Epson Apex Specifications

FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT
FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not installed and used prop
erly, that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, may cause interference
to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and found to comply with the limits
for a Class B computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart J of part 15 of
FCC Rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a
residential installation. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio or television recep
tion, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to
try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
- Reorient the receiving antenna
- Relocate the printer with respect to the receiver
- Plug the printer into a different outlet so that the printer and receiver are on different
branch circuits.
If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician
for additional suggestions. The user may find the following booklet prepared by the Federal
Communications Commission helpful:
“Television Interference Handbook.”
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
Stock No. 004-000-00450-7.
WARNING
The connection of a non-shielded printer interface cable to this printer will invalidate the FCC
Certification of this device and may cause interference levels which exceed the limits established by the FCC for this equipment. If this equipment has more than one interface connector, do not leave cables connected to unused interfaces.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of Seiko Epson Corporation. No patent liability is assumed
with respect to the use of the information contained herein. While every precaution has been taken
in the preparation of this book, Seiko Epson Corporation assumes no responsibility for errors or
omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information
contained herein.
Graphic on page 6-2 created with EPSON 3D-Graph.
Apex is a trademark of Epson America, Inc.
Apple is a registered trademark and Applesoft is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Centronics is a registered trademark of Centronics Data Computer Corporation.
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Copyright © 1987 by Seiko Epson Corporation
Nagano, Japan
ii
Contents
1
1
2
2
Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apex80 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Get Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1
Setting Up
Identifying Printer Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a Place for the Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Paper Feed Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plugging in the Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Continuous-feed Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Single-sheet Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating the Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Apex80 to Your Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-15
1-19
1-23
Chapter 2
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
Printer Selection Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer-Printer Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Word Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spreadsheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphics Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
2-2
2-3
2 -4
2-6
2-6
Chapter 3
SelecType
SelecType Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
SelecType Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Contents
iii
Chapter 4
Apex80 Printer Features
Quality and Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print Size and Character Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Effects and Emphasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Different Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page Layout and Other Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
Chapter 5
User-defined Characters
Defining Your Own Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Designing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Defining NLQ Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Chapter 6
Introduction to Dot Graphics
The Print Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphics Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simple Graphics Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Density Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designing Your Own Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-6
6-8
6-10
Appendix A
Command Summary
Commands in Numerical Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vertical/Horizontal Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overall Printing Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print Size and Character Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Word Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Userdefined Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-4
A-7
A-10
A-11
A-19
A-20
A-23
A-26
A-26
A-29
A-30
Appendix B
Character Tables
International Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
iv
Contents
Appendix C
Problem Solving and Maintenance
Problem/Solution Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
beeper Error Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Dump Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coding Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solutions for Specific Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintaining Your Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-1
C-4
C-4
C-6
C-7
C-9
Appendix D
Defaults and DIP Switches
Default and Initialization Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
DIP Switch Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
International Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3
Appendix E
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
Compatible Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
Choosing an Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
Installing an Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
Serial Interface Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-8
Appendix F
Technical Specifications
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Transfer Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F- 1
F-1
F-2
F- 2
F-3
F-3
F-5
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1
Contents
v
Introduction
The Epson Apex80 printer combines low price with high quality
printing and advanced features.
Apex80 Features
In addition to the high performance and reliability you’ve come to
expect from Epson printers, the Apex80 offers the following:
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Draft mode for quick printing. The speed of draft printing is 150
characters per second in pica and 180 in elite.
Near Letter Quality (NLQ) mode for top quality printing. When you
have perfected a document, you can switch to one of two NLQ
fonts-Roman or Sans Serif.
A variety of print styles, including emphasized, double-strike,
condensed, italic, and double-wide.
Selection of typestyles with the control panel.
Userdefinable characters so you can create and print your own
symbols or characters.
l
Dot graphics for charts, diagrams, and illustrations.
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Easy paper loading.
l
A ribbon cassette for quick and clean ribbon changing.
l
The Epson Character Graphics set, which includes character
graphics that are used on IBM® and compatible computers as well as
international characters used by IBM software.
Introduction
1
About This Manual
Chapter 1 gives you step-by-step instructions on setting up your new
printer, and Chapters 2 through 6 cover the basic and advanced
functions. The appendixes contain reference information, including all
the details you need to use any of the printer’s commands, and some
advice on solving problems.
Inside the back of the manual is a pull-out Quick Reference card
containing the information you need most.
Where to Get Help
If you need assistance with your Apex80 printer, just call the toll-free
Epson number: 1-800-421-5426.
You can also call the 800 number for the location of your nearest
Epson Service Center.
To purchase accessories such as ribbons and option cards, check with
your dealer.
2
Introduction
Chapter 1
Setting Up
To set up your Apex80 printer, simply follow the steps in this chapter.
Identifying Printer Parts
First, see that you have all the parts you need. In addition to this
manual, the printer box should contain the items shown in Figure 1-1.*
The paper feed knob is packed into an indentation in the white foam
material.
Figure 1-1.
Printer parts
*Note: The tractor unit for your printer may be preinstalled.
Setting Up
1-1
In addition to the items in the box, you need a proper shielded cable
to connect the printer to your computer. You may also need an
interface board, which is necessary only for those computers that can’t
use the Centronics® parallel interface. Your computer manual can tell
you which cable you need and whether or not you require a special
interface.
Selecting a Place for the Printer
The main consideration in selecting a good location for the printer is
placing the printer close enough to your computer for the cable to
reach. Also remember the following:
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Use a grounded outlet, and do not use an adapter plug.
Avoid using electrical outlets that are controlled by wall switches.
Accidentally turning off a switch can wipe out valuable information
in your computer’s memory and disrupt printing.
Avoid using an outlet on the same circuit breaker with any large
electrical machines or appliances. These can cause disruptive power
fluctuations.
Keep your printer and computer away from base units for cordless
telephones.
Protect the printer from direct sunlight, excessive heat, moisture, and
dust. Make sure that it is not close to a heater or other heat source.
If you are going to use the tractor unit and continuous-feed paper,
clear enough space around the printer so that the paper has an
unobstructed path into and out of the printer. There are three
common methods of arranging a printer and continuous-feed paper:
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Using a printer stand with the paper stacked behind it. (Because of
the cable, it is usually best for the paper that feeds into the printer to
be stacked somewhat behind the printer instead of directly beneath
it.)
Putting the printer on a desk or table and stacking the paper behind
the printer.
Using a desk or table as a stand, with the printer near the back edge
and the paper on the floor or on a shelf,
1-2
Setting Up
Installing the Paper Feed Knob
Now that you have decided where to locate your Apex80 printer, the
first step in setting it up is installing the paper feed knob. Follow these
steps:
1. Locate the paper feed knob, which is packed into an indentation in
the white foam material.
2. Insert the knob into the hole on the right side of the printer, as
shown in Figure 1-2. Gently rotate the knob until it fits over the
shaft.
Figure I-2.
Paper feed knob installation
3. Push the knob in until it is flush with the printer case.
Installing the Ribbon
The Apex80 printer uses a continuous-loop, inked fabric ribbon. It is
enclosed in a cartridge that makes ribbon installation and replacement
a clean and easy job.
Setting Up
1-3
To install the ribbon, follow these steps:
1. Remove the lid at the front of the printer by lifting the handles.
Removing the lid enables you to see the print head, which is shown
in Figure 1-3.
Figure 1-3.
Print head
Caution
The power must be off when you move the print head because moving
the print head when the power is on may damage your printer. Also, if
you’ve been using your printer, be careful not to touch the print head
because it becomes hot during use. Let it cool for a few minutes.
2. Move the print head by hand to the center of the printer so that
the other parts of the printer will not get in your way.
3. Grasp the ribbon cartridge by its handle and hold the cartridge so
that the exposed strip of ribbon is facing away from you.
1-4
Setting Up
4. Insert the cartridge by placing the black hooks on each side of the
cartridge into the slots located inside the printer in the right and left
front corners. Push down until the cartridge snaps into place. (See
Figure 1-4.)
Figure 1-4.
Ribbon cartridge installation
5. Turn the knob on the cartridge in the direction of the arrow to
tighten the ribbon. As you turn the knob, see that the ribbon slips
down into its proper place between the print head and the ribbon
guide. (See the figure on the ribbon cartridge itself.) You may want
to use a pencil to direct the ribbon, as shown in Figure 1-5.
Setting Up
1-5
Figure 1-5.
Directing the ribbon
6. Replace the front lid by inserting its legs into the slots near the front
corners of the printer. Lay the lid down and press to snap it into
place.
Replacing the Ribbon
When your printing becomes light and you need to replace the
ribbon, follow these steps:
1. Remove the front lid.
2. Grasp the ribbon cartridge handle and pull out the cartridge.
3. Follow the ribbon installation instructions above to insert the new
ribbon cartridge.
Plugging in the Printer
Now plug in your Apex80. Make sure that the power switch on the
left side of the printer is off before you plug in the printer.
1-6
Setting Up
Using Continuous-feed Paper
The following section covers use of continuous-feed paper with your
tractor unit. If you plan to use single-sheet paper, skip to the Using
Single-sheet Paper section later in this chapter.
The tractor unit for the Apex80 allows you to use paper with pin
feed holes along the sides (continuous-feed paper). You can adjust the
tractor unit to accommodate widths of paper ranging from 4 to 10
inches, including the pin feed holes.
Installing the tractor unit
You will need to install the tractor unit each time you wish to load
continuous-feed paper after using single-sheet paper, which can only be
loaded when the tractor unit is removed.
If you have received your printer with the tractor unit installed,
simply install the paper rest by fitting it into the slots along the top
edge of the back of the printer and snapping it into place. (See Figure
1-7.) Then see the instructions later in this chapter for loading
continuous-feed paper.
To install the tractor unit, follow these steps:
1. If the paper guide is installed, remove it by tipping it toward you
and pulling it out.
2. Pop out the tractor unit slot cover, which is located above the
indicator lights. It may help to use the flat edge of a screwdriver, as
shown in Figure 1-6. Store the cover in a safe place while you use
the tractor unit, and replace it when you remove the tractor unit.
Setting Up
1-7
Figure 1-6.
Removing the tractor unit slot cover
3 Fit the paper rest into the slots along the top edge of the back of the
printer and snap it into place. See Figure 1-7.
Setting UP
1-8
4. Pull the paper release lever forward. (See Figure 1-8.) The doublearrow icon in front of the lever marks the position the lever should
be in for using continuous-feed paper (or for releasing paper).
5. Now install the tractor unit. First, hold the unit so that its black
legs are facing downward, as shown in Figure 1-8.
Figure 1-8.
Preparing to install the tractor unit
Setting Up
1-9
6. In each tractor slot, located at each side of the paper slot, is a peg
that fits into the notch on each of the rear tractor legs. Tilt the
tractor back so that the rear notches fit over these pegs. See
Figure 1-9.
Figure 1-9.
Installing the tractor unit
7. Then tilt the unit forward until the front legs snap into place.
Loading continuous-feed paper
Once the tractor unit is installed, load continuous-feed paper as
follows:
1. Make sure that the printer is turned off.
2. Remove the front lid of the printer.
3. Move the print head to the center of the printer. Remember, the
printer must be turned off whenever you move the print head.
Also, if you’ve been using the printer, the print head may be hot. Be
careful not to touch it unless you let it cool for a few minutes.
1-10
Setting Up
4. Using Figure 1-10 as a guide, pull the locking levers on each side of
the pin feed holders forward so you can move the pin feed holders.
Figure 1-10.
Locking lever fur pin feed holder adjustment
5. Place the left holder approximately 3/4 of an inch from the far left
position and then push the locking lever back to fasten that holder
into place. Leave the other holder unlocked.
6. Open the pin feed covers as shown in Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-11.
Opening the pin feed covers
Setting Up
1-11
7. Feed the paper into the paper slot. Push and maneuver the paper
through the slot until it comes up between the ribbon guide and
the platen.
8. Pull the paper up until the top is above the pin feed holders. Fit
the holes along the left edge of the paper over the pins in the left
holder, as shown in Figure 1-12, and close the pin feed cover.
Figure 1-12.
Fitting the paper into the left pin feed holder
9. Fit the right side of the paper into the right holder, moving the
holder as needed to match the width of the paper. Close the
second pin feed cover.
10. Make sure that the paper has no dips or wrinkles, then push the
locking lever back to lock the right holder in place.
Installing the paper guide
Install the paper guide, which is used here as a paper separator, as
described below. Note that the guide is installed in one of two different
positions depending on the type of paper you use. It lies flat when you
use continuous-feed paper, as described here, and sits upright for
loading single-sheet paper.
1. If the edge guides are not yet in place, install them by hooking the
tab on the back of each guide over the top of the paper guide, as
shown in Figure 1-13. Snap the bottom of each guide into place.
1-12
Setting Up
For continuous-feed paper, move the edge guides to the far right
and left positions on the paper guide. You won’t be inserting paper
through the edge guides unless you use single-sheet paper.
2. Insert the legs of the paper guide into the slots behind the tractor unit,
keeping the guide tilted backward as you do so. (See Figure 1-14.)
Setting Up
1-13
3. When the legs are in the slots, lean the guide all the way back. The
guide should rest atop the paper entering the printer, separating it
from paper exiting the printer.
Setting top of form
Now you are ready to set the top of form position. Follow these
steps:
1. Turn the paper feed knob to advance the paper until a perforation
between pages is just below the top of the ribbon,
2. Now replace the front lid.
Your printer should now be set up as shown in Figure 1-15.
Figure 1-15.
The printer with continuous-feed paper
When you turn on your Apex80, it remembers this top of form
setting and uses it when any program tells it to move to the top of the
next page. If you later find that your word processing or other
application program prints too high or too low on the page or is
printing on the perforations, check to see that your top of form setting
is correct.
1-14
Setting Up
Once you have set the top of form, each time you finish printing a
document, push the ON/OFF LINE button to put the printer offline
and then push the FORM FEED button once to advance the paper one
sheet. This enables you to tear off your just-printed pages and leave th
paper in the correct position to begin the next document.
Note
Make sure that the front lid is in place whenever you print. (Always
snap the lid shut when replacing the lid.) The front lid doubles as a
paper bail, holding the paper against the platen.
Removing the tractor unit
It is necessary to remove the tractor unit before you use single-sheet
paper. To remove the unit, follow these steps:
1. Remove the front lid.
2. Open the pin feed covers and pull the paper off the pins. Then lay
the paper over the front of the printer so you can reach the tractor
feed unit.
3. Grasp both sides of the tractor unit and gently lift up the front end.
This action unsnaps the front legs of the tractor unit and enables
you to lift off the unit.
4. Pull the paper guide toward you until it settles into an upright
position for single-sheet paper.
5. Make sure that the paper release lever is forward, and remove the
paper.
6. Replace the front lid.
Using Single-sheet Paper
The automatic loading feature handles individual sheets quickly and
easily.
Before you load single-sheet paper, you must prepare the printer by
installing the paper guide in an upright position. If the tractor unit is
installed, remove it by following the above instructions. After following
those instructions, you can skip the following section on paper guide
installation, except for step 3 on aligning the left edge guide.
Setting Up
1.15
Installing the paper guide
Install the paper guide as follows:
1. If you have not already done so, install the edge guides on the paper
guide by hooking the tab on the back of each guide over the top of
the paper guide, as shown in Figure 1-13. Snap the bottom of each
edge guide into place.
2. Hold the paper guide so that it is in an upright position. Then insert
the legs of the guide into the slots on either side of the printer
behind the paper slot, as shown in Figure 1-16.
Figure 1-16.
Installing the paper guide
1-16
Setting Up
3. Align the left side of the left edge guide with the guide mark on the
paper guide. See Figure 1-17. You may later wish to adjust this edge
guide depending on the margin setting in your application program.
Figure 1-17.
Guide mark for paper alignment
Automatic paper loading
Now you are ready to load single-sheet paper using the Apex80’s
AUTO LOAD feature.
To load paper automatically, just follow these steps:
1. Push back the paper release lever. (See Figure 1-16.) The single-arrow
icon behind the lever marks the position the lever should be in for
loading single-sheet paper.
2. Turn on the printer.
3. Make sure that the ON LINE indicator is off. If it is not off, press the
touch-sensitive panel labeled ON/OFF LINE.
4. Adjust the right edge guide to fit the sire of the paper.
5. Slide the paper down through the edge guides until it meets
resistance. Press down on the paper a bit more to make sure that it
is firmly in place, as shown in Figure 1-18.
Setting Up
1-17
Figure 1-18.
Apex80 ready for automatic paper loading
6. Press and release the AUTO LOAD button (the same button as the
DRAFT/LINE FEED button). The paper is automatically loaded to the
top of the page.
7. Push the ON/OFF LINE button so that the printer is ready to accept
data.
Note
Make sure the front lid is in place whenever you print. (Always snap
the lid shut when replacing the lid.) The front lid doubles as a paper
bail, holding the paper against the platen,
8. If the paper is crooked and needs to be reloaded, pull the paper
release lever forward, pull out the paper, push the lever back, turn
the printer off, and reload by beginning again at step 1 in the
Automatic paper loading section above. If the paper just requires
minor adjustment, then pull the paper release lever forward, open
the front lid, adjust the paper, and push the lever back. Then close
the front lid.
1-18
Setting Up
Reloading during printing
When you print a document more than one page long using singlesheet paper, there are two ways your software can enable you to load a
new sheet at the end of a page:
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If your software sends characters in a continuous stream, the printer
stops printing when it reaches the bottom of the paper. When this
happens, the ON LINE light goes off automatically.
If your software handles printing page by page, it probably stops
sending characters at the end of a page and prompts you to insert
more paper. In this case, the ON LINE light may remain on. If it does,
the first thing you should do is press the ON/OFF LINE button once
to turn it off.
Once the ON LINE light is off, remove the sheet that has just been
printed and load a new sheet in the same way as before.
Printing multi-part forms and copies
If you wish to print multi-part forms or carbon copies, use no more
than three sheets or parts at a time, with a total thickness of no more
than 0.01 inches. The factory setting for the paper thickness lever,
located inside the front lid on the left side, accommodates both single
sheets and multiple forms. There is no need to adjust the lever.
Operating the Control Panel
Now that your paper is loaded, it is time to see what the indicators
and buttons on the control panel do. First, see that the power switch
on the left side of the printer is on. Then take a look at the control
panel. (See Figure 1-19.)
Setting Up
1-19
Figure 1-19.
Control panel
There are four indicator lights and three buttons on the control
panel.
Indicator lights
The indicator lights give you information on the printer’s status:
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The POWER light glows green when the power is on.
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The READY light glows green when the printer is ready to receive
data. This light flickers somewhat during printing.
l
The PAPER OUT light glows red to indicate that the printer is out of
paper or the paper is loaded incorrectly. If you try to print and the
printer does not respond, check to see if this light is on.
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The ON LINE light glows green when the printer can receive data.
(The ON LINE light is located on the ON/OFF LINE button.)
Buttons
The buttons, or touch-sensitive panels, have several functions,
including selecting draft or NLQ (Near Letter Quality) printing. Draft
is good for quick printing of ordinary work, and NLQ has more
1-20
Setting Up
fully-formed characters for final copies or special purposes. NLQ is
available in both Roman and Sans Serif fonts.
The printout below shows the differences among draft, NLQ
Roman, and NLQ Sans Serif so that you can compare the different
styles and densities:
See Chapter 4 for more information on these modes and ways to
select them.
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ON/OFF LINE. This button switches the printer between on line and
off line status.
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NLQ/FORM FEED. When the printer is off line, pressing this button
advances continuous-feed paper to the top of the next form or ejects
a single sheet. When the printer is on line, pressing this button
selects NLQ (Near Letter Quality) printing.
Pressing the FORM FEED button when the printer is ON LINE
alternates the NLQ font between Roman and Sans Serif. When
NLQ Roman is selected, the beeper sounds twice. When NLQ Sans
Serif is selected, the beeper sounds three times.
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DRAFT/LINE FEED. When the printer is off line, pressing this button
advances the paper one line. When the printer is on line, pressing
this button selects draft printing. When you select draft printing the
beeper sounds once. This button also controls the AUTO LOAD
feature.
The control panel buttons also control the SelecType feature. This
feature enables you to select among emphasized, double-strike,
condensed, and elite typestyles. See Chapter 3 for more information.
Performing self test
Now you’ll see your Apex80 print something even though it’s not yet
connected to a computer. Follow these steps:
1. Make sure that your printer has paper in it.
Setting Up
1-21
2. Turn the power switch off, then hold down the DRAFT button on
the control panel while you turn the power back on. The Apex80
begins printing letters, numbers, and other characters that are
stored in its ROM (Read Only Memory) in draft mode. (If DIP
switch 1-5 has been turned on, the test will be performed in NLQ
mode, as in step 4 below.)
3. When printing starts, you can release the DRAFT button; the
printing continues until you turn the printer off or until the printer
runs out of paper.
4. To perform the same test in the NLQ mode, load another sheet of
paper. Turn the printer off, then turn it back on while holding
down the NLQ button. Sans Serif and Roman fonts alternate for
this test. Partial results of both tests are shown in Figure 1-20.
Figure 1-20.
Test pattern
DRAFT
NLQ
1-22
Setting Up
Connecting the Apex80 to Your Computer
Now that the test pattern has shown that your printer is operational,
it’s time to hook it up to your computer.
Remember that computer systems communicate with printers in a
variety of ways. If your computer expects to communicate through a
Centronics parallel interface, all you need is the proper shielded cable.
If your computer requires any other kind of interface, you also need an
interface board.
If you don’t know what a Centronics parallel interface is, your
computer manual or your dealer can tell you what you need. Then,
once you have plugged your printer cable into your printer and
computer, you will probably never think about interfaces again. (If you
do want the technical specifications, however, you can find them in
Appendix F.)
Follow these steps and refer to Figure 1-21 to connect your printer
and computer:
1. Make sure that both your printer and computer are turned off.
2. Plug the appropriate end of your printer cable into the cable
connector of your Apex80 printer. The plug is shaped so it fits the
connector only one way.
Figure 1-21.
Cable connection
Setting Up
1-23
3. Secure the plug to the printer with the wire clips on each side of the
connector. Press the clips into the metal clasps at each side of the
plug. These clips ensure that your cable will not be loosened or
unplugged accidentally.
4. If your cable has a grounding wire, fasten it to the grounding screw
below the connector.
5. Connect the other end of the printer cable to your computer. On
most computers you can easily find the correct connector for the
printer cable, but if you are not sure, consult your computer
manual.
1-24
Setting Up
Chapter 2
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
Now that you’ve set up and tested the printer, you need to start
using it with your application programs.
Printer Selection Menus
Most application programs let you specify the type of printer you’re
using so that the program can take full advantage of the printer’s
features. Many programs provide an installation or setup procedure
that presents a list of printers to choose from. If your application
program has a printer selection menu, use the instructions below.
The rest of this chapter covers word processors, spreadsheets,
graphics programs, and programming languages.
Menu selections
If your software has a printer selection menu, simply choose Apex80.
If the menu does not list this printer, choose one of the following. They
are listed in order of preference.
LX-800
FX-86e
EX-800
LX-86
LX-80
FX-85
FX-80
RX-80
Epson printer
Draft printer
Note
If your application program does not list the Apex80, you may want to
contact the manufacturer to find out whether an update is available.
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
2-1
A quick test
After setting up your application program, print a sample document
to be sure the program and the Apex80 are communicating properly. If
the document doesn’t print correctly, recheck the program’s printer
selection and installation procedure. If you’re still having trouble
printing, consult Appendix C.
Computer - Printer Communication
Computers and printers communicate by using codes to represent
characters and commands. To be sure the two devices use the same
codes, almost all manufacturers of computers, printers, and software
use the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, which
is usually referred to by its abbreviation, ASCII.
The ASCII standard includes codes for printable characters (letters,
punctuation marks, numerals, and mathematical symbols) and 33 other
codes called control codes. The control codes are for such functions as
sounding the beeper and performing carriage returns. Because the 33
control codes are not enough to control all possible printer functions,
most printer commands are actually a sequence of two or more codes.
One of the 33 control codes, the escape code, signals the beginning
of a sequence of codes. Therefore, most printer commands are
sequences of codes, the first of which is the escape code. This manual
uses the ASCII abbreviation ESC for this code.
When using control codes to select printer functions for an
application program or programming language, check the manual for
the program or language to find the appropriate method of inserting
the code into the program. Further details on the methods to use are in
the rest of this chapter.
Naming and using commands
The most common way of naming codes or commands is with one of
two numbering systems, decimal or hexadecimal.
The decimal system is the standard numbering system based on units
of ten, using the numerals 0-9.
2.2
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
The hexadecimal, or hex, system is based on units of 16 and is often
used by programmers. Instead of using only the numerals 0 through 9,
the hex system also uses the letters A through F. For example, the
decimal numbers 9, 10, 11, and 12 are 09, 0A, 0B, and 0C in hex.
Since the most frequently used hexadecimal numbers are between 0
and FF hex (0 to 255 in decimal), it’s common to write hexadecimal
numbers that are less than 16 with a zero in front, as shown above.
In this book, hex numbers are distinguished from decimal numbers
by the word hex after them (for example, 1B hex). Other common
ways of denoting a hexadecimal number are the following:
1BH
$lB
&1B
&H1B
(1B)H
The Command Summary and the Quick Reference card give both
the decimal and hex numbers for each command.
Word Processors
In many ways, word processors demand the most from your printer.
When you create and print a document, you may use many print styles
and fonts, add headers and footers, and use bold, italic, and other
effects.
Once you have installed your word processor by using the lists on
page 2-1, you can ordinarily use a fixed set of printer features by using
a word processor command to place markers around the text to be
altered. When the document is printed, the markers are recognized and
translated into suitable commands for your printer. On your screen
some programs show the markers; others display the text as it will
appear-for example, in bold or italics.
This method is normally restricted to features that can be found on
almost all printers, such as bold and underlining.
Some programs also provide a way of placing complete printer
commands in the text. These commands may or may not be visible on
your screen. This method has the advantage of allowing you to use any
printer command, not just a limited set. To make use of it, however,
you need to understand how to use the printer’s commands.
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
2.3
Check the manual for your word processor to see if you can place
printer commands in your text. If this is possible, use the Command
Summary (Appendix A) in this manual to find the command, and use
the manual for your word processor to find how to assign the
command.
If your Apex80 is not printing correctly, check both the printer and
your word processor and do the following:
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Make sure you’ve selected the correct printer.
Carefully read the printer setup and installation information in your
word processor’s manual.
Check the printer options that may be part of the installation or
setup section (line feeds, interface, etc.).
Make sure your word processor is capable of sending the proper
commands to your printer.
If you’re still having difficulty printing, check the troubleshooting
section in your word processor’s manual and Appendix C of this
manual.
Spreadsheets
Although spreadsheets seldom use as many printing styles as word
processors, they do have some very specific requirements.
Installation and column width
If your spreadsheet program provides a list of printers, use the list on
page 2-1 to find the proper selection. If your spreadsheet doesn’t have a
printer setup routine, carefully read the program’s manual for
information on printing.
A major concern for printing spreadsheets is the width of the printer.
The Apex80 is an 80-column printer, but you can increase the number
of characters on a line by using one of the modes in Table 2-1. You can
turn on elite, condensed, and condensed elite using buttons on the
control panel (see SelecType in Chapter 3). See Chapter 4 for
information on other methods for selecting these modes.
2.4
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
Table 2.1. Characters per line
Normal
Elite
Condensed
Condensed Elite
80
96
132
160
Therefore, if your spreadsheet asks the number of columns your printer
can print, decide which mode you will use and supply the appropriate
number from Table 2-1.
Printer commands
Unlike word processors, spreadsheet programs usually don’t let you
change printer commands within a spreadsheet. Instead, one style or
mode of printing is used for the whole spreadsheet. With the Apex80,
there are two main ways of sending commands to control the printing
of a spreadsheet.
First, almost all spreadsheets have the capability of sending
commands to a printer. Look in the manual for your spreadsheet to
find out how to send printer commands. Then look in the Command
Summary (Appendix A) in this manual to find the proper codes to
send.
For example, your spreadsheet might use a “setup string” to-send
printer commands. To prepare a setup string for condensed elite, you
would look up the proper command in the Command Summary.
The command for elite is ESC M, and the command for condensed
is SI. Because most spreadsheets use the decimal equivalent for the
commands, (also given in the Command Summary), a setup string for
condensed elite might look like this:
/027/077/015
The number 027 is for the escape code, 077 is for M, and 015 is for SI
(condensed).
The second method to choose condensed is one of the SelecType control panel buttons. The use of these buttons is described in Chapter 3.
If your spreadsheet is not printing correctly, be sure you have selected
the correct printer if the program asks you to select one.
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
2.5
If you’re using the program’s print facility, recheck the Command
Summary to make sure you’re sending the correct commands.
If you’re still having difficulty printing, check the troubleshooting
section in your spreadsheet program’s manual or Appendix C of this
manual.
Graphics Programs
The Apex80 is capable of producing finely detailed graphic images.
Although Chapter 6 gives specific information on the graphics
commands, the easiest way to take advantage of the Apex80’s
capabilities is with one of the many graphics programs available.
When buying graphics software, always make sure it has a suitable
option to allow printouts on an Apex, LX, EX, or FX printer. Any
program with an option for one of these printers should give excellent
results, using different dot densities to produce a realistic scale of grays.
Most graphics programs have a printer selection procedure, in which
case you should check the list on page 2-1 to find the proper selection.
Programming Languages
Most users rely on application programs to send commands to the
printer. An awareness of programming languages, however, can be
helpful in exploring a printer’s potential or troubleshooting a printing
problem.
For example, if you want to set up your application program to send
a command for italic printing, you can use a programming language,
such as BASIC or Pascal, to do a quick printout before setting up the
program.
If, on the other hand, you’ve set up a program to send a certain
command to the printer, but it’s not printing correctly, you can send
the same command with a programming language to find whether the
problem lies with your application program, the command, or the
printer.
2.6
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
Sending printer commands with BASIC
You can send printer commands with any programming language.
The examples in this manual are written in BASIC, because BASIC is
included with most computer systems.
In most forms of BASIC, and in particular Microsoft® BASIC, the
normal method of producing printed output is to use the LPRINT
statement followed by the text to be printed enclosed in quotation
marks, as shown below:
100 LPRINT "This text will be printed."
Individual printer control codes can be sent by using the CHR$
function with the LPRINT statement:
110 LPRINT CHR$ (27); CHR$ (69);
This line sends ASCII codes 27 and 69 to the printer, selecting
emphasized printing.
Most versions of BASIC permit the ASCII codes in the CHR$
function to be given in either decimal (as above) or hexadecimal. Also,
if the code corresponds to a printable character, the character itself can
be used in quotation marks in the LPRINT statement. The command
shown above could therefore be given in two other forms:
LPRINT CHR$ (27); "E"
LPRINT CHR$ (&H1B); CHR$ (&H45)
As you can see, Microsoft BASIC uses &H to denote hexadecimal
numbers.
If you have another version of BASIC or a different programming
language, consult the manual for the language to find the correct
formats for these commands. Also see Appendix C.
Using the Apex80 with Application Programs
2-7
Chapter 3
SelecType
The Apex80’s SelecType feature can produce four special typestyles:
SelecType Operation
Using SelecType is easy. You turn on SelecType and select a
typestyle, then turn off SelecType and print.
Turning SelecType on
1. Make sure that the printer is on line.
2. Hold down the ON/OFF LINE button and press the FORM FEED
button. (See Figure 3-1.) When you turn on SelecType, a short beep
sounds and the ON LINE light blinks to indicate that the printer is in
SelecType mode.
SelecType
3-1
Selecting typestyles
In SelecType, each button has a function:
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ON/OFF LINE selects typestyles.
l
FORM FEED sets the styles.
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LINE FEED turns SelecType off.
After turning on SelecType, follow these steps to select a typestyle:
1. Find the typestyle you want in Table 3-1. All of the typestyles listed
in the table are available for draft mode. If you are in NLQ mode,
only emphasized and elite are available.
Table 3-1. SelecType modes
2. Press the ON/OFF LINE button the number of times indicated in the
mode column. Be sure that the printer beeps each time you press
the ON/OFFLINE button.
3. Press the FORM FEED button to set the typestyle.
4. Press the LINE FEED button to turn SelecType off. The control panel
returns to its normal functions, but the printer is off line.
5. Press the ON/OFF LINE button, and you are ready to print.
You can combine any of the modes listed in Table 3-1 when you are
in draft mode, except for emphasized and condensed. In NLQ, the two
available modes (emphasized and elite) may be combined.
If you wish to combine two modes, follow steps 1 through 3 above,
then return to step 1 and follow the entire sequence (steps 1 through
5). (Do the same thing to combine three modes, but repeat steps 1
through 3 for each of the first two modes you enter.) Always select the
lowest mode number first.
3.2
SelecType
When you press the ON/OFF LINE button to select an additional
mode, start counting again where you left off. That is, if you have
selected emphasized and wish to combine that with elite, press the
ON/OFF LINE button three more times, not four, to select elite. For
example, follow these steps to combine emphasized and elite:
1. Press the ON/OFF LINE button once to select emphasized.
2. Press the FORM FEED button.
3. Press the ON/OFF LINE button three more times to select elite. (The
mode is four, but remember that you have already pressed the
ON/OFF LINE button once.)
4. Press the FORM FEED button.
5. Press the LINE FEED button.
6. Press the ON/OFF LINE button, and you are ready to print.
Note
Some application programs are designed to control all typestyle
functions. These programs cancel previous typestyle settings by sending
certain printer codes before printing. Because these codes cancel
SelecType settings, you will have to use the program’s print options
function instead of SelecType to select your typestyles. Therefore, if
SelecType does not work with a particular application program, consult
its manual on how to select typestyles.
SelecType Tips
Once you have learned the simple technique for controlling print
styles with SelecType, you can use it whenever you wish. You should
be aware of a few points, however.
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SelecType is designed to control the printing of an entire file or
document, not an individual line or word.
If you are using the NLQ mode, remember that the following
SelecType modes are not available: double-strike and condensed.
SelecType
3-3
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If there are print codes in the document or file you are printing,
those codes will override your SelecType settings. This seldom
happens, since you usually won’t use SelecType with files that have
such codes, but if your Apex80 follows the SelecType instructions
for only part of a document, print codes in the document may
conflict with the SelecType modes.
After you turn on a mode with SelecType, it stays in effect until the
printer is turned off or until you send a software command that
overrides it. (In general, software commands override SelecType
settings.) If, for example, you use SelecType to print a document in
emphasized type, anything you print after that will be emphasized
unless you first turn the printer off and back on.
3.4
SelecType
Chapter 4
Apex80 Printer Features
You can obtain many different printing effects with the Apex80
printer, from arranging the printout on the paper to giving extra
emphasis to particular words and phrases. This chapter shows you the
features you may want to select with your software. Once you have
read about the features, you can find their commands in the
Command Summary.
SelecType, as you know, controls the printing style of a whole
document. Software commands, on the other hand, can change
anything from a single character to the entire document.
Quality and Fonts
The most fundamental changes you can make to printing on the
Apex80 are in the print quality and NLQ fonts.
The Apex80 has two levels of print quality: draft and NLQ (Near
Letter Quality). Draft printing is fast, making it ideal for drafts and
other preliminary work. NLQ printing takes a little longer, but it
produces more fully-formed characters for presentation-quality
documents.
The printout below shows the differences between draft, NLQ
Roman, and NLQ Sans
Serif so that you can compare the different
styles and densities:
Draft
printing
is
extremely
fast.
NLQ Roman is clear and typewriter-like.
NLQ
Sans
Serif
is
crisp
and
distinctive.
The buttons on the control panel give you an easy way of changing
the print quality and NLQ font, but if you prefer to print in NLQ
Roman most of the time, you can select it with a DIP switch (see
Appendix D). You can also choose the print quality and NLQ font
with software commands.
Apex80 Printer Features
4-1
Print Size and Character Width
To add greater variety to your documents, the Apex80 has two
pitches and condensed printing. All can be selected either with
SelecType or a software command, and software commands also offer
another option: double-wide.
Pitches
The two pitches are pica and elite. Pica is 10 characters per inch (cpi)
and elite is 12 cpi. The printout below shows the difference between the
two
Double-wide and condensed
In addition to the basic pitches, the Apex80 offers two other modes
that change the size of your printing. These modes are double-wide and
condensed.
The double-wide mode doubles the width of any size of characters.
This mode is useful for such purposes as emphasizing headings in
reports and making displays, but is usually not suitable for large
amounts of text.
Pica and elite are reduced to about 60% of their normal width with
the condensed mode. This mode is particularly useful for printing wide
spreadsheets because condensed elite allows you up to 160 characters
on an 8-inch line.
Condensed can be selected with SelecType, by setting a DIP switch
(see Appendix D), or with a software command. Even if you turn
condensed on with the DIP switch, you can still turn it off with
SelecType or the software command.
Condensed pica gives more characters on a line.
condensed elite gives you even more.
4-2
Apex80 Printer Features
Widening or narrowing the characters also widens or narrows the
spaces between words and letters. Because word processors usually
create a left margin by printing spaces, you may need to change the
number of characters on a line to keep the margins correct if you
change widths. For example, a left margin of five pica characters is the
same as one of six elite characters.
Special Effects and Emphasis
The Apex80 offers two ways of emphasizing parts of your text and
also allows you to use underlining, superscripts, and subscripts. Most of
these features can be controlled only by software commands, but many
application programs can produce them if they are properly installed.
Emphasized and double-strike modes, both of which can be chosen
with SelecType, slow the printer down slightly to produce bolder text.
In emphasized mode, the Apex80 prints each character twice as the
print head moves across the paper, with the second slightly to the right
of the first. This produces darker, more fully-formed characters.
In double-strike mode, the Apex80 prints each line twice, with the
second slightly below the first. This makes the characters bolder. While
NLQ is in use, however, double-strike is ignored because NLQ
characters are already formed by two passes of the print head.
This is normal NLQ printing.
This is emphasized NLQ printing,
Superscripts and subscripts are valuable for such purposes as printing
footnote numbers or parts of mathematical formulas, and the underline
mode provides an automatic way of underlining fully any piece of text.
It underlines spaces, subscripts, and superscripts without a break.
The example below shows underlining with text and combined with
superscripts and subscripts in a mathematical formula.
Apex80 Printer Features
4.3
Using Different Character Sets
The Apex80 incorporates a new character set: Epson Character
Graphics. This set allows you to take advantage of the power of the
Epson mode commands and still print out the character graphics used
by IBM and compatible computers and by much commercial software.
For example, if your word processor can include the characters to draw
boxes and shade areas, you can produce some very professional effects.
President
and CEO
V.P.
V.P.
Finance
Sales
You can select the Epson Character Graphics set with your software
or by setting DIP switch 1-3 ON. For many applications it is best to use
the DIP switch instead of the software command because the character
graphics are then available as soon as you turn the printer on.
The other important change you can make to the standard character
set is to change some characters for ones commonly used in other
languages-chiefly European and Scandinavian-such as accented
characters and symbols. Eight international character sets can be
selected by setting DIP switches 1-6 to 1-8: USA, French, German,
UK, Danish, Swedish, Italian, and Spanish. See Appendix D for the
DIP switch settings.
These eight, and five more, can also be selected by a software
command. The additional character sets are the following: Norwegian,
a second Danish set, Japanese, a second Spanish set, and Latin
American. A complete list of these characters is in Appendix B.
Also, all text characters can be printed in italics. You can use this
typestyle for special emphasis or as an alternative typeface.
Italics give emphasis to words.
They are an attractive alternative style.
4-4
Apex80 Printer Features
Page Layout and Other Commands
The remaining commands in the Command Summary are not
normally needed when using commercial software. You may need some
of them if you are using a printer installation program provided with
an application package, but most deal with features (such as tabs,
margins, and line spacing) that are provided directly by commercial
programs and are therefore only useful to you if you want to program
the printer using a programming language such as BASIC.
Apex80 Printer Features
4-5
Chapter 5
User-defined Characters
The Apex80 has several hundred different characters stored in its
ROM (Read Only Memory Although this number includes draft,
italic, international, Character Graphics, and NLQ (Near Letter
Quality) characters, sometimes you may want to have a few more. For
those occasions when you need a special character or a few letters in a
different typeface, the Apex80 allows you to create your own characters
and print them just as if they were ordinary letters.
Defining Your Own Characters
The printout below displays a few such characters to give you an idea
of what can be done, but remember that these characters are truly
user-defined; you create what you need or want.
The procedure for designing a character is a simple three-step
process:
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Plan your character
Run one program to test your work and calculate the required
DATA numbers
Run another program to put the character in your printer’s RAM
(Random Access Memory) for use whenever you need it.
Because the high-resolution NLQ mode uses many more dots per
character than the draft mode, defining NLQ characters is somewhat
more complex than defining draft characters. You can find the
programs for defining NLQ characters at the end of this chapter.
After you have created your own characters with these programs,
certain keys that you seldom use generate the user-defined characters.
For example, you can type ( to print .
User-defined Characters
5-1
You can create any type of character. The only restriction is that the
characters you define must follow the same rules that govern the rest of
the characters printed by the Apex80. They must fit into an 11 x 9
matrix, no dot can overlap another, and either the top or the bottom
row must be empty.
Designing Process
Suppose you want to print the scientific symbol for the planet
Mercury. Although the Apex80 has a number of special symbols, that
is not one of them. First, use a grid like the one in Figure 5-1 to plan
‘where to place the dots.
Figure 5-1.
Grid for designing draft characters
Because the last two columns are reserved for the space between
characters, they are not included in the grid. And since most
characters do not use the bottom two rows, there is a heavy line to
indicate the usual lower limit for an Apex80 character.
When you place your dots on this grid, remember that dots cannot
go on horizontal lines, but they can go on vertical lines so long as they
do not overlap any other dots. As you design your characters, draw
5.2
User-defined Characters
the dots as large as you see them in the example on the left in Figure
5-2. If you draw them smaller, you may have overlapping dots without
realizing it.
Figure 5-2.
Correct and incorrect designs
overlapping dots
dot on horizontal line
If you do accidentally overlap dots, don’t worry. The program will
still work, but only one of the dots will be printed.
First definition program
Once you have drawn your dots on the grid, type in the following
BASIC program and run it. If you are using Applesoft™ BASIC, see
Appendix C.
100 DIM F(9)
110 FOR I=1 TO 9
120 PRINT "WHICH ROWS HAVE DOTS IN COLUMN"; 1
130 INPUT R: IF R=0 THEN 150
140 F(I)=F(I)+2^(R-1)
150 IF R=0 THEN NEXT I ELSE GOTO 130
160 LPRINT CHR$(27) “:“CHR$(0)CHR$(0)CHR$(0);
170 LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(1)CH$(0);
180 LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(0)CHR$(60)CHR$(60);
190 LPRINT CHR$(128);
User-defined Characters
5-3
200
FOR X=1 TO 9
210 LPRINT CHR$(F(X));:NEXT X
220 LPRINT CHR$(0)CHR$(0);
230 LPRINT "YOUR CHARACTER IN PICA: < < <"
240 LPRINT "IN DOUBLE-WIDE EMPHASIZED PICA: ";
250 LPRINT CHR$(27)"!*< < <("
260 LPRINT CHR$(27)"!"CHR$(0) "YOUR DATA NUMBERS:"
270 FOR K=1 TO 9: LPRINT F(K);: NEXT K
300 LPRINT: END
The next few sections explain the steps used to create the symbol for
Mercury. First, Figure 5-3 shows the grid used to design the character.
Figure 5-3.
Design for character
Running the program
Now run the program. For each of the nine columns, the program
asks for the numbers of the rows in which you want dots to appear.
Enter the row numbers one at a time, pressing the Enter key after
each one. When you have entered all the numbers for a column or
when you want no dots in a column, press Enter without a number.
Remember that the vertical lines in the grid are the even-numbered
columns.
5-4
User-defined Characters
To see program 1 produce the character in Figure 5-3, run the
program and follow these instructions:
1. When the screen message asks what rows have dots in column 1,
press Enter to indicate that no dots go in that column.
2. For column 2 (the vertical line) press 7, Enter, 5, and Enter again
to indicate that you want dots in rows 7 and 5. Then press Enter
alone to indicate that no more dots go in column 2.
3. For column 3 press 8, 6, 4, and 2, and Enter after each of them.
Press Enter to finish with column 3 and go on to column 4.
4. For column 4 press Enter only (The. rest of the directions assume
that you know to press Enter after each number and one extra
time to end the entries for each column.)
5. For column 5 enter 6, 4, 3, 2, and 1.
6. For column 6 press Enter only.
7. For column 7 enter 8, 6, 4, and 2.
8. For column 8 enter 7 and 5.
9. For column 9 press Enter only.
Now wait a moment for your computer to calculate the dot patterns
and your LX-800 to print the new character in two different typestyles.
Your printout also gives you nine numbers, which you use in the next
program. You should get the printout you see below:
When you get to this point with a character of your own, you see
how it looks. If you want to make any changes, move the dots as
needed and re-run the program.
If you want to put dots in the bottom row, change the number in
line 190 from 128 to 0. Then the usable rows are those shown in Figure
5-4 below.
User-defined Characters
5.5
Figure 5-4.
Using the bottom eight rows
Second definition program
Once the character looks the way you want it to, you can enter,
modify, and run the next program. The program as listed creates the
Mercury character, but you can use it for any characters you create if
you make one or two changes, as explained after the program listing.
90 FOR P=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(P);" ";: NEXT P
95 LPRINT
100
110
120
130
K=l: IF K>3 THEN A=58 ELSE A=60
LPRINT CHR$(27): ""CHR$(0)CHR$(0)CHR$(0);
LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(l)CHR$(0);
LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(0)CHR$(A)CHR$(A-1+K);
140 FOR Z=l TO K
150 LPRINT CHR$(128);
160 FOR X=1 TO 9
170 READ R
180 LPRINT CHR$(R);: NEXT X
190 LPRINT CHR$(0)CHR$(0);
200 NEXT Z
210 DATA 0,80,170,0,47,0,170,80,0
290 FOR P=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(P);" ";: NEXT P
To use this program for your own character or characters, change the
DATA numbers in line 210 by substituting the numbers generated by
the first program when you created your own character. If you have
5-6
User-defined Characters
created more than one character, put the DATA numbers for each
character on a separate line as you see in the example below:
210 DATA 112,8,0,138,116,138,0,8,112
220 DATA 56,68,146,40,130,40,130,68,56
Check your work by making sure there are nine numbers in each
line and the numbers are separated by commas. Also make the change
in line 100 explained below.
Line 100 states K= 1; to define more than one character, use the total
number of characters you are defining instead of the 1 in that line.
(You can define as many as six characters. Just run the first program
several times and enter all the DATA numbers in this program.)
Running the program
When you run this second program, it prints six characters, then redefines some or all of them and prints them again, as in the example
below.
When printed by your own program, these two lines provide you
with a key to the characters your Apex80 can now print. When you
press the key for one of the characters in the top row, the printer prints
the corresponding character in the bottom row. In the example above,
if you type < your Apex80 prints
(although your screen continues
to show the character <).
Because the program puts these new definitions in your printer’s
Random Access Memory (RAM), it prints the new characters (the ones
in the bottom row) unless it is turned off.
If you have designed a few characters and want to use them with
your word processing program, for example, just run the second
definition program before you start using your word processing
program. Then use the two-line printout as your guide to tell you
which keys to press for your new characters.
Defining NLQ Characters
Since NLQ characters use many more dots than draft characters,
defining NLQ characters is more complex than designing draft ones. If
User-defined Characters
5.7
you use the grid and the programs in this section, however, you can
design your own NLQ characters.
NLQ grid
Because the NLQ characters can use as many as 18 dots vertically
and 12 dots horizontally, you plan your designs on a different grid than
the one you used for draft characters. See Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-5.
Grid for NLQ characters
On this grid you can use any numbered line or space. As you can
see, that includes the bottom line and the line on the right side. You
should remember to leave one or two columns blank for space between
characters, however.
5.8
User-defined Characters
Each NLQ character definition requires 36 data numbers. Therefore,
each vertical column must be divided into three sections for the
calculation of data numbers. The process is not difficult once you get
some practice using it.
Figure 5-6 shows a single column to make clear how the data
numbers are calculated. Notice that in designing NLQ characters
circles are used instead of dots to make it easier to keep track of
overlapping dots.
Figure 5-6.
Data numbers for one column
To calculate the data numbers for this column, you see which dots
are used in the top group (the top eight positions) and add their values
together. Then you go down to the middle group (the next eight
User-defined Characters
5.9
positions) and add the values of any dots that are used there. Finally,
you look at the bottom group (two dot positions) and add together the
values used there.
If no dots are used in a group, the data number for that group is
zero. All zeros must be entered in the DATA statements for the NLQ
definition programs.
Now you can learn how to use the NLQ character definition with a
simple arrow design. Figure 5-7 shows the design drawn on a grid and
the data numbers printed at the top or bottom of each column.
Figure 5-7.
Arrow design and data numbers
5.10
User-defined Characters
If you look at each column individually, you can see how the data
numbers were calculated.
First NLQ definition program
Now type in and run the following program. It has the data numbers
for the arrow design. For a character of your own, change the data
numbers in lines 130-150.
10
20
30
40
50
LPRINT CHR$(27);"x1";
LPRINT CHR$(27);":";CHR$(0);CHR$(0);CHR$(0);
LPRINT CHR$(27);"%";CHR$(1);CHR$(0);
LPRINT CHR$(27);"&";CHR$(0);"< <";
LPRINT CHR$(0);CHR$(12);CHR$(0);
60 FOR X=1 TO 36
70 READ C: LPRINT CHR$(C);
80 NEXT X
90 LPRINT "YOUR CHARACTER IN PICA: < < <"
100 LPRINT "IN DOUBLE-WIDE EMPHASIZED PICA: ";
110 LPRINT CHR$(27);"!*< < <"
120 LPRINT CHR$(27);"!";CHR$(0);
130 DATA 4,0,0,8,0,0,16,0,0,32,0,0
140 DATA 64,0,0,255,255,192,64,0,0,32,0,0
150 DATA 16,0,0,8,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0
YOUR CHARACTER IN PICA:
IN DOUBLE-WIDE EMPHASIZED PICA:
When you run this program for your own character, you can see if it
looks right. If not, move the dots as needed, recalculate and change the
data numbers, and run the program again.
Second NLQ definition program
When you are satisfied with the character you have created, enter
and run the next program. Use your data numbers instead of the ones
in lines 140-160. If you want to define more than one character, change
line 10 so that J equals the total number of characters you are defining
(the maximum is six) and enter the extra data numbers (36 for each
character).
User-defined Characters
5-11
10 J=l: IF J>3 THEN A=58 ELSE A=60
20 LPRINT CHR$(27)"x"CHR$(1)
30 FOR X=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(X)" ";: NEXT X
40 LPRINT
50 LPRINT CHR$(27) :""CHR$(0)CHR$(0)CHR$(0)
60 LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(1)CHR$(0);
70 LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(0)CHR$(A)CHR$(A-1+J);
80 FOR Y=1 TO J
90 LPRINT CHR$(0)CHR$(12)CHR$(0);
100 FOR X=1 TO 36
110 READ C: LPRINT CHR$(C);
120 NEXT X: NEXT Y
130 FOR X=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(X)" ";: NEXT X
140 DATA 4, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0, 16, 0, 0, 32, 0, 0
150 DATA 64, 0, 0, 255, 255, 192, 64, 0, 0, 32, 0, 0
160 DATA 16, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
When you run this program, it prints six characters, then redefines
one or more of them and prints them again. As with the draft
characters, you use this two-line printout as a guide to the new
characters your Apex80 can print. You can use them with an
application program or a program you write yourself.
5-12
User-defined Characters
Chapter 6
Introduction to Dot Graphics
The dot graphics mode allows your Apex80 to produce pictures,
graphs, charts, or almost any other pictorial material you can devise.
Because many commercial software programs use graphics, you may be
able to print pictures and graphs like the ones on this page and the
next by simply giving your software a few instructions.
The quickest and easiest way to print graphics on your Apex80 is to
use a commercial graphics program. With such programs you usually
create an image on your monitor and then give a command to send
the image to the printer.
Introduction to Dot Graphics
6-1
If you use commercial software that produces graphics, all you need
to know about dot graphics is how to use the software. If, on the other
hand, you wish to do your own programming or merely wish to
understand how the Apex80 prints graphics, read on.
The Print Head
To understand dot graphics you need to know a little about how the
Apex80’s print head works.
The Apex80's print head has nine pins. As it moves across the page,
electrical impulses cause the pins to fire. Each time a pin fires, it strikes
the inked ribbon and presses it against the paper to produce a small
dot. As the head moves across the paper, the pins fire time after time in
different patterns to produce letters, numbers, or symbols.
6.2
Introduction to Dot Graphics
Dot patterns
The Apex80’s print head is able to print graphics in addition to text
because graphic images are formed on the Apex80 about the same way
that pictures in newspapers and magazines are printed.
If you look closely at a newspaper photograph, you can see that it is
made up of many small dots. The Apex80 also forms its images with
patterns of dots, as many as 240 dot positions per inch horizontally and
72 dots vertically. The images printed by the Apex80 can, therefore, be
as finely detailed as the one on the first page of this chapter.
In its main graphics mode the Apex80 prints one column of dots for
each code it receives, and it uses only the top eight of the nine pins.
Therefore, your graphics program must send codes for dot patterns,
one number for each column in a line. For each of those columns the
print head prints the pattern of dots you have specified.
To print figures taller than eight dots, the print head makes more
than one pass. The printer prints one line, then advances the paper
and prints another, just as it does with text.
To keep the print head from leaving gaps between the graphics lines
as it does between the text lines, the line spacing must be changed to
eliminate the space between lines. With a change in line spacing, the
Apex80 can print finely detailed graphic images that give no indication
that they are made up of separate lines, each no more than 8/72nds of
an inch tall.
Each pass of the print head prints one piece of the total pattern,
which can be as tall or short and as wide or narrow as you desire. You
don’t have to fill the whole page or even an entire line with your
graphics figures. In fact, you can use as little or as much space as you
like for a figure and put it anywhere on the page.
Pin Labels
The graphics mode requires a method to tell the printer which pins
to fire in each column. Since there are 256 possible combinations of
eight pins, you need a numbering system that allows you to use a single
number to specify which of the 256 possible patterns you want. This
numbering system is shown in Figure 6-1 on the next page.
Introduction to Dot Graphics
6.3
To fire any one pin, you send its number. To fire more than one pin
at the same time, add up the numbers of the pins and send the sum to
the printer. Therefore, with these labels for the pins, you fire the top
pin by sending 128. To fire the bottom pin, you send 1. If you want to
fire only the top and bottom pins, you simply add 128 and 1, then
send 129.
By adding the appropriate label numbers together, you can fire any
combination of pins. Figure 6-1 shows three examples of how to
calculate the number that fires a particular pattern of pins.
Figure 6-1
Pin numbering system
With this numbering system, any combination of the eight pins adds
up to a decimal number between 0 and 255, and no numbers are
duplicated. Before you can put these numbers in a graphics program,
however, you need to know the format of the graphics commands.
Graphics Commands
The graphics mode commands are quite different from most other
commands. For most of the other modes, such as emphasized and
double-wide, one command turns the mode on and another turns it
off. For graphics, the command is more complicated because the
command that turns on a graphics mode also specifies how many
columns of graphics will be printed. After the printer receives this
command, it interprets the next numbers as pin patterns and prints
them on the paper.
6.4
Introduction to Dot Graphics
The graphics command format
There are several different graphics commands giving different
horizontal dot densities and printing speeds. Because the format is
almost the same for all the commands, however, the example here
keeps things simple by using only the single-density graphics command,
ESC K. In single-density graphics, there are 60 dots per inch
horizontally.
The command to enter single-density graphics mode is ESC K nl n2.
In BASIC the command is given in this format:
LPRINT CHR$(27);"K";CHR$(n1);CHR$(n2);
ESC K specifies single-density graphics, and the next two numbers
(nl and n2) specify the number of columns reserved for graphics.
Column reservation numbers
Even in single-density graphics mode, one 8-inch line can
accommodate 480 columns of graphics; in quadrupledensity, almost
2000 columns can fit on the same 8-inch line. Since the printer does
not use decimal numbers larger than 255, the graphics commands use
two numbers for reserving columns.
Because the commands are set up for two numbers, you must supply
two even if you need only one. When you need fewer than 256
columns, it is easy to determine n1 and n2: n1 is the number of
columns you are reserving and n2 is zero. For example, to send data for
200 columns of graphics, n1 is 200 and n2 is 0.
For more than 256 columns of graphics data, n2 is the number of
complete groups of 256 columns, and n1 is the number of columns to
complete the line. For example, to send 1632 columns of graphic data,
nl is 96 and n2 is 6 because 96 + (6 x 256) = 1632.
You can calculate both nl and n2 by dividing the total number of
columns by 256. The quotient is n2 and the remainder is nl. If you are
using a programming language with MOD (modulus) and INT (integer)
functions, you can use the following formulas, in which n is the total
number of columns.
nl = n MOD 256
n2 = INT (n/256)
Introduction to Dot Graphics
6.5
Graphics data
After receiving a graphics command such as ESC K nl n2, the
printer prints the number of codes specified by nl and n2 as graphics
data, no matter what codes they are. This means that you must be sure
to supply exactly the right amount of graphics data. If you supply too
little, the printer will stop and wait for more data and will seem to be
locked. The next data sent will then be printed as graphics, even if it is
really text. On the other hand, if you supply too much graphics data,
the excess will be printed as regular text.
Simple Graphics Programming
The first example in this section shows how a graphics command,
column reservation numbers, and data can be used to print a single
line of graphics. The example is a BASIC program. If you prefer
another programming language, the principles are exactly the same.
Therefore, you can easily adapt the program to the language you prefer.
The first line of the program specifies single-density graphics for 40
columns:
100 LPRINT CHR$(27);"K";CHR$(40);CHR$(0);
The second line is the data that is printed as pin patterns. It uses the
number 74 to produce one of the patterns shown in Figure 6-1. The
FOR-NEXT loop sends 40 columns of data.
200 FOR X=1 TO 40: LPRINT CHR$(74);: NEXT X
That is the whole program. In BASIC, semicolons at the ends of the
lines are very important; they prevent the computer from sending
other codes after the ones you specify. In other languages you may have
to use a special command to send a single code at a time. Run the
program to see the result below. Although it is not as interesting as the
examples at the beginning of this chapter, it shows exactly how the
mode works.
6.6
Introduction to Dot Graphics
WIDTH statements
Some software (including most versions of BASIC) automatically
inserts carriage return and line feed codes after every 80 or 130
characters. This is usually no problem with text, but it can spoil your
graphics. Two extra columns of graphics are printed in the middle of
the ones you send, and are left over and printed as text.
In some versions of BASIC you can prevent unwanted control codes
in graphics by putting a WIDTH statement at the beginning of all
graphics programs. The format in many forms of BASIC is either
WIDTH “LPT1:“, 255 or WIDTH LPRINT 255. Check your software
manual for the proper format.
Printing taller patterns
The next example shows how several lines of graphics can be formed
into a figure taller than eight dots. It uses programming techniques for
producing textured or repetitive patterns.
The program is listed below. The lines inside each pair of FOR and
NEXT statements have been indented so that you can see how the
program works; the spaces are not needed for the program to run.
100 WIDTH "LPT1:", 255
110 LPRINT CHR$(27);"A";CHR$(8);
120 FOR R = 1 TO 6
130
LPRINT CHR$(27);"K";CHR$(100);CHR$(0);
140
FOR X = 1 to 50
150
LPRINT CHR$(170);CHR$(85);
NEXT
X: LPRINT
160
170 NEXT R
180 LPRINT CHR$(27);"@"
If you run the program, you will see how it combines six print lines
into a pattern.
There are five basic steps that the program goes through to produce
this kind of pattern.
Introduction to Dot Graphics
6.7
1. The computer is prevented from adding any extra characters by the
WIDTH statement (line 100).
2. The line spacing is changed to 8/72 of an inch-the height of the
dot patterns used in the program (line 110).
3. The program goes through the graphics commands the required
number of times (lines 120 and 170).
4. A new graphics command is used for each line printed (lines 130160). This part of the program is similar to the last example, but two
columns are printed each time through the loop making a total of
100.
5. The last important thing to do is to reset the printer to its default
settings, including the normal line spacing (line 180).
Notice that the graphics command (ESC K) can be in effect for only
one print line. To print more than one line of graphics, the graphics
command must be issued before each line.
Density Varieties
Although all the examples so far in this chapter have been in the
singledensity graphics mode, there are six other eight-pin densities and
two that use all nine pins. Nine-pin graphics is not necessary for most
uses, but you can find the command (ESC ^) in the Command
Summary (Appendix A).
The four most common eight-pin modes are ESC K, ESC L, ESC Y,
and ESC Z. There is also a general-purpose command for any of the
eight-pin graphics modes: ESC *. This command is used in the same
way as the individual commands, except that before nl and n2 you
must send the code for the graphics mode required. The different
modes are summarized in Table 6-1.
The following example shows how to use the ESC * command to
reserve 40 columns for single-density graphics. This uses mode number
0 from the table to achieve exactly the same effect as the first example
using ESC K.
LPRINT
6.8
CHR$(27);"*";CHR$(0);CHR$(40);CHR$(0);
Introduction to Dot Graphics
Table 6-1. Graphics modes
Modes 4-6 in the table are special modes that alter the horizontal
density to give proportions of a computer monitor (the CRT modes),
or to match the vertical density so as to give round circles (the plotter
mode).
In two modes, high-speed double-density and quadruple-density, the
print head cannot print two consecutive dots with the same pin, so
that it can print dots in only half the possible dot positions in any one
row. The higher density means that the resolution of the pattern is
better than in single-density mode. When you design patterns in these
two modes, however, you must see that no dots overlap.
Reassigning a graphics mode
Another graphics command lets you assign a different eight-pin
graphics mode to one of the specific eight-pin graphics commands. You
can use it with graphics software programs to quickly change the
density and proportions of your printouts. Changing the graphics
option changes the width without changing the height.
The command for reassigning a graphics mode is ESC ? c m. In this
command, c is a letter designating one of the four alternate graphics
codes (K, L, Y, or Z) and m is the mode number of the new mode, as
listed in Table 6-1.
For example, to change the ESC K command to select the CRT I
screen graphics mode, the command in BASIC would be the following:
LPRINT CHR$(27);"?K";CHR$(4);
Introduction to Dot Graphics
6.9
A little experimentation should tell you whether the reassigning code
can improve your graphics printouts.
Designing Your Own Graphics
This section takes you through the development of a graphics
program. The example is not especially complicated, but it does include
the same steps you would use for a more complex figure.
You should plan your figure with dots on graph paper, but before
beginning to place the dots, you must decide which graphics density
you want. Figure 6-2 shows the differences between three common
modes so that you can choose the one you want.
In this figure you can see the main rules for graphic design in the
three densities:
l
l
l
In single-density no dots can be placed on vertical lines.
In high-speed double-density, dots can be placed on vertical lines, but
no dots can overlap.
In double-density, dots can be placed on vertical lines, and they can
overlap.
Figure 6-2.
Designing in different densities
6-10
Introduction to Dot Graphics
Now look at the high-speed doubledensity design in Figure 6-3. It
should point you in the right direction for your own work.
Figure 6-3.
Arrow design
After plotting the dots on a grid, you calculate the numbers for each
pin pattern by dividing the design grid into separate print lines. For the
arrow design, the grid was divided into two lines, each seven dots high.
Then each column was examined to calculate the graphics data. The
results for the first line are shown in Figure 6-4. The pin values are on
the left and the sums at the bottom of each column.
Figure 6-4.
Calculating data
Introduction to Dot Graphics
6.11
The numbers for the second line were calculated in the same way.
Once the numbers for the pin patterns are calculated, they are put in
the program in DATA statements, separated by commas.
The program works in a similar way to the last example. This time it
selects 7/72-inch line spacing because only seven pins are used. Because
the data is not repetitive, each column of graphics data is read from the
DATA statements and sent to the printer. The design is 41 dot
positions wide. Therefore both lines 130 and 140 use the number 41.
100 WIDTH "LPT1:", 255
110 LPRINT CHR$(27);"A";CHR$(7);
120 FOR ROW = 1 TO 2
130 LPRINT CHR$(27);"Y";CHR$(41);CHR$(0);
140
FOR COLUMN = 1 TO 41
150
READ N
160
LPRINT CHR$(N);
170
NEXT COLUMN
180 LPRINT
190 NEXT ROW
200 END
210 DATA 64, 32, 80, 8, 68, 2, 64, 0, 64, 0
220 DATA 64, 0, 64, 0, 32, 0, 16, 0, 8, 0
230 DATA 8, 0, 8, 0, 8, 0, 8, 0, 8, 0, 8, 0, 8, 0
240 DATA 184, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2
250 DATA 8, 16, 40, 64, 136, 0, 8, 0, 8, 0
260 DATA 8, 0, 8, 0, 16, 0, 32, 0, 64, 0, 64, 0
270 DATA 64, 0, 64, 0, 64, 0, 64, 0, 64, 0, 64, 0
280 DATA 116, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 0
When you run this program, it produces the following printout:
If you want to see the figure in other densities, change the Y in line
130 to L or Z.
6.12
Introduction to Dot Graphics
Appendix A
Command Summary
This appendix lists and describes all the commands available on the
Apex80.
The first part of this appendix lists all commands in numerical order
and gives the page number where each is fully described. If you know
which command you are looking for, consult the numerical list to find
the page number where it is described.
The Quick Reference card at the end of the book also contains a list
of the commands divided by topic, with page number references that
direct you to full explanations of the commands.
The second part of this appendix lists and describes the commands.
They are divided into the following subjects:
Printer Operation
Data Control
Vertical/Horizontal Motion
Overall Printing Style
Print Size and Character Width
Print Enhancement
Word Processing
Character Sets
User-defined Characters
Graphics
In this appendix each command has a format section and a comment
section. The format section gives the ASCII, decimal, and hexadecimal
values for the command; the comment section describes the effect of
the command and gives any additional information necessary for using
it.
All three formats are equivalent, and it should be easy to pick the
one most suited to your purpose.
Note
Some application programs can use control key sequences. See the
Control Key chart on page A-3 for information on using these.
Command Summary
A-1
For the following commands that use only 0 or 1 for the variable,
either the ASCII cocks 1 and 0 or the characters 1 and 0 can be used:
ESC S, ESC U, ESC X, ESC W, ESC S, ESC- , and
ESC %
For example, in BASIC you can turn on double-wide with either of
these statements:
LPRINT CHR$(27);"W";CHR$(1)
LPRINT CHR$(27);"W";"1"
The simplest type of command consists of a single character to be
sent to the printer. For instance, to print in condensed mode the code
format is:
ASCII code: S I
Decimal:
15
Hexadecimal: OF
More complex commands consist of two or more character codes.
For example, to print in elite mode the code format is the following:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
M
77
4D
n
n
n
In this case n can be either 1 or 0, to begin or end elite printing. You
can use either of the following commands to turn ON elite print from
BASIC:
LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(77);CHR$(1)
LPRINT CHR$(27);"M";CHR$(l)
A-2
Command Summary
Control key chart
Some application programs can use control key codes for decimal
values O-27. The table below gives you the proper values. The Control
Key column indicates that you press the control key at the same time
you press the key for the letter or symbol in that column, For example,
you press the control key and A at the same time to send the value 1.
Some programs that use this system cannot use control-@, and
many programs use the control keys for other purposes.
Dec.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Command Summary
Hex.
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
Control Key
@
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
A-3
Commands in Numerical Order
This section lists all the Apex80 commands, with their decimal and
hexadecimal values. The numbers in the columns on the right are the
page numbers in this appendix where a complete description of the
command can be found.
ASCII Dec Hex Description
7 07 Beeper
BEL
BS
8 08 Backspace
HT
9 09 Tab horizontally
LF
10 0A Line feed
VT
11 0B Tab vertically
FF
12 0C Form feed
CR
13 0D Carriage return
0E
14
SO
Select double-wide (1 line)
SI
15 0F Select condensed mode
DC1
17 11 Select printer
DC2
18 12 Cancel condensed mode
DC3
19 13 Deselect printer
DC4
20 14 Cancel double-wide (1 line)
CAN
24 18 Cancel line
DEL
127 7F Delete character
ESC SO 14 0E Select double-wide (1 line)
15 0F Select condensed mode
ESC SI
ESC EM 25 19 Cut sheet feeder on/off
ESC !
33 21 Master select
ESC %
37 25 Select user-defined set
ESC &
38 26 Define user-defined characters
42 2A Select graphics mode
ESC *
ESC 45 2D Turn underlining on/off
ESC /
47 2F Select vertical tab channel
ESC 0
48 30 Select l/8-inch line spacing
ESC 1
49 31 Select 7/72-inch line spacing
ESC 2
50 32 Select l/6-inch line spacing
ESC 3
51 33 Select n/2l6-inch line spacing
A-4
Page
A-10
A-17
A-18
A-13
A-15
A-11
A-10
A-22
A-21
A-7
A-21
A-7
A-22
A-10
A-11
A-22
A-21
A-9
A-20
A-29
A-29
A-3 1
A-25
A-16
A-13
A-13
A-14
A-14
Command Summary
ASCII Dec Hex Description
ESC 4
ESC 5
ESC 6
ESC 7
ESC 8
ESC 9
ESC :
ESC <
ESC ?
ESC @
ESC A
ESC B
ESC C
ESC CO
ESC D
ESC E
ESC F
ESC G
ESC H
ESC J
ESC K
ESC L
ESC M
ESC N
ESC O
ESC P
ESC Q
ESC R
ESC SO
ESC Sl
ESC T
ESC U
ESC W
ESC Y
ESC Z
ESC ^
ESC a
ESC b
ESC e
ESC f
ESC k
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
60
63
64
65
66
67
67
68
69
70
71
72
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
83
84
85
87
89
90
94
97
98
101
102
107
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3C
3F
40
41
42
43
43
44
45
46
47
48
4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
53
54
55
57
59
5A
5E
61
62
65
66
6B
Command Summary
Select italic mode
Cancel italic mode
Printable code area expansion
Cancel ESC 6
Disable paper-out sensor
Enable paper-out sensor
Copy ROM into RAM
Select unidirectional mode (1-line)
Reassign graphics mode
Initialize printer
Select n/72-inch line spacing
Set vertical tabs
Set page length in lines
Set page length in inches
Set horizontal tabs
Select emphasized mode
Cancel emphasized mode
Select double-strike mode
Cancel double-strike mode
Perform n/216-inch line feed
Select single-density graphics
Select double-density graphics
Select elite pitch
Set skip-over-perforation
Cancel skip-over-perforation
Select pica pitch
Set right margin
International character set
Select superscript mode
Select subscript mode
Cancel superscript/subscript
Turn unidirectional mode on/off
Turn double-wide on/off
High-speed dbl-density graphics
Quadruple-density graphics
Select 9-pin graphics
NLQ justification
Set vertical tabs in channels
Set tab increments
Horizontal/vertical skip
Select NLQ font
Page
A-27
A-27
A-28
A-28
A-9
A-9
A-29
A-8
A-31
A-7
A-14
A-15
A-11
A-12
A-18
A-23
A-23
A-24
A-24
A-15
A-30
A-30
A-21
A-12
A-12
A-20
A-17
A-28
A-24
A-25
A-25
A-8
A-23
A-30
A-31
A-32
A-26
A-16
A-17
A-18
A-19
A-5
ASCII Dec Hex Description
ESC 1
108 6C Set left margin
ESC s
115 73 Turn half-speed mode on/off
ESC t
116 74 Select character table
ESC x
120 78 Select NLQ or draft
A-6
Page
A-16
A-8
A-26
A-19
Command Summary
Printer Operation
Initialization
Initialize Printer
ESC @
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
@
27
64
1B
40
Comments:
Resets the printer mode and clears the buffer of printable data on
the print line preceding the command.
Selection
DC1
Select Printer
Format:
DC1
ASCII code:
17
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1 1
Comments:
Returns the printer to the selected state if it has been deselected by
the printer deselect code (DC3). Does not select the printer if it has
been switched off line by pressing the ON/OFF LINE button.
DC3
Deselect Printer
Format:
ASCII code:
DC3
Decimal:
19
Hexadecimal: 1 3
Comments:
Puts the printer into the deselected state until select printer code
(DCl) is received. The printer cannot be reselected with the ON/OFF
LINE button.
Command Summary
A-7
Speed
Turn Half-speed Mode On/Off
ESCs
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
s
175
73
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
(The characters “0” and “1”
1: Mode is turned ON.
0: Mode is turned OFF.
can also be used.)
Printing direction
Select Unidirectional Mode (one line)
ESC<
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC <
27
60
1B
3C
Comments:
Printing is normally bidirectional. This command selects
unidirectional printing for one line only. (It is cancelled by a carriage
return.) The print head moves to the extreme left (home) position,
and printing takes place from left to right.
ESCU
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
Turn Unidirectional Mode On/Off
U
85
55
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
1: Mode is turned ON.
(The characters “0” and “1”
0: Mode is turned OFF.
can also be used.)
Text printing is normally bidirectional. This command selects
unidirectional printing for more accurate positioning.
A-8
Command Summary
Disable Paper-out Sensor
ESC8
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC 8
27
56
1B
38
Comments:
Turns off the paper-out sensor so that you can print to the end of a
single sheet of paper.
Enable Paper-out Sensor
ESC 9
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
9
27
57
1B
39
Comments:
Cancels ESC 8. Therefore, the printer beeper sounds and printing
stops when the printer reaches a point approximately 3/4 of an inch
from the end of the paper.
ESC EM
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
Turn Cut Sheet Feeder Mode On/Off
EM
25
19
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
4: Mode is turned ON.
0: Mode is turned OFF.
The variables are the characters “0” (48 decimal or 30 hex) and “4”
(52 decimal or 34 hex). Do not use 1 decimal, 01 hex, 4 decimal, or
04 hex.
The command should not be used unless the optional cut sheet
feeder is installed. It is ignored if any value other than “0” or “4” is
used for n. The command overrides the setting of DIP switch 2-2.
Command Summary
A-9
Beeper
Beeper
BEL
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
BEL
7
0 7
Comments:
Sounds the printer’s beeper.
Data Control
Carriage Return
CR
Format:
CR
ASCII code:
13
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 0D
Comments:
Prints the data in the buffer and returns the print position to the left
margin. A line feed may be added if DIP switch 2-4 is ON or the
AUTO PEED XT line on the parallel interface is held LOW.
Cancel Line
CAN
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
CAN
24
18
Comments:
Removes all text on the print line, but does not affect control codes.
A-10
Command Summary
Delete Character
DEL
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
DEL
127
7F
Comments:
Removes the last text character on the print line but does not affect
control codes.
Vertical/Horizontal Motion
Form feeding
Form Feed
FF
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
FF
12
0C
Comments:
Prints the data in the print buffer and advances the paper to the top
of the next form according to the current page length.
Set Page Length in Lines
ESC C
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
C
27
67
1B
43
n
n
n
Comments:
Sets the page length to n lines in the current line spacing. The value
of n must be from 1-127. The top of form position is set to the
current line.
Command Summary
A-11
ESC C 0
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Page Length in Inches
ESC
C
n
NUL
27
67
0
1B
43
00
n
n
Comments:
Sets the page length to n inches. The value of n must be from 1-22.
The top of form position is set to the current line.
ESC N
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
Set Skip-over-perforation
N
78
4E
n
n
n
Comments:
The variable n is the number of lines skipped between the last line
printed on one page and the first line on the next page. For
example, with the standard settings for line spacing (l/6-inch), and
page length (66 lines), ESC N 6 causes the Apex80 to print 60 lines
and then skip 6. DIP switch 2-3 performs the same function. This
setting is cancelled by ESC O and also by ESC C or ESC C NUL.
The value of n must be from 1-127.
ESC O
Format:
Cancel Skipover-perforation
ASCII code:
ESC O
Decimal:
27
79
Hexadecimal: 1 B
4F
Comments:
Cancels the skip-over-perforation set by ESC N. Overrides the
setting of DIP switch 2-3.
A-12
Command Summary
Line feeding
LF
Format:
Line Feed
LF
ASCII code:
Decimal:
10
Hexadecimal: 0 A
Comments:
‘When this command is received, the data in the print buffer is
printed and the paper advances one line in the current line spacing.
Select 1/8-inch Line Spacing
ESC 0
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC 0
27
48
1B
30
Comments:
Sets the line spacing to l/8 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The 0 is the character zero and not ASCII code 0.
Select 7/72-inch Line Spacing
ESC l
Format:
ESC
ASCII code:
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
1
49
31
Comments:
Sets the line spacing to 7/72 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The 1 is the character one and not lowercase L or ASCII
code 1.
Command Summary
A-13
Select 1/6-inch Line Spacing
ESC 2
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
27
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1 B
2
50
32
Comments:
Sets the line spacing to l/6 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The “2” is the character two and not ASCII code 2. This
is the default at power on.
Select n/216-inch Line Spacing
ESC 3
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
3
51
33
n
n
n
Comments:
Sets the line spacing to n/216 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The “3” is the character three and not ASCII code 3.
The value of n must be from O-255.
ESC A
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
Select n/72-inch Line Spacing
A
65
41
n
n
n
Comments:
Sets the line spacing to n/72 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The value of n must be from O-85.
A-14
Command Summary
Perform
ESC J
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
J
27
74
1B
4A
n/216-inch
Line Feed
n
n
n
Comments:
Advances the paper n/216 of an inch. The value of n must be from
O-255. This command produces an immediate line feed but does not
affect subsequent line spacing and does not produce a carriage
return.
Vertical tabbing
Tab Vertically
Format:
ASCII code: VT
11
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 0 B
Comments:
Advances the paper to the next tab setting in the channel selected
by ESC/. If no channel has been selected, channel 0 is used. If no
vertical tabs have been selected, the paper advances one line.
Set Vertical Tabs
ESC B
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
B
66
42
n1
n1
n1
n2
n2
n2
. . .
...
...
NUL
0
00
Comments:
Sets up to 16 vertical tabs in the current line spacing. Tab settings
are not affected by subsequent changes in line spacing. The tab
settings are entered as nl, n2, etc., all from 1-255, in ascending order.
The NUL character indicates the end of the command. All settings
are stored in channel 0 (see ESC b). ESC B NUL clears the tab
settings.
Command Summary
A-15
ESC b
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Vertical Tabs in Channels
ESC
27
1B
b
98
62
c
n1
c
n1
c
n1
n 2
n2
n 2
...
. . .
. . .
NUL
0
00
Comments:
Functions the same as ESC B, except that the variable c selects a
channel for the vertical tabs, which must be between O-7. Therefore,
up to eight sets of vertical tabs can be set. The channels are selected
by ESC /. To clear the tabs in channel c use ESC b c NUL.
ESC /
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Vertical Tab Channel
ESC
27
1B
/
47
2F
c
c
c
Comments:
This command is used to select the vertical tab channel, with the
value of c from O-7. All subsequent VT commands use the channel
selected by this command.
Margins
ESC l
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Left Margin
ESC
27
1B
I
108
6C
n
n
n
Comments:
Sets the left margin to n columns in the current pitch. This
command clears previous tab settings and all previous characters in
the print line. Use lowercase 1 (for left), not the numeral one. The
minimum space between the margins is the width of one doublewide pica character.
A-16
Command Summary
ESC Q
Set Right Margin
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
Q
27
81
1B
51
n
n
n
Comments:
Sets the right margin to n columns in the current pitch. This
command clears previous tab settings and all previous characters in
the print line. The minimum space between the margins is the width
of one double-wide pica character.
Print head movement
Backspace
BS
Format:
BS
ASCII code:
Decimal:
a
Hexadecimal: 08
Comments:
Prints out data in the print buffer, then moves the print position one
space to the left. Backspacing can be performed up to, but not
beyond, the left margin setting. The BS code is also ignored if
ESC a, 1, 2, or 3 has been sent. If this code is received immediately
after graphics printing, the print position of subsequent data cannot
be assured.
Set Tab Increments
ESC e
Format:
ESC
ASCII code:
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
e
101
65
n
n
S
s
n
s
Comments:
This command sets the horizontal or vertical tab increments. When
n is 0, the horizontal tabs are set at intervals of s spaces. Maximum
values are 21 .in pica, 25 in elite and 36 in condensed text modes.
When n is 1, the vertical tabs are set to s line feeds.
Command Summary
A-17
Horizontal/Vertical Skip
ESC f
Format:
ESC
f
ASCII code:
27
102
Decimal:
66
Hexadecimal: 1 B
n
n
n
s
s
s
Comments:
Prints spaces or line feeds without carriage returns. When n is 0, s
spaces will be inserted up to a maximum of 127. If n is set to 1, s line
feeds will be performed.
Horizontal tabbing
Tab Horizontally
HT
Format:
ASCII code: H T
9
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 09
Comments:
Advances the print position to the next horizontal tab setting. The
default settings are at intervals of eight characters in the default pitch,
and tab positions are not affected by subsequent changes in character
pitch.
ESC D
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Horizontal Tabs
ESC
27
1B
D
68
44
n1
n1
n2
n2
...
n1
n2
. . .
...
NUL
0
00
Comments:
This command allows setting of up to 32 horizontal tabs, which are
entered as nl, n2, n3, etc. (from 1-137) with the NUL character or
any value less than the previous one terminating the command.
ESC D NUL clears all tabs. The settings on power up or after an
ESC @ command are every eight characters. The tab settings do not
change if the character pitch is changed.
A-18
Command Summary
Overall Printing Style
Select NLQ or Draft
ESC x
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
x
120
78
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
(The characters “0” and “1”
0: Selects the draft mode.
can also be used.)
1: Selects the Near Letter
Quality (NLQ) mode.
ESC k
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select NLQ Font
ESC
27
1B
k
107
6B
n
n
n
Comments:
This command affects only the Near Letter Quality (NLQ) mode,
not draft.
The following values can be used for n:
0 = Roman
1 = Sans Serif
Command Summary
A-19
Master Select
ESC!
Format:
ESC
ASCII code:
27
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1B
!
33
21
n
n
n
Comments:
Selects any valid combination of the modes in the table below. The
variable n is determined by adding together the values of the desired
modes from the table.
Table A-1. Master Select numbers
Mode
Dec Hex
Pica
0
00
Elite
0 1
Condensed
1
4
Emphasized
8
08
Double-strike
16
10
Double-wide
Italic
32
64
20
40
128
80
Underline
04
Pica cannot be combined with elite, and emphasized cannot be
condensed. If both emphasized and condensed are selected,
emphasized overrides condensed.
Print Size and Character Width
ESC P
Select Pica Pitch
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
P
80
50
Comments:
Selects pica pitch (10 characters per inch). Because pica is the default
pitch, this command is normally used to cancel elite.
A-20
Command Summary
Select Elite Pitch
ESC M
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
M
1B
4D
27
77
Comments:
Selects elite pitch (12 characters per inch).
Select Condensed Mode
SI
Format:
ASCII code:
SI
Decimal:
15
Hexadecimal: 0 F
Comments:
Prints characters at about 60 percent of their normal width. For
example, the condensed pica mode has 17 characters per inch.
ESC SI
Format:
Select Condensed Mode
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
SI
15
0F
Comments:
Duplicates the SI command.
DC2
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Cancel Condensed Mode
DC2
18
12
Comments:
Cancels condensed printing set by SI, ESC SI, SelecType, or DIP
switch 1-1.
Command Summary
A-21
Select Double-wide Mode (one line)
SO
Format:
ASCII code: S O
14
Decimal:
0E
Hexadecimal:
Comments:
Double-wide mode doubles the width of all characters. This mode is
cancelled by a carriage return or DC4.
Select Double-wide Mode (one line)
Esc so
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC SO
27
14
1B 0E
Comments:
Duplicates the SO command.
DC4
Format:
Cancel Double-wide Mode (one line)
ASCII code: D C 4
20
Decimal:
14
Hexadecimal:
Comments:
Cancels one-line double-wide printing selected by SO or ESC SO,
but not double-wide printing selected by ESC W or ESC !.
A-22
Command Summary
Turn Double-wide Mode On/Off
ESC W
Format:
ESC
ASCII code:
27
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1B
W
87
57
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
(The characters “0” and “1”
1: The mode is turned ON.
can also be used.)
0: The mode is turned OFF.
Double-wide mode doubles the width of all characters.
Print Enhancement
Select Emphasized Mode
E X E
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
E
1B
45
27
69
Comments:
Makes text bolder by printing each dot twice, with the second dot
slightly to the right of the first.
Cancel Emphasized Mode
ESC F
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
F
27
70
1B
46
Comments:
Cancels emphasized, the mode selected by ESC E.
Command Summary
A-23
Select Double-strike Mode
ESC G
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
G
71
47
Comments:
Makes text bolder by printing each line twice, with the second
printing slightly below the first. In NLQ the mode is not available
but is not cancelled.
ESC H
Format:
Cancel Double-strike Mode
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
H
72
48
Comments:
Turns off the double-strike mode selected by ESC G.
ESC S O
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Superscript Mode
ESC
27
1B
S
83
53
NUL
0
00
Comments:
Prints characters about two-thirds of the normal height in the upper
part of the character space. The ASCII code 0 or the character “0”
can be used in this command. It is cancelled with ESC T.
A-24
Command Summary
Select Subscript Mode
ESC S l
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
S
SOH
83
53
01
1
Comments:
Prints characters about two-thirds of the normal height in the lower
part of the character space. The ASCII code 1 or the character “1”
can be used in this command. It is cancelled with ESC T.
ESC T
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Cancel Superscript/Subscript
ESC
T
1B
54
27
84
Comments:
Cancels either superscript or subscript.
ESC Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Turn Underlining Mode On/Off
ESC
-
27
45
1B
2D
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
1: Mode is turned ON.
(The characters “0” and “1”
0: Mode is turned OFF.
can also be used.)
This mode provides continuous underlining, including spaces.
Command Summary
A-25
Word Processing
ESC a
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
NLQ Justification
ESC
27
1B
a
a
61
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
0: Selects left justification.
1: Selects centering.
2: Selects right justification.
3: Selects full justification.
The default setting is n = 0. Full justification (n = 3) is performed
when the buffer becomes full or when one of the following is
received: CR, VT, LF, FE The commands HT and BS are invalid
except in n = 0 mode. For n = 3 there must be no carriage returns
within a paragraph. Justification can be used in NLQ only, not draft.
Character Sets
Select Character Table
ESC t
Format:
ESC
ASCII code:
27
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1 B
t
116
74
n
n
n
Comments:
The following values can be used for n:
0: Selects italic character set.
1: Selects Epson Character Graphics.
Selects which character table is to be used by codes 128-255.
Selecting Epson Character Graphics does not disable italic printing.
Italic printing can still be selected by ESC 4. Duplicates the function
of DIP switch 1-3. Note that the value of n must equal 00 hex or 01
hex; the characters “0” and “1” cannot be used.
A-26
Command Summary
Select Italic Mode
ESC 4
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1B
4
52
34
Comments:
Causes characters from the italic character set to be printed.
This command is valid even if the Epson Character Graphics set has
been selected by ESC t or DIP switch 1-3, but character graphics
cannot be italicized.
ESC 5
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1B
Cancel Italic Mode
5
53
35
Comments:
Cancels the mode selected by ESC 4.
Command Summary
A-27
Select an International Character Set
ESC R
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
R
82
52
n
n
n
Comments:
See Appendix B for more information on international character
sets. The following values can be used for n:
0=USA
5 = Sweden
9 = Norway
1 = France
6 = Italy
10 = Denmark II
2 = Germany
7 = Spain I
ll = Spain II
3=UK
8=Japan
12 = Latin America
4 = Denmark I
ESC 6
Format:
Printable Code Area Expansion
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
6
54
36
Comments:
Enables the printing of codes 128 through 159 (decimal) as
characters, not control codes. See Appendix B for the characters
that are printed when this command is used.
Cancel ESC 6
ESC 7
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
7
27
55
1B
37
Comments:
This code causes codes 128 through 159 to be treated as control
codes. This is the default.
A-28
Command Summary
User-defined Characters
Note: See Chapter 5 for sample programs and full information on this
topic.
ESC &
Define User-defined Characters
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
NUL
d1
d2
...
d n
&
38
0
d1
d2
...
dn
1B
26
00
d1 d2 ... dn
Comments:
This command allows characters to be redefined in the currently
selected mode. The variables dl and d2 must be between 58 and 63
(3A through 3F hex).
Esc:
Copy ROM into RAM
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
:
58
3A
NUL NUL NUL
0
0
0
00
00
00
Comments:
This code copies the characters in the ROM into RAM so that
specific characters can be redefined.
ESC %
Select User-defined Set
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
%
37
25
n
n
n
Comments:
ESC & is required to define the character set before ESC % can be
used. For ESC % the following values can be used for n:
0: Selects the normal set.
1: Selects the user-defined set.
Command Summary
A-29
Graphics
Note: See Chapter 6 for sample graphics programs.
Select Single-density Graphics Mode
ESC K
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
K
n1
75
n1
1B 48 n1
n2
n2
n2
Comments:
Turns on eight-pin single-density graphics mode (60 dots per inch).
The total number of columns = nl + (n2 x 256).
Select Double-density Graphics Mode
ESC L
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
L
n1
76
n1
1B 4C n1
n2
n2
n2
Comments:
Turns on eight-pin low-speed double-density graphics mode (120 dots
per inch). The total number of columns = nl + (n2 x 256).
ESC Y
Format:
Select High-speed Double-density Graphics Mode
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
1B
Y
89
59
n1
n1
n1
n2
n2
n2
Comments:
Turns on eight-pin high-speed double-density graphics mode (120
dots per inch). The total number of columns = nl + (n2 x 256).
A-30
Command Summary
Select Quadruple-density Graphics Mode
ESC Z
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
Z
n1
90
n1
1B 5A n1
n2
n2
n2
Comments:
Turns on eight-pin quadruple-density graphics mode (240 dots per
inch). The total number of columns = nl + (n2 x 256).
Select Graphics Mode
ESC *
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
ESC
27
*
42
1B
n1
n1
m
m
2A
m
n1
n2
n2
n2
Comments:
Turns on graphics mode m. See Chapter 6 for details on the
available modes. The total number of columns = n1 + (n2 x 256).
Reassign Graphics Mode
ESC ?
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
Decimal:
27
Hexadecimal: 1 B
?
s
63
3F
S
s
n
n
n
Comments:
Changes one graphics mode to another. The variable s is a character
(K, L, Y or Z), which is reassigned to a mode n (O-6).
Command Summary
A-31
Select 9-Pin Graphics Mode
ESC”
Format:
ESC
ˆ
ASCII code:
27
94
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1B
5E
m
m
m
n1
n1
n1
n2
n2
n2
Comments:
Turns on 9-pin Graphics Mode. For this command the variable m
defines density of print (0 for single and 1 for double). The total
number of columns = nl + (n2 x 256). This mode requires two
data items for each column of print.
A-32
Command Summary
Appendix B
Character Tables
This appendix contains tables of the complete Apex80 character set,
including the extra characters for the 13 Epson international character
sets. The tables give a printout of each character and the codes in
decimal and hexadecimal.
The first two pages of the table cover the standard ASCII character
codes from 0 to 127. The remainder of the table shows up to four
characters for each code.
Character Tables
B-1
Table B-1. Apex80 characters
*
Decimal
0
Hex Character ASCII name
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
OD
OE
OF
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
la
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
B-2
00
NUL
null
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
so
SI
bell
backspace
tab horizontally
line feed
tab vertically
form feed
carriage return
shift out
shift in
DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
device control 1
device control 2
device control 3
device control 4
CAN
EM
cancel line
end of medium
ESC
escape
Character Tables
Table B-1, continued
Dec
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
Hex
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3F
Char
SP
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
*
+
'
—
.
/
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
<
=
>
?
Character Tables
Dec
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
Hex
Char
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
48
4C
40
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
5A
5B
5C
5D
5E
5F
@
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
\
]
ˆ
—
Dec
Hex
96
97
98
99
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
6A
6B
6C
6D
6E
6F
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
7A
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
Char
'
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
{
}
}
˜
DEL
B-3
Table B-1, continued
Dec
Hex
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
B-4
Italic
set
NUL
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
so
SI
DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
Italic
w/ESC 6
à
è
Graphic
set
NUL
ù
é
ò
â
ì
°
ä
à
å
£
i
¿
Ñ
ñ
¤
Å
å
ç
§
ß
Æ
æ
Ø
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
so
SI
DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
ø
¨
Ä
CAN
EM
Ö
Ü
CAN
EM
ä
ESC
Graphic
w/ESC 7
Ç
ü
ö
ü
É
é
¥
ESC
ç
ê
ë
è
ï
î
ì
Ä
Å
É
æ
Æ
ô
ö
ò
û
ù
ÿ
ö
Ü
¢
£
¥
ƒ
Character Tables
Table B-1, continued
Dec
Hex
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
Character Tables
Italic
set
Italic
w/ESC 6
SP
SP
!
"
#
$
!
%
&
"
#
$
%
&
'
'
(
(
)
*
+
)
,
,
Graphic
set
á
í
ó
ú
ñ
Graphic
w/E S C 7
á
í
ó
ú
ñ
Ñ
Ñ
¿
¿
*
¬
¬
+
½
¼
½
¼
–
–
i
i
.
.
«
«
/
/
»
»
0
1
0
2
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
=
>
;
<
=
>
?
?
<
B-5
Table B-1, continued
Italic
set
Italic
w/ESC 6
@
Dec
Hex
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
C0
@
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
CA
CB
cc
CD
CE
CF
DO
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
DA
DB
DC
DD
DE
DF
A
B
A
C
C
D
B-6
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Graphic
set
Graphic
w/ESC 7
B
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
[
\
\
]
]
ˆ
ˆ
—
—
Character Tables
Table B-1, continued
Dec
Hex
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
EO
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
EA
EB
EC
ED
EE
EF
FO
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
Character Tables
Italic
set
ltalic
w/ESC 6
'
'
a
a
b
b
c
c
d
d
e
e
f
f
g
g
h
i
j
h
k
l
k
l
m
m
n
o
o
p
q
q
r
s
s
r
t
u
v
w
w
v
x
x
y
y
z
z
{
{
/
˜
DEL
Graphic
w/ESC 7
p
u
/
}
set
i
j
n
t
Graphic
}
˜
Ø
B-7
International Character Sets
Twelve character codes between 35 and 126 can represent more than
one character each, depending upon the international character set
you select. You can make the choice either by setting DIP switches 1-6
through 1-8 or by using the ESC R command.
The table below shows all 13 character sets, together with the
number to use with ESC R to select each one. The DIP switch
combinations to select any of the first eight character sets are in
Appendix D.
Note that once a character set has been selected, italic versions of
these characters can also be printed by using the ESC 4 command.
Table B-2. International characters
35
36
64 91
92
93
94 96 123 124 125 126
0 USA
1 France
2 Germany
3 UK
4 Denmark I
5 Sweden
6 Italy
7 Spain I
8 Japan
9 Norway
10 Denmark II
11 Spain II
12 Latin America
B-8
Character Tables
Appendix C
Problem Solving and Maintenance
This appendix approaches troubleshooting from several directions.
The first section uses a columnar format to match solutions with
problems. Other sections cover beeper error warnings, hexadecimal
data dumping, coding and 7-bit solutions, and specific solutions for
several popular personal computer systems.
Problem/Solution Summary
Possible problems are listed on the left and solutions on the right.
Problem
Printer does not print
Solution
Make sure that the printer is turned on
and is on line. Both the POWER and
ON LINE lights should be on.
Make sure that the printer and computer
are connected. Be certain you are using
the correct cable.
If the printer still does not print, try the
self test procedure (see Chapter 1). If the
self test works correctly, the printer is all
right and the problem lies elsewhere. If
the self test doesn’t work, call the toll-free
number for assistance: 1-800-421 -5426.
Problem Solving and Maintenance
C
-
1
Solution
Printing is patchy, faint,
uneven, or intermittent
Check that the ribbon is seated correctly
If you have been using the ribbon for a
long time or for a large amount of
printing, it may need to be replaced.
It is also possible for the print head to
wear out if the printer is used frequently
and for long periods at a time. See the
instructions on replacing the print head at
the end of this appendix.
All the text is printed
on the same line or
text is printed with an
extra blank line between
This can usually be corrected by
changing the setting of DIP switch 2-4. If
that does not solve the problem, you may
need a different cable.
Some of the characters
printed do not match
those in the file
If they are international characters,
check the settings of DIP switches 1-6 to
1-8. If they are graphics characters, see
that your software is correctly installed
and that you have correctly set DIP
switch 1-3.
Can’t get condensed print
Cancel emphasized mode; it has priority
over condensed.
Cancel NLQ mode: it has priority over
condensed.
Horizontal tabs don’t work
Set margins before tabs, not after.
Horizontal tabs are incorrect Tabs are set according to current print
when changing pitch
pitch. Changes in pitch do not affect the
position of the tabs on the page.
C-2
Problem Solving and Maintenance
Problem
Strange things print in
graphics mode
Solution
Some systems require a WIDTH
statement. See your system
documentation.
Many computers have problems sending
one or more of the codes between 0 and
13. Avoid any that affect your system if
possible.
Seven-bit computers cannot use the
eighth pin (128). If you have a 7-bit
computer and any of your graphics data
numbers are larger than 127, change the
design so that all numbers are less than
128.
Be sure that no other commands or
carriage returns come between the
graphics command and its data.
Printer freezes in graphics
mode
The printer expects a certain number of
pin patterns, determined by n1 and n2. It
does not print until the quota is full. Note
that 9-pin graphics mode requires two
bytes for each column of graphics.
Can’t get a full page in width
Some systems require a WIDTH
statement. See your system
documentation.
Problem Solving and Maintenance
c-3
Problem
Solution
Computer systems that monitor printer
Can’t deactivate paper-out
sensor with either DIP switch cable pin 12 ignore both ESC 8 and the
1-4 or ESC 8
setting of switch 1-4. These systems stop
the printing when no paper is in contact
with the paper-end detector (a small
switch located behind the platen). Certain
printer cables are designed to overcome
this problem, or you can use a longer
page as a backing sheet.
Beeper Error Warnings
When the Apex80’s beeper sounds, it usually indicates that the
printer is out of paper. The beeper can also be sounded by any
program that sends the ASCII code 7 and by certain error conditions
in the printer itself.
If the printer beeps and stops printing when it is not out of paper,
turn the printer off and check to see that the paper is loaded correctly.
If the paper is loaded correctly, turn the printer back on and try to
print again. If the printer beeps and does not print again, take it to a
qualified service person.
Data Dump Mode
The Apex80 has a special feature that makes it easy for experienced
printer users to find the causes of problems. Called the data dump
mode, it gives a printout of exactly what codes reach the printer.
To turn on this mode, turn on the printer while holding down both
the FORM FEED and LINE FEED buttons. The printer responds by
printing the words “Data Dump Mode.” Then, when you run a
program, either an application program or one you have written in any
programming language, the Apex80 prints one or more lines. Each line
has three parts: the line number (four digits), the hexadecimal codes
(up to 16 numbers), and the guide section (16 characters at the end of
each line except the last).
C-4
Problem Solving and Maintenance
The hexadecimal numbers are the codes received by the printer, and
the guide section helps you find a certain place in the list of codes.
Each character in the guide section corresponds to one of the codes. If
the code is for a printable character, that character is printed. If the
code is for a non-printable character, such as ESC or the code for a line
feed or carriage return, a dot is printed.
Therefore, if you run the following BASIC program while your
Apex80 is in the data dump mode, you get the printout below it. The
printer prints all but this last line and then stops. Press the ON/OFF
LINE button to make the printer print the last line.
10 FOR X=70 TO 73
20 LPRINT CHR$(X): NEXT X
30 LPRINT CHR$(27)"E"
40 LPRINT "Sample text”
50 LPRINT CHR$(27)"@"
Data Dump Mode
0000
0001
0002
4 6 OD OA 4 7 OD OA 4B 0D OA 4 9 OD 0A 1B 4 5 OD 0A
5 3 61 6D 7 0 6C 6 5 2 0 7 4 6 5 7 8 74 OD OA 1B 4 0 OD
0A
F..G..H..I...E..
Sample text. . . @.
You can consult Appendix A or the Quick Reference card to see the
meaning of the hexadecimal codes. Here is an explanation of the first
line to put you on the right track for using the data dump mode.
The first code in line 0000 is hex 46, which is the same as decimal 70,
which is the code for "F"; therefore “F” is printed in the first position
in the guide section. Then, because there is no semicolon in line 20,
BASIC sends a carriage return and a line feed, hex codes 0D and 0A.
Each of these is represented by a dot in the guide section. The program
then sends the hex codes 47, 48, and 49, with each followed by a
carriage return and line feed.
When the program gets to line 30, it sends ESC E and a carriage
return and line feed. These are hex codes lB, 45, 0D, and 0A, which
are represented in the guide section by a dot, an “E,” and two more
dots.
Now you can follow a data dump printout on your own.
Problem Solving and Maintenance
C-5
Some computer systems change one or more codes when sending
them from BASIC to the printer. The ability of the Apex80 to dump
in hexadecimal lets you determine which codes are creating problems
for your system.
A hex printout of a program shows you exactly what the printer is
receiving, regardless of what the computer is sending. The following
test program lets you check to see which codes, if any, are problems for
your computer system.
10 FOR X=0 TO 255
20 LPRINT CHR$(X);
30 NEXT X
Put the printer in data dump mode and then run the program.
Remember to press the ON/OFF LINE button to make the Apex80 print
the final line. Then compare your printout with the list of hex codes in
order in Appendix B. If any are skipped or repeated, you know that
your BASIC language changes some codes before it sends them to the
printer.
For example, the line below is the first line of the printout of the test
program run on a system that changes hex 09, which is the code for
horizontal tabbing, to several 20s, the code for a space. Therefore, you
know that if you use this system, you must be careful about sending a
decimal 9 (hex 09).
0000
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
. . . . . . . . . .
The data dumping capability can help you solve problems quickly.
Appendix B can help you translate the hex codes to ASCII
equivalents.
Coding Solutions
Once you’ve determined that a code creates problems for your
printing, either by trial and error or by using the data dumping
capability of the Apex80, you can start overcoming them.
Because each computer system deals with ASCII codes differently, it
is impossible to provide solutions for all potential problems in one
appendix. It may help, however, to be aware of some generic problems
and some ways to handle them.
C-6
Problem Solving and Maintenance
There are four common approaches. First, you may be able to buy
an alternative interface board for your system. This is the best solution
for 7-bit system problems. Check with your dealer or call the Epson
800 number.
The second approach is to use commercially available software that is
specifically designed to overcome these coding problems. Consult your
dealer or refer to current computer publications to see if a program for
your computer system is available.
The third approach is to avoid the software that is changing the
codes. On most computers you can send each code directly to the
printer port. This bypasses the BASIC interpreter and avoids the
interface.
Unfortunately, this process is also different for each computer system.
Consult your computer’s manual to determine if you can do the same
on your system.
A fourth approach is to change the printer driver program in your
system. You should take this approach only if you have a working
knowledge of machine language and of the way your computer works.
Solutions for Specific Systems
The next four subsections illustrate dealing with interface puzzles on
four types of computers.
Applesoft BASIC solutions
Applesoft BASIC does not use PRINT to send data to the screen
and LPRINT to send data to the printer as Microsoft BASIC does.
Therefore, put a PR#l at the beginning of a program and change all
instances of LPRINT to PRINT.
If one of the example programs contains an INPUT statement or a
PRINT statement, a message should go to the screen before anything is
sent to the printer. In these programs, leave the first lines as they are
and after the INPUT and/or PRINT statements, add a line that states
PR#l. Then change all the instances of LPRINT to PRINT and put a
line that states PR#0 at the end of the program.
Problem Solving and Maintenance
C-7
Apple ® II solutions
Apple II computers pose two types of problems. The first is that the
Apple II is an 8-bit computer, but its printer interface handles only
seven bits. The second is that there is one problem code number: nine.
The printer interface card furnished with the Apple II computer
passes only seven bits to the Apex80, which means that you have a
7-bit system. Should you need an 8-bit system, the simplest solution is
to purchase a new printer interface card from your dealer. Such a card
is available for the Apple II.
The Apple II uses CHR$(9) to initialize the printer. This code and
the following character or characters are intercepted by the printer
interface card and used to change modes. You can divert all output to
the printer instead of to the screen by sending the following line to the
printer.
PR#l
PRINT CHR$(9)"80N"
Then type anything, followed by RETURN.
The CHR$(9)“80N” code directs all subsequent output to the printer,
up to 80 characters per row. You can cancel this by typing:
PRINT CHR$(9)"I" or PR#0
The problem is that the Apex80 uses CHR$(9) to activate horizontal
tabulation and can also use it in graphics programs. When you send
this code, however, your system interprets it as a printer initialization
code and the program does not work properly In these cases, use the
following method to change your printer initialization code to a
number that is not used in the program. For example, you can change
your initialization code to one by typing:
PR#l
PRINT CHR$(9); CHR$(l)
IBM-PC solutions
There are two problems using the IBM Personal Computer BASIC
to drive a printer. First, the IBM-PC BASIC inserts a carriage-return/
line-feed (CR-LF)after each 80 characters you send it. Second, it adds
an LF to each CR in an LPRINT statement.
C-8
Problem Solving and Maintenance
Here is the way to adjust the width when it is the only problem. Tell
the computer that the print line is wider than 80 characters with this
WIDTH statement:
WIDTH "LPTl:", 255
The 255 is a special number that prevents the computer system from
inserting a CR-LF into the line-unless, of course, there’s one in your
program.
The extra line feed—CHR$(l0)—that accompanies each carriage
return—CHR$(13)—d oes not cause a problem unless you need to use
CHR$(13) in a graphics program. Getting rid of the extra CHR$(l0) is
rather complicated. First you open the printer as a random file:
OPEN "LPTl:" AS #l
Although this allows you to send any code to the printer, you can no
longer use the LPRINT command. Instead, you must use a PRINT #1
command:
PRINT #l, "Now I can print anything”
This does allow you to print anything, but it ignores any previous
WIDTH statement.
If you want to print more than 80 characters per line in a graphics
program, you must change your opening statement to include the
appropriate WIDTH statement:
OPEN "LPTl:" AS #l : WIDTH #l, 255
And for the programs in this manual, don’t forget to use PRINT #l
wherever you see LPRINT
Maintaining Your Printer
Always keep the printer in a clean and safe place. Keep it away from
dust, grease, moisture and any source of heat, including direct sunlight.
A safe temperature range is 40° F to 95° F (5” C to 35° C).
If the outer case is dirty, clean it with a soft, clean cloth dampened
with mild detergent dissolved in water. Keep the printer lid in place to
prevent any water from getting inside the printer. Do not use a hard
Problem Solving and Maintenance
C-9
brush or cloth, and never use alcohol or a thinner to clean the printer
because it could damage the print head and the case.
Do not spray the inside of the printer with oil: unsuitable oils can
damage the mechanism. If lubrication is needed, call the toll-free Epson
number: 1-800421-5426.
The print head
Be particularly careful with the print head. Never move it when the
printer is turned on. When the printer is printing, the print head
becomes hot. If you need to change the ribbon or load continuous
paper, turn the printer off and wait for a few minutes while the print
head cools down.
Each pin on the print head should last about 200 million strokes.
When the print head fails, one or more of the pins may fire erratically
or stop firing completely, making the printout patchy. If this happens
suddenly or long before the expected lifetime is over, the problem is
almost certainly connected with another component of the printer.
Replacing the print head
As soon as the print head fails, stop using the printer and obtain a
replacement head; either see your dealer or call the 800 number for
information on where to purchase one. The catalog number is #8732.
To replace the head, follow these steps:
1. Turn the printer OFF
2. If the printer has been recently used, the print head will be hot. Let
it cool.
3. Open the printer lid.
4. Remove the ribbon.
5. Release the head lock levers. (See Figure C-1.)
C-1O
Problem Solving and Maintenance
Figure C-1.
Releasing the print head lock levers
6. Lift the print head from its position and carefully disconnect the flat
cable from the print head, as shown in Figure C-2.
Problem Solving and Maintenance
C-11
Figure C-2.
Disconnecting the cable
7. Connect the new print head to the flat cable, and place the new
print head in the head mount, as shown in Figure C-3. Be sure to
tuck the flat cable into the cable support as shown in the figure.
C-12
Problem Solving and Maintenance
Figure C-3.
lnstalling the new print head
8. Move the head lock levers back to their original positions.
Now your new print head is ready to use.
Problem Solving and Maintenance
C-13
Appendix D
Defaults and DIP Switches
This appendix lists the default settings and lists and explains the
settings of all the DIP switches.
Default and Initialization Settings
The Apex80 can be initialized (returned to a fixed set of conditions)
in three different ways: when it is turned on, when it receives an INIT
signal at the parallel interface (pin 31 becomes LOW), and when it
receives the ESC @ command.
The following conditions are always reset:
l
The print head returns to the home position.
l
Interface signals are reset, and the printer is put on line.
l
The current print line is cleared.
l
l
l
Margins and vertical tab settings are cleared, line spacing is set to
l/6-inch, horizontal tabs are set at every eighth position and vertical
tab channel 0 is selected.
The page length and skip-over-perforation are set according to DIP
switches 2-1 and 2-3, and the top of form position is set to the
current line.
The ROM characters are selected, and the Epson mode character
table and international character set are reset according to DIP
switches 1-3 and 1-6 to 1-8.
In addition, when the printer is initialized by turning on the power
or by an INIT signal, the data buffer is cleared of all text.
ESC @ resets the typestyle to the current SelecType settings, but the
other two methods reset the typestyle according to the DIP switches.
Also, ESC @ does not check whether any DIP switches have been
altered since the printer was turned on; instead, it uses the old settings.
Defaults and DIP Switches
D-1
DIP Switch Settings
The Apex80 has twelve DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches that
allow you to change many of the printer’s settings to suit your
individual needs. The DIP switches are in two groups, mounted on the
back panel, as shown in Figure D-1.
Figure D-1.
DIP switch 1-1 is the switch at the far left side and the one at the far
right is DIP switch 2-4. You can easily reset the switches with a thin,
pointed object such as a small screwdriver or the cap of a ballpoint
pen.
Note
When you change a DIP switch setting, turn off the power, reset the
switch or switches, then turn on the power again. The printer checks
and recognizes new settings only at the time the power is turned on.
Defaults and DIP Switches
The following tables describe the switches and their functions.
The first two tables summarize the two groups of switches. The
remaining table shows how to set the DIP switches for the available
international character sets.
Table D-1. DIP switch group 1
Switch
number
Function
Action
when ON
Action
when OFF
1-1
Select condensed or normal
characters
Select slashed or unslashed zero
Select character table
Paper-out detection
Select print quality
Select international character set
Condensed
Normal
0
Graphics
Inactive
NLQ
0
Italics
Active
Draft
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
See Table D-3
Table D-2. DIP switch group 2
Switch
number
Function
Action
Action
when ON
when OFF
2-1
Select page length
12 inch
11 inch
2-2
2-3
2-4
Select cut sheet feeder mode
Skip-over-perforation
Selected
Not selected
1 inch
None
Add line carriage return
CR + LF
CR only
Note: The factory setting for all switches except 1-6, 1-7, and 1-8 is OFF.
International Character Sets
Thirteen international character sets are available in Epson mode.
Eight of these are selected by DIP switches 1-6 to 1-8 and the remaining
five (Japan, Norway, Denmark II, Spain II and Latin America) can be
selected with the ESC R command, which is described in the
Command Summary (Appendix A). For the characters available in
each character set, see Appendix B.
Defaults and DIP Switches
D-3
The DIP switch settings to select the different character sets are
shown in Table D-3.
Table D-3. Internatinal settings
D-4
Defaults and DIP Switches
Appendix E
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
This appendix contains information on Epson interfaces compatible
with the Apex80 printer, instructions on choosing the right interface
for a particular job, and instructions for installing internally mounted
interface boards.
Compatible Interfaces
There are three optional interfaces that supplement the Apex80’s
built-in parallel interface and the standard 8K data buffer:
#8143
#8148
#8165
Serial interface with baud rate selectable between
75 and 9600
Intelligent serial interface
Intelligent IEEE-488 interface.
Choosing an Interface
This section describes the interfaces.
IEEE-488 and Apple interfaces
The IEEE-488 system allows you to connect computers, printers, and
other peripherals so that they can share data freely.
The Apple II, II+ and IIe computers do not have a printer interface
as a standard feature. Parallel interface boards are available for the
Apple, which has software to control the functions of the printer. With
this type of interface installed in the Apple, no additional interface is
needed in the printer.
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
E-1
Installing an Interface
Before installing an interface, you must remove the printer’s cover.
WARNING
Do not remove the cover unless the printer is turned OFF and
disconnected because high voltages are present inside the printer when
the power is on. Also, do not touch contacts on the circuit board of
the printer because many of the components can be destroyed by the
static electricity charge that may build up on your body.
1. Turn off the power to both the printer and the computer and
unplug the power cable and disconnect the interface cable from the
printer.
2. Remove the printer lid, tractor unit (if installed), paper rest (if
installed), and paper guide.
3. Remove the cut sheet feeder if one is installed.
4. Remove the ribbon.
5. To remove the upper case of the printer, insert a blade screwdriver
into each of the two holes at the front of the printer, as shown in
Figure E-1. Gently twist the screwdriver while pushing it up until
the upper case is loosened from the bottom.
E-2
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
Figure E-1.
Removing the cover
6. Slightly raise the upper case by its front. As you do this, be careful
not to pull the flat cable out of the control panel in the upper case.
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
E-3
7. Disconnect the other end of the flat control panel cable from the
main circuit board connector. See Figure E-2.
Figure E-2.
Disconnecting the control panel cable
After you remove the case, follow the instructions below to insert the
interface board. After you have inserted the board, replace the case by
reversing steps 2 through 7.
E-4
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
Inserting the interface board
1. Locate the connector cover at the back of the upper case, shown in
Figure E-3. Push it down and in, toward the inside of the printer,
until it clicks. You need to move the cover to allow access to the
new interface connector when the case is reassembled.
Figure E-3.
connector cover
2. The screw marked CG at the rear of the circuit board is the
connection for the frame ground wire. Unscrew it and then use it to
connect the frame ground wire as shown in Figure E-4.
Figure E-4.
Connecting the frame ground wire
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
E-5
3. Plug the interface board into the connector marked CN2 on the
main circuit board of the printer.
4. Secure the board to the three supports with the screws provided, as
shown in Figure E-5.
Figure E-5.
Securing the board
E-6
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
5. Connect the frame ground wire to the FG terminal tag on the
interface board, as shown in Figure E-6.
Figure E-6.
Connecting ground wire to FG terminal tag
6. Reassemble the printer, reversing the procedure described in steps 2
through 7 in the previous section.
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
E-7
Serial Interface Settings
If you are using an optional serial interface, you may need to change
the communications protocol of the printer or the computer for them
to communicate properly. The protocol used by the printer is decided
by one or two groups of DIP switches located on the serial interface
board; the protocol used by the computer can probably be altered by a
software command. It is essential that the printer and computer use
compatible protocols.
If you can, change the settings on the computer rather than the
interface board because the interface is set up at the factory to give
optimum performance in a wide range of conditions. If your dealer has
installed the interface for you, he or she should also be able to adjust
the computer and interface to achieve a good match.
If you do need to change the settings on the interface yourself,
(perhaps in order to use a different computer), refer to the manual
supplied with the interface.
E-8
Choosing and Setting Up Optional Interfaces
Appendix F
Technical Specifications
This appendix contains the specifications for the Apex80, including
the built-in parallel interface.
Printing
Printing method
Impact dot matrix
Printing speed
180 characters per second in draft elite
150 characters per second in draft pica
25 characters per second in NLQ pica
Printing direction
Bidirectional logic-seeking for text printing
Unidirectional for graphics and by software command for text
Character sizes
All except superscript and subscript are 3.1 mm high. The widths
and characters per inch (CPI) are given below:
Width (mm) CPI
Mode Width (mm) CPI Mode
1.05
17
Condensed Pica
2.1
10
Pica
1.05
20
Condensed Elite
1.5
12
Elite
Line spacing
l/o-inch, or programmable in increments of 1/216th of an inch
Paper
Number of copies
One original plus two copies; total thickness not to exceed 0.01 in.
(0.25 mm)
Paper width
Continuous feed:
Single-sheet:
4 to 10 in.
7.15 to 8.5 in.
Technical Specifications
F-1
Mechanical
Ribbon
Cartridge, black #8750 (uses the same ribbon as the Epson LX-800
and FX printers)
Life expectancy (in characters, at 14 dots/character): 3 million
MCBF
3 million lines (excluding the print head)
MTBF
4,000 hours
Print head life
200 million strokes per needle
Dimensions and Weight
Height (excluding tractor):
Width (with paper feed knob):
Depth:
Weight (including tractor):
3.5
15.7
12.1
11.2
in.
in.
in.
lbs.
Electrical
Voltage
120V AC
Power consumption
70 VA maximum
Frequency
49.5 Hz - 60.5 Hz
Insulation resistance
10 Mohms between AC power line and chassis
Dielectric strength
Can withstand 1 kV rms applied between AC line and chassis for 1
minute, or 1.20 kV rms for 1 second
F-2
Technical Specifications
Environment
Temperature
Operation: 41° F to 95° F (5 C° to 35 C°)
Storage: -22° F to 149° F (-30 C° to 60 C°)
Humidity
Operation: 10% to 80% without condensation
Storage: 5% to 85% without condensation
Shock
Operation: Up to 1 G within 1 ms
Storage: Up to 2 G within 1 ms
Vibration
Operation: Up to 0.25 G at up to 55 Hz
Storage: Up to 0.5 G at up to 55 Hz
Parallel Interface
Connector pin assignments and a description of respective interface
signals are shown in Table F-1.
Table F-1. Pins and signals
Signal Return
Pin
Pin
1
2
3
Signal
Direction
19
STROBE
IN
20
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
4
21
22
5
2 3
6
24
7
8
25
26
9
27
DATA 1
DATA 2
DATA 3
DATA 4
DATA 5
DATA 6
DATA 7
DATA 8
10
28
ACKNLG
Technical Specifications
Description
STROBE pulse to read data in. Pulse
width must be more than 0.5
microseconds at the receiving
terminal.
These signals represent information of
the 1st to 8th bits of parallel data,
respectively Each signal is at HIGH
level when data is logical 1 and LOW
when it is logical 0.
IN
IN
OUT Approximately, 12-microsecond pulse.
LOW indicates that data has been
received and that the printer is ready
to accept more data.
F-3
Table F-1. Pins and signals continual
Notes:
1. The column heading “Direction” refers to the direction of signal
flow as viewed from the printer.
F-4
Technical Specifications
2. “Return” denotes the twisted-pair return, to be connected at signal
ground level. For the interface wiring, be sure to use a twisted-pair
cable for each signal and to complete the connection on the return
side. To prevent noise, these cables should be shielded and
connected to the chassis of the host computer or the printer but not
at both ends.
3. All interface conditions are based on TTL level. Both the rise and
the fall times of each signal must be less than 0.2 microseconds.
4. Data transfer must be carried out by observing the ACKNLG or
BUSY signal. (Data transfer to this printer can be carried out only
after receipt of the ACKNLG signal or when the level of the BUSY
signal is LOW.)
Data Transfer Sequence
Interface timing
Figure F-1 shows the timing for the parallel interface.
Printing enabled/disabled signals and control conditions
Table F-2 on the next page shows the relationship between printing
being enabled or disabled, and the on line/off line condition, the
printer select signal (SLCT IN), and the receipt of data on/off control
character, DC1/DC3.
Figure F-1.
Parallel interface timing
Technical Specifications
F-5
Table F-2. Printing enabled/disabled signals and control conditions
On Line
(Indicator on)
ON LINE
ON LINE
ON LINE
OFF LINE
SLCT IN
LOW
(SW . 2-1/interface)
HIGH
HIGH
HIGH/LOW
(no effect)
DC1/DC3
(Data on/off contr.)
DC1 /DC3
(no effect)
DC1 RECV’D
DC3 RECV’D
DC1/DC3
(no effect)
ERROR
BUSY
ACKNLG
Printing
(Disabled/enabled)
HIGH
HIGH/LOW
HIGH
HIGH
HIGH/LOW
HIGH/LOW
ENABLED
PULSED EA. CHAR. (normal cond.)
PULSED EA. CHAR ENABLED
PULSED EA. CHAR. *DISABLED
LOW
HIGH
NOT GENERATED
DISABLED
*Even though printing is disabled, data characters are received and acknowledged, since the printer is looking for another DC1 character,
which would allow it to resume printing.
Index
Command descriptions are not indexed here. For page references for
specific commands, see pages A-4—6 or the Quick Reference card.
Automatic paper loading,
1-17—19
Connecting printer to computer,
1-23—24
Continuous-feed paper, 1-2,
1-7—15
Control codes, 2-2.
See also Commands
Control keys, A-3
Control panel, 1-19—22
B
D
BASIC, 2-6—7
Baud rate. See Interfaces,
optional
Beeper, C-4
Buttons, 1-20—21
Data dump, C-4—6
Defaults, D-1
DIP switches, 4-1—2,4-4,
D-2—4
Dot graphics, 2-6,6-1—12
Double-strike, 3-2, 4-3
Double-wide, 4-2—3
DRAFT/LINE FEED button, 1-21
Draft mode, 1-20—22, 4-1
A
American Standard Code for
Information Interchange, 2-2
ASCII, 2-2
AUTO LOAD, 1-17—19, 1-21
C
Cable, 1-2, 1-23—24
Carbon copies, 1-19
Centronics, 1-2, 1-23
Character graphics, 4-4.
See also Character tables
Character tables, B-1—8
Commands, 2-2—7,4-1—5,
A-1—32
Commands
by function, A-7—32
in numerical order, A-4—6
Computer-printer
communication, 2-2—3
connection, 1-23—24
Condensed, 3-2,4-2—3
Index
E
Edge guides, 1-12—13, 1-16—17
Elite, 3-2, 4-2
Emphasized, 3-2, 4-3
Epson Character Graphics, 4-4.
See also Character tables
Escape code (ESC), 2-2.
See also Commands
Index-1
F
N
Foreign language characters.
See International character sets
FORM FEED button, 1-21
Near Letter Quality (NLQ) mode,
1-20—22, 4-1
NLQ/Form Feed button, 1-21
G
O
Graphics, 2-6,6-1—12
ON LINE light, 1-20
ON/OFF LINE button, 1-21
H
Head. See Print head
Hexadecimal, 2-2—3
I
Indicator lights, 1-20
Initialization, D-1
Interface board, 1-2.
See also Interfaces, optional
Interface, parallel, 1-2, 1-23,
F-3—6
Interfaces, optional, E-1—8
International character sets,
4-4, B-8, D-3—4
Italics, 4-4. See also Character tables
L
Lights, indicator. See Indicator lights
LINE FEED button, 1-21
M
Maintenance, C-9—13
Multi-part forms, 1-19
Index- 2
P
Panel. See Control panel
Paper. See Continuous-feed
paper or Single-sheet paper
Paper feed knob, 1-1, 1-3
Paper guide, 1-7, 1-12—14,
1-15—17
PAPER OUT light, 1-20
Paper release lever, 1-9, 1-17
Paper rest, 1-7—8
Paper thickness lever, 1-19
Parallel interface. See Interface, parallel
Pica, 4-2
Pin feed holders, 1-11—12
Pitch, 4-2
POWER light, 1-20
Printer commands, 2-2—7.
See also Commands
Printer selection menu, 2-1—2
Print head, 1-4,6-2—3,
C-10—13
Problem-solving, C-1—9
Programming languages, 2-6—7
R
READY light, 1-20
Ribbon, 1-3—6
Ribbon guide, 1-5
Roman 1-21, 4-1
Index
S
Sans Serif, 1-21,4-1
SelecType, 3-1—4
Self test, 1-21—22
Serial interface. See Interfaces, optional
Service. See Toll-free number
Single-sheet paper, 1-15—19
Software commands. See Commands
Specifications, F-1—6
Spreadsheets, 2-4—6
Subscripts, 4-3
Superscripts, 4-3
T
Technical specifications, F-1—6
Toll-free number, 2, C-1, C-10
Top of form, 1-14—15
Tractor unit, 1-7—10, 1-15.
See also Continuous-feed paper
Tractor unit slot cover, 1-7—8
Troubleshooting, C-1—9
U
Underlining, 4-3
User-defined characters, 5-1—12
W
Word processors, 2-3—4
Index
Index-3
Commands by Function
The following list of commands is in the order used in the Command
Summary (Appendix A). To find details of the command you want to use,
refer to the page number in the right column.
ASCII Dec Hex Description
Page
Printer operation
ESC@
DC1
DC3
ESC s
ESC <
ESC U
ESC 8
ESC9
ESC EM
BEL
64
17
19
115
60
85
56
57
25
7
40
11
13
73
3C
55
38
39
19
07
Initialize the printer
Select printer
Deselect printer
Half-speed mode on/off
Select unidirectional mode (1-line)
Turn unidirectional mode on/off
Disable paper-out sensor
Enable paper-out sensor
Cut sheet feeder on/off
Beeper
A-7
A-7
A-7
A-8
A-8
A-8
A-9
A-9
A-9
A-10
Data control
CR
CAN
DEL
13 0D Carriage return
24
127
18
7F
Cancel line
Delete character
A-10
A-10
A-11
Vertical/horizontal motion
FF
ESC C
ESC CO
ESC N
ESC O
LF
ESC 0
ESC 1
ESC 2
ESC 3
ESC A
ESC J
VT
ESC B
12 0C Formfeed
Set page length in lines
67
43
Set page length in inches
67
43
Set skip-over-perforation
78
4E
79
4F
Cancel skip-over-perforation
10 0A Line feed
48
30
Select l/-inch line spacing
49
31
Select 7/72-inch line spacing
50
32
Select 1/6-inch line spacing
51
33
Select n/216-inch line spacing
Select n/72-inch line spacing
65
41
74 4A Perform n/216-inch line feed
Tab vertically
11
0B
66
42
Set vertical tabs
A-11
A-11
A-12
A-12
A-12
A-13
A-13
A-13
A-14
A-14
A-14
A-15
A-15
A-15
ASCII Dec Hex Description
ESC
ESC
ESC
ESC
BS
ESC
ESC
HT
ESC
b
/
1
Q
e
f
D
98
47
108
81
8
101
102
9
68
62
2F
6C
51
08
65
66
09
44
Set vertical tabs in channels
Select vertical tab channel
Set left margin
Set right margin
Backspace
Set tab increments
Horizontal/vertical skip
Tab horizontally
Set horizontal tabs
Page
A-16
A-16
A-16
A-17
A-17
A-17
A-18
A-18
A-18
120
107
33
78
6B
21
Select NLQ or draft
Select NLQ font
Master select
A-19
A-19
A-20
80
77
15
15
18
14
14
20
87
50
4D
0F
0F
12
0E
0E
14
57
Select pica pitch
Select elite pitch
Select condensed mode
Select condensed mode
Cancel condensed mode
Select double-wide (1 line)
Select double-wide (1 line)
Cancel double-wide (1 line)
Turn double-wide on/off
A-20
A-21
A-21
A-21
A-21
A-22
A-22
A-22
A-23
Print size
ESC
ESC
SI
ESC
DC2
s o
ESC
DC4
ESC
P
M
SI
SO
W
Print enhancement
ESC E
ESC F
ESC G
69
70
71
45
46
47
Select emphasized mode
Cancel emphasized mode
Select double-strike mode
ESC H
ESC SO
ESC S1
ESC T
ESC -
72
83
83
84
45
Page
Cancel double-strike mode
Select superscript mode
Select subscript mode
Cancel superscript/subscript
Turn underlining on/off
A-24
A-24
A-25
A-25
A-25
61
NLQ justification
A-26
74
34
35
52
36
37
Select character table
Select italic mode
Cancel italic mode
Select international character set
Printable code expansion
Cancel ESC 6
A-26
A-27
A-27
A-28
A-28
A-28
48
53
53
54
2D
Word processing
ESC a
97
Character sets
Overall printing style
ESC x
ESC k
ESC !
ASCII Dec Hex Description
A-23
A-23
A-24
ESC
ESC
ESC
ESC
ESC
ESC
t
4
5
R
6
7
116
52
53
82
54
55
User-defined characters
38
58
37
26
3A
25
Define user-defined characters
Copy ROM into RAM
Select user-defined set
A-29
A-29
A-29
ESC K
ESC L
ESC Y
75
76
89
4B
4C
59
Single-density graphics
Double-density graphics
High-speed dbl.-density graphics
Quadruple-density graphics
ESC ^
42
63
94
A-30
A-30
A-30
A-31
A-31
A-31
A-32
ESC &
ESC :
ESC %
Graphics
ESC Z
ESC *
ESC ?
90
5A
2A
3F
5E
Select graphics mode
Reassign graphics mode
Select nine-pin graphics
DIP Switch Settings
Table 3. International settings
Table 1. DIP switch group 1
Switch
number
Function
1-1
Select condensed or normal
characters
Select slashed or unslashed zero
Select character table
Paper-out detection
Select print quality
Select international character set
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
Action
when ON
Action
when OFF
Character set
Condensed
Normal
USA
0
Graphics
Inactive
NLQ
0
italics
Active
Draft
See Table 3
Table 2. DIP switch group 2
Switch
number
Function
Action
when ON
Action
when OFF
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
Select page length
Select cut sheet feeder mode
Skip-over-perforation
Add line feed after carriage return
12 inch
Selected
1 inch
CR + LF
11 inch
Not selected
None
CR only
French
German
UK
Danish
Swedish
Italian
Spanish
DIP switch settings
1-8
1-7
1-6
ON
O
ON
N
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
O N
ON
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
Setting up
Printer Features
Graphics
User-defined Characters
EPSON AMERICA, INC.
2780 Lomita Boulevard
Torrance, California 90505
Printed in Japan 87.08-20