Energy Savings - Electrical and Computer Engineering @ UPR

Energy Savings:
help Stop
Global Warming
This presentation is at:
Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol
•Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering
•CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of
ATmospheric Events)
• UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the
Atmosphere (CASA)
http://ece.uprm.edu
/~pol
pol//outreach
http://ece.uprm.edu/~
UPRM Campus Verde : Mayo 1, 2007
GLobal Warming. . .
Global Warming
1. Is not a Theory; is a Fact.*
2. Is happening right now*
3. Scientific Consensus: is primary caused by
Human Activities, like emissions of CO2.*
4. Some of the consequences are irreversible!*
* According to the most recent report from UN-IPCC 4th
published in Feb 2, 2007.
Lake Chad
Was the 6th largest
lake in the World!
A study by U.
WisconsinMadison and
NASA's EOS, the
lake is now
1/20th of the size
it was 35 years
ago.
W. Africa (Chad,
Niger, Nigeria, &
Cameroon), the
region has
suffered from an
increasingly dry
climate,
experiencing
decline in rain
since early
1960s.
We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa
due to our emissions which accounts for
25% of all world emissions compared to
Africa’s 3%.
A report by
economist Sir
Nicholas Stern
suggests that
global warming
could shrink the
global economy
by 20%!
1
CO2 in the atmosphere
Years: 19601960-2000
400 mil años de concentración de CO2
Atmosférico y cambio en Temperatura
CO2 in Atmosphere
Years: 1000 -2100
ICE
AGE,
T was
only
6oC
Temperatura Global Promedio
Años: 18601860-2000
}
Cold due to sulfuric emissions: (1940-1970)
which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain
Clean Air Act
Several scenarios
2
Consequences:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared
/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_ch
ange/html/climate.stm
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Polar caps melt
Sea level rise
Extreme temperatures
Cyclones/tornadoes
Drought / floods
Disease
Agriculture losses
Water (potable) scarcity
Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation
Worst case scenario: stop ocean conveyor belt
Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa)
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Dry Season
Wet Season
30 years later…
later…
Calentamiento Global en Puerto Rico
disminuiría la lluvia por 10-20%!
Patagonia (Argentina)
Costa Rica
Longest Glacier in S.A.
1928
First official lost species due to Global warming:
golden toad
2004
Female
Male
3
Icebergs
Huracanes
•
•
•
•
with caves = broken food chain
60% of krill population killed
because of this.
10 hottest years ever, occurred in the last 14 yrs.
Hottest of all time, 2006.
2004 1st hurricane ever in the S. Altantic Ocean
2005 highest # of hurricanes,
Krill are small
shrimp-like
crustaceans
zooplankton, food
for baleen whales,
mantas, whale
sharks, seals, and a
few seabird species
– most intense, 6 Greek letters
• 2005 Wilma strongest hurricane ever recorded AO
• Then…
• 2006 Monica strongest hurricane ever recorded
• Luckily, year 2006, El Niño decreases # hurricanes
• 2007: La Niña!
Worst case scenario: abrupt change
On top of this…
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
Due to change
in salinity, if
Artic keeps
melting, this
current could
stop, creating
a small ice
age in Europe
and North
America.
Crecimiento Población Mundial
New blooming
economies want to live
their own version of the
“American Dream”.
Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to
lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also
flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2
emissions.
Also Political Issues
2000
6
1987
Tardó TODA la historia de la
humanidad para llegar a
1,000 millones en 1800.
5
• Oil industry interests,
1975
– Lobbyists
4
• Governments covering up scientific evidence
1960
2
1800
1
X mil millones
3
1930
– (e.g. NASA climatologist, Jim Hansen)
• Real cost of Nuclear energy
– versus cost of clean energy like solar or wind
– Health hazards, radioactive waste deposit
0
10,000 BC
5,000 BC
Year 0
1000
2000
4
Potential Solutions
Reduce CO2 emissions:
• Reduce energy consumption
• Alternative green power: solar, wind, biofuels,…
• Reforestation
• Increase fuel efficiency; e.g. fuel cell, hybrid cars
Scientific propositions:
• CO2 sequestration
• Inject sulfur in stratosphere
• Distribute iron oxide to SA ocean
CO2 Emission trading- Kyoto Protocol:
• Signed by 135 nations to reduce emissions.
• Not signed by U.S. or Australia!, the 2 nations with the
highest emissions.
The Good News is…
You can save over $2,000
every year while helping
the planet!
Save $$$
Every time we use:
electricity or gasoline,
products, even water, we
are sending emissiones
like CO2 to the
atmosphere that warm it
even more.
Electricity
Electric appliances use energy
even when turned OFF!
Some examples
This is call Phantom Loads!!
Sum of the phantom loads is
55W, which is 40 kWh/mo!
5
Save $5 - $50 /month if you
turn off (or better yet
disconnect) them when not
in use.
Use a power strip to connect
several appliances so you
can turn them all at once.
• Turn off printer &
speakers if not
using.
• Unplug then at
night.
Computers
• Turn off PC if you
will not use it in
~1-2 hours.
• NO leave the
adapter plugged
in!!
Cellphone Chargers
• ¡Don’t leave
plugged in!
• Uses 70-95% of
the energy as if
charging!
Mith vs. Fact:
Fact: turning off
appliances damages them.
them.
FALSE! New appliances can be
turned off to save money.
money.
6
What should I buy?
What should I buy?
• Laptop uses 1/3 of the electricity than a
regular computer!
LCD
Plasma
versus
Un LCD gasta 1/3 menos luz que un
televisor Plasma!
& it doesn’t need a UPS.
Luces FLUORESCENTES
COMPACTAS
AHORRAS $50 por
bombilla durante la
vida de la bombilla
A/C
Si usas aire acondicionado, ajusta la
temperatura 1-2 grados menos frío,
esto te ahorrará dinero y emisiones
de bióxido de carbono al ambiente.
• Usan 1/4 electricidad.
• Duran 10 veces más.
Un abanico en la ventana
atrae el aire fresco de afuera.
AHORRA $25 al mes
por cada unidad de aire!
What to buy?
Compra enseres
que tengan un bajo
uso de energía.
¡Compara!
What to buy?
Un calentador solar
• Ahorra $40-$100/mes
• Dura 30+ años!
Ahorra
$10-60/ mes c/u!!
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What to buy?
Factura de AEE…(hogar de 4)
• Enseres de GAS ahorran
unos $25-$50/mes!
• Tender la ropa al sol,
ahorra aún más.
† Consumo Promedio:
$260
1390 kWh
Factura de AEE:
Luego de eliminar Fantasmas
Eléctricos e instalar bombillas CFL
Factura de AEE:
Luego de usar abanicos en vez de
3 consolas de A/C
$113
(690 kWh)
$195
(1160 kWh)
Factura de AEE:
Factura
de AEE:
Luego
de instalar
Calentador de agua Solar
Agua
$74
(400 kWh)
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[IPCC 2007]
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Dry Season
Wet Season
Agua
• Al ahorrar agua,
ahorramos $ y
emisiones de CO2
• Compra duchas de 2.5
galones por minuto
(gpm)
Global Warming in Puerto Rico will
cause decrease in rain by 10-20%!
Use of Paper
• Print on both sides, minimize color.
• Use recycled paper, 100% post-consumer
• Cancel multiple Catalog subscriptions
• Subscribe to online magazines
Avoid lost of millons of trees
Reforestation
• Plant Trees
– Can lower home temperature by 10F!,
– Increase propriety value!
– Reduce CO2 emissions
Rechargable Bateries
(4 AA & 4 AAA)
AAA)
Products
Save >$100 for each
rechargable battery!
*
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Styrofoam
Styrofoam costs $$$…
$$$…
• Generates many toxic gases & CO2
during it’s manufacture.
• Is not biodegradable, it’s prohibited in
many US cities.
Provide incentives to use refillable cups for
coffee & sodas.
Avoid use of disposable plates, dinnerware &
napkins (Styrofoam® or Paper)
*Dinnerware = $7,000 savings per month at
UPRM’s cafeteria = cost analysis.
Eat less Meat
Small things, …big difference:
• Methane gas is 20x powerfull as CO2
• Could be captured & use as fuel.
Wastelands produce
Methane
Sell your “Trash”
Trash”
Recycle, Reuse & Reduce:
Reduce:
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cardboard
Plastic
Aluminum
Glass
Batteries
Water
Cooking oil
leaves
Methane
MBytes
Centro de reciclaje en Cabo Rojo:
Compra Aluminio, vidrio y cartón
No acepta plásticos.
Oil Energy 832-5757
Recicla aceite usado
Farm animals produce Methane
What to buy?
Reduced packages
Concentrated Products
*Packages need large amounts of
energy to produce & many liberate
tones of CO2 to the atmosphere
annually.
Ponce Resources en Mayaguez
824-3503
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Compost
¿Qué compro?
• Recycle leaves, and
other waste
• Better for your
health & the
environment.
• Fiberglass uses 1/3 the
energy than a concrete
pool
• Fiberglass pools have
less water filtrations.
Escoge piscina de fibra de vidrio
Increase your MPG
optimum
Yields minimum MPG
MPG
Acceleration
Gasoline
Pressing the pedal
Don’t press the accelerator too much.
Learn to keep on optimum range.
Increase MPG
1. Use optimum acceleration
2. Drive less, Combine trips
3. No leave car idle > 1min
4. Remove excess wait
5. Park in the shade
6. Keep auto tune-up & tires inflated
7. Consider an Hybrid
8. Turn A/C if driving uphill
9. Avoid holes
10. Use Overdrive
*http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/fuel_econo
my/practical-driving-tips.html
Each mile saves 20 pounds of CO2 emissions!
Optimum Speed
Carros Hí
Híbridos
Save $6,000
in 5 years*
& $12,000
in 10
years*!
*$0.65 per gas liter
Taking into account initial costs and costs due to gas inefficiency.
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Example: Auto
Sales
Auto Sales
in US in US 2006
Economic Advantages
[1st quarter 2006 %change]
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• For the industries that are leaders in developing
the technologies in renewable energy, green
building and energy conservation and efficiency.
8
6
4
2
0
-2
Ford
GM
Chyrler
Toyota
Honda
-4
-6
% change in sales
http://advisor.investopedia.com/news/
Use Renewable Energy
Many
solutions
[Non-renewables: carbon, oil]
RENEWABLES;
• SOLAR
• WIND
• OCEANIC-THERMAL
• BIO-DIESEL
• ETHANOL - SUGAR
MITIGATION
ITEAS
ACEER
Oil from cooking and cars
Solar charger for cellphones
• Biodiesel
• Bioethanol from sugar cane
Use old oil
for fuel!
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Eco Urbana – Renewable Solutions
Airplane Travel
• Emit many gasses but the overall effect is to cool
own the atmosphere due to sulfur emissions.
Solar powered & rainwater filtration system.
Save Mbytes!
More Things to DO: & Save $$
• Save materials & energy
•
Clean A/C filters
•
Take a ride, walk, use bikes
•
Eat:
•
Local Products
HOW?> Right-click on figure, press Format Figure, Compress , All,
or change with Paste Special to Jpeg or gif Format. Save a lot of
space on your USB memory sticks! Up to 20x!!
•
•
LowerT of water heater and AC
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Use sheets not blankets
Use cold water to wash clothes
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Be a Wise Consumer
• Buy Less
• Give away things you don’t use.
Hang clothes for drying
Use dishwasher only if Full
•
Wash by hand if possible
Everex.com
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Things to do everyday
Transportation accounts for 67% of oil used!
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•
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Use public transportation
Eat organic (better health, less Br)
silicón or dark baking pan : Bake T-25oF
•
Coffee Filter reusable: plastic or cloth
Buy products w/Less Package
• Family Packs: not individually wrapped
• Use gift bags instead of wrapping paper
• Reuse water bottles! /
*Plastics need large
quantities of energy to
produce & emit tons of CO2
to the atmosphere annually.
Green means it’s also good for your HEALTH.
•
Email your government:
•
•
SIgn petition at www.undoit.org
climatecrisis.org
•
www.cienciapr.org/peticion_calentamientoglobal.php
In summary
• Concentrate on the big items - in residential, this includes air
conditioning, high-powered or constantly active household
appliances (Clothes dryers, kitchen stoves, refrigerators, and
televisions), and hot water.
• In transportation, reduce trip generation, aggressive driving habits,
big vehicles, and avoid congestion when possible.
• Try to learn something about energy usage, yours and others.
Measure what you can. Avoid energy-saving suggestions not based
on facts.
• Don't generate so much waste. The most efficient recycling program
is not to purchase products with expensive packaging. Reduce
paper consumption - it's the fourth largest industrial energy
consumer.
• Support governmental and business practices to reduce energy use,
especially passive and active solar. Encourage the government to
begin making energy-related statistics and information available and
to begin to cooperate with the highly effective work of US agencies.
Greenhouse Gases
in the Atmosphere
We have only ONE planet.
Let’s use its resources
efficiently.
* From Dr. Tom Noack, UPRM ECE
http://ece.uprm.edu/~noack/temps/Energy_conservation-later.doc
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Book References:
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The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs
Weather Makers by Tim Flannery
An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman
Global Warming by Chris Spence
Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer
Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank
Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern
Web References…
References…
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www.nasa.gov
www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming
www.povertymap.net
www.unmillenniumproject.org
www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk
www.noaa.gov
www.ucsusa.org
www.borgenproject.org
www.unicef.org
www.energyhog.org FUN!! (PC games)
cacique.uprm.edu/aceer
Potential Flooding in PR
This presentation can be found at:
http://ece.uprm.edu
/~pol
pol//outreach
http://ece.uprm.edu/~
15