486XE
OPERATIONS
GUIDE
GERMAN RFI DECLARATION FOR CLASS B SELF
CERTIFICATION
Hiermit wird bescheinigt, dass der TriGem 486XE in
ijbereinstimmung mit den Bestimmungen der Vfg 104611984
funk-entstort ist .
Der Deutschen Bundespost wurde das Inverkehrbringen dieses
Gerates angezeigt und die Berechtigung zur ijberprtifung der
Serie auf Einhaltung der Bestimmungen eingeraumt.
TriGem Inc.
4 NaengChun-Dong, Seodaemun-Ku
Seoul, Korea
English translation:
We hereby certify that the TriGem 486XE complies with the
RF1 suppression requirements of Vfg 104611984. The German
Postal Services was the notified that equipment is being
marketed. The German Postal Service has the right to re-test
the equipment and verify compliance.
Note: Replace 1046 with 1045 for household appliances tested
per VDE 0875.
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
TriGem Computer, Inc. makes no representations or warranties
with respect to this manual, and shall not be held liable for
technical or editorial omissions made herein; nor incidental or
consequential damages resulting from the furnishing, performance, or
use of this manual. Further, TriGem Computer, Inc. reserves the
right to make changes in the specifications of the product described
within this manual at any time without notice and without
obligation of TriGem Computer, Inc. to notify any person of such
revision or changes.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright (C) 1990 by TriGem Computer, Inc. All rights are
reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, transmitted,
transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any
language or computer language, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of TriGem
Computer, Inc.
iii
TRADEMARKS
TriGem is a registered trademark of TriGem Computer, Inc.
AM1 BIOS is a trademark of American Megatrends Inc.
IBM, PC, PC/XT, PC/AT, MDA, Monochrome Display Adaptor,
EGA, Enhanced Graphics Adaptor, VGA, and Video Graphics
Array are trademarks of International Business Machines
Corporation.
Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
Intel 486 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
AMD is a registered trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
EGA Wonder is a trademark of AT1 Technologies, Inc.
HP LaserJet Series II is a product of HewlettPackard, Inc.
MS-DOS and GW-Basic are trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Seagate is a registered trademark of Seagate Technologies, Inc.
Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer
Technology, Inc.
Norton SI is a trademark of Peter Norton Computing, Inc.
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
CPlM and CPIM-86 are trademarks of Digital Research, Inc.
Western Digital is a registered trademark of Western Digital Inc.
MultiSync is a trademark of NEC information Systems, Inc.
MultiScan is a trademark of Sony Corporation.
iv
FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits
for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment
generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not
installed and used in accordance with the instructions may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
l
l
l
l
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from
that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for
help.
To meet FCC requirements, shielded cables and power cords
are required to connect the device to a personal computer or
other Class B certified device.
If you experience problems with radio and/or television reception
through the use of this product, the following booklet, published by
the FCC, may prove helpful:
How to identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems
(Stock No. 0044X000398-5)
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.
WARNING!
Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the
party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority
to operate the equipment.
V
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
The following instructions pertain to the risk of fire, electric shock
or bodily injury. Please read all of these instructions carefully.
Save these instructions for later use.
Follow all of the instructions and warnings marked on this
product or included in this manual.
Do not use this computer on an unstable cart, stand or table.
The product may fall, causing serious damage to the product.
Slots and openings in the cabinet and the back have been
provided for ventilation. To ensure the reliable operation of your
computer, and to protect it from overheating, these openings
must not be blocked or covered. Don’t use this product on a
bed, sofa, rug, or other similar surface.
This product should never be placed near or over a radiator or
heat register. This product should not be placed in a built-in
installation unless proper ventilation is provided.
Never push objects of any kind into the computer through the
cabinet openings, as they may touch dangerous voltage points or
short out parts that could result in a fire or electrical shock.
Never spill liquid of any kind on the product.
This computer should only be connected to the AC power
source indicated on your computer system’s information label. If
you are not sure of the type of AC power available, consult your
dealer or local power company. Only connect this computer to a
power outlet that matches the power requirements of this
computer.
Do not allow anything to rest on the power cord. Do not locate
this product where people will walk on the cord
vi
If you have to use an extension cord with this computer, make
sure that the total amperage rating of all equipment plugged into
it does not exceed the amperage rating of the extension cord.
Also, make sure that the total of all products plugged into the
main AC power outlet does not exceed 15 amps.
Unplug your computer from the main electrical power outlet
before cleaning. Do not use liquid cleaners or aerosol cleaners.
Use a damp cloth for cleaning.
Do not use this computer near water.
This product is equipped with a 3-wire grounding type plug, a
plug having a third (grounding) pin. This plug will only fit into a
grounding-type power outlet. This is a safety feature. If you are
unable or insert the replace your obsolete outlet, contact your
electrician to replace your obsolete outlet. Do not defeat the
purpose of the grounding-type plug.
MAINTENANCE
Except as explained in Chapter 7, “Expanding Your System,” do
not attempt to modify or service this product yourself. Opening or
removing those covers that are marked “DO NOT REMOVE” may
expose you to dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all
servicing problems to qualified service personnel.
If the product does not operate normally, adjust only those controls
that are covered by the operating instructions. Improper adjustment
of other controls may result in damage and may require extensive
repair work to restore the product to normal operation.
Unplug this product from the main power outlet and call for service
under any of the following conditions:
vii
If the power cord or plug is damaged or frayed
If liquid has been spilled into the product
If the product has been exposed to rain or water
If the product has been dropped or the cabinet has been
damaged
If the product exhibits a distinct change in performance,
indicating a need for service
S t o p !
If you ever have to remove the main system unit cover, observe the
following precautions:
The power supply cord must be unplugged before the main
system unit cover is removed. (Separe le cordon d’alimentation
et puis enleve le couvercle.)
Once removed, the cover must be replaced and screwed in
position before the power supply cord is plugged back in. (Apres
le couvercle a enleve, visse le couvercle en place et remettre le
cordon d’alimentation.)
RELATED READING
For more information about MS-DOS commands and GW-Basic
programming, please refer to the user’s manual provided with this
computer.
...
Vlll
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
1. Unpacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Choosing a Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Connecting a Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Connecting a Printer, Mouse, or Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the serial port for a printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Connecting the Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Connecting the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Keyboard Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Turning On the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Command Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Copying System Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. Resetting Your Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
1-1
1-2
1-4
1-6
1-6
1-8
1-9
1-9
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-15
1-16
1-18
The CMOS Setup Program
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Run Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Test bypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaving the Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3
1
3
2-1
2-1
.2-1
2-2
.2-3
2-5
.2-10
Using Your Computer
Special Keys on Your Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1
Contents ix
Stopping a Command or Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Disks and Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Disks Store Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting and Removing Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write-protecting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Backup Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Single Diskette Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 4
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-7
3-9
3-11
3-13
3-15
3-15
3-16
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Inserting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
Disk Drive Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Starting MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4
System Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
MS-DOS Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Case Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Function Keys and MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
BACKSPACE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Default Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Copying Your MS-DOS Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Copying on Single Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Copying on Dual Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Filenames and Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Disk Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
The DIR Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
File Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Multiple Disk Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Wildcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Application Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
X
Contents
Chapter 5
Using Floppy Disks
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Floppy Disks Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The FORMAT Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wildcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6
Using Your Hard Disk
What is a Hard Disk Drive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Hard Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Your SETUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Partitioning Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organizing Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up Your Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The BACKUP Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Many Diskettes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The RESTORE Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 7
5-l
5-2
5-3
54
5-6
5-10
5-12
6-l
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-6
6-9
6-11
6-16
6-16
6-17
6-19
Expanding Your System
Connecting Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-l
SerialPorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7- 3
Parallel Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Connecting Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Connecting Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Connecting External Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
System Expansion & Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Tools Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
General Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Opening and Closing the Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Contents xi
Installing Circuit Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Disk Drive Compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Internal Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Appendix A
Specifications
Computer System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System MotherBoard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPULogic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Address Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
System MotherBoard
Hardware Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-4
A-4
B-2
B-5
Video Monitor Systems
Monitor System Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Video Controller Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-l
Monitor Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
Appendix D
Connector Pinouts
I/O Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-l
Expansion Slot Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3
xii Contents
Appendix E
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Run Advanced Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting Advanced ROM Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced ROM Diagnostics Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floppy Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix F
E-1
E-l
E-2
E-4
E-5
E-32
E-48
E-49
E-51
EISA Configuration Utility
Entering the Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DisplayPrint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CFG Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duplicate Files
CFGLIST File ........................................................................
CMSFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFFile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extended CMOS Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F-l
F-2
F-3
F-8
F-l8
F-18
F-19
F-20
F-20
F-21
F-21
Contents xiii
Introduction
Your personal computer is powerful, versatile, and high
performance system designed as a workstation level. It contains
32.bit EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) bus
architecture and has the capability to transfer data at max.
33MHz/sec.
This system has 0486™ microprocessor which contains internal
8KB Cache and also has the external socket to use cache
memory upto 256KB.
Besides, your system provides the burst mode by configuring
the DRAM data bus as 64 bit so that you can operate a lot of
application programs very fastly and efficiently.
After setting up your system with the simple instructions in this
manual, you’ll soon be using your favorite software programs.
This computer is available in these configurations:
The system provides one or two diskette drive and an
optional 300MB SCSI type hard disk drive.
This model comes with 8MB of internal memory, a total of
eight internal option slots (six EISA and two ISA), on
board FDC, and built in serial and parallel interfaces.
Your computer comes with MS-DOS -the operating system
by Microsoft. In addition to the introduction to MS-DOS
provided in this manual, you’ll find a complete reference
manual for the operating system packed in the box with the
computer.
As your needs grow, so can your computer; you can expand
your system by adding a wide variety of options. You can install
most option cards compatible with the IBM Personal Computer.
Introduction 1
And you can run UNIX (above V4.0), XENIX, MS LAN
manager, OS/2, Presentation manager, and X window, etc.
with this computer.
If you use software that executes complex mathematical
calculations, you may want to install a 4167 math coprocessor
to speed up processing.
2 Introduction
How to Use This Manual
This manual explains how to set up and care for your
computer. It also describes how to use your computer and run
the Diagnostics program.
The instructions in this manual apply to your system, except
where otherwise indicated.
You probably don’t need to read everything in this book; see
the following chapter summaries.
Chapter 1 provides simple step-by-step instructions for setting
up your computer.
Chapter 2 describes how to run the Setup program to setup
your computer’s configuration.
Chapter 3 covers some general operating procedures, including
how to use and care for your disks and disk drives.
Chapter 4 provides basic instructions for using MS-DOS with
your computer.
Chapter 5 takes you into the more advanced techniques of
floppy disk file manipulation, such as formatting and copying.
Chapter 6 shows you how to set up and use the vast storage
capabilites of this system device.
Chapter 7 contains “how-to” information on adding
components (such as additional disk drives or expansion
boards), to your computer.
At the end of this guide is a set of Appendices which contain
technical information for the advanced user or field technician.
Introduction 3
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your personal computer is easy. Just follow the nine
steps in this chapter.
When you finish setting up your computer, go on to Chapter 2
and follow the instructions there to run the Setup program.
The Setup program updates the list of equipment installed in
the computer and any time options are added or changed.
1
Unpacking
As you unpack the different parts of your computer system, be
sure to inspect each piece. If anything is missing or looks
damaged, contact the place where it was purchased for missing
items or replacements. If you cannot obtain the necessary part
of parts, call your TriGem Computer dealer for assistance.
Please have the computer’s serial number ready when you call.
Figure 1-1. Unpacking Your System
Setting Up Your System
l-l
Besides this manual, you should have the following:
The computer and power cord
The Keyboard with attached cable
MS-DOSdiskettes
GW-BASIC diskette
MS-DOS User’s Guide
GW-BASIC User’s Guide
In addition to these items, you need a compatible monitor to
use with the computer.
Be sure to keep your packing materials. They provide the best
protection for your computer if you need to transport it later.
2
Choosing a location
Before you set up your computer, it is important to choose the
right location. Select a spot that provides the following:
A large, sturdy desk or table that can easily support the
weight of your system, including all of its components:
Make sure the surface is hard and flat. Soft surfaces like
beds and carpeted floors can generate static electricity,
which may erase data on your disks and damage the
computer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces also prevent proper
ventilation.
Good air circulation: Air must be able to move freely
under the system as well as behind it. Leave several inches
of space around the computer to allow ventilation.
Moderate environmental conditions: Protect your computer
from extremes in temperature, direct sunlight, or any other
source of heat. High humidity also hinders operation, so
select a cool, dry area. Avoid dust and smoke, which can
damage disks and disk drives and cause you to lose valuable
data.
1-2
Setting Up Your System
Appropriate power sources: To prevent static charges,
connect all your equipment to three-prong, grounded
outlets. You need one outlet for the computer, one for the
monitor, and additional outlets for a printer and any other
peripherals.
If it has the appropriate power cord, you can plug your
monitor into the auxiliary power outlet on the back panel
of the computer, reducing the number of wall outlets you
need. (The current required by the peripheral must not
exceed 1 amp.) If you need more outlets, you may want to
buy a power strip-available at any electronics store to
provide extra outlets. A power strip with surge suppression
is recommended.
No electromagnetic interference: Locate your system away
from any electrical device, such as a telephone, that
generates an electromagnetic field.
Figure 1-2. System
Main Unit
Setting Up Your System
l-3
3
Connecting a Monitor
The video display monitor is the device used by the computer
to communicate with you. Your software will use the screen to
display information, such as prompts, text, graphics (charts and
pictures), etc.
Several types of monitors are available as options. A typical
video display system provides a high resolution monochrome
(green or amber screen) screen display. Your computer can be
used with either monochrome, color video monitors, EGA or
VGA monitors.
In addition to the display monitor itself, the video system
includes a video controller board. This board generates the
letters, numbers, and graphics symbols displayed on the
monitor screen.
Connectors are provided for the display type that is supported
by the board (monochrome, RGB color, high resolution EGA,
VGA etc.). Certain boards support more than one type of
display, and may provide a switch to select either color or
monochrome modes.
The procedure you use to connect your monitor to the
computer depends on the type of monitor you have. See your
monitor manual for detailed instructions, or follow these
general guidelines:
l-4
Setting Up Your System
c
1. Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. It is
easiest to connect the monitor cable if you are facing the
back panels of both the monitor and the computer.
2. If necessary, connect the monitor cable to the monitor.
(Some monitors come with permanently attached cables.)
3. Connect the monitor cable to the video connector on the
back of the computer, as shown below. If the plug has
retaining screws, tighten them securely.
Figure l-3. Connecting the Monitor
4. Plug the other end of monitor’s power cord into an
electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System
1-5
4
Connecting a Printer, Mouse, or Modem
The computer has a parallel interface and two serial interfaces
on the back panel, so you can easily connect a printer or other
type of device with either type of interface.
For example, you can use the parallel port to connect a parallel
printer (most printers have a parallel interface). You can use
the serial port to connect a serial printer, a serial mouse, or an
external modem.
Follow the steps in this section to connect a printer or other
peripheral device to either the parallel or serial interface.
The parallel interface on your computer is Centronics
compatible and uses a 25pin connector. To connect a parallel
printer to your computer, you need an IBM-compatible printer
cable. If you are not sure which one you need, or whether you
have the right one, check with the store where you purchased
the printer.
Once you have the correct printer cable, follow these steps to
connect the printer to the parallel interface on the computer.
1. Place the printer next to your computer.
2. One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin, male connector.
Connect this end to the parallel port on the back panel of
the computer, as shown below. If the plug has retaining
screws, tighten them securely.
l-6
Setting Up Your System
—Parallel Printer —
—Serial Printer —
Figure l-4. Connecting the Printer
3. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, as
shown below. If the printer has retaining clips on each side
of the printer port, squeeze the clips together to secure the
cable.
Setting Up Your System
l-7
4. Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet.
Using the serial Interface
If you have a serial printer, modem, mouse, or any other
peripheral with a serial interface, you can connect it to one of
two serial (RS-232C) ports on the back of the computer. Your
computer uses and IBM-compatible, 9-pin, male connector, so be
sure you have the proper cable. If you are not sure which one
you need, or whether you have the right one, check with the
store where you bought the cable.
To connect a serial device, follow the same steps outlined
above for a parallel device, but connect the cable to the serial
port, shown below.
Serial Port
Figure 1-5. Serial Port
l-8
Setting Up Your System
Setting up the serial port for a printer
If you are using a serial printer but your software does not
support a serial printer, you must do two things before you can
print:
Set up the data transmission parameters for the serial port.
Tell the computer to redirect printer data from the parallel
port to the serial port.
See MODE command in MS-DOS manual.
5
Connecting the Power Cord
Follow these steps to connect the power cord:
1. Insert the power cord into the AC inlet on the computer’s
back panel, as shown below. To avoid an electric shock, be
sure to plug the cord into the computer before plugging it
into the wall socket.
Figure 1-6. AC Power Connections
Setting Up Your System
l-9
2. Plug the other end of the power cord into a three-prong,
grounded electrical outlet.
6
l-10
Connecting the Keyboard
Your keyboard has only one cable to connect.
This simply plugs into the keyboard connector located at the
bottom of the main system unit’s rear panel. This connector is
designed to prevent insertion if the pins don’t line up, so it
may be necessary to rotate the cable connector until it plugs in
easily.
Setting Up Your System
Figure 1-7. Connecting the Keyboard
Adjusting the Keyboard Angle
You can change the angle of the keyboard by adjusting the legs
on the bottom. Turn the keyboard over and lift each leg
upward until it locks into place, as shown below. You lock the
legs into a low or high position, or leave them flat.
Figure 1-8. Adjusting the Keyboard Angle
Setting Up Your System
1-11
7
Turning On the Computer
Before you turn on your computer, read the following safety
rules to avoid accidentally damaging the computer or injuring
yourself:
Do not unplug cables from the computer when the power
switch is on.
Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on disk or make an
entire disk unusable. Similary, never remove a diskette
from a diskette drive while the drive light is on.
Always wait at least five seconds after you switch off the
power before you switch it on again. Turning the power off
and on rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
Do not leave a beverage on top of or next to your system
or any of its components. Spilled liquid can damage the
circuitry of your equipment.
Do not attempt to dismantle any part of the computer.
Only remove the cover to install and remove optional
devices.
1-12
Setting Up Your System
Follow these steps to turn on your system:
1. Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheral
devices connected to the computer.
2. To turn on the computer, press the power switch.
Figure 1-9. Power Switch
Setting Up Your System
1-13
The power indicator on the front panel lights up. After a few
seconds, the computer starts to perform an internal self test.
This is a series of checks the computer completes each time
you turn it on to make sure everything is working correctly. If
anything is wrong, an error message appears on the screen.
After the self test is complete, you see a message on the screen
smiliar to this:
The computer continually updates this display as it tests its
memory. This test takes about 15 seconds to complete.
You may see a message similar to this:
1-14
Setting Up Your System
This means that the computer is not yet set up for the
equipment you have installed and you must run the Setup
program, described in Chapter 2. For now, press the Fl key on
the upper left comer of the keyboard to acknowledge the
message and continue.
If you have a SCSI hard disk drive installed with your system,
the SCSI BIOS message may be appeared before the above
message.
If you cannot see the screen display clearly, use the controls on
your monitor to adjust the brightness and contrast until
characters on the screen are clear and bright.
The computer then loads MS-DOS, the operating system, from
the hard disk into memory. MS-DOS must be in the
computer’s memory before you can run any program, such as a
word processing program or a spreadsheet program.
The Command Prompt
After the computer has loaded MS-DOS from the hard disk,
you see the MS-DOS command prompt on the screen:
The command prompt tells you that your computer is ready to
receive instructions. It also identifies the current operating
drive: A or C, for example. The command prompt appears on
the screen whenever you load MS-DOS, complete an MS-DOS
command, or exit an application.
In your computer, the diskette drive is A and the hard disk is
drive C. If you have an optional second diskette drive, MS-DOS
identifies it as B.
Setting Up Your System
l-l5
8
Copying System Diskettes
Now that you have started your system and loaded MS-DOS, it
is important that you make copies of your MS-DOS diskettes
right away. Use the copies (called working copies) as they are
needed and store the originals in a safe place.
Each of the system diskettes is formatted for 36OKB.
(Formatting prepares a diskette to store data and is described in
Chapter 3 and Chapter 5.)
To copy them, you need seven 36OKB doubledensity, 5 1/4-inch
diskettes.
Note
If you do not have any 36OKB diskettes, you can use
unformatted 1.2MB diskettes. When copying from 36OKB
diskettes, the DISKCOPY program formats the 1.2MB
diskettes for 36OKB.
Follow these steps:
1. The C > prompt should be on the screen. If not, type C:
and press Enter.
2. Type the following and press Enter:
The screen displays this message:
1-16
Setting Up Your System
3. Insert the MS-DOS diskette in drive A, as shown below.
Hold the diskette with the label facing up and the
read/write slot into the drive.
Figure 1-10. Inserting a Floppy Disk
4. Press any key. The DISKCOPY program copies the
contents of the MS-DOS diskette to the computer’s
memory, and then you see the following:
5. Remove the MS-DOS diskette and insert a blank diskette
(which is to be the target diskette) in drive A. Then press
any key.
If the diskette is not formatted, the DISKCOPY program
formats it. Then the program begins copying the data from
the computer’s memory to the formatted diskette. When
the copy is complete, you see this prompt:
Setting Up Your System
1-17
6. Press Y so you can make a copy of another MS-DOS diskette.
Again, you see the prompt to insert the source diskette.
7. Remove the copy of the MS-DOS diskette which you just
made and insert the another MS-DOS diskette into drive A.
Then press any key. Follow the prompts on the screen to
make a copy off this diskette as you did for the first MS-DOS
diskette.
8. When you finish copying the last diskette and the
prompt appears, press N to return to the MS-DOS
command prompt C >.
After you have copied the MS-DOS diskettes, be sure to label
them carefully so you know which one is which. Write on the
labels before you attach them to the diskettes in order to
prevent damaging the diskettes. Store the originals in a safe
place and use the copies as needed.
9
Resetting Your Computer
If your computer system should “lock-up”, it may be necessary
to reset the computer. Resetting the computer causes the CPU
to clear its instruction set and the system memory. This ensures
there is no “garbage” left in memory to interfere with new
program information.
There are three basic ways to reset your computer. They are:
l-l8
Setting Up Your System
CONTROL-ALT-DEL (Keyboard Reset)
Press the CONTROL key and the ALT key at the same
time. While holding these keys down, press the DELETE
key, then release all three keys. This will reset your
computer without running the full self-test diagnostics.
RESET Switch
Press the RESET button on the front panel. This method
works even when the keyboard does not respond to your
commands. If this does not correct the problem, try the
third method.
The POWER Switch
Turn the main system POWER switch off, wait ten
seconds, then turn it back on. The computer will then run
the complete self-test diagonistic routine.
Caution!
Any time you RESET your computer, the memory will be
cleared. This will erase any software programs loaded into
the system RAM. You may lose important data or have
problems using your software after the system re-boots.
Only REST your system if you are sure that all of your
data has been saved to disk, or there is no other way to
escape a “lo&up” condition.
You should now be able to reset your computer if you run into
trouble. At this point, you can complete the installation of
your system by running the SETUP program. For detailed
information on the SETUP program, see the following chapter.
Setting Up Your System
l-19
Chapter 2
The CMOS Setup Program
Introduction
The Setup program keeps a record of the host computer’s
system parameters (such as memory amounts, disk drives, video
displays, and peripheral devices). Setup resides in the Read
Only Memory Basic Input/Output System (ROM BIOS) so that
it is available each time the host is turned on. Setup stores the
information in the complementary metal oxide semiconductor
(CMOS) memory. When the host is turned off, a back-up
battery retains system parameters in the CMOS memory.
As soon as the host is turned on, the power-on diagnostics
routines check memory, attempt to prepare peripheral devices
for action, and offer you the option of pressing < DEL> to
run Setup.
When to Run Setup
During normal daily operation, you do not have to run Setup
when you start your computer.
Under the abnormal conditions, an appropriate message
displays, advising you to run the Setup program. These
conditions indicate that an error has occurred during the
power-on self-tests (POSTS).
Memory Test bypass
The BIOS performs POSTS of the system and displays the size
of the memory being tested.
The CMOS Setup Program
2-1
Using Setup
Immediately after the memory test, you will get the following
prompt on the screen depending upon the type of BIOS you
have :
Hit <DEL> key to get into the Setup Mode
Note
<DEL > key will get you into the setup mode only when the
above message is displayed on the screen.
If you hit <DEL> key, a menu appears on the screen giving
you the option to:
2-2
The CMOS Setup Program
This means that the SETUP program options have been set at
the factory. Since there were no errors detected, the computer
tried to load MS-DOS from the floppy disk drive, before you
have inserted the MS-DOS main system diskette. For now
ignore this message.
If you want to run the “DIAGNOSTICS” program, see
Appendix E for the detailed description of it.
Entering SETUP
To enter the setup program, hit < DEL > key at the time the
following prompt is displayed on the screen immediately after
the memory test.
The CMOS Setup Program
2-3
If you hit <DEL> key, you will see a menu like the following.
This screen is the SETUP MENU. This lists the parameters
you can change with the SETUP program. A solid cursor bar
. *..
highlights the parameter currently available to be changed. You
can use the following key conventions.
2-4
The CMOS Setup Program
Parameters
Date and Time Setup
The first entry in the Setup screen is current date. A
calendar has been provided for the user to facilitate him in
this procedure. Again, simply press the < PgUp> or
< PgDn > keys to select the appropriate value for the
month, date and year.
The procedure for setting the time is similar to that of
setting the date. The time here is 24-hour time so don’t be
alarmed when hour 13 shows up on the screen. Simply
highlight either the hours, minutes, or the seconds and
press the < PgUp >/ < PgDn > keys to step through the
numbers.
Floppy Disk Drive Setup
Drives A: and/or B: may be one of the following types:
Allowable Drive Types
36OKEJ
1.2MB
720KB
1.44KB
not installed
5 l/4”
5 l/4”
3%”
3x!”
The CMOS Setup Program
2-5
Hard Disk Drive Setup
DrivesC: and D: are the hard disk drives in the system. 46
drive types have been defined by TriGem. If for some reason
or other your particular drive is not one of the 46 predefined
types, simply scroll down to type 47 and enter the
following drive specifications: cylinders, heads, WPcom,
LZone, and sectors. Please consult the documentation
received with the drive for the specific values that will give
you optimum performance.
The following is the table of HDD the system BIOS supports.
This system BIOS basically supports HDD of Ml34 and RLL
type. If you have another type of HDD, for example, as ESDI
or SCSI, do the following.
2-6
The CMOS Setup Program
Table 2-1. Hard disk configuration Table
The CMOS Setup Program
2-7
Display Type Setup
The next option is primary display selection. The options
are as follows:
Type of Display Allowed
Monochrome
Color 40 X 25
Color 80 X 25
VGA or EGA
Not Installed
Keyboard Setup
The Keyboard Setup is the next option for the user. You
may either choose to enable or disable the Keyboard test
during Power On Self Test by setting keyboard as
“Installed” or “Not Installed”.
15 - 16M DRAM
If you have an external card like “Intel Ace Multi port
Serial card”, you should disable this option because this
board uses the addresses of 1M between 15 and 16M
DRAM on the mother board.
Video BIOS Shadow
This parameter is used to boost your system’s performance
by loading the BIOS and/or VIDEO controller code into the
RAM space between 640K and lM-byte. The options are:
l
l
2-8
Disable
Select this option is you are not going to use Video BIOS
shadow RAM.
Enable
This parameter loads the program code from your video
card into shadow RAM during system start up.
The CMOS Setup Program
Emulation Speed
You can select the system speed, for example, according to an
application software you want to run with your system using
this parameter.
The options are: 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 32, 40
Peripheral Setup
When you scroll down to this parameter, the following
message will be displayed on the right side of the Setup
message.
l
l
l
Serial 1
If you’d like to use the on board serial port 1 for COM 1, set this
option “COMl”. But, when you install the external card to
use another serial port for COMl, you should select
“Disable” on this option to disable the on board serial port.
Serial 2
Set this option “COM2” if you want to use the on board
serial port 2 for COM2. Like serial 1, you should also
disable this option when you install the external card to use
another serial port for COM2.
Parallel
You can use the on board parallel port either for LPTl or
LPT2 by setting this option. However if you want to use
another parallel on an external I/O card, you should disable
this option.
The CMOS Setup Program 2-9
l
FDD
Your system provides an on board FDC and it supports two
floppy disk drive to your system. If you use another FDC in
your system using an expansion Card, you should disable this
option.
Leaving
the
Setup Program
When you have completed the changes, press the < ESC >
key. The SETUP program will display the message:
If you have made any mistakes, press N for No, then move the
cursor back up to the beginning and verify each parameter,
making any corrections necessary. When you are satisfied with
the option settings, press the < ESC > key, then press Y to
write the new settings into the configuration RAM. Your
computer will run through the self test diagnostics again and
try to read a diskette in the first floppy disk drive.
As mentioned above, you may see an error message if you don’t
have a system diskette inserted into the floppy disk drive.
2-10 The CMOS Setup Program
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
This chapter covers the following basic procedure for using
your computer:
Using special keys on the keyboard
Stopping a command or program
Using disks and disk drives.
Special Keys on your Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when
your computer is running programs. The illustration below
shows the TriGem keyboard, and the table that follows
describes the special keys.
Figure 3-1. Keyboard (101 key).
Using Your Computer 3-l
3-2
Using Your Computer
The Num Lock, Scroll Lock, and Caps Lock keys work as
toggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again to
turn it off. When the function is enabled, the corresponding
light on the top right comer of the keyboard is on. When the
function is disabled, the light is off.
Using Your Computer
3-3
Stopping a Command or Program
You may sometimes need to stop a command or program while
it is running. Many application programs provide a command
you can use to stop or even cancel (undo) an operation. If you
have entered an MS-DOS command that you want to stop, try
one of the following commands:
Hold down the Ctrl key and press C
Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break
These methods may also work in your application program.
If you cannot stop a particular operation, however, you may
need to reset the computer, as described in the previous
section.
Caution
It is best not to turn off the computer to stop a program or
command. If you have created new data that you have not
yet stored, it will be erased if you turn off the computer.
Your computer stores data in its memory until you save it;
but the memory area is erased each time you turn off or
reset the computer.
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on
disk and retrieve it when you want it.
This section explains how disks work and tells you how to do
the following:
Choose diskettes
3-4
Using Your Computer
Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
Insert and remove diskettes
Write-protect diskettes
Make backup copies of your diskettes
Use a single diskette drive
Use a hard disk drive
How Disks Store Data
The diskette you insert in your computer’s diskette drive is
made of flexible plastic, coated with magnetic material. It is
enclosed in a square jacket. Your computer stores data on the
diskette by recording on the magnetic surface.
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is
sealed in a protective case to keep it free from dust and dirt. A
hard disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it
works faster and has much larger storage capacity.
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,
tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes — like the ones you
use in your computer — store data on both sides. On your disk
there are concentric rings, called tracks, in which a disk can
store data. Double-density diskettes (such as 36OKB diskettes)
have 40 tracks, and highdensity diskettes (such as 1.2MB or
1.44MB diskettes) have 80 tracks. But 72OKB double density
diskette has 80 tracks.
A hard disk consists of two or more magnetically-coated
platters stacked on top of one another, so it has four or more
sides with many more tracks than a diskette.
Using YOUY Computer
3-5
A disk is further divided by sectors. To understand what a
sector is, picture the spokes on a bicycle wheel radiating from
the center of the wheel to the tire. The space between one
spoke and the next is like a sector on a diskette. (See the figure
below.) Each track on a 1.2MB diskette has 15 sectors, and
each sector holds 5 12 bytes.
Figure 3-3. Sectors and Tracks
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to store
and retrieve data on a disk. There is one head above the
diskette and one below, so the drive can write to both sides of
the diskette. To write to a disk, the computer spins it in the
drive to a position where one of the read/write heads can access
the diskette through the read/write slot. The read/write slot on
a diskette exposes the diskette’s magnetic surface so the
read/write head can write on the appropriate area.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record
over it, and erase it — just as you play, record, and erase music
on a cassette tape.
3-6
Using Your Computer
Types of Diskette Drives
Your computer has at least one 1.2MB diskette drive. With this
drive, use 5V+inch, double-sided, highdensity, 96 TPI, 1.2MB
diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 15 sectors
per track, and hold up to 1.2MB of information, which is
approximately 500 pages of text. You can also format these
diskettes for 36OKB — see your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
more information.
In addition, you may have a diskette drive of a different type.
The following list describes the types of optional diskette drives
you can use in your computer and which diskettes you should
use with them:
360KB drive — With this drive, use 5 1/4-inch, double-sided,
doubledensity, 48 TPI (tracks per inch), 360KB diskettes.
(You can also use single-sided, 160KB or 180KB diskettes.)
These diskettes contain 40 tracks per side, 8 or 9 sectors per
track, and hold up to 360KB of information, which is
approximately 150 pages of text. (With 8 sectors per track, a
diskette holds up to 320KB.)
72OKB drive — With this drive, use 3 1/2-inch, double-sided,
doubledensity, 135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettes
contain 80 tracks per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up to
720KB of information - approximately 300 pages of text.
1.44MB drive - With this drive, use 3 1/2-inch, double-sided,
highdensity, 135 TPI, 1.44MB diskettes. These diskettes
contain 80 tracks per side, 18 sectors per track, and hold up
to 1.44MB of information, which is approximately 600 pages
of text.
If your computer has more than one type of these drives or if
you use diskettes from other computers, you need to be aware
of certain incompatibilities between the drives and the
diskettes they use.
Using Your Computer
3-7
Note
You must format new diskettes before you can use them
with an operating system. Formatting erases all the data on
a diskette and prepares it to receive new data, so be sure to
format only new blank diskettes or diskettes that contain
data you want to erase. See Chapter 5 for instructions on
formatting diskettes.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
Because of the size difference, you cannot use 3%inch
diskettes in a 51/4-inch drive or vice versa. There are also
certain limitations on using diskettes that are the same size as
the drive but have different capacities. The following tables
summarize the possiblities and limitations.
5 1/4+inch drive/diskette compatibility
3-8
Using Your Computer
Because of these incompatibilities, you should indicate the
density and diskette type when you label your diskettes.
(Usually this information appears on the manufacturer’s label.)
If you have any combination of the above drives (36OKI3,
1.2MB, 72OKB, or 1.44MB), you can copy files from one drive
to another — using the copy or XCOPY command — as long
as the correct diskette type is in each drive. You can use these
commands to copy files between the hard disk and any type of
diskette. You cannot use the DISKCOPY to copy from one
drive to another if the two drives are not the same type.
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskette and
avoid losing data:
Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or turn
off the computer while the drive light is on. This light
indicates that the computer is copying data to or from a
diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles of
dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface and destroy
data. Dust.can also ruin the read/write heads in a diskette
drive.
Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. They work best
at normal room temperature and in normal humidity. Do
not leave your diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extreme
cold or heat.
Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields. (Remember that
diskettes store information magnetically.) There are many
Using Your Computer 3-9
sources of magnetism in your home or office, such as
electrical appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers.
Do not diskettes on top of your monitor or near an
external disk drive.
Never touch a diskette’s magnetic surface. The oils on your
fingertips can damage it. Always hold a diskette by its
protective jacket. If you are using a 3’/2-inch diskette, do
not slide the metal shutter; this exposes the diskette’s
surface.
Do not place anything on top of your diskettes and be sure
they do not get bent. A diskette does not rotate properly in
the drive if it has been damaged.
Carefully label your diskettes. Attach labels firmly but
gently, and only along the top of a diskette (next to the
manufacturer’s label). Do not stick several labels on top of
one another-too many labels can make it difficult to insert
the diskette into the drive.
It is best to write on the label before you attach it to the
diskette. If you need to write on a label that is already on a
diskette, use only a soft-tip pen, not a ballpoint pen or a
pencil. Always indicate the storage capacity and density
type on the label.
Store diskettes in a proper location, such as a diskette
container. Do not store diskettes flat or stack them on top
of each other. When you are not using them, keep your
diskettes in their protective envelopes.
Follow these additional precautions to protect your hard disk
drive and its data:
Never turn off the computer when the hard disk drive light
is on. This light indicates that the computer is copying
data to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt this process,
you can lose data.
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Using Your Computer
Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk itself
is enclosed in a sealed container to protect it from dust.
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
To insert a diskette into the drive, hold it with the label facing
up and the read/write slot leading into the drive, as shown
below.
Figure 3-4. Inserting a diskette
(5’/4”)
Slide the diskette into the slot until it is all the way in. Then
turn the drive latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This
keeps the diskette in place and enables the read/write heads in
the diskette drive to access the diskette.
If a diskette is in the drive but the latch is up (horizontal) and
you enter a command for that drive, the computer cannot tell
there is a diskette in the drive and displays an error message
such as:
Using Your Computer
3-11
Close the latch and press R.
To remove the diskette, turn the drive latch up until it is
horizontal and the edge of the diskette pops out. Carefully pull
out the diskette, place it in its protective envelope, and store it
in a proper location, such as a diskette container.
If you have an optional 3 1/2-inch diskette drive, insert the
diskette with the label facing up and the metal shutter leading
into the drive, as shown below. Slide the diskette into the
drive until it clicks into place.
Figure 3-5.
Inserting a diskette (3 1/2)
To remove a 3 1/2 inch diskette, press the release button to
release it. When the edge pops out of the drive, pull out the
diskette and store it properly.
3-12
Using Your Computer
warning
Never remove a diskette or turn off the computer while the
drive indicator light is on. You could lose data. Also, be
sure to remove all diskettes before you turn off the
computer.
Write-protecting Diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being
altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read it and
copy data from it, but you cannot store new data on the
diskette or delete any files it contains. If you try to change data
stored on a write-protected diskette, MS-DOS displays an error
message.
To write-protect a 5 1/4 inch diskette, cover the small,
rectangular notch (shown below) with an adhesive write-protect
tab. Write-protect tabs usually come with new 5 1/2 inch
diskettes when you buy them.
Write protect
Figure 3-6. 5 1/4 diskette & write-protect tab
using Your computer
3-13
Note
Some program diskettes, such as your MS-DOS diskettes,
have no notch so they are permanently write-protected.
This protects them from being accidentally erased or
altered.
On a 3 1/2-inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small
switch on the lower-right comer on the back, shown below. To
write-protect a 3 1/2-inch diskette, slide the switch toward the
edge of the diskette until it clicks into position, exposing a hole
in the comer.
Figure 3-7. 3 1/2 Diskette & Write-Protect SW
To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the
center of the diskette so the hole is covered.
3/14
Using Your Computer
Making Back up Copies
It is important to make copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Copy all diskettes that contain programs, such as the
original MS-DOS diskettes that come with your computer, and
use only the copies. Store your original MS-DOS diskettes in a
safe place away from your working copies. Backup your data
diskettes regularly, whenever you revise them, to keep them
up-todate, and store them away from your originals.
Chapter 1 describes how to use DISKCOPY to copy your
MS-DOS diskette. For more detailed information to make
backups of other diskettes, refer to Chapter 4 “Using MS-DOS
with your computer”.
It is best to put most of the programs and data files you use
regularly on the hard disk. Keep backup copies of all your
program files on diskettes, however, and regularly copy
important data files to diskettes as well.
Using a Single Diskette Drive
The operating system expects the computer to have at least
two diskette drives, and it displays prompts and messages
accordingly. If the computer has only one diskette drive, MS-DOS
treats the one drive like two logical drives. This helps you
perform operations that normally require two diskette drives.
Usually, MS-DOS recognizes the first diskette drive (the top
drive) as drive A and the second diskette drive as drive B.
If you have only one diskette drive, MS-DOS recognizes it as
both A and B.
For example, if you give a command to copy from A to B,
MS-DOS copies data from the diskette you place in the single
Using Your Computer
3-15
drive (A) to the computer’s memory. Then MS-DOS
automatically prompts you to insert another diskette in the
same drive, which it now identifies as drive B. It copies the
data from memory to the new diskette. When the copying is
complete, MSDOS identifies the drive as drive A again, and
you see a prompt to insert the original diskette into drive A.
You can load the opeating system and application programs
from the hard disk, create and store your data there, and use
the diskette drive just for copying data to and from diskettes.
Using a Hard Disk Drive
You can create and revise files on a hard disk just as you can
on a diskette. The hard disk, however, provides several
advantages:
The 20MB hard disk can store more data than 16x 1.2MB
diskettes and the 40MB hard disk can store twice as much.
Your computer can perform all disk-related operations faster.
You can store all your frequently used programs and data
files on the hard disk, eliminating the inconvenience of
inserting and removing diskettes to access different files.
3- 16
Using Your Computer
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and
forth between different programs and data files. However,
because it is so easy to add programs and files to your hard disk,
you may find yourself trying to organize hundreds of files.
MS-DOS lets you keep related files together in directories and
subdirectories so they are easier to find and use.
Backing up hard disk files
While the hard disk is very reliable, it is essential to back up
your hard disk files to diskettes in case you lose some data
accidentally. Make copies of all your system and application
program diskettes before copying the programs to the hard disk.
After you create data files on the hard disk, be sure to copy
them to diskettes whenever you revise them to keep your
backup diskettes up-todate.
You can see the more detailed information of backing up hard
disk files in Chapter 6.
Preparing the hard disk for moving
Before you move the computer, you need to secure the
read/write heads inside the hard disk drive. Securing the
read/write heads moves them to a region of the disk surface
that does not contain data, and locks them in position. This
prevents the disk from being damaged if it is bumped
accidentally.
To secure the read/write heads for moving, run the TGSHIP
program.
Follow these steps to run TGSHIP:
1. Exit any program you are using to the MS-DOS command
prompt is on the screen.
2. Insert the MS-DOS diskette in drive A.
Using Your Computer
3-17
3. Type the following and press Enter:
You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s
read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the
computer or turn the power off and on again. The computer
locks the heads and disables the keyboard. You can now turn
off the computer and prepare to move it to the new location.
The TGSHIP command should be run whenever you are going
to move the main system unit. This command moves the
read/write heads inside the hard disk drive to a “safety zone,”
where they won’t accidentally scratch the surface of the drive
platters. TGSHIP.COM is a special DOS command file
included with your system. You should copy this file into the
root directory of your hard disk drive.
See MS-DOS reference manual for more information of
TGSHIP command.
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Using Your Computer
Chapter 4
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Once you have your computer system “up-and-running,” you
may begin to work with MS-DOS.
Virtually all application software available for IBM PC/XT and
PC/AT-compatible computer systems runs “under” MS-DOS.
Therefore, in order to use these programs, you need to learn
how to use MS-DOS. This chapter will give you a basic
understanding of MS-DOS and provide you with the basic
tools you need run application software on your computer
system. For more detailed explanation of the MS-DOS
operating system, see your MS-DOS USER’S GUIDE.
MS-DOS is an acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System.
The disk operating system is a collection of programs that allow
you to control all the elements of your computer. When
booting up, the MS-DOS command file is copied from the MSDOS main disk into your computer’s memory. From there, it
controls the rest of the system.
During a normal operating session, you will want your
computer system to boot up in MS-DOS. Before that can
happen, however, you may need to install MS-DOS on your
system.
If your system does not have a hard disk system, you must
perform the installation routine to configure MS-DOS for
floppy disk-based operation.
If you do have a hard disk drive, but MS-DOS has not been
installed you must perform the installation routine to configure
MS-DOS for use on the hard disk system.
For complete instructions on installing MS-DOS, see your
MS-DOS User’s manual.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-l
Inserting Diskettes
Your MS-DOS software package contains of the following
items: (The following diskettes are 5.25” .)
One MS-DOS Install Diskettes
One MS-DOS Select Diskette
Three MS-DOS Operating Diskettes
One MS-DOS Shell Diskette
The MS-DOS User’s Guide & User’s Reference
The MS-DOS Shell User’s Guide
Begin the installation procedure by placing the MS-DOS
Install diskette in the A drive and turning your computer on.
Disk Drive Letters
The various disk drives on your computer are assigned letters.
As you work with MS-DOS, you will see that these letters are
used to identify which drive is to be used at any given time.
The microcomputer industry has standardized the use of letter
identification for MS-DOS-type machines as follows:
The first floppy disk drive is referred to as the “A:” drive.
The second floppy disk drive is referred to as the “B:”
drive.
The first hard disk drive is referred to as the “C:” drive.
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Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
To insert a diskette into the drive:
Open the drive door
If you haven’t already done so, remove the protective
cardboard insert from the drive.
Gently insert the diskette into the drive entry slot with its
label facing up, and the write protect notch to the left.
When the diskette is all the way in, close the drive door by
turning the door latch handle down.
Caution!
If any resistance is felt when closing the drive door, stop
and reinsert the diskette.
To remove a diskette from a floppy disk drive:
Be sure the drive indicator light is off
Caution!
It is very important that you never remove a diskette from
an active drive. Doing so can destroy the information on
the diskette, If the computer system is “locked-up” with
the drive indicator light on, RESET the computer before
removing the diskette.
Turn the door latch to open the drive.
Remove the diskette and insert it into its protective
envelope.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-3
Starting MS-DOS
To start MS-DOS 4.01 on a floppy disk-based system (that is,
one without a hard disk drive), follow these steps given below.
For a detailed description of how to start MS-DOS 4.01,
consult the Getting Started section in your MS-DOS 4.01
User’s Guide.
Remove the MS-DOS Install diskette from its protective
envelope and insert it into the A drive.
Close the disk door and turn your computer on.
Remove the Install disk and insert the Select disk.
Press ENTER.
Remove the Select disk and insert the Install disk.
Press ENTER.
The Welcome screen appears. This screen contains information
about the number of disks required to install the operating
system.
Press ENTER
The Introduction screen appears. This screen contains
information about the function keys used to run the Select
program.
Press ENTER
The first screen of the Select program appears. For more
information about the Select program, consult the Getting
Started section in your MS-DOS 4.01 User’s Guide.
4-4
Using MS-DOS With YOUY Computer
If your computer has a hard disk drive, and MS-DOS has been
installed, simply turn your system on. Your computer will
perform its self-test diagnostics and display the DOS Shell
menu screen.
Notice that the words “Command Prompt” are highlighted by)
a solid.. This is a DOS Shell option that allows vou to work
directly with MS-DOS.
Your computer system is now “running under DOS.”
For now, press ENTER to run the Command Prompt option.
System Prompt
After you press the ENTER key to either accept the time
shown or enter a new one, MS-DOS will show a new prompt
on the monitor:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-5
This is the system prompt. When it is displayed, it means that
MS-DOS is waiting for you to tell it what to do. This is done
by typing a DOS command, then pressing the ENTER key.
Cursor
Following the system prompt, you will see a blinking underline
( _ ) character.
This is the “cursor.” The cursor shows you where the next
character you type will appear on the screen. As you can see
here, any command you type will appear immediately to the
right of the system prompt and on the same line. Application
software often uses the cursor as well, allowing you to use the
cursor control keys to move the cursor around on the screen.
MS-DOS Commands
DOS commands instruct your computer to perform tasks such
as display a disk directory, copy a file, delete a program, etc.
These are called internal commands and can be used anytime
after the system has loaded MS-DOS’ into memory. They do
not require the MS-DOS main system diskette to function.
More complex DOS commands are actually separate programs
that provide powerful features for your computer. These are
called external commands, and perform such tasks as
4-6
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
formatting a diskette, comparing files on different disks,
backing up a hard disk, etc. These commands require one or
more of the MS-DOS diskettes.
Hard disk system user’s can run any DOS command without
diskettes because the programs are stored on the hard disk
drive.
Case Sensitivity
MS-DOS does not differentiate between upper and lower case
letters in commands and filenames. This manual will show
commands in upper case for clarity, but you may enter them
either way. For example, both of these commands will generate
a directory listing of a diskette:
and
Function Keys and MS-DOS
As mentioned earlier, MS-DOS uses several of your keyboard’s
function keys to provide you with shortcuts. When you press
the ENTER key after typing a command, MS-DOS copies the
command into a “buffer” memory. By using the function keys,
you can edit and reuse the command without having to retype
the entire line.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-7
— Fl key
Copies one character at a time from the buffer to the command
line
— F2 key
Copies the entire buffer up to the next character you type
— F3 key
Copies the entire buffer to the command line
— F4 key
The opposite of F2, deletes all characters from the buffer up to,
but not including, the next character you type
— F5 key
Moves the current line you are typing into the buffer without
ENTERing it
— F6 key
‘Places an “end-of-file” marker when you copy from the
monitor to a disk file
— ESC key
Cancels the current command line without changing the buffer
— INS key
Inserts characters into the command line as you copy
characters from the buffer
— DEL key
Deletes characters from the buffer
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Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
BACKSPACE Key
From time to time, you may make a typing error. This is not
usually a problem if you correct the error before you ENTER
the command. You can use the BACKSPACE key for this
purpose.
The BACKSPACE key on your keyboard works just like a
backspace key on a regular typewriter: it moves the cursor back
one position. In addition, however, it erases the last character.
typed. Press the BACKSPACE key as many times as necessary
to erase the typing mistake, then type out the command
correctly. For instance, type the following (but do not press
ENTER):
Retype:
Then press the ENTER key. Your computer will respond by
producing the directory of the disk in the A drive. Now type
this:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-9
Then press the ENTER key. Your computer will respond:
Default Drive
MS-DOS will only look at one disk drive at a time. Normally,
this is the “default” drive. You can tell which disk drive is the
current default drive by looking at the system prompt.
For example:
indicates that the “A” drive is currently the default drive.
Unless you specify otherwise, MS-DOS will direct any disk
activity to the “A” floppy disk drive.
You can easily change the default drive with an internal DOS
command. For instance, to change from the “A” drive (floppy
disk), to the C drive (hard disk), enter:
The computer will respond:
As you can see, the system prompt has changed to show the
new default drive letter.
4-10
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
From the A> prompt, try the command:
The computer will respond:
Press ENTER after you insert the diskette into the drive, then
the system prompt will be:
If you have a dual floppy disk drive system, the second, or “B”
drive is now the system default drive, as indicated by the new
system prompt. If performed on a single drive computer system,
this command will still change the system prompt to B >, even
though there is only one physical drive present.
The BIOS “pretends” there are two disk drives present. It
routes all commands intended for the B drive back to the A
drive.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-11
This feature is intended to allow owners of single drive systems
to use application software designed for dual drive systems.
Copying Your MS-DOS Diskettes
The first important task you must complete with your new
system is to make a “backup” copy of your MS-DOS diskettes.
To do this, you will need seven blank diskettes. If is a good
idea to prepare seven diskette labels at this time. Write the
following on those diskette labels, using a felt tipped pen:
Write down the MS-DOS version number on each diskette
label. This will avoid confusion later if you upgrade your
operating system to a new version. As you finish copying and
checking each MS-DOS master diskette, peel the correct label
off of the backing paper and place it on the upper left-hand
side of the front face of the new diskette.
The following procedures will show you how to make backup
copies of your MS-DOS master diskettes on both single and
dualdrive systems.
Copying on Single Drive Systems
MS-DOS uses the external command DISKCOPY to copy
entire diskettes. DISKCOMP is used to compare the original
and backup diskettes to ensure that the copy is accurate.
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Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
To copy your master diskettes, first turn your computer on and
boot up MS-DOS. Choose the Command Prompt option from
the DOS shell menu. The system prompt will appear. Enter the
following command:
The following message will be displayed:
The ‘SOURCE” diskette is the disk that you will be copying
from. Insert the MS-DOS master diskette into the A drive.
Press any key, such as the SPACEBAR. The floppy disk drive
will be activated, and your computer will display:
The contents of the disk are being read into your computer’s
memory. After a few moments, the following message will
appear:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-13
When the drive indicator light goes out, remove the MS-DOS
master diskette from the floppy disk drive. Insert a new, blank
diskette into the drive. This is the “TARGET” diskette.
Caution
Make sure that the target diskette is bland. If there is any previous
data on the diskette, it will be erased by the DISKCOPY
routine.
Press the SPACEBAR key. The drive will turn on, indicating
that the computer is formatting the new diskette, then writing
the copied information onto it. After a few moments, the drive
will turn off. When copying a 1.2MB disk, multiple disk swaps
are necessary. When finished, the system will display:
For now, type N. The system prompt will reappear. To
compare the backup diskette with the original, you will use the
DISKCOMP command. Enter the command at the system
prompt:
The computer will respond:
4-14
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Remove the backup diskette from the drive, and put it in its
protective jacket. Set it aside for a moment, making sure that
you don’t mix it up with the second blank diskette. Put the
original “master” MS-DOS main system diskette back into the
floppy disk drive, then press the SPACEBAR key. As with the
DISKCOPY command, your computer will read the entire
contents of the diskette into system memory, and will display:
When the computer is finished reading, the drive will turn off,
and the following message will appear:
Remove the master MS-DOS diskette from the floppy disk
drive, and put it in its protective envelope. Take our the
backup copy diskette, insert it into the disk drive, and press the
SPACEBAR key.
The computer will read the contents of the backup diskette,
and compare them with the copy of the master diskette that it
has stored in memory. If the information on the two diskettes
is identical, the computer will respond:
Type N to return to the system prompt.
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-15
If there is a problem with the backup diskette, or if you put the
wrong diskette into the drive by mistake, the computer will
respond:
If the computer shows compare errors, start the copying
procedure over again at the beginning. The backup copy of the
MS-DOS diskette must be identical to the original. After you
have confirmed that the backup diskette is a good copy of the
master MS-DOS diskette, you may put your master diskette
away in a safe place. From now on, only use the master MS-DOS
diskette to make copies. For all other purposes, use the backup
copy of the MS-DOS diskette. By using the backup copy, you
ensure that any accidental erasures can be replaced.
Copying on Dual Drive Systems
To make backup copies of your MS-DOS diskettes on a dualdrive
system, follow the instructions below:
First, rum your computer on and boot up MS-DOS. Choose
the Command Prompt option from the DOS shell menu. The
system prompt will appear. Enter the following command:
This command indicates to MS-DOS that you want to copy
the contents of a diskette in the A drive to a new diskette
located in the B drive.
The following message will be displayed:
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Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
The “SOURCE” diskette is the disk that you will be copying from.
The “TARGET” diskette is the one you will be copying to.
Put your master MS-DOS diskette in the A drive, and a new,
blank diskette in the B drive.
Close both drive doors. Press any key, such as the
SPACEBAR. The A drive will be activated, and your
computer will display:
Using MS-DOS with Your Computer
4-17
For now, type N. The system prompt will reappear. To compare
the backup diskette with the original, you will use the
DISKCOMP command. Enter the command at the system
prompt:
The computer will respond:
4-18
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
If there is a problem with the backup diskette or if you put the
wrong diskette into the drive by mistake, the computer will
respond:
Compare error on
side x, track x
After you have confirmed that the backup diskette is a good
copy of the master MS-DOS diskette, you may put your master
diskette away in a safe place and put the label on the backup
diskette. From now on, only use the master MS-DOS diskette
to make copies. For all other purposes, use the backup copy of
the MS-DOS diskette. By using the backup copy for everyday
computing, and saving the master diskette, you ensure that any
accidental erasures can be replaced.
From now on, when this manual refers to the “main system
diskettes,” use the backup MS-DOS diskette.
FILES
In the same way that you can keep information grouped
together in manila folders, MS-DOS organizes data into files.
While you may store these folders in a cabinet, your computer
stores these files on disks. Separating information into files
allows you to work with that information more efficiently.
File Types
There are two basic file types:
Program files
Data files
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-19
Program files are files that perform a task. They manipulate the
computer and data files in order to achieve a result. MS-DOS is
a collection of program files, as are the control programs found
in application software.
Data files are files that contain the information (data) used by
program files. A file containing a list of names and addresses
would be a data file.
The two types of files are closely related. Program files usually
create data files. These may be the documents created by a
word processor, the numerical array created by a spreadsheet, or
some other collection of information.
A data file containing a written report can’t do anything by
itself. On the other hand, a word processor is useless without
documents to work on.
Filenames and Extensions
Needless to say, each file on a disk must be uniquely
identifiable. To achieve this, MS-DOS requires that you name
every file you create, as you create it.
In order to be able to manipulate files easily, MS-DOS has
certain rules that you must follow when naming files. As you
will see, these rules leave you a great deal of freedom in your
selection of filenames.
Each filename can be up to eight characters long. To this eight
character name can be added an “extension.” Extensions
always begin with a period ( . ) which is followed by up to three
characters.
The format for a valid MS-DOS filename is:
ABCDEFGH.JKL
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Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Most of the characters and symbols on your keyboard are
available for use in filenames. These are:
The letters A through Z
The numbers 0 through 9
The following symbols:
The following are examples of allowable filenames:
JANUARY
CHAPTER.001
MEMO.APR
MAYSALES.%&$
$$SALES.OCT
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-21
These filenames are valid because none of them are too long,
and only legal characters have been used. The following are
examples of illegal filenames, along with an explanation:
3RDQUARTER.SALES
This is too long. MS-DOS will accept this filename, but it
will be shortened to fit the size limits. The altered filename
would read 3RDQUART.SAL. As you can see, both the
filename and its extension have been shortened to the legal
length.
CHAPTER/4
The slash ( / ) is an illegal filename character. MS-DOS
will reject the filename and ask for another.
NEW EMPL.LTR
This would be rejected by MS-DOS because of the space in
the filename.
Certain filename extensions have been set aside so that MS-DOS
can recognize program files. These are:
COM
(for COMMAND file)
EXE
(for EXECUTABLE file)
BAT
(for BATCH file)
Program files should always have one of these three filename
extensions. Data files should never use these reserved
extensions. They can, however, use any other extension.
Filename extensions are optional with data files, so you can
leave them off entirely, if you want. Using filename extensions
with data files allows you to have many different variations for
a set of filenames. For instance, different chapters of a book
might be named:
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Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
CHAPTER.001
CHAPTER.002
CHAPTER.003
and so on.
Like MS-DOS commands, filenames and extensions can be
entered in either upper or lower case, but are always displayed
on the screen in upper case. However, since MS-DOS converts
lower case filenames into upper case, it is possible to
inadvertently erase an existing file by saving a new file with a
lower case name. To be safe, always make sure that you have
given a unique name to each file on a disk.
Disk Directories
MS-DOS keeps track of the files stored on your disks by
maintaining a “directory” on each disk. These directories are
listings of the filenames and extensions, along with certain
information about the files themselves, such as when the file
was created or updated last.
The DIR Command
MS-DOS provides a simple command that allows you to look
at the directory of any particular disk. This is the DIR
command. Enter the command as follows:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-23
Some of the names and symbols may be different, but the
screen should show these five columns, and a similar last line.
The information presented by the DIR command is as follows:
The filename & extension
The file size (in bytes)
The date the file was created or last updated
The time the file was created or last updated
The number of files listed in the directory
The number of unused bytes of space remaining on the disk
4-24
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
File Searches
You can also use the DIR command to search for specific files
on a disk. To do this, enter the DIR command in the following
format:
For instance, if you want to find the directory entry for a file
named “MAYSALE!S.RPT” on the diskette in drive A, enter
the command:
The computer will search the entire directory of the diskette
for a file named MAYSALESRFT. If a file is found, it will
appear as the only entry in the diskette’s directory. If there is
no MAYSALESRF’T file on the diskette, the computer will
display:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-25
Multiple Disk Drive Systems
The DIR command can be used to read the directories of other
drives in your system, if any are installed. For instance, to read
the directory of the B drive, when you are logged onto drive A,
enter the command:
The computer will display the directory of the diskette inserted
in the B drive. A similar command:
will cause the computer to display the directory of your hard
disk.
Note that in both examples, the A drive remains the default
drive. To change the default drive from A to B, and then
display a directory listing, enter the command series:
The computer will display the B drive diskette’s directory, then
remain logged to the B drive.
4-26
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Wildcards
Quite often, when dealing with disk files, you may find yourself
looking through directories for a particular file or group of files.
MS-DOS has a way to help you sort out those files’ you want
without having to read through the entire directory listing.
This is through the use of “wildcard” characters. Wildcard
characters are used to make a single command cover a number
of similarly named files.
While MS-DOS provides several wildcard characters, the
one you will be using most often is the asterisk ( * ). The
asterisk matches any number of sequential characters in a
filename or extension.
For instance, to look at a listing of all the .EXE program files
on your main system diskette, enter the command:
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
4-27
Application Software
Now that you know how to make backup copies of your
diskettes and how to work with MS-DOS, you can proceed to
use application software. Most software packages come with
detailed instructions for their set-up and use. These instructions
will often ask you to use the information in this chapter to find
specific files in the disk directories, or back up the master
diskettes provided with each package. Most software packages
can be backed up simply by using the MS-DOS DISKCOPY
command, as described previously.
4-28
Using MS-DOS With Your Computer
Chapter 5
Using Floppy Disks
Description
Your computer works with a large electronic memory array
called RAM. This stands for Random Access Memory. Your
system’s RAM is actually an array of electronic circuits. As
long as the computer is powered up, this circuit array will
“remember” whatever is placed in it. When you turn the
power off, however, these circuits will “forget.” Therefore, you
need some way of retaining your programs and data after you
turn the system off. The most usual way of storing data, at least
on DOS-based computer systems, is on floppy disks.
Virtually all commercially available programs are distributed on
floppy diskettes: Before you buy an application software
package for your computer, you should make sure that it will
run under MS-DOS. Products labeled “for IBM PC,” “for IBM
PC/AT,” “PC-compatible,” or “MS-DOS-compatible” should
run properly. Products intended for other types of computer
operating systems, such as CP/M or Apple, will not run on
your system.
The most frequent use that you will have for diskettes is to save
the data, text, files, etc. that you create. You will use diskettes
to store your data between sessions on the computer, as well as
to back up your valuable software.
Using Floppy Disks
5-1
How Floppy Disks Work
Floppy disks, or diskettes, are made from a flexible plastic that
is coated with a magnetic oxide. The floppy disk drive encodes
this oxide with the data generated by the computer. After you
turn your system off, unlike electronic RAM, the encoded
oxide retains this data. Your data can then be read by the
floppy disk drive at a later time.
The magnetic oxide coating on the floppy disk will hold its
encoded data almost indefinitely unless you deliberately erase
it. This is done intentionally when you want to update the
information stored on the diskette.
The plastic disk is safely protected by a thin cardboard jacket.
The diskette spins inside this jacket, allowing the entire surface
of the diskette to be scanned by the drive’s circuitry. Data is
read from or written onto the diskette through the oval-shaped
slots in the jacket.
Normally, the computer will write new information onto the
unused space on the diskette. If there is no unused space, your
computer will inform you that the disk is full. You can instruct
the computer to write over the information that is already on
the diskette. You might do this to update an inventory file, or
change an address and phone number in a database.
5-2
Using Floppy Disks
Formatting Diskettes
When you get a new carton of diskettes, they are not yet ready
to be used. First, they must be prepared to accept data. This is
called “formatting” the diskette.
MS-DOS uses the same formatting method regardless of the
computer used. This is one of the keys to intermachine
compatibility. Since all PC-compatible computers use MS-DOS,
they can read all disks created by any other PC-compatible
machine.
MS-DOS formats disks with a different “pattern” than
To see what happens when you attempt to use an unformatted
disk, insert a new blank diskette into the A drive and close the
drive door. Then enter the following command:
Since the new disk hasn’t been formatted yet, your computer
cannot read it. After failing three times, your computer will
respond:
If you type R (for Retry) or A (for Abort), the computer will
attempt to read the diskette again, and will finally display the
same message.
Using Floppy Disks
5-3
When you type F (for fail), the computer will automatically
cancel the attempt and will display the following message.
< Current drive is no longer valid >
Remove the unformatted disk from the drive.
The FORMAT Command
MS-DOS provides an external command program called
FORMAT.COM, that will format your blank diskettes. When
running this program, there are options available that allow
you to format several different types of diskette.
The following routines will show you how to use the
FORMAT command. These procedures assume that you are
formatting double-sided, highdensity, 1.2M-byte diskettes (ATcompatible). Information on formatting 18OK-byte and 360K-byte
diskette will be discussed under the /1 and /4 switch options
below.
First, if you have a hard disk installed. MS-DOS on your system,
then enter:
The computer will load the FORMAT command file into
system memory, then will respond:
Insert the new diskette to be formatted and press the ENTER
k e y .
5-4
Using Floppy Disks
The computer will display:
The formatting process takes a minute or two. The computer
will wait until the formatting process is complete, then display:
Press ENTER if you don’t want to have a label of your disk.
Then the screen will display the following message.
Don’t be concerned if the message displayed is slightly different
from this example. Enter N to return to the system prompt.
The new disk is now formatted and is ready for use. Remove it
from the disk drive and replace it in its protective envelope.
Using Floppy Disks
5-5
Option Switches
To format 180K-byte single-sided, single-density diskettes in the
computer’s high capacity disk drive, enter the FORMAT
command using the /1 and /4 option switch:
The computer will proceed to format the diskette. Upon
completion, you will see this message:
And the following screen will appear if you press ENTER.
(If you want to have a volume label, type the characters and
enter.)
Enter N to return to the system prompt. Remove the diskette
from the drive and place it in its protective envelope.
5-6
Using Floppy Disks
The /4 option switch is used to format 36OK-byte double-sided,
doubledensity diskettes in the computer’s high capacity disk
drive. To do this enter the command:
The computer will proceed to format the diskette.
Upon completion, you will see this message:
Press ENTER not to have a label of your disk. Then the screen
will display;
Enter N to return to the system prompt. Remove the diskette
from the drive and place it in its protective envelope.
Using Floppy Disks
5-7
Formatting a diskette allows you to use it by providing
predetermined locations for certain files used by MS-DOS.
Once formatted, the disk directory space is created, as well as
additional areas reserved for use by MS-DOS. One of these
areas is the File Allocation Table, or FAT. This part of the
diskette contains a list of all of the files on the disk, and where
they are physically stored on the diskette.
The other area is the system area. On your MS-DOS main
system diskette, this area is occupied by the parts of MS-DOS
that are copied into your computer’s memory during the startup routine. During the start-up procedure, the BIOS program,
stored on the system motherboard, looks at this part of the
diskette to retrieve the active parts of the disk operating
system.
If these MS-DOS routines are not present in the system area of
a diskette, the BIOS cannot startup the computer. This is what
causes the error message:
5-8
Using Floppy Disks
If your system does not have a hard disk drive you would
normally boot the system up from the MS-DOS system files.
The DISKCOPY command copied these files when you created
the backup copy of the master diskette.
Sometimes, though, you may want to create a “boot disk” that
doesn’t have all of the external DOS commands on it. For
instance, you may want to make an “autoboot” copy of an
application software diskette.
To format a new diskette while placing the active MS-DOS
routines in the system area, enter the following command at
the system prompt:
The computer will load the FORMAT command file into
system memory, then respond:
Insert a new, blank diskette and press the enter key to start the
formatting process. After the new diskette is formatted the
active MS-DOS routines will be copied into its system area.
When the copying is finished the computer will display:
And the following screen will appear if you press ENTER.
(If you want to have a volume label, type the characters and
enter.)
Using Floppy Disks
5-9
Enter N to return to the system prompt. Then enter:
The directory listing should appear similar to the following:
Copying Files
If you have a dual drive system, it is easy to copy program and
data files from one diskette to another. This involves the
internal MS-DOS command, COPY.
5-10
Using Floppy Disks
Put the “source” diskette in drive A, and the “target” diskette
in drive B. At this time, you may want to check the directories
of both diskettes in order to make sure you will not overwrite a
file on the target diskette with the same name as the one you
want to copy.
Once you’re sure it’s safe to copy, enter the COPY command
with the following format:
For example, to copy the file “MAYSALESRPT” from drive
A to drive B, enter the command.
When the copying process is done, the computer will display:
You can also enter this command without the default drive
letter, as:
When no drive letter is specified for the source drive, MS-DOS
assumes that you want to copy a file from the default drive.
To perform the operation in reverse, that is, to copy from the B
drive to the default drive, enter the command:
Using Floppy Disks
5-11
Note that this time, you were required to enter the source drive
letter before the filename. This is because, in this example,
drive B is not the default drive, However, since no drive letter
was specified for the target drive, MS-DOS copied the file onto
the default, or in this case, A drive.
It is also possible to copy a file between two disks when neither
one is the deaf& drive. For instance:
will copy the MAYSALESBPT file from the hard disk onto a
diskette in the B drive. This time, note that both source and
target drive letters were used. This is because neither drive was
the system default drive.
Wildcards
Copying files using wildcards in the filenames can be efficient,
but it can also be dangerous. When using wildcards, always
make sure you won’t overwrite or erase another file. For
example:
will copy all of the files ending in SALESRP’T to the B drive.
The command:
5-12
Using Floppy Disks
will copy all files about MAYSALES to the B drive.
A final example:
will copy all of the files on a diskette in the A drive to the
hard disk drive. This command is useful when backing up
diskettes containing data files.
Using Floppy Disks
5-13
Chapter 6
Using Your Hard Disk
Depending on the model, your computer system can be
expanded to include an optional hard disk drive. This chapter
will give you a basic understanding of its operation and show
you how to configure it. Information is also provided on how
MS-DOS works with your hard disk drive.
What is a Hard Disk Drive?
As mentioned in Chapter 5, “Using Floppy Disks,” your
computer uses an electronic memory array called RAM. This
memory is temporary and will only “remember” data as long as
the system power is on. When you turn off your computer, any
information stored in RAM is lost.
You have learned how to use floppy disks, or diskettes, to store
data and program files between computing sessions. It is more
convenient, however, to store your files on a hard disk drive.
The main reason for this is the speed of the hard disk drive.
Files are read off from the hard disk faster than from floppy
diskettes. Also, using a hard disk reduces the amount of time
spent inserting and removing diskettes from floppy disk drives.
A hard disk is very similar to a floppy disk. It is a plastic disk
that has been coated with a magnetic oxide. A hard disk will
store data indefinitely, until it is erased. Data is read from or
written onto a hard disk in the exactly same way as with a
floppy diskette.
There are differences between hard and floppy disks, though.
First of all, a hard disk is “non-removable.” Unlike a floppy
diskette, which can be taken out of its drive, the hard disk is
Using Your Hard Disk
6-l
permanently mounted inside the drive housing. Several hard
disk platters are stacked vertically in the drive housing and
sealed in a dustproof casing.
Second, a hard disk holds much more information than a
diskette. The “high-capacity” diskettes used in your computer
can only hold a little over one million bytes. The hard disk can
hold much more data than a floppy disk.
Finally, as mentioned above, a hard disk is much faster than a
floppy disk drive. The main reason for this is that the hard disk
platters are rigid, allowing them to be rotated at a much higher
rate than floppy diskettes, which have to move relatively slowly
so as to avoid damage.
Care of Hard Disk Drives
As you can see, hard disk drives are very precise devices. This
precision makes for a delicate mechanism. Even though your
hard disk drive is built to withstand the rigors of shipping, it
should be moved as little, and as gently, as possible. If you need
to move your computer system a short distance, be careful not
to drop or bump it. For greater protection, if you need to
transport the computer in a car, or ship it by truck or plane,
pack your system in its original shipping boxes.
The TGSHIP command should be run whenever you are going
to move the main system unit. This command moves the
_
read/write heads inside the hard disk drive to a “safety zone,”
where they won’t accidentally scratch the surface of the drive
platters. TGSHIP.COM is a special DOS command file
included with your system. You should copy this file into the
root directory of your hard disk drive. For information on hard
disk directory structures, see the “Organizing Your Hard Disk”
section of this chapter.
6-2
Using Your Hard Disk
Preparing Your Hard Disk
This section assumes that you have a hard disk drive system
physically installed in your main system unit. If you haven’t
installed your hard disk drive yet, see Chapter 7, “Expanding
Your System,” for information how to do this.
To begin, boot up your system using your MS-DOS as
explained in Chapter 4, “Using MS-DOS.” After setting the
date and time, enter this command:
If the computer responds with:
enter:
If a directory listing is displayed, even if there are no files
shown, it means that your hard disk system has already been
partitioned and formatted. You will see the
COMMAND.COM file at the top of the directory listing if the
MS-DOS active routines have been loaded onto the hard disk.
If your hard disk has been partitioned and formatted, skip this
section On preparing your hard disk.
If the computer responded to the A > C: command with:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-3
it means that MS-DOS can’t “find” the hard disk drive. This
is either because the drive controller board has been incorrectly
set up, or more likely, the hard disk drive has not yet been
partitioned.
If the computer correctly executed the C: command, but failed
to display a directory, it probably means that the hard disk has
been partitioned, but not yet formatted. The next sections
describe how to partition and format your hard disk system.
Changing Your SETUP
Before you can partition and format your hard disk, you have
to let your computer know that you have one. This is done
with the SETUP program. Once you have determined that
your hard disk is “clean,” that is to say neither partitioned nor
formatted, you should enter the SETUP program.
Turn your computer on. When you see the following message.
press < DEL > key. Move the cursor to the RUN SETUP
option and press Enter. The system displays the Setup Menu.
For now, look at the information on the left side of the screen.
6-4
Using Your Hard Disk
Move the screen cursor bar down to the Hard Disk C parameter.
Using the PgUp and PgDn keys, scroll through the options to
the disk type number matched with the hard disk you have.
If you have a SCSI hard disk drive with your system, you
should select “Not Installed” in this parameter. Because the
system BIOS do not control the SCSI type of HDD. And you can
select any type number except “Not Installed” when you use
ESDI hard disk drive. The hard disk drive type table supported
by this system BIOS has just MFM and RLL type of HDD.
If you select the type number 17 for 41MB RLL or MFM type of
hard disk, it provides the following information under the right
hand headings:
Using YOUY Hard Disk
6-5
This should match the information provided with your hard
disk drive. Other hard disk drives may require a different disk
type number. See the instructions provided with your hard disk
drive or call your dealer for assistance. After verifying the hard
disk drive type number, press the ESC key. The computer
responds with:
Press Y. The computer will update the information in its
configuration RAM, and will go through the start-up routine
again. Make sure MS-DOS is installed on floppy disk or hard
disk of your system, so the system will boot up in MS-DOS.
Partitioning Your Hard Disk
After the DOS Shell screen appears, select the Command
Prompt option. At this point your are ready to partition your
hard disk drive. To do this, enter the command:
6-6
Using YOUY Hard Disk
After loading the FDISK program, the computer will display
information on the hard disk drive installed in the system, as
follows:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-7
To create a single MS-DOS partition for your entire hard disk
drive, select the default option (#l) by pressing ENTER. The
Create Primary DOS partition menu appears next:
To reserve the entire hard disk for MS-DOS, press ENTER.
FDISK now displays the following message:
6-8
Using Your Hard Disk
It is common to use FDISK to create an MS-DOS partition
that takes up the entire hard disk drive and then make that
partition bootable. Now that you have completed these tasks,
you can restart your system using your MS-DOS Install
diskette.
Make sure the MS-DOS install diskette is in the A drive, then
press the ENTER, key. -Your system will now reboot. It does this
to update the new partition information in its configuration
RAM. You may now format your hard disk, and load the MSDOS system files onto it.
Formatting Your Hard Disk
Now that your hard disk is partitioned, you need format it.
If your hard disk needs to be formatted, begin by selecting the
Command Prompt option from the DOS shell. Enter the
following command:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-9
The floppy disk drive indicator will come on for a few seconds,
while the FORMAT command is loaded into memory. When the
light goes out, the computer will display:
You should already have made sure that there is no information
stored on the hard disk that you want to save. Press Y to begin
formatting. The formatting process takes several minutes.
When it is completed, the system will display:
Here, your computer is asking you to name your hard disk
drive. This is a result of the /V switch used with the FORMAT
command. A disk label can be useful when sorting directories,
so you may want to enter one now.
A volume label can use up to eleven characters. See Chapter
4, “Using MS-DOS,” for a list of valid label characters. When
you have entered the drive label, your computer will respond:
6-10
Using Your Hard Disk
The /S switch in the FORMAT command caused the active
portions of MS-DOS to be loaded onto the system area of the
hard disk. At this point you can boot the system from the hard
disk.
Organizing Your Hard Disk
This section provides you with a sample directory structure for
use with your hard disk. It will provide step-by-step instructions
that will create several files and subdirectories.
First, make sure your hard disk is formatted, and that the active
MS-DOS routines have been loaded into the system area of
your hard disk. The easiest way to check this is to boot the
system from the hard disk. Make sure that floppy drive A is
empty and turn your computer on. After going through the
start-up diagnostic routines, the computer will look at the A
drive to find the MS-DOS install diskette. Since the drive is
empty, it will then look at the hard disk drive. If the hard disk
drive is installed and formatted correctly, the system will boot
up and display the DOS shell screen.
If your system does not boot up from the hard disk, refer to the
previous section, “Formatting Your Hard Disk” for
instructions.
Assuming MS-DOS has booted correctly from the hard disk,
select the Command Prompt option from the DOS Shell
menu. When you see the system prompt:
you are ready to begin.
Using Your Hard Disk
6-11
First, you will create several subdirectories. These will be used
shortly to contain useful files. Begin by entering the command:
The MD command is a short form of MKDIR. This internal
DOS command creates a subdirectory under the directory you
are currently in. Since your computer boots up in the hard disk
root directory, the command you just entered created a
subdirectory named DOS4 under the root directory.
When the computer displays the C> prompt again, enter:
to see what you have done. You should see a directory listing
similar to the following:
6-12
Using Your Hard Disk
Just as MS-DOS commands usually look at the “current” disk
drive, they also look at the current directory. Since you can
change the current, “logged” disk drive, you would expect to
be able to change the current, loggeddirectory. You can, using
the CD (CHDIR) command. Enter the command series:
The directory listing displayed should look like this:
You have just moved to the DOS4 subdirectory. The two
< DIR > entries indicate that you are currently logged onto a
disk subdirectory. The period (.) entry represents the current
directory, while the double period (..) entry represents the
parent directory for the current subdirectory. These shorthand
entries allow you to move up and down through a directory
tree rapidly. To see how these shortcuts work, enter the
command series:
You will see that you are back in the hard disk root directory.
Using Your Hard Disk
6-13
Now return to the DOS4 subdirectory by entering the
command:
Another way of moving through the directory tree quickly
involves the use of a similar command:
This command will take you directly to the root directory of
the current disk drive. This can be useful if you get “lost” in a
large directory tree.
The next step in organizing your hard disk involves copying
the external command files from the MS-DOS install diskette
into the DOS4 subdirectory on the hard disk. First, make sure
you are currently logged into the DOS4 subdirectory by
entering the command sequence:
This command will copy the entire contents of the MS-DOS
install diskette into the DOS4 subdirectory on the hard disk.
When the copying process is complete, your computer will
display the following message*
6-l4
Using Your Hard Disk
Using the DIR command, run a directory to verify that you
have copied the MS-DOS install diskette.
Remove the MS-DOS install diskette from drive A and replace
it with the MS-DOS Select diskette into the DOS4
subdirectory on the hard disk by entering the command:
When the copying process is done, carefully enter the following
command :
This command will remove the COMMAND.COM file from
the DOS4 subdirectory. Since the file is available in your hard
disk root directory, it is not necessary to include it in the
DOS4 subdirectory. Later, as your hard disk gets filled up with
a’pplication software program and data files, the disk space
saved by deleting such duplicate files might become useful.
Repeat the copy procedure described above for the remaining
disks in the MS-DOS package.
Return to the root directory by entering:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-15
You have now completed organizing your hard disk and
installing the MS-DOS f’lies into subdirectories. As you can see,
the files have been placed in subdirectories according to the
type of activity you will doing when using them. As you add
application programs to the hard disk, it is a good idea to
create subdirectories to store them in, so as to keep different
program groups separated.
For more information on directory and subdirectory
organization with MS-DOS, see your MS-DOS User’s Guide.
Backing Up Your Hard Disk
It is highly recommended that you make back up copies of your
valuable hard disk files regularly. Because hard disk drives are
fragile, they can sometimes be damaged. It is also possible to
erase some or all hard disk files through the use of incorrect
FORMAT and COPY commands. Backing up your files is the
only way you can be sure that you don’t lose information you
may have spent months or even years gathering.
Two external command programs on your MS-DOS install
diskette will help you back up your hard disk. The first,
BACKUP, will copy files from the hard disk onto diskettes.
The other, RESTORE, allows you to use the diskettes created
by the BACKUP program to reload the files back onto the
hard disk, if necessary. The following sections describe how to
use these two command programs.
The BACKUP Command
This command backs up one or more files from your hard disk
onto floppy diskettes. The diskettes must be formatted by the
MS-DOS FORMAT command. Do not use the /S switch when
6-16
Using Your Hard Disk
formatting these diskettes. Disk space taken up by the inclusion
of the active MS-DOS routines would be wasted with the
BACKUP command.
When you back up your hard disk using BACKUP, the first
thing to do is to format enough blank disks to hold the backed
up files. Once you start the BACKUP routine, you won’t want
to stop the program to format more diskettes. BACKUP ‘takes
time, even on a high speed computer. Stopping the BACKUP
command before completion usually means that you would
have to start the process over again. Therefore, make sure you
have enough formatted diskettes before you start.
How Many Diskettes?
The number of diskettes you will need depends on two things.
First, how much of the hard disk will you be backing up?
Second, what is the capacity of the diskettes you will be using?
The following table shows the approximate number of diskettes
needed to backup an entire hard disk.
A few extra diskettes have been included in these numbers to
make sure there are enough. If your hard disk is not loaded to
capacity, or if you are only backing up part of your hard disk,
fewer diskettes will be needed.
Using YOUY Hard Disk
6-l7
As you format these disks, prepare labels for them that
identifies these diskettes as a hard disk backup archive. Also
put the date on each label and number each diskette. This is
very important, since the RESTORE command requires that
you use the diskettes in the same order that was used during
the BACKUP procedure.
This file contains the BACKUP command program. As
mentioned above, this file is provided on your MS-DOS
install diskette. You can run the program from the floppy disk
drive or from the hard disk, if you have copied the file into a
subdirectory on the hard disk.
To back up the entire hard disk, start by changing the system
default drive to the hard disk. Enter:
Next, make sure you are in the root directory of the hard disk.
Enter:
Now, make sure your diskettes are formatted and ready. If you
are running BACKUP from the MS-DOS install diskette, enter
the command:
If you have set up your hard disk directories as described in the
“Organizing Your Hard Disk” section above, enter the
command:
6-l8
Using Your Hard Disk
In the first example, the A:BACKUP command tells MS-DOS
to search the A drive for the BACKUP.COM file. In the
second, the C:/DOS4 statement will automatically direct MSDOS to look in the C:\DOS4 subdirectory for the file.
In both examples, the A: portion of the command tells MSDOS that you want to start the backup routine with the root
directory of the hard disk, and store the backup files on
diskettes in drive A. The final /S switch tells MS-DOS to back
up all of the subdirectories on the hard disk in addition to the
root directory.
For a more detailed explanation of the MS-DOS BACKUP
command, see your MS-DOS User’s Guide.
The RESTORE Command
MS-DOS provides the RESTORE command program to allow
you to copy files from the archive diskettes created by the
BACKUP command back onto the hard disk. You should only
use the RESTORE command if:
Your hard disk has been damaged, then repaired or
replaced
Files have been accidentally erased from the hard disk
You have reformatted the hard disk
To use RESTORE, first make sure the hard disk is ready to
receive files. Boot your system up with the MS-DOS installed
diskette in drive A. When you get to the system prompt, enter:
Using Your Hard Disk
6-19
If the computer responds with:
enter:
If a directory listing is displayed, even if there are no entries, it
means that your hard disk system is ready to receive files. If the
active routines of MS-DOS have been loaded on to the hard
disk, you will see the COMMAND.COM file at the beginning
of the directory listing.
If the computer responded to the A > C: command with:
it means that MS-DOS can’t “find” the hard disk drive. This
is either because the hard disk controller board has been
incorrectly set up, or more likely, the hard disk drive has not
yet been partitioned.
If the computer correctly executed the C: command, but failed
to run a directory, it probably means the hard disk has
been partitioned, but not yet formatted.
Once you have made sure the hard disk is ready to receive files
you may proceed-with the RESTORE procedure. The routine
described below should only be used to restore the entire
contents of the backup archive diskettes to an empty hard disk.
For information on partial backups to a hard disk drive
containing files, see the entry for the RESTORE command, in
your MS-DOS User’s Guide, “MS-DOS Commands.”
6-20
Using Your Hard Disk
First, set the C drive directory to the root directory by entering
the command:
Now set the system default drive letter back to drive A by
entering:
The computer will respond by displaying:
Make sure your MS-DOS install diskette is inserted into the A
drive. Enter the following command:
The RESTORE command file will be read from the MS-DOS
install diskette. The A: C:\ in the command tells MS-DOS that
you will be restoring files from diskettes in the A drive to the
hard disk root directory. The \S switch tells MS-DOS that you
want to restore the subdirectories as well as the root directory
files.
You will be prompted to insert the backup archive diskettes
into the A drive, one at a time. It is very important that you
insert these diskettes in order. The BACKUP command
program codes each archive diskette with an identification
number, which is read by the RESTORE program. The use of
this i.d. number ensures that your files are reassembled
properly, and loaded into the correct subdirectories.
Using Your Hard Disk
6-21
Chapter 7
Expanding Your System
As you get more familiar with your computer system, you will
probably want to add hardware to it. This can include
additional disk drives, printers, modems, etc.
This chapter addresses the installation of some of the most
common devices.
Note
Because a wide variety of expansion products are available
for your system, and configuring them to communicate
over general purpose interfaces can be a complex task, it is
impossible for this manual to provide detailed instructions
for connecting these devices. Please follow the instructions
provided with your peripheral. If you should have problems
with the installation of a peripheral device, contact your
dealer for assistance.
Connecting Peripherals
Peripherals are devices that can be connected to your computer
system to increase its ability to communicate and process
information. The term “peripheral” is usually used to indicate
an externally mounted unit that is connected to your computer
with a cable. Peripherals available for your computer system
are:
Keyboards
Video monitor systems
Printers
Modems
External disk drives
Expanding Your System
7-1
Your computer is designed to communicate with peripherals by
way of the connectors on the rear panel of the main system
unit. The connectors are called “ports,” and allow information
to be sent back and forth between the system CPU and a
peripheral device.
Your keyboard and video monitor connect to the main system
unit by way of two specialized ports. The keyboard is connected
to the “Keyboard port” on the rear panel of the main system
unit. If you have purchased a video monitor system for your
computer, the display monitor is connected to the “video port”
on the rear panel of the video controller card, which is
mounted inside your main system unit.
Since your system CPU must be in constant communication
with both the keyboard and the display monitor, specific
circuits connect them together. Since other peripheral devices
only communicate with the system CPU occasionally, they can
use general purpose ports.
Computerized data is composed of electronic words called
“bytes.” As an example, each letter or number that appears on
your display monitor has been sent from the main system unit
to the monitor itself in the form of a single byte. This byte is
made up of individual “bits. ” in the same way that a word is
made up of individual “bits” in the same way that a word is
system CPU, bytes are made up of groups of eight bits. Using
eight-bit bytes results in 256 basic combinations, each of which
corresponds with a specific letter or number.
7-2
Expanding YOUY System
Serial Ports
There are two basic kinds of general purpose I/O (Input/Output)
port. One kind is a ‘ serial” port, where data bits are sent one
at a time along a single wire, in series. Additional wires are
used to send control signals between the transmitting and
receiving devices. These control signals allow the two
communicating devices to determine which of them will send
or receive the data, and when the first bit of a particular byte is
being sent, among other things.
Standardized “protocols” for these signals have been agreed
upon by the microcomputer industry so that the different
manufacturer’s machines can communicate with each other.
Your computer system uses the “RS-232C” asynchronous serial
communications interface. The serial port connectors are the
left-hand 9-pin “D-type” connector mounted on the rear panel
of the system motherboard. Electrical information for the serial
port is in Appendix A, “Specifications.” For details on the
serial port pin connections, see Appendix D, “Connector
Pinouts.”
MD-DOS uses labels to refer to the various 110 ports on your
computer. The RS-232C serial ports on the system mother
board are assigned the “COM1” (Communications port #l)
label and the second port is “COM2” (Communications port
#2) label.
Unlike serial ports, parallel ports allow your computer to
communicate one entire byte at a time. Eight wires are
included in the cable to permit the transmission of each of the
eight data bits simultaneously. Extra wires are included in the
cable for control signals. Your Computer uses the industry
Expanding YOUY System
7-3
standard “Centronics-compatible” parallel printer port
interface.
MS-DOS uses the label “LPTl” (Line Printer #1) for the first
parallel port. Additional parallel ports can be added to your
computer through the use of multi-function boards. These ports
would be labeled LPT2, LPT3, etc.
Connecting Printers
Most, but not all, printers use the Centronics-compatible
parallel port.
To install this type of printer, connect an appropriate cable
between the parallel port connector on the rear panel of the
system motherboard in the main system unit and the input
connector on the printer. Information on the correct cable will
be found in your printer’s manual.
Connecting Modems
Modems are used to connect your computer to the telephone
line. Since the electronic requirements for the transmission of
your voice are different from those used by your computer, a
modem is used to “translate” your digital information to a
signal that can be sent over the telephone lines.
Internally mounted modems are to a circuit board
that will be installed inside your main system unit. These
7-4
Expanding Your System
modems can communicate directly with the system, CPU
through your computer’s internal circuitry. The telephone line
is plugged into a socket located on the rear panel of the
modem.
External modems connect to your computer’s RS-232C serial
port. Connectors are provided on the modem itself for
attachment to the phone system.
Connecting External Disk Drives
At some point, you may decide to add an external disk drive.
This may become necessary if all of the internal drive
compartments are in use, or if you want to place your main
system unit away from your work area, while keeping a drive
next to your keyboard.
The floppy disk drive control port is provided on your system
motherboard. While the cabling for these ports has been
designed to be used inside the main system unit cabinet, it is
possible to route the connectors outside to an external drive by
using a longer cable. This cable can be routed outside the main
system unit by way of an unused expansion slot panel.
For installation instructions, refer to the manual provided with
your external disk drive.
Expanding Your System
7-5
System Expansion And Upgrades
This section deals with the addition of expansion boards and
products to your computer’s main system unit. Although most
expansion products are provided with detailed instructions for
their installation and use, it is recommended that you read
through this section in order to familiarize yourself with some
of the basic principles of expanding your computer.
Tools Required
To install most expansion products in your main system unit,
you will usually need the following tools:
a small/medium “Phillips-type” screwdriver
a small flat-blade screwdriver
General Precautions
In the interests of personal safety and product reliability, you
should review the following information:
Follow all of the instructions and warnings marked on this
product, or included in this manual.
Make sure you have enough room to work on the unit. If
necessary, disconnect any peripheral device cables
connected to the unit’s rear panel.
For additional information on safety and maintenance,
refer to the appropriate sections of this manual’s
introductory chapter.
7-6
Expanding Your System
Opening and Closing the Cabinet
The procedure for opening the main system unit cabinet is as
follows:
Unplug the video monitor AC power and signal cables
from their rear panel sockets. Set the monitor safely aside.
Unplug the keyboard and set it aside.
Unscrew the screws on the rear panel of the unit and set
them aside.
Carefully, slide the main system unit’s cover towards the
front of the unit. Continue sliding the cover forward until
it can be removed completely. Set the cover aside.
Expanding Your System
7-7
Later, to close the unit, follow these steps in order:
Make sure all the system and expansion boards are properly
seated in their connectors, and have had their mounting
screws tightened down.
Make sure all the internal cables have been properly
connected and arranged neatly. Wires should not be
pinched or caught between chassis parts or circuit boards.
Carefully slide the cover back onto the main system unit,
being careful not to damage the cables.
As you slide the cover onto the unit, adjust the alignment
to permit the cover to slide over the disk drive nosepieces.
When the cover is properly seated on the main system unit
chassis, replace and tighten down the screws on the rear
panel.
7-8
Expanding Your System
Reconnect the keyboard to its connector on the rear panel
of the main system unit.
Place the video monitor on top of the main system unit
and connect the AC power and signal cables to their
correct sockets on the rear panel.
Reconnect any peripheral device to their rear panel I/O
port connectors.
Plug the AC power cable into the socket on the rear panel
of the main system unit and the main AC power outlet.
Installing Circuit Boards
Most of the expansion products you will be installing into your
computer are circuit boards. Like the system boards installed at
the factory, expansion boards are plugged into the main system
unit’s mother board.
There are expansion boards available for a wide variety of
functions. The most common expansion boards provide such
functions as extra I/O ports, high resolution video graphics and
system memory expansion.
The basic computer is shipped from the factory with only the
system motherboard installed. If you have purchased a system
with a video monitor or a hard disk system installed, the
necessary controller board(s) should also be installed. If you are
adding these systems to a basic computer, or expanding your
system by installing additional hardware, follow the procedure
below to install the circuit boards.
First, read all of the instructions provided with the expansion
product. Then, carefully unpack the circuit board(s) to be
installed.
Expanding Your System
7-9
Warning!
Most computer circuit boards have “static sensitive”
components on them. These parts can be damaged by
static electricity, which can be generated by rubbing your
hand across the exposed metal parts on the board. To
avoid this damage, always handle circuit boards by their
edges, being careful to avoid contact with the exposed edge
connectors and parts.
Following the instructions provided with the expansion board,
set any configuration switches and jumpers on the expansion
board.
Open the main system unit cabinet and set the configuration
jumpers on the system motherboard to match the new
hardware arrangement. You will be able to do this without
removing the system motherboard from the main system unit
chassis, although you may need to unplug the disk drive ribbon
cable from its connector to allow easy access to the jumpers.
The system boards contains eight expansion slots comprised of
two basic types as follows:
1-10
l
Two 8.bit slot for ISA boards
l
Six 32-bit slots for EISA or ISA boards
Expanding Your System
Figure 7-2. Installing the Circuit Boards
Expanding Your System
7-11
Disconnect any internal cables that may be in the way. As you
do, make a note of their correct locations and orientations for
later reattachment. Unscrew the retaining screw for the slot
guard, and set it aside. Mount the expansion board into the
slot by gently sliding the board into the slot. If the board is
long enough to reach the card guide mounted on the front
panel support flange, slide the board down the center groove of
the guide.
Making sure the board is correctly aligned, carefully insert the
board’s edge contacts into the slot connector on the main
system unit’s motherboard. A gentle rocking motion is helpful
in getting the board started in the edge connector.
Once started, press the board into the motherboard connector
until it is seated completely. The tab at the bottom of the
mounting bracket should fit into the slot at the bottom rear of
the main system unit, and the bracket’s top flange should rest
directly on top of the rear panel support.
CORRECT
NO ELECTRICAL OR
PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS
INCORRECT
PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS
7-12
Expanding Your System
INCORRECT
ELECTRICAL RESTRICTIONS
Figure 7-3. Installing the Option card in an Expansion slot
Check the board’s alignment to make sure it is straight and
level. If necessary, move the board slightly to align the hole in
the top of the mounting bracket over the screw hole in the
main system unit’s rear panel flange. Install the holddown
screw that you removed earlier.
Reconnect any internal cables that were disconnected earlier. If
you have a problem making the cables reach their connectors,
you may have to move the board you just installed to another
slot. If any external equipment is used with the expansion
board, connect it to the board’s rear panel connector(s),
following the instructions given with the product.
When the installation of the board is completed, close the
main system unit cabinet as described previously.
Disk Drive Compartments
To install expansion devices such as additional floppy disk
drives into the main system unit’s disk drive compartments,
follow the procedure given below.
First, make yourself familiar with the specific installation
procedure for the expansion device by reading all of the
Expanding Your System
7-13
documentation provided. Then, remove the main system unit
cover as described previously. Select the drive compartment where
you will install the expansion device. Remove the blank front
panel from the selected compartment by removing the
mounting screws.
Slide the expansion device into the compartment along the
side rails of the drive cage until it is all the way in. Replace the
hold down clamps and their mounting screws.
Connect any internal power cables to the correct pins on the
rear of the expansion unit. Connect any required control cables
to the device. Close the main system unit cabinet as described
above.
To remove a floppy disk drive, perform the installation
procedure in reverse. After adding or removing disk drives, run
setup and configure for the new disk drive.
Note
Your main system unit is supplied with the cables necessary
to connect two floppy disk drives to the system
motherboard. Follow the instructions provided with the
expansion floppy disk drive for proper installation.
14
Expanding Your System
Internal Hard Disk Drive
If you are to mount the internal hard disk drive inside the main
system unit case, follow the steps below:
Remove the cover from the main system unit, as described
previously.
Remove mounting plate by unscrewing the hold down
screws.
Attach the guide rails to the hard disk drive like the
following figure before installing it to the mounting plate.
Figure 7-4. Attachment of the guide rails to the Hard disk drive
Expanding Your System
7-15
Slide the hard disk drive which is installed with the guide
rails into one of two openings provided in the mounting
frame.
Figure 7-5. Mounting the internal hard disk drive
Replace the hold down screws.
Connect the hard disk drive controller cables to the drive.
7-16
Expanding Your System
Figure 7-6. Connecting the cables
Replace the main system unit cover.
If you want to install the HDD to the other drive compartment
exists in the center of the front side, follow the steps below.
Remove the cover from the main system unit, as described
above.
Remove six screws of the drive compartment case and
remove it like the following,
Expanding Your System
7-17
Figure 7-7. Remove the drive compartment case
Slide the Hard disk drive into the drive case and screw the
hold down screws like the following.
7-18E
8 xpanding Your System
Figure 7-8. Slide the HDD to the drive case
Replace the drive case with the hard disk drive to the
system front side and screw the hold down screws.
Connect the hard disk drive controller cables to the drive.
Replace the main system unit cover.
Expanding Your System
7-19
Figure 7-9. Mounting the hard disk drive
To remove a hard disk drive, perform the installation
procedures in reverse. After adding or removing disk drives, run
setup and configure for the new disk drive.
7-20
Expanding Your System
Appendix A
Specifications
Computer System
l
Operating Temperature : 41° to 95°F (5” to 35°C)
l
Storage Temperature
: -5° to 140°F (-15° to 60°C)
l
Operating Humidity
: 20% to 80% (no condensation)
l
Storage Humidity
: 10% to 90% (no condensation)
l
Compatibility
: IBM PC/AT
l
l
Power Supply : 238W
110 Range: 100 - 125 VAC, 7.OA, 50/60Hz
220 Range: 200 - 240 VAC, 4.5A, 50/60Hz
Keyboard
: 101 key keyboard
System MotherBoard
l
l
l
Firmware
: AMI Software BIOS
Operating System
support
: MS-DOS, UNIX 4.0 (or of
above version,
X-Window R 11.2, R11.3
OS/2 version 1.2, Presentation
Manager MS LAN Manager 2.0,
XENIX V/386 & V/286 UNIX
V/386 & V/286
Bus Interface
: EISA Bus Interface
(IBM PC/XT, PC/AT-Compatible)
Specifications A-l
l
l
l
Expansion Slots
: 2ea B-bit
(62 pin ISA only connector)
6ea 32-bit
(198 pin EISA connector)
Dynamic RAM
(with parity)
: BM-bytes, expandable 64M-bytes
on the Motherboard
8Ons (Burst Mode)
Floppy Disk Drive
: 2ea-360K, 720K, 1.2M or
1,44M-byte
support
I/O Ports
: 2ea 9-pin RS232C asynchronous
serial communications port
lea 25pin Centronics-compatible
parallel printer port
lea 5pin Keyboard port
l
Audio Support
: 1 mini-speaker
l
Real Time Clock
CPU Logic
l
l
Main Central Processor IC
Math Coprocessor IC
(optional)
A-2 Specifications
: 486-33” Microprocessor
: 4167-33 Coprocessor
System Memory
l
l
Data Interface
: 64-bit memory access
(Burst mode)
Cache Module
Subsystem (option)
: 64KB, 128KB or 256KB
Note
There are two sockets on the system mother board.
You should use the cache memory chip of the equal size on
them when you are to use 12SKB or 256X3 of cache
memory.
l
BIOS ROM
: 128K-byte
l
CMOS RAM
: 128-byte
l
EXTENDED CMOS SRAM : BK-byte
(for Configuration Back-Up)
Specifications A-3
System I/O
l
DMA Channels: 7
8, 16, 32-bit operations available
Address space - 4GB
l
Programmable Timers: 5
l
Vectored Interrupt Levels: 16
l
Max DMA Transfer Rate: 33MB/sec
System Timing
System Clock Speed: 33MHz (CPU speed)
Clock Cycle Time: 30ns (33MHz)
I/O Address Map
A-4 Specifications
Specijkations A - 5
A-6 Specifications
Appendix B
System MotherBoard
Figure B-l. System Motherboard
This appendix provides configuration and interface information
for this board. You may skip this appendix if you are not
installing expansion products that require changing the
motherboard’s configuration settings.
System Mother Board B-1
Hardware Settings
This system provides the programs to set the system
configuration. The program “EISA Configuration Utility” can
be used whenever you change the system hardware settings.
If you want to do the followings, run the “EISA Configuration
Utility” program and change the configuration settings.
l
l
l
l
l
Install the EISA board on your system
Change the memory configuration
Set the 82485 cache controller to select optional cache
memory size
Select the video monitor type
Select the CPU speed of EISA bus controller.
When you turn the system power on, the system CPU will
compare these settings with the information stored in its
configuration RAM as part of the diagnostic routines. If any
inconsistencies are found, they will be shown on the display
monitor before MS-DOS is loaded. At that time, you will be
prompted to run the SETUP program or to run the “EISA
Configuration Utility” program (See the following message) to
change the options stored in the configuration RAM.
B-2 System Mother Board
82485 Cache Controller
486™ microprocessor on this motherboard contains 8K byte
cache memory. And this system also provides the optional
sockets of cache memory chips for more efficient use.
There are two sockets which can be installed the cache
memory chip on the system motherboard. You should install
the cache memory chips of equal size on them when use two
cache memory chips. That is, if you’d like to use 256K cache
memory with your system, you should install two 128K cache
memory chips on both of the sockets.
The following is the available chip combinations on the Cache
socket of the system mother board.
Memory Configuration select
Your computer comes with 8MB of memory which is installed
on the SIMM socket on the system motherboard. By installing
SIMMs (Single Inline Memory Modules), you can increase the
amount of memory in your computer up to 64MB.
Before you install SIMMs, check the following guidelines to
ensure that they will work properly:
System Mother Board B-3
Use SIMMs that operate at 80ns (nanosecond) or slower
access speed. Be sure all the SIMMs operate at the same
speed.
Use the correct SIMM configuration to add the amount of
memory you want. See the table B-2.
Once you have the SIMMs you need, you or your dealer can
install them in your computer.
There are sixteen SIMM sockets on the main system board
organized in two banks consisting of two rows each. Each
socket can contain one memory module.
The following table shows all the possible SIMM
configurations for this computer. Do not install SIMMs in any
other configuration.
Table B-2. Memory configuration settings
After you add the SIMMs to expand the amount of memory,
you should run “EISA Configuration Utility” program.
B-4 System Mother Board
CPU speed select of EISA bus controller
You can operate this system at both 25MHz and 33MHz by
EISA bus controller. If you’d like to change this system speed,
run the “EISA Configuration Utility” program provided with
this system.
Connectors
The system motherboard is provided with a number of
connectors for communication with other parts of the
computer system. These connectors are discussed below.
For pinout information on these connectors, see Appendix D,
“Connector Pinouts.”
The connectors provided on the system motherboard are for
signal/power in facing and the I/O ports, as follows:
System Mother Board B-5
I/O Expansion slot - CN20 - CN27
The system board contains eight expansion slots comprised of
two basic types as follows:
l
l
Two 8-bit ISA slots for PC/XT boards
Six 32-bit EISA slots for EISA boards, PC/AT and PC/XT boards
You should install only the ISA board on two 8-bit ISA slots.
But it is possible to install both the EISA and ISA board on six
32 bit EISA slots.
EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) is a PC bus
architecture which is elaborates to embody the highperformance 32 bit I/O function and also support the existing
16 bit bus architecture. It extends the AT bus, adding the
power to address more memory faster through a 32-bit data bus.
EISA includes a new form of bus arbitration to facilitate
multitasking and the setting up of expansion products.
EISA is compatible with 16 bit XT/AT system, that is, you can
use any software which is used with 16 bit XT/AT system.
Keyboard Port — CN3
The keyboard connector CN3, is a S-pin DIN connector for
keyboards that are compatible with the IBM AT keyboard.
Serial Port — CN7 and CN8
Connector CN7 and CNB provide the standard AT-type
RS-232C serial interfaces.
B-6 System Mother Board
Parallel Port — CNB
Connector CN9 on the system board provides a standard
Centronics 25pin parallel interface
Power Connector — CN2
The system board requires four DC voltage: + 12V, — 12V,
+5V, and -5V. The power connector respectively supply
power to the system board and to the six expansion slots.
Speaker — CN1
Connector CN1 provides a speaker connection for audible tone
generation. The connector is a two pin header.
System Mother Board
B-7
Appendix C
Video Monitor Systems
There are many video display systems available for use with
your computer system. This appendix will provide a brief
description of the most common video system types, and
discuss their applications.
Monitor System Resolution
The main difference between video monitor system types is
their screen resolution. The monitor’s resolution is important
because it determines the number of characters that can be
displayed on the screen at any one time, and the quality of any
screen graphics displayed.
The image displayed on the video screen is made up of a large
number of individual dots. This is true whether the displayed
screen image is made up of text or graphics, or is a mixture of
both. The higher the monitor’s resolution is, the smaller the
individual dots can be. Smaller dots means that more ‘of them
can be displayed in the same space. If more dots are displayed,
then more text characters and better looking graphics can be
displayed.
Video Controller Boards
The video controller board controls the actual number of dots
sent to the screen. A video system’s resolution capability is
usually described as the number of dots that can be displayed
horizontally by the number of dots that can be displayed
vertically.
Video Monitor Systems
C-l
The personal computer industry has established several video
controller resolution and color standards. Some of these are
described below.
Hercules Graphics Compatible (HGC):
HGC boards have become the video controller-of-choice
for basic personal computer video display monitor systems.
Providing dot resolutions up to 720X350, HGC boards
display good quality text and graphics, while using
shading to accommodate color software.
Color Graphics Adaptor (CGA):
The original CGA boards featured very low resolution,
This was because they were originally
typically 320X200.
intended home computers that were used for advanced
video games. Recently, however, CGA resolution has
been improved to 640X200. With the higher resolution,
CGA has gained acceptance in the office environment.
By using colored text screens and low-level graphics, a
number of software packages have been made easier to
use.
Enhanced Graphics Adaptor (EGA):
EGA video systems provide high resolution (640~350
maximum) color graphics capabilities. These monitor
systems are often used in computer-aideddesign
workstations and other software applications requiring a
larger number of on-screen colors than CGA controllers
can provide.
Video Graphics Array (VGA):
Recently, a new video standard has emerged to take
advantage of the features of the multi-sync monitors.
Providing up to 720x400 dot resolution, these systems
have been used in applications that require the highest
possible video resolution, such as desktop publishing,
computer-aided-design (CADICAE), and broadcast quality
computer graphics.
C-2
Video Monitor Systems
The maximum screen resolutions of the different video
standards is summarized below, along with their color and
graphics features:
HGC:
maximum dot resolution:
720x350
maximum text display:
80 columns x 25 lines
colors:
monochrome green or amber
CGA:
dot resolution:
640x200
maximum text display:
80 columnsx25 lines
colors:
2 of 16 colors (640x 200)
4 of 16 colors (320x 200)
EGA:
dot resolution:
640x 350
maximum text display:
80 columnsx43 lines
colors:
16 of 64 colors
VGA:
dot resolution:
720~400 (text only)
640 x 480 (text and graphics)
maximum text display:
80 columns x 50 lines
colors:
16 of 262,144
256 of 262,144 (320x200 res)
Video Monitor Systems
C-3
Monitor Types
There are many different types of video monitor available.
Some of the major ones are described below.
Composite Video:
With a 300~200 resolution, this type of monitor is
usually used with home computers. They are not
recommended for use with your system.
TTL Monochrome:
These monitors provide up to 1000~350 resolution,
with either a green or amber colored screen. Primarily
intended for text only applications, these monitors can
run Hercules-compatible graphics programs, although
applications requiring full CGA or EGA color
compatibility will be difficult, if not impossible, to use.
A TTL monochrome monitor and a Hercules compatible
controller board will meet your computer system’s basic
video display monitor needs.
RGB Color:
RGB stands for Red, Green and Blue, and indicates that
each of the primary colors are separately driven by the
video controller board. RGB monitors cover a broad
range of resolutions from 320 x 200 up to the higher
EGA ranges of 720~480. RGB color monitors are very
C-4
Video Monitor Systems
useful in applications that need good-looking graphics,
or higher resolution text, though they are limited in the
number of colors that can be displayed at a given time.
If you are going to be using software that requires color,
but not high resolution graphics, you should use an RGB
video display monitor, connected to a CGA video
controller board. If your software requires high resolution
graphics, use an EGA controller board instead.
Multi-sync:
Multi-sync monitors are so named because they are able
to adjust themselves to any standard video format.
Providing resolutions up to 1400X1200, multi-sync
video monitors are used with software that needs very
high resolution color graphics. Connecting your
computer to a multi-sync monitor by way of either an
EGA or VGA controller board provides one of the
highest resolution computer video systems available.
This type of system is used for such applications as very
high resolution CAD/CAE workstations, computer
graphics design and desktop publishing.
Video Monitor Systems
C-5
Appendix D
Connector Pinouts
I/O Ports
RS-232C Serial port
(9-pin subminiature “D” connector):
Connector Pinouts D-1
Centronics-compatible parallel printer port
(25-pin subminiature “D” connector):
D-2 Connector Pinouts
Keyboard port
(6-pin mini “DIN” connector)
Power Supply Connector
(12-pin post header)
Expansion Slot Connectors
Your computer comes with industry standard 62 pin IBM
compatible expansion slots and 198 pin EISA (Extended
Industry Standard Architecture) slots. There are six EISA
(198-pin) and two 62 pin IBM XT expansion slot connectors
mounted on the mother board. The charts below show the pin
numbering on the expansion slot connectors.
Connector Pinouts D-3
For six EISA slot connectors, you also can use ISA board as
well as EISA board. But you can use only ISA board on two
ISA slot connectors.
D-4 Connector Pinouts
Expansion Slot Connector Pinouts
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198 PIN ASSIGNMENT (EISA slot connector)
Note
EISA bus connectors construct of 2 layers and the pins
marked “ < HIGH > ” are the first layer and “ < LOW > ”
are the second.
When you use ISA bus board on the 198 pin EISA slots, it
will connect with the first layer only. But if you use EISA
bus board on these slots, it will connect with both the first
and second layer.
Figure D-l. EISA card edge connection
Connector Pinout D-5
D-6 Connector Pinouts
Connector Pinouts
D-7
D-8 Connector Pinouts
Connector Pinouts D-9
Appendix E
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Introduction
In addition to the POST diagnostics which are performed
during power-up, the ROM BIOS also has an advanced
diagnostics program which can perform specialized tests on
each of the following when instructed:
Hard disk drive(s)
Floppy diskette drive(s)
Keyboard
Video adapter board and monitor
Printer and communication ports
This section contains descriptions of operation for all the tests
available through this program located in the ROM BIOS.
Included here also are possible error messages.
When to Run Advanced Diagnostics
Advanced ROM Diagnostics can be run whenever a device or
controller malfunction is suspected. These tests are especially
useful when floppy diskette-based diagnostics are either
unavailable or unusable because the floppy disk drive or floppy
controller appear to be malfunctioning.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-l
Starting Advanced ROM Diagnostics
To access the Advanced ROM BIOS Diagnostics, perform the
following:
E-2
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The following screen should appear:
Figure E-l. Starting Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The screen is divided into six (6) sections. From top to bottom,
these are:
The Signature Line. This line includes the title of the
program, the copyright, the name of the company which
designed the program, the date, and the time in military
format.
The Diagnostics Options Line. This is where the user
chooses the device/adapter to be tested. The options are:
Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, Keyboard, Video, and
Miscellaneous (Printer and Communications). Each device
option on the Diagnostics Option Line has its own
Diagnostics Options Window which appears whenever the
device option is highlighted. Device options are highlighted
by pressing the right or left arrow (cursor movement) keys
located on the numeric keypad.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-3
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The Diagnostics Options Window. Below the Diagnostics
Options Line is the Diagnostics Options Window for that
option. The test options available in each Diagnostics
Options Window are addressed in the following pages under
the appropriate diagnostics heading (Hard Disk, Floppy Disk,
Keyboard, Video, and Miscellaneous).
l
The configuration of the system in the Devices Present
section of the screen. This section identifies the types of
devices present in the system. Below each device type
appears an identifying characteristic, symbol, or code. If a
device listed on this line is not currently a part of the
system, “Absent” appears below the name of the device
type.
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The Guide Line in reverse video explains how to use the
arrow direction (cursor) keys, the ENTER key, and the
ESC key. Use the Left and, Right arrow keys to move in the
Diagnostics Options Line. Use the Up & Down arrow keys
to move within a Diagnostics Options Window. Use the
ENTER key to select the option in the Diagnostics Options
Window. Press <ESC> to abort and return to the previous
menu.
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Test Function Line. This line briefly describes the function
of the test highlighted in the Diagnostics Options Window.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics Tests
This portion of the section addressing Advanced ROM
Diagnostics describes in detail each test which can be
performed from the Advanced Diagnostics Screen. These tests
are addressed in the following order: Hard Disk Tests, Floppy
Disk Tests, Keyboard Tests, Video Adapter and Monitor tests,
Printer and Communication Port tests. The possible error
messages encountered while running these tests are addressed
in each set of tests.
E-4
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Hard Disk Diagnostics
The following tests can be performed on your hard disk(s): 1)
Hard Disk Format, 2) Auto Interleave, 3) Media Analysis, 4)
Performance Test, 5) Seek Test, 6) Read/Verify Test, 7) Check
Test Cylinder Test, 8) Force Bad Tracks.
Error Messages
There are two types of error messages that can be generated as
a result of performing the Hard Disk tests. These are
diagnostics-generated error messages, and controller-generated
error messages.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-5
Diagnostics Generated Error Messages
This error message is generated by the Performance Test
procedure which requires at least 128KB of RAM space. So, if
your system board has less than 128KB of available RAM
space, you cannot use this function.
Controller Generated Error Messages
The controller generated error messages encountered while
performing any of the hard disk functions are displayed in a
window with 2 lines:
The actual error message could be any of the following:
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E-6
Address mark not found
Requested sector not found (Sector not found)
Reset failed
Drive parameter activity failed
Bad sector flag detected
Bad ECC on disk read (Unrecoverable error checking and
correction (ECC) or cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error)
ECC corrected data error
Controller has failed (General controller failure)
Seek operation failed
Attachment failed to respond (Time out error)
Write fault on selected drive
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The Hard Disk Format Test
Warning!
The Hard Disk Format Test is a destructive operation. Back
up the hard disk(s) on which this routine will be performed
before actually performing the operation.
Note
This test is not valid for a SCSI drive.
Use the Hard Disk Format Test to 1) integrate a new hard disk
to the system, or 2) reformat a used hard disk which has
developed some bad patches as a result of aging or poor
handling.
After entering the Advanced ROM Diagnostic program, the
following screen will appear. “Hard disk” is highlighted with a
block cursor in the main menu. Below this horizontal menu is
another menu which lists all available hard disk tests. “Hard
Disk Format” is highlighted in this menu when it first appears
on the screen.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-7
The box on the left contains a series of questions (fields) which
must be answered before performing the Hard Disk Format
Test. The answers are entered to the right of the question
mark. The first question will already be answered for you as
long as a value has been previously entered at the CMOS
Setup screen. This value is 0 for a ‘C’ drive and 1 for a ‘D’
drive. If the disk drive ID (C/D) has been previously entered at
the CMOS Setup Screen, then the ID (C/D) will appear to the
right of the question mark following the “Disk Drive (CD)”
field. If this information has not been entered, then enter the
appropriate response now.
E-8
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Disk Drive Type
After entering the appropriate response (if it hasn’t already
been entered) the default value (1, if the drive was not entered
during the CMOS Setup) for “Disk Drive Type” will appear to
the right of the “?" following the “Disk Drive Type” field. The
cursor blinks to the right of the “?," prompting for either a new
value, or acceptance of the default value, by pressing
< ENTER > .
The information box to the right contains a listing of 47
possible drive types. The first 16 are visible when the box first
appears. Entries 17 through 47 are visible by scrolling through
the list using the up and down arrow keys. The 47th entry is
called the USER definition entry.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-9
E-10
These 47 different drive types are identified by the following
characteristics:
This is the number designation for a drive with
certain identification parameters.
This is the number of cylinders found in the
specified drive type.
This is the number of heads found in the
specified drive type.
W-pcomp is the read delay circuitry, which takes
into account the timing differences between the
inner and outer edges of the surface of the disk
platter. The number designates the starting
cylinder of the signal.
L-zone is the landing zone of the heads. This
number determines the cylinder location where
the heads will normally park when the unit is
shut down.
This is the formatted capacity of the drive based
on the following formula:
# of heads
x
# of cylinders
x
17 secs/cyl.
x
512 bytes/sec.
To choose a drive type, use the up and down arrow keys. The
bar cursor highlights each selection in sequence. The type
value (l-47) of your highlighted selection will automatically
appear in the Hard Disk Format information box. When you
are satisfied with your selection, press <ENTER>. This
moves the cursor to the next field.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Interleave Factor
After pressing <ENTER> at the “Disk Drive type” field, the
cursor will blink below either the default value or the previous
value entered for the “Interleave (l-16)” field. The default
value is the previous value determined by Auto Interleave.
Type the desired value and press < ENTER > . The cursor will
m&e to the next field, “Mark Bad Tracks (Y/N).”
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-11
Mark Bad Tracks
E-12
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The Bad Track Edit Menu
With the block cursor highlighting “Add an entry,” press
< ENTER >. This will cause another box to appear below the
Bad Track Edit Menu. This box asks you to enter the track
number for the entry you wish to add. When the box first
appears, either the default (0) value or the previous value
entered will appear. The cursor will blink below the value,
prompting you to either accept the value by pressing
< ENTER >, or enter a new value. After pressing
< ENTER >, the cursor will prompt you to enter a value for
head number. You may accept the default value (0), or the
previous value entered, by pressing < ENTER >. To change
this value, type a new value and press < ENTER>. The entry
box will disappear and the block cursor will once again
highlight “Add an entry” in the Bad Track Edit Menu. To add
more entries, press < ENTER>.
The program will not accept dual entries. Attempting to enter
dual entries will prompt the box to display the message, “Entry
already present, enter again.” The cursor will return to the
track number field, prompting you for a new value. Entries are
listed in the Bad Track List box.
Using the down arrow key, move the block cursor to “Revise
an entry” in the Bad Track Edit Menu. Press <ENTER >.
The last entry in the Bad Track List will be highlighted with
the block cursor. To select an entry for revision, use the up and
down arrow keys to highlight the desired selection. Press
< ENTER >. The entry box will disappear and the block
cursor will once again highlight “Add an entry” in the Bad
Track Edit Menu. To add more entries, press <ENTER >,
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-13
The Enter New Track # and Head # box will appear with the
current track # (Cyl.) value entered in the field to the right of
“Enter New Track #.” Type in a new value (if desired) at the
blinking cursor, and press < ENTER >. Enter a new value at
“Enter New Head #.” The program will not accept dual
entries. All values must not exceed the corresponding cylinder
and head values for the disk drive type entered at that field.
Using the up and down arrow keys, move the cursor bar until
“Delete add entry” is highlighted. Press < ENTER >. The
last entry in the Bad Track List box is highlighted. Use the up
and down arrow keys to highlight the entry you wish to delete.
After highlighting the desired entry you wish to delete, press
< ENTER > to delete it. The entry box will disappear and the
block cursor will once again highlight “Add an entry” in the
Bad Track Edit Menu. To add more entries, press <ENTER>.
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Clear the Bad Track List
Using the up and down arrow keys, move the cursor bar until
“Clear bad trk list” is highlighted. To clear the list in the Bad
Track List box, press < ENTER >.
When you are ready to save the information in the Bad Tracks
List box, press <ENTER>. The edit menu will disappear and
the cursor returns to the “Start cylinder number” field in the
Hard Disk Format information box.
E-14
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Start Cylinder Number
See Figure E-2.
Enter the cylinder number where you want the formatting to
begin. The default value is ‘0’.
End Cylinder Number
See Figure E-2.
Enter the cylinder number where you want the formatting to
end. The default value is the last cylinder in the drive.
Start Head Number
See Figure E-2.
Enter the head number where you want the formatting to
begin in the cylinders specified in the previous two fields. The
default value is ‘0’.
End Head Number
See Figure E-2.
Enter the cylinder number where you want the formatting to
end. The default value is the last head in each cylinder.
Proceed
If all the previous entries contain the appropriate values, then
press ‘Y’. If ‘N’ is entered here, the cursor will return to the
Disk Drive Type field. When you are satisfied with the values
entered at each field, enter ‘Y’ at the Proceed field. A
WARNING message appears:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-15
After you enter ‘Y’, the Activity box appears on the right side
of the screen. “Format” IS highlighted in the Activity box. In
the Status portion of the Activity box, the specified cylinders,
heads, and sectors are displayed sequentially as they are
formatted.
E-16
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Auto Interleave Routine
Note
This test is not valid for a SCSI drive,
Run the Auto Interleave Routine to optimize hard disk
performance. This routine actually occurs in two separate steps.
First, the BIOS will calculate the optimum interleave value
through trial and error by measuring the transfer rate for four
different interleave values. During this process, a portion of the
hard disk is formatted to determine the best interleave value.
The BIOS will then format the hard disk using this interleave
factor. If a list of bad tracks is required before formatting the
hard disk, press < ESC > to abort the second part of the test.
Then, press <ENTER> to return to the main menu. Perform
the Hard Disk Format Test. To perform the Auto Interleave
Routine:
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At the Hard Disk menu, highlight “Auto Interleave” using
the bar cursor. Then, press <ENTER>. That causes the
Auto Interleave Detection box to appear on the left side of
the screen. The box contains the following questions (fields)
that must be answered with appropriate responses. These
responses are addressed earlier in this tab under the heading
“Hard Disk Format Test.”
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-17
If you want to change a response to one or both of these fields
before running the test, enter “N” at the “Proceed” field. This
will return the cursor to the Disk Drive Type field unless the
Disk Drive ID (CD) has not been previously entered at the
CMOS Setup screen. If this has not been done, the cursor will
prompt you for an appropriate response at this field first.
E-18
After you have entered the appropriate information at the first
two fields, enter Y at the “Proceed” field. A WARNING box
will appear on the screen:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Entering “N” returns you to the Auto Interleave Routine
Information Box. Entering “Y” causes the following
information boxes to appear: 1) Auto Interleave Detection,
2) Bad Track List, and 3) Activity. In the Auto Interleave
Detection box, the transfer rate is calculated for up to four
(4) different interleave factors. These interleave factors are 14.
The Bad Track List box displays the status of the routine. At
different times during the routine, the following messages will
be displayed in this box:
To determine the best interleave factor, the system will format
a portion of the hard disk for each transfer rate calculated. The
cylinders, heads and sectors formatted for each value during
this first part of the test are displayed in the Activity box.
“Format,” highlighted in the upper part of the box, flickers to
indicate that the cylinders, heads and sectors displayed below
are being formatted.
After the optimum interleave factor has been determined, the
Bad Tracks List will display the optimum interleave factor:
This initiates the second part of the test. A hard disk format
test is performed on the entire hard disk using the optimum
interleave factor. The Activity box displays the formatting
activity of the hard disk by cylinder, head and sector number.
The test can be aborted at any time by pressing < ESC >.
When the test is finished or aborted, press <ENTER> to
return to the main menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-l9
Media Analysis Test
The Media Analysis Test performs a series of tests to locate bad
patches. Even though you may have a list of bad patches from
the manufacturer, this will not list any new bad patches which
may have developed as a result of aging or poor handling. This
test locates all bad tracks on the hard disk and lists them in the
Bad Track List box. Since this test writes from all cylinders and
heads on the hard disk to verify any bad tracks, this test may
require several minutes to complete. For best results, run this
test to its entirety.
E-20
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
To run the Media Analysis Test:
At the Hard Disk Menu, highlight “Media Analysis.”
Press < ENTER >. Fill in the appropriate response for each of
the following fields in the Hard Disk Surface Analysis
information box:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-21
Each of these fields are described earlier in this section under the
heading “Hard Disk Format Test.”
When you have filled the first seven fields with an appropriate
response, enter “Y” in the Proceed field. The following
WARNING message will appear:
The Bad Track List with all current entries, and the Activity
box will also appear at this time. Entering N will return the
cursor to the Disk Drive Type field in the Hard Disk Surface
Analysis information box. Entering Y will initiate the test.
While the test is performed, Write and Verify are highlighted
with a block cursor in the Activity box. These words flash
during the test. The status line below displays the cylinder,
head and sector numbers as they are written and verified.
Press < ENTER> to return to the main menu.
E-22
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Hard Disk Performance Test
Note
Before performing the Hard Disk Performance Test,
optimize the Interleave factor. See Auto Interleave Routine
earlier in this section for instructions.
The Performance Test determines the Data Transfer Rate and
the Track to Track Seek time based on transfer size, seek count
and data transferred. Data Transfer Rate is measured in
kilobytes per second. Track to Track Seek Time is measured in
milliseconds. To determine the transfer rate, the CPU reads
64KB blocks 15 times. Then, the CPU reads the number of
timer ticks. Transfer rate is calculated by multiplying 64KB by
15, multiplying this value by 18.2 (# of times the timer
interrupt counts in 1 sec) and dividing this value by the
number of system timer ticks. Track to Track Seek Time is
calculated by multiplying the number of ticks by 1000, and
dividing this value by 18.2 times/set x the number of Seeks
(200).
Transfer rate =
Seek Time =
64KBx 15 timesX 18.2 times/set
# system timer ticks
# timer ticksX 1000
18.2 times/sec x 200 Seeks
= KB/sec
= millisecs
The table below lists acceptable and unacceptable values for
these tests when performed on the two SCSI fixed drive
options. This information is calculated and displayed in the
Hard disk Performance Test Information box on the right side
of the screen.
To perform the Hard Disk Performance Test:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-23
E-24 Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Seek Test
The Seek Test determines the seek capability of the hard disk
on the specified cylinder and head range. First, a sequential
seek is performed, followed by a random seek. Any errors
occurring during this test are displayed.
To perform a Seek Test:
At the Hard Disk Menu, highlight “Seek Test.” Press
< ENTER >. Fill in the appropriate response for each of the
following fields in the Seek Test information box:
Disk Drive (C/D)
Disk Drive Type
Start cylinder number
End cylinder number
Start Head number
End Head number
Proceed (Y/N)
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Each of these fields are described earlier in this section under the
heading “Hard Disk Format Test.”
When you have filled the first six fields with an appropriate
response, enter “Y” in the Proceed field. This will cause the
Activity box to appear on the right side of the screen. As the
test is performed, the cylinder numbers, head numbers, and
sector numbers are first displayed sequentially to the specified
range, then randomly displayed. “Seek” is highlighted with a
block cursor in the Activity box, and flashes during the entire
process. To abort the test, press <ESC>. When this test is
aborted or finished, press < ENTER > to return to the main
menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-25
Hard Disk Read/Verify lest
This test performs sequential and random read and verify
operations on the cylinder and head range specified in the
Hard Disk Read/Verify Test Information box.
To perform the Hard Disk Read/Verify Test:
At the Hard Disk Menu, highlight “Hard Disk Read/Verify
Test.” Press < ENTER >. Fill in the appropriate response for
each of the following fields in the Hard Disk Read/Verify Test
information box:
E-26
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Each of these fields are described earlier in this section under the
heading “Hard Disk Format Test.”
When you have filled the first six fields with an appropriate
response, enter “Y” in the Proceed field. This will cause the
Activity box to appear on the right side of the screen. As the
test is performed, the cylinder numbers, head numbers, and
sector numbers are first displayed sequentially to the specified
range, then randomly displayed. “Seek” is highlighted with a
block cursor in the Activity box, and flashes during the entire
process.
When this test is aborted or finished, press < ENTER > to
return to the main menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-27
Check Test Cylinder Test
The last cylinder on the hard disk is the test cylinder. This
cylinder should be tested if a C:Drive or D:Drive error occurs
during the POST. A Read/Verify test is performed on all
sectors in the test cylinder. This test should pass in at least one
sector. If the test fails in all sectors, then one of two possible
problems has occurred. Either the test cylinder itself is faulty, or
too many cylinders were specified for the hard drive in the
CMOS Setup program.
To perform the Check Test Cylinder Test:
E-28
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
At the Hard Disk menu, highlight “Check Test Cyl.” using
the bar cursor. Then, press < ENTER > . That causes the
Hard Disk Test Cylinder Test box to appear on the left side of
the screen. The box contains the following questions (fields)
that must be answered with appropriate responses. These
responses are addressed earlier in this tab under the heading
“Hard Disk Format Test.”
If you want to change a response to one or both of these fields
before running the test, enter N at the “Proceed” field. This
will return the cursor to the Disk Drive Type field unless the
Disk Drive ID (C/D) has not been previously entered at the
CMOS Setup screen. If this has not been done, the cursor will
prompt you for an appropriate response at this field first.
After you have entered the appropriate information at the first
two fields, enter “Y” at the “Proceed” field.
This causes the Activity box to appear on the right side of the
screen. The words “Write” and “Verify” are highlighted in the
upper half of the box. These flash while the test is in progress
to indicate that these functions are being performed. In the
lower half of this box, the status line displays the number of
the last cylinder in the hard disk, the number of the the last
head, and the sectors in sequence as they are tested. When this
test is aborted or finished, press <ENTER> to return to the
main menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-29
E-31
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Force Bad Tracks Routine
Figure E-12 The force Bad Tracks Routine
Note
This routine is not valid for SCSI drives.
This operation allows you to define a set of tracks as faulty
before performing a low level format. This routine
accomplishes the same objective as the Hard Disk Format Test,
serving as a short cut routine for marking bad tracks before
formatting the disk. This routine should be run if you neglected
to enter had tracks in the Hard Disk Format Test. To run the
Force Bad Tracks Routine, perform the following:
At the Hard Disk menu, highlight “Force Bad Tracks” using
the bar cursor. Then, press <ENTER>. That causes the
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-31
Hard Disk Test Cylinder Test box to appear on the left side of
the screen. The box contains the following questions (fields)
that must be answered with appropriate responses. These
responses are addressed earlier in this section under the heading
“Hard Disk Format Test.”
After you have entered the appropriate information at the first
four fields, enter “Y” at the “Proceed” field.
This causes the Activity box to appear on the right side of the
screen. “Format” is highlighted in the upper half of the box.
This flashes while the test is in progress to indicate that this
function is being performed. In the lower half of this box, the
status line displays the number of the cylinders, the number of
the heads, and the number of the sectors in sequence as they
are formatted. When this routine is finished, press
< ENTER > to return to the main menu.
Floppy Diagnostics
There are five different tests which can be performed on a
floppy drive. These are:
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E-32
Diskette Format Test
Speed Test
Random Read/Write Test
Sequential Read/Write Test
Disk Change Line Test
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-33
Error Messages
Error messages can either be ROM Diagnostics generated, or
controller generated. The error messages encountered while
performing any of the diskette functions are displayed in a
window with 2 lines:
ROM Diagnostics Generated
Error Messages
This error message is generated while running the “Disk
change line test” if the program detects that the disk change is
not working. This can also happen if you have not removed
and reinserted the diskette as requested during the test. Replace
the disk drive if you suspect a faulty drive.
This error message is generated if the Disk change line test is
performed on a 360KB or 720KB drive.
Controller Generated Error Messages
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E-34
TIMEOUT error (Diskette drive not ready)
BAD SEEK error (Seek operation failed)
BAD CRC error (Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error on
diskette read)
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
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Diskette WRITE PROTECTED (Write protect error)
MEDIA CHANGE error (Media type not found)
BAD DMA error (DMA overrun on operation)
Record Not Found (Requested sector not found)
BAD Address Mark (Address mark not found)
Floppy Diskette Format Test
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-35
To perform a Diskette Format Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Press < ENTER > . That causes the Diskette format
box to appear on the left side of the screen. The box contains
the following questions (fields) that must be answered with
appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” When you are satisfied with the
information entered for the first field, enter “Y” at the
“Proceed” field.
E-36
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Entering: “Y” at the "Proceed” field causes the Activity box to
appear on the right side of the screen. “Fomat” is highlighted
in the upper half of the box. This flashes while the test is in
progress to indicate that this function is being performed. In
the lower half of this box, the status line displays the number
of the cylinders, the number of the heads, and the number of
the sectors in sequence as they are formatted. When this test is
finished, press < ENTER> to return to the main menu.
Drive Speed Test
This test determines the rotational speed of the drive. Consult
your floppy drive documentation for acceptable tolerances.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-37
To perform a Drive Speed Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu. “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Drive Speed
Test.” Press < ENTER >. That causes the Diskette format
box to appear on the left side of the screen. The box contains
the following questions (fields) that must be answered with
appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field, enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message:
E-38
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
< ENTER>, the message box will contain the following
message:
At the bottom of the Activity box, the message “Wait for 2
minutes” will appear briefly as the test begins. The test will
record a LOWER limit, and an UPPER limit during this time
period. The Current Speed will flash.
When the test has been aborted or completed, press
< ENTER > to return to the main menu.
Random Read/Write Test
This test performs a random read/write operation on the
diskette, checking the random seek, read and write capability
of the drive. The diskette used in this test must be formatted
under the user’s operating system before running the test.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-39
Warning!
operation. This means that the
data on the diskette required to perform these tests will be
destroyed. ‘When performing these operations, be certain
that the formatted diskettes required for these tests does not
contain valuable information which cannot be recovered
from the hard disk or from another diskette.
This test is a destructive
To perform the Random Read/Write Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
E-40
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Random
Read/Write Test.” Press < ENTER>. That causes the
Diskette format box to appear on the left side of the screen.
The box contains the following questions (fields) that must be
answered with appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field. enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-41
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
< ENTER >, the message box will contain the following
message:
In the upper portion of the activity box, “Read,” “Write,” and
“Verify” will flash in sequence as these operations are
performed. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder numbers, head numbers, and sector numbers will be
read, written, and verified.
When the test has been aborted or .completed, press
< ENTER> to return to the main menu.
Sequential Read/Write Test
This test performs a sequential read/write operation, checking
the sequential seek, read, and write capability of the drive. The
diskette used in this test must be formatted under the user’s
operating system before running the test.
E-42
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
To perform the Sequential Read/Write Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Sequential
Read/Write Test,” Press < ENTER >. That causes the
Diskette format box to appear on the left side of the screen.
The box contains the following questions (fields) that must be
answered with appropriate responses. These are:
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field, enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-43
Figure E-17. The Sequential Read/Write Test
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message:
E-44
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
< ENTER >, the message box will contain the following
message:
In the upper portion of the Activity box, “Write,” and
“Verify” will flash in sequence as these operations are
performed. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder numbers, head numbers, and sector numbers will be
read, written, and verified sequentially by sector number. In
other words, sector I will be written and verified for all 80
tracks, followed by sector 2, 3 and so on.
When the test has been aborted or completed, press
< ENTER> to return to the main menu.
Disk Change line Test
This test verifies the disk change line capability of the floppy
drive. A drive with disk line change capability allows the
operating system to recognize that a new diskette has been
inserted without accessing the Format Allocation Table (FAT).
The diskette used in this test must be formatted under the
user’s operating system before running the test.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-45
Figure E-18. The Disk Change Line Test
To perform the Disk Change Line Test:
Highlight “Floppy” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
all possible tests available for the Floppy drive. At this Floppy
Disk Menu, “Diskette format” should be highlighted with the
bar cursor. Use the down arrow key to highlight “Disk Change
Line Test.” Press <ENTER > . That causes the Disk Change
Line Test box to appear on the left side of the screen. The box
contains the following questions (fields) that must be answered
with appropriate responses. These are:
E-46
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
The response for the first field depends upon the response
given in the CMOS Setup screen. If the response entered by
the user at the CMOS Setup screen was “A,” this field will
automatically display “A.” If the response entered by the user
at the CMOS Setup screen was “B,” this field will
automatically display “B.” To change the response, enter the
appropriate value at the CMOS Setup screen. When you are
satisfied with the information entered for the first field, enter
“Y” at the “Proceed” field.
Entering “Y” causes two information boxes to appear: 1) a
message box on the left side of the screen, and 2) the Activity
box on the right side of the screen. The message box contains
the following message:
After inserting a formatted diskette in the drive, and pressing
< ENTER > , the Activity box will contain the following
information:
In the upper portion of the Activity box, “Verify” will be
highlighted. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder number will display “0,” the head number will display
“0,” and the sector number will display “1.” The message box
will then contain the following message:
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-47
In the upper portion of the Activity box, “Verify” will be
highlighted. In the Status portion of the Activity box, the
cylinder number will display “0,” the head number will display
“0,” and the sector number will display “1.” When the test
has been completed, press <ENTER> to return to the main
menu.
Keyboard Diagnostic:
There is only one Keyboard Diagnostics Test: the Scan/ASCII
Code Test. This will help you determine whether the keys
depressed match their Scan and ASCII codes.
Every time you depress a key to verify its code, the scan code
and ASCII code of the key displays on the screen. The key
symbol will also be displayed on the keyboard display in its
proper location.
To perform the Scan/ASCII code Test:
Highlight “Keyboard” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
the Scan/ASCII Code Test. Press < ENTER >. This causes a
screen keyboard layout to display. Scan code and ASCII Code
fields rest above the keyboard layout on the screen.
To test the keyboard, press the keys on the keyboard. The scan
codes and ASCII codes display in the appropriate fields for
each key as it is pressed. Use this test to verify the codes with
their respective keys. Performing this test will help you to
identify and faulty keys. Use the following tables to verify the
codes with the keys.
Press < CTRL > < BREAK > to leave this test.
E-48
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Video Diagnostics
Figure E-19. Video Tests
The range of video tests available depends upon the type of
display adapter card installed in the system. The following tests
are available for both monochrome color display adapters
and monitors:
This checks the sync capability
This performs a test on
the display
memory.
This checks the attributes of the
display.
This checks the 80 X 25 character
set of the display adapter.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-49
These tests are available for systems with a color display card
and color monitor:
Test results for all diagnostics functions except the Sync Test
are displayed on the screen. To perform any of these visual
tests:
Highlight “Video” in the main menu by using the left and
right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which lists
the various tests. “Run All Tests” is highlighted with a block
cursor. To highlight and of the visual tests below the Sync
Test, use the up and down arrow keys. Press < ENTER > to
initiate test and follow onscreen messages.
Error Messages
ROM Diagnostics Generated
Error Messages
This error message is generated if the Adapter Test detects any
R/W error in the display memory. This message indicates a
video controller problem.
E-50
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Miscellaneous Diagnostics
These include the following tests: 1) Printer Port Test, and
2) Serial Communication Port Test.
Printer Adapter Test
This test writes a pattern on the printer. The results are
observed here. If the printer does not write, then the test has
failed.
Error Messages
l
l
l
l
Error - Printer Out of Paper
Error - Printer Not Selected
Error - Printer Interface I/O Error
Error - Time Out On Printer
All error messages except for “Printer Out of Paper” indicate a
problem with the controller.
To perform the Printer Adapter Test:
Highlight “Miscellaneous” in the main menu by using the left
and right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which
lists the two tests. “Printer Adapter Test” is highlighted with a
block cursor. Press < ENTER >. The message box in the
middle of the screen displays the following message:
When the test is completed, press < ENTER > to return to
the main menu.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-51
Figure E-20. The Printer Adapter Test
Serial Communication Adapter Test
This test requires a special RS-232 Turn-Around Connector
plugged into the port. It must be jumpered as follows:
TXD & RXD (2 & 3) shorted
RTS &. CTS (4 & 5) shorted
DSR DTR (6 & 20) shorted
This test is programmed to read the following data: 9600 baud
rate, odd parity, 2 stop-hits, and 8-bit data. This test first
performs a reset function to check for all possible errors. Then,
the test performs a send function, followed by a receive
function.
E-52
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Error Messages
Error—Time out!
Error-Break Detected
Error Framing error
Error Parity error
Error—Overrun error
If a time out error occurs during the send and receive portions,
this indicates a problem with the communication adapter
controller.
To perform the Serial Communication Port Test:
Highlight “Miscellaneous” in the main menu by using the left
and right arrow keys. Below this menu is another menu which
lists the two tests. “Printer Adapter Test” is highlighted with a
block cursor. To highlight “Comm. Adapter Test,” use the
down arrow key. Press < ENTER >. The RS-232C Connector
Details Information box will appear. This box displays the
jumper settings. The message line at the bottom of the box will
prompt you for an answer to the following question:
The message box in the middle of the screen displays:
Typing an “N” will return you to return to the main menu.
Typing a “Y” will initiate the test.
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
E-53
The message box in the middle of the Screen displays:
This test will run for about 2 minutes. Press <ENTER> to
return to the main menu when the test is completed.
Figure E-21. Serial Communication Adapter Test
E-54
Advanced ROM Diagnostics
Appendix F
EISA Configuration Utility
The EISA Configuration Utility is used to configure EISA
(Extended Industry Standard Architecture) computer systems.
EISA systems and adaptor cards are much more complex and
flexible than the older ISA designs. Using DIP switches and
jumpers to configure EISA cards would be much too complex.
The EISA Configuration Utility was created to automate this
configuration process.
The EISA Configuration Utility (ECU) generates a
configuration taking into account the needs of all of the boards
in the system. To do this the ECU uses CFG Files that are
supplied with each board. The ECU stores configuration data
in the system’s Extended CMOS Memory which is maintained
even when the system is turned off. When an EISA system is
powered on, the BIOS reads this configuration information and
initializes all of the boards in the system.
Entering the Utility
To enter the ECU, type the following command at the DOS
prompt after inserting the ECU diskette to the drive. The ECU
diskette is provided with the system or the option boards.
Then the screen will display as below.
EISA Configuration Utility F-1
You can use the available key conventions listed on the bottom
line of the main menu or mouse to select each parameter.
Main Menu
The main menu has five choices. To select a choice, use the
cursor keys to move the menu bar to the choice, and then press
< Enter >. You may also select a choice by pressing the key
corresponding to the choice’s highlighted letter. If you have a
mouse, you may select a choice by moving the mouse cursor to
a choice and clicking the left mouse button.
The five choices available at the main menu are:
F-2
File
Copy files to and from diskettes or backup
configuration files for safe keeping or transport
to another system. For more information see File
Menu.
Configure
Configure an EISA system either automatically
EISA Configuration Utitlity
or manually, check syntax of CFG files, or write
configuration information into CMOS memory.
For more information see Configuration Menu.
Display/Print Display or print any information related to a
configuration that has been saved. For more
information, see Display/Print.
Help
Context sensitive help, for more information see
Using Help.
Quit
Exit AMI EISA Configuration Utility.
File Menu
If you select the “File” on the main menu then the following
message will appear.
EISA Configuration Utility F-3
Two options are available from the file menu:
Copy Copies CFG files from diskettes into the working
directory. The default source and destination path can
be overridden, as well as the *.CFG filespec.
Backup Makes a backup copy of CMS and INF files (which
contain a saved configuration). This backup can be
used for safekeeping or can be copied to another EISA
system and loaded into that systems CMOS memory.
COPY
File Copy
To run the “Copy”, select the item on the main menu then
you can see the following message.
Select “Yes”.
F-4 EISA Configuration Utility
File Copy allows CFG Files to be copied from diskettes into the
current directory. You may override the source and destination
to copy files between any two drives/directories. Configuration
will be easier if all CFG files are in the default directory.
When prompted, insert the diskette in the specified drive.
Make sure that the drive door is closed.
The utility will display the names of all CFG files on the
diskette. Use cursor keys to move the selection bar over the
file(s) that you want to copy, and then press enter. If you are
using a mouse, simply click on the file(s) that you want to copy.
The utility will then pause to allow you to change the
destination drive/directory.
EISA ‘ConjTguration Utility F-5
If the source and destination are the same diskette drive, you
may choose to pause for diskette changing.
Backup Configuration
To run the “Back Up”, select the item on the main menu
then you can see the following message.
F-6 EISA Configuration Utility
Select “Yes”.
Backup allow you to make a backup copy of your configuration.
This is done by copying the configuration storage files to a
diskette. These two files are the CMS File and the INF File.
If more than one pair of CMS/INF files are in the current
directory, you will be asked to choose which one to backup.
Making a backup of your configuration will allow you to
quickly restore a configuration if your computer’s battery fails.
Making a backup also allows you to copy a configuration to
another EISA system with the same equipment installed.
To restore an old configuration, choose “Write Extended
CMOS” from the configuration menu. This command copies
the information in the CMS file into a system’s Extended
CMOS Memory which is maintained by the battery when the
system is turned off.
EISA Configuration Utility
F-7
Configuration Menu
To run the “Configure”, select the item on the main menu
then you can see the following message.
Three options are available from the configure menu:
Check CFG File
Runs a syntax check on one or more CFG files and reports
any errors.
Configure
Displays the Main Config Menu which is used to control
configuration options and to begin a configuration session.
F-8 EISA Configuration Utility
Write Ext CMOS
This option will copy the contents of a CMS File into this
system’s Extended CMOS Memory which is maintained by
the battery when the system is turned off. Doing this will
erase any previous configuration information stored in
Extended CMOS Memory. If there is more than one CMS
File in the current directory, you will be asked with one to
use.
Main Config Menu
The main configuration menu has four groups of choices.
Within each group only one choice may be selected. Each of
the four groups is described below:
*
‘Create New Configuration vs. Modify Old Configuration:
Choosing “Create New” will begin a new configuration
from scratch. It you want to make changes to a
configuration that was saved from an earlier configuration
session, choose “Modify Old Configuration.”
EISA Configuration Utility F-9
Automatic vs. Manual:
Selecting “Automatic” will cause the configuration utility
to ask you only a few essential questions. In automatic
mode a default configuration will be produced. Selecting
“Manual” allows access to advanced features such as
function choice selection and resource allocation editing.
The “Add Board” and “Remove Board” options are
available only through Manual Mode.
Local vs. Remote:
Select “Local” if the configuration that you are working on
is for this computer. If you want to produce a configuration
for a computer other than this one, select “Remote.” In
Local mode, configuration information will be stored in
this computer’s Extended CMOS Memory as well as a
CMS File and INF File. In Remote mode the configuration
will be stored in the files only. These files can be copied to
a diskette using the Backup option. The diskette can then
be brought to another computer and the configuration can
be copied into that system’s extended CMOS memory.
Which CFG Files to configure:
If “Create New Configuration” is selected, you must tell
the utility which CFG files (one for each board) should be
used for the configuration. There are four options here:
1. Use CFG files for installed boards
The utility will automatically detect which EISA boards
are installed and use the CFG files for these boards.
This option is available in local mode only.
2. Use filenames listed in CFGLIST file
The utility opens the CFGLIST file which contains a
list of CFG files to be used.
3. Select files one by one
Allows you to choose CFG files and configure boards
interactively.
4. Use all CFG files in this directory
The utility will configure all of the CFG files in the
current directory.
F-l0
EISA Configuration Utility
Which CMS File to modify:
If “Modify Old Con figuration” is selected, you must tell
the utility which CMS file contains the saved
configuration data. There are three options here.
1. Use default CMS name
The utility searches for a CMS file matching the name
of the system board. This option is available in local
mode only.
2. Select CMS file from directory listing
You will be asked to select the CMS file from a list of
all CMS files in the current directory.
3. Enter CMS file name using keyboard
You will be asked to enter the file name of the CMS file
that you want to modify.
If you finish selecting the items on the main configuration
menu, click on “OK” and then select the file you want to
modify or create the configuration on the “File Selection
Menu”. Then the ECU checks the CFG file and gives you the
information of the file. Press Enter twice.
EISA Configuration Utility
F-11
Modify Configuration Menu
There are four options available from this menu:
Edit Functions/Resources
Choosing this option allows advanced configuration
editing. You may change function choice settings and
resource allocation settings.
Add a Board
Allows one or more boards to be added to the current
configuration. You will be asked to select the CFG files for
each board that you want to add.
Remove a Board
Removes a board from the current configuration.
F-12 EISA Configuration Utility
Done with Configuration
Select this option when you are done editing, adding, and
removing boards. The CMS File and INF File will be saved
at this time. If you are configuring in “Local Mode” the
system’s Extended CMOS Memory will be updated also.
Configuration Editing
Select the “Edit Functions/Resources” on the menu of the top
left comer to enter the Configuration editing. Then choose the
slot you want to edit the configuration of it.
TriGem EISA 486133 System Board’s Configuration Editing
If you’d like to change the 486XE system configuration to
promote the performance or modify the system functions by
adding the video board, each memory, or RAM, select the slot
0 “TriGem EISA 486/33 System board” on the Configuration
Editing menu.
EISA Conzguvntion Utility
F-13
This menu contains a list of all functions for TriGem EISA
486/33 System board. Each function has a choice setting and
may have one or more resource blocks. To change a function’s
choice setting, select one of the long horizontal bars on the
screen. To change resource allocation settings, select one of the
shorter bars along the right edge of the screen. Press < End >
when you are finished editing this board.
F-14
EISA Configuration Utility
Function Selection
1. Video Board, option
If you select “Video Board Option”, the function select screen
will display like the following.
This menu shows the choice settings available for a function.
The current setting is indicated by a mark beside that setting.
You may change the current setting by selecting a different
choice. If you install the Monochrome video board on the
system, select “Monochrome”. Select “OK” to change the
function’s choice setting and return to the previous screen,
or select “Cancel” to ignore any change that you have just
made.
EISA Configuration Utility
F-15
2. Cache Memory Option
You can use 64KB or 128KB Cache memory with the system.
If you’d like to change the default setting of Cache memory
size, select “Cache memory Option” on the Board Function
menu.
Select the Cache memory size according to the one installed
on the system.
F-16 EISA Configuration Utility
3. RAM Size Option
If you select “RAM Size Option”, the function select screen
will display like the following.
In case you expand the RAM by installing SIMM on the main
board, select the proper item according it’s size.
EISA Configuration Utility
F-l7
Display/Print
The Display/Print menu has three groups of options. First select
which information you want to display (several types of
information can be selected at one time). Next select the
information source (“All Boards:’ or “Selected Boards”). If you
choose “Selected Boards,” you will be presented with a menu
of boards. Finally select where the information is to be sent, to
the screen, to the printer (LPTl), or to a file. If you choose
“File,” you will be prompted for a filename. When you are
finished making selections select “OK” to display the
information. Press “Cancel” to return to the Main Menu.
Using Help
The help window may be accessed at any time by pressing the
< Fl > key or by clicking on the “Help” option at the top of
the screen.
F-l8
EISA Configuration Utility
The help window includes a menu with five choices. To select
a choice, use the cursor keys to move the menu bar to the
desired choice and then press < Enter >. If you are using a
mouse; you may select a menu choice by moving the mouse to
the desired choice and pressing any button on the mouse. The
five choices in the help menu are:
>>
Scrolls the help window back towards the top.
<<
Scrolls the help window forward.
Index
Displays the Help Index, an index of all topics in
the help system.
Contents
Displays a Table of Contents for the help system.
Quit
Removes the help window form the screen and
continues where you left off.
CFG Files
Each expansion card in a EISA system should come with a
CFG file. A card’s CFG file contains detailed information on
the card as well as what functions the card can perform. The
CFG file tells the EISA configuration utility what choices the
user has in configuring that card and what system resources
have to be reserved for the card. System resources include
DMA channels DMA = Direct Memory Access), IRQ lines
(IRQ = Interrupt Request), Input/Output Ports, and Memory
space. Before TriGem EISA Configuration Utility can configure
an EISA system, all CFG files for all cards in the system and
the CFG file for the motherboard must be available to the
utility.
EISA Configuration Utility
F-19
Duplicate Files
‘When copying a CFG file into a directory, TriGem EISA
Configuration Utility checks to see if the file already exists. If
the file is already present, you are given the opportunity to
copy the file, but store it under a different name. The new
name will be determined by the industry standard procedure for
duplicate CFG files.
Using this procedure if the file !AMI25Bl.CFG is copied into a
directory where a file by the same name already exists, the new
file will be copied using the name lAMI25Bl.CFG. If the
same file is copied into that directory again it will be named
2AMI25Bl.CFG. The next time will be 3AMI25Bl.CFG and
so on. This procedure prevents the loss of any CFG file due to
overwriting.
CFG LIST File
The CFGLIST file is a text file that contains the names of the
CFG Files to be configured. The CFGLIST file can be created
with a text editor. Use the CFGLIST file when you do not
want to have to select the CFG files individually each time you
create a configuration.
CMS File
The CMS file contains a copy of the configuration information
that is written into the system’s Extended CMOS Memory.
The default name for a CMS file matches the ID of the system
board that was used in the configuration. Each CMS file should
have a corresponding INF file,
F-20 EISA Configuration Utility
INF File
The INF file contains detailed information about a
configuration such as switch and jumper settings, software
statements, connection statements, and resource allocation.
The INF file is used by the “Display/Print” command to recall
information on a saved configuration. Each INF file should
have a corresponding CMS file.
Extended CMOS Memory
Extended CMOS memory is a small amount of very lower
power memory on the system board. Configuration information
is stored in extended CMOS so that the BIOS can initialize
the system (including adapter cards) at power up. The contents
of CMOS memory is maintained by a battery. If the battery
runs down, the contents of CMOS memory may be lost. It is
then necessary to either reconfigure the system or copy a
backed up configuration into extended CMOS memory.
EISA Configuration Utility
F-21