Samsung AlphaPC 164UX Installation guide

Red Hat Linux 6.1
The Official Red Hat Linux Alpha/SPARC
Installation Addendum
ISBN: N/A
Red Hat, Inc.
2600 Meridian Parkway Durham NC 27709 US 919-547-0012 1-888-733-4281 919-547-0024
docs@redhat.com 13588 Research Triangle Park NC 27713
© 1999 Red Hat, Inc.
Alpha/SPARCInst(EN)-6.1-Print-RHI (01/00)
Red Hat is a registered trademark and the Red Hat Shadow Man logo, RPM, the RPM logo, and Glint
are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Motif and UNIX are registered trademarks of The Open Group.
Alpha is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.
SPARC is a registered trademark of SPARC International, Inc. Products bearing the SPARC trademark
are based on an architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
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Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
All other trademarks and copyrights referred to are the property of their respective owners.
Copyright © 1999 by Red Hat, Inc. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, V0.4 or later (the latest version is presently available
at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/).
Distribution of substantively modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
Distribution of the work or derivative of the work in any standard (paper) book form for commercial
purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
Printed in Canada, Ireland, and Japan
ii
Contents
Red Hat Linux 6.1
Preface . ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
v
An Overview of this Manual . . .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... . v
How to Provide Feedback .... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... . v
Chapter 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Chapter 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha .... .
Introduction... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Installation Overview .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Support for Specific Hardware .. .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Choosing Diskette Images.. .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
MILO Installations ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
SRM Installations .... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
7
7
8
9
35
38
49
Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/SPARC .. .
59
59
60
61
62
62
67
68
69
69
Supported Hardware .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Installation Overview .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Console Commands .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
RAM Disk-Based Installation Criteria. .. .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Choosing a Boot Method ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Choosing an Installation Method.. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Installation Using a Serial Terminal .. ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
SILO Configuration .. .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Partitioning ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
iii
iv
Section 0.2:How to Provide Feedback
Preface
The Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide contains most of the information necessary for the successful installation of Red Hat Linux on Alpha and SPARC systems.
However, additional information necessary for Alpha and SPARC installations just
wouldn’t fit in the Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide; that information is available in this document.
Start the process of installing Red Hat Linux/Alpha or Red Hat Linux/SPARC by
reading the Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide. Pay close attention to the Alpha- or SPARC-specific information it contains. Then review this document, which
provides more information for Alpha and SPARC systems. After you’re familiar with
the Alpha or SPARC information contained in the Official Red Hat Linux Installation
Guide and in this manual, you should be ready to begin installing Red Hat Linux on
your Alpha or SPARC system.
An Overview of this Manual
This document is written to give you additional information to make your installation of Red Hat Linux/Alpha or Red Hat Linux/SPARC as straightforward as possible. Chapter 1, Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha contains information
specifically needed for installing Red Hat Linux on an Alpha-based computer system. Chapter 2, Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/SPARC contains information
specifically needed for installing Red Hat Linux on a SPARC-based computer system.
How to Provide Feedback
If you spot any mistakes in this manual, or if you’ve thought of a way to make this
manual better, please send e-mail to:
docs@redhat.com
Be sure to mention the manual’s identifier:
Alpha/SPARCInst(EN)-6.1-Print-RHI (01/00)
v
vi
Preface
If you include the manual’s identifier, we’ll know exactly which version of this manual you have. If you have a suggestion, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you’ve found an error, please include the section number and some of
the surrounding text so we can find it easily. We may not be able to respond to every
message sent to us, but you can be sure that we read them all.
Section 1.1:Introduction
7
1 Information Specific to Red Hat
Linux/Alpha
1.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the differences between Red Hat Linux/Alpha and Red Hat
Linux/Intel installations. While it provides a good overview of these differences,
you should read the Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide first. Concentrate on
the chapters describing the installation process, because they will refer you to the
appropriate parts of this document at the appropriate times.
You may need more information to help you with your Red Hat Linux/Alpha setup.
Other documents, available on the Web, provide Alpha-related information:
•
The Alpha Miniloader HOWTO at ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/Digital/LinuxAlpha/Miniloader/docs/HOWTO/milo.howto.html contains in-depth information
about the MILO miniloader.
•
The SRM (System Reference Manual) Firmware HOWTO at http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/srm.html describes how the SRM firmware may be used to boot
Linux.
•
A Brief Introduction to Alpha Systems and Processors at http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/alpha-sys.html contains an overview of the Alpha architecture.
Please Note
Many people will find the previous information to be very
useful. However, this information is provided by sources
outside of Red Hat, Inc. Therefore, it may contain descriptions of procedures that are not supported by Red Hat, Inc.
For a description of Red Hat, Inc.’s installation support,
please refer to the Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide,
or to Red Hat’s website at http://www.redhat.com/.
8
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
1.2 Installation Overview
Installing Red Hat Linux on an Alpha system is slightly more complex than installing
Red Hat Linux/Intel because a variety of Alpha machine architectures exist and many
different models are supported. In general, the sequence of steps to a successful installation are:
1.
2.
Create kernel and RAM disk diskettes from images available on the Red Hat
Linux/Alpha CD.
Create a MILO diskette, if necessary.
3.
Load and run the Red Hat Linux/Alpha kernel, and boot into the Red Hat Linux
installation program using either MILO or SRM.
4.
Install the bootloader on a small partition on your machine after the installation
is completed.
Please Note
If your system supports both MILO and SRM, using SRM is
the preferred boot method, and is the boot method supported
by Red Hat.
The installation of Red Hat Linux on different SRM-based Alphas is a similar process.
However, differences exist in certain areas. These differences are noted in the appropriate sections. Additional information on the SRM console can be found at the SRM
Firmware HOWTO at http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/srm.html.
1.2.1 Disk Space Required for Alpha Installations
For both MILO and SRM installations, you’ll need a floppy drive: a 3.5 inch high density "A:" drive (/dev/fd0). (Optionally, most SRM installations can use the CD-ROM
drive.)
Hard Disk Space:
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
•
For a MILO installation, you’ll need a 5 MB DOS-formatted partition to hold
the MILO bootloader.
For an SRM installation, you’ll need a 5 MB boot partition for the aboot secondary bootloader.
•
For both MILO and SRM, you’ll need at least one swap partition. Optimally, the
size of the swap partition is twice the RAM of your system, up to 2 GB.
•
For both MILO and SRM, 120 MB is needed for a basic installation (un-select
all "extra" items during the install).
•
For both MILO and SRM, 300 MB is needed for a typical install.
•
For both MILO and SRM, 800 MB is needed for everything.
Please Note
SRM installations require that the BSD Disk Label feature
of the fdisk program be used to partition the disk.
1.3 Support for Specific Hardware
Red Hat Linux/Alpha supports a variety of hardware based on the Alpha processor
and the PCI bus. This section describes the various hardware known to be compatible or incompatible with Red Hat Linux/Alpha 6.1, at the time that this manual was
printed. This section also explains the difference between "supported," "compatible"
and "incompatible" hardware.
9
10
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Please Note
The most recent list of hardware supported by Red
Hat Linux/Alpha can be found at Red Hat’s website at
http://www.redhat.com/hardware. Please check the website
for up-to-date hardware compatibility information before
you begin the installation. The website is the definitive
source for hardware compatibility information.
Hardware not explicitly listed is, by definition, not supported. We make no claims of compatibility with Red Hat
Linux for any hardware that is not listed.
1.3.1 Testing Non-Listed Hardware
Running Linux on an Alpha system is similar to running Linux on the more wellknown Intel platform. Many Alpha systems contain an ISA and/or PCI bus similar
to that of an Intel system. However, only a subset of the peripherals that work on
Intel systems will work on an Alpha. Sometimes, peripherals won’t work because
of driver differences that need to be ironed out in the kernel or in XFree86. Some
hardware, however, is not compatible because it expects the world to be 32-bit, like
Intel machines, and not 64-bit, like Alphas.
Before you attempt to use hardware that isn’t listed to work with the Alpha, you
should check the Red Hat Linux/Alpha mailing list for information on the hardware.
Information on how to join the Alpha mailing list, axp-list@redhat.com, is available
from http://www.redhat.com/community/list_subscribe.html. You can also check the
AlphaLinux website at http://www.alphalinux.org to see if an attempt on a particular
system is feasible.
Currently, only a select few models of Alpha-based systems are being tested in the
Red Hat Quality Assurance labs. However, as more testing is done, both in-house
and in the field, more information will become available in order to improve the Alpha version of Red Hat Linux and allow us to upgrade the status of more types of
machines.
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
Linux runs on a majority of the different Alpha systems that exist on the market and
we are constantly working to increase the level of compatibility for all Alpha machines. If more information is made available to us about installing Red Hat Linux
on a certain class of machine, it becomes easier to qualify that machine for support.
If you have successfully installed Red Hat Linux on a particular class of Alpha machine, and you have information that you think can help increase the reliability of
ensuring future installations on machines of that class, please send e-mail to faqmaintainer@redhat.com and tell us about your experiences.
1.3.2 Support Terminology
The following terms are used in this document to describe the level of support provided for specific hardware:
Certified
Certified hardware has passed all certification tests and requires no special action on the part of the user in order to set up the system. Certified systems are
completely supported by Red Hat technical support. A badge may be on the
physical hardware indicating its Red Hat Linux certified status.
Tier-2
Tier-2 supported hardware has been certified by Red Hat’s QA. The Linux
kernel can detect and use Tier-2 hardware. Red Hat will provide support to
users installing Official Red Hat Linux boxed set software on Tier-2 hardware.
Tier-3
Tier-3 supported hardware is not certified, but should be detected by and usable
with the Linux kernel. Tier-3 hardware includes hardware that Red Hat support
technicians have personal experience with and/or hardware which is known
to be reliable both in-house and in the field. However, some users may have
reported problems with some versions of the hardware, or with the hardware’s
interactions with other hardware. Therefore, while Tier-3 installations can be
supported under most circumstances, they cannot be guaranteed in all cases.
Official Red Hat Linux boxed set owners can expect installation support for
Tier-3 hardware, but it will be limited to:
11
12
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
•
Determining whether Red Hat Linux recognizes the hardware
•
Providing information on what drivers to use, what options to give to the
kernel/module/driver, etc.
•
Instructing users on when to perform Alpha Firmware upgrades
•
Directing users to online information sources
Compatible but unsupported
Hardware that is listed as compatible but unsupported should be detected by
the Linux kernel and should work with the Linux kernel under certain circumstances. However, the drivers for this hardware may be experimental or the
hardware’s functionality may be problematic. Owners of the Official Red Hat
Linux boxed set will get information on which included drivers may work with
the hardware and how to determine if Linux recognizes the hardware. Drivers
for compatible but unsupported hardware are not always available from Red
Hat. Support for third-party drivers will not be provided.
Incompatible
Incompatible hardware is known to NOT work with Red Hat Linux. Drivers
or patches for this hardware may be found on the Internet, but Red Hat will
not support them. The AlphaLinux website at http://www.alphalinux.org/ or
the Compaq Digital Alpha FTP site at ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/linux/ may be
useful for support with this hardware.
Not Listed
Systems which are not listed here are not considered compatible and are not
supported. However, hardware that is not listed may become compatible and
supported in the future.
Hardware vendors reuse product names on different hardware. This may be
confusing to the consumer, since you may purchase something that appears
to be supported but has a slightly different name (e.g., an added letter or plus
sign). Usually, these changes indicate that the hardware is very different, and
thus will not be supported.
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
13
1.3.3 Alpha Systems
Table 1–1, Alpha System Information provides a snapshot of Alpha hardware, the support provided by Red Hat for different Alpha hardware, whether each system supports
MILO and/or SRM, and the MILO image file needed for your system (if your system
supports MILO).
Table 1–1 Alpha System Information
Machine
Class
Jensen
Alcor
Support SRM
MILO
MILO
Level
Capable Capable Image
Model
Alias
DECpc
150
JENSEN
DEC
2000
Model
300
JENSEN
DEC
2000
Model
500
CULZEAN
AS 600
ALCOR
AS 500
5/5xx
BRET
XL-300
XLT
X
XL-366
XLT
X
XL-433
XLT
X
Currently X
incompatible
X
N/A
X
Compatible but
unsupported
X
X
alcor.img
X
X
xlt.img
14
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Machine
Class
Model
Alias
Digital
XL-233
Alpha XL XL-266
XL
Avanti
AS 200
4/*
MUSTANG
AS 205
4/*
Digital
Personal
Workstation
XL
Support SRM
MILO
MILO
Level
Capable Capable Image
X
Compatible but
unsupported
X
X
X
LX3
X
X
AS 250
4/*
M3
X
X
AS 255
4/*
LX3+
X
X
AS 300
4/*
MELMAC
X
X
AS 400
4/*
AVANTI
X
X
PWS
433a,
433au
MIATA
X
X
PWS
500a,
500au
MIATA
X
X
PWS
600a,
600au
MIATA
X
X
Tier-3
Tier-2
xl.img
avanti.img
miata.img
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
Machine
Class
Sable
Mikasa
Noritake
Support SRM
MILO
MILO
Level
Capable Capable Image
Model
Alias
AS 2100
4/xxx
SABLE
Unsupported
AS
2100A
4/xxx
LYNX
Currently
incompatible
AS 2000
4/xxx
DEMISABLE
Unsupported
AS 2100
5/xxx
GAMMASABLE
X
AS 2000
5/xxx
DEMIGAMMASABLE
X
AS 1000
4/xxx
MIKASA Compatible but
MIKASA- unsupported
PRIMO
X
AS
1000A
4/xxx
NORITAKE
X
AS
1000A
5/xxx
NORITAKEPRIMO
AS 600A
5/xxx
ALCORPRIMO
X
AS 800
5/xxx
CORELLE
X
AS 1000
5/xxx
15
Compatible but
unsupported
X
N/A
X
N/A
X
X
N/A
16
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Machine
Class
Model
Alias
Rawhide
AS 4000
WRAN- Currently X
GLER/DU- incomRANGO patible
AS 4100
DODGE
X
AS 1200
TINCUP
X
AlphaBook
Laptop
ALPHABOOK
Noname
AXPpci33
NONAME
EB64+
X
Compatible but
UDB/Mul- MULTIA unsupported
tia
X
X
X
X
EB64+
EB64+
X
X
eb64p.img
AlphaPC64
CABRIOLET
Compatible but
unsupported
X
X
cabrio.img
X
X
Compatible but
unsupported
X
X
pc164.img
X
lx164.img
X
sx164.img
X
eb164.img
AlPC164
phaPC164
AlLX164
phaPC164-LX
AlSX164
phaPC164-SX
EB164
N/A
Compatible but
unsupported
AlCABRIphaPCI-64 OLET
PC164
Support SRM
MILO
MILO
Level
Capable Capable Image
EB164
EB164
Tier-3
X
N/A
udbnoname.img
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
17
Machine
Class
Model
Alias
EB66+
EB66+
EB66+
Compatible but
unsupported
X
X
eb66p.img
EB66
EB66
EB66
Compatible but
unsupported
X
X
eb66.img
Tsunami
AlphaPC
DP264
TSUNAMI Unknown Unknown Unknown
Compaq
Professional
Workstations
XP1000/500MONET
XP1000/667BRISBANE
XP900
Compaq ES40
AlphaServers DS20
WEBBRICK
CLIPPER
Support SRM
MILO
MILO
Level
Capable Capable Image
Certified X
(pending) X
N/A
X
Certified X
(pending)
GOLDRUSH
X
DS20E
GOLDRACK
X
DS10
WEBBRICK
X
N/A
18
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Machine
Class
Model
Takara
(Takara?) TAKARA Unknown Unknown Unknown takara.img
Ruffian
AlphaPC
164UX
Alias
RUFFIAN
Support SRM
MILO
MILO
Level
Capable Capable Image
Compatible but
unsupported
X
X
ruffian.img
1.3.4 SCSI Adapters
Table 1–2, SCSI Adapters provides information about which SCSI adapters are supported by Red Hat for use with a Red Hat Linux/Alpha system.
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
Table 1–2
19
SCSI Adapters
Vendor
Driver/Module*
Cards
Supported
Adaptec
aic7xxx.o (static)
2902
Tier-2
aic7xxx.o (static)
2910
Tier-2
aic7xxx.o (static)
293x
Tier-2
aic7xxx.o (static)
294x
Tier-2
aic7xxx.o (static)
394x
Tier-2
aic7xxx.o (static)
3985
Tier-2
aic7xxx.o (static)
aic777x chipset
Tier-2
aic7xxx.o (static)
aic78xx chipset
Tier-2
7810
Currently
incompatible
aic7xxx.o (static)
274x EISA
Tier-3
aic7xxx.o (static)
284x VLB
Tier-3
2920
Currently
incompatible
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 418
Tier-3
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 428
Tier-3
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 438
Tier-3
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 462
Tier-3
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 466
Tier-3
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 762
Tier-3
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 490
Tier-3
megaraid.o
MegaRAID 467
Tier-3
AMI
Red Hat
Support Level
20
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Vendor
Driver/Module*
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
IOMEGA
ppa.o
Zip Parallel Port
Tier-2
imm.o
ZipPlus
Tier-3
ncr53c8xx (static)
ncr53c810
Tier-2
NCR/ Symbios
Logic
QLogic
sym53c8xx (static) ncr53c810a
Tier-2
ncr53c8xx (static)
ncr53c815
Tier-2
ncr53c8xx (static)
ncr53c825
Tier-2
sym53c8xx (static) ncr53c825a
Tier-2
sym53c8xx (static) ncr53c860
Tier-2
sym53c8xx (static) ncr53c875
Tier-2
sym53c8xx (static) ncr53c876
Tier-2
sym53c8xx (static) ncr53c895
Tier-2
ym53c8xx (static)
Tier-2
ncr53c896
qlogicisp.o (static) ISP IQ-PCI
Tier-3
qlogicisp.o (static) ISP IQ-PCI-10
Tier-3
qlogicisp.o (static) ISP IQ-PCI-D
Tier-3
qlogicfas.o (static) FASxxx boards
(VLB/ISA/PCMCIA)
Compatible but
unsupported
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
21
Vendor
Driver/Module*
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
Tekram
tmscsim.o (static)
DC390
Compatible but
unsupported
tmscsim.o (static)
DC390T
Compatible but
unsupported
tmscsim.o (static)
DawiControl 2974 Compatible but
unsupported
mscsim.o (static)
PCscsi/PCnet
Compatible but
unsupported
mscsim.o (static)
AM53c974
chipset-based
adapters
Compatible but
unsupported
22
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Vendor
Driver/Module*
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
BusLogic/Mylex
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint LT
(BT-930)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint LT
(BT-930R)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint LT
(BT-920)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint DL
(BT-932)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint DL
(BT-932R)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint LW
(BT-950)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint LW
(BT-950R)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint DW
(BT-952)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
FlashPoint DW
(BT-952R)
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-948
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-958
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-958D
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-946C
Compatible but
unsupported
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
23
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-956C
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-956CD
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-747C
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-757C
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-757CD
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-545C
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-540CF
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-747S
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-747D
Compatible but
unsupported
BusLogic.o
(static)
BT-757S
Compatible but
unsupported
Vendor
Driver/Module*
BusLogic/Mylex
* Some drivers are statically linked into the kernel shipped with Red Hat Linux. No
modules need to be loaded in order for SCSI adapters supported by these drivers to
be recognized and used.
24
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
1.3.5 Network Interface Cards
Table 1–3, Network Interface Cards provides information about network interface
cards and whether they’re supported by Red Hat for use with a Red Hat Linux/Alpha
system.
Table 1–3 Network Interface Cards
Vendor
Driver/Module
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
3Com
3c509.o
3c509
Tier-2
3c509.o
3c509b (in ISA
mode)
Tier-2
3c509.o
3c579
Compatible but
unsupported
3c59x.o
3c59x
Tier-3
3c59x.o
3c900
Tier-3
3c59x.o
3c905
Tier-3
3c59x.o
3c905b
Tier-3
3c905c
Currently
unsupported
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
25
Vendor
Driver/Module
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
Digital/Compaq
de4x5.o
2104x
Tier-2
de4x5.o
2114x
Tier-2
de4x5.o
2124x
Tier-2
de4x5.o
Compaq DE500
Tier-2
de4x5.o
Compaq DE504
Tier-2
tulip.o
Generic DECChip
Tulip
Tier-2
tulip.o
dc21x4x
Tier-2
tulip.o
Digital
Tier-2
EtherWORKS PCI
depca.o
DE100
Tier-3
depca.o
DE101
Tier-3
depca.o
DE200 Turbo
Tier-3
depca.o
DE201 Turbo
Tier-3
depca.o
DE202 Turbo
Tier-3
depca.o
DE210
Tier-3
depca.o
DE422
Tier-3
ne.o
NE2000
Compatible but
unsupported
ne.o
NE1000
Compatible but
unsupported
eepro.o
EtherExpress PRO Tier-3
eepro100.o
EtherExpress
PRO/100
NE2000
Intel
Tier-3
26
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
sis900.o
SiS 900 PCI Fast
Ethernet Adapter
Compatible but
unsupported
Yellowfin
yellowfin.o
Yellowfin Packet
Engine
Compatible but
unsupported
SMC
epic100.o
SMC83c17x EPIC Compatible but
unsupported
epic100.o
SMC EtherPower
II
Vendor
Driver/Module
SiS
Compatible but
unsupported
1.3.6 CD-ROM Devices
Table 1–4, CD-ROM Devices provides information about CD-ROM devices and
whether they’re supported by Red Hat for use with an Red Hat Linux/Alpha system.
Table 1–4
CD-ROM Devices
Drive Type
Interface
Red Hat Support
Level
SCSI
Narrow
Tier-2
Fast/Narrow
Tier-2
Fast/Wide
Tier-2
IDE
Tier-2
ATA-33
Tier-2
DVD-ROM
Compatible but
unsupported
Mitsumi
Currently incompatible
Panasonic
Currently incompatible
Sony
Currently incompatible
ATAPI/IDE*
Proprietary Interface
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
27
* Red Hat can only support drives which completely adhere to the ATAPI specification. Some DVD-ROMs and all Lite-On CD-ROMs do not adhere 100% to the
ATAPI specification, and are therefore not supported.
1.3.7 Video Cards
Table 1–5, Video Cards provides information about video cards and whether they’re
supported by Red Hat for use with a Red Hat Linux/Alpha system.
Table 1–5 Video Cards
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
Vendor
X Server
Digital/Compaq
XF86_TGA
PBXGA-AA
ZLXp-E1 8-bit
TGA 2MB
Compatible but
unsupported
XF86_TGA
PBXGA-AB
ZLXp-E2 24-bit
TGA 16MB
Compatible but
unsupported
XF86_TGA
PBXGA-AC
ZLXp-E3 24-bit,
Z-buffer TGA
16MB
Compatible but
unsupported
28
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Vendor
X Server
Digital/Compaq
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
PowerStorm 3D30 Currently
TGA2 2MB
unsupported
PowerStorm 4D20 Currently
TGA2 16MB
unsupported
XF86_3DLabs
ZLXp-L1
Pixelvision
Currently
unsupported
ZLXp-L2
Pixelvision
Currently
unsupported
PowerStorm
4D40T “Bobcat”
Ingergraph
RealiZm
Currently
unsupported
PowerStorm
4D50T “Puma”
Ingergraph
RealiZm
Currently
unsupported
PowerStorm
4D60T “Leopard”
Ingergraph
RealiZm
Currently
unsupported
PowerStorm
4D10T
Currently
unsupported
PowerStorm 300
E&S RealImage
2100
Currently
unsupported
PowerStorm 350
E&S RealImage
2100
Currently
unsupported
PBXGK-BB
Permidia2
Tier-2
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
Vendor
X Server
Matrox
XF86_SVGA
Cards
Supported
29
Red Hat
Support Level
Matrox Millenium Tier-2
(MGA)
Matrox Millenium Tier-2
II
S3
XF86_S3
S3 764x
Tier-2
XF86_S3
S3 805
Tier-2
XF86_S3
S3 864
Tier-2
XF86_S3
S3 928
Tier-2
XF86_S3
S3 Trio64
Tier-2
XF86_S3V
S3 ViRGE
Tier-2
30
Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Cards
Supported
Red Hat
Support Level
XF86_Mach64
ATI Xpert@Play
98
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI Xpert 98
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI Xpert XL
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI Rage IIC
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI Xpert@Play
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI Xpert@Work
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI 3D
Xpression+
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI 3D Xpression
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI Graphics
Xpression
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI Graphics Pro
Turbo
Tier-3
XF86_Mach64
ATI WinTurbo
Tier-3
Vendor
X Server
ATI
1.3.8 Sound Cards
Table 1–6, Sound Cards provides information about sound cards and whether they’re
supported by Red Hat for use with a Red Hat Linux/Alpha system.
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
31
Table 1–6 Sound Cards
Vendor
Digital
Sound
MIDI
Drivers/Mod- Drivers/Mod- Cards
ules
ules
Supported
Red Hat
Support
Level
Creative Labs
opl3.o
sb.o
Sound Blaster
Tier-3
opl3sa.o
sb.o
Sound Blaster
Pro
Tier-3
opl3sa2.o
sb.o
Sound Blaster
16/PNP
Tier-3
opl3sa2.o/awe_wave.o
sb.o
Sound Blaster
32/64 AWE
Tier-3
opl3.o
sb.o
ESS688
AudioDrive
Tier-3
opl3.o
sb.o
ESS1688
AudioDrive
Tier-3
opl3.o
sb.o
ESS1868
AudioDrive
Tier-3
gus.o
gus.o
Ultrasound
Compatible
but
unsupported
gus.o
gus.o
Ultrasound
MAX
Compatible
but
unsupported
sonicvibes.o
S3 Sonic
Vibes
Tier-3
ESS
Advanced
Gravis
S3
1.3.9 Mice
The following mice are supported under Red Hat Linux and the X Window System:
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
•
PS/2 Mice
•
Serial mouse
1.3.10 Modems/FaxModems
Most modems are supported, except for WinModems and software modems, since
they rely on Windows drivers which are incompatible with Red Hat Linux. For supported modems, not all features are necessarily supported (for example, voice mail
features).
1.3.11 ISDN Adapters
Any external ISDN adapter that attaches to a serial port and emulates a regular modem
should work with Red Hat Linux as if it were a regular modem. These ISDN adapters
are considered compatible, but are unsupported.
1.3.12 Cable Modems
Any cable modem that attaches to a regular Ethernet interface will work with Red
Hat Linux, and is considered compatible, but is unsupported.
Please Note
If your cable network requires client software for Microsoft
Windows, then it most likely will NOT work.
1.3.13 Printers
Most printers that are compatible with a printer in the following list should work
using the appropriate driver.
The text-only printer driver only prints ASCII text, not graphics or PostScript. Many
non-PostScript printers can print with the text-only driver. Printers that are listed as
being "Windows only" printers are not currently supported.
Red Hat Linux generally prints using PostScript; for some non-PostScript printers,
Red Hat Linux uses "print filters" to translate PostScript into graphics commands that
the printer can understand using the Ghostscript interpreter.
Section 1.3:Support for Specific Hardware
The following printer drivers are available for Red Hat Linux 6.1:
•
Apple Dot Matrix
•
Apple Imagewriter, high-resolution
•
Apple Imagewriter, letter quality
•
Apple Imagewriter, low-resolution
•
C.Itoh M8510
•
Canon BJ-100/200/210/240
•
Canon BJ-10e
•
Canon BJC-600 and BJC-4000
•
Canon LBP-8II
•
Canon LIPS III
•
DEC LA50 dot matrix
•
DEC LA70 dot matrix
•
DEC LA75 Plus dot matrix
•
DEC LA75 dot matrix
•
DEC LJ250
•
DEC LN03
•
Epson AP3250 & ESC/P 2 printers
•
Epson Color Dot Matrix, 24 pin
•
Epson Color Dot Matrix, 9 pin
•
Epson Dot Matrix, 24 pin
•
Epson Dot Matrix, 9 pin, hi-res
•
Epson Dot Matrix, 9 pin, med-res
•
Epson Dot Matrix, 9 pin
•
Epson Stylus 800 & ESC/P 2 printers
33
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
•
Epson Stylus Color
•
HP DesignJet 650C
•
HP DeskJet 400/500C/520/540C
•
HP DeskJet 500
•
HP DeskJet 550C/560C/6xxC series
•
HP DeskJet/DeskJet Plus
•
HP LaserJet 4 - dithered
•
HP LaserJet 4/5/6 series
•
HP LaserJet III* with Delta Row Compression
•
HP LaserJet III* with duplex capability
•
HP LaserJet IId/IIp/III* with TIFF compression
•
HP LaserJet Plus
•
HP LaserJet
•
HP PaintJet XL300 and DeskJet 1200C
•
HP PaintJet XL
•
HP PaintJet
•
IBM 3853 JetPrinter
•
Imagen ImPress
•
Mitsubishi CP50
•
NEC P6/P6+/P60
•
Okidata Microline 182
•
PostScript printer
•
Ricoh 4081 laser printer
•
StarJet 48
•
Tek 4693d color printer, 2 bit mode
Section 1.4:Choosing Diskette Images
•
Tek 4693d color printer, 4 bit mode
•
Tek 4693d color printer, 8 bit mode
•
Tektronics 4695/4696 inkjet plotter
•
Text-only printer
•
Xerox XES printers
1.3.14 Scanners
Red Hat does not offer support for scanners, cameras, and similar peripherals.
Such devices, if compatible, are considered compatible but unsupported. Most
SANE-compatible scanners should work with Red Hat Linux.
1.4 Choosing Diskette Images
Alpha machines are divided into classes. The classes reflect the many Alpha machine
designs that have been produced over the years, and differentiate between the several
boxes du jour produced by Digital. The Red Hat Linux/Alpha installation process
is diskette-based. The number and contents of the diskettes that you need will vary
according to the type of Alpha system you have.
Search the Machine Class column in Table 1–1, Alpha System Information for your
system. If you know your system’s code name or alias, you can search the Alias
column. The appropriate MILO image (if applicable) is listed on the right. All of the
MILO image files are located in the milo/images directory. The table will also
show you whether your machine is SRM and/or MILO capable. Note that if your
machine is both SRM and MILO capable, using SRM is preferred.
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Please Note
Previous versions of Red Hat Linux/Alpha used different
boot images. Now, however, all Alpha installations use
the same kernel, so only one boot image is needed (images/generic.img). You no longer need to insert the
kernel boot disk after an installation to copy over the kernel
to the installed system. MILO is still machine specific,
however, so you will need to find the appropriate MILO
image file for your system. And, if you’re doing an NFS,
FTP or hard disk installation, you’ll also need a RAM disk
diskette made from images/ramdisk.img on CD 1.
1.4.1 Writing an Image File to a Diskette
You must write each of the image files you need to a diskette. The easiest methods
of writing an image file to a diskette are using dd or rawrite.
Using the dd Command
The dd command in a Linux/UNIX OS is used to do direct dumps from one device
(or file) to another. It is an excellent tool to create a disk image or to make a disk
from an image. In Linux, the command is invoked as follows:
bash# dd if=<image file> of=/dev/fd0
You should see something like the following to indicate that the image transfer was
successful:
2880+0 records in
2880+0 records out
If you see a smaller block count, your image did not transfer correctly. If this is the
case, it will usually be accompanied by a disk error.
Using the rawrite Utility
Under MS-DOS, you can use the rawrite utility included on the Red Hat Linux/Alpha CD in the /dosutils directory to write an image file to a diskette.
Section 1.4:Choosing Diskette Images
The rawrite command looks like the following (assuming your CD is drive D:):
C:\> d:
D:\> cd \dosutils
D:\> dosutils> rawrite
Rawrite first asks you for the filename of a diskette image; enter the directory and
name of the image you wish to write.
Enter disk image source file name:D:\images\<image file>
Then rawrite asks for a diskette drive to write the image to:
Enter target diskette drive:a:
Finally, rawrite asks for confirmation that a formatted diskette is in the drive
you’ve selected. After pressing [Enter] to confirm, rawrite copies the image file
onto the diskette.
Please insert a formatted diskette into drive A: and press
--ENTER-- : [Enter]
D:\ dosutils>
The rawrite utility will return a message indicating whether your disk was created
succesfully, or it will inform you if your image failed to transfer correctly.
1.4.2 Creating a Boot Diskette
The boot diskette image is images/generic.img on Red Hat Linux/Alpha CD
1. Refer to Section 1.4.1, Writing an Image File to a Diskette for instructions on
writing the image file to a diskette. Label the diskette "Boot Diskette."
1.4.3 Creating a MILO Diskette
If your system is supported by MILO, you will find the appropriate image in the
milo/images directory on the Red Hat Linux/Alpha CD 1. See Table 1–1, Alpha
System Information to find the appropriate MILO image file for your system.
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Please Note
If you have trouble with MILO, the first thing to try is a
newer MILO image. If updated MILO versions are available, they can be found at:
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Linux-Alpha/Kernels/
MILO file names begin with milo-, which is followed by the system type and date.
Refer to Section 1.4.1, Writing an Image File to a Diskette for instructions on how
to make disks from disk images. Label the diskette you make from the MILO image
"MILO Diskette."
1.4.4 Creating a RAM Disk Diskette
If you’re doing an NFS, FTP or hard disk installation, you’ll need to create a RAM
disk diskette. All Red Hat Linux/Alpha installations use the same RAM disk image:
images/ramdisk.img on Red Hat Linux/Alpha CD 1. Refer to Section 1.4.1,
Writing an Image File to a Diskette for instructions on writing the image file to a
diskette. Label the diskette "RAM Disk Diskette."
1.5 MILO Installations
Please Note
The ARC and AlphaBIOS consoles operate in essentially
the same way. Both use MILO and, aside from cosmetic
changes, they are identical in functionality. The keystrokes
described in each section have been tested against ARC and
AlphaBIOS systems, and are known to work with on-site
machines. However, small differences may exist for other
ARC and AlphaBIOS systems.
Section 1.5:MILO Installations
The ARC and AlphaBIOS consoles are designed to load the Windows NT operating
system. Like many other things in the Linux world, they’ve been made to do a job that
they were never intended to do. In this case, they’re used to load Linux. When you
power-on an ARC/AlphaBIOS console machine, you will see the firmware initialize
the hardware, and you will see a boot menu. The initialization process varies greatly
by machine.
The Windows NT ARC/AlphaBIOS firmware is an environment in which programs
can run and make callbacks into the firmware to perform actions.
•
The Windows NT osloader is a program that does exactly this.
•
The Linux linload.exe is a much simpler program which does just enough
to load and execute MILO. linload.exe loads the appropriate image file into
memory at 0x00000000 and then makes a swap-PAL PALcall to the image file.
The swap is necessary because MILO, like Linux, uses a different PALcode than
Windows NT. MILO relocates itself to 0x200000 and continues on through the
PALcode reset entry point as before.
1.5.1 Setting up ARC for Installation
To perform an ARC/MILO installation, you will need to create two disks:
1.
The correct MILO disk for the class of machine onto which you are installing Red
Hat Linux. The MILO disk images are located in the /milo/images directory
on CD 1. See Table 1–1, Alpha System Information for which MILO image you
need.
2.
The generic installation kernel disk, made from /images/generic.img on
CD 1.
Please Note
If you are going to perform an NFS, FTP, or hard disk installation, you will also need a third disk -- the RAM disk
made from /images/ramdisk.img on CD 1.
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Please refer to Section 1.4.1, Writing an Image File to a Diskette for instructions on
writing image files to diskettes.
Once you have these disks created, boot your Alpha machine into the ARC boot
menu. The first step is to set up a boot menu entry to enable MILO to be loaded from
floppy disk. At the boot menu, select the option Supplementary menu.
Next, select the command:
here, select the command
Selections Menu.
Set up the system, which takes you to the Setup Menu. From
Manage boot selection menu, which takes you to the Boot
You need to add a boot command to load MILO from the floppy you created. Choose
the command Add a boot selection.
You should see several devices listed. To select the A: drive, choose Floppy Disk 0.
Please Note
If you do not see an entry for the floppy drive, consult your
AlphaBIOS/ARC installation manual to determine the correct method for configuring your hardware in the console.
Next enter the name of the OS loader to use. Enter \linload.exe as the OS loader
directory and name. The MILO disk you created has the linload.exe file on it,
and the correct MILO for your Alpha machine class. The MILO command is always
named milo on the floppy, and both files should reside in the root directory of the
floppy disk.
Select the yes option when asked if the operating system is on the same partition as the
OS loader (it is, both are in the root directory), and enter \ as the operating system
root directory. As the name of the boot selection, enter something descriptive like
MILO Floppy to indicate that this entry boots MILO from the floppy drive.
If prompted, select no to indicate that you do not want to start the debugger at boot
time.
You should now be back in the boot selections menu. Press [Esc] to get back to the
Choose the option Supplementary menu, and save changes.
Boot Selections Menu.
Section 1.5:MILO Installations
to commit the changes to NVRAM. Once you have saved your boot entry, [Esc] will
get you back to the boot menu and you can now attempt to boot MILO.
You should have a boot selection that looks something like this:
LOADIDENTIFIER=Linux
SYSTEMPARTITION=multi(0)disk(0)fdisk(0)
OSLOADER=multi(0)disk(0)fdisk(0)\linload.exe
OSLOADPARTITION=multi(0)disk(0)fdisk(0)\
OSLOADOPTIONS=
This boot selection enables ARC to boot into MILO from the floppy using the linload.exe OS loader.
1.5.2 Setting up AlphaBIOS for Installation
The first thing you must do is to install the latest version of AlphaBIOS, which
can be obtained from Compaq’s Alpha Firmware update site at http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/.
Just like with ARC, you will need two diskettes for the MILO installation process:
1.
The correct MILO disk for the class of machine onto which you are installing Red
Hat Linux. The MILO disk images are located in the /milo/images directory
on CD 1. See Table 1–1, Alpha System Information for which MILO image you
need.
2.
The generic installation kernel disk, from /images/generic.img on CD 1.
Please Note
If you are going to perform an NFS, FTP, or hard disk installation, you will also need a third disk: the RAM disk made
from /images/ramdisk.img on CD 1.
Please refer to Section 1.4.1, Writing an Image File to a Diskette for instructions on
writing image files to diskettes.
Once your AlphaBIOS is at the latest revision level, you can start the installation
process. Turn on the system and insert the floppy. At the opening screen, press [F2]
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
to enter setup mode. You are going to add a boot selection that allows you to boot
MILO from a floppy disk. Select the following command from the menu: Utilities ->
OS Selection Setup..
Press [Insert] to add a new operating system selection. For the Boot Name parameter,
enter something like: MILO Floppy to indicate that you are loading MILO from a
floppy disk. Press [Tab] to get to the next field. Use the [DOWN-ARROW] key to move
through the options until the selection for Boot File is A:. Then, [Tab] to the next field
and enter: linload.exe as the name of the OS loader.
past the OS Path Load Device option, since it’s irrelevant and linload.exe ignores it. [Tab] to the OS Path Load File option. Enter: \ for the OS Path load file. Finally,
press [Enter] to add the selection to the boot menu.
[Tab]
At this point, AlphaBIOS will probably put up a big, unfriendly dialog box labeled
something like Warning: Operating System Selection not valid!
Ignore this error (AlphaBIOS considers it an error whenever your OS is not Windows
NT). Press [Enter] to continue. Press [F10] to save the changes you just made, and press
[Enter] to confirm the changes.
Press [Esc] twice to get back to the opening screen. Use the [UP-ARROW] and [DOWNARROW] keys to select the boot selection you just added, and press [Enter] to boot it.
AlphaBIOS will load linload.exe, which will in turn load MILO.
1.5.3 MILO User Interface
Once the Windows NT firmware is running and you have the correct MILO image
for your system loaded, the rest of the installation details are completely generic.
Once you boot into MILO, you get a prompt that is very familiar to the standard
bash# prompt in Linux. As mentioned earlier, MILO uses native Linux device
drivers; therefore, all devices in MILO are referred to in the same manner as a running Linux system (/dev/scd0 for a SCSI CD-ROM 0, /dev/hda for the first
IDE device, etc.).
MILO has a very simple interface that is designed to allow you to boot a Linux kernel
image, and perform some basic diagnostic functions. Typing help is a good idea,
since it provides a useful summary of the commands, as follows:
Section 1.5:MILO Installations
MILO> help
MILO command summary: ls [-t fs] [dev:[dir]]
- List files in directory on device
boot [-t fs] [dev:file] [boot string]
Boot Linux from the specified device and file
run [-t fs] dev:file
- Run the standalone program dev:file
show
Display all known devices and file systems
set VAR VALUE
Set the variable VAR to the specified VALUE
unset VAR
- Delete the specified variable
reset
- Delete all variables
print
- Display current variable settings
help [var]
- Print this help text
Devices are specified as: fd0, hda1, hda2, sda1...
Use the ’-t filesystem-name’ option if you want
to use anything but the default filesystem (’ext2’).
Use the ’show’ command to show known devices and filesystems.
Type ’help var’ for a list of variables.
Please Note
The bootopt command only appears on AlphaPC64 (and
similar) systems. Refer to the board’s documentation to find
out just what it means.
Devices
Until you use a command that needs to make use of a device, no device initialization
will take place. The first time you issue the show, ls, or run command, the devices
within MILO will be initialized. Devices are named exactly the same way that Linux
names devices. So, the first IDE disk will be called hda and its first partition will be
hda1. Use the show command to show what devices are available.
Filesystems
MILO supports three file systems: MSDOS, ext2 and ISO9660. If a device is available to it, MILO can ls, boot or run an image stored on one of these filesystems.
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
MILO will assume ext2 as the default filesystem, and so you have to explicitly tell
MILO if the filesystem is something other than ext2. All of the commands that use
filenames allow you to pass the file system using the -t [filesystem] option.
So, if you wanted to list the contents of a SCSI CD-ROM, you might type the following:
MILO> ls -t iso9660 scd0:
Variables
MILO contains some settable variables that help the boot process. If you are loading
via Windows NT ARC or AlphaBIOS firmwares, then MILO makes use of the boot
option environment variables set up by that firmware. For some systems (for example,
the AlphaPC64), MILO maintains its own set of environment variables that do not
change from boot to boot. These variables can be displayed with the help var
command:
MILO> help var
Variables that MILO cares about:
MEMORY_SIZE - System memory size in megabytes
BOOT_DEV
- Specifies the default boot device
BOOT_FILE
- Specifies the default boot file
BOOT_STRING Specifies the boot string to pass to the kernel
SCSIn_HOSTID - Specifies the host id of the
n-th SCSI controller
PCI_LATENCY - Specifies the PCI master device latency
AUTOBOOT
- If set, MILO attempts to boot on powerup
and enters command loop only on failure.
AUTOBOOT_TIMEOUT - Seconds to wait before autobooting on powerup.
Please Note
If you set AUTOBOOT, you need to set the timeout. Setting
AUTOBOOT without setting the timeout can result in your
machine automatically booting after a timeout of 0 seconds,
which will not allow for any user intervention in the case of
errors.
Section 1.5:MILO Installations
1.5.4 Booting with MILO
The primary function of MILO is to boot the Linux kernel. To boot the installer to
use the CD-ROM (assuming the CD-ROM drive is SCSI) the command would look
similar to this:
MILO> boot fd0:vmlinux.gz root=/dev/scd0
The installer should boot, and you should be able to proceed as normal. IDE
CD-ROM devices use the standard IDE device references.
If you need to use the RAM disk floppy as well, the boot command accepts the standard kernel parameters. So the command will look something like this:
MILO> boot fd0:vmlinux.gz root=/dev/fd0 load_ramdisk=1
1.5.5 Disk Partitioning
The only rule for partitioning the hard drive for MILO is that there should be a 2 MB
FAT partition at the beginning of the drive from which you will load MILO.
Red Hat Linux/Alpha supports two varieties of hard drive partitioning: standard
fdisk-style partitioning and BSD-style partitioning.
The standard fdisk-style partitioning method has the usual oddities (such as extended partitions) and is done in the same way as on Intel platforms (using Linux
fdisk). This is the partitioning style you must use if you are using the ARC or AlphaBIOS console.
When using aboot to boot Red Hat Linux from the SRM console (for example, to
share a disk with Digital UNIX), you must use BSD-style disk labels. aboot does
not understand DOS-style partition tables as MILO does, and therefore a slightly different installation path is necessary. This includes using fdisk in disk label editing
mode to create a disk label on the disk. There are three things to keep in mind when
using disk labels on an Alpha:
1.
Whole disk label: The so-called "whole disk" label is required. It should be the
c label, which encompasses the entire disk and must be created by you.
2.
Initial unallocated space: This is unallocated disk space that is not explicitly
allocated to any label other than the "whole disk" label. This space should be
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approximately 1 MB to 10 MB (2048 to 20480 sectors), depending on exactly
what configuration for aboot you will be using. Its purpose is to provide space
at the very beginning of the disk for aboot to write the boot block and object file
that allows booting to kernels located within the disk labels. For more information
on the process aboot uses to boot, please see the SRM Firmware HOWTO at
http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/srm.html.
3.
Installing aboot: In order to boot from the hard disk in the system, you will need
to install aboot to the unallocated space using the swriteboot command.
You can do this at one of two points: during the installation using the command
shell started on the second virtual console ([Alt]-[F2]), or after the installation is
finished and the machine has been booted from the kernel on a floppy diskette.
•
To install aboot during the installation, you must access the second virtual
terminal, using [Alt]-[F2]. You will then want to run the following command to
start a more normalized shell than the installation itself provides:
chroot /mnt bash
Once you have the bash# prompt, you can use swriteboot to install
aboot to the unallocated space you’ve left at the beginning of the disk:
swriteboot /dev/sda /boot/bootlx -f3
The -f3 switch is used to force swriteboot to ignore the conflict with the
third disk label, c, the "whole disk" label you have created.
•
To install aboot after the installation, boot the system from SRM, using the
kernel diskette, with a command line like the following:
boot dva0 -fi vmlinux.gz -flags "root=/dev/sda2"
Once you reach the initial login prompt, log in as root and run the following
command:
/sbin/swriteboot /dev/sda /boot/bootlx -f3
You can then boot from the hard disk using an SRM command like the following
example. For booting from the first SCSI hard disk, second partition (where the
Linux root filesystem resides):
boot dka0 -fi 2/vmlinux.gz -fl "root=/dev/sda2"
Section 1.5:MILO Installations
The 2 in 2/vmlinux.gz and /dev/sda2 are representative of the second
disk label on the disk. The -fi and -fl options stand for ‘file’ and ‘flags,’
respectively.
You can also choose a slightly different path that involves an extra prompt:
boot dka0
Once you see the aboot> prompt, you can use similar kernel and root specifications to the ones used with the -fi and fl options mentioned above:
aboot> 2/vmlinux.gz root=/dev/sda2
Please Note
If any drives on your system have BSD-style disk labels, you
will not be able to use Disk Druid to set up partitions. If you
use BSD-style disk labels, you will need to use fdisk for
partitioning.
1.5.6 Installation
Install Red Hat Linux/Alpha as described in the Official Red Hat Linux Installation
Guide. Stop when you reach the point where the packages you’ve selected are finished being transferred to the hard drive. At this point, you are prompted to install
the correct X server for your machine, or, you will select your pointing device, if you
didn’t install X. Do NOT press the Ok button yet. Instead, follow the instructions
contained in Section 1.5.7, Installing MILO to the Hard Drive.
1.5.7 Installing MILO to the Hard Drive
The installation process puts all the necessary components of the Red Hat Linux Operating System on your machine, but MILO must be installed manually. Switch to the
command prompt on the TTY2 console by pressing [Alt]-[F2]. Once you’ve switched
to the command prompt, verify that your root directory is mounted with the following
command:
# mount
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This should show the partition you selected to be mounted as / to be currently
mounted as /mnt. Temporarily make /mnt the root directory by issuing the
command:
# chroot /mnt
Now, all you need to do is actually install MILO. First, insert your MILO disk into
the floppy drive. Then you’ll need to issue a command which will vary slightly in
syntax depending on your boot device. For example, if you plan to boot your Alpha
from the first SCSI hard disk, issue the following command:
bash# dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/dev/sda1
If you plan to boot your Alpha from the second IDE device, the dd command should
be executed like this:
bash# dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/dev/hdb1
The command will copy MILO (along with linload.exe) to the small MILO partition you created. Once MILO has been installed, type the following command to
exit the temporary root device set using the chroot command:
bash# exit
Now switch back to TTY1 using
installation process.
[Alt]-[F1]
and select the
Ok
button to continue the
1.5.8 Post-Installation Setup
If you dedicated the first partition of your first disk drive to a small FAT partition for
booting (as the installation procedure advises you to) you can the modify the Boot
Menu to have a selection to load MILO from this partition.
Add another boot selection, as described in Section 1.5.1, Setting up ARC for Installation for ARC and in Section 1.5.2, Setting up AlphaBIOS for Installation for
AlphaBIOS. However, this time you should select the appropriate hard disk device.
If you installed Linux to the first hard drive, the device should be:
scsi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)
If you are using an ARC console or the AlphaBIOS console, select the following
device:
Section 1.6:SRM Installations
49
Disk 0 Partition 1
If you wish to autoboot into Linux, set the OSLOADOPTIONS variable as described
in Section 1.5.9, MILO Autoboot. Once you have done this, booting and running
Linux on an Alpha system should be very similar to doing so on an x86 system.
1.5.9 MILO Autoboot
In the ARC and AlphaBIOS consoles, the contents of the OSLOADOPTIONS parameter are passed to MILO as a command. In order to boot Linux automatically in
MILO, enter a value for OSLOADOPTIONS similar to this one:
boot sda2:/boot/vmlinux root=/dev/sda2
1.6 SRM Installations
The biggest issue with SRM is that SRM only recognizes BSD-style disk labels when
booting. Therefore, you will need to perform a expert installation in order to use
BSD-style disk labels from within fdisk. To do this, you’ll need to use expert
installation mode. You should consult the Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide
and/or the Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide, since they provide more thorough
overviews of disk partitioning and the considerations that must be kept in mind for
partitioning, given the role of the machine.
You should also be familiar with how the SRM console lists the devices present in
your system. The SRM console references devices based on their type. Here is a list
of common devices, and how they are referenced in the SRM console:
Table 1–7
Console
Common Devices and How They are Referenced in the SRM
Device
Description
dkaXXX
SCSI device on the first SCSI bus.
Further SCSI busses are denoted
as dkbXXX...
dqaXXX
IDE device on the first IDE bus. Further
IDE busses are denoted as dqbXXX...
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Chapter 1:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/Alpha
Device
Description
dvaXXX
Floppy device
ewaXXX
Ethernet adapter
mkaXXX
SCSI tape device
pkaXXX
SCSI host adapter for the first
SCSI bus. Further SCSI busses are
denoted as pkbXXX...
1.6.1 Pre-Installation Information
To make the Red Hat Linux/Alpha installation go smoothly, you’ll need some information before you begin:
•
The SRM device of the floppy drive. In most cases, the SRM device will be dva0.
•
The SRM device address of your hard drive. For example, in this document,
we’ve used the SRM device dkb0 to refer to the hard drive.
•
The SRM device address of your CD-ROM drive. In this document, we’ve used
device dka500 to refer to the CD-ROM drive.
•
The version number of the kernel you are installing.
To see the list of devices that the SRM console can see, type in the following command:
>>> show dev
A list of the devices that the SRM console is capable of seeing will appear. You must
chose one of these devices from which to boot Red Hat Linux, during the installation
process and every time you wish to boot your machine.
In some cases, however, you may have a SCSI adapter, IDE disks, or networking
hardware that is compatible with Red Hat Linux, but is either not OEM Digital or
Compaq hardware, or is otherwise undetectable by the SRM console. This may not
impede your running Red Hat Linux on your Alpha machine, but you are always
required to boot from a device that the SRM console recognizes.
Section 1.6:SRM Installations
1.6.2 SRM Variables
The SRM console has several variables which store their values in NVRAM, therefore
keeping them between reboots. To see the value of SRM console variables, type in
the command:
>>> show VAR
Replace VAR with the name of the SRM console variable.
To make listing variables easier, you can append an asterisk (*) at any point at the end
of a variable name to show all variables that match the text typed so far. For example,
the following command will show a list of all SRM console variables that begin with
the letter "b":
>>> show b*
A special case of the show command is the show dev command (as previously
mentioned), which lists all the devices that the SRM console can locate.
You can explicitly list all the devices of a particular type that SRM can see on your
machine using the command:
>>> show dev dk
The previous command will show all SRM devices that begin with "dk" (i.e., all SCSI
disks).
To set an SRM console variable, use the command:
>>> set VAR VALUE
In the above command, VAR is the name of the SRM console variable, and VALUE
is the value it should be set to. Integer values do not have to be in quotes; however, it
is recommended that you enclose all string values in quotes. And, while single-word
string values don’t need to be in quotes, it’s easier to ALWAYS put string variable
values in quotes.
To clear a SRM console variable, use the following command:
>>> set VAR ""
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In the above command, VAR is the name of the SRM console variable, and the empty
quotes ("") denote a blank value. Some integer values cannot be cleared, but can be
set to 0. Also note that some SRM console variables are integer in value, but boolean
in nature.
Several SRM console variables are worth mentioning:
BOOT_FILE
The BOOT_FILE variable is equivalent to the -file option of the SRM boot
command.
BOOT_OSFLAGS
The BOOT_OSFLAGS SRM console variable is equivalent to the value passed
to the boot command by the -flags option. It can be set to the value that
you would pass to the -flags parameter of an SRM boot command. At the
very least, it is convenient to set the root=/dev/XXX value.
BOOTDEF_DEV
The BOOTDEF_DEV SRM console variable sets the default boot device used
when the boot command is issued.
1.6.3 SRM Disk Images
Some things have changed for the better since the 5.x releases of Red Hat Linux.
Now there is a single, generic kernel for all Alpha machines. This simplifies Alpha installation immensely. The recommended method for booting into the Red Hat
Linux installation process is to use a floppy disk to load the kernel and to load the
installer directly from the CD-ROM.
All Alpha installations will need the kernel disk, created from the image file /images/generic.img on CD 1. However, if you plan to do an NFS installation, you
will also need to use the RAM disk image from /images/ramdisk.img, also on
CD 1. Instructions for creating disk images are located in Section 1.4.1, Writing an
Image File to a Diskette.
SRM can boot directly from the Red Hat Linux CD that is shipped in the boxed set,
as the CD does have a valid aboot block.
Section 1.6:SRM Installations
53
1.6.4 Booting the Installer
Now that you’ve created the kernel disk, you will need to boot into the Red Hat Linux
installer. The boot command in the SRM console has a simple format and looks like
this:
>>> boot <device> -file <boot file> -flags "<boot flags>"
Please Note
The entire text of all boot flags must be enclosed in doublequotes.
In the SRM console, the first floppy disk device is denoted as dva0. The generic
kernel, contained on the boot disk you created, is called vmlinux.gz, and the
CD-ROM, containing the Red Hat Linux installation program and files, is your CD
device (dka500, in our example). Therefore, the boot command to boot into the installer is as follows:
>>> boot dva0 -file vmlinux.gz -flags "root=/dev/scd0"
If you have an IDE CD-ROM, you will need to know where in the IDE bus it is
installed. It will be one of the following devices, based on its position on the IDE
busses of your machine:
Table 1–8
Location of an IDE CD-ROM on an IDE Bus
Device
Location
hda
First IDE bus, master device
hdb
First IDE bus, slave device
hdc
Second IDE bus, master device
hdd
Second IDE bus, slave device
If your IDE CD-ROM is the first device on the second IDE bus, the boot command
to launch the installer would be:
>>> boot dva0 -file vmlinux.gz -flags "root=/dev/hdc"
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1.6.5 SRM Disk Partitioning
Once you get to the fdisk program, press "b" for BSD-style disk labeling.
BSD-style disk labeling is different in certain ways from the standard fdisk partitioning used in ARC/AlphaBIOS installations and on Intel installations:
•
The partitions are identified by letters (a:, b:, c:...) instead of numbers.
•
The partition types are different. For example, "83" and "82" no longer correspond to "Linux" and "Linux Swap," respectively. In fact, the Linux partition is
referred to as "ext2" in BSD disk labels.
•
You can have a maximum of eight partitions (a: to h:) per drive.
•
The first partition should start on cylinder 2, since the first cylinder may not be
full-size.
•
Partition types must be explicitly set after creation. The BSD disk label program
uses a default partition type of "unknown" which causes the Disk Setup portion
of the installer not to see the partitions.
You will want to create at least three partitions (or more if you chose to put /usr in
a separate partition, etc.)
a:
The a: partition holds the aboot secondary loader. It should be about 2MB,
and set to type "boot."
b:
The b: partition is your swap partition. It should be approximately twice the
size of the amount of physical RAM present in your machine. It should be set
to type "swap."
c: - h:
The c: through h: partitions compose your Linux filesystem layout. They
should be sized as appropriate and set to type "ext2."
Section 1.6:SRM Installations
55
Follow the guidelines in the Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide and in Section 1.5.5, Disk Partitioning for tips and techniques on how to divide your drive into
partitions.
1.6.6 SRM Installation Process
Install Red Hat Linux/Alpha as described in the Official Red Hat Linux Installation
Guide.
1.6.7 Post-Installation Boot Setup
Once the installation has been completed, the machine should be capable of booting
directly from the SRM console. You should then be able to boot in SRM directly
from the hard drive, using the command:
>>> boot <device> -file <boot file> -flags "<boot flags>"
<boot device> is the SRM device on which you installed the aboot secondary boot
loader. <boot file> is the uncompressed kernel file that you installed (as described in
Section 1.6.1, Pre-Installation Information). You will need to preface this with the
number of the partition you have the kernel on (e.g., ‘3’ for the third partition on the
boot device, ‘2’ for the second partition, etc.) and include the full path to the kernel.
<boot flags> are the root device (device mounted as /) and any other kernel flags
that you need to pass.
For example, if you installed aboot on the first SCSI device on the second SCSI
bus (device dkb0), the root of your Linux filesystem is the third partition of your first
SCSI drive (/dev/sda3), and you installed version 2.2.12-20 of the Linux kernel
on a uni-processor machine, then the boot command to boot your Alpha is:
>>> boot dkb0 -file 3/boot/vmlinuz-2.2.12-20 -flags
"root=/dev/sda3"
Please Note
The kernel file you use in the <boot file> parameter may
change.
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1.6.8 SRM Autoboot
The SRM console has the ability to autoboot. It is controlled by the value of the
AUTO_ACTION SRM console variable. AUTO_ACTION can be set to ‘halt’ or
‘boot’ to reflect the default power-on function of the Alpha machine when booted
into the SRM console.
Please Note
When setting the value of the AUTO_ACTION SRM console variable, note that your machine will not be able to return to the SRM console unless you press the ‘HALT’ button
on the machine. Most desktop Alpha machines do not have
a ‘HALT’ button, so you should only set the AUTO_ACTION value to boot if the Alpha machine is a high-availability server that has a ‘HALT’ button on the front panel.
1.6.9 Troubleshooting an SRM Installation
If you encounter problems installing Red Hat Linux/Alpha from SRM, answer the
following questions:
1.
Q: When you tried to boot your Alpha after installation, did the boot process fail
because your machine can’t find any partitions?
A: For SRM installations, you need to use BSD-style disk labeling. You’ll need to
install Red Hat Linux again. Choose the expert installation mode, in order to use
BSD-style disk labels from within fdisk. See Section 1.6.5, SRM Disk Partitioning
for more information about using BSD-style disk labels during SRM installations.
2.
Q: When you tried to boot after installation, did you get an error message which
indicated that no valid boot block was found?
A: Red Hat Linux/Alpha can’t find the secondary boot loader, aboot.
While the installation process puts all the necessary components of the Red Hat
Linux Operating System on your machine, the secondary loader may need to be
Section 1.6:SRM Installations
57
installed manually. The secondary loader initializes the hardware and loads the
Linux kernel into memory so it can bootstrap the machine.
Boot the installer. Switch to the command prompt on the TTY2 console with
the following key combination: [Alt]-[F2]. After you’ve switched to the command
prompt, verify that your root directory is mounted with the following command:
# mount
This should show the partition you selected to be mounted as / currently mounted
as /mnt. Temporarily make it the root directory by issuing the command:
# chroot /mnt
Install the secondary boot loader, aboot. Install aboot to the disk from which
you will be booting, using the swriteboot command. If you plan to boot your
Alpha from the first SCSI hard disk, execute the swriteboot command like this:
bash# /sbin/swriteboot /dev/sda /boot/bootlx
If you plan to boot your Alpha from the second IDE device, the swriteboot
command should be executed like this:
bash# /sbin/swriteboot /dev/hdb /boot/bootlx
Please Note
If you are prompted to use the -fX option because
swriteboot will overwrite the partition data of
partition X, then your a: partition is not large enough,
and you will have to re-partition your drive and increase
the size of the a: partition.
Once the aboot secondary loader has been installed, type the following command to exit the temporary root device set using the chroot command:
bash# exit
Now switch back to TTY1 using the following keystrokes:
installer.
[Alt]-[F1]
and exit the
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Now try to boot your machine as stated in Section 1.6.7, Post-Installation Boot
Setup.
3.
Q: Have you checked the Errata page on Red Hat’s website?
A: Check Red Hat’s Errata page at http://www.redhat.com/errata for a solution to
your problem.
Section 2.1:Supported Hardware
2 Information Specific to Red Hat
Linux/SPARC
This chapter describes the differences between Red Hat Linux/SPARC and Red Hat
Linux/Intel installations. While it provides a good overview of these differences, you
will find it easier to read through the Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide first.
The Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide will refer you to the appropriate parts
of this document at the appropriate time.
In addition, there is a Linux/SPARC Web page at http://www.ultralinux.org.
This Web page provides a wealth of information for people considering Red Hat
Linux/SPARC.
2.1 Supported Hardware
Red Hat Linux/SPARC supports a variety of hardware based on the SPARC architecture. The most recent list of hardware supported on Red Hat Linux/SPARC can be
found on Red Hat’s Web site at http://www.redhat.com/hardware.
The following list was current at the time this manual was produced:
•
sun4c architecture machines (IPC, SS1, etc)
•
sun4m architecture machines (Classic, SS5, SS10, etc)
•
sun4u (UltraSPARC-1, UltraSPARC-2, UltraSPARC-5, Ultra-SPARC-10, Enterprise UltraSparc servers)
•
bwtwo, cg3, cg6, TCX frame buffers (24 bit on the TCX)
•
Creator, Creator3D, and Elite3D frame buffers (on UltraSPARC systems)
•
Mach64/PGX24/PCI and PGX32/PCI frame buffers (on UltraSPARC systems)
•
LEO frame buffer (on sun4m systems)
•
cg14 frame buffer (in cg3 mode)
•
SCSI and Ethernet on all of the above
•
type 4, type 5 and type 6 keyboards and mice
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Chapter 2:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/SPARC
•
external SCSI drives
•
CD-ROM drives (external and internal)
•
SCSI/Ether SBUS expansion cards
•
Any original equipment Sun monitor for the frame buffers listed
Unsupported Hardware -- The following list contains hardware that is currently unsupported:
•
VME-based sun4m machines, such as the 4/690
•
SPARC 5 Model 170 machines
•
sun4d (SS1000, SS2000)
•
sun4 architecture
•
Eurocard sun4c machines, called the "sun4e" under Solaris2.4 and others, are
not supported. These are VME-bus sun4c machines, to which the kernel has not
been ported yet.
•
The following types of CD-ROMs are unsupported (for more information on
CD-ROM compatibility issues, please visit http://saturn.tlug.org/suncdfaq):
•
All NEC models
•
Some Toshiba XM-4101B revisions
•
Toshiba XM-3201B
•
AppleCD 300 Plus on older SPARC PROM
•
Apple CD600i
2.2 Installation Overview
Installing Red Hat Linux on a SPARC system is slightly more complex than installing
Red Hat Linux/Intel, mostly due to differences in machine architecture. In general,
the main steps to a successful installation are:
1.
Determine which console commands your SPARC system supports.
Section 2.3:Console Commands
2.
Determine whether you have sufficient memory to use a RAM disk-based installation.
3.
Determine how you will boot the installation program.
4.
Determine what installation method you will use.
5.
Determine whether you will install Red Hat Linux/SPARC from a serial terminal.
6.
Load and run the Red Hat Linux installation program.
The remainder of this chapter looks at each of these steps in more detail.
2.3 Console Commands
SPARC systems have two different types of boot commands available, depending on
the version of the system’s console PROM. Systems with a PROM version less than
2.0 use what is known as the old style boot command, while systems whose PROM
is at version 2.0 or greater can use either the old or the new style boot commands. If
your SPARC system’s console prompt is ok, then your system is in new command
mode, and can use the new style boot command.
In general, it’s preferable to use the new style boot command if your system supports
it. Of course, it’s possible to use the old style boot command, but you’ll need to know
a bit more about your hardware configuration. An excellent reference on older Sun
hardware in general (and the old-style boot commands in particular) can be found in
The Sun Hardware Reference FAQ, originally by James W. Birdsall. Unfortunately,
the Sun Hardware Reference FAQ is not being maintained at this time. However, if
you need that type of information, search for the Sun Hardware Reference FAQ on
the Web, and you’ll find archived copies in various places. Within the Sun Hardware
Reference FAQ, the file part2 contains an in-depth description of the various "ROM
monitors" present in older Sun Systems.
In general, the new style boot command is boot, followed by a descriptive device
name (such as floppy, cdrom, or net).
The old style boot command is b, followed by a device specifier in the form:
xx(a,b,c)
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Where xx is used to specify the device type (such as sd for SCSI disks), a is the controller number, b, is the device’s unit number, and c is the partition number. Please
refer to The Sun Hardware Reference if you have an older SPARC system and require
additional information on its boot command syntax.
2.4 RAM Disk-Based Installation Criteria
When the Red Hat Linux/SPARC installation starts, normally a RAM disk is loaded
into memory. This RAM disk contains data and programs required to perform the
installation, and is approximately 4 MB in size. Since the RAM disk takes memory away from the Red Hat Linux/SPARC installation program, your SPARC system
must have at least 12 MB of memory in order to sucessfully use a RAM disk-based
installation.
Please Note
Red Hat Linux/SPARC may also be installed by booting
from the Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM. This method
doesn’t use a RAM disk, as the necessary files are already
present on the Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM. We will
discuss booting from CD-ROM in Section 2.5.2, Booting
From CD-ROM.
2.5 Choosing a Boot Method
This section describes how to start (or boot) the installation program. Once the
installation program is running, you will be able to choose from several installation
methods. You can choose from the following installation methods: CD-ROM, hard
disk, FTP and HTTP. (Note that if the installation program is booted directly from
CD-ROM, the installation will automatically proceed from that CD-ROM.)
There are three different ways a Red Hat Linux/SPARC installation can be started:
•
Boot From Diskette -- The installation program is read from a diskette.
Section 2.5:Choosing a Boot Method
•
Boot From CD-ROM -- The installation program is read directly from the Red
Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM.
•
Boot From the Network -- The installation program is read from a TFTP server.
2.5.1 Booting From Diskette
If your SPARC system has a diskette drive, you can boot the Red Hat Linux/SPARC
installation program from a diskette. (Note that if your machine is an Ultra5 or
Ultra10, you can’t boot from diskette and you’ll need to choose another boot
method.) The boot diskette image (known as boot32.img for sun4c and sun4m;
and bootimg64.img for UltraSparc) is located in the images/ directory on
your Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM. A RAM disk diskette image (known as
ramdisk.img) is also available. You’ll need to write one or more of these files
to diskette(s).
To start, you’ll need a blank, formatted, high-density (1.44 MB), 3.5-inch diskette.
You’ll need access to a computer with a 3.5-inch diskette drive and the capability of
running a DOS program or the dd utility program found on most Linux-like operating
systems.
Making a Diskette Under MS-DOS
To make a diskette under MS-DOS, use the rawrite utility included on the Red
Hat Linux CD in the dosutils directory. First, label a blank, formatted 3.5-inch
diskette appropriately (eg. "Boot Diskette," "Supplemental Diskette," etc). Insert it
into the diskette drive. Then, use the following commands (assuming your CD is
drive d:):
C:\> d:
D:\> cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils> rawrite
Enter disk image source file name:
..\images\boot.img
Enter target diskette drive: a:
Please insert a formatted diskette into drive A: and
press --ENTER-- : [Enter]
D:\dosutils>
rawrite first asks you for the filename of a diskette image; enter the directory and
name of the image you wish to write (for example, ..\images\boot32.img).
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Then rawrite asks for a diskette drive to write the image to; enter a:. Finally,
rawrite asks for confirmation that a formatted diskette is in the drive you’ve
selected. After pressing [Enter] to confirm, rawrite copies the image file onto
the diskette. If you need to make another diskette, label another diskette, and run
rawrite again, specifying the appropriate image file.
Making a Diskette Under a UNIX-like OS
To make a diskette under Linux (or any other UNIX-like operating system), you must
have permission to write to the device representing a 3.5-inch diskette drive (known
as /dev/fd0 under Linux). First, label a blank, formatted diskette appropriately
(eg. "Boot Diskette," "Supplemental Diskette," etc.). Insert it into the diskette drive
(but don’t issue a mount command). After mounting the Red Hat Linux CD, cd
to the directory containing the desired image file, and use the following command
(changing the name of the image file and diskette device as appropriate):
# dd if=boot32.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k
If you need to make another diskette, label another diskette, and run dd again, specifying the appropriate image file.
As a final note, make sure you label the boot and RAM disk diskettes appropriately.
Diskette Boot Commands
For SPARC systems with a PROM version of 2.0 or greater, the proper boot command
(when in new command mode) is:
boot floppy
On the other hand, SPARC systems with PROM versions less than 2.0 should use the
following command at the \symgt prompt:
b fd()
Section 2.5:Choosing a Boot Method
Please Note
There have been reports that some systems with pre-2.0
PROMs cannot boot the Red Hat Linux/SPARC installation
program from diskette. Also, PCI-based UltraSPARC
machines cannot boot from diskette. If this is the case with
your SPARC system, you will need to use another boot
method.
2.5.2 Booting From CD-ROM
If your SPARC system has a fully Sun-supported CD-ROM drive, you can boot directly from the Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM. For SPARC systems with a PROM
version of 2.0 or better, use the following command when in new command mode:
boot cdrom
SPARC systems with PROM versions less than 2.0 may not be able to boot from a
CD-ROM at all, although we’ve received reports that at least some PROM 1.3 systems have been able to boot from CD-ROM. If your SPARC system has a CD-ROM
at SCSI id 6, the following command should boot the Red Hat Linux/SPARC installation program:
b sd(0,6,0)
Note that using an NFS-mounted root after booting from CD-ROM is not supported,
as the filesystem on the Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM performs the same function
as an NFS-mounted root. Therefore, no additional boot command arguments should
be given for CD-ROM boots.
2.5.3 Booting From the Network
The Red Hat Linux/SPARC can network boot with a network-loaded RAM disk. This
method can be used by systems with at least 16 MB of RAM. While booting your
SPARC system from the network is fairly straightforward, there are several requirements:
•
Your SPARC system must have a network connection.
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Chapter 2:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/SPARC
•
Your network must be able to give your SPARC system its IP address via a rarp.
•
You must have a TFTP server that can download the Red Hat Linux/SPARC
kernel and installation program to your SPARC system.
TFTP Server Setup
If you are going to set up a TFTP server on a Red Hat Linux system, simply install
the latest tftp package using RPM, and make sure the line in inetd.conf that
will run tftp is uncommented. Don’t forget to kill -HUP inetd if you needed
to make any changes to inetd.conf.
Next, you’ll need to make a symlink describing the SPARC system to be booted, and
pointing to the file from which it should boot. The name of the symlink contains
either one or two items:
1.
2.
The IP address of the system to be booted, in hexadecimal.
A string describing the architecture of the system to be booted (only sun4c and
sun4m machines need this part).
To convert the more common "dotted decimal" IP address into its hex equivalent,
convert each of the four groups of numbers in the IP address into hex. If the resulting
hex number is only one digit, add a leading zero to it. Then append all four hex
numbers together. For example, take the IP address 10.0.2.254. Convert each set of
four numbers into hex, and add a leading zero where necessary:
10
0
2
254
=
=
=
=
A
0
2
FE
or
or
or
or
0A
00
02
FE
Therefore, the IP address 10.0.2.254 in hex is: 0A0002FE.
If you have perl available on a system, you can use the following command (modified to include your system’s IP address, of course) to have your IP address converted
for you:
# perl -e ’printf "%02x"x4 ."\n",10,0,2,254;’
0a0002fe
#
In this example, perl converted 10.0.2.254.
Section 2.6:Choosing an Installation Method
The second part of the symlink name is the SPARC system’s architecture. Only
sun4m and sun4c machines need this part. For our example, we’ll use sun4m. The
IP address and architecture are separated by a dot, resulting in this symlink name:
0A0002FE.SUN4M
The last step is figuring out what this symlink should point to. If you’re using a RAM
disk, use one of these files:
/images/tftp32.img -- for sun4c and sun4m
/images/tftp64.img -- for UltraSparc
Place the appropriate file in the TFTP server’s directory, and create the symlink. In
this example, we’re using the image that includes a RAM disk:
ln -s tftp32.img 0A0002FE.SUN4M or
ln -s tftp64.img 0A0002FE
Network Boot Commands
You’re now ready to boot. If you’re going to boot tftp32.img or tftp64.img,
simply use the following command (in new command mode):
boot net
2.6 Choosing an Installation Method
Once your SPARC system has booted, and the installation program is running,
you’ll be asked to choose an installation method (unless you’ve booted directly
from CD-ROM, in which case a CD-ROM installation method is assumed). Red Hat
Linux/SPARC can be installed by any of the following methods:
•
Installing packages from CD-ROM.
•
Installing packages from an FTP site.
•
Installing packages from an NFS server.
•
Installing packages from a locally-attached hard disk.
•
Installing packages from an HTTP site.
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Chapter 2:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/SPARC
2.6.1 CD-ROM Installation
This is the most straightforward method. It requires a Red Hat Linux/SPARC
CD-ROM, and a Sun-supported CD-ROM connected to your SPARC system.
2.6.2 FTP Installation
This installation method requires a local area network connection and access to an
FTP site with the Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM (or equivalent files).
2.6.3 NFS Installation
Installing via NFS requires a local area network connection and access to an NFS
server that can export the contents of the Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM (or equivalent files).
2.6.4 Hard Disk Installation
This installation method requires that the contents of the Red Hat Linux/SPARC
CD-ROM (or equivalent files) have been copied to a hard disk directly attached to
your SPARC system. It is important to note that the partition holding these files cannot be used for any other purpose during the installation (i.e., it cannot be given a
mount point during the installation). In addition, the partition must be in ext2 format.
2.6.5 HTTP Installation
This installation method requires a local area network connection and access to an
HTTP site with the Red Hat Linux/SPARC CD-ROM (or equivalent files).
2.7 Installation Using a Serial Terminal
You can also install Red Hat Linux/SPARC using a serial terminal attached to your
SPARC system. Any terminal which can emulate a VT100 (or a computer with terminal emulation software) will work fine. Boot as you would normally, and at the
SILO prompt enter:
boot net
The installation program runs on the first serial port at 9600 baud, 8 bits, no parity, 1
stop bit (often called 9600,8,N,1). The installation program can run in color, if your
Section 2.9:Partitioning
69
serial terminal supports color. Note that a computer running kermit and connected
to your SPARC system will display in color.
At any prompt dialog during a serial installation (any dialog with an Ok button), you
can press [Ctrl]-[Z] to start a subshell. To return to the installation program, enter exit
at the shell prompt.
When the installation is complete, simply boot normally, and Red Hat Linux should
appear on your serial terminal.
Please Note
If you install your system using a frame buffer and keyboard
and you want to change your system to a "headless" installation, remove the keyboard and attach a serial console to the
workstation. Confirm the system changes in kudzu during
system bootup and your serial console will be configured.
2.8 SILO Configuration
SILO configuration is nearly identical to LILO configuration. See the Official Red
Hat Linux Installation Guide for more details.
2.9 Partitioning
Please Note
In Red Hat Linux/SPARC 6.1, Disk Druid can be used to initialize disk labels on a SPARC. Disk Druid no longer uses
the third partition slot for non-whole disk partitions and automatically creates the whole disk partition if the third partition slot is free.
There is one additional step required when partitioning a hard drive for Red Hat
Linux/SPARC. You must create the third partition of every disk as type "Whole Disk,"
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Chapter 2:Information Specific to Red Hat Linux/SPARC
spanning from cylinder 0 to the end of the disk. It shouldn’t be used in any way, but
it must exist. You can still create other partitions as you normally would.
Note that this partition will already exist on any disk that has been used under SunOS
or Solaris. If you are partitioning a new disk, you can use fdisk’s s command to
create a standard disk label (which includes the whole-disk partition). If you don’t
care for the size of the other partitions created by s, you can delete those partitions
and recreate them with the sizes you want.
Index
Index
A
Alpha
boot diskette, creating .............37
boot images .........................35
cable modems ......................32
CD-ROM devices ..................26
disk space needed ................... 8
diskette images .....................35
homepage ............................ 7
installation overview ............... 8
introduction to installing on ....... 7
ISDN adapters......................32
mice..................................31
MILO diskette, creating...........37
modems .............................32
network interface cards ...........24
partitioning disks...................45
printers ..............................32
RAM disk diskette .................38
scanners .............................35
SCSI adapters ......................18
sound cards .........................30
SRM console ........................ 8
support terminology ...............11
supported hardware ................. 9
supported hardware website ....... 9
systems ..............................13
testing hardware....................10
troubleshooting SRM
installation ....................56
video cards..........................27
71
AlphaBIOS
setting up for installation .........41
ARC
setting up for installation .........39
Autoboot
SRM .................................56
B
boot diskette for Alpha, creating....37
boot images for Alpha................35
boot method selection for SPARC..62
booting from diskette for SPARC ..63
booting the installer with MILO ....45
BSD
style disk labelling .................45
C
CD-ROM boot commands, SPARC 65
CD-ROM Installation
for SPARC ..........................68
configuration
SILO .................................69
console commands for SPARC .....61
D
dd........................................36
dd, creating installation diskette
with ...............................64
devices
MILO ................................43
Digital Unix ...........................45
disk labelling
72
Index
BSD style ...........................45
disk partitioning
SRM .................................54
disk partitioning, SPARC ............69
disk-based installation for SPARC .68
diskette
boot, creating .......................63
network boot, creating ............63
PCMCIA support, creating .......63
diskette boot commands, SPARC...64
diskette images for Alpha............35
diskette, making under a UNIX-like
OS.................................64
diskette, making with MS-DOS.....63
F
filesystems
MILO support for ..................43
FTP Installation
for SPARC ..........................68
H
hard disk installation
for SPARC ..........................68
hardware supported by Alpha ........ 9
hardware supported by SPARC .....59
HTTP Installation
for SPARC ..........................68
I
image file, writing to diskette .......36
installation
SRM .................................55
installation method, choosing for
SPARC ...........................67
installation overview for Alpha ...... 8
installation overview for SPARC ...60
installations
MILO ................................38
SRM .................................49
Installing aboot .....................46
installing MILO to hard drive .......47
M
milo
trouble with .........................38
updated images.....................38
MILO
autoboot .............................49
booting the installer................45
devices...............................43
installations .........................38
installing to hard drive ............47
supported filesystems .............43
user interface .......................42
variables.............................44
MILO diskette for Alpha, creating .37
MS-DOS
creating installation diskette
with ............................63
N
network boot commands, SPARC ..65
network boot commands, SPARC
install .............................67
Index
NFS Installation
for SPARC ..........................68
P
partitioning disks on Alpha..........45
R
RAM disk diskette for Alpha,
creating ...........................38
RAM disk, criteria for use on
SPARC ...........................62
rawrite ..............................36
rawrite, creating installation diskette
with ...............................63
S
serial terminal installation for
SPARC ...........................68
SILO configuration ...................69
SPARC
boot method, choosing ............62
booting
from diskette.....................63
CD-ROM boot commands ........65
CD-ROM installation..............68
choosing installation method .....67
console commands.................61
disk partitioning....................69
diskette boot commands ..........64
FTP installation ....................68
hard disk installation ..............68
HTTP installation ..................68
installation overview ..............60
73
installation with serial terminal ..68
network boot commands ..........65
NFS installation ....................68
overview of information specific
to ...............................59
RAM disk criteria..................62
SILO configuration ................69
supported hardware ................59
unsupported CD-ROMs ...........60
unsupported hardware .............60
using network boot commands...67
using TFTP during install.........66
SPARC-specific information ........59
SRM
Autoboot ............................56
booting the installer from .........53
disk images .........................52
disk partitioning....................54
installation ..........................55
installations .........................49
post-installation boot setup .......55
secondary boot loader
installation ....................56
variables.............................51
SRM console for Alpha ............... 8
T
TFTP setup, SPARC install..........66
U
UNIX-like O/S
creating installation diskette
with ............................64
74
Index
V
variables
MILO ................................44
SRM .................................51
W
whole disk label .......................45