Colorimetric and Resolution requirements of cameras
Alan Roberts
ADDENDUM 25 : Canon XH G1 (and XH A1)
Data for this addendum is taken from a short examination of one production model of the Canon XH G1
HDV camcorder. It has 3 16:9 1”/3 ccd sensors of 1440x1080 pixel dimensions (4.5mm diagonal). It
records interlaced HDTV using the HDV algorithm onto standard mini DV tapes (1080i) and progressive
HDTV using a Canon proprietary format onto the same tape and at the same data rate, and SDTV using
normal DV format. The A1 (not tested here) is a slightly simplified version of the G1.
The camera is relatively light (about 2.1kg excluding battery) and has an integral lens and viewfinder, with
side lcd panel, and seems aimed at the middle to high-end consumer/low-end professional market rather than
full broadcast, which would normally demand interchangeable lenses and better control.
It has internal menus for setting the performance, not as complex as in a full broadcast camera, but enough to
control some of the important features, albeit only in “on/off” states. It is possibly suited to multi-camera
operation because it has an HDSDI connector for video output (not in the A1). This potentially makes it
useful in the broadcast and other high-end markets. It has analogue video outputs (3.5mm jacks and BNC on
the G1) and digits via IEEE1394 Firewire.
The same assessment procedure was used as for other HD cameras, partly attempting to get a good “filmlook”, and the settings reflect that. However, because of the lack of internal test signals, and as a result of
some of the initial measurements, that approach was quickly abandoned and efforts were directed at getting a
decent colorimetric performance from the camera. Assuming that a grading operation will be used in postproduction, the settings attempt to give the colourist a reasonable exposure range, but this is inevitably wellshort of what a film stock could be expected to deliver.
1
Colorimetric and Resolution requirements of cameras
Alan Roberts
Addendum 25 : Canon XH G1 (and XH A1)
Data for this is taken from a short examination of a production model of the Canon HDV camcorder, HH G1,
with three 1”/3 ccd sensors of 1440x1080 pixels. It records in HDV (1080) format onto miniDV tapes, and
standard definition (576i/25, or 480i/59.94 in the NTSC model) as DV. The A1 (not tested here) is a slightly
simplified version of the G1.
The camera is essentially a pro-sumer model, with some professional features such as having XLR
connectors for audio input. It has an integral lens (4.5~90mm, 20:1, F/1.6 maximum aperture ramping to
F/3,5) and viewfinder, with side lcd panel, and seems aimed at the high-end consumer and mid-professional
market rather than broadcast, which would normally demand interchangeable lenses and higher resolution
sensors, together with greater control through the menus. Minimum exposure is claimed to be 0.3 lux (0.4
lux for the NTSC version).
The camera has internal menus for setting the performance and a reasonable selection of external controls.
There are analogue and digital video outputs (SDI/HDSDI but not in the A1, components, and composite SD,
all via multi-pin connectors) and digits via IEEE1394 Firewire.
The normal assessment procedure for cameras could not be used, largely because the G1 does not have a
selectable test signal. Therefore, testing was all done via the lens. Recommended settings allowing for a
“video-look” have been derived; no attempt was made to derive decent “film-look” settings due to
limitations in the controls of the camera.
Many of the menu items have little or no effect on image quality. Those that have significant effect are
highlighted. The full set of menu items is given for completeness; some menus are repeated in different
camera modes, explanatory notes are given only in the first appearance of each menu. In boxes with a range
of numeric settings, the values indicate the range (sometimes no scales are given) and the factory default
setting is underlined. My recommendations are in the last column, labelled “BBC”, where appropriate.
Settings are given only for normal television use, it was not possible to derive good settings for a film look.
Items available only in the NTSC version are marked in italics.
In the tables, items that have an important effect on picture appearance are highlighted with grey
background. Rather than just making assertions about performance, I have included measurement results
that illustrate the reasons for recommending settings. Virtually all picture control is in the Custom menus.
Press the “Menu” button to enter the menus, navigate with the “Menu wheel”, default values are underlined.
Select profiles with the “Custom” button.
This is not intended as a replacement for reading the manual.
2
1
Controls, Connections
name
Power switch
Focus Ring
Focus Mode
Push AF
Zoom Ring
Zoom
Zoom Speed
Zoom Speed
Iris Ring
ND Filter
Exposure Lock
Shutter Dial
Gain
AGC
White Balance Preset
White Balance
White Balance
AWB
Lock
Display
Peaking
Magnification
Record Review
Position Preset
Position Preset On/Set
Mic levels
Auto Level
Mic Attenuator (1,2)
Mic Attenuator
Line/Mic
Input Select
+48v power
Menu
Menu
Custom keys (1,2)
Custom Preset
Custom Preset
Card/Tape
Time Code
I/O connectors
Output
Video 2
Start/Stop
Start/Stop
Standby
Tape controls
End Search
Photo
Photo
Reset
place
Left, on large control dial
Lens
Left front
Left front
Lens
Right top
Right top
Right top
Lens
Left front
Left front
Left front
Left front
Left front
Under lcd
Left front
Left front
Left front
Top front
Left front
Left front
Left front
Left front
Left front
Left front
Left back
Left back
Sound pod
Under lcd
Sound pod
Sound pod
Sound pod
Left back
Left back
Left back
Left back
Left back
Right top
Right back
feature
Rotation
Switch
Push
Rotation
Rocker
Dial
Switch
Rotation
Switch
Push
Rotation
Switch
Switch
Switch
Switch
Push
Switch
Switch
Push
Push
Push
Push
Switch
Switch
Rotation
Switch
Switches
Switch
Switch
Switches
Switches
Thumb wheel
Push
Push
Push on/off
Push select
Switch
Switch
Back right
Left front
Right back
Tape transport pod
Handle
Tape transport pod
Handle
Under lcd
Right top
Handle
Under lcd
Switch
Connector
Push
Push
Rotate
Push
Push
Push
Push
Recessed Push
3
comment
Also mode controls for many other features
Works even in auto focus
Instant or normal auto focus mode
Push to autofocus when in manual focus
Speed-sensitive control
Pressure-sensitive control
2.6~60 sec
Constant/Variable speed zoom
Works in AV mode
Neutral filter, 1/6 (2.5 stops), 1/32 (5 stops)
Press to hold settings
Works in TV mode, about 1/4~1/15000 sec
Auto/3 presets, -3~+36dB
Auto/Sun/Tungsten/presets
Preset/A/B
Enter/Exit manual balance mode
On/Off
Disables all controls on the handle
Cycle through amounts of info to display
Usual emphasis of edges
2x magnification, not while recording
Rewind and show last few seconds of recording
Store focus or zoom setting as a preset
Manual recording level control
Auto/Manual audio
Auto/Manual level
20dB
XLR input control
Route XLR channels to recording
Phantom power
Navigate menus, press to select
Press to enter/exit menus
Assignable buttons
Custom settings on/off
Push to cycle through custom presets
Lanc, 1394, phones, AV 3.5mm, component
(G1 only: HDSDI, Genlock, Timecode)
Camera/Bars
Composite
Right thumb position
Concentric with Start/Stop
2
Menus
CAMERA MENU
Signal Setup
Item
Time Code
Genlck Adjust
Signal Std
Frame Rate
Comp.Out
SDI Output
SDI Spec
Basic camera system settings
sub
Frame setting
Count Up
Start Value
(G1 only)
(G1 only)
range
Drop,NonDrop
RecRun,RecRunPS,FreeRun
Set,Reset
-1023~1023
HD,SD16:9,SD4:3
50i,25f
576i,1080i/576i
On,Off
Auto,SD locked
Camera Setup
Item
24f Mode Sel
Gain L
Gain M
Gain H
AF Mode
IMG Stab
Skin Detail
Sky Detail
Color Corr.
BBC
(60i,30f,24f)
(480i,1080i/480i)
Aspect ratio, refer to manual
Camera settings
sub
AE Shift
Gain Setting
comments
Only in NTSC model
FreeRun not available at 24fps
range
2:3,2:3:3:2
-2,-1.5,-1,25,-1,-0,75,-0,5,0,25,0,+.25,+0.5,+0.75,+1,+1.2
5,+1.5,+2
-3,0,3,6,12,18,36dB
-3,0,3,6,12,18,36dB
-3,0,3,6,12,18,36dB
Instant AF,Normal AF
Effect Level
Hue
Chroma
Area
Y Level
Correct
A Area Sel
A Area Rev
B Area Sel
B Area Rev
F Speed Pset
Clear Scan
On,Off
Off,Low,Middle,High
Soft,Off
Off,A,B,A&B
ColorPhase,Chroma,Area,
Ylevel
R gain,B gain
ColorPhase,Chroma,Area,
Ylevel
R gain,B gain
Low,Middle,High
comments
Pulldown for NTSC
BBC
Stops relative to setting
Instant uses external sensor, Normal
is TTL
Image stabiliser
Tablets for wrinkly actors
Off
Softens detail in sky
16-axis colour adjustment
Off
Off
Focus speed control
Shutter, 60~200Hz, use shutter dial
Recording Setup
item
DV Rec Mode
UB Rec
UB Select
IMG Quality
sub
Image Size
range
SP,LP
Int.USR-Bit,Ext.User-Bit
00 00 00 00,Time,Date
Superfine,Fine,Normal
LW,SW or L,S
File Nos
Reset,Continuous
comments
Only in SD mode
User bits
00 00 00 00=set UB yourself
Still image quality
HD or 16:9 - 1920x1080, 848x480,
SD4:3 – 1440x1080, 640x480
Reset starts from 0 on each card
BBC
comments
16bit=48kHz 2ch, 12bit=32kHz 4ch
Line Out adds delay in phones feed
WS inserts bass cut filter
BBC
Audio Setup
item
DV Audio
Aud.M.Set
Mic Mode
Mic Sens
XLR Input
XLR Gain Up
sub
range
16bit,12bit
Normal,Line Out
Normal,Voice,WS
Normal,High
On-XLR,Off
Off,12dB
4
Display Setp
item
CVF Setup
LCD Setup
sub
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
CVF+LCD BW
CVF+LCD On
Language
Markers
Aspect Guide
Safety Zone
Zebra
Zebra Level
TV Screen
Audio Level
range
comments
Viewfinder control
BBC
Bright,Normal
LCD brightness, contrast etc
Bright,Normal
On,Off
On,Off
German,English,Spanish,
French,Italian,Polish,Russian,
Chinese,Japanese
Off,Level mark,Cent mark,Grid
Off,4:3,13:9,14:9,1.66:1,1.75:1,
1.85:1,2.35:1
Off,80%,90%
On,Off
70,75,80,85,90,95,100
On,Off
On,Off
Guide Info
Off,Custom keys,D/T display
UB Display
On,Off
Monochrome
Off=VF off when lcd’s open
Changes all displays
14:9
VF indicators on video output
Audio meters on display
Show custom key contents or
Date/Time
User Bits
System Setup
item
sub
Custom Key 1
Custom Key 2
D/Time Set
T.Zone/DST
Date/Time
Date Format
DV Control
Magn.Block
Shtr D.Lock
Reset All
range
TimeCode,IndexWrite,Zebra,
VCRStop,TVScreen,TCHold,
AudioLevel,CVF+LCDBW,
Magn.B.Lock,ShtrD.Lock,
CPBKWDKey,(None)
comments
BBC
Time zone and Summer time
Set date/time with Menu dial
MDY for NTSC model
Control external DV deck
YMD,MDY,DMY
On,Off
Disabled,Active
Disabled,Active
No,Yes
Customize
Custom Preset
item
Edit
Sub
Delect CP
Range
Preset-A,B,C,D,E,F,,VideoC,
CineV,CineF
Tune
Rename
Protect
Reset
Tune
Gamma
Normal,Cine1,Cine2
Knee
Black
Master Ped
Setup Level
Sharpness
H Dtl Freq
Auto,Low,Middle,High
Stretch,Middle,Press
-9~+9
-9~+9
-9~+9
Low,Middle,High
5
Settings that affect the picture
comments
BBC
9 presets in camera, up to 20 on a
card
Change settings in a preset
Name it
Factory settings
This is where you change settings
Cine1=TK, Cine2=print to film,
both raise contrast and saturation
Middle is a good compromise
Stretch needed to get colours right
Normal
Middle
Stretch
0
0
3
High
Camera - Card
Card - Camera
Custom Function
item
Function
Apply This Set
Tune
Save To Card
Read From Card
Reset
Tune
Custom Display
item
Save To Card
Read From Card
Reset
Dtl HV
Balance
Coring
NR1
NR2
Color Mat
Color Gain
Color Phase
R Gain
G Gain
B Gain
RG Matrix
RB Matrix
GR Matrix
GB Matrix
BR Matrix
MG Matrix
Select CP
Save Position
Execute
Import
Select
Position
Execute
Sub
-9~+9
-9=H only, +9=V only
-9~+9
Off,Low,Middle,High
Off,Low,Middle,High
Normal,Cine1,Cine2
-50~+50
-9~+9
-50~+50
-50~+50
-50~+50
-50~+50
-50~+50
-50~+50
-50~+50
-50~+50
-50~+50
0
0
Noise reduction, can cause smears
Noise reduction, spatial low-pass
Normal
0
0
0
0
0
-6
-4
0
0
17
2
Select preset to save to card
Select a filename
And save it, up to 20 on a card
Select custom preset file on card
Select where to put it
And load it
Range
C.Fn1,C.Fn2,C.Fn3
Settings that affect controls, 3 sets
comments
BBC
This is where you change things
Shcklss WB/GN
AE Response
High-Speed Zoom
Focus Ring Ctrl
00~03
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Normal)~01 (Slow)
Buttons Oper
00~15
Rings Direction
Dials Direction
Focus Priority
Simult.Img.Rec
Marker Level
00~07
00~03
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~07
F.Ast BW-Mod
00~03
Obj Dst Unit
Zoom Indicator
Color Bars
1kHz Tone
Wireless Remote
Power Save
Tally Lamp
Led
Beep
Character Rec
00 (m)~01 (ft)
00 (Bar)~01 (number)
00 (Type1)~01 (Type2)
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
Sub
Range
White Balance and Gain
Speed (Mid,High,Low)
OnePush/LongPush: Magnify, WB
set, Exp. Lock, Push AF
Normal/Reverse: Zoom, Focus, Iris
Normal/Reverse: Cursor, Shutter
Photo: Off=wait for focus
Photo during recording: Off,On
100/40%: Marker, Aspect, Safety
BW during Focus Assist: Magnify,
Peaking
Type1=SMPTE, 2=Arib
Off, -12, -20dB
00=SMPTE
02=-20dB
On=shut off at 5min inactive
On,Blink,Off
Volume: Off,Low,High
Burn time/date on video
Define what appears on-screen
comments
BBC
6
Tune
Rec Programs
Camera Data 1
Camera Data 2
Zoom
Focus
ND
Image Effects
F.Assist Func
Customize
Recording Std
DV Rec Mode
Frame Rate
Tape
Tape Remainder
Tape/Card
Light Metering
Card
Card Remainder
Audio
Condensation
Battery
Wireless Remote
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~03~07
00~07
00~01~02
00~01~02
00 (Off)~1 (On)
00~07
00~03
00~03
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~03~07
00~02
00~03
00~03
00~03~07
00~02
00~07
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~02
Record mode icon
Aperture, Shutter
Exposure, WB, Gain
Zoom: off/normal/always
Focus: off/normal/always
Skin, Sky, Colour corr
Peaking, Magnify
Presets, Function
HD icon
TC, Mode icon, DV control
Off, normal, warning
Ext, Img stab, Stills
Spot AE, Mode
Stills mode, flash
Off, normal, warning
Mic mode, XLR icon, DV audio
Off, normal, warning
Off, normal, warning
7
VCR/PLAY MENU
Signal Setup
item
Time Code
sub
Frame Setting
Count Up
Start Value
HDV/DV In
Playback Std
Comp.Out
SDI Ouitput
SDI Spec
HD Down-conv
Letterbox
Recording Setup
item
DV Rec Mod
UB Select
Img Quality
HD Img Size
File Nos
Audio Setup
item
Sel Audio Ch
Aud.M.Set
Mix Balance
DV Audio
Display Setup
item
CVF Setup
LCD Setup
BBC
Down-conversion on replay
(or 480i,1080i/480i)
Only on G1
Only on G1
Range
SP,LP
00 00 00 00,Time,Date
SuperFine,Fine,Normal
LW 1920x1080,SW 848x480
Reset,Continuous
comments
BBC
sub
Range
ch1/3+2/4,1/3+1/3,2/4+2/4
Ch1/2,3/4,MixFixed,MixVar
1&2~3&4
16bit,12bit
comments
Stereo or 4 ch, L or R to stereo
What to play
Slide fader
BBC
sub
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
Range
comments
BBC
Language
Custom Key
Data Code
6 Sec.Date
UB Display
Custom Key 1
comments
NTSC version only
sub
CVF+LCD BW
CVF+LCD On
TV Screen
Audio Level
System Setup
item
Range
Drop,Non-Drop
Rec-Run,Rec-RunPS,Free-Run
Set,Reset
Regen,Copy
Auto,HDV,DV
576i/1080i/576i
On,Off
Auto,SD Locked
On,Off
On,Off
sub
Bright,Nornal
Bright,Nornal
On,Off
On,Off
On,Off
On,Off
German,English,Spanish,
French,Italian,Ploish,Russian,
Chinese,Japanese
On,Off
Date,Time,Date&Time,
CameraData,Cam&D/T
On,Off
On,Off
Range
TimeCode,TVScreen,DataCode
,AudioLevel,TCHold,
CVF+LCDBW,(None)
8
Date shows when play started
comments
BBC
TimeCode,TVScreen,DataCode
,AudioLevel,TCHold,
CVF+LCDBW,(None)
Custom Key 2
D/Time Set
T.Zone/DST
Date/Time
Date Format
Reset All
YMD,MDY,DMY
No,Yes
DMY for NTSC model
Customize
Custom Function
item
Function
Apply This Set
Tune
Save To Card
Read From Card
Reset
Tune
sub
Range
C.Fn1,C.Fn2,C.Fn3
Settings that affect controls, 3 sets
comments
BBC
This is where you change things
Shcklss WB/GN
AE Response
High-Speed Zoom
Focus Ring Ctrl
00~03
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Normal)~01 (Slow)
Buttons Oper
00~15
Rings Direction
Dials Direction
Focus Priority
Simult.Img.Rec
Marker Level
00~07
00~03
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~07
F.Ast BW-Mod
00~03
Obj Dst Unit
Zoom Indicator
Color Bars
1kHz Tone
Wireless Remote
Power Save
Tally Lamp
Led
Beep
Character Rec
00 (m)~01 (ft)
00 (Bar)~01 (number)
00 (Type1)~01 (Type2)
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
White Balance and Gain
Speed (Mid,High,Low)
OnePush/LongPush: Magnify, WB
set, Exp. Lock, Push AF
Normal/Reverse: Zoom, Focus, Iris
Normal/Reverse: Cursor, Shutter
Photo: Off=wait for focus
Photo during recording: Off,On
100/40%: Marker, Aspect, Safety
BW during Focus Assist: Magnify,
Peaking
9
Type1=SMPTE, 2=Arib
Off, -12, -20dB
On=shut off at 5min inactive
On,Blink,Off
Volume: Off,Low,High
Burn time/date on video
00=SMPTE
02=-20dB
CARD CAMERA MENU
Signal Setup
item
Genlck Adjust
Comp.Out
SDI Out
SDI Spec
Camera Setup
item
sub
sub
AE Shift
Gain Setting
AF Mode
Img.Stab
Skin Detail
Sky Detail
Color Corr
Gain L
Gain M
Gain H
Effect Level
Hue
Chroma
Area
Y Level
Correct
A Area Sel
A Area Rev
B Area Sel
B Area Rev
F.Speed Pset
Review
Recording Setup
Item
Img Quality
LCD Setup
CVF+LCD BW
BBC
480i,1080i/480i for NTSC model
Only in G1
Only in G1
Range
-2,-1.5,-1.25,-1,-0.75,-0.5, 0.25,0,+0.25,+0.5,+0.75,+12,
+1.25,+1.5,+2
-3,0,3,6,12,18dB
-3,0,3,6,12,18dB
-3,0,3,6,12,18dB
Instant Af,Normal AF
On,Off
Off,Low,Middle,High
comments
BBC
Soft,Off
Off,A,B,A&B
ColorPhase,Chroma,Area,
YLevel
Rgain,Ggain
ColorPhase,Chroma,Area,
YLevel
Rgain,Ggain
Low,Middle,High
Off,2sec,4,6,8,10sec
Range
Superfine,Fine,Normal
LW1920x1080,SW848x480,
L1440x1080,S640x480
Reset,Continuous
comments
BBC
sub
Range
Normal,Voice,WS
Normal,High
On-XLR,Off
Off,12dB
comments
BBC
sub
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
Range
comments
BBC
File Nos
Display Setup
Item
CVF Setup
comments
sub
Image Size
Audio Setup
Item
Mic Mode
Mic Sens
XLR Input
XLR Gain Up
Range
-1023~1023
576i,1080i/576i
On,Off
Auto,SD Locked
Bright,Normal
Bright,Normal
On,Off
10
CVF+LCD On
On,Off
German,English,Spanish,
French,Italian,Polish,Russian,
Chinese,Japanese
Off,LevelMark,Cent.Mark,Grid
On,Off
70,75,80,85,90,95,100%
On,Off
Off,CustomKeys,D/Tdisplay
Language
Markers
Zebra
Zebra Level
TV Screen
Guide Info
System Setup
Item
sub
Custom Key 1
Custom Key 2
D/Time Set
T.Zone/DST
Date/Time
Date Format
Magn.B.Lock
Shtr D.Lock
Reset All
Range
Zebra,Tvscreen,CVF+LCDBW,
Magn.B.Lock,ShtrD.Lock,CPB
KWDkey,(None)
Zebra,Tvscreen,CVF+LCDBW,
Magn.B.Lock,ShtrD.Lock,CPB
KWDkey,(None)
YMD,MDY,DMY
Disabled,Active
Disabled,Active
No,Yes
comments
BBC
MDY for NTSC model
Customize
Custom Preset
Item
Edit
sub
Select CP
Range
Preset-A,B,C,D,E,F,VideoC,
CineV,CineF
comments
BBC
Tune
Rename
Protect
Reset
Tune
Camera - Card
Card - Camera
Custom Function
Item
Apply This Set
Tune
Knee
Black
Sharpness
H Dtl Freq
Dtl HV Balance
Coring
Color Gain
Color Phase
R Gain
G Gain
B Gain
RG Matrix
RB Matrix
GR Matrix
GB Matrix
BR Matrix
BG Matrix
Select CP
Save Position
Execute
Import
Select Position
Execute
sub
Auto,Low,Middle,High
Stretch,Middle,Press
-9~+9
-9~+9
-9~+9
-9~+9
-50~50
-9~+9
-50~50
-50~50
-50~50
-50~50
-50~50
-50~50
-50~50
-50~50
-50~50
Middle
Stretch
3
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-6
-4
0
0
+17
+2
3 separate function settings
comments
BBC
Range
11
Save To Card
Read From Card
Reset
Tune
Custom Display
Item
Tune
Save To Card
Read From Card
Reset
Tune
Shckls WB.GN
AE Response
High-Speed Zoom
Focus Ring Ctrl
Buttons Oper
Rings Direction
Dials Direction
Focus Priority
Simult.Img.Rec
Marker Level
F.Ast BW-Mod
Obj Dst Unit
Zoom Indicator
Color Bars
1kHz Tone
Wireless Remote
Power Save
Tally Lamp
Led
Beep
Character Rec
00~03
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Normal)~01 (Slow)
00~15
00~07
00~03
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~07
00~03
00 (m)~01 (ft)
00 (Bar)~01 (Number)
00 (Type 1)~01 (Type 2)
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
sub
Range
Rec programs
Camera Data 1
Camera Data 2
Zoom
Focus
ND
Image Effects
F.Assist Func
Customize
Recording Std
DV Rec Mode
Frame Rate
Tape
Tape Remainder
Tape/Card
Light Metering
Card
Card Remainder
Audio
Condensation
Battery
Wireless Remote
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~03~07
00~07
00~01~02
00~01~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~07
00~03
00~03
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~03~07
00~02
00~03
00~03
00~03~07
00~02
00~07
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~02
3 separate function settings
comments
BBC
12
CARD VCR/PLAY MENU
Signal Setup
item
Comp. Out
SDI Out
SDI Spec
Card Operations
Item
Print Ord. All
Erase
Erase All Images
Initialize
Display Setup
Item
CVF Setup
LCD Setup
sub
Range
576i,1080i/576i
On,Off
Auto,SD Locked
sub
Range
sub
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
Brightness
Contrast
Color
Sharpness
Backlight
sub
Custom Key 1
Custom Key 2
T.Zone/DST
Date/Time
Date Format
Reset All
Firmware
Metadata CP
Item
Card - Camera
comments
BBC
comments
BBC
comments
BBC
No,Yes
Cancel,Initialize,Compl.Init
Language
D/Time Set
BBC
No,Yes
CVF+LCD BW
CVF+LCD On
TV Screen
Custom Key
System Setup
Item
comments
480i,1080i/480i for NTSWC model
G1 model only
G1 model only
sub
Import
Select Position
Execute
Range
Bright,Normal
Bright,Normal
On,Off
On,Off
On,Off
On,Off
German,English,Spanish,
French,Italian,Polish,Russian,
Chinese,Japanese
Range
Zebra,Tvscreen,CVF+LCDBW,
Magn.B.Lock,ShtrD.Lock,CPB
KWDkey,(None)
Zebra,Tvscreen,CVF+LCDBW,
Magn.B.Lock,ShtrD.Lock,CPB
KWDkey,(None)
YMD,MDY,DMY
No,Yes
MDY for NTSC model
Range
comments
BBC
Customize
Custom Function
Item
Apply This Set
Tune
Save To Card
sub
3 separate function settings
comments
BBC
Range
13
Read From Card
Reset
Tune
Shckls WB.GN
AE Response
High-Speed Zoom
Focus Ring Ctrl
Buttons Oper
Rings Direction
Dials Direction
Focus Priority
Simult.Img.Rec
Marker Level
F.Ast BW-Mod
Obj Dst Unit
Zoom Indicator
Color Bars
1kHz Tone
Wireless Remote
Power Save
Tally Lamp
Led
Beep
Character Rec
00~03
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00 (Normal)~01 (Slow)
00~15
00~07
00~03
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~07
00~03
00 (m)~01 (ft)
00 (Bar)~01 (Number)
00 (Type 1)~01 (Type 2)
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
00~02
00~02
00~02
00 (Off)~01 (On)
14
3
Measurements
3.1 Colour performance.
Assessment was done using Macbeth charts. There was a distinct
red tinge to the picture, although not in the grey scale, this indicates
that the problem is not in gamma-balance, but in the basic
colorimetry of the camera. All the patches with a significant red
component were too “healthy”. After some subjective adjustments
to the matrix, the colour performance was improved significantly,
although the yellow patch was still too blue, and the light skin tone
too red. Fig.1 shows the result with the normal gamma curve,
although the reproduction here may not illustrate the effects well.
The gamma film curves both increased saturation considerably and
exacerbated the colouring problems, and are therefore not recommended.
Figure 1 Macbeth chart
3.2 Resolution
A zone plate test chart was used (Fig.2, shown here with inevitable
alias patterns due to the scaling for reproduction in this document),
designed for 1920x1080 video. Each of the six concentric zones
explores the full spatial frequency range that HDTV can resolve, up
to 1920 pixels horizontally by 1080 lines vertically.
3.2.1 HD resolution
Figure 2 Zone plate chart
Measurements were made on the HDSDI output, potentially at full
1920x1080 resolution.
Fig.3 shows a quadrant of one of the zones with the camera set to
50i (interlace). There is vertical resolution up to a vanishing point
at about 1015 lines albeit at low amplitude, above which there is a
good freedom from aliasing. Horizontally, resolution is strong up to
about 1600 pixels. According to the specification, the sensors have
approximately 1,560,000 active pixels, which means that for 1080line there must be 1,560,000/1080=1444 pixels, probably 1440, the
resolution limit of HDV. Clearly, the camera is delivering greater
resolution than the pixel count would indicate possible, this is due to
the “precision-offset” of the green from red and blue sensors.
However, and as expected,
this process also generates
Figure 3 HDSDI, 50i
some horizontal aliasing,
and it is at about 1600
pixels that the wanted and aliased frequencies are equal in
amplitude.
Subjectively, there was considerable interlace twitter when viewed
on a large Sony crt HD monitor, not surprising with so much
vertical resolution above 540 lines/picture height.
Fig.4 shows the result for setting the camera to 25p, again captured
via the HDSDI output. Very surprisingly, the vertical resolution is a
little lower, reaching a vanishing point at about 940 lines/picture
height. This is extraordinary, since one of the points of using
cameras in “progressive” scan mode is to increase the vertical
resolution, but this camera actually reduces it. Also, there is some
15
Figure 4 HDSDI, 25p
aliasing above this frequency which is not present in the 50Hz interlaced mode. I can think of no reason why
this should be. Horizontally, nothing has changed, resolution is still clean up to about 1600, with some
aliasing above.
3.2.2 SD resolution
Since HDV cameras are often used in mixed environments, it is
important to know how well they work as SD cameras as well as
HD. Fig.4 shows the performance. The zone plate chart was still
used fully framed, so the pixel limits of the quadrant remain at 1920
horizontally and 1080 vertically; the aspect ratio has changed
because SDTV does not use square pixels, and I have presented the
result here with square pixels to avoid unnecessary rescaling.
Vertically, resolution is clean up to about 520, which is very good
for a camera in this class. There is little evidence of any first alias
pattern (which would cause circles or ellipses with a higherfrequency centre), however there is a second alias pattern centred
on 540 (weak at low frequencies and stronger at higher frequencies)
and a third alias pattern centred on about 990. The second alias is
related to the sensor vertical pixel count, while the third is a bit of a
mystery.
Horizontally, resolution is fairly clean up to 700, with a first alias
pattern centred on 1440, exactly as expected. There is another alias
pattern centred on about 920, which is also a bit difficult to explain.
Figure 5 SDSDI, 50i
At first sight this does not look too good, and it is caused by the use
of a lens that is designed to produce HD pictures combined with
down-conversion that uses inadequately simple filtering. The camera sensors, being HD, resolve the
unwanted higher frequencies that, for SD use, should be suppressed before the down-conversion process
itself. Slightly defocusing the image would remove most of the aliases without losing the wanted resolution,
but that works only on single-plane scenes, a more practical approach would be to use an optical diffuser on
the lens, perhaps a ¼ Black Promist or equivalent.
3.3 Noise
Uniform exposures to a grey field were made at four luma levels between 85% and 15% and 12dB gain.
Allowing for the 12dB gain, the noise levels at 0dB gain should be between -46 and -48dB; while not
excessive, this is acceptable for the market niche within which this camera will be used.
16