Red Hat ENTERPRISE LINUX 5 - GLOBAL NETWORK BLOCK DEVICE Installation guide

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
Global Network Block Device
Using GNBD with Red Hat Global File System
Edition 1.0
Landmann
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block Device
Using GNBD with Red Hat Global File System
Edition 1.0
Landmann
rlandmann@redhat.co m
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Abstract
T his book provides an overview on using Global Network Block Device (GNBD) with Red Hat GFS for
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
.Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .
1. About T his Guide
3
2. Audience
3
3. Software Versions
3
4. Related Documentation
3
5. Document Conventions
4
5.1. T ypographic Conventions
4
5.2. Pull-quote Conventions
5
5.3. Notes and Warnings
6
6. Feedback
6
. . . . . . . . . 1.
Chapter
. . .Using
. . . . . . GNBD
. . . . . . .with
. . . . .Red
. . . . Hat
. . . . .GFS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . .
.Chapter
. . . . . . . . 2.
. . .Considerations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for
. . . .Using
. . . . . .GNBD
. . . . . . .with
. . . . .Device-Mapper
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Multipath
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . .
2.1. Linux Page Caching
9
2.2. Fencing GNBD Server Nodes
9
.Chapter
. . . . . . . . 3.
. . .GNBD
. . . . . . .Driver
. . . . . . and
. . . . .Command
. . . . . . . . . . .Usage
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
............
3.1. Exporting a GNBD from a Server
10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Usage
............
.Examples
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
............
3.2. Importing a GNBD on a Client
12
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Usage
............
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Example
...........
.........4
Chapter
. ...Running
. . . . . . . . .GFS
. . . . .on
. . . a. .GNBD
. . . . . . .Server
. . . . . . . Node
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
............
. . . . . . . . . .History
Revision
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
............
.Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
............
D
15
E
15
F
15
G
15
I
15
L
15
S
15
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
2
Introduction
Introduction
1. About This Guide
T his book describes how to use Global Network Block Device (GNDB) with Global File System (GFS),
including information about device-mapper multipath, GNDB driver and command usage, and running
GFS on a GNBD server node.
2. Audience
T his book is intended to be used by system administrators managing systems running the Linux
operating system. It requires familiarity with Red Hat Enterprise Linux and GFS file system administration.
3. Software Versions
T able 1. Software Versions
Software
Description
RHEL4
refers to RHEL4 and higher
GFS
refers to GFS 6.1 and higher
4. Related Documentation
For more information about using Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the following resources:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide — Provides information regarding installation of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration — Provides introductory information
for new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system administrators.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide — Provides more detailed information about
configuring Red Hat Enterprise Linux to suit your particular needs as a user.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide — Provides detailed information suited for more
experienced users to reference when needed, as opposed to step-by-step instructions.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide — Details the planning and the tools involved in creating a
secured computing environment for the data center, workplace, and home.
For more information about Red Hat Cluster Suite for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the following
resources:
Red Hat Cluster Suite Overview — Provides a high level overview of the Red Hat Cluster Suite.
Configuring and Managing a Red Hat Cluster — Provides information about installing, configuring and
managing Red Hat Cluster components.
Global File System: Configuration and Administration — Provides information about installing,
configuring, and maintaining Red Hat GFS (Red Hat Global File System).
LVM Administrator's Guide: Configuration and Administration — Provides a description of the Logical
Volume Manager (LVM), including information on running LVM in a clustered environment.
Using Device-Mapper Multipath — Provides information about using the Device-Mapper Multipath
feature of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
Linux Virtual Server Administration — Provides information on configuring high-performance systems
and services with the Linux Virtual Server (LVS).
Red Hat Cluster Suite Release Notes — Provides information about the current release of Red Hat
Cluster Suite.
Red Hat Cluster Suite documentation and other Red Hat documents are available in HT ML and PDF
versions online at the following location:
http://www.redhat.com/docs
5. Document Conventions
T his manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to
specific pieces of information.
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. T he
Liberation Fonts set is also used in HT ML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not, alternative
but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later include the Liberation
Fonts set by default.
5.1. Typographic Conventions
Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. T hese
conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight
keys and key combinations. For example:
T o see the contents of the file m y_next_bestselling_novel in your current working
directory, enter the cat m y_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt
and press Enter to execute the command.
T he above includes a file name, a shell command and a key, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all
distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from an individual key by the plus sign that connects each part of
a key combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to a virtual terminal.
T he first example highlights a particular key to press. T he second example highlights a key combination:
a set of three keys pressed simultaneously.
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values
mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in m ono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for
directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
T his denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text;
4
Introduction
labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose System → Preferences → Mouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse
Preferences. In the Buttons tab, select the Left-handed m ouse check box and click
Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse
suitable for use in the left hand).
T o insert a special character into a gedit file, choose Applications → Accessories →
Character Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose Search → Find… from the
Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click
Next. T he character you sought will be highlighted in the Character T able. Double-click
this highlighted character to place it in the T ext to copy field and then click the Copy
button. Now switch back to your document and choose Edit → Paste from the gedit menu
bar.
T he above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific
menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all
distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable
text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on
circumstance. For example:
T o connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh username@ domain.name at a shell
prompt. If the remote machine is exam ple.com and your username on that machine is
john, type ssh john@ exam ple.com .
T he m ount -o rem ount file-system command remounts the named file system. For
example, to remount the /hom e file system, the command is m ount -o rem ount /hom e.
T o see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It
will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and
release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text
displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and
important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.
5.2. Pull-quote Conventions
T erminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in m ono-spaced rom an and presented thus:
books
books_tests
Desktop
Desktop1
documentation
downloads
drafts
images
mss
notes
photos
scripts
stuff
svgs
svn
Source-code listings are also set in m ono-spaced rom an but add syntax highlighting as follows:
5
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
static int kvm_vm_ioctl_deassign_device(struct kvm *kvm,
struct kvm_assigned_pci_dev *assigned_dev)
{
int r = 0;
struct kvm_assigned_dev_kernel *match;
mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);
match = kvm_find_assigned_dev(&kvm->arch.assigned_dev_head,
assigned_dev->assigned_dev_id);
if (!match) {
printk(KERN_INFO "%s: device hasn't been assigned before, "
"so cannot be deassigned\n", __func__);
r = -EINVAL;
goto out;
}
kvm_deassign_device(kvm, match);
kvm_free_assigned_device(kvm, match);
out:
mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
return r;
}
5.3. Notes and Warnings
Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.
Note
Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should
have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.
Important
Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the
current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box
labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.
Warning
Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.
6. Feedback
If you spot a typo, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from
you. Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/) against the component rhcs.
6
Introduction
Be sure to mention the manual's identifier:
rh-gfs(EN)-4.8 (2009-05-15T15:10)
By mentioning this manual's identifier, we know exactly which version of the guide you have.
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible. If you have
found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it
easily.
7
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
Chapter 1. Using GNBD with Red Hat GFS
GNBD (Global Network Block Device) provides block-level storage access over an Ethernet LAN. GNBD
components run as a client in a GFS node and as a server in a GNBD server node. A GNBD server
node exports block-level storage from its local storage (either directly attached storage or SAN storage)
to a GFS node.
T able 1.1, “GNBD Software Subsystem Components” summarizes the GNBD software subsystems
components.
T able 1.1. GNBD Software Subsystem Components
Software Subsystem
Components
Description
GNBD
gnbd.ko
Kernel module that implements the GNBD
device driver on clients.
gnbd_export
Command to create, export and manage
GNBDs on a GNBD server.
gnbd_im port
Command to import and manage GNBDs on
a GNBD client.
gnbd_serv
A server daemon that allows a node to
export local storage over the network.
You can configure GNBD servers to work with device-mapper multipath. GNBD with device-mapper
multipath allows you to configure multiple GNBD server nodes to provide redundant paths to the storage
devices. T he GNBD servers, in turn, present multiple storage paths to GFS nodes via redundant
GNBDs. When using GNBD with device-mapper multipath, if a GNBD server node becomes unavailable,
another GNBD server node can provide GFS nodes with access to storage devices.
T his document how to use GNBD with Red Hat GFS and consists of the following chapters:
Chapter 2, Considerations for Using GNBD with Device-Mapper Multipath, which describes some of
the issues you should take into account when configuring multipathed GNBD server nodes
Chapter 3, GNBD Driver and Command Usage, which describes the restrictions that apply when you
are running GFS on a GNBD server node
Chapter 4, Running GFS on a GNBD Server Node, which describes the user commands that
configure GNBD
8
Chapter 2. Considerations for Using GNBD with D evice-Mapper Multipath
Chapter 2. Considerations for Using GNBD with Device-Mapper
Multipath
GNBD with device-mapper multipath allows you to configure multiple GNBD server nodes (nodes that
export GNBDs to GFS nodes) to provide redundant paths to the storage devices. T he GNBD server
nodes, in turn, present multiple storage paths to GFS nodes via redundant GNBDs. When using GNBD
with device-mapper multipath, if a GNBD server node becomes unavailable, another GNBD server node
can provide GFS nodes with access to storage devices.
If you are using GNBD with device-mapper multipath, you need to take the following into consideration:
Linux page caching, as desribed in Section 2.1, “Linux Page Caching”.
Fencing GNBD server nodes, as described in Section 2.2, “Fencing GNBD Server Nodes”.
GNBD device names; export names for GNBD devices must be unique. Additionally, you must specify
the -u or -U when using the gnbd_export command. Exporting GNBD devices is described in
Chapter 3, GNBD Driver and Command Usage.
2.1. Linux Page Caching
For GNBD with device-mapper multipath, do not specify Linux page caching (the -c option of the
gnbd_export command). All GNBDs that are part of a logical volume must run with caching disabled.
Data corruption occurs if the GNBDs are run with caching enabled. Refer to Section 3.1, “Exporting a
GNBD from a Server” for more information about using the gnbd_export command for GNBD with
device-mapper multipath.
2.2. Fencing GNBD Server Nodes
GNBD server nodes must be fenced using a fencing method that physically removes the nodes from the
network. T o physically remove a GNBD server node, you can use any fencing device: except the
following: fence_brocade fence agent, fence_vixel fence agent, fence_m cdata fence agent,
fence_sanbox2 fence agent, fence_scsi fence agent. In addition, you cannot use the GNBD fencing
device (fence_gnbd fence agent) to fence a GNBD server node. For information about configuring
fencing for GNBD server nodes, refer to the Global File System manual.
9
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
Chapter 3. GNBD Driver and Command Usage
T he Global Network Block Device (GNBD) driver allows a node to export its local storage as a GNBD
over a network so that other nodes on the network can share the storage. Client nodes importing the
GNBD use it like any other block device. Importing a GNBD on multiple clients forms a shared storage
configuration through which GFS can be used.
T he GNBD driver is implemented through the following components.
gnbd_serv — Implements the GNBD server. It is a user-space daemon that allows a node to export
local storage over a network.
gnbd.ko — Implements the GNBD device driver on GNBD clients (nodes using GNBD devices).
T wo user commands are available to configure GNBD:
gnbd_export (for servers) — User program for creating, exporting, and managing GNBDs on a
GNBD server.
gnbd_im port (for clients) — User program for importing and managing GNBDs on a GNBD client.
3.1. Exporting a GNBD from a Server
T he gnbd_serv daemon must be running on a node before it can export storage as a GNBD. You can
start the gnbd_serv daemon running gnbd_serv as follows:
#gnbd_serv
gnbd_serv: startup succeeded
Once local storage has been identified to be exported, the gnbd_export command is used to export it.
Warning
When you configure GNBD servers with device-mapper multipath, you must not use page
caching. All GNBDs that are part of a logical volume must run with caching disabled. By default,
the gnbd_export command exports with caching turned off.
Note
A server should not import the GNBDs to use them as a client would. If a server exports the
devices uncached, the underlying devices may also be used by gfs.
Usage
gnbd_export -d pathname -e gnbdname [-c][-u][-U
pathname
Specifies a storage device to export.
gnbdname
10
Chapter 3. GNBD D river and Command Usage
Specifies an arbitrary name selected for the GNBD. It is used as the device name on GNBD
clients. T his name must be unique among all GNBDs exported in a network.
-o
Export the device as read-only.
-c
Enable caching. Reads from the exported GNBD and takes advantage of the Linux page cache.
By default, the gnbd_export command does not enable caching.
Warning
When you configure GNBD servers with device-mapper multipath, do not specify the -c
option, as this lead sto data corruption. All GNBDs that are part of a logical volume must
run with caching disabled.
Note
If you have been using GFS 5.2 or earlier and do not want to change your GNBD setup
you should specify the -c option. Before GFS Release 5.2.1, Linux caching was enabled
by default for gnbd_export. If the -c option is not specified, GNBD runs with a
noticeable performance decrease. Also, if the -c option is not specified, the exported
GNBD runs in timeout mode, using the default timeout value (the -t option). For more
information about the gnbd_export command and its options, refer to the
gnbd_export man page.
-u uid
Manually sets the Universal Identifier for an exported device. T his option is used with -e. T he
UID is used by device-mapper multipath to determine which devices belong in a multipath map.
A device must have a UID to be multipathed. However, for most SCSI devices the default Get
UID command, /usr/sbin/gnbd_get_uid, will return an appropriate value.
Note
T he UID refers to the device being exported, not the GNBD itself. T he UIDs of two GNBD
devices should be equal, only if they are exporting the same underlying device. T his
means that both GNBD servers are connected to the same physical device.
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
Warning
T his option should only be used for exporting shared storage devices, when the -U
command option does not work. T his should almost never happen for SCSI devices. If two
GNBD devices are not exporting the same underlying device, but are given the same
UID, data corruption will occur.
-U Command
Gets the UID command. T he UID command is a command the gnbd_export command will run
to get a Universal Identifier for the exported device. T he UID is necessary to use device-mapper
multipath with GNBD. T he command must use the full path of any executeable that you wish to
run. A command can contain the %M, %m or %n escape sequences. %M will be expanded to
the major number of the exported device, %m will be expaned to the minor number of the
exported device, and %n will be expanded to the sysfs name for the device. If no command is
given, GNBD will use the default command /usr/sbin/gnbd_get_uid. T his command will
work for most SCSI devices.
Examples
T his example is for a GNBD server configured with GNBD multipath. It exports device /dev/sdc2 as
GNBD gam m a. Cache is disabled by default.
gnbd_export -d /dev/sdc2 -e gamma -U
T his example is for a GNBD server not configured with GNBD multipath. It exports device /dev/sdb2 as
GNBD delta with cache enabled.
gnbd_export -d /dev/sdb1 -e delta -c
T his example exports device /dev/sdb2 as GNBD delta with cache enabled.
gnbd_export -d /dev/sdb2 -e delta -c
3.2. Importing a GNBD on a Client
T he gnbd.ko kernel module must be loaded on a node before it can import GNBDs. When GNBDs are
imported, device nodes are created for them in /dev/gnbd/ with the name assigned when they were
exported.
Usage
gnbd_import -i Server
Server
Specifies a GNBD server by hostname or IP address from which to import GNBDs. All GNBDs
exported from the server are imported on the client running this command.
12
Example
Example
T his example imports all GNBDs from the server named nodeA.
gnbd_import -i nodeA
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
Chapter 4. Running GFS on a GNBD Server Node
You can run GFS on a GNBD server node, with some restrictions. In addition, running GFS on a GNBD
server node reduces performance. T he following restrictions apply when running GFS on a GNBD
server node.
Important
When running GFS on a GNBD server node you must follow the restrictions listed; otherwise, the
GNBD server node will fail.
1. A GNBD server node must have local access to all storage devices needed to mount a GFS file
system. T he GNBD server node must not import (gnbd_im port command) other GNBD devices
to run the file system.
2. T he GNBD server must export all the GNBDs in uncached mode, and it must export the raw
devices, not logical volume devices.
3. GFS must be run on top of a logical volume device, not raw devices.
Note
You may need to increase the timeout period on the exported GNBDs to accommodate reduced
performance. T he need to increase the timeout period depends on the quality of the hardware.
14
Revision History
Revision History
Revision 1.0-6.4 00
Rebuild with publican 4.0.0
2013-10-31
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-6
Rebuild for Publican 3.0
2012-07-18
Anthony T owns
Revision 1.0-0
Wed Apr 01 2009
Index
D
device-mapper multipath, Considerations for Using GNBD with Device-Mapper Multipath
- fencing GNBD server nodes, Fencing GNBD Server Nodes
- Linux page caching, Linux Page Caching
driver and command usage, GNBD Driver and Command Usage
- exporting from a server, Exporting a GNBD from a Server
- importing on a client, Importing a GNBD on a Client
E
exporting from a server daemon, Exporting a GNBD from a Server
F
feedback, Feedback
fencing GNBD server nodes, Fencing GNBD Server Nodes
G
GFS, using on a GNBD server node, Running GFS on a GNBD Server Node
GNBD, using with Red Hat GFS, Using GNBD with Red Hat GFS
gnbd.ko module, GNBD Driver and Command Usage, Importing a GNBD on a Client
gnbd_export command , GNBD Driver and Command Usage, Usage
gnbd_import command , GNBD Driver and Command Usage, Usage
gnbd_serv daemon, GNBD Driver and Command Usage, Exporting a GNBD from a Server
I
importing on a client module, Importing a GNBD on a Client
L
Linux page caching, Linux Page Caching
S
15
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Global Network Block D evice
software subsystem components, Using GNBD with Red Hat GFS
16