Zanussi FLE 3000 Owner`s manual

®
The
HF-6m Transceiver
Owner's Manual
Version 1.18.0
S O F T WA R E D E F I N E D R A D I O
The FLEX-3000 Owner's Manual
 2003−2009 FlexRadio Systems®
All Rights Reserved
Reproduction of this document in any form is expressly forbidden unless explicitly
authorized by FlexRadio Systems.
Information contained in this document may contain technical inaccuracies or typographical
errors. Information may be changed or updated without notice. FlexRadio Systems may
make improvements and/or changes in the materials at any time without notice.
All materials are provided "as is". FlexRadio Systems makes no representations or
warranties, expressed or implied to the accuracy of the copyrighted materials. FlexRadio
Systems will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages arising
out of any use of the document.
FlexRadio Systems is a registered trademark of Bronze Bear Communications, Inc. DBA
FlexRadio Systems.
The FlexRadio Systems Waves Design (logo), SDR-1000, FLEX-3000 and the FLEX-3000
logo, FLEX-5000 and the FLEX-5000 logo, FlexWire, ClickTune, MultiRX, PanaFall and
PanaScope are trademarks of FlexRadio Systems.
FlexRadio Systems
13091 Pond Springs Rd #250• Austin, TX 78729
Phone: (512) 535-4713• Fax: (512) 233-5143
Email: sales@flex-radio.com
Editor: Joe de Groot – AB1DO
Printer/Distributor: Peter Markavage - WA2CWA
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 2003-2009 FlexRadio Systems
Table of Contents
PREFACE.....................................................................................IX
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS................................................................XI
USING THIS MANUAL IN ITS PDF FORM..................................XIII
1 HARDWARE INSTALLATION.......................................................1
UNPACKING AND DECIDING ON A LOCATION..............................................................1
Contents of the Carton...................................................................................................1
Location Considerations.................................................................................................2
PHYSICAL CONNECTIONS.............................................................................................3
Front Panel...................................................................................................................3
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Power Switch....................................................................................................................3
Straight Key or Paddles (KEY)..............................................................................................3
Microphone Connector........................................................................................................4
Headphone Jack................................................................................................................5
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
13.8 VDC Power Socket......................................................................................................5
RF Ground Terminal...........................................................................................................5
Antenna Port.....................................................................................................................5
IEEE 1394 FireWire® Jack...................................................................................................6
PTT Jack...........................................................................................................................6
External Keying Line...........................................................................................................6
Powered Speaker Jack........................................................................................................6
FlexWire™ Peripheral Interface Bus......................................................................................7
Back Panel...................................................................................................................5
INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING THE FLEXRADIO FIREWIRE DRIVER.........................8
Switch Off the FLEX-3000 and Install the FireWire Driver...................................................8
Power Up the FLEX-3000 and Install the New Hardware Found..........................................13
Configuring the FlexRadio Driver using the Control Panel..................................................16
Sampling Rate and Buffer Size ...............................................................................................17
Operation Mode....................................................................................................................18
DPC Latency Checker...................................................................................................19
2 POWERSDR INSTALLATION & SETUP......................................21
UPGRADING FROM AN EARLIER VERSION..................................................................21
POWERSDR INSTALLATION........................................................................................21
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POWERSDR SETUP WIZARD.......................................................................................26
INITIAL POWERSDR CONFIGURATION.......................................................................30
Transfer of Calibration Data..........................................................................................30
Audio Parameters........................................................................................................32
Audio Mixer................................................................................................................32
COMPLETELY FACTORY CALIBRATED..........................................................................33
3 FRONT CONSOLE.....................................................................35
(1) VFO A...................................................................................................................37
(2) TUNING CONTROLS..............................................................................................37
(3) VFO B...................................................................................................................38
(4 ) MULTIMETERS.....................................................................................................38
RX Meters...................................................................................................................39
TX Meters...................................................................................................................39
(5) BAND SELECTION & BAND STACKING MEMORIES.................................................40
(6) MODE SELECTION.................................................................................................41
(7) FILTER CONTROLS................................................................................................42
Labeled Filter Buttons..................................................................................................42
Variable Filter Buttons..................................................................................................43
(8) MODE SPECIFIC CONTROLS..................................................................................44
Phone Controls ...........................................................................................................44
CW Controls................................................................................................................45
Digital Controls...........................................................................................................47
(9) DISPLAY CONTROLS.............................................................................................47
Screen Controls...........................................................................................................48
Display Selection Controls............................................................................................48
Display Type Descriptions.............................................................................................48
Spectrum.............................................................................................................................49
Panadapter (Panoramic Adapter).............................................................................................49
Histogram............................................................................................................................50
Waterfall..............................................................................................................................51
Scope..................................................................................................................................52
Phase..................................................................................................................................52
Panafall...............................................................................................................................53
Panascope............................................................................................................................53
Off......................................................................................................................................53
Cursor and Peak Position........................................................................................................53
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
MULTIRX CONTROLS..........................................................................................54
DSP CONTROLS..................................................................................................54
VFO CONTROLS...................................................................................................55
CPU %................................................................................................................56
START/STOP BUTTON.........................................................................................56
MON (MONITOR)................................................................................................56
MOX (MANUALLY OPERATED TRANSMIT)...........................................................57
MUT (MUTE).......................................................................................................57
REC (RECORD) AND PLAY...................................................................................57
TUN (TUNE)........................................................................................................57
ATU AND BYP.....................................................................................................58
AF (AUDIO FREQUENCY GAIN)...........................................................................58
AGC-T (AGC MAXIMUM GAIN)............................................................................58
DRIVE (TRANSMITTER POWER OUTPUT/TUNE POWER).....................................59
AGC (AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL)....................................................................59
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(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)
O F
C O N T E N T S
RX GAIN.............................................................................................................59
SQL (SQUELCH)..................................................................................................60
DATE/TIME DISPLAY..........................................................................................60
SETUP FORM.......................................................................................................60
– (34) OPERATING FORMS.................................................................................60
4 SETUP FORM............................................................................61
GENERAL TAB.............................................................................................................63
Hardware Config Sub-Tab.............................................................................................63
FLEX-3000 Config...................................................................................................................................63
Receive Only.........................................................................................................................................63
Radio Model...........................................................................................................................................64
DDS.....................................................................................................................................................64
Options Sub-Tab..........................................................................................................65
Options.................................................................................................................................................66
Process Priority......................................................................................................................................66
ClickTune Offsets (Hz).............................................................................................................................67
Miscellaneous........................................................................................................................................67
Keyboard..............................................................................................................................................68
Custom Title Text...................................................................................................................................68
Calibration Sub-Tab......................................................................................................69
Filters Sub-Tab............................................................................................................70
AUDIO TAB.................................................................................................................71
Primary Sub-Tab..........................................................................................................71
Buffer Size............................................................................................................................................71
Sample Rate..........................................................................................................................................71
Mic Boost..............................................................................................................................................72
Expert..................................................................................................................................................72
Latency (with Expert checked).................................................................................................................72
VAC Sub-Tab...............................................................................................................73
Virtual Audio Cable Setup........................................................................................................................73
Gain (dB)..............................................................................................................................................73
Latency.................................................................................................................................................74
Mono/Stereo..........................................................................................................................................74
Combine VAC Input Channels...................................................................................................................74
Auto Enable...........................................................................................................................................74
Allow PTT to override/bypass VAC for Phone..............................................................................................74
Direct IQ...............................................................................................................................................75
DISPLAY TAB..............................................................................................................76
Spectrum Grid.......................................................................................................................................76
Refresh Rates........................................................................................................................................77
Waterfall...............................................................................................................................................77
Multimeter............................................................................................................................................78
Phase Resolution....................................................................................................................................78
Scope Time Base....................................................................................................................................79
Averaging..............................................................................................................................................79
Polyphase FFT........................................................................................................................................79
DSP TAB.....................................................................................................................80
Options Sub-Tab..........................................................................................................80
Noise Reduction.....................................................................................................................................80
Automatic Notch Filter............................................................................................................................81
Use Peak Readings for TX Meter DSP Values..............................................................................................81
Buffer Size............................................................................................................................................82
Noise Blanker........................................................................................................................................83
Noise Blanker 2......................................................................................................................................83
Window ...............................................................................................................................................83
Image Reject Sub-Tab..................................................................................................85
Expert..................................................................................................................................................85
Receive Rejection...................................................................................................................................86
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Transmit Rejection..................................................................................................................................86
Keyer Sub-Tab.............................................................................................................87
CW Pitch...............................................................................................................................................87
Connections..........................................................................................................................................88
Options.................................................................................................................................................88
Signal Shaping.......................................................................................................................................89
Break In...............................................................................................................................................89
AGC/ALC Sub-Tab........................................................................................................90
AGC.....................................................................................................................................................90
Leveler.................................................................................................................................................91
ALC......................................................................................................................................................91
TRANSMIT TAB...........................................................................................................92
TX Profiles.............................................................................................................................................92
Transmit Filter.......................................................................................................................................93
DC Block...............................................................................................................................................93
Tune.....................................................................................................................................................93
Noise Gate............................................................................................................................................94
VOX.....................................................................................................................................................94
Monitor.................................................................................................................................................95
AM Carrier Level....................................................................................................................................95
Standard TX Profiles...............................................................................................................................95
PA SETTINGS TAB.......................................................................................................96
Gain By Band (dB).................................................................................................................................96
APPEARANCE TAB ......................................................................................................97
Display Sub-Tab..........................................................................................................97
Overall Display.......................................................................................................................................98
Cursor/Peak Readout..............................................................................................................................98
Panadapter............................................................................................................................................99
General Sub-Tab........................................................................................................100
VFO....................................................................................................................................................101
Band Data...........................................................................................................................................101
Meter Sub-Tab...........................................................................................................102
Original Style.......................................................................................................................................103
Edge Style...........................................................................................................................................103
KEYBOARD TAB........................................................................................................104
CAT CONTROL TAB....................................................................................................105
Cat Control .........................................................................................................................................106
PTT Control..........................................................................................................................................107
DigL/U Returns LSB/USB.......................................................................................................................107
FlexProfiler Installed.............................................................................................................................107
Allow Kenwood AI Command..................................................................................................................107
Test....................................................................................................................................................108
RTTY Offset.........................................................................................................................................109
TESTS TAB................................................................................................................110
Two Tone Test:.....................................................................................................................................110
Audio Balance Test...............................................................................................................................110
Signal Generator..................................................................................................................................111
Enable HW Signal Generator..................................................................................................................112
5 OPERATING FORMS...............................................................113
(29) MEMORY FORM.................................................................................................114
Save… .....................................................................................................................114
Recall….....................................................................................................................115
(30) WAVE FORM.....................................................................................................116
Playback.............................................................................................................................................116
Playlist................................................................................................................................................117
Record................................................................................................................................................117
TX Gain (dB)........................................................................................................................................117
Quick Rec and Quick Play......................................................................................................................117
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Record Options..........................................................................................................118
Receive...............................................................................................................................................118
Transmit..............................................................................................................................................118
Sample Rate........................................................................................................................................118
(31) EQUALIZER FORM.............................................................................................119
3-Band Equalizer.......................................................................................................119
10-Band Equalizer.....................................................................................................120
(32) XVTRS FORM....................................................................................................121
(33) CWX FORM.......................................................................................................123
Standard CWX Controls..............................................................................................123
CWX Memories....................................................................................................................124
Special Characters...............................................................................................................124
Keyboard and Extended Controls.................................................................................125
Extended CWX Controls........................................................................................................125
Morse Definition Editor.........................................................................................................126
(34) MIXER..............................................................................................................128
Input..................................................................................................................................................128
Output................................................................................................................................................128
VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE INFORMATION..........................................................129
6 OPERATION............................................................................131
POWER-UP PROCEDURE...........................................................................................132
POWER-DOWN PROCEDURE.....................................................................................132
TUNING METHODS....................................................................................................133
Spectrum Drag and Click......................................................................................................133
Mouse Wheel......................................................................................................................133
Mouse Wheel Hover.............................................................................................................133
Spectrum Click Tuning..........................................................................................................133
Keyboard Keys....................................................................................................................134
USB Tuning Knob.................................................................................................................134
VOICE OPERATION...................................................................................................135
CW OPERATION........................................................................................................138
Initial Settings...........................................................................................................139
Internal Keyer...........................................................................................................140
External Keyer...........................................................................................................142
CWX Form................................................................................................................142
Third Party Program...................................................................................................143
DIGITAL OPERATION...............................................................................................146
CAT Control Setup.....................................................................................................149
Install VCOM.......................................................................................................................149
Configure the VCOM Port Pairs...............................................................................................155
Configure PowerSDR CAT Control...........................................................................................157
Configure PowerSDR Keyer Connections..................................................................................158
Virtual Sound Connection............................................................................................159
Create the Virtual Audio Cables.............................................................................................159
Setup VAC in PowerSDR.......................................................................................................161
Setting up Third Party Digital Programs........................................................................162
Using MixW with PowerSDR...................................................................................................162
Programs Needing to Connect to the Default Sound Device........................................................166
7 SPECIFICATIONS AND ARCHITECTURE................................169
FLEX-3000 TRANSCEIVER SPECIFICATIONS............................................................169
FLEX-3000 ARCHITECTURE.......................................................................................171
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DECLARATIONS OF CONFORMITY.............................................................................172
FCC..........................................................................................................................172
EU Compliance..........................................................................................................172
A BUFFERS AND SAMPLE RATE................................................173
FILTER EFFECTS.......................................................................................................173
LATENCY EFFECTS....................................................................................................175
UNDERLYING THEORY..............................................................................................175
B UPDATING THE FLEX-3000 FIRMWARE.................................179
AUTOMATICALLY......................................................................................................179
MANUALLY...............................................................................................................179
Download and Extract the Firmware.............................................................................179
Update the Firmware..................................................................................................180
C OPTIMIZING THE AGC...........................................................183
D WINDOW FUNCTIONS............................................................185
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Preface
Welcome to the exciting world of software defined radio. The FLEX-3000™ 1 software defined
transceiver is the culmination of many years of experience gained with FlexRadio's ground breaking
series of transceivers. The experience gained and lessons learned have resulted in an SDR platform that
is truly state of the art, yet extremely compact. And unlike most other transceivers, which once
acquired, rarely if ever change, the FLEX-3000 will continue to (rapidly) evolve, offering future
capabilities currently only dreamed of.
This operating manual attempts to both guide the user step by step through the setup process (both
hardware and software) and to act as a reference once the radio has been set up. Additionally, the
freely downloadable PowerSDR software will install with default settings that, in most cases, will require
little adjustment. Any adjustments that you make are automatically saved and can be imported into an
updated version of the software.
Due to the nature of the FLEX-3000, the largest part of this operating manual, by far, will refer to
software. The operating manual has numerous screenshots of windows and forms to detail the various
steps. Although the manual describes the latest official release of the PowerSDR software, you may
occasionally notice an earlier version identified in the title bar of a screenshot. This is because FlexRadio
Systems® has decided to only update a screenshot if it changes. If you have any ideas on how to
improve the FLEX-3000, please feel free to contact us, or better still, to join our email reflector (see
http://kc.flex-radio.com/KnowledgebaseArticle50024.aspx). Not only is the FLEX-3000 a software
defined radio; it is also a user defined radio.
FlexRadio Systems is committed to ensuring that your experience with the FLEX-3000 will be one of the
most enjoyable you have with Ham radio. If you have any questions, issues or problems operating
PowerSDR and/or the FLEX-3000, you may be able to find the solution on the Support Pages of our
website
(http://support.flex-radio.com/),
in
our
Knowledge
Center
(http://kc.flexradio.com/search.aspx), our Forum (http://forums.flex-radio.com/), or through our highly active email
reflector (http://kc.flex-radio.com/KnowledgebaseArticle50024.aspx). If none of these sources provide
you the assistance required, please contact FlexRadio Systems using the information provided on the
Contact Page of our website (http://www.flex-radio.com/About.aspx?topic=contactus).
1
FlexRadio Systems is a registered trademark of Bronze Bear Communications, Inc. DBA FlexRadio Systems. The FlexRadio
Systems Waves Design (logo), SDR-1000, FLEX-3000 and the FLEX-3000 logo, FLEX-5000 and the FLEX-5000 logo, FlexWire,
ClickTune, MultiRX, PanaFall and PanaScope are trademarks of FlexRadio Systems.
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Acknowledgments
FlexRadio Systems could not be as successful, nor could the FLEX-3000 radio be what it is today
without the many selfless contributions from our users all over the world. These contributions have
spanned and continue to span improvements to our hardware and software, ranging from bug reports
and feature requests to actual design and implementation of certain functionality.
Identifying contributors by name would only risk leaving out others with equally valuable contributions.
We therefore wish to suffice with a heartfelt thank you for your support and continued commitment.
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Using This Manual in its PDF Form
If you are viewing this manual on your computer screen, you can use a combination of built-in features
of Adobe® Reader®1 as well as the many cross-references and hyperlinks within the text:

To find a word within the manual, type ctrl + F on your keyboard (or in the menu click Edit Find), enter the desired word in the text box that opens and click Next.

To jump to a chapter or section in the manual, click on the corresponding Bookmark, shown to
the left of this page. (If not shown, click on the vertical tab labeled Bookmarks). To make
them as useful as possible, we have made the bookmarks very detailed.

Click on the “Previous View” arrow to go back to a previously viewed page. (Alternatively, in the
menu, click View – Goto – Previous View, or on your keyboard type Alt + Left Arrow).
o

Within the text there are many cross-references. Although not obvious, these are all hyperlinks
within the manual. Click on the referenced Table n, Figure n, above, below or page n (bold
indicates the hyperlink) and you will immediately jump to the referenced Table/Figure/page of
the manual.
o

Similarly click on the “Next View” arrow to go forward to a subsequently viewed page.
(Alternatively, in the menu, click View – Goto – Next View, or on your keyboard type
Alt + Right Arrow).
To return to where you came from, use the “Previous View” arrow.
Within the text there are also external hyperlinks, shown in blue and underlined. Click on these
to open your browser and view the referenced website page. Many of these relate to articles in
our expansive Knowledge Center.
o
If the hyperlink has been previously clicked, it will be shown in magenta instead of blue.
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1
Adobe and Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc.
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 2003-2009 FlexRadio Systems
1
Chapter
Hardware Installation
To install the Flex-3000, you will need to:

Unpack and decide on a location

Physically connect the radio to a power supply, antenna, microphone, key, etc. Although not
necessary, you should preferably make all these connections in advance. However, you must at
least connect the FLEX-3000 to a 13.8VDC power supply and connect the IEEE 1394 FireWire ® 1
cable.

Install and configure the FlexRadio FireWire Driver This driver is required to enable the
computer to interface with the FLEX-3000.
Unpacking and Deciding on a Location
Contents of the Carton
Inside the carton you should find the following items:
Table 1: Contents of Carton for each FLEX-3000 Model
Item
FLEX-3000 Transceiver
6-pin to 6-pin FireWire cable (6 feet)2
Unterminated 12 AWG power cable (4 feet)
PL259/BNC adapter
Quick Start Guide
CD ROM/USB Flash Drive with Owner's manual, Quick Start Guide, PowerSDR
1.18 or later, FlexRadio FireWire Driver






(Other items may be included that are not listed above)
The FLEX-3000 power cable is unterminated at one end so that you can adapt it to various DC power
connectors, such as Anderson Power Poles, Banana plugs, screw terminals or spade lugs. Connect the 2
red wires to the positive terminal and the 2 black wires to the negative terminal of your power supply.
1
FireWire and the FireWire logo are registered trademarks of Apple, Inc., under license.
2
You may need to acquire a 4-pin to 6-pin cable if using a laptop
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Note 1:
Do not apply power to the FLEX-3000 until you are instructed to do
so.
Note 2:
Retain the FLEX-3000 packaging for future use. This packaging was
specially designed for the radio to prevent damage which may occur
during shipping. If you ever need to ship your FLEX-3000 anywhere,
especially back to FlexRadio Systems, this is the preferred packaging
to use.
1
Location Considerations
To facilitate integrating your FLEX-3000 into your shack you may want to consider the following:

Place your FLEX-3000 in close proximity to your computer. It is best to use the shortest
FireWire cable possible to connect to your computer to minimize data errors and limit possible
RFI getting into the computer. High quality, quad-shielded FireWire cables up to 10m in length
have been used successfully with the FLEX-3000.

Ensure convenient access to the back panel. The FLEX-3000 back panel is where several of your
connections will be made. Having easy access to the back panel without moving the
transceiver is optimal while getting started.

Avoid placing the FLEX-3000 in direct sunlight. Placing the transceiver in direct sunlight will
increase the ambient temperature inside the chassis (especially while transmitting) and make
the high volume cooling fans' job more difficult.

Heed air flow requirements. Air enters from the sides and is expelled through the rear vent for
optimal cooling. Do not block these vents since doing so will reduce the cooling efficiency.

Avoid contact with liquids. Although this is usually not a problem unless you are operating
maritime mobile, accidental spills of liquids on the FLEX-3000 could result in voiding the
warranty. Placing the FLEX-3000 away from food and drinks is highly recommended.
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1
Physical Connections
We will now discuss first the front panel and then the back panel connections.
Front Panel
Figure 1: FLEX-3000 Front Panel
(1) Power Switch
The FLEX-3000 uses a delayed start push-to-latch/push-to-release switch to power up the radio.

To turn on the radio, push the switch in fully to latch it in the on position. After a few seconds
you will hear the power relay click and see the blue LED illuminate to indicate that the radio is
powered up.

To turn off the radio, again push the button fully to unlatch it in the off position.
Note 1:
Make sure the FLEX-3000 is turned on and then wait 10-15 seconds
before starting PowerSDR. Otherwise, PowerSDR will indicate a
communication error and offer the option to run in Demo mode. Click
No to close PowerSDR, turn on the FLEX-3000 and restart PowerSDR.
Note 2:
Make sure PowerSDR is shut-down before turning off the radio.
Otherwise, close PowerSDR and power cycle the FLEX-3000 (turn on,
off and on again) and restart PowerSDR.
(2) Straight Key or Paddles (KEY)
For CW operation, the ¼” TRS KEY jack will accept a TRS plug for operating a keyer with paddles or a
TRS/TS plug for a straight key. The pin-out is shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2: Key Jack Pin-Out
Connector
Tip
Ring
Sleeve
Keyer
Signal
Dot
Dash
Common
3
Straight
Key
Key
N/C
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Note:
C H A P T E R
1
Although not necessary, if you prefer to connect your paddles to a
serial port on your PC you may do so using the pin-out shown in
Table 3.
Table 3: PC Serial Port Pin-Out
Serial
Port Pin*
4 (DTR)
6 (DSR)
8 (CTS)
Keyer Signal
Common
Dot
Dash
* Assumes a 9-Pin connector
(3) Microphone Connector
The 8-pin RJ-45 connector offers the ability to connect a microphone and to key the radio via a PTT
line. The pin-out is shown in Figure 2 below1. To engage PTT, pin 6 must be grounded to pin 7 (Shield
Ground) and not to pin 4, which is the microphone ground.
Figure 2: Pin-out of the MIC Jack
Note:
The pins designated as Up, Down and Fast enable the use of (mobile
style) microphones that have these buttons built in to them. Up and
Down will tune the frequency up or down respectively at the rate set
by Tune Step in PowerSDR (see page 37). The Fast button switches
this Tune Step between 50Hz and 1kHz.
Although the FLEX-3000 will work well with many types of microphones, it is conveniently wired to
enable the use of microphones such as the Yaesu MH-31, that include buttons for Up, Down and Fast.
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1
The pin-out is similar to that normally found on Yaesu mobile radios
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(4) Headphone Jack
Accepts headphones with standard 1/4” stereo (TRS) plug. Recommended ratings for headphones are
40 mW into 16 Ohm load (typ) with a 1% THD+N. Higher impedance headphones will also work.
Note:
Lower impedance headphones and headphones using a mono plug
can result in popping audio as soon as PowerSDR is started.
Back Panel
Figure 3: FLEX-300 Back Panel
(1) 13.8 VDC Power Socket
The FLEX-3000 requires a stable 13.8 VDC power source rated for at least 20 Amps and 25 Amps peak
for proper operation. Supplied with your radio was an unterminated 4-pin keyed Molex type power
connector and cable set. Terminate this cable in the appropriate connector (if needed) for your DC
power source such as Anderson PowerPoles®, banana plugs, spade or ring lugs, or tinned ends for
screw terminals. Connect the 2 red wires to the positive terminal and the 2 black wires to the negative
terminal of your power supply. The Molex type connector is inserted into the white Molex receptacle
labeled -13.8 VDC+.
(2) RF Ground Terminal
Connect to the single point ground system in your shack. Alternatively, if you have no single point
grounding system, ground the FLEX-3000 to the metal chassis of your computer with a low impedance
ground strap, such as a 1” braid or copper strip (the screws that hold the computer power supply in
place make an excellent grounding point).
(3) Antenna Port
Connect a 50 Ohm antenna or dummy load to the BNC antenna port. Alternatively the internal antenna
tuner can be used to match an antenna with a different iimpedance.
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1
(4) IEEE 1394 FireWire®1 Jack
The FLEX-3000 has a 400 Mb/s 6-pin IEEE 1394 FireWire jack. This is a 1394a connection, not the
1394b (FireWire 800) type which run at 800 Mb/s. Connect the ferrite core end of the supplied 6-pin
FireWire cable to this jack and connect the other end to your computer’s FireWire jack (the host
controller).
WARNING!
DO NOT FORCE THE FIREWIRE CONNECTOR IN UPSIDE
DOWN. DOING SO WILL DESTROY THE RADIO'S FIREWIRE
PORT.
CAUTION:
Do not remove the ferrite cores as they are required for CE
compliance and to minimize RFI at this ingress point.
Note 1:
Even though the 1394b standard is supposedly downward compatible
(9-pin to 6- or 4-pin cables are used), you should preferably only use
1394a host adapters to connect to the FLEX-3000. Please also refer
to the Knowledge Center article Selecting High Performance FireWire
Cards for FlexRadio Transceivers (search for firewire card in our
Knowledge Center at http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx).
(5) PTT Jack
Connect to external hardware devices such as foot pedals or hand switches to key the rig. The
transmitter will be engaged when the center conductor is grounded.
(6) External Keying Line
This keying line, which can be given a delay, can be used to key an external device such as a linear
power amplifier or transverter. The external keying is provided by a relay closure to ground, with a
rating of 250VAC, 220VDC at 2A and with a 2.5ms nominal switching time.
(7) Powered Speaker Jack
This standard 1/8” TRS jack provides line-level (-10dBV, 600 Ohms) receive - not computer - audio.
Connect this jack to an external audio amplifier, to computer-type powered speakers or any other
external equipment that accepts line-level audio input. This jack provides two-channel (stereo) audio to
enable binaural audio and MultiRX™ 2 The audio level can be set on the FLEX-3000 Mixer Form (see
page 128).
1
FireWire is a registered trademark of Apple, Inc.
2
MultiRX is a trademark of FlexRadio Systems
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For more information on powered speakers used with FlexRadio products, refer to the Knowledge
Center article What Kind of Speakers Should I buy for my SDR? (search for speaker in our Knowledge
Center at http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx).
(8) FlexWire™ Peripheral Interface Bus
FlexWire1 is an intelligent, high speed, bi-directional communications interface that allows PowerSDR to
communicate with a host of peripheral devices such as antenna tuners, rotor controllers, band
switchers, etc. A family of FlexWire peripherals will be forthcoming from FlexRadio Systems. This is not
another “CAT” port, but an industry standard bidirectional communications bus based on the I 2C
(pronounced “I squared C”) protocol along with AF I/O lines.
Table 4: FlexWire Connector Pin-Out
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Signal
Ground
Line In
(Blocked Pin)
Interrupt (/INT 1)
Ground
I2C Clock (SCL)
I2C Data (SDA)
+13.8V, 1A max
Line Out (in parallel
with RCA Line Out)
Diagram
Table 4 above Shows the FlexWire connector pin-out. Complete specifications and the programming
interface will be published to allow home brew and third-party add-on products.
CAUTION:
Do NOT attempt to connect a PC serial port to the FlexWire connector
(pin 3 has been blocked to stop this). Doing so may void your
warranty and severely damage your FLEX-3000.
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FlexWire is a trademark of FlexRadio Systems.
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Installing and Configuring the FlexRadio FireWire Driver
Switch Off the FLEX-3000 and Install the FireWire Driver
Note 1:
To install the FlexRadio FireWire Driver, you must at least connect the
FLEX-3000 to a 13.8VDC power supply and an IEEE 1394 FireWire
computer port.
Note 2:
If there is a (Edirol FA-66 or Presonus Firebox) sound card connected
to the same FireWire host controller you are planning to use with the
FLEX-3000, disconnect it until the installation is complete and the
FLEX-3000 is fully operational.
WARNING!
It has been reported that data corruption occurred when
trying to use a FireWire hard disk. We do not recommend that
you have a FireWire hard disk connected to the same FireWire
controller (bus) as the FLEX-3000.
Also, do not connect both a FLEX-3000 and a FLEX-5000 to the
same computer. The drivers cannot differentiate between the
two and erratic behavior may occur.
Download the FlexRadio FireWire Driver at http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?id=165 or
from the downloads page (http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?fr=1) of our website and
save the zip file to a convenient location on your computer. Then go to the saved zip file and extract its
contents.
Before proceeding with the installation, make sure the power switch on the FLEX-3000 is turned off
(blue LED is off, see Figure 1 on page 3). It is also a good idea to close all other applications.
Double click on the extracted driver installation file to open the FlexRadio Setup Wizard (Figure 4).
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Figure 4: FlexRadio Driver Setup Wizard
Click the Next button to continue to Figure 5 1.
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1
All screenshots in this manual are as they would appear when using the Microsoft Windows XP operating system. The
screenshots may look slightly different when using Microsoft Vista, but the steps are the same.
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Figure 5: FlexRadio Driver Setup Wizard - Select Destination Location
We recommend you accept the default location to install the FlexRadio FireWire Driver to. Click the
Next button to continue to Figure 6.
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Figure 6: FlexRadio Driver Setup Wizard - Select Additional Tasks
If you do not want the Control Panel icon on your desktop, uncheck the “Create a desktop icon” option.
Click the Next button to continue to Figure 7.
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Figure 7: FlexRadio Driver Setup Wizard - Ready to Install
Verify that the options selected in the previous two steps are correct. If not, click the Back button to
make any changes. Click the Install button to confirm these settings and to copy the necessary files to
the selected install directory. If a Software Installation warning1 appears, click the Continue Anyway
button to proceed.
Once the files have been copied, you will see the screen shown in Figure 8.
Note:
You will not see Figures 8 through 11 in Windows Vista as the drivers
will load “silently”.
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1
This warning is displayed because the hardware driver has not passed the formal Windows Logo Testing program. The
FlexRadio driver has, however, been extensively tested and will not destabilize or impair your system
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Figure 8: Completing the FlexRadio Setup Wizard
You will need to restart your computer before you can continue. We recommend you do this now by
accepting the default selection, verifying that the FLEX-3000 is powered off and clicking on the
Finish button.
Power Up the FLEX-3000 and Install the New Hardware Found
After your computer has rebooted, press and latch the power button on the FLEX-3000 to power it up.
After a brief moment, you will hear the power relay click and the blue LED will illuminate the power
button. When this happens, Windows will detect the FLEX-3000 and display the Found New Hardware
Wizard (Figure 9) three times in succession: first for the FlexRadio FLEX-3000, then for the FlexRadio
MIDI and finally for the FlexRadio Audio. We will describe in detail how to proceed for the FlexRadio3000. These steps are identical for each of the other two.
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Figure 9: Found New Hardware Wizard
Select the option No, not this time when you are prompted to use Windows Update to search for
software. Click on the Next button to continue to Figure 10.
Note:
Figure 9 above may not show up in some systems.
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Figure 10: Found New Hardware Wizard - Installing the FLEX-3000 Software
The Found New Hardware Wizard will recognize that you are trying to install a FlexRadio FLEX-3000.
Select the option Install the software automatically (Recommended). Click on the Next button
to continue.
The Found New Hardware Wizard will request you to please wait while it installs the software. If a
Hardware Installation warning appears, click the Continue Anyway button to proceed.
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Figure 11: Found New Hardware Wizard - Software Installation Indicator
After the driver files are installed you will see the Completing the Found New Hardware Wizard screen
(Figure 11) to indicate that the wizard has finished installing the software for the FlexRadio FLEX-3000.
Click on the Finish button to continue. You should see a prompt in the bottom right hand corner of
your display that indicates that your new hardware is ready to use.
The Found New Hardware Wizard will again pop up, this time for FlexRadio Midi. Repeat the steps
described above.
The Found New Hardware Wizard will pop up a final third time, this time for FlexRadio Audio. Again,
repeat the steps described above.
Configuring the FlexRadio Driver using the Control Panel
Before operating the FLEX-3000 you will need to set the driver's appropriate Sample Rate, Buffer
Size and Operation Mode using the Driver's Control Panel (see Figure 12 on page 17). If you elected
to create a desktop icon during driver installation (see Figure 6 on page 11), simply double click on this
icon to open the control panel. Alternatively, click on the Start button (bottom left of your screen) and
then on All Programs. Select the FlexRadio program folder and double click on the FlexRadio
application.
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Sampling Rate and Buffer Size
Figure 12: FlexRadio Control Panel Sample Rate, Buffer Size and Operation Mode Settings
To set the sample rate and buffer size1, click on the Bus button at the top left (Figure 12). These
settings depend on the modes you primarily operate. For CW, minimum latency (smaller buffers) is
paramount; for digital and phone modes, larger buffers may increase stability, especially if using VAC
or other third-party audio programs.

The lower the sample rate, the smaller the buffer size can be to achieve the same overall
system latency.

The minimum buffer size at a certain sample rate depends on the available computing power:
smaller buffers require more interrupts per unit of time (audio dropouts are an indication of too
low a buffer size). Given a sample rate, the minimum buffer size is limited by the Operation
Mode setting.
1
Do not confuse this audio buffer size with the DSP buffer size (see page 82). The former applies to the transfer of samples
from the radio to/from the computer; the latter applies to the transfer from the time to the frequency domain in the software.
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Table 5 below shows initial settings for the driver's Sample Rate, Buffer Size and Operation Mode. You
should start with these values and if you desire you can experiment with other settings. In some cases,
where audio drop outs are being experienced, larger buffers may need to be used. Also, see Appendix
A for more detail.
Table 5: Initial Driver Configuration Settings
Modulation
Mode
CW
Phone
Note:
Sample
Rate (kHz)
Buffer Size
48
512
96
512
48
512
96
1024
Operation
Mode
Safe Mode 1
Safe Mode 1
The sample rate will automatically follow whatever is set in PowerSDR
(see page 32).
Operation Mode
There are four Operation Modes1 to choose from: Normal and Safe Mode Levels 1 – 3, where Normal
is the most aggressive and Safe Mode 3 the safest. The default operation mode is Safe Mode Level 1
and should be used in almost all cases. If you choose to operate with the Normal mode and your FLEX3000 freezes up, you should revert to Safe Mode Level 1. In very rare circumstances your PC may
have internal latencies where Safe Mode Level 1 does not work optimally with your system. In these
cases, you should select either Safe Mode 2 or Safe Mode 3 to provide a stable environment to run the
FLEX-3000.
Once you have verified that all is working well, you may fine tune the settings to best match your
system and favored modulation mode.
Note 1:
We strongly recommend you leave the Operation Mode in Safe Mode
Level 1, which offers the best trade-off between ability to recover (no
freeze-ups) and audio latency. However, if you experience regular
freeze-ups, you should increase the Safe Mode Level to either 2 or 3
Note 2:
We strongly suggest you select buffer sizes that are powers of 2 (256,
512, 1024 and 2048).
Note 3:
The minimum buffer size that can be set is a function of both the
sample rate and the Safe Mode setting. For Safe Mode 1, the
minimum buffer size at 96kHz is 1024 and at 48 kHz is 512.
1
Technically these Operation Modes control how successfully the hardware driver recovers from buffer over and under runs.
Some hardware drivers and third-party applications issue what are called delayed procedure calls (DPCs). Higher Safe Modes
allow the driver to handle longer DPC latencies at the cost of more audio latency.
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DPC Latency Checker
Figure 13: FLEX-3000 Control Panel DPC Latency Checker
The FlexRadio Driver comes with a DPC latency checker to check the maximum latency incurred on
your system. To enable it click the DPC button at the top (Figure 13) and click Enable DPC Latency
Checker. For the result to be meaningful, you should run all applications you usually do while running
PowerSDR (email, digital mode software, logger, etc.) and let it run for at least 5 minutes. The checker
will show the maximum latency found during the test period and recommend an Operation Mode based
on the result. While it may some times recommend Normal Mode, we recommend you use Safe Mode 1
unless you experience latency issues. For further information go to the FlexRadio Knowledge Center on
our website and read the article How to Use the FlexRadio FireWire Driver DPC Latency Checker to
Determine Operating Mode (search for firewire driver in our Knowledge Center at http://kc.flexradio.com/search.aspx).
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Chapter
PowerSDR Installation & Setup
Upgrading From an Earlier Version
We recommend that you leave older versions of PowerSDR installed when upgrading from a previous
version. After reviewing the new version and verifying that your setup works, uninstalling previous
versions is fine (but not necessary). Note that in order to completely remove previous versions you
must manually delete the database file (PowerSDR.mdb) from the application directory (usually
c:\Program Files\FlexRadio Systems\PowerSDR vn.n.n).
PowerSDR Installation
Download
PowerSDR
v1.18.0
or
later
from
the
FlexRadio
downloads
page
at
http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?fr=1 to a directory on your hard drive (we recommend
saving to the Desktop). If you downloaded the zip file, extract its contents. Double click the Setup file
(Setup.exe) to start the installation process. The PowerSDR installation will prompt you to install the
.NET framework version 1.11 if it is not installed and it will point you to the appropriate web address for
downloading as seen in Figure 14.
Figure 14: Prompt for .NET Framework
Follow the instructions to install the framework using the download from Microsoft’s website and then
restart the Setup.exe program. You should see the screen shown in Figure 15.
1
Multiple versions of the .NET Framework can reside on your computer side by side.
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Figure 15: PowerSDR Installation Welcome Screen
Click the Next button to continue to Figure 16.
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Figure 16: PowerSDR Installation Folder Selection
You can change the installation directory here, though we recommend you use the default for
troubleshooting purposes. Click the Next button to continue to Figure 17.
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Figure 17: PowerSDR Installation License Agreement
Read the GNU Public License. If you accept, click I Agree and click the Next button to continue to
Figure 18. Otherwise click Cancel.
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Figure 18: PowerSDR Installation Confirmation
Click the Next button to confirm these settings and to copy the necessary files to the selected install
directory. Once the files have been copied, you will see the screen shown in Figure 19.
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Figure 19: PowerSDR Installation Complete
Click the Close button to complete the installation and close the dialog.
PowerSDR Setup Wizard
Power up the FLEX-3000 to load its driver and start up the PowerSDR console using the shortcut on the
Desktop (or through the Start menu). When you run a new release of PowerSDR for the first time an
optimization routine will run and the screens shown in Figure 20 will appear.
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Figure 20: Optimization Routine
Click OK and let the routine run.
Note:
This routine aims to optimize the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
calculations for the environment (hardware and software) in which the
calculations will be performed. For optimal performance, you should
therefore close all applications you will normally not be running
simultaneously with PowerSDR. The routine will save a file called
wisdom to the directory in which PowerSDR resides. If you wish to
run FFTW again, delete this file from the directory and start up
PowerSDR, or simply run the fftw_wisdom.exe file in the PowerSDR
directory.
When the routine has completed, a brief startup sequence will follow, after which a warning regarding
mobile operation is appears, as shown in Figure 21 below.
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Figure 21: PowerSDR Setup Wizard Welcome
Click the Continue button to continue to Figure 22.
Figure 22: PowerSDR Setup Wizard - Radio Model
Select the FLEX-3000 radio model as shown in Figure 22 above. Click the Next button to continue to
Figure 23.
Note:
If you are running without a radio, e.g. for demonstration purposes,
select Demo/None.
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Figure 23: PowerSDR Setup Wizard – Finished
The Setup Wizard is now complete. Click the Finish button to complete the wizard.
Note:
If you forgot to power up the FLEX-3000 before starting PowerSDR, a
communication error message will be displayed and PowerSDR will
offer the ability to start in demo mode. Click No to close PowerSDR,
power up the FLEX-3000 and restart PowerSDR.
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Initial PowerSDR Configuration
Before operating the FLEX-3000 several PowerSDR parameters need to be configured. To do so, start
up PowerSDR to open the Front Console, but do not yet click on the Start button.
Note:
From time to time the FLEX-3000 firmware may need to be updated.
If PowerSDR detects an incompatible version of the firmware, it will
display an error message similar to that shown in Figure 24 below.
Figure 24: FLEX-3000 Firmware Version Error
Click OK and if a Driver Error message follows, click OK again.
PowerSDR will start up, but the Start button will be grayed out. Close
PowerSDR and refer to the procedure described in Appendix B to
update your firmware.
Transfer of Calibration Data
PowerSDR will need to transfer your radio's calibration data from its EEPROM to the new database. In
this case you will see the message shown in Figure 25.
Figure 25: Calibration Data Transfer Message
Click the OK button to start the transfer of calibration data. You will see the progress indicator shown in
Figure 26. When the transfer is complete, PowerSDR will complete starting up.
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Figure 26: Calibration Retrieval Progress Indicator
Do not click Start just yet as you will first need to configure Audio parameters, Antenna ports and
Mixer settings.
Note:
PowerSDR will initially start with a default database. If you find your
radio is not performing as you expect, please manually delete the
database file (PowerSDR.mdb) from the application directory (usually
c:\Program Files\FlexRadio Systems\PowerSDR vn.n.n).
PowerSDR
will then again start with a default database.
Hint:
After the initialization process you can copy selected tables from a
previous PowerSDR database to the new default database by using
K9DUR's Data Transfer Utility (search for data transfer in our
Knowledge Center at http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx).
We recommend you keep a copy of your original database before
transferring any tables.
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Audio Parameters
Click on Setup at the left of the menu at the top of the Front Console to open the Setup Form. Select
the Audio tab and then the Primary sub-tab shown in Figure 27.
Figure 27: Setup Form - Audio Tab, Sound Card Sub-Tab
Change the Buffer Size to the same value you entered in the FLEX-3000 Control Panel (see Figure 12
on page 17). Click on the OK button when done.
Note:
If the sample rate and buffer size set for the FlexRadio device driver
(see Figure 12 on page 17) do not match the PowerSDR sample rate
and audio buffer size (Figure 27), audio drops will most likely occur
due to buffer alignment issues.
Audio Mixer
The FLEX-3000 input and output audio channels are managed with an audio mixer, much the same as
for your Windows sound card(s). To configure the audio mixer, click on Mixer on the Front Console
menu (Figure 28).
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Figure 28: Audio Mixer
Select the desired Input and Output channels. Only one Input channel can be selected, but multiple
Output channels can be selected. For more detailed information see page 128).
Completely Factory Calibrated
The FLEX-3000 comes to you completely factory calibrated and therefore no further calibration is
usually required. If due to some unlikely event you suspect your radio needs to be recalibrated, please
contact FlexRadio Support, (on our Website, select About FlexRadio and then Contact Us) who will
guide you through the process.
You are now ready to use your FLEX-3000. Click on Start on the Front Console and you should hear
receive audio. If you do not, double check all your connections and settings (especially for the Mixer
form).
We urge you to read the remainder of this manual to help you fully understand the FLEX-3000 and
PowerSDR. This will enable you to optimize your radio for your personal operating style and
environment. You may also want to visit our extensive and ever expanding Knowledge Center
(http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx) for more detailed and more up-to-date information on many
topics.
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Chapter
Front Console
In this chapter and those following many types of software controls will be referred to. The myriad of
various bells and whistles can sometimes be a bit overwhelming. Figure 29 below is a key that will help
to introduce the basic controls for those less familiar with windows software.
Figure 29: Control Key

The Form refers to the entire window with the Title Bar showing the Form Name.

The Menu is just under the Title Bar. Menu controls generally open other forms.

Labels are callouts usually for other controls.

Buttons can trigger events or act like an On/Off switch.

Text Boxes allow text to be entered or displayed.

Radio Buttons allow the user to choose between several options.

Drop Down Boxes (also called Combo Boxes) enable the ability to offer many options without
taking up as much window space as a Radio Button.

Sliders allow easy modification of a numerical value.

Color Buttons are used as color selectors. You can pick a generic color (yellow or green) or
even make your own using the drop down menu.

Up/Down controls are similar to a Text Box, but are limited to numeric input. They also have
arrows for simple increment/decrement behavior.
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Figure 30: FLEX-3000 PowerSDR 1.18.0 Front Console
Note:
The front console controls the basic functions of the radio: frequency,
mode, filters, and display. In addition to these basic features, there
are many other controls that are described in detail below. The exact
behavior of many of these controls can be configured with the Setup
Form.
Hint:
Hovering with your mouse over any control will show a brief
description of that control’s function.
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(1) VFO A
Figure 31: VFOA
VFO A is the main tuning VFO. It consists of a frequency and a band description (related to the selected
frequency). The upper frequency area of the VFO is a Text Box and may be edited as such (click and
drag highlighting, etc).The same holds for the lower area, when it displays a frequency instead of a
band description. The upper area may also be changed by entering a numeric character (without any
mouse interaction). An underline will indicate the digit that will be tuned when hovering over the
frequency display. See the Tuning Methods on page 133 for more details on how to tune. Note
that when using the keyboard to enter a frequency, you can return to the previous frequency at any
time by pressing the ‘Escape’ (Esc) key before you press the Enter key.
The red TX indicator identifies which VFO is displaying the transmit frequency:

With Split off, the transmit frequency is displayed in VFO A (VFO A TX indicator is red)

With Split on, the transmit frequency is displayed in VFO B (VFO B TX indicator is red).
The band text information below the frequency gives general information about the FCC Amateur
bands as well as the Short Wave Radio bands and WWV. If not on a recognized frequency, the text will
display “Out Of Band”. If not in an amateur band, the text background will change from black to gray.
Note that this information is only a lookup in a database and has no bearing on the current operating
mode. The band text information can be edited in the BandText table using Microsoft Access.
(2) Tuning Controls
Figure 32: Tuning Controls
VFO Sync keeps VFO B synchronized to VFO A.
VFO Lock keeps the frequency from being changed inadvertently. This is a handy feature to use while
in a QSO to keep from accidentally losing the frequency due to clicking in the wrong area or hitting the
wrong key on the keyboard.
The Tune Step displays the current tuning rate when using the mouse wheel (or Ctrl + Up/Down
Arrow) to tune the radio. Rotating the mouse wheel away from you will increase the frequency by the
step rate per click while rotating the wheel toward you will decrease the frequency. You can change the
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Tune Step by clicking either of the
Left/Right Arrow).
3
– or + buttons, clicking the mouse wheel button (or using Ctrl +
The Save button quickly saves a frequency, mode and filter. The saved frequency is shown in the box
to its left. The Restore button restores the most recently saved frequency (displayed), mode and filter.
(3) VFO B
Split Transmit Frequency
MultiRX Frequency
Figure 33: VFO B
The operation of VFO B is similar to that of VFO A. However, VFO B is used only in specific instances.
When operating split (SPLT button under VFO), VFO B displays in red the transmit frequency (and TX
indicator is red) When activating the multi receive function (MultiRX button under MultiRX), VFO B
displays in yellow the second receive channel's frequency. Otherwise, it can be viewed as a storage
container to copy VFO data to (see the VFO Controls section on page 55).
(4 ) Multimeters
Figure 34: Multimeter
The multimeter displays both digitally and graphically various RX and TX signal parameters as
determined by the selection from the (two) drop down boxes at the top.
The text display below the meter selections shows the digital data for either the receiver or the
transmitter (Signal strength in Figure 34 above). The lower display at the bottom of this section shows
the data graphically as an edge meter. Alternatively a bar graph display can be selected (see the
description of the Setup Form - Appearance Tab, Meter Sub-Tab on page 102).
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RX Meters

Signal (Signal Level): Calculates the true RMS power in dBm of the current signal within the
passband, as measured at the selected FLEX-3000 antenna port.

Sig Avg (Signal Average): Calculates the true RMS power in dBm of a time-averaged signal
within the passband, as measured at the selected FLEX-3000 antenna port.

ADC L (Analog To Digital Left): Calculates the level in dBFS (decibel full scale) of the Left
input from the internal I/Q ADC.

ADC R (Analog To Digital Right): Calculates the level in dBFS (decibel full scale) of the Right
input from the internal I/Q ADC.

Off: Used for debugging purposes or to save CPU cycles on slower machines.
TX Meters

Fwd Pwr (Forward Power): Reads out forward power minus reflected power in Watts as
measured by the internal ADC on the PA. The meter shows average power.
Note:
In SSB, the typical male voice peak to average ratio is 14dB. This
means that a typical voice without the compressor and/or compander
enabled will only read 4-10W on an average meter when peaking at
100W.
With the ALC we are using the average power. With these controls,
very high average power can be tolerated.

Ref Pwr (Reflected Power): Reads out reflected power as measured by the internal ADC on
the PA.

SWR (Standing Wave Ratio): Reads out the standing wave ratio as calculated from the
measured forward and reflected power. (Only available with TUN on)

Mic: Reads modulation power from -20 dB to 3 dB. Ideal operation will peak around 0 dB and
will rarely if ever hit 3 dB. If it is hitting 3 dB, the ALC is cutting back the power. Adjust the MIC
control on the front console to give more or less modulation.

EQ: Reads the power in dB following the equalizer, where 0dB is ideal. If the equalizer is not
enabled, the equalizer power is equal to the Mic power.

Leveler: Reads the power in dB following the leveler, where 0dB is ideal. The leveler attempts
to level the voice coming from the microphone as the head and mouth change position relative
to the microphone element. If the leveler is not enabled, this power is identical to EQ.

Lev Gain: Reads the gain in dB currently being applied by the leveler.

ALC: Reads the power in dB after the ALC, where 0dB is ideal.
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
ALC Comp: Reads the gain in dB applied by the ALC algorithm. The gain is always <=0 in dB.
The minus sign is implicit.

CPDR: Reads the power in dB after the compander, where 0dB is ideal. If the compander is not
enabled, it reads the same as Comp.

Off: Used for debugging purposes or to save CPU cycles on slower machines.
The TX meters Mic, EQ, Leveler, CPDR and ALC show either peak or true RMS values, depending on
whether TX meter is set to use peak readings for DSP Values (see Setup Form – DSP Tab on page 80)
(5) Band Selection & Band Stacking Memories
Figure 35: Band Selection
The Band Selection controls perform multiple roles in PowerSDR. First, when tuning the VFO to a
specific frequency the band indicator will move to the appropriate band (GEN if not in one of the
specific bands listed). This is used to quickly identify which band you are in, or when you are stepping
over a band edge boundary (see Figure 35).
Secondly, clicking on one of the Band Selection buttons will change the frequency, mode and filter to
the one last used on that band.
The third role is a feature called Band Stacking Memories. A single memory is defined as a frequency,
mode, and filter combination. Each band has several memories associated with it. Clicking on a band
button repeatedly will cycle through the available memories repeating from the beginning after the last
memory (hence the stacking memories). This is useful to quickly tune to various frequencies within a
band. To replace one of the memories with the frequency, mode, and filter of your choice, first click the
band button for the band memory you would like to modify. Then change the frequency, mode, and
filter to the desired settings (the frequency must be in the band selected). Finally click the band button
again to save the values.
The modified memories will be saved to the database upon graceful exit of the console. A crash will
prevent changed memories from being saved in order to keep faulty data out of the database.
Note :
Some band memory frequencies (such as 60m and WWV) are fixed in
software and cannot be changed.
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The VHF+ button will swap between the typical HF bands and any configured transverter bands (see
the description of the XVTRs Form on page 121). The VHF band buttons work in the same way, but for
the frequencies within the transverter frequency range.
(6) Mode Selection
Figure 36: Mode Selection
The Mode Selection controls allow you to change the selected demodulation routine. Changing modes
will select the last frequency and filter used for that mode. Additionally, it will display the (configurable)
filter settings available for that mode (see Figure 38 below) and the appropriate mode specific controls
on the front console (see page 44). Following is a list of the available modes:

LSB: Lower Side Band

USB: Upper Side Band

DSB: Double Side Band

CWL: CW Lower Side Band

CWU: CW Upper Side Band

FMN: Frequency Modulation (FM) Narrow

AM: Amplitude Modulation

SAM: Synchronous (PLL) Amplitude Modulation

SPEC: Spectrum mode (DC IF, max bandwidth determined by the selected sampling rate)

DIGL: Digital Lower Side Band (Enables VAC if VAC Auto Enable is engaged, see page 74)

DIGU: Digital Upper Side Band (Enables VAC if VAC Auto Enable is engaged, see page 74)

DRM: Digital Radio Mondiale (requires licensed external demodulator software not available
from FlexRadio Systems; Enables VAC if VAC Auto Enable is engaged, see page 74)
Hotkeys are available in the Setup-Form, Keyboard Tab to cycle through the various modes using the
keyboard (see page 104).
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(7) Filter Controls
Figure 37: Filter Controls
The filter controls consist of ten customizable, mode-specific, labeled filter buttons and two variable
filter buttons.
Labeled Filter Buttons
Clicking on any of the labeled buttons in the top half of the filter controls section sets the filter
bandwidth. The available filters depend on the selected modulation mode. The 3 groups of default filter
selections for CW (CWL, CWU), SSB (LSB, USB, DIGL, DIGU) and DSB (DSB, FMN, AM, SAM) are
shown below. The SPEC mode has no filters associated with it and the DRM filter is fixed at 12kHz.
CW Default Filters
SSB Default Filters
DSB Default Filters
Figure 38: Default Mode Dependent Filters
Each of the 10 labeled filter buttons can be customized for any of the modes. To do so, right click on a
filter button and select Configure… to bring up the screen shown in Figure 39.
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Figure 39: Filter Setup Screen
On the left, select the Mode and the filter button to set the filter up for. Then on the right adjust its
settings. An indication of the filter is displayed in the lower section of this screen, which can be dragged
as a whole, or the edges of which can be dragged as an alternative way of adjustment. When done,
you can select another button and/or mode to change the filter for. When finished, just close the Filter
Setup Screen. To revert back to the default settings, right click on a filter button, select Reset to
Defaults and click Yes.
Note:
Although there are 3 groups of mode-dependent default filter settings,
you can customize the labeled filter for each mode independently. E.g.
you can have different filters for LSB and USB, for FMN and AM, etc.
Variable Filter Buttons
The variable filter buttons Var 1 and Var 2 offer two separate filters, each of which can be adjusted
with the Low, High, Width, Shift and Res controls described below as well as the mouse. The
Panadapter display setting is good for visualizing changes to variable filter controls

Low: Selects the low cutoff frequency for the filter. The value is the plus or minus offset from
the center frequency as shown in the VFO display. Note that in lower side band modes (LSB,
CWL and DIGL) this value can be negative.

High: Selects the high cutoff frequency for the filter. Note that in lower side band modes (LSB,
CWL and DIGL) this value can be negative.

Width: Widens the filter as the slider is moved right, and narrows the filter as it is moved left.
The behavior of this control is set in the Setup Form – General Tab, Filter Sub-Tab (page 70).

Shift: Shifts the selected filter passband up or down from its normal center frequency. This can
help to eliminate interference caused by signals in close proximity of the received signal. The
behavior of this control is set in the Setup Form – General Tab, Filter Sub-Tab (page 70).
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After a variable filter (Var 1, Var 2) has been shifted you can use the IF→V button to
translate a filter shift to a new VFO frequency (see the VFO Controls section on page
55)

Res: Returns the Shift control to the default middle position and restores the filter to its
original position (i.e. before the Shift was used).

When the display is set to Panadapter, the mouse can be used to directly adjust the selected
variable filter (Var 1 or Var 2). To do so right click with the mouse on the Panadapter display
until no cross-hairs are showing. Then click on the filter and drag it to shift the filter as a whole
or click on a band edge and drag it to adjust the filter bandwidth.
The Var 1 and Var 2 filters are saved just like the labeled filters and are mode-dependent (i.e. you can
save a different Var 1 filter for LSB than for AM). Hotkeys are available in the Setup Form-Keyboard
Tab (described on page 104) to change the filters using the keyboard.
(8) Mode Specific Controls
This section of the front console displays key controls specific to the selected modulation mode. There
are three sets of controls: Phone, CW and Digital.
Phone Controls
The phone controls, shown below, are available for all phone modes (LSB, USB, DSB, FMN, AM and
SAM). Most of these controls can also be found on the Setup Form-Transmit Tab (see page 92, where a
more detailed description may also be found)
Figure 40: Mode Specific Controls - Phone

Mic Gain: adjusts the (software) microphone gain. This is a simple multiplier applied to the
input samples when transmitting. The control can be adjusted using either the slider or the text
box. Note that increasing the MIC Gain control will also raise the amount of noise in the signal.
A hardware preamp will give the best performance for amplifying microphone signals. Having
said that, the software gain works very well in many setups. Voice modes are typically
optimized when the peak reading on the TX Mic Meter reads just below 0dB (see page 39
above)

DX: click to enable the DX compander (a form of compression), which has been optimized to
give your voice an extra punch, especially useful in DX situations. Adjust its level with either the
slider or the text box.
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
CPDR: click to enable the compander and adjust its level with either the slider or the text box.

VOX: click to enable the VOX and adjust its level with either the slider or the text box. See also
the Setup Form-Transmit Tab (page 94). When enabled, a bar graph will show just below the
slider control. The green part of this bar graph shows the portion of the sound level that will not
activate the transmitter; the red part the portion that will. VOX should be adjusted such that
ambient noise will not activate the transmitter, but a normal voice will.

GATE: click to enable the Noise Gate and adjust its level with either the slider or the text box.
See also the Setup Form-Transmit Tab (page 94). When transmitting, a bar graph will show just
below the slider control. The green part of this bar graph shows the portion of the sound level
that will not open the Noise Gate; the red part the portion that will. The level should be
adjusted such that ambient noise will not open the Noise Gate, but a normal voice level will.
Hint:
The Noise Gate can (and should) be enabled in all situations where
ambient noise will render your transmissions less clear, irrespective of
whether VOX is engaged.

Transmit Profile: select the transmit profile to use for phone transmissions. The default
profiles are Default and Default DX. See also the Setup Form-Transmit Tab (page 92)

Show TX Filter on Display: when checked, the band edges of the transmit filter, set on the
Setup Form-Transmit Tab (page 93) will be shown as 2 yellow lines on the display when set to
Panadapter. It can be an especially useful visual aid when operating split to position your
transmit frequency where desired (in a pile-up) using VFO B. Additionally, it will give you a
quick visual impression of whether your transmit filter needs to be adjusted or not.

RX EQ: activates either the receive three-band or ten-band equalizer. See also the Equalizer
form described on page 119.

TX EQ: activates either the transmit three-band or ten-band equalizer. See also the Equalizer
form described on page 119.

VAC: activates Virtual Audio Cable (http://software.muzychenko.net/eng/), a third party
program (written by Eugene Muzychenko) to enable digital audio transfer between PowerSDR
and other third party (digital) programs. See also the Setup Form – Audio Tab, VAC Sub-Tab
described on page 73. VAC is not automatically enabled for phone modes, even if Auto Enable
has been checked on the VAC Sub-Tab.
CW Controls
The CW controls, shown in Figure 41 below are available when either CWL or CWU is selected. Most of
these controls can be found on the Setup Form-DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab (see page 87, where you can
also find a more detailed description).
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Figure 41: Mode Specific Controls - CW

CW Speed: sets the CW speed when using the internal keyer in Iambic mode. Adjust the
speed with either the text box or the slider.

Iambic: check to set the internal keyer to Iambic mode (see also page 88)

Disable Monitor: check to disable the monitor (this can be useful when using an external
keyer).

Show CW TX Frequency: check to show the CW TX frequency as a single yellow line when
the display is set to Panadapter. It can be an especially useful visual aid when operating split to
position your transmit frequency where desired (in a pile-up) using VFO B.

Pitch Freq (Hz): sets the desired audio frequency for CW listening at the center of the CW
filters. This will determine the offset that is applied to the carrier in receive and transmit. The
display will continue to read the actual carrier frequency, but the software will provide for an
offset to get the desired CW tone. This pitch will determine the automated tuning frequency
using the display and mouse ClickTune™ 1 functions.

VAC: click to enable Virtual Audio Cable (http://software.muzychenko.net/eng/), a third party
program (written by Eugene Muzychenko) to enable digital audio transfer between PowerSDR
and other third party (digital) programs. See also the Setup Form – Audio Tab, VAC Sub-Tab
described on page 73. VAC is not automatically enabled for CW modes, even if Auto Enable
has been checked on the VAC Sub-Tab.

Break In: check the Enabled box to activate Break In for the internal keyer. Set the delay in
the Delay text box. See also page 89.
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ClickTune is a trademark of FlexRadio Systems.
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Digital Controls
The digital controls, shown below are available when either DIGL, DIGU or DRM is selected. These
controls can mostly be found on the Setup Form- Audio Tab, VAC Sub-Tab (see page 73, where you can
also find a more detailed description).
Figure 42: Mode Specific Controls - Digital

VAC: click to enable Virtual Audio Cable (http://software.muzychenko.net/eng/), a third party
program (written by Eugene Muzychenko) to enable digital audio transfer between PowerSDR
and other third party (digital) programs. See also the Setup Form – Audio Tab, VAC Sub-Tab
described on page 73. If Auto Enable (page 74) has been checked on VAC Sub-Tab, then VAC
will automatically be enabled when either DIGL, DIGU or DRM is selected.

RX & TX Gain: Adjust the gain for signals coming in and out of the VAC interface. Use the RX
Gain control to adjust the audio level going to third party programs. (Note that for third party
applications this control supersedes the front panel AF control). Similarly, use the TX control to
adjust the volume of audio coming from third party applications (adjust for 0 dB on the ALC
meter).

Sample Rate: sets the sample rate of the VAC interface. This needs to be matched to your
third party software sample rate.

Mono/Stereo: sets the VAC interface to operate either mono or stereo. This can be of
importance, depending on your third party software. (E.g. MixW requires the mono setting,
whereas DREAM requires stereo).
(9) Display Controls
The main display controls, shown in Figure 43 below, consist of two sections: Screen adjustment
controls and display selection controls. The former act on the screen as a whole, where as the latter
determine the display type to be used.
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Figure 43: Display Controls
Screen Controls
The screen controls adjust the view of the Panadapter, Waterfall or Panafall display (see Figure 45 and
Figure 47 below), they are not functional for any of the other display types.

Pan: adjust the slider to pan the Panadapter or Waterfall display from left to right. Click on
Center to quickly center the display.

Zoom: adjust the slider to zoom in on or out of the display. Additionally click on either on of the
4 buttons to the right to quickly zoom to the labeled setting. (The maximum frequency span of
the Panadapter or Waterfall is dependent on the audio sample rate setting)
Display Selection Controls
The main display is able to visualize received (and transmitted) signals in various ways (display types),
which can be selected from the list box. These various display types are detailed below with a snapshot
of each type. The sampling rate (Frames Per Second, FPS) of the main display can be modified on the
Setup Form-Display Tab (see page 77).

AVG (Average): click to view time-averaged signals. This will smooth fast-changing signals
and is a good way to separate real from stochastic (noise) signals. The averaging time can be
set on the Setup Form-Display Tab (see page 79). AVG must be enabled for the 0 Beat VFO
Control to be available.

Peak: click to hold the peak value for each frequency in the display.
Display Type Descriptions
Note:
The actual display in PowerSDR is crisper than the compressed
images shown below.
There are six frequency domain display types (Spectrum, Panadapter, Histogram Waterfall, Panafall™ 1
and Panascope™ 2) and three time domain display types (Scope, Phase and Phase2). All the colors
used in the display (text, data line, background, etc) are completely customizable using the Setup
Form-Appearance Tab, Display Sub-Tab (page 97).
1
Panafall is a trademark of FlexRadio Systems.
2
Panascope is a trademark of FlexRadio Systems.
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Spectrum
Figure 44: Spectrum Display
The Spectrum Display shows a classical spectral view of the frequency with the ends of the display
determined by the bandwidth of the filter. The scale across the top shows the frequency offset in Hz
from the VFO A frequency. Rather than only using half the display window when in lower or upper
sideband, we expand the display moving the 0Hz line to the left or right margin (1.2kHz tone in USB
mode with a 2.7kHz filter shown).
Panadapter (Panoramic Adapter)
Figure 45 Panadapter Display
The Panadapter Display is similar to the Spectrum Display with several differences.

The maximum display width is a function of the selected sampling rate, no matter what filter
bandwidth is selected.

The selected filter is displayed as an overlay to help the user visualize the filter. Shown are the
main RX filter (green, VFO-A), the MultiRX filter (blue, VFO-B) and the TX filter edges (yellow
vertical lines). The color of all the filter overlays can be changed independently using the Setup
Form-Appearance Tab, Display Sub-Tab (page 97).
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
The frequency scale shows the actual frequency (in MHz).

The edges of the amateur bands are marked as red vertical lines and the corresponding
frequencies are displayed in red

With the mouse, filters and filter edges can be varied by dragging and dropping

Point click tuning is available with mouse and cross-hairs showing.
The Panadapter is useful because although you hear only the signals within the audio passband, you
can see in real time all signals within the receiver’s passband (as determined by the sampling rate).
This gives a much more complete picture of the surrounding area in the band, especially when there is
abundant signal activity (e.g. contest and DX situations).
Histogram
Figure 46: Histogram Display Mode
The Histogram Display is similar to the Spectrum Display, but instead of a single color data line,
additional colored data is used. Blue signals are real-time (current) signals that are below a signal
threshold (roughly below the average plus a small margin). The red signals are real-time (current)
signals that are above that same threshold. The green signals are previous peaks on that same
frequency that will fade as time goes by (a type of history, hence the name).
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Waterfall
Figure 47: Waterfall Display
The Waterfall Display shows a scrolling view of activity within the receiver's passband (as determined
by the sampling rate). This makes tracking narrow band signals much easier and can even allow
visualization of CW signals at slower speeds (longer line is a dash, short line is a dot, no line is a
pause).

Across the top the audio passband filters are displayed, similar to the panadapter.

The filter widths and positions can be adjusted with the mouse, similar to the panadapter.

All mouse tuning methods available in the panadapter are also available in the waterfall.

The frequencies corresponding to the Amateur band edges are displayed in red.

The Waterfall Display can be customized on the Setup Form- Display Tab This allows custom
setting of the dynamic range and coloring for the display. (See the Setup Form-Display Tab on
page 77 for more details.)
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Scope
Figure 48: Scope Display
The Scope Display shows the received or transmitted audio signal in the time domain. Shown is an SSB
signal. The Scope Display is particularly useful when transmitting to monitor your audio waveform, e.g.
to see the effects of DX (page 44) or equalization (page 119). The time base can be adjusted on the
Setup Form- Display Tab (see page 79).
Phase
Figure 49: Phase Display
The Phase Display maps the filtered I and Q (Left and Right) channels to the X and Y coordinate
planes. This is useful for making sure the two channels are 90 degrees out of phase as they should be.
There is also a Phase2 Display that maps the unfiltered data directly from the ADC. When a
continuous carrier signal is received, the unfiltered data in the Phase2 Display should produce as near
to a perfect circle as possible. If the circle distorts into an oval or a straight line, the input phase is off
balance which would indicate a connection or hardware problem.
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Panafall
This display is a combination of the Panadapter and the Waterfall displays described above.
Panascope
This display is a combination of the Panadapter and the Scope displays described above.
Off
In this setting the display is turned off. It is mainly used for debugging purposes, but can also be used
with slower systems to decrease the CPU load to more reasonable levels.
Cursor and Peak Position
There are two sets of data side by side under the display that are used to communicate cursor (left)
and peak signal (right) information to the user. For each the data shown equals Offset from VFO, Signal
Level and Frequency. For example, in Figure 50 below, the peak signal is offset -8639.4 Hz from the
VFO frequency (14.187 MHz). The peak signal level is –81.6 dBm, and the peak signal is at 14.178361
MHz. Note that these values are fairly low resolution due to the discrete nature of the pixel display.
Figure 50: Cursor and Peak Position Information

In the frequency domain displays (Spectrum, Panadapter, Histogram, Waterfall), right clicking
the mouse cycles through yellow crosshairs, red crosshairs (only if SPLT or MultiRX is
enabled), or no crosshairs. The crosshairs span the width and height of the display (yellow
cross hairs are shown in Figure 50 above).

Together with the AVG control they allow easy measurement of signals on the display. For
example, in Figure 50 the cursor position is offset -10230.3 Hz from the VFO frequency and is
at 14.176770 MHz. Its “level” is at -80.6 dBm.

Another feature of the crosshairs is ClickTuning. Clicking the left mouse button with the yellow
crosshairs visible tunes VFO A to the frequency indicated by the cursor position data (or if Snap
ClickTune is on (see page 67), to the nearest multiple of the Tune Step). The red crosshairs
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tune VFO B when SPLT or MultiRX is enabled. This is an excellent way to tune CW signals as
it will zero beat the tone to the set CW pitch.
(10) MultiRX Controls
The MultiRX controls, shown below, allow you to enable a second receive channel within the receiver's
passband as determined by the audio sample rate setting. Both the primary and the secondary receive
channel can be positioned independently in the audio spectrum to facilitate separating the two signals
in your head.
Figure 51: MultiRX Controls
Click MultiRX to enable the second receive channel. The second receive channel will be tuned to the
frequency shown in VFO B. In the Panadapter and Waterfall Displays, its passband is shown in blue, but
only if it is within the range of the Panadapter/Waterfall. Use the upper and lower horizontal sliders to
position the primary and secondary channel respectively anywhere in the left-right audio spectrum. Use
the left and right vertical sliders to adjust their respective volumes. Check Swap to swap the audio
between the left and right speakers.
Hint:
In split operation you can use the secondary receive channel to listen
to the pile-up, while using the primary receive channel to listen to the
DX.
(11) DSP Controls
Figure 52: DSP Controls
These controls enable the DSP functions. The first four are described in detail in the Setup Form-DSP
Tab, Options Sub-Tab (see page 80); SR is described in the Setup Form-General Tab, Options Sub-Tab
(page 66).

NR (DSP Noise Reduction): Activates the DSP Noise Reduction algorithm (see page 80).

ANF (Automatic Notch Filter): Activates the Automatic Notch Filter algorithm.

NB (Impulse Noise Blanker): Activates the Noise Blanker algorithm (see page 83).
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
NB2 (Mean Rank Noise Blanker): Activates the Mean Rank Noise Blanker algorithm (see
page 83).

SR (Spur Reduction): Activates the Spur Reduction algorithm (see page 66).

BIN (Binaural Audio): Activates the Binaural algorithm. Binaural audio is a special feature of
PowerSDR. It generates a pleasing effect as the two phased channels (I and Q) are mapped to
the left and right audio channels. The phasing of the demodulated and filtered audio signal
within the passband gives a stereo-like, spatial effect to the received signal. When tuning across
CW signals, they will seem to move in “space” as you tune the radio. Many experienced
operators feel that binaural audio gives them a competitive advantage under contest conditions
where the effect allows them to more easily pick signals out of a pile up. Wearing headphones
increases the effect of the spatial separation.
Note:
BIN is not available when operating FMN, AM or SAM.
(12) VFO Controls
Figure 53: VFO Controls

SPLT (Split): Enables Split operation using VFO B for the transmit frequency. The frequency
text and TX indicator in VFO B will turn red to indicate that it is the transmit frequency.

0 Beat: Centers the signal peak within the RX filter passband. An exception is made in CW
mode if the CW Pitch is within the passband. In this case, the signal is tuned to the CW Pitch.
Note:
0 Beat is only available if AVG is enabled for the Display.

IF→V: Translates any offset created by Filter Shift and shifts it back to baseband. Useful when
chasing a signal with the Filter Shift control (see also page 43).

A >B: Transfers the contents of VFO A to VFO B (frequency, mode, and filter).

A< B: Transfers the contents of VFO B to VFO A (frequency, mode, and filter).

A< >B: Swaps the contents of VFO A and B (frequency, mode, and filter).
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
XIT (Transmit Incremental Tuning): Click to enable XIT. XIT may be used as a quick way to
operate split at a specific offset. When enabled, the transmit frequency is increased from the
VFO A frequency by the amount shown in Hz while leaving the receive frequency intact. With
SPLT activated, XIT modifies the VFO B frequency. Click the 0 button next to the XIT button to
clear the XIT control to 0.

RIT (Receive Incremental Tuning): Click to enable RIT. When enabled, the receive
frequency is increased from the VFO A frequency by the amount shown in Hz while leaving the
transmit frequency intact. Click the 0 button next to the RIT button to clear the RIT control to
0.
(13) CPU %
This displays your computer's total CPU load as seen in the Windows Task Manager under the
Performance Tab. Note that running other applications will cause the CPU load to increase. If your CPU
load is peaking at close to100%, audio and possibly video artifacts will become noticeable. In this case
closing additional applications and turning down some of the functions may improve the performance.
(14) Start/Stop Button
Click Start to activate PowerSDR, click Stop to deactivate it. As Figure 54 shows, the button also acts
as a RX/TX indicator.
Start
Stop
Stop/Transmit
Figure 54: Power Button States
Note:
Please see also the Power-Up/Down procedures described on page
132 for information on best practices.
(15) MON (Monitor)
When enabled, the transmitted audio is monitored through the receiver’s speakers. The MON function
is not available in AM, SAM, or FM modes as those modes are transmitted at the Intermediate
Frequency (IF, usually 9kHz). In voice operation the MON feature will allow you to hear the effects of
MIC gain, TX equalization, compression and compansion and to adjust them in real time. The AF
control can be used to adjust the monitor volume.
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(16) MOX (Manually Operated Transmit)
When enabled MOX activates the transmitter. It is used primarily for voice operation. MOX will not
generate a CW carrier. To generate a carrier for tuning, refer to the tune (TUN) button description on
page 57.
Note 1:
If the radio ever seems like it is stuck transmitting, try disabling the
Push-To-Talk (PTT) function by selecting Disable PTT on the Setup
Form-General Tab, Options Sub-Tab.
Note 2:
To use PowerSDR without any hardware attached to the PC you must
disable PTT. On the Setup Form-General Tab, select either Disable
PTT on the Options Sub-Tab, or Demo/None on the Hardware
Config Sub-Tab
(17) MUT (Mute)
This button Mutes the speaker audio. The receiver may also be muted by pressing the * (asterisk) key
on the keyboard.
(18) Rec (Record) and Play
The Rec and Play buttons offer a quick and easy way to record and play back signal. Click Rec to
record a signal and click Rec again to stop recording. Once recorded, the signal can be played back by
clicking Play. Subsequently clicking Rec will overwrite any audio file previously recorded in this way.
The Rec and Play buttons are the same as the QuickRec and QuickPlay buttons on the Wave
Form (see page 117)
Note:
The audio file is saved as SDRQuickAudio.wav in the same directory
where your PowerSDR.exe file resides. The saved file contains postprocessed audio, and can be played back with any wav file player.
(19) TUN (Tune)
TUN transmits a continuous (CW) carrier at the level set with the Tune Power control (default 10W)
on the Setup Form-Transmit Tab (page 92) and outputs a tone at the CW Pitch. This power is shown on
the Drive control while TUN is activated. Any changes to the Drive control while TUN is active are
saved when the TUN button is turned off.
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(20) ATU and BYP
The ATU and BYP buttons are clicked to respectively activate and bypass the internal ATU. They also
indicate the various states of the ATU as shown in Figure 55 below.
ATU/BYP
Situation
BYP clicked
ATU clicked, but SWR already OK
Band changed
ATU clicked and match is found
ATU clicked and match not found
Figure 55: States of the ATU and BYP buttons
Initially when you start PowerSDR or whenever you change the band the internal automatic antenna
tuner will be bypassed, as indicated by the BYP button being active (yellow) and ATU button being
inactive.
Press ATU to initiate a tuning cycle. The ATU first measures the SWR.

If SWR is OK, then no further action is taken and the ATU remains bypassed.

If SWR is not OK, a tuning cycle is started
o
If a match is found, the ATU button turns green.
o
If a match cannot be found, the ATU button turns red and BYP yellow
Note:
When operating Split, any change of the receive and/or transmit
band (e.g. cross-band operation) will bypass the ATU.
(21) AF (Audio Frequency Gain)
This control sets the audio gain. It may also be adjusted by pressing the + (plus) and – (minus) keys
on the numeric keypad. For best performance set the external speaker volume control to the high end
of the scale so that the AF control can be set to a lower value.
(22) AGC-T (AGC Maximum Gain)
This control sets the maximum gain of the AGC. It is the same control as can be found on the Setup
Form-DSP Tab, AGC/ALC Sub-Tab (page 90). The operational use of the AGC control is essentially the
same as that of an RF gain control found in more traditional receivers.
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For optimal use, set the AGC control such that the band noise level is
comfortable, yet weak signals still jump out of the noise. Then adjust
the AF control to comfortably hear the received signal. See also
Appendix C and the Knowledge Center article How to Effectively
Use the PowerSDR 1.x AF[Gain] and AGC[Threshold] Controls
(search for AF AGC in our Knowledge Center at
http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx)
(23) Drive (Transmitter Power Output/Tune Power)
This control adjusts the percentage of maximum power that will be available when transmitting. The
Drive control may be adjusted while either receiving or transmitting.
Note:
The control doubles in function as the power level setting for the TUN
(Tune) button described above. The Tune power may be adjusted
while the TUN button is activated or by using the control on the
Setup Form-Transmit Tab.
While great care is taken to ensure that this value is accurate and that selecting a Drive value will give
approximately that amount when using the 100W PA, there are variances in the filter components and
transmitter characteristics that make it difficult for this to be exactly right over the whole range (1100).
(24) AGC (Automatic Gain Control)
This control sets the Automatic Gain to one of the following settings: Fixd (Fixed or off), Long, Slow,
Med (Medium), Fast, or Custom. The Custom setting uses the controls on the Setup Form-DSP Tab,
AGC/ALC Sub-Tab (page 90), where also a more expansive explanation of the AGC can be found.
(25) RX Gain
The RX Gain is in actual fact a 26dB preamp combined with a 20dB attenuator. This control enables
selection of the preamp/attnenuator states: ATTN, Off, and Pre. The corresponding preamp and
attenuator settings are shown in Table 6.
Table 6: RX Gain Details
Setting
Attn
Off
Pre
ATT
(20dB)
On
Off
Off
Gain
(26dB)
Off
Off
On
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Net Gain
(dB)
-20
6
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(26) SQL (Squelch)
Figure 56: Squelch Controls
The SQL button enables the Squelch function. The threshold can be set with either the value to its right
or the slider below. The bar graph displays in green the signal level below the threshold (squelch
closed) and in red above (squelch open: only the red level is audible with SQL enabled). Squelch can
be very useful to remove all noise from CW signals, especially in narrow filter settings.
(27) Date/Time Display
Figure 57: Date/Time Display
The date and time display can be especially helpful when taking screenshots, but can also be a quick
reference to UTC time for those of us who are “time zone challenged.” Click inside the Date or Time
area to cycle between LOC (Local Time), UTC (UTC Time), and Off .
(28) Setup Form
The Setup Form contains numerous controls for everything from the hardware configuration to transmit
settings. Please refer to the next chapter for more detailed information.
(29) – (34) Operating Forms
Each of these items opens a form, which is used while operating. Please refer to the Operating Forms
chapter below for more detailed information on each one.
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Chapter
Setup Form
The Setup Form contains a vast assortment of controls and settings from hardware setup to detailed
DSP options. These controls are available on Tabs of the Form. Due to space concerns, several of the
Tabs (e.g. General, Audio and DSP) have been split into Sub-Tabs. Take care when changing the
controls to pay attention which Tab (and Sub-Tab) you are on.
Along the bottom of the Setup Form are five global buttons. These are:

Reset Database: This displays the warning shown in Figure 58. Click No to avoid resetting the
database. Click yes to reset the database, which entails closing PowerSDR, copying the
database file PowerSDR.mdb to your desktop and deleting it from its current location. The next
time you start-up PowerSDR it will automatically create a new, clean database and read the
EEPROM data from your FLEX-3000 to the database.
Figure 58: Reset Database Warning
Note:
The database saves all of the radio options and its current state. It
also contains the data read from the EEPROM in your FLEX-3000. If you have
used the default directory during installation as recommended, the database
file will be in C:\Program Files\FlexRadio Systems\PowerSDR vn.n.n\. The
database file is called PowerSDR.mdb.
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
Import Database: Allows a backwards-compatible database to be imported. To import
another database, click this button and then browse to the directory of the database to import.
The database file is called PowerSDR.mdb. Double click this file and it will attempt to import all
the settings. A confirmation message will let you know if the import was successful.

OK: Saves the current values to the database and closes the form.

Cancel: Reloads the values from the database into the Setup Form and closes the form. This
button can be used to reverse unintended changes to the Setup controls.

Apply: Immediately saves the current values to the database.
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General Tab
Hardware Config Sub-Tab
Figure 59: Setup Form - General Tab, Hardware Config Sub-Tab
FLEX-3000 Config
This section lists the S/N, installed Firmware version and the installed hardware boards of your radio.
Receive Only
Check this box to use only the receiver, while disabling the transmitter. When checked, MOX, TUN and
VOX will become unavailable on the Front Console and PTT (either via the MIC connector or the back
panel PTT connector) will also not function.
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Radio Model
Figure 60: Radio Model Selection
Use this selection to choose the hardware (if any) that is connected to the computer running the
PowerSDR software. When the FLEX-3000 is selected, the center block shows its configuration.
Displayed are the radio model and serial number, the firmware version and the serial numbers of the
various internal circuit boards, except the ATU, is just marked as “Present”.
DDS
Figure 61: DDS
DDS Stands for Direct Digital Synthesis. The DDS chip in the FLEX-3000 produces an analog sine wave
at up to micro Hertz resolution. The DDS is used as a local oscillator to tune the radio.

Clock Offset: Allows software corrections to be made manually if the DDS clock oscillator is
not running at exactly 500MHz. Changing the clock offset will change the frequency calibration
of your radio. Typically there will be no need to do so as the radio has been completely factory
calibrated. However, as the radio ages, the oscillator frequency may change slightly.
o
To adjust the frequency calibration of your radio, first use the automatic Frequency
Calibration controls described on page 69.
o
To manually adjust the frequency calibration of your radio, start the internal signal
generator by opening the Setup Form, Tests Tab (page 110) and checking Enable HW
Signal Generator. Select DSB mode and tune VFO A to the desired frequency. With
SPLT turned off you should see a -25 dBm signal at the VFO frequency. Change the
display to the Phase display and you will see a single dot. Next, go to the Setup Form General Tab, Hardware Config Sub-Tab and check Expert to reveal Figure 61 above.
Adjust the Clock Offset control until the dot in the phase display is (almost) standing
still. Don't forget to turn the internal signal generator off, when you are done.
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The Clock Offset can also be calculated as follows. Divide the DDS frequency (500MHz)
by the known signal frequency (say, 10MHz WWV) and then multiply by the difference
between the known and the measured frequency. For example, say you tune the VFO to
10MHz and the peak shows up at 9.999700MHz (difference is 10.0 – 9.999700 =
+300Hz). The Clock Offset would be 500/10 * 300 = 15000. Plugging in 15000 into the
Clock Offset control should zero beat the signal. Note that if the measured frequency
were 10.000300MHz, the offset would be -15000. Fine adjustments may be made
directly on the Clock Offset control using the phase display as described above.
Note:

C H A P T E R
Any adjustments you make are saved to your database only and not
to the radio's EEPROM. Therefore, if you start PowerSDR with a clean
database, you will lose these adjustments.
IF (Hz): Controls the Intermediate Frequency used in the software to avoid low frequency
noise. The default value is 9,000 Hz and can be varied between 0 and 20,000 Hz. Normally
there will be no need to adjust this. However, if you are experiencing low frequency noise, such
as spurs that cannot be eliminated with the Spur Reduction (SR) enabled, you might try
adjusting the IF.
Options Sub-Tab
Figure 62: Setup Form - General Tab, Options Sub-Tab
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Options
Figure 63: Options

Spur Reduction: Adds the use of a software oscillator to avoid DDS frequencies known to
have a higher phase truncation related spurious response. In short, rather than tuning each
frequency using the DDS (this is what happens when this option is turned off), the software
tunes the DDS in 3kHz steps and does fine-tuning in software. Tuning in 3kHz steps also has
the advantage of having to send fewer command signals to the hardware. For a complete
description of the spur reduction algorithm used, see A Technical Tutorial On Digital Signal
Synthesis available from Analog Devices.

Disable PTT: Disables the ability to use external Push-To-Talk lines (MIC and PTT connectors)
to key the radio.

All Mode Mic PTT: When checked, PTT through the Front Panel MIC connector will be
enabled. Otherwise, this PTT line will be disabled for digital (DIGL, DIGU) and DRM modes.

Enable TX1 Delay: when checked, the TX Out port on the back panel (see Figure 3 on page
5) is keyed TX1 Delay ms after PTT is engaged.

Disable Split on Band Change: When checked and if Split is enabled, Split will be disabled
when the band is changed.
Process Priority
Sets the process priority for PowerSDR. Some users have reported that setting the priority higher than
Normal can allow slower systems to perform more reliably and with smoother audio. While FlexRadio
Systems recommends using the Normal setting, if you are experiencing audio glitches or are using a
slower machine, selecting Above Normal or High might improve the performance of the software. Note
that FlexRadio Systems does not recommend using the Real Time setting as this could cause timing
problems with the operating system.
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ClickTune Offsets (Hz)
Figure 64: Digital ClickTune Offsets

DIGU: Sets the offset in Hz to use when click tuning in DIGU mode. Defaulted to 1200 for
SSTV.

DIGL: Sets the offset in Hz to use when click tuning in DIGL mode. Defaulted to 2210 for RTTY.
Miscellaneous
Figure 65: Always On Top

Always On Top: Check to paint the Front Console on top of any other windows (even an active
window).

Disable ToolTips: Check to avoid seeing the explanatory tool tips that appear when you hover
with your mouse over a control.

Snap ClickTune: When checked, clicking (with the yellow or red cross hairs) on a signal in
either the Panadapter or Waterfall will tune the VFO to the nearest multiple of the Tune Step
(see page 37). E.g. if Tune Step is set to 1 kHz, the VFO will jump to the nearest kHz.

Zero Beat – RIT: When checked and with RIT activated, the 0 Beat button on the Front
Console will offset the peak of a signal by the RIT frequency, such that VFO = actual peak
frequency – RIT frequency. This can be useful if you want to zero beat the receive frequency
without changing the transmit frequency.

Mouse Tune Step: When checked, clicking the mouse button (middle click) will cycle through
the tune steps.
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Keyboard
Figure 66: Quick QSY

Enable Shortcuts: Enables the use of keyboard keys to perform various PowerSDR functions.
The keyboard shortcuts can be set on the Setup Form-Keyboard Tab, described on page 104).

Quick QSY: Enables the user to quickly enter a frequency in MHz on the keyboard and hit
[Enter] to jump to that frequency. With this option disabled, using a mouse to tune or to click
inside the VFO is the quickest way to change frequency. This feature is normally enabled by
default, but can be disabled to prevent changing the VFO frequency due to accidental key
presses.
Custom Title Text
Enter the text you would like appended to the standard text (FlexRadio Systems PowerSDR v1.n.n) in
the title bar of the Front Console.
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Calibration Sub-Tab
Figure 67: Setup Form - General Tab, Calibration Sub-Tab
To reveal the Frequency Calibration Sub-Tab, you will need to check the Expert box, which will
generate a warning that this is meant only for experienced users. If you decide to proceed tune your
radio to a known accurate frequency source (e.g. WWV), enter the frequency in the Frequency control
and click the Start button.
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Filters Sub-Tab
Figure 68: Setup Form - General Tab, Filters Sub-Tab

Max Filter Width: Sets the maximum filter width to be set by the Filter Width Slider on the
front console.

Width Slider Mode: Sets the behavior of the Width Slider. Linear, Log, and Log10 are the
options. The log options offer more resolution on the smaller filter sizes.

Max Filter Shift: Sets the maximum swing in Hz that the Filter Shift Slider on the front panel
will allow in either direction.

Save Slider/Display Changes: If checked, any changes to the filters made by the filter
sliders or by using the click and drag on the filter edges on the display will be saved to the
Variable filters and will be recalled as such. If not checked, the Var filters can only be changed
by adjusting the Filter Low and High Cut controls on the front panel.

Default Low Cut (Hz): Sets the default low frequency cut-off for the USB/LSB filters.
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Audio Tab
Primary Sub-Tab
Figure 69: Setup Form - Audio Tab, Primary Sub-Tab
Buffer Size
You should set your audio Buffer Size as low as your computer system will tolerate. Larger buffers
mean more delay, but smoother audio. Smaller buffers yield less latency, but at the cost of CPU load.
The 2048 sample buffer size means that a single buffer at 48kHz sample rate is 2048/48000 = 42.7ms
in length. Faster machines should be able to run with a buffer size of 512 without issue at the lower
Sample Rate settings (see below). For best CW performance (and if your computer can handle it), set
the audio buffer to 512 or less. (see also the DSP Buffer Size on page 82).
Sample Rate
The sample rate can be set to 48kHz or 96kHz. Using the higher sample rates will result in a wider
frequency range in the panadapter and waterfall displays. Higher sample rates at a given buffer size
will reduce the latency in the system, but at the same time widen the filter skirts. It is this trade-off
that needs to be made, especially for CW where latency is more critical.
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The FLEX-3000 Driver will not automatically follow your audio Buffer
Size, so make sure they are both set identically (see page 17), as a
mismatch can lead to audio pops and clicks. The Driver will, however,
follow the sample rate setting in PowerSDR.
Mic Boost
Check this check box if your microphone audio is sounding too weak and you cannot increase it further
with the Mic Gain control on the Front Console and the Mic Input control on the Mixer Form
Expert
This check box will show additional controls that you should only consider using if you are an
experienced user. You should proceed with caution. Vary rarely, if ever, will you need to access these
controls.
Latency (with Expert checked)
Using the manual option, the user may add additional latency (in milliseconds) to the audio buffering
system for better audio performance. When the manual setting is off, the delay is set to 0ms. Note that
some systems will have trouble with the manual setting on and values below approx. 15ms. We
recommend using the default automatic latency setting for best results.
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VAC Sub-Tab
Figure 70: Setup Form - Audio Tab, VAC Sub-Tab
Use these controls to configure the VAC (Virtual Audio Cable) settings for use with PowerSDR. This is
ideal for running digital modes, but can serve as another way to get audio in and out of PowerSDR. The
Buffer Size, Sample Rate are similar to those described in the previous section. Below we describe
the unique controls on this form.
Virtual Audio Cable Setup
Select the driver type you wish to use. With most digital software MME will work well. Select the Input
and Output channels as shown in Figure 70.
Gain (dB)
Figure 71: Gain (dB) Controls
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These settings adjust the gain for signals coming in and out of the VAC interface.

Use the RX control to adjust the audio level going to third party programs. Note that this
control supersedes the front panel AF control for third party applications.

Use the TX control to adjust the volume of audio coming from third party applications. Use this
control instead of the MIC control on the front panel to calibrate transmit (adjust for 0 dB on the
ALC meter).
Latency
Using the manual option, the user may add additional latency (in milliseconds) to the audio buffering
system for better audio performance. When the manual setting is off, the delay is set to 0ms. Note that
some systems will have trouble with the manual setting on and values below approx. 15ms. We
recommend using the default automatic latency setting for best results.
Mono/Stereo
Check this check box for stereo audio channels. Most third party applications require monaural audio.
In this case leave the box unchecked. However, several DRM applications such as DREAM and HamPal
require stereo audio.
Combine VAC Input Channels
Becomes enabled when Mono/Stereo is checked. Check to combine both L and R stereo input
channels.
Auto Enable
Figure 72: Auto Enable
Use this control to automatically enable VAC when operating digital modes (DIGL, DIGU, DRM). This
allows the user to easily switch between digital modes and SSB/AM/FM without having to separately
enable/disable VAC.
Allow PTT to override/bypass VAC for Phone
Check this box if you wish to override or bypass VAC when activating PTT, e.g. to use your microphone.
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Direct IQ
Figure 73: Direct I/Q
Check Output to VAC to send “pre-processed” I/Q to the VAC output instead of “post-processed”
audio, to enable you to use third-party software that has the ability to directly process I/Q signals.
Check Calibrate I/Q to correct the raw I/Q signal and avoid any image signals going to the third-party
software.
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Display Tab
Figure 74: Setup Form - Display Tab
Spectrum Grid
Figure 75: Spectrum Grid
The spectrum grid controls define the range and scale of the vertical axis (signal level in dBm) shown in
the Spectrum, Histogram, and Panadapter displays.

Max: The maximum displayed signal level in dBm (i.e. top of the display).

Min: The minimum displayed signal level in dBm (i.e. bottom of the display).

Step: Spacing between the horizontal grid lines in dBm.
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Align: Sets the position of the vertical axis. The Left, Center, Right, and Off settings are selfexplanatory. The Auto option automatically places the vertical axis at the 0Hz position in the
Spectrum and Histogram displays.
Refresh Rates
Figure 76: Refresh Rates

Main Display FPS: Sets the update rate of the main display to the selected value in frames
per second. Note that this is a good control to reduce if you are running on a slower machine to
save CPU cycles. Raising this value will give faster updates at the cost of CPU load. Lowering the
value will slow the display down.

Fill Panadapter: Check to fill the area below the signal line on the panadapter display.

Peak Text (ms): Sets the update rate of the peak signal location text box located just beneath
the display. Raising the value increases the delay between peak updates and slows the display
down. Conversely, lowering the value will accelerate the updates.

CPU Meter (ms): Sets the update rate of the CPU Meter in the lower left of the front console.
Raising the value will add more delay between updates while lowering the value will yield faster
responses. Note that the CPU Meter measures your entire system load and not just that of
PowerSDR process.
Waterfall
Figure 77: Waterfall

Low Level: The lower end of the dynamic range to view in dBm. Signals at or below this level
will use the Low Color.

High Level: The high end of the dynamic range to view in dBm.

Low Color: Color used if the signal level is at or below the Low Level.
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
Averaging Time: Time in ms over which the signal is averaged for the Waterfall Display. The
AVG button on the Front console has no effect for the waterfall.

Update Period: Time in ms between updates to the Waterfall. The higher the period, the
slower the Waterfall will progress from top to bottom of the display.
Multimeter
Figure 78: Multimeter Display options

Analog Peak Hold (ms): The length of time in milliseconds to hold the peak on the analog
edge or bar meter. Raising this value will lengthen the hold time and peaks will be held for a
longer period of time.

Digital Peak Hold (ms): The length of time in milliseconds to hold the digital meter when
using the Fwd Pwr TX Meter. Raising this value will lengthen the hold time and peaks will be
held for a longer period of time.

Average Time (ms): The time over which the signal is averaged when using the SigAvg RX
Meter setting.

Analog Refresh (ms): Controls how often the analog meter is updated.

Digital Refresh (ms): Controls how often the digital meter is updated.

Show Decimal: Check to show decimal values in the digital meter.
Phase Resolution
Figure 79: Phase Resolution
This control sets the Phase display resolution in number of points displayed per 360°.
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Scope Time Base
Figure 80: Scope Time Base
This control adjusts the time base in µs (horizontal time scale) of the Scope Display.
Averaging
Figure 81: Display Averaging
This control sets the averaging time in ms of the Spectrum, Panadapter and Histogram displays when
AVG is enabled on the Front Console.
Polyphase FFT
Figure 82: Polyphase FFT
Enable this feature to display sharper peaks in the spectrum displays (Spectrum, Panadapter, Waterfall,
Histogram). Expect to see an up to 4 times narrower area of the displayed “spike” of a tone, especially
when the displayed frequency span is relatively large in comparison.
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DSP Tab
Options Sub-Tab
Figure 83: Setup Form - DSP Tab, Options Sub-Tab
Noise Reduction
Figure 84: Noise Reduction Controls
Noise Reduction (NR) attempts automatic computation of a filter that maximizes the coherent or nonnoise like signals and as a result, filters out the rest of the signal, which includes noise. It is best used
for speech signals with a good signal to noise ratio or tones.
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
Taps: The number of taps determines the length of the computed filter. The longer the filter,
the better the non-coherent signals (noise) will be canceled. It also introduces latency equal to
the number of filter taps divided by the sample rate in samples per second and is in addition to
Delay (see below). The larger the number of taps, the longer it takes for the filter to converge
but upon achieving convergence, the better the filter will be.

Delay: Determines how far back to look in the signal before beginning to compute a coherent
signal enhancement filter. With large delays, there is a higher likelihood of detrimental affects to
normal speech. Latency is also introduced that is equal to the Delay.

Gain: Determines the adaptation rate of the filter. The larger the number, the faster the filter
will converge but the less stable it will be.
Automatic Notch Filter
Figure 85: Automatic Notch Filter Controls
The Automatic Notch Filter (ANF) attempts automatic computation of a filter to remove one or more
carrier tones that are interfering with the signal of interest.

Taps: This determines the length of the computed notch filter. The longer the filter, the larger
the number of tones that can be canceled and the more effective the cancellation will be. It also
introduces latency (signal delay) equal to the number of filter taps divided by the sample rate in
samples per second and is in addition to Delay (see below). The larger the number of taps, the
longer it takes for the filter to converge but upon achieving convergence, the better the filter
will be.

Delay: Determines how far back to look in the signal before beginning to compute a
cancellation filter. The larger the delay, the less the impact on normal speech, and the more
likely the filter will be able to concentrate only on longer term coherent signals such as carrier
tones. Latency is introduced that is equal to the Delay.

Gain: Determines the adaptation rate of the filter. The larger the number, the faster the filter
will converge but the less stable it will be.
Use Peak Readings for TX Meter DSP Values
When checked, the MIC, EQ, Leveler, CPDR and ALC TX Meters will show peak values instead of RMS
values.
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Buffer Size
The DSP buffers can be preset separately for receive (RX) and transmit (TX), for each of the Phone, CW
and Digital modes. Selecting an operating mode on the front console will then automatically select the
corresponding (RX or TX) preset DSP buffer: Phone for LSB, USB, DSB, FMN, AM and SAM; CW for
CWL and CWU; Digital for DIGL, DIGU and DRM.
The size of the the DSP buffer, which determines the size of the FFT filter and therefore the group delay
(latency) through the digital filter. Higher values will result in more latency and sharper (“brick wall”)
filters. Lower values will allow nearly real time monitoring, but with wider filter skirts that “roll off” (as
opposed to the typical “brick wall” filters). Therefore a trade-off needs to be made and this trade-off is
often different, depending on the mode of operation.

For example if the sample rate (see Figure 69 on page 71) equals 96kHz and the DSP buffer
equals 1024 then the minimum attainable 3dB filter width equals 1.5*96000/1024 ≈ 140Hz,
where the factor 1.5 is due to the Blackman-Harris windowing function (see below).1 Either
lowering the sample rate or increasing the DSP buffer size will enable narrower and sharper
filters.
To dramatically illustrate this effect Figure 86 below shows two traces of the same 25Hz CW
filter. The red trace is at a sample rate of 192kHz (double the maximum possible for your FLEX30002) and a DSP Buffer size of 512, yielding a minimum filter width of 1.5*192000/512 ≈
563Hz!!
The blue trace at 48kHz and 4096 yields a minimum 3dB filter width of
1.5*48000/4096 ≈ 18Hz.
Figure 86: 25Hz CWL Filter at 192kHz Sample Rate/512 Buffer Size (Red) and 48kHz/4096 (Blue)

The minimum audio latency is determined by the maximum of the group delay due to the DSP
Buffer and the delay due to audio buffering (see page 71). In the above example the group
delay equals 1024/96000 = 11ms. If the audio buffer is set to say 512 then its latency equals
512/96000 = 5ms. In this case the overall latency is determined by the DSP buffer size and the
group delay of 11ms.
1
The same filter shape is achieved for 48kHz and 512.
2
At 96kHz, the minimim filter width reduces to approx. 281Hz, still considerably more than 25Hz.
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Therefore, you should set your Audio Buffer as low as your computer system will tolerate at the
set Sample Rate. Next you should set your DSP Buffer as high as you can, without experiencing
noticeable latency. Finally, for the narrowest (CW) filters you may need to lower your Sample
Rate further, especially in extreme conditions such as contests.
Noise Blanker
This controls the detection threshold for impulse noise. If a signal sample exceeds this detection
threshold, the sample will be set to zero and the filtering in the radio serves to interpolate through this
zero sample. This noise blanker is identical in theory to those in traditional radios. The detection
threshold in our noise blanker has the unique feature that it is signal strength dependent. This enables
it to function properly at all signal levels.
This control is preferable when the spikes are very large in comparison to the average signal. However,
when the spike is smaller, Noise Blanker 2 provides a much cleaner reconstruction of the signal since
the signal is more likely to look like the mean. For this reason, the Noise Blanker 2 threshold should
always be about four or five less than the Noise Blanker threshold.
Noise Blanker 2
This controls the detection threshold for a pulse. If a signal, pulse or not, exceeds this detection
threshold, the sample will be replaced by a computed estimation of what the signal sample should have
been given an interpolation of the signal samples around it in time. By replacing the noise pulse with an
interpolation of the signal, distortion is greatly reduced over that of traditional noise bankers.
When seeing a significant amount of impulsive noise, being too aggressive with Noise Blanker (NB)
can damage the signal. However, completely removing the large pulses is desirable prior to operating
the smoother acting Noise Blanker 2 (NB2). Therefore, when seeing many repetitive noise pulses, it
is probably best to use both NB and NB2. The NB Threshold is adjusted to just begin to lower the noise
from the pulses, after which NB2 is turned on, with a threshold of four or five less than that of NB. Both
together can spectacularly reduce impulse noise, resulting in increased intelligibility of the signal under
severely adverse conditions.
Window
This control selects the DSP windowing function that will be applied to the power spectrum in the main
display1 when using Spectrum, Panadapter, Histogram, and Waterfall displays. The default is BlackmanHarris, which is the best setting for many high-level signal measurement needs. The purpose of the
windowing is to diminish bleed-through to adjacent FFT “bins” which results from a tone that is not
exactly on the center frequency of one of the “bins” (or parallel filters) in the power spectrum
calculation. The bleed-through is caused by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to calculate the
power spectrum, which we need to use for the sake of efficiency. That said, it is important to
understand that the FFT writes the data (mathematically speaking) on a circle and not on a line. When
the last sample meets the first sample on a circle, it is very probable that it will not meet up or join in a
continuous fashion. This discontinuity acts in exactly the same manner a key click causes a wide
spectrum. The window is used to mitigate this key click-like phenomenon. The Rectangular Window
bleeds through the worst. The best in our selection is the Blackman-Harris Window, which bleeds
through the least, but at a penalty of a slightly reduced spectral resolution (=wider filter). Appendix D
describes in more detail several of the window functions available in PowerSDR.
1
These window selections only effect the display; for the audio the window has been fixed to Blackman-Harris.
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Figure 87 shows the effect of using various windows with a 1kHz DSB filter. The effect is most obvious
in the stop band attenuation of the filter, where the Rectangular Window (Black) shows the worst
result. In this case, the Blackman-Harris Window (Red) is obviously superior.
Figure 87: Effect of Various Windows: Rectangle (Black), Welch (Violet), Bartlett (Blue),
Hanning (Green), Blackman 3 (Orange) and Blackman-Harris (Red)
Figure 88 displays a 25Hz CW filter with a Hanning and a Blackman-Harris window. It is clear that the
Hanning window offers a narrower passband at the cost of a higher stop band. Blackman-Harris offers
a much improved stop band, but at the cost of a slightly wider passband. In almost all cases BlackmanHarris will be preferred, except possibly for weak CW signals, where both stop bands disappear in the
noise and where dynamic range is much less important than a narrower passband.
Figure 88: 25Hz CW Filter with Hanning (Red) and Blackman-Harris (Blue) Windows
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Image Reject Sub-Tab
Figure 89: Setup Form - DSP Tab, Image Reject Sub-Tab
Note:
Your FLEX-3000 is completely calibrated, including both receive and
transmit image rejection and needs no further adjustments.
Expert
This Expert check box will show controls that you should only consider using if you are an experienced
user. You should proceed with caution. Very rarely, if ever, will you need to access these controls.
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Receive Rejection
Figure 90: Receive Rejection
Image Rejection means finding adjustments for phase angle and gain differences between the left and
right channels in the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals.

Phase: Sets the phase offset between the I and Q channels. Ideally, the phase angle difference
between I and Q (right and left channels) of a tone in our passband will be 90 degrees.

Gain: Sets the amplitude offset between the I and Q channels. Ideally, the amplitude of both I
and Q (left and right) channels of a received tone will be equal.
Transmit Rejection
Figure 91: Transmit Rejection
Similar to above, these controls enable the user to adjust the image rejection for the transmitter. The
calibration requires external instruments. A spectrum analyzer is ideal but a second receiver should
enable you to get satisfactory rejection levels.
To minimize the transmit image, proceed as follows:
1. Set the radio to either USB or LSB. Connect the radio to a dummy load and select Enable TX
Image Tone.
2. Click MOX (front console) and a full strength tone will be transmitted at the frequency shown in
VFO A. Adjust the output power with the Drive control (front console).
3. If the radio is set to USB, look at the image signal BELOW the carrier in either the spectrum
analyzer or the second receiver. If set to LSB, look at the image signal ABOVE the carrier.
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4. Using Phase and Gain controls, null the relevant image signal.
Note:
The image rejection will only work in an asymmetric voice mode
(SSB). In a symmetric voice mode, like AM, SAM, and FMN any small
amount of image problem will likely be covered up.
Keyer Sub-Tab
Figure 92: Setup Form - DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab
CW Pitch
This enables the user to set the desired audio frequency for CW listening at the center of the CW filters
(1kHz and lower filters). This will determine the offset that is applied to the carrier in receive and
transmit. The display will continue to read the actual carrier frequency, but the software will provide for
an offset to get the desired CW tone. This pitch will determine the automated tuning frequency using
the display and mouse “ClickTune” functions.
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Connections
Figure 93: Connections
The internal keyer supports two inputs. We call these inputs the primary and secondary connections.
The primary connection will override the secondary input. This was designed with the idea that the
secondary connection might be used for automatic CW generation while the primary could be used with
manual paddles to override the automatic output.

Primary: Select the connection to be used for the primary connection. Selecting “Radio” allows
the use of the jack on the back of the FLEX-3000.

Secondary: Select the connection to be used for the secondary connection. Selecting “CAT”
will allow use of the COM port that is currently being used by the CAT connection. This is useful
as some programs allow both CAT commands and COM port line keying for CW. Note that the
lower two controls will not show up if “None” is selected.

PTT Line: Select the COM port line used for PTT.

Key Line: Select the COM port line to be used to activate the key.
Options
Figure 94: Internal Keyer Options

Iambic: Check this box to enable Iambic mode A emulation unless mode B is selected (see
below). With the box unchecked, the key input will act like a straight key.

Disable Monitor: The monitor is typically turned on when using Break In with the internal
keyer. In order to keep the monitor off, check this option.

Rev. Paddles: Using this option will reverse the paddle inputs so that the dot becomes a dash
and vice versa.
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
High Res.: This option will attempt to achieve fastest CW latency by using the high frequency
event timer (if present) on motherboards containing Intel Pentium 4+ (and AMD equivalent)
type processors. If the CW timing or tone production becomes unstable after checking the box,
your motherboard contains the low frequency timer and you should leave the box unchecked.
The option works for both manual and automatic CW.

Mode B: Check this box to enable Iambic mode B emulation. Uncheck it to enable mode A
emulation.

Auto Mode Swch: Check to automatically switch to the appropriate CW mode (if in another
mode) when you hit your paddles.
Signal Shaping
Figure 95: Signal Shaping Controls

Weight: Sets the width ratio between the dot and dash.

Ramp: Sets the length of the leading and trailing edge on the tones in milliseconds to avoid
key clicks.
Break In
Figure 96: Internal Keyer Semi Break In Controls

Enabled: Check this box to enable Break In for the internal keyer.

Delay (ms): Sets the amount of time between the last detected input and when the radio will
drop back to receive. The smallest possible setting is 10 ms.
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AGC/ALC Sub-Tab
Figure 97: Setup Form - DSP Tab, AGC/ALC Sub-Tab
These controls allow the user to customize the AGC/Leveler/ALC to their own particular tastes.
AGC
The AGC is a state of the art, dual track AGC with anticipatory response on both fast and slower tracks.
Or, stated differently, the AGC is in essence the combination of two AGCs, one with a very fast time
constant, the other with a much slower time constant (for more detail see the article A Discussion on
the Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Requirements for PowerSDR on the Downloads page of our website
at http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?fr=1). The Attack, Decay and Hang settings may
only be adjusted when the Front Panel AGC control is set to Custom. However, they do display the
values for the selected AGC setting.

Slope (dB): The AGC gain once the signal is above the AGC threshold (or knee, not to be
confused with the Hang Threshold below). Setting a Slope higher than 0dB allows stronger
signals above the threshold to sound louder than weaker ones (also above the threshold).

Max Gain (dB): The maximum amount of gain allowed by the AGC system for signals below
the AGC threshold. The total AGC gain equals the Max Gain + the Slope (Gain). See also
Appendix C.
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
Attack (ms): This sets the time constant for the attack for the AGC, When a signal gets
stronger, this determines how quickly the AGC will respond to the need for decreased gain. Note
that in order for this and the two controls below it to be enabled, the AGC control on the front
panel must be set to Custom.

Decay (ms): This sets the time constant for the decay for the AGC. When a signal gets
weaker, this determines how quickly the AGC will respond to the need for increased gain.

Hang (ms): To keep the AGC system from adjusting too much, an adjustable hang time is
provided. This Hang time will only be applied if the signal level is above the Hang Threshold
(see below), otherwise a fixed “Fast Hang” time of 100ms is applied. After this time has
expired, the Decay will then determine how quickly the AGC gain recovers.

Hang Threshold: The Hang will NOT occur if the signal is weaker than this threshold. Instead
the “Fast Hang” will be applied.

Fixed Gain: When you choose Fixed AGC on the front panel, this control is used to amplify the
signal.
Table 7 details the AGC parameters used in the various settings.
Table 7: AGC Setting Details
Setting
Fast
Med
Slow
Long
Attack
2ms
2ms
2ms
2ms
Decay
100ms
250ms
500ms
2000ms
Hang
100ms
250ms
500ms
750ms
Fast Hang
100ms
100ms
100ms
100ms
Leveler
The Leveler is intended to even out the variations in input to your microphone caused by varying
distance from or angle presented to it. It is an attempt to “level” the amplitude presented to the rest of
the DSP audio processing. The leveler is disabled in DIGU and DIGL modes.
ALC
The ALC is what you would typically consider ALC to be in a transmitter. It is an attempt to prevent
overdrive of the amplifier and the distortion that would accompany that. Because of the dual track AGC
algorithm we use, this ALC will allow very high average power while maintaining peaks at a controlled
level. The Compander (DX and CPDR on the Front Console (see Mode Specific Controls – Phone on
page 44) work very well with the ALC to increase average power without overdrive.
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Transmit Tab
Figure 98: Setup Form - Transmit Tab
The transmit Tab has controls that allow the user to tailor the transmit signal characteristics using
features like compression and filtering.
TX Profiles
Figure 99: TX Profiles
The two default TX Profiles are Default and Default DX. The TX Profiles selection allows the user to
save and restore the various TX settings with ease. The TX profile includes settings for: EQ, Filter, MIC
Gain, Drive, DX, CPDR, Leveler, and ALC. Click the Save button to save the current profile. You will be
prompted for a name. To change profiles, select the named profile from the drop down list. To remove
a profile, select it using the drop down menu, and then click the Delete button.
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Check the Expert box to reveal many more standard TX Profiles. See
below.
Transmit Filter
Figure 100: Transmit Filter Controls

High: Controls the high cut of the Transmit Filter.

Low: Controls the low cut of the Transmit Filter.
Note 1:
You will receive a “good practice” warning if the transmit filter
bandwidth exceeds 3kHz.
Note 2:
You can view the transmit filter on the Panadapter or Waterfall
displays when you enable Show TX Filter on Display on the Front
Console.
DC Block
Attempts to block any DC noise from entering the filter.
Tune
Figure 101: Tune Settings

Power: Sets the power in Watts to be used whenever the TUN (Tune) function is used on the
Front Console (sets the Drive control). Changes made to the Drive level while TUN is active
will be reflected in this control.

TX Meter: Selects which TX Meter to use when TUN on the Front Console is clicked.
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Noise Gate
Figure 102: Noise Gate

Enabled: Enables the transmit noise gate.

Threshold (dB): The threshold below which the transmitter is silenced (gated). When adjusted
correctly, the noise gate prevents prevailing noise in the room (ambient noise) from being
transmitted while the microphone is keyed and the operator is not talking. It is very useful if
there are close by fans that degrade your signal and make your transmissions disturbing to
copy. The noise gate operates identically, whether using VOX or PTT.
To adjust the noise gate:
1. While wearing headphones, activate MON and MOX on the Front Console (use a
dummy load). Disable the noise gate and turn up the Monitor AF so that you can hear
your ambient noise clearly and preferably louder than without headphones. Without
speaking, enable the noise gate.

If you still hear your ambient noise, increase the noise gate threshold level until
the noise is just silenced.

If your ambient noise disappears when enabling the noise gate, decrease the
threshold level until you just start to hear it. Then increase it until it just
disappears.
2. With the noise gate adjusted, speak into the microphone and verify that your voice
sounds as natural as possible.
VOX
Figure 103: VOX

Enabled: Enables/Disables the VOX operation.

Sensitivity: The threshold above which PowerSDR automatically starts transmitting. Use this in
combination with the Noise Gate for best results.

Delay (ms): Time to stay in transmit after the last peak above the threshold.
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Monitor
Figure 104: Transmit Monitor AF Control
Use the Monitor TX AF control to set the value that the AF control (Front Console) will use as an initial
value when transmitting. Any change made on the Front Console AF control will be remembered.
AM Carrier Level
Figure 105: AM Carrier Level
The Carrier Level determines the percentage of carrier level to be applied to the transmit signal where
100% is one quarter of full power output (25W when Drive on the front console is set to 100). So a
setting of 80 would yield roughly 16W when Drive is set to 100. This is useful as it allows the
modulation to appear much stronger due to the weaker carrier.
Standard TX Profiles
Figure 106: TX Profile Defaults
Click to place a check mark in Expert box and reveal many more TX Profile Defaults shown in Figure
106. To use one of these, click to select it from the list and then click Import. It will now be active and
show up in the Profiles list described above.
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PA Settings Tab
Figure 107: Setup Form - PA Settings Tab
The FLEX-3000 is fully calibrated and requires no further adjustments. If you suspect your power
amplifier requires adjustments, please first contact FlexRadio Support (on our website www.flexradio.com select Support and then Service and Repair) for further guidance and how to proceed.
To view the controls, you will need to select Expert. A warning will appear, asking if you wish to proceed
or not. Heed the warning.
Gain By Band (dB)
To view these controls uncheck Use Advanced Calibration Routines. This shows the total hardware
(radio + PA) signal chain gain. These controls are used to manually balance the output power across
the ten supported amateur bands. A higher gain figure for the hardware (as shown) means a lower
audio drive gain requirement.
Reset: this button is included to reset all of the values to 48.0dB (low power output).
When you are done, do not forget to recheck Use Advanced Calibration Routines.
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Appearance Tab
The appearance controls allow the user to completely customize the appearance of the front console.
Display Sub-Tab
Figure 108: Setup Form-Appearance Tab, Display Sub-Tab
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Overall Display
These controls change the appearance of all the display types, where relevant.
Figure 109: Overall Display Appearance Controls

Background: The background color for the display.

Grid: The color of the grid in display types where a grid is necessary.

Zero Line: The color of the zero line in frequency displays.

Text: The color of the text on the display for frequency and level callouts.

Data Line: The color of the actual data being displayed.

Line Width: The width in pixels of the actual data being displayed.
Cursor/Peak Readout
These controls change the appearance of the cursor and peak texts under the frequency domain
displays.
Figure 110: Cursor/Peak Readout Appearance Controls

Peak Text: The color of the Peak signal location text located under the display.

Background: The background color of the Peak signal location text.
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Panadapter
These controls change the appearance unique to the Panadapter display (and Waterfall for the filters
across the top).
Figure 111: Panadapter Appearance Controls

Main RX Filter Color: The color of the Main RX Filter.

MultiRX Filter Color: The color of the MultiRX Filter.

TX Filter Color: The color of the TX filter-edges.

MultiRX Zero Line: The color of the 0 Hz line of the Sub RX Filter.

Band Edge: The color of the lines marking the edge of an Amateur band.

Show Freq. Offset: When selected, the offsets from the Main RX Filter 0Hz line are shown
across the top as opposed to the actual frequencies.
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General Sub-Tab
These controls change the appearance of the buttons and the VFOs.
Figure 112: Setup Form-Appearance Tab, General Sub-Tab
Button Selected: The color of buttons when they are in the selected state.
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VFO
Figure 113: VFO Appearance Controls

Inactive: The color of the text in the VFOs when they are inactive.

Active: The color of the text in the VFOs when they are active.

Background: The background color of the text in the VFOs.

Small 3 Digits: When selected, the three least significant digits of the frequency displayed in
the VFOs are shown smaller than the other digits for clarity.

Small Color: The color of the smaller, least significant digits.
Band Data
Figure 114: VFO Band Data Appearance Controls

Inactive: The color of the band information text when that VFO is inactive.

Active: The color of the band information text when that VFO is active.

Out Of Band: The background color of the VFO band information when outside the amateur
radio bands.

Background: The background color of the VFO band information when inside the amateur
radio bands.
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Meter Sub-Tab
These controls enable selection of the analog meter style and change the appearance of the meters.
Figure 115: Setup Form-Appearance Tab, Meter Sub-Tab

Meter Type: Selects the type of graphical meter to display: Original displays the bar graph
meter and Edge displays an analog edge style meter.

Digital Text: The color of the text of the digital meter.

Digital Background: The background color of the digital meter.
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Original Style
Figure 116: Appearance Controls for the Original Style Meter

Left Color: The color of the left side of the original style meter gradient.

Right Color: The color of the right side of the original style meter gradient.

Background: The background color of the original style meter.
Edge Style
Figure 117: Appearance Controls for the Edge Style Meter

Low Color: The color of the low values of the edge meter’s scale.

High Color: The color of the high values of the edge meter’s scale.

Background: The background color of the edge meter.

Indicator: The color of the indicator in the edge meter.
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Keyboard Tab
These controls associate keys on the keyboard with several operating functions as keyboard shortcuts.
Figure 118: Setup Form - Keyboard Tab
The Tune mapping options allow you to tune each digit (with resolution to 1Hz) up or down using the
key of your choice. The digit to be tuned is shown in the labels above these hot keys as an ‘x’. Similarly,
you can map keys to change the Band, Filter, Mode, RIT, or XIT up or down using the drop down
controls in the respective sections.
Note:
Choosing any of the arrow keys will require using Alt + [arrow key].
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Cat Control Tab
Figure 119: Setup Form - Cat Control Tab
The CAT (Computer Aided Transceiver) Controls enable the PowerSDR software to provide the user
with a way to interface with third-party logging and remote control software. In conjunction with
N8VB’s vCOM virtual serial port software (see page 149), interaction is possible with programs such as
Ham Radio Deluxe (HRD), DXLab, N1MM Contest Logger, MixW and numerous other third-party
software (aids).
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Cat Control
Figure 120: CAT Control

Enable CAT: Check this box to open the com port using the settings below. Note that you will
need to uncheck this box in order to adjust the settings.

Port: Com port number to use. If using N8VB’s vCOM utility, note that you will use one end of
the null-modem pair here and the other on the third-party software (e.g.. HRD).

Baud: The speed at which to transfer data.

Parity: Sets whether to send a parity bit.

Data: Sets how many data bits are sent with each byte.

Stop: Sets whether to send a stop bit.
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PTT Control
Figure 121: PTT Control
Some software utilizes a separate COM port than the CAT to activate PTT. These controls allow the user
to configure this separate port to handle these signals.

Enable PTT: Used to enable the hardware PTT. This control is unavailable (grayed out) unless a
check mark is placed in at least one of the RTS or DTR boxes (see below).

Port: The COM port used for the PTT signal.

RTS: Select this box to use the RTS line to engage PTT.

DTR: Select this box to use the DTR line to engage PTT.
DigL/U Returns LSB/USB
By default DigiL sends or returns the CAT command FSK-R and DigiU sends or returns the CAT
command FSK. If this check box is checked, they will instead send or return LSB and USB respectively.
The third party digital program you are using will determine which behavior is required.
FlexProfiler Installed
Enables the PowerSDR menu for selection for "Remote Profiles". When this menu option is available,
the user can select console profiles created remotely in FlexProfiler1 from the local PowerSDR console.
Allow Kenwood AI Command
Enables the Kenwood AI command which causes PowerSDR to broadcast the transmit frequency
(normally VFO A, but VFO B if in Split) changes to the CAT system. Normally, CAT only responds to
polling from the remote program. There are a few programs that expect frequency changes to be
broadcast.
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1
FlexProfiler is provided free, courtesy of K5KDN and can be installed from the SVN subversion control location:
svn://206.216.146.154/svn/repos_sdr_windows/FlexProfiler/trunk/bin/Release . To do so, you will need to use a program like
TortoiseSVN, downloadable for free from http://tortoisesvn.tigris.org/ . Search for SVN on our Knowledge Center at
http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx for further information.
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Test
Click Test to bring up the CAT Command Tester form as shown in Figure 122 below. A valid CAT
command may be entered in the CAT Command text box. The command will execute when the Enter
key is depressed or the Execute button is clicked. Typing the semicolon, the CAT terminator, at the
end of the command is optional. The CAT response will appear in the CAT Response text box..
Figure 122: CAT Command Tester Form
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RTTY Offset
Figure 123: RTTY Offset
The RTTY Offset controls add or subtract the offset entered in DIGU and DIGL respectively, from the
VFO frequency before CAT reports it to a third party program.

Enable Offset VFOA: Check to apply the RTTY Offset to VFOA

Enable Offset VFOB: Check to apply the RTTY Offset to VFOB

DIGL/DIGU: Select the offset to be applied when in DIGU and DIGL mode respectively.
Note:
This differs from ClickTune Offsets (see page 65), as the ClickTune
Offsets actually change the Front Console VFO frequency, whereas
the RTTY Offset only offsets the frequency reported by CAT.
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Tests Tab
Figure 124: Setup Form - Tests Tab
Two Tone Test:
Used to test the two-tone IMD of the transmitter. To run the test, enter the two tone frequencies in the
Freq #1 and Freq #2 controls. Enter the Power to be sent to the front panel Drive control. Make
sure you have a dummy load connected. Click the Start button to begin transmitting a side-tone signal
using the parameters entered. Manually adjust the Power control on this tab to set the tones to 6dB
below PEP using a spectrum analyzer. Click the Start button again to stop the test and read the Power
value thus found. A single sweep function on a spectrum analyzer is an excellent tool to capture the
output for analysis.
Audio Balance Test
Use this test to ensure that the Powered Speaker/Line Out cable is getting both output channels. The
test will send a tone to each speaker and prompt to see if you hear audio in that one speaker. If you
hear no audio or audio in both channels during this test, then either the connector is not properly
seated or you may have a problem with the cable going to the Powered Speaker/Line out jack on the
Back Panel.
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Signal Generator
Figure 125: AF Signal Generator
This Signal Generator sends an AF signal to either the input or output of either the receiver or the
transmitter DSP. It is used to test the PowerSDR.

Mode: Select the type of signal to generate. “Soundcard” means the Signal Generator is turned
off and FLEX-3000 hardware can be used.
Note:
When finished with the Signal Generator, do not forget to place the
Signal Generator back to “Soundcard”.

Scale: A scaling factor to adjust the level of the signal being generated. This is only available
when “Tone” is selected. Only values smaller than 1 are possible.

Input: The generated signal is sent to the Input of the DSP, as if it were coming from the ADC
like your antenna signals would. The generated signal is therefore perceived as an IF signal by
PowerSDR.
For example, if your IF is set at the default 9kHz, then for the Receive Signal Generator a 0Hz
generated “Tone” would be displayed 9kHz below the VFO frequency on the Panadapter. As you
increase its frequency, upper and lower side band mixing products appear. If you have selected
USB mode on the Front Console you will only start to hear a tone when the frequency slider is
above 9kHz such that the tone's upper side band is within the audio passband. If you select the
Scope display, you will only see the signal when it is within the audio passband.

Output: The generated signal is sent directly to the output, bypassing the DSP. The tone of the
Receive Signal Generator is available from the Line Out jack on the back panel for viewing on
an external scope, for example. The effect of the DSP can be observed by comparing the
Output signal to the Input signal.

Frequency Slider: Determines the frequency of the generated signal

Sweep: Click this button to sweep the generated signal frequency from Low to High at a rate
of Hz/Sec. While sweeping, the button will be yellow. To prematurely stop the sweep click the
Sweep button again.
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Together with the Peak display setting the Receive Signal Generator's
“Noise” setting allows you to display the actual shape of your audio
passband filter. To do so, set your PowerSDR display to Spectrum,
activate Peak and set the Receive Signal Generator to “Noise”
with Input selected. After a few moments, click the Start button to
stop PowerSDR and select a wider filter setting to see more of your
filter.
Enable HW Signal Generator
The so called “HW” Signal Generator is an RF signal generator as opposed to the AF Signal Generator
described above. Check to activate the HW Signal Generator, enable SPLT and adjust its frequency by
using VFO B.
Note 1:
The Receive AF Signal Generator must be set to “Soundcard”, to use
the RF HW Signal Generator.
Note 2:
In actual fact, the RF signal is generated using the transmit DSP and
sent through the QSE (Quadrature Sampling Exciter), which is then
looped back to the QSD (Quadrature Sampling Detector) and the
receive DSP.
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Chapter
Operating Forms
This chapter describes each of the so-called operating forms. You can access each form individually by
clicking on the relevant menu item to the right of Setup at the top left of the front console (see Figure
126). For ease of reference, the numerical identifiers from the previous chapter on the Front Console
are repeated in this chapter. Additionally, the key combination Ctrl-Shift-I activates the voltage and
temperature form (see page 129)
Figure 126: Operating Form Identifiers
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(29) Memory Form
Click the Memory menu allows saving and retrieving information such as frequency, mode, filter and
various other settings.
Save…
Opens the Save Memory Channel form as shown in the figure below.
Figure 127: Save Memory Channel Form
The current Mode, Filter, Step Size, Frequency, Squelch and AGC settings are
automatically transferred from the console. The Group Drop Down Box allows a further level of
characterization of the type of entry. In the future this Group list will be customizable. The
Callsign and Comments fields are free form and the user can enter details as desired. Clicking
the OK button will save the information shown above into the memory database before closing
the form. Clicking Cancel simply closes the form (the data is not saved).
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Recall…
Presents the user with a Memory form with data from all previously stored memory locations (shown in
the figure below).
Figure 128: Memory Form
The data grid displays each memory that has been saved to the database. Clicking in the left
hand margin will allows a particular memory to be selected. Clicking on the column titles will
sort the data using the information in that column. Repeatedly clicking will alternate between
ascending and descending order as indicated by the small arrowhead in the column title.

Edit: Click the Edit button to manually change the saved memories. Make sure to click
the button again when finished editing to prevent unintended changes from getting
saved to the database.

Recall: Click the Recall button to send the data in the memory to the front console (i.e.
restore a memory). You can also double-click on a row to accomplish this, although this
method is less consistent. Select Close on Recall to close the Memory Form when
clicking Recall.

Delete: Click the Delete button to remove a memory from the database. A prompt will
be shown to prevent unintended loss of memories.
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(30) Wave Form
Figure 129: Wave Form
The Wave form allows the user to Record and Playback either the post-processed audio of the current
station, or up to 96kHz bandwidth (as determined by the audio sample rate setting) of pre-processed
IF (I and Q) “audio” from the FLEX-3000.
Playback

Currently Playing: Displays the filename of the currently playing wave file.

Play: Click this button to start or stop playback of the current wave file. Note that clicking this
button twice while a file is playing will restart the file.

Pause: Pauses the wave file playback. Click once to pause and again to resume playback.

Prev (Previous): When there is more then one file in the playlist, clicking this button will
cause the previous file in the list to begin playing.

Next: When there is more than one file in the playlist, clicking this button will cause the next
file in the list to begin playing.
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Playlist

Add…: Click this button to open a file menu to select wave file(s) to add to the playlist. Note
that incompatible wave files will be removed from the list when they are played for the first
time.

Remove: Removes the currently selected file in the playlist. If the file is currently being played,
then you will be prompted asking if you would like to stop playing the file and remove it from
the list.

Loop: When there is more than one file in the playlist, this option is enabled and allows
playback to continue after finishing the last wave file in the list. At this point it will start playing
the file at the top of the list.
Record
Click the Record button to begin recording a wave file. Click it again to complete the recording.
The wave file will be date and time stamped automatically and saved in the default folder (where
the PowerSDR software resides).
TX Gain (dB)
Use this control to adjust the volume of audio being played back when transmitting. Use this control
instead of the MIC control on the front console to calibrate transmit (adjust for 0 dB on the ALC meter).
Quick Rec and Quick Play
The Quick Rec and Quick Play buttons offer a quick and easy way to record and play back a signal
audible on the receiver. Click Quick Rec to record a signal and click Quick Rec again to stop
recording. Once recorded, the signal can be played back by clicking Quick Play. Subsequently clicking
Quick Rec will overwrite any audio file previously recorded in this way. These two buttons perform the
same function as the Rec and Play buttons on the Front Console (see page 57).
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Record Options
Click Options at the top of the Wave Form (see Figure 129) to open the following form:
Figure 130: Wave Recording Options
The Wave Record Options can be used to modify what is recorded in either receive or transmit modes.
Receive

Pre-Processed Audio will record the whole bandwidth of the receiver input. The bandwidth is
determined by the sample rate you set on the Setup Form-Audio Tab, Primary Sub-Tab. This is
useful for playing back through the console at a later time (e.g. for demonstration purposes).

Post-Processed Audio will record only the filtered, AGC’d audio as you hear it coming out of
the speaker. This is useful for playing back the received audio through a typical wav file player.
Transmit

Pre-Processed Audio will capture the audio as it is seen at the microphone input without any
of the effects of filtering, compression, companding, equalization or any other audio processing
features that may be turned on in the transmit chain.

Post-Processed Audio allows the recording to capture the audio after it has been filtered,
compressed, companded, equalized or modified by any other audio processing feature turned
on in the transmit chain.
Sample Rate
Sets the sample rate at which the wave file will be recorded.
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(31) Equalizer Form
A 3-band and a 10-band equalizer are available. The equalizers may be enabled either from the
Equalizer Form or in the phone modes, from the Front Console (see page 44)
3-Band Equalizer
Figure 131: Three-Band Equalizer Form
In most situations the 3-Band Equalizer will suffice. The receive and/or transmit audio can be modified
by adjusting the gain for the Low, Mid and High audio bands. The Preamp applies gain across the
whole audio spectrum. Easily compare the audio with and without the equalizer using the Enabled
check box. The Reset button will reset all of the sliders to the 0dB position.
Hint:
Hover with your mouse over a slider to see its frequency range of
operation.
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10-Band Equalizer
Figure 132: Ten-Band Equalizer Form
The 10-Band Equalizer offers a finer degree of audio frequency control than does the 3-band equalizer.
You may want to use this equalizer if the 3-band equalizer does not give you the result you want.
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(32) XVTRs Form
Figure 133: XVTR Setup Form
The XVTR (transverters) Setup Form allows the user to configure up to 16 external transverters for use
with the PowerSDR software.

Enabled: Enables that particular Band Button on the front console with the options selected.

Band Button: Band button to use for the particular transverter that is being configured.

UCB Address: Used to set the FlexWire to switch the correct external device (or a relay that
controls the external device).

Button Text: The text that will be shown on the Band Button.

LO Offset (MHz): The difference between the transverter low frequency and the IF frequency.
For example, on 2m, you might use 144-28MHz = 116.0.

LO Error (kHz): This setting allows the user to correct for any error in the transverter’s
oscillator.

Begin Frequency (MHz): The lower frequency bound for the transverter.

End Frequency (MHz): The upper frequency bound for the transverter.

RX Gain (dB): Amount of gain to apply to the incoming signals to compensate for gain within
the transverter.
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
RX Only: If this box is checked, the radio will not transmit while in this configured band.

Power: Sets the Drive control on the front console to this value whenever the VFO is within
the configured band.

Use XVTR PWR for Tune: When you click the TUN button on the Front Console the power will
be set to the value you enter in the Power control on this form (see above). Otherwise, the
Tune Power setting on the Setup Form – Transmit Tab (page 92) will be used.
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(33) CWX Form
Figure 134: Standard CWX Form
The CWX form is designed to allow you to control automatic Morse code transmission and to send code
from your computer keyboard. Pressing the CWX button on the main console menu opens this form.
The radio must be in either CWL or CWU mode for transmission to take place.
Standard CWX Controls

Red Indicator: The small red indicator shows when the radio is transmitting.

Yellow Indicator: The yellow indicator shows when the key is being ‘pressed’ by the program.

Key: Clicking this button will cause the radio to start transmitting a steady carrier for up to one
minute. Clicking Key again will stop the steady sending.

Stop (ESC): Clicking this button or pressing the Esc key on your keyboard will terminate most
functions and prepare the program to receive new orders or allow the iambic paddle to be used.

Notes: Clicking this button will cause a small page of useful notes to be displayed. You can
leave the notes up on the screen while you continue to work.

Speed WPM: This control lets you set the speed of the Morse code being sent. The speed is
computed by the standard PARIS method. The softness of the edges may be set by the RAMP
control on the Setup Form - DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab. The weighting is always 50% for the
memory/keyboard keyer.
Note:
This setting is separate from the control on the front console.

Repeat Delay: This control specifies the amount of time that the keyer will wait when a special
pause character is encountered.

Drop Delay: This control specifies the amount of time that the semi-break in keying will wait
before dropping the transmitter when there is no keying occurring.
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CWX Memories
There are nine CWX memories, three of which are hidden on the extended form to the right (see
below). Each memory can hold thousands of characters and in a standard single line text box. The
numbered buttons to the left of each memory box may be clicked to start the message. A message
may be stopped at any time by clicking the Stop (Esc) button or pressing the Esc key. Starting a
message will seamlessly stop any current message or other automatically keyed transmissions from
the radio, including the iambic paddle. The keyer will start the transmitter and send the Morse code for
each character until the message ends, at which time the transmitter will shut down. Messages may be
edited at any time but the changes will not take place until the memory is started again.
Special Characters
There are several predefined characters that provide non-Morse code functionality or to send familiar
combinations like AR and SK (see Table 8 below). For beacon transmissions, the character # will send a
long 23 element time dash comparable to a zero, with the key down the whole time. Multiple #
characters can be strung together for longer continuous dashes. The $ character works in a similar
manner but generates a long 23 element time space. The “or ditto” character may be placed at the end
of a message. When encountered, the keyer will shut down for the delay time set in the Repeat Delay
control and then restart the message. This allows you to program a CQ and then listen for a reply with
the radio back in receive. If the delay is set to zero then the message will simply repeat without the
radio switching to receive. Six special combinations are preprogrammed, as shown in Table 8.
Table 8: Overview of Special Characters
Special Character
#
$
+
(
*
!
=
\
&
‘ ) : ; < > [ ] ^
Action
Beacon - transmits 23 element “zero” time dash
Beacon – transmits 23 element time “space”
AR
KN
SK
SN
BT
BK
(.-.-.)
(-.--.)
(…-.-)
(…-.)
(-…-)
(-…-.-)
User definable, up to any combination of 9
contiguous dots or dashes
The remaining special characters & ‘ ) : ; < > [ ] and ^ are undefined and may be defined to
produce any combination of nine contiguous dots and dashes. Characters that are undefined have no
dots and dashes and are simply sent as a space.
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Keyboard and Extended Controls
Click the little square button in the lower right corner of the form to expand it. When you do this, the
remainder of the memories and controls will be visible including the keyboard window as shown below.
Figure 135: Extended CWX Form
Extended CWX Controls

Keyboard area: the four-line text box at the bottom. Unsent characters are shown in black and
sent characters in gray.

Keyboard/KEYS ACTIVE/KEYS OFF. This button has three labels:
o
At first use, the button is labeled Keyboard, the indicator is grayed out and the
keyboard cannot be used to enter characters.
o
When clicked it changes to KEYS ACTIVE and the indicator shows cyan. The keyboard
can now be used to enter characters at the end of the unsent area. As soon as a
character is typed it will be sent and then moved to the unsent area. If you type faster
than the code is being sent, it will be buffered in the bottom area.

The Backspace key will work in the unsent area.

Other editing keys like cut and paste are not implemented.

Pressing Alt 1 to Alt 9 or right clicking on the message number button will
cause the numbered message memory to be copied into the unsent area just as
if you had typed it.

The ditto character is ignored in the keyboard mode.
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Clicking Clear(F2) (see below) deactivates the keyboard, changes the KEYS ACTIVE
button to KEYS OFF and the indicator shows black. Clicking KEYS OFF reactivates the
keyboard, changing the label to KEYS ACTIVE again and the indicator to cyan.

Pause (F1): Clicking this button or the pressing the F1 key will cause keyboard buffer sending
to pause.

Clear (F2): Clicking this button or pressing the F2 key will clear the keyboard area, stop it
sending and deactivate the keyboard (KEYS ACTIVE button changes to KEYS OFF and
indicator changes to black). Of course, the Stop (Esc) button or the Esc key will do the same.

PTT Delay: This control allows you to set the time delay between switching the radio to
transmit and the first key closure.

Always On Top: Check to keep this form always on top of any other windows that may be
open.
Morse Definition Editor
The Morse definition editor allows you to define and even redefine almost all of the characters in the
sixty-four-character set. The combo box control to the right of the cyan indicator lets you view and
select any of the characters in the set. Each one is displayed as four fixed width fields separated by the
| character. There are five special control characters that you may not change and they have an * in
the element field.
Once you have selected the character that you wish to edit, left click to select and then right click to
bring up the editor dialog.
Figure 136: CW Definition Editor
The editor dialog example above shows the ‘]’ character being changed to send didahdidah which is the
German code for ä (umlaut a). When your definition appears to be correct, click the Save button and
the definition file will be resaved to the disk.
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
The definition file is called morsedef.txt and can be found in the same folder as
PowerSDR.exe and PowerSDR.mdb. It will not be automatically carried from one version to
the next so if you make many changes you might want to save a copy elsewhere.

The morsedef.txt file can be manually edited with a simple character editor like notepad (not
Word), but the format must be followed exactly. Each line must be 26 characters long, not
including the two end-of-line codes. It is not free-formatted. The line structure is: a two-digit
number field (the decimal ASCII code) | a one-character code field | a nine character elements
field | a ten-character comment field preceded by a space and followed by a carriage return and
linefeed code. If you mess this file up too badly, simply close PowerSDR, delete morsedef.txt,
and a clean, default copy will be created the next time you start. The editor makes simple
changes relatively easy to do.
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(34) Mixer
Figure 137: Audio Mixer Form
The Mixer controls the audio lines into and out of the FLEX-3000. In essence it is no different than the
usual Windows sound card mixer.
Input
The FLEX-3000 has two possibles sources of input audio. These are the MIC connector on the Front
Panel and the FlexWire In (pin 2 of the FlexWire connector) on the Back Panel. Check to select the
desired input source (only one may be selected at a time) and adjust its signal level with the
corresponding slider. Click Mute All Inputs to mute all the inputs.
Output
There are three possible audio outputs. These are the Front Panel Headphones connector and on the
Back Panel the Powered Speaker connector and FlexWire Out (pin 9 of the FlexWire connector).
More than one output can be selected at a time. Check to select the output and adjust its level with the
slider. Click on Mute All Outputs to mute all the outputs.
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Voltage and Temperature Information
Figure 138: Info Form
The keyboard combination Ctrl-Shift-I will display the voltage and temperature. Clicking on the
temperature will alternate its value between Celsius and Fahrenheit. Either value may be displayed
against a yellow or red background indicating increasing levels of criticality.
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Chapter
Operation
This chapter is intended to provide the user with a clear understanding of how the FLEX-3000 should be
used when performing basic operations such as Powering Up or making a voice transmission. We chose
to use this section in this way in lieu of listing all of the features of the radio since the feature list would
essentially repeat the information given in the three preceding chapters. Please refer to those chapters
for complete feature descriptions and how to use the controls.
Note 1:
For consistency we will use the same control identifiers as used in
Figure 30 on page 36. For clarity we will leave out any identifiers of
controls not referenced in the relevant section
Note 2:
If you have any questions, issues or problems operating PowerSDR
and/or the FLEX-3000, you may be able to find the solution on the
Support Pages (http://support.flex-radio.com/) of our website, in our
Knowledge Center (http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx), or through
our highly active Reflector. (search for reflector on our Knowledge
Center at http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx). If none of these
sources provide you the assistance required, please contact FlexRadio
Systems using the information provided on the Contact page of our
website (on our website www.flex-radio.com click About FlexRadio
and then Contact Us).
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Power-Up Procedure
To power up the FLEX-3000
1.
Connect the FLEX-3000 to the computer and the power supply. Check the connections to
ensure good contact.
2.
Boot up the computer and make sure PowerSDR is ready to be launched (no hour glass
cursor).
3.
Turn on the power supply for the radio and press the FLEX-3000 power switch to latch it in the
on position. After a few seconds you will hear the internal power relay click and see the blue
LED illuminate. The FLEX-3000 will be recognized by Windows and its driver will be available for
PowerSDR to use.
4.
After waiting at least 30 seconds, start up PowerSDR. It will automatically recognize the FLEX3000 driver. You are now ready to operate.
Power-Down Procedure
The power-down sequence is almost the reverse of the power-up procedure.
1. Stop PowerSDR by clicking on the Start/Stop button.
2. Close PowerSDR by clicking on the “X” in the upper right hand corner of the Front Console.
3. Press the FLEX-3000 blue illuminated Power switch to unlatch it and turn off the transceiver.
CAUTION:
Make sure PowerSDR is shut-down before turning off the radio. Failing
to do so may result in instability of your computer system, leading to
a Blue Screen.
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Tuning Methods
Spectrum Drag and Click
The easiest way to tune signals on the display when set to Panadapter or Waterfall is simply to click on
the signal, and drag it into the filter area. You can also drag the displayed filter edges to adjust the filter
width as well.
Mouse Wheel
A mouse wheel is the next easiest way to tune the radio. While the PowerSDR window is active, tune
VFO A using the mouse wheel, with the mouse cursor anywhere on the screen. The frequency will
change in steps equal to the selected Tune Step (2) for each click of the mouse wheel. Adjust the
Tune Step using the controls, clicking the mouse wheel or pressing Ctrl + Left or Right Arrow key.
Note:
When the Tune Step equals 1kHz, each click of the mouse wheel will
first snap tune up or down to the nearest 1kHz and then change in
1kHz steps. E.g. if VFO A is tuned to say 14.000258MHz then with
the tuning rate set to 1kHz, using the mouse wheel to tune up will
first increase VFO A to 14.001000MHz and then to 14.002000MHz,
and so on.
Hint:
Holding down the Shift key while turning the mouse wheel will change
VFO A at the next lower Tune Rate.
Mouse Wheel Hover
Hover with the mouse over a digit in either VFO A or VFO B and increase or decrease its value using
the mouse wheel. The digit to be tuned will be underlined.
Spectrum Click Tuning
With the display set to Spectrum, Panadapter, Waterfall or Histogram, hover with the mouse over the
display and right click to cycle through yellow cross-hairs to tune VFO A, red cross-hairs to tune VFO B
(only if VFO B is active, e.g. when SPLT (12) and/or MultiRX (10) are activated), or no cross-hairs
(click tuning off). With the cross-hairs visible, hover over the desired signal in the display and click the
left mouse button. The corresponding VFO will immediately tune to the frequency of the selected
signal.
When in CW, AM, SAM, DSB, FM, or DRM the VFO will tune the cursor frequency to the center of the
filter pass band. In SSB the VFO will tune to the carrier frequency for the sideband selected.
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Hint 1:
You can very quickly center a CW, (S)AM, DSB or FM signal after click
tuning it by clicking the 0 Beat (12) button on the Front Console
(make sure the display AVG (9) button is on to enable 0 Beat).
Hint 2:
If you have checked Snap Click Tune (Setup Form, General tab Options sub-tab; see page 67) then spectrum click tuning will tune
the VFO to the nearest discrete multiple of the Tune Step. E.g. if the
Tune Step is set to 1kHz, the VFO will only Click Tune in steps of 1kHz.
6
Keyboard Keys
Use the following keys on your keyboard to tune the VFO.

Numeric Keypad: Key any frequency in MHz (e.g. 7.250) into the numeric keypad and hit
enter to immediately tune VFO A to that frequency.

Mapped Keys: You can map keys on your keyboard to tune each of the digits in VFO A using
the Keyboard Tab on the Setup Form (page 104).

Ctrl +Arrow Keys: Hold the Control key and press the
o
Up or Down Arrow key to tune VFO A up or down by the Tune Step (2).
o
Right or Left Arrow key to increase or decrease the Tune Step (2).
USB Tuning Knob
Both the Griffin PowerMate and the Contour Designs Shuttle Pro v2 can be used to tune the radio. You
can download the Griffin PowerMate Quick Start Guide and the Contour ShuttlePro v2 Quick Start
Guide from the downloads page of our website to learn how to setup and use these controllers. Also
available is the Contour ShuttlePro Default Preferences file, which can be imported as a good starting
point when using this controller. (All these documents and more can be found by searching for either
PowerMate or ShuttlePro on our Knowledge Center at http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx)
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Voice Operation
The following procedure outlines how to setup quickly for voice transmission operation (SSB, AM, or
FMN). If something in this procedure is unclear, please contact us, as we would like this to be as simple
as possible.
Figure 139 Front Panel Controls Used for Basic Voice Operation.
Please use Figure 139 to identify the controls referenced in the following step-by-step instruction. For
consistency we have used the same control identifiers as in Figure 30 on page 36 and for clarity we
have left out any identifiers of controls not referenced.
Note:
In this chapter, we will only describe basic operation
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Follow the Power Up Procedure, described on page 132. Then click the Start/Stop button
(14). Set the following controls as specified in Table 9 below.
Table 9: Initial Control Values for Voice Operation
Ctrl
VFO A
RX Meter
TX Meter
BAND
Mode
Filter
Mic Gain
DX
CPDR
VOX
GATE
RX EQ
TX EQ
VAC
Display Mode
AVG
PEAK
MultiRX
SPLT
XIT
RIT
MUT
AF
AGC-T
Drive
AGC
RX Gain
SQL
2.
Reference to
Figure 139
(1)
(4)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(9)
(10)
(12)
(12)
(12)
(17)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
Connect a 50 ohm dummy load to the antenna jack, or tune VFO A (1) to a quiet frequency on
the selected band. Use the TUN (19) button to verify power output on the TX Meter (4) (Set
to Fwd Pwr). If using the integrated ATU click the ATU (20) button to initiate a tuning cycle.
CAUTION:
3.
Value
14.3MHz
Signal
MIC
20
USB
2.7kHz
35
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Panadapter
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
50
70
50
Med
Pre
Off
If you are not using the internal ATU then connect a 50 ohm dummy
load, or ensure that the antenna presents a 50 ohm load with a low
SWR. Failing to do so may damage the FLEX-3000 output transistors.
Press the Push-to-talk button on the microphone or click the MOX (16) button and speak into
the microphone to transmit your voice. Release the Push-to-talk button or click the MOX (16)
button to switch the transceiver back to receive.
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If you do not see modulation on the spectrum, please check that the correct input for your
microphone is selected in the Mixer Form (34) (see page 128) and that your microphone is
connected correctly (see page 4 for pin-outs of the MIC connector). If you are using any
external audio processing equipment, make sure it is turned on and hooked up correctly. Finally,
if your audio level seems very low, you might try checking Mic Boost On on the Setup form –
Audio tab, primary sub-tab (see page 71).
4.
Now that you can see the modulation on the spectrum, it is time to adjust the input. While
transmitting, monitor the values with the TX Meter (4) set to Mic. Modify the MIC Gain (8)
setting until the TX Meter shows 0dB on peaks while talking in a normal voice at a normal
distance from the microphone (above 0dB the signal will be compressed).
5.
You are now ready to begin a QSO. If a 50 ohm dummy load was connected, connect an
antenna in its place. Tune to the desired frequency using one of the methods outlined in the
Tuning Methods section above.
Use the Mode Specific Controls – Phone (8) including DX, CPDR, VOX and (Noise) Gate.
Generally, use either DX or CPDR to increase average power without adjusting the peaks. Check
Show Transmit Filter on Display to visualize the band edges of the transmit filter. This filter can be
adjusted on the Transmit Tab of the Setup Form.
Hint:
For information on how to optimize your audio further, please refer to
the Knowledge Center (http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx) on
our website.
6.
In order to monitor voice transmissions, enable the MON (15) button. You may notice a delay
due to buffering in the audio/DSP system. This processing delay is largest when using large
buffer sizes and low sampling rates. If you find this delay objectionable, try decreasing it by
reducing the Buffer Size and increasing the Sample Rate settings on the Audio tab, Primary
sub-tab (page 71) and/or DSP tab, Options sub-tab (page 80) of the Setup Form. Make sure
that when changing the Audio Buffer Size, you first Stop (14) PowerSDR and make the same
change in the FLEX-3000 Driver (see page 17) before Starting PowerSDR again. See also
Appendix A.
7.
The Fwd Pwr setting on the TX Meter (4) will read out average power in Watts according to
the Power Amplifier's ADC. While the average has a short time constant, it is still an average
and will not approach 100W in voice modes if calibrated properly even when the Drive control
(21) is set to 100. This is also true when monitoring voice transmissions on an external watt
meter.
Note:
The typical male voice has a peak to average power ratio of 14dB.
Therefore a typical male voice transmission that is peaking at 100W
will only average less than 10W. To raise the average power, use the
DX (8) control and the associated slider to increase the compression
in 1dB steps. This must be done carefully and incrementally as adding
too much compression can result in high levels of distortion.
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CW Operation
The following procedure outlines how to setup quickly for CW transmissions using the Internal Keyer
and paddles, an external keyer, the CWX-form or a third party program. For the latter, we will use MixW
as an example.
Figure 140: Front Panel Controls Used for CW Operation
Please use Figure 140 to identify the controls referenced in the following step-by-step instruction. For
consistency we have used the same control identifiers as in Figure 30 on page 36 and for clarity we
have left out any identifiers of controls not referenced.
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Initial Settings
1. Follow the Power Up Procedure, described on page 132. Then click the Start button (14). Set
the following controls as specified in Table 10.
Table 10: Initial Control Values for CW Transmission
Ctrl
VFO A
RX Meter
TX Meter
Band
Mode
Filter
VAC
Display Mode
AVG
PEAK
MultiRX
SPLT
XIT
RIT
MON
MUT
AF
AGC-T
Drive
AGC
RX Gain
SQL
Value
14.05MHz
Signal
Fwd Pwr
20m
CWU
500Hz
Off
Panadapter
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
Off
50
70
25
Med
Pre
Off
Reference to
Figure 140
(1)
(4)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(9)
(10)
(12)
(12)
(12)
(15)
(17)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
2. Connect a 50 ohm dummy load to the antenna jack, or tune VFO A (1) to a quiet frequency on
the selected band. Use the TUN (19) button to verify power output on the TX Meter (4) (Set
to Fwd Pwr). If using the integrated ATU click the ATU (20) button to initiate a tuning cycle.
CAUTION:
If you are not using the internal ATU then connect a 50 ohm dummy
load, or ensure that the antenna presents a 50 ohm load with a low
SWR. Failing to do so may damage the FLEX-3000 output transistors.
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Hint:
There is a trade-off to be made of minimum latency versus sharpest
(narrowest) filters. Both are driven by the buffer (DSP and Audio)
settings and the sample rate setting. For optimal CW performance,
you may need to use the 48kHz sample rate, which will give the
narrowest filters. Next you need to set your audio buffer as low as
your computer system will tolerate. The DSP buffer setting should
then be set as high as possible, without introducing disturbing latency.
See Appendix A for a more detailed explanation.
Note:
CW VFO Frequency Offset
The VFO on the PowerSDR software is designed to show the zero beat
of the CW tone relative to the selected CW Pitch. This allows clicktuning of CW signals as well as the traditional CW VFO readout. This
also enables the VFO to remain constant when switching from CWL to
CWU mode. Every effort is made to preserve a CW signal when
switching between any SSB and CW modes.
6
Internal Keyer
If using PowerSDR’s internal keyer, open the Setup Form – DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab shown in Figure
141 below. Several of the controls in this form are also available in the Mode Specific Controls – CW
(8) section on the Front Console.
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Figure 141: Setup Form – DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab
1. Connect your paddles or key to the Key jack on the front panel (see page 3) and set the
Primary Connection to Radio.
2. In the Options section, check Iambic for Iambic mode, otherwise leave unchecked (e.g. for a
straight key). If the paddles seem reversed, check Rev. Paddle. The Break In option allows
the radio to start transmitting simply with detection of keyer input. Set Delay to the amount of
time between key up and when the radio will switch back to receive (a value of 70-75ms seems
to work best in most cases).
3. Select the settings for CW Pitch, Weight and Ramp as desired (refer to the Keyer Sub-Tab
section on page 87 for more detail).
4. If not using Break In, click MOX (16) on the Front Console and begin transmitting using your
paddles. If using Break In (8), simply begin transmitting to key the radio. If using Iambic
mode, adjust the speed with CW Speed (8) on the Front Console. If Disable Monitor is
unchecked, you should hear the side tone. Verify with the TX Meter (4) set to Fwd Pwr that
there is forward power.
5. You are now ready to begin a QSO. If a 50 ohm dummy load was connected, connect an
antenna in its place. Tune to the desired frequency using one of the methods outlined in the
Tuning Methods section above. Select either CWL or CWU (6) and proceed with the QSO.
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External Keyer
1. Connect your keyer to the Key jack on the front panel (see page 3) and set the Primary
Connection to Radio (see Figure 141 above)
2. In the Options section, leave Iambic unchecked. If your external keyer does not seem to be
keying, try checking Rev. Paddle. If using an external keyer with a side tone, check the
Disable Monitor check box to avoid hearing the side tone from the internal keyer. The Break
In option allows the radio to start transmitting simply with detection of keyer input. Set Delay
to the amount of time between key up and when the radio will switch back to receive.
3. If using the side tone from the internal keyer, select the settings for CW Pitch. Select the
settings for Weight and Ramp as desired (refer to the Keyer Sub-Tab section on page 87 for
more detail).
4. If not using Break In, click MOX (16) on the Front Console and begin transmitting using your
external keyer. If using Break In, simply begin transmitting to key the radio If Disable
Monitor is unchecked, you should hear the side tone. Verify with the TX Meter (4) set to Fwd
Pwr that there is forward power.
5. You are now ready to begin a QSO. If a 50 ohm dummy load was connected, connect an
antenna in its place. Tune to the desired frequency using one of the methods outlined in the
Tuning Methods section above. Select either CWL or CWU (6) and proceed with the QSO.
CWX Form
If you wish to send CW automatically, click on CWX (36) on the Front Console menu to open the
CWX Form shown in Figure 142 below. (Refer to the CWX Form section on page 123 for more
detail on how to use this form).
Figure 142: CWX Form
1. Click on one of the numbered buttons to start transmitting the corresponding CW sequence.
Verify with the TX Meter (4) set to Fwd Pwr that there is forward power.
2. You are now ready to begin a QSO. If a 50 ohm dummy load was connected, connect an
antenna in its place. Tune to the desired frequency using one of the methods outlined in the
Tuning Methods section above. Select either CWL or CWU (6) and proceed with the QSO.
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Third Party Program
To operate CW with a third party program, you will need to download and install N8VB’s vCOM
driver to create a virtual COM port pair through which PowerSDR can be connected to your third
party program. The installation and setup of vCOM is described below in the Digital Mode Operation
section on page 149.
In the following we will use MixW as an illustrative example and we will assume the COM6-COM16
virtual COM port pair. We will also assume that PowerSDR is connected to COM6 and MixW to
COM16 of this pair (see page 149 for details on how to do this).
In PowerSDR open the Setup Form – DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab shown Figure 143 below to
access the Internal Keyer controls
Figure 143: Setup Form – DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab
2. Set Secondary Connection to CAT to use the same virtual COM port COM16, as selected on
the CAT Control Tab. This will open up two additional selection boxes. Set PTT Line to DTR
and Key Line to RTS as shown above.
3. In MixW, click Configure on the Menu bar and then select TRCVR CAT/PTT to open the
screen shown in Figure 144.
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Figure 144: MixW PTT & CAT
4. On the PTT & CAT Interface, click on the Details button to open the following form (Figure
145):
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Figure 145: MixW Serial Port Details
5. Set the Port to COM16, RTS to CW and DTR to PTT. Click OK on this form and the previous
form.
6. Change the mode in MixW to CW. Click on the TX button on MixW’s main panel. It should key
PowerSDR without generating a tone. Click RX in MixW and PowerSDR should return to receive.
If you have entered your callsign in MixW, click on the CQ button. It should key the radio and
produce Morse code calling CQ with your call sign. Verify with the TX Meter (4) set to Fwd
Pwr that there is forward power.
7. You are now ready to begin a QSO. If a 50 ohm dummy load was connected, connect an
antenna in its place. Tune to the desired frequency using one of the methods outlined in the
Tuning Methods section above. Select either CWL or CWU (6) and proceed with the QSO.
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Digital Operation
To operate digital modes, PowerSDR needs to connect to third party digital mode programs with both
CAT control and Audio connections. PowerSDR realizes the CAT control connection through N8VB’s
virtual COM port utility (VCOM) and the Audio connection through the Virtual Audio Cable (VAC) utility.
We will explain later in this section how to install and setup each of these two utilities. First, however,
we will outline how to operate digital modes with these utilities installed and set up.
Note:
Throughout this section we will refer to digital mode programs, which
also include logging programs. For the latter the CAT control section
applies to enable reading and possibly also controlling PowerSDR’s
frequency, band, and operating mode. If the logging program includes
a voice keyer, the VAC section may also be relevant.
Figure 146: Front Panel Controls Used for Basic Digital Mode Operation
Please use Figure 146 to identify the controls referenced in the following step-by-step instruction. For
consistency we have used the same control identifiers as in Figure 30 on page 36 and for clarity we
have left out any identifiers of controls not referenced.
1.
Follow the Power Up Procedure, described on page 132. Then click the Start button (14). Set
the following controls as specified in Table 11.
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Table 11: Initial Control Values for Digital Mode Operation
Ctrl
VFO A
RX Meter
TX Meter
BAND
Mode
Filter
VAC
Display Mode
AVG
PEAK
MultiRX
SPLT
XIT
RIT
MUT
AF
AGC-T
Drive
AGC
RX Gain
SQL
Value
14.09MHz
Signal
Fwd Pwr
20
DIGU
2.7kHz
On
Panadapter
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
50
70
25
Med
Pre
Off
Reference to
Figure 146
(1)
(4)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(9)
(10)
(12)
(12)
(12)
(17)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
2.
Ensure that on the PowerSDR Setup Form Cat Control is enabled (see page 106). Also check
that VAC (8) is enabled (if VAC is auto-enabled on the Setup Form (see page 74) it will
automatically be enabled when DIGL, DIGU or DRM (6) modes are selected).
3.
Start up your digital mode program and ensure its CAT control and sound card selection are
configured to connect to PowerSDR. If so, your digital mode program’s frequency should
correspond to PowerSDR’s VFO frequency and it should be receiving Audio from PowerSDR. Use
the RX Gain (8) control to adjust the audio level going to your digital mode program (instead
of the AF (21) ).
4.
Connect a 50 ohm dummy load to the antenna jack, or tune VFO A (1) to a quiet frequency on
the selected band. Use the TUN (19) button to verify power output on the TX Meter (4) (Set
to Fwd Pwr). If using the integrated ATU click the ATU (20) button to initiate a tuning cycle.
CAUTION:
5.
If you are not using the internal ATU then connect a 50 ohm dummy
load, or ensure that the antenna presents a 50 ohm load with a low
SWR. Failing to do so may damage the FLEX-3000 output transistors.
Click on the Transmit button of your digital mode program. It should switch PowerSDR to
transmit. Transmit a test signal (e.g. several CQ calls) in the mode you plan to operate and use
the TX Gain (8) control to adjust the volume of audio coming from your digital mode program.
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Set the TX Meter (4) to ALC and adjust for 0dB to calibrate transmit. Click on Receive on your
digital mode program and PowerSDR should switch back to receive.
6.
You are now ready to begin a QSO. If a 50 ohm dummy load was connected, connect an
antenna in its place. Tune to the desired frequency using one of the methods outlined in the
Tuning Methods section above. Select either DIGL or DIGU (6) for lower or upper side band
digital mode operation respectively. Select DRM (6) for DRM mode operation.
Note 1:
The DIGL, DIGU and DRM (6) mode buttons bypass all signal
processing in PowerSDR, except for AGC and Filtering. With DIGL and
DIGU you have control over the filter width using the filter buttons
(7). DRM mode invokes a fixed 10kHz wide double side band filter.
Note 2:
DIGL and DIGU (6) apply an offset when using Spectrum Click
Tuning (see page 67). By default, the offsets are set to 1200 Hz
(SSTV) in DIGU mode and 2210 Hz (RTTY) in DIGL mode
respectively. These offsets can be modified on the Setup Form General Tab, Options Sub-Tab.
Separately, so called RTTY Offsets (for DIGU and DIGL mode) can
be applied to the VFO A (and/or VFO B) frequency, before CAT
reports it to a third party program (see page 105). These offsets can
be modified on the Setup Form – CAT Control Tab.
Hint 1:
When operating digital modes you have two options with regard to
using filters. On the one hand you can use a wide band-pass filter in
PowerSDR and use the filters within your digital mode program for
selectivity.
On the other hand you can home in on a specific signal with
PowerSDR’s filters and ignore the filters in your digital mode program.
Although circumstances and operator preference will dictate which to
use, many operators have found the second option to be especially
valuable to them. However for very narrow and/or steep filters, the
latency versus minimum filter bandwidth trade-off holds just as much
as with CW. See Appendix A for more detail.
Hint 2:
Please
check
our
Knowledge
Center
(http://kc.flexradio.com/search.aspx) for more articles on how to use PowerSDR
with various digital mode programs.
If you already have VCOM and VAC up and running, you may ignore the following sub-sections.
We will now focus on installing and setting up N8VB’s VCOM driver and VAC. We will then use MixW as
an example on how to use these utilities to operate digital modes.
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CAT Control Setup
The CAT control commands of PowerSDR are based on those of the Kenwood TS2000 and have been
extended to cover PowerSDR’s many unique features. Additionally, PowerSDR can provide a virtual
COM port connection to third party software through VCOM port driver. Special thanks go to N8VB,
K5KDN, and KD5TFD for their work on the CAT interface to make all of this work.
The following procedure outlines how to install and setup VCOM.
Install VCOM
First download and install N8VB's Virtual Serial Port Driver (VCOM) (search for N8VB on the Downloads
page of our website at http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?fr=1). This program installs one
or more pairs of virtual COM ports connected in null modem style. Locate the file you just downloaded
(N8VBvCOMSetup-226a.exe) and double-click to start the Windows installer. The following screen
will appear (Figure 147).
Figure 147: VCOM Installer Language
Select your language of choice and click OK. The welcome screen appears (Figure 148).
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.
Figure 148: VCOM Installer Welcome Screen.
Click the Next button to continue the driver installation (Figure 149).
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Figure 149: VCOM License Agreement.
Review the License Agreement and click the I Agree button.
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Figure 150: VCOM Installer Component Selection.
Select the components you wish to install and click the Next button.
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Figure 151: VCOM Install Location
Choose the folder in which to install the driver application in and click the Install button.
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Figure 152: VCOM Installer Complete
Click the Finish button to complete the installation of VCOM. The virtual serial port driver will now be
installed on your system. A Command Prompt window displaying status messages will open followed by
the warning screen shown in Figure 153 below.
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Figure 153: Hardware Installation Warning
Click on the Continue Anyway button to complete the installation.
Configure the VCOM Port Pairs
By default VCOM will install 4 COM port pairs. To view these pairs, to change the default or to remove
the driver, locate and start the VCOMConfigurator application (Start→All Programs).
Figure 154: VCOMConfigurator Application
This will open the following screen (Figure 155).
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Figure 155: VCOMConfigurator
With VCOMConfigurator, you can select, unselect and modify the desired COM port pairs. Click the
Save Configuration button to save your configuration and click Update Driver to update the driver
with the new settings. From here you can also remove and install the driver. When you are finished,
close VCOMConfigurator .
Now that the virtual COM port pairs are installed, we need to setup the applications to use them. We’ll
start with the PowerSDR software. Start up the program and pull up the CAT Control Tab on the Setup
Form. For the purpose of this example, we will use the COM6-COM16 pair.
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Configure PowerSDR CAT Control
Figure 156: Setup Form Cat Control Tab
Set the controls in the CAT Control Group on the left side of this form to match those shown in Figure
156 to connect PowerSDR to COM 6 of the COM6-COM16 pair. (If you changed the COM port pair
settings in VCOMConfigurator you will need to modify the COMx setting to match that change). Set the
ID as TS-2000. Once all of the settings are correct, click the Enable CAT check box.
Note 1:
Until external applications incorporate the PowerSDR with its extended
set of CAT controls, it is more prudent to select the TS-2000.
Note 2:
Some third party applications do not allow you to connect to a high
COM port number. In such a case swap COM6 to COM16 above and
connect the digital program to COM6. Alternatively, create an even
lower virtual Com port number (e.g. COM3), that is not physically
present.
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Configure PowerSDR Keyer Connections
We can setup PowerSDR to connect to third party CW programs using the CAT port (i.e. the COM port
used for CAT control - COM 6 in Figure 156). To do so, on the PowerSDR Setup Form, select the DSP
Tab and then the Keyer Sub-Tab (Figure 157).
Figure 157: Setup Form - DSP Tab, Keyer Sub-Tab
Within the Connections Group, set Primary to the port you have your paddles or straight key
connected to (Figure 157 shows Radio to indicate the FLEX-3000 front panel key jack). Set Secondary
(used for keyers and programs) to CAT to use the same (virtual) COM port used for CAT Control. Set
PTT Line to DTR and Key Line to RTS. Note that CAT Control must be enabled (see the previous
section) before this will work. Click OK.
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Virtual Sound Connection
Although you can use a second sound card to connect to an external digital mode program, PowerSDR
has the ability to use a virtual sound connection. To do so you will first need to download and install the
third party Virtual Audio Cable (VAC) (http://software.muzychenko.net/eng/vac.html) application from
one of many sources. VAC is neither free nor open source.
Note:
PowerSDR will work correctly with VAC version 3.12 as well as version
4.02 and above. In the following we will use version 4 to illustrate, but
version 3 works essentially the same way.
In essence VAC enables the creation of so called digital virtual audio cables between two software
applications, in our case PowerSDR and a digital mode (or sound card program) as shown in Figure
158. When setup correctly, these cables appear as input and output audio devices, as if they belonged
to a sound card.
Figure 158: VAC Connects Audio Digitally Between PowerSDR and a Digital Mode Program
Create the Virtual Audio Cables
The first step is to create the two identical virtual cables. To do so open the Virtual Audio Control Panel.
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Figure 159: VAC Control Panel
By default two audio cables will be defined. Highlight the appropriate cable and change the values to
match Figure 159. In the Ms per int box enter a value between 1 and 20 ms. The lower the value, the
smaller the VAC audio buffer. In the example above, 7 ms was selected. Depending on your computer
setup you may have to adjust this value to prevent the audio from dropping out or "popping".
You can choose two different Stream limit formats; cable format and cable range. Since PowerSDR
defines both audio cables' format when VAC support is enabled, using the Cable format is
recommended. If you decide to use the Cable range stream format, a required format conversion
will use significant CPU resources and may noticeably slow your applications causing audio drops-outs.
Using Cable format as the stream format may then help.
Repeat these changes for the second audio cable. After completing all of the necessary changes, click
on Set for each cable when completed. Do not close the Control Panel just yet.
Note:
Do NOT check the Volume Control box in the VAC control panel. This
enables the Windows Mixer and can cause unpredictable results.
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Setup VAC in PowerSDR
Next we need to connect PowerSDR to one side of each of these cables. Startup PowerSDR, but do not
click on the Start button. Open the Setup Form, click on the Audio Tab and then click on the VAC SubTab (Figure 160).
Figure 160: Setup Form - Audio Tab, VAC Sub-Tab
Configure the settings as shown above. If your selected Buffer Size setting is too small, you may
experience audio popping or dropping out. Click Enable VAC to manually enable the virtual audio
connection or click Auto Enable to automatically enable it when clicking the DigL, DigU or DRM mode
button on the Front Console.
Note 1:
Select a higher Sample Rate than the sample rate of the digital
mode program for best audio quality. In some cases, however, the
digital mode program can not handle format down conversion very
well. In such cases, set the Sample Rate to exactly match that of
the digital mode program.
Note 2:
Certain DRM programs (DReaM, HamPal) require Stereo to be
selected.
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Setting up Third Party Digital Programs
Each third party program has its own method of configuring CAT Control and selecting the COM port
and the sound card. In the following, we will use MixW as an illustrative example. We will also discuss
how to deal with digital programs that are only able to connect to the default sound device.
Note:
Instructions for MMTTY, MMSSTV and WSJT 6 and others can be found
in our Knowledge Center at http://kc.flex-radio.com/search.aspx.
Using MixW with PowerSDR
Start MixW, which may be downloaded from http://www.mixw.net/.
Figure 161: MixW Console
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First we will configure MixW to connect through the virtual COM port pair to PowerSDR. Click
Configure on the Menu bar and then select TRCVR CAT/PTT to open the following screen (Figure
162).
Figure 162: MixW PTT & CAT
Configure the controls as shown above. MixW does not recognize the extended PowerSDR CAT controls
yet. Therefore we set it up as if PowerSDR were a Kenwood radio (In MixW All Kenwoods is the only
option available when CAT is set to Kenwood).
On the PTT & CAT Interface, click on the Details button to open the following form (Figure 163):
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Figure 163: MixW Serial Port Settings
Recall that we are using the COM6-COM16 virtual COM port pair and that we setup PowerSDR to
connect to the COM6 end of this pair (see the CAT Control Setup section above). We therefore now
select COM16 as the Port in the form above. Set the Baud rate to 115200 (it makes no difference
what you set this to).
For RTS and DTR we need to match the settings on the PowerSDR Setup Form, Keyer Sub-Tab.
Therefore set RTS to CW and DTR to PTT as shown above. Click OK on this form and then on the
PTT & CAT form respectively to accept the settings and close the forms.
On the MixW front console, click again on Configure on the menu bar and this time select Sound
device settings… to open the following form (Figure 164):
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Figure 164: MixW Sound Device Settings
Recall that we previously created two virtual audio cables and then configured the PowerSDR VAC Input
as Virtual Cable 1 In and Output as Virtual Cable 2 Out.
We now need to connect MixW to the other ends of those two virtual audio cables respectively.
Therefore, set Device to Computer sound card, Input to Virtual Cable 2 and Output to Virtual
Cable 1 as shown in Figure 164 above. If you change the Sample rate setting, MixW will tell you to
exit and restart MixW.
Exit MixW for now so we can illustrate the functioning of the virtual audio cables.
Click the Start button to turn PowerSDR on and make sure MixW is running. When you now view the
VAC Control Panel it will look like Figure 165 below:
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Figure 165: VAC Control Panel: PowerSDR Running and MixW Receiving
Notice that the value in the Rc Stream for Cable 2 has changed for a 0 to a 1. This indicates that
cable 2, which is the input for MixW is actively receiving audio from PowerSDR. The Pb Stream value
for VAC Audio Cable 1 is still 0. This will not change to a 1 until you start transmitting and MixW is
sending audio through that cable.
Change the mode in MixW to CW. Click on the TX button on MixW’s main panel. It should key
PowerSDR without generating a tone. Click RX in MixW and PowerSDR should return to receive. If you
have entered your callsign in MixW, click on the CQ button. It should key the radio and produce Morse
code calling CQ with your call sign. Close the VAC Control Panel; you will no longer need this, unless
you intend to create more audio cables.
Programs Needing to Connect to the Default Sound Device
Certain digital programs can only select the default sound card (or at best choose a single card by
index). For example, MMTTY and MMSSTV choose by index. To enable PowerSDR to work with these
programs you will need to change the system default sound card. VAC offers the ability to continue to
use your other audio applications through its Audio Repeater utility, which we will now discuss.
To change the default sound card, in Windows click Start and then Control Panel. In Control Panel,
double-click on Sounds and Audio Devices to open the Sounds and Audio Devices Properties Form
(Figure 166):
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Figure 166: Sounds and Audio Devices Properties Form
Set up the Default device for Sound playback and Sound recording as shown above. (Midi
playback is of no concern). Click Apply and then OK. If you now setup your digital program to select
the default sound card, it will work with PowerSDR.
To enable you to continue using other sound programs (MP3 players, etc) despite changing your default
sound card settings, VAC comes with a utility called Audio Repeater. Locate Audio Repeater in the
VAC program folder and double-click to start it. You should see the following screen (Figure 167):
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Figure 167: Audio Repeater Utility
To play back audio, set Wave in to Virtual Cable 1 In and Wave Out to the sound card you wish to
use. You should keep the Total buffer (ms) as small as practicable to prevent long latency between
the sound arriving at the virtual audio cable and it being played to the sound card.
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Chapter
Specifications and Architecture
Specifications are subject to change without notice or obligation, and specifications are guaranteed only
within the amateur radio bands.
FLEX-3000 Transceiver Specifications
Table 12 on page 170 displays an overview of the specifications for the FLEX-3000 transceiver.
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Table 12: Overview of FLEX-3000 Specifications
General
Receiver Frequency Range
Transmitter Frequency Range
Frequency Stability
Operating Temperature Range
Emission Modes
Frequency Steps
Antenna Impedance
Max Rating TX Out Key Line
Audio In/Out
Recommended Headphones
Power Consumption
Supply Voltage
Maximum Interconnect
Cable Length
Special EMI/RFI Requirements
– CE Compliance Cable
Requirements
Dimensions:
Weight (approx.):
Receiver
Circuit Type
Intermediate Frequency
MDS
IP3
Selectivity (–6/–60 dB)
Image Rejection
Transmitter
Power Output
Emission Modes
Harmonic Radiation
SSB Carrier Suppression
Undesired Sideband
Suppression
Audio Response
3rd Order IMD
Microphone Impedance
10 kHz – 60 Mhz (operating – requires external, customer provided filters below 1.8
MHz to eliminate images); 160m – 6m (specified Amateur bands only)
160m – 6m (specified Amateur bands only); MARS/CAP capable
(Lab testing not completed)
14 °F to 122 °F (–10 °C to +50 °C)
A1A (CW), A3E (AM), J3E (LSB, USB),
F3E (FM), F1B (RTTY), F1D (PACKET), F2D (PACKET)
1 Hz minimum
50 Ohms, unbalanced
17 - 150 Ohms, unbalanced (With Tuner ON)
Max SWR 3.0:1 (With Tuner On)
250VAC, 220VDC, 2A
10dBV nominal (consumer level), Input Impedance: 5k Ohms Output Impedance 600
Ohms
40mW, 16 Ohms, 1% THD+N;higher impedance headphones will also work
Rx 1.5A (typ); Tx (100 W) 25A (max.)
DC 13.8 V ± 10%
10 feet (3m),
No restriction on DC cable within voltage tolerance limits under load.
1 snap on ferrite bead on DC cable (supplied),
2 snap on ferrite beads on FireWire cable (supplied), and
1 snap on ferrite bead on FlexWire cable.
All beads to be located adjacent to rear panel of radio.
(WxHxD): 12.3” x 1.8” x 12.3” (31.1cm x 4.4cm x 31.1cm)
12 lbs (5.4 kg)
Direct conversion, low IF
Software selectable from DC to 20 kHz
14 MHz RX Gain attn/off/pre: 1.3/0.3 µV; MDS: -123 dBm/-133 dBm in 500 Hz BW
+20 dBm at 14 MHz with RX Gain off at 2 kHz or less tone spacing
(S5 IM3 method)
CW: 500 Hz –6/-60 dB: 5.00/6.40
SSB: 2.4 kHz –6/-60 dB: 2.39/2.54
AM: 6.6 kHz –6/-60 dB: 6.60/6.74
70 dB or better (160 - 6m Amateur bands)
1-100 watts PEP CW and SSB (25 watts AM carrier)
A1A (CWU, CWL), J3E (USB, LSB), A3E (AM), F3E (FM), DIGITAL
Better than –55 dB (160 - 10m Amateur bands)
Better than –65 dB (6m Amateur band)
At least 55 dB below peak output
At least 55 dB below peak output
(SSB): Flat Response 10 Hz to 20 kHz, 3-band or 10-band Software EQ
Better than 33 dB below PEP @14.2 MHz 100 watts PEP
600 Ohms (200 to 10 kOhms)
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FLEX-3000 Architecture
The FLEX-3000 architecture is shown in Figure 168 below.
Figure 168: FLEX-3000 Architecture
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Declarations of Conformity
FCC
The FLEX-3000 complies with FCC Part 97 rules for the Amateur Radio Service.
EU Compliance
Signature on file at
FlexRadio Systems
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A
Appendix
Buffers and Sample Rate
Rather than a theoretical discourse on the consequences of Buffer Size and Sample Rate settings, this
appendix will attempt to illustrate how these settings effect both the minimum possible filter
bandwidth, filter slope or steepness and latency for each of the settings available in PowerSDR. We will
start with the filter effects and then move on to latency. Finally a little underlying theory is offered to
help gain some more insight without the need to delve into a DSP tome.
Filter Effects
The minimum filter width possible at a given DSP Buffer Size N and a Sample Rate f s equals 1.5*fs/N,
where the factor 1.5 is due to the additional roll-off due to the Blackman-Harris window function.
Therefore, for the steepest and narrowest filters we want a low Sample Rate and a high DSP Buffer
Size. Exactly how this effects the filter shapes is shown on the following two pages in Figure 169 and
170 for a 2.7kHz LSB filter and in Figure 171 and 172 for a 25Hz CW filter.
It is clear that as the Sample Rate increases and/or the DSP Buffer size decreases, the filter skirts
become less “brick-wall” and more “roll-off”, thus reducing a filter's effectiveness.
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DSP Buffer Sizes:
Red – 512
Green – 1024
Blue – 2048
Black - 4096
Figure 169: 2.7kHz LSB Filter at 48kHz Sampling Rate
DSP Buffer Sizes:
Red – 512
Green – 1024
Blue – 2048
Black - 4096
Figure 170: 2.7kHz LSB Filter at 96kHz Sample Rate
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DSP Buffer Sizes:
Red – 512
Green – 1024
Blue – 2048
Black - 4096
Figure 171: 25Hz CWL Filter at 48kHz Sample Rate
DSP Buffer Sizes:
Red – 512
Green – 1024
Blue – 2048
Black - 4096
Figure 172: 25Hz CWL filter at 96kHz Sample Rate
Latency Effects
The latency in the system will be at least equal to the minimum of the Audio and DSP Buffer Sizes
divided by the Sample Rate. Because both the DSP Buffer and the Sample Rate also determine the
minimum filter width, setting the Audio Buffer as small as your computer system will tolerate is
preferable. That way, latency will not be unnecessarily long. If latency is an issue with your computer
system, you may have to resort to a smaller Buffer Size and/or a higher Sample Rate than you would
otherwise prefer based on filter shapes.
Underlying Theory
To transform signals from the time domain to the frequency domain we start with the Discrete Fourier
Transform (DFT), which is the Fourier Transform for time sampled signals (The FFT or Fast Fourier
Transform is an efficient algorithm to calculate the DFT). It is important to realize that the result of the
DFT is a continuous function of the frequency, from –infinity to +infinity. The annoying thing about this
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transform, however, is that it needs to “know” the temporal signal over a time domain of ±infinity.
Needless to say, this is not practical.
We can limit the time domain T to a limited number of samples (equal to the “slice” of time represented
by the DSP Buffer) if we assume the temporal signal to repeat continuously, with a period T. The
result is, however, no longer a continuous function of the frequency, but a discrete function, that is, the
power spectrum is only calculated at frequency intervals equal to 1/T. These discrete frequencies are
called bins. These bins can be envisioned as a series of 1/T Hz wide parallel filters, spaced every 1/T
Hz. Each bin “fills” with the average power at its center frequency and averaged over 1/T Hz. The
frequency resolution is therefore limited to 1/T Hz.

Because we assume the time domain signal at hand to repeat with period T, any discontinuity
between the last sample in a buffer and the first sample in the next buffer will violate this
condition. To understand this, it helps to know that the result of an FFT is complex, including
magnitude and phase information (this is even true if the temporal signal is real). In other
words, rather than on a straight line, the FFT writes the data on a circle in the complex plane,
where one revolution represents N/T Hz (N being the number of samples in the DSP Buffer).
When the last sample in the DSP Buffer meets the first sample in the next DSP Buffer, chances
are they will not meet in a continuous fashion. Any discontinuity will lead to a wide associated
spectrum across multiple bins, a phenomenon known as “bleed-through”.

Another way of looking at this is that a signal with period T (and any harmonic thereof), can be
represented as a combination of its fundamental frequency 1/T Hz and higher order harmonics,
all spaced at multiples of its fundamental frequency. These spectral components are therefore
at the center of each FFT bin. If on the other hand, the temporal signal does not have a
periodicity equal to (an integer multiple of )the fundamental frequency, it's spectral components
will not be centered on each bin and bleed through will occur from one bin to the next, resulting
in a loss of frequency resolution.

To avoid this happening, the samples in the DSP Buffer are first multiplied by a window function
(see page 83 and Appendix D), such that the spectral smearing is limited, but it is not
completely eliminated. Each window function has advantages and disadvantages depending on
the situation at hand. For our purposes, the Blackman-Harris window offers the best trade-off
between loss of frequency resolution and stop-band characteristics.
The time slice T that the DSP buffer represents, often called the FFT size, equals the number of
samples it can hold (the Buffer size N) divided by the Sample Rate fs, e.g. if the Buffer size equals
1024 and the sample rate 96kHz, the DSP Buffer represents a time slice of 1024/96kHz = 10.67ms.

If a signal suddenly appears, we will need to wait until the Buffer is filled, at which time it can
be processed by the FFT. Waiting for the buffer to fill limits our resolution in the time domain
(we have to wait T seconds). This temporal resolution is also known as latency: a high temporal
resolution equals a low latency. To decrease our latency (increase our temporal resolution), we
therefore need to keep T small by either reducing the Buffer size or increasing the Sample
Rate, or both.

However, we have already seen that the frequency resolution equals 1/T Hz (ignoring effects
due to windowing). Therefore to increase frequency resolution, we need to increase T as much
as possible by using a large Buffer Size and a low Sample Rate. It is this frequency resolution
that determines the possible steepness and narrowness of our filters. A higher resolution
enables steeper and narrower filters.
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Clearly we cannot have both a high temporal and a high frequency resolution. We must make a
trade-off by setting the temporal resolution (latency) to an acceptable level and accepting the
resulting frequency resolution (minimum filter width).
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B
Appendix
Updating the Flex-3000 Firmware
Automatically
This procedure outlines how to update the FLEX-3000 Firmware using a software utility called
FlexLoader (courtesy of K3NC; search for flexloader on the downloads page of our website at
http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?fr=1). FlexLoader is a radio firmware management
program, that facilitates Firmware updates for the FLEX-3000. FlexLoader comes with its own built-in
Help files, which explain in detail how to use it.
On startup, FlexLoader automatically checks all the Firmware versions that have been made available
and recognizes whether any have not previously been saved to the computer. If any are found, it
requests whether or not to download these. (To make sure that a downloaded file is correct and has
not be modified in any way, each file has a 128 bit cryptographic MD5 checksum generated and
checked prior to using it.) After a brief moment, it then makes all the downloaded versions available
through a drop-down list box. The user selects which version to install and FlexLoader takes care of the
rest.
Manually
The procedure below outlines how to manually update the FLEX-3000 Firmware.
Download and Extract the Firmware
The most current version of the FLEX-3000 firmware can be downloaded as a zip-file from the
Downloads page on our website, at http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?id=171.
Note:
If you need to revert to an earlier version of the firmware, search for
firmware
on the Downloads page of our website at
http://support.flex-radio.com/Downloads.aspx?fr=1 and select the
version you are seeking from the list.
Save the zip-file to a location on your computer, extract it and then open it. Inside you will find four
files. Open the text file labeled FLEX-3000_Firmware_ReadMe.txt to verify you have the correct
firmware version. This file also contains instructions on how to update the firmware. Close the file when
you have finished reading it.
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Update the Firmware
To update the firmware, power-up the FLEX-3000, make sure it is communicating with your computer.
You can verify this by successfully opening the FLEX-3000 Driver Control Panel. Close this Control Panel
if you opened it.
Next, locate the batch file labeled Burn.bat in the firmware folder (the same folder containing the
ReadMe file) and double-click on it to open the window shown in Figure 173 below.
Figure 173: Burn.bat Initial Screen
Press any key to continue and you will subsequently receive the message Uploading Binary, followed
by Deleting Flash Image and then Programming Flash Image, each preceded by a progress
counter. When the upgrade is completed successfully you will hear the relays click and see the screen
shown in Figure 174 below.
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Figure 174: Burn.bat Final Screen
Note:
If you do not hear the relays click, switch off the FLEX-3000 and then
switch it on again. Start up PowerSDR and if you do not get a
firmware version error message (see Figure 24 on page 30) all is well.
If you do get the error message, try updating the firmware again
following the procedure described above.
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C
Appendix
Optimizing the AGC
To gain an understanding of how to set the AGC-T or Max Gain control it is helpful to think in terms of
signal levels instead of gains. Figure 175 shows the input and output signal levels (pre and post AGC)
at various settings of the Max Gain control with the Slope set to zero.
Figure 175: Input and Output Signal Levels at Various Max Gain Settings
For example (assuming the RX Gain is off) the violet line (with a Max Gain setting of 60dB) shows that
as the level of the input signal into the AGC increases from -121dBm (S1) to -73dBm (S9) the level of
the output signal out of the AGC increases from -61dBm (-121dBm + 60dB) to -13dBm. For input
signal levels higher than -73dBm, the output level remains constant at -13dBm because we have set
the Slope to zero. The input signal level at which the output just reaches the maximum of -13dBm is
known as the AGC Threshold (this is different from the Hang Threshold).
If the Max Gain setting is increased, say from 60dB to 78dB (the blue line), the output signal level
reaches its maximum at a lower signal level. For a Max Gain of 78dB, the AGC Threshold is at -91 dBm
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(S6). If the RX Gain is set at Pre then that raises the input signal level into the AGC by 14dB. To keep
the Threshold at -91dBm, we therefore need to reduce the Max Gain by the same 14dB to 64dB.
To obtain the most optimal Max Gain setting it is important to know where the Threshold is in relation
to the desired input signal.

If the Threshold is placed far to the right of the desired signal's input level (Max Gain is too low)
then you may not be able to copy a weak signal. Also a suddenly appearing strong signal may
blow your ears off.

If the Threshold is placed far to the left of the desired signal's input level (Max Gain is too high)
then the desired signal will sound as loud as the noise, because you have amplified everything
up to the -13dBm level. In other words, you have destroyed your signal to noise ratio.

If the Threshold is placed at or just above the desired signal's input level you will have amplified
it to the maximum attainable without destroying the signal to noise level. A (suddenly
appearing) much stronger signal will be kept at about the same output level as that of the
desired signal and your ears will be thankful. If the desired signal is a very strong signal, the
benefit will be that its output level can be reduced, thus also reducing the noise level.
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Appendix
Window Functions
In the following we will consider some of their characteristics, where we assume N to equal the number
of samples in the DSP Buffer and n to be an integer with 0≤n≤N-1.

Rectangular: This means the data has no window applied. No shaping is applied to the
incoming signal. As a result, you will have the greatest sensitivity in the power spectrum and
the greatest bleed through or interference with adjacent bins.
Figure 176: Rectangular Window Function and Frequency Response to a Sinusoid
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Hanning, Hamming: These windows are based on a raised cosine shape. In addition to
providing continuity (Hanning) or near continuity (Hamming), both provide a shape that makes
the slopes of the signal agree at the beginning and the end of the signal buffer. This filter
provides for both good sensitivity and less bleed-through in the FFT. In situations of low
dynamic range requiring a higher spectral resolution, such as (weak signal) CW using the
narrowest filters.
o
Hanning (also known as Hann):
Figure 177: Hanning Window Function and Frequency Response to a Sinusoid
o
Hamming:
Figure 178: Hamming Window Function and Spectral Response to a Sinusoid
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Blackman, Blackman-Harris and Blackman Nutall: We use Blackman-Harris to design all
filters in the signal processing chain for all modes. This provides for minimal bleed through as
we have described and the best shape factor for our needs in the overlap-save filtering
routines. While it has some good features, these features are probably not ideal for the CW
power spectrum displays. There is a penalty to pay for the smoothing near the ends afforded by
the windows. If you have experience in the use of FFTs and the display of the power spectra
that result, you know that a smaller FFT (smaller DSP Buffer) at a fixed sample rate causes a
wider range of frequencies to be contained in one bin of the power spectral results. This means
that a tone will look more like a large lobe or finger than a tone spike. The same phenomenon
is present in the best windows. While the spreading of the “main lobe” of a tone is not as bad as
taking an FFT of half the size, it is wider than one bin (see also Appendix A). The formulas for
all of the Blackman filters are of this form:
The individual parameters by type:
o
Blackman: a0 = 0.42, a1 = −0.5, a2 = 0.08, a3 = 0
o
Blackman Harris: a0 = 0.35875, a1 = 0.48829, a2 = 0.14128, a3 = 0.01168
o
Blackman Nuttall: a0 = 0.3635819, a1 = 0.4891775, a2 = 0.1365995, a3 = 0.0106411
o
Their graphical representations are shown in Figure 176 through 177 respectively:
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Figure 179: Blackman Window Function and Frequency Response to a Sinusoid
Figure 180: Blackman-Harris Window Function and Frequency Response to a Sinusoid
Figure 181: Blackman-Nuttall Window Function and Frequency Response to a Sinusoid
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Parzen, Bartlett, Exponential, and Riemann: These windows are much less widely used
and are included for completeness. They sometimes perform better for a particular application
and some experimentation on the users part should be undertaken to find the window that
gives the most pleasing display to you.
For further reading on windowing, including many more examples of window functions, please see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Window_function.
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