A5000/A4000/SU700/SU200
Your Guide to the World of Yamaha Samplers
WIN & MAC
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CONTENTS
Part 1 Introduction to Sampling
The birth and evolution of sampling ………………1
Basic sampling concepts …………………………2
Basic sampling techniques …………………………2
Looping …………………………………………2
Multi-sampling ……………………………….…3
Velocity switching, velocity cross-fade …………3
Sampler parameters ………………………………3
Start point (start address)/
end point (end address) …………………………3
Loop start point (loop start address)/
loop end point (loop end address) ………………4
Sample playback mode …………………………4
Original key ……………………………………5
Key range ………………………………………5
Break beats…………………………………………5
1) Using sampled sound material “as is” …………5
2) Re-triggering during a measure………………6
3) Create multiple copies of a sample
with different start points ……………………6
Producing “good sound”……………………………7
1) Input section …………………………………7
2) Sound processing section ……………………8
3) Output section ………………………………8
Extra) Power supply …......………………………8
Part 2 Yamaha Musical Instruments
Enriching people’s lives throughout the world ……9
History of Yamaha musical instruments ……………9
Analog synthesizers ……………………………9
FM synthesizers ………………………………10
VL synthesizers ………………………………11
Hybrid synthesizers ……………………………11
Synthesizer expansion system:
Modular Synthesis Plug-In System……………11
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers
A4000/5000 samplers ……………………………12
Interface …………………………………………13
Internal structure …………………………………13
Samples …………………………………………13
Wave data ……………………………………13
Sample parameter data ………………………13
F1: TRIM/LOOP ………………………………13
F2: MAP/OUT …………………………………14
F3: FILTER ……………………………………15
F4: EG …………………………………………15
F5: LFO ………………………………………15
F6: MIDI/CTRL ………………………………15
Sample banks ……………………………………16
Programs …………………………………………16
F1: PROGRAM …………………………………16
F2: SAMPLE ……………………………………17
Assigning samples and sample banks …………17
Selecting programs ……………………………17
Selecting samples ……………………………..17
Editing sample banks …………………………17
F3: EASY EDIT …………………………………18
F4: EFFECT ……………………………………18
F5: SETUP ……………………………………20
F6: CONTROL …………………………………20
MIDI control settings …………………………20
Controller Reset & Note On Type settings ……20
Controller Reset ………………………………20
Note On Type …………………………………20
Program LFO …………………………………21
Convenient functions in EDIT/PLAY mode ………21
Quick entry ……………………………………21
MIDI input ……………………………………21
LIST display ……………………………………22
Tree view display ………………………………22
MIDI ➞ Sample ………………………………22
Commands ……………………………………22
RECORD mode ……………………………………23
Input source……………………………………23
Sampling frequency……………………………23
Record type ……………………………………23
Sample name …………………………………23
Monitor ………………………………………23
Click (metronome) ……………………………23
Recording triggers ……………………………23
Auto normalize…………………………………24
Recording hints ………………………………24
Recording while mapping ……………………24
Waveform processing ……………………………24
Saving and loading data …………………………26
Basic save/load operation and disk structure …26
Format …………………………………………26
Save …………………………………………26
Load …………………………………………27
Import …………………………………………27
Import-compatible data …………………………28
Commands ……………………………………28
Other unique features ……………………………29
AUDITION key …………………………………29
ASSIGNABLE key ……………………………29
Paying attention to sound quality …………………30
Computer compatibility …………………………30
A4000/5000 Editor
(sound parameter editing software) …………30
TWE Wave Editor ……………………………31
Sampling Unit SU700 …………………………….32
Loop Factory Sampling Unit SU200 ………………36
Part 4
Reference
Interview with the R&D staff ……………………39
SU200 operation guide …………………………40
Specifications ……………………………………48
Index …………………………………………………50
CD-ROM Contents ……………………………… … 52
Part 1 Introduction to Sampling
◊ The Birth and Evolution of Sampling
Part 1 Introduction to Sampling
The Birth and Evolution of Sampling
A digital sampler is a general term for an electronic
musical instrument that uses digital audio technology to
produce all kinds of sounds using recordings of the
sounds themselves as the sound source.
The beginnings of sampling can be traced back to
musique concrete, in which simple tape recorders and
other electronic devices were used to alter live sounds
and simulate real musical instruments. But the
simulation of musical instruments lies not only in the
roots of samplers, but also in the development of
electronic instruments themselves. In any case,
electronic instruments evolved to be able to readily
reproduce sounds that were closer to the real thing.
When analog synthesizers first began to appear on the
market, they were touted as being able to simulate the
sounds of trumpets, violins, wind and waves, showing
that their expressive power as musical instruments was
infinite. However, the sounds that these synthesizers
produced were approximate simulations, and did not
sound exactly like the real thing.
In the early 1980’s, digital samplers made their debut.
Samplers are musical instruments that incorporate
digital audio technology and have the ability to play any
recorded sound in a musical scale.
Because samplers make “recordings” of real musical
instruments and play them back as the sound source,
simulating musical instruments has evolved from the
“like the real thing” of the analog synthesizer era to
“being the real thing.”
In the early 80’s, samplers were extremely expensive
machines, and thus were not in common use. But by the
mid-80’s, moderately priced samplers appeared, and
this new breed of electronic instrument became widely
recognized. At that time, wave memory was small and
expensive, so long sampling times were impossible.
Also, processing speeds were limited, so users had to
be content with low sampling rates and with quantiza-
tion resolution limited to 12 bits. (Considering that,
in the audio world, 44.1-kHz/16-bit CDs had already
appeared on the scene, the digital audio performance of
these samplers was relatively low.)
In addition, wave editing such as looping was
complicated and difficult, and making high-quality
samples of real instruments was extremely difficult for
the end user. The use of sample library disks provided
by manufacturers was common. By the end of the 80’s,
models capable of stereo sampling at 44.1 kHz and
16-bit resolution, the same as an audio CD, appeared,
and their basic performance had improved greatly.
Sampling had entered a new era.
When we entered the 90’s, lower prices for memory,
higher CPU speeds, and improvements in A/D and D/A
conversion technologies led to further improvements in
basic performance—such as increases in sample
length, sound quality, the number of onboard samples
and the number of notes that could be produced
simultaneously. In contrast to the very first samplers,
which had less than 1 MB of memory and could only
produce from 6 to 8 notes, present-day samplers have
made phenomenal progress, featuring 128 MB of
memory and up to 126 notes of polyphony (Yamaha
A5000). Filters and built-in effects have also come to
have performance on a par with (or even better than)
digital synthesizers. Thus, samplers have evolved from
samplers capable of playing back only samples from
sound libraries to samplers that can synthesize.
It can be said that samplers have almost perfected the
simulation of real instruments. However, they are still
limited in their ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamic
variations in tone that real musical instruments produce.
Today, the simulation of real musical instruments is
moving in the direction of DSP-based modeling
technology such as Yamaha’s VA (Virtual Acoustic)
synthesizers (see page 11).
“Sampling” refers to the conversion of sound to a digital signal; a “sampler” is the machine that does the sampling. Prior to the
advent of digital samplers, instruments such as the Chamberlin and the Mellotron existed, which played back sound recorded on
magnetic tape when a key was struck. These were, in a sense, analog samplers.
At the end of the 80’s, low-cost PCM synthesizers appeared. These synthesizers used sampling technology and contained a large
amount of samples in their read-only memory. These units were easy enough for anyone to create the sounds of real instruments
and analog synthesizers. Since then, PCM synthesizers have evolved into GM/XG tone generators, and have established themselves
as one type of electronic instrument.
1
Part 1 Introduction to Sampling
◊ Basic Sampling Concepts ◊ Basic Sampling Techniques ◊ Sampler Parameters
For example, let’s consider sampling the sound of a
piano. Of course, reproduction quality would be best if
we could sample the entire duration—from the moment
the note is struck until it completely fades away—but
this would quickly use up the sampler’s wave memory.
Instead, the sound is sustained by repeating a portion of
the sample and using an amplitude EG (envelope
generator) to make the sound decay like a piano before
saving it into wave memory (Figure 3).
Basic Sampling Concepts
Samplers manipulate audio signals in digital form.
The sampling process can be described as 1)
segmenting a continuously changing analog signal into
extremely short time intervals, 2) converting the
amplitude level of the signal in each segment into digital
data, and 3) storing the data in memory. Sampling
occurs when a sampler records sounds. Analog audio
signals, which are continuously flowing waves of sound,
are converted into digital “steps,” and if these steps are
fine enough, the human ear will not be able to
distinguish the digital sample from the original analog
signal. “Sampling rate” and “bit resolution” are key
words indicating how fine these steps are.
The “sampling rate” (sampling frequency) indicates how
finely the time intervals of a sample are divided. Sound
is typically digitized at frequencies up to a maximum of
one-half the sampling rate. If the sampling rate is 44.1
kHz, sampling takes place 44,100 times per second, and
harmonics up to 22.05 kHz can be recorded. The higher
the sampling rate, the greater the range of sounds that
can be digitized, and the more faithfully sharp changes
in amplitude within a short period of time can be
recorded (Figure 1).
Audio data that has been recorded by a sampler is called
a sample (also called wave data), and it is stored in the
sampler’s wave memory. The sampler converts samples
of various sampling rates and bit resolutions into
pitches that correspond to the notes of a standard
musical scale. The sampler then outputs the data as an
analog signal, and in some cases converts it into a
digital audio signal. How accurately the signals are
reproduced also has a significant impact on sound
quality similar to the accuracy when sampling (during
recording). The key factors in this regard are the bit
resolution of the D/A converter, the bit rate of the digital
audio signal output by the sampler, and the accuracy of
the digital processing within the sampler.
The samples that current samplers handle are
primarily 44.1 kHz, 16-bit stereo samples, the same
audio quality as CDs, but new formats are emerging in
the world of audio, and will be adopted by samplers in
the future. Samplers have become widely popular, and
you might find one almost anywhere. This part will be
discussed later.
■ Multi-Sampling
When the pitch of a sample is varied over a wide range
to create a scale, the farther away the sample is from the
original pitch, the more the characteristics of the sound
change. Even with a simple piano sample, if the pitch
were changed to a large degree, you would never
recognize it as a piano. For this reason, “multisampling” is often used. Multi-sampling is done by
dividing the instrument into multiple key ranges (ideally,
one sample per key), thereby minimizing the pitch range
represented by one sample (Figure 4).
2
Creators of sample sound libraries use sound editing
techniques unique to samplers to produce high-quality
voices that closely resemble the actual instruments.
Here, we will introduce three basic techniques. Not only
are these techniques used in creating sample sound
libraries available on the market, but also in creating
sampled waveforms for PCM synthesizers.
■ Looping
Looping is a familiar technique. For sounds that
simulate real instruments, it refers not to looping a
phrase, but to repeating a portion of a sample over and
over again to obtain a long sustaining sound.
Virtually all samplers have the same basic sample data
parameters. In order to understand how samples work,
you should familiarize yourself with the parameters
described below, even if you’re just using a MIDI
keyboard to play a sampler. Samplers have numerous
other parameters beyond the basic ones required to make
a tone, and their number and type depend to a great
extent on the model.
The Yamaha A Series in particular has a vast number of
parameters and parameter types. For this reason, the
A Series can be considered “samplers that synthesize.”
■ Start Point (Start Address)/End Point
(End Address)
Basic Sampling Techniques
The bit resolution (number of quantization bits)
represents the number of digits used to convert the
amplitude into the binary system of 0’s and 1’s, and the
dynamic range is the bit count x 6 (dB). If the bit
resolution is 16, the sound is digitized using 65,536
(216) steps, and has a maximum dynamic range of 96
dB. The higher the bit resolution, the more faithfully
changes in amplitude can be digitized (Figure 2).
Sampler Parameters
Used to specify playback of only a portion of a sample.
Even if the sample is long, you can set these parameters
to play back only a short interval. It’s a good idea to
sample with a margin before and after the part of the
sound you want, because you can conveniently adjust the
start and end points as you like afterwards (Figure 6).
■ Velocity Switching, Velocity Cross-Fade
With real musical instruments, dynamic variations in
tone can be obtained according to how the instrument is
played—in the case of a piano, how hard the keys are
struck. By using multiple samples of different dynamics
and switching or cross-fading among them depending
on velocity (how hard the key is struck), accurate sound
playback can be achieved (Figure 5).
3
Part 1 Introduction to Sampling
◊ Sampler Parameters ◊ Break Beats
■ Loop Start Point (Loop Start Address)/
Loop End Point (Loop End Address)
■ Original Key
When a sample is set to play as a scale across the
keyboard, the key that generates the original pitch of the
recorded sound is called the Original Key. Changing the
setting of the Original Key lets you raise or lower the
pitch of the entire keyboard, thus this parameter has a
close relationship with other pitch-related parameters
(Figure 11).
Used to determine the portion of the sample that repeats
over and over during playback. The sampler plays back
the sample from the start point, and when it comes to
the loop end point, it repeats the sound between the
loop start and loop end points (Figure 7). Frequently
used to simulate long sustaining sounds of musical
instruments.
In the A4000/5000, other than normal loop playback (Forward
Loop No Exit), there is also Forward Loop Key Off Exit mode,
which loops a sample while the key is pressed, and plays it
through to the end point once the key is released (Figure 9, 10).
In addition, depending on the model, there is also a mode that
returns from the loop end to the loop start using reverse
playback, and repeatedly plays a sound back and forth between
the loop start and end points.
Break Beats
A New Music Production Technique
Brought About by Samplers
Samplers have become firmly rooted for use in
applications that require the sound of realistic musical
instruments. Not only have samplers changed the face
of electronic musical instruments, but they have also
changed the face of music by giving birth to new
music-making techniques based on phrase sampling.
“Break beats” are a typical example of phrase sampling.
Break beats were originally created by using two
turntables to alternately play the same part of a record
over and over. But today break beats are created by
combining phrases sampled from records and other
music sources.
Let’s take a look at the main sampling techniques used
to create songs with break beats.
Notes:
1) Nearly all models can set start and end points in 1-word units
(when the sampling rate is 44.1 kHz, 1 second equals 44,100
words). Depending on the model, it is also possible to set
these points in units of seconds and/or beats using a specified
tempo.
2) Phrase samples are usually not looped when played back with
a sequencer; the sequencer is used to repeat the sample
instead.
Using sampled sound material “as is”
■ Key Range
When using multiple samples across the keyboard
(assigning them to different keys is referred to as
“mapping”), it is necessary to set the playback range
(key range) for each of the samples. By setting the Low
Key and Hi Key parameters, you can limit playback to
the interval between these notes (Figure 12).
■ Sample Playback Mode
Because samplers handle audio in digital form, the way
they play back a sample can be easily changed.
“Reverse playback” is a typical example. Back when only
analog tape recorders existed, the sound of tape playing
backwards was in vogue, but with samplers, reversed
sound can be easily obtained simply by setting the
sample playback mode to “Reverse.” In addition,
techniques exist such as one-shot playback, which
causes a sample to play back until the end point, even if
the key is released earlier (Figure 8). Variations in how
the loop portion of sounds are played back (Loop Mode)
also exist.
Sample a passage from a record where only drums are
being played, or sample a drum loop from a sample
library, either one that’s commercially available or one
that came bundled with a product. Use a phrase with a
length of around 1 to 4 bars and don’t make any
changes to the sound. This sampling technique lets you
use various samples “as is” in your music compositions,
while retaining the groove of the original sample.
However, you need to search hard for sample phrases
that best suit your music because it is difficult to alter
the groove of the sample or fix mistakes.
With special phrase loop samplers, such as the highly
popular Yamaha SU700 (p. 32) and SU200 (p. 36), you
can create the foundation of a song using this technique
and then overlay samples on top. This method is good
for creating music with a lot of repeating parts. To make
rhythm variations, it’s probably a good idea to play back
multiple phrases first, and then make variations by
combining them.
Parameters for original key and key range do not exist in desktop
samplers because they use pads, rather than keys, to play back
samples.
Because it is difficult to make changes to the underlying
rhythm of a phrase sample, this type of sampled
material is intended to be used “as is.” But by applying a
few clever techniques, you can create new patterns from
these captured samples. Let’s take a look at them on the
following pages.
Yamaha samplers come bundled with audio CDs containing a large number of high-quality samples. The A4000/5000 come with a
nine CD-ROM library of various musical instruments. Yamaha samplers are ready to go from the day of purchase.
4
5
Part 1 Introduction to Sampling
◊ Break Beats
◊ Producing “Good Sound”
note intervals. The segments should sound the same as
the original sample. Now try varying the tempo of the
sequencer slightly. The samples should sound as if they
were synchronized to the tempo of the sequencer
(Figure 15).
Re-triggering during a measure
By re-triggering (restarting the sample from the
beginning) on the back end of the second beat
(see Figure 13), you can create a rhythm pattern
different from the original sample. If your sampler is a
special phrase sampler with a built-in sequencer, you
can use this technique to create new rhythms.
Producing “Good Sound”
This is a topic that is largely subjective, as it is difficult
to define exactly what “good sound” is. But to achieve a
well-produced sound, we first need to understand how
the audio signal moves along its path inside the
sampler.
The path of the audio signal can be divided into the
following three blocks:
The input section (section used to record samples)
The sound processing section (section that generates
the samples)
The output section (section that feeds the sound to
other equipment)
With the sample phrase divided into tiny segments,
A to H, as shown in Figure 15, you can readily make new
rhythm patterns simply by changing the playback order
of the segments, or by changing the timing of Note On.
By combining sounds taken from other samples, you
can, for example, change only the snare drum of the
sample phrase.
Create multiple copies of a sample with
different start points
Make multiple copies of a sampled phrase and set the
start points of each one to a different location; for
example, at the top of the second beat, at the back end
of the third beat, at the top of the fill-in, etc.
Then arrange the samples across the keyboard
(or assign them to the pads, in the case of a desktop
sampler). By dividing up a 1-bar, 4-beat sample into
eighth-note units and staggering the start points, for
example, you can make eight unique sample loops
beginning from the top of the 1st beat to the back end of
the 4th beat. (At this time, there’s no need to change the
end point.) (Figure 14)
Now try playing around with the keyboard or the pads,
switching to different samples within a single measure.
Even just playing around, you should be able to come
up with a diverse range of rhythm patterns. If you create
a pattern that you like, you should enter the note data
into the sequencer. To loop your newly created rhythm
pattern, you can 1) use the sequencer to copy the note
data several times so that it repeats as a loop, or 2) use
the Re-sampling function to make a new sample loop of
the note sequence.
*** Synchronizing Samples ***
After gathering a few samples that you want to use in a
composition, often you may discover that they do not
have the same tempo. Moreover, there may be times
when you want to use them at a different tempo. In this
case, you need only change the pitch of the sample
(raising the pitch plays it back at a faster speed, thereby
speeding up the tempo), or change the length of the
sample itself by time stretching. However, making major
changes in tempo drastically changes the sound quality.
Moreover, you may not want the pitch to change at all.
Actually, there is a better method to ensure tempo
synchronization of various samples—even if the
sequencer tempo varies. This method is based on
“cutting up” the sample into pieces.
Example: Take an 8-beat drum sample and divide it up
into eight short segments, A through H. Set the
sequencer tempo to the sample tempo and play back the
sample segments, A to B, B to C, and so on, in eighth-
The SU700 allows you to get the same effect in real time by using the Loop Restart function. Use it once, and you’ll be hooked. This
feature is especially useful for break beats, and is consistently rated as the ideal live performance partner. (See p. 34.)
6
The A4000/5000 have a function called Loop Divide, which enables you to instantly divide a sample phrase into several segments and
map them individually across the keyboard (or pads) without using up additional wave memory. To do the segmenting and mapping
described in the above example, you need only specify: Division = 1/8; Length = ToLoopEnd; MapFrom = Key from which to start
mapping; MapKey = White keys only, or both black and white keys. The Division (number of segments) can be set from 2 to 32, and
the End Point can be set from 10% to 800% of the Division. Copying a sample uses no additional wave memory. This extremely
convenient function eliminates the complex operations of copying samples, setting addresses and mapping.
“ReCycle!,” sample editing software from Steinberg Co.,
not only can divide a sample into equal-length
segments, but it can also automatically divide a sample
according to the location of certain sounds. Break points
are processed beautifully, and thus high-quality, highly
polished samples are generated. The divided samples
can be sent to the sampler in the mapped state, and
note information can be written in SMF format in the
divided timing, enabling anyone to create samples with
the tempo of the sequencer and the sampler perfectly
synchronized.
Let’s take a look at the flow of the signal in each block
and see where sound quality can be improved.
Input section
When sampling using the analog input, the signal
travels through a cable connected from the output of a
device to the analog circuitry of the sampler’s input.
The analog signal is then converted to a digital signal by
an A/D converter and stored in wave memory.
Subtle changes in the input sound can be expected at
this stage. The three major factors affecting the sound
are the cable, the input circuitry, and the A/D converter.
The cable is often neglected, but audio quality will vary
depending on the cable used. The input circuitry and the
A/D converter are components internal to the sampler,
and thus are beyond the control of the user. As for the
cable, however, you are free to choose any one you like,
so you should try using different cables and listen to the
differences in sound they offer.
In addition, to get good sound, you will of course want to
sample with the recording level set as high as possible.
It’s also possible to raise the sound level by having a
limiter suppress the peaks before the signal is input to
the sampler. This will give you a compressed sound.
The Loop Track function of the SU700 and the Loop Track Play function of the SU200 do this processing automatically, instantly
synchronizing the tempos of up to eight samples (up to six in the SU200). With this function, you can concentrate on the creative
aspects of making break beats without having to worry about the samples all having the same tempos.
The A4000/5000 rackmount samplers feature a Loop Divide function. By setting Division to 1/8 and Length to 100%, you can quickly
make the sample set in Figure 15.
The Loop Remix function of the A4000/5000 and the SU200 lets you create new samples by automatically disassembling and
reconstructing the intervals of the loop start and loop end points. This is a unique feature from Yamaha and is designed specifically
for creating break beats. Because the segments are shuffled randomly, you can create a series of completely unique rhythm patterns.
Depending on the settings, reverse sounds and lo-fi sounds can be mixed in, and thus it functions not only as a simple “reshuffler,”
but also as a sample phrase generator that will stimulate your imagination. (Listen to the LOOP REMIX DEMO on the bundled
CD-ROM to hear the results of the Loop Remix function.)
With the SU200, it’s also possible to remix a sample while it plays back, simply by turning a knob. In other words, it can function as a
real-time phrase generator. This makes remixing as easy as adding a fill. This function is unique to Yamaha samplers. (See operation
guide, page 40).
ReCycle! supports the native format of the A3000, with A4000/5000 compatibility expected in the near future, making it possible to
easily exchange samples with these models.
7
Part 2
Part 1 Introduction to Sampling
◊ Enriching People’s Lives throughout the World
◊ Producing “Good Sound”
Sound processing section
Samplers are different from recorders; their design is
based on the assumption that multiple notes will be
played back at the same time. To ensure that the sound
does not distort internally when a large number of notes
are being played at once, the playback volume for each
note is kept to a minimum. By “minimizing playback
volume,” we mean minimizing the number of bits fed to
the D/A converter (circuitry that converts digital data to
an analog signal; hereafter called the DAC) which is
connected downstream of the sound processor. In other
words, no one sound can extract the maximum
performance of the DAC. Sound quality changes
dramatically simply by reducing the output by a single
bit of resolution. Dropping bits has a negative effect,
resulting in a flat sound that lacks punch. This is a
problem not only in samplers, but also in digital
synthesizers that generate multiple sounds simultaneously, such as PCM synthesizers and DSP tone
generators. The effect might not be noticeable when
using the analog outputs, but if you were to make a
digital connection to a device equipped with a level
meter, such as a digital mixer or a digital recorder, the
meter would probably only move to the halfway point.
To get a good sound, it’s important to make the sample
level and/or program level as high as possible, without
causing distortion internally, in order to optimize the
processing power of the DAC.
Output section
The digital signal output from the sound processing
section is converted to an analog signal via the DAC.
It then passes through the analog circuitry of the
sampler’s outputs, and is input to a device connected
downstream via a cable. As explained in the input
section above, subtle changes in sound can be expected
to occur until the signal is finally output to the
connected device. The three major factors affecting the
sound are the DAC, the output circuitry, and the cable.
As mentioned earlier, you should try using different
cables to get different sounds.
equipment depends on high-precision circuitry (such as
the logic circuit, which synthesizes a high-frequency
clock to synchronize the internal circuitry to the word
clock) and the analog-like fluctuations in these pathways
have a detrimental effect on sound quality. Simply put,
the sound will vary even if it’s digital.
Extra Power supply
Something that is important to remember is that the
power supply provides power to all parts of the
machine. Inside electronic devices such as samplers,
sound is handled entirely in the form of electrical
signals, and the power supply is the sole source of
electrical current. The power supply takes electricity
from a wall outlet and supplies it to the equipment
through the power cable. If the power supply is
unstable, the sound will also be unstable. Consequently,
you should provide the equipment with a power supply
in the best possible condition. It’s nearly impossible to
change the path that electricity takes from the power
plant to the wall outlet, but you do have control over the
connection between the wall outlet and the equipment.
For example, you should connect the unit directly to the
power outlet without using an extension cord and be
careful not to reverse the polarity when plugging it in.
Every day, thousands of people around the world strive
to get good sound. These may be people involved in the
manufacture of electronic musical instruments,
professional synthesizer engineers, or artists. Yamaha
samplers are permeated with the notion that what links
the people of the world are the fleeting moments of joy
experienced in the act of creation.
This applies even to digital output. When digital
equipment first appeared on the market, there was a
misconception that because it’s digital the sound won’t
degrade. But actually the circuitry and cables that move
the digital signals back and forth transmit a pulsed
signal that contains “analog-like” fluctuations. Digital
Hint:
8
The A4000/5000 have a parameter called “Filter Gain” in the filter section, which suppresses internal distortion when boosting
resonance, allowing you to raise the output level of the sample. In addition, the UTILITY function lets you boost the “Stereo” and
“Assignable Out” outputs to +24 dB in 6-dB increments, enabling you to drive the DAC to its full capacity even when playing only a
single note.
Yamaha Musical Instruments
◊ History of Yamaha Musical Instruments
Part 2 Yamaha Musical Instruments
Before we start talking about specific models of
samplers, let’s take a look at the unique pioneering spirit
of Yamaha—the world’s largest manufacturer of musical
instruments—as well as its long history of manufacturing
musical instruments and its passion for developing
electronic instruments.
Enriching People’s Lives throughout the World
Yamaha was founded in 1897. Our corporate philosophy
is embodied in the words “We contribute to enriching
the lives of people throughout the world.” By 1892, our
predecessor, the Yamaha Organ Works Co., Ltd., had
already begun exporting organs to Southeast Asia, thus
launching our long history as an international brand
name. This history continued with our taking up new
challenges in other fields. Not stopping with musical
instruments, we moved on to create other new products
that enrich people’s lives. The challenging spirit of
creating new types of sound-generating products is a
Yamaha trait that goes back more than 100 years.
Major Product Areas and Year Production First Began
1887
Organ production begins
1900
Upright piano production begins
1914
Harmonica production begins
1946
Guitar production begins
1954
1960
Yamaha Music School system inaugurated
125 cc motorcycle production begins
“Electone” electronic organ production
begins
FRP (fiber-reinforced plastic) archery bow
production begins
Motorboat production begins
1961
FRP ski production begins
1964
FRP bathtub production begins
1968
1971
Stereo system production begins
Snowmobile production begins
IC production begins
1973
Tennis racket production begins
1974
Analog synthesizer production begins
1981
Industrial robot production begins
1982
Golf club production begins
CD player production begins
Digital synthesizer production begins
Marketing of custom ICs begins
1958
1959
1983
History of Yamaha Musical Instruments
The link between musical instruments and musical
expression is extremely close. There are musical
expressions that would never have come to exist if the
piano had not been invented in Italy. There is also music
that can only be expressed by the didgeridoo of
Australia, and rhythms that can only be expressed by
the steel drums of Trinidad. Consequently, electronic
musical instruments, which were originally developed to
emulate acoustic instruments, have given birth to
musical expressions that can be rendered only by
electronic instruments. For example, many electronic
music artists use pure sine waves to represent bass
notes and tone adjustment knobs to change the sound
over time. You could say that a collaboration exists
between creators of music and creators of electronic
instruments.
Since first starting production of the Electone in 1958,
Yamaha has been continuously manufacturing electronic
musical instruments for 42 years. Let’s take a look at
just a few of Yamaha’s historical models of combo
keyboards.
■ Analog Synthesizers
[1974]
GX-1 Electone
This was Yamaha’s first synthesizer. We take pride in its
brilliant tonal qualities, which were revolutionary at the
time. It offered a full suite of superb synthesizer
features, and was introduced as the ultimate electronic
organ with 36 oscillators, 3 full-scale manuals, and a
pedalboard. In a word, it was a monster encapsulating
36 monophonic synthesizers.
9
Part 2
Yamaha Musical Instruments
◊ History of Yamaha Musical Instruments
[1977]
In this year, Yamaha introduced six new synthesizer
models designed for live performance. Two of these
models are described below.
CS-10 Monophonic Synthesizer
■ FM Synthesizers
■ VL Synthesizers
[1981] GS1 Digital Keyboard
The GS1 is an 88-key, 16-voice polyphonic FM keyboard
with initial touch and aftertouch. Each voice consisted of
8 operators, which could function as two separate 4operator elements. It is a keyboard legendary for its rich
sound, and was played
by many top
musicians.
[1993] VL1 Virtual Acoustic Synthesizer
The CS-10 had a straightforward architecture consisting
of a single VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator), a VCF
(Voltage Controlled Filter) and a VCA (Voltage Controlled
Amplifier). Its systematic layout was designed for easy
operation. This model was a long-time best seller.
CS-80 Polyphonic Synthesizer
With its polyphonic sound capability and streamlined
operation for the stage, the CS-80 is said to be the first
polyphonic synthesizer in the world to excel in a live
performance environment.
[1979] CS-15D Dual-Channel Synthesizer
The CS-15D was based on the concept of a monophonic
synthesizer combined with a multitude of preset sounds,
and was specifically designed to provide as much
freedom as possible for live performance. Two of its 29
preset voices or a custom voice could be mixed
together.
[1983]
DX7 Digital Programmable Algorithm Synthesizer
Most musicians today recognize the DX7 simply by its
name. What this FM synthesizer did for the evolution of
music expression is truly revolutionary. The keyboard
was so sensationally popular that the total number of
units manufactured is far greater than any other
synthesizer to date. Yamaha has always striven to
narrow the gap between low cost and high performance.
The most recent example of this is the Yamaha 02R
Digital Mixing Console. However, the DX7 is the most
extreme example of price slashing in Yamaha history.
The DX7 turned out to be the first all-digital synthesizer
that ordinary people could afford. The DX7 is perhaps
the first (and maybe the last) synthesizer ever admired
by so many people. The fact that it had no knobs was
revolutionary at the time. The historical significance of
this synthesizer is truly huge.
DX1 Digital Programmable Algorithm Synthesizer
[1982] CS-01 Monophonic Synthesizer
This portable synthesizer still has legions of die-hard
fans. It weighed in at only 1.5 kg with a built-in speaker,
and because it was battery powered, it could be played
anywhere. It was equipped with pitch and modulation
wheels, and could also be used with an optional breath
controller.
10
The DX1 was the flagship model of the DX series FM
synthesizers, which were taking the market by storm.
Its 6-operator, 32-algorithm FM sound generator
allowed users to play two different voice parts at the
same time. This synthesizer was announced just six
months after the debut of the DX7, and was a true
professional’s instrument.
Exactly 10 years after the birth of the DX7, the VL1,
the world’s first synthesizer to feature physical modeling
synthesis, made its debut. Physical modeling synthesis
achieves an ultra-realistic sound that cannot be achieved
with analog, FM, or PCM synthesis. The VL1’s internal
sound generator mathematically constructs virtual
instruments having the same physical properties of,
for example, the reed or mouthpiece of a wind
instrument, or the strings and body of a stringed
instrument, and then makes these virtual instruments
resonate. The sounds are derived from the interaction of
these virtual components, and the resulting sound can
emulate the strength of the player’s breath, the shape of
the mouthpiece, or the speed and pressure of a bow.
■ Hybrid Synthesizers
[1991] SY99 Music Synthesizer
Yamaha’s SY99 Music Synthesizer featured hybrid
(AWM2 and AFM [Advanced FM]) synthesis. It was a
professional keyboard workstation seamlessly
integrating a multi-timbral synthesizer, a rhythm
machine, a sequencer and a multi-effects processor.
Many other sample-based synthesizers offering greater
realism were introduced at around the same time, but
they all suffered from a lack of tonal variation based on
the player’s touch. The SY99 solved this problem
brilliantly using a combination of sample realism and FM
expressiveness, demonstrating Yamaha’s technical
prowess to the world. In addition, the SY99 allowed
users to import wave data into its wave RAM from
external sources, making it possible to further enhance
the expressive power by importing vocal material into
songs. Music stores at the time played the SY99’s demo
song over and over, which began with a sampled
greeting from Chick Corea.
[1997]
EX5 Music Synthesizer/Real-time Control/
Extended Synthesis
The EX5 can be described as a complete synthesizing
machine, combining all the sound generating technologies
developed by Yamaha up to that time. It features four tone
generation techniques—AWM2, AN (Analog Physical
Modeling), FDSP (Formulated Digital Sound Processing),
and VL (Virtual Acoustic Physical Modeling). It is the most
powerful tool available for contemporary music making,
combining a full suite of sampling functions, a sequencer
and effects processing. Knob-based real-time control is
also possible.
■ Synthesizer Expansion System:
Modular Synthesis Plug-in System
[1999]
Technological advances have driven down the cost of
memory; but even so, there are still limits to the memory
capacity of synthesizers and sound modules. Various
manufacturers have satisfied users’ desires for voice
expansion by providing sound cards with new PCM waves.
Yamaha, however, came up with an extremely innovative
solution—modularize the actual synthesizer in the form of
plug-in boards. This is a solution that only Yamaha could
have developed based on its more than 100 years of
history and its
continual, insatiable
efforts in challenging
the development of
synthesizer technologies. With this
technology, low-cost
plug-ins of VL and AN
synthesizers can be
made readily available. The
Modular Synthesis Plug-in System
is like a dream come true,
inconceivable just a decade ago.
You have just seen a part of Yamaha’s history, our
technological strengths developed over many long years as
an integrated manufacturer, and the passion that we bring
to electronic musical instruments. Now let’s take a look at
the features and specifications of our various products.
11
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Interface ◊ Internal Structure ◊ Samples
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers
So what are samplers? Moreover, what samplers has
Yamaha developed with its over 100 years of experience
in manufacturing musical instruments?
A sampler is a dedicated piece of electronic equipment
designed specifically for sampling. It can also refer to a
synthesizer or tone module that has sampling capability,
but, generally speaking, it refers to a dedicated machine.
Yamaha manufactures A Series rackmount samplers and
SU Series desktop samplers, both of which are
dedicated sampling machines. Incorporating some of
the best synthesizer functions in the industry, these
samplers are capable of producing high-quality sampled
voices. Our SU Series samplers have greatly simplified
loop-based music production—the fact that they are
easy to operate allows you to concentrate on the
creative aspects of your music.
The EX5/EX7/EX5R and the CS6x/CS6R are synthesizers
that include sampling functions. Although we say they
include sampling, the phrase sampling functions of the
CS6x/CS6R approach those of a dedicated sampler.
As stand-alone products, the CS6x/CS6R can produce
MIDI + AUDIO (In the case of the CS6x and CS6R,
phrase samples are referred to as “audio clips”). The
approach toward sampling differs greatly depending on
whether the sampler is designed for sampling phrases
or mainly for emulating musical instruments. Full
consideration of the target market (i.e., who uses the
sampler and how) naturally helps to improve the
product.
A4000/5000 Samplers
Let’s take a look at Yamaha’s rackmount A Series
A4000/5000 Professional Samplers.
The A4000/5000 handle samples using an approach that
differs somewhat from ordinary samplers, so using
them might be a little confusing at first. However, the
more you understand them, the clearer they become,
and you’ll find these are samplers that you can operate
intuitively. If the A4000/5000 is your first sampler, it
won’t take a lot of time to understand its architecture
and learn how to operate it. You can learn it quickly, so
you’ll be able to quickly focus on creative activities.
The A4000/5000’s interface is designed with the
ultimate aim of enabling speedy and intuitive operation.
Their matrix architecture is based on the F1 to F6
function keys and the PLAY, EDIT, REC, DISK and
UTILITY mode keys, allowing you to instantly access the
parameters you want to set or change. The combination
of five assignable knobs and a large LCD screen
provides excellent navigation functions that let you
quickly master operating sequences. The filter list and
effects list that pop up when you push the corresponding knobs are typical of this intuitive approach. The
functional design of these samplers avoids ornamentation for the sake of fast, continuous operation.
■ Sample Parameter Data
Sample parameter data consists of parameters that are
necessary to generate tones using wave data. EDIT
mode allows you to configure these settings and make
changes. This mode has six functions: F1: TRIM/LOOP,
F2: MAP/OUT, F3: FILTER, F4: EG, F5: LFO and F6: MIDI/
CTRL. Let’s explain these in order.
F1: TRIM/LOOP
The Trim/Loop function lets you set the playback range
(tone generation) for the wave data and create new
samples with the Loop Remix function while viewing the
waveform on the sampler’s LCD screen.
In addition to the loop mode and the wave start, wave
end, loop start and loop end addresses, there are also
parameters for shifting the wave start and end
addresses based on velocity.
Internal Structure
A4000
A5000
The data processed by the A4000/5000 is comprised of
“samples” (or “sample banks”) and “programs.”
Samples are individual building blocks of sound,
whereas programs determine how the combinations of
samples are played via MIDI. Programs also handle
parameter settings shared by samples, such as those
for effects and controllers.
Samples
A Series samplers refer to wave data and parameter data
together as “samples.” This approach differs from
ordinary samplers, but from an operational standpoint it
offers the advantage of making tones easier to handle
and making the architecture easier to understand. From
a performance standpoint, it gives you the advantage of
being able to set all parameters independently for each
sample.
Dance music styles are so diverse that it’s almost impossible to categorize them. The CS6x/CS6R synthesizers are designed
specifically for artists who desire to create the next generation of dance music. They feature phrase sampling functions, high-quality
effects, 19 real-time control knobs (5 on the CS6R), and the capability to produce the “fat & dirty” sounds needed for today’s dance
music. Samples can be combined with the internal voices and/or used with an external sequencer. Operation is extremely simple
thanks to a wealth of supporting functions, particularly Loop Divide (see p. 25).
Expand your tone generation capabilities!
The CS6x/CS6R are equipped with two slots for the Modular Synthesis Plug-in System, an exclusive feature from Yamaha that
enables users to equip their synthesizer with up to two additional tone generators. For example, by adding the PLG150-AN plug-in
board, the CS6x/CS6R will be able to produce sounds based on analog physical modeling synthesis.
CS6x
Interface
CS6R
■ Wave Data
Wave data represents sound that has been digitized
(captured in the form of waves).
Setting addresses is usually performed by using the
buttons and knobs on the sampling unit; however, this
method of editing can be cumbersome even if you do it
while viewing the waveforms on the LCD screen. To
facilitate this operation, the A4000/5000 have a
convenient function that enables you to set addresses
while listening to sample playback. Operation is simple:
you merely move the cursor on the EDIT - Waveform
screen to whichever Wave/Loop you want to edit, and
while pressing the AUDITION key on the sampler or a
key on a MIDI keyboard to play back the sample, push
Knob 4 <S-CATCH> at the point where you want to set
the start address, and then Knob 5 <E-CATCH> at the
point where you want to set the end address. (Note that
Knob 5 has multiple functions; turn it to E-CATCH when
setting the addresses.) Using this method, you can set
wave addresses in much less time than it takes by
looking at the waveform while turning the knob.
In addition to word units, addresses can also be
displayed in units of seconds (1/1000-second units)
and/or beat units (1/1000-beat units) based on a
specified tempo. This convenient feature automatically
calculates the tempo between the loop start and end
point, allowing you to know the exact tempo of the
phrase sample.
Hint: Duplication
When duplicating samples, you can make the copied sample share the same wave data as the original sample. Since the wave data is
shared, these copied samples do not consume additional wave memory. Consequently, you can create multiple samples with
different address settings, mappings, pitch, filters, EGs, output assignments, etc., without having to worry about how much memory
is remaining. (Editing wave data using extraction and/or normalization, however, will consume memory because new wave data is
created when these functions are used.) By simply synthesizing one sample wave, you can create a wide range of sounds, therefore
we recommend making full use of the sample copying function.
Tips:
EDIT mode allows you to set or change parameters even while a song is playing on the sequencer. You can also do real-time tone
editing during live performances.
12
13
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Samples
Here, we’ll touch on the Loop Remix function that was
introduced in the section “Break Beats — A New Music
Production Technique Brought About by Samplers” (p. 5).
Operation is simple: just set the Type/Variation on the
EDIT - LoopRmx screen and push Knob 2 <REMIX>.
When processing is complete, the result of the slicing/
rearranging is graphically displayed on the right of the
screen. If you have “Auto Audition” set to ON, the
phrase sample will automatically play after processing,
so you can listen to the results immediately. Each time
you push Knob 2 <REMIX>, a new phrase based on the
original sample will be created at random. Selecting
Types 1 to 5 will produce phrases like you’ve never
heard before! When you get one you like, push Knob 5
<CREATE> and it will be saved in wave memory as a
new sample (Figure 16).
F3: FILTER
This function sets the sample’s filter type, equalization,
filter key, and scaling parameters.
Figure 16
F2: MAP/OUT
This function sets the sample’s output destination,
output level, pan and key range, as well as the pitch,
velocity range, key level, and key scaling.
The Evolution of Loop Remix
Loop Remix is a unique editing feature that first appeared on the A3000 version 2, and was the first function of its kind in the world.
The Loop Remix function on the A4000/5000 allows an even greater degree of freedom in dividing and reordering loops. Here we’ll
explain various Loop Remix parameters, including those that have changed since the A3000 version 2.
There are five built-in Remix Types (1 to 5) as well as five User Remix Types, User 1 to User 5, for a total of 10. The higher the value
of the built-in Remix Type, the more complex the dividing and reordering process. Phrases will be generated randomly as often as
you press the REMIX button (Knob 2). The User 1 through User 5 parameters were added in the A4000/5000 and allow you to
register up to five types of favorite dividing and reordering patterns. This allows you to divide and reorder samples in identical
patterns.
There are eight Remix Type Variations, four more than on the A3000 version 2. These are Normal 1 (“A” on the A3000 ver. 2), Normal
2 (“B” on the A3000 ver. 2), Reverse 1 (“C” on the A3000 ver. 2), Reverse 2 (“D” on the A3000 ver. 2), Break, LoFi, Pitch and Gate.
Normal 1 and Normal 2 are patterns that divide and reorder without imposing any changes in the playback direction and sound
quality of the sample; and Reverse 1 and Reverse 2 are patterns in which parts of the wave are reversed and mixed in a random
order. For Reverse 1, the starting block of the loop is always the same as the original sample, but with Reverse 2, it varies randomly.
(On the graphic display, segmented blocks that are not blacked out indicate sections where the original sample is being used “as is.”
When Normal 1 is selected, the starting block will always be a segment that is not blacked out; with Normal 2, it will change
randomly.)
Break inserts “silent blocks,” LoFi converts portions of the wave to a lo-fi sound, Pitch modifies the pitch of the blocks, and Gate
randomly reorders blocks with abbreviated portions of the wave so that the gate time is shortened. (The arrangement of the blocks
can be seen on the graphic display.)
The A3000 didn’t allow you to apply Loop Remix to only a specified range; for example, only on the fourth beat of a drum loop.
The A4000/5000, however, let you use Knob 4 and Knob 5 to select a range to be divided and reordered in units of one-eighth of the
target loop interval.
Loop Remix is an amazing function. Using it on a drum loop, you can easily produce fresh new patterns—from simple fills to
completely new and complex rhythm grooves that would have otherwise taken a lot of time and effort. You’ll definitely want to try
using it on other types of samples as well. By loop-remixing simple sine waves, you can create an endless number of multi-harmonic
synthesizer waveforms. You can even use it to divide and reorder speech, special effects and synthesizer sounds. You’ll discover
something new every time and get results that are totally different from the original sample.
The A4000/5000 don’t just record and play back sounds—these samplers are designed from the ground up for creating music.
Tip 1: Set the Low Key and Hi Key to =Orig
When producing pieces that make heavy use of phrase samples or when creating drum kits, you’re often faced with the task of
assigning each sample to its own key. To do this, normally you have to set three parameters: the Original Key, the Low Key, and Hi
Key. But by setting the Low Key and Hi Key to =Orig, you can easily map out one sample per key just by setting the Original Key.
14
There are 16 filter types with extremely powerful
resonance.
[LowPass1–3]
[HiPass1–2]
[Band Pass]
[Band Eliminate]
[Peak1–2]
[2 Peaks]
[2 Dips]
[Dual LPFs]
[LPF + Peak]
[Dual HPFs]
[HPF + Peak]
[LPF + HPF]
There are three Sample EQ types that can be set for each
sample—Peak/Dip, Lo Shelving and Hi Shelving. These
enable you to create a diverse range of sounds. The filter
and equalization settings are displayed on the upper
right of the graphic display screen and let you visually
check how the settings affect any given frequency band.
This is particularly convenient when using filters that
combine two filter types because it lets you use the
cutoff Distance parameter to readily set the cutoff
frequencies of the two filters.
F4: EG (Envelope Generator)
This function sets up the sample’s AEG (amplitude
envelope generator), FEG (filter envelope generator) and
PEG (pitch envelope generator).
If you set AEG Attack Mode to Hold, sound output starts
immediately at the maximum volume level. You can then
use AEG Attack Rate to set the time interval at which the
maximum volume is sustained. Setting normal Attack
Mode to Rate and Attack Rate to 127 may slightly
deaden samples that have a sharp attack, such as
drums. But if Attack Mode is set to Hold, the attack can
be reproduced perfectly. In addition, depending on the
settings, you can use the EG to create sounds with
varying volumes similar to when applying heavy
compression (Figure 17). Attack Rate settings function
in the same way as a compressor’s “attack time,” Decay
Rate the same as “release time,” and Sustain Level the
same as “ratio.” (An example of settings would be
Attack Mode set to Hold, Attack Rate to 95, Decay Rate
to 110, and Sustain Level to 90.) The A3000 ver. 2 had
no Rate 2 for the attack; this parameter was added to
the A4000/5000. Because the curve at the rising edge of
Rate 2 is smoother than that of Rate 1, Rate 2 is highly
effective when you want to lengthen the rise of the
envelope in sounds such as special FX or pads. Rate 1 is
ideal when you want to dullen the attack a bit, or don’t
want the rise to be so long.
F5: LFO
This function sets parameters related to the sample’s
LFO (low-frequency oscillator).
This function lets you use the LFO to modulate the filter
cutoff frequency, pitch, and output volume. There are
four LFO waves—Saw, Triangle, Square and S/H
(Sample & Hold). The cutoff and pitch modulation can
be phase-inverted. The A4000/5000 allow a wider range
LFO speed of settings than many high-end synthesizers,
such as the Yamaha CS6x.
F6: MIDI/CTRL
This function lets you set a sample’s MIDI and control
parameters such as Receive Channel and Pitch Bend.
Pitch Bend Type can be set not only to raise and lower
the sample’s pitch, but also to give you control over
sound production, such as the ability to create reverse
playback effects using the pitch bend wheel. This gives
you an effect similar to scratching a vinyl record on a
turntable, depending on the sample being used.
Tip 2: Output to two outputs simultaneously
You can output to two sets of output jacks simultaneously. Use the Output function to route the same signal as the STEREO OUTPUT
to multiple effects or to any of the assignable outputs.
Tip 1: Use Filter Gain to distort sound
Filter Gain can be used not only to prevent sound distortion when increasing the resonance, but also to intentionally distort sounds
(Be careful! Increasing Filter Gain causes the volume level of the sample to get louder. The output level of the sample should be
lowered to avoid damaging your hearing.)
Tip 3: Adjust the stereo imaging using the Width setting
When using stereo samples, there are times when you want to adjust how wide the sound is right and left (stereo separation).
You can easily adjust the separation by setting the Width parameter anywhere from +63 (full separation from left to right) to 0
(monaural sound). Setting the Width parameter to -63 reverses the left and right stereo signal.
Tip 2: Randomly change the Cutoff and Q/Width
You can get interesting effects by setting the “Velocity ➞ Cutoff” and “Velocity ➞ Q/Wid” values to RND1 and RND5, respectively, to
randomly vary the cutoff and Q/Width with each key-on. The higher the value, the greater the range in variation.
15
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Samples
◊ Sample Banks ◊ Programs
Sample parameters for up to six sets of samples can be
controlled in real-time using MIDI Control Change or
other control methods. Settings are simple and easy—
just set Device (what will be used to do the controlling),
Function (what it is to be controlled), Range (how much
control), and Type (how it will be controlled). Device
can specify Aftertouch, Pitch Bend, Note Number,
Velocity, Program LFO, and Key On Random, in addition
to MIDI Control Change numbers. The LFO explained in
the previous section (F5) cannot be synchronized to the
tempo of an external sequencer, but the A3000 ver. 2,
A4000 and A5000 all have a Program LFO that works as
a control signal generator to enable synchronization
with an external MIDI clock. By selecting Program LFO
as the Device, you can sync the sample’s control
parameters to the tempo of an external sequencer.
Sample Banks
There is an additional sample configuration called a
“sample bank.” A sample bank organizes a number of
samples into a single group and is convenient when
assembling a number of samples made by multisampling or when putting together a drum kit.
This feature makes it possible to handle a number of
samples as if they were a single sample (Figure 18).
● Selecting programs
1) In PLAY mode, push the [F1] function key.
The PLAY-PgmSel screen will appear.
2) Select the program by rotating Knob 3 (or Knob 2).
Programs
Programs are used to play the A4000/5000’s samples
through a keyboard or other MIDI controller. Thus, a
MIDI controller cannot play any samples from the
A4000/5000 unless a program has been set up to use
them. (Up to 128 programs are available.)
● Selecting samples
3) Push the [F2] function key. The PLAY-SmpSel screen
will appear.
4) Select the sample (or sample bank) by rotating Knob
2. Set the MIDI receive channel for the sample by
rotating Knob 4 (=Smp, 1 to 16, Bch) to assign the
program.
Program parameters set the sound levels, transpositions,
etc. for all the samples within a program. Programs also
include Program LFOs, MIDI control for program
parameters, A/D input, effects common to all samples,
and an EASY EDIT function for the samples used in a
program.
Notes:
1) When a MIDI receive channel is set to =Smp, the receive
channel settings will be effective for the sample. For example,
if you want to use MIDI receive channels that you have set for
each sample parameter in a drum kit grouped in a sample
bank, you should select =Smp. The MIDI receive channel for
the sample can also be set in this manner using individual
sample parameters, and can be reset when assigning samples
to programs. It is better to make the settings in the easiest
way possible. When Bch is set, sound will be produced using
the same MIDI channel as Basic Rch on the PLAY-PgmSel
screen.
Setting parameters is done in PLAY mode. PLAY mode
covers various functions, including F1: PROGRAM; F2:
SAMPLE; F3: EASY EDIT; F4: EFFECT; F5: SETUP and F6:
CONTROL, all of which are explained below.
F1: PROGRAM
This function selects and plays programs. It is used to
set the program mode*, the basic MIDI receive channel,
levels for all programs, transpositions, and portamento
common to the programs.
*Program mode selection (selecting Single or Multi).
In Single mode, only the selected program generates sound.
In Multi mode, you can freely assign any of the programs
(1 to 128) to each of the 16 multi parts (A4000) or 32 multi parts
(A5000). This is similar to using a multi-timbral synthesizer to
generate multiple voice parts simultaneously.
Caution:
When Multi is selected, tones are generated according to the
receive channel of each part rather than the MIDI receive channel
assigned to the individual programs and samples (Figure 19).
In this case, settings common to all samples such as effects,
Program LFO, etc. will use the master program (the program of
the part assigned to the basic receive channel).
2) The A5000 is a 32 part multitimbral synthesizer, and thus the
receive channel can be set to A1–A16 (MIDI IN-A1 to A16),
=Smp, B1–B16 (MIDI IN-B1 to B16), or Bch.
3) When you don’t want a sample already assigned to a program
to play back, set the MIDI receive channel setting to “off” to
disassociate that sample from the program.
F2: SAMPLE
This function assigns sample programs, sets sample
names, duplicates/deletes samples, and creates sample
banks.
● Assigning samples and sample banks
Example: Setting samples (or sample banks) to generate
tones under program control (Figure 20).
Sample banks allow you to edit sample parameters in
almost the same way as for individual samples.
For each parameter, you can select whether to make
settings individually for each sample or common to all
samples in the bank. For example, it would probably be
better to set common parameters for instruments such
as a piano, but to creatively use individual sample
parameters for drum kits.
The PLAY-SmpBank screen is used to edit sample
banks. The sample bank list is displayed on the left side
of the screen, and the sample list is displayed on the
right side of the screen (Figure 21).
Figure 21
In the sample list, samples are marked with symbols
“➞”, “ ”, and “USED” to indicate the status of the
samples.
“➞” indicates samples in the sample bank that have
been selected from the sample bank list on the left side
of the screen.
(Program Mode = Single)
16
● Editing sample banks
“USED” indicates a sample used in one or more of the
programs or in a sample bank.
17
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Programs
“ ” indicates samples already being used in the
program that is currently selected for sound playback.
To add a sample to a sample bank, use Knob 2 or Knob
3 to select the sample bank and Knob 5 (or Knob 4) to
select the sample to be added. Press Knob 5 <ADD> to
add the sample (the “➞” symbol will appear next to the
sample). When adding a sample that is indicated as
being “USED,” you can select either “DUPL&ADD”
(this method first duplicates the selected sample then
adds it to a sample bank; the selected sample remains
unchanged) or “MOVE&ADD” (this method moves the
selected sample from its current assignment before
adding it to a sample bank).
Level, Pan and Cutoff are among the parameters that
can be offset on the plus (+) or minus (-) side from the
original sample parameters, so you can modify settings
globally while keeping intact the sound level balance,
etc. of samples within a sample bank. For convenience,
the sample values actually set are displayed to the right
of the offset values. To revert the values to the same
configuration as originally set, you need only set the
offset value to zero (0). (See Figure 23). By selecting
=Smp, output settings on the sample side can be made
by exchanging sample parameter settings.
To remove a sample from a sample bank and return it to
a stand-alone sample, first select the sample (indicated
by the “➞” symbol) and then press Knob 5 <REMOVE>
(the “➞” will be deleted).
Selecting the desired type of effect from the huge
number available is apt to be a complex task, but
pressing Knob 2 <LIST...> on the PLAY-EfSetup screen
displays the effect type list, making it surprisingly easy
to select a desired effect. Simply rotate Knob 2 to scroll
the list and press Knob 2 again when the desired effect
appears.
Sound to which an effect has been applied can be output
to either assignable OUT or digital OUT, and can also be
routed to other effects (Figure 25).
Effect parameters can be displayed as either full or
favorite (set using “Edit Type” on the PLAY-EfEdit
screen). The advantage of the full setting is that it lists
all parameters; however, you can only edit one at a time
using a single knob. Setting the effects parameters
display to “favorite” gives you simultaneous access to
four “favorite” parameters assigned to Knobs 2 to 5
(the default effect selections can be customized by the
user). This is the best mode for using effects during live
performances (Figure 26).
Figure 23
Figure 25
Figure 26
F4: EFFECT
F3: EASY EDIT
When using a single sample in multiple programs, this
function lets you modify the primary sample parameters
for each program without changing the sample’s own
(local) settings. You can set individual tone parameters
such as filters and pitch, so the same sample can have a
completely different timbre depending on the program
(Figure 22).
A Series samplers are equipped with multiple effects too
powerful to describe in mere words. They are so
advanced that professionals often use the A5000 as a
dedicated effects processor. The A4000 has three effects
blocks available for simultaneous use, and the A5000
has six. Both models have 96 types of effects. Because
these samplers offer a wide range of effects—from the
“Jump” and “TechMod” effects family, which gained
popularity in the A3000/A3000 ver. 2, to distortion,
modulation, ambiance, and tempo sync effects—they
are powerful weapons for creating new sounds.
Note:
To add an effect to a sample, you need only set to which effect
block the sample is to be sent on the sample side. However,
selecting effects is done on the program side. (When program
mode is set to Multi, it conforms to the master part settings
(the MIDI basic channel part). (See figure 24.)
New effect types featured in the A4000/5000
The A3000/A3000 ver. 2 sampler was highly rated because of the power of its built-in effects, but the effects have been refined even
further in the A4000/5000.
• 016 / LPFiltr (Low Pass Filter)
• 017 / HPFiltr (High Pass Filter)
Filter cutoff slope can be switched between 24 dB/oct and 48 dB/oct. Resonance can be set at two levels.
• 018 / BPFiltr (Band Pass Filter)
You can add a filter to effects applied to the AD Input signal. It functions identically to filters applied to samples, and produces a
radical effect.
• 025 / TalkMod (Talking Modulator)
Adds a vowel sound to the input signal. You can switch among the “a”, “e”, “i”, “o”, and “u” formants using the Vowel parameter
and obtain an effect similar to speech. Using a MIDI controller to change the Vowel parameter in realtime yields interesting results.
• 027 / Isolatr (Isolator)
The isolator effect is indispensable for the DJ/remixer. Sound is divided into three bands—Lo, Mid and Hi. You can set the level for
each band, as well as on/mute.
• 034 / Clip1 (Clipper 1) • 035 / Clip2 (Clipper 2)
Applies distortion to a specified frequency band of the input signal. The characteristics of the distortion can be changed based on
Clip Type.
• 037 / V-Dist (V-Distortion)
This effect offers higher quality distortion than generally available. This distortion simulates vintage tube (and fuzz) sounds, and can
also be switched to simulate the sound of a transistor amplifier. You can even change the speaker type.
• 051 / V-Flang (V-Flanger)
Simulation of an analog flanger; higher quality than most available on the market.
• 088 / T-Dly (Tempo Delay)
• 089 / T-DlyS (Tempo Stereo Delay)
• 090 / T-XDly (Tempo Cross Delay)
• 091 / T-Flang (Tempo Flanger)
• 092 / T-Phase (Tempo Phaser)
• 093 / T-AWah (Tempo Auto Wah)
• 094 / T-Scrch (Tempo Scratch)
• 095 / T-ASyn (Tempo Auto Synth)
• 096 / T-FgPan (Tempo Flanging Pan)
Effects 089 to 096 that start with “Tempo” can synchronize the delay time and LFO speed to the Program LFO. Of course, it is
possible to synchronize with an external sequencer if the Sync setting for the Program LFO is set to MIDI.
18
19
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Programs ◊ Convenient Functions in EDIT/PLAY Mode
F5: SETUP
This mode sets preferences related to LFO S/H (Sample
& Hold) speed and A/D input (external input).
When the LFO Wave parameter on the sample side is
set to S/H, the LFO speed is not set on the sample side,
but rather it is set on the program side, enabling the
speed to be changed for each program.
The A/D Input function applies an effect to the signal
input to the A4000/5000’s INPUT jacks and sends the
effected signal to the mix outputs. You can use L/R
(stereo), L+R (mix the L-channel and R-channel signals
as a monaural signal) and 2Mono (handle the stereo
input signal as independent L- and R-channel signals).
You can also output to two sets of OUTPUT jacks
simultaneously just as you can with samples.
F6: CONTROL
This function sets preferences related to MIDI control
for parameters contained in programs such as global
program sound levels and effects. It also sets Controller
Reset, Note On Type, and Program LFO.
● Controller Reset
When switching programs, the Controller Reset
parameter determines whether Control Change
messages or pitch bend status received up to that point
are retained or reset when a different program is
selected. If you’re using the controller to perform tone
editing, set this parameter to On so that the controller
will continue to affect the tone when you switch
programs. During live performances, you most likely
want the controller location and tone changes to
coincide, even when you switch programs. In this case,
it's probably better to set this parameter to Off.
● Note On Type
There are two Note On Type parameters. With Normal
type, a note begins playing when a note-on message is
received and stops playing when a note-off message is
received. The Toggle type starts playing at the initial
note-on message and stops playing when the next note-on
is received; note-off messages are ignored. This is
convenient when playing long phrase samples on the
keyboard because it eliminates the need to hold the keys
down for long periods of time (Figure 27).
● MIDI control settings
Up to four program parameters, such as MIDI Control
Change messages, can be controlled in real-time.
Setting the parameters is as simple and easy as
changing sample parameters (see page 15, F6 MIDI/
CTRL). You should definitely try using MIDI controllers
or the Program LFO to control effects.
● Controller Reset & Note On Type settings
Using the PLAY-ChSetup parameter, Controller Reset
and Note On Type can be set for each MIDI channel.
Use Knob 2 to select the MIDI channel, Knob 3 to set
the Controller Reset parameter, and Knob 4 and Knob 5
to set the Note On Type.
Hint: Example of effect control settings using Program LFO
On the PLAY-PgmLFO screen, set “Wave” to Triangle and “Sync” to Manual, and on the PLAY-PgmCtrl screen, set “Device” to Program
LFO. Then set the effect types and “Function” (effect parameters) as follows. You can apply dynamic variations to already unique effect
sounds and create mind-blowing effects that are completely different from the original. Syncing the Program LFO to MIDI clock makes
it possible to create subtle rhythms using effected sounds. The examples below are but a few of the possibilities. You’ll make an
exciting new discovery each time you try a different effect type and effect parameter.
Effect Type: 001 / Scratch • Effect Parameter: 03 / Scratch Speed
Effect Type: 002 / AutoSyn • Effect Parameter: 01 / Mod Speed
Effect Type: 006 / Jump • Effect Parameter: 01 / Depth
Effect Type: 013 / Radio • Effect Parameter: 03 / Mod LPF Freq
Effect Type: 053 / Phaser1 • Effect Parameter: 05 / Feedback Level
Effect Type: 056 / FlngPan • Effect Parameter: 03 / Flanger Depth
Tip:
By setting “Function” on the PLAY-PgmCtrl screen to “PgmLFODepth,” the MIDI controller can be used to control the depth of the
Program LFO effect.
20
● Program LFO
Program LFO generates an LFO signal to control a
program or sample with a period set by the Tempo and
Cycle (beat count) parameters or with a period
synchronized to an external sequencer. There are six
types of LFO waveforms—Sine, Saw, Triangle, Square,
S/H (Sample-and-Hold), and StepWv (Step Wave).
The Step Wave type has a feel similar to a step
sequencer and lets you easily create original LFO
waveforms.
Operation is simple. First, use the PLAY-PgmLFO screen
to set “Wave” to StepWv. Move the cursor to “Step
Wave” at the very bottom of the screen and then use
Knob 1 <Total Step> to specify the number of step
partitions (2 to 16) to occur within one LFO cycle. For
example, if the number of steps is set to 16, the value
will change for each 16th note when one LFO cycle is
synchronized to one bar. Use Knob 4 to select the step
number to be edited, and then use Knob 5 <Value> to
set a numeric value (0 to 127) for each step. This lets
you make LFO waveforms in which the staircase pattern
changes for each step. The transition between steps can
be made smoother by setting Knob 3 <Slope>.
In addition, each time you press Knob 3, all step Value
settings (Knob 5) will be reset randomly. You can use
this function as a trick to change the LFO waveform to a
completely different waveform in real-time, even right in
the middle of controlling tones with Program LFO
(Figure 28).
Figure 28
When Program LFO is sync’d to the internal clock, the
LFO phase can be reset (restarted) using a Note On
message from a designated note number and MIDI
channel of an external MIDI device. The initial phase at
reset can also be set.
■ Quick Entry
Parameters that have “QUICK...” displayed above the
knob (at the very bottom of screen) have a Quick Entry
option. Pressing the knob shows a pop-up menu that
lets you select the maximum, minimum, and lastentered value for parameters such as level and cutoff.
Rotate the knob to select the desired value, then press
the knob to enter that value and close the Quick pop-up
window. For parameters with increment or decrement
values such as pan, EASY EDIT, etc., the pop-up menu
displays minimum, center (for example, “0”), lastentered value, and maximum values. The central value
(“0”) is automatically selected, so simply pressing the
knob sets the value to the central value (“0” in most
cases). This feature is convenient when you want to
return a pan parameter to its center value or reset an
EASY EDIT setting (Figure 29).
Figure 29
■ MIDI Input
Parameters that have “MIDI” displayed above the knob
(at the very bottom of screen) can be pressed to allow
MIDI input. This feature applies to parameters that use
note numbers, such as original key and break point, and
to MIDI parameters such as MIDI receive channel and
controller device. Entry is extremely simple. When the
knob is pressed, the MIDI label will flash. The MIDI data
to be set can then be sent from the MIDI keyboard.
This feature is handy when setting control devices
because you need only rotate a controller knob or move
a slider—there is no need to remember which control
change number is output by the MIDI controller. You
can also map samples simply by pressing keys on the
keyboard (Figure 30).
Convenient Functions in EDIT/PLAY Mode
On the A4000/5000, you normally rotate knobs to select
programs and samples, and set parameters. Depending
on the parameter, you may have to turn a knob several
times or spend some time to find the desired sample or
setting. Several functions described below come in
handy for such situations. By taking full advantage of
these functions, you can significantly reduce the time
required for frequently performed operations. The
A4000/5000 is designed to let you spend as much time
as possible creating music.
21
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Convenient Functions in EDIT/PLAY Mode ◊ RECORD Mode
■ LIST Display
Parameters that have “LIST...” displayed above the knob
(at the very bottom of screen) such as MIDI control
function, pitch bend type, effect type, etc., can be
displayed as a pop-up list. Press the knob to display the
list. You will be able to view multiple selection items
simultaneously and search for the desired setting simply
and easily (Figure 31).
selecting samples for editing tends to be troublesome.
Using the MIDI➞Sample function, however, you can
select samples by playing notes from an external MIDI
keyboard. The cursor moves from sample to sample on
the Tree View Display as you play, making it easy to
check complicated mapping.
■ Commands
A convenient set of Commands lets you set sample and
program parameters quickly and easily.
Figure 31
■ Tree View Display
The more samples you use, the harder it becomes to
determine a sample’s mapping status and/or MIDI
receive channel. The Tree View Display lets you view
these parameters at a glance, and lets you easily switch
samples during editing (Figure 32).
Figure 32
Pressing Knob 1 on a screen where TREE is displayed
calls up the Tree View Display. This feature can be called
up from most display pages.
The sample key range (range of notes produced) is
displayed graphically on the screen. The Original Key
and the MIDI receive channel specified for each sample
assigned to the currently selected program is displayed.
■ MIDI➞Sample
MIDI➞Sample lets you select a sample by using an
external MIDI controller instead of by rotating the
knobs. When a large number of samples are present,
● COPY
Lets you copy individual program parameters, effects
(entire effect blocks can be copied), Step Waves, and
sample parameters. Convenient for when you want to
use favorite effects or Step Wave settings in another
program.
● ARRANGE
Lets you re-map samples assigned to programs or
sample banks. Samples are arranged one key per
sample from a specified key of a specified MIDI channel.
Samples can be assigned to white keys only or to all
keys (black and white). When creating a piece that uses
multiple phrase samples, you can sample the elements
to be used in the piece and then map the elements onto
keys later. This reduces the time and effort involved in
complex mapping tasks.
● INITIALIZE
Lets you initialize settings for a specified program or for
all programs. You can call up settings for programs
previously registered.
● MOVE
Lets you move samples between programs and sample
banks. You can move the samples assigned to a
program to a sample bank, or all samples in a sample
bank to another program. This convenient command
saves time by automating troublesome tasks.
In the Tree View Display, the knobs function as follows:
Knob 2: Turn the knob to select a sample. By pressing the knob, you can choose to display all samples in the selected sample bank
in tree form or display only the sample bank.
Knob 3: Sort and display samples in alphabetical order.
RECORD Mode
This mode is used to record new samples. The A4000/
5000 refer to this process as “recording” rather than
“sampling.” Some of the more interesting tricks you can
use for recording samples are explained below.
■ Input Source
This setting selects the input source for recording.
Sound can be recorded directly from AD L (analog
signal from the INPUT-L jack), AD L/R (analog signal
from both INPUT-L and INPUT-R jacks), StOut (rerecord the audio signal that is sent to the stereo
outputs), DIG and OPT (digital and optical input;
requires the installation of the optional AIEB1 I/O
expansion board). The unit’s built-in effects can be
applied to analog input signals for recording. If you’re
using a microphone for input, set the “AD InputGain” on
the REC-Trigger screen to Mic.
■ Sampling Frequency
When the input source is set to an analog input (AD L,
or AD L/R) or to StOut, you can record in mono or
stereo and select the sampling frequency from among
44.1k (44.1 kHz), 22k (22.05 kHz), 22kLoFi, 11k (11.025
kHz), 11kLoFi, 5k (5.5125 kHz) or 5kLoFi. “LoFi”
indicates a mode in which no low-pass filter is applied
to the signal to eliminate conversion noise. Using LoFi
gives you a “grungy” sound with noise mixed in. For
Digital input, stereo sources at clock frequencies of 48
kHz, 44.1 kHz and 32 kHz are supported. Samples can
be recorded at 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 the input sampling
frequency, but this normally results in a “lo-fi” signal.
■ Record Type
Four recording types are available—New, New+,
Replace and ➞Save.
● New
Records a new sample, storing its waveform data in
memory. Normal recording is carried out using this
type.
● New+
Records a series of new samples. It’s better to use
New+ rather than New when recording consecutive
samples off of a sampling CD.
● Replace
Records the new sound directly into the currently
selected sample, completely overwriting its waveform
data. Sample parameter settings are retained; only the
waveform data is replaced.
● ➞Save
A recorded sample is normally saved to memory (RAM),
but when ➞Save is selected, it is automatically saved to
disk and erased from memory after recording has
finished.
■ Sample Name
When recording using the default setting, an
incremental numeric suffix is automatically appended to
the sample name such as “_NewSample1,”
“_NewSample2,” etc. When recording a lot of samples,
however, it may be difficult to remember what each
sample is later. In this case, it’s better to give each
recorded sample a recognizable name using the Rename
feature on the REC-RecSetup screen.
■ Monitor
The A4000/5000 output the input signal directly to the
stereo outputs, allowing you to monitor the input signal
during recording. Pressing Knob 2 on the REC-Record
screen turns the Monitor function on and off. Monitor
level and monitor output destination can be set from the
REC-Mon&Click screen.
■ Click (Metronome)
This function makes it possible to create a “click” track,
which can be used as a metronome-like reference when
recording drums and percussion instruments, for
example. The Click Tempo, Click Level and Click Beat
can be set from the REC-Mon&Click screen. This
function can also be used when recording live
performances, and to create phrase samples.
■ Recording Triggers
Recording Triggers can be set to automatically start
recording when an input signal is detected, and
automatically stop recording once the signal ends
(silence). From the REC-Trigger screen, you can set the
Start Trigger to Manual for manual operation or to Edge/
Manual for automatic or manual operation. EdgeLevel
determines the input level at which recording will
automatically start or stop.
Knob 4: Use the MIDI➞Sample function.
Knob 5: Determines whether Knob 1 will be used for sample selection.
Tip: Two types of command execution
When Knob 1 <EXEC> is used to execute a command, the display that was showing immediately before executing the command is
automatically recalled after execution has finished. When Knob 5 <EXEC&CONT> is used to execute a command, the same display is
retained after executing the command so that you can immediately repeat execution of the same command if desired. Convenient
when processing multiple samples one after another.
22
Tip: Setting a longer pre-trigger time
When using the auto-start function to record sounds with slow attack times, there will be occasions when detecting the input sound
will be delayed and the initial attack of the sample will be lost even though the edge level is set as low as possible. In such cases, you
should set a longer PreTrg (pre-trigger) delay from the REC-Setup screen. After recording, you can set back the start address of the
sample using the EDIT-Trim/Loop screen, so that the part of the sound that has been cut off plays back normally. By tracing the pretrigger time setting back from the recording start point, it should be easy to see the point where data capture actually begins.
23
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ RECORD Mode
◊ Waveform Processing
■ Auto Normalize
This setting causes the A4000/5000 to automatically
normalize (optimize the level of) each new sample after
recording it. Setting is done from the REC-Process
screen.
■ Recording Hints
When recording using the default settings, the sample
parameter settings are:
MIDI receive channel……Channel 1
Original Key…………….C3
Key Range………………C2 to G8
These parameters are mapped onto the currently
selected program, allowing you to quickly play sounds.
If you create multiple samples without changing
programs, all samples will be assigned to the same key
range, causing them to sound simultaneously when
played back through MIDI. In this case, temporarily set
the “MapTo” parameter to Off from the REC-RecSetup
screen when recording. Afterwards, you can map the
samples to the desired program.
6. Set “Orig” to the key you would like the initial sample
mapped to.
7. Set “Map Key” to White. (Samples will be mapped to
only the white keys.)
8. Push [F3] to bring up the REC-Trigger screen. Set the
Start and Stop Triggers to Edge/Manual. (Recording
automatically starts when the input signal level
exceeds the Start Edge Level, and automatically stops
when the input signal level is lower than the Stop
Edge Level.)
• Normalize
This command is normally used to adjust the waveform
to its optimal level. All levels are raised proportionately
so that the highest level comes just below the clip point
(the maximum level appropriate for digital processing).
Whenever there is a peak in the sample, even for an
instant, the level of that peak is used as a reference to
boost the sample to the maximum level. Thus, when
sampling sounds that have many peak components,
such as drum loops, the recorded sample may sound
flat and thin even though it has been normalized.
Next, set the input source and recording level, press
Knob 5 <GO> from the REC-Record screen, and start the
CD. That’s all there is to it.
The A4000/5000 set the maximum level for digital
processing at 100%, but it is possible to boost the level
to a maximum of 400%, as well as adjust the plus or
minus sides of the waveform amplitude if necessary.
Waveform Processing
If you normalize with the clip point set above 100%, the
peaks will be clipped, but the sample will sound fuller.
For drum loops, you can get a thicker sound without
inducing distortion, even if the clip point is boosted to
200% or 400%. Of course, you can obtain a grungy
sound through heavy clipping, and can get a “fat” sound
that will stand out in a mix by making the plus side/
minus side ratio vertically asymmetrical. Be sure to try a
variety of settings. (Auto Normalize from the RECProcess screen and Knob 5 <NORM> from the EDITWaveform screen yield the same results when the plus
side/minus side parameters are both set to 100%.)
(Figure 33)
The A4000/5000 offer the following waveform
processing options.
■ Recording While Mapping
EDIT-Waveform screen
The conventional preparation procedure for creating a
piece using numerous phrase samples is to record the
sound elements to be used and then create a kit by
mapping the samples on a keyboard. The A4000/5000,
however, can be set to automatically map samples as
you record them, saving you a lot of time and effort.
• Extract
Here’s how the A4000/5000 automate this task.
As a sampling CD plays back a number of consecutive
samples, the A4000/5000 record them one by one,
segmenting the individual sound elements into discrete
samples by detecting points of silence in the input
signal. They then assemble a sample bank by mapping
the recorded samples onto the keyboard.
COMMAND/PROCESS
COMMAND/PROCESS
• Normalize
• Reverse
• Fade In/Fade Out
• Loop Cross-Fade
COMMAND/RESAMPLE
• Time Stretch
• Pitch Convert
COMMAND / STEREO ➞ MONO
Figure 33
Operation is simple and easy. Just make the settings
below.
1. Division
Determines the number of segments the sample will be
divided into, ranging from 1/2 to 1/32. For a one-bar
loop, setting Division to 1/8 will divide the sample into
eighth notes. For a two-bar loop, setting Division to 1/32
will divide the sample into sixteenth notes.
2. Length
Specifies the length of the sample produced by the Loop
Divide command. For a one-bar loop, if Division is set to
1/8 and Length is set to 200%, the sample will be
divided into eighth-note intervals, but the sample length
will be the same length as a quarter note (two eighth
notes). (Note, however, that when the wave end and
loop end are the same value and there is no sound after
the loop end, the length of the final divided sample will
not be quarter notes.)
• Stereo ➞ Mono
Here are the parameters to set.
1. Enter Rec Mode.
2. Push [F2] to bring up the Rec-Record screen.
3. Set “Rec Type” to New+. (Allows you to record a
series of new samples.)
4. Set “Map” to Auto. (Enables automatic mapping.)
5. Set “MapTo” to NewSB. (The newly recorded samples
are grouped together in one sample bank.)
24
The A4000/5000 also offer commands that disassemble
the sample. Because they do not rewrite the waveform,
these commands are not considered waveform
processing.
COMMAND/LOOPDIV
• Loop Divide
Command/LoopDIV
• Loop Divide
This command enables you to divide the wave data
between the loop start and loop end points of a phrase
sample into short, equal-length segments, map them
across the keyboard, and place them into a new sample
bank. The wave data is not actually split up. Rather the
sample is duplicated and the address settings are done
automatically. This lets you create new divisions of a
sample without using up additional waveform memory
(Figure 34).
3. Map From
Sets the original note for the divided samples.
The samples are mapped with the first sample at the
specified note and subsequent samples at successively
higher notes.
4. Map Key
Determines whether samples will be mapped only to
white keys, or to all keys (both black and white).
25
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Saving and Loading Data
Saving and Loading Data
The A4000/5000 differ from PCM synthesizers that have
“hardwired” preset waveforms. All programs and
samples are erased from the A4000/5000’s memory
when the power is turned off. You will want to be sure to
save all data to disk before turning the power off.
■ Format
Use this disk-mode command to format floppy disks,
hard disks, ZIP disks, etc. Hard disks and ZIP disks can
be divided into 2 to 8 partitions. The maximum partition
size is 1 GB, so when using a high-capacity hard drive,
you should create multiple partitions.
OneProgram
Saves the currently selected program only, together with
all samples used by that program.
OneSample (Bank)
Saves the selected single sample or sample bank.
All samples within a sample bank are saved.
■ Save
■ Basic Save/Load Operation
and Disk Structure
Data on disks is managed in volumes. When saving data
to a new disk, the disk must first be formatted for use
with the A4000/5000. Once formatted, you should
create a volume on the disk and save program and
sample data to that volume.
You can save and load an entire volume or individual
files within a volume (Figure 35).
Let’s take a look at each operation.
This disk-mode command saves specified data in
memory to disk. From the PLAY-SmpSel screen, rotate
Knob 5 and select “SAVE...”. Pushing the knob calls up
the Save screen.
There are seven “save types,” and selecting the proper
type can shorten save time considerably.
All (Wipe)
Saves all memory content (including all programs,
all samples, and all sequences) to disk. This operation
erases (wipes) all data already existing in the destination
disk volume. Unused programs (programs in which all
settings are set to their initial values) are not saved.
Since all data used by the A4000/5000 in the current
session is saved, this is normally the best choice for
saving a project.
OneSequence
Saves the selected sequence.
When the A4000/5000 encounter a name conflict
(a sample or sequence with the same name already
existing on the destination drive) during an AllSamples,
OneProgram, OneSample (Bank) or OneSequence
operation, you can choose to (1) overwrite the existing
object; (2) save the object under a new name (rename);
or (3) cancel the operation. You can also specify that all
samples and sequences be automatically renamed.
The disk name and volume name of the save destination
are always displayed on the save screen, so you should
get in the habit of checking the save destination before
saving so that you do not loose important data.
■ Load
AllPgms (Wipe)
Saves all programs and all samples used in the
programs with the exception of unused programs.
This operation erases all data already existing in the
destination disk volume. When working with many
samples in multiple programs, some samples may no
longer be needed. This command allows you to save
only the samples you are using at the time.
The following four disk modes are used for loading.
AllSamples
Saves all samples to the destination volume.
Operation To load only a single sample (or sample
bank)
From the DISK-SmpLoad screen, select the disk or
volume and the sample (or sample bank) to be loaded.
Press Knob 4 <LOAD>.
Operation To load all samples in a volume
From the DISK-SmpLoad screen, select the disk or
volume to be loaded. Press Knob 5 <LOAD ALL>.
Sequence Load
Loads a selected sequence or all sequences within a
volume into memory.
Operation To load only a single sequence
From the DISK-SeqLoad screen, select the disk or
volume and the sequence to be loaded. Press Knob 4
<LOAD>.
Operation To load all sequences in a volume
From the DISK-SeqLoad screen (F3), select the disk or
volume to be loaded. Press Knob 5 <LOAD ALL>.
Volume Load
All data in the currently selected volume, including
programs, samples, and sequences, are loaded.
All previously existing data in memory is erased.
This operation has wide applications; for example,
loading all objects in a sound set saved on the volume,
and restoring everything to the state of the last session.
AllEdited
Saves all new data to disk (all new data including all
newly recorded samples and all edited objects that have
not yet been saved to disk in their current form). It does
not save objects that have not been changed since the
most recent disk load. This type is best to use when
adding and saving recorded samples to a volume, when
editing after loading, or when modifying data from what
was originally loaded.
Sample Load
Loads samples or sample banks into memory. When a
sample bank is selected, all samples in the sample bank
will be loaded.
Operation From the DISK-Volume screen, select the
disk or volume to be loaded and press Knob 5 <LOAD>.
Program Load
Loads a single program or all programs together with all
samples used by these programs.
Operation To load only a single program
From the DISK-PgmLoad screen, select the disk or
volume and the program to be loaded. Press Knob 4
<LOAD>.
When the A4000/5000 encounter a name conflict
(a sample or sequence with the same name already
existing in memory) during a Program Load, Sample
Load or Sequence Load operation, you can choose to
(1) overwrite the existing object; (2) save the object
under a new name (rename); or (3) cancel the
operation. You can also specify that all samples and
sequences be automatically renamed in a manner
similar to that described in the SAVE operation section.
■ Import
The A4000/5000 can import voice data as well as
sample and sequence data created on other equipment
and computers. It can accommodate sampler formats
not only from other Yamaha equipment, but also from
other manufacturers. This feature lets you make full use
of existing sound libraries with the A4000/5000.
Operation To load all programs in a volume
From the DISK-PgmLoad screen, select the disk or
volume to be loaded. Press Knob 5 <LOAD ALL>.
Note:
Multiple volumes can be created on hard disks as well as MO and ZIP disks, but only one volume can be created per floppy disk.
A single “FD Volume” is created when formatting a floppy disk.
26
27
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Import-Compatible Data ◊ Other Unique Features
Import-Compatible Data
■ Other Formats
Other Unique Features
■ Yamaha Formats
……………………………………………………………
A7000…… Normal voices, drum voices, samples
TX16W…… Samples
EX series… Voices, samples
SU700…… Samples
……………………………………………………………
Notes: 1) The Yamaha A7000 is available in the
Japanese market only.
2) Files saved using the Yamaha A3000/3000
ver. 2 are fully compatible with the A4000/
5000 and will load normally under all disk
mode functions.
■ Other Manufacturers’ Formats
……………………………………………………………
AKAI S1000/S3000 format………Programs, samples
……………………………………………………………
Data can be imported from SCSI or IDE drives (including
hard disks, ZIP drives, and CD-ROM drives) as well as
floppy disks.
……………………………………………………………
Emu EIIIx format…… Presets, samples
Roland S760 format … Patches, samples
……………………………………………………………
Data can be imported from SCSI or IDE drives (including
hard disks, ZIP drives, and CD-ROM drives).
AIFF file (AIF extension; standard Macintosh file format)
WAVE file (WAV extension; standard Windows® file format)
SMF (Standard MIDI File)
……………………………………………………………
Data can be imported from DOS-formatted SCSI/IDE
storage media (hard disks, ZIP disks, etc.), ISO9660format CD-ROMs and floppy disks.
Voice data is imported as a sample bank. Settings for
the sample key range, level, pan, pitch, etc., used in the
voice data are imported into the sample bank of the
respective samples.
Even when using an existing sound library, the A4000/
5000’s powerful filters and effects let you create
completely new sounds.
■ Commands
There are several other disk commands besides Save
and Format. The two most important are...
• Backup
This command allows the entire contents of a hard disk,
ZIP disk, or other disk to be backed up to CD-R or CDRW media via an external CD-R or CD-RW drive
connected to the A4000/5000 SCSI bus.
• CD-DA
This command writes samples stored on disk to CD-R
or CD-RW media via an external CD-R or CD-RW drive
connected to the A4000/5000 SCSI bus to produce an
audio CD.
■ ASSIGNABLE Key
Many functions are available that can be assigned to the
ASSIGNABLE key.
……………………………………………………………
■ AUDITION Key
This convenient key lets you monitor samples
regardless of MIDI channel assignment or whether they
have been mapped. With this feature, you can play
samples during editing without having to connect a
MIDI keyboard to the A4000/5000.
Press “AUDITION Key Setup” in the UTIL-KeySet screen
to access the AUDITION key settings. Pressing the
AUDITION key while holding down the COMMAND key
will take you directly to the UTIL-KeySet screen.
The following three parameters can be set.
Effect
Turning Effect OFF bypasses the sample’s effects during
playback in AUDITION mode, even if effects are to be
applied to the sample. Setting Effect OFF is ideal for
when performing detailed waveform editing. (Default
setting is ON.)
Easy Edit
Turning Easy Edit OFF bypasses the sample’s Easy Edit
parameter settings during playback in AUDITION mode,
even if these settings have been applied on the program
side. (Default setting is OFF.)
Trigger Mode
When set to NORMAL, a sample will play back while you
hold down the Audition key. When set to TOGGLE,
a sample will start playback when you press the
Audition key and will continue to play back until you
press the Audition key again. This is convenient for
when you want to adjust the EQ or filter settings of a
break-beat sample. (Default setting is NORMAL.)
Select “ASSIGNABLE Key Function” in the UTIL-KeySet
screen to access its settings. Pressing the ASSIGNABLE
key while holding down the COMMAND key will take you
directly to this screen.
There are 6 functions available for you to choose from.
(Default setting is Knob Control on/off.)
Knob Control on/off
Knobs 2 to 5 become MIDI controllers, which allow you
to control the A4000/5000’s samples as well as voices
of external synthesizers. Control change numbers, MIDI
channels and the amount of change are set in the
UTIL-KnobSet screen.
Damp
Stops playback of all samples.
Controller Reset
Initializes the received control change. This allows you
to instantly restore a sound to its original state after it
has been changed by MIDI controller.
FKey Play on/off
Function keys 1 to 6 perform MIDI keyboard functions,
allowing you to use them to play back the A4000/5000’s
samples as well as voices of external synthesizers. Note
numbers, MIDI channels and velocity are set in the
UTIL-FKeySet screen.
Knob & FKey on/off
Lets you use Knob Control and FKey Play
simultaneously.
MIDI ➞ Smp on/off
Lets you use the MIDI ➞ Smp function without
switching to the TREE screen.
Tip: Recording long pieces to be burned on a CD
At CD quality (44.1 kHz, 16-bit, stereo), you can record only a maximum of approximately 6 min. 20 sec. per sample into the A4000/
5000’s memory. Expanding the A4000/5000’s memory to 128 MB and setting the recording type to ➞Save will allow you to record a
maximum of approximately 12 min. 40 sec. The samples are automatically written to CD-R after recording. Use this method to record
long pieces that you would like to archive on a CD.
28
29
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Professional Samplers A4000/5000
◊ Paying Attention to Sound Quality ◊ Computer Compatibility
Paying Attention to Sound Quality
We often hear about how sound quality can vary from
manufacturer to manufacturer and between different
models of samplers. What exactly causes these
“variations”?
The Memory List lists the programs, sample banks and
samples loaded in the A4000/5000’s memory according
to type (Figure 36).
■ Sample/Sample Bank Edit
LFO/MIDI/CONTROL
The Sample/Sample Bank Edit Window consists of four
pages: MAP/OUT, FILTER, EG and LFO/MIDI/CONTROL.
MAP/OUT
Displays the parameters available for editing with EDIT
mode function key 2 (MAP/OUT) (Figure 38).
Samplers don’t contain preset sample data as do PCM
synthesizers, so the quality of sound is determined by
the audio signal passing through the input/output
circuitry—in other words, the quality of the A/D (analog
to digital) section for sampling and the D/A (digital to
analog) section for sample playback.
Many components are used in the A/D and D/A sections.
These include resistors, capacitors, amplifiers, and AD/
DA converters. It can be said that a sampler’s sound
quality is determined by a combination of these
components.
Sound characteristics that are unique to a certain
manufacturer or model of sampler are actually the result
of specific components inside the sampler. Paying close
attention to sound means also paying close attention to
the components that are used.
The A4000/5000 development team aimed at creating a
sampler with a thicker, more powerful sound and thus
gave careful consideration to the components it
selected. Various types of components that can affect
sound quality, including capacitors, amplifiers, AD/DA
converters and wiring, were tried out in different
combinations. After conducting numerous tests and
comparisons, the development team chose the
components that best matched the sound quality it was
aiming for. Hear for yourself the result of these carefully
selected components.
Displays the parameters available for editing with EDIT
mode function keys 5 (LFO) and 6 (MIDI/CONTROL).
In this menu, you can edit filters, EQ and EGs intuitively
by dragging the sliders in the graphic display with your
mouse.
■ TWE Wave Editor
Connect the A4000/5000 to your computer with a SCSI
cable. This will enable you to quickly exchange samples
and easily edit waveforms on your PC screen (Figure 40).
Figure 36
To edit any of these, double-click on the name or select
Edit from the edit menu. An Edit Window will appear.
The parameters will be graphically displayed for smooth
and easy editing.
Figure 38
■ Program Edit
The Program Edit Window consists of the EFFECT/
SETUP page and CONTROL page.
FILTER
Displays the parameters available for editing with EDIT
mode function key 3 (FILTER).
EFFECT/SETUP
Displays the parameters available for editing with PLAY
mode function keys 1 (PROGRAM), 4 (EFFECT) and 5
(SETUP) (Figure 37).
EG
Displays the parameters available for editing with EDIT
mode function key 4 (EG) (Figure 39).
Figure 40
This powerful application lets you perform complicated
waveform editing that cannot be done on the main unit.
It also lets you transfer WAV and AIFF files between the
A4000/5000 and your computer. You’ll soon discover
that this software is an indispensable tool for your
A4000/5000.
Computer Compatibility
The CD-ROMs bundled with the A4000/5000 include
sound parameter and waveform editing software (for
both Windows and Mac). Using the A4000/5000 with a
PC gives you even more powerful possibilities for
creating music.
Figure 37
■ A4000/5000 Editor
(sample parameter editing software)
This intuitive application allows you to easily edit the
A4000/5000’s sample parameters on your computer
screen via MIDI.
30
Figure 39
CONTROL
Displays the parameters available for editing with PLAY
mode function key 6 (CONTROL).
31
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Sampling Unit SU700
◊ Independent Control of BPM and Pitch ◊ Track and Pad Configuration ◊ Knob Functions
phrases from records and CDs for sampling. Chances
are the BPM will be different for each one, and there’s
nothing more troublesome than trying to make their
tempos all match. The SU700, however, automatically
adjusts these different tempos—instantly. You no longer
have to deal with cumbersome procedures; the SU700
lets you concentrate on creating music.
Just run the SU700’s sequencer, and all sample loops
will play back perfectly synchronized to any BPM* you
set on the sequencer. Changing the BPM of the
sequencer won’t affect the pitch of the samples.
*BPM: Beats per minute. The number of beats that occur in one
minute (i.e. tempo). You can guess the type of dance music a
person likes by the BPM he/she prefers. For example, if he/she
likes a BPM under 100, there’s a good chance they’re into triphop or chill-out ambient techno. A bass phrase originally sampled
at 134 BPM can be lowered to 92 BPM for use in trip-hop. This is
thanks to the evolution of digital musical equipment. With the
SU700, you can easily do things that were only a dream a few
years back.
The SU700 is an innovative desktop sampler combining
the functions of sampler, sequencer, effects processor
and mixer all in one unit. Most operations can be
controlled in real-time to give you ultimate power, not
only for creating music, but also for live performance.
The SU700 is the most powerful all-in-one desktop
sampling workstation you can own.
You don’t need knowledge of music or MIDI to use the
SU700. All you need is your musical sense and
imagination to let the SU700 open up the door to infinite
possibilities. That’s because it has been carefully
designed for intuitive music creation and live
performance. Now, let’s take a look at its features.
■ Independent Control of BPM and Pitch
If you raise the RPM of a record, the pitch of the music
will rise. If you lower the RPM, the pitch will lower;
female vocals, for example, will sound like male vocals.
This is a physical phenomenon and there’s not much we
can do about it. With the SU700, however, it’s possible
to change the pitch of samples without affecting their
tempo...or change their tempo without affecting their
pitch.
This is a feature that will prove useful in creating music
based on phrase samples such as break beats. Let’s say,
for example, you’ve selected a number of cool drum
32
Many artists use the Yamaha RM1x sequence remixer
together with the SU700 and synchronize the two using
the RM1x as the MIDI clock master. Mijk van Dijk is one
such artist, who praises the SU700 as “the perfect
phrase sampler,” because you don’t have to worry about
the samples’ BPM. (You can listen to an interview with
Mijk van Dijk on the CD-ROM included with this
handbook.)
■ Basic Structure
To use the SU700 to its fullest potential, we recommend
that you understand its basic structure. But that
shouldn’t be a problem because most of the SU700’s
functions are performed through buttons and knobs
conveniently laid out on the top panel. Operation is
easy...and fun!
1. Track and Pad Configuration
The SU700’s pads are spread out across the bottom of
the unit, where they can be easily accessed. The four
colored buttons on the left side of the unit are for
selecting banks 1 to 4, and the ones on the right are for
selecting pad functions. (Pads can be assigned various
functions other than just simple playback of samples.
Read on for details.) The eight rectangular pads at the
center and the two square ones on their left are for
playing back samples. Switching between the four banks
gives you a total of 40 sample tracks. All 40 tracks can
be stereo-sampled. The pads are classified into three
groups: Auto Loop, Composed Loop Pads and Free
Sample Pads. Let’s take a look at each of them.
• Auto Loop
The two orange pads on the left
are Auto Loop pads. Four banks
are available for a total of eight.
Samples assigned to these pads
are automatically looped and
adjusted to match the selected
tempo.
• Composed Loop Pads
The gray pads located in the middle are for composing
loops from one-shot samples, much like sequencing
with a rhythm machine. You can use these pads to
sequence samples that you want to loop but can’t
because they don’t start at the beginning of the
measure.
A typical way of using these pads would be to assign
drum kit samples to them (see photo below) and tap on
them to create a rhythm loop. The pads are touchsensitive, so you can generate dynamic drum phrases
that sound as if they were played by a live drummer.
• Audio In Pad
This is the smaller orange pad to the right of the Free
Sample pads. With this pad, you can input sounds from
external sound sources (such as a turntable, CD player,
synthesizer or microphone), process them with
powerful effects or filters, and mix them in with sample
playback. Try mixing your favorite CD into a sample
sequence playing on the SU700 and adding various
effects and filters to it.
Hint: Try your hand at remixing!
Many artists today feature a vocal-only track on their CDs as a
bonus track. Use these tracks to try your hand at genuine
remixing. First, sample a few drum loops from a sampling CD
(commercially available) and assign them to the Auto Loop pads.
For variety, try to use samples that have a different groove than
the original song. Then connect a CD player to the AUDIO IN of
the SU700 and play the vocal track. With both the CD player and
sequencer playing back, you can mute and unmute the drum
loops and apply different effects to each of the tracks—including
the vocal track! You’ll be surprised at how easy it is to make
cool-sounding remixes. Use your imagination to create your own
original remixes. You can use the Groove function to change the
feel of the rhythm, or apply special EQ effects to give your
samples a lo-fi feel. Don’t forget about the copyright laws!
• Master Pad
This pad is located to the right of the Audio In pad.
Use it to control the levels and effects of your entire mix.
Kick
Snare
Closed hi-hat Open hi-hat
• Free Sample Pads
These pads are dedicated for one-shot playback. Tap
them as you like while listening to the sequencer play
back the other tracks in record mode. Good for voice
samples, special effects, and adding samples
spontaneously throughout your composition.
2. Knob Functions
The knobs located above each of the pads can be
assigned various parameters for real-time control.
Use the Knob Function buttons on the left side of
the operation panel to select the parameter to be
assigned. Parameters include filters (four types
including low pass filter), EG parameters, 43 types of
effects, 2-band EQ, LFO, and more.
The parameter value for each knob is shown on the
display. All parameter changes can be recorded into
the sequencer* in real-time by turning the knobs.
*Changes can also be sent to an external sequencer as MIDI
control data.
Tip:
Use the Groove function to alter the rhythmic feel of a sample.
By changing the timing, velocity and gate time parameters,
you can make your samples pull forward, sound laid back or feel
jumpy. Groove shuffling is commonly used with MIDI data, but
the ability to do this with samples is a feature unique to the SU700.
33
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Sampling Unit SU700
◊ Ribbon Controller ◊ Pad Function ◊ Scene Memory ◊ Sampling ◊ Effects ◊ Expandability
3. Ribbon Controller
The ribbon controller on the right
side of the operation panel lets you
“scratch” samples by sliding your
finger up and down on it. You can
also assign it a function parameter,
such as filter cutoff, for slider-like
control over the sound. This allows
you to change two parameter
settings simultaneously for a single
sample*; for example, you can
control filter cutoff with the ribbon
controller and resonance with a knob.
All ribbon controller data, including
scratching, can be recorded into the
sequencer.
*Each control knob is assigned to the pad
located directly below it, thus it is not
possible to change more than one
parameter at a time. Using the ribbon
controller, however, you can control two
parameters simultaneously—one with a
knob and another with the ribbon controller.
4. Pad Function
These buttons select how the
sample pads function when
pressed. Use them to get the most
out of your live performances.
Functions can be selected and used
on the fly. The display shows the
currently selected function.
Play:
Sample playback mode. Pressing a pad in this mode
plays back the sample.
On/Mute:
Pressing this pad turns the sample on or off (Mute/
Unmute). For example, you can mute a drum loop for
four measures and then unmute it for the next four.
The measure location where you muted and unmuted
the loop can be recorded by the sequencer for intuitive
music creation in real-time. You can control playback of
each sample loop just like using an audio mixer.
Roll:
This function easily generates rolls, which are
indispensable fill-ins for dance music. Using it is
incredibly easy. Just select the Roll button during
sequence playback and press the sample pad you want
to play back as a roll. For example, pressing a snare
sample recorded in a Composed Loop Pad will give you
a rolled snare drum. The sample will play back as a roll
for long as you hold down the pad. The Composed Loop
Pads and Free Sample Pads are touch-sensitive, which
means you can control the volume depending on how
light or hard you tap the pad.
6. Sampling
At the heart of the SU700 is a high-quality sampler.
The SU700 is based on the same technology used in the
A Series professional samplers. Featuring 16-bit linear
sampling at frequencies up to 44.1 kHz and 18-bit A/D
and D/A converters, the SU700 can be used as a
professional studio sampler. Here, we’ll touch on its
incredibly easy sampling operation.
1. Press the Sampling button located at the upper
right of the unit.
2. Select the pad you want to use for the sample.
Loop Restart:
Loop Restart mode re-triggers a sample loop (restarts
playback from the beginning) every time you press the
pad during sequence playback. This technique is often
used in big beat.
3. Set the sampling parameters (sampling rate, etc.).
4. Press the Sampling button to begin sampling.
5. Press the Sampling button again to stop sampling.
Tip:
If you want to re-trigger all your sample loops at once,
select the Master Pad in Loop Restart mode.
5. Scene Memory
Located above the display are Scene Memory buttons,
which let you store the machine’s current mute status
and parameter settings for instant recall at the touch of
a button. Up to 8 different “scenes” can be stored.
Hint:
Scene Memory makes it easy to manage complex settings.
Whenever you come up with a good mix of samples and effect
settings, simply store it as a scene in Scene Memory. You’ll be
able to try out new mix arrangements by calling up different
scenes on the fly.
To make sampling even easier, the SU700 has a function
that pauses recording whenever it detects silence during
the sampling process. Use this function when recording
consecutive samples off of an audio sampling CD.
The start and end points of each sample will be set
automatically. The SU700 includes all the standard
editing functions such as trimming, normalization,
frequency conversion and bit conversion.
8. Expandability
The internal memory can be expanded to a maximum of
64MB by installing identical pairs of SIMMs. The
Yamaha AIEB1 expansion I/O board adds both optical
and coaxial digital in/out as well as six assignable audio
outputs. A SCSI interface board can also be installed to
allow connection to external SCSI equipment such as a
hard disk or ZIP drive. By saving samples in AIFF format
onto a floppy disk, you can edit samples on your PC
using Yamaha’s TWE Wave Editor.
The SU700 can be synchronized with external
equipment through MIDI clock or MTC (MIDI Time
Code). Control data from external MIDI devices can be
used to control sample playback and change
parameters. You can also use the SU700 to control
external synthesizers by assigning note numbers to
each of the sample pads and assigning control change
numbers to each of the knobs.
The SU700 is loaded with real-time functions, so using
it is as smooth and easy as mixing on turntables.
Other convenient functions include an Undo function in
case you make a mistake during sequencing or
waveform editing, and Marker Memory, which lets you
store up to eight locations within your sequence and
jump to them at any time. We hope you take full
advantage of the SU700’s powerful features to create
your own unique style of music.
7. Effects
The SU700 features 43 effects that are ideal for loop
creation and live performance. These have been
carefully selected from the A Series samplers, which are
highly rated for their effects quality. Up to three different
effects can be used simultaneously. Effects are divided
into two categories: system effects, which are used for
samples on all tracks; and insertion effects, which are
assigned to individual samples. Precise editing of the
effects is possible. The knobs adjust the send level of
the system effects, and control specific parameters for
insertion effects. Effects can also be applied to the Audio
In Pad. The Audio In knob settings and On/Mute status
can be recorded by the sequencer in real-time.
Hint:
There are other mixer-like functions besides Mute/Unmute.
You can freely control the volume and pan position of each track
by selecting the Level and Pan parameters with the Knob
Function keys.
34
35
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Sampling Unit SU200
◊ Loop Track Play ◊ Carefully Selected Effects ◊ Effect Type List ◊ Special Functions for Live Performance
The sampler is a dream instrument, which allows you to
capture literally any available sound element and put it
in your music. When sampling break beats, however,
BPM becomes an obstacle because different break beats
can have different BPMs (naturally). There was a time
when artists would say, “If only these samples could be
played back at a slower (or faster) tempo without
changing the pitch...” The Time Stretch function made
this wish a reality. And finally, the SU200 arrived on the
scene, which can automatically perform this function on
the fly. Offering such an advanced feature in a compact,
affordable unit, the SU200 is truly a revolutionary
machine.
Actually, the first hardware sampler in the world that made
automatic synchronization of multiple sample loops a reality was
the SU700 (see page 32). News of this sampler sparked
excitement among break-beat artists around the world. The
SU700 is, so to speak, a dedicated break-beat workstation
combining the functions of a desktop sampler and a mixer with
an ultra powerful effects processor. The SU200, on the other
hand, was designed specifically as a powerful machine for live
performance by taking the features of the SU700 that are most
effective for live use.
The SU200 Loop Factory is an all-in-one phrase sampler
that lets you easily create rhythm tracks and apply
real-time effects with its knobs and ribbon controller.
Just as you might expect from its compact size, it can
run on batteries, so you can take your hip-hop/techno
sounds to the streets, to the beach, to the snowboard
slope—anywhere you want—and use it for up to 8
continuous hours.
Let’s take a look at the features of the SU200, which are
unbelievably advanced for such an affordable unit.
■ Loop Track Play
■ Carefully Selected Effects
What makes the SU200 so awesome is not only its Loop
Track Play function, but also its built-in effects. These
effects were carefully selected to provide you with the
most sought-after range of sounds. Outstanding effects
for live performance in an easy-to-use unit—this is the
concept behind the SU200.
The SU200 features two types of rhythm effects and
four types of sound effects for a total of six onboard
effects. By applying these to a sample and changing the
parameters assigned to the two effect control knobs,
you’ll be able to create an amazing array of sounds.
36
Loop Remix
Slice
Tech Mod
Dist/Lo-fi
Delay
Filter
Sound Effects
Parameter 1
Parameter 2
Knob 1
Knob 2 and
Ribbon Controller
Type
Type
LFO
Lo-fi
Delay level
Resonance
Variation
Gate time
Mod speed
Drive
Time
Cutoff
Note:
When the Ribbon Controller is not assigned the Scratch function,
it controls the same effect parameter that is assigned to Effect
Control Knob 2. This gives you slider-like control over effect
parameters. Use it with the filter to produce effects not possible
with knob control.
The other effects—Tech Mod, Dist/Lo-fi, Delay and
Filter—are called sound effects because they enhance
the sound of the sample.
• Tech Mod
This modulation effect proved popular on the A Series
samplers. It adds a distinctive modulation to give the
sample a metallic tonality. Knob 1 controls the amount
of modulation and Knob 2 the modulation speed.
Tip: Robot voice
Sound effects can be applied to any signal input through the Mic
input jack. Apply Tech Mod to your voice to make it sound like a
robot.
• Dist/Lo-fi
This effect, which is a combination of distortion and a
-12 dB low-pass filter, distorts the sample to give it a
“lo-fi” feel. Knob 1 controls the filter cutoff and Knob 2
the degree of distortion.
Rhythm Effects
The first two effects in the list, Loop Remix and Slice,
are rhythm effects—they affect the rhythm of the
sample.
• Loop Remix
This innovative effect automatically breaks the sample
loop into 16 pieces and rearranges them in a different
order to create a totally new sample loop. Ten types of
rearrangement patterns are available. Turn Knob 1 to
change the pattern and Knob 2 to change the amount of
reverse effect. Although the SU200 does not allow as
many remix variations as the A4000/5000, it lets you
remix loops as they are playing, which is not possible
with the A4000/5000 (page 14). Using this function
creatively, you can give unique live performances.
Tip: Use 16th note beats as a fill-in.
By turning Knob 1 fully to the right and Knob 2 fully to the left,
you can make a normal drum loop sound like a 16th-note fill.
Try applying these settings during the last measure of a phrase
for an easy fill-in pattern.
(Automatic BPM sync of multiple samples)
The main reason why the SU200 is so highly rated as a
powerful break-beat generating machine is its Loop
Track Play function. This function automatically
synchronizes the BPM (tempo) of multiple sample
loops, even if they are sampled at different tempos.
During Loop Track Play, up to 6 sample loops (the
maximum polyphony of the unit) can be played back
simultaneously to any tempo you set. What’s more,
raising or lowering the BPM doesn’t affect the sample’s
pitch! The nature of sampling is that the faster the
waveform is read, the higher the pitch becomes, and the
slower the waveform is read, the lower the pitch
becomes. The SU200, however, divides the samples into
small pieces, which allows it to change the tempo
without affecting the pitch.
■ Effect Type List
• Slice
This effect cuts the sample into various pieces. Knob 1
selects the slice pattern from the 10 available, and Knob
2 adjusts the gate time. The SU200’s appeal lies in its
ability to easily process samples in real-time, a feature
not offered in software samplers.
• Delay
This effect adds a single delay that is synchronized with
the BPM you have set in Loop Track Play. Knob 1
controls the amount of feedback and Knob 2 selects the
delay time from 7 available types.
• Filter
A filter is a common feature, but the filter on the SU200
is a powerful -24 dB low-pass filter. Hear the difference.
Knob 1 controls resonance and Knob 2 the cutoff.
■ Special Functions for Live Performance
Here are some cool functions made especially for live
use.
• Scratch
Assigning the Scratch function to the Ribbon Controller
lets you “scratch” a sample in real-time. Use your
imagination to create other kinds of effects with the
Ribbon Controller. The Scratch function is easy to use,
even if you don’t have any experience using samplers.
• Time
This function shortens or lengthens a sample’s playback
time in real-time to change the pitch of the sample.
The shorter the time, the higher the pitch; the longer the
time, the lower the pitch. Using this function is just like
changing the pitch of a record on a turntable.
Note: The Time function cannot be used in Loop Track Play mode.
Turn the two effect control knobs to change the effect
parameters.
37
Part 4 Reference
Part 3 Yamaha Samplers — Sampling Unit SU200
◊ Interview with the R&D Staff
◊ Playing the Pads ◊ Sampling ◊ Storage
• Tap
This is one method of setting the BPM. Tap the Tap
button a few times to the desired tempo. This function is
convenient for synchronizing the SU200 with an external
rhythm source such as a turntable.
Tip: Synchronized playback with an external sequencer
To use the SU200 with an external MIDI sequencer, such as the
Yamaha RM1x, connect a MIDI cable from the MIDI OUT of the
sequencer to the MIDI IN of the SU200. The SU200 can be slaved
to the MIDI clock of the external sequencer, allowing your sample
loops to play back in sync with the BPM of the sequencer.
This function is a must for the digital DJ.
■ Playing the Pads
Now, let’s take a look at the sample pads—the “keys”
for playing the sampler.
The SU200 has 8 pads and 3 pad banks for a total of 24
pads. You can control the play mode (Gate/Trigger) and
sample playback mode (One-Shot/Loop, Normal/
Reverse) for each pad by pushing the respective
buttons. In Gate mode, the sample will play back for as
long as you hold down the pad. In Trigger mode, one
touch of a pad will cause the sample to play all the way
through. You can easily switch between modes for each
sample. Active pads illuminate during playback, so you
can easily know their status.
■ Sampling
Sampling with the SU200 is amazingly easy.
• Sampling
To make a sample, simply adjust the trigger and input
levels, and then press Start to begin recording and Stop
to end recording. The start point will be set
automatically. To set the end point, play back the sample
and press the END POINT button at the point where you
want the loop to end.
Note:
You can also set the loop points using precise numerical values.
Other related functions include Undo, which lets you return to the
original start and end points; Time Stretch, a sample editing
function; Extract; and Resampling.
Tips: How to make new samples from a single drum loop
You won’t believe how easy this is. Simply use Loop Remix to
change a loop, and then use the Resample function to make it
into a new sample. You can use this process again and again to
create an infinite number of loops. The SU200 gives you
everything you need to create awesome break beats smoothly and
easily. The rest is up to you.
• Sampling frequency
The SU200 can sample at a maximum 44.1 kHz—
the highest sampling rate available in this class of
sampler.
38
Part 4 Reference
■ Data Storage
• Internal memory
The SU200 uses flash memory, which means your
samples will be saved when the power is turned off.
It also has a memory protect function to prevent
accidentally erasing important data. Its memory capacity
is 896 KB; however, this amount is equivalent to
approximately 3.5 MB thanks to compression
technology.
• Backup
The SU200 can store samples on a 3.3V SmartMedia™
card. An entire volume (the total contents of the
SU200’s memory) can be saved in compressed format
to save space on the card.
• Data compatibility
You can load and save WAV files using a SmartMedia™
card.
Interview with the R&D Staff
Exclusive Samplers Developed with
Exceptional Enthusiasm
You could say that members of the A4000/5000 R&D
team are sampler maniacs. In fact, they are
enthusiastic enough to say, “Samplers are my life.”
During an interview, we asked them about the
creation of the unique A4000/5000 samplers. Here’s
what they had to say.
■ R&D Team Leader:
If synthesizers let you freely edit and control tones,
shouldn’t samplers of the future allow you to do the
same for audio? What does it mean to be able to
control audio? We kept these thoughts in mind
throughout the development of these samplers.
■ Firmware R&D Team Leader:
We needed to apply A3000 users’ feedback into our
R&D. Rather than try to make a “do everything”
sampler, we concentrated on putting as many
exclusive A Series features as we could into these
samplers. I really hope that users will explore the full
possibilities of each of these unique features. The
A4000/5000 are Yamaha’s first electronic instruments
to feature user-updateable firmware. These samplers
have high potential and are capable of expanding
with the rapid advancements of the times. Through
firmware updates, we can continue to provide new
and exciting features for them.
■ Hardware R&D Team Member:
These samplers use a 20-bit analog-to-digital
converter and a 24-bit digital-to-analog converter, so
I assure you they deliver the highest possible
standards of sound quality. Of course, we could have
simply added digital connectors for high-quality
sound. But we wanted to make users say, “It sounds
even better through the analog outputs.” To achieve
optimum sound quality, I was extra careful in
selecting the analog components, including the ADC
and DAC LSIs. As a result, I think these samplers
have exceptional sound, which can be described as
“thick and punchy with a sharp, powerful attack.”
Check one out and hear for yourself.
■ Disk R&D Team Member:
I tried to create an environment in which data could be
saved and handled with greater ease and cost
efficiency. The results of our efforts include
expandability with an ATA hard disk or ATAPI ZIP
drive, high compatibility with PC audio formats thanks
to their ability to read DOS-format disks, and the
ability to back up data on CD-R/RW. They can also
save data in CD-DA (Compact Disk Digital Audio)
format, which means you can create original audio
CDs without a PC!
■ Recording Mode R&D
Team Member:
Our initial R&D objective was to improve the Mapping
mode for sampling, while retaining the New+ mode,
which is highly rated by A3000 users. In doing so, we
devised a sampling mode that offers users a broader
range of enjoyment. The A4000/5000 are highperformance samplers made to satisfy users who want
to do more than just play back samples from sound
libraries.
■ LCD Designer:
We added a new display to the A4000/5000, which
allows you to graphically see the sampled
waveforms—a feature not possible with the display on
the A3000. The new LCD works in conjunction with an
EDIT function to ensure waveforms are displayed
quickly and clearly. We also improved the TREE and
LIST screens so that users can easily operate the unit
without a keyboard controller. Creating sounds is
smooth and easy with these new samplers, because
they offer simple, straightforward operation.
■ Effect Creator:
These new models retain our unique line of avantgarde effects, which were popular with A3000 users.
In addition, they feature a “Clip” function, which
distorts particular frequencies that are filtered with
extreme resonance. There are also many temposynchronizing effects, which many users requested.
Try controlling different effect parameters with
Program LFO-created waveforms. The various “tonal”
rhythm loops you can create this way will prove to be a
valuable source of inspiration for your music.
39
Part 4 Reference
◊ The Complete SU200 Operation Guide
The Complete SU200 Operation Guide
This guide will show you step by step how to operate the SU200 Sampling Unit and explore
its amazing features. All the samples used in the examples have been loaded into the SU200
at the factory. As there is no backup of these samples, we recommend that you save them on
a SmartMedia™ card (sold separately) in case you should accidentally erase them.
Step 1: Learning the Basics
Banks
At the time of shipment, the SU200 is loaded with three banks of samples, each containing a
different style type: Bank A = Hip Hop, Bank B = Techno, and Bank C = Big Beat. To switch
between banks, press the [BANK A], [BANK B] and [BANK C] buttons. The selected bank
button will light up.
Pads
Each bank has eight pads. The pads are initially set to “Gate” mode, which plays back the
sample as you hold down the pad. Pad 8 in Bank A and Pad 8 in Bank B, however, are set to
“Trigger” mode, which plays back the entire sample each time you touch the pad. When you
press a pad, the pad lights up, and the play mode (Gate/Trigger), the sample playback mode
(One-Shot/Loop and Normal/Reverse), the sample BPM, the number of measures and the
bank number are displayed on the LCD.
Loop Track Play
Loop Track Play allows multiple sample loops to play back at the same BPM—even if their
original tempos are all different. Press the [LOOP TR PLAY] button to start Loop Track Play.
The button will light up and Loop Track Play will begin. The BPM for Loop Track Play can be
changed during playback with the [-1/NO] [+1/YES] buttons and can be adjusted separately
for each bank. To stop Loop Track Play, press the [LOOP TR PLAY] button again. The [LOOP
TR PLAY] button will turn dark and Loop Track Play will stop. The SU200 remembers the
most recent pad settings for each bank; when you resume Loop Track Play, it will play back
just as you had left it.
Effects
The SU200 has 6 built-in effects. To apply an effect, first choose the pad to which you wish
to apply the effect and then press an effect button. The selected effect button will light up
once you press it. Turn the two EFFECT CONTROL knobs to adjust the effect’s parameters.
To turn the effect off, press the effect button again and it will turn dark.
(EFFECT CONTROL knobs 1 and 2 will be called Knob 1 and Knob 2 hereafter.)
Step 2: Applying Effects
Let’s check out the SU200’s various effects by turning the knobs. For this example, we will
use the sample in Pad 1 of Bank A (a hip-hop drum pattern mixed with the noise of a record
needle). Let’s play it back in Loop Track Play mode and try out each of the SU200’s effects.
1. Select [Bank A].
2. Start Loop Track Play.
3. Select the pad you want to apply the effect to. Normally, you can select a pad simply by pressing
the pad button; but if the sample in Pad 1 is playing back, pressing the pad again will mute the
sound. In such a case, hold down the [HOLD] button located above Pad 1 while pressing Pad 1 —
this will select the pad without stopping playback. The letter [H] will be displayed in the lower left
section of the LCD to show that the Hold function is turned on. [A-1] will be displayed in the lower
right, indicating the selected pad and bank number. The Hold function lets you apply settings to
only a single pad. To release hold, press the [HOLD] button again. The [H] will disappear from the
LCD.
4. While the sample in Pad 1 is playing back in Loop Track Play mode, try out the different effects
as described in the following steps. When you are finished, stop Loop Track Play.
40
Loop Remix
Loop Remix automatically breaks the sample into multiple pieces and rearranges them in a
different order. Knob 1 controls the phrase and Knob 2 controls the amount of reverse
playback.
1. Play back Pads 1 and 2 only. Press the other pads to stop them from sounding. Now the Pad 2
sample can be easily heard.
2. Press the [LOOP REMIX] button. The [LOOP REMIX] button lights up and the sample plays back
with the Loop Remix effect. Pressing the [LOOP REMIX] button on the first beat of the measure will
make it easier to hear the effect.
3. Turn Knobs 1 and 2 fully to the left (7 o’clock). The Pad 1 sample will play back in its original state.
4. Set Knob 1 to just a little before the 9 o’clock position. This changes the rhythm pattern of the
sample. Turning the knob does not immediately change the pattern; the pattern will change after
one measure of the pattern has played back.
5. Turn Knob 1 further to the right. Ten different patterns (including the original pattern) are available
by changing the position of the knob. Try out the different patterns. When Knob 1 is turned fully to
the right, the rhythm plays back in 16th notes.
6. With Knob 1 turned fully to the left (original pattern), turn Knob 2 gradually to the right. When Knob
2 is turned fully to the left, there is no reverse playback, but turning Knob 2 to the right changes the
placement of the pieces and the amount of reverse playback. There are 10 settings available,
including no reverse. When Knob 2 is turned fully to the right, the sample is played back entirely in
reverse. Try out Knob 2 while changing the patterns with Knob 1.
7. Once you get the hang of Loop Remix, try turning the knobs while playing along with Pads 3 and 4.
Suggestion: Keep Knob 2 fully to the left (no reverse) while using only Knob 1 to change the
pattern. Use Knob 2 periodically as an accent.
8. To turn off Loop Remix, press the [LOOP REMIX] button again. The [LOOP REMIX] button turns
dark and the original sample plays back.
Slice
Slice cuts the sample into various patterns. Knob 1 selects the slice pattern and Knob 2
adjusts the length of the playback interval.
1. Play back only Pad 1. Press the other pads to stop them from sounding.
2. Press the [SLICE] button. The [SLICE] button lights up and the sample plays back with the Slice
effect. Pressing the [SLICE] button on the first beat of the measure will make it easier to hear the
effect.
3. Turn Knob 1 fully to the left and Knob 2 fully to the right. The Pad 1 sample plays back without any
effects.
4. Turning Knob 2 gradually to the left cuts the sample into shorter pieces. When Knob 1 is fully
turned to the left, the sample is sliced in quarter-note timing. Turning Knob 2 to the right makes the
sample pieces play back longer, and turning it to the left makes the sample pieces play back
shorter.
5. Set Knob 2 to 8 o’clock and Knob 1 to a little above 9 o’clock. This slices the sample in eighth
notes. Knob 1 lets you select from 10 different slice patterns by changing the position of the Knob.
Turning the knob does not immediately change the slice pattern; it will change after one measure of
the pattern has played back.
6. Once you get the hang of Slice, try turning the knobs while playing along with Pads 3 and 4.
Try changing the slice pattern at the beginning of each measure and experiment with different
combinations of Knobs 1 and 2.
7. To turn off Slice, press the [SLICE] button again. The [SLICE] button turns dark and the original
sample plays back.
41
Part 4 Reference
◊ The Complete SU200 Operation Guide
Tech Modulation
Tech Modulation adds a distinctive modulation and metallic tonality to the sample. Knob 1
controls the amount of modulation and Knob 2 controls the modulation speed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Play back only Pad 1. Press the other pads to stop them from sounding.
Press the [TECH MOD] button. The [TECH MOD] button lights up.
Turn Knobs 1 and 2 fully to the left. This applies a quavering effect to the original sample.
Turning Knob 2 gradually to the right applies a metallic sound to the sample.
Set Knob 2 to 1 o’clock and turn Knob 1 to the right. This increases the quaver effect.
Once you get the hang of Tech Modulation, try turning the knobs while playing along with
Pads 3 and 4.
Suggestion: Keep Knob 1 set to one position and turn Knob 2 to the rhythm of the beat.
7. To turn off Tech Modulation, press the [TECH MODULATION] button again. The [TECH
MODULATION] button turns dark and the original sample plays back. One way to effectively use
Tech Modulation would be, for example, to set it to a heavily effected setting, and repeatedly turn
the effect on at the first beat and off at the second beat of each measure.
Distortion/Lo-fi
Distortion/Lo-fi distorts the sample and gives it a lo-fi feel. Knob 1 controls the brightness of
the sound and Knob 2 controls the degree of distortion.
1. Play back only Pad 1. Press the other pads to stop them from sounding.
2. Press the [DIST/LO-FI] button. The [DIST/LO-FI] button lights up.
3. Turn Knob 1 fully to the right and Knob 2 fully to the left. Although the original sample already has a
lo-fi quality, turning Knob 1 to the left will muffle the sound even more.
4. If you turn Knob 1 fully to the right and turn Knob 2 gradually to the right, the sound will become
more distorted.
5. Once you get the hang of Distortion/Lo-fi, try turning the knobs while playing along with Pads 3
and 4.
6. To turn off Distortion/Lo-fi, press the [DIST/LO-FI] button again. The [DIST/LO-FI] button turns dark
and the original sample plays back.
Hint: When using [DIST/LO-FI] in a performance, set the knobs beforehand and simply turn the effect on/
off, rather than turning the knobs to apply the effect.
Delay
This effect adds a single delay that’s synchronized with the BPM. Knob 1 controls the
volume of the delayed sound and Knob 2 controls the time between the original and the
delayed sound.
1. Play back only Pad 1. Press the other pads to stop them from sounding.
2. Press the [DELAY] button. The [DELAY] button lights up.
3. Turn Knob 1 fully to the right for maximum delay volume and Knob 2 fully to the left. This setting
applies an extremely short delay to the sample, similar to flanging.
4. Set Knob 2 to a little above 9 o’clock position. This applies a delay with a timing that is a 16th-note
division of the BPM setting in Loop Track Play. Knob 2 lets you select from 7 different delay times.
Turning it fully to the right produces a half-note delay time.
5. Turning Knob 1 to the left gradually lowers the volume of the delayed sound.
6. Once you get the hang of Delay, try turning the knobs while playing along with Pads 3 and 4.
7. To turn off Delay, press the [DELAY] button again. The [DELAY] button turns dark and the original
sample plays back.
Filter
This effect removes a specific frequency range from the sample to produce a change in
sound quality. Knob 1 applies a distinctive resonance to the sound and Knob 2 controls the
cutoff frequency.
1. Play back only Pad 1. Press the other pads to stop them from sounding.
2. Press the [FILTER] button. The [FILTER] button lights up.
3. Turn Knob 1 fully to the left and Knob 2 fully to the right. The sample plays back without
any effects.
4. Turning Knob 2 to the left gradually muffles the sound. When turned fully to the left, almost no
sound will be heard.
5. Set Knob 2 to 2 o’clock and turn Knob 1 to the right. The muffled sound gradually changes into a
resonant sound.
6. Try using the Filter with various combinations of Knob 1 and 2 settings. Also try turning the knobs
while playing along with Pads 3 and 4.
Note: Turning Knob 1 to a high value while Knob 2 is set between 1 o’clock and 5 o’clock may
cause the sound to clip and generate noise.
7. To turn off the Filter, press the [FILTER] button again. The [FILTER] button turns dark and the
original sample plays back.
Step 3: Scratch
Now let’s try scratching a sound using the ribbon controller. Sliding your finger up and down
the ribbon controller will produce a sound similar to scratching a record on a turntable.
1. Stop Loop Track Play and press the [HOLD] button to release the hold function. Then press
[BANK A] and [PAD 6].
2. Press the [SCRATCH] button. The [SCRTACH] button lights up. This assigns the Pad 6 sample to
the ribbon controller.
3. Slide your finger across the ribbon controller from bottom to top. The sample in Pad 6 plays back
at a low pitch when rubbed slowly and at a high pitch when rubbed quickly. Practice scratching with
the ribbon controller.
4. Start Loop Track Play. Play back Pads 1, 3 and 4. Try scratching the ribbon controller to the rhythm
of the samples.
5. To simulate the effect of scratching on a turntable more accurately, place one hand on the ribbon
controller and your other hand on Pad 6. Press Pad 6 as you slide your finger across the ribbon
controller.
6. To turn off the Scratch effect, press the [SCRATCH] button again. The [SCRATCH] button will
turn dark.
7. If you want to assign a different sample to the ribbon controller while in Loop Track Play, press the
pad of the sample you want to select while holding down the [HOLD] button. Then press the
[SCRATCH] button. This allows you to assign a pad sample to the ribbon controller without
affecting the on/off status of the pad. Switching a pad while the [SCRATCH] button is on will not
change the sample assigned to the ribbon controller; you must first turn off the [SCRATCH] button.
The sample will change once you turn on the [SCRATCH] button again.
8. Stopping Loop Track Play automatically turns [SCRATCH] off.
Hint:
[DELAY] is most effective if you set the knobs beforehand and turn the effect on/off where you want to
apply it, rather than applying it by turning the Knobs.
42
43
Part 4 Reference
◊ The Complete SU200 Operation Guide
Step 4: Loop Track Play
Let’s try creating a mix in Loop Track Play mode using the samples in Bank B with the
effects you tried out in step 2.
Setting Each Effect
First, let’s set the control knobs for each effect. [LOOP TR PLAY] should be turned off.
1. Select [BANK B].
2. Press [PAD 1] while holding down the [HOLD] button. Placing the SU200 in hold will prevent the
sample from changing should you accidentally press another pad.
3. Press the [LOOP REMIX] button to activate Loop Remix. Turn Knob 1 fully to the right and Knob 2
fully to the left. Press [PAD 1]; the sample will play back in 16th notes. Continue setting the
effects.
4. Press the [SLICE] button to activate Slice.
5. Set Knob 1 to 2 o’clock and Knob 2 to 11 o’clock. Press [PAD 1] to hear the Slice effect.
6. Press the [TECH MOD] button to activate Tech Modulation.
7. Set Knob 1 to 12 o’clock and Knob 2 to 11 o’clock. Press [PAD 1] to hear the Tech Modulation
effect.
8. Press the [DIST/LO-FI] button to activate Distortion/Lo-fi.
9. Set Knob 1 to 2 o’clock and Knob 2 to 3 o’clock. Press [PAD 1] to hear the Distortion/Lo-fi effect.
10. Press the [DELAY] button to activate Delay.
11. Turn Knob 1 fully to the right and set Knob 2 to 12 o’clock. Press [PAD 1]; the sample will play
back with an 8th note delay.
12. Press the [FILTER] button to activate the Filter.
13. Set Knob 1 to 11 o’clock and Knob 2 to 3 o’clock. Press [PAD 1] to hear the Filter effect. You are
now finished setting the effects. Press the [FILTER] button to turn the Filter off.
14. Press the [HOLD] button to release the Hold function.
Start Mixing
Start Loop Track Play and try out the effects in realtime.
1. Activate [LOOP TR PLAY] and play back Pad 1. Press the other pads to stop them from sounding.
All effects should be turned off as well.
2. Pause [LOOP TR PLAY] momentarily. In Loop Track Play, the SU200 remembers the most recent
pad settings for each bank. If you want to start your performance with only the Pad 1 sample,
set the SU200 as you did in the previous step. Now you are ready to start realtime performance.
3. Now let’s create an actual mix! Press the [LOOP TR PLAY] button to play back the drum pattern.
After a few measures go by, press [PAD 3] to add a bass sound.
Technique 1: Use Loop Track Play as a Fill-in
For this example, we will use sample Pads 1 and 2. All effects should be turned off.
1. Press [PAD 1] while holding down [HOLD]. Activate Loop Remix on the first beat of the fourth
measure, and then turn it off at the beginning of the next measure. Using this method, you can play
back the sample as a 16th note fill-in at the fourth measure. Once you get used to it, you can try
turning on Loop Remix at other points in the mix. Try applying it on different beats. You can play
back this fill-in for as long as a measure, but be sure to turn it off at the first beat of the following
measure for best results.
2. Now for an advanced technique. Turn Loop Remix on and let it play for a while. When you are ready to
turn off the effect, press the [LOOP REMIX] button and [PAD 2] simultaneously. This starts the playback
of Pad 2 after the fill-in. Both samples will then play back.
3. Try adding fill-ins by turning Loop Remix on/off at various points with Pads 1 and 2
playing.
44
4. Next, a technique using mute. With both samples playing, turn Loop Remix on to add a fill-in, and
then press [PAD 1] at the start of the next measure. This leaves Loop Remix on but mutes Pad 1.
Play back only the remaining sample for a while, and when the right timing comes, turn Pad 1 on to
add a fill-in. Then turn Loop Remix off at the beginning of the next measure.
5. Now for a combination technique. Place Pad 1 in hold as you did in step 1. If you activate another
effect, the effect will be applied to Pad 1. Turn on Loop Remix for a fill-in, and then press the
[SLICE] button at the start of the next measure. As soon as the fill-in ends, the drum pattern
sample will have a Slice effect added to it. To finish this variation in a cool way, press the [LOOP
REMIX] button on the third beat, turn it off at the start of the next measure to add a short fill-in and
turn off the effect.
6. Now, let’s add Delay in the same way as described in step 5. When Delay is on, the drum pattern
will have a bouncy feel to it. When you’re ready to turn off the Delay, add a measure-long fill-in to
produce a cool effect.
7. Next, while playing back Pads 1 and 2, tap Pads 5 to 8 to the rhythm. Pad 8 sounds
especially cool if you press it at the start of the third measure. Once you get the hang
of it, press the pads while adding fill-ins with Loop Remix. Since Pad 1 is in hold, Loop
Remix will be applied to Pad 1 no matter which pad you press.
8. Once you get the hang of what you’ve learned so far, try using Pad 4. Pressing Pad 4 unmutes it
and plays back the sample; pressing it again mutes the sound. Create a new phrase by turning Pad
4 on at the back beat of the first beat, and turning it off at the start of the third beat.
Technique 2: Using Knobs Effectively
Activate sample pads 1, 2 and 3. All effects should be turned off.
1. With the effects turned off, set Knob 1 to 11 o’clock and Knob 2 to 3 o’clock. Turn Loop Remix on
to add a fill-in, and press the [FILTER] button at the start of the next measure. This adds the Filter
effect to the drum pattern. Now, turn Knobs 1 and 2 simultaneously to go with the beat. You can
get good results by turning Knob 1 between 11 o’clock and 4 o’clock, and Knob 2 between 10
o’clock and 5 o’clock. When you’re ready to turn off the Filter, press the [LOOP REMIX] button to
add a fill-in, and then press it again at the beginning of the next measure to achieve a coolsounding mix.
2. Likewise, after adding a fill-in, press the [TECH MOD] button at the beginning of a measure to
activate Tech Modulation. Turn Knob 1 between 7 o’clock and 5 o’clock and Knob 2 between 9
o’clock and 5 o’clock. When you’re ready to turn off Tech Modulation, press the [LOOP REMIX]
button to add a fill-in, and then press it again at the beginning of the next measure.
3. Now, let’s try the ribbon controller. When the [SCRATCH] button is not illuminated, the ribbon
controller controls the same parameter as Knob 2. Apply the Filter to Pad 1 as explained in step 1;
but this time, instead of turning Knob 2, slide your finger up and down the ribbon controller.
Touching the lower part of the ribbon controller will give the same result as setting Knob 2 to 7
o’clock, while touching the uppermost part gives the same result as setting Knob 2 to 5 o’clock.
When you take your finger off the ribbon, the effect value will remain at the current setting.
45
Part 4 Reference
◊ The Complete SU200 Operation Guide
Technique 3: Effective Use of Effects
Activate all three samples in Pads 1, 2 and 3. All effects should be turned off.
1. Press [PAD 2] while holding down the [HOLD] button. Press [DIST/LO-FI] at the beginning of a
measure to apply Distortion/Lo-fi to the sample in Pad 2. Apply this effect to just one measure, and
press [DIST/LO-FI] again at the beginning of the next measure to turn it off. Try turning Distortion/
Lo-fi on and off at the beginning of each measure.
2. Now for a more advanced technique. With all three pads (1, 2 and 3) playing without any effects,
press [PAD 1] while holding down the [HOLD] button. Turn Loop Remix on at the start of a
measure to add a fill-in. While the fill-in is playing, press the [HOLD] button and [PAD 2] to assign
the effect to Pad 2. Then press the [FILTER] button to turn off the fill-in. This instantaneously
applies the Filter to Pad 2 and allows you to use the knobs to change the sound. When you turn off
the Filter, press [PAD 1] while holding down the [HOLD] button. Turn Loop Remix on to add a fill-in
and then turn it off at the beginning of the next measure. This technique may be difficult at first, so
try practicing by playing the fill-in for two measures. Once you master this step, you’ll be able to
apply any effect after a fill-in.
3. Use the techniques explained above to rhythmically turn Pad 4 on/off, and play back Pads 5 to 8 to
the beat of the mix. This will allow you to create cool-sounding remixes.
Step 5: Sampling
Now let’s try sampling audio tracks from the included sampling CD. As mentioned at the
beginning of this guide, there is no backup of the factory-loaded samples in the SU200.
We recommend that you save them on a SmartMedia™ card (sold separately).
1. Prepare a 3.3V SmartMedia card.
2. Make sure that the side with the metal connectors is facing downwards and insert the SmartMedia
card into the card slot of the SU200.
3. Press the [JOB] button and then the [SAVE (PAD 5)] button.
4. Press [SAVE (PAD 5)] again, and select the volume number with the [-1/NO] [+1/YES] buttons.
5. Press [SAVE (PAD 5)] to execute the save.
12. Start the CD player. When the guitar phrase begins, the SU200 will automatically start sampling.
Once the guitar phrase has ended, press the [START/STOP] button to stop sampling.
13. Press Pad 4 and then the [GATE/TRIGGER] button to set the pad’s play mode to Trigger.
The LCD will display [TRG]. Pad 4 will now play back the entire guitar riff each time you tap
the pad.
14. Press Pad 4 to play back the guitar riff. Press the [END POINT] button at the point where you
would like the loop to end. If you accidentally set the wrong point, press [END POINT] while
pressing [POINT CLEAR] to return the end point to its original setting. When the [END POINT]
button is illuminated, the LCD shows the end point in numerical values. You can change the
values with the [-1/NO] [+1/YES] buttons or with knob 1. Once you have set your desired end
point, press the [EXIT] button to return to the initial display.
15. Start Loop Track Play and play back Pads 1 to 4 to confirm that the sample plays back at 130
BPM. (The original BPM of this sample is 113.)
16. Stop Loop Track Play and adjust the pad’s volume to balance it with the volumes of the other
pads. Press the [JOB] button and then [PAD VOL (PAD 4)]. Press the pad whose volume you
want to change (in this case, Pad 4). Now you can change the pad’s volume by pressing the
[-1/NO] [+1/YES] buttons or by turning Knob 1. If you press Pad 4 in this state, the sample will
play back at the sound level shown in the LCD. When you are finished adjusting the volume,
press the [JOB] button to return to the initial display. Adjust the other pads if necessary.
17. If you want to change the start point of the sample, follow the explanation in step 14, but use
the [START POINT] button instead of the [END POINT] button.
For more information on sampling, refer to the “Recording Samples” section in the owner’s manual.
This concludes the SU200 guide. Apply what you’ve learned so far to develop your own
techniques and create awesome tracks and performances. With the SU200, you are only
limited by your imagination!
For details, refer to the section “Saving Data to a Memory Card” of the chapter “Using Memory Cards” in
the owner’s manual.
Now, lets delete the sample in Pad 4 of Bank C and record a new sample.
1. Connect the line-level outputs of your CD player to the line inputs of the SU200. Select the
second guitar riff on track 51 (“Chicken Riff”) on the CD.
2. To turn memory protection off, press the [JOB] button on the SU200 to enter Job mode and
press the [AUDIO IN] pad.
3. The LCD will display “Prtct On”. Press [-1/NO] to change the display to “off.”
4. Press [JOB] and quit Job mode.
5. Make sure that the SU200 is not in hold. If the SU200 is in hold, press the [HOLD] button to
release hold.
6. Press the [REC] button.
7. Press [BANK C] and then [PAD 4].
8. Press the [+1/YES] button to enter Sampling mode.
9. Start the CD player. Adjust the input gain with the [-1/NO] [+1/YES] buttons while checking the
input level meter on the LCD. Turn Knob 2 fully to the left to adjust the trigger level.
10. After setting the levels, select “Chicken Riff” on the CD again.
11. Press the [START/STOP] button to enter recording standby. At this point, sampling has not
yet started.
46
47
Part 4 Reference
◊ Specifications
■ A4000/A5000 Specifications
Tone Generation Method
AWM2 tone generator
Maximum Polyphony
126 notes (A5000)/64 notes (A4000)
Multitimbral Parts
32 parts (A5000)/16 parts (A4000)
A/D Conversion
20 bit, 64 times oversampling
D/A Conversion
24 bit, 8 times oversampling
Digital I/O
Input/output
(only when AIEB1 I/O expansion board is installed)
Input frequency
Output frequency
Sampling Frequencies
Wave Memory
Sampling Time
Standard
Maximum
Maximum sample length
Program
■ SU200 Specifications
Sampling Section
Maximum Polyphony
6 samples (Mono)
Maximum Samples
24 samples (8 pads x 3 banks)
Sampling Frequencies
44.1, 22.05, 11.025, or 5.5125 kHz (Stereo or
Mono)
Effects
LOOP REMIX, SLICE, TECHMOD (Tech
Modulation), DIST/LO-FI (Distortion with low-pass
filter), DELAY, FILTER (Low-pass filter with
resonance), SCRATCH, TIME
Loop Track Play
Automatic synchronization of sample loops that
are sampled at different speeds
Wave Memory
896 KB
Sampling Time
At 5.5125 kHz, mono: 5 min. 33 sec.
At 44.1 kHz, mono: 42 sec.
At 44.1 kHz, stereo: 21 sec.
Maximum Polyphony
64
Signal Processing
16 bit linear, 8 bit linear
Stereo sampling supported.
A/D 18 bit
D/A 18 bit
Sampling Frequencies
Analog input: 44.1, 22.05, or 11.025 kHz
(Results can be monitored at any frequency prior
to recording.)
Digital or optical input: 48.0 or 32.0 kHz
Wave Memory
4MB RAM (standard)
S/PDIF (coaxial)
S/PDIF (optical)
Analog input
44.1, 22.05, 11.025 kHz, 5.5125 kHz (mono and stereo)
Digital input (only when AIEB1 I/O expansion board is installed)
48 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 32 kHz external synchronized recording (stereo only)
1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 undersampling is supported
Maximum sampling time
(mono or stereo)
Effects
DIGITAL connectors
OPTICAL connectors
48 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 32 kHz
44.1 kHz
■ SU700 Specifications
4 MB (on-board)
128 MB
(When four 32 MB 72-pin SIMM modules are installed. The on-board 4 MB
are unused only if memory has been expanded to the maximum.)
32 MB monaural
64 MB stereo
6 minutes 20 seconds (44.1 kHz)
12 minutes 40 seconds (22.05 kHz)
25 minutes 21 seconds (11.025 kHz)
50 minutes 43 seconds (5.5125 kHz)
Sampling Time
(with standard 4MB RAM)
At 44.1 kHz, stereo, 16 bit : 22.3 sec.
At 22.05 kHz, mono, 16 bit : 89.3 sec.
At 11.025 kHz, mono, 8 bit : 357.2 sec.
Audio Sequencer
Tempo (BPM)
40.0 – 299.9
Data Storage
SmartMedia™ 3.3V
Synchronization
Internal, MIDI sync, MTC slave
Display
Backlit custom LCD
Tracks
42 tracks
Connection Terminals
Songs
Up to 20 songs
PHONES, MIC INPUT, LINE INPUT (L & R),
STEREO OUTPUT (L & R),
3.3V card slot, MIDI IN, DC IN
Power Supply
Six 1.5V AA batteries (R6P or SUM-3) or AC
adapter (Yamaha PA-3B)
Dimensions (W x D x H)
257 x 210 x 62 mm (10 1/8" x 8 17/64" x 2 7/16")
Weight
830 g (29.2 oz)
Included Accessories
Audio sampling CD
Effects
Effect Types
43
Multi-Effects
Three effects can be used simultaneously.
Can be applied to the source from the analog
input.
6 effect blocks (3 on the A4000), Total equalizer (4 bands), Sample equalizer
128 programs
User Interface
Sequencer
Real-time recording and playback
Front Panel
POWER switch, INPUT L, R jacks (phone x 2), REC VOLUME (L&R shared), MASTER VOLUME (L&R
shared, STEREO OUT & PHONES shared), PHONES OUTPUT jack, Knobs (1 – 5), Mode buttons (PLAY,
EDIT, REC, DISK, UTILITY), Function buttons (six buttons), Command/Exit button, Assignable button,
Audition button, LCD (320 x 80 dot, backlight), LCD contrast control, 3.5" 2HD/2DD dual mode floppy disk
drive
Rear Panel
Dimensions (W x D x H)
STEREO OUT L/MONO, R (phone jack x 2), ASSIGNABLE OUT L, R (phone jack x 2), MIDI IN A/B, OUT,
THRU A/B (IN, OUT, THRU on the A4000), SCSI (half-pitch, 50-pin), Expansion board slot, Power supply
connector (AC inlet), Fan
Two-space rackmount unit
480 x 461 x 90 mm (18 7/8" x 18 1/8" x 3 9/16")
Display
Custom 4-color flourescent (FL) display
16-alphanumeric display area; segment display
area; custom display area
Pads
12 pads (8 pads are touch [velocity] sensitive)
Knobs
12 rotary-encoder knobs (non-click type)
Ribbon Controller
1
Data Storage
Internal Drive
Floppy disk drive (3.5-inch 2DD/2HD)
Connection Terminals
Weight
8.0 kg (17 lbs 10 oz)
Line Out
L/MONO and R (phone jacks)
Included Accessories
Power cable x 1, CD-ROM x 10, Demo disk x 4, Power cable for internal hard disk (long) x 1, Power cable
for Zip® drive (short) x 1, SCSI cable for internal hard disk x 1, IDE cable for internal hard disk and Zip®
drive x 1, Owner’s manual x 1
Line/Mic In
L and R (phone jacks)
Headphone
Stereo phone jack (High output level)
AIEB1: I/O expansion board
MIDI
IN/OUT
Options (made by Yamaha)
Internal Expansion Devices
(made by other manufacturers)
Expansion memory
(use a pair of identical-size 72-pin SIMM modules of the following types)
Access time 70 ns or less
Bit width
x 32 (no parity) or x 36 bit (parity) Fast Page or EDO, JEDEC
standard
Capacity
4 MB/8 MB/16 MB/32 MB
Internal hard disk drive (3.5 inch) performance requirements
Interface
50-pin SCSI or 40-pin IDE
Power supply +5V maximum 840 mA
+12V maximum 2400 mA
Internal Zip® drive
Interface
40-pin IDE (ATAPI)
Power supply +5V 0.8A
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
SmartMedia is a trademark of Toshiba Corporation.
AC Inlet
Power Ratings
US: 120V, 30W
Europe & UK: 220V to 240V, 30W
Dimensions (W x D x H)
363 x 310 x 115 mm
(14 19/64" x 12 13/64" x 4 17/32")
Weight
6.0 kg (13.2 lbs)
Included Accessories
Power cord, Audio CD, Demo disk, 40-pin flat
cable and 3-wire cable for use with optional
AIEB1 board (I/O expansion board)
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
All trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their manufacturers.
Options
48
Wave Memory
Maximum 68MB, installed as paired modules of
4MB, 8MB, 16MB, or 32MB capacity.
(FAST PAGE/EDO; with or without parity. ECC is
not supported.)
SCSI Board
Board enables connection to Yamaha approved
external SCSI drives.
Expansion I/O Board
Optional board includes S/PDIF digital IN/OUT,
optical IN/OUT, six assignable
analog output jacks.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
49
◊ Index
A
A/D converter …………………………………… 7, 35
A4000/5000 Editor ………………………………… 30
A4000/5000 samplers ………………………………12
All (Wipe) ……………………………………………26
AllEdited … …………………………………………26
AllPgms (Wipe)………………………………………26
AllSamples………………………………………….. 26
amplitude EG………………………………………3, 15
analog synthesizers ………………………………. 1, 9
ARRANGE…………………………………………… 22
ASSIGNABLE key …………………………………. 29
attack time ……………………………………… 15, 23
AUDITION key…………………………………… 13, 29
Auto normalize ………………………………… 24, 25
B
backup ………………………………………..... 28, 38
bit resolution ……………………………………… 1, 2
break beats ………………………… 5, 6, 7, 32, 36, 38
C
CD-DA ………………………………………… 28, 39
commands ………………………………… 22, 24, 28
computer compatibility …………………………… 30
CONTROL……………………………………… 20, 30
controller reset ………………………………… 20, 29
controller reset & note on type settings …………… 20
COPY ……………………………………………… 22
CS-01 ……………………………………………… 10
CS-10 ……………………………………………… 10
CS-15D …………………………………………… 10
CS-80 ……………………………………………… 10
D
D/A converter ………………………………… 2, 8, 35
Damp ……………………………………………… 29
digital sampler ……………………………………… 1
Division ……………………………………………. 25
duplicate …………………………………13, 17, 18, 25
DX1……………………………………………………10
DX7………………………………………………… 10
E
Easy Edit …………………………………………18, 29
EDIT/PLAY mode …………………………………… 21
editing sample banks ……………………………… 17
EFFECT……………………………………………18, 29
EFFECT/SETUP……………………………………… 30
EG……………………………………………….. 15, 31
end address……………………………………… 3, 13
end point ……………………………… 3, 4, 35, 38, 47
EX5……………………………………………… 11, 12
Extract ………………………………………… 24, 38
F
Fade in/Fade out …………………………………… 24
FEG (filter envelope generator) …………………… 15
FILTER…………………………………... 15, 31, 37, 43
Filter Gain………………………………………… 8, 15
FKey Play on/off…………………………………….. 29
FM synthesizers …………………………………… 10
Format …………………………………………….. 26
MIDI ➞ Smp on/off ………………………………… 29
MIDI control settings ……………………………… 20
MIDI input ………………………………………… 21
MIDI/CTRL ………………………………………… 15
Modular Synthesis Plug-in System …………… 11, 12
Monitor …………………………………………… 23
MOVE ……………………………………………… 22
multi-sampling ………………………………… 3, 16
G
GS1 ………………………………………………… 10
GX-1 ………………………………………………… 9
N
New ………………………………………………… 23
New+ ……………………………………………… 23
Normalize ………………………………………….. 25
Note On Type ……………………………………… 20
H
hybrid synthesizer……………………………………11
I
Import ……………………………………………… 27
import-compatible data………………………………28
INITIALIZE ………………………………………… 22
input section ………………………………………… 7
input source ………………………………………… 23
interface …………………………………………… 13
K
key range ………………………… 3, 5, 14, 22, 24, 28
Knob & Fkey on/off ………………………………… 29
Knob Control on/off ………………………………… 29
L
Length ……………………………………….………25
LFO……………………………………………………15
LFO/MIDI/CONTROL………………………………… 31
LIST display………………………………………… 22
Load …………………………………………………27
Loop Cross-Fade …………………………………… 24
Loop Divide…………………………………… 6, 7, 25
loop end address ………………………………… 4, 13
loop end point ………………………………… 4, 7, 25
Loop Factory Sampling Unit SU200 ………………… 36
looping ……………………………………………… 2
Loop Remix ……………………… 7, 13, 14, 37, 38, 41
Loop Restart……………………………………… 6, 34
loop start address………………………………… 4, 13
loop start point ……………………………………4, 25
Loop Track Play ………………………… 7, 36, 40, 44
M
Map From…………………………………………… 25
Map Key…………………………………… ...………25
MAP/OUT………………………………… ...……14, 31
mapping ………………………………………5, 22, 24
metronome ………………………………………… 23
MIDI ➞ sample………………………………………22
O
OneProgram………………………………………… 27
original key…………………………… 5, 14, 21, 22, 24
output section …………………………………… 7, 8
P
PCM synthesizers ……………………… 1, 2, 8, 26, 30
PEG (pitch envelope generator) …………………… 15
Pitch Convert ……………………………………… 24
power supply ……………………………………… 8
PROGRAM …………………………………… 16, 30
Program LFO ……………………………………… 21
Program Load ……………………………………… 27
programs ……………………………………… 13, 16
Q
quick entry ………………………………………… 21
R
rackmount ……………………………………… 7, 12
ratio ………………………………………………… 15
Recording Triggers ………………………………… 23
Record type …………………………………….. 23, 28
RECORD mode ………………………………… 23, 33
recording hints …………………………………… 24
ReCycle! …………………………………………… 7
release time ………………………………………… 15
Replace …………………………………………… 23
Re-trigger………………………………………… 6, 34
Reverse ………………………………….. 4, 14, 24, 41
sample parameters …………………… 16, 18, 22, 30
sample playback mode ………………… 4, 34, 38, 40
samples …………………………………………… 13
sampling frequency ………………………… 2, 23, 38
Sampling Unit SU700 ………………………………. 32
Save ……………………………………………. 23, 26
saving and loading data …………………………… 26
selecting programs ………………………………… 17
selecting samples…………………………………… 17
Sequence Load …………………………………… 27
SETUP …………………………………………… 20
sound parameter editing software ………………… 30
sound processing section ………………………… 7, 8
sound quality ……………………………………… 30
start address ………………………………… 3, 13, 23
start point ………………………………… 3, 6, 38, 47
Stereo ➞ Mono …………………………………… 24
SY99 ……………………………………………… 11
synchronization ………………………… 6, 16, 36, 38
synthesizer expansion system ……………………… 11
T
Time Stretch ……………………………… 24, 36, 38
Tree view display …………………………………… 22
Trigger mode ……………………………… 29, 38, 40
TRIM/LOOP ………………………………………… 13
TWE …………………………………………… 31, 35
V
VA (virtual acoustic)……………………………… 1, 11
velocity cross-fade ………………………………… 3
velocity switching ………………………………… 3
VL synthesizers …………………………………… 11
VL1 ………………………………………………… 11
Volume Load ……………………………………… 27
W
wave data ……………………………… 2, 11, 13, 25
Wave Editor …………………………………… 31, 35
waveform processing ……………………………… 24
Y
Yamaha Organ Works Co., Ltd.……………………… 9
S
SAMPLE …………………………………………… 17
sample banks ……………………… 13, 16, 17, 22, 27
sample library ……………………………………… 5
sample library disk ………………………………… 1
Sample Load ……………………………………… 27
sample names ………………………………… 17, 23
sample parameter data …………………………… 13
50
51
CD-ROM Contents
Utility Software
Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0
PDF Data
Owner’s Manual for the A4000, A5000, SU700, SU200
Brochure for the A4000, A5000, SU700, SU200
Demo Song Data
A4000/5000
A4000/5000 Demo (Programming: Takashi Morio)
SU700
1. Enjoy Demo (Programming: Takashi Morio)
2. Drum and Bass Demo
3. Minimal Techno Demo
4. Industrial Drum and Bass Demo
5. Xtrance (Programming: Peter Krischker)
CS6x/CS6R
1. All Right (Programming: Takashi Morio)
2. Epicenter (Programming: Joel Silver)
Quick Guide
SU700
Quick Guide: Remixing with the SU700
Movie
SU700
Mijk Van Dijk Interview
Demo Panel
A4000/5000
Loop Remix / Loop Divide Demo
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Mac is a registered trademark of Apple
Computer, Inc. All other brand names and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks,
thus are the property of their respective owners.
52
53
www.yamahasynth.com
SYB-28 Printed in Japan