly. Because hard disk drives are
fragile, they can sometimes be damaged. It is also possible to
erase some or all hard disk files through the use of incorrect
FORMAT and COPY commands. Backing up your files is the
only way you can be sure that you don’t lose information you
may have spent months or even years gathering.
Two external command programs on your MS-DOS install
diskette will help you back up your hard disk. The first,
BACKUP, will copy files from the hard disk onto diskettes.
The other, RESTORE, allows you to use the diskettes created
by the BACKUP program to reload the files back onto the
hard disk, if necessary. The following sections describe how to
use these two command programs.
The BACKUP Command
This command backs up one or more files from your hard disk
onto floppy diskettes. The diskettes must be formatted by the
MS-DOS FORMAT command. Do not use the /S switch when
formatting these diskettes. Disk space taken up by the inclusion
6-16
Using Your Hard Disk
of the active MS-DOS routines would be wasted with the
BACKUP command.
When you back up your hard disk using BACKUP, the first
thing to do is to format enough blank disks to hold the backed
up files. Once you start the BACKUP routine, you won’t want
to stop the program to format more diskettes. BACKUP takes
time, even on a high speed computer. Stopping the BACKUP
command before completion usually means that you would
have to start the process over again. Therefore, make sure you
have enough formatted diskettes before you start.
How Many Diskettes?
The number of diskettes you will need depends on two things.
First, how much of the hard disk will you be backing up?
Second, what is the capacity of the diskettes you will be using?
The following table shows the approximate number of diskettes
needed to backup an entire hard disk.
HARD DISK
CAPACITY:
NUMBER OF DISKETTES:
180K 360K
10M-byte
20M-byte
30M-byte
40M-byte
63
125
185
250
32
63
95
125
1.2M
10
20
30
40
A few extra diskettes have been included in these numbers to
make sure there are enough. If your hard disk is not loaded to
capacity, or if you are only backing up part of your hard disk,
fewer diskettes will be needed.
Using Your Hard Disk
6-17
As you format these disks, prepare labels for them that
identifies these diskettes as a hard disk backup archive. Also
put the date on each label and number each diskette. This is
very important, since the RESTORE command requires that
you use the diskettes in the same order that was used during
the BACKUP procedure.
This file contains the BACKUP command program. As
mentioned above, this file is provided on your MS-DOS install
diskette. You can run the program from the floppy disk drive or
from the hard disk, if you have copied the file into a
subdirectory on the hard disk.
To back up the entire hard disk, start by changing the system
default drive to the hard disk. Enter:
Next, make sure you are in the root directory of the hard disk.
Enter:
Now, make sure your diskettes are formatted and ready. If you
are running BACKUP from the MS-DOS install diskette, enter
the command:
If you have set up your hard disk directories as described in the
“Organizing Your Hard Disk” section above, enter the
command:
6- 18
Using Your Hard Disk
In the first example, the A:BACKUP command tells MS-DOS
to search the A drive for the BACKUP.COM file. In the
second, the C:/DOS4 statement will automatically direct MS-DOS
to look in the C:\DOS4 subdirectory for the file.
In both examples, the A: portion of the command tells MSDOS that you want to start the backup routine with the root
directory of the hard disk, and store the backup files on
diskettes in drive A. The final /S switch tells MS-DOS to back
up all of the subdirectories on the hard disk in addition to the
root directory.
For a more detailed explanation of the MS-DOS BACKUP
command, see your MS-DOS User’s Guide.
The RESTORE Command
MS-DOS provides the RESTORE command program to allow
you to copy files from the archive diskettes created by the
BACKUP command back onto the hard disk. You should only
have use the RESTORE command if:
L! Your hard disk has been damaged, then repaired or
replaced
D Files have been accidentally erased from the hard disk
Cl You have reformatted the hard disk
To use RESTORE, first make sure the hard disk is ready to
receive files. Boot your system up with the MS-DOS installed
diskette in drive A. When you get to the system prompt, enter:
If the computer responds with:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-19
enter:
If a directory listing is displayed, even if there are no entries, it
means that your hard disk system is ready to receive files. If the
active routines of MS-DOS have been loaded on to the hard
disk, you will see the COMMAND.COM file at the beginning
of the directory listing.
If the computer responded to the A>C: command with:
it means that MS-DOS can’t “find” the hard disk drive. This
is either because the hard disk controller board has been
incorrectly set up, or more likely, the hard disk drive has not
yet been partitioned.
If the computer correctly executed the C: command, but failed
to run a directory, it probably means that the hard disk has
been partitioned, but not yet formatted. Refer to the section
above, “Installing Your Hard Disk,” for more information.
Once you have made sure the hard disk is ready to receive files
you may proceed with the RESTORE procedure. The routine
described below should only be used to restore the entire
contents of the backup archive diskettes to an empty hard disk.
For information on partial backups to a hard disk drive
containing files, see the entry for the RESTORE command, in
your MS-DOS User’s Guide, “MS-DOS Commands.”
6-20
Using Your Hard Disk
First, set the C drive directory to the root directory by entering
the command:
Now set the system default drive letter back to drive A by
entering:
The computer will respond by displaying:
Make sure your MS-DOS install diskette is inserted into the A
drive. Enter the following command:
The RESTORE command file will be read from the MS-DOS
install diskette. The A: C:\ in the command tells MS-DOS that
you will be restoring files from diskettes in the A drive to the
hard disk root directory. The /S switch tells MS-DOS that you
want to restore the subdirectories as well as the root directory
files.
You will be prompted to insert the backup archive diskettes
into the A drive, one at a time. It is very important that you
insert these diskettes in order. The BACKUP command
program codes each archive diskette with an identification
number, which is read by the RESTORE program. The use of
this i.d. number ensures that your files are reassembled
properly, and loaded into the correct subdirectories.
Using Your Hard Disk
6-21
Chapter 7
Expading Your System
As you get more familiar with your computer system, you will
probably want to add hardware to it. This can include
additional disk drives, printers, modems, etc. This chapter
addresses the installation of some of the most common devices.
Connecting Peripherals
Peripherals are devices that can be connected to your computer
system to increase its ability to communicate and process
information. The term “peripheral” is usually used to indicate
an externally mounted unit that is connected to your computer
with a cable. Peripherals available for your computer system
are:
0 Keyboards
0 Video monitor systems
0 Printers
Expanding Your System
7-1
0 Modems
0 External disk drives
Your computer is designed to communicate with peripherals by
way of the connectors on the rear panel of the main system
unit. The connectors are called “ports,” and allow information
to be sent back and forth between the system CPU and a
peripheral device.
Your keyboard and your video monitor connect to the main
system unit by way of two specialized ports. The keyboard is
connected to the “Keyboard port” on the rear panel of the
main system unit. If you have purchased a video monitor
system for your computer, the display monitor is connected to
the “video port” on the rear panel of the video controller card,
which is mounted inside your main system unit.
Since your system CPU must be in constant communication
with both the keyboard and the display monitor, specific
circuits connect them together. Since other peripheral devices
only communicate with the system CPU occasionally, they can
use general purpose ports.
Computerized data is composed of electronic words called
“bytes.” As an example, each letter or number that appears on
your display monitor has been sent from the main system unit
to the monitor itself in the form of a single byte. This byte is
made up of individual “bits.” in the same way that a word is
made up of letters. In order to keep things consistent for the
system CPU, bytes are made up of groups of eight bits. Using
eight-bit bytes results in 256 basic combinations, each of which
corresponds with a specific letter or number.
7-2
Expanding Your System
Note
Your computer is referred to as a “16-bit” computer. This
system can address over 16M-bytes of memory. In order to
address this much RAM, the internal data communications
in this computer use 16 parallel data lines.
Serial Ports
There are two basic kinds of general purpose I/O (Input/Output)
port. One kind is a “serial” port, where data bits are sent one
at a time along a single wire, in series. Additional wires are
used to send control signals between the transmitting and
receiving devices. These control signals allow the two
communicating devices to determine which of them will send
or receive the data, and when the first bit of a particular byte is
being sent, among other things.
Standardized “protocols” for these signals have been agreed
upon by the microcomputer industry so that the different
manufacturer’s machines can communicate with each other.
Your computer system uses the “RS232C” asynchronous serial
communications interface. The first serial port connector is the
left-hand 9-pin “D-type” connector mounted on the rear panel
of the system motherboard. The second is on the center of the
system rear panel.
Electrical information for the serial port is in Appendix A,
“Specifications.” For details on the serial port pin connections,
see Appendix D, “Connector Pinouts.”
MS-DOS uses labels to refer to the various I/O ports on your
computer. The RS-232C serial ports are assigned the “COMl”
(Communications port #l) and “COM2” (Communications
port #2) label.
Expanding Your System
7-3
Parallel Ports
Unlike serial ports, parallel ports allow your computer to
communicate one entire byte at a time. Eight wires are
included in the cable to permit the transmission of each of the
eight data bits simultaneously. Extra wires are included in the
cable for control signals. Your Computer uses the industry
standard “Centronics-compatible” parallel printer port
interface.
Connecting Printers
To install this type of printer, connect an appropriate cable
between the parallel port connector on the rear panel of the
system motherboard in the main system unit and the input
connector on the printer. Information on the correct cable will
be found in your printer’s manual.
serial interface port. See the printer’s manual for complete
Connecting Modems
Modems are used to connect your computer to the telephone
line. Since the electronic requirements for the transmission of
your voice are different from those used by your computer, a
modem is used to “translate” your digital information to a
signal that can be sent over the telephone lines.
7-4
Expanding Your System
Internally mounted modems are attached to a circuit board
that will be installed inside your main system unit. These
modems can communicate directly with the system CPU
through your computer’s internal circuitry. The telephone line
is plugged into a socket located on the rear panel of the
modem.
External modems connect to your computer’s RS-232C serial
port. Connectors are provided on the modem itself for
attachment to the phone system.
Connecting External Disk Drives
At some point, you may decide to add an external disk drive.
This may become necessary if all of the internal drive
compartments are in use, or if you want to place your main
system unit away from your work area, while keeping a drive
next to your keyboard.
The floppy disk drive control port is provided on your system
motherboard. While the cabling for these ports has been
designed to be used inside the main system unit cabinet, it is
possible to route the connectors outside to an external drive by
using a longer cable. This cable can be routed outside the main
system unit by way of an unused expansion slot panel.
For installation instructions, refer to the manual provided with
your external disk drive.
Expanding Your System
7-5
System Expansion And Upgrades
This section deals with the addition of expansion boards and
products to your computer’s main system unit. Although most
expansion products are provided with detailed instructions for
their installation and use, it is recommended that you read
through this section in order to familiarize yourself with some
of the basic principles of expanding your computer.
Tools Required
To install most expansion products in your main system unit,
you will usually need the following tools:
0 a small/medium “Phillips-type” screwdriver
0 a small flat-blade screwdriver
General Precautions
In the interests of personal safety and product reliability, you
should review the following information:
0 Follow all of the instructions and warnings marked on this
product, or included in this manual.
Cl Make sure you have enough room to work on the unit. If
necessary, disconnect any peripheral device cables
connected to the unit’s rear panel.
Cl For additional information on safety and maintenance,
refer to the appropriate sections of this manual’s
introductory chapter.
7-6
Expanding Your System
Stop!
When you remove the main system unit cover, observe the
following precautions:
P The power supply cord must be unplugged before the
main system unit cover is removed. (Separe le cordon
d’alimentation et puis enleve le couvercle.)
0 Once removed, the cover must be replaced and
screwed in position before the power supply cord is
plugged back in. (Apres le couvercle a enleve, visse le
couvercle en place et remettre le cordon d’alimentation.)
Warning!
Installing or removing circuit boards or plugging cables in
with the system AC power turned on can damage your
system.
back panel
straws
Figure 7-1. Cover Mounting Screws
Expanding Your System
7-7
Opening and Closing the Cabinet
The procedure for opening the main system unit cabient is as
follows:
0 Unplug the video monitor AC power and signal cables
from their rear panel sockets. Set the monitor safely aside.
Q Unplug the keyboard and set it aside.
0 Unscrew the screws on the rear panel of the unit and set
them aside.
0 Carefully, slide the main system unit’s cover towards the
front of the unit. Continue sliding the cover forward until
it can be removed completely. Set the cover aside.
Figure 7-2. Removing the Cover
7-8
Expanding Your system
Later, to close the unit, follow these steps in order:
cl Make sure all the system and expansion boards are properly
seated in their connectors, and have had their mounting
screws tightened down.
0 Make sure all the internal cables have been properly
connected and arranged neatly. Wires should not be
pinched or caught between chassis parts or circuit boards.
cl Carefully slide the cover back onto the main system unit,
being careful not to damage the cables.
cl As you slide the cover onto the unit, adjust the alignment
to permit the cover to slide over the disk drive nosepieces.
0 When the cover is properly seated on the main system unit
chassis, replace and tighten down the screws on the rear
panel.
0 Reconnect the keyboard to its connector on the rear panel
of the main system unit.
cl Place the video monitor on top of the main system unit
and connect the AC power and signal cables to their
correct sockets on the rear panel.
Cl Reconnect any peripheral device to their rear panel 110
port connectors.
0 Plug the AC power cable into the socket on the rear panel
of the main system unit and the main AC power outlet.
Expanding Your System
7-9
Installing Circuit Boards
Most of the expansion products you will be installing into your
computer are circuit boards. Like the system boards installed at
the factory, expansion boards are plugged into the main system
unit’s mother board.
There are expansion boards available for a wide variety of
functions. The most common expansion boards provide such
functions as extra I/O ports, high resolution video graphics and
system memory expansion.
The basic computer is shipped from the factory with only the
system motherboard installed. This system has IDE-type HDC
controller and the Floppy Disk controller on the system
motherboard.
If you are adding other systems to a basic computer, or
expanding your system by installing additional hardware, follow
the procedure below to install the circuit boards.
First, read all of the instructions provided with the expansion
product. Then, carefully unpack the circuit board(s) to be
installed.
Warning!
Most computer circuit boards have “static sensitive”
components on them. These parts can be damaged by
static electricity, which can be generated by rubbing your
hand across the exposed metal parts on the board. To
avoid this damage, always handle circuit boards by their
edges, being careful to avoid contact with the exposed edge
connectors and parts.
Following the instructions provided with the expansion board,
set any configuration switches and jumpers on the expansion
board.
7- 10
Expanding Your System
Open the main system unit cabinet and set the configuration
jumpers on the system motherboard to match the new
hardware arrangement. You will be able to do this without
removing the system motherboard from the main system unit
chassis, although you may need to unplug the disk drive ribbon
cable from its connector to allow easy access to the jumpers.
Figure 7-3. Installing the Circuit Boards
Expanding Your system
7-11
Disconnect any internal cables that may be in the way. As you
do, make a note of their correct locations and orientations for
later reattachment. Unscrew the retaining screw for the slot
guard, and set it aside. Mount the expansion board into the
slot by gently sliding the board into the slot. If the board is
long enough to reach the card guide mounted on the front
panel support flange, slide the board down the center groove of
the guide.
Making sure the board is correctly aligned, carefully insert the
board’s edge contacts into the slot connector on the main
system unit’s motherboard. A gentle rocking motion is helpful
in getting the board started in the edge connector.
Once started, press the board into the motherboard connector
until it is seated completely. The tab at the bottom of the
mounting bracket should fit into the slot at the bottom rear of
the main system unit, and the bracket’s top flange should rest
directly on top of the rear panel support.
CORRECT
NO ELECTRICAL OR
PHYSICAL RESTRlCTlONS
INCORRECT
PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS
7- 12
Expanding Your System
INCORRECT
ELECTRICAL RESTRICTIONS
Figure 7-4. Installing the Option Card in an Expansion Slot
Check the board’s alignment to make sure it is straight and
level. If necessary, move the board slightly to align the hole in
the top of the mounting bracket over the screw hole in the
main system unit’s rear panel flange. Install the hold down
screw that you removed earlier.
Reconnect any internal cables that were disconnected earlier. If
you have a problem making the cables reach their connectors,
you may have to move the board you just installed to another
slot. If any external equipment is used with the expansion
board, connect it to the board’s rear panel connector(s),
following the instructions given with the product.
When the installation of the board is completed, close the
main system unit cabinet as described above.
Disk Drive Compartments
To install expansion devices such as additional floppy disk
drives into the main system unit’s disk drive compartments,
follow the procedure given below.
First, make yourself familiar with the specific installation
procedure for the expansion device by reading all of the
Expanding Your system
7-13
documentation provided. Then, remove the main system unit
cover as described above. Select the drive compartment where
you will install the expansion device. Remove the blank front
panel from the selected compartment by removing the
mounting screws.
Slide the expansion device into the compartment along the
side rails of the drive cage until it is all the way in. Replace the
hold down clamps and their mounting screws.
Connect any internal power cables to the correct pins on the
rear of the expansion unit. Connect any required control cables
to the device. Close the main system unit cabinet as described
above.
Note
Your main system unit is supplied with the cables necessary
to connect two floppy disk drives to the system
motherboard. Follow the instructions pro&d with the
expansion floppy disk drive for proper installation.
7- 14
Expanding Your System
Internal Hard Disk Drive
If you are to mount the internal hard disk drive inside the main
system unit case, follow the steps below:
D Remove the cover from the main system unit, as described
above.
0 Remove mounting plate by unscrewing the hold down
screws.
0 Attach the hard disk drive to the mounting plate by
installing the four mounting screws through the bottom of
the plate into the bottom of the drive frame.
Q Replace the mounting plate onto the mounting frame by
sliding the plate into the two openings provided in the
mounting frame.
0 Replace the hold down screws.
Connect the hard disk drive controller cables to the drive.
0
Replace the main system unit cover.
Expanding Your System 7- 15
Appendix A
Specifications
Computer System
l
Operating Temperature
: 41” to 95°F (5” to 35°C)
l
Storage Temperature
: -5” to 140°F (-15” to 60°C)
l
Operating Humidity
: 20% to 80% (no condensation)
l
Storage Humidity
: 10% to 90% (no condensation)
l
Compatibility
: IBM PC/AT
l
Power Supply
: 145w
110 Range: 100 - 125 VAC,
4A, 5016OHz
220 Range: 220 - 240 VAC,
2A. 5016OHz
l
Keyboard
: 10 1 key keyboard
System MotherBoard
PCB Fabrication
: 4 Layer Glass Epoxy
l
Firmware
: AM1 Software BIOS
l
Operating System Support: MS-DOS
l
Bus Interface
: IBM PC/XT, PC/AT-compatible
l
Expansion Slots
: 5ea 16-bit (98 pin connector)
l
Specifications A- 3
l
l
l
l
Dynamic RAM
(with parity)
: ZM-bytes, expandable 32M-bytes
on Motherboard
80ns, 0 wait state access
Static RAM
(CACHE Memory)
: 32KB (35ns, 0 wait state access)
Floppy Disk Drive Support: 2ea - 360K, 720K, 1.2M or
1.44M-byte
I/O Ports
l
Audio Support
l
Real Time Clock
: 2ea 9-pin RS-232C
asynchronous serial
communication port
lea 25-pin Centronics-compatible
parallel printer port
lea 5-pin Keyboard port
: 1 mini-speaker
CPU Logic
l
l
Main Central Processor
IC
: 386sx-20” microprocessor
Math Coprocessor IC
(optional)
: 387sx™ coprocessor
A-2 Specifications
System Memory
l
Memory Address Space
: 24 Address lines (16MB)
l
Data Interface
: 16-bit memory access
l
Cache Memory
: 32KB (35ns)
l
Memory Bank Configurations
l
NO
BANK 0
0
0
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
256K
256K
256K
256K
1M
256K
256K
1M
1M
256K
1M
1M
4M
256K
256K
1M
IM
4M
4M
256K
4M
1M
4M
4M
BIOS ROM
BANK2
BANK1
0
256K
256K
256K
0
1M
256K
1M
1M
256K
1M
IM
0
4M
256K
4M
1M
4M
4M
256K
4M
1M
4M
4M
0
0
256K
256K
0
0
1M
0
256K
IM
1M
1M
0
0
4M
0
4M
0
256K
4M
1M
4M
4M
4M
BANK 3
SIZE
0
0
0
256K
0
0
0
0
0
1M
0
1M
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4M
0
4M
0
4M
0.5M
1M
1.5M
2M
2M
2.5M
3M
4M
4.5M
5M
6M
8M
8M
8.5M
9M
10M
12M
16M
16.5M
17M
18M
20M
24M
32M
: 64K-byte
Spcifications A-3
System I/O
l
DMA Channels:
8-bit operations - 4 channel
16-bit operations - 3 channel
l
Programmable Timers: 3
l
Vectored Interrupt Levels: 15
System Timing
l
System Clock Speed
: 2QMHz (high)
8MHz (low)
l
Clock Cycle Time
: 50ns (20MHz)
125ns (8MHz)
I/O Address Map
Hex Range
Device
000-01 F
020-03F
040-05F
060.06F
070.07F
080-09F
OAO-OBF
OCO-ODF
OEC-OED
OF0
OF1
OW-OFF
1 FO-1 F8
200-207
278-27F
8237A-5 DMA Controller #I
8259A Interrupt Controller #I
8254-2 Timer
8042 (Keyboard)
Real Time Clock NMI (Non-Ma&able Interrupt) Mask
74LS612 DMA Page Register
8259A Interrupt Controller #2
8237A-5 DMA Controller #2
Chipset register value setting
Clear Math Coprocessor Busy
Reset Math Coprocessor
Math Coprocessor
Fixed Disk
Game l/O
Parallel Printer Port 2
A-4 Specifications
Hex Range
Device
ZBO-2DF
2El
2E2&2E3
2F82FF
300-31 F
360-363
368368
378.37F
380-38F
390-393
3AO-3AF
3BO-3BF
3CO-3CF
3DO-3DF
3FO-3F7
3F83FF
6E2&6E3
790-793
AEZ&AE3
890-893
EE2-EE3
10EClOED
1390-1393
22El
2390-2393
30EC30EF
42El
62El
82E1
A2El
C2E1
E2E1
Alternate Enhanced Graphics Adapter
GPIB (Adapter 0)
Data Acquisition (Adapter 0)
Serial Port 2
Prototype Card
PC Network (Low Address)
PC Network (High Address)
Parallel Printer Port 1
SDLC, Bisynchronous 2
Cluster
Bisynchronous 1
Monochrome Display and Printer Adapter
Enhanced Graphics Adapter
Color/Graphrcs Monitor Adapter
Diskette Controller
Serial Port 1
Data Acquisition (Adapter 1)
Cluster (Adapter 1)
Data Acquisition (Adapter 2)
Cluster (Adapter 2)
Data Acquisition (Adapter 3)
Remap
Cluster (Adapter 3)
GPIB (Adapter 1)
Cluster (Adapter 4)
Cache Controller
GPIB (Adapter 2)
GPIB (Adapter 3)
GPIB (Adapter 4)
GPIB (Adapter 5)
GPIB (Adapter 6)
GPIB (Adapter 7)
Note: I/O address, hex 000 to FFF are reserved for the system board I/O.
Hex 100 to 3FF are available on the l/O channel.
Specifications A-5
Appendix B
System Mother Board
Figure B-l. System Motherboard
This appendix provides configuration and interface information
for this board. You may skip this appendix if you are not
installing expansion products that require changing the
motherboard’s configuration jumper settings.
Hardware Settings
The system motherboard provides a set of headers to set the
system configuration. These are located at various points on
the board. Shorting jumpers installed on the shunts control the
system configuration settings.
System Mother Board
B-1
There are several headers on the motherboard but most of
them are already factory setting and you should not remove
them.
Note
If you have problems setting the system CPU configuration
headers, contact your dealer for assistance.
When you turn the system power on, the system CPU will
compare these settings with the information stored in its
configuration RAM as part of the diagnostic routines. If any
inconsistencies are found, they will be shown on the display
monitor before MS-DOS is loaded. At that time, you will be
prompted to run the SETUP program to change the options
stored in the configuration RAM. It is important that these
settings describe the actual equipment installed on your
computer system.
Figure B-2. Installing the Motherboard
B-2
System Mother Board
Removing The MotherBoard
In order to change the settings defined by these jumpers, it will
be necessary to remove the system motherboard from the
chassis. To do this, follow these steps, referring to Chapter 7,
“Expanding Your System,” where necessary:
cl
Unplug all of the cables from the rear panel of the main
system unit.
cl
Remove the main system unit cover.
0
Remove all expansion boards from their slot connectors on
the system motherboard, noting the location of each board
and any internal cable connections, for re-installation later.
cl
Carefully unplug all of the cables connected to the system
motherboard, noting their locations for later.
0
Remove the several screws that attach the system
motherboard to the chassis.
0
Carefully slide the motherboard out of the chassis.
T-
To re-install the motherboard, reverse this procedure.
Headers
Once the motherboard is out of the chassis, proceed to set the
configuration headers and switches to match the changes in the
system hardware.
System Mother Board
B-3
The Table B-l, lists the jumper settings
Table B-l. Headers
Connectors
The system motherboard is provided with a number of
connectors for communication with other parts of the
computer system. These connectors are discussed below.
For pinout information on these connectors, see Appendix D,
“Connector Pinouts.”
The connectors provided on the system motherboard are for
signal/power in facing and the I/O ports, as follows:
Function
Connector
Jl
J2
J4
J5
J6
J7
J8
J9
JlO
Jll
J12
Indicator board connector
AT keyboard connector
Speaker connector
Battery connector
HDD LED connector
IDE connector
Floppy connector
Serial port connector (Dshell)
Serial port connector
Parallel port connector (Dshell)
Power connector
Table B-2.
B-4
System Mother Board
Expansion Slots - 521 to 530
The system board contains five expansion slots for 16-bit
AT boards.
Keyboard Port - 52
The keyboard connector J2, is a 5-pin DIN connector for
keyboards that are compatible with the IBM AT keyboard.
Parallel Port - J11
Connector J 11 on the system board provides a standard
Centronics 25-pin parallel interface.
You cm use the parallel port for LPTl or LPT2. If you
have external card for parallel port on your system, you
must disable the on-board parallel port via setup options.
Refer to chapter 2 for detailed instructions of it.
Serial Port - J9 (8 pin DsheU), JlO (2 . 5 Straight post)
Connector J9 and Jl0 provide the standard AT-type RS-232C
serial interfaces.
System Mother Board
B-5
Power Connector - J12
The system board requires four DC voltage: + 12V, - 12V,
+5V, and -5V. The power connector, J12 is 12spin
connector, respectively, that supply power to the system board
and to the five expansion slots.
Speaker - J4
Connector J4 provides a speaker connection for audible tone
generation. The connector is a two pin header.
IDE Interface connector - 57
You use this 40 pin connector with IDE type Hard disk drive.
B-6
System Mother Board
Appendix C
Video Monitor Systems
There are many video display systems available for use with
your computer system. This appendix will provide a brief
description of the most common video system types, and
discuss their applications.
Monitor System Resolution
The main difference between video monitor system types is
their screen resolution. The monitor’s resolution is important
because it determines the number of characters that can be
displayed on the screen at any one time, and the quality of any
screen graphics displayed.
The image displayed on the video screen is made up of a large
number of individual dots. This is true whether the displayed
screen image is made up of text or graphics, or is a mixture of
both. The higher the monitor’s resolution is, the smaller the
individual dots can be. Smaller dots means that more of them
can be displayed in the same space. If more dots are displayed,
then more text characters and better looking graphics can be
displayed.
Video Controller Boards
The video controller board controls the actual number of dots
sent to the screen. A video system’s resolution capability is
usually described as the number of dots that can be displayed
horizontally by the number of dots that can be displayed
vertically.
Video Monitor Systems
C-l
The personal computer industry has established several video
controller resolution and color standards. Some of these are
described below.
- Hercules Graphics Compatible (HGC):
HGC boards have become the video controller-of-choice
for basic personal computer video display monitor systems.
Providing dot resolutions up to 729 x 350, HGC boards
display good quality text and graphics, while using
shading to accommodate color software.
- Color Graphics Adaptor (CGA):
The original CGA boards featured very low resolution,
typically 320 x 200. This was because they were originally
intended home computers that were used for advanced
video games. Recently, however, CGA resolution has
been improved to 640~200. With the higher resolution,
CGA has gained acceptance in the office environment.
By using colored text screens and low-level graphics, a
number of software packages have been made easier to
use.
- Enhanced Graphics Adaptor (EGA):
EGA video systems provide high resolution (640~350
maximum) color graphics capabilities. These monitor
systems are often used in computer-aideddesign
workstations and other software applications requiring a
larger number of on-screen colors than CGA controllers
can provide.
- Video Graphics Array (VGA):
Recently, a new video standard has emerged to take
advantage of the features of the multi-sync monitors.
Providing up to 720~400 dot resolution, these systems
have been used in applications that require the highest
possible video resolution, such as desktop publishing,
computer-aideddesign (CADICAE), and broadcast quality
computer graphics.
C-2
Video Monitor Systems
The maximum screen resolutions of the different video
standards is summarized below, along with their color and
graphics features:
cl
HGC:
maximum dot resolution:
720x350
maximum text display:
80 columns x 25 lines
colors:
monochrome green or amber
cl
CGA:
dot resolution:
640 x 200
maximum text display:
80 columns x 25 lines
colors:
2 of 16 colors (640 x 200)
4 of 16 colors (320x200)
0
EGA:
dot resolution:
640x350
maximum text display:
80 columns X 43 lines
colors:
16 of 64 colors
P
VGA:
dot resolution:
720~400 (text only)
640~480 (text and graphics)
maximum text display:
80 columnsx50 lines
colors:
16 of 262,144
256 of 262,144 (320x200 res)
Video Monitor Systems
C-3
Monitor Types
There are many different types of video monitor available.
Some of the major ones are described below.
0 Composite Video:
With a 300 x 200 resolution, this type of monitor is
usually used with home computers. They are not
recommended for use with your system.
0 TTL Monochrome:
These monitors provide up to 1000~350 resolution,
with either a green or amber colored screen. Primarily
intended for text only applications, these monitors can
run Hercules-compatible graphics programs, although
applications requiring full CGA or EGA color
compatibility will be difficult, if not impossible, to use.
A TT’L monochrome monitor and a Hercules compatible
controller board will meet your computer system’s basic
video display monitor needs.
0 RGB Color:
RGB stands for Red, Green and Blue, and indicates that
each of the primary colors are separately driven by the
video controller board. RGB monitors cover a broad
range of resolutions from 320 x 200 up to the higher
EGA ranges of 720~480. RGB color monitors are very
C-4
Video Monitor Systems
useful in applications that need good-looking graphics,
or higher resolution text, though they are limited in the
number of colors that can be displayed at a given time.
if you are going to be using software that requires color,
but not high resolution graphics, you should use an RGB
video display monitor, connected to a CGA video
controller board. If your software requires high resolution
graphics, use an EGA controller board instead.
0 Multi-sync:
Multi-sync monitors are so named because they are able
to adjust themselves to any standard video format.
Providing resolutions up to 1400x 1200, multi-sync
video monitors are used with software that needs very
high resolution color graphics. Connecting your
computer to a multi-sync monitor by way of either an
EGA or VGA controller board provides one of the
highest resolution computer video systems available.
This type of system is used for such applications as very
high resolution CAD/CAE workstations, computer
graphics design and desktop publishing.
Video Monitor Systems
C-5
Appendix D
Connector Pinouts
I/O Ports
0 RS-232C Serial port
(9-pin subminiature “D” connector):
Note
All signals conform to EIA Standard RS-232C.
Connector Pinouts D-1
0 Centronics-compatible paralle printer port
(25pin subminiature “D” connector):
Note
1. All outputs are software generated All inputs are
rea-time signals (not latched).
2. All signals are TTL compatible.
0 Keyboard Port
(S-pin mini “DIN” connector)
D-2 Connector Pinouts
0 IDE Port
Connector Pinouts D-3
0 Power Supply Connector (12-pin post header)
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I0
11
12
Signal Name
Power Good Signal
+5 Volts
+I2 Volts
-12 Volts
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
-5 Volts
+5 Volts
+5 Volts
+5 Volts
Figure D-l. Expansion Slot Connectors
D-4
Connector Pinouts
Expansion Slot Connectors
Your computer comes with industry standard IBM compatible
expansion slots. There are five At-style (98 pin) expansion slot
connectors mounted on your system mother board. The charts
below show the pin numbering on the expansion slot
connectors.
0 Expansion Slot Connector Pinouts:
Connector Pinouts D-5
0 Expansion Slot Connector Pinouts
(continued):
D-6 Connector Pinouts
0 Expansion Slot Connector Pinouts
(continued):
Connector Pinouts D-7
Appendix E
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Introduction
In addition to the POST diagnostics which are performed
during power-up, the ROM BIOS also has an advanced
diagnostics program which can perform specialized tests on
each of the following when instructed:
l
l
l
l
l
Hard disk drive(s)
Floppy diskette drive(s)
Keyboard
Video adapter board and monitor
Printer and communication ports
This section contains descriptions of operation for all the tests
available through this program located in the ROM BIOS.
Included here also are possible error messages.
When to Run Advanced Diagnostics
Advanced ROM Diagnostics can be run whenever a device or
controller malfunction is suspected. These tests are especially
useful when floppy diskette-based diagnostics, are either
unavailable or unusable because the floppy disk drive or floppy
controller appear to be malfunctioning.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-l
Starting Advanced ROM Diagnostics
To access the Advanced ROM BIOS Diagnostics, perform the
following:
l
Turn on the on/off switch at the front of the unit. When the
system first starts and the memory tests have been
completed, this message displays briefly for your decision
(respond as indicated in the brackets):
Press <DEL > .
Note
If you do not press the <DEL> key after a few seconds,
the system finishes the start-up process and attempts to find
an operating system. After a few more seconds, the system
offers the user a second opportunity to enter diagnostics:
Set the reverse video cursor on the option “RUN
DIAGNOSTICS” and Enter.
E-2
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The following screen should appear:
Figure E-l. Starting Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The screen is divided into six (6) sections. From top to bottom,
these are:
l
The Signature Line. This line includes the title of the
program, the copyright, the name of the company which
designed the program, the date, and the time in military
format.
l
The Diagnostics Options Line. This is where the user
chooses the device/adapter to be tested. The options are:
Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, Keyboard, Video, and
Miscellaneous (Printer and Communications). Each device
option on the Diagnostics Option Line has its own
Diagnostics Options Window which appears whenever the
device option is highlighted. Device options are highlighted
by pressing the right or left arrow (cursor movement) keys
located on the numeric keypad.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-3
l
The Diagnostics Options Window. Below the Diagnostics
Options Line is the Diagnostics Options Window for that
option, The test options available in each Diagnostics
Options Window are addressed in the following pages under
the appropriate diagnostics heading (Hard Disk, Floppy Disk,
Keyboard, Video, and Miscellaneous).
l
The configuration of the system in the Devices Present
section of the screen. This section identifies the types of
devices present in the system. Below each device type
appears an identifying characteristic, symbol, or code. If a
device listed on this line is not currently a part of the
system, “Absent” appears below the name of the device
type.
l
The Guide Line in reverse video explains how to use the
arrow directin (cursor) keys, the ENTER key, and the
ESC key. Use the Left and, Right arrow keys to move in the
Diagnostics Options Line. Use the Up & Down arrow keys
to move within a Diagnostics Options Window. Use the
ENTER key to select the option in the Diagnostics Options
Window. Press < ESC > to abort and return to the previous
menu.
l
Test Function Line. This line briefly describes the function
of the test highlighted in the Diagnostics Options Window.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics Tests
This portion of the section addressing Advanced ROM
Diagnostics describes in detail each test which can be
performed from the Advanced Diagnostics Screen. These tests
are addressed in the following order: Hard Disk Tests, Floppy
Disk Tests, Keyboard Tests, Video Adapter and Monitor tests,
Printer and Communication Port tests. The possible error
messages encountered while running these tests are addressed
in each set of tests.
E-4
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Hard Disk Diagnostics
The following tests can be performed on your hard disk(s): 1)
Hard Disk Format, 2) Auto Interleave, 3) Media Analysis, 4)
Performance Test, 5) Seek Test, 6) Read/Verify Test, 7) Check
Test Cylinder Test, 8) Force Bad Tracks.
The following tests are valid only if the if disk being:
tested is not a SCSI device: 1) Hard Disk Format, 2) Auto
Interleave, 3) Media Analysis, and 4) Force Bad Tracks.
These tests are not valid for a SCSI Fixed Disk Drive.
Warning!
Performing the following tests will destroy and data on the
hard disk being tested: Hard Disk Format, Auto Interleave,
and Media Analysis,
Error Messages
There are two types of error messages that can be generated as
a result of performing the Hard Disk tests. These are
diagnostics-generated error messages, and controller-generated
error messages.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-5
Diagnostics Generated Error Messages
This error message is generated by the Performance Test
procedure which requires at least 128KB of RAM space. So, if
your system board has less than 128KB of available RAM
space, you cannot use this function.
Controller Generated Error Messages
The controller generated error messages encountered while
performing any of the hard disk functions are displayed in a
window with 2 lines:
The actual error message could be any of the following:
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
E-6
Address mark not found
Requested sector not found (Sector not found)
Reset failed
Drive parameter activity failed
Bad sector flag detected
Bad ECC on disk read (Unrecoverable error checking and
correction (ECC) or cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error)
ECC corrected data error
Controller has failed (General controller failure)
Seek operation failed
Attachment failed to respond (Time out error)
Write fault on selected drive
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The Hard Disk Format Test
Use the Hard Disk Format Test to 1) integrate a new hard disk
to the system, or 2) reformat a used hard disk which has
developed some bad patches as a result of aging or poor
handling.
After entering the Advanced ROM Diagnostic program, the
following screen will appear. “Hard disk” is highlighted with a
block cursor in the main menu. Below this horizontal menu is
another menu which lists all available hard disk tests. “Hard
Disk Format” is highlighted in this menu when it first appears
on the screen.
To perform a Hard Disk Format Test:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-7
l
Press < ENTER > . The causes the following information
boxes to appear.
Figure E-2. Performing A Hard Disk Format Test:
Entering the Disk Drive Type
The box on the left contains a series of questions (fields) which
must be answered before performing the Hard Disk Format
Test. The answers are entered to the right of the question
mark. The first question will already be answered for you as
long as a value has been previously entered at the CMOS
Setup screen. This value is 0 for a ‘C’ drive and 1 for a ‘D’
drive. If the disk drive ID (CID) has been previously entered at
the CMOS Setup Screen, then the ID (C/D) will appear to the
right of the question mark following the “Disk Drive (C/D)”
field. If this information has not been entered, then enter the
appropriate response now.
E-8
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Disk Drive Type
After entering the appropriate response (if it hasn’t already
been entered) the default value (1, if the drive was not entered
during the CMOS Setup) for “Disk Drive Type” will appear to
the right of the "?” following the “Disk Drive Type” field. The
cursor blinks to the right of the “?,” prompting for either a new
value, or acceptance of the default value, by pressing
< E N T E R > .
Note
Values entered during the Advanced ROM Diagnostics tests
are not retained by the CMOS Setup program. These values
are valid in the system for the period of the test only unless
they are entered at the CMOS Setup screen. The CMOS
Setup program is addressed earlier in this tab in a separate
section.
The information box to the right contains a listing of 47
possible drive types. The first 16 are visible when the box first
appears. Entries 17 through 47 are visible by scrolling through
the list using the up and down arrow keys. The 47th entry is
called the USER definition entry.
Note
The USER definition entry allows you to perform a test on
a disk drive not defined in ROM. The USER definition
entry is valid only during the period that the test is
performed.
These 47 different drive types are identified by the following
characteristics:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-9
l
Type
l
cyi.
l
l
This is the number designation for a drive with
certain identification parameters.
This is the number of cylinders found in the
specified drive type.
This is the number of heads found in the
specified drive type.
W-pcomp W-pcomp is the read delay circuitry, which takes
into account the timing differences between the
inner and outer edges of the surface of the disk
platter. The number designates the starting
cylinder of the signal.
Heads
l
L-zone
L-zone is the landing zone of the heads. This
number determines the cylinder location where
the heads will normally park when the unit is
shut down.
l
Capacity
This is the formatted capacity of the drive based
on the following formula:
# of heads x # of cylinders x 17 secs/cyl. x 512 bytes/sec.
To choose a drive type, use the up and down arrow keys. The
bar cursor highlights each selection in sequence. The type
value (147) of your highlighted selection will automatically
appear in the Hard Disk Format information box. When you
are satisfied with your selection, press < ENTER > . This
moves the cursor to the next field.
Note
To leave the Hard Disk Format information box before
making a selection, press < ESC > .
E-10
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Interleave Factor
After pressing <ENTER > at the “Disk Drive type” field, the
cursor will blink below either the default value or the previous
value entered for the “Interleave (1-16)” field. The default
value is the previous value determined by Auto Interleave.
Type the desired value and press <ENTER > . The cursor will
move to the next field, “Mark Bad Tracks (Y/N).”
Figure E-3. Performing A Hard Disk Format Test:
Marking Bad Tracks
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E- 11
Mark Bad Tracks
The default value is ‘N’ for ‘No’. If the hard disk being tested
is not a SCSI device, check the unit for a manufacturer’s list of
bad tracks. If this information is available, type ‘Y’ and press
< ENTER> . Another informatin box, titled “Bad Track
List,” appears to the right of the “Hard Disk Format” box.
Below the heading are three columns for 1) the entry number
(S#), the cylinder number (Cyl.), and the head number (Head).
At the bottom of the box, the number of track % entries are
tallied. To the right of the Bad Track List box is the Bad Track
List Edit Menu. This also apears when entering ‘Y’ at the Mark
Bad Tracks (Y/N) field in the Hard Disk Format box. At the
Bad Track Edit Menu, you can 1) add an entry, 2) revise an
entry, 3) delete an entry, 4) clear the bad track list, and 5) save
and exit. The Bad Track Edit Menu is described here.
Figure E-4. Performing A Hard Disk Format Test:
The Bad Track Edit Menu
E-12
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The Bad Track Edit Menu
With the block cursor highlighting “Add an entry,” press
< ENTER> . This will cause another box to appear below the
Bad Track Edit Menu. This box asks you to enter the track
number for the entry you wish to add. When the box first
appears, either the default (0) value or the previous value
entered will appear. The cursor will blink below the value,
prompting you to either accept the value by pressing
< ENTER > , or enter a new value. After pressing
< ENTER>, the cursor will prompt you to enter a value for
head number. You may accept the default value (0), or the
previous value entered, by pressing < ENTER > . To change
this value, type a new value and press < ENTER > . The entry
box will disappear and the block cursor will once again
highlight “Add an entry” in the Bad Track Edit Menu. To add
more entries, press < ENTER > .
The program will not accept dual entries. Attempting to enter
dual entries will prompt the box to display the message, “Entry
already present, enter again.” The cursor will return to the
track number field, prompting you for a new value. Entries are
listed in the Bad Track List box.
Using the down arrow key, move the block cursor to “Revise
an entry” in the Bad Track Edit Menu. Press < ENTER > .
The last entry in the Bad Track List will be highlighted with
the block cursor. To select an entry for revision, use the up and
down arrow keys to highlight the desired selection. Press
< ENTER > . The entry box will disappear and the block
cursor will once again highlight “Add an entry” in the Bad
Track Edit Menu. To add more entries, press < ENTER > .
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-13
The Enter New Track # and Head # box will appear with the
current track # (Cyl.) value entered in the field to the right of
“Enter New Track #.” Type in a new value (if desired) at the
blinking cursor, and press < ENTER > . Enter a new value at
“Enter New Head #.” The program will not accept dual
entries. All values must not exceed the corresponding cylinder
and head values for the disk drive type entered at that field.
Using the up and down arrow keys, move the cursor bar until
“Delete and entry” is highlighted. Press < ENTER > . The
last entry in the Bad Track List box is highlighted. Use the up
and down arrow keys to highlight the entry you wish to delete.
After highlighting the desired entry you wish to delete, press
< ENTER> to delete it. The entry box will disappear and the
block cursor will once again highlight “And an entry” in the
Bad Track Edit Menu. To add more entries, press < ENTER > .
Using the up and down arrow keys, move the cursor bar until
“Clear bad trk list” is highlighted. To clear the list in the Bad
Track List box, press < ENTER > .
When you are ready to save the information in the Bad Tracks
List box, press < ENTER > . The edit menu will disappear and
the cursor returns to the “Start cylinder number” field in the
Hard Disk Format information box.
E-14
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Start Cylinder Number
See Figure E-2.
Enter the cylinder number where you want the formatting to
begin. The default value is ‘0’.
End Cylinder Number
See Figure E-Z.
Enter the cylinder number where you want the formatting to
end. The default value is the last cylinder in the drive.
Start Head Number
See Figure E-2.
Enter the head number where you want the formatting to
begin in the cylinders specified in the previous two fields. The
default value is ‘0’.
End Head Number
See Figure E-2.
Enter the cylinder number where you want the formatting to
end. The default value is the last head in each cylinder.
Proceed
If all the previous entries contain the appropriate values, then
press ‘Y’. If ‘N’ is entered here, the cursor will return to the
Disk Drive Type field. When you are satisfied with the values
entered at each field, enter ‘Y’ at the Proceed field. A
WARNING message appears:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E- 15
After you enter ‘Y’, the Activity box appears on the right side
of the screen. “Format” is highlighted in the Activity box. In
the Status portion of the Activity box, the specified cylinders,
heads, and sectors are displayed sequentially as they are
formatted.
Note
The test can be aborted at an): time by pressing the
<ESC> key.
When the test is aborted or finished, press <ENTER> to
return to the main menu.
Figure E-5. Initiating the Hard Disk Format Test
E-16
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Auto Interleave Routine
Note
This test is not valid for a SCSI drive.
Run the Auto Interleave Routine to optimize hard disk
performance. This routine actually occurs in two separate steps.
First, the BIOS will calculate the optimum interleave value
through trial and error by measuring the transfer rate for four
different interleave values. During this process, a portion of the
hard disk is formatted to determine the best interleave value.
The BIOS will then format the hard disk using this interleave
factor. If a list of bad tracks is required before formatting the
hard disk, press < ESC > to abort the second part of the test.
Then, press <ENTER > to return to the main menu. Perform
the Hard Disk Format Test. To perform the Auto Interleave
Routine:
l
At the Hard Disk menu, highlight “Auto Interleave” using
the bar cursor. Then, press < ENTER > . That causes the
Auto Interleave Detection box to appear on the left side of
the screen. The box contains the following questions (fields)
that must be answered with appropriate responses. These
responses are addressed earlier in this tab under the heading
“Hard Disk Format Test.”
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E- I7
Figure E-6. The Auto Interleave Routine
If you want to change a response to one or both of these fields
before running the test, enter “N” at the “Proceed” field. This
will return the cursor to the Disk Drive Type field unless the
Disk Drive ID (C/D) has not been previously entered at the
CMOS Setup screen. If this has not been done, the cursor will
prompt you for an appropriate response at this field first.
After you have entered the appropriate information at the first
two fields, enter Y at the “Proceed” field. A WARNING box
will appear on the screen:
E-18
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Entering “N” returns you to the Auto Interleave Routine
Information Box. Entering “Y” causes the following
information boxes to appear: 1) Auto Interleave Detection,
2) Bad Track List, and 3) Activity. In the Auto Interleave
Detection box, the transfer rate is calculated for up to four
(4) different interleave factors. These interlelave factors are 1-4.
The Bad Track List box displays the status of the routine. At
different times during the routine, the following messages will
be displayed in this box:
To determine the best interleave factor, the system will format
a portion of the hard disk for each transfer rate calculated. The
cylinders, heads and sectors formatted for each value during
this first part of the test are displayed in the Activity box.
“Format,” highlighted in the uppér part of the box, flickers to
indicate that the cylinders, heads and sectors displayed below
are being formatted.
After the optimum interleave factor has been determined, the
Bad Tracks List will display the optimum interleave factor:
This initiates the second part of the test. A hard disk format
test is performed on the entire hard disk using the optimum
interleave factor. The Activity box displays the formatting
activity of the hard disk by cylinder, head and sect& number.
The test can be aborted at any time by pressing < ESC > .
When the test isfinished or aborted, press <ENTER> to
‘return to the main menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-19
Media Analysis Test
The Media Analysis Test performs a series of tests to locate bad
patches. Even though you may have a list of bad patches from
the manufacturer, this will not list any new bad patches which
may have developed as a result of aging or poor handling. This
test locates all bad tracks on the hard disk and lists them in the
Bad Track List box. Since this test writes from all cylinders and
heads on the hard disk to verify any bad tracks, this test may
require several minutes to complete. For best results, run this
test to its entirety.
E-20
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Figure E-7. The Media Analysis Test
To run the Media Analysis Test:
At the Hard Disk Menu, highlight “Media Analysis.”
Press < ENTER > . Fill in the appropriate response for each of
the following fields in the Hard Disk Surface Analysis
information box:
Disk Drive (C/D)
Disk Drive type
Interleave (l-16)
Start cylinder number
End cylinder number
Start Head number
End Head number
Proceed (Y/N)
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-21
Each of these fields are described earlier in this tab under the
heading “Hard Disk Format Test.”
When you have filled the first seven fields with an appropriate
response, enter “Y” in the Proceed field. The following
WARNING message will appear:
The Bad Track List with all current entries, and the Activity
box will also appear at this time. Entering N will return the
cursor to the Disk Drive Type field in the Hard Disk Surface
Analysis information box. Entering Y will initiate the test.
While the test is performed, Write and Verify are highlighted
with a block cursor in the Activity box. These words flash
during the test. The status line below displays the cylinder,
head and sector numbers as they are written and verified.
Press < ENTER > to return to the main menu.
E-22
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Hard Disk Performance Test
Note
Before performing the Hard Disk Performance Test,
optimize the Interleave factor. See Auto Interleave Routine
earlier in this tab for instructions.
The Performance Test determines the Data Transfer Rate and
the Track to Track Seek time based on transfer size, seek count
and data transferred. Data Transfer Rate is measured in
kilobytes per second. Track to Track Seek Time is measured in
milliseconds. To determine the transfer rate, the CPU reads
64KB blocks 15 times. Then, the CPU reads the number of
timer ticks. Transfer rate is calculated by multiplying 64KB by
15, multiplying this value by 18.2 (# of times the timer
interrupt counts in 1 set) and dividing this value by the
number of system timer ticks. Track to Track Seek Time is
calculated by multiplying the number of ticks by 1000, and
dividing this value by 18.2 times/set x the number of Seeks
(200).
Transfer rate =
Seek Time =
64KBx 15 timesx 18.2 times/sec
# system timer ticks
# timer ticksx 1000
18.2 times/secx 200 Seeks
= KB/sec
= millisecs
The table below lists acceptable and unacceptable values for
these tests when performed on the two SCSI fixed drive
options. This information is calculated and displayed in the
Harddisk Performance Test Information box on the right side
of the screen.
To perform the Hard Disk Performance Test:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-23
At the Hard Disk Menu, highlight “Performance Test.”
Press < ENTER > . Fill in the appropriate response for each of
the following fields in the Hard Disk Performance Test
information box:
Each of these fields is described earlier in this tab under the
heading “Hard Disk Format Test.”
When you have filled the first two fields with an appropriate
response, enter “Y” in the Proceed field. This initiates the test.
When the test is completed, press < ENTER > to return to
the main menu.
Figure E-8. Hard Disk Performance Test
E-24
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Seek Test
The Seek Test determines the seek capability of the hard disk
on the specified cylinder and head range. First, a sequential
seek is performed, followed by a random seek. Any errors
occurring during this test are displayed.
To perform a Seek Test:
At the Hard Disk Menu, highlight “Seek Test.” Press
< ENTER > . Fill in the appropriate response for each of the
following fields in the Seek Test information box:
Disk Drive (C/D)
Disk Drive Type
Start cylinder number
End cylinder number
Start Head number
End Head number
Proceed (Y/N)
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Each of these fields are described earlier in this tab under the
heading “Hard Disk Format Test.”
When you have filled the first six fields with an appropriate
response, enter “Y” in the Proceed field. This will cause the
Activity box to appear on the right side of the screen. As the
test is performed, the cylinder numbers, head numbers, and
sector numbers are first displayed sequentially to the specified
range, then randomly displayed. “Seek” is highlighted with a
block cursor in the Activity box, and flashes during the entire
process. To abort the test, press < ESC > . When this test is
aborted or finished, press < ENTER > to return to the main
menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-25
Note
Entering “N” in the Proceed field will cause the cursor to
return to the Disk Drive Type field.
Figure E-9. Performing the Seek Test
Hard Disk Read/Verify Test
This test performs sequential and random read and verify
operations on the cylinder and head range specified in the
Hard Disk Read/Verify Test Information box.
To perform the Hard Disk Read/Verify Test:
At the Hard Disk Menu, highlight “Hard Disk Read/Verify
Test.” Press < ENTER > . Fill in the appropriate response for
each of the following fields in the Hard Disk Read/Verify Test
information box:
E-26
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Disk Drive (C/D)
3
DlSK Drive Type
7
7
?
?
?
?
Start cylinder number
End cylinder number
Start Head number
End Head number
Proceed (Y/N)
Each of these fields are described earlier in this tab under the
heading “Hard Disk Format Test.”
When you have filled the first six fields with an appropriate
response, enter “Y” in the Proceed field. This will cause the
Activity box to appear on the right side of the screen. As the
test is performed, the cylinder numbers, head numbers, and
sector numbers are first displayed sequentially to the specified
range, then randomly displayed. “Seek” is highlighted with a
block cursor in the Activity box, and flashes during the entire
process.
Note
To abort this test, press < ESC > .
When this test is aborted or finished, press < ENTER > to
return to the main menu.
Note
Entering “N” in the Proceed field will cause the cursor to
return to the Disk Drive Type field.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-27
Figure E-10. Performing the Hard Disk Read/Verify Test
Check Test Cylinder Test
The last cylinder on the hard disk is the test cylinder. This
cylinder should be tested if a C:Drive or D:Drive error occurs
during the POST. A Read/Verify test is performed on all
sectors in the test cylinder. This test should pass in at least one
sector. If the test fails in all sectors, then one of two possible
problems has occurred. Either the test cylinder itself is faulty, or
too many cylinders were specified for the hard drive in the
CMOS Setup program.
To perform the Check Test Cylinder Test:
E-28
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
At the Hard Disk menu, highlight “Check Test Cyl.” using
the bar cursor. Then, press < ENTER > . That causes the
Hard Disk Test Cylinder Test box to appear on the left side of
the screen. The box contains the following questions (fields)
that must be answered with appropriate responses. These
responses are addressed earlier in this tab under the heading
“Hard Disk Format Test.”
If you want to change a response to one or both of these fields
before running the test, enter N at the “Proceed” field. This
will return the cursor to the Disk Drive Type field unless the
Disk Drive ID (C/D) has not been previously entered at the
CMOS Setup screen. If this has not been done, the cursor will
prompt you for an appropriate response at this field first.
After you have entered the appropriate information at the first
two fields, enter “Y” at the “Proceed” field.
This causes the Activity box to appear on the right side of the
screen. The words “Write” and “Verify” are highlighted in the
upper half of the box. These flash while the test is in progress
to indicate that these functions are being performed. In the
lower half of this box, the status line displays the number of
the last cylinder in the hard disk, the number of the the last
head, and the sectors in sequence as they are tested. When this
test is aborted or finished, press < ENTER > to return to the
main menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-29
Figure E-11. Performing the Check Test Cylinder Test
E-30
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Figure E-11. Performing the Check Test Cylinder Test
E-30
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Hard Disk Test Cylinder Test box to appear on the left side of
the screen. The box contains the following questions (fields)
that must be answered with appropriate responses. These
responses are addressed earlier in this tab under the heading
“Hard Disk Format Test.”
After you have entered the appropriate information at the first
four fields, enter “Y” at the “Proceed” field.
This causes the Activity box to appear on the right side of the
screen. “Format” is highlighted in the upper half of the box.
This flashes while the test is in progress to indicate that this
function is being performed. In the lower half of this box, the
status line displays the number of the cylinders, the number of
the heads, and the number of the sectors in sequence as they
are formatted. When this routine is finished, press
<ENTER > to return to the main menu.
Floppy Diagnostics
There are five different tests which can be performed on a
floppy drive. These are:
l
l
l
l
l
E-32
Diskette Format Test
Speed Test
Random Read/Write Test
Sequential Read/Write Test
Disk Change Line Test
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
See Figure E-13.
Warning!
The Diskette Format Test, the Random Read/Write Test,
and Sequential Readwrite Test are destructive operations.
This means that the data on the diskette required to
perform these tests will be destroyed. When performing
these operations, be certain that the formatted diskettes
required for these tests does not contain valuable
information which cannot be recovered from the hard disk
or from another diskette.
Figure E-13. The Floppy Diagnostics Menu
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-33
Error Messages
Error messages can either be ROM Diagnostics generated, or
controller generated. The error messages encountered while
performing any of the diskette functions are displayed in a
window with 2 lines:
Line 1
Line 2
***ERROR***
The actual error message
The actual error message could be any one of the following:
ROM Diagnostics Generated
Error Messages
This error message is generated while running the “Disk
change line test” if the program detects that the disk change is
not working. This can also happen if you have not removed
and reinserted the diskette as requested during the test. Replace
the disk drive if you suspect a faulty drive.
This error message is generated if the Disk change line test is
performed on a 360KB or 72OKB drive.
Controller Generated Error Messages
l
l
l
E-34
TIMEOUT error (Diskette drive not ready)
BAD SEEK error (Seek operation failed)
BAD CRC error (Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error on
diskette read)
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
l
l
l
l
l
Diskette WRITE PROTECTED (Write protect error)
MEDIA CHANGE error (Media type not found)
BAD DMA error @MA overrun on operation)
Record Not Found (Requested sector not found)
BAD Address Mark (Address mark not found)
Floppy Diskette Format Test
Figure E-14. The Diskette Format Test
This test determines the ability of the floppy disk controller to
perform the low-level formatting function on a diskette.
Note
The diskettes formatted with this option do not contain the
file structure necessary to accept files for an operating
system such as DOS. To use this diskette as a storage
medium for files created by any operating system, it must be
formatted under the operating system that the diskettes will
be used with.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-35
Warning!
This test is a destructive operation. This means that the
data on the diskette required to perform these tests will be
destroyed. ‘When performing these operations, be certain
that the formatted diskettes required for these tests do not
contain valuable information which cannot be recovered
from the hard disk or from another diskette.
To perform a Diskette Format Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Press < ENTER>. That causes the Diskette format
box to appear on the left side of the screen. The box contains
the following questions (fields) that must be answered with
appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” When you are satisfied with the
information entered for the first field, enter “Y” at the
“Proceed” field.
Note
Entering “N” (the default) will return you to the Floppy
Drive Menu.
E-36
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Entering “Y” at the “Proceed” field causes the Activity box to
appear on the right side of the screen. “Format” is highlighted
in the upper half of the box. This flashes while the test is in
progress to indicate that this, function is being performed. In
the lower half of this box, the status line displays the number
of the cylinders, the number of the heads, and the number of
the sectors in sequence as they are formatted. When this test is
finished, press < ENTER > to return to the main menu.
Drive Speed Test
This test determines the rotations speed of the drive. Consult
your floppy drive documentation for acceptable tolerances.
Figure E-15. The Drive Speed Test
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-3 7
To perfom a Drive Speed Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu. “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Drive Speed
Test.” Press <ENTER > . That causes the Diskette format
box to appear on the left side of the screen. The box contains
the following questions (fields) that must be answered with
appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field, enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Note
Entering “N” (the default) will return you to the Floppy
Drive Menu.
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message:
E-38
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
<ENTER>, the message box will contain the following
message:
At the bottom of the Activity box, the message “Wait for 2
minutes” will appear briefly as the test begins. The test will
record a LOWER limit, and an UPPER limit during this time
period. The Current Speed will flash.
Note
To abort the test, press < ESC >
When the test has been aborted or completed, press
<ENTER> to return to the main menu.
Random Read/Write Test
This test performs a random read/write operation on the
diskette, checking the random seek, read and write capability
of the drive. The diskette used in this test must be formatted
under the user’s operating system before running the test.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-39
Figure E-16. The Random Read/Write Test
Warning!
This test is a destructive operation. This means that the
data on the diskette required to perform these tests will be
destroyed. When performing these operations, be certain
that the formatted diskettes required for these tests does not
contain valuable information which cannot be recovered
from the hard disk or from another diskette.
To perform the Random Read/Write Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
E-40
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Random
ReadWrite Test.” Press < ENTER > . That causes the
Diskette format box to appear on the left side of the screen.
The box contains the following questions (fields) that must be
answered with appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field, enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Note
Entering “N” (the default) will return you to the Floppy
Drive Menu.
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message
Advanced ROAI Diagnostics
E-4 I
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
c ENTER > , the message box will contain the following
message:
In the upper portion of the activity box, “Read,” “Write,” and
“Verify” will flash in sequence as these operations are
performed. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder numbers, head numbers, and sector numbers will be
read, written, and verified.
Note
To abort the test, hit < ESC>
When the test has been aborted or completed, press
< ENTER > to return to the main menu.
Sequential Read/Write lest
This test performs a sequential read/write operation, checking
the sequential seek, read, and write capability of the drive. The
diskette used in this test must be formatted under the user’s
operating system before running the test.
Warning!
This test is a destructive operation. This means that the
data on the diskette required to perform these tests will be
destroyed. When performing these operations, be certain
that the formatted diskettes required for these tests does not
contain valuable information which cannot be recovered
from the hard disk or from another diskette.
E-42
Advanced ROM Dagnostics
To perform the Sequential Read/Write Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Sequential
Read/Write Test.” Press < ENTER> . That causes the
Diskette format box to appear on the left side of the screen.
The box contains the following questions (fields) that must be
answered with appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field, enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-43
Figure E-17. The Sequential Read/Write Test
Note
Entering “N” (the default) will return you to the Floppy
Drive Menu.
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message:
E-44
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
<ENTER>, the message box will contain the following
message:
In the upper portion of the Activity box, “Write,” and
“Verify” will flash in sequence as these operations are
performed. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder numbers, head numbers, and sector numbers will be
read, written, and verified sequentially by sector number. In
other words, sector I will be written and verified for all 80
tracks, followed by sector 2, 3 and so on.
Note
To abort the test, press < ESC > .
When the test has been aborted or completed, press
< ENTER> to return to the main menu.
Disk Change Line Test
This test verifies the disk change line capability of the floppy
drive. A drive with disk line change capability allows the
operating system to recognize that a new diskette has been
inserted without accessing the Format Allocation Table (FAT).
The diskette used in this test must be formatted under the
user’s operating system before running the test.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-45
Figure E-18. The Disk Change Line Test
To perform the Disk Change Line Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Disk Change
Line Test.” Press <ENTER > . That causes the Disk Change
Line Test box to appear on the left side of the screen. The box
contains the following questions (fields) that must be answered
with appropriate responses. These are:
E-44
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field, enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Note
Entering “N” (the default) will return you to the Floppy
Drive Menu.
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message:
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
< ENTER > , the Activity box will contain the following
information:
In the upper portion of the Activity box, “Verify” will be
highlighted. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder number will display “0,” the head number will display
“0,” and the sector number will display “1.” The message box
will then contain the following message:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-47
In the upper portion of the Activity box, “Verify” will be
highlighted. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder number will display “0, ” the head number will display
“0,” and the sector number will display “1.” When the test
has been completed, press < ENTER > to return to the main
menu.
Keybord Diagnostics
There is only one Keyboard Diagnostics Test: the Scan/ASCII
Code Test. This will help you determine whether the keys
depressed match their Scan and ASCII codes.
Every time you depress a key to verify its code, the scan code
and ASCII code of the key displays on the screen. The key
symbol will also be displayed on the keyboard display in its
proper location.
To perform the Scan/ASCII Code Test:
Highlight “Keyboard” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
the Scan/ASCII Code Test. Press < ENTER > . This causes a
screen keyboard layout to display. Scan code and ASCII Code
fields rest above the keyboard layout on the screen.
To test the keyboard, press the keys on the keyboard. The scan
codes and ASCII codes display in the appropriate fields for
each key as it is pressed. Use this test to verify the codes with
their respective keys. Performing this test will help you to
identify and faulty keys. Use the following tables to verify the
codes with the keys.
Press < CTRL > < BREAK > to leave this test.
E-48
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Video Diagnostics
Figure E-19. Video Tests
The range of video tests available depends upon the type of
display adapter card installed in the system. The following tests
are available for both monochrome and color display adapters
and monitors:
l
Sync Test
This checks the sync capability.
l
Adapter Test
This performs a test on the display
memory.
l
Attribute Test
This checks the attributes of the
display.
l
80x25 Display Test
This checks the 80x25 character
set of the display adapter.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-49
These tests are available for systems with a color display card
and color monitor:
l
l
l
l
l
40x25 Display Test
320x200 Graphics Test
640x200 Graphics Test
Page Selection Test
Color Test
Test results for all diagnostics functions except the Sync Test
are displayed on the screen. To perform any of these visual
tests:
Highlight “Video” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
the various tests. “Run All Tests” is highlighted with a block
cursor. To highlight and of the visual tests below the Sync
Test, use the up and down arrow keys. Press < ENTER > to
initiate test and follow onscreen messages.
Error Messages
ROM Diagnostics Generated
Error Messages
This error message is generated if the Adapter Test detects any
R/W error in the display memory. This message indicates a
video controller problem.
E-50
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Miscellaneous Diagnostics
These include the following tests: 1) Printer Port Test, and
2) Serial Communication Port Test.
Printer Adapter Test
This test writes a pattern on the printer. The results are
observed here. If the printer does not write, then the test has
failed.
Error Messages
l
l
l
l
Error - Printer Out of Paper
Error - Printer Not Selected
Error - Printer Interface I/O Error
Error - Time Out On Printer
All error messages except for “Printer Out of Paper” indicate a
problem with the controller.
To perform the Printer Adapter Test:
Highlight “Miscellaneous” in the main menu by using the left
and right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which
lists the two tests. “Printer Adapter Test” is highlighted with a
block cursor. Press < ENTER > . The message box in the
middle of the screen displays the following message:
When the test is completed, press <ENTER> to return to
the main menu. .
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-51
Figure E-20. The Printer Adapter Test
Serial Communication Adapter Test
This test requires a special RS-232 Turn-Around Connector
plugged into the port. It must be jumpered as follows:
• TXD & RXD (2 & 3) shorted
RTS & CTS (4 & 5) shorted
l DSR & DTR (6 & 20) shorted
l
This test is programmed to read the following data: 9600 baud
rate, odd parity, 2 stop-bits, and 8-bit data. This test first
performs a reset function to check for all possible errors. Then,
the test performs a send function, followed by a receive
function.
E-52
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Figure E-20. The Printer Adapter Test
Serial Communication Adapter Test
This test requires a special RS-232 Turn-Around Connector
plugged into the port. It must be jumpered as follows:
l
l
l
TXD & RXD (2 & 3) shorted
RTS & CT’S (4 & 5) shorted
DSR & DTR (6 & 20) shorted
This test is programmed to read the following data: 9600 baud
rate, odd parity, 2 stop-bits, and 8-bit data. This test first
performs a reset function to check for all possible errors. Then,
the test performs a send function, followed by a receive
function.
E-52
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Error Messages
l
l
l
l
l
Error - Time out!
Error - Break Detected
Error - Framing error
Error - Parity error
Error - Overrun error
If a time out error occurs during the send and receive portions,
this indicates a problem with the communication adapter
controller.
To perform the Serial Communication Port Test:
Highlight “Miscellaneous” in the main menu by using the left
and right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which
lists the two tests. “Printer Adapter Test” is highlighted with a
block cursor. To highlight “Comm. Adapter Test,” use the
down arrow key. Press <ENTER>. The RS-232C Connector
Details Information box will appear. This box displays the
jumper settings. The message line at the bottom of the box will
prompt you for an answer to the following question:
The message box in the middle of the screen displays:
Typing an “N” will return you to return to the main menu.
Typing a “Y” will initiate the test.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-53
The message box in the middle of the screen displays:
This test will run for about 2 minutes. Press <ENTER > to
return to the main menu when the test is completed.
Figure E-21. Serial Communication Adapter Test
E-54
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
DOC.N0:10-030-00
Printed in Korea
1990 Jul