MOTOROLA
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by MC68HC912B32TS/D
TECHNICAL DATA
MC68HC912B32
Technical Summary
16-Bit Microcontroller
1 Introduction
The MC68HC912B32 microcontroller unit (MCU) is a 16-bit device composed of standard on-chip peripherals including a 16-bit central processing unit (CPU12), 32-Kbyte flash EEPROM, 1-Kbyte RAM,
768-byte EEPROM, an asynchronous serial communications interface (SCI), a serial peripheral interface (SPI), an 8-channel timer and 16-bit pulse accumulator, an 8-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC),
a four-channel pulse-width modulator (PWM), and a J1850-compatible byte data link communications
module (BDLC). The chip is the first 16-bit microcontroller to include both byte-erasable EEPROM and
flash EEPROM on the same device. System resource mapping, clock generation, interrupt control and
bus interfacing are managed by the Lite integration module (LIM). The MC68HC912B32 has full 16-bit
data paths throughout, however, the multiplexed external bus can operate in an 8-bit narrow mode so
single 8-bit wide memory can be interfaced for lower cost systems.
1.1 Features
• 16-Bit CPU12
— Upward Compatible with M68HC11 Instruction Set
— Interrupt Stacking and Programmer’s Model Identical to M68HC11
— 20-Bit ALU
— Instruction Queue
— Enhanced Indexed Addressing
— Fuzzy Logic Instructions
• Multiplexed Bus
— Single Chip or Expanded
— 16/16 Wide or 16/8 Narrow Modes
• Memory
— 32-Kbyte Flash EEPROM with 2-Kbyte Erase-Protected Boot Block
— 768-B yte EEPROM
— 1-Kbyte RAM with Single-Cycle Access for Aligned or Misaligned Read/Write
• 8-Channel, 8-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter
• 8-Channel Timer
— Each Channel Fully Configurable as Either Input Capture or Output Compare
— Simple PWM Mode
— Modulo Reset of Timer Counter
• 16-Bit Pulse Accumulator
— External Event Counting
— Gated Time Accumulation
• Pulse-Width Modulator
— 8-Bit, 4-Channel or 16-Bit, 2-Channel
— Separate Control for Each Pulse Width and Duty Cycle
This document contains information on a new product. Specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice.
© MOTOROLA INC., 1997
M
— Programmable Center-Aligned or Left-Aligned Outputs
• Serial Interfaces
— Asynchronous Serial Communications Interface (SCI)
— Synchronous Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
— J1850 Byte Data Link Communication (BDLC)
• COP Watchdog Timer, Clock Monitor, and Periodic Interrupt Timer
• 80-Pin QFP Package
— Up to 63 General-Purpose I/O Lines
— 2.7V–5.5V Operation at 8 MHz
• Single-Wire Background Debug™ Mode (BDM)
• On-Chip Hardware Breakpoints
1.2 Ordering Information
The MC68HC912B32 is packaged in 80-pin quad flat pack (QFP) packaging and is shipped in two-piece
sample packs, 50-piece trays, or 250-piece bricks. Operating temperature range and voltage requirements are specified when ordering the MC68HC912B32 device. Refer to Table 1 for part numbers.
Table 1 MC68HC912B32 Device Ordering Information
Order Number
Temperature
Range
Designator
MC68HC912B32FU8
0 to +70 °C
—
MC68HC912B32CFU8
−40 to +85 °C
C
MC68HC912B32VFU8 −40 to +105 °C
V
MC68HC912B32MFU8 −40 to +125 °C
M
MC68C912B32FU8
0 to +70 °C
—
MC68C912B32CFU8
−40 to +85 °C
C
MC68B912B32FU8
0 to +70 °C
—
Voltage
Frequency
Package
8 MHz
80-Pin QFP
Single Tray
50 Pcs
4.5V–5.5V
2.7V–3.6V
2.7V–5.5V
NOTE: This part is also available in 2-piece sample packs and 250-piece bricks.
Evaluation boards, assemblers, compilers, and debuggers are available from Motorola and from thirdparty suppliers. An up-to-date list of products that support the M68HC12 family of microcontrollers can
be found on the World Wide Web at the following URL:
http://www.mcu.motsps.com
Documents to assist in product selection are available from the Motorola Literature Distribution Center
or your local Motorola Sales Office:
AMCU Device Selection Guide (SG166/D)
AMCU Software and Development Tool Selector Guide (SG176/D)
MOTOROLA
2
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
1
Page
Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
1
Features ......................................................................................................................................1
Ordering Information ...................................................................................................................2
MC68HC912B32 Block Diagram .................................................................................................5
Central Processing Unit
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
6
6.1
6.2
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
8
8.1
8.2
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
6
Programming Model ....................................................................................................................6
Data Types ..................................................................................................................................7
Addressing Modes .......................................................................................................................7
Indexed Addressing Modes .........................................................................................................8
Opcodes and Operands ..............................................................................................................8
Pinout and Signal Descriptions
9
MC68HC912B32 Pin Assignments .............................................................................................9
Power Supply Pins ....................................................................................................................10
Signal Descriptions ....................................................................................................................11
Port Signals ...............................................................................................................................15
Port Pull-Up, Pull-Down and Reduced Drive .............................................................................19
Register Block
20
Operating Modes and Resource Mapping
25
Operating Modes .......................................................................................................................25
Background Debug Mode ..........................................................................................................26
Internal Resource Mapping .......................................................................................................28
Memory Maps ............................................................................................................................31
Bus Control and Input/Output
32
Detecting Access Type from External Signals ..........................................................................32
Registers ...................................................................................................................................32
Flash EEPROM
37
Overview ...................................................................................................................................37
Flash EEPROM Control Block ...................................................................................................37
Flash EEPROM Array ...............................................................................................................37
Flash EEPROM Registers .........................................................................................................37
Operation ...................................................................................................................................40
Programming the Flash EEPROM ............................................................................................42
Erasing the Flash EEPROM ......................................................................................................44
Program/Erase Protection Interlocks .........................................................................................46
Stop or Wait Mode .....................................................................................................................46
Test Mode .................................................................................................................................46
EEPROM
47
EEPROM Programmer’s Model ................................................................................................47
EEPROM Control Registers ......................................................................................................48
Resets and Interrupts
52
Exception Priority ......................................................................................................................52
Maskable Interrupts ...................................................................................................................52
Interrupt Control and Priority Registers .....................................................................................53
Resets .......................................................................................................................................54
Effects of Reset .........................................................................................................................54
Register Stacking ......................................................................................................................55
Clock Functions
57
Clock Sources ...........................................................................................................................57
Computer Operating Properly (COP) ........................................................................................57
Real-Time Interrupt ...................................................................................................................57
Clock Monitor ............................................................................................................................57
Clock Function Registers ..........................................................................................................58
Clock Divider Chains .................................................................................................................60
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Section
11
Page
Pulse-Width Modulator
11.1
11.2
12
12.1
12.2
13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
15
15.1
15.2
15.3
16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
63
PWM Register Description ........................................................................................................65
PWM Boundary Cases ..............................................................................................................72
Standard Timer Module
73
Timer Registers .........................................................................................................................74
Timer Operation in Modes .........................................................................................................82
Serial Interface
83
Block Diagram ...........................................................................................................................83
Serial Communication Interface (SCI) .......................................................................................83
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ................................................................................................90
Port S ........................................................................................................................................96
Byte Data Link Communications Module (BDLC)
98
Features ....................................................................................................................................98
BDLC Operating Modes ............................................................................................................98
Loopback Modes .......................................................................................................................99
BDLC Registers .........................................................................................................................99
J1850 Bus Errors .....................................................................................................................106
Analog-To-Digital Converter
108
Functional Description .............................................................................................................108
ATD Registers .........................................................................................................................108
ATD Mode Operation ..............................................................................................................114
Development Support
115
Instruction Queue ....................................................................................................................115
Background Debug Mode ........................................................................................................115
Breakpoints .............................................................................................................................123
Instruction Tagging ..................................................................................................................127
MOTOROLA
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
1.3 MC68HC912B32 Block Diagram
VRH
VRL
VDDA
VSSA
32-KBYTE FLASH EEPROM
VFP
VRH
VRL
VDDA
VSSA
AN0
AN1
AN2
AN3
AN4
AN5
AN6
AN7
ATD
CONVERTER
CPU12
PERIODIC INTERRUPT
SMODN / TAGHI
SDI/MISO
SDO/MOSI
SCK
CS/SS
MULTIPLEXED ADDRESS/DATA BUS
PORT A
PORT B
PA7
PA6
PA5
PA4
PA3
PA2
PA1
PA0
PB7
PB6
PB5
PB4
PB3
PB2
PB1
PB0
ADDR7
ADDR6
ADDR5
ADDR4
ADDR3
ADDR2
ADDR1
ADDR0
DATA7
DATA6
DATA5
DATA4
DATA3
DATA2
DATA1
DATA0
NARROW BUS
DATA7
DATA6
DATA5
DATA4
DATA3
DATA2
DATA1
DATA0
DDRB
DATA15
DATA14
DATA13
DATA12
DATA11
DATA10
DATA9
DATA8
DDRA
ADDR15
ADDR14
ADDR13
ADDR12
ADDR11
ADDR10
ADDR9
ADDR8
PWM
PW0
PW1
PW2
PW3
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
BDLC
DLCRx
DLCTx
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
VDD × 2
VSS × 2
POWER FOR
INTERNAL
CIRCUITRY
PORT S
I/O
PORT P
RxD
TxD
I/O
I/O
SCI
SPI
WIDE
BUS
PT0
PT1
PT2
PT3
PT4
PT5
PT6
PT7
PS0
PS1
PS2
PS3
PS4
PS5
PS6
PS7
PP0
PP1
PP2
PP3
PP4
PP5
PP6
PP7
DDRT
PDLC0
PDLC1
PORT DLC
LITE
INTEGRATION
MODULE
(LIM)
DDRS
BREAK POINTS
IOC0
IOC1
IOC2
TIMER AND
IOC3
OC7 IOC4
PULSE
ACCUMULATOR
IOC5
IOC6
PAI
DDRP
CLOCK MONITOR
XIRQ
IRQ/VPP
R/W
LSTRB / TAGLO
ECLK
IPIPE0 / MODA
IPIPE1 / MODB
DBE
PORT E
EXTAL
XTAL
RESET
PE0
PE1
PE2
PE3
PE4
PE5
PE6
PE7
PAD0
PAD1
PAD2
PAD3
PAD4
PAD5
PAD6
PAD7
COP WATCHDOG
SINGLE-WIRE
BACKGROUND
DEBUG MODULE
DDRDLC
BKGD
PORT AD
768-BYTE EEPROM
PORT T
1-KBYTE RAM
PDLC2
PDLC3
PDLC4
PDLC5
PDLC6
VDDX × 2
VSSX × 2
POWER FOR
I/O DRIVERS
Figure 1 MC68HC912B32 Block Diagram
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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2 Central Processing Unit
The CPU12 is a high-speed, 16-bit processing unit. It has full 16-bit data paths and wider internal registers (up to 20 bits) for high-speed extended math instructions. The instruction set is a proper superset
of the M68HC11instruction set. The CPU12 allows instructions with odd byte counts, including many
single-byte instructions. This provides efficient use of ROM space. An instruction queue buffers program information so the CPU always has immediate access to at least three bytes of machine code at
the start of every instruction. The CPU12 also offers an extensive set of indexed addressing capabilities.
2.1 Programming Model
CPU12 registers are an integral part of the CPU and are not addressed as if they were memory locations.
7
A
0 7
B
0
8-BIT ACCUMULATORS A & B
OR
15
D
0
16-BIT DOUBLE ACCUMULATOR D
15
IX
0
INDEX REGISTER X
15
IY
0
INDEX REGISTER Y
15
SP
0
STACK POINTER
15
PC
0
PROGRAM COUNTER
S X H I N Z V C
CONDITION CODE REGISTER
HC12 PROG MODEL
Figure 2 Programming Model
Accumulators A and B are general-purpose 8-bit accumulators used to hold operands and results of
arithmetic calculations or data manipulations. Some instructions treat the combination of these two 8bit accumulators as a 16-bit double accumulator (accumulator D).
Index registers X and Y are used for indexed addressing mode. In the indexed addressing mode, the
contents of a 16-bit index register are added to 5-bit, 9-bit, or 16-bit constants or the content of an accumulator to form the effective address of the operand to be used in the instruction.
Stack pointer (SP) points to the last stack location used. The CPU12 supports an automatic program
stack that is used to save system context during subroutine calls and interrupts, and can also be used
for temporary storage of data. The stack pointer can also be used in all indexed addressing modes.
Program counter is a 16-bit register that holds the address of the next instruction to be executed. The
program counter can be used in all indexed addressing modes except auto-increment/decrement.
Condition Code Register (CCR) contains five status indicators, two interrupt masking bits, and a
STOP disable bit. The five flags are half carry (H), negative (N), zero (Z), overflow (V), and carry/borrow
(C). The half-carry flag is used only for BCD arithmetic operations. The N, Z, V, and C status bits allow
for branching based on the results of a previous operation.
MOTOROLA
6
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
2.2 Data Types
The CPU12 supports the following data types:
• Bit data
• 8-bit and 16-bit signed and unsigned integers
• 16-bit unsigned fractions
• 16-bit addresses
A byte is eight bits wide and can be accessed at any byte location. A word is composed of two consecutive bytes with the most significant byte at the lower value address. There are no special requirements
for alignment of instructions or operands.
2.3 Addressing Modes
Addressing modes determine how the CPU accesses memory locations to be operated upon. The
CPU12 includes all of the addressing modes of the M68HC11 CPU as well as several new forms of indexed addressing. Table 2 is a summary of the available addressing modes.
Table 2 M68HC12 Addressing Mode Summary
Addressing Mode
Source Format
Abbreviation
Description
Inherent
INST
(no externally supplied
operands)
INH
Operands (if any) are in CPU registers
Immediate
INST #opr8i
or
INST #opr16i
IMM
Operand is included in instruction stream
8- or 16-bit size implied by context
Direct
INST opr8a
DIR
Operand is the lower 8-bits of an address in the
range $0000 – $00FF
Extended
INST opr16a
EXT
Operand is a 16-bit address
Relative
INST rel8
or
INST rel16
REL
An 8-bit or 16-bit relative offset from the current
pc is supplied in the instruction
Indexed
(5-bit offset)
INST oprx5,xysp
IDX
5-bit signed constant offset from x, y, sp, or pc
Indexed
(auto pre-decrement)
INST oprx3,–xys
IDX
Auto pre-decrement x, y, or sp by 1 ~ 8
Indexed
(auto pre-increment)
INST oprx3,+xys
IDX
Auto pre-increment x, y, or sp by 1 ~ 8
Indexed
(auto postdecrement)
INST oprx3,xys–
IDX
Auto post-decrement x, y, or sp by 1 ~ 8
Indexed
(auto post-increment)
INST oprx3,xys+
IDX
Auto post-increment x, y, or sp by 1 ~ 8
Indexed
(accumulator offset)
INST abd,xysp
IDX
Indexed with 8-bit (A or B) or 16-bit (D) accumulator offset from x, y, sp, or pc
Indexed
(9-bit offset)
INST oprx9,xysp
IDX1
9-bit signed constant offset from x, y, sp, or pc
(lower 8-bits of offset in one extension byte)
Indexed
(16-bit offset)
INST oprx16,xysp
IDX2
16-bit constant offset from x, y, sp, or pc
(16-bit offset in two extension bytes)
Indexed-Indirect
(16-bit offset)
INST [oprx16,xysp]
[IDX2]
Pointer to operand is found at...
16-bit constant offset from x, y, sp, or pc
(16-bit offset in two extension bytes)
Indexed-Indirect
(D accumulator
offset)
INST [D,xysp]
[D,IDX]
Pointer to operand is found at...
x, y, sp, or pc plus the value in D
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
7
2.4 Indexed Addressing Modes
The CPU12 indexed modes reduce execution time and eliminate code size penalties for using the Y
index register. CPU12 indexed addressing uses a postbyte plus zero, one, or two extension bytes after
the instruction opcode. The postbyte and extensions do the following tasks:
• Specify which index register is used
• Determine whether a value in an accumulator is used as an offset
• Enable automatic pre- or post-increment or decrement
• Specify use of 5-bit, 9-bit, or 16-bit signed offsets
Table 3 Summary of Indexed Operations
Postbyte
Code (xb)
Source Code
Syntax
Comments
rr; 00 = X, 01 = Y, 10 = SP, 11 = PC
rr0nnnnn
,r
n,r
−n,r
5-bit constant offset n = –16 to +15
r can specify X, Y, SP, or PC
111rr0zs
n,r
−n,r
Constant offset (9- or 16-bit signed)
z- 0 = 9-bit with sign in LSB of postbyte(s)
1 = 16-bit
if z = s = 1, 16-bit offset indexed-indirect (see below)
r can specify X, Y, SP, or PC
[n,r]
16-bit offset indexed-indirect
rr can specify X, Y, SP, or PC
111rr011
-256 < n < 255
0 < n < 65,535
0 < n < 65,535
rr1pnnnn
n,−r
n,+r
n,r−
n,r+
Auto pre-decrement/increment or Auto post-decrement/increment;
p = pre-(0) or post-(1), n = –8 to –1, +1 to +8
r can specify X, Y, or SP (PC not a valid choice)
+8 = 0111
…
+1 = 0000
-1 = 1111
…
-8 = 1000
111rr1aa
A,r
B,r
D,r
Accumulator offset (unsigned 8-bit or 16-bit)
aa- 00 = A
01 = B
10 = D (16-bit)
11 = see accumulator D offset indexed-indirect
r can specify X, Y, SP, or PC
111rr111
[D,r]
Accumulator D offset indexed-indirect
r can specify X, Y, SP, or PC
2.5 Opcodes and Operands
The CPU12 uses 8-bit opcodes. Each opcode identifies a particular instruction and associated addressing mode to the CPU. Several opcodes are required to provide each instruction with a range of addressing capabilities.
Only 256 opcodes would be available if the range of values were restricted to the number that can be
represented by 8-bit binary numbers. To expand the number of opcodes, a second page is added to the
opcode map. Opcodes on the second page are preceded by an additional byte with the value $18.
To provide additional addressing flexibility, opcodes can also be followed by a postbyte or extension
bytes. Postbytes implement certain forms of indexed addressing, transfers, exchanges, and loop primitives. Extension bytes contain additional program information such as addresses, offsets, and immediate data.
MOTOROLA
8
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
3 Pinout and Signal Descriptions
3.1 MC68HC912B32 Pin Assignments
The MC68HC912B32 is available in a 80-pin quad flat pack (QFP). Most pins perform two or more functions, as described in the 3.3 Signal Descriptions. Figure 3 shows pin assignments. Shaded pins are
power and ground.
PORT T
PORT T
PS4 / SDI/MISO
PS3
PS2
PS1 / TxD
PS0 / RxD
65
64
63
62
61
70
PS5 / SDO/MOSI
PDLC6
71
PS6 / SCK
PDLC5
72
66
PDLC4
73
67
PDLC3
74
VFP
PDLC2
75
PS7 / CS/SS
PDLC1 / DLCTx
76
68
PDLC0 / DLCRx
77
PP7
79
69
VDDX
VSSX
78
PP6
80
PORT P
PP5
1
60
VSSA
PP4
2
59
VDDA
PW3 / PP3
3
58
PAD7 / AN7
PW2 / PP2
4
57
PAD6 / AN6
PW1/ PP1
5
56
PAD5 / AN5
PW0/ PP0
6
55
PAD4 / AN4
IOC0 / PT0
7
54
PAD3 / AN3
IOC1 / PT1
8
53
PAD2 / AN2
IOC2 / PT2
9
52
PAD1 / AN1
51
PAD0 / AN0
50
VRL
MC68HC912B32
80-PIN QFP
VDD
10
VSS
11
IOC3 / PT3
12
49
VRH
IOC4 / PT4
13
48
VSS
IOC5 / PT5
14
47
VDD
IOC6 / PT6
15
46
PA7 / DATA15 / ADDR15
PAI / IOC7 / PT7
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
MODA / IPIPE0 / PE5
ECLK / PE4
VSSX
VDDX
RESET
EXTAL
XTAL
LSTRB / TAGLO / PE3
R/W / PE2
IRQ/VPP / PE1
XIRQ / PE0
ADDR8 / DATA8 / PA0
ADDR9 / DATA9 / PA1
PORT B
MODB / IPIPE1 / PE6
PA2 / DATA10 / ADDR10
26
41
25
20
DBE / PE7
PA3 / DATA11 / ADDR11
ADDR2 / DATA2 / PB2
ADDR7 / DATA7 / PB7
42
24
19
ADDR6 / DATA6 / PB6
PA4 / DATA12 / ADDR12
ADDR1 / DATA1 / PB1
23
43
22
18
ADDR5 / DATA5 / PB5
PA5 / DATA13 / ADDR13
ADDR0 / DATA0 / PB0
ADDR4 / DATA4 / PB4
PA6 / DATA14 / ADDR14
44
21
45
17
ADDR3 / DATA3 / PB3
16
SMODN / TAGHI/ BKGD
PORT E
PORT AD
PORT S
PORT DLC
PORT A*
HC12 80QFP
PORT E
* In narrow mode, high and low data bytes are multiplexed in alternate bus cycles on port A.
Figure 3 Pin Assignments for MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
9
3.2 Power Supply Pins
MC68HC912B32 power and ground pins are described below and summarized in Table 4.
3.2.1 Internal Power (VDD) and Ground (VSS)
Power is supplied to the MCU through VDD and VSS. Because fast signal transitions place high, shortduration current demands on the power supply, use bypass capacitors with high-frequency characteristics and place them as close to the MCU as possible. Bypass requirements depend on how heavily
the MCU pins are loaded.
3.2.2 External Power (VDDX) and Ground (VSSX)
External power and ground for I/O drivers. Because fast signal transitions place high, short-duration current demands on the power supply, use bypass capacitors with high-frequency characteristics and
place them as close to the MCU as possible. Bypass requirements depend on how heavily the MCU
pins are loaded.
3.2.3 VDDA, VSSA
Provides operating voltage and ground for the analog-to-digital converter. This allows the supply voltage to the A/D to be bypassed independently.
3.2.4 Analog-to-Digital Reference Voltages (VRH, VRL)
3.2.5 VFP
Flash EEPROM programming voltage and supply voltage during normal operation.
3.2.6 VPP
High voltage supply to EEPROM. Used to monitor charge pump output and testing. Not intended for
general applications use.
Table 4 MC68HC912B32 Power and Ground Connection Summary
Mnemonic
Pin Number
VDD
10, 47
VSS
11, 48
VDDX
31, 78
VSSX
30, 77
VDDA
59
VSSA
60
VRH
49
VRL
50
VFP
69
Programming voltage for the Flash EEPROM and required supply
for normal operation.
VPP
37
High voltage supply to EEPROM used for test purposes only in
special modes.
MOTOROLA
10
Description
Internal power and ground.
External power and ground, supply to pin drivers.
Operating voltage and ground for the analog-to-digital converter,
allows the supply voltage to the A/D to be bypassed independently.
Reference voltages for the analog-to-digital converter.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
3.3 Signal Descriptions
3.3.1 Crystal Driver and External Clock Input (XTAL, EXTAL)
These pins provide the interface for either a crystal or a CMOS compatible clock to control the internal
clock generator circuitry. Out of reset the frequency applied to EXTAL is twice the desired E-clock rate.
All the device clocks are derived from the EXTAL input frequency.
C
EXTAL
10 MΩ
MCU
2xE
CRYSTAL
C
XTAL
COMMON XTAL CONN
Figure 4 Common Crystal Connections
2xE
CMOS-COMPATIBLE
EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
EXTAL
MCU
XTAL
NC
EXT EXTAL CONN
Figure 5 External Oscillator Connections
XTAL is the crystal output. The XTAL pin must be left unterminated when an external CMOS compatible
clock input is connected to the EXTAL pin. The XTAL output is normally intended to drive only a crystal.
The XTAL output can be buffered with a high-impedance buffer to drive the EXTAL input of another device.
In all cases take extra care in the circuit board layout around the oscillator pins. Load capacitances
shown in the oscillator circuits include all stray layout capacitances. Refer to Figure 4 and Figure 5 for
diagrams of oscillator circuits.
3.3.2 E-Clock Output (ECLK)
ECLK is the output connection for the internal bus clock and is used to demultiplex the address and data
and is used as a timing reference. ECLK frequency is equal to 1/2 the crystal frequency out of reset. Eclock output can be turned off in single-chip modes to reduce the effects of RFI. In special peripheral
mode the E clock is an input to the MCU. All clocks, including the E-clock, are halted when the MCU is
in STOP mode. It is possible to configure the MCU to interface to slow external memory. ECLK can be
stretched for such accesses.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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3.3.3 Reset (RESET)
An active low bidirectional control signal, RESET, acts as an input to initialize the MCU to a known startup state. It also acts as an open-drain output to indicate that an internal failure has been detected in
either the clock monitor or COP watchdog circuit. The MCU goes into reset asynchronously and comes
out of reset synchronously. This allows the part to reach a proper reset state even if the clocks have
failed, while allowing synchronized operation when starting out of reset.
It is possible to determine whether a reset was caused by an internal source or an external source. An
internal source drives the pin low for 16 cycles; eight cycles later the pin is sampled. If the pin has returned high, either the COP watchdog vector or clock monitor vector will be taken. If the pin is still low,
the external reset is determined to be active and the reset vector is taken. Hold reset low for at least 32
cycles to assure that the reset vector is taken in the event that an internal COP watchdog time-out or
clock monitor fail occurs.
3.3.4 Maskable Interrupt Request (IRQ)
The IRQ input provides a means of applying asynchronous interrupt requests to the MCU. Either falling
edge-sensitive triggering or level-sensitive triggering is program selectable (INTCR register). IRQ is always configured to level-sensitive triggering at reset. When the MCU is reset the IRQ function is
masked in the condition code register.
This pin is always an input and can always be read. In special modes it can be used to apply external
EEPROM VPP in support of EEPROM testing. External VPP is not needed for normal EEPROM program
and erase cycles. Because the IRQ pin is also used as an EEPROM programming voltage pin, there is
an internal resistive pull-up on the pin.
3.3.5 Nonmaskable Interrupt (XIRQ)
The XIRQ input provides a means of requesting a nonmaskable interrupt after reset initialization. During
reset, the X bit in the condition code register (CCR) is set and any interrupt is masked until MCU software enables it. Because the XIRQ input is level sensitive, it can be connected to a multiple-source
wired-OR network. This pin is always an input and can always be read. There is an active pull-up on
this pin while in reset and immediately out of reset. The pull-up can be turned off by clearing PUPE in
the PUCR register. XIRQ is often used as a power loss detect interrupt.
Whenever XIRQ or IRQ are used with multiple interrupt sources (IRQ must be configured for level-sensitive operation if there is more than one source of IRQ interrupt), each source must drive the interrupt
input with an open-drain type of driver to avoid contention between outputs. There must also be an interlock mechanism at each interrupt source so that the source holds the interrupt line low until the MCU
recognizes and acknowledges the interrupt request. If the interrupt line is held low, the MCU will recognize another interrupt as soon as the interrupt mask bit in the MCU is cleared (normally upon return from
an interrupt).
3.3.6 Mode Select (SMODN, MODA, and MODB)
The state of these pins during reset determine the MCU operating mode. After reset, MODA and MODB
can be configured as instruction queue tracking signals IPIPE0 and IPIPE1. MODA and MODB have
active pulldowns during reset.
The SMODN pin can be used as BKGD or TAGHI after reset.
3.3.7 Single-Wire Background Mode Pin (BKGD)
The BKGD pin receives and transmits serial background debugging commands. A special self-timing
protocol is used. The BKGD pin has an active pull-up when configured as input; BKGD has no pull-up
control. Refer to 16 Development Support.
MOTOROLA
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
3.3.8 External Address and Data Buses (ADDR[15:0] and DATA[15:0])
External bus pins share function with general-purpose I/O ports A and B. In single-chip operating
modes, the pins can be used for I/O; in expanded modes, the pins are used for the external buses.
In expanded wide mode, ports A and B are used for multiplexed 16-bit data and address buses. PA[7:0]
correspond to ADDR[15:8]/DATA[15:8]; PB[7:0] correspond to ADDR[7:0]/DATA[7:0].
In expanded narrow mode, ports A and B are used for the 16-bit address bus, and an 8-bit data bus is
multiplexed with the most significant half of the address bus on port A. In this mode, 16-bit data is handled as two back-to-back bus cycles, one for the high byte followed by one for the low byte. PA[7:0]
correspond to ADDR[15:8] and to DATA[15:8] or DATA[7:0], depending on the bus cycle. The state of
the address pin should be latched at the rising edge of E. To allow for maximum address setup time at
external devices, a transparent latch should be used.
3.3.9 Read/Write (R/W)
In all modes this pin can be used as I/O and is a general-purpose input with an active pull-up out of
reset. If the read/write function is required it should be enabled by setting the RDWE bit in the PEAR
register. External writes will not be possible until enabled.
3.3.10 Low-Byte Strobe (LSTRB)
In all modes this pin can be used as I/O and is a general-purpose input with an active pull-up out of
reset. If the strobe function is required, it should be enabled by setting the LSTRE bit in the PEAR register. This signal is used in write operations and so external low byte writes will not be possible until this
function is enabled. This pin is also used as TAGLO in special expanded modes and is multiplexed with
the LSTRB function.
3.3.11 Instruction Queue Tracking Signals (IPIPE1 and IPIPE0)
These signals are used to track the state of the internal instruction execution queue. Execution state is
time-multiplexed on the two signals. Refer to 16 Development Support.
3.3.12 Data Bus Enable (DBE)
The DBE pin (PE7) is an active low signal that will be asserted low during E-clock high time. DBE provides separation between output of a multiplexed address and the input of data. When an external address is stretched, DBE is asserted during what would be the last quarter cycle of the last E-clock cycle
of stretch. In expanded modes this pin is used to enable the drive control of external buses during external reads. Use of the DBE is controlled by the NDBE bit in the PEAR register. DBE is enabled out of
reset in expanded modes. This pin has an active pull-up during and after reset in single-chip modes.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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Table 5 MC68HC912B32 Signal Description Summary
Pin Name
Pin Number
Description
PW[3:0]
3–6
ADDR[7:0]
DATA[7:0]
25–18
ADDR[15:8]
DATA[15:8]
46–39
IOC[7:0]
16–12, 9–7
PAI
16
AN[7:0]
58–51
DBE
26
MODB, MODA
27, 28
IPIPE1, IPIPE0
27, 28
ECLK
29
E-clock is the output connection for the external bus clock. ECLK is used as a
timing reference and for address demultiplexing.
RESET
32
An active low bidirectional control signal, RESET acts as an input to initialize the
MCU to a known start-up state, and an output when COP or clock monitor causes
a reset.
EXTAL
33
XTAL
34
LSTRB
35
Low byte strobe (0 = low byte valid), in all modes this pin can be used as I/O. The
low strobe function is the exclusive-NOR of A0 and the internal SZ8 signal. (The
SZ8 internal signal indicates the size 16/8 access.)
TAGLO
35
Pin used in instruction tagging. See 16 Development Support.
R/W
36
Indicates direction of data on expansion bus. Shares function with general-purpose I/O. Read/write in expanded modes.
IRQ
37
Maskable interrupt request input provides a means of applying asynchronous interrupt requests to the MCU. Either falling edge-sensitive triggering or level-sensitive triggering is program selectable (INTCR register).
XIRQ
38
Provides a means of requesting asynchronous non-maskable interrupt requests
after reset initialization.
BKGD
17
Single-wire background interface pin is dedicated to the background debug function. During reset, this pin determines special or normal operating mode.
TAGHI
17
Pin used in instruction tagging. See 16 Development Support.
DLCRx
76
BDLC receive pin
DLCTx
75
BDLC transmit pin
CS/SS
68
Slave select output for SPI master mode, input for slave mode or master mode.
SCK
67
Serial clock for SPI system.
SDO/MOSI
66
Master out/slave in pin for serial peripheral interface
SDI/MISO
65
Master in/slave out pin for serial peripheral interface
Pulse Width Modulator channel outputs.
External bus pins share function with general-purpose I/O ports A and B. In single chip modes, the pins can be used for I/O. In expanded modes, the pins are
used for the external buses.
Pins used for input capture and output compare in the timer and pulse accumulator subsystem.
Pulse accumulator input
Analog inputs for the analog-to-digital conversion module
Data bus control and, in expanded mode, enables the drive control of external
buses during external reads.
State of mode select pins during reset determine the initial operating mode of the
MCU. After reset, MODB and MODA can be configured as instruction queue
tracking signals IPIPE1 and IPIPE0 or as general-purpose I/O pins.
Crystal driver and external clock input pins. On reset all the device clocks are derived from the EXTAL input frequency. XTAL is the crystal output.
TxD0
62
SCI transmit pin
RxD0
61
SCI receive pin
MOTOROLA
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
3.4 Port Signals
The MC68HC912B32 incorporates eight ports which are used to control and access the various device
subsystems. When not used for these purposes, port pins may be used for general-purpose I/O. In addition to the pins described below, each port consists of a data register which can be read and written
at any time, and, with the exception of port AD and PE[1:0], a data direction register which controls the
direction of each pin. After reset all port pins are configured as input.
3.4.1 Port A
Port A pins are used for address and data in expanded modes. The port data register is not in the address map during expanded and peripheral mode operation. When it is in the map, port A can be read
or written at anytime.
Register DDRA determines whether each port A pin is an input or output. DDRA is not in the address
map during expanded and peripheral mode operation. Setting a bit in DDRA makes the corresponding
bit in port A an output; clearing a bit in DDRA makes the corresponding bit in port A an input. The default
reset state of DDRA is all zeros.
When the PUPA bit in the PUCR register is set, all port A input pins are pulled up internally by an active
pull-up device. This bit has no effect if the port is being used in expanded modes as the pull-ups are
inactive.
Setting the RDPA bit in register RDRIV causes all port A outputs to have reduced drive level. RDRIV
can be written once after reset. RDRIV is not in the address map in peripheral mode. Refer to 6 Bus
Control and Input/Output.
3.4.2 Port B
Port B pins are used for address and data in expanded modes. The port data register is not in the address map during expanded and peripheral mode operation. When it is in the map, port B can be read
or written at anytime.
Register DDRB determines whether each port B pin is an input or output. DDRB is not in the address
map during expanded and peripheral mode operation. Setting a bit in DDRB makes the corresponding
bit in port B an output; clearing a bit in DDRB makes the corresponding bit in port B an input. The default
reset state of DDRB is all zeros.
When the PUPB bit in the PUCR register is set, all port B input pins are pulled up internally by an active
pull-up device. This bit has no effect if the port is being used in expanded modes as the pull-ups are
inactive.
Setting the RDPB bit in register RDRIV causes all port B outputs to have reduced drive level. RDRIV
can be written once after reset. RDRIV is not in the address map in peripheral mode. Refer to 6 Bus
Control and Input/Output.
3.4.3 Port E
Port E pins operate differently from port A and B pins. Port E pins are used for bus control signals and
interrupt service request signals. When a pin is not used for one of these specific functions, it can be
used as general-purpose I/O. However, two of the pins (PE[1:0]) can only be used for input, and the
states of these pins can be read in the port data register even when they are used for IRQ and XIRQ.
The PEAR register determines pin function, and register DDRE determines whether each pin is an input
or output when it is used for general-purpose I/O. PEAR settings override DDRE settings. Because
PE[1:0] are input-only pins, only DDRE[7:2] have effect. Setting a bit in the DDRE register makes the
corresponding bit in port E an output; clearing a bit in the DDRE register makes the corresponding bit
in port E an input. The default reset state of DDRE is all zeros.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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When the PUPE bit in the PUCR register is set, PE[7,3,2,0] are pulled up. PE[7,3,2,0] are pulled up active devices, while PE1 is always pulled up by means of an internal resistor.
Neither port E nor DDRE is in the map in peripheral mode; neither is in the internal map in expanded
modes with EME set.
Setting the RDPE bit in register RDRIV causes all port E outputs to have reduced drive level. RDRIV
can be written once after reset. RDRIV is not in the address map in peripheral mode. Refer to 6 Bus
Control and Input/Output.
3.4.4 Port DLC
BDLC pins can be configured as general-purpose I/O port DLC. When BDLC functions are not enabled,
the port has seven general-purpose I/O pins, PDLC[6:0]. The DLCSCR register controls port DLC function. The BDLC function, enabled with the BDLCEN bit, takes precedence over other port functions.
Register DDRDLC determines whether each port DLC pin is an input or output. Setting a bit in DDRDLC
makes the corresponding pin in port DLC an output; clearing a bit makes the corresponding pin an input.
After reset port DLC pins are configured as inputs.
When the PUPDLC bit in the DLCSCR register is set, all port DLC input pins are pulled up internally by
an active pull-up device.
Setting the RDPDLC bit in register DLCSCR causes all port DLC outputs to have reduced drive level.
Levels are at normal drive capability after reset. RDPDLC can be written anytime after reset. Refer to
14 Byte Data Link Communications Module (BDLC).
3.4.5 Port AD
Input to the analog-to-digital subsystem and general-purpose input. When analog-to-digital functions
are not enabled, the port has eight general-purpose input pins, PAD[7:0]. The ADPU bit in the ATDCTL2
register enables the A/D function.
Port AD pins are inputs; no data direction register is associated with this port. The port has no resistive
input loads and no reduced drive controls. Refer to 15 Analog-To-Digital Converter.
3.4.6 Port P
The four pulse-width modulation channel outputs share general-purpose port P pins. The PWM function
is enabled with the PWEN register. Enabling PWM pins takes precedence over the general-purpose
port. When pulse-width modulation is not in use, the port pins may be used for general-purpose I/O.
Register DDRP determines pin direction of port P when used for general-purpose I/O. When DDRP bits
are set, the corresponding pin is configured for output. On reset the DDRP bits are cleared and the corresponding pin is configured for input.
When the PUPP bit in the PWCTL register is set, all input pins are pulled up internally by an active pullup device. Pull-ups are disabled after reset.
Setting the RDPP bit in the PWCTL register configures all port P outputs to have reduced drive levels.
Levels are at normal drive capability after reset. The PWCTL register can be read or written anytime
after reset. Refer to 11 Pulse-Width Modulator.
3.4.7 Port T
This port provides eight general-purpose I/O pins when not enabled for input capture and output compare in the timer and pulse accumulator subsystem. The TEN bit in the TSCR register enables the timer
function. The pulse accumulator subsystem is enabled with the PAEN bit in the PACTL register.
MOTOROLA
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Register DDRT determines pin direction of port T when used for general-purpose I/O. When DDRT bits
are set, the corresponding pin is configured for output. On reset the DDRT bits are cleared and the corresponding pin is configured for input.
When the PUPT bit in the TMSK2 register is set, all input pins are pulled up internally by an active pullup device. Pull-ups are disabled after reset.
Setting the RDPT bit in the TMSK2 register configures all port T outputs to have reduced drive levels.
Levels are at normal drive capability after reset. The TMSK2 register can be read or written anytime
after reset. Refer to 12 Standard Timer Module.
3.4.8 Port S
Port S is the 8-bit interface to the standard serial interface consisting of the serial communications interface (SCI) and serial peripheral interface (SPI) subsystems. Port S pins are available for general-purpose parallel I/O when standard serial functions are not enabled.
Port S pins serve several functions depending on the various internal control registers. If WOMS bit in
the SC0CR1 register is set, the P-channel drivers of the output buffers are disabled for bits 0 through 1
(2 through 3). If SWOM bit in the SP0CR1 register is set, the P-channel drivers of the output buffers are
disabled for bits 4 through 7. (wired-OR mode). The open drain control effects both the serial and the
general-purpose outputs. If the RDPSx bits in the PURDS register are set, the appropriate port S pin
drive capabilities are reduced. If PUPSx bits in the PURDS register are set, the appropriate pull-up device is connected to each port S pin which is programmed as a general-purpose input . If the pin is programmed as a general-purpose output, the pull-up is disconnected from the pin regardless of the state
of the individual PUPSx bits. See 13 Serial Interface.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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Table 6 MC68HC912B32 Port Description Summary
Pin
Numbers
Data Direction
DD Register (Address)
Port A
PA[7:0]
46–39
In/Out
DDRA ($0002)
Port B
PB[7:0]
25–18
Port AD
PAD[7:0]
58–51
In
Port DLC
PDLC[6:0]
70–76
In/Out
DDRDLC ($00FF)
Port E
PE[7:0]
26–29, 35–38
PE[1:0] In
PE[7:2] In/Out
DDRE ($0009)
Mode selection, bus control signals and interrupt service
request signals; or general-purpose I/O.
Port P
PP[7:0]
79, 80, 1–6
In/Out
DDRP ($0057)
General-purpose I/O. PP[3:0] are use with the pulse-width
modulator when enabled.
Port S
PS[7:0]
68–61
In/Out
DDRS ($00D7)
Serial communications interface and serial peripheral interface subsystems and general-purpose I/O.
Port T
PT[7:0]
16–12, 9–7
In/Out
DDRT ($00AF)
General-purpose I/O when not enabled for input capture and
output compare in the timer and pulse accumulator subsystem.
Port Name
In/Out
DDRB ($0003)
Description
Port A and port B pins are used for address and data in expanded modes. The port data registers are not in the address
map during expanded and peripheral mode operation. When
in the map, port A and port B can be read or written any time.
DDRA and DDRB are not in the address map in expanded or
peripheral modes.
MOTOROLA
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Analog-to-digital converter and general-purpose I/O.
Byte Data Link Communication (BDLC) subsystem and
general-purpose I/O.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
3.5 Port Pull-Up, Pull-Down and Reduced Drive
MCU ports can be configured for internal pull-up. To reduce power consumption and RFI, the pin output
drivers can be configured to operate at a reduced drive level. Reduced drive causes a slight increase
in transition time depending on loading and should be used only for ports which have a light loading.
Table 7 summarizes the port pull-up default status and controls.
Table 7 Port Pull-Up, Pull-Down and Reduced Drive Summary
Enable Bit
Port
Name
Resistive
Input Loads
Register
(Address)
Port A
Pull-up
PUCR ($000C)
PUPA
Port B
Pull-up
PUCR ($000C)
PE7, PE3,
PE2, PE0
Pull-up
PUCR ($000C)
Reduced Drive Control Bit
Register
(Address)
Bit Name
Reset
State
Disabled
RDRIV ($000D)
RDPA
Full Drive
PUPB
Disabled
RDRIV ($000D)
RDPB
Full Drive
PUPE
Enabled
RDRIV ($000D)
RDPE
Full Drive
Bit Name Reset State
Port E:
PE1
Pull-up
Always Enabled
RDRIV ($000D)
RDPE
Full Drive
PE[6:4]
None
—
RDRIV ($000D)
RDPE
Full Drive
PE[6:5]
Pull-down
Enabled During Reset
—
—
—
Port P
Pull-up
PWCTL ($0054)
PUPP
Disabled
PWCTL ($0054)
RDPP
Full Drive
Port S
Pull-up
PURDS ($00DB)
PUPS0
Disabled
PURDS ($00DB)
RDPS0
Full Drive
PS[3:2]
Pull-up
PURDS ($00DB)
PUPS1
Disabled
PURDS ($00DB)
RDPS1
Full Drive
PS[7:4]
Pull-up
PURDS ($00DB)
PUPS2
Disabled
PURDS ($00DB)
RDPS2
Full Drive
Port T
Pull-up
TMSK2 ($008D)
PUPT
Disabled
TMSK2 ($008D)
RDPT
Full Drive
Port DLC
Pull-up
Port AD
None
BKGD
Pull-up
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
DLCSCR ($00FD) DLCPUE
Disabled
DLCSCR ($00FD) DLCRDV
—
—
Full Drive
—
—
Enabled
—
—
Full Drive
MOTOROLA
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4 Register Block
The register block can be mapped to any 2-Kbyte boundary within the standard 64-Kbyte address space
by manipulating bits REG[15:11] in the INITRG register. INITRG establishes the upper five bits of the
register block’s 16-bit address. The register block occupies the first 512 bytes of the 2-Kbyte block. Default addressing (after reset) is indicated in the table below. For additional information refer to 5 Operating Modes and Resource Mapping.
Table 8 MC68HC912B32 Register Map (Sheet 1 of 5)
Address
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Name
$0000
PA7
PA6
PA5
PA4
PA3
PA2
PA1
PA0
PORTA1
$0001
PB7
PB6
PB5
PB4
PB3
PB2
PB1
PB0
PORTB1
$0002
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
DDRA1
$0003
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
DDRB1
$0004
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0005
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0006
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0007
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0008
PE7
PE6
PE5
PE4
PE3
PE2
PE1
PE0
PORTE2
$0009
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
0
0
DDRE2
$000A
NDBE
0
PIPOE
NECLK
LSTRE
RDWE
0
0
PEAR2
$000B
SMODN
MODB
MODA
ESTR
IVIS
EBSWAI
0
EME
MODE3
$000C
0
0
0
PUPE
0
0
PUPB
PUPA
PUCR3
$000D
0
0
0
0
RDPE
0
RDPB
RDPA
RDRIV3
$000E
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$000F
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0010
RAM15
RAM14
RAM13
RAM12
RAM11
0
0
0
INITRM
$0011
REG15
REG14
REG13
REG12
REG11
0
0
MMSWAI
INITRG
$0012
EE15
EE14
EE13
EE12
0
0
0
EEON
INITEE
$0013
0
NDRF
RFSTR1
RFSTR0
EXSTR1
EXSTR0
MAPROM
ROMON
MISC
$0014
RTIE
RSWAI
RSBCK
0
RTBYP
RTR2
RTR1
RTR0
RTICTL
$0015
RTIF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RTIFLG
$0016
CME
FCME
FCM
FCOP
DISR
CR2
CR1
CR0
COPCTL
$0017
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
COPRST
$0018
ITE6
ITE8
ITEA
ITEC
ITEE
ITF0
ITF2
ITF4
ITST0
$0019
ITD6
ITD8
ITDA
ITDC
ITDE
ITE0
ITE2
ITE4
ITST1
$001A
ITC6
ITC8
ITCA
ITCC
ITCE
ITD0
ITD2
ITD4
ITST2
$001B
0
0
0
0
0
ITC0
ITC2
ITC4
ITST3
$001C–
$001D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$001E
IRQE
IRQEN
DLY
0
0
0
0
0
INTCR
$001F
1
1
PSEL5
PSEL4
PSEL3
PSEL2
PSEL1
0
HPRIO
$0020
BKEN1
BKEN0
BKPM
0
BK1ALE
BK0ALE
0
0
BRKCT0
$0021
0
BKDBE
BKMBH
BKMBL
BK1RWE
BK1RW
BK0RWE
BK0RW
BRKCT1
$0022
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
BRKAH
MOTOROLA
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Table 8 MC68HC912B32 Register Map (Sheet 2 of 5)
Address
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Name
$0023
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BRKAL
$0024
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
BRKDH
$0025
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BRKDL
$0026–
$003F
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0040
CON23
CON01
PCKA2
PCKA1
PCKA0
PCKB2
PCKB1
PCKB0
PWCLK
$0041
PCLK3
PCLK2
PCLK1
PCLK0
PPOL3
PPOL2
PPOL1
PPOL0
PWPOL
$0042
0
0
0
0
PWEN3
PWEN2
PWEN1
PWEN0
PWEN
$0043
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWPRES
$0044
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWSCAL0
$0045
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWSCNT0
$0046
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWSCAL1
$0047
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWSCNT1
$0048
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWCNT0
$0049
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWCNT1
$004A
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWCNT2
$004B
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWCNT3
$004C
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWPER0
$004D
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWPER1
$004E
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWPER2
$004F
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWPER3
$0050
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWDTY0
$0051
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWDTY1
$0052
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWDTY2
$0053
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWDTY3
$0054
0
0
0
PSWAI
CENTR
RDPP
PUPP
PSBCK
PWCTL
$0055
DISCR
DISCP
DISCAL
0
0
0
0
0
PWTST
$0056
PP7
PP6
PP5
PP4
PP3
PP2
PP1
PP0
PORTP
$0057
DDP7
DDP6
DDP5
DDP4
DDP3
DDP2
DDP1
DDP0
DDRP
$0058–
$005F
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0060
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ATDCTL0
$0061
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ATDCTL1
$0062
ADPU
AFFC
ASWAI
0
0
0
ASCIE
ASCIF
ATDCTL2
$0063
0
0
0
0
0
0
FRZ1
FRZ0
ATDCTL3
$0064
0
SMP1
SMP0
PRS4
PRS3
PRS2
PRS1
PRS0
ATDCTL4
$0065
0
S8CM
SCAN
MULT
CD
CC
CB
CA
ATDCTL5
$0066
SCF
0
0
0
0
CC2
CC1
CC0
ATDSTAT
$0067
CCF7
CCF6
CCF5
CCF4
CCF3
CCF2
CCF1
CCF0
ATDSTAT
$0068
SAR9
SAR8
SAR7
SAR6
SAR5
SAR4
SAR3
SAR2
ATDTSTH
$0069
SAR1
SAR0
RST
TSTOUT
TST3
TST2
TST1
TST0
ATDTSTL
$006A–
$006E
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
21
Table 8 MC68HC912B32 Register Map (Sheet 3 of 5)
Address
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Name
$006F
PAD7
PAD6
PAD5
PAD4
PAD3
PAD2
PAD1
PAD0
PORTAD
$0070
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR0H
$0071
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0072
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR1H
$0073
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0074
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR2H
$0075
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0076
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR3H
$0077
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0078
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR4H
$0079
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$007A
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR5H
$007B
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$007C
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR6H
$007D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$007E
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADR7H
$007F
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$0080
IOS7
IOS6
IOS5
IOS4
IOS3
IOS2
IOS1
IOS0
TIOS
$0081
FOC7
FOC6
FOC5
FOC4
FOC3
FOC2
FOC1
FOC0
CFORC
$0082
OC7M7
OC7M6
OC7M5
OC7M4
OC7M3
OC7M2
OC7M1
OC7M0
OC7M
$0083
OC7D7
OC7D6
OC7D5
OC7D4
OC7D3
OC7D2
OC7D1
OC7D0
OC7D
$0084
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TCNT (H)
$0085
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TCNT (L)
$0086
TEN
TSWAI
TSBCK
TFFCA
0
0
0
0
TSCR
$0087
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TQCR
$0088
OM7
OL7
OM6
OL6
OM5
OL5
OM4
OL4
TCTL1
$0089
OM3
OL3
OM2
OL2
OM1
OL1
OM0
OL0
TCTL2
$008A
EDG7B
EDG7A
EDG6B
EDG6A
EDG5B
EDG5A
EDG4B
EDG4A
TCTL3
$008B
EDG3B
EDG3A
EDG2B
EDG2A
EDG1B
EDG1A
EDG0B
EDG0A
TCTL4
$008C
C7I
C6I
C5I
C4I
C3I
C2I
C1I
C0I
TMSK1
$008D
TOI
0
PUPT
RDPT
TCRE
PR2
PR1
PR0
TMSK2
$008E
C7F
C6F
C5F
C4F
C3F
C2F
C1F
C0F
TFLG1
$008F
TOF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TFLG2
$0090
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC0 (H)
$0091
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC0 (L)
$0092
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC1 (H)
$0093
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC1 (L)
$0094
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC2 (H)
$0095
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC2 (L)
$0096
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC3 (H)
$0097
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC3 (L)
$0098
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC4 (H)
MOTOROLA
22
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Table 8 MC68HC912B32 Register Map (Sheet 4 of 5)
Address
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Name
$0099
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC4 (L)
$009A
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC5 (H)
$009B
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC5 (L)
$009C
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC6 (H)
$009D
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC6 (L)
$009E
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
TC7 (H)
$009F
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC7 (L)
$00A0
0
PAEN
PAMOD
PEDGE
CLK1
CLK0
PAOVI
PAI
PACTL
$00A1
0
0
0
0
0
0
PAOVF
PAIF
PAFLG
$00A2
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
PACNT
$00A3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PACNT
$00A4–
$00AC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$00AD
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCBYP
PCBYP
TIMTST
$00AE
PT7
PT6
PT5
PT4
PT3
PT2
PT1
PT0
PORTT
$00AF
DDT7
DDT6
DDT5
DDT4
DDT3
DDT2
DDT1
DDT0
DDRT
$00B0–
$00BF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$00C0
BTST
BSPL
BRLD
SBR12
SBR11
SBR10
SBR9
SBR8
SC0BDH
$00C1
SBR7
SBR6
SBR5
SBR4
SBR3
SBR2
SBR1
SBR0
SC0BDL
$00C2
LOOPS
WOMS
RSRC
M
WAKE
ILT
PE
PT
SC0CR1
$00C3
TIE
TCIE
RIE
ILIE
TE
RE
RWU
SBK
SC0CR2
$00C4
TDRE
TC
RDRF
IDLE
OR
NF
FE
PF
SC0SR1
$00C5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RAF
SC0SR2
$00C6
R8
T8
0
0
0
0
0
0
SC0DRH
$00C7
R7/T7
R6/T6
R5/T5
R4/T4
R3/T3
R2/T2
R1/T1
R0/T0
SC0DRL
$00C8–
$00CF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$00D0
SPIE
SPE
SWOM
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SSOE
LSBF
SP0CR1
$00D1
0
0
0
0
0
0
SSWAI
SPC0
SP0CR2
$00D2
0
0
0
0
0
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0
SP0BR
$00D3
SPIF
WCOL
0
MODF
0
0
0
0
SP0SR
$00D4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$00D5
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SP0DR
$00D6
PS7
PS6
PS5
PS4
PS3
PS2
PS1
PS0
PORTS
$00D7
DDS7
DDS6
DDS5
DDS4
DDS3
DDS2
DDS1
DDS0
DDRS
$00D8–
$00DA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
$00DB
0
RDPS2
RDPS1
RDPS0
0
PUPS2
PUPS1
PUPS0
PURDS
$00DC–
$00EF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
$00F0
1
1
1
1
1
EESWAI
PROTLCK
EERC
EEMCR
$00F1
1
1
1
BPROT4
BPROT3
BPROT2
BPROT1
BPROT0
EEPROT
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Reserved
MOTOROLA
23
Table 8 MC68HC912B32 Register Map (Sheet 5 of 5)
Address
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Name
$00F2
EEODD
EEVEN
MARG
EECPD
EECPRD
0
EECPM
0
EETST
$00F3
BULKP
0
0
BYTE
ROW
ERASE
EELAT
EEPGM
EEPROG
$00F4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LOCK
FEELCK
$00F5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BOOTP
FEEMCR
$00F6
FSTE
GADR
HVT
FENLV
FDISVFP
VTCK
STRE
MWPR
FEETST
$00F7
0
0
0
FEESWAI
SVFP
ERAS
LAT
ENPE
FEECTL
$00F8
IMSG
CLKS
R1
R0
0
0
IE
WCM
BCR1
$00F9
0
0
I3
I2
I1
I0
0
0
BSVR
$00FA
ALOOP
DLOOP
RX4XE
NBFS
TEOD
TSIFR
TMIFR1
TMIFR0
BCR2
$00FB
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
BDR
$00FC
ATE
RXPOL
0
0
BO3
BO2
BO1
BO0
BARD
$00FD
0
0
0
0
0
BDLCEN
DLCPUE
DLCRDV
DLCSCR
$00FE
0
PDLC6
PDLC5
PDLC4
PDLC3
PDLC2
PDLC1
PDLC0
PORTDLC
$00FF
0
DDDLC6
DDDLC5
DDDLC4
DDDLC3
DDDLC2
DDDLC1
DDDLC0
DDRDLC
$0100–
$01FF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
NOTES:
1. Port A, port B, and data direction registers DDRA and DDRB are not in map in expanded and peripheral modes.
2. Port E and DDRE not in map in peripheral mode; also not in map in expanded modes with EME set.
3. Not in map in peripheral mode.
MOTOROLA
24
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
5 Operating Modes and Resource Mapping
Eight possible operating modes determine the operating configuration of the MC68HC912B32. Each
mode has an associated default memory map and external bus configuration. After reset, most system
resources can be mapped to other addresses by writing to the appropriate control registers.
5.1 Operating Modes
The operating mode out of reset is determined by the states of the BKGD, MODB, and MODA pins during reset.
The SMODN, MODB, and MODA bits in the MODE register show current operating mode and provide
limited mode switching during operation. The states of the BKGD, MODB, and MODA pins are latched
into these bits on the rising edge of the reset signal. During reset an active pull-up is connected to the
BKGD pin (as input) and active pulldowns are connected to the MODB and MODA pins. If an open occurs on any of these pins, the device will operate in normal single-chip mode.
Table 9 Mode Selection
BKGD MODB MODA
Mode
Port A
Port B
0
0
0
Special Single Chip
General-Purpose I/O
General-Purpose I/O
0
0
1
Special Expanded Narrow
ADDR[15:8]/DATA[15:0]
ADDR[7:0]
0
1
0
Special Peripheral
ADDR/DATA
ADDR/DATA
0
1
1
Special Expanded Wide
ADDR/DATA
ADDR/DATA
1
0
0
Normal Single Chip
General-Purpose I/O
General-Purpose I/O
1
0
1
Normal Expanded Narrow
ADDR[15:8]/DATA[15:0]
ADDR[7:0]
1
1
0
Reserved (Forced to Peripheral)
—
—
1
1
1
Normal Expanded Wide
ADDR/DATA
ADDR/DATA
There are two basic types of operating modes:
Normal modes — some registers and bits are protected against accidental changes.
Special modes — allow greater access to protected control registers and bits for special purposes such
as testing and emulation.
A system development and debug feature, background debug mode (BDM), is available in all modes.
In special single-chip mode, BDM is active immediately after reset.
5.1.1 Normal Operating Modes
These modes provide three operating configurations. Background debugging is available in all three
modes, but must first be enabled for some operations by means of a BDM command. BDM can then be
made active by another BDM command.
Normal Expanded Wide Mode — This is a normal mode of operation in which the address and data
are multiplexed onto ports A and B. ADDR[15:8] and DATA[15:8] are present on port A. ADDR[7:0] and
DATA[7:0] are present on port B.
Normal Expanded Narrow Mode — Port A is configured as the high byte of address multiplexed with
the 8-bit data bus. Port B is configured as the lower 8-bit address bus. This mode is used for lower cost
production systems that use 8-bit wide external EEPROMs or RAMs. Such systems take extra bus cycles to access 16-bit locations but this may be preferred over the extra cost of additional external memory devices.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
25
Normal Single-Chip Mode — There are no external address and data buses in this mode. All pins of
ports A, B and E are configured as general-purpose I/O pins. Port E bits 1 and 0 are input-only with
internal pull-ups and the other 22 pins are bidirectional I/O pins that are initially configured as high-impedance inputs. Port E pull-ups are enabled upon reset; port A and B pull-ups are disabled upon reset.
5.1.2 Special Operating Modes
There are three special operating modes that correspond to normal operating modes. These operating
modes are commonly used in factory testing and system development. In addition, there is a special
peripheral mode, in which an external master, such as an I.C. tester, can control the on-chip peripherals.
Special Expanded Wide Mode — This mode can be used for emulation of normal expanded wide
mode and emulation of normal single-chip mode and 16-bit data bus. The bus control related pins in
PORTE are all configured to serve their bus control output functions rather than general-purpose I/O.
Special Expanded Narrow Mode — This mode can be used for emulation of normal expanded narrow
mode. In this mode external 16-bit data is handled as two back-to-back bus cycles, one for the high byte
followed by one for the low byte. Internal operations continue to use full 16-bit data paths.
Special Single-Chip Mode — This mode can be used to force the MCU to active BDM mode to allow
system debug through the BKGD pin. The MCU does not fetch the reset vector and execute application
code as it would in other modes. Instead, the active background mode is in control of CPU execution
and BDM firmware is waiting for additional serial commands through the BKGD pin. There are no external address and data buses in this mode. The MCU operates as a stand-alone device and all program
and data space are on-chip. External port pins can be used for general-purpose I/O.
Special Peripheral Mode — The CPU is not active in this mode. An external master can control onchip peripherals for testing purposes. It is not possible to change to or from this mode without going
through reset. Background debugging should not be used while the MCU is in special peripheral mode
as internal bus conflicts between BDM and the external master can cause improper operation of both
modes.
5.2 Background Debug Mode
Background debug mode (BDM) is an auxiliary operating mode that is used for system development.
BDM is implemented in on-chip hardware and provides a full set of debug operations. Some BDM commands can be executed while the CPU is operating normally. Other BDM commands are firmware
based, and require the BDM firmware to be enabled and active for execution.
In special single-chip mode, BDM is enabled and active immediately out of reset. BDM is available in
all other operating modes, but must be enabled before it can be activated. BDM should not be used in
special peripheral mode because of potential bus conflicts.
Once enabled, background mode can be made active by a serial command sent via the BKGD pin or
execution of a CPU12 BGND instruction. While background mode is active, the CPU can interpret special debugging commands, and read and write CPU registers, peripheral registers, and locations in
memory.
While BDM is active, the CPU executes code located in a small on-chip ROM mapped to addresses
$FF00 to $FFFF; BDM control registers are accessible at addresses $FF00 to $FF06. The BDM ROM
replaces the regular system vectors while BDM is active. While BDM is active, the user memory from
$FF00 to $FFFF is not in the map except through serial BDM commands.
BDM allows read and write access to internal memory-mapped registers and RAM, and read access to
EEPROM and Flash EEPROM without interrupting the application code executing in the CPU. This nonintrusive mode uses dead bus cycles to access the memory and in most cases will remain cycle deterministic. Refer to 16 Development Support for more details on BDM.
MOTOROLA
26
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MODE — Mode Register
$000B
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SMODN
MODB
MODA
ESTR
IVIS
EBSWAI
0
EME
RESET:
1
0
1
1
0
0
–
0
Normal Exp
Narrow
RESET:
1
1
1
1
0
0
–
0
Normal Exp
Wide
RESET:
0
0
1
1
1
0
–
1
Special Exp
Narrow
RESET:
0
1
1
1
1
0
–
1
Special Exp
Wide
RESET:
0
1
0
1
1
0
–
1
Peripheral
RESET:
1
0
0
1
0
0
–
0
Normal
Single Chip
RESET:
0
0
0
1
1
0
–
1
Special
Single Chip
MODE controls the MCU operating mode and various configuration options. This register is not in the
map in peripheral mode.
SMODN, MODB, MODB — Mode Select Special, B and A
These bits show the current operating mode and reflect the status of the BKGD, MODB and MODA input
pins at the rising edge of reset.
Read anytime. SMODN may only be written if SMODN = 0 (in special modes) but the first write is ignored; MODB, MODA may be written once if SMODN = 1; anytime if SMODN = 0, except that special
peripheral and reserved modes cannot be selected.
ESTR — E Clock Stretch Enable
Determines if the E Clock behaves as a simple free-running clock or as a bus control signal that is active
only for external bus cycles. ESTR is always one in expanded modes since it is required for address
demultiplexing and must follow stretched cycles.
0 = E never stretches (always free running).
1 = E stretches high during external access cycles and low during non-visible internal accesses.
Normal modes: write once; Special modes: write anytime, read anytime.
IVIS — Internal Visibility
This bit determines whether internal ADDR/DATA, R/W, and LSTRB signals can be seen on the bus
during accesses to internal locations. In special expanded narrow mode, it is possible to configure the
MCU to show internal accesses on an external 16-bit bus. The IVIS control bit must be set to one. When
the system is configured this way, visible internal accesses are shown as if the MCU was configured for
expanded wide mode but normal external accesses operate as if the bus was in narrow mode. In normal
expanded narrow mode, internal visibility is not allowed and IVIS is ignored.
0 = No visibility of internal bus operations on external bus
1 = Internal bus operations are visible on external bus
Normal modes: write once; Special modes: write anytime EXCEPT the first time. Read anytime.
EBSWAI — External Bus Module Stop in Wait Control
This bit controls access to the external bus interface when in wait mode. The module will delay before
shutting down in wait mode to allow for final bus activity to complete.
0 = External bus and registers continue functioning during wait mode.
1 = External bus is shut down during wait mode.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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EME — Emulate Port E
Removing the registers from the map allows the user to emulate the function of these registers externally. In single-chip mode PORTE and DDRE are always in the map regardless of the state of this bit.
0 = PORTE and DDRE are in the memory map.
1 = PORTE and DDRE are removed from the internal memory map (expanded mode).
Normal modes: write once; special modes: write anytime EXCEPT the first time. Read anytime.
5.3 Internal Resource Mapping
The internal register block, RAM, Flash EEPROM and EEPROM have default locations within the 64Kbyte standard address space but may be reassigned to other locations during program execution by
setting bits in mapping registers INITRG, INITRM, and INITEE. During normal operating modes these
registers can be written once. It is advisable to explicitly establish these resource locations during the
initialization phase of program execution, even if default values are chosen, in order to protect the registers from inadvertent modification later.
Writes to the mapping registers go into effect between the cycle that follows the write and the cycle after
that. To assure that there are no unintended operations, a write to one of these registers should be followed with a NOP instruction.
If conflicts occur when mapping resources, the register block will take precedence over the other resources; RAM, Flash EEPROM, or EEPROM addresses occupied by the register block will not be available for storage. When active, BDM ROM takes precedence over other resources although a conflict
between BDM ROM and register space is not possible. Table 10 shows resource mapping precedence.
All address space not utilized by internal resources is by default external memory. The memory expansion module manages three memory overlay windows: program, data, and one extra page overlay. The
size and location of the program and data overlay windows are fixed. One of two locations can be selected for the extra page (EPAGE).
Table 10 Mapping Precedence
Precedence
Resource
1
BDM ROM (if active)
2
Register Space
3
RAM
4
EEPROM
5
Flash EEPROM
6
External Memory
5.3.1 Register Block Mapping
After reset the 512 byte register block resides at location $0000 but can be reassigned to any 2-Kbyte
boundary within the standard 64-Kbyte address space. Mapping of internal registers is controlled by five
bits in the INITRG register. The register block occupies the first 512 bytes of the 2-Kbyte block.
INITRG — Initialization of Internal Register Position Register
$0011
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
REG15
REG14
REG13
REG12
REG11
0
0
MMSWAI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
REG[15:11] — Internal register map position
These bits specify the upper five bits of the 16-bit registers address.
Write once in normal modes or anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MMSWAI — Memory Mapping Interface Stop in Wait Control
This bit controls access to the memory mapping interface when in Wait mode.
0 = Memory mapping interface continues to function during Wait mode.
1 = Memory mapping interface access is shut down during Wait mode.
5.3.2 RAM Mapping
The MC68HC912B32 has 1 Kbyte of fully static RAM that is used for storing instructions, variables, and
temporary data during program execution. After reset, RAM addressing begins at location $0800 but
can be assigned to any 2-Kbyte boundary within the standard 64-Kbyte address space. Mapping of internal RAM is controlled by five bits in the INITRM register. The RAM array occupies the first 1 Kbyte
of the 2-Kbyte block.
INITRM — Initialization of Internal RAM Position Register
RESET:
$0010
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
RAM15
RAM14
RAM13
RAM12
RAM11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
RAM[15:11] — Internal RAM Map Position
These bits specify the upper five bits of the 16-bit RAM address.
Write once in normal modes or anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
5.3.3 EEPROM Mapping
The MC68HC912B32 has 768 bytes of EEPROM which is activated by the EEON bit in the INITEE register.
Mapping of internal EEPROM is controlled by four bits in the INITEE register. After reset EEPROM address space begins at location $0D00 but can be mapped to any 4-Kbyte boundary within the standard
64-Kbyte address space.
INITEE — Initialization of Internal EEPROM Position Register
RESET:
$0012
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
EE15
EE14
EE13
EE12
0
0
0
EEON
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
EE[15:12] — Internal EEPROM map position
These bits specify the upper four bits of the 16-bit EEPROM address.
Write once in normal modes or anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
EEON — Internal EEPROM On (Enabled)
The EEON bit allows read access to the EEPROM array. EEPROM control registers can be accessed
and EEPROM locations may be programmed or erased regardless of the state of EEON.
This bit is forced to one in single-chip modes. Read or write anytime.
0 = Removes the EEPROM from the map
1 = Places the on-chip EEPROM in the memory map
5.3.4 Flash EEPROM and Expansion Address Mapping
Additional mapping controls are available that can be used in conjunction with Flash EEPROM and
memory expansion.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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The 32-Kbyte Flash EEPROM can be mapped to either the upper or lower half of the 64-Kbyte address
space. When mapping conflicts occur, registers, RAM and EEPROM have priority over Flash EEPROM.
To use memory expansion the part must be operated in one of the expanded modes.
MISC — Miscellaneous Mapping Control Register
RESET:
$0013
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
NDRF
RFSTR1
RFSTR0
EXSTR1
EXSTR0
MAPROM
ROMON
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
This register can be read anytime. In normal modes MISC can be written once; in special modes it can
be written anytime.
NDRF — Narrow Data Bus for Register-Following Map
This bit enables a narrow bus feature for the 512-byte register-following map. In expanded narrow (eight
bit) modes, single-chip modes, and peripheral mode, NDRF has no effect. The register-following map
always begins at the byte following the 512-byte register map. If the registers are moved this space will
also move.
0 = Register-following map space acts as a full 16-bit data bus
1 = Register-following map space acts the same as an 8-bit external data bus
RFSTR1, RFSTR0 — Register-Following Stretch Bit 1 and Bit 0
These bits determine the amount of clock stretch on accesses to the 512-byte register-following map. It
is valid regardless of the state of the NDRF bit. In single-chip and peripheral modes this bit has no
meaning or effect.
Table 11 Register-Following Stretch-Bit Definition
Stretch Bit RFSTR1 Stretch Bit RFSTR0 E Clocks Stretched
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3
EXSTR1, EXSTR0 — External Access Stretch Bit 1 and Bit 0
These bits determine the amount of clock stretch on accesses to the external address space. In singlechip and peripheral modes this bit has no meaning or effect.
Table 12 Expanded Stretch-Bit Definition
Stretch Bit EXSTR1 Stretch Bit EXSTR0 E Clocks Stretched
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3
MAPROM — Map Location of Flash EEPROM
This bit determines the location of the on-chip Flash EEPROM. In expanded modes it is reset to zero.
In single-chip modes it is reset to one. If ROMON is zero, this bit has no meaning or effect.
0 = Flash EEPROM is located from $0000 to $7FFF
1 = Flash EEPROM is located from $8000 to $FFFF
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
ROMON — Enable Flash EEPROM
In expanded modes ROMON is reset to zero. In single-chip modes it is reset to one. If the internal RAM,
registers, EEPROM, or BDM ROM (if active) are mapped to the same space as the Flash EEPROM,
they will have priority over the Flash EEPROM.
0 = Disables the Flash EEPROM in the memory map
1 = Enables the Flash EEPROM in the memory map
5.4 Memory Maps
The following diagrams illustrate the memory map for each mode of operation immediately after reset.
$0000
$0000 REGISTERS
512 BYTES RAM
$01FF MAP TO ANY 2K SPACE
$0200 REGISTER FOLLOWING
SPACE
$03FF 512 BYTES RAM
$0800
$0800
$0BFF
$0D00
$0000
1-KBYTE RAM
MAP TO ANY 2K SPACE
$0D00
768 BYTES EEPROM
MAP TO ANY 4K SPACE
$0FFF
$7FFF
$8000
$8000
FLASH EEPROM
MAP WITH MAPROM BIT
IN MISC REGISTER
TO $0000 – $7FFF
OR $8000 – $FFFF
$FF00
$F000
$FF00
$FFC0
$FFFF
VECTORS
VECTORS
VECTORS
EXPANDED
SINGLE CHIP
NORMAL
SINGLE CHIP
SPECIAL
BDM
(IF ACTIVE)
$FFFF
$FFFF
HC812B32 MEM MAP
Figure 6 MC68HC912B32 Memory Map
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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6 Bus Control and Input/Output
Internally the MC68HC912B32 has full 16-bit data paths, but depending upon the operating mode and
control registers, the external bus may be eight or sixteen bits. There are cases where 8-bit and 16-bit
accesses can appear on adjacent cycles using the LSTRB signal to indicate 8- or 16-bit data.
6.1 Detecting Access Type from External Signals
The external signals LSTRB, R/W, and A0 can be used to determine the type of bus access that is taking place. Accesses to the internal RAM module are the only type of access that produce LSTRB=A0=1,
because the internal RAM is specifically designed to allow misaligned 16-bit accesses in a single cycle.
In these cases the data for the address that was accessed is on the low half of the data bus and the
data for address + 1 is on the high half of the data bus (data order is swapped).
Table 13 Access Type vs. Bus Control Pins
LSTRB
A0
R/W
Type of Access
1
0
1
8-bit read of an even address
0
1
1
8-bit read of an odd address
1
0
0
8-bit write to an even address
0
1
0
8-bit write to an odd address
0
0
1
16-bit read of an even address
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
16-bit read of an odd address
(low/high data swapped)
16-bit write to an even address
16-bit write to an even address
(low/high data swapped)
6.2 Registers
Not all registers are visible in the MC68HC912B32 memory map under certain conditions. In special
peripheral mode the first 16 registers associated with bus expansion are removed from the memory
map.
In expanded modes, some or all of port A, port B, and port E are used for expansion buses and control
signals. In order to allow emulation of the single-chip functions of these ports, some of these registers
must be rebuilt in an external port replacement unit. In any expanded mode port A and port B are used
for address and data lines so registers for these ports, as well as the data direction registers for these
ports, are removed from the on-chip memory map and become external accesses.
In any expanded mode, port E pins may be needed for bus control (e.g., ECLK, R/W). To regain the
single-chip functions of port E, the emulate port E (EME) control bit in the MODE register may be set.
In this special case of expanded mode and EME set, PORTE and DDRE registers are removed from
the on-chip memory map and become external accesses so port E may be rebuilt externally.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
PORTA — Port A Register
$0000
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Single
Chip
PA7
PA6
PA5
PA4
PA3
PA2
PA1
PA0
RESET:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Exp Wide
& Periph:
ADDR15
DATA15
ADDR14
DATA14
ADDR13
DATA13
ADDR12
DATA12
ADDR11
DATA11
ADDR10
DATA10
ADDR9
DATA9
ADDR8
DATA8
Expanded ADDR15 ADDR14 ADDR13 ADDR12 ADDR11 ADDR10
ADDR9
Narrow DATA15/7 DATA14/6 DATA13/5 DATA12/4 DATA11/3 DATA10/2 DATA9/1
ADDR8
DATA8/0
Bits PA[7:0] are associated with addresses ADDR[15:8] and DATA[15:8]. When this port is not used for
external addresses and data, such as in single-chip mode, these pins can be used as general-purpose
I/O. DDRA determines the primary direction of each pin. This register is not in the on-chip map in expanded and peripheral modes. Read and write anytime.
DDRA — Port A Data Direction Register
RESET:
$0002
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
This register determines the primary direction for each port A pin when functioning as a general-purpose
I/O port. DDRA is not in the on-chip map in expanded and peripheral modes. Read and write anytime.
0 = Associated pin is a high-impedance input
1 = Associated pin is an output
PORTB — Port B Register
$0001
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Single Chip
PB7
PB6
PB5
PB4
PB3
PB2
PB1
PB0
RESET:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Exp Wide
& Periph:
ADDR7
DATA7
ADDR6
DATA6
ADDR5
DATA5
ADDR4
DATA4
ADDR3
DATA3
ADDR2
DATA2
ADDR1
DATA1
ADDR0
DATA0
Expanded
Narrow
ADDR7
ADDR6
ADDR5
ADDR4
ADDR3
ADDR2
ADDR1
ADDR0
Bits PB[7:0] are associated with addresses ADDR[7:0] and DATA[7:0]. When this port is not used for
external addresses and data such as in single-chip mode, these pins can be used as general-purpose
I/O. DDRB determines the primary direction of each pin. This register is not in the on-chip map in expanded and peripheral modes. Read and write anytime.
DDRB — Port B Data Direction Register
RESET:
$0003
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
This register determines the primary direction for each port B pin when functioning as a general-purpose
I/O port. DDRB is not in the on-chip map in expanded and peripheral modes. Read and write anytime.
0 = Associated pin is a high-impedance input
1 = Associated pin is an output
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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PORTE — Port E Register
$0008
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Single Chip
PE7
PE6
PE5
PE4
PE3
PE2
PE1
PE0
RESET:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Alt. Pin
Function
DBE
MODB or
IPIPE1
MODA or
IPIPE0
ECLK
LSTRB or
TAGLO
R/W
IRQ
XIRQ
This register is associated with external bus control signals and interrupt inputs including data bus enable (DBE), mode select (MODB/IPIPE1, MODA/IPIPE0), E clock, data size (LSTRB/TAGLO), read/
write (R/W), IRQ, and XIRQ. When the associated pin is not used for one of these specific functions,
the pin can be used as general-purpose I/O. The port E assignment register (PEAR) selects the function
of each pin. DDRE determines the primary direction of each port E pin when configured to be generalpurpose I/O.
Some of these pins have software selectable pull-ups (DBE, LSTRB, R/W, and XIRQ). A single control
bit enables the pull-ups for all these pins which are configured as inputs. IRQ always has a pull-up.
This register is not in the map in peripheral mode or expanded modes when the EME bit is set.
Read and write anytime.
DDRE — Port E Data Direction Register
$0009
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
–
RESET:
This register determines the primary direction for each port E pin configured as general-purpose I/O.
0 = Associated pin is a high-impedance input
1 = Associated pin is an output
PE[1:0] are associated with XIRQ and IRQ and cannot be configured as outputs. These pins can be
read regardless of whether the alternate interrupt functions are enabled.
This register is not in the map in peripheral mode and expanded modes while the EME control bit is set.
Read and write anytime.
PEAR — Port E Assignment Register
$000A
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
NDBE
0
PIPOE
NECLK
LSTRE
RDWE
0
0
RESET:
0
–
0
0
0
0
–
–
Normal
Expanded
RESET:
0
–
1
0
1
1
–
–
Special
Expanded
RESET:
1
–
0
1
0
0
–
–
Peripheral
RESET:
1
–
0
1
0
0
–
–
Normal
Single Chip
RESET:
0
–
1
0
1
1
–
–
Special
Single Chip
The PEAR register is used to choose between the general-purpose I/O functions and the alternate bus
control functions of port E. When an alternate control function is selected, the associated DDRE bits are
overridden.
The reset condition of this register depends on the mode of operation because bus-control signals are
needed immediately after reset in some modes.
In normal single-chip mode, no external bus control signals are needed so all of port E is configured for
general-purpose I/O.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
In special single-chip mode, the E clock is enabled as a timing reference and the other bits of port E are
configured for general-purpose I/O.
In normal expanded modes, the reset vector is located in external memory. The E clock may be required
for this access but R/W is only needed by the system when there are external writable resources. Therefore in normal expanded modes, only the E clock is configured for its alternate bus control function and
the other bits of port E are configured for general-purpose I/O. If the normal expanded system needs
any other bus-control signals, PEAR would need to be written before any access that needed the additional signals.
In special expanded modes, IPIPE1, IPIPE0, E, R/W, and LSTRB are configured as bus-control signals.
In peripheral mode, the PEAR register is not accessible for reads or writes.
NDBE — No Data Bus Enable
Read and write anytime.
0 = PE7 is used for external control of data enables on memories.
1 = PE7 is used for general-purpose I/O.
PIPOE — Pipe Signal Output Enable
Normal: write once; Special: write anytime except the first time. Read anytime. This bit has no effect in
single chip modes.
0 = PE[6:5] are general-purpose I/O.
1 = PE[6:5] are outputs and indicate the state of the instruction queue.
NECLK — No External E Clock
In expanded modes, writes to this bit have no effect. E clock is required for de-multiplexing the external
address; NECLK will remain zero in expanded modes. NECLK can be written once in normal singlechip mode and can be written anytime in special single chip mode. The bit can be read anytime.
0 = PE4 is the external E-clock pin subject to the following limitation: In single-chip modes, PE4 is
general-purpose I/O unless NECLK = 0 and either IVIS = 1 or ESTR = 0. A 16-bit write to
PEAR:MODE can configure all three bits in one operation.
1 = PE4 is a general-purpose I/O pin.
LSTRE — Low Strobe (LSTRB) Enable
Normal: write once; Special: write anytime except the first time. Read anytime. This bit has no effect in
single-chip modes or normal expanded narrow mode.
0 = PE3 is a general-purpose I/O pin.
1 = PE3 is configured as the LSTRB bus-control output, provided the MCU is not in single chip or
normal expanded narrow modes.
LSTRB is used during external writes. After reset in normal expanded mode, LSTRB is disabled. If
needed, it should be enabled before external writes. External reads do not normally need LSTRB because all 16 data bits can be driven even if the MCU only needs eight bits of data.
TAGLO is a shared function of the PE3/LSTRB pin. In special expanded modes with LSTRE set and the
BDM instruction tagging on, a zero at the falling edge of E tags the instruction word low byte being read
into the instruction queue.
RDWE — Read/Write Enable
Normal: write once; Special: write anytime except the first time. Read anytime. This bit has no effect in
single-chip modes.
0 = PE2 is a general-purpose I/O pin.
1 = PE2 is configured as the R/W pin. In single-chip modes, RDWE has no effect and PE2 is a general-purpose I/O pin.
R/W is used for external writes. After reset in normal expanded mode, it is disabled. If needed it should
be enabled before any external writes.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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PUCR — Pull-Up Control Register
RESET:
$000C
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
PUPE
0
0
PUPB
PUPA
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
These bits select pull-up resistors for any pin in the corresponding port that is currently configured as
an input. This register is not in the map in peripheral mode.
Read and write anytime.
PUPE — Pull-Up Port E Enable
Pin PE1 always has a pull-up. Pins PE6, PE5, and PE4 never have pull-ups.
0 = Port E pull-ups on PE7, PE3, PE2, and PE0 are disabled.
1 = Enable pull-up devices for port E input pins PE7, PE3, PE2, and PE0.
PUPB — Pull-Up Port B Enable
0 = Port B pull-ups are disabled.
1 = Enable pull-up devices for all port B input pins.
This bit has no effect if port B is being used as part of the address/data bus (the pull-ups are inactive).
PUPA — Pull-Up Port A Enable
0 = Port A pull-ups are disabled.
1 = Enable pull-up devices for all port A input pins.
This bit has no effect if port A is being used as part of the address/data bus (the pull-ups are inactive).
RDRIV — Reduced Drive of I/O Lines
RESET:
$000D
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
RDPE
0
RDPB
RDPA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
These bits select reduced drive for the associated port pins. This gives reduced power consumption and
reduced RFI with a slight increase in transition time (depending on loading). The reduced drive function
is independent of which function is being used on a particular port. This register is not in the map in
peripheral mode.
Normal: write once; Special: write anytime except the first time. Read anytime.
RDPE — Reduced Drive of Port E
0 = All port E output pins have full drive enabled.
1 = All port E output pins have reduced drive capability.
RDPB — Reduced Drive of Port B
0 = All port B output pins have full drive enabled.
1 = All port B output pins have reduced drive capability.
RDPA — Reduced Drive of Port A
0 = All port A output pins have full drive enabled.
1 = All port A output pins have reduced drive capability.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
7 Flash EEPROM
The 32-Kbyte Flash EEPROM module for the MC68HC912B32 serves as electrically erasable and programmable, non-volatile ROM emulation memory. The module can be used for program code that must
either execute at high speed or is frequently executed, such as operating system kernels and standard
subroutines, or it can be used for static data which is read frequently. The Flash EEPROM is ideal for
program storage for single-chip applications allowing for field reprogramming.
7.1 Overview
The Flash EEPROM array is arranged in a 16-bit configuration and may be read as either bytes, aligned
words or misaligned words. Access time is one bus cycle for byte and aligned word access and two bus
cycles for misaligned word operations.
The Flash EEPROM module requires an external program/erase voltage (VFP) to program or erase the
Flash EEPROM array. The external program/erase voltage is provided to the Flash EEPROM module
via an external VFP pin. To prevent damage to the flash array, VFP should always be greater than or
equal to VDD−0.5V. Programming is by byte or aligned word. The Flash EEPROM module supports bulk
erase only.
The Flash EEPROM module has hardware interlocks which protect stored data from accidental corruption. An erase- and program-protected 2-Kbyte block for boot routines is located at $7800–$7FFF or
$F800–$FFFF depending upon the mapped location of the Flash EEPROM array. (The protected boot
block on the initial mask sets, G86W and G75R, is 1-Kbyte and is located at $7C00–$7FFF or $FC00–
$FFFF.)
7.2 Flash EEPROM Control Block
A 4-byte register block controls the Flash EEPROM module operation. Configuration information is
specified and programmed independently from the contents of the Flash EEPROM array. At reset, the
4-byte register section starts at address $00F4.
7.3 Flash EEPROM Array
After reset, the Flash EEPROM array is located from addresses $8000 to $FFFF in single-chip mode.
In Expanded modes the Flash EEPROM array is located from address $0000 to $7FFF, however, it is
turned off. The Flash EEPROM can be mapped to an alternate address range. See 5 Operating Modes
and Resource Mapping.
7.4 Flash EEPROM Registers
FEELCK — Flash EEPROM Lock Control Register
RESET:
$00F4
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LOCK
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
In normal modes the LOCK bit can only be written once after reset.
LOCK — Lock Register Bit
0 = Enable write to FEEMCR register
1 = Disable write to FEEMCR register
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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FEEMCR — Flash EEPROM Module Configuration Register
RESET:
$00F5
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BOOTP
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
This register controls the operation of the Flash EEPROM array. BOOTP cannot be changed when the
LOCK control bit in the FEELCK register is set or if ENPE in the FEECTL register is set.
BOOTP — Boot Protect
The boot block is located at $7800–$7FFF or $F800–$FFFF depending upon the mapped location of
the Flash EEPROM array and mask set ($7C00–$7FFF or $FC00–$FFFF for 1-Kbyte block).
0 = Enable erase and program of 1-Kbyte or 2-Kbyte boot block
1 = Disable erase and program of 1-Kbyte or 2-Kbyte boot block
FEETST — Flash EEPROM Module Test Register
$00F6
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
FSTE
GADR
HVT
FENLV
FDISVFP
VTCK
STRE
MWPR
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
In normal mode, writes to FEETST control bits have no effect and always read zero. The Flash
EEPROM module cannot be placed in test mode inadvertently during normal operation.
FSTE — Stress Test Enable
0 = Disables the gate/drain stress circuitry
1 = Enables the gate/drain stress circuitry
GADR — Gate/Drain Stress Test Select
0 = Selects the drain stress circuitry
1 = Selects the gate stress circuitry
HVT — Stress Test High Voltage Status
0 = High voltage not present during stress test
1 = High voltage present during stress test
FENLV — Enable Low Voltage
0 = Disables low voltage transistor in current reference circuit
1 = Enables low voltage transistor in current reference circuit
FDISVFP — Disable Status VFP Voltage Lock
When the VFP pin is below normal programming voltage the Flash module will not allow writing to the
LAT bit; the user cannot erase or program the Flash module. The FDISVFP control bit enables writing
to the LAT bit regardless of the voltage on the VFP pin.
0 = Enable the automatic lock mechanism if VFP is low
1 = Disable the automatic lock mechanism if VFP is low
VTCK — VT Check Test Enable
When VTCK is set, the Flash EEPROM module uses the VFP pin to control the control gate voltage; the
sense amp time-out path is disabled. This allows for indirect measurements of the bit cells program and
erase threshold. If VFP < VZBRK (breakdown voltage) the control gate will equal the VFP voltage.
If VFP > VZBRK the control gate will be regulated by the following equation:
Vcontrol gate = VZBRK + 0.44 × (VFP − VZBRK)
0 = VT test disable
1 = VT test enable
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STRE — Spare Test Row Enable
The spare test row consists of one Flash EEPROM array row. The reserved word at location 31 contains
production test information which must be maintained through several erase cycles. When STRE is set,
the decoding for the spare test row overrides the address lines which normally select the other rows in
the array.
0 = LIB accesses are to the Flash EEPROM array
1 = Spare test row in array enabled if SMOD is active
MWPR — Multiple Word Programming
Used primarily for testing, if MPWR = 1, the two least-significant address lines ADDR[1:0] will be ignored
when programming a Flash EEPROM location. The word location addressed if ADDR[1:0] = 00, along
with the word location addressed if ADDR[1:0] = 10, will both be programmed with the same word data
from the programming latches. This bit should not be changed during programming.
0 = Multiple word programming disabled
1 = Program 32 bits of data
FEECTL — Flash EEPROM Control Register
RESET:
$00F7
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
FEESWAI
SVFP
ERAS
LAT
ENPE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
This register controls the programming and erasure of the Flash EEPROM.
FEESWAI — Flash EEPROM Stop in Wait Control
0 = Do not halt Flash EEPROM clock when the part is in wait mode.
1 = Halt Flash EEPROM clock when the part is in wait mode.
NOTE
The FEESWAI bit cannot be asserted if the interrupt vector resides in theFlash
EEPROM array.
SVFP — Status VFP Voltage
SVFP is a read only bit.
0 = Voltage of VFP pin is below normal programming voltage levels
1 = Voltage of VFP pin is above normal programming voltage levels
ERAS — Erase Control
This bit can be read anytime or written when ENPE = 0. When set, all locations in the array will be
erased at the same time. The boot block will be erased only if BOOTP = 0. This bit also affects the result
of attempted array reads. See Table 14 for more information. Status of ERAS cannot change if ENPE
is set.
0 = Flash EEPROM configured for programming
1 = Flash EEPROM configured for erasure
LAT — Latch Control
This bit can be read anytime or written when ENPE = 0. When set, the Flash EEPROM is configured
for programming or erasure and, upon the next valid write to the array, the address and data will be
latched for the programming sequence. See Table 14 for the effects of LAT on array reads. A high voltage detect circuit on the VFP pin will prevent assertion of the LAT bit when the programming voltage is
at normal levels.
0 = Programming latches disabled
1 = Programming latches enabled
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ENPE — Enable Programming/Erase
0 = Disables program/erase voltage to Flash EEPROM
1 = Applies program/erase voltage to Flash EEPROM
ENPE can be asserted only after LAT has been asserted and a write to the data and address latches
has occurred. If an attempt is made to assert ENPE when LAT is negated, or if the latches have not
been written to after LAT was asserted, ENPE will remain negated after the write cycle is complete.
The LAT, ERAS and BOOTP bits cannot be changed when ENPE is asserted. A write to FEECTL may
only affect the state of ENPE. Attempts to read a Flash EEPROM array location in the Flash EEPROM
module while ENPE is asserted will not return the data addressed. See Table 14 for more information.
Flash EEPROM module control registers may be read or written while ENPE is asserted. If ENPE is
asserted and LAT is negated on the same write access, no programming or erasure will be performed.
Table 14 Effects of ENPE, LAT and ERAS on Array Reads
ENPE
LAT
ERAS
Result of Read
0
0
–
Normal read of location addressed
0
1
0
Read of location being programmed
0
1
1
Normal read of location addressed
1
–
–
Read cycle is ignored
7.5 Operation
The Flash EEPROM can contain program and data. On reset, it can operate as a bootstrap memory to
provide the CPU with internal initialization information during the reset sequence.
7.5.1 Bootstrap Operation Single-Chip Mode
After reset, the CPU controlling the system will begin booting up by fetching the first program address
from address $FFFE.
7.5.2 Normal Operation
The Flash EEPROM allows a byte or aligned word read/write in one bus cycle. Misaligned word read/
write require an additional bus cycle. The Flash EEPROM array responds to read operations only. Write
operations are ignored.
7.5.3 Program/Erase Operation
An unprogrammed Flash EEPROM bit has a logic state of one. A bit must be programmed to change
its state from one to zero. Erasing a bit returns it to a logic one. The Flash EEPROM has a minimum
program/erase life of 100 cycles. Programming or erasing the Flash EEPROM is accomplished by a series of control register writes and a write to a set of programming latches.
Programming is restricted to a single byte or aligned word at a time as determined by internal signal
SZ8 and ADDR[0]. The Flash EEPROM must first be completely erased prior to programming final data
values. It is possible to program a location in the Flash EEPROM without erasing the entire array if the
new value does not require the changing of bit values from zero to one.
Read/Write Accesses During Program/Erase — During program or erase operations, read and write
accesses may be different from those during normal operation and are affected by the state of the control bits in the Flash EEPROM control register (FEECTL). The next write to any valid address to the array after LAT is set will cause the address and data to be latched into the programming latches. Once
the address and data are latched, write accesses to the array will be ignored while LAT is set. Writes to
the control registers will occur normally.
Program/Erase Verification — When programming or erasing the Flash EEPROM array, a special
verification method is required to ensure that the program/erase process is reliable, and also to provide
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MC68HC912B32TS/D
the longest possible life expectancy. This method requires stopping the program/erase sequence at periods of tPPULSE (tEPULSE for erasing) to determine if the Flash EEPROM is programmed/erased. After
the location reaches the proper value, it must continue to be programmed/erased with additional margin
pulses to ensure that it will remain programmed/erased. Failure to provide the margin pulses could lead
to corrupted or unreliable data.
Program/Erase Sequence — To begin a program or erase sequence the external VFP voltage must
be applied and stabilized. The ERAS bit must be set or cleared, depending on whether a program sequence or an erase sequence is to occur. The LAT bit will be set to cause any subsequent data written
to a valid address within the Flash EEPROM to be latched into the programming address and data latches. The next Flash array write cycle must be either to the location that is to be programmed if a programming sequence is being performed, or, if erasing, to any valid Flash EEPROM array location.
Writing the new address and data information to the Flash EEPROM is followed by assertion of ENPE
to turn on the program/erase voltage to program/erase the new location(s). The LAT bit must be asserted and the address and data latched to allow the setting of the ENPE control bit. If the data and address
have not been latched, an attempt to assert ENPE will be ignored and ENPE will remain negated after
the write cycle to FEECTL is completed. The LAT bit must remain asserted and the ERAS bit must remain in its current state as long as ENPE is asserted. A write to the LAT bit to clear it while ENPE is set
will be ignored. That is, after the write cycle, LAT will remain asserted. Likewise, an attempt to change
the state of ERAS will be ignored and the state of the ERAS bit will remain unchanged.
The programming software is responsible for all timing during a program sequence. This includes the
total number of program pulses (nPP), the length of the program pulse (tPPULSE), the program margin
pulses (pm) and the delay between turning off the high voltage and verifying the operation (tVPROG).
The erase software is responsible for all timing during an erase sequence. This includes the total number of erase pulses (em), the length of the erase pulse (tEPULSE), the erase margin pulse or pulses, and
the delay between turning off the high voltage and verifying the operation (tVERASE).
Software also controls the supply of the proper program/erase voltage to the VFP pin, and should be at
the proper level before ENPE is set during a program/erase sequence.
A program/erase cycle should not be in progress when starting another program/erase, or while attempting to read from the array.
NOTE
Although clearing ENPE disables the program/erase voltage (VFP) from the VFP
pin to the array, care must be taken to ensure that VFP is at VDD whenever programming/erasing is not in progress. Not doing so could damage the part. Ensuring
that VFP is always greater or equal to VDD can be accomplished by controlling the
VFP power supply with the programming software via an output pin. Alternatively,
all programming and erasing can be done prior to installing the device on an application circuit board which can always connect VFP to VDD. Programming can also
be accomplished by plugging the board into a special programming fixture which
provides program/erase voltage to the VFP pin.
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MC68HC912B32TS/D
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7.6 Programming the Flash EEPROM
Programming the Flash EEPROM is accomplished by the following sequence. The VFP pin voltage
must be at the proper level prior to executing step 4 the first time.
1. Apply program/erase voltage to the VFP pin.
2. Clear ERAS and set the LAT bit in the FEECTL register to establish program mode and enable
programming address and data latches.
3. Write data to a valid address. The address and data is latched. If BOOTP is asserted, an attempt to program an address in the boot block will be ignored.
4. Apply programming voltage by setting ENPE.
5. Delay for one programming pulse (tPPULSE).
6. Remove programming voltage by clearing ENPE.
7. Delay while high voltage is turning off (tVPROG).
8. Read the address location to verify that it has been programmed
• If the location is not programmed, repeat steps 4 through 7 until the location is programmed
or until the specified maximum number of program pulses has been reached (nPP)
• If the location is programmed, repeat the same number of pulses as required to program the
location. This provides 100% program margin.
9. Read the address location to verify that it remains programmed.
10. Clear LAT.
11. If there are more locations to program, repeat steps 2 through 10.
12. Turn off VFP (reduce voltage on VFP pin to VDD).
The flowchart in Figure 7 demonstrates the recommended programming sequence.
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START PROG
TURN ON VFP
CLEAR MARGIN FLAG
CLEAR PROGRAM PULSE COUNTER (nPP)
CLEAR ERAS
SET LAT
WRITE DATA
TO ADDRESS
SET ENPE
DELAY FOR DURATION
OF PROGRAM PULSE
(tPPULSE)
CLEAR ENPE
SET
MARGIN FLAG
DELAY BEFORE VERIFY
(tVPROG)
IS
MARGIN FLAG
SET?
NO
INCREMENT
nPP COUNTER
READ
LOCATION
YES
DECREMENT
nPP COUNTER
DATA
CORRECT?
YES
NO
NO
nPP = 0?
nPP = 50?
YES
DATA
CORRECT?
NO
YES
NO
YES
CLEAR LAT
GET NEXT
ADDRESS/DATA
NO
LOCATION FAILED
TO PROGRAM
DONE?
YES
TURN OFF VFP
DONE PROG
Figure 7 Program Sequence Flow
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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7.7 Erasing the Flash EEPROM
The following sequence demonstrates the recommended procedure for erasing the Flash EEPROM.
The VFP pin voltage must be at the proper level prior to executing step 4 the first time.
1. Turn on VFP (apply program/erase voltage to the VFP pin).
2. Set the LAT bit and ERAS bit to configure the Flash EEPROM for erasing.
3. Write to any valid address in the Flash array. This allows the erase voltage to be turned on; the
data written and the address written are not important. The boot block will be erased only if the
control bit BOOTP is negated.
4. Apply erase voltage by setting ENPE.
5. Delay for a single erase pulse (tEPULSE).
6. Remove erase voltage by clearing ENPE.
7. Delay while high voltage is turning off (tVERASE).
8. Read the entire array to ensure that the Flash EEPROM is erased.
• If all of the Flash EEPROM locations are not erased, repeat steps 4 through 7 until either the
remaining locations are erased, or until the maximum erase pulses have been applied (nEP)
• If all of the Flash EEPROM locations are erased, repeat the same number of pulses as required to erase the array. This provides 100% erase margin.
9. Read the entire array to ensure that the Flash EEPROM is erased.
10. Clear LAT.
11. Turn off VFP (reduce voltage on VFP pin to VDD).
The flowchart in Figure 8 demonstrates the recommended erase sequence.
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MC68HC912B32TS/D
START ERASE
TURN ON VFP
CLEAR MARGIN FLAG
CLEAR ERASE PULSE COUNTER (nEP)
SET ERAS
SET LAT
WRITE TO ARRAY
SET ENPE
DELAY FOR DURATION
OF ERASE PULSE
(tEPULSE)
CLEAR ENPE
SET
MARGIN FLAG
DELAY BEFORE VERIFY
(tVERASE)
IS
MARGIN FLAG
SET?
NO
INCREMENT
nEP COUNTER
READ
ARRAY
YES
DECREMENT
nEP COUNTER
ARRAY
ERASED?
YES
NO
NO
nEP = 0?
nEP = 5?
NO
YES
ARRAY
ERASED?
YES
NO
YES
CLEAR LAT
TURN OFF VFP
ARRAY ERASED
ARRAY FAILED TO ERASE
Figure 8 Erase Sequence Flow
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7.8 Program/Erase Protection Interlocks
The Flash EEPROM program and erase mechanisms provide maximum protection from accidental programming or erasure.
The voltage required to program/erase the Flash EEPROM (VFP) is supplied via an external pin. If VFP
is not present, no programming/erasing will occur. Furthermore, the program/erase voltage will not be
applied to the Flash EEPROM unless turned on by setting a control bit (ENPE). The ENPE bit may not
be set unless the programming address and data latches have been written previously with a valid address. The latches may not be written unless enabled by setting a control bit (LAT). The LAT and ENPE
control bits must be written on separate writes to the control register (FEECTL) and must be separated
by a write to the programming latches. The ERAS and LAT bits are also protected when ENPE is set.
This prevents inadvertent switching between erase/program mode and also prevents the latched data
and address from being changed after a program cycle has been initiated.
7.9 Stop or Wait Mode
When stop or wait commands are executed, the MCU puts the Flash EEPROM in stop or wait mode. In
these modes the Flash module will cease erasure or programming immediately. It is advised not to enter
stop or wait modes when programming the Flash array.
CAUTION
The Flash EEPROM module is not able to recover from STOP without a 1 microsecond delay. This cannot be controlled internal to the MCU. Therefore, do not attempt to recover from STOP with an interrupt. Use RESET to recover from a STOP
mode executed from Flash EEPROM. Recovery from a STOP instruction executed
from EEPROM and RAM operate normally.
7.10 Test Mode
The Flash EEPROM has some special test functions which are only accessible when the device is in
test mode. Test mode is indicated to the Flash EEPROM module when the SMOD line on the LIB is
asserted. When SMOD is asserted, the special test control bits may be accessed via the LIB to invoke
the special test functions in the Flash EEPROM module. When SMOD is not asserted, writes to the test
control bits have no effect and all bits in the test register FEETST will be cleared. This ensures that
Flash EEPROM test mode cannot be invoked inadvertently during normal operation.
Note that the Flash EEPROM module will operate normally, even if SMOD is asserted, until a special
test function is invoked. The test mode adds additional features over normal mode which allow the tests
to be performed even after the device is installed in the final product.
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8 EEPROM
The MC68HC912B32 EEPROM serves as a 768-byte nonvolatile memory which can be used for frequently accessed static data or as fast access program code.
The MC68HC912B32 EEPROM is arranged in a 16-bit configuration. The EEPROM array may be read
as either bytes, aligned words or misaligned words. Access times is one bus cycle for byte and aligned
word access and two bus cycles for misaligned word operations.
Programming is by byte or aligned word. Attempts to program or erase misaligned words will fail. Only
the lower byte will be latched and programmed or erased. Programming and erasing of the user EEPROM can be done in all operating modes.
Each EEPROM byte or aligned word must be erased before programming. The EEPROM module supports byte, aligned word, row (32 bytes) or bulk erase, all using the internal charge pump. Bulk erasure
of odd and even rows is also possible in test modes; the erased state is $FF. The EEPROM module
has hardware interlocks which protect stored data from corruption by accidentally enabling the program/
erase voltage. Programming voltage is derived from the internal VDD supply with an internal charge
pump. The EEPROM has a minimum program/erase life of 10,000 cycles over the complete operating
temperature range.
8.1 EEPROM Programmer’s Model
The EEPROM module consists of two separately addressable sections. The first is a four-byte memory
mapped control register block used for control, testing and configuration of the EEPROM array. The
second section is the EEPROM array itself.
At reset, the four-byte register section starts at address $00F0 and the EEPROM array is located from
addresses $0D00 to $0FFF (see Figure 9). For information on remapping the register block and EEPROM address space, refer to 5 Operating Modes and Resource Mapping.
Read access to the memory array section can be enabled or disabled by the EEON control bit in the
INITEE register. This feature allows the access of memory mapped resources that have lower priority
than the EEPROM memory array. EEPROM control registers can be accessed and EEPROM locations
may be programmed or erased regardless of the state of EEON.
Using the normal EEPROG control, it is possible to continue program/erase operations during WAIT.
For lowest power consumption during WAIT, stop program/erase by turning off EEPGM.
If the STOP mode is entered during programming or erasing, program/erase voltage will be automatically turned off and the RC clock (if enabled) is stopped. However, the EEPGM control bit will remain
set. When STOP mode is terminated, the program/erase voltage will be automatically turned back on if
EEPGM is set.
At bus frequencies below 1 MHz, the RC clock must be turned on for program/erase.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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$_D00
BPROT4
(256 BYTES)
$_E00
BPROT3
(256 BYTES)
SINGLE CHIP VECTORS
$FF80
RESERVED (64 BYTES)
$_F00
$FFBF
$FFC0
BPROT2
(128 BYTES)
$_F80
$_FC0
VECTORS (64 BYTES)
BPROT1
BPROT0
$FFFF
HC912B32 EEPROM BLOCK PROT
Figure 9 EEPROM Block Protect Mapping
8.2 EEPROM Control Registers
EEMCR — EEPROM Module Configuration
RESET:
$00F0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
Bit 0
EESWAI PROTLCK
1
0
EERC
0
EESWAI — EEPROM Stops in Wait Mode
0 = Module is not affected during wait mode
1 = Module ceases to be clocked during wait mode
This bit should be cleared if the wait mode vectors are mapped in the EEPROM array.
PROTLCK — Block Protect Write Lock
0 = Block protect bits and bulk erase protection bit can be written
1 = Block protect bits are locked
Read anytime. Write once in normal modes (SMODN = 1), set and clear any time in special modes
(SMODN = 0).
EERC — EEPROM Charge Pump Clock
0 = System clock is used as clock source for the internal charge pump. Internal RC oscillator is
stopped.
1 = Internal RC oscillator drives the charge pump. The RC oscillator is required when the system
bus clock is lower than fPROG.
Read and write anytime.
EEPROT — EEPROM Block Protect
RESET:
$00F1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
1
1
1
BPROT4
BPROT3
BPROT2
BPROT1
BPROT0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Prevents accidental writes to EEPROM. Read anytime. Write anytime if EEPGM = 0 and PROTLCK = 0.
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BPROT[4:0] — EEPROM Block Protection
0 = Associated EEPROM block can be programmed and erased.
1 = Associated EEPROM block is protected from being programmed and erased.
Cannot be modified while programming is taking place (EEPGM = 1).
Table 15 768-Byte EEPROM Block Protection
Bit Name
Block Protected
Block Size
BPROT4
$0D00 to $0DFF
256 Bytes
BPROT3
$0E00 to $0EFF
256 Bytes
BPROT2
$0F00 to $0F7F
128 Bytes
BPROT1
$0F80 to $0FBF
64 Bytes
BPROT0
$0FC0 to $0FFF
64 Bytes
EETST — EEPROM Test
RESET:
$00F2
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
EEODD
EEVEN
MARG
EECPD
EECPRD
0
EECPM
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read anytime. Write in special modes only (SMODN = 0). These bits are used for test purposes only.
In normal modes the bits are forced to zero.
EEODD — Odd Row Programming
0 = Odd row bulk programming/erasing is disabled.
1 = Bulk program/erase all odd rows.
Refers to a physical location in the array rather than an odd byte address.
EEVEN — Even Row Programming
0 = Even row bulk programming/erasing is disabled.
1 = Bulk program/erase all even rows.
Refers to a physical location in the array rather than an even byte address.
MARG — Program and Erase Voltage Margin Test Enable
0 = Normal operation.
1 = Program and erase margin test.
This bit is used to evaluate the program/erase voltage margin.
EECPD — Charge Pump Disable
0 = Charge pump is turned on during program/erase.
1 = Disable charge pump.
EECPRD — Charge Pump Ramp Disable
Known to enhance write/erase endurance of EEPROM cells.
0 = Charge pump is turned on progressively during program/erase.
1 = Disable charge pump controlled ramp up.
EECPM — Charge Pump Monitor Enable
0 = Normal operation.
1 = Output the charge pump voltage on the IRQ/VPP pin.
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EEPROG — EEPROM Control
$00F3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BULKP
0
0
BYTE
ROW
ERASE
EELAT
EEPGM
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
BULKP — Bulk Erase Protection
0 = EEPROM can be bulk erased.
1 = EEPROM is protected from being bulk or row erased.
Read anytime. Write anytime if EEPGM = 0 and PROTLCK = 0.
BYTE — Byte and Aligned Word Erase
0 = Bulk or row erase is enabled.
1 = One byte or one aligned word erase only.
Read anytime. Write anytime if EEPGM = 0.
ROW — Row or Bulk Erase (when BYTE = 0)
0 = Erase entire EEPROM array.
1 = Erase only one 32-byte row.
Read anytime. Write anytime if EEPGM = 0.
BYTE and ROW have no effect when ERASE = 0
Table 16 Erase Selection
BYTE
ROW
Block Size
0
0
Bulk erase entire EEPROM array
0
1
Row erase 32 bytes
1
0
Byte or aligned word erase
1
1
Byte or aligned word erase
If BYTE = 1 and test mode is not enabled, only the location specified by the address written to the programming latches will be erased. The operation will be a byte or an aligned word erase depending on
the size of written data.
ERASE — Erase Control
0 = EEPROM configuration for programming or reading.
1 = EEPROM configuration for erasure.
Read anytime. Write anytime if EEPGM = 0.
Configures the EEPROM for erasure or programming.
When test mode is not enabled and unless BULKP is set, erasure is by byte, aligned word, row or bulk.
EELAT — EEPROM Latch Control
0 = EEPROM set up for normal reads.
1 = EEPROM address and data bus latches set up for programming or erasing.
Read anytime. Write anytime if EEPGM = 0.
BYTE, ROW, ERASE and EELAT bits can be written simultaneously or in any sequence.
EEPGM — Program and Erase Enable
0 = Disables program/erase voltage to EEPROM.
1 = Applies program/erase voltage to EEPROM.
The EEPGM bit can be set only after EELAT has been set. When an attempt is made to set EELAT and
EEPGM simultaneously, EEPGM remains clear but EELAT is set.
The BULKP, BYTE, ROW, ERASE and EELAT bits cannot be changed when EEPGM is set. To complete a program or erase, two successive writes to clear EEPGM and EELAT bits are required before
reading the programmed data. A write to an EEPROM location has no effect when EEPGM is set.
Latched address and data cannot be modified during program or erase.
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A program or erase operation should follow the sequence below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Write BYTE, ROW and ERASE to the desired value; write EELAT = 1
Write a byte or an aligned word to an EEPROM address
Write EEPGM = 1
Wait for programming (tPROG) or erase (tERASE) delay time
Write EEPGM = 0
Write EELAT = 0
It is possible to program/erase more bytes or words without intermediate EEPROM reads, by jumping
from step 5 to step 2.
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9 Resets and Interrupts
CPU12 exceptions include resets and interrupts. Each exception has an associated 16-bit vector, which
points to the memory location where the routine that handles the exception is located. Vectors are
stored in the upper 128 bytes of the standard 64-Kbyte address map.
The six highest vector addresses are used for resets and non-maskable interrupt sources. The remainder of the vectors are used for maskable interrupts, and all must be initialized to point to the address of
the appropriate service routine.
9.1 Exception Priority
A hardware priority hierarchy determines which reset or interrupt is serviced first when simultaneous
requests are made. Six sources are not maskable. The remaining sources are maskable, and any one
of them can be given priority over other maskable interrupts.
The priorities of the non-maskable sources are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
POR or RESET pin
Clock monitor reset
COP watchdog reset
Unimplemented instruction trap
Software interrupt instruction (SWI)
XIRQ signal (if X bit in CCR = 0)
9.2 Maskable Interrupts
Maskable interrupt sources include on-chip peripheral systems and external interrupt service requests.
Interrupts from these sources are recognized when the global interrupt mask bit (I) in the CCR is
cleared. The default state of the I bit out of reset is one, but it can be written at any time.
Interrupt sources are prioritized by default but any one maskable interrupt source may be assigned the
highest priority by means of the HPRIO register. The relative priorities of the other sources remain the
same.
An interrupt that is assigned highest priority is still subject to global masking by the I bit in the CCR, or
by any associated local bits. Interrupt vectors are not affected by priority assignment. HPRIO can only
be written while the I bit is set (interrupts inhibited). Table 17 lists interrupt sources and vectors in default
order of priority.
Table 17 Interrupt Vector Map
Vector Address
Interrupt Source
CCR
Mask
Local Enable
Register (Bit)
HPRIO Value to
Elevate
None
None
–
$FFFE, $FFFF
Reset
$FFFC, $FFFD
COP clock monitor fail reset
None
COPCTL (CME, FCME)
–
$FFFA, $FFFB
COP failure reset
None
COP rate selected
–
$FFF8, $FFF9
Unimplemented instruction trap
None
None
–
$FFF6, $FFF7
SWI
None
None
–
$FFF4, $FFF5
XIRQ
X bit
None
–
$FFF2, $FFF3
IRQ
I bit
INTCR (IRQEN)
$F2
$FFF0, $FFF1
Real time interrupt
I bit
RTICTL (RTIE)
$F0
$FFEE, $FFEF
Timer channel 0
I bit
TMSK1 (C0I)
$EE
$FFEC, $FFED
Timer channel 1
I bit
TMSK1 (C1I)
$EC
$FFEA, $FFEB
Timer channel 2
I bit
TMSK1 (C2I)
$EA
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Table 17 Interrupt Vector Map
Vector Address
Interrupt Source
CCR
Mask
Local Enable
Register (Bit)
HPRIO Value to
Elevate
$FFE8, $FFE9
Timer channel 3
I bit
TMSK1 (C3I)
$E8
$FFE6, $FFE7
Timer channel 4
I bit
TMSK1 (C4I)
$E6
$FFE4, $FFE5
Timer channel 5
I bit
TMSK1 (C5I)
$E4
$FFE2, $FFE3
Timer channel 6
I bit
TMSK1 (C6I)
$E2
$FFE0, $FFE1
Timer channel 7
I bit
TMSK1 (C7I)
$E0
$FFDE, $FFDF
Timer overflow
I bit
TMSK2 (TOI)
$DE
$FFDC, $FFDD
Pulse accumulator overflow
I bit
PACTL (PAOVI)
$DC
$FFDA, $FFDB
Pulse accumulator input edge
I bit
PACTL (PAI)
$DA
$FFD8, $FFD9
SPI serial transfer complete
I bit
SP0CR1 (SPIE)
$D8
$FFD6, $FFD7
SCI 0
I bit
SC0CR2
(TIE, TCIE, RIE, ILIE)
$D6
$FFD4, $FFD5
Reserved
I bit
–
$D4
$FFD2, $FFD3
ATD
I bit
ATDCTL2 (ASCIE)
$D2
$FFD0, $FFD1
BDLC
I bit
BCR1 (IE)
$D0
$FF80–$FFCF
Reserved
I bit
–
$80–$CE
9.3 Interrupt Control and Priority Registers
INTCR — Interrupt Control Register
RESET:
$001E
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
IRQE
IRQEN
DLY
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
IRQE — IRQ Select Edge Sensitive Only
0 = IRQ configured for low-level recognition.
1 = IRQ configured to respond only to falling edges (on pin PE1/IRQ).
IRQE can be read anytime and written once in normal modes. In special modes, IRQE can be read anytime and written anytime, except the first write is ignored.
IRQEN — External IRQ Enable
The IRQ pin has an internal pull-up.
0 = External IRQ pin disconnected from interrupt logic
1 = External IRQ pin connected to interrupt logic
IRQEN can be read and written anytime in all modes.
DLY — Enable Oscillator Start-Up Delay on Exit from STOP
The delay time of about 4096 cycles is based on the E clock rate.
0 = No stabilization delay imposed on exit from STOP mode. A stable external oscillator must be
supplied.
1 = Stabilization delay is imposed before processing resumes after STOP.
DLY can be read anytime and written once in normal modes. In special modes, DLY can be read and
written anytime.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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HPRIO — Highest Priority I Interrupt
RESET:
$001F
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
1
1
PSEL5
PSEL4
PSEL3
PSEL2
PSEL1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
Write only if I mask in CCR = 1 (interrupts inhibited). Read anytime.
To give a maskable interrupt source highest priority, write the low byte of the vector address to the
HPRIO register. For example, writing $F0 to HPRIO would assign highest maskable interrupt priority to
the real-time interrupt timer ($FFF0). If an unimplemented vector address or a non-I-masked vector address (value higher than $F2) is written, then IRQ will be the default highest priority interrupt.
9.4 Resets
There are four possible sources of reset. Power-on reset (POR), and external reset on the RESET pin
share the normal reset vector. The computer operating properly (COP) reset and the clock monitor reset
each has a vector. Entry into reset is asynchronous and does not require a clock but the MCU cannot
sequence out of reset without a system clock.
9.4.1 Power-On Reset
A positive transition on VDD causes a power-on reset (POR). An external voltage level detector, or other
external reset circuits, are the usual source of reset in a system. The POR circuit only initializes internal
circuitry during cold starts and cannot be used to force a reset as system voltage drops.
9.4.2 External Reset
The CPU distinguishes between internal and external reset conditions by sensing whether the reset pin
rises to a logic one in less than eight E-clock cycles after an internal device releases reset. When a reset
condition is sensed, the RESET pin is driven low by an internal device for about 16 E-clock cycles, then
released. Eight E-clock cycles later it is sampled. If the pin is still held low, the CPU assumes that an
external reset has occurred. If the pin is high, it indicates that the reset was initiated internally by either
the COP system or the clock monitor.
To prevent a COP or clock monitor reset from being detected during an external reset, hold the reset
pin low for at least 32 cycles. An external RC power-up delay circuit on the reset pin is not recommended
— circuit charge time can cause the MCU to misinterpret the type of reset that has occurred.
9.4.3 COP Reset
The MCU includes a computer operating properly (COP) system to help protect against software failures. When COP is enabled, software must write $55 and $AA (in this order) to the COPRST register
in order to keep a watchdog timer from timing out. Other instructions may be executed between these
writes. A write of any value other than $55 or $AA or software failing to execute the sequence properly
causes a COP reset to occur.
9.4.4 Clock Monitor Reset
If clock frequency falls below a predetermined limit when the clock monitor is enabled, a reset occurs.
9.5 Effects of Reset
When a reset occurs, MCU registers and control bits are changed to known start-up states, as follows.
9.5.1 Operating Mode and Memory Map
Operating mode and default memory mapping are determined by the states of the BKGD, MODA, and
MODB pins during reset. The SMODN, MODA, and MODB bits in the MODE register reflect the status
of the mode-select inputs at the rising edge of reset. Operating mode and default maps can subsequently be changed according to strictly defined rules.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
9.5.2 Clock and Watchdog Control Logic
The COP watchdog system is enabled, with the CR[2:0] bits set for the shortest duration time-out. The
clock monitor is disabled. The RTIF flag is cleared and automatic hardware interrupts are masked. The
rate control bits are cleared, and must be initialized before the RTI system is used. The DLY control bit
is set to specify an oscillator start-up delay upon recovery from STOP mode.
9.5.3 Interrupts
PSEL is initialized in the HPRIO register with the value $F2, causing the external IRQ pin to have the
highest I-bit interrupt priority. The IRQ pin is configured for level-sensitive operation (for wired-OR systems). However, the interrupt mask bits in the CPU12 CCR are set to mask X and I related interrupt
requests.
9.5.4 Parallel I/O
If the MCU comes out of reset in an expanded mode, port A and port B are used for the multiplexed
address/data bus and port E pins are normally used to control the external bus (operation of port E pins
can be affected by the PEAR register). If the MCU comes out of reset in a single-chip mode, all ports
are configured as general-purpose high-impedance inputs. Port S, port T, port DLC, port P, and port AD
are all configured as general-purpose inputs.
9.5.5 Central Processing Unit
After reset, the CPU fetches a vector from the appropriate address, then begins executing instructions.
The stack pointer and other CPU registers are indeterminate immediately after reset. The CCR X and
I interrupt mask bits are set to mask any interrupt requests. The S bit is also set to inhibit the STOP
instruction.
9.5.6 Memory
After reset, the internal register block is located at $0000–$01FF, the register-following space is at
$0200–$03FF, and RAM is at $0800–$0BFF. EEPROM is located at $0D00–$0FFF. Flash EEPROM
is located at $8000–$FFFF in single-chip modes and at $0000–$7FFF (but disabled) in expanded
modes.
9.5.7 Other Resources
The timer, serial communications interface (SCI), serial peripheral interface (SPI), byte data link controller (BDLC), pulse-width modulator (PWM), and analog-to-digital converter (ATD) are off after reset.
9.6 Register Stacking
Once enabled, an interrupt request can be recognized at any time after the I bit in the CCR is cleared.
When an interrupt service request is recognized, the CPU responds at the completion of the instruction
being executed. Interrupt latency varies according to the number of cycles required to complete the instruction. Some of the longer instructions can be interrupted and will resume normally after servicing
the interrupt.
When the CPU begins to service an interrupt, the instruction queue is cleared, the return address is calculated, and then it and the contents of the CPU registers are stacked as shown in Table 18.
Table 18 Stacking Order on Entry to Interrupts
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Memory Location
CPU Registers
SP – 2
RTNH : RTNL
SP – 4
YH : YL
SP – 6
XH : XL
SP – 8
B:A
SP – 9
CCR
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After the CCR is stacked, the I bit (and the X bit, if an XIRQ interrupt service request is pending) is set
to prevent other interrupts from disrupting the interrupt service routine. The interrupt vector for the highest priority source that was pending at the beginning of the interrupt sequence is fetched, and execution
continues at the referenced location. At the end of the interrupt service routine, an RTI instruction restores the content of all registers from information on the stack, and normal program execution resumes. If another interrupt is pending at the end of an interrupt service routine, the register unstacking
and restacking is bypassed and the vector of the pending interrupt is fetched.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
10 Clock Functions
Clock generation circuitry generates the internal and external E-clock signals as well as internal clock
signals used by the CPU and on-chip peripherals. A clock monitor circuit, a computer operating properly
(COP) watchdog circuit, and a periodic interrupt circuit are also incorporated into the MC68HC912B32.
10.1 Clock Sources
A compatible external clock signal can be applied to the EXTAL pin or the MCU can generate a clock
signal using an on-chip oscillator circuit and an external crystal or ceramic resonator. The MCU uses
three types of internal clock signals derived from the primary clock signal: T clocks, E clock, and P clock.
The T clocks are used by the CPU. The E and P clocks are used by the bus interfaces, BDM, SPI, and
ATD. The P clock also drives on-chip modules such as the timer chain, SCI, RTI, COP, and restart-fromstop delay time. Figure 10 shows clock timing relationships.
T1CLK
T2CLK
T3CLK
T4CLK
INT ECLK
PCLK
HC12B32 CLOCK RELATIONS
Figure 10 Internal Clock Relationships
10.2 Computer Operating Properly (COP)
The COP or watchdog timer is an added check that a program is running and sequencing properly.
When the COP is being used, software is responsible for keeping a free-running watchdog timer from
timing out. If the watchdog timer times out it is an indication that the software is no longer being executed in the intended sequence; thus a system reset is initiated. Three control bits allow selection of seven
COP time-out periods or COP disable. When COP is enabled, sometime during the selected period the
program must write $55 and $AA (in this order) to the COPRST register. If the program fails to do this
the part will reset. If any value other than $55 or $AA is written to COPRST, the part is reset.
10.3 Real-Time Interrupt
There is a real-time (periodic) interrupt available to the user. This interrupt will occur at one of seven
selected rates. An interrupt flag and an interrupt enable bit are associated with this function. There are
three bits for the rate select.
10.4 Clock Monitor
The clock monitor circuit is based on an internal resistor-capacitor (RC) time delay. If no MCU clock
edges are detected within this RC time delay, the clock monitor can optionally generate a system reset.
The clock monitor function is enabled/disabled by the CME control bit in the COPCTL register. This
time-out is based on an RC delay so that the clock monitor can operate without any MCU clocks.
Clock monitor time-outs are shown in Table 19.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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Table 19 Clock Monitor Time-Outs
Supply
Range
5V +/− 10%
2-20 µS
3V +/− 10%
5-100 µS
10.5 Clock Function Registers
All register addresses shown reflect the reset state. Registers may be mapped to any 2-Kbyte space.
RTICTL — Real-Time Interrupt Control Register
RESET:
$0014
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
RTIE
RSWAI
RSBCK
0
RTBYP
RTR2
RTR1
RTR0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RTIE — Real-Time Interrupt Enable
Read and write anytime.
0 = Interrupt requests from RTI are disabled.
1 = Interrupt will be requested whenever RTIF is set.
RSWAI — RTI and COP Stop While in Wait
Write once in normal modes, anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
0 = Allows the RTI and COP to continue running in wait.
1 = Disables both the RTI and COP whenever the part goes into wait.
RSBCK — RTI and COP Stop While in Background Debug Mode
Write once in normal modes, anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
0 = Allows the RTI and COP to continue running while in background mode.
1 = Disables both the RTI and COP whenever the part is in background mode. This is useful for
emulation.
RTBYP — Real-Time Interrupt Divider Chain Bypass
Write not allowed in normal modes, anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
0 = Divider chain functions normally.
1 = Divider chain is bypassed, allows faster testing (the divider chain is normally P divided by 213,
when bypassed becomes P divided by 4).
RTR2, RTR1, RTR0 — Real-Time Interrupt Rate Select
Read and write anytime.
Rate select for real-time interrupt. The clock used for this module is the E clock.
Table 20 Real-Time Interrupt Rates
OFF
Time-Out Period
E = 4.0 MHz
OFF
Time-Out Period
E = 8.0 MHz
OFF
213
2.048 ms
1.024 ms
0
214
4.096 ms
2.048 ms
1
215
8.196 ms
4.096 ms
0
216
16.384 ms
8.196 ms
1
217
32.768 ms
16.384 ms
0
218
65.536 ms
32.768 ms
1
219
131.72 ms
65.536 ms
RTR2
RTR1
RTR0
Divide E By:
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
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0
0
1
1
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
RTIFLG — Real-Time Interrupt Flag Register
RESET:
$0015
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
RTIF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RTIF — Real-Time Interrupt Flag
This bit is cleared automatically by a write to this register with this bit set.
0 = Time-out has not yet occurred.
1 = Set when the time-out period is met.
COPCTL — COP Control Register
$0016
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
CME
FCME
FCM
FCOP
DISR
CR2
CR1
CR0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Normal
RESET:
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
Special
CME — Clock Monitor Enable
Read and write anytime.
If FCME is set, this bit has no meaning nor effect.
0 = Clock monitor is disabled. Slow clocks and stop instruction may be used.
1 = Slow or stopped clocks (including the stop instruction) will cause a clock reset sequence.
FCME — Force Clock Monitor Enable
Write once in normal modes, anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
In normal modes, when this bit is set, the clock monitor function cannot be disabled until a reset occurs.
0 = Clock monitor follows the state of the CME bit.
1 = Slow or stopped clocks will cause a clock reset sequence.
In order to use both STOP and clock monitor, the CME bit should be cleared prior to executing a STOP
instruction and set after recovery from STOP. If you plan on using STOP always keep FCME = 0.
FCM — Force Clock Monitor Reset
Writes are not allowed in normal modes, anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
If DISR is set, this bit has no effect.
0 = Normal operation.
1 = Force a clock monitor reset (if clock monitor is enabled).
FCOP — Force COP Watchdog Reset
Writes are not allowed in normal modes; can be written anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
If DISR is set, this bit has no effect.
0 = Normal operation.
1 = Force a COP reset (if COP is enabled).
DISR — Disable Resets from COP Watchdog and Clock Monitor
Writes are not allowed in normal modes, anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
0 = Normal operation.
1 = Regardless of other control bit states, COP and clock monitor will not generate a system reset.
CR2, CR1, CR0 — COP Watchdog Timer Rate Select Bits
The COP system is driven by a constant frequency of E/213. (RTBYP in the RTICTL register allows all
but two stages of this divider to be bypassed for testing in special modes only.) These bits specify an
additional division factor to arrive at the COP time-out rate (the clock used for this module is the E clock).
Write once in normal modes, anytime in special modes. Read anytime.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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Table 21 COP Watchdog Rates (RTBYP = 0)
CR2
CR1
CR0
Divide E By:
At E = 4.0 MHz
Time-Out
–0 to +2.048 ms
At E = 8.0 MHz
Time-Out
–0 to +1.024 ms
0
0
0
OFF
OFF
OFF
0
0
1
213
2.048 ms
1.024 ms
0
1
0
215
8.1920 ms
4.096 ms
0
1
1
217
32.768 ms
16.384 ms
1
0
0
219
131.072 ms
65.536 ms
1
0
1
221
524.288 ms
262.144 ms
1
1
0
222
1.048 s
524.288 ms
1
1
1
223
2.097 s
1.048576 s
COPRST — Arm/Reset COP Timer Register
RESET:
$0017
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Always reads $00.
Writing $55 to this address is the first step of the COP watchdog sequence.
Writing $AA to this address is the second step of the COP watchdog sequence. Other instructions may
be executed between these writes but both must be completed in the correct order prior to time-out to
avoid a watchdog reset. Writing anything other than $55 or $AA causes a COP reset to occur.
10.6 Clock Divider Chains
Figure 11, Figure 12, Figure 13, and Figure 14 summarize the clock divider chains for the various peripherals on the MC68HC912B32.
EXTAL
OSCILLATOR
AND
CLOCK
GENERATOR
XTAL
SYSCLK
T CLOCK
GENERATOR
TCLKs
TO CPU
÷2
E AND P CLOCK ECLK
GENERATOR
PCLK
TO BDM,
BUSES, SPI,
ATD, SCI, TIM,
PULSE ACC,
RTI, COP,
PWM, BDLC
HC912B32 CLOCK DIV CHAIN
Figure 11 Clock Divider Chain
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
÷ 22
÷ 211
REGISTER: RTICTL
BIT: RTBYP
PCLK
0:0:0
REGISTER: RTICTL
BITS: RTR2, RTR1, RTR0
SC0BD
MODULUS DIVIDER:
÷ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ..., 8190, 8191
0:0:0
REGISTER: BCR1
BITS: R1, R0
0:0
÷2
0:1
÷2
0:1:0
÷4
0:1:0
÷2
1:0
÷2
0:1:1
÷4
0:1:1
÷2
1:1
÷2
1:0:0
÷4
1:0:0
÷2
1:0:1
÷4
1:0:1
÷2
1:1:0
÷2
1:1:0
÷2
1:1:1
÷2
1:1:1
0:0:1
SCI0
RECEIVE
BAUD RATE ((16x)
÷ 24
SCI0
TRANSMIT
BAUD RATE (1x)
REGISTER: COPCTL
BITS: CR2, CR1, CR0
TO BDLC
0:0:1
TO RTI
TO COP
HC912B32 CLOCK CHAIN SCI BDLC RTI COP
Figure 12 Clock Chain for SCI, BDLC, RTI, COP
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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PCLK
TEN
REGISTER: TMSK2
BITS: PR2, PR1, PR0
0:0:0
REGISTER: PACTL
BITS: PAEN, CLK1, CLK0
0:x:x
÷2
0:0:1
1:0:0
÷2
0:1:0
1:0:1
÷2
0:1:1
÷2
÷2
1:1:0
PACLK/256
PULSE ACC
LOW BYTE
1:0:0
1:1:1
PACLK/65536
(PAOV)
1:0:1
÷2
PULSE ACC
HIGH BYTE
PACLK
GATE
LOGIC
PORT T7
TO TIM
COUNTER
PAMOD
PAEN
HC12 CLOCK CHAIN TIM
Figure 13 Clock Chain for TIM
PCLK
5-BIT MODULUS
COUNTER (PR0-PR4)
÷2
÷2
TO ATD
REGISTER: SP0BR
BITS: SPR2, SPR1, SPR0
0:0:0
SPI
BIT RATE
÷2
0:0:1
÷2
0:1:0
÷2
0:1:1
BDM BIT CLOCK:
ECLK
÷2
1:0:0
BKGD IN
SYNCHRONIZER
÷2
1:0:1
÷2
1:1:0
÷2
1:1:1
BKGD DIRECTION
BKGD
PIN
LOGIC
BKGD OUT
Receive: Detect falling edge,
count 12 E clocks, Sample input
Transmit 1: Detect falling edge,
count 6 E clocks while output is
high impedance, drive out 1 E
cycle pulse high, high impedance output again
Transmit 0: Detect falling edge,
drive out low, count 9 E clocks,
drive out 1 E cycle pulse high,
high impedance output
HC12 CLOCK CHAIN SPI ATD BDM
Figure 14 Clock Chain for SPI, ATD and BDM
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
11 Pulse-Width Modulator
The pulse-width modulator (PWM) subsystem provides four independent 8-bit PWM waveforms or two
16-bit PWM waveforms or a combination of one 16-bit and two 8-bit PWM waveforms. Each waveform
channel has a programmable period and a programmable duty-cycle as well as a dedicated counter. A
flexible clock select scheme allows four different clock sources to be used with the counters. Each of
the modulators can create independent, continuous waveforms with software-selectable duty rates from
0 percent to 100 percent. The PWM outputs can be programmed as left-aligned outputs or centeraligned outputs.
The period and duty registers are double buffered so that if they change while the channel is enabled,
the change will not take effect until the counter rolls over or the channel is disabled. If the channel is not
enabled, then writes to the period and/or duty register will go directly to the latches as well as the buffer,
thus ensuring that the PWM output will always be either the old waveform or the new waveform, not
some variation in between.
A change in duty or period can be forced into immediate effect by writing the new value to the duty and/
or period registers and then writing to the counter. This causes the counter to reset and the new duty
and/or period values to be latched. In addition, since the counter is readable it is possible to know where
the count is with respect to the duty value and software can be used to make adjustments by turning
the enable bit off and on.
The four PWM channel outputs share general-purpose port P pins. Enabling PWM pins takes precedence over the general-purpose port. When PWM are not in use, the port pins may be used for discrete
input/output.
CLOCK SOURCE
(PCLK)
CENTR = 0
FROM PORT P
DATA REGISTER
UP/DOWN
PWCNTx
GATE
(CLOCK EDGE SYNC)
RESET
8-BIT COMPARE =
PWDTYx
S
Q
MUX
Q
8-BIT COMPARE =
PWPERx
MUX
TO PIN
DRIVER
R
PPOLx
PWENx
PPOL = 0
PPOL = 1
PWDTY
PWPER
Figure 15 Block Diagram of PWM Left-Aligned Output Channel
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
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CLOCK SOURCE
(PCLK)
CENTR = 1
FROM PORT P
DATA REGISTER
RESET
PWCNTx
GATE
(CLOCK EDGE SYNC)
UP/DOWN
(DUTY CYCLE)
8-BIT COMPARE =
PWDTYx
T
Q
(PERIOD)
MUX
MUX
Q
TO PIN
DRIVER
8-BIT COMPARE =
PWPERx
PPOLx
PWENx
PPOL = 0
PPOL = 1
PWDTY
(PWPER − PWDTY) × 2
PWPER × 2
PWDTY
Figure 16 Block Diagram of PWM Center-Aligned Output Channel
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
PSBCK
PSBCK IS BIT 0 OF PWCTL REGISTER.
INTERNAL SIGNAL LIMBDM IS ONE IF THE MCU IS IN BACKGROUND DEBUG MODE.
LIMBDM
CLOCK A
0:0:0
8-BIT DOWN COUNTER
÷2
0:0:1
÷2
0:1:0
PWSCNT0
0:1:0
PCLK0
8-BIT SCALE REGISTER
0:1:1
÷2
0:1:1
1:0:0
÷2
1:0:0
CLOCK TO PWM
CHANNEL 1
MUX
0:0:1
=0
CLOCK S0*
0:0:0
CLOCK TO PWM
CHANNEL 0
MUX
PCLK
÷2
PWSCAL0
PCLK1
CLOCK B
÷2
1:0:1
1:1:0
÷2
1:1:0
1:1:1
÷2
1:1:1
8-BIT DOWN COUNTER
=0
PCLK2
8-BIT SCALE REGISTER
PWSCAL1
CLOCK TO PWM
CHANNEL 3
MUX
BITS:
PCKA2,
PCKA1,
PCKA0
REGISTER:
PWPRES
CLOCK S1**
PWSCNT1
BITS:
PCKB2,
PCKB1,
PCKB0
CLOCK TO PWM
CHANNEL 2
MUX
1:0:1
÷2
PCLK3
*CLOCK S0 = (CLOCK A)/2, (CLOCK A)/4, (CLOCK A)/6,... (CLOCK A)/512
**CLOCK S1 = (CLOCK B)/2, (CLOCK B)/4, (CLOCK B)/6,... (CLOCK B)/512
Figure 17 PWM Clock Sources
11.1 PWM Register Description
PWCLK — PWM Clocks and Concatenate
RESET:
$0040
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
CON23
CON01
PCKA2
PCKA1
PCKA0
PCKB2
PCKB1
PCKB0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime.
CON23 — Concatenate PWM Channels 2 and 3
When concatenated, channel 2 becomes the high-order byte and channel 3 becomes the low-order
byte. Channel 2 output pin is used as the output for this 16-bit PWM (bit 2 of port P). Channel 3 clockselect control bits determines the clock source.
0 = Channels 2 and 3 are separate 8-bit PWMs.
1 = Channels 2 and 3 are concatenated to create one 16-bit PWM channel.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
65
CON01 — Concatenate PWM Channels 0 and 1
When concatenated, channel 0 becomes the high-order byte and channel 1 becomes the low-order
byte. Channel 0 output pin is used as the output for this 16-bit PWM (bit 0 of port P). Channel 1 clockselect control bits determine the clock source.
0 = Channels 0 and 1 are separate 8-bit PWMs.
1 = Channels 0 and 1 are concatenated to create one 16-bit PWM channel.
PCKA2 – PCKA0 — Prescaler for Clock A
Clock A is one of two clock sources which may be used for channels 0 and 1. These three bits determine
the rate of clock A, as shown in Table 22.
PCKB2 – PCKB0 — Prescaler for Clock B
Clock B is one of two clock sources which may be used for channels 2 and 3. These three bits determine
the rate of clock B, as shown in Table 22.
Table 22 Clock A and Clock B Prescaler
PCKA2
(PCKB2)
PCKA1
(PCKB1)
PCKA0
(PCKB0)
Value of
Clock A (B)
0
0
0
P
0
0
1
P÷2
0
1
0
P÷4
0
1
1
P÷8
1
0
0
P ÷ 16
1
0
1
P ÷ 32
1
1
0
P ÷ 64
1
1
1
P ÷ 128
PWPOL — PWM Clock Select and Polarity
$0041
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PCLK3
PCLK2
PCLK1
PCLK0
PPOL3
PPOL2
PPOL1
PPOL0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read and write anytime.
PCLK3 — PWM Channel 3 Clock Select
0 = Clock B is the clock source for channel 3.
1 = Clock S1 is the clock source for channel 3.
PCLK2 — PWM Channel 2 Clock Select
0 = Clock B is the clock source for channel 2.
1 = Clock S1 is the clock source for channel 2.
PCLK1 — PWM Channel 1 Clock Select
0 = Clock A is the clock source for channel 1.
1 = Clock S0 is the clock source for channel 1.
PCLK0 — PWM Channel 0 Clock Select
0 = Clock A is the clock source for channel 0.
1 = Clock S0 is the clock source for channel 0.
If a clock select is changed while a PWM signal is being generated, a truncated or stretched pulse may
occur during the transition.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
PPOL3 — PWM Channel 3 Polarity
0 = Channel 3 output is low at the beginning of the clock cycle; high when the duty count is reached.
1 = Channel 3 output is high at the beginning of the clock cycle; low when the duty count is reached.
PPOL2 — PWM Channel 2 Polarity
0 = Channel 2 output is low at the beginning of the clock cycle; high when the duty count is reached.
1 = Channel 2 output is high at the beginning of the clock cycle; low when the duty count is reached.
PPOL1 — PWM Channel 1 Polarity
0 = Channel 1 output is low at the beginning of the clock cycle; high when the duty count is reached.
1 = Channel 1 output is high at the beginning of the clock cycle; low when the duty count is reached.
PPOL0 — PWM Channel 0 Polarity
0 = Channel 0 output is low at the beginning of the clock cycle; high when the duty count is reached.
1 = Channel 0 output is high at the beginning of the clock cycle; low when the duty count is reached.
Depending on the polarity bit, the duty registers may contain the count of either the high time or the low
time. If the polarity bit is zero and left alignment is selected, the duty registers contain a count of the low
time. If the polarity bit is one, the duty registers contain a count of the high time. For center-aligned operation the high or low time is multiplied by two.
PWEN — PWM Enable
RESET:
$0042
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
PWEN3
PWEN2
PWEN1
PWEN0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Setting any of the PWENx bits causes the associated port P line to become an output regardless of the
state of the associated data direction register (DDRP) bit. This does not change the state of the data
direction bit. When PWENx returns to zero, the data direction bit controls I/O direction. On the front end
of the PWM channel, the scaler clock is enabled to the PWM circuit by the PWENx enable bit being
high. When all four PWM channels are disabled, the prescaler counter shuts off to save power. There
is an edge-synchronizing gate circuit to guarantee that the clock will only be enabled or disabled at an
edge.
Read and write anytime.
PWEN3 — PWM Channel 3 Enable
The pulse modulated signal will be available at port P, bit 3 when its clock source begins its next cycle.
0 = Channel 3 is disabled.
1 = Channel 3 is enabled.
PWEN2 — PWM Channel 2 Enable
The pulse modulated signal will be available at port P, bit 2 when its clock source begins its next cycle.
0 = Channel 2 is disabled.
1 = Channel 2 is enabled.
PWEN1 — PWM Channel 1 Enable
The pulse modulated signal will be available at port P, bit 1 when its clock source begins its next cycle.
0 = Channel 1 is disabled.
1 = Channel 1 is enabled.
PWEN0 — PWM Channel 0 Enable
The pulse modulated signal will be available at port P, bit 0 when its clock source begins its next cycle.
0 = Channel 0 is disabled.
1 = Channel 0 is enabled.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
67
PWPRES — PWM Prescale Counter
RESET:
$0043
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
Bit 6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PWPRES is a free-running 7-bit counter. Read anytime. Write only in special mode (SMOD = 1).
PWSCAL0 — PWM Scale Register 0
RESET:
$0044
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime. A write will cause the scaler counter PWSCNT0 to load the PWSCAL0 value
unless in special mode with DISCAL = 1 in the PWTST register.
PWM channels 0 and 1 can select clock S0 (scaled) as its input clock by setting the control bit PCLK0
and PCLK1 respectively. Clock S0 is generated by dividing clock A by the value in the PWSCAL0 register and dividing again by two. When PWSCAL0 = $00, clock A is divided by 256 then divided by two
to generate clock S0.
PWSCNT0 — PWM Scale Counter 0 Value
RESET:
$0045
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PWSCNT0 is a down-counter that, upon reaching $00, loads the value of PWSCAL0. Read any time.
PWSCAL1 — PWM Scale Register 1
RESET:
$0046
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime. A write will cause the scaler counter PWSCNT1 to load the PWSCAL1 value
unless in special mode with DISCAL = 1 in the PWTST register.
PWM channels 2 and 3 can select clock S1 (scaled) as its input clock by setting the control bit PCLK2
and PCLK3 respectively. Clock S1 is generated by dividing clock B by the value in the PWSCAL1 register and dividing again by two. When PWSCAL1 = $00, clock B is divided by 256 then divided by two
to generate clock S1.
PWSCNT1 — PWM Scale Counter 1 Value
RESET:
$0047
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PWSCNT1 is a down-counter that, upon reaching $00, loads the value of PWSCAL1. Read any time.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
PWCNTx — PWM Channel Counters
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWCNT0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$0048
PWCNT1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$0049
PWCNT2
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$004A
PWCNT3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$004B
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime. A write will cause the PWM counter to reset to $00.
In special mode, if DISCR = 1, a write does not reset the PWM counter.
Each counter may be read any time without affecting the count or the operation of the corresponding
PWM channel. Writes to a counter cause the counter to be reset to $00 and force an immediate load of
both duty and period registers with new values. To avoid a truncated PWM period, write to a counter
while the counter is disabled. In left-aligned output mode, resetting the counter and starting the waveform output is controlled by a match between the period register and the value in the counter. In centeraligned output mode the counters operate as up/down counters, where a match in period changes the
counter direction. The duty register changes the state of the output during the period to determine the
duty.
When a channel is enabled, the associated PWM counter starts at the count in the PWCNTx register
using the clock selected for that channel.
In special mode, when DISCP = 1 and configured for left-aligned output, a match of period does not
reset the associated PWM counter, and when configured center-aligned-output mode, a match of period
does not change the associated PWM counter direction.
PWPERx — PWM Channel Period Registers
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWPER0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$004C
PWPER1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$004D
PWPER2
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$004E
PWPER3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$004F
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime.
The value in the period register determines the period of the associated PWM channel. If written while
the channel is enabled, the new value will not take effect until the existing period terminates, forcing the
counter to reset. The new period is then latched and is used until a new period value is written. Reading
this register returns the most recent value written. To start a new period immediately, write the new period value and then write the counter forcing a new period to start with the new period value.
Period = Channel-Clock-Period / (PWPER + 1)
Period = Channel-Clock-Period / (2 × (PWPER + 1))
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
(CENTR = 0)
(CENTR = 1)
MOTOROLA
69
PWDTYx — PWM Channel Duty Registers
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PWDTY0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$0050
PWDTY1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$0051
PWDTY2
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$0052
PWDTY3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
$0053
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime.
The value in each duty register determines the duty of the associated PWM channel. When the duty
value is equal to the counter value, the output changes state. If the register is written while the channel
is enabled, the new value is held in a buffer until the counter rolls over or the channel is disabled. Reading this register returns the most recent value written.
If the duty register is greater than or equal to the value in the period register, there will be no duty change
in state. If the duty register is set to $FF the output will always be in the state which would normally be
the state opposite the PPOLx value.
Left-Aligned-Output Mode (CENTR = 0):
Duty cycle = [(PWDTYx + 1) / (PWPERx + 1)] × 100%
Duty cycle = [(PWPERx − PWDTYx) / (PWPERx + 1)] × 100%
(PPOLx = 1)
(PPOLx = 0)
Center-Aligned-Output Mode (CENTR = 1):
Duty cycle = [(PWPERx − PWDTYx) / (PWPERx + 1)] × 100%
Duty cycle = [(PWDTYx + 1) / (PWPERx + 1)] × 100%
(PPOLx = 1)
(PPOLx = 0)
PWCTL — PWM Control Register
RESET:
$0054
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
PSWAI
CENTR
RDPP
PUPP
PSBCK
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime.
PSWAI — PWM Halts while in Wait Mode
0 = Allows PWM main clock generator to continue while in wait mode.
1 = Halt PWM main clock generator when the part is in wait mode.
CENTR — Center-Aligned Output Mode
To avoid irregularities in the PWM output mode, write the CENTR bit only when PWM channels are disabled.
0 = PWM channels operate in left-aligned output mode
1 = PWM channels operate in center-aligned output mode
RDPP — Reduced Drive of Port P
0 = All port P output pins have normal drive capability.
1 = All port P output pins have reduced drive capability.
PUPP — Pull-Up Port P Enable
0 = All port P pins have an active pull-up device disabled.
1 = All port P pins have an active pull-up device enabled.
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70
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
PSBCK — PWM Stops while in Background Mode
0 = Allows PWM to continue while in background mode.
1 = Disable PWM input clock when the part is in background mode.
PWTST — PWM Special Mode Register (“Test”)
RESET:
$0055
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DISCR
DISCP
DISCAL
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read anytime but write only in special mode (SMODN = 0). These bits are available only in special
mode and are reset in normal mode.
DISCR — Disable Reset of Channel Counter on Write to Channel Counter
0 = Normal operation. Write to PWM channel counter will reset channel counter.
1 = Write to PWM channel counter does not reset channel counter.
DISCP — Disable Compare Count Period
0 = Normal operation
1 = In left-aligned output mode, match of period does not reset the associated PWM counter register.
In center-aligned output mode, match of period does not change the associated PWM counter
direction.
DISCAL — Disable Load of Scale-Counters on Write to the Associated Scale-Registers
0 = Normal operation
1 = Write to PWSCAL0 and PWSCAL1 does not load scale counters
PORTP — Port P Data Register
$0056
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PP7
PP6
PP5
PP4
PP3
PP2
PP1
PP0
PWM
–
–
–
–
PWM3
PWM2
PWM1
PWM0
RESET:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
PWM functions share port P pins 3 to 0 and take precedence over the general-purpose port when enabled. PORTP can be read anytime. When configured as input, a read will return the pin level. When
configured as output, a read will return the latched output data.
A write will drive associated pins only if configured for output and the corresponding PWM channel is
not enabled.
After reset, all pins are general-purpose, high-impedance inputs.
DDRP — Port P Data Direction Register
RESET:
$0057
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DDP7
DDP6
DDP5
DDP4
DDP3
DDP2
DDP1
DDP0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRP determines pin direction of port P when used for general-purpose I/O. When cleared, I/O pin is
configured for input. When set, I/O pin is configured for output. Read and write anytime.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
71
11.2 PWM Boundary Cases
The boundary conditions for the PWM channel duty registers and the PWM channel period registers
cause these results:
Table 23 PWM Boundary Conditions
MOTOROLA
72
PWDTYx
PWPERx
PPOLx
Output
$FF
>$00
1
High
$FF
>$00
0
Low
≥PWPERx
–
1
High
≥PWPERx
–
0
Low
–
$00
1
High
–
$00
0
Low
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
12 Standard Timer Module
The standard timer module consists of a 16-bit software-programmable counter driven by a prescaler.
It contains eight complete 16-bit input capture/output compare channels and one 16-bit pulse accumulator.
This timer can be used for many purposes, including input waveform measurements while simultaneously generating an output waveform. Pulse widths can vary from less than a microsecond to many
seconds. It can also generate PWM signals without CPU intervention.
CONTROL REGISTERS
PRESCALER
DIVIDE CTL
TCTL1 &
TCTL2
TCRE
(COUNTER RESET)
TIMER
COUNT
REGISTER
TCNT
MODULE
CLOCK
TCNT
RESET
16-BIT
COUNTER
PRESCALER
PR2, PR1, PR0
FUNCTION,
DIRECTION,
AND
POLARITY
CTL
OC7
INTERMODULE BUS
IC
INPUT
BUFFER
LATCH - TIOC
INPUT CAPTURE/
OUTPUT COMPARE
REGISTER
INT
16-BIT
COMPARATOR
TIMPT
PIN
LOGIC
PAD
TFF
OC
OUTPUT
CONTROL REGISTERS
PAMOD
GATE CLOCK
CTL
POLARITY
CTL
PULSE ACCUMULATOR
INT
16-BIT
COUNTER
BUFFER
LATCH
TC7
PIN
LOGIC
MUX
÷ 64
TC7
INPUT
PIN
PAD
MODULE
CLOCK
Figure 18 Timer Block Diagram: Input Capture, Output Compare, Pulse Accumulator
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
73
12.1 Timer Registers
Input/output pins default to general-purpose I/O lines until an internal function which uses that pin is
specifically enabled. The timer overrides the state of the DDR to force the I/O state of each associated
port line when an output compare using a port line is enabled. In these cases the data direction bits will
have no affect on these lines.
When a pin is assigned to output an on-chip peripheral function, writing to this PORTTn bit does not
affect the pin but the data is stored in an internal latch such that if the pin becomes available for generalpurpose output the driven level will be the last value written to the PORTTn bit.
TIOS — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Select
RESET:
$0080
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
IOS7
IOS6
IOS5
IOS4
IOS3
IOS2
IOS1
IOS0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
IOS[7:0] — Input Capture or Output Compare Channel Configuration
0 = The corresponding channel acts as an input capture
1 = The corresponding channel acts as an output compare.
CFORC — Timer Compare Force Register
$0081
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
FOC7
FOC6
FOC5
FOC4
FOC3
FOC2
FOC1
FOC0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read anytime but will always return $00 (1 state is transient). Write anytime.
FOC[7:0] — Force Output Compare Action for Channel 7-0
A write to this register with the corresponding data bit(s) set causes the action which is programmed for
output compare “n” to occur immediately. The action taken is the same as if a successful comparison
had just taken place with the TCn register except the interrupt flag does not get set.
OC7M — Output Compare 7 Mask Register
$0082
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
OC7M7
OC7M6
OC7M5
OC7M4
OC7M3
OC7M2
OC7M1
OC7M0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read or write anytime.
The bits of OC7M correspond bit-for-bit with the bits of timer port (PORTT). Setting the OC7Mn will set
the corresponding port to be an output port regardless of the state of the DDRTn bit when the corresponding TIOSn bit is set to be an output compare. This does not change the state of the DDRT bits.
OC7D — Output Compare 7 Data Register
$0083
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
OC7D7
OC7D6
OC7D5
OC7D4
OC7D3
OC7D2
OC7D1
OC7D0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read or write anytime.
The bits of OC7D correspond bit-for-bit with the bits of timer port (PORTT). When a successful OC7
compare occurs, for each bit that is set in OC7M, the corresponding data bit in OC7D is stored to the
corresponding bit of the timer port.
MOTOROLA
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
When the OC7Mn bit is set, a successful OC7 action will override a successful OC[6:0] compare action
during the same cycle; therefore, the OCn action taken will depend on the corresponding OC7D bit.
TCNT — Timer Count Register
RESET:
$0084–$0085
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
A full access for the counter register should take place in one clock cycle. A separate read/write for high
byte and low byte will give a different result than accessing them as a word.
Read anytime.
Write has no meaning or effect in the normal mode; only writable in special modes (SMODN = 0).
The period of the first count after a write to the TCNT registers may be a different size because the write
is not synchronized with the prescaler clock.
TSCR — Timer System Control Register
RESET:
$0086
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TEN
TSWAI
TSBCK
TFFCA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
TEN — Timer Enable
0 = Disables the timer, including the counter. Can be used for reducing power consumption.
1 = Allows the timer to function normally.
If for any reason the timer is not active, there is no ÷64 clock for the pulse accumulator since the E÷64
is generated by the timer prescaler.
TSWAI — Timer Stops While in Wait
0 = Allows the timer to continue running during wait.
1 = Disables the timer when the MCU is in the wait mode. Timer interrupts cannot be used to get
the MCU out of wait.
TSBCK — Timer Stops While in Background Mode
0 = Allows the timer to continue running while in background mode.
1 = Disables the timer whenever the MCU is in background mode. This is useful for emulation.
TFFCA — Timer Fast Flag Clear All
0 = Allows the timer flag clearing to function normally.
1 = For TFLG1($8E), a read from an input capture or a write to the output compare channel ($90–
$9F) causes the corresponding channel flag, CnF, to be cleared. For TFLG2 ($8F), any access
to the TCNT register ($84, $85) clears the TOF flag. Any access to the PACNT register ($A2,
$A3) clears the PAOVF and PAIF flags in the PAFLG register ($A1). This has the advantage of
eliminating software overhead in a separate clear sequence. Extra care is required to avoid accidental flag clearing due to unintended accesses.
TQCR — Reserved
RESET:
$0087
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
75
TCTL1 — Timer Control Register 1
RESET:
$0088
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
OM7
OL7
OM6
OL6
OM5
OL5
OM4
OL4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCTL2 — Timer Control Register 2
RESET:
$0089
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
OM3
OL3
OM2
OL2
OM1
OL1
OM0
OL0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
OMn — Output Mode
OLn — Output Level
These eight pairs of control bits are encoded to specify the output action to be taken as a result of a
successful OCn compare. When either OMn or OLn is one, the pin associated with OCn becomes an
output tied to OCn regardless of the state of the associated DDRT bit.
Table 24 Compare Result Output Action
OMn
0
0
1
1
OLn
0
1
0
1
Action
Timer disconnected from output pin logic
Toggle OCn output line
Clear OCn output line to zero
Set OCn output line to one
TCTL3 — Timer Control Register 3
$008A
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
EDG7B
EDG7A
EDG6B
EDG6A
EDG5B
EDG5A
EDG4B
EDG4A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
TCTL4 — Timer Control Register 4
$008B
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
EDG3B
EDG3A
EDG2B
EDG2A
EDG1B
EDG1A
EDG0B
EDG0A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read or write anytime.
EDGnB, EDGnA — Input Capture Edge Control
These eight pairs of control bits configure the input capture edge detector circuits.
Table 25 Edge Detector Circuit Configuration
EDGnB
0
0
1
1
MOTOROLA
76
EDGnA
0
1
0
1
Configuration
Capture disabled
Capture on rising edges only
Capture on falling edges only
Capture on any edge (rising or falling)
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
TMSK1 — Timer Interrupt Mask 1
RESET:
$008C
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
C7I
C6I
C5I
C4I
C3I
C2I
C1I
C0I
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The bits in TMSK1 correspond bit-for-bit with the bits in the TFLG1 status register. If cleared, the corresponding flag is disabled from causing a hardware interrupt. If set, the corresponding flag is enabled
to cause a hardware interrupt.
Read or write anytime.
C7I–C0I — Input Capture/Output Compare “x” Interrupt Enable.
TMSK2 — Timer Interrupt Mask 2
RESET:
$008D
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TOI
0
PUPT
RDPT
TCRE
PR2
PR1
PR0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
TOI — Timer Overflow Interrupt Enable
0 = Interrupt inhibited
1 = Hardware interrupt requested when TOF flag set
PUPT — Timer Pull-Up Resistor Enable
This enable bit controls pull-up resistors on the timer port pins when the pins are configured as inputs.
1 = Enable pull-up resistor function
0 = Disable pull-up resistor function
RDPT — Timer Drive Reduction
This bit reduces the effective output driver size which can reduce power supply current and generated
noise depending upon pin loading.
1 = Enable output drive reduction function
0 = Normal output drive capability
TCRE — Timer Counter Reset Enable
This bit allows the timer counter to be reset by a successful output compare 7 event.
0 = Counter reset inhibited and counter free runs
1 = Counter reset by a successful output compare 7
If TC7 = $0000 and TCRE = 1, TCNT will stay at $0000 continuously. If TC7 = $FFFF and TCRE = 1,
TOF will never get set even though TCNT will count from $0000 through $FFFF.
PR2, PR1, PR0 — Timer Prescaler Select
These three bits specify the number of ÷2 stages that are to be inserted between the module clock and
the timer counter.
Table 26 Prescaler Selection
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
PR2
PR1
PR0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Prescale
Factor
1
2
4
8
16
32
Reserved
Reserved
MOTOROLA
77
The newly selected prescale factor will not take effect until the next synchronized edge where all prescale counter stages equal zero.
TFLG1 — Timer Interrupt Flag 1
RESET:
$008E
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
C7F
C6F
C5F
C4F
C3F
C2F
C1F
C0F
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TFLG1 indicates when interrupt conditions have occurred. To clear a bit in the flag register, write a one
to the bit.
Read anytime. Write used in the clearing mechanism (set bits cause corresponding bits to be cleared).
Writing a zero will not affect current status of the bit.
When TFFCA bit in TSCR register is set, a read from an input capture or a write into an output compare
channel ($90–$9F) will cause the corresponding channel flag CnF to be cleared.
C7F–C0F — Input Capture/Output Compare Channel “n” Flag.
TFLG2 — Timer Interrupt Flag 2
RESET:
$008F
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TOF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TFLG2 indicates when interrupt conditions have occurred. To clear a bit in the flag register, set the bit
to one.
Read anytime. Write used in clearing mechanism (set bits cause corresponding bits to be cleared).
Any access to TCNT will clear TFLG2 register if the TFFCA bit in TSCR register is set.
TOF — Timer Overflow Flag
Set when 16-bit free-running timer overflows from $FFFF to $0000. This bit is cleared automatically by
a write to the TFLG2 register with bit 7 set. (See also TCRE control bit explanation.)
TC0 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 0
$0090–$0091
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC1 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 1
$0092–$0093
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC2 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 2
$0094–$0095
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
MOTOROLA
78
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
TC3 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 3
$0096–$0097
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC4 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 4
$0098–$0099
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC5 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 5
$009A–$009B
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC6 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 6
$009C–$009D
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TC7 — Timer Input Capture/Output Compare Register 7
$009E–$009F
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Depending on the TIOS bit for the corresponding channel, these registers are used to latch the value
of the free-running counter when a defined transition is sensed by the corresponding input capture edge
detector or to trigger an output action for output compare.
Read anytime. Write anytime for output compare function. Writes to these registers have no meaning
or effect during input capture. All timer input capture/output compare registers are reset to $0000.
PACTL — Pulse Accumulator Control Register
RESET:
$00A0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
PAEN
PAMOD
PEDGE
CLK1
CLK0
PAOVI
PAI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
PAEN — Pulse Accumulator System Enable
0 = Pulse accumulator system disabled
1 = Pulse accumulator system enabled
PAEN is independent from TEN.
PAMOD — Pulse Accumulator Mode
0 = Event counter mode
1 = Gated time accumulation mode
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
79
PEDGE — Pulse Accumulator Edge Control
For PAMOD = 0 (event counter mode)
0 = Falling edges on the pulse accumulator input pin (PT7/PAI) cause the count to be incremented
1 = Rising edges on the pulse accumulator input pin cause the count to be incremented
For PAMOD = 1 (gated time accumulation mode)
0 = Pulse accumulator input pin high enables E ÷ 64 clock to pulse accumulator and the trailing falling edge on the pulse accumulator input pin sets the PAIF flag.
1 = Pulse accumulator input pin low enables E ÷ 64 clock to pulse accumulator and the trailing rising
edge on the pulse accumulator input pin sets the PAIF flag.
If the timer is not active (TEN = 0 in TSCR), there is no ÷64 clock since the E ÷ 64 clock is generated
by the timer prescaler.
CLK1, CLK0 — Clock Select Register
Table 27 Clock Selection
CLK1
CLK0
0
0
Use timer prescaler clock as timer counter clock
Selected Clock
0
1
Use PACLK as input to timer counter clock
1
0
Use PACLK/256 as timer counter clock frequency
1
1
Use PACLK/65536 as timer counter clock frequency
If the pulse accumulator is disabled (PAEN = 0), the prescaler clock from the timer is always used as
an input clock to the timer counter. The change from one selected clock to the other happens immediately after these bits are written.
PAOVI — Pulse Accumulator Overflow Interrupt Enable
0 = Interrupt inhibited
1 = Interrupt requested if PAOVF is set
PAI — Pulse Accumulator Input Interrupt Enable
0 = Interrupt inhibited
1 = Interrupt requested if PAIF is set
PAFLG — Pulse Accumulator Flag Register
RESET:
$00A1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PAOVF
PAIF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
When TFFCA bit in the TSCR register is set, any access to the PACNT register will clear all the flags in
the PAFLG register.
PAOVF — Pulse Accumulator Overflow Flag
Set when the 16-bit pulse accumulator overflows from $FFFF to $0000. This bit is cleared automatically
by a write to the PAFLG register with bit 1 set.
PAIF — Pulse Accumulator Input Edge Flag
Set when the selected edge is detected at the pulse accumulator input pin. In event mode, the event
edge triggers PAIF. In gated time accumulation mode, the trailing edge of the gate signal at the pulse
accumulator input pin triggers PAIF. This bit is cleared automatically by a write to the PAFLG register
with bit 0 set.
MOTOROLA
80
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
PACNT — 16-Bit Pulse Accumulator Count Register
RESET:
$00A2–$00A3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Full count register access should take place in one clock cycle. A separate read/write for high byte and
low byte will give a different result than accessing them as a word.
Read or write anytime.
TIMTST — Timer Test Register
RESET:
$00AD
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCBYP
PCBYP
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read anytime. Write only in special mode (SMODN = 0)
TCBYP — Timer Divider Chain Bypass
0 = Normal operation
1 = The 16-bit free-running timer counter is divided into two 8-bit halves and the prescaler is bypassed. The clock drives both halves directly.
PCBYP — Pulse Accumulator Divider Chain Bypass
0 = Normal operation
1 = The 16-bit pulse accumulator counter is divided into two 8-bit halves and the prescaler is bypassed. The clock drives both halves directly.
PORTT — Timer Port Data Register
$00AE
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PT7
PT6
PT5
PT4
PT3
PT2
PT1
PT0
TIMER
I/OC7
I/OC6
I/OC5
I/OC4
I/OC3
I/OC2
I/OC1
I/OC0
PA
PAI
PORTT can be read anytime. When configured as an input, a read will return the pin level. When configured as output, a read will return the latched output data.
NOTE
Writes do not change pin state when the pin is configured for timer output. The minimum pulse width for pulse accumulator input should always be greater than two
module clocks due to input synchronizer circuitry. The minimum pulse width for the
input capture should always be greater than the width of two module clocks due to
input synchronizer circuitry.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
81
DDRT — Data Direction Register for Timer Port
$00AF
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DDT7
DDT6
DDT5
DDT4
DDT3
DDT2
DDT1
DDT0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read or write anytime.
0 = Configures the corresponding I/O pin for input only
1 = Configures the corresponding I/O pin for output
The timer forces the I/O state to be an output for each timer port pin associated with an enabled output
compare. In these cases the data direction bits will not be changed but have no affect on the direction
of these pins. The DDRT will revert to controlling the I/O direction of a pin when the associated timer
output compare is disabled. Input captures do not override the DDRT settings.
12.2 Timer Operation in Modes
STOP:
Timer is off since both PCLK and ECLK are stopped.
BDM:
Timer keeps running, unless TSBCK = 1
WAIT:
Counters keep running, unless TSWAI = 1
NORMAL: Timer keeps running, unless TEN = 0
TEN = 0: All timer operations are stopped, registers may be accessed.
Gated pulse accumulator ÷64 clock is also disabled.
PAEN = 0: All pulse accumulator operations are stopped, registers may be accessed.
MOTOROLA
82
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
13 Serial Interface
The serial interface of the MC68HC912B32 consists of two independent serial I/O sub-systems: the serial communication interface (SCI) and the serial peripheral interface (SPI). Each serial pin shares function with the general-purpose port pins of port S. The SCI is an NRZ type system that is compatible with
standard RS-232 systems. The SCI system has a single wire operation mode which allows the unused
pin to be available as general-purpose I/O. The SPI subsystem, which is compatible with the M68HC11
SPI, includes new features such as SS output and bidirectional mode.
13.1 Block Diagram
RxD
PS0
TxD
PS1
I/O
I/O
I/O
MISO/SISO
SPI
MOSI/MOMI
PORT S I/O DRIVERS
SCI
DDRS/IOCTLR
SERIAL
INTERFACE
PS2
PS3
PS4
PS5
SCK
PS6
CS/SS
PS7
HC12B32 SI BLOCK
Figure 19 Serial Interface Block Diagram
13.2 Serial Communication Interface (SCI)
The serial communication interface on the MC68HC912B32 is an NRZ format (one start, eight or nine
data, and one stop bit) asynchronous communication system with independent internal baud rate generation circuitry and an SCI transmitter and receiver. It can be configured for eight or nine data bits (one
of which may be designated as a parity bit, odd or even). If enabled, parity is generated in hardware for
transmitted and received data. Receiver parity errors are flagged in hardware. The baud rate generator
is based on a modulus counter, allowing flexibility in choosing baud rates. There is a receiver wake-up
feature, an idle line detect feature, a loop-back mode, and various error detection features. Two port
pins provide the external interface for the transmitted data (TXD) and the received data (RXD).
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
83
MCLK
BAUD RATE
CLOCK
SCI TRANSMITTER
MSB
DIVIDER
Rx Baud Rate
PARITY
GENERATOR
LSB
10-11 BIT SHIFT REG
TxD BUFFER/SC0DRL
PIN CONTROL / DDRS / PORT S
SC0BD/SELECT
Tx Baud Rate
SC0CR1/SCI CTL 1
DATA BUS
TxMTR CONTROL
SC0CR2/SCI CTL 2
SC0SR1/INT STATUS
TxD
PS1
RxD
PS0
INT REQUEST LOGIC
TO
INTERNAL
LOGIC
PARITY
DETECT
DATA RECOVERY
SCI RECEIVER
MSB
LSB
10-11 BIT SHIFT REG
TxD BUFFER/SC0DRL
SC0CR1/SCI CTL 1
WAKE-UP LOGIC
SC0SR1/INT STATUS
SC0CR2/SCI CTL 2
INT REQUEST LOGIC
HC12B32 SCI BLOCK
Figure 20 Serial Communications Interface Block Diagram
13.2.1 Data Format
The serial data format requires the following conditions:
• An idle-line in the high state before transmission or reception of a message.
• A start bit (logic zero), transmitted or received, that indicates the start of each character.
• Data that is transmitted or received least significant bit (LSB) first.
• A stop bit (logic one), used to indicate the end of a frame. (A frame consists of a start bit, a character of eight or nine data bits and a stop bit.)
• A BREAK is defined as the transmission or reception of a logic zero for one frame or more.
• This SCI supports hardware parity for transmit and receive.
MOTOROLA
84
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
13.2.2 SCI Baud Rate Generation
The basis of the SCI baud rate generator is a 13-bit modulus counter. This counter gives the generator
the flexibility necessary to achieve a reasonable level of independence from the CPU operating frequency and still be able to produce standard baud rates with a minimal amount of error. The clock source for
the generator comes from the P Clock.
Table 28 Baud Rate Generation
Desired
BR Divisor for BR Divisor for
SCI Baud Rate P = 4.0 MHz
P = 8.0 MHz
110
2273
4545
300
833
1667
600
417
833
1200
208
417
2400
104
208
4800
52
104
9600
26
52
14400
17
35
19200
13
26
38400
—
13
13.2.3 Register Descriptions
Control and data registers for the SCI subsystem are described below. The memory address indicated
for each register is the default address that is in use after reset. The entire 512-byte register block can
be mapped to any 2-Kbyte boundary within the standard 64-Kbyte address space.
SC0BDH — SCI Baud Rate Control Register
RESET:
$00C0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BTST
BSPL
BRLD
SBR12
SBR11
SBR10
SBR9
SBR8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
High
SC0BDL — SCI Baud Rate Control Register
RESET:
$00C1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SBR7
SBR6
SBR5
SBR4
SBR3
SBR2
SBR1
SBR0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Low
SC0BDH and SC0BDL are considered together as a 16-bit baud rate control register.
Read any time. Write SBR[12:0] anytime. Low order byte must be written for change to take effect. Write
SBR[15:13] only in special modes. The value in SBR[12:0] determines the baud rate of the SCI. The
desired baud rate is determined by the following formula:
MCLK
SCI Baud Rate = --------------------16 × BR
which is equivalent to:
MCLK
BR = ----------------------------------------------------16 × SCI Baud Rate
BR is the value written to bits SBR[12:0] to establish baud rate.
NOTE
The baud rate generator is disabled until the TE or RE bit in SC0CR2 register is set
for the first time after reset, and/or the baud rate generator is disabled when
SBR[12:0] = 0.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
85
BTST — Baud Register Test
Reserved for test function
BSPL — Baud Rate Counter Split
Reserved for test function
BRLD — Baud Rate Reload
Reserved for test function
SC0CR1 — SCI Control Register 1
$00C2
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
LOOPS
WOMS
RSRC
M
WAKE
ILT
PE
PT
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read or write anytime.
LOOPS — SCI LOOP Mode/Single Wire Mode Enable
0 = SCI transmit and receive sections operate normally.
1 = SCI receive section is disconnected from the RXD pin and the RXD pin is available as general
purpose I/O. The receiver input is determined by the RSRC bit. The transmitter output is controlled by the associated DDRS bit. Both the transmitter and the receiver must be enabled to
use the LOOP or the single wire mode.
If the DDRS bit associated with the TXD pin is set during the LOOPS = 1, the TXD pin outputs the SCI
waveform. If the DDRS bit associated with the TXD pin is clear during the LOOPS = 1, the TXD pin becomes high (IDLE line state) for RSRC = 0 and high impedance for RSRC = 1. Refer to Table 29.
WOMS — Wired-Or Mode for Serial Pins
This bit controls the two pins (TXD and RXD) associated with the SCI section.
0 = Pins operate in a normal mode with both high and low drive capability. To affect the RXD bit,
that bit would have to be configured as an output (via DDRS) which is the single wire case when
using the SCI. WOMS bit still affects general-purpose output on TXD and RXD pins when SCI
is not using these pins.
1 = Each pin operates in an open drain fashion if that pin is declared as an output.
RSRC — Receiver Source
When LOOPS = 1, the RSRC bit determines the internal feedback path for the receiver.
0 = Receiver input is connected to the transmitter internally (not TXD pin)
1 = Receiver input is connected to the TXD pin
Table 29 Loop Mode Functions
LOOPS RSRC
DDS1(3)
WOMS
0
1
1
1
x
0
0
0
x
0
1
1
x
0/1
1
1
1
1
0
x
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
Function of Port S Bit 1/3
Normal Operations
LOOP mode without TXD output (TXD = High Impedance)
LOOP mode with TXD output (CMOS)
LOOP mode with TXD output (open-drain)
Single wire mode without TXD output
(the pin is used as receiver input only, TXD = High Impedance)
Single wire mode with TXD output
(the output is also fed back to receiver input, CMOS)
Single wire mode for the receiving and transmitting (open-drain)
M — Mode (select character format)
0 = One start, eight data, one stop bit
1 = One start, eight data, ninth data, one stop bit
MOTOROLA
86
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
WAKE — Wakeup by Address Mark/Idle
0 = Wake up by IDLE line recognition
1 = Wake up by address mark (last data bit set)
ILT — Idle Line Type
Determines which of two types of idle line detection will be used by the SCI receiver.
0 = Short idle line mode is enabled.
1 = Long idle line mode is detected.
In the short mode, the SCI circuitry begins counting ones in the search for the idle line condition immediately after the start bit. This means that the stop bit and any bits that were ones before the stop bit
could be counted in that string of ones, resulting in earlier recognition of an idle line.
In the long mode, the SCI circuitry does not begin counting ones in the search for the idle line condition
until a stop bit is received. Therefore, the last byte’s stop bit and preceding “1” bits do not affect how
quickly an idle line condition can be detected.
PE — Parity Enable
0 = Parity is disabled.
1 = Parity is enabled.
PT — Parity Type
If parity is enabled, this bit determines even or odd parity for both the receiver and the transmitter.
0 = Even parity is selected. An even number of ones in the data character causes the parity bit to
be zero and an odd number of ones causes the parity bit to be one.
1 = Odd parity is selected. An odd number of ones in the data character causes the parity bit to be
zero and an even number of ones causes the parity bit to be one.
SC0CR2 — SCI Control Register 2
RESET:
$00C3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TIE
TCIE
RIE
ILIE
TE
RE
RWU
SBK
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
TIE — Transmit Interrupt Enable
0 = TDRE interrupts disabled
1 = SCI interrupt will be requested whenever the TDRE status flag is set.
TCIE — Transmit Complete Interrupt Enable
0 = TC interrupts disabled
1 = SCI interrupt will be requested whenever the TC status flag is set.
RIE — Receiver Interrupt Enable
0 = RDRF and OR interrupts disabled
1 = SCI interrupt will be requested whenever the RDRF status flag or the OR status flag is set.
ILIE — Idle Line Interrupt Enable
0 = IDLE interrupts disabled
1 = SCI interrupt will be requested whenever the IDLE status flag is set.
TE — Transmitter Enable
0 = Transmitter disabled
1 = SCI transmit logic is enabled and the TXD pin (port S bit 1) is dedicated to the transmitter. The
TE bit can be used to queue an idle preamble.
RE — Receiver Enable
0 = Receiver disabled
1 = Enables the SCI receive circuitry
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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RWU — Receiver Wake-Up Control
0 = Normal SCI Receiver
1 = Enables the wake-up function and inhibits further receiver interrupts. Normally hardware wakes
the receiver by automatically clearing this bit.
SBK — Send Break
0 = Break generator off
1 = Generate a break code (at least 10 or 11 contiguous zeros)
As long as SBK remains set the transmitter will send zeros. When SBK is changed to zero, the current
frame of all zeros is finished before the TxD line goes to the idle state. If SBK is toggled on and off, the
transmitter will send 10 (or 11) zeros and then revert to mark idle or sending data.
SC0SR1 — SCI Status Register 1
$00C4
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TDRE
TC
RDRF
IDLE
OR
NF
FE
PF
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
The bits in these registers are set by various conditions in the SCI hardware and are automatically
cleared by special acknowledge sequences. The receive related flag bits in SC0SR1 (RDRF, IDLE, OR,
NF, FE, and PF) are all cleared by a read of the SC0SR1 register followed by a read of the transmit/
receive data register L. However, only those bits which were set when SC0SR1 was read will be cleared
by the subsequent read of the transmit/receive data register L. The transmit related bits in SC0SR1
(TDRE and TC) are cleared by a read of the SC0SR1 register followed by a write to the transmit/receive
data register L.
Read anytime (used in auto clearing mechanism). Write has no meaning or effect.
TDRE — Transmit Data Register Empty Flag
New data will not be transmitted unless SC0SR1 is read before writing to the transmit data register. Reset sets this bit.
0 = SC0DR busy
1 = Any byte in the transmit data register is transferred to the serial shift register so new data may
now be written to the transmit data register.
TC — Transmit Complete Flag
Flag is set when the transmitter is idle (no data, preamble, or break transmission in progress). Clear by
reading SC0SR1 with TC set and then writing to SC0DR.
0 = Transmitter busy
1 = Transmitter is idle
RDRF — Receive Data Register Full Flag
Once cleared, IDLE is not set again until the RxD line has been active and becomes idle again. RDRF
is set if a received character is ready to be read from SC0DR. Clear the RDRF flag by reading SC0SR1
with RDRF set and then reading SC0DR.
0 = SC0DR empty
1 = SC0DR full
IDLE — Idle Line Detected Flag
Receiver idle line is detected (the receipt of a minimum of 10/11 consecutive ones). This bit will not be
set by the idle line condition when the RWU bit is set. Once cleared, IDLE will not be set again until after
RDRF has been set (after the line has been active and becomes idle again).
0 = RxD line is idle
1 = RxD line is active
OR — Overrun Error Flag
New byte is ready to be transferred from the receive shift register to the receive data register and the
receive data register is already full (RDRF bit is set). Data transfer is inhibited until this bit is cleared.
0 = No overrun
1 = Overrun detected
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MC68HC912B32TS/D
NF — Noise Error Flag
Set during the same cycle as the RDRF bit but not set in the case of an overrun (OR).
0 = Unanimous decision
1 = Noise on a valid start bit, any of the data bits, or on the stop bit
FE — Framing Error Flag
Set when a zero is detected where a stop bit was expected. Clear the FE flag by reading SC0SR1 with
FE set and then reading SC0DR.
0 = Stop bit detected
1 = Zero detected rather than a stop bit
PF — Parity Error Flag
Indicates if received data’s parity matches parity bit. This feature is active only when parity is enabled.
The type of parity tested for is determined by the PT (parity type) bit in SC0CR1.
0 = Parity correct
1 = Incorrect parity detected
SC0SR2 — SCI Status Register 2
RESET:
$00C5
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RAF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read anytime. Write has no meaning or effect.
RAF — Receiver Active Flag
This bit is controlled by the receiver front end. It is set during the RT1 time period of the start bit search.
It is cleared when an idle state is detected or when the receiver circuitry detects a false start bit (generally due to noise or baud rate mismatch).
0 = A character is not being received
1 = A character is being received
SC0DRH — SCI Data Register High
RESET:
$00C6
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
R8
T8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SC0DRL — SCI Data Register Low
RESET:
$00C7
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
R7/T7
R6/T6
R5/T5
R4/T4
R3/T3
R2/T2
R1/T1
R0/T0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R8 — Receive Bit 8
Read anytime. Write has no meaning or affect.
This bit is the ninth serial data bit received when the SCI system is configured for nine-data-bit operation.
T8 — Transmit Bit 8
Read or write anytime.
This bit is the ninth serial data bit transmitted when the SCI system is configured for nine-data-bit operation. When using 9-bit data format this bit does not have to be written for each data word. The same
value will be transmitted as the ninth bit until this bit is rewritten.
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R7/T7–R0/T0 — Receive/Transmit Data Bits 7 to 0
Reads access the eight bits of the read-only SCI receive data register (RDR). Writes access the eight
bits of the write-only SCI transmit data register (TDR). SC0DRL:SC0DRH form the 9-bit data word for
the SCI. If the SCI is being used with a 7- or 8-bit data word, only SC0DRL needs to be accessed. If a
9-bit format is used, the upper register should be written first to ensure that it is transferred to the transmitter shift register with the lower register.
13.3 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
The serial peripheral interface allows the MC68HC912B32 to communicate synchronously with peripheral devices and other microprocessors. The SPI system in the MC68HC912B32 can operate as a master or as a slave. The SPI is also capable of interprocessor communications in a multiple master system.
When the SPI is enabled, all pins that are defined by the configuration as inputs will be inputs regardless
of the state of the DDRS bits for those pins. All pins that are defined as SPI outputs will be outputs only
if the DDRS bits for those pins are set. Any SPI output whose corresponding DDRS bit is cleared can
be used as a general-purpose input.
A bidirectional serial pin is possible using the DDRS as the direction control.
13.3.1 SPI Baud Rate Generation
The P clock is input to a divider series and the resulting SPI clock rate may be selected to be P divided
by 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 or 256. Three bits in the SP0BR register control the SPI clock rate. This baud
rate generator is activated only when SPI is in the master mode and serial transfer is taking place. Otherwise this divider is disabled to save power.
13.3.2 SPI Operation
In the SPI system the 8-bit data register in the master and the 8-bit data register in the slave are linked
to form a distributed 16-bit register. When a data transfer operation is performed, this 16-bit register is
serially shifted eight bit positions by the SCK clock from the master so the data is effectively exchanged
between the master and the slave. Data written to the SP0DR register of the master becomes the output
data for the slave and data read from the SP0DR register of the master after a transfer operation is the
input data from the slave.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MCU P CLOCK
(SAME AS E RATE)
DIVIDER
÷2 ÷4 ÷8 ÷16 ÷32 ÷64 ÷128 ÷256
8-BIT SHIFT REGISTER
S
M
MISO
PS4
M
S
MOSI
PS5
READ DATA BUFFER
SP0DR SPI DATA REGISTER
SELECT
LSBF
PIN
CONTROL
LOGIC
SPR0
SPR1
SPR2
SHIFT CONTROL LOGIC
CLOCK
SPI CONTROL
SCK
PS6
S
CLOCK
LOGIC
SP0BR SPI BAUD RATE REGISTER
M
SS
PS7
MSTR
SPE
SPI
INTERRUPT
REQUEST
SP0SR SPI STATUS REGISTER
SP0CR1 SPI CONTROL REGISTER 1
SPC0
RDS
PUPS
LSBF
CPHA
SSOE
CPOL
MSTR
SWOM
SPE
SPIE
MODF
WCOL
SPIF
SWOM
SP0CR2 SPI CONTROL REGISTER 2
INTERNAL BUS
HC12 SPI BLOCK
Figure 21 Serial Peripheral Interface Block Diagram
A clock phase control bit (CPHA) and a clock polarity control bit (CPOL) in the SP0CR1 register select
one of four possible clock formats to be used by the SPI system. The CPOL bit simply selects non-inverted or inverted clock. The CPHA bit is used to accommodate two fundamentally different protocols
by shifting the clock by one half cycle or no phase shift.
MC68HC912B32
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Begin
Transfer
End
SCK (CPOL=0)
SCK (CPOL=1)
SAMPLE I
(MOSI/MISO)
CHANGE O
(MOSI pin)
CHANGE O
(MISO pin)
SEL SS (O)
(Master only)
SEL SS (I)
tL
MSB first (LSBF=0) :
LSB first (LSBF=1) :
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
tI
tT
tL
Minimum 1/2 SCK
for tT, tl, tL
LSB
MSB
HC12 SPI CLOCK FORM 0
Figure 22 SPI Clock Format 0 (CPHA = 0)
Transfer
Begin
End
SCK (CPOL=0)
SCK (CPOL=1)
SAMPLE I
(MOSI/MISO)
CHANGE O
(MOSI pin)
CHANGE O
(MISO pin)
SEL SS (O)
(Master only)
SEL SS (I)
tL
MSB first (LSBF=0) :
LSB first (LSBF=1) :
tT
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
tI
tL
Minimum 1/2 SCK
for tT, tl, tL
HC12 SPI CLOCK FORM 1
Figure 23 SPI Clock Format 1 (CPHA = 1)
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13.3.3 SS Output
Available in master mode only, SS output is enabled with the SSOE bit in the SP0CR1 register if the
corresponding DDRS bit is set. The SS output pin will be connected to the SS input pin of the external
slave device. The SS output automatically goes low for each transmission to select the external device
and it goes high during each idling state to deselect external devices.
Table 30 SS Output Selection
DDS7
SSOE
Master Mode
Slave Mode
0
0
SS Input with MODF Feature
SS Input
0
1
Reserved
SS Input
1
0
General-Purpose Output
SS Input
1
1
SS Output
SS Input
13.3.4 Bidirectional Mode (MOMI or SISO)
In bidirectional mode, the SPI uses only one serial data pin for external device interface. The MSTR bit
decides which pin to be used. The MOSI pin becomes serial data I/O (MOMI) pin for the master mode,
and the MISO pin becomes serial data I/O (SISO) pin for the slave mode. The direction of each serial
I/O pin depends on the corresponding DDRS bit.
Master Mode
MSTR=1
When SPE=1
Slave Mode
MSTR=0
MO
Serial Out
Normal
Mode
SPC0=0
SPI
MI
SWOM enables open drain output.
MOMI
Serial Out
SO
Serial Out
SWOM enables open drain output.
SPI
DDS4
SPI
DDS5
Serial In
Bidirectional
Mode
SPC0=1
SI
Serial In
PS5
Serial In
DDS4
SPI
DDS5
PS4
Serial In
SISO
Serial Out
SWOM enables open drain output. PS4 becomes GPIO.
SWOM enables open drain output. PS5 becomes GPIO.
Figure 24 Normal Mode and Bidirectional Mode
13.3.5 Register Descriptions
Control and data registers for the SPI subsystem are described below. The memory address indicated
for each register is the default address that is in use after reset. The entire 512-byte register block can
be mapped to any 2-Kbyte boundary within the standard 64-Kbyte address space. For more information
refer to 5 Operating Modes and Resource Mapping.
SP0CR1 — SPI Control Register 1
RESET:
$00D0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SPIE
SPE
SWOM
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SSOE
LSBF
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
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Read or write anytime.
SPIE — SPI Interrupt Enable
1 = Hardware interrupt sequence is requested each time the SPIF or MODF status flag is set
0 = SPI interrupts are inhibited
SPE — SPI System Enable
0 = SPI internal hardware is initialized and SPI system is in a low-power disabled state.
1 = PS[4:7] are dedicated to the SPI function
When MODF is set, SPE always reads zero. SP0CR1 must be written as part of a mode fault recovery
sequence.
SWOM — Port S Wired-OR Mode
Controls not only SPI output pins but also the general-purpose output pins (PS[4:7]) which are not used
by SPI.
0 = SPI and/or PS[4:7] output buffers operate normally
1 = SPI and/or PS[4:7] output buffers behave as open-drain outputs
MSTR — SPI Master/Slave Mode Select
0 = Slave mode
1 = Master mode
CPOL, CPHA — SPI Clock Polarity, Clock Phase
These two bits are used to specify the clock format to be used in SPI operations. When the clock polarity
bit is cleared and data is not being transferred, the SCK pin of the master device is low. When CPOL is
set, SCK idles high. See Figure 22 and Figure 23.
SSOE — Slave Select Output Enable
The SS output feature is enabled only in the master mode by asserting the SSOE and DDS7.
LSBF — SPI LSB First Enable
0 = Data is transferred most significant bit first
1 = Data is transferred least significant bit first
Normally data is transferred most significant bit first. This bit does not affect the position of the MSB and
LSB in the data register. Reads and writes of the data register will always have MSB in bit 7.
SP0CR2 — SPI Control Register 2
RESET:
$00D1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SSWAI
SPC0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read or write anytime.
SSWAI — SSI Stop in Wait Mode
0 = SSI clock operate normally
1 = Halt SSI clock generation when in wait mode
SPC0 — Serial Pin Control 0
This bit decides serial pin configurations with MSTR control bit.
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SPC01
Pin Mode
#1
#2
#3
#4
Normal
0
Bidirectional
1
MSTR
MISO2
MOSI3
SCK4
SS5
0
Slave Out
Slave In
SCK In
SS In
1
Master In
Master Out
SCK Out
SS I/O
0
Slave I/O
GPI/O
SCK In
SS In
1
GPI/O
Master I/O
SCK Out
SS I/O
NOTES:
1. The serial pin control 0 bit enables bidirectional configurations.
2. Slave output is enabled if DDS4 = 1, SS = 0 and MSTR = 0. (#1, #3)
3. Master output is enabled if DDS5 = 1 and MSTR = 1. (#2, #4)
4. SCK output is enabled if DDS6 = 1 and MSTR = 1. (#2, #4)
5. SS output is enabled if DDS7 = 1, SSOE = 1 and MSTR = 1. (#2, #4)
SP0BR — SPI Baud Rate Register
RESET:
$00D2
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read anytime. Write anytime.
At reset, E Clock divided by 2 is selected.
SPR[2:0] — SPI Clock (SCK) Rate Select Bits
These bits are used to specify the SPI clock rate.
Table 31 SPI Clock Rate Selection
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0
E Clock
Divisor
Frequency at
Frequency at
E Clock = 4 MHz E Clock = 8 MHz
0
0
0
2
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
0
0
1
4
1.0 MHz
2.0 MHz
0
1
0
8
500 kHz
1.0 MHz
0
1
1
16
250 kHz
500 kHz
1
0
0
32
125 kHz
250 kHz
1
0
1
64
62.5 kHz
125 kHz
1
1
0
128
31.3 kHz
62.5 kHz
1
1
1
256
15.6 kHz
31.3 kHz
SP0SR — SPI Status Register
RESET:
$00D3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SPIF
WCOL
0
MODF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read anytime. Write has no meaning or effect.
SPIF — SPI Interrupt Request
SPIF is set after the eighth SCK cycle in a data transfer and it is cleared by reading the SP0SR register
(with SPIF set) followed by an access (read or write) to the SPI data register.
WCOL — Write Collision Status Flag
The MCU write is disabled to avoid writing over the data being transferred. No interrupt is generated
because the error status flag can be read upon completion of the transfer that was in progress at the
time of the error. Automatically cleared by a read of the SP0SR (with WCOL set) followed by an access
MC68HC912B32
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(read or write) to the SP0DR register.
0 = No write collision
1 = Indicates that a serial transfer was in progress when the MCU tried to write new data into the
SP0DR data register.
MODF — SPI Mode Error Interrupt Status Flag
This bit is set automatically by SPI hardware if the MSTR control bit is set and the slave select input pin
becomes zero. This condition is not permitted in normal operation. In the case where DDRS bit 7 is set,
the PS7 pin is a general-purpose output pin or SS output pin rather than being dedicated as the SS input
for the SPI system. In this special case the mode fault function is inhibited and MODF remains cleared.
This flag is automatically cleared by a read of the SP0SR (with MODF set) followed by a write to the
SP0CR1 register.
SP0DR — SPI Data Register
RESET:
$00D5
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read anytime (normally only after SPIF flag set). Write anytime (see WCOL write collision flag).
Reset does not affect this address.
This 8-bit register is both the input and output register for SPI data. Reads of this register are double
buffered but writes cause data to be written directly into the serial shifter. In the SPI system the 8-bit
data register in the master and the 8-bit data register in the slave are linked by the MOSI and MISO
wires to form a distributed 16-bit register. When a data transfer operation is performed, this 16-bit register is serially shifted eight bit positions by the SCK clock from the master so the data is effectively exchanged between the master and the slave. Note that some slave devices are very simple and either
accept data from the master without returning data to the master or pass data to the master without requiring data from the master.
13.4 Port S
In all modes, port S bits PS[7:0] can be used for either general-purpose I/O, or with the SCI and SPI
subsystems. During reset, port S pins are configured as high-impedance inputs (DDRS is cleared).
PORTS — Port S Data Register
Pin
Function
$00D6
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PS7
PS6
PS5
PS4
PS3
PS2
PS1
PS0
SS
CS
SCK
MOSI
MOMI
MISO
SISO
I/O
I/O
TXD0
RXD0
PORTS can be read anytime. When configured as an input, a read will return the pin level. When configured as output, a read will return the latched output data. Writes do not change pin state when pin
configured for SPI or SCI output.
After reset all bits are configured as general-purpose inputs.
Port S shares function with the on-chip serial systems (SPI0 and SCI0).
DDRS — Data Direction Register for Port S
$00D7
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DDS7
DDS6
DDS5
DDS4
DDS3
DDS2
DDS1
DDS0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read or write anytime.
After reset, all general-purpose I/O are configured for input only.
0 = Configure the corresponding I/O pin for input only
1 = Configure the corresponding I/O pin for output
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DDS0 — Data Direction for Port S Bit 2 and Bit 0
If the SCI receiver is configured for two-wire SCI operation, corresponding port S pins will be input regardless of the state of these bits.
DDS1 — Data Direction for Port S Bit 1
If the SCI transmitter is configured for two-wire SCI operation, corresponding port S pins will be output
regardless of the state of these bits.
DDS2, DDRS3 — Data Direction for Port S Bit 2 and Bit 3
These bits are for general-purpose I/O only.
DDS[6:4] — Data Direction for Port S Bits 6 through 4
If the SPI is enabled and expects the corresponding port S pin to be an input, it will be an input regardless of the state of the DDRS bit. If the SPI is enabled and expects the bit to be an output, it will be an
output only if the DDRS bit is set.
DDS7 — Data Direction for Port S Bit 7
In SPI slave mode, DDS7 has no meaning or effect; the PS7 pin is dedicated as the SS input. In SPI
master mode, DDS7 determines whether PS7 is an error detect input to the SPI or a general-purpose
or slave select output line.
PURDS — Pull-Up and Reduced Drive for Port S
RESET:
$00DB
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
RDPS2
RDPS1
RDPS0
0
PUPS2
PUPS1
PUPS0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
Read or write anytime.
RDPS2 — Reduce Drive of PS[7:4]
0 = Port S output drivers for bits 7 through 4 operate normally.
1 = Port S output pins for bits 7 through 4 have reduced drive capability for lower power and less
noise.
RDPS1 — Reduce Drive of PS[3:2]
0 = Port S output drivers for bits 3 and 2 operate normally.
1 = Port S output pins for bits 3 and 2 have reduced drive capability for lower power and less noise.
RDPS0 — Reduce Drive of PS[1:0]
0 = Port S output drivers for bits 1 and 0 operate normally.
1 = Port S output pins for bits 1 and 0 have reduced drive capability for lower power and less noise.
PUPS2 — Pull-Up Port S Enable PS[7:4]
0 = No internal pull-ups on port S bits 7 through 4.
1 = Port S input pins for bits 7 through 4 have an active pull-up device. If a pin is programmed as
output, the pull-up device becomes inactive.
PUPS1 — Pull-Up Port S Enable PS[3:2]
0 = No internal pull-ups on port S bits 3 and 2.
1 = Port S input pins for bits 3 and 2 have an active pull-up device. If a pin is programmed as output,
the pull-up device becomes inactive.
PUPS0 — Pull-Up Port S Enable PS[1:0]
0 = No internal pull-ups on port S bits 1 and 0.
1 = Port S input pins for bits 1 and 0 have an active pull-up device. If a pin is programmed as output,
the pull-up device becomes inactive.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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14 Byte Data Link Communications Module (BDLC)
The byte data link communications module (BDLC) provides access to an external serial communication multiplex bus, operating according to the SAE J1850 protocol.
14.1 Features
Features of the BDLC module include the following:
• SAE J1850 compatible
• 10.4 Kbps VPW bit format
• Digital noise filter
• Collision detection
• Hardware CRC generation and checking
• Two power saving modes with automatic wake up on network activity
• Polling and CPU interrupts with vector lookup available
• Receive and transmit block mode supported
• Supports 4X receive mode (41.6 Kbps)
• Digital loopback mode
• In-frame response (IFR) types 0, 1, 2, and 3 supported
• Dedicated register for symbol timing adjustments
• Digital module only, requires external analog transceiver
NOTE
It is recommended that the reader be familiar with the SAE Standard J1850 Class
B Data Communication Network Interface specification prior to proceeding with this
section.
14.2 BDLC Operating Modes
The BDLC has five main modes of operation which interact with the power supplies, pins and the MCU.
Power Off is entered from the reset mode whenever the BDLC supply voltage VDD drops below the minimum value for guaranteed operation. In this mode, the pin input and output specifications are not guaranteed.
Reset is entered from the power off mode whenever the BDLC supply voltage VDD rises above its minimum specified value and an MCU reset source is asserted. To prevent the BDLC from entering an unknown state, the internal MCU reset is asserted while powering up the BDLC. In reset mode, the internal
BDLC voltage references are operative, VDD is supplied to the internal circuits, which are held in their
reset state and the internal BDLC system clock is running. Registers will assume their reset condition.
Outputs are held in their programmed reset state. Inputs and network activity are ignored.
Run is entered from the reset mode after all MCU reset sources are no longer asserted. It is entered
from the BDLC wait mode whenever activity is sensed on the J1850 bus. Run mode is entered from the
BDLC stop mode whenever network activity is sensed though messages will not be received properly
until the clocks have stabilized and the CPU is also in the run mode. In run mode, normal network operation takes place. Ensure that all BDLC transmissions cease before exiting this mode.
BDLC Wait power-conserving mode is automatically entered from the run mode whenever the CPU executes a WAIT instruction and if the WCM bit in the BCR register has been cleared. In this mode, the
BDLC internal clocks continue to run. The first passive-to-active transition of the bus wakes up the
BDLC and the CPU. If a valid byte is successfully received a CPU interrupt request will be generated.
BDLC Stop power-conserving mode is automatically entered from the run mode whenever the CPU
executes a STOP instruction, or if the CPU executes a WAIT instruction and the WCM bit in the BCR
register has been set. In this mode, the BDLC internal clocks are stopped until network activity is sensed
and a CPU interrupt request is generated.
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14.3 Loopback Modes
Two loopback modes are used to determine the source of bus faults.
Digital Loopback is used to determine if a bus fault has been caused by failure in the node’s internal
circuits or elsewhere in the network, including the node’s analog physical interface. In this mode, the
receive digital input (RxPD) is disconnected from the analog transceiver’s receive output. RxPD is then
connected internally to the transmit digital output (TxPD) to form the loopback connection. The analog
transceiver’s transmit input is still driven by TxPD in this mode.
Analog Loopback is used to determine if a bus fault has been caused by a failure in the node's off-chip
analog transceiver or elsewhere in the network. The BDLC analog loopback mode does not modify the
digital transmit or receive functions of the BDLC. It does, however, ensure that once analog loopback
mode is exited, the BDLC will wait for an idle bus condition before participation in network communication resumes. If the off-chip analog transceiver has a loopback mode, it usually causes the input to the
output drive stage to be looped back into the receiver, allowing the node to receive messages it has
transmitted without driving the J1850 bus. In this mode, the output to the J1850 bus is typically high
impedance. This allows the communication path through the analog transceiver to be tested without interfering with network activity. Using the BDLC analog loopback mode in conjunction with the analog
transceiver's loopback mode ensures that, once the off-chip analog transceiver has exited loopback
mode, the BDLC will not begin communicating before a known condition exists on the J1850 bus.
14.4 BDLC Registers
Eight registers are available for controlling operation of the BDLC and for communicating data and status information. A full description of each register follows.
BCR1 — BDLC Control Register 1
RESET:
$00F8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
IMSG
CLCKS
R1
R0
0
0
IE
WCM
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
IMSG — Ignore Message
Disables the receiver until a new start-of-frame (SOF) is detected.
0 = Enable Receiver
1 = Disable Receiver
CLKS — Clock Select
Designates nominal BDLC operating frequency (fbdlc) for J1850 bus communication and automatic adjustment of symbol time.
0 = Integer frequency (1 MHz)
1 = Binary frequency (1.048576 MHz)
R1, R0 — Rate Select
Determines the divisor of the MCU system clock frequency (fTCLKS) to form the BLDC operating frequency (fBDLC). These bits may be written only once after reset.
The selected value depends upon the MCU system clock frequency according to Table 32 or Table 33.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
99
Table 32 BDLC Rate Selection for Binary Frequencies
(fBDLC = 1.048576 MHz)
MCU Clock Frequency (fTCLKS)
R1
R0
Division
1.048576 MHz
0
0
1
2.09715 MHz
0
1
2
4.19430 MHz
1
0
4
8.38861 MHz
1
1
8
Table 33 BDLC Rate Selection for Integer Frequencies
(fBDLC = 1.000000 MHz)
MCU Clock Frequency (fTCLKS)
R1
R0
Division
1.00000 MHz
0
0
1
2.00000 MHz
0
1
2
4.00000 MHz
1
0
4
8.00000 MHz
1
1
8
IE — Interrupt Enable
Determines whether the BDLC will generate CPU interrupt requests in the run mode. It does not affect
CPU interrupt requests when exiting the BDLC stop or BDLC wait modes.
0 = Disable interrupt requests from BDLC
1 = Enable interrupt requests from BDLC
WCM — Wait Clock Mode
Determines the operation of the BDLC during CPU wait mode
0 = Run BDLC internal clocks during CPU wait mode
1 = Stop BDLC internal clocks during CPU wait mode
BCR2 — BDLC Control Register 2
$00FA
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ALOOP
DLOOP
RX4XE
NBFS
TEOD
TSIFR
TMIFR1
TMIFR0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Controls transmitter operations of the BDLC.
ALOOP — Analog Loopback Status
Sets the BDLC state machine to a known state after the off-chip analog transceiver has been put in loop
back mode.
0 = Off-chip analog transceiver has been taken out of analog loopback mode
1 = Off-chip analog transceiver has been put into analog loopback mode
DLOOP — Digital Loopback Mode
Determines the RxPD source and can isolate bus fault conditions. If a fault condition is detected on the
bus, RxPD can be disconnected from the analog transceiver’s receive output and connected to TxPD
to determine if the fault is in the digital block or elsewhere on the J1850 bus.
0 = RxPD is connected to the analog transceiver’s receive output. The BDLC is taken out of digital
loopback mode and can now drive and receive from the J1850 bus normally if ALOOP is not set.
1 = RxPD is connected to TxPD. The BDLC is now in digital loopback mode of operation. The analog transceiver’s transmit input is still driven by TxPD.
MOTOROLA
100
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
RX4XE — Receive 4X Enable
Reception of a BREAK symbol automatically clears this bit and sets the BSVR register to $1C.
0 = BDLC transmits and receives at 10.4 kbps
1 = BDLC is in 4X receive only operation
NBFS — Normalization Bit Format Select
Controls the format of the normalization bit.
0 = Normalization bit is a zero (0) when the response part of an in-frame response (IFR) does not
end with a CRC byte. Normalization bit is a one (1) when the response part of an in-frame response (IFR) ends with a CRC byte.
1 = Normalization bit is a one (1) when the response part of an in-frame response (IFR) does not
end with a CRC byte. Normalization bit is a zero (0) when the response part of an in-frame response (IFR) ends with a CRC byte.
TEOD — Transmit End of Data
Marks the end of a BDLC message by appending an 8-bit CRC after completing transmission of the
current byte. This bit is also used to end an IFR transmission.
0 = TEOD is automatically cleared at the rising edge of the first CRC bit or if an error is detected.
When TEOD is used to end an IFR transmission, TEOD is cleared when the BDLC receives
back a valid EOD symbol or an error condition occurs.
1 = Transmit EOD symbol
TSIFR, TMIFR1, TMIFR0 — Transmit In-Frame Response Control
Controls the type of in-frame response being sent. If more than one bit is set, the bits will be interpreted
according to Table 34 although the bits can be read back as they were set.
Table 34 Transmit In-Frame Response Control Bit Priority Encoding
Write/Read
Internal Interpretation
TSIFR
TMIFR1
TMIFR0
TSIFR
TMIFR1
TMIFR0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
Shaded cells indicate bits which do not affect internal interpretation. These bits will be read
back as written.
The BDLC supports the in-frame response (IFR) features of J1850. The four types of J1850 IFR are
shown below.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
101
TYPE 0 — NO IFR
DATA FIELD
CRC
EOF
EOD
SOF
HEADER
CRC
TYPE 1 — SINGLE BYTE FROM A SINGLE RESPONDER
ID
NB
ID1
EOD
NB
EOF
EOD
NB
EOD
DATA FIELD
EOD
SOF
HEADER
TYPE 2 — SINGLE BYTE FROM MULTIPLE RESPONDERS
DATA FIELD
CRC
IDn
EOF
EOD
SOF
HEADER
TYPE 3 — MULTIPLE BYTES FROM A SINGLE RESPONDER
DATA FIELD
CRC
IFR DATA FIELD
CRC
EOF
EOD
SOF
HEADER
Figure 25 Types of In-Frame Response
TSIFR — Transmit Single Byte IFR with No CRC (Type 1 and Type 2)
Used to request the BDLC to transmit the byte in the BDLC data register (BDR) as a single byte IFR
with no CRC.
0 = TSIFR will be cleared automatically once the BDLC has successfully transmitted the byte in the
BDR onto the bus, or TEOD is set by the CPU, or an error is detected on the bus.
1 = If set prior to a valid EOD being received with no CRC error, once the EOD symbol has been
received the BDLC will attempt to transmit the appropriate normalization bit followed by the byte
in the BDR.
TMIFR0 — Transmit Multiple Byte IFR without CRC (Type 3)
Used to request the BDLC to transmit the byte in the BDLC data register (BDR) as the first byte of a
multiple byte IFR without CRC.
0 = TMIFR0 will be cleared automatically once the BDLC has successfully transmitted the EOD
symbol, by the detection of an error on the multiplex bus, or by a transmitter underrun caused
when the programmer does not write another byte to the BDR following the TDRE interrupt.
1 = If this bit is set prior to a valid EOD being received with no CRC error, once the EOD symbol
has been received the BDLC will attempt to transmit the appropriate normalization bit followed
by IFR bytes. The programmer should set TEOD after the last IFR byte has been written into
BDR register. After TEOD has been set, the last IFR byte to be transmitted will be the last byte
which was written into the BDR register.
TMIFR1 — Transmit Multiple Byte IFR with CRC (Type 3)
This bit requests the BDLC to transmit the byte in the BDLC data register (BDR) as the first byte of a
multiple byte IFR with CRC or as a single byte IFR with CRC.
0 = TMIFR1 will be cleared automatically once the BDLC has successfully transmitted the CRC byte
and EOD symbol, by the detection of an error on the multiplex bus, or by a transmitter underrun
caused when another byte is not written to the BDR following the TDRE interrupt.
1 = If set prior to a valid EOD being received with no CRC error, once the EOD symbol has been
received the BDLC will attempt to transmit the appropriate normalization bit followed by IFR
bytes. After TEOD has been set by software and the last IFR byte has been transmitted, the
CRC byte is transmitted.
MOTOROLA
102
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
BSVR — BDLC State Vector Register
RESET:
$00F9
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
I3
I2
I1
I0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Decreases the CPU overhead associated with servicing interrupts while operating a serial communication protocol. It provides an index offset that is directly related to the BDLC’s current state.
I0, I1, I2, I3 — Interrupt Source
Source of the pending interrupt request. Bits are encoded according to Table 35.
Table 35 Interrupt Sources
BSVR
I3
I2
I1
I0
Interrupt Source
Priority
$00
0
0
0
0
No Interrupts Pending
0 (lowest)
$04
0
0
0
1
Received EOF
1
$08
0
0
1
0
Received IFR byte (RXIFR)
2
$0C
0
0
1
1
Rx data register full (RDRF)
3
$10
0
1
0
0
Tx data register empty (TDRE)
4
$14
0
1
0
1
Loss of arbitration
5
$18
0
1
1
0
CRC error
6
$1C
0
1
1
1
Symbol invalid or out of range
7
$20
1
0
0
0
Wakeup
8 (highest)
Bits I0, I1, I2, and I3 are cleared by a read of the BSVR register except when the BDLC data register
needs servicing (RDRF, RXIFR, or TDRE conditions). RXIFR and RDRF can only be cleared by a read
of the BSVR register followed by a read of BDR. TDRE can either be cleared by a read of the BSVR
register followed by a write to the BDLC BDR register, or by setting the TEOD bit in BCR2.
Upon receiving a BDLC interrupt, the user may read the value within the BSVR, transferring it to the
CPU’s index register. The value can be used to index a jump table to access a service routine. For example:
SERVICE
*
*
JMPTAB
LDX
JMP
BSVR
JMPTAB,X
Fetch State Vector Number
Enter service routine,
(must end in an RTI)
JMP
NOP
JMP
NOP
JMP
NOP
.
.
.
JMP
END
SERVE0
Service condition #0
SERVE1
Service condition #1
SERVE2
Service condition #2
SERVE8
Service condition #8
NOP instructions are used to align the JMP instructions onto 4-byte boundaries so that the value in the
BSVR may be used intact. Each of the service routines must end with an RTI instruction.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
103
BDR — BDLC Data Register
RESET:
$00FB
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Used to pass data to be transmitted to the J1850 bus from the CPU to the BDLC. It is also used to pass
data to the CPU. Each data byte (after the first one) should be written only after a “Tx Data Register
Empty” (TDRE) interrupt has occurred, or the BSVR register has been polled indicating this condition.
Data read from this register will be the last data byte received from the J1850 bus and should be read
only after a “Rx Data Register Full” (RDRF) or a “Received IFR Byte” (RXIFR) interrupt has occurred,
or the BSVR register has been polled indicating this condition.
To stop a transmission that is already in progress simply stop loading more data into the BDR. This will
cause a transmitter underrun error and the BDLC will automatically disable the transmitter on the next
non-byte boundary.
BARD — BDLC Analog Roundtrip Delay Register
RESET:
$00FC
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ATE
RXPOL
0
0
BO3
BO2
BO1
BO0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
Programs the BDLC to compensate for various delays of external transceivers. Read anytime. May be
written once in normal modes or written anytime in special mode.
ATE — Analog Transceiver Enable
0 = Select off-chip analog transceiver
1 = Select on-board analog transceiver
NOTE
This device does not contain an on-board transceiver. The ATE bit should be programmed to a logic zero for proper operation.
RXPOL — Receive Pin Polarity
This bit selects the polarity of the incoming signal on the receive pin.
0 = Select inverted polarity, where external transceiver inverts the receive signal.
1 = Select normal/true polarity; true non-inverted signal from J1850 bus, i.e., the external transceiver does not invert the receive signal.
BO[3:0] — BARD Offset
These bits are used to compensate for the analog transceiver roundtrip delay. The following table
shows the expected transceiver delay with respect to BARD offset values:
Table 36 Offset Bit Values and Transceiver Delay
MOTOROLA
104
BARD Offset Bits
(BO3, BO2, BO1, BO0)
Expected Delay (µs)
0000
9
0001
10
0010
11
0011
12
0100
13
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Table 36 Offset Bit Values and Transceiver Delay
BARD Offset Bits
(BO3, BO2, BO1, BO0)
Expected Delay (µs)
0101
14
0110
15
0111
16
1000
17
1001
18
1010
19
1011
20
1100
21
1101
22
1110
23
1111
24
DLCSCR — Port DLC Control Register
RESET:
$00FD
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
BDLCEN
PUPDLC
RDPDLC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The BDLC port DLC functions as a general-purpose I/O port. BDLC functions takes precedence over
the general-purpose port when enabled. Read or write anytime.
BDLCEN — BDLC Enable
0 = Configure BDLC I/O pins as general-purpose I/O pins. BDLC is off.
1 = Configure I/O pins for BDLC function. BDLC is active.
PUPDLC — BDLC Pull-Up Enable
0 = Disconnects internal pull-ups from PORTDLC I/O pins.
1 = Connects internal pull-ups to PORTDLC I/O pins.
RDPDLC — BDLC Reduced Drive
0 = Configure PORTDLC I/O pins for normal drive strength.
1 = Configure PORTDLC I/O pins for reduced drive strength.
PORTDLC — Port DLC Data Register
$00FE
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
Bit 6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
RESET:
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Alt. Pin
Function
–
–
–
–
–
–
DLCTX
DLCRX
Holds data to be driven out on port DLC pins or data received from port DLC pins.
PORTDLC can be read anytime. When configured as an input, a read will return the pin level. When
configured as output, a read will return the latched output data. Writes will not change pin state when
the pins are configured for BDLC output. Upon reset pins are configured for general-purpose high impedance inputs.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
105
DDRDLC — Port DLC Data Direction Register
RESET:
$00FF
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
DDDLC6
DDDLC5
DDDLC4
DDDLC3
DDDLC2
DDDLC1
DDDLC0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read and write anytime.
DDDLC[6:0] — Data Direction Port DLC Pin 6 through Pin 0
0 = Configure I/O pin for input only
1 = Configure I/O pin for output
14.5 J1850 Bus Errors
The BDLC detects several types of transmit and receive errors which can occur during the transmission
of a message onto the J1850 bus.
If the BDLC transmits a message containing invalid bits, or framing symbols on non-byte boundaries,
then a transmission error has occurred. When a transmission error is detected, the BDLC will immediately cease transmitting. The error condition is reflected in the BSVR register. If the interrupt enable bit
(IE) is set, an interrupt request from the BDLC is generated.
CRC Error — A CRC error is detected when the data bytes and CRC byte of a received message are
processed, and the CRC calculation result is not equal to $C4. The CRC code should detect any single
and 2-bit errors, as well as all 8-bit burst errors, and almost all other types of errors. CRC error flag is
set when a CRC error is detected.
Symbol Error — A symbol error is detected when an abnormal (invalid) symbol is detected in a message being received from the J1850 bus. However, if the BDLC is transmitting when this happens, it
may be treated as a loss of arbitration rather than a transmitter error. Symbol invalid or out of range flag
is set when a symbol error is detected.
Framing Error — A framing error is detected if an EOD or EOF symbol is detected on a non-byte
boundary from the J1850 bus. Symbol invalid or out of range flag is set when a framing error is detected.
Bus Fault — If a bus fault occurs, the response of the BDLC will depend upon the type of bus fault.
If the bus is shorted to VBATT, the BDLC will wait for the bus to fall to a passive state before it will attempt
to transmit a message. As long as the short remains, the BDLC will never attempt to transmit a message
onto the J1850 bus.
If the bus is shorted to ground, the BDLC will see an idle bus, begin to transmit the message, and then
detect a transmission error, since the short to ground would not allow the bus to be driven to the active
(dominant) state. The BDLC will abort that transmission and wait for the next CPU command to transmit.
In any case, if the bus fault is temporary, as soon as the fault is cleared, the BDLC will resume normal
operation. If the bus fault is permanent, it may result in permanent loss of communication on the J1850
bus.
BREAK — Any BDLC transmitting at the time a BREAK is detected will treat the BREAK as if a transmission error had occurred, and halt transmission.
If while receiving a message the BDLC detects a BREAK symbol, it will treat the BREAK as a reception
error.
MOTOROLA
106
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
If a BREAK symbol is received while the BDLC is transmitting or receiving, an invalid symbol interrupt
will be generated. Reading the BSVR register will clear this interrupt condition. The BDLC will wait for
the bus to idle, then wait for SOF.
The BDLC cannot transmit a BREAK symbol. It can only receive a BREAK symbol from the J1850 bus.
Table 37 BDLC J1850 Bus Error Summary
Error Condition
BDLC Function
Bus short to VBATT
The BDLC will not transmit until the bus is idle.
Bus short to ground
Thermal overload will shutdown physical interface.
Fault condition is reflected in BSVR as invalid symbol.
Invalid symbol: BDLC receives
invalid bits (noise)
The BDLC will abort transmission immediately.
Invalid symbol interrupt will be generated.
Framing Error
Invalid symbol interrupt will be generated.
The BDLC will wait for SOF.
CRC Error
CRC error interrupt will be generated.
The BDLC will wait for SOF.
BDLC receives BREAK symbol
The BDLC will wait for the next valid SOF.
Invalid symbol interrupt will be generated.
Invalid Symbol: BDLC sends an
Invalid symbol interrupt will be generated.
EOD but receives an active symbol The BDLC will wait for SOF.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
107
15 Analog-To-Digital Converter
The ATD is an 8-channel, 8-bit, multiplexed-input successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter,
accurate to ±1 least significant bit (LSB). It does not require external sample and hold circuits because
of the type of charge redistribution technique used. The ATD converter timing is synchronized to the
system P clock. The ATD module consists of a 16-word (32-byte) memory-mapped control register
block used for control, testing and configuration.
VRH
RC DAC ARRAY
AND COMPARATOR
VRL
REFERENCE
VDDA
SUPPLY
VSSA
MODE AND TIMING CONTROLS
SAR
AN7/PAD7
AN6/PAD6
AN5/PAD5
AN4/PAD4
AN3/PAD3
AN2/PAD2
AN1/PAD1
AN0/PAD0
ATD 0
ANALOG MUX
AND
SAMPLE BUFFER AMP
ATD 1
ATD 2
ATD 3
ATD 4
PORT AD
DATA INPUT REGISTER
ATD 5
ATD 6
CLOCK
SELECT/PRESCALE
ATD 7
INTERNAL BUS
HC12 ATD BLOCK
Figure 26 Analog-to-Digital Converter Block Diagram
15.1 Functional Description
A single conversion sequence consists of four or eight conversions, depending on the state of the select
8 channel mode (S8CM) bit when ATDCTL5 is written. There are eight basic conversion modes. In the
non-scan modes, the SCF bit is set after the sequence of four or eight conversions has been performed
and the ATD module halts. In the scan modes, the SCF bit is set after the first sequence of four or eight
conversions has been performed, and the ATD module continues to restart the sequence. In both
modes, the CCF bit associated with each register is set when that register is loaded with the appropriate
conversion result. That flag is cleared automatically when that result register is read. The conversions
are started by writing to the control registers.
15.2 ATD Registers
ATDCTL0 — Reserved
RESET:
MOTOROLA
108
$0060
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
ATDCTL1 — Reserved
RESET:
$0061
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ATDCTL2 — ATD Control Register 2
RESET:
$0062
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADPU
AFFC
ASWAI
0
0
0
ASCIE
ASCIF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The ATD control register 2 and 3 are used to select the power up mode, interrupt control, and freeze
control. Writes to these registers abort any current conversion sequence.
Read or write anytime except ASCIF bit, which cannot be written.
Bit positions ATDCTL2[4:2] and ATDCTL3[7:2] are unused and always read as zeros.
ADPU — ATD Disable
0 = Disables the ATD, including the analog section for reduction in power consumption.
1 = Allows the ATD to function normally.
Software can disable the clock signal to the ATD converter and power down the analog circuits to reduce power consumption. When reset to zero, the ADPU bit aborts any conversion sequence in
progress. Because the bias currents to the analog circuits are turned off, the ATD requires a period of
recovery time to stabilize the analog circuits after setting the ADPU bit.
AFFC — ATD Fast Flag Clear All
0 = ATD flag clearing operates normally (read the status register before reading the result register
to clear the associate CCF bit).
1 = Changes all ATD conversion complete flags to a fast clear sequence. Any access to a result
register (ATD0–7) will cause the associated CCF flag to clear automatically if it was set at the
time.
ASWAI — ATD Stop in Wait Mode
0 = ATD continues to run when the MCU is in wait mode
1 = ATD stops to save power when the MCU is in wait mode
ASCIE — ATD Sequence Complete Interrupt Enable
0 = Disables ATD interrupt
1 = Enables ATD interrupt on sequence complete
ASCIF — ATD Sequence Complete Interrupt
Cannot be written in any mode.
0 = No ATD interrupt occurred
1 = ATD sequence complete
ATDCTL3 — ATD Control Register 3
RESET:
$0063
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FRZ1
FRZ0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FRZ1, FRZ0 — Background Debug (Freeze) Enable (suspend module operation at breakpoint)
When debugging an application, it is useful in many cases to have the ATD pause when a breakpoint
is encountered. These two bits determine how the ATD will respond when background debug mode becomes active.
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
MOTOROLA
109
Table 38 ATD Response to Background Debug Enable
FRZ1 FRZ0
ATD Response
0
0
Continue conversions in active background mode
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Finish current conversion, then freeze
1
1
Freeze when BDM is active
ATDCTL4 — ATD Control Register 4
RESET:
$0064
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
SMP1
SMP0
PRS4
PRS3
PRS2
PRS1
PRS0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
The ATD control register 4 is used to select the clock source and set up the prescaler. Writes to the ATD
control registers initiate a new conversion sequence. If a write occurs while a conversion is in progress,
the conversion is aborted and ATD activity halts until a write to ATDCTL5 occurs.
SMP1, SMP0 — Select Sample Time
These bits are used to select one of four sample times after the buffered sample and transfer has occurred. Total conversion time depends on initial sample time (two ATD clocks), transfer time (two ATD
clocks), final sample time (programmable, refer to Table 39), and resolution time (ten ATD clocks).
Table 39 Final Sample Time Selection
SMP1
SMP0
Final Sample Time
Total 8-Bit Conversion Time
0
0
2 ATD clock periods
16 ATD clock periods
0
1
4 ATD clock periods
18 ATD clock periods
1
0
8 ATD clock periods
22 ATD clock periods
1
1
16 ATD clock periods
30 ATD clock periods
PRS4, PRS3, PRS2, PRS1, PRS0 — Select Divide-By Factor for ATD P-Clock Prescaler.
The binary value written to these bits (1 to 31) selects the divide-by factor for the modulo counter-based
prescaler. The P clock is divided by this value plus one and then fed into a ÷2 circuit to generate the
ATD module clock. The divide-by-two circuit insures symmetry of the output clock signal. Clearing these
bits causes the prescale value to default to one which results in a ÷2 prescale factor. This signal is then
fed into the ÷2 logic. The reset state divides the P clock by a total of four and is appropriate for nominal
operation between 2 MHz and 8 MHz bus rate. Table 40 shows the divide-by operation and the appropriate range of system clock frequencies.
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Table 40 Clock Prescaler Values
Prescale Value
Total Divisor
Max P Clock1
Min P Clock2
00000
÷2
4 MHz
1 MHz
00001
÷4
8 MHz
2 MHz
00010
÷6
8 MHz
3 MHz
00011
÷8
8 MHz
4 MHz
00100
÷10
8 MHz
5 MHz
00101
÷12
8 MHz
6 MHz
00110
÷14
8 MHz
7 MHz
00111
÷16
8 MHz
8 MHz
01xxx
Do Not Use
1xxxx
NOTES:
1. Maximum conversion frequency is 2 MHz. Maximum P clock divisor value will become
maximum conversion rate that can be used on this ATD module.
2. Minimum conversion frequency is 500 kHz. Minimum P clock divisor value will become
minimum conversion rate that this ATD can perform.
ATDCTL5 — ATD Control Register 5
RESET:
$0065
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
S8CM
SCAN
MULT
CD
CC
CB
CA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The ATD control register 5 is used to select the conversion modes, the conversion channel(s), and initiate conversions.
Read or write anytime. Writes to the ATD control registers initiate a new conversion sequence. If a conversion sequence is in progress when a write occurs, that sequence is aborted and the SCF and CCF
bits are reset.
S8CM — Select 8 Channel Mode
0 = Conversion sequence consists of four conversions
1 = Conversion sequence consists of eight conversions
SCAN — Enable Continuous Channel Scan
0 = Single conversion sequence
1 = Continuous conversion sequences (scan mode)
When a conversion sequence is initiated by a write to the ATDCTL register, the user has a choice of
performing a sequence of four (or eight, depending on the S8CM bit) conversions or continuously performing four (or eight) conversion sequences.
MULT — Enable Multichannel Conversion
0 = ATD sequencer runs all four or eight conversions on a single input channel selected via the
CD, CC, CB, and CA bits.
1 = ATD sequencer runs each of the four or eight conversions on sequential channels in a specific
group. Refer to Table 41.
CD, CC, CB, and CA — Channel Select for Conversion
MC68HC912B32
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Table 41 Multichannel Mode Result Register Assignment
S8CM
0
0
0
0
1
1
CD
0
0
1
1
0
1
CB
CA
Channel Signal
Result in ADRx
if MULT = 1
0
0
AN0
ADR0
0
1
AN1
ADR1
1
0
AN2
ADR2
1
1
AN3
ADR3
0
0
AN4
ADR0
0
1
AN5
ADR1
1
0
AN6
ADR2
1
1
AN7
ADR3
0
0
Reserved
ADR0
0
1
Reserved
ADR1
1
0
Reserved
ADR2
1
1
Reserved
ADR3
0
0
VRH
ADR0
0
1
VRL
ADR1
1
0
(VRH + VRL)/2
ADR2
1
1
TEST/Reserved
ADR3
0
0
0
AN0
ADR0
0
0
1
AN1
ADR1
0
1
0
AN2
ADR2
0
1
1
AN3
ADR3
1
0
0
AN4
ADR4
1
0
1
AN5
ADR5
1
1
0
AN6
ADR6
1
1
1
AN7
ADR7
0
0
0
Reserved
ADR0
0
0
1
Reserved
ADR1
0
1
0
Reserved
ADR2
0
1
1
Reserved
ADR3
1
0
0
VRH
ADR4
1
0
1
VRL
ADR5
1
1
0
(VRH + VRL)/2
ADR6
1
1
1
TEST/Reserved
ADR7
CC
0
1
0
1
Shaded bits are “don’t care” if MULT = 1 and the entire block of four or eight
channels make up a conversion sequence. When MULT = 0, all four bits
(CD, CC, CB, and CA) must be specified and a conversion sequence consists of four or eight consecutive conversions of the single specified channel.
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ATDSTAT — ATD Status Register
RESET:
$0066
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SCF
0
0
0
0
CC2
CC1
CC0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ATDSTAT — ATD Status Register
RESET:
$0067
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
CCF7
CCF6
CCF5
CCF4
CCF3
CCF2
CCF1
CCF0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The ATD status registers contain the flags indicating the completion of ATD conversions.
Normally, it is read-only. In special mode, the SCF bit and the CCF bits may also be written.
SCF — Sequence Complete Flag
This bit is set at the end of the conversion sequence when in the single conversion sequence mode
(SCAN = 0 in ATDCTL5) and is set at the end of the first conversion sequence when in the continuous
conversion mode (SCAN = 1 in ATDCTL5). When AFFC = 0, SCF is cleared when a write is performed
to ATDCTL5 to initiate a new conversion sequence. When AFFC = 1, SCF is cleared after the first result
register is read.
CC[2:0] — Conversion Counter for Current Sequence of Four or Eight Conversions
This 3-bit value reflects the contents of the conversion counter pointer in a four or eight count sequence.
This value also reflects which result register will be written next, indicating which channel is currently
being converted.
CCF[7:0] — Conversion Complete Flags
Each of these bits are associated with an individual ATD result register. For each register, this bit is set
at the end of conversion for the associated ATD channel and remains set until that ATD result register
is read. It is cleared at that time if AFFC bit is set, regardless of whether a status register read has been
performed (i.e., a status register read is not a pre-qualifier for the clearing mechanism when AFFC = 1).
Otherwise the status register must be read to clear the flag.
ATDTSTH — ATD Test Register
RESET:
$0068
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SAR9
SAR8
SAR7
SAR6
SAR5
SAR4
SAR3
SAR2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ATDTSTL — ATD Test Register
RESET:
$0069
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
SAR1
SAR0
RST
TSTOUT
TST3
TST2
TST1
TST0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The test registers control various special modes which are used during manufacturing. The test register
can be read or written only in the special modes. In the normal modes, reads of the test register return
zero and writes have no effect.
SAR[9:0] — SAR Data
Reads of this byte return the current value in the SAR. Writes to this byte change the SAR to the value
written. Bits SAR[9:2] reflect the eight SAR bits used during the resolution process for an 8-bit result.
SAR1 and SAR0 are reserved to allow future derivatives to increase ATD resolution to ten bits.
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RST — Module Reset Bit
When set, this bit causes all registers and activity in the module to assume the same state as out of
power-on reset (except for ADPU bit in ATDCTL2, which remains set, allowing the ATD module to remain enabled).
TSTOUT — Multiplex Output of TST[3:0] (Factory Use)
TST[3:0] — Test Bits 3 to 0 (Reserved)
Selects one of 16 reserved factory testing modes.
PORTAD — Port AD Data Input Register
$006F
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PAD7
PAD6
PAD5
PAD4
PAD3
PAD2
PAD1
PAD0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RESET:
PAD[7:0] — Port AD Data Input Bits
After reset these bits reflect the state of the input pins.
May be used for general-purpose digital input. When the software reads PORTAD, it obtains the digital
levels that appear on the corresponding port AD pins. Pins with signals not meeting VIL or VIH specifications will have an indeterminate value. Writes to this register have no meaning at any time.
ADR0H — ATD Converter Result Register 0
ADR1H — ATD Converter Result Register 1
ADR2H — ATD Converter Result Register 2
ADR3H — ATD Converter Result Register 3
ADR4H — ATD Converter Result Register 4
ADR5H — ATD Converter Result Register 5
ADR6H — ATD Converter Result Register 6
ADR7H — ATD Converter Result Register 7
$007x
RESET:
$0070
$0072
$0074
$0076
$0078
$007A
$007C
$007E
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADRxH[7:0] — ATD Conversion Result
The reset condition for these registers is undefined.
These bits contain the left justified, unsigned result from the ATD conversion. The channel from which
this result was obtained is dependent on the conversion mode selected. These registers are always
read-only in normal mode.
15.3 ATD Mode Operation
STOP — causes all clocks to halt (if the S bit in the CCR is zero). The system is placed in a minimumpower standby mode. This aborts any conversion sequence in progress. During STOP recovery, the
ATD must delay for the STOP recovery time (tSR) before initiating a new ATD conversion sequence.
WAIT — ATD conversion continues unless AWAI bit in ATDCTL2 register is set.
BDM — Debug options available as set in register ATDCTL3.
USER — ATD continues running unless ADPU is cleared.
ADPU — ATD operations are stopped if ADPU = 0, but registers are accessible.
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16 Development Support
Development support involves complex interactions between MC68HC912B32 resources and external
development systems. The following section concerns instruction queue and queue tracking signals,
background debug mode, and instruction tagging.
16.1 Instruction Queue
The CPU12 instruction queue provides at least three bytes of program information to the CPU when
instruction execution begins. The CPU12 always completely finishes executing an instruction before beginning to execute the next instruction. Status signals IPIPE[1:0] provide information about data movement in the queue and indicate when the CPU begins to execute instructions. This makes it possible to
monitor CPU activity on a cycle-by-cycle basis for debugging. Information available on the IPIPE[1:0]
pins is time multiplexed. External circuitry can latch data movement information on rising edges of the
E-clock signal; execution start information can be latched on falling edges. Table 42 shows the meaning
of data on the pins.
Table 42 IPIPE Decoding
Data Movement — IPIPE[1:0] Captured at Rising Edge of E Clock1
IPIPE[1:0]
Mnemonic
0:0
—
Meaning
No Movement
0:1
LAT
Latch Data From Bus
1:0
ALD
Advance Queue and Load From Bus
1:1
ALL
Advance Queue and Load From Latch
Execution Start — IPIPE[1:0] Captured at Falling Edge of E Clock2
IPIPE[1:0]
Mnemonic
0:0
—
Meaning
0:1
INT
Start Interrupt Sequence
1:0
SEV
Start Even Instruction
1:1
SOD
Start Odd Instruction
No Start
NOTES:
1. Refers to data that was on the bus at the previous E falling edge.
2. Refers to bus cycle starting at this E falling edge.
Program information is fetched a few cycles before it is used by the CPU. In order to monitor cycle-bycycle CPU activity, it is necessary to externally reconstruct what is happening in the instruction queue.
Internally the MCU only needs to buffer the data from program fetches. For system debug it is necessary
to keep the data and its associated address in the reconstructed instruction queue. The raw signals required for reconstruction of the queue are ADDR, DATA, R/W, ECLK, and status signals IPIPE[1:0].
The instruction queue consists of two 16-bit queue stages and a holding latch on the input of the first
stage. To advance the queue means to move the word in the first stage to the second stage and move
the word from either the holding latch or the data bus input buffer into the first stage. To start even (or
odd) instruction means to execute the opcode in the high-order (or low-order) byte of the second stage
of the instruction queue.
16.2 Background Debug Mode
Background debug mode (BDM) is used for system development, in-circuit testing, field testing, and
programming. BDM is implemented in on-chip hardware and provides a full set of debug options.
Because BDM control logic does not reside in the CPU, BDM hardware commands can be executed
while the CPU is operating normally. The control logic generally uses CPU dead cycles to execute these
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
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commands, but can steal cycles from the CPU when necessary. Other BDM commands are firmware
based, and require the CPU to be in active background mode for execution. While BDM is active, the
CPU executes a firmware program located in a small on-chip ROM that is available in the standard 64Kbyte memory map only while BDM is active.
The BDM control logic communicates with an external host development system serially, via the BKGD
pin. This single-wire approach minimizes the number of pins needed for development support.
16.2.1 Enabling BDM Firmware Commands
BDM is available in all operating modes, but must be made active before firmware commands can be
executed. BDM is enabled by setting the ENBDM bit in the BDM STATUS register via the single wire
interface (using a hardware command; WRITE_BD_BYTE at $FF01). BDM must then be activated to
map BDM registers and ROM to addresses $FF00 to $FFFF and to put the MCU in active background
mode.
After the firmware is enabled, BDM can be activated by the hardware BACKGROUND command, by
the BDM tagging mechanism, or by the CPU BGND instruction. An attempt to activate BDM before firmware has been enabled causes the MCU to resume normal instruction execution after a brief delay.
BDM becomes active at the next instruction boundary following execution of the BDM BACKGROUND
command, but tags activate BDM before a tagged instruction is executed.
In special single-chip mode, background operation is enabled and active immediately out of reset. This
active case replaces the M68HC11 boot function, and allows programming a system with blank memory.
While BDM is active, a set of BDM control registers are mapped to addresses $FF00 to $FF06. The
BDM control logic uses these registers which can be read anytime by BDM logic, not user programs.
Refer to 16.2.4 BDM Registers for detailed descriptions.
Some on-chip peripherals have a BDM control bit which allows suspending the peripheral function during BDM. For example, if the timer control is enabled, the timer counter is stopped while in BDM. Once
normal program flow is continued, the timer counter is re-enabled to simulate real-time operations.
16.2.2 BDM Serial Interface
The BDM serial interface requires the external controller to generate a falling edge on the BKGD pin to
indicate the start of each bit time. The external controller provides this falling edge whether data is transmitted or received.
BKGD is a pseudo-open-drain pin that can be driven either by an external controller or by the MCU.
Data is transferred MSB first at 16 E-clock cycles per bit (nominal speed). The interface times out if 256
E-clock cycles occur between falling edges from the host. The hardware clears the command register
when a time-out occurs.
The BKGD pin can receive a high or low level or transmit a high or low level. The following diagrams
show timing for each of these cases. Interface timing is synchronous to MCU clocks but asynchronous
to the external host. The internal clock signal is shown for reference in counting cycles.
Figure 27 shows an external host transmitting a logic one or zero to the BKGD pin of a target
MC68HC912B32 MCU. The host is asynchronous to the target so there is a 0-to-1 cycle delay from the
host-generated falling edge to where the target perceives the beginning of the bit time. Nine target E
cycles later, the target senses the bit level on the BKGD pin. Typically the host actively drives the pseudo-open-drain BKGD pin during host-to-target transmissions to speed up rising edges. Since the target
does not drive the BKGD pin during this period, there is no need to treat the line as an open-drain signal
during host-to-target transmissions.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
E CLOCK
(TARGET MCU)
HOST
TRANSMIT 1
HOST
TRANSMIT 0
PERCEIVED
START
OF BIT TIME
TARGET SENSES BIT
EARLIEST
START OF
NEXT BIT
9 CYCLES
SYNCHRONIZATION
UNCERTAINTY
HC12A4 BDM HOST TO TARGET TIM
Figure 27 BDM Host to Target Serial Bit Timing
E CLOCK
(TARGET
MCU)
HOST
DRIVE TO
BKGD PIN
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
TARGET MCU
SPEEDUP PULSE
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
PERCEIVED
START OF BIT
TIME
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
R-C RISE
BKGD PIN
10 CYCLES
10 CYCLES
HOST SAMPLES
BKGD PIN
EARLIEST
START OF
NEXT BIT
HC12A4 BDM TARGET TO HOST TIM 1
Figure 28 BDM Target to Host Serial Bit Timing (Logic 1)
Figure 28 shows the host receiving a logic one from the target MC68HC912B32 MCU. Since the host
is asynchronous to the target MCU, there is a 0-to-1 cycle delay from the host-generated falling edge
on BKGD to the perceived start of the bit time in the target MCU. The host holds the BKGD pin low long
enough for the target to recognize it (at least two target E cycles). The host must release the low drive
before the target MCU drives a brief active-high speed-up pulse seven cycles after the perceived start
of the bit time. The host should sample the bit level about ten cycles after it started the bit time.
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E CLOCK
(TARGET
MCU)
HOST
DRIVE TO
BKGD PIN
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
SPEEDUP PULSE
TARGET MCU
DRIVE AND
SPEEDUP PULSE
PERCEIVED
START OF BIT TIME
BKGD PIN
10 CYCLES
10 CYCLES
HOST SAMPLES
BKGD PIN
EARLIEST
START OF
NEXT BIT
HC12A4 BDM TARGET TO HOST TIM 0
Figure 29 BDM Target to Host Serial Bit Timing (Logic 0)
Figure 29 shows the host receiving a logic zero from the target MC68HC912B32 MCU. Since the host
is asynchronous to the target MCU, there is a 0-to-1 cycle delay from the host-generated falling edge
on BKGD to the start of the bit time as perceived by the target MCU. The host initiates the bit time but
the target MC68HC912B32 finishes it. Since the target wants the host to receive a logic zero, it drives
the BKGD pin low for 13 E-clock cycles, then briefly drives it high to speed up the rising edge. The host
samples the bit level about ten cycles after starting the bit time.
16.2.3 BDM Commands
All BDM command opcodes are eight bits long, and can be followed by an address and/or data, as indicated by the instruction. These commands do not require the CPU to be in active BDM mode for execution.
The host controller must wait 150 cycles for a non-intrusive BDM command to execute before another
command can be sent. This delay includes 128 cycles for the maximum delay for a dead cycle. For data
read commands, the host must insert this delay between sending the address and attempting to read
the data.
BDM logic retains control of the internal buses until a read or write is completed. If an operation can be
completed in a single cycle, it does not intrude on normal CPU operation. However, if an operation requires multiple cycles, CPU clocks are frozen until the operation is complete.
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Table 43 BDM Commands Implemented in Hardware
Command
Opcode (Hex)
Data
BACKGROUND
90
None
READ_BD_BYTE
E4
16-bit address
16-bit data out
Read from memory with BDM in map (may steal cycles if
external access) data for odd address on low byte, data for
even address on high byte.
FF01,
0000 0000 (out)
READ_BD_BYTE $FF01. Running user code (BGND instruction is not allowed).
FF01,
1000 0000 (out)
READ_BD_BYTE $FF01. BGND instruction is allowed.
FF01,
1100 0000 (out)
READ_BD_BYTE $FF01. Background mode active (waiting for single wire serial command).
STATUS1
E4
Description
Enter background mode (if firmware enabled).
READ_BD_WORD
EC
16-bit address
16-bit data out
Read from memory with BDM in map (may steal cycles if
external access) must be aligned access.
READ_BYTE
E0
16-bit address
16-bit data out
Read from memory with BDM out of map (may steal cycles
if external access) data for odd address on low byte, data
for even address on high byte.
READ_WORD
E8
16-bit address
16-bit data out
Read from memory with BDM out of map (may steal cycles
if external access) must be aligned access.
WRITE_BD_BYTE
C4
16-bit address
16-bit data in
Write to memory with BDM in map (may steal cycles if external access) data for odd address on low byte, data for
even address on high byte.
ENABLE_ FIRMWARE2
C4
FF01,
1xxx xxxx(in)
Write byte $FF01, set the ENBDM bit. This allows execution of commands which are implemented in firmware.
Typically, read STATUS, OR in the MSB, write the result
back to STATUS.
WRITE_BD_WORD
CC
16-bit address
16-bit data in
Write to memory with BDM in map (may steal cycles if external access) must be aligned access.
WRITE_BYTE
C0
16-bit address
16-bit data in
Write to memory with BDM out of map (may steal cycles if
external access) data for odd address on low byte, data for
even address on high byte.
WRITE_WORD
C8
16-bit address
16-bit data in
Write to memory with BDM out of map (may steal cycles if
external access) must be aligned access.
NOTES:
1. STATUS command is a specific case of the READ_BD_BYTE command.
2. ENABLE_FIRMWARE and ENTER_TAG_MODE are specific cases of the WRITE_BD_BYTE command.
The CPU must be in background mode to execute commands that are implemented in the BDM ROM.
The BDM ROM is located at $FF20 to $FFFF while BDM is active. There are also seven bytes of BDM
registers which are located at $FF00 to $FF06 while BDM is active. The CPU executes code from this
ROM to perform the requested operation. These commands are shown in Table 44.
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Table 44 BDM Firmware Commands
Command
Opcode (Hex)
Data
Description
READ_NEXT
62
16-bit data out
X = X + 2; Read next word pointed-to by X
READ_PC
63
16-bit data out
Read program counter
READ_D
64
16-bit data out
Read D accumulator
READ_X
65
16-bit data out
Read X index register
READ_Y
66
16-bit data out
Read Y index register
Read stack pointer
READ_SP
67
16-bit data out
WRITE_NEXT
42
16-bit data in
X = X + 2; Write next word pointed-to by X
WRITE_PC
43
16-bit data in
Write program counter
WRITE_D
44
16-bit data in
Write D accumulator
WRITE_X
45
16-bit data in
Write X index register
WRITE_Y
46
16-bit data in
Write Y index register
WRITE_SP
47
16-bit data in
Write stack pointer
GO
08
None
Go to user program
TRACE1
10
None
Execute one user instruction then return to BDM
TAGGO
18
None
Enable tagging and go to user program
16.2.4 BDM Registers
Seven BDM registers are mapped into the standard 64-Kbyte address space when BDM is active. The
registers can be accessed with the hardware READ_BD and WRITE_BD commands, but must not be
written during BDM operation. Most users will only be interested in the STATUS register at $FF01; other
registers are only for use by BDM firmware and logic.
The instruction register is discussed for two conditions: when a hardware command is executed and
when a firmware command is executed.
INSTRUCTION — BDM Instruction Register (hardware command bit explanation)
(BDM) $FF00
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
H/F
DATA
R/W
BKGND
W/B
BD/U
0
0
The bits in the BDM instruction register have the following meanings when a hardware command is
executed.
H/F — Hardware/Firmware Flag
0 = Firmware instruction
1 = Hardware instruction
DATA — Data Flag
0 = No data
1 = Data included in command
R/W — Read/Write Flag
0 = Write
1 = Read
BKGND — Hardware request to enter active background mode
0 = Not a hardware background command
1 = Hardware background command (INSTRUCTION = $90)
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W/B — Word/Byte Transfer Flag
0 = Byte transfer
1 = Word transfer
BD/U — BDM Map/User Map Flag
Indicates whether BDM registers and ROM are mapped to addresses $FF00 to $FFFF in the standard
64-Kbyte address space. Used only by hardware read/write commands.
0 = BDM resources not in map
1 = BDM resources in map
INSTRUCTION — BDM Instruction Register (firmware command bit explanation)
Bit 7
6
5
4
H/F
DATA
R/W
3
2
TTAGO
1
(BDM) $FF00
Bit 0
REGN
The bits in the BDM instruction register have the following meanings when a firmware command is executed.
H/F — Hardware/Firmware Flag
0 = Firmware control logic
1 = Hardware control logic
DATA — Data Flag
0 = No data
1 = Data included in command
R/W — Read/Write Flag
0 = Write
1 = Read
TTAGO — Trace, Tag, Go Field
Table 45 TTAGO Decoding
TTAGO Value
00
01
10
11
Instruction
—
GO
TRACE1
TAGGO
REGN — Register/Next Field
Indicates which register is being affected by a command. In the case of a READ_NEXT or
WRITE_NEXT command, index register X is pre-incremented by two and the word pointed to by X is
then read or written.
Table 46 REGN Decoding
REGN Value
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Instruction
—
—
READ/WRITE NEXT
PC
D
X
Y
SP
MOTOROLA
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STATUS — BDM Status Register
(BDM) $FF01
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ENBDM
BDMACT
ENTAG
SDV
TRACE
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
RESET:
This register can be read or written by BDM commands or firmware.
ENBDM — Enable BDM (permit active background debug mode)
0 = BDM cannot be made active (hardware commands still allowed)
1 = BDM can be made active to allow firmware commands
BDMACT — Background Mode Active Status
0 = BDM not active
1 = BDM active and waiting for serial commands
ENTAG — Instruction Tagging Enable
Set by the TAGGO instruction and cleared when BDM is entered.
0 = Tagging not enabled, or BDM active
1 = Tagging active (BDM cannot process serial commands while tagging is active.)
SDV — Shifter Data Valid
Shows that valid data is in the serial interface shift register. Used by firmware-based instructions.
0 = No valid data
1 = Valid Data
TRACE — Asserted by the TRACE1 instruction
SHIFTER — BDM Shift Register
(BDM) $FF02, $FF03
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
S15
S14
S13
S12
S11
S10
S9
S8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
S7
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
This 16-bit register contains data being received or transmitted via the serial interface.
ADDRESS — BDM Address Register
(BDM) $FF04, $FF05
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
This 16-bit register is temporary storage for BDM hardware and firmware commands.
CCRSAV — BDM CCR Holding Register
(BDM) $FF06
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
CCR7
CCR6
CCR5
CCR4
CCR3
CCR2
CCR1
CCR0
This register preserves the content of the CPU12 CCR while BDM is active.
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MC68HC912B32TS/D
16.3 Breakpoints
Hardware breakpoints are used to debug software on the MC68HC912B32 by comparing actual address and data values to predetermined data in setup registers. A successful comparison will place the
CPU in background debug mode (BDM) or initiate a software interrupt (SWI). Breakpoint features designed into the MC68HC912B32 include:
• Mode selection for BDM or SWI generation
• Program fetch tagging for cycle of execution breakpoint
• Second address compare in dual address modes
• Range compare by disable of low byte address
• Data compare in full feature mode for non-tagged breakpoint
• Byte masking for high/low byte data compares
• R/W compare for non-tagged compares
• Tag inhibit on BDM TRACE
16.3.1 Breakpoint Modes
Three modes of operation determine the type of breakpoint in effect.
• Dual address-only breakpoints, each of which will cause a software interrupt (SWI)
• Single full-feature breakpoint which will cause the part to enter background debug mode (BDM)
• Dual address-only breakpoints, each of which will cause the part to enter BDM
Breakpoints will not occur when BDM is active.
16.3.1.1 SWI Dual Address Mode
In this mode, dual address-only breakpoints can be set, each of which cause a software interrupt. This
is the only breakpoint mode which can force the CPU to execute a SWI. Program fetch tagging is the
default in this mode; data breakpoints are not possible. In the dual mode each address breakpoint is
affected by the BKPM bit and the BKALE bit. The BKxRW and BKxRWE bits are ignored. In dual address mode the BKDBE becomes an enable for the second address breakpoint. The BKSZ8 bit will
have no effect when in a dual address mode.
16.3.1.2 BDM Full Breakpoint Mode
A single full feature breakpoint which causes the part to enter background debug mode. BDM mode
may be entered by a breakpoint only if an internal signal from the BDM indicates background debug
mode is enabled.
• Breakpoints are not allowed if the BDM mode is already active. Active mode means the CPU is
executing out of the BDM ROM.
• BDM should not be entered from a breakpoint unless the ENABLE bit is set in the BDM. This is
important because even if the ENABLE bit in the BDM is negated the CPU actually does execute
the BDM ROM code. It checks the ENABLE and returns if not set. If the BDM is not serviced by
the monitor then the breakpoint would be re-asserted when the BDM returns to normal CPU flow.
• There is no hardware to enforce restriction of breakpoint operation if the BDM is not enabled.
16.3.1.3 BDM Dual Address Mode
Dual address-only breakpoints, each of which cause the part to enter background debug mode. In the
dual mode each address breakpoint is affected, consistent across modes, by the BKPM bit, the BKALE
bit, and the BKxRW and BKxRWE bits. In dual address mode the BKDBE becomes an enable for the
second address breakpoint. The BKSZ8 bit will have no effect when in a dual address mode. BDM mode
may be entered by a breakpoint only if an internal signal from the BDM indicates background debug
mode is enabled.
• BKDBE will be used as an enable for the second address only breakpoint.
MC68HC912B32
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• Breakpoints are not allowed if the BDM mode is already active. Active mode means the CPU is
executing out of the BDM ROM.
• BDM should not be entered from a breakpoint unless the ENABLE bit is set in the BDM. This is
important because even if the ENABLE bit in the BDM is negated the CPU actually does execute
the BDM ROM code. It checks the ENABLE and returns if not set. If the BDM is not serviced by
the monitor then the breakpoint would be re-asserted when the BDM returns to normal CPU flow.
There is no hardware to enforce restriction of breakpoint operation if the BDM is not enabled.
16.3.2 Registers
Breakpoint operation consists of comparing data in the breakpoint address registers (BRKAH/BRKAL)
to the address bus and comparing data in the breakpoint data registers (BRKDH/BRKDL) to the data
bus. The breakpoint data registers can also be compared to the address bus. The scope of comparison
can be expanded by ignoring the least significant byte of address or data matches.
The scope of comparison can be limited to program data only by setting the BKPM bit in breakpoint control register 0.
To trace program flow, setting the BKPM bit causes address comparison of program data only. Control
bits are also available that allow checking read/write matches.
BRKCT0 — Breakpoint Control Register 0
$0020
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BKEN1
BKEN0
BKPM
0
BK1ALE
BK0ALE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
Read and write anytime.
This register is used to control the breakpoint logic.
BKEN1, BKEN0 — Breakpoint Mode Enable
Table 47 Breakpoint Mode Control
BKEN1 BKEN0
Mode Selected
0
0
Breakpoints Off
0
1
SWI — Dual Address Mode
1
0
BDM — Full Breakpoint Mode
1
1
BDM — Dual Address Mode
BRKAH/L Usage
—
Address Match
Address Match
Address Match
BRKDH/L Usage
—
Address Match
Data Match
Address Match
R/W
—
No
Yes
Yes
Range
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
BKPM — Break on Program Addresses
This bit controls whether the breakpoint will cause a break on a match (next instruction boundary) or on
a match that will be an executable opcode. Data and unexecuted opcodes cannot cause a break if this
bit is set. This bit has no meaning in SWI dual address mode. The SWI mode only performs program
breakpoints.
0 = On match, break at the next instruction boundary
1 = On match, break if the match is an instruction that will be executed. This uses tagging as its
breakpoint mechanism.
BK1ALE — Breakpoint 1 Range Control
Only valid in dual address mode.
0 = BRKDL will not be used to compare to the address bus.
1 = BRKDL will be used to compare to the address bus.
BK0ALE — Breakpoint 0 Range Control
Valid in all modes.
0 = BRKAL will not be used to compare to the address bus.
1 = BRKAL will be used to compare to the address bus.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
Table 48 Breakpoint Address Range Control
BK1ALE
–
–
0
1
BK0ALE
0
1
–
–
Address Range Selected
Upper 8-bit address only for full mode or dual mode BKP0
Full 16-bit address for full mode or dual mode BKP0
Upper 8-bit address only for dual mode BKP1
Full 16-bit address for dual mode BKP1
BRKCT1 — Breakpoint Control Register 1
RESET:
$0021
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
BKDBE
BKMBH
BKMBL
BK1RWE
BK1RW
BK0RWE
BK0RW
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
This register is read/write in all modes.
BKDBE — Enable Data Bus
Enables comparing of address or data bus values using the BRKDH/L registers.
0 = The BRKDH/L registers are not used in any comparison
1 = The BRKDH/L registers are used to compare address or data (depending upon the mode selections BKEN1,0)
BKMBH — Breakpoint Mask High
Disables the comparing of the high byte of data when in full breakpoint mode. Used in conjunction with
the BKDBE bit (which should be set)
0 = High byte of data bus (bits 15:8) are compared to BRKDH
1 = High byte is not used to in comparisons
BKMBL — Breakpoint Mask Low
Disables the matching of the low byte of data when in full breakpoint mode. Used in conjunction with
the BKDBE bit (which should be set)
0 = Low byte of data bus (bits 7:0) are compared to BRKDL
1 = Low byte is not used to in comparisons.
BK1RWE — R/W Compare Enable
Enables the comparison of the R/W signal to further specify what causes a match. This bit is NOT useful
in program breakpoints or in full breakpoint mode. This bit is used in conjunction with a second address
in dual address mode when BKDBE=1.
0 = R/W is not used in comparisons
1 = R/W is used in comparisons
BK1RW — R/W Compare Value
When BK1RWE = 1, this bit determines the type of bus cycle to match.
0 = A write cycle will be matched
1 = A read cycle will be matched
BK0RWE — R/W Compare Enable
Enables the comparison of the R/W signal to further specify what causes a match. This bit is not useful
in program breakpoints.
0 = R/W is not used in the comparisons
1 = R/W is used in comparisons
BK0RW — R/W Compare Value
When BK0RWE = 1, this bit determines the type of bus cycle to match on.
0 = Write cycle will be matched
1 = Read cycle will be matched
MC68HC912B32
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Table 49 Breakpoint Read/Write Control
BK1RWE
BK1RW
BK0RWE
BK0RW
Read/Write Selected
–
–
0
X
R/W is don’t care for full mode or dual mode
BKP0
–
–
1
0
R/W is write for full mode or dual mode BKP0
–
–
1
1
R/W is read for full mode or dual mode BKP0
0
X
–
–
R/W is don’t care for dual mode BKP1
1
0
–
–
R/W is write for dual mode BKP1
1
1
–
–
R/W is read for dual mode BKP1
BRKAH — Breakpoint Address Register, High Byte
$0022
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
These bits are used to compare against the most significant byte of the address bus.
BRKAL — Breakpoint Address Register, Low Byte
RESET:
$0023
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
These bits are used to compare against the least significant byte of the address bus. These bits may
be excluded from being used in the match if BK0ALE = 0.
BRKDH — Breakpoint Data Register, High Byte
$0024
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
These bits are compared to the most significant byte of the data bus or the most significant byte of the
address bus in dual address modes. BKEN[1:0], BKDBE, and BKMBH control how this byte will be used
in the breakpoint comparison.
BRKDL — Breakpoint Data Register, Low Byte
RESET:
$0025
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
These bits are compared to the least significant byte of the data bus or the least significant byte of the
address bus in dual address modes. BKEN[1:0], BKDBE, BK1ALE, and BKMBL control how this byte
will be used in the breakpoint comparison.
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MC68HC912B32
MC68HC912B32TS/D
16.4 Instruction Tagging
The instruction queue and cycle-by-cycle CPU activity can be reconstructed in real time or from trace
history that was captured by a logic analyzer. However, the reconstructed queue cannot be used to stop
the CPU at a specific instruction, because execution has already begun by the time an operation is visible outside the MCU. A separate instruction tagging mechanism is provided for this purpose.
Executing the BDM TAGGO command configures two MCU pins for tagging. Tagging information is
latched on the falling edge of ECLK along with program information as it is fetched. Tagging is allowed
in all modes. Tagging is disabled when BDM becomes active and BDM serial commands cannot be processed while tagging is active.
TAGHI is a shared function of the BKGD pin.
TAGLO is a shared function of the PE3/LSTRB pin, a multiplexed I/O pin. For 1/4 cycle before and after
the rising edge of the E clock, this pin is the LSTRB driven output.
TAGLO and TAGHI inputs are captured at the falling edge of the E clock. A logic zero on TAGHI and/or
TAGLO marks (tags) the instruction on the high and/or low byte of the program word that was on the
data bus at the same falling edge of the E clock.
The tag follows the information in the queue as the queue is advanced. When a tagged instruction
reaches the head of the queue, the CPU enters active background debugging mode rather than executing the instruction. This is the mechanism by which a development system initiates hardware breakpoints.
MC68HC912B32
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MOTOROLA
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MC68HC912B32TS/D