Interfaces - Oracle Access Manager Operation Error

JNCIA
Juniper™ Networks
Certified Internet Associate
Study Guide - Chapter 2
by Joseph M. Soricelli
with John L. Hammond, Galina Diker Pildush,
Thomas E. Van Meter, and Todd M. Warble
This book was originally developed by Juniper Networks Inc. in conjunction with
Sybex Inc. It is being offered in electronic format because the original book
(ISBN: 0-7821-4071-8) is now out of print. Every effort has been made to remove
the original publisher's name and references to the original bound book and its
accompanying CD. The original paper book may still be available in used book
stores or by contacting, John Wiley & Sons, Publishers. www.wiley.com.
Copyright © 2003-6 by Juniper Networks Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication may be used in assisting students to prepare for a Juniper
JNCIA exam but Juniper Networks Inc. cannot warrant that use of this
publication will ensure passing the relevant exam.
Chapter
2
Interfaces
JNCIA EXAM OBJECTIVES COVERED IN
THIS CHAPTER:
Identify valid options for interface names and protocol
families within the JUNOS software
Describe the function of CLI commands used to monitor
interfaces
In this chapter, we present the basic skills required to configure and
monitor interfaces on a Juniper Networks router. We compare permanent and transient interfaces, and take a look at the JUNOS
software interface nomenclature. Next, we discuss the physical and logical properties of different
interface types, focusing on the configuration of protocol families and virtual circuits.
Once the foundation has been laid, we explore several configuration examples of interfaces.
The chapter concludes with a presentation of the JUNOS software command-line interface
(CLI) commands used to monitor the status of interfaces, verify their operation, and perform
troubleshooting.
Types of Interfaces
A Juniper Networks platform contains two types of interfaces. Permanent interfaces are
always present in each router, while transient interfaces are inserted in or removed from the
router by a user.
Permanent Interfaces
The permanent interfaces on a Juniper Networks platform perform two vital roles—management
and operation. The management functionality is performed primarily by the fxp0 interface. This
Management Ethernet interface provides you with an out-of-band method for connecting to the
router. This connection uses utilities such as Secure Shell (SSH) and Telnet to allow a remote user
to manage and configure the router.
The fxp0 interface on a Juniper Networks router does not provide forwarding
capabilities for transit data packets. It is used only for user management connectivity to the router.
The operation of a Juniper Networks platform itself relies on the Internal Ethernet interface, fxp1. The fxp1 interface connects the Routing Engine to the Packet Forwarding Engine.
This communications link is how routing protocol packets reach the Routing Engine to update
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63
the routing table. The forwarding table updates reach the Packet Forwarding Engine across this
interface as well.
The Internal Ethernet interface is configured, addressed, and enabled automatically when the JUNOS software boots. There is never a reason to configure or
disable the fxp1 interface. Altering the default behavior can seriously impair
the router’s ability to perform its functions.
Transient Interfaces
When you talk about a router’s interfaces, you often mean the interfaces that receive a user’s
data packet and then transmit that packet toward the final destination. For a Juniper Networks
platform, these are transient interfaces. These interfaces are physically located on a Physical
Interface Card (PIC) and can be inserted and removed from the router at any time. This property gives them their transient nature.
You must configure each transient interface before using it for operational purposes. In addition, the JUNOS software allows you to configure transient interfaces that are not currently in
the physical chassis. As the software activates the router’s configuration, it detects which interfaces are actually present and activates only those transient interfaces. Should you install new
physical interfaces in the router (for which some configuration exists), the JUNOS software
activates the parameters for that transient interface.
You will learn how to configure transient interfaces in the “Interface Properties” section later
in this chapter. Next, we discuss the naming structure for transient interfaces.
For the remainder of this book, any reference to the term interface should be
interpreted as a transient interface. References to fxp0 and fxp1 as permanent
interfaces will be explicitly stated.
Interface Naming
In Chapter 1, “The Components of a Juniper Networks Router,” we saw that a router’s interfaces are located on a PIC. The PIC is located on a particular Flexible PIC Concentrator (FPC),
which is inserted in a router’s chassis. This physical placement of interfaces becomes quite
important when we start referencing them within the configuration. Each interface receives a
unique name based on this location in the router. Let’s see how this works.
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Interfaces
Interface Naming Structure
The JUNOS software follows a consistent naming structure of media_type-fpc/pic/port
.unit. The portions of the interface names include the following:
media_type
A two-character designator that uniquely identifies the type of physical interface
fpc
The physical slot in the chassis where the interface is located
pic
The slot on the FPC that contains the interface
port
The location on the PIC where the interface port is located
unit
The logical portion of the interface that contains properties, such as an IP address
Let’s examine each of these interface portions in more detail.
Media Types
The media type portion of the interface name allows the JUNOS software to identify each physical interface. The two-letter representation relates closely to the actual type of interface used. Several interface types are available; some of the more prevalent types are listed here:
ae
Aggregated Ethernet interface
as
Aggregated SONET/SDH interface
at
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) interface
ds
DS0 interface (including Multichannelized DS-3 interfaces)
e1
E1 interface (including Channelized STM-1 to E1 interfaces)
e3
E3 interface
es
Encryption interface
fe
Fast Ethernet interface
fxp
Management and Internal Ethernet interfaces
ge
Gigabit Ethernet interface
gr
Generic Route Encapsulation tunnel interface
ip
IP-over-IP encapsulation tunnel interface
lo
Loopback interface
so
SONET/SDH interface
t1
T1 interface (including Channelized DS-3)
t3
T3 interface (including Channelized OC-12 interfaces)
Interface Naming
65
The fxp interfaces are the only current interface types that do not follow the
two-letter designator format. These interfaces are special in their function, and
this uniqueness is represented in their media type descriptor. The “Permanent
Interfaces” section earlier in this chapter describes the fxp interfaces in more
detail.
FPC Slot Numbers
The FPC slots in a Juniper Networks router begin at 0. Each router model contains a specific
number of slots that range from 1 to 8. The slot number is printed directly on the router chassis.
Figure 2.1 shows the FPC slots on the M40, M40e, M160, T320, and T640 platforms. These
are numbered 0 through 7 in a left-to-right fashion.
FIGURE 2.1
Eight-slot chassis
M40e
M160
M40
0 1 2 3
4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
T320
T640
The M20 platform has four horizontal slots numbered 0 through 3, top to bottom. Figure 2.2
displays this pattern.
FIGURE 2.2
Four-slot chassis
M20
0
1
2
3
The remaining router platforms, M5 and M10, share the same chassis platform, with each
model supporting a different number of slots. The M5 has a single slot, numbered 0, while the
M10 has two slots, numbered 0 and 1. Figure 2.3 shows these platforms and their slot numbers.
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FIGURE 2.3
Interfaces
M5 and M10 chassis platforms
M5
M10
0
0
1
PIC Slot Numbers
PIC slot numbers also begin at 0 and have a maximum value of 3. They are physically printed
on the FPC and represent the location of the PIC on the FPC module. The numbering scheme
follows the physical layout of the Juniper Networks platforms. The vertical FPC slots use the
same numbering, while the horizontal slots use a different one. Figure 2.4 details the differences
between these patterns.
FIGURE 2.4
PIC slot numbering
0
1
M40, M40e, M160, and T640
• Top to bottom
2
3
0
T320
• Top to bottom
M5, M10, and M20
• Right to left
1
3
2
1
0
The vast majority of FPCs for a Juniper Networks platform contain four PIC slots (numbered
0 through 3). Some physical PICs are quad-wide and combine the PIC with an FPC in a single
FPC slot. In this situation, the PIC slot number is always set to 0.
PIC Port Numbers
The physical media cable in your network (for example, Ethernet or SONET) actually connects to a port on the PIC. These ports are also numbered and represent a portion of the interface naming structure. The number of ports on a PIC varies, as does the numbering pattern on
Interface Naming
67
the PIC itself. The actual port numbers are physically printed on the PIC for accuracy. While it
is not an exhaustive list, Figure 2.5 shows some of the different numbering schemes.
FIGURE 2.5
PIC port numbering
0
M40 and M40e
• Top to bottom
• Right to left
2
0
3
1
1
2
3
M5, M10, and M20
• Right to left
• Bottom to top
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
Logical Unit and Channel Numbers
The logical unit portion of the interface name corresponds to the unit number assigned within
the interface configuration hierarchy. This value is a number in the range of 0 to 16384. Interfaces within the JUNOS software always contain a logical configuration, so some value is always
present in the naming scheme. (We cover logical interface configuration in the “Logical Properties” section later in this chapter.)
Some physical interfaces use a channel number instead of a unit number to represent their logical configuration. For example, a nonconcatenated (that is, channelized) SONET/SDH OC-48
interface has four OC-12 channels, numbered 0 through 3. A channelized OC-12 interface has 12
DS-3 channels, numbered 0 through 11.
Interface Naming Examples
Now that we’ve gotten the details out of the way, let’s see if we can bring the concepts together
with some concrete examples. Suppose a router has two OC-3 PICs in slots 0 and 1 on an FPC
in slot 1. Each of the PICs contains two ports. The names of these interfaces are:
so-1/0/0.0
so-1/0/1.0
so-1/1/0.0
so-1/1/1.0
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When an FPC in slot 3 contains four OC-12 ATM PICs, the FPC becomes fully populated.
Each PIC supports a single physical port. The interface names when each port has a single logical unit assigned are:
at-3/0/0.0
at-3/1/0.0
at-3/2/0.0
at-3/3/0.0
The OC-48 SONET FPC in an M40 router is an example of a quad-wide PIC. Should this
PIC be installed in slot 6, it appears as PIC slot 0 with a single port 0. The JUNOS software representation becomes:
so-6/0/0.0
A channelized OC-12 PIC contains 12 logical DS-3 channels. When installed in PIC slot 2 on
FPC slot 2, the channels are represented as:
t3-2/2/0:0
t3-2/2/0:1
t3-2/2/0:2
t3-2/2/0:3
t3-2/2/0:4
t3-2/2/0:5
t3-2/2/0:6
t3-2/2/0:7
t3-2/2/0:8
t3-2/2/0:9
t3-2/2/0:10
t3-2/2/0:11
Interface Properties
Interfaces in the JUNOS software contain both physical and logical properties. The actual media
type (such as Ethernet or SONET) often determines the physical properties of the interface. An
interface’s logical properties represent the Layer 3 routing and Layer 2 transmission parameters
needed to operate the interface in a network. Let’s examine the physical properties first.
Physical Properties
Each interface in the router inherits certain default values for its physical properties. When the
JUNOS software activates an interface, it assigns these values. The list of possible physical options
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69
and changes is exhausting, but a few values are more commonly used than others. These properties include the following:
Description A user-defined text description is available for all interfaces. This is often used
to describe the interface’s purpose.
Diagnostic characteristics Circuit-testing capabilities, such as loopback settings or Bit Error
Rate Test (BERT) tests, are user-configured on a per-physical interface basis. (We discuss these
tools in the “Useful Interface Commands” section later in this chapter.)
Encapsulation
Options for encapsulation types vary for different media types.
Frame check sequence (FCS) This field is used for error-checking received packets. You
can change the default value from a 16-bit field to a 32-bit mode.
Interface clock source Point-to-point interfaces require a clocking source for synchronization
purposes. Options here include internal (the default) or external.
Interface MTU size The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the physical interface can be
changed. Each interface has a different default value; the possible range is 256 to 9192 bytes.
Keepalives A keepalive is a physical-layer mechanism that is used to determine whether
the interface is operating correctly. With the exception of ATM interfaces, each interface uses
keepalives by default. You can disable this function.
Payload scrambling Scrambling is a mechanism used for long-haul communications to
assist in an error-free transmission. Most interfaces in the JUNOS software use a default value
of payload-scrambler, but you can disable this function as well.
Connecting to Another Vendor’s Router
When two Juniper Networks routers are connected, the default physical properties allow the
network link to operate normally. However, the physical interface defaults do not always match
the operational parameters of another vendor. In situations like this, you must change the operation of one side of the link to allow the connection to fully function.
One good example of this is connecting a SONET point-to-point link to a router from Cisco Systems. The default encapsulation type for a SONET link within the JUNOS software is the Pointto-Point Protocol (PPP). A Cisco Systems router, on the other hand, uses a Cisco proprietary format of the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) protocol. The JUNOS software supports this
HDLC format on point-to-point interfaces using the keyword cisco-hdlc. Once configured,
your Juniper Networks router and Cisco Systems router can interoperate and pass user data
traffic.
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Logical Properties
Each and every interface within the JUNOS software requires at least one logical interface,
called a unit. This is where all addressing and protocol information is configured. Some physical
encapsulations allow only a single logical unit. PPP and Cisco-HDLC fall into this category.
Logical interfaces, such as the loopback, and non-VLAN Ethernet also provide for only one logical unit. In both situations, the logical interface is assigned a unit value of 0.
Multiple logical interface units are often used in ATM, Frame Relay, and VLAN tagged Ethernet networks. In these cases, each logical unit is assigned a Virtual Circuit Identifier (VCI), DataLink Connection Identifier (DLCI), or Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) number, respectively.
This system allows you to map multiple logical interfaces onto a single physical interface. The
JUNOS software views each logical interface as a separate entity.
Common logical interface properties include a protocol family, logical Layer 3 addressing,
MTU, and virtual circuit (Layer 2) addressing information.
Protocol Families
Each logical interface in the JUNOS software has the ability to support one or more protocol
families. These families enable the logical interface to accept and process data packets for the
router. Without their configuration, the interface drops any unknown transmissions. Currently
four possible protocol families are available for your use:
inet
The inet protocol family supports IP version 4 (IPv4) packets.
inet6 To allow support for IP version 6 (IPv6) data packets, each interface can be configured
with the inet6 protocol family.
iso The Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing protocol uses a data link
encapsulation defined by the International Standards Organization (ISO). The iso protocol family
allows the processing of these packet types. (IS-IS is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 7.)
mpls The mpls protocol family provides support for processing packets encoded with a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) label. This label information allows the router to forward the
data packet. (We discuss MPLS in greater detail in Chapter 11.)
Protocol Addresses
A protocol address is a logical Layer 3 value used to route user packets in a network. For example,
an IPv4 address of 192.168.1.1 /24 is a protocol address. The JUNOS software allows addressing
for the inet, inet6, and iso protocol families. The inet family provides the capability to assign
multiple addresses to each logical unit, with each address equally represented on the interface. In
this situation, you encounter the concepts of the primary address and the preferred address.
A single primary address is assigned to each interface. By default, it is the lowest numerical
IP address configured. For example, 10.10.10.1 /24 is a lower value than 172.16.1.1 /24. The
primary address is used as the source address of a packet when the destination address is not
local to a configured subnet. Let’s look at an example.
Cabernet has both 10.10.10.1 /24 and 172.16.1.1 /24 configured on its fe-0/0/0.0 interface.
You use the ping command to form an IPv4 packet with a destination address of 192.168.100.10.
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71
This packet is ready for transmission on the fe-0/0/0.0 interface. Since the destination address
is not part of the interface’s subnets, the primary interface address of 10.10.10.1 is used as the
source IP address within the packet.
Unlike the primary address, a logical unit may have multiple preferred addresses at the same
time. The preferred address is used when an interface has two addresses configured within the
same subnet. The default selection of the preferred address is similar to the primary address in that
the lowest numerical prefix is selected. The use of the preferred address is also similar in that it
assists the interface in selecting the source IP address of a packet.
We’ve added the 172.16.1.100 /24 address to Cabernet’s fe-0/0/0.0 interface. This time,
we issue the ping command to the destination of 172.16.1.200. The outgoing subnet is known
to the interface, so the primary address is not automatically used. The local address within the
subnet is used instead, but in our case we have two addresses configured in the subnet. The preferred address of 172.16.1.1 is used in this case as the source IP address.
You will find examples of defining different protocol families, protocol addresses,
and altering the primary and preferred addresses in the “Configuration Examples”
section later in this chapter.
Multiple Addresses on an Interface
The discussion on primary and preferred addresses for an interface brings up an interesting
point. The JUNOS software allows multiple IP addresses on a logical unit. A Cisco Systems interface allows multiple IP addresses by using a concept called a secondary address. In this case,
only the primary address is used for all interface functions. A Juniper Networks router, on the
other hand, sees no functional difference between the addresses on its interfaces. All addresses
are equal to the operating system. Each address forms routing protocol neighbor relationships,
and each is advertised into the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP).
This default behavior means that you must take care when changing IP addresses on an interface.
Simply configuring the new address results in multiple addresses assigned to the interface. You
have two main methods for avoiding this issue. First, you can remove the old address by using
the delete command prior to configuring the new address. Second, you can change the old
address to the new address by using the rename command.
The use of rename is covered in Chapter 4, “Routing Policy.” In addition, Chapter 4 contains a
sidebar titled “Other Uses for rename.”
Protocol MTU
An MTU value can be configured for each logical unit in the router. The default values vary for
each physical media type as well as for the protocol family configured.
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Point-to-point interfaces When you’re using an encapsulation type of PPP, Cisco-HDLC,
ATM, or Frame Relay, the default MTU for the inet and iso protocols is 4470 bytes. The mpls
protocol family uses a value of 4458 bytes.
Broadcast interfaces Both a Gigabit Ethernet and a Fast Ethernet interface share the same
properties for protocol MTU sizes. The inet family uses 1500 bytes, the iso family uses 1497
bytes, and the mpls family uses 1488 bytes.
The difference between the protocol MTU and the interface MTU discussed in
the “Physical Properties” section earlier in this chapter is quite important. The
interface MTU is the largest size packet able to be sent on the physical media.
This value includes all Layer 2 overhead information, such as the destination
MAC address on Ethernet, or the labels in an MPLS environment. The Cyclic
Redundancy Check (CRC) information is not included in this value, however.
Each encapsulation type has a payload field where higher-layer information is
stored. This payload field is the size of the protocol MTU. This is the largest
amount of logical protocol data, including the protocol header, able to be sent
on a particular interface.
Virtual Circuit Addressing
An interface configured for use on an ATM, Frame Relay, or Ethernet VLAN network requires
the addition of a Layer 2 virtual circuit address. We examine these options next.
ATM VPI and VCI
An Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network uses the concept of a virtual path and a virtual
circuit to connect two devices. The path is represented by a virtual path identifier (VPI), which can
be thought of as a logical conduit between the devices. Each VPI in a network may contain multiple logical circuits represented by a virtual circuit identifier (VCI), which is the actual connection
between the devices.
Each logical unit in the router is assigned a VPI/VCI Layer 2 address. The path values range
from 0 to 255, while the circuits on that path can be between 0 and 4089. These values are
locally significant so that the two connected devices agree on their usage. The specific pair can
then be used elsewhere in the ATM network, allowing for greater overall scalability.
As an example, assume that the Merlot router is connected to Riesling through an ATM
interface. Ten logical units are created on the interface, each with a unique IPv4 address and
VCI value. When data packets are passed between the two routers, the VCI address at Layer 2
helps determine which logical unit should receive and process the packet.
Frame Relay DLCI
In a manner similar to ATM, a Frame Relay network uses data link connection identifiers (DLCIs)
to address packets at Layer 2. The DLCI value is the logical circuit between the two devices, which
is also locally significant. Each logical interface unit assigned a DLCI becomes a Frame Relay per-
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73
manent virtual circuit (PVC). Possible DLCI values range between 1 and 1022 with reserved
ranges between 1 and 15 and between1008 and 1022.
Suppose that the routers Cabernet and Shiraz are communicating over a Frame Relay network. The logical circuit that connects them is assigned a DLCI value of 200 on each router. The
DLCI provides enough addressing for a data packet to reach the other router and for the receiving router to process it with the appropriate logical unit.
Ethernet VLAN Tags
For broadcast-capable media, such as Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, the JUNOS software supports a subset of the IEEE 802.1Q standard for channelizing an interface into multiple logical interfaces. These channels are referred to as virtual local area networks (VLANs).
A VLAN allows many hosts to connect to an Ethernet switch while maintaining separate logical subnets and broadcast domains. Each Ethernet interface on a Juniper Networks router
can support up to 1024 VLANs. Gigabit and some Fast Ethernet interfaces use values in the
range of 0 to 4094, while the rest of the Ethernet interfaces use values between 0 and 1023.
The operation of a VLAN is similar to the Layer 2 operation of ATM and Frame Relay.
Two routers share a VLAN value, allowing data packets to be processed by the correct logical
interface.
Disabling or Deactivating an Interface
Interfaces within the JUNOS software are automatically enabled for operation when configured in the router. To stop the operation of a particular interface, you may use one of two CLI
commands—disable or deactivate. Both halt an interface without removing the current configuration in the router. This allows you to easily restart the interface when needed.
The difference between the commands is how the JUNOS software uses the configuration
when the commit command is issued. Using the disable command at the [edit interfaces
interface-name] hierarchy level allows the router to use the interface configuration. Operationally, the interface is viewed as down, or administratively disabled.
The deactivate command places an inactive tag next to the configuration in the router.
As the commit command is issued, the JUNOS software completely ignores the configuration.
Operationally, the interface has no configuration—as if you had never entered any commands
at all.
Examples of using these commands are provided in the next section. In addition, we’ll
explore the configuration of protocol families and addresses.
The JUNOS software provides several methods to move the configuration of
an interface to a new location. The rename and insert commands discussed in
Chapter 1 are available. In addition, you can use the deactivate command to
remove all knowledge of an interface’s configuration. This is critical in a situation where duplicate IP addresses are used.
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Configuration Examples
In this section, we’ll discuss the commands required to perform some basic interface configuration. As a framework for our discussion, we’ll examine how to configure each of the protocol
families (inet, inet6, iso, mpls) to the router’s interfaces. These basic examples allow you to
get a feel for how the JUNOS software interacts with its transient interfaces.
To get started, Figure 2.6 shows the router Cabernet connected to Riesling and Merlot over
some point-to-point interfaces. Only the hostname of Cabernet is currently configured.
FIGURE 2.6
Interface configuration sample network
fxp0
so-2/0/0
at-0/2/0
Cabernet
Riesling
Merlot
The output of the show interfaces terse command tells us which interfaces are currently
installed in the router:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces terse
Interface
Admin Link Proto Local
fe-0/0/0
up
down
fe-0/0/1
up
down
fe-0/0/2
up
down
fe-0/0/3
up
down
at-0/2/0
up
down
at-0/2/1
up
down
so-2/0/0
up
down
so-2/0/1
up
down
so-2/0/2
up
down
so-2/0/3
up
down
ge-2/2/0
up
down
fxp0
up
down
fxp0.0
up
down
Remote
Configuration Examples
fxp1
fxp1.0
gre
ipip
lo0
lsi
mtun
pimd
pime
tap
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
up
tnp
75
4
Interfaces are always displayed in numerical order, from the lowest to the highest FPC slot
number. Within that slot, the lowest PIC slot is shown first, and on an individual PIC the lowest
port number is always first.
All interface configurations are completed at the [edit interfaces] hierarchy level. A
generic interface configuration looks like this:
interfaces {
interface-name {
physical-properties;
unit unit-number {
logical-properties;
}
}
}
IP Version 4
We’ll start building our network by configuring some interfaces with the inet protocol family and IPv4 addresses. We’ll have an Ethernet broadcast interface, an ATM, and a SONET
interface.
Broadcast Interfaces
The out-of-band management interface of fxp0 is first:
[edit interfaces fxp0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family inet address 172.16.0.1/24
user@Cabernet# set description "This is the Ethernet management interface"
Notice that the logical IP address is configured within the family inet hierarchy directory
and that the prefix length of the address is used, not the address mask. The prefix length is the
number of bits in the network portion of the IP address. For example, a prefix length of /24
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translates into 255.255.255.0. Forgetting to specify the prefix length results in the router assuming a length of 32 bits, or /32. The text description on the interface is enclosed in quotation marks
to allow for the spaces in the text. This convention is consistent throughout the JUNOS software
syntax.
It turns out that we made a mistake in assigning the fxp0 IP address. It should have an
address of 172.16.1.1 /24. Because the inet family supports multiple addresses, simply entering
the new address results in the interface having two IP addresses. We don’t want this to happen,
so let’s first delete the old information and then correct our mistake:
[edit interfaces fxp0]
user@Cabernet# delete unit 0 family inet address 172.16.0.1/24
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family inet address 172.16.1.1/24
While only a virtual entity, the loopback interface of the router closely simulates the operation of a broadcast interface. The configuration syntax is similar in nature, so we’ll investigate
it at this point. Both an IP address and a description are assigned:
[edit interfaces lo0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family inet address 192.168.1.1/32
user@Cabernet# set description "This is the router's loopback interface"
One major difference of the loopback interface is the prefix length of the addresses—only a
32-bit prefix length is supported in the JUNOS software.
ATM Interfaces
Let’s continue on and configure the interface to Merlot. All ATM interfaces in the JUNOS software require some configuration of physical properties: the maximum number of virtual circuits
allowed on a virtual path and the encapsulation of the interface. We also assign a description
to the interface:
[edit interfaces at-0/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set atm-options vpi 0 maximum-vcs 200
user@Cabernet# set encapsulation atm-pvc
user@Cabernet# set description "Connection to Merlot"
Then, we can configure the logical properties of the interface:
[edit interfaces at-0/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 100 point-to-point
user@Cabernet# set unit 100 family inet address 10.0.1.1/24
user@Cabernet# set unit 100 vci 0.100
SONET Interfaces
SONET interfaces don’t require any physical-level configuration, as did the ATM interface.
We’ll be adding some to our interface, however. A description is in order to provide for easier
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77
management and troubleshooting in the future. Also, a 32-bit FCS checksum is used to provide
for a more reliable packet transmission.
[edit interfaces so-2/0/0]
user@Cabernet# set description "Connection to Riesling"
user@Cabernet# set sonet-options fcs 32
Recall from the “Logical Properties” section earlier in this chapter that a SONET interface
uses a default encapsulation of PPP. Further, a PPP interface may have only a single logical unit
assigned to it—unit 0. We now assign an IP address to our SONET interface:
[edit interfaces so-2/0/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family inet address 10.0.2.1/30
Configuration Verification
Let’s check our progress so far by examining the candidate configuration file:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show
at-0/2/0 {
description "Connection to Merlot";
encapsulation atm-pvc;
atm-options {
vpi 0 maximum-vcs 200;
}
unit 100 {
point-to-point;
vci 0.100;
family inet {
address 10.0.1.1/24;
}
}
}
so-2/0/0 {
description "Connection to Riesling";
sonet-options {
fcs 32;
}
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 10.0.2.1/30;
}
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}
}
fxp0 {
description "This is the Ethernet management interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 172.16.1.1/24;
}
}
}
lo0 {
description "This is the router's loopback interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 192.168.1.1/32;
}
}
}
Operational Changes
Now that we have some configured interfaces, we can examine the operation of disabling or
deactivating an interface. We first verify the current status of the so-2/0/0.0 interface:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces so-2/0/0 terse
Interface
Admin Link Proto Local
so-2/0/0
up
up
so-2/0/0.0
up
up
inet 10.0.2.1/30
Remote
The up keyword in the Admin and Link columns shows that the interface is fully functional.
Let’s use the deactivate command to remove the operational configuration from the router:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# deactivate so-2/0/0
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show
inactive: so-2/0/0 {
description "Connection to Riesling";
sonet-options {
fcs 32;
}
unit 0 {
Configuration Examples
79
family inet {
address 10.0.2.1/30;
}
}
}
The inactive tag proceeding the interface name shows that the configuration hierarchy is
ignored when the commit command is issued. After this process, the output of show interfaces
terse displays the logical configuration removed by the router:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces so-2/0/0 terse
Interface
Admin Link Proto Local
so-2/0/0
up
up
Remote
To return the interface to its normal operation, we’ll need to remove the inactive tag. This
is accomplished with the activate command:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# activate so-2/0/0
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show
so-2/0/0 {
description "Connection to Riesling";
sonet-options {
fcs 32;
}
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 10.0.2.1/30;
}
}
}
The disable command has a different effect on an operational interface. It marks the interface as down, or administratively disabled. We’ll explore this functionality through the use of the
disable command on the fxp0 interface:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# set fxp0 disable
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show fxp0
description "This is the Ethernet management interface";
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disable;
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 172.16.1.1/24;
}
}
The output of the show interfaces terse command indicates that the physical interface
fxp0 is now marked as down in the Admin and Link columns. This occurs due to the application
of the disable keyword at the physical interface hierarchy level of the configuration:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces fxp0 terse
Interface
Admin Link Proto Local
fxp0
down up
fxp0.0
down down inet 172.16.1.1/24
Remote
Since the disable keyword is now a part of the configuration, we must remove that configuration option with the delete command:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# delete fxp0 disable
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show fxp0
description "This is the Ethernet management interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 172.16.1.1/24;
}
}
IPv6 Support
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is an evolutionary step from the current IPv4. It uses the best
aspects of IPv4 and accounts for the lessons learned over the last number of years. To enable
IPv6 on a logical interface, we add the protocol family inet6 as well as a 128-bit IPv6 address:
[edit interfaces at-0/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 100 family inet6 address fec0:0:0:3002::2/64
[edit interfaces so-2/0/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family inet6 address fec0:0:0:1002::1/64
Configuration Examples
81
[edit interfaces lo0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family inet6 address fec0:0:0:1006::1/128
The candidate configuration now shows that the new family inet6 hierarchies have been
added:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show
at-0/2/0 {
description "Connection to Merlot";
encapsulation atm-pvc;
atm-options {
vpi 0 maximum-vcs 200;
}
unit 100 {
point-to-point;
vci 0.100;
family inet {
address 10.0.1.1/24;
}
family inet6 {
address fec0:0:0:3002::2/64;
}
}
}
so-2/0/0 {
description "Connection to Riesling";
sonet-options {
fcs 32;
}
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 10.0.2.1/30;
}
family inet6 {
address fec0:0:0:1002::1/64;
}
}
}
fxp0 {
description "This is the Ethernet management interface";
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unit 0 {
family inet {
address 172.16.1.1/24;
}
}
}
lo0 {
description "This is the router's loopback interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 192.168.1.1/32;
}
family inet6 {
address fec0:0:0:1006::1/128;
}
}
}
IS-IS Support
The IS-IS routing protocol uses Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) packets to send
updates to neighboring routers. Each interface using the IS-IS protocol must be configured to
accept and process these packets using the family iso command. In addition, the lo0 interface
receives a protocol address to represent the routing node:
[edit interfaces at-0/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 100 family iso
[edit interfaces so-2/0/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family iso
[edit interfaces lo0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family iso address 49.0001.1921.6800.1001.00
You have now added the new protocol family to the appropriate logical unit:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show
at-0/2/0 {
description "Connection to Merlot";
encapsulation atm-pvc;
Configuration Examples
atm-options {
vpi 0 maximum-vcs 200;
}
unit 100 {
point-to-point;
vci 0.100;
family inet {
address 10.0.1.1/24;
}
family iso;
}
}
so-2/0/0 {
description "Connection to Riesling";
sonet-options {
fcs 32;
}
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 10.0.2.1/30;
}
family iso;
}
}
fxp0 {
description "This is the Ethernet management interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 172.16.1.1/24;
}
}
}
lo0 {
description "This is the router's loopback interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 192.168.1.1/32;
}
family iso {
address 49.0001.1921.6800.1001.00
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Interfaces
}
}
}
MPLS Support
MPLS provides a mechanism for forwarding data packets using a label value instead of an IP
address. As was the case with IS-IS, you must configure each transit interface with a protocol
family to allow processing of MPLS packets. You accomplish this by using the family mpls
command; no protocol addressing is required for MPLS.
[edit interfaces at-0/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 100 family mpls
[edit interfaces so-2/0/0]
user@Cabernet# set unit 0 family mpls
The candidate configuration now appears as such:
[edit interfaces]
user@Cabernet# show
at-0/2/0 {
description "Connection to Merlot";
encapsulation atm-pvc;
atm-options {
vpi 0 maximum-vcs 200;
}
unit 100 {
point-to-point;
vci 0.100;
family inet {
address 10.0.1.1/24;
}
family iso;
family mpls;
}
}
so-2/0/0 {
description "Connection to Riesling";
sonet-options {
fcs 32;
}
Useful Interface Commands
85
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 10.0.2.1/30;
}
family iso;
family mpls;
}
}
fxp0 {
description "This is the Ethernet management interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 172.16.1.1/24;
}
}
}
lo0 {
description "This is the router's loopback interface";
unit 0 {
family inet {
address 192.168.1.1/32;
}
family iso {
address 49.0001.1921.6800.1001.00
}
}
}
Useful Interface Commands
The JUNOS software provides a number of operational mode CLI commands you can use to
check the status and operation of the router interfaces. Some of the commands are specific
to the JUNOS software, while a few are well-known IP tools, such as ping.
In the sections that follow, we examine the output of some show commands as well as the
operation of some troubleshooting tools.
show interfaces extensive
The show interfaces extensive command displays all possible information about every
interface currently installed in the router. You have the option of specifying a particular interface
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or a group of interfaces through a wildcard notation. For example, let’s get some information
about all SONET interfaces in the Cabernet router:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces so* extensive
Physical interface: so-2/0/0, Enabled, Physical link is Up
Interface index: 17, SNMP ifIndex: 53, Generation: 16
Link-level type: PPP, MTU: 4474, Clocking: Internal, SONET mode, Speed: OC3,
Loopback: None,
FCS: 32, Payload scrambler: Enabled
Device flags
: Present Running
Interface flags: Point-To-Point SNMP-Traps
Link flags
: Keepalives
Hold-times
: Up 0 ms, Down 0 ms
Keepalive settings: Interval 10 seconds, Up-count 1, Down-count 3
Keepalive statistics:
Input : 52 (last seen 00:00:04 ago)
Output: 54 (last sent 00:00:07 ago)
LCP state: Opened
NCP state: inet: Opened, inet6: Not-configured, iso: Not-configured, mpls:
Not-configured
CHAP state: Not-configured
Last flapped
: 2002-06-11 17:14:27 UTC (3d 18:28 ago)
Statistics last cleared: Never
Traffic statistics:
Input bytes :
254324
0 bps
Output bytes :
290551
0 bps
Input packets:
3122
0 pps
Output packets:
4529
0 pps
Input errors:
Errors: 0, Drops: 0, Framing errors: 0, Runts: 0, Giants: 0,
Bucket drops: 0, Policed discards: 235, L3 incompletes: 0,
L2 channel errors: 0, L2 mismatch timeouts: 3, HS link CRC errors: 0,
HS link FIFO overflows: 00
Output errors:
Carrier transitions: 0, Errors: 0, Drops: 0, Aged packets: 0,
HS link FIFO underflows: 0
(Note: Information deleted for brevity)
Logical interface so-2/0/0.0 (Index 4) (SNMP ifIndex 21) (Generation 11)
Flags: Point-To-Point SNMP-Traps Encapsulation: PPP
Useful Interface Commands
87
Protocol inet, MTU: 4470, Flags: None, Generation: 19 Route table: 0
Addresses, Flags: Is-Preferred Is-Primary
Destination: 10.0.1/24, Local: 10.0.1.2, Broadcast: Unspecified,
Generation: 26
Important information to gather from the output includes the current interface status:
Enabled, Physical link is Up. This tells us that the interface is administratively started
and that a physical wire is plugged into the PIC port. Some of the default SONET parameters
are seen here, including the encapsulation type (PPP), the interface MTU (4474), the default
clocking (Internal), and the operation (Payload scrambler). Our earlier configuration is
being used since the FCS is currently set to a value of 32. Finally, an interface loopback has not
been set, as noted by the keyword None.
We cover interface and circuit testing using the Loopback command in the
“Loopback Testing” section later in this chapter.
The other advantage to using the show interfaces extensive command is that you can
view the actual data packets entering and leaving the interface. Traffic statistics are measured
as Input bytes, Output bytes, Input packets, and Output packets. The statistics are displayed in both a total value column and a current bits-per-second column.
Following the statistics section are error counters for the interface. The Input Errors
fields are:
Errors
Displays the sum of incoming frame aborts and FCS errors.
Policed discards Displays the frames discarded due to an unrecognized format. This field
normally reports received protocol packets that the JUNOS software does not understand. For
example, if the family iso command were not used, then received IS-IS packets would increment this counter. In addition, protocols such as the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) are not
recognized and thus increment this counter.
L3 incompletes Displays the number of times a received packet fails a Layer 3 header check.
For example, a frame with fewer than 20 bytes of available IP header is discarded and the counter
is incremented.
L2 channel errors Displays the number of received packets with an unknown Layer 2
address. For example, a packet with DLCI100 as an address is discarded when that DLCI value
is not configured on the interface.
L2 mismatch timeouts Displays the number of malformed packets that cause the incoming
interface to discard the frame as unreadable.
SRAM errors Displays hardware errors in the static random access memory (SRAM) on the
PIC itself. This should always be a value of 0. If not, the PIC is malfunctioning.
HS link CRC errors Displays the errors on the internal router links between applicationspecific integrated circuits (ASICs).
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88
Interfaces
The possible Output Errors in the display include the following:
Carrier transitions Displays the number of times the interface has gone from a Down state
to an Up state. A rapidly incrementing number in this field represents a network problem. Possibilities include the transmission line, the far-end system, or a malfunctioning PIC.
Displays the sum of outgoing frame aborts and FCS errors.
Errors
Drops
Displays the packets dropped by the output queue of the I/O Manager ASIC.
Aged packets Displays the packets that remained in shared-packet synchronous dynamic
random access memory (SDRAM) for so long that the system automatically purged them. The
value in this field should never increment.
monitor interface
The monitor interface interface-name command displays per-second real-time statistics for
a physical interface. The output of this command shows how often each field has changed since
the command was executed. You can also view common interface failures, such as alarms, errors,
or loopback settings.
user@Cabernet> monitor interface so-2/0/0
Cabernet
Seconds: 11
Time: 12:41:55
Delay: 2/0/2
Interface: so-2/0/0, Enabled, Link is Up
Encapsulation: PPP, Keepalives, Speed: OC3
Traffic statistics:
Input bytes:
1103360 (40 bps)
Output bytes:
1190328 (48 bps)
Input packets:
13839 (0 pps)
Output packets:
15246 (0 pps)
Encapsulation statistics:
Input keepalives:
410
Output keepalives:
407
LCP state: Opened
Error statistics:
Input errors:
0
Input drops:
0
Input framing errors:
0
Input runts:
0
Input giants:
0
Policed discards:
235
L3 incompletes:
0
L2 channel errors:
0
Current delta
[36]
[26]
[3]
[2]
[1]
[1]
[0]
[0]
[0]
[0]
[0]
[0]
[0]
[0]
Useful Interface Commands
L2 mismatch timeouts:
Carrier transitions:
Output errors:
3
0
0
Output drops:
Z
89
[0]
[0]
[0]
Next='n', Quit='q' or ESC, Freeze='f', Thaw='t', Clear='c', Interface='i'
At the end of the output, you’ll see a legend of keystrokes that allow you to control the display
parameters. For example, pressing N switches the command to the next interface in the router.
Pressing I allows you to enter the name of a specific interface. The counter information is updated
every second. To examine the values more closely, press F to freeze the display. The counter values
will still increment in the background, but your visual display will stop changing. Pressing T thaws
the output and the current counter values are displayed and updated again. Pressing C clears the
counter values within the output of this command, but does not change the values in the show
interfaces output. You can end the display by pressing either Q or the Esc key.
Some of the fields in the output warrant further discussion:
Cabernet
Displays the current hostname of the router.
Seconds Displays the time (in seconds) since the counters were set to zero. If the counters are
not reset, this field displays the time the command has been running.
Time
Displays the current time on the router.
Interface
Link
Describes the interface, including its name, status, and encapsulation.
Provides the current status of the interface. Possible values are Up, Down, or Test.
Current delta Displays the number of times the respective field has changed since the
counters were set to zero.
Statistics
Displays interface statistics, such as alarms and errors.
monitor traffic
The monitor traffic command prints packet headers to your terminal screen for information
sent or received by the Routing Engine. It is very similar in operation to the Unix tcpdump utility. The PPP keepalives on our so-2/0/0 interface are seen below:
user@Cabernet> monitor traffic interface so-2/0/0
Listening on so-2/0/0
15:09:05.467601 Out LCP echo request
(type
15:09:05.468244 In LCP echo reply
(type
15:09:08.017283 In LCP echo request
(type
15:09:08.017301 Out LCP echo reply
(type
15:09:15.667708 Out LCP echo request
(type
15:09:15.668403 In LCP echo reply
(type
^C
0x09
0x0a
0x09
0x0a
0x09
0x0a
id
id
id
id
id
id
0x76
0x76
0x1a
0x1a
0x77
0x77
len
len
len
len
len
len
0x0008)
0x0008)
0x0008)
0x0008)
0x0008)
0x0008)
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6 packets received by filter
0 packets dropped by kernel
You use the Ctrl+C keystroke sequence to stop the output and return to the JUNOS software
command prompt.
Using the monitor traffic command might affect your router performance.
We recommend that you use this option only when other JUNOS software show
commands don’t resolve your problem and you need to prove that a packet is
actually entering or leaving the router interface.
show arp
The show arp command displays the entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table.
This command is a useful troubleshooting tool for Ethernet networks, but shows only entries
for hosts that the router has attempted to send traffic to. You use the clear arp command to
remove entries from the table.
user@Cabernet> show arp
MAC Address
Address
00:a0:a5:28:15:f5 172.16.0.1
00:a0:a5:12:29:bd 172.16.5.1
00:a0:a5:12:2a:4b 172.16.8.1
Total entries: 3
Name
172.16.0.1
172.16.5.1
172.16.8.1
Interface
fxp0.0
fxp0.0
fxp0.0
ping
The ping destination command is a common troubleshooting tool used to check host reachability and network connectivity. It sends ICMP ECHO_REQUEST messages to elicit ICMP ECHO_
RESPONSE messages from the specified host. A received response tells you that all intervening
network components are operational between the local router and the destination host. In addition, the network layer of the destination host is operational.
user@Cabernet> ping 10.0.1.1
PING 10.0.1.1 (10.0.1.1): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 10.0.1.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255
64 bytes from 10.0.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255
64 bytes from 10.0.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255
64 bytes from 10.0.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255
64 bytes from 10.0.1.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=255
64 bytes from 10.0.1.1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=255
^C
time=1.086
time=0.934
time=0.912
time=0.920
time=0.918
time=0.980
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
Useful Interface Commands
91
--- 10.0.1.1 ping statistics --6 packets transmitted, 6 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.912/0.958/1.086/0.061 ms
Using the Ctrl+C keystroke sequence stops the operation of the ping command.
ping atm
When using ATM as a Layer 2 technology, you have the option of testing the connectivity of
specific PVCs with the ping atm command. Individual 53-byte ATM cells are sent along the
PVC and are returned by the terminating device at the far end. The command requires an outgoing interface and a VCI value at a minimum.
user@Cabernet> ping atm interface at-0/2/0 vci 100
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=1
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=2
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=3
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=4
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=5
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=6
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=7
53 byte oam cell received on (vpi=0 vci=100): seq=8
^C
--- atmping statistics --8 cells transmitted, 8 cells received, 0% cell loss
As with most JUNOS software commands, the Ctrl+C keystroke terminates the operation.
The OAM cells are transmitted end-to-end through the PVC. To test just a portion of the PVC,
use the segment option.
traceroute
Another standard network troubleshooting tool is the traceroute command. We often use
this when the result of the ping command shows that end-to-end network connectivity is not
established. We can determine the actual network path taken by the IP packets and zero in on
where the problem might exist.
user@Cabernet> traceroute 192.168.5.1
traceroute to 192.168.5.1 (192.168.5.1), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 10.0.2.2 (10.0.2.2) 0.432 ms 0.347 ms 0.320 ms
2 192.168.5.1 (192.168.5.1) 1.210 ms 1.005 ms 0.919 ms
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traceroute and the User Datagram Protocol
Since the JUNOS software is based on FreeBSD, it makes sense that the traceroute command
uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets in its operation. Most (if not all) Unix-based systems
follow this format. It is worth investigating, or reviewing, how traceroute actually operates.
When the command is executed, three UDP packets are generated. Each packet uses the supplied end-host information as the destination IP address. The outgoing interface of the router
is used as the source IP address. The time-to-live (TTL) value is set to 1 and the destination UDP
port is set to 33434. These packets are then sent out into the network.
When the first network device receives the packets, it decrements the TTL field by 1. This results
in a new TTL value of 0, which is unusable by an IP device. The network device drops the packet
and returns an ICMP TIME_EXCEEDED message to the source IP address of the UDP packet (the local
router’s interface). The local router receives these ICMP messages and examines the Source IP
Address field. We’ve now found the first network hop along our path!
The local router now sends out three new UDP packets with the same source and destination
IP addresses. The UDP port number is incremented by 1 to 33435. The TTL is also incremented
by 1 to a new value of 2. The second device along the path repeats the process above by dropping the packet and returning an ICMP message to the source. This process repeats itself (UDP
port and TTL incrementing each time) for each network device along the path.
When the UDP packets finally reach the end system, they are received and not dropped. After
all, the TTL may be set to 1 at that point, but no forwarding of the packet is involved. The IP network layer accepts the packet, since the destination IP address is its own interface. The UDP
packet is then passed up to the transport layer. The UDP process examines the destination port
number to determine whether a session is expecting inbound packets on that port. When no
process is found, an ICMP message is again returned to the source IP address. This time, however, it is a PORT_UNREACHABLE message. When the local router receives this ICMP message, it
knows that it has reached the far-end system and that the system is active at the network and
transport layers.
Interface Diagnostic Commands
The JUNOS software uses two main types of diagnostic configuration to test the physical layer
circuitry of an interface: the loopback and BERT tests. You can also use these tools to test the
circuit connecting two routers. In this section, we show you how to configure these options and
interpret the results using the output of various show commands.
Interface Diagnostic Commands
93
Loopback Testing
The physical path of a network data circuit usually consists of a number of segments interconnected by devices that repeat and regenerate the transmission signal. These devices connect together in a symmetric pattern. That is, the transmit path on one device connects to the
receive path on the next device, and vice versa. Should a circuit fault occur in the form of a
line break or a signal corruption due to noise, it is possible to localize the problem by taking
advantage of this symmetric segmented system. One of the physical transmission systems sets
up a line loopback. Instead of transmitting the signal toward the far-end system, it immediately sends the signal back toward the originating router. Either the originating router sees the
loop in the line or it does not. The detection of a loop is achieved when the originating router
sees its own data link layer packets return.
If a line loop is set back toward a local router and it is detected, then the problem lies beyond
the looping transmission device. Your next step is to set a loop farther away from the local router
to locate the problem segment.
When a line loop is set back toward the local router and it is not detected, you can assume
the problem lies somewhere between the router and the looped transmission device. In this case,
your next troubleshooting step is to set a loop closer to the local router to localize the problem.
Loopback Types
The physical interface on a Juniper Networks router can be set to loop a circuit in either local
or remote mode. Both options are configured as a physical interface property and affect the
operation of a PIC and its ports.
local Loopback
When the interface is operating with a local loopback, the PIC transmits packets to the Channel Service Unit (CSU) built into the interface. These packets are passed onto the circuit toward
the far-end system. On the inbound side, the PIC receives its own transmission back and ignores
any data sent from the physical circuit and the CSU. A local loopback is useful for troubleshooting physical PIC errors. The operation is shown in Figure 2.7.
FIGURE 2.7
local loopback
PIC
CSU
local Loopback
To view the operation of a loopback, we’ve added a new interface on Cabernet—t3-1/2/0.
We first configure the interface for local loopback operation:
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set t3-options loopback local
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[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# show
t3-options {
loopback local;
}
After issuing a commit, we verify the current interface status with the show interfaces
command:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces t3-1/2/0
Physical interface: t3-1/2/0, Enabled, Physical link is Up
Interface index: 14, SNMP ifIndex: 18
Link-level type: PPP, MTU: 4474, Clocking: Internal
Speed: T3, Loopback: Local, CRC: 16, Mode: C/Bit parity
Device flags
: Present Running Loop-Detected
Interface flags: Point-To-Point SNMP-Traps
Link flags
: Keepalives
Keepalive settings: Interval 10 seconds, Up-count 1, Down-count 3
Keepalive Input: 7230 (00:00:14 ago), Output: 7266 (00:00:09 ago)
NCP state: Down, LCP state: Conf-req-sent
Input rate
: 0 bps (0 pps), Output rate: 0 bps (0 pps)
Active alarms : None
Active defects : None
Logical interface t3-1/2/0.0 (Index 105) (SNMP ifIndex 29)
Flags: Hardware-Down Point-To-Point SNMP-Traps, Encapsulation: PPP
Protocol inet, MTU: 4470, Flags: Protocol-Down
Addresses, Flags: Dest-route-down Is-Preferred Is-Primary
Destination: 175.1.1.0/30, Local: 175.1.1.1
The Loopback: Local output shows us that our configuration was successful. In addition,
the PPP keepalives transmitted on the interface are being received by the PIC, which results in
a Loop-Detected message in the Device Flags field.
To return the interface to its normal operation, we remove the loopback keyword from the
configuration:
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# delete t3-options loopback
remote Loopback
The routers on each end of a transmission circuit are also participating in the circuit status. As
such, one of the routers can initiate a line loopback toward its far-end partner. This type of environment tests all the intermediate transmission facilities.
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When an interface is operating in a remote loopback mode, packets received from the physical circuit and CSU are received by the interface. In addition, those same packets are immediately retransmitted by the PIC back out toward the CSU and the circuit. This environment is displayed in Figure 2.8.
FIGURE 2.8
remote loopback
PIC
CSU
remote Loopback
In our example, Cabernet suspects a physical circuit problem between itself and the far-end
router, so we decide to initiate a loop on Cabernet to test the line. The configuration looks like this:
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set t3-options loopback remote
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# show
t3-options {
loopback remote;
}
We now check the interface status:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces t3-1/2/0
Physical interface: t3-1/2/0, Enabled, Physical link is Up
Interface index: 14, SNMP ifIndex: 18
Link-level type: PPP, MTU: 4474, Clocking: Internal
Speed: T3, Loopback: Remote, CRC: 16, Mode: C/Bit parity
Device flags
: Present Running
Interface flags: Point-To-Point SNMP-Traps
Link flags
: Keepalives
Keepalive settings: Interval 10 seconds, Up-count 1, Down-count 3
Keepalive Input: 7245 (00:00:09 ago), Output: 7281 (00:00:04 ago)
NCP state: Down, LCP state: Conf-req-sent
Input rate
: 0 bps (0 pps), Output rate: 0 bps (0 pps)
Active alarms : None
Active defects : None
Logical interface t3-1/2/0.0 (Index 105) (SNMP ifIndex 29)
Flags: Hardware-Down Point-To-Point SNMP-Traps, Encapsulation: PPP
Protocol inet, MTU: 4470, Flags: Protocol-Down
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Addresses, Flags: Dest-route-down Is-Preferred Is-Primary
Destination: 175.1.1.0/30, Local: 175.1.1.1
The Loopback: Remote output shows the expected configuration. Since Cabernet is not
receiving its own keepalives, no Loop-Detected message is seen in the Device Flags field.
Once again, we return to normal operation by removing the loopback keyword from the
configuration:
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# delete t3-options loopback
BERT Testing
While a loopback test can verify the connectivity of a circuit, it can’t track down poor signal
quality due to noise on a line. This is the job of a Bit Error Rate Test (BERT). Many of the
interfaces in a Juniper Networks router support BERT testing. These include the T1/E1, T3/E3,
CH DS3, CH OC-12, and CH STM-1 interfaces.
A BERT test requires a line loop to be in place on either the transmission devices or the farend router. The local router generates a known bit pattern and sends it out the transmit path.
The received pattern is then verified against the sent pattern. The higher the bit error rate of
the received pattern, the worse the noise is on the physical circuit. When the position of the
line loop is moved downstream toward the far-end router, you can easily find the troubled
portion of the link.
A successful BERT test requires the interface to be configured with the duration of the test,
the bit pattern to send on the transmit path, and the error rate to monitor when receiving the
inbound pattern.
Configuring the BERT Parameters
The physical interface receives the configuration of the BERT parameters. You configure the
duration of the test, the pattern to send in the bit stream, and the error rate to include in the bit
stream with the bert-period, bert-algorithm, and bert-error-rate commands, respectively. We’ve configured Cabernet’s BERT settings as follows:
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set t3-options bert-period 120
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set t3-options bert-algorithm all-ones-repeating
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# set t3-options bert-error-rate 0
[edit interfaces t3-1/2/0]
user@Cabernet# show
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t3-options {
bert-algorithm all-ones-repeating;
bert-error-rate 0;
bert-period 120;
}
The run duration lasts from 1 to 240 seconds, with Cabernet running for 120 seconds. The
error rate value is an integer between 0 and 7. The supplied value becomes an exponential and
results in a final error rate between 10-0 (no errors) and 10-7(1 error in 10 million received bits).
The bit patterns to test are too numerous to mention here in detail. Cabernet has opted to send a
pattern where every bit is set to a value of 1. Some of the more common testing patterns include:
all-ones-repeating
The transmitted pattern is 1111111111111111…
all-zeros-repeating
The transmitted pattern is 0000000000000000…
alternating-ones-zeros
The transmitted pattern is 1010101010101010…
alternating-double-ones-zeros
The transmitted pattern is 1100110011001100…
Starting and Stopping the Test
Once the BERT parameters are committed, you begin the test with the following command:
user@host> test interface t3-1/2/0 t3-bert-start
The test runs for the specified second duration as configured. Should you wish to terminate
the test sooner, use the following command:
user@host> test interface t3-1/2/0 t3-bert-stop
BERT Test Results
You can view the results of the BERT test with the show interfaces extensive command.
To immediately locate the BERT values in the output, use the JUNOS software pipe functionality. The find string option starts the output at the specified string:
user@Cabernet> show interfaces t3-1/2/0 extensive | find BERT
BERT time period: 120 seconds, Elapsed: 120 seconds (completed)
Algorithm: All ones, Repetitive (22), Error rate: 10e-0
Bit count
:
0, Overflows: 0
Error bit count:
0, Overflows: 0
LOS status: OK, LOS count: 1, LOS seconds: 239
. . .
In our example, it appears that the transmission lines are noise free between Cabernet and
the looping device. The BERT test ran for all 120 seconds using the all-ones pattern. It found
zero errors using the 10e-0 error rate.
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Summary
In this chapter, we’ve seen that a Juniper Networks router has both permanent and transient
interfaces. These interfaces use a distinct and common naming structure that relates directly to
their physical location in the platform. We also discussed differences between the physical and
logical properties of an interface. These properties translate into the operation of the specific
physical media and the logical Layer 2 and 3 addressing of the interface.
We then looked at some examples of configuring the various protocol families within the
JUNOS software. Next, we examined some commands used to verify the operation and status
of an interface. Finally, we described two methods for testing the physical circuits connecting
two routers—loopback and BERT testing.
Exam Essentials
Understand the JUNOS software interface naming convention. The format consists of a twocharacter media type designator followed by the FPC slot number, the PIC slot number within
an FPC, the port number on the PIC, and the logical unit. The format is media_type-fpc/pic/
port.unit.
Know the differences between a permanent and a transient interface. Each Juniper Networks
router contains the fxp0 and fxp1 permanent interfaces. All interfaces contained on a PIC are
considered transient because they can be removed at any time.
Be able to list the protocol families available for configuration on an interface. The inet,
inet6, iso, and mpls protocol families are configurable on a Juniper Networks interface.
Know the logical properties available on an interface. Each interface in the JUNOS software
requires some logical properties. These often include the Layer 3 and Layer 2 addressing information for enabling proper network operation.
Be able to identify the major fields in the show interfaces extensive command. Information such as the current status, input/output byte and packet statistics, and input/output
error counters are available in the command output.
Understand the interface diagnostic options available in the JUNOS software. Both loopback
and BERT testing help you locate trouble spots on a physical network circuit.
Key Terms
Key Terms
Before you take the exam, be certain you are familiar with the following terms:
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
maximum transmission unit (MTU)
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT)
mpls protocol family
data link connection identifiers (DLCIs)
permanent interfaces
deactivate
permanent virtual circuit (PVC)
disable
Physical Interface Card (PIC)
Flexible PIC Concentrator (FPC)
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Frame Relay
preferred address
fxp0
primary address
fxp1
protocol address
High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
protocol families
inet protocol family
quad-wide
inet6 protocol family
tcpdump
Internal Ethernet
transient interfaces
iso protocol family
unit
keepalive
virtual circuit identifier (VCI)
line loopback
virtual local area networks (VLANs)
Management Ethernet
virtual path identifier (VPI)
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Review Questions
1.
What is the correct order of elements in the JUNOS software interface naming convention?
A. FPC, PIC, port, type
B. Type, port, PIC, FPC
C. Type, FPC, PIC, port
D. Port, PIC, FPC, type
2.
How are the FPC slot numbers for an M40e numbered?
A. 0 through 3, top to bottom
B. 0 through 7, left to right
C. 0 through 7, top to bottom
D. 1 through 8, left to right
3.
How are the PIC slots numbered on an M20 FPC?
A. 0 through 3, top to bottom
B. 0 through 3, left to right
C. 0 through 3, bottom to top
D. 0 through 3, right to left
4.
There are two different types of interfaces on a Juniper Networks router. What are they?
A. Permanent and transient
B. Transient and logical
C. Physical and logical
D. Permanent and logical
5.
Which properties are examples of a physical interface configuration? (Choose three.)
A. Keepalives
B. IP Address
C. Description
D. FCS
6.
Which properties are examples of a logical interface configuration? (Choose two.)
A. DLCI number
B. Scrambling
C. FCS Value
D. Protocol MTU
Review Questions
7.
101
What prefix length is assigned to an IPv4 address if you do not specify one in the configuration?
A. The command fails the syntax check.
B. The command fails the commit check.
C. The router assigns a /32 prefix length.
D. The router assigns a classful network prefix length.
8.
Which command displays the status of all SONET interfaces on the router?
A. show ip interfaces brief
B. show sonet interfaces terse
C. show interfaces so-* terse
D. show so-* interfaces
9.
An interface has multiple IP addresses configured. Which of the following statements is true
about the interface’s primary address?
A. It is the highest numbered address on the interface.
B. It is the lowest numbered address on the interface.
C. Each configured address is considered to be a primary address.
D. There is no default primary address.
10. What is the result of using the deactivate command?
A. The configuration is ignored and not applied.
B. The interface configuration is marked deactivated.
C. The physical interface status changes to Admin Down.
D. The logical interface status changes to Admin Down.
11. In the show interfaces extensive output, which field displays framing errors?
A. Input Errors
B. Input policed discards
C. Input L2 channel errors
D. Input HS link CRC errors
12. Which field in the show interfaces extensive output displays received packets with a
damaged IP header?
A. active alarms
B. output carrier transitions
C. input policed discards
D. input L3 incompletes
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13. A Frame Relay interface is configured to support DLCI values 40, 50, and 60. Incoming
frames show a DLCI 45. Which field in the show interfaces extensive output displays
this information?
A. active alarms
B. output carrier transitions
C. input policed discards
D. input L2 channel errors
14. The monitor traffic command closely resembles what Unix-based utility?
A. pwd
B. ps –aux
C. tcpdump
D. ls –a–l
15. The monitor traffic command can evaluate traffic _____. (Choose two.)
A. Inbound on interface at-0/2/0.100 destined for the Routing Engine
B. Outbound on interface at-0/2/0.100 from the Routing Engine
C. Inbound on interface at-0/2/0.100 destined for interface so-2/0/0.0
D. Outbound on interface at-0/2/0.100 from interface so-2/0/0.0
16. Which command allows a network administrator to view locally sourced BGP keepalive packet
headers on interface so-2/0/0.0?
A. monitor interface so-2/0/0.0
B. monitor traffic interface so-2/0/0.0
C. monitor bgp interface so-2/0/0.0
D. tcpdump interface so-2/0/0.0
17. When a local loopback is configured on an interface, which of the following statements is true?
A. Traffic received on the interface is looped back to the other end of the link.
B. Traffic sent on the interface is looped back to the router on another interface.
C. Traffic sent by the router is looped back to the router on the same interface.
D. Traffic received by the router is looped back to the router on the same interface.
18. What command is used to check the status of a configured loopback?
A. show interface terse
B. show interface extensive
C. monitor interface terse
D. monitor interface extensive
Review Questions
19. Which parameters are used for BERT testing? (Choose two.)
A. bert-algorithm
B. bert-error-rate
C. bert-pattern
D. bert-seconds
20. Which JUNOS software command starts a BERT test?
A. test interface t3-1/0/1 t3-bert-start
B. interface test t3-1/0/1 t3-bert-start
C. interface t3-1/0/1 t3-bert-start
D. test interface t3-1/0/1 t3-bert-begin
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Answers to Review Questions
1.
C. The correct order is media type, FPC slot number, PIC slot number, and PIC port number.
2.
B. An M40e has eight vertical FPC slots. They are numbered 0 through 7, left to right.
3.
D. An M20 has four PIC slots in each FPC. Since the FPC has a horizontal orientation, the PIC
slots are numbered 0 through 3, right to left.
4.
A. Juniper Networks routers have two types of interfaces: permanent and transient.
5.
A, C, D. Only the protocol address is a logical property of an interface.
6.
A, D. DLCIs and protocol MTU are both logical interface properties. Scrambling and description are physical properties.
7.
C. In the absence of a prefix length, the router assumes a 32-bit prefix length for an IPv4
address.
8.
C. An asterisk (*) may be used as a wildcard character. The command show interface so-*
terse will display the status of all SONET interfaces on the router.
9.
B. An interface contains only a single primary address and, by default, it is the lowest numerical
prefix on the interface.
10. A. When an interface has been deactivated, the interface is marked inactive and the configuration statements are ignored when the candidate configuration is committed.
11. A. Input Errors are the sum of the incoming frame aborts and FCS errors.
12. D. The input L3 incompletes field is a counter that is incremented when the incoming
packet fails Layer 3 (usually IPv4) checks of the header.
13. D. The input L2 channel errors field is a counter that increments when the software cannot
find a valid logical interface for an incoming frame.
14. C. The Unix-based tcpdump utility closely resembles the monitor traffic command.
15. A, B. The monitor traffic command can be used to track any packets destined to, or coming
from, the Routing Engine over a particular interface.
16. B. The command monitor traffic interface so-2/0/0.0 allows you to view packet
headers. monitor interface so-2/0/0.0 displays packet, byte, and error counters in real
time. Answers C and D are not valid JUNOS software commands.
17. C. Traffic sent by the router is looped back to the router on the same interface. A remote loopback will loop traffic received on the interface back to the other end of the link.
18. B. The command show interface extensive is used to check if an interface has a loopback
set. Answer A displays only the interface up/down status and all logical configuration. Answers
C and D are not valid JUNOS software commands.
Answers to Review Questions
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19. A, B. The bert-algorithm parameter is used to specify the test pattern. The bert-errorrate parameter is used to examine the received pattern.
20. A. The correct command is test interface t3-1/0/1 t3-bert-start.