AeroComm TRANSCEIVER ZB2430 Specifications

V E R S I O N 2.0
Technical Support:
Phone: 800.492.2320
E-mail: wireless.support@lairdtech.com
Web: www.aerocomm.com/
Sales:
Phone: 800.492.2320
E-mail: wireless.sales@lairdtech.com
Web: www.aerocomm.com
Document Information
Copyright © 2008 AeroComm, Inc. All rights reserved.
The information contained in this manual and the accompanying software programs are copyrighted and all rights are
reserved by AeroComm, Inc. AeroComm, Inc. reserves the right to make periodic modifications of this product without
obligation to notify any person or entity of such revision. Copying, duplicating, selling, or otherwise distributing any
part of this product or accompanying documentation/software without the prior consent of an authorized
representative of AeroComm, Inc. is strictly prohibited.
All brands and product names in this publication are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective holders.
This material is preliminary
Information furnished by AeroComm in this specification is believed to be accurate. Devices sold by AeroComm are
covered by the warranty and patent indemnification provisions appearing in its Terms of Sale only. AeroComm makes
no warranty, express, statutory, and implied or by description, regarding the information set forth herein. AeroComm
reserves the right to change specifications at any time and without notice.
AeroComm’s products are intended for use in normal commercial and industrial applications. Applications requiring
unusual environmental requirements such as military, medical life-support or life-sustaining equipment are specifically
not recommended without additional testing for such application.
Limited Warranty, Disclaimer, Limitation of Liability
For a period of one (1) year from the date of purchase by the OEM customer, AeroComm warrants the OEM
transceiver against defects in materials and workmanship. AeroComm will not honor this warranty (and this warranty
will be automatically void) if there has been any (1) tampering, signs of tampering; 2) repair or attempt to repair by
anyone other than an AeroComm authorized technician.
This warranty does not cover and AeroComm will not be liable for, any damage or failure caused by misuse, abuse,
acts of God, accidents, electrical irregularity, or other causes beyond AeroComm’s control, or claim by other than the
original purchaser.
In no event shall AeroComm be responsible or liable for any damages arising: From the use of product; From the loss
of use, revenue or profit of the product; or As a result of any event, circumstance, action, or abuse beyond the control
of AeroComm, whether such damages be direct, indirect, consequential, special or otherwise and whether such
damages are incurred by the person to whom this warranty extends or third party.
If, after inspection, AeroComm determines that there is a defect, AeroComm will repair or replace the OEM transceiver
at their discretion. If the product is replaced, it may be a new or refurbished product.
Revision History
Revision
Description
Version 1.0
7/21/06 - Initial Release Version
Version 1.1
7/25/06 - Updated Pin definitions, corrected status request
command to display 0x00 as firmware version, updated CC 08,
CC 21 and EEPROM byte write commands. Corrected PAN ID
EEPROM address to address 0x78.
Updated Future
Enhancements section.
Version 1.2
9/15/06 - Changed Reset to active Low. Changed pin 20 to
Sleep pin and is active Low. Added second mechanical
drawing.
Version 1.3
1/18/07 - Corrected Read Temperature command.
Version 1.4
7/6/07 - Internal Release.
Version 1.5
7/17/07 - Added pinout for pluggable module.
Version 1.6
8/24/07 - Added API command set. Added Neighbor, Route, &
Radio Table commands. Added Energy scan command. Added
NV with soft reset command. Added static network parameters
information. Updated Broadcast section. Updated Serial
Interface section. Updated Channel Mask section. Added
power-down modes.
Corrected status request response.
Added MAC retries to EEPROM parameter list.
Version 1.7
Corrected Read Channel Command (was CC 02 00; changed to
CC 02)
Version 1.8
12/17/07 - Updated Compliancy Information. Added approval for
ZB2430-D. Updated Approved Antenna List.
Version 1.9
1/4/08 - Added new EEPROM parameters for firmware version
1.6 - End Device poll rate, Parent Hold Message, End Device
Wake Time, End Device Wake Poll rate, Stop Bit Delay, Modify
Wake upon RX, Reload Sleep, NV Restore enable/disable, &
RS485 DE/RE.
Version 2.0
3/1/08- Updated ZB2430 Features, Updated Current Draw for
High Power module, Updated RF Packet Size in RX Data Buffer
and CTS, Updated Read Digital Input, Updated Read ADC,
Updated Write Digital Output, Removed Discover 16-bit NWK
Address command, Added Read Voltage cmd, Added Restore
Default cmd, Added End-to-End Retries to EEPROM Parameters
Table, Updated CTS On/Off Thresholds, Updated Read
Neighbor Table Command
C o n te n ts
ZB2430 TRANSCEIVER MODULE 1
ZB2430 Features 1
Overview 1
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430 28
AT Commands 29
On-the-Fly Control Commands 29
Command Descriptions 31
SPECIFICATIONS 2
Pin Definitions 4
HARDWARE INTERFACE 6
Pin Definitions 6
Generic I/O 6
RXD and TXD 6
Test/Sleep Int. 6
UP_Reset 6
Command/Data 6
In Range 6
RTS Handshaking* 6
CTS Handshaking 7
Sleep Ind. 7
AD In 7
TERMS & DEFINITIONS 8
THEORY OF OPERATION 11
IEEE 802.15.4 & ZigBee Overview 11
Creating a Network 12
Mesh 12
Parent/Child Relationship 13
Network Limitations 14
Maximum Network Depth 14
Maximum Number of Children per Parent 15
ZigBee Addressing 15
16-bit Network Address 15
64-bit MAC address 16
Mesh Routing (AODV) 16
Coordinator Addressing 18
Broadcast Transmissions 18
SERIAL INTERFACE 20
Interface Modes 20
Transparent Mode 20
API Mode 20
Serial Interface Baud Rate 21
Interface Timeout / RF Packet Size 22
Flow Control 22
RXD Data Buffer and CTS 23
TXD Data Buffer and RTS 23
Networking 24
Power Down Modes 26
Cyclic Sleep 26
Deep Sleep 26
EEPROM PARAMETERS 37
API OPERATION 41
API Transmit Packet 41
API Send Data Complete 41
API Receive Packet 42
ZB2430 ADDRESSING 43
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS 45
Read Neighbor Table 45
Read Route Table 47
Perform Scan 49
Read Radio Table 51
DIMENSIONS 53
ZB2430 Mechanical 53
ORDERING INFORMATION 54
Product Part Numbers 54
COMPLIANCY INFORMATION 55
Agency Identification Numbers 55
Approved antenna List 55
FCC / IC Requirements for Modular Approval 55
OEM Equipment Labeling Requirements 56
Antenna Requirements 56
Warnings required in OEM Manuals 56
Channel Warning 56
ZB2430 T RANSCEIVER M ODULE
1
AeroComm’s ZB2430 module is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless communication standard and the robust ZigBee
networking protocol and is one of the most powerful ZigBee compliant solutions on the market today. The ZB2430
provides OEMs with industry leading 2.4 GHz module performance in low power consumption, easy integration, long
range, and superior features and functionality. Requiring no additional FCC licensing in the Americas, OEMs can
easily make existing systems wireless with little or no RF expertise.
ZB2430 FEATURES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mesh architecture
Energy harvester compatible
Retries and Acknowledgements
Programmable Network Parameters
Multiple generic I/O
250 kbps RF data stream
Software selectable interface baud rates from 110 bps to 115.2 kbps
Non-standard baud rates supported
Low cost, low power and small size ideal for high volume, portable and battery powered
applications
• All modules are qualified for Industrial temperatures (-40°C to 80°C)
• Advanced configuration available using AT commands
• Easy to use Configuration & Test Utility software
OVERVIEW
The ZB2430 is a member of AeroComm's FlexRF OEM transceiver family. The ZB2430 is a cost effective, high
performance, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) transceiver; designed for integration into OEM systems
operating under FCC part 15.247 regulations for the 2.4 GHz ISM band.
To boost data integrity and security, the ZB2430 uses DSSS technology featuring optional Advanced-Encryption
Standards (AES)1. Fully transparent, these transceivers operate seamlessly in serial cable replacement applications.
Communications include both system and configuration data via an asynchronous serial interface for OEM Host
communications. All association and RF system data transmission/reception is performed by the transceiver.
This document contains information about the hardware and software interface between an AeroComm ZB2430
transceiver and an OEM Host. Information includes the theory of operation, specifications, interface definitions,
configuration information and mechanical drawings.
Note: Unless mentioned specifically by name, the ZB2430 modules will be referred to as "radio" or "transceiver".
Individual naming is used to differentiate product specific features. The host (PC/Microcontroller/Any device to which
the ZB2430 module is connected) will be referred to as "OEM Host" or “Host.”
1.Feature not available at the time of this release.
www.aerocomm.com
2
S PECIFICATIONS
Table 1: ZB2430 Specifications
General
Interface Connector
SMT or Pluggable
Antenna
Chip antenna (p/n Laird MAF95029) or U.FL connector
Serial Interface Data Rate
Baud rates from 110 bps to 115,200 bps. Non-standard baud rates are also supported.
Channels
ZB2430-D: 15 Direct Sequence Channels
ZB2430-Q: 15 Direct Sequence Channels
Security
Channelization, Network Identification and optional 128-bit AES encryption1
Transceiver
Frequency Band
2400 - 2483.5 MHz
Channel Bandwidth
3 MHz
Channel Spacing
5 MHz
RF Data Rate (Raw)
250 kbps
Max Throughput
64kbps
RF Technology
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
Modulation
0-QPSK
Output Power EIRP (2dBi gain antenna)
ZB2430-D: -12 dBm to +5 dBm
ZB2430-Q : +2 dBm to +20 dBm
Supply Voltage
3.0 - 3.5V, ±50mV ripple
Current Draw (mA)
Note: Power down modes are not supported on
Coordinator & Router devices.
100% TX
25 mA
140 mA
ZB2430-D:
ZB2430-Q:
100% RX
27 mA
44 mA
Cyclic Sleep
0.5 uA
7.6 uA
Sensitivity (1% PER)
ZB2430-D:-90 dBm typical
ZB2430-Q:-100 dBm typical
Range, Line of Site (based on 2dBi gain antenna)
ZB2430-D: Up to 440 ft.
ZB2430-Q: Up to 440 ft. at +2 dBm / Up to 3.5 miles at +20 dBm
Environmental
Temperature (Operating)
-40°C to 85°C
Temperature (Storage)
-50°C to +85°C
Physical
Dimensions
1.0” x 1.35” x 0.22” (25.4 x 34.3 x 5.5 mm)
www.aerocomm.com
Deep Sleep
0.5 uA
7.6 uA
SPECIFICATIONS
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Table 1: ZB2430 Specifications
Certifications
FCC Part 15.247
ZB2430-D: KQL-ZB2430D
ZB2430-Q:KQL-ZB2430-100
Industry Canada (IC)
ZB2430-D: 2268C-ZB2430D
ZB2430-Q:2268C-ZB2430
CE
ZB2430-D:Approved
ZB2430-Q:Pending
1. Feature not available at the time of this release.
www.aerocomm.com
3
4
SPECIFICATIONS
PIN DEFINITIONS
The ZB2430 has a simple interface that allows OEM Host communications with the transceiver. Table 2 below shows
the connector pin numbers and associated functions.
Table 2: Pin Definitions for the ZB2430 transceiver
SMT Pin
Pluggable
Pin
Type
Signal Name
1
4
O
GIO_0
Generic Output Pin
2
6
O
GIO_1
Generic Output Pin
3
8
4
7
I
GI0_2/ DE-RE
Generic Input pin
5
19
I
GIO_3 / AD_0
Has Internal connection. Reserved for future GPIO.
6
3
I
RXD
Asynchronous serial data input to transceiver
7
2
O
TXD
Asynchronous serial data output from transceiver
8
10
GND
GND
Signal Ground
9
1
PWR
VCC
3.0 - 3.5 V ±50mV ripple (must be connected)
10
-
PWR
VPA
3.0 - 3.5 V ±50mV ripple (must be connected)1
11
-
GND
GND
Signal Ground
12
9
I
Test / Sleep Int.
Do not Connect
Function
Has internal connection, for Aerocomm use only.
Test Mode – When pulled logic Low and then applying power or resetting, the
transceiver’s serial interface is forced to a 9600, 8-N-1 rate. To exit Test mode,
the transceiver must be reset or power-cycled with Test Mode pulled logic
High or disconnected
Note: Because this mode disables some modes of operation, it should not be
permanently pulled Low during normal operation.
Sleep mode interrupt - When logic Low, forces End Device to wake up from
sleep mode. When logic High, allows End Device to sleep and wake-up
according to specified poll rate. Sleep mode interrupt function available on
End Devices only.
13
18
I/O
GIO_4 / AD_1
Has Internal connection. Reserved for future GPIO.
14
5
I
UP_Reset
RESET – Controlled by the ZB2430 for power-on reset if left unconnected.
After a stable power-on reset, a logic Low pulse will reset the transceiver.
15
11
I
CMD/Data
When logic Low, the transceiver interprets OEM Host data as command data.
When logic High or floating, the transceiver interprets OEM Host data as transmit data.
16
20
O
In Range
When logic Low, the transceiver is associated with a parent and has been
assigned a 16-bit Network Address. The Coordinator will report In Range after
selecting a clear channel to operate.
17
16
I
RTS
Request to Send – When enabled in EEPROM, the OEM Host can take this
High when it is not ready to accept data from the transceiver. NOTE: Keeping
RTS High for too long can cause data loss due to buffer overflow.2
SPECIFICATIONS
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Table 2: Pin Definitions for the ZB2430 transceiver
SMT Pin
Pluggable
Pin
Type
Signal Name
18
12
O
CTS
19
14
I/O
GIO_8 / AD_5
20
13
O
Sleep Ind.
21
17
I/O
GIO_6 / AD_3
Has Internal connection. Reserved for future GPIO.
22
15
I
GIO_7 / AD_4
Has Internal connection. Reserved for future GPIO.
Function
Clear to Send - Active Low when the transceiver is ready to accept data for
transmission. High when input buffer is filling. Contining to send data when
CTS is high can cause buffer overflow and the loss of data.
Has Internal connection. Reserved for future GPIO.
Sleep mode indicator. When logic Low, transceiver is in sleep mode. When
logic High, transceiver is awake.
1. May be left disconnected on ZB2430-D devices.
2. Feature not implemented at time of release.
ENGINEER’S TIP
Design Notes:
• All I/O is 3.3V TTL.
• All inputs are weakly pulled High (20k) and may be left floating during normal operation.
When implemented, RTS will be weakly pulled Low.
• Minimum Connections: VCC, VPA, GND, TXD, & RXD.
• Signal direction is with respect to the transceiver.
• Unused pins should be left disconnected.
www.aerocomm.com
5
H ARDWARE I NTERFACE
3
PIN DEFINITIONS
Generic I/O
Both GIn and GOn pins serve as generic input/output pins. Reading and writing of these pins can be performed onthe-fly using CC Commands.
RXD and TXD
The ZB2430 accepts 3.3 VDC TTL level asynchronous serial data from the OEM Host via the RXD pin. Data is sent
from the transceiver, at 3.3V levels, to the OEM Host via the TXD pin.
Test/Sleep Int.
Test Mode - When pulled logic Low before applying power or resetting, the transceiver's serial interface is forced to
9600, 8-N-1 (8 data bits, No parity, 1 stop bit): regardless of actual EEPROM setting. The interface timeout is also set
to 3 ms and the RF packet size is set to the default size of 0x54 (84 bytes). To exit, the transceiver must be reset or
power-cycled with Test pin logic High or disconnected.
Note: Because this pin disables some modes of operation, it should not be permanently pulled Low during normal
operation.
Sleep Mode Interrupt - When logic Low, forces End Device to wake up from sleep mode. When logic High, allows End
Device to sleep and wake-up according to specified poll rate. Sleep Mode interrupt function available on End
Devices only.
UP_Reset
UP_Reset provides a direct connection to the reset pin on the ZB2430 microprocessor and is used to force a soft
reset. For a valid reset, reset must be asserted Low for an absolute minimum of 250 ns.
Command/Data
When logic High, the transceiver interprets incoming serial data as transmit data to be sent to other transceivers.
When logic Low, the transceiver interprets incoming serial data as command data. When logic Low, data packets
from the radio will not be transmitted over the RF interface however incoming packets from other radios will still be
received.
In Range
The In Range pin will be driven low when the radio is associated with a network. In Range will always be driven low on
a Coordinator.
RTS Handshaking*
With RTS mode disabled, the transceiver will send any received data to the OEM Host as soon as it is received.
However, some OEM Hosts are not able to accept data from the transceiver all of the time. With RTS enabled, the
OEM Host can prevent the transceiver from sending it data by de-asserting RTS (High). Once RTS is re-asserted
(Low), the transceiver will send packets to the OEM Host as they are received.
www.aerocomm.com
HARDWARE INTERFACE
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Note: Leaving RTS de-asserted for too long can cause data loss once the transceiver's receive buffer reaches
capacity.
*Feature not implemented at time of release.
CTS Handshaking
If the transceiver buffer fills up and more bytes are sent to it before the buffer can be emptied, data loss will occur. The
transceiver prevents this loss by deasserting CTS High as the buffer fills up and asserting CTS Low as the buffer is
emptied. CTS should be monitored by the Host device and data flow to the radio should be stopped when CTS is
High.
Sleep Ind.
Sleep Indicator output. Sleep Ind. can be used to determine whether or not the transceiver is sleeping. When logic
Low, the transceiver is in sleep mode. When logic High, the transceiver is awake.
AD In
AD In can be used as a cost savings to replace Analog-to-Digital converter hardware with the onboard 12-bit ADC.
Reading of this pin can be performed locally using the Read ADC command found in the On-the-Fly Control
Command Reference.
www.aerocomm.com
7
T ERMS & D EFINITIONS
4
Ad-Hoc Network: A wireless network composed of communicating devices without preexisting infrastructure.
Typically created in a spontaneous manner and is self-organizing and self-maintaining.
Association: The process of joining a ZigBee PAN. A device joins the Network by joining a Coordinator or Router
which has previously associated with the Network. Upon joining, the Parent device issues a 16-bit Network Address
to the device.
Broadcast: Broadcast packets are sent to multiple radios. The ZB2430 allows several different broadcast types
including broadcast to all devices & broadcast to Coordinator & all Routers.
Broadcast jitter: The random delay which is automatically introduced by a device before relaying a broadcast packet
to prevent packet collisions.
Channel: The frequency selected for data communications within the PAN. The channel is selected by the Network
Coordinator on power-up.
Channel Mask: The Channel Mask is a 32-bit field which specifies the range of allowable channels that the radio has
to select from when choosing an RF channel. Valid only when Channel Select mode is enabled in EEPROM.
Clear Channel Assessment: An evaluation of the communication channel prior to a transmission to determine if the
channel is currently occupied.
Energy Scan: A sweep of the entire frequency band which reports noise readings on every channel & is also capable
of detecting Coordinators and reporting their Channel location.
FFD: Full Function Device. The Network Coordinator & Routers are examples of FFD’s.
IEEE 802.15.4: IEEE standard for Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN’s). Specifies the physical
interface between ZigBee devices.
MAC Address: A unique 64-bit address assigned to each radio. This address cannot be modified and never changes.
It is used by the network to identify the device when assigning 16-bit Network Addresses.
Maximum Network Depth: The maximum number or Routers (hops) that a device can be away from the Coordinator.
The current profile limit is 5.
Maximum Number of Routers: The total number of children that can serve as Routers for a Network device. The
current profile limit is 6.
www.aerocomm.com
TE R M S & D E F I N I T I O N S
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Maximum Number of Children: The total number of children that can be associated with a single Network device. The
current profile limit is 20; comprising of up to 6 Routers and 14 End Devices.
Mesh Network: An interconnection of nodes where nodes are permitted to transmit data directly to any other node.
Neighbor Table: A table used by the Coordinator and Router(s) to keep track of other devices operating in the same
coverage area.
Network Address: The unique 16-bit address assigned to a device upon joining a PAN. This address is used for
routing messages between devices and can be different each time a device is powered on. The Network Coordinator
will always have a Network Address of 0x0000. Note that addresses are not assigned in numerical order.
Operating Channel: The specific frequency selected for data communications. The operating channel is determined
by the Coordinator on power-up.
Orphan Device: A device which has lost communication contact with or information about its Parent device.
PAN: Personal Area Network. Includes a Network Coordinator and one or more Routers/End Devices. The Network
formation is determined by the Maximum Network Depth, Maximum Number of Routers, and Maximum Number of
Children.
PAN ID: Similar to a Network ID. Devices which are operating with different PAN ID’s will not be associated to the
same network.
Parent/Child: When a device joins the Network, it becomes a child of the device with which it is associated. Similarly,
the device with which it associated becomes its parent device. Network devices can have multiple children, but only
one parent. End Devices cannot be parents and are always children of the Coordinator or a Router. The Coordinator
does not have a parent device.
POS: Personal Operating Space. The area within reception range of a specific device.
Profile: A collection of device descriptions, which together form a coorperative application. Devices utilizing different
profiles will only support very basic inter-communications. The ZB2430 uses a private profile as specified by
Aerocomm.
RFD: Reduced Function Device. The End Device is an example of an RFD.
Route Discovery: An operation using RREQ and RREP’s in which a ZigBee Coordinator or Router discovers a route to
a device outside its POS.
Route Reply (RREP): A ZigBee command used to reply to a Route Request command.
www.aerocomm.com
9
10
TE R M S & D E F I N I T I O N S
Route Request (RREQ): A ZigBee command used to discover paths through the network over which messages may
be relayed.
Routing Table: A table in which the Coordinator or Router(s) store information required to participate in the routing of
data packets throughout the network. The entire route is not stored, only the first step in the route.
Star Network: A network employing a single, central device through which all communication between devices must
pass.
TX Cost: A counter of transmission successes/failures. TX Cost starts at 0x00, increments by one every time a packet
fails to be delivered, and decrements by one every time a packet is successfully delivered. TX Cost has a range
between 0x00 and 0x04.
Unicast: Unicast packets contain a destination address and are received by a single radio only. Unicast packets are
point-to-point and do not include Broadcast packets.
ZigBee Stack: A Network specification based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks
(WPANs). The ZB2430 uses the Z-Stack (designed by TI) v.1.4.2 and complies to the ZigBee 2006 specification.
ZigBee Alliance: An association of companies working together to create a low-cost, low power consumption, twoway wireless communications standard (http://www.zigbee.org).
T HEORY OF O PERATION
5
IEEE 802.15.4 & ZIGBEE OVERVIEW
The ZB2430 uses the ZigBee protocol stack, a network layer protocol which uses small, low power digital transceivers
based on the IEEE 802.15.4 hardware standard. The 802.15.4 standard is a specification for a cost-effective, low data
rate (<250 kbps), 2.4 GHz or 868/928 MHz wireless technology designed for personal-area and device-to-device
wireless networking.
The IEEE 802.15.4 standard specifies the hardware requirements, including frequency bands, receiver sensitivity,
modulation and spreading requirements. The ZigBee layer is the software layer that sits atop the 802.15.4 PHY/MAC
layer and performs all packet routing and mesh networking.
There are three device types present in a ZigBee network: Coordinator (Full Function Device), Router (Full Function
Device), and End Device (Reduced Function Device). Each network consists of a single Coordinator, optional
Router(s), and optional Reduced Function End Device(s).
C o o r d i na t o r
The Coordinator is responsible for establishing the
operating channel and PAN ID for the entire Network.
Once the Coordinator has established a Network, it allows
Routers and End Devices to join the Network; assigning
each device a unique 16-bit Network Address.
The Coordinator is intended to be mains powered (always
on).
• One Coordinator per Network
• Establishes Channel and PAN ID
• Responsible for Network formation and
maintenance
• Full Function Device
• Packet routing capabilities
• Mains powered (always on)
• Power down modes are not supported
• Network address of 0x0000
R o u t er
Routers are responsible for creating and maintaining
Network information and determining the optimal route for
a data packet. Routers must first associate with the
Network before other devices can join through them.
Routers are intended to be mains powered (always on).
www.aerocomm.com
• Multiple Routers can be used
• Allows other Routers/End Devices to join
the Network
• Full Function Device
• Packet routing capabilities
• Mains powered (always on)
• Power down modes are not supported
• Unique netowork address dynamically
assigned by parent
12
THEORY OF OPERATION
En d D ev ic e
While Coordinators and Routers can communicate with
any device type, End Devices can communicate only
through their parent device. Ideally the End Devices will
be in sleep mode all the time. When they have data to
send, they wake up, send the data and then go back to
sleep. The Parent (Coordinator/Router) of an End Device
should be mains powered to allow it to store data to be
sent to the sleeping End Device.
• Multiple End Devices can be used
• No packet routing capabilities
• Can communicate with other devices in
the Network through its Parent Device
• Reduced Function Device
• Mains or battery powered
• Power down modes are supported
• Unique network address dynamically
asssigned by parent
CREATING A NETWORK
The IEEE 802.15.4 MAC provides support for two wireless network topologies: star and mesh. The management of
these networks is performed by the ZigBee layer. All devices, regardless of topology, participate in the network using
their unique 16-bit address assigned by the Coordinator.
Mesh
The mesh topology allows any Full Function Device (Coordinator or Router) to communicate directly with any other
device within its range and to have messages relayed to devices which are out of range via multi-hop routing of
messages. While a FFD device can communicate with a Reduced Function Device (RFD), RFD’s cannot directly route
messages and must have their messages routed by their parent device (Coordinator or Router). ZigBee mesh
enables the formation of more complex networks, including ad-hoc, self-organizing, and self-healing structures.
Figure 1 shows a typical ZigBee network architecture.
THEORY OF OPERATION
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Figure 1: ZigBee Network Topologies
PARENT/CHILD RELATIONSHIP
ZigBee uses a parent/child relationship between network devices. The network begins with the Coordinator as the
first device on the network. When a new device (Router or End Device) associates with the Coordinator, it becomes a
child of the Coordinator and similarly, the Coordinator becomes a parent of that device. If a second device joins the
network, the Coordinator will once again become the parent and the device will become a child of the Coordinator. If
a device is not in range of the Coordinator, it subsequently joins the network through a Router, and becomes a child of
that Router. Network devices can have multiple children, but only one parent. By design, End Devices cannot be
parents and are always children of the Coordinator or a Router.
www.aerocomm.com
13
14
THEORY OF OPERATION
Figure 2: Parent/Child Relationship
NETWORK LIMITATIONS
The ZigBee network structure and ultimate size are specified by Stack profiles. The Stack profiles define the
maximum number of Layers, maximum number of Children per Parent, & maximum number of Routers that can be
Children. These parameters are set during code compilation and cannot be altered after compilation. The ZB2430
uses the restricitions specified by the Home Lighting & Controls profile.
The ZigBee Coordinator determines the maximum number of children any device within its network is allowed. Of
these children, a maximum number can be router-capable devices; while the remainder shall be reserved for end
devices. Each device has an associated depth which indicates the minimum number of hops a transmitted packet
must travel to reach the ZigBee Coordinator (see Figure 3: "Network Depth" on page 15).
Maximum Network Depth
The Coordinator has a depth of zero and its Children have a depth of 1. Maximum Network Depth specifies the
maximum number of hops (Routers) that a node can be away from the Coordinator. The Home Lighting & Controls
profile limits the maximum network depth to 5.
THEORY OF OPERATION
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Figure 3: Network Depth
Maximum Number of Children per Parent
The Maximum Number of Children specifies the total number of Children that can be connected directly to a parent
device on the current Network. The Home Lighting and Control profile specifies the maximum number of children the
Coordinator and Routers can have associated with them to be 20. Of those 20 Children, a maximum of 6 Routers can
be router-capable devices while the remainder shall be End Devices.
ZIGBEE ADDRESSING
The IEEE 802.15.4 standard from which the ZigBee protocol was derived specifies two types of addressing modes:
• 16-bit Network Address
• 64-bit MAC Address
16-bit Network Address
The Network Address is a unique address on the network. The Coordinator always has a Network Address of 0x0000
and it will assign a Network Address to each radio within its range. Routers will then assign Network Addresses to
radios within their range which have not previously been assigned an address. Because the 16-bit address is unique
to each radio on the network, an addressed packet can be sent from any radio on the network to any other radio
located anywhere on the network.
www.aerocomm.com
15
16
THEORY OF OPERATION
ENGINEER’S TIP
16-bit Network Addresses.
In a ZigBee network, nodes are assigned a 16-bit NWK address according to how the network
formed. By design, the Coordinator will always have a NWK address of 0x0000. The first
Router to that associates with the Coordinator is assigned a NWK address of 0x0001. The
second Router that associates with the Coordinator is assigned an address of 0x143E.
The 16-bit address is persistent through power loss and only resets when an NV Reset
command is issued performed or NV Restore is disabled in EEPROM (EEPROM address 0x45,
bit-3).
64-bit MAC address
The 64-bit MAC address consists of a 40-bit Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) and a 24-bit address
programmed by the manufacturer. All ZB2430 transceivers have the same OUI of 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x50 0x67 which
can be used to distinguish Aerocomm devices on a network but cannot be used to route packets throughout the
network.
When a packet needs to be sent to a specific device through the network, the 16-bit network address must be used.
In order to send data to a specific device in the network, the OEM can compile a table which lists the 64-bit MAC and
the corresponding 16-bit Network address (see Table 3 below). The ZB2430’s built-in Discover IEEE Address and
Discover Network Address commands allow the OEM to query the network and discover all available devices that
respond within a fixed period.
Table 3: Device Table Example
Index
MAC Address (64-bit)
NWK Address (16-bit)
0
0x00 0x00 0x00 0x50 0x67 0x12 0x34 0x56
0x0000
1
0x00 0x00 0x00 0x50 0x67 0x16 0x45 0x34
0x0001
2
0x00 0x00 0x00 0x50 0x67 0x34 0x21 0x78
0x143E
Mesh Routing (AODV)
The ZigBee protocol uses the Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing algorithm. AODV allows nodes to
pass messages through their neighbors to devices which they cannot communicate directly. This is done by
discovering the routes along which messages can be passed using the shortest route possible.
Figure 4 below shows a typical ZigBee network. The circles surrounding the 4 nodes represent the Personal
Operating Space (POS) of each node. Because of the limited range, each node can only communicate with the
neighboring node(s) next to it. When a node needs to send a message to a node which is not a neighbor, it
broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) message containing the Source Destination Address, the Network Address of
the Destination radio and a path cost metric.
In the example below, Node 0 needs to send a message to Node 3; however the two are not within communication
range of each other. Node 0’s neighbors are Node 1 and Node 2. Since Node 0 cannot directly communicate with
Node 3, it sends out a RREQ which is heard by Nodes 1 and 2 (see Figure 5: "ZigBee Route Request" on page 17).
THEORY OF OPERATION
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Figure 4: ZigBee AODV
Figure 5: ZigBee Route Request
www.aerocomm.com
17
18
THEORY OF OPERATION
One of two things will happen when Nodes 1 and 2 receive the RREQ from Node 0:
• If a route is known or if they are the destination radio, they can send a Route Reply (RREP)
back to Node 0.
• If they do not know the route and are also not the destination radio, they will rebroadcast the
RREQ to their neighbors. The message keeps re-broadcasting until the lifespan (specified by
the source radio) expires.
If Node 0 does not receive a reply within a set amount of time, it will rebroadcast the message, this time with a longer
lifespan and a new ID number.
In the example, Node 1 does not have a route to Node 3 and therefore rebroadcasts the RREQ (see Figure 6: "ZigBee
Route Reply" on page 18). Node 2 however, does have a route to Node 3 and therefore replies to the RREQ by
sending out a RREP. Node 2 also sends a RREP to Node 3 so that it knows the route to Node 0.
Figure 6: ZigBee Route Reply
Coordinator Addressing
Since the Coordinator’s NWK address is always 0x0000, it can be addressed using its 16-bit NWK address.
Broadcast Transmissions
Since ZigBee is targeted for large-scale applications in which all radios may not be in range of a single radio,
broadcast packets are retransmitted throughout the network. Broadcast transmissions in ZigBee utilize a passive
acknowledgement mechanism; meaning that the Coordinator and all Routers keep track of whether or not their
neighbor(s) have relayed the broadcast packet and will re-broadcast the packet until all of their neighboring devices
have received the packet. Any device can initiate a Broadcast transmission by programming its Destination Address
with a Broadcast Address (see Table 4 on page 19). Subsequent broadcast transmissions occur every 500ms.
THEORY OF OPERATION
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Table 4: Broadcast Addresses
Broadcast Address
Destination Group
0xFFFF
All devices in PAN
0xFFFE
Reserved
0xFFFD
All non-sleeping devices when RXOnWhenIdle = True
0xFFFC
All Routers and Coordinator
0xFFF8 - 0xFFFB
Reserved
ENGINEER’S TIP
Sending a Broadcast packet.
While ZigBee does provide the means for broadcasting data packets throughout the network,
because of the inherent delays associated with broadcast transmissions overall latency may
increase; especially with larger networks. Because of the added latency and overall effect on
the network, broadcast transmissions within a ZigBee network should be limited.
www.aerocomm.com
19
S ERIAL I NTERFACE
6
The ZB2430 transceiver module interfaces to the OEM Host via an asynchronous 3.3V serial UART interface; allowing
the module to be easily integrated into any 3.3V system without requiring any level translation. The module can
communicate with any logic and voltage compatible UART; or to any serial device with an additional level translator.
INTERFACE MODES
The ZB2430 has two different types of interface modes:
• Transparent Mode
• API Mode
Transparent Mode
When operating in Transparent Mode, the ZB2430 can act as a direct serial cable replacement in which received RF
data is forwarded over the serial interface and vice versa. Additionally, many parameters can be configured using
either AT commands or by toggling the Command/Data pin on the transceiver. In transparent mode, the radio needs
to be programmed with the Network Address of the desired recipient. The destination address can be programmed
permanently or on-the-fly.
When Transparent Mode is used, data is stored in the TX buffer until one of the following occurs:
• The RF packet size is reached (EEPROM address 0x5A)
• An Interface Timeout occurs (EEPROM address 0x58)
API Mode
API Mode is an alternative to the default Transparent operation of the ZB2430 and provides dynamic packet routing
and packet accounting abilities to the OEM Host without requiring extensive programming by the OEM Host. API
Mode utilizes specific frame-based packet formats; specifying various vital parameters used to control radio settings
and packet routing on a packet-by-packet basis. The API features can be used in any combination that suits the
OEM’s application specific needs.
API Mode provides an alternative method of configuring modules and message routing at the OEM Host level; without
requiring the use of Command Mode. The ZB2430 has three API functions:
• Transmit API
• Receive API
• API Send Data Complete
For additional details and examples, please refer to the API section on page 41.
www.aerocomm.com
SERIAL INTERFACE
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
SERIAL INTERFACE BAUD RATE
In order for the OEM Host and a transceiver to communicate over the serial interface they need to have the same
serial data rate. This value determines the baud rate used for communicating over the serial interface to a transceiver.
For a baud rate to be valid, the calculated baud rate must be within ±3% of the OEM Host baud rate.
Table 5: Baud Rate / Interface Timeout
Desired Baud Rate
Baud (0x42)
Minium Interface Timeout 1 (0x58)
Stop Bit Delay (0x3F)
115,200
0x08
0x02
0x02
57,600
0x07
0x02
0x02
38,4002
0x06
0x02
0x02
31,250
0x05
0x02
0x02
19,200
0x04
0x02
0x02
9,600
0x03
0x03
0x03
4,800
0x02
0x05
0x05
2,400
0x01
0x09
0x09
1,200
0x00
0x16
0x16
Non-standard
0xE3
Use equations below
Use equations below
1. Interface timeout = 1 ms per increment
2. Default baud rate
For baud rates other than those shown in Table 5 the following equations can be used:
Where:
FREQUENCY = 32 MHz
BAUD_M = EEPROM Address 0x43
BAUD_E = EEPROM Address 0x44
www.aerocomm.com
21
22
SERIAL INTERFACE
20
Stop Bit Delay = ----------------------------------------------( Baud Rate × 1ms )
ENGINEER’S TIP
Using a non-standard baud rate.
The ZB2430 supports a majority of standard as well as non-standard baud rates. To select a
standard baud rate, use the value shown for EEPROM address 0x42 in Table 5 above. To
enable a non-standard baud rate, program EEPROM address 0x42 (Custom Baud Enable) to
0xE3 and then use the equation above to solve for BAUD_M and BAUD_E.
INTERFACE TIMEOUT / RF PACKET SIZE
Interface Timeout – Interface Timeout specifies a maximum byte gap between consecutive bytes. When that byte gap
is exceeded, the bytes in the transmit buffer are processed as a complete packet. Interface Timeout (EEPROM
address 0x58), in conjunction with the RF Packet Size, determines when a buffer of data will be sent out over the RF
as a complete RF packet, based on whichever condition occurs first.
RF Packet Size - RF Packet Size is used in conjunction with Interface Timeout to determine when to delineate
incoming data as an entire packet based on whichever condition is met first. When the transceiver receives the
number of bytes specified by RF Packet Size (EEPROM address 0x5A) without experiencing a byte gap equal to
Interface Timeout, that block of data is processed as a complete packet. Every packet the transceiver sends over the
RF contains extra header bytes not counted in the RF Packet Size. Therefore, it is much more efficient to send a few
large packets than to send many short packets.
Stop Bit Delay - For systems using the RS-485 interface, the RS-485 DE pin might be deasserted Low too quickly at
the end of a packet (especially at slower interface baud rates). Stop Bit Delay (EEPROM address 0x3F) controls how
long RS-485 DE should be left High at the end of a packet before dropping it Low and disabling the RS-485 driver
circuitry. Generally, it should be set greater than or equal to two byte times.
FLOW CONTROL
Although flow control is not required for transceiver operation, it is recommended to achieve optimum system
performance and to avoid overrunning the ZB2430’s serial buffers. The ZB2430 uses seperate buffers for incoming
and outgoing data.
SERIAL INTERFACE
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
RXD Data Buffer and CTS
As data is sent from the OEM Host to the radio over the serial interface, it is stored in the ZB2430’s buffer until the
radio is ready to transmit the data packet. As discussed in “Interface Modes” on page 20, the radio waits to transmit
the data until one of the following conditions occur (whichever occurs first):
• The RF packet size is reached (EEPROM address 0x5B)
• An Interface Timeout occurs (EEPROM address 0x58)
After sending the packet over the RF the data continues to be stored in the buffer until the radio receives an RF
Acknowledgement (ACK) from the receiving radio (addressed mode), or all transmit retries/broadcast attempts have
been utilized. Once an ACK has been received or all retries/attempts have been exhausted, the current data packet is
removed from the buffer and the radio will begin processing the next data packet in the buffer.
To prevent the radio’s RXD buffer from being overrun, it is strongly recommended that the OEM Host monitor the
radio’s CTS output. When the number of bytes in the RXD buffer reaches the value specified by CTS_ON (EEPROM
address 0x5C), the radio de-asserts (High) CTS to signal to the OEM Host to stop sending data over the serial
interface. CTS is re-asserted after the number of bytes in the RXD buffer is reduced to the value specified by
CTS_OFF (EEPROM address 0x5D); signalling to the OEM Host that it may resume sending data to the transceiver.
Note: It is recommended that the OEM Host cease all data transmission to the radio while CTS is de-asserted (High);
otherwise potential data loss may occur.
TXD Data Buffer and RTS
As data to be forwarded to the OEM Host accumulates, it is stored in the ZB2430’s outgoing buffer until the radio is
ready to begin sending the data to the OEM Host. Once the data packet has been sent to the Host over the serial
interface, it will be removed from the buffer and the radio will begin processing the next data packet in the buffer.
With RTS Mode disabled, the transceiver will send any data to the OEM Host as soon as it has data to send. However,
some OEM Hosts are not able to accept data from the transceiver all of the time. With RTS Mode Enabled, the OEM
Host can prevent the transceiver from sending it a data by de-asserting RTS (High), causing the transceiver to store
the data in its buffer. Once RTS is re-asserted (Low), the transceiver will continue sending data to the OEM Host,
beginning with any data stored in its buffer.
Note: Leaving RTS de-asserted for too long can cause data loss once the radio’s TXD buffer reaches capacity.
ENGINEER’S TIP
Can I implement a design using just TXD, RXD and Gnd (Three-wire Interface)?
Yes. However, it is strongly recommended that your hardware monitor the CTS pin of the
radio. CTS is taken High by the radio when its interface buffer is getting full. Your hardware
should stop sending at this point to avoid a buffer overrun (and subsequent loss of data).
You can perform a successful design without monitoring CTS. However, you need to take into
account the amount of latency the radio adds to the system, any additional latency caused by
Transmit Retries, how often you send data, non-delivery network timeouts and interface data
rate and the size of the packets.
Aerocomm can assist in determining whether CTS is required for your application.
www.aerocomm.com
23
24
SERIAL INTERFACE
NETWORKING
PAN ID - PAN ID (EEPROM address 0x79) is a 16-bit field and is similar to a password or network number and helps
differentiate collocated networks. A transceiver will not be associated with a network unless its PAN ID and Channel
Number match that of the Coordinator. Range is 0x0000 to 0x3FFF.
RF Channel Number - (EEPROM Address 0x40) Channels 0x0B - 0x1A; 5 MHz spacing. The transceiver will operate
only on the RF Channel Number specified in the EEPROM.
Note: The ZB2430-Q is not approved for use on channel 0x1A and the channel number should therefore be selected
accordingly.
Figure 7: IEEE 802.15.4 RF Channels
Table 6: RF Channel Number Settings
Radio Model
RF Channel Number
Range (0x40)
Frequency Details &
Regulatory requirements
Countries
ZB2430-D
0x0B - 0x1A
2400 - 2475 MHz
Pending Approval
ZB2430-Q
0x0B - 0x19
2400 - 2465 MHz
Global
Channel Select - When enabled in EEPROM (EEPROM address 0x56, bit-3) the Coordinator will select a channel
permitted by the Channel Mask with the least amount of energy present. The Coordinator will start on the first channel
and if RF energy is detected or another network is detected, it will change to the next channel. This continues for all
the channels and then the clearest channel is selected.
When a Router is powered on, it will scan each channel; periodically sending beacons and searching for a parent.
When the parent receives a beacon from the Router, it sends an acknowledgement to the Router, and the Router is
associated with that parent.
When disabled in EEPROM, the Coordinator will use the RF Channel programmed at EEPROM address 0x40 to
establish it’s network.
Channel Mask - The Channel Mask (EEPROM Address 0x30) is a 32-bit field which specifies the range of allowable
channels that the radio can select from when choosing an RF channel. In order for two devices to communicate, a
common channel must be selected. At least one channel must be selected (set to 1).
To use the Channel Mask, enable Channel Select (EEPROM Address 0x56, bit 3). When Channel Select is enabled,
the radio disregards the Channel specified at EEPROM address 0x40. When Channel Select is disabled, only the
Channel specified at EEPROM Address 0x40 will be used.
Examples:
SERIAL INTERFACE
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
The example shown in Figure 8 below enables all 2.4GHz channels for possible use by selecting 0x07FFF800 as the
Channel Mask. The Channel Mask enables you to allow all or to exclude specific channels from selection. The
example in Figure 9 shows channels 0x14-0x1A as the only available channels to select from. Finally Figure 10 below
shows channels 0x0B-0x10 as the only available channels to select from.
Figure 8: Channel Mask - Allow all channels
Figure 9: Channel Mask - Allow channels 0x14-0x1A only
Figure 10: Allow channels 0x0B-0x10 only
Note: When Channel Select is enabled in EEPROM, the initial network synchronization time will increase. Channel
Select is disabled in EEPROM by default. All devices on the network should use the same setting for Channel Select.
www.aerocomm.com
25
26
SERIAL INTERFACE
POWER DOWN MODES
Power down modes allow the ZB2430 to operate at minimum current consumption while not in use. The ZB2430
provides two such modes (End Devices only).
• Cyclic Sleep (Wake periodically based on software-controlled timer or pin interupt)
• Deep Sleep (Wake on pin interrupt)
In order for a module to transition into Sleep mode, the Sleep_Int pin (pin 12) must be logic High or floating. If this pin
is pulled Low, the device will be forced out of Sleep mode and will not be allowed to Sleep until the pin returns to the
High state. While in Sleep mode, the module will not transmit/receive data until after waking up.
Table 7: Sleep Mode Settings
Sleep Mode
Transition to Sleep
Transition to Wake
Current Draw (mA)
Cyclic Sleep
Automatic transition to Sleep
mode after sending Data
Request to Parent Device or
Sleep_Int is asserted High.
End Device wake time can
also be configured in the
EEPROM (EEPROM address
0x3B).
Automatic transition to Wake mode
occurs after an EEPROM selectable
period or manual transition when
Sleep_Int is pulled logic Low.
ZB2430: 0.5 uA
ZB2430-100: 7.6 uA
Deep Sleep
Automatic transition to Sleep
mode occurs after device has
successfully associated with
Network.
Manual transition to Wake mode occurs
after Sleep_Int is pulled logic Low.
ZB2430: 0.5 uA
ZB2430-100: 7.6 uA
Cyclic Sleep
In Cyclic Sleep mode the End Device will wake periodically to request data from its Parent device. The rate at which
the module wakes up to check for data is adjustable in EEPROM (EEPROM address 0x34, 16-bits) in 1 ms increments
with a default setting of 1000ms. The device will wakeup for the period specified by the End Device Wake time
(EEPROM address 0x3B), send a data request to its Parent, and then return to sleep until the next cycle.
Note: Setting the sleep rate to 0x0000 forces the module into Deep Sleep mode (see below).
Deep Sleep
Deep sleep mode is a power-down mode in which the ZB2430 automatically transitions to Sleep mode after having
associated with the Network. While in Deep Sleep mode, the device will not wake up until interrupted by the Sleep_Int
pin. To wake the device out of Deep Sleep mode, Sleep_Int must be pulled logic Low. The device will return to Deep
Sleep mode after Sleep_Int is returned to the High state.
SERIAL INTERFACE
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
ENGINEER’S TIP
Transmitting and Receiving data with a sleeping End Device.
• Data sent to the radio over the UART while it is sleeping will be lost. If the module wakes
while receiving data over the UART, it will only see the data received since waking up.
• Incoming RF packets to the module will not keep it awake unless you enable Modify Wake
upon RX in EEPROM (EEPROM address 0x45, bit-5).
• When sending data for the module to transmit, it is recommended that the module be forced
awake using the Sleep_Int pin until the module is finished transmitting the data. .
• While the module is being kept awake using the Sleep_Int pin, it will send data requests to
its Parent Device based on the Wake Poll rate specified in EEPROM (EEPROM address
0x3C) for as long as it is awake.
• A Parent will only store data for a sleeping End Device for a maximum amount of time
specified by the Parent Hold Message EEPROM parameter (EEPROM address 0x39).
www.aerocomm.com
27
7
C ONFIGURING THE ZB2430
The ZB2430 can be configured using the CC Configuration Commands. These commands can be issued using either
Hardware or Software Configuration. To use Hardware Configuration, the Command/Data pin of a transceiver must be
asserted Low. Software Configuration can be used by entering AT Command Mode before issuing the CC
commands.
Figure 11: ZB2430 Configuration Flow
Receive Mode
Yes
Use AT
Commands?
Send Enter AT
Command Mode
command
(Software
Configuration)
Assert CMD/Data
Pin Low
(Hardware
Configuration)
Send CC
Commands?
Exit Command
Mode
Yes
In AT
Command
Mode?
Send CC
Command
Yes
Send Another
CC Command?
Yes
Send Exit AT
Command
www.aerocomm.com
De-assert CMD/
Data pin High
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
AT COMMANDS
The AT Command mode implemented in the ZB2430 creates a virtual version of the Command/Data pin. The “Enter
AT Command Mode” Command asserts this virtual pin Low (to signify Command Mode) and the “Exit AT Command
Mode” Command asserts this virtual pin High (to signify Data). Once this pin has been asserted Low, all On-the-Fly
CC Commands documented in the manual are supported.
On-the-Fly Control Commands
The ZB2430 transceiver contains static memory that holds many of the parameters that control the transceiver
operation. Using the “CC” command set allows many of these parameters to be changed during system operation.
Because the memory these commands affect is static, when the transceiver is reset, these parameters will revert back
to the settings stored in the EEPROM.
While in Command mode, the incoming RF interface of the transceiver is active and packets sent from other
transceivers will still be received; however no outgoing RF packets will be sent. The transceiver uses Interface
Timeout/RF Packet Size to determine when a CC Command is complete. Therefore, there should be no delay
between each character as it is sent from the OEM Host to the transceiver or the transceiver will not recognize the
command.
When an invalid command is sent, the radio discards the data and no response is sent to the OEM Host. Table 8
below shows a quick summary of the basic configuration & diagnostic commands available on the ZB2430. For
detailed command information, please refer to the command descriptions immediatly following the Quick Reference
Table.
Table 8: Command Quick Reference
Command Name
Command (All bytes in Hex)
Return (All bytes in Hex)
Enter AT Command Mode
<0x41> <0x54> <0x2B> <0x2B> <0x2B> <0x0D>
<0xCC> <0x43> <0x4F> <0x4D>
Exit AT Command Mode
<0xCC> <0x41> <0x54> <0x4F> <0x0D>
<0xCC> <0x44> <0x41> <0x54>
Status Request
<0xCC> <0x00> <0x00>
<0xCC> <Firmware> <Status>
Read Channel
<0xCC> <0x02>
<0xCC> <Channel> <Channel Mask [3-0]>
Write Destination NWK
Address
<0xCC> <0x10> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
<0xCC> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Read Destination NWK
Address
<0xCC> <0x11>
<0xCC> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Auto Destination
<0xCC> <0x15> <Data>
<0xCC> <Data>
Read API Control
<0xCC> <0x16>
<0xCC> <API Control>
Write API Control
<0xCC> <0x17> <API Control>
<0xCC> <API Control>
Read Digital Input
<0xCC> <0x20>
<0xCC> <Data>
Read ADC
<0xCC> <0x21> <Data>
<0xCC> <ADC Hi> <ADC Lo>
Write Digital Outputs
<0xCC> <0x23> <Data>
<0xCC> <Data>
Set Power Control
<0xCC> <0x25> <Power>
<0xCC> <Power>
Read NWK Address
<0xCC> <0x8A> <0x00>
<0xCC> <0x8A> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Read Parent’s NWK Address
<0xCC> <0x8A> <0x01>
<0xCC> <0x8A> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
www.aerocomm.com
29
30
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
Table 8: Command Quick Reference
Command Name
Command (All bytes in Hex)
Return (All bytes in Hex)
Discover NWK Address
<0xCC> <0x8D> <MAC [2-0]> <Data>
<0xCC> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo> <Data [n-0]>
Discover IEEE Address
<0xCC> <0x8E> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo> <Data>
<0xCC> <MAC [7-0]> <Data [n-0]>
Read Temperature
<0xCC> <0xA4>
<0xCC> <Temperature [1-0]>
EEPROM Byte Read
<0xCC> <0xC0> <Start> <Length>
<0xCC> <Start> <Length> <Data [n-0]>
EEPROM Byte Write
<0xCC> <0xC1> <Start> <Length> <Data>
<Start> <Length> <Last byte written>
Soft Reset
<0xCC> <0xFF>
None
Soft Reset with NV reset
<0xCC> <0xFF> <0xE3>
None
Restore Factory Defaults
<0xCC> <0xFF> <0xDF>
None
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
E n t e r AT C o m ma n d M o d e
Prior to sending this command, the OEM Host must ensure that the
transceiver’s RF transmit buffer is empty. This can be accomplished
by waiting up to one second between the last packet and the AT
command. If the buffer is not empty, the radio will interpret the
command as data and it will be sent over the RF.
Command: <0x41> <0x54> <0x2B> <0x2B> <0x2B> <0x0D>
Number of Bytes Returned: 4
Response: <0xCC> <0x43> <0x4F> <0x4D>
E x it A T C o m m an d M o d e
The OEM Host should send this command to exit AT Command
mode and resume normal operation.
Command: <0xCC> <0x41> <0x54> <0x4F> <0x0D>
Number of Bytes Returned: 4
Response: <0xCC> <0x44> <0x41> <0x54>
St a t u s Ve rs i o n R eq u e s t
The OEM Host issues this command to request the firmware and link
status of the transceiver.
Command: <0xCC> <0x00> <0x00>
Number of bytes returned: 3
Response: <0xCC> <Firmware> <Type>
Parameter Range:
<Firmware> = Radio Firmware version eg: 0x17 = v1.7
<Type>
= 0x00: End Device
0x01: Router
0x02: Coordinator
0x03: Initialized - not started automatically
0x04: Initialized - not connected to anything
0x05: Discovering PAN’s to join
0x06: Joining a PAN
0x07: Rejoining a PAN (only for End Devices)
0x08: Joined but not yet authenticated
0x09: Started a NWK as ZigBee Coordinator
0x0A: Device has lost info about its parent
R ea d C h a n ne l
The OEM Host issues this command to read the channel of the
transceiver.
Command: <0xCC> <0x02>
Number of Bytes Returned: 6
Response: <0xCC> <Channel> <ChMask>
Paramter Range:
<Channel> = RF Channel currently in use
<ChMask> = 32-bit Channel Mask being used
W r i t e D e st i n at i o n Ad d r e s s
The OEM Host issues this command to the transceiver to change the
Destination Address.
Command: <0xCC> <0x10> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Number of bytes returned: 4
Response: <0xCC> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Paramter Range:
<NWK Hi> = MSB of destination radio’s NWK address
<NWK Lo> = LSB of destination radio’s NWK address
www.aerocomm.com
31
32
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
R ea d D e st i n at i o n Ad d r es s
The OEM Host issues this command to the transceiver to read the
Destination Address.
Command: <0xCC> <0x11>
Number of bytes returned: 4
Response: <0xCC> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Parameter Range:
<NWK Hi> = MSB of destination radio’s NWK address
<NWK Lo> = LSB of destination radio’s NWK address
A ut o D es t i na t i o n
The Host issues this command to change the Auto Destination
setting. When issuing this command, the Auto Destination setting
will only be changed if the corresponding enable bit is set.
Otherwise, the command performs a read of Auto Destination.
Command: <0xCC> <0x15> <Auto Dest>
Number of Bytes Returned: 2
Response: <0xCC> <Auto Dest>
Parameter Range:
<Auto Dest> = bit 7:
bit 6:
bit 5:
bit 4:
bit 3:
bit 2:
bit 1:
bit 0:
Ignored
Ignored
Ignored
Read=0, Write =1
Ignored
Ignored
Ignored
Auto Destination
R ea d A P I Co n t r o l
The OEM Host issues this command to read the API Control byte.
Command: <0xCC> <0x16>
Number of Bytes Returned: 2
Response: <0xCC> <API Control>
Parameter Range:
<API Control>= bits 7-3: 0
bit-2: Send Data Complete
bit-1: Transmit API
bit-0: Receive API
W ri t e A PI Co n t r o l
The OEM Host issues this command to write the API Control byte to
enable or disable the API features.
Command: <0xCC> <0x17> <API Control>
Number of Bytes Returned: 2
Response: <0xCC> <API Control>
Parameter Range:
<API Control>= bits 7-3: Ignored
bit-2: Send Data Complete
bit-1: Transmit API
bit-0: Receive API
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
R ea d D i g it a l I n p u t
The OEM Host issues this command to read the state of GI0 input
pins. Pins configured as outputs will report their current state.
Command: <0xCC> <0x20>
Number of Bytes Returned: 2
Response: <0xCC> <Digital In>
Parameter Range:
<Digital In> = bit-0: GI0
R ea d A D C
The OEM Host issues this command to read the onboard 12-bit A/D
converters.
Command:<0xCC> <0x21> <Channel> <Resolution> <Ref>
This command allows a very detailed amount of customization. The
OEM Host can select which pin or sensor to monitor, the resolution
of the measurement and the reference voltage to measure the input
ADC against.
Response: <0xCC> <Hi ADC> <Lo ADC>
Greater Resolution will provide a more detailed response, but will
introduce additional latency.
The following equations can be used to determine the voltages
associated with the ADC value returned:
ADC value
ADIn = ⎛ ---------------------------⎞ × [ REFvoltage ]
⎝ [ RES ] ⎠
Number of bytes Returned: 3
Parameter Range:
<Channel> = 0x00: Cmd/Data
0x01: InRange
0x02: GI03
0x03: GI04
0x04: GI05
0x05: GI06
0x06: GI07
0x07: GI08
0x0D: Positive Voltage Reference = 1.25V
0x0E: Temperature Sensor
0x0F: Vdd
<Resolution>= 0x00: 8 bit resolution [RES=0x00FF]
0x01: 10 bit resoltution[RES=0x03FF]
0x02: 12 bit resolution [RES=0x0FFF]
0x03: 14 bit resolution [RES=0x3FFF]
<Reference>= 0x00: Internal 1.25V [REFvoltage= 1.25V]
0x01: External Reference on GI08
0x02: Vdd
0x03: Differential between pins GI07 and Gi08
<Hi ADC> = MSB of requested 12-bit ADC value
<Lo ADC> = LSB of requested 12-bit ADC value
W r i t e D i g it a l O u t p u t s
The OEM Host issues this command to write both digital output lines
to particular states.
The OEM Host must write the value of all digital outputs at once.
Each bit represents a GIO. The first 8 bits are resserved and not in
use.
Se t M ax Powe r
www.aerocomm.com
Command: <0xCC> <0x23> <Digital Out[1-0]>
Number of Bytes Returned: 2
Response: 0xCC <Digital Out [1-0]>
Parameter Range:
<Digital Out>= bit-0: GO0
bit-1: GO1
bit-2: GO2
bit-3: GO3
bit-4: GO4
bit-5: GO5
bit-6: GO6
bit-7: GO7
bit-8-15 : Reserved
33
34
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
The OEM Host issues this command to adjust the maximum output
power.
Command: <0xCC> <0x25> <Max Pwr>
Number of Bytes Returned: 2
Response: 0xCC <Max Pwr>
Parameter Range:
<Max Pwr> = High Power
0x00: 17 dBm
0x01: 11 dBm
0x02: 5 dBm
0x03: -1 dBm
Low Power
0x00: 3 dBm
0x01: -3 dBm
0x02: -9 dBm
0x03: -15 dBm
R e ad 1 6- b i t N W K Ad d r es s
The OEM Host issues this command to determine the 16-bit NWK
address of the device it is connected to.
Command: <0xCC> <0x8A> <0x00>
Number of Bytes Returned: 4
Response: <0xCC> <0x8A> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Parameter Range:
<NWK Hi> = MSB of radio’s NWK address
<NWK Lo> = LSB of radio’s NWK address
Note: If the device has not yet been assigned, a NWK address of
0xFFFF will be returned.
R ea d 1 6 - bi t NW K A d d re ss o f Pa re n t De vi c e
The OEM Host issues this command to determine the 16-bit NWK
address of its’ Parent Device.
Command: <0xCC> <0x8A> <0x01>
Number of Bytes Returned: 4
Response: <0xCC> <0x8A> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Parameter Range:
<NWK Hi> = MSB of Parent’s NWK address
<NWK Lo> = LSB of Parent’s NWK address
Note: If the device has not yet associated, a NWK address of
0xFFFF will be returned.
D is co v e r 16 - b it N W K A d d re ss o f R e m ot e Ra d i o
The OEM Host issues this command to discover the 16-bit NWK
address of a remote radio.
Command: <0xCC> <0x8D> <IEEE [7-0]>
Note: This command is valid only for Coordinators and/or Router
devices. This command will not issue a response if the requested
address is unable to be located in the network. A timeout of several
seconds should be assumed when using this command.
Response: <0xCC> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
D is co v e r IE EE A d d re ss of R em o t e R a d io
Number of Bytes Returned: 3
Parameter Range:
<IEEE>
= 64-bit IEEE Address of remote radio
<NWK Hi> = MSB of remote radio’s NWK address
<NWK Lo> = LSB of remote radio’s NWK address
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
The OEM Host issues this command to discover the 64-bit IEEE
address of a remote radio.
Command: <0xCC> <0x8E> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
Note: This command is valid only for Coordinators and/or Router
devices. This command will not issue a response if the requested
address is unable to be located in the network. A timeout of several
seconds should be assumed when using this command.
Response: <0xCC> <IEEE [7-0]>
Number of Bytes Returned: 9
Parameter Range:
<NWK Hi> = MSB of remote radio’s NWK address
<NWK Lo> = LSB of remote radio’s NWK address
<IEEE>
= 64-bit IEEE Address of remote radio
D is co v e r IE EE A d d re ss & C h il d re n o f R em o t e R a d io
The OEM Host issues this command to discover the 64-bit IEEE
address of a remote radio as well as report a list of that device’s
Children.
Command: <0xCC> <0x8E> <0x00> <NWK Hi> <NWK Lo>
<0x01>
Note: This command is valid only for Coordinators and/or Router
devices. This command will not issue a response if the requested
address is unable to be located in the network. A timeout of several
seconds should be assumed when using this command.
Response: <0xCC> <IEEE [7-0]> <Length> <List>
Number of Bytes Returned: 10+
Parameter Range:
<NWK Hi> = MSB of remote radio’s NWK address
<NWK Lo> = LSB of remote radio’s NWK address
<IEEE>
= 64-bit IEEE Address of remote radio
<Length> = Length of data to follow
<List>
= List of remote radio’s associated devices
[<Index n> <NWK Hi n> <NWK Lo n>]
R ea d T e m p er at u r e
The OEM Host issues this command to read the onboard
temperature sensor.
Command: <0xCC> <0xA4>
Note: The temperature sensor is uncalibrated and has a tolerance of
+/- 3C. For calibration instructions, contact Aerocomm’s technical
support.
Response: 0xCC <+/-> <Temp.>
Number of bytes returned: 3
Parameter Range:
<+/->
= 0x2B: +
0x2D: <Temp.>
= Temperature (Celsius) (0x08 - 0x50)
R ea d V o lt a g e
The OEM Hosts issues this command to read the input voltage to the
radio.
Command: <0xCC> <0xC0> <0xA6>
Number of Bytes Returned: 2
Response: <0xCC> <Voltage Integer> <Voltage Decimal>
Parameter Range:
<Voltage Integer>=Integer portion of voltage reading
<Voltage Decimal>=Decimal portion of voltage reading
Example Output: 0xCC 0x03 0x37
<0x03> =Integer portion is 3v
<0x37> =decimal portion is .55v
Voltage level is 3.55V
EE PROM Byte Re ad
www.aerocomm.com
35
36
CONFIGURING THE ZB2430
Upon receiving this command, a transceiver will respond with the
desired data from the addresses requested by the OEM Host.
*Note: Maximum Length is 0xFC.
Command: <0xCC> <0xC0> <Start> <Length>
Number of Bytes Returned: 4+
Response: <0xCC> <Start> <Length> <Data>
Parameter Range:
<Start>
= EEPROM address to begin reading at
<Length> = Length of data to be read
<Data>
= Requested data
EE PROM Byte W ri t e
Upon receiving this command, a transceiver will write the data bytes
to the specified address but will not respond to the OEM Host until
the EEPROM write cycle is complete.
Note: The maximum length of data that can be written in a single
write process is 0x50. If writing the entire 256-byte EEPROM, it is
convenient to perform 64 byte (0x40) writes.
Command: <0xCC> <0xC1> <Start> <Length> <Data>
Number of Bytes Returned: 3
Response: <Start> <Length> <Last byte>
Parameter Range:
<Start>
= EEPROM address to begin writing at
<Length> = Length of data to be written (Max = 0x50)
<Data>
= Data to be written
<Last byte> = Value of last byte written
R es et
The OEM Host issues this command to perform a soft reset of the
transceiver. Any transceiver settings modified by CC commands will
revert to the values stored in the EEPROM.
Command: <0xCC> <0xFF>
Number of Bytes Returned: None
Response: None
R es t o r e F a ct o r y D ef a u l ts
The OEM Host issues this command to restore the EEPROM
Configuration to factory default.
*Note. This command does not perform a NV Reset.
Command: <0xCC> <0xFF> <0xDF>
Number of Bytes Returned: None
Response: None
S o f t Re s et w i t h N V r e s et
The OEM Host issues this command to perform a soft reset of the
transceiver and to erase the network settings stored in the radio’s
non-volatile memory. Any transceiver settings modified by CC
commands will revert to the values stored in the EEPROM.
Command: <0xCC> <0xFF> <0xE3>
Number of Bytes Returned: None
Response: None
8
EEPROM P ARAMETERS
The OEM Host can program various parameters that are stored in EEPROM and become active after a power-on
reset. The table below gives the locations and descriptions of the parameters that can be read/written by the OEM
Host. Factory default values are also shown. Do not write to any EEPROM addresses other than those listed below.
Do not copy one transceiver’s EEPROM to another transceiver as doing so may cause the transceiver to malfunction.
Ta b l e 9 : E E P R O M P a r a m e t e r s
Parameter
EEPROM
Address
Length
(Bytes)
Product ID
0x00
40
Channel Mask
0x30
4
End Device Poll Rate
0x34
2
Range
Default
Description
Product identifier string. Includes revision information for software and hardware.
0x07FFF800
0x0000 - 0xFFFF
0x03E8
When Channel Select is enabled in EEPROM,
tells the radio the available channels to use in
Channel Select mode.
Specifies how often the End Device will wakeup
from Sleep Mode. and request data from its
parent. 1 ms per increment.
Note: Valid only for End Devices
Parent Hold Message
0x39
1
0x00 - 0xFF
0x42
Specifies the amount of time that a Parent
Device will hold a message for a sleeping End
Device before discarding. 1000 ms per increment.
Note: Valid only for Coordinator and Routers
End Device Wake Time
0x3A
2
0x0000 - 0xFFFF
0x0064
Specifies the amount of time that an End
Device will remain awake. 1 ms per increment.
Note: Valid only for End Devices
End Device Wake Poll
Rate
0x3C
2
0x0000 - 0xFFFF
0x0032
Specifies how often the End Device should
request messages from its Parent Device while
awake. 1 ms per increment.
Note: Valid only for End Devices
Stop Bit Delay
0x3F
1
0x00 - 0xFF
0x00
For systems employing the RS-485 interface or
Parity, the serial stop bit might come too early.
Stop bit delay controls the width of the last bit
before the stop bit occurs. Should be set to 2
times the byte time when used.
0x00 = Disable stop bit delay
Note: Stop bit delay only needs to be used
when using external RS485 hardware or RS485
DE/RE.
Channel Number
0x40
1
0x0B 0x1A
www.aerocomm.com
0x0B
RF Channel Number. Used when Channel
Select mode is disabled.
38
EEPROM PARAMETERS
Ta b l e 9 : E E P R O M P a r a m e t e r s
Parameter
EEPROM
Address
Length
(Bytes)
Range
Default
Baud Rate
0x42
1
0x00 - 0x08, 0xE3
0x06
Description
0x00: 1200
0x01: 2400
0x02: 4800
0x03: 9600
0x04: 19200
0x05: 31250
0x06: 38400
0x07: 57600
0x08: 115200
0xE3: Enable Custom Baud rate
Note: If any value ofther than 0x00-0x08 or 0xE3
is used, the radio will default to 9600 baud.
Baud_M
0x43
1
0x00 - 0xFF
0xFF
Used to calculate baud rate when Custom
Baud Rate is enabled.
Baud_E
0x44
1
0x00-0xFF
0xFF
Used to calculate baud rate when Custom
Baud Rate is enabled.
Control 0
0x45
1
0x01 - 0xFF
0x38
Settings are:
bit-7: Reserved
bit-6: Reserved
bit-5: Modify Wake
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
bit-4: Reload Sleep
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
bit-3: NV Restore
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
bit-2: End-to-End Acknowledgement
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
bit-1: Reserved
bit-0: Reserved
MAC Retries
0x4B
1
0x00 - 0x07
0x03
Specifies the number of retries to use at the
MAC level. A setting of 0x03 actually sends the
packet up to 4 times. MAC retries can be set to
0x00, but since they occur faster than the transmit retries, the default setting is typically recommended.
Network Retries
0x4C
1
0x01 - 0x07
0x02
Specifies the maximum number of network
retries. When MAC retries is not set to 0x00, the
actual amount of transmit attempts is equal to
MAC retries x Network Retries. Network Retries
occur at a slower rate than MAC retries. Network retries are retries that occur between two
connected nodes.
Broadcast Attempts
0x4D
1
0x00 - 0x05
0x04
Specified the maximum number of times to
broadcast a packet. Attempts occur at 500ms
intervals. There is a limit of 9 broadcast messages every 10 seconds.
End-to-End Retries
0x4E
1
0x00 - 0xFF
0x04
Specified the maximum number of times to
retry an end to end packet. End to End Retries
are only suitable for multihop packets..
Attempts occur at 6s intervals.
EEPROM PARAMETERS
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Ta b l e 9 : E E P R O M P a r a m e t e r s
Parameter
EEPROM
Address
Length
(Bytes)
Range
Default
Stale Limit
0x4F
1
0x01-0xFF
0x32
Specifies amount of time to keep a radio in the
Radio Table without having received a packet
from that particular radio. Prevents retries from
being interpreted as new packets. Adjustable
in 100 ms increments.
Control 1
0x56
1
0x01 - 0xFF
0x43
Settings are:
bit-7: RS495 DE/RE
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
bit-6: Reserved
bit-5: Reserved
bit-4: Auto Destination
0 = Use Destination Address
1 = Use Auto Destination
bit-3: Auto Channel
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
bit-2: Reserved
bit-1: Reserved
bit-0: Reserved
Interface Timeout
0x58
1
0x02 - 0xFF
0x04
Specifies a byte gap timeout, used in conjunction with RF Packet Size to determine when a
packet coming over the interface is complete.
Description
Note: 1 ms per increment.
RF Packet Size
0x5A
2
0x0001 -0x0054
0x0054
Specifies the RF packet size.
Note: RF packet size needs to be set to a minimum of six bytes in order to use the Enter AT
command.
CTS On
0x5C
2
0x0001 - 0x01C0
Coordinator
/Router:
0x0001 - 0x0416
End Device:
0x0001 - 0x0096
Coordinator
/Router:
0x0190
End Device:
0x50
CTS will be deasserted (High) when the Transmit buffer contains at least this many characters
CTS Off
0x5E
2
0x0001 - 0x01C0
Coordinator
/Router:
0x0001 - 0x0416
End Device:
0x0001 - 0x0096
Coordinator
/Router:
0x0180
End Device:
0x50
Once CTS has been deasserted, CTS will be
reasserted (Low) when the transmit buffer contains this many or less characters.
Power Control
0x63
1
0x00 - 0x03
0x00
Determines output power of transceiver.
ZB2430-Q
0x00: 17 dBm
0x01: 11 dBm
0x02: 5 dBm
0x03: -1 dBm
Destination ID
0x76
2
0x0000 - 0xFFFF
R/E: 0x0000
C: 0x0001
PAN ID
0x78
2
0x0000 - 0x3FFF
0x0001
www.aerocomm.com
ZB2430-D
0x00: 3 dBm
0x01: -3 dBm
0x02: -9 dBm
0x03: -15 dBm
Specifies destination for RF packets.
Similar to network name. Radios must have the
same PAN ID to associate with each other.
39
40
EEPROM PARAMETERS
Ta b l e 9 : E E P R O M P a r a m e t e r s
Parameter
EEPROM
Address
Length
(Bytes)
Range
MAC ID
0x80
8
0x00 - 0xFF
Default
Description
Factory programmed 8 byte unique IEEE MAC
address.
Note: This address is write protected and cannot be modified.
Part Number
0x90
16
0x00 - 0xFF
API Control
0xC1
1
0x00 - 0xFF
RSSI Threshold
0xC8
1
0x00 - 0xFF
D.O.B.
0xE0
4
Provides part number information. EEPROM
byte 0x95 can be read to determine device type
(C, R, or E).
0xF8
Settings are:
bit-7: Reserved
bit-6: Reserved
bit-5: Reserved
bit-4: Reserved
bit-3: Reserved
bit-2: API Send Data Complete
0 = Disabled
1 = Enable
bit-1: Transmit API
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
bit-0: Receive API
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
The minimum RSSI required. Packets received
with a weaker RSSI than this threshold will be
discarded.
Provides factory calibration and test date.
9
API O PERATION
API Operation is a powerful alternative to the default Transparent operation of the ZB2430 and provides dynamic
packet routing and packet accounting abilities to the OEM Host without requiring extensive programming by the OEM
Host.. API operation utilizes specific packet formats; specifying various vital parameters used to control radio settings
and packet routing on a packet-by-packet basis. The API features can be used in any combination that suits the
OEM’s specific needs and can be different between radios operating on the same network.
API Transmit Packet
API Transmit Packet is a powerful command that allows the OEM Host to send data to a single or multiple (broadcast)
transceivers on a packet-by-packet basis. This can be useful for many applications; including polling and/or mesh
networks.
API Transmit Packet is enabled when bit-1 of the API Control byte is enabled. The OEM Host should use the format
shown in Figure 12 below to transmit a packet over the RF.
Figure 12: Transmit API packet format
Start Delimiter
Request
0x81
Data
Byte 2: Payload Data Lenth (0x00 – 0x54)
Byte 3: Reserved. Set to 0x00
Byte 4: Number of Network Retries/Broadcast Attempts
Byte 5: Reserved. Set to 0x00
Byte 6-7: 16 bit Network Destination Address (Hi,Lo)
0x….: Unicast Address
0xFFFC: Broadcast to all Routers and Coordinators
0xFFFD: Broadcast to all with RXOnWhenIdel = True
0xFFFF: Broadcast to all Devices
Byte 8-n: Payload Data
API Send Data Complete
API Send Data complete can be used as a software acknowledgement indicator. When a radio sends an addressed
packet, it will look for a received acknowledgement (transparent to the OEM Host). If an acknowledgement is not
received, the packet will be retransmitted until one is received or all retries have been exhausted.
For applications where data loss is not an option, the OEM Host may wish to monitor the acknowledgement process
using the API Send Data Complete. If an acknowledgement is not received (Failure), the OEM Host can send the
packet to the transceiver once again.
API Send Data Complete is enabled when bit-2 of the API Control byte is enabled. The transceiver sends the OEM
Host the data shown in Figure 13 upon receiving an RF acknowledge or exhausting all attempts.
www.aerocomm.com
42
API OPERATION
*Note: Send Data Complete may report a failure though the packet arrived due to timing issues. It will never report
successful though unless the packet absolutely arrived.
Figure 13: Send Data Complete packet format
Start Delimiter
Request
0x82
Data
Data
Coordinator/Router
Byte 2; TX Cost
Byte 3: RX Cost
Byte 4: Success
0x00: Fail
0x01; Success
End Device
Byte 2; 0xFF
Byte 3: 0xFF
Byte 4: Success
0x00: Fail
0x01: Success
API Receive Packet
By default, the source MAC is not included in the received data string sent to the OEM Host. For applications where
multiple radios are sending data, it may be necessary to determine the origin of a specific data packet. When API
Receive Packet is enabled, all packets received by the transceiver will include the MAC address of the source radio as
well as an RSSI indicator which can be used to determine the link quality between the two.
API Receive Packet is enabled when bit-0 of the API Control byte is enabled. Upon receiving a RF packet, the radio
sends its OEM Host the data as shown in Figure 14 below.
Figure 14: Receive API packet format
Start Delimiter
Request
0x81
Data
Bytes 2-3: Payload Data Length. PDL Lo then PDL Hi.
Byte 4: RSSI
Byte 5; 0x00
Byte 6-7: 16-bit Network Source Address (Hi, Lo)
Byte 8-n: Payload Data
ZB2430 A DDRESSING
10
Every ZB2430 transceiver module has a unique static 64-bit MAC address that is programmed at the factory. Upon
joining the network, the device is assigned a 16-bit NWK Address. The NWK address only changes on initial power-up
and when a NV Reset command is issued to the radio.
In Figure 15 four nodes with the three LSBs of each of their MAC addresses are shown.
Figure 15: ZigBee Addressing by MAC - Node 0 to Node 3
In previous sections (see “Mesh Routing (AODV)” on page 16), the Ad-Hoc On-Demand Vector routing protocol,
Route Requests and Replies were discussed. Fortunately, the routing, RREQ’s and RREP’s are not left up to the OEM
Host and are all taken care of by the ZigBee protocol embedded in the ZB2430. A message can therefore be sent to
a device anywhere on the network once its 16-bit NWK address is known.
Using the same example as before, assume that Node 0 needs to send a message to Node 3 which is out of Node 0’s
range. This can be done using the procedure below (note that the underlined values will vary from radio to radio):
1. Enter AT Command Mode: ..................................................... 0x41 0x54 0x2B 0x2B 0x2B 0x0D
2. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x43 0x4F 0x0D
3. Discover NWK Address:.......................................................... 0xCC 0x8D 0x56 0x78 0x90
4. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x00 0x01
5. Write 16-bit Destination NWK address:................................... 0xCC 0x10 0x00 0x00 0x01
6. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x00 0x00 0x01
7. Exit AT Command Mode: ........................................................ 0xCC 0x41 0x54 0x4F 0x0D
www.aerocomm.com
44
ZB2430 ADDRESSING
8. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x44 0x41 0x54
9. Send data to device
Figure 16: ZigBee Addressing by MAC - Node 0 to Node 2
Next, assume that Node 1 needs to send a message to Node 2, which is also out of it’s range. The procedure is the
essentially the same as above (see Figure 16: "ZigBee Addressing by MAC - Node 0 to Node 2"). Note that the
underlined values will vary from radio to radio.
1. Enter AT Command Mode: ..................................................... 0x41 0x54 0x2B 0x2B 0x2B 0x0D
2. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x43 0x4F 0x0D
3. Discover NWK Address:.......................................................... 0xCC 0x8D 0x22 0x11 0x33
4. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x14 0x3E
5. Write 16-bit Destination NWK address:................................... 0xCC 0x10 0x00 0x14 0x3E
6. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x00 0x14 0x3E
7. Exit AT Command Mode: ........................................................ 0xCC 0x41 0x54 0x4F 0x0D
8. Wait for command response:.................................................. 0xCC 0x44 0x41 0x54
9. Send data to device
A DVANCED N ETWORK C OMMANDS
11
Some applications may require a more extensive knowledge of the Network and its current configuration. For this
reason, the ZB2430 includes several advanced commands which can be issued anytime the radio is in Command
mode. Each of these commands include a 16-bit Return Mask which allows the OEM Host to select the information
returned in the command response.
Note: All unused bits in the Return Mask should be set to “0”.
Read Neighbor Table
The Neighbor Table is stored in NV RAM in stores information about neighboring devices which are operating with teh
same Channel Mask, but no necessarily the same channel. The command format is shown in Figure 17.
Command Definitions
• Start Index: Starting index within the Neighbor Table to begin reporting.
• Count: Number of entries to include in Neighbor Table. Maximum number of indexes = 8 (Coordinator and
Routers) and 4 (End Devices).
• Index Number: Index location of radio in Route Table.
• NWK Address: 16-bit NWK address of the neighboring device.
• PAN ID: The 16-bit PAN ID of the network to which the device belongs.
• TX Cost: Counter of transmission (success/failures)
• RX Cost: Average of received RSSI values for the specified device
Figure 17: Read Neighbor Table Command
Start Delimiter
0xCC
Command Identifier
0x88
Count (Byte 3)
0x00: Show all Entries between
Start index and Maximum (Max =
8 for Coordinators/Routers, Max =
4 for End Devices)
Request
Data
Start Index (Byte 4)
0x00: Index to start
reporting at
0x01-n: Show Entries between
Start Index and Start Index +
Count – 1.
Return Mask (Bytes 5-6)
Bit 0: Index Number
Bit 1: Network Address
Bit 2: PAN ID
Bit 3: TX Cost
Bit 4: RX Cost
Bit 5: Security Key Sequence Number
Bit 6: Security Frame Counter
Bit 7-15: Reserved. Set to 0.
After issuing the Read Neighbor Table command, the radio will respond with the requested information as shown in
Figure 18 below. The actual command response format may vary depending on the Return Mask setting used in the
command.
*Note: Command will only fail if more than the maximum number of neighbors is requested.
www.aerocomm.com
46
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS
Figure 18: Read Neighbor Table Response
S tart D elim iter
C om m and Identifier
Length
R equest
0xC C
0x88
1 B yte
D ata
S tatus (B yte 4)
0x00: S uccess
0x0 1 : F ail
R esponse (B ytes 5-n)
(R epeated for each radio)
S uccess:
B yte 5: Index num ber
B ytes 6-7: N W K A ddress
B ytes 8-9: P A N ID
B yte 10: T X C ost
B yte 11: R X C ost
B yte 12: S ecurity K ey S equence num ber
B ytes 13 -16: S ecurity F ram e C ounter
F ailure:
B yte 5: M ax N eighbor E ntries
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Read Route Table
ZigBee Coordinators and Routers maintain a routing table in memory which is used to establish a route to a particular
destination device.
Note: This command is not valid for End Devices.
Command Definitions
•
•
•
•
•
•
Count: Number of entries to include in Route Table. Maximum number of indexes = 20
Start Index: Starting index within the Route Table to begin reporting.
Index Number: Index location of radio in Route Table.
Destination Address: The 16-bit NWK address of the route.
Next Hop Address: The 16-bit NWK address of the next radio on the way to the destination.
Expiry Time: A countdown timer indicating the number of seconds until route expires. Expiry Time is set to
0x1E (30s) when a new route is created.
• Status: The status of the route.
• Command will faile if the maximum requested entries is greater than 20.
Figure 19: Read Route Table Command
Start Delimiter
Command Identifier
Request
0xCC
0x89
Data
Start Index (Byte 4)
0x00: Show all Entries between
Start index and Maximum (Max =
8 for Coordinators/Routers, Max =
4 for End Devices)
0x00: Index to start
reporting from
0x01-n: Show Entries between
Start Index and Start Index +
Count – 1.
www.aerocomm.com
Return Mask (Bytes 5-6)
Bit 0: Index number
Bit 1: Destination Address
Bit 2: Next Hop Address
Bit 3: Expiry Time
Bit 4: Status
Bits 5-15: Reserved. Set to 0.
47
48
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS
Figure 20: Read Route Table Response
S tart D elim iter
C om m and Identifier
Length
R equest
0xC C
0x89
1 B yte
D ata
Status (Byte 4)
0x00: S uccess
0x01: Fail
R esponse (Bytes 5-n)
R eported for each radio
S uccess:
B yte 5: Index N um ber
B ytes 6-7: D estination A ddress
B ytes 8-9: N ext H op A ddress
B yte 10: E xpiry T im e
B yte 11: S tatus
Failure:
B yte 5: M ax R oute E ntries (20)
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Perform Scan
ZigBee Coordinators and Routers can manually scan selected channels for RF activity and other ZigBee devices/PAN
ID’s, etc.
Note: This command not valid for End Devices.
Command Definitions
• Scan Channel: A 32-bit channel mask specifying the channel(s) to include in the scan.
• Scan Type: Specifies the type of scan to perform. Energy scan, the device will tune to each channel &
perform an energy measurement. Active scan, the device tunes to each channel, sends a beacon request
and listen for beacons from other ZigBee devices.
• Scan Duration: Duration of the Active & Energy scans on each channel selected. Time is measured as:
(15.36ms) x 2^(Scan Duration + 1)
• Max Results: The maximum number of results to report for Active scans. Ignored with Energy scan command.
• Status: Indicates the status of the current scan.
• Channel Number: 8-bit channel current measurement was taken from.
• Energy: The strength of the RF channel during the Energy scan.
• NWK Address: 16-bit NWK address of the neighboring device.
• PAN ID: The 16-bit PAN ID of the network to which the device belongs.
• Link Quality: The strength of the link between the current device and the device found during the Active scan.
Figure 21: Perform Scan Command
Start Delimiter
Command Identifier
Request
0xCC
0x8B
Data
Scan Channel (Bytes 3-6)
32-bit channel mask
describing channels to scan
Scan Type (Byte 7)
Scan Duration (Byte 8)
0x00: Energy detect scan
0x01: Active scan
Range: 0x00-0x0E
www.aerocomm.com
Reserved (Byte 9)
Reserved.
Set to 0x00.
Max Results (Byte 10)
Maximum number
of results to return
49
50
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS
Figure 22: Perform Scan Response
Start Delimiter
Command Identifier
Length
Request
0xCC
0x8B
1 Byte
Data
Status (Byte 5)
Scan Type (Byte 6)
0x00: Success
0x1A: Fail – Insufficient RAM Resources
0xFC: Scan already in progress
0x00: Energy detect scan
0x01: Active scan
Reserved (Byte 7)
Reserved: 0x00
Response (Bytes 8-n)
if Scan Type = 0x00
Byte 8: Channel Number
Byte 9: Energy
if Scan Type = 0x01
Byte 8: Channel Number
Bytes 9-10: NWK Address
Bytes 11-12: PAN ID
Byte 13: Link Quality
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
Read Radio Table
The Radio Table, stored in NV RAM, contains information about any parent or children it is associated with. The Radio
Table stores relationship and link-state information which updates everytime the radio receives a packet from that
device. To read a device’s Radio Table, use the command format shown in Figure 23 below.
Note: This command not valid for End Devices.
Command Definitions
•
•
•
•
•
Index Number: Index location of radio in Radio Table (range = 0-20).
NWK Address: 16-bit NWK address of the device.
Node Relation: The type/relation of the device.
Device Status: Status of the link between the two devices.
TX Cost: Counter of transmission (success/failures). Failures are incremented on fail and decremented on
success. Range is 0x00 - 0x07.
• RX Cost: Average of received RSSI values for the specified device
Figure 23: Read Radio Table Command
Start Delimiter
Command Identifier
Request
0xCC
0x8C
Data
Device Type (Byte 3)
0x00: All
0x01: Parent
0x02: Children
0x03: Radio at index
Index (Byte 4)
Radio Index in table.
(Only valid when Device
Type = 0x03)
Return Mask (Bytes 5-6)
Bit 0: Index number
Bit 1: NWK Address
Bit 2: Address index
Bit 3: Node relation
Bit 4: Device Status
Bit 5: Association Count
Bit 6: TX cost
Bit 7: RX cost
Bit 8: Security Key sequence number
Bit 9: Security Frame counter
Bits 10-15: Reserved. Set to 0.
After issuing the Read Radio Table command, the radio will respond with the requested information as shown in
Figure 24 below. The actual command response format may vary depending on the Return Mask setting used in the
command.
www.aerocomm.com
51
52
ADVANCED NETWORK COMMANDS
Figure 24: Read Radio Table Response
S ta r t D e lim ite r
C o m m a n d Id e n tifie r
L e n g th
R e qu est
0xC C
0 x8C
1 B y te
D a ta
R e s p o n s e (B y te s 5 - n )
( R e p e a te d fo r e a c h r a d io )
S ta tu s (B y te 4 )
0x00 : S uccess
B
B
B
B
In d e x n u m b e r
-7 : N W K A d d re s s
- 9 : A d d r e s s in d e x
: N o d e r e la tio n
0 x 0 0 : P a re n t
0 x 0 1 : C h ild R F D
0 x 0 2 : C h ild R F D R X Id le
0 x 0 3 : C h ild F F D
0 x 0 4 : C h ild F F D R X Id le
0 x 0 5 : N e ig h b o r
0 x 0 6 : O th e r
0 xF F : N ot u se d
B y te 1 1 : D e v ic e S ta tu s
B
B
B
B
B
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
te
te
te
te
te
te
te
te
te
5
s
s
1
:
6
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
1
1
1
s
2
3
4
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
:
:
:
:
6
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
E n d D e v ic e
R o u te r
C o o r d in a to r
In itia liz e d - n o t s t a r te d a u to m a t ic a lly
In itia liz e d - n o t c o n n e c te d to a n y th in g
D is c o v e r in g P A N ’s to jo in
J o in in g a P A N
R e jo in in g a P A N ( o n ly f o r E n d D e v ic e s )
J o in e d b u t n o t y e t a u th e n tic a te d
S ta r te d a N W K a s Z ig B e e C o o r d in a to r
D e v ic e h a s lo s t in fo a b o u t it s p a r e n t
A s s o c ia tio n C o u n t
T X C ost
R X C ost
S e c u r ity K e y S e q u e n c e n u m b e r
- 1 9 : S e c u r ity F r a m e C o u n te r
12
D IMENSIONS
ZB2430 MECHANICAL
Figure 25: ZB2430 Mechanical Drawing
Bottom View
1
9
18
10
22
19
Bottom Pads
0.060 by 0.050 typ.
RF Shield
Side View
0.131
0.031
0.000
0.760
Top View
1.000
0.985
0.619
0.675
0.381
0.325
0.015
0.000
0.079
typ.
1.350
1.040
0.810
0.837
0.205
0.000
0.015
0.000
Notes:
All dimensions are +/- .005 inches
PC Board Material is 0.031 thick FR4
Board edge connections are 1/2 of 0.031 plated holes
www.aerocomm.com
O RDERING I NFORMATION
PRODUCT PART NUMBERS
www.aerocomm.com
13
14
C OMPLIANCY I NFORMATION
AGENCY IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS
Agency compliancy is a very important requirement for any product development. Aerocomm is in the process of
obtaining modular approval for its ZB2430 product family so that the OEM only needs to meet a few requirements to
use that approval. The corresponding agency identification numbers and approved antennas are listed below.
Table 10: Agency Identification Numbers
Part Number
US/FCC
CANADA/IC
ETSI
ZB2430-D
KQL-ZB2430D
2268C-ZB2430D
Approved
ZB2430-100
KQL-ZB2430-100
2268C-ZB2430
Pending
APPROVED ANTENNA LIST
The following antennas are approved for operation with the ZB2430 as identified. The OEM is free to choose another
vendor’s antenna of like type and equal or lesser gain as an antenna appearing in the table and still maintain
compliance.
0600-00039
ZB2430-100
Aerocomm Part
Number
ZB2430-D
Table 11: ZB2430 Approved Antenna List
FR05-S1-N-o-001
Fractus
Integral Chip
2
-
X
S151FC-L-(132)PX-2450S
Nearson
Omni
5
X
X
WIC2450-A
Laird/Centurion
Chip
2
X
-
Manufacturer Part
Number
Manufacturer
Type
Gain
(dBi)
FCC / IC REQUIREMENTS FOR MODULAR APPROVAL
In general, there are two agency classifications of wireless applications; portable and mobile.
Portable - Portable is a classification of equipment where the user, in general, will be within 20 cm of the transmitting
antenna. Portable equipment is further broken down into two classes; within 2.5 cm of human contact and beyond
2.5 cm (Note: Ankles, feet, wrists, and hands are permitted to be within 2.5 cm of the antenna even if the equipment is
designated as being greater than 2.5 cm). The ZB2430 is not agency approved for portable applications. The OEM is
required to have additional testing performed to receive this classification. Contact AeroComm for more details.
www.aerocomm.com
56
COMPLIANCY INFORMATION
Mobile - Mobile defines equipment where the user will be 20 cm or greater from the transmitting equipment. The
antenna must be mounted in such a way that it cannot be moved closer to the user with respect to the equipment,
although the equipment may be moved. (Note: Ankles, feet, wrists, and hands are permitted to be within 20 cm of
mobile equipment).
OEM EQUIPMENT LABELING REQUIREMENTS
WARNING: The OEM must ensure that FCC labeling requirements are met. This includes a clearly visible label on the
outside of the OEM enclosure specifying the appropriate AeroComm FCC identifier for this product as well as the FCC
notice below. The FCC identifiers are listed above.
Contains FCC ID: KQL-ZB2430-100 / KQL-ZB2430D
The enclosed device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not
cause harmful interference, and (2) This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
Label and text information should be in a size of type large enough to be readiily legible, consistent with the
dimensions of the equipment and the label. However, the type size for the text is not required to be larger than eight
point.
ANTENNA REQUIREMENTS
WARNING: This device has been tested with a U.FL connector with the above listed antennas. When integrated into
the OEM’s product, these fixed antennas require professional installation preventing end-users from replacing them
with non-approved antennas. Any antenna not listed in the above table must be tested to comply with FCC Section
15.203 for unique antenna connectors and Section 15.247 for emissions. Contact AeroComm for assistance.
Caution: Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by AeroComm could void the user’s authority to
operate the equipment.
WARNINGS REQUIRED IN OEM MANUALS
WARNING: This equipment has been approved for mobile applications where the equipment should be used at
distances greater than 20 cm from the human body (with the exception of hands, feet, wrists, and ankles). Operation
at distances of less than 20 cm is strictly prohibited and requires additional SAR testing.
CHANNEL WARNING
The OEM must prevent the end-user from selecting a channel not approved for use by the FCC.
COMPLIANCY INFORMATION
ZB2430 User’s Manual - v1.6
www.aerocomm.com
57