ISSN number: 1763-7384
November 2009
Supplement to EPN
<]
power electronics
Rad-Hard Devices
Go Boldly into
Space.
PAGE 6
/3@=A>/13;7:7B/@G/>>:71/B7=<A
Rad-Hard DC/DC Converters
Deliver Space-Grade Reliability
By Abhijit D. Pathak and Arturo Arroyo, International Rectifier
For higher reliability and guaranteed performance
under severe environmental conditions in space,
military and aerospace satellite applications—for
example Low Earth Orbit, Middle Earth Orbit and
Geostationary Earth Orbit, as well as scientific
missions such as deep-space probes—engineers
are seeking power converters that promise to
perform under the most hostile conditions.
esides functioning
under extremes of environmental stresses,
DC/DC converters that
are designed to power electronics
in these systems must operate in
the presence of all forms of radiation without any impairment in
performance, and with a life span
of 10 to 15 years. Additionally,
as semiconductor processes are
becoming finer, supply voltages
for ICs such as FPGAs, ASICs and
DSPs are being reduced from 3.3
to 2V and below. In order to meet
these requirements, the converters
must be capable of generating low
voltages from a wide input-voltage
range and with high conversion efficiency. Taking such factors into consideration, International Rectifier
has developed a family of highreliability, radiation-hardened
DC-DC converters that can handle
unprecedented levels of radiation.
Labelled the LS series, these devices are rated to deliver an output
power of up to 30W from a wide
input-voltage range, make use
of advances in thick-film multilayer hybrid technology and are
produced with space- and DSCCqualified manufacturing processes
and automated test equipment in
a facility that is fully qualified to
MIL-PRF-38534 standard. Accordingly, they guarantee more than
4.8 million hours of MTBF operation
at a +35°C case temperature for
stringent space applications. PSpice
modeling and simulation was used
extensively to predict and optimise
circuit performance for both beginning and end of life.
As shown in Figure 1, the DC/DC
converters incorporate a nominal
500kHz fixed-frequency singleended forward topology with
Test Parameter
Vout V, Vin = 18V, no load
Vout V, Vin = 18V, half load
Vout V, Vin = 18V, full load
0
Vout V, Vin = 28V, no load
Vout V, Vin = 28V, half load
Vout V, Vin = 28V, full load
0Rad
0Rad
5.022
501
4.996
25kRad
5.017
5.004
4.991
50kRad
5.011
4.999
4.986
75kRad 100kRad 125kRad 150kRad 150kRad Annealed
4.998
4.986
4.975
4.964
4.986
4.975
4.965
4.952
4.974
4.963
4.954
4.94
5.022
5.010
4.996
5.017
5.004
4.991
5.011
4.999
4.986
4.998
4.986
4.974
4,965
4.975
4.963
4.975
4.965
4.954
4.964
4.952
4.940
5.023
5.010
4.996
5.017
5.004
4.991
5.011
4.999
4.986
4.998
4.986
4.974
4.987
4.975
4.963
4.975
4.965
4.954
4.964
4.953
4.940
1.93
1.71
1.89
2.14
1.67
1.88
2.12
1.69
1.88
2,10
1.69
1.88
2.12
1.68
1.88
2.11
1.69
1.83
2.11
25.41
30.4
27.5
25.1
30.6
27.7
25.2
30.5
27.7
25.2
30.7
27.8
25.2
31.0
27.8
25.3
85.7%
82.2%
84.6%
82.7%
81.5%
81.6%
85.7%
82.2%
84.7%
82.7%
81.9%
81.8%
86.1%
82.2%
84.6%
83.8%
81.8%
81.7%
86.0%
82.2%
84.6%
82.7%
81.6%
81.6%
86.0%
82.2%
84.4%
82.6%
81.4%
81.4%
5.009
Vout V, Vin = 40V, no load
Vout V, Vin = 40V, half load
Vout V, Vin = 40V, full load
lin inhibited (mA), Vin = 18
lin inhibited (mA), Vin = 28
lin inhibited (mA), Vin = 40
lin no load (mA), Vin = 18
lin no load (mA), Vin = 38
lin no load (mA), Vin = 50
Eff. Vin = 18V, half load
Eff. Vin = 18V, full load
Eff. Vin = 38V, half load
Eff. Vin = 38V, full load
Eff. Vin = 40V, half load
Eff, Vin = 40V, full load
81.8%
4.946
5.002
1.69
1.89
2.11
1.95
2.03
31.1
27.8
25.7
31.3
27.8
26.6
25.92
26.32
85.9%
82.1%
84.4%
82.5%
81.3%
81.4%
85.9%
82.1%
84.0%
82.4%
81.1%
81.2%
81.3%
81.2%
Table 1: Test data for a single-output LS2805S.
EPN power electronics
Figure 1: The high reliability rad-hard LS-series DC/DC converters incorporate a
fixed-frequency single-ended forward topology with magnetic feedback, feedforward compensation and voltage-mode control.
magnetic feedback, feed-forward
compensation, voltage-mode control and an internal EMI filter. As a
result, they are capable of meeting
the conducted emissions requirements of MIL-STD-461C without
any additional external components. In essence, the EMI filter ensures that the power entering the
converter portion of the circuit is
clean and devoid of voltage spikes
and noise. The magnetic feedback
circuit, utilised in this design instead of opto-couplers, minimises
sensitivity to temperature, aging
and radiation. The converters are
designed to provide a variety of
output voltages, which comprise
both single and dual outputs. While
the single-output voltages comprise
1.5, 1.8, 2.5, 3.3, 5 and 12V, the
dual versions offer ±5, ±12 and
±15V. In addition, the converters
are architected to deliver optimal
efficiency throughout a wide operating range of load current and
input voltage. Figure 2 shows the
typical efficiency curve for a ±15V
dual LS2815D converter. The data
is provided for three input voltages
covering a minimum to maximum
input-voltage range at +25°C case
$ November 2009
temperature. It is observed that
from 50% to full load, the conversion efficiency remains above 80%
over a wide input range. Similar
results were also obtained for lowvoltage single-output converters.
All models in the series include
an external inhibit pin and have
an adjustable output voltage.
They are enclosed in a hermetic
1.5x2.3x0.425inch steel package
and weigh less than 80g. The package utilises rugged ceramic feedthrough copper core pins and is
sealed using parallel seam welding.
As per the requirements of MILSTD-975, all the components are
fully de-rated. In addition, extensive documentation is available,
which includes thermal analysis,
stress analysis, worst-case analysis,
failure modes, effects analysis and
reliability predictions.
Radiation-hardened
Designed for defence and aerospace
applications, the converters are also
radiation-hardened with the ability
to handle a cumulative TID (total
ionizing dose) of over 100krad (Si).
They resist SEEs (single-event effects) such as single-event upsets,
Figure 2: The typical efficiency curve for a ±15V dual-converter.
single-event latch-ups and singleevent burnouts. SEE LET (linear energy transfer) of heavy ions is rated
at 82MeV.cm2/mg, in accordance
with MIL-STD-883 standard.
To assure that there is no significant impairment after exposure
to a steady state of TID dosage
of 150krad (Si), these converters
were tested for TID as well as SEE
effects. A total of four models were
used: two of the units tested were
single-output devices, while the
other two units were dual types.
In the single-output category, the
5V output model was selected for
testing; in the dual version, a 15V
unit was chosen. Since all models
in the series are of similar circuit
configuration, the differences are
in magnetic turns ratios, outputfiltering-component values, and
compensation-circuit values to
accommodate the specific outputs. The outputs of the units were
loaded with a resistive load equal
to half of the rated maximum.
Single-event testing
The units were irradiated in a doserate chamber containing 19,200 curies
of Co60. The chamber was set up to
provide a dose rate of approximately
1krad (SiO2)/minute. A screw-driven
automatic cart was used to position
the units relative to the source to
obtain the desired dose rate. Tests
were conducted in accordance with
MIL-STD-883, Method 1019.5, condition B. After radiation exposure,
the parts were annealed at +100°C
for 160 hours.
Likewise, single-event testing was
performed on two samples. These
were a 2.5V single-output unit and
a 15V dual-output model. Both
units were biased at full load during irradiation. The parts were irradiated with xenon and gold ions,
producing LET levels of 47, 60 and
83MeV.cm2/mg.
Test results show that the LS series
parts passed the irradiation tests
consisting of TID up to 150krad
(Si) and SEE up to LET levels of
83MeV.cm 2 /mg. Test data for a
single-output model LS2805S is illustrated in Table 1. It is observed
that parametric changes after TID
exposure were negligible. While
there is a slight downward trend
with increasing exposure for the
output-voltage set points, it is
noted that this downward trend
was reduced after the units were
annealed. Also, there is a slight drop
in efficiency—less than 1%—after
a 150krad TID exposure.
Although not all the series’ output
voltages were tested, the results
EPN power electronics
should be considered applicable to
the complete series by the virtue of
its members’ similarity. Parametric changes after TID testing were
minor. Some disturbances were
observed during SEE testing. However, no upsets or latch-ups were
observed.
Besides high tolerance to radiation
and environmental stresses—such
as temperature and humidity extremes, mechanical shock and vibration—the converters have optimal
regulation, stability, low-output ripple,
and protection from overload and
short-circuit conditions. Among
additional features are input-linedependent duty-factor limiting,
undervoltage protection, soft-start
inrush-current limiting and an efficiency of over 82% over a -40
to +85°C operating-temperature
range.
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER
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% November 2009
Good Things Do Come In
Small Packages
AHP-Series Offers Ruggedness, Performance, and High Power Density for Hi Rel Applications
Output
Power
(W)
Output
Current
(A)
Efficiency
(%)
The AHP-Series of 270V input, single and
dual DC-DC converters delivers maximum
rated power without de-rating over military
temperature range of -55˚C to +125˚C.
Compared to industry standard, these
converters deliver over 20% reduction in
component count through higher integration
resulting in an improved MTBF. The AHPseries is fully backward compatible to the
existing AFL-Series.
Part Number
Output
Output
Voltage
(V)
AHP27003R3S
Single
3.3
66
20
76
AHP27005S
Single
5
80
16
82
AHP27006S
Single
6
81
13.5
83
AHP27009S
Single
9
90
10
84
AHP27012S
Single
12
108
9
85
AHP27015S
Single
15
120
8
87
AHP27028S
Single
28
112
4
85
AHP27005D
Dual
±5
80
12.8
82
AHP27012D
Dual
±12
96
6.4
85
• Efficiency as high as 89%
AHP27015D
Dual
±15
100
5.3
87
• Fully backward compatible
to the AFL-Series
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Features
• Wide operating input range: 160V-400V
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• Output power up to 120W
THE POWER MANAGEMENT LEADER