MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATIONS
OF
TRANSITION METAL CATALYZED REACTIONS
JONATAN KLEIMARK
Department of Chemistry University of Gothenburg 2012 DOCTORAL THESIS Submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry
Mechanistic Investigations of Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions
JONATAN KLEIMARK
© Jonatan Kleimark ISBN: 978-­‐91-­‐628-­‐8394-­‐2 Available online at: http://dhl.handle.net/2077/27967
Department of Chemistry University of Gothenburg SE-­‐412 96 Göteborg Sweden Printed by Ineko AB Göteborg 2011 Nature never deceives us; it is always we who deceive ourselves Jean-­‐Jaques Rousseau Abstract Transition metal catalyzed reactions have had a large impact on the human progress for the
last century. Several extremely important areas, such as the agricultural industry and the
plastic industry, have benefited from this development. The evolution of different transition
metal catalysts has also been very important for the pharmaceutical industry. One vital factor
when developing new and more effective catalysts is to obtain mechanistic insights. In this
thesis, several different methods to investigate mechanisms for transition metal catalyzed
reactions are presented.
The factors controlling regioselectivity for a palladium catalyzed allylic alkylation has been
studied. Pre-formed (η3-allyl)Pd complexes were used to minimize dynamic processes. In the
study it was found that the regioselectivity depends mainly on steric interactions, rather than
electronic effects. For complexes with less steric hindrance, the trans effect controlls the
selectivity. Furthermore, the mechanism for a sulfinyl nucleophile, employed in the same
type of reaction, has been studied and the mode of attack has been revealed. The importance
of a fast palladium catalyzed Mislow-Braverman-Evans rearrangement to ensure that the
correct product was formed, was also disclosed.
The important Mizoroki-Heck reaction has been investigated in two different studies. The
first study revealed the mechanistic pathway for a Pd(II) catalyzed domino Mizoroki-HeckSuzuki diarylation reaction. The dependence of benzoquinone as the re-oxidant, in order to
achieve the diarylation product, was explained by its ability to coordinate to the palladium
moiety, thereby allowing access to a new low-energy pathway to the product. In the second
study, a new and mild nickel catalyzed variant of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction was presented
and the mechanistic pathway for the reaction was introduced. In addition to this, the reasons
for several unsuccessful conditions and additives were uncovered.
The development of new, environmentally more benign, catalysts for cross coupling reactions
is important. Iron is one of the most promising metals for this purpose, but the mechanistic
knowledge of this reaction is still not comprehensive. In this thesis, several mechanistic and
computational studies reveal new insights into this reaction, paving the way to develop new
and more effective catalysts and conditions for the reaction.
Keywords: alkene insertion, allylic alkylation, catalysis, cross coupling, density functional
theory, free energy surface, iron, kinetic investigation, Mizoroki-Heck reaction, nickel,
palladium, reaction mechanism, sulfinylation, transition metal.
ISBN: 978-91-628-8394-2
i
ii
List of publications This thesis is based on the following papers, which are referred to in the text by their Roman
numerals. Reprints were made with permission from the publishers.
Paper I:
Sterically Governed Selectivity in Palladium-Assisted Allylic Alkylation
J. Kleimark, C. Johansson, S. Olsson, M. Håkansson, S. Hansson, B. Åkermark,
P.-O. Norrby, Organometallics, 2011, 30, 230-238.
Paper II:
Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Sulfinylation and the Mislow-Braverman-Evans
Rearrangement
J. Kleimark, G. Prestat, G. Poli, P.-O. Norrby, Chem. –Eur. J. 2011, 17, 1396313965
Paper III:
Transmetalation versus β-Hydride Elimination: The Role of 1,4-Benzoquinone
in Chelation-Controlled Arylations using Arylboronic Acids
C. Sköld, J. Kleimark, A. Trejos, L. R. Odell, S. O. Nilsson Lill, P.-O. Norrby, M.
Larhed
Accepted for publication in Chemistry – a European Journal
Paper IV:
Mild and Efficient Nickel-Catalyzed Heck Reactions with Electron Rich Olefins
T. Gøgsig, J. Kleimark, S. O. Nilsson Lill, S. Korsager, A. Lindhart,
P.-O. Norrby, T. Skrydstrup
Submitted to Journal of the American Chemical Society
Paper V:
Mechanistic Investigation of Iron-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions
J. Kleimark, A. Hedström, P.-F. Larsson, C. Johansson, P.-O. Norrby,
ChemCatChem, 2009, 1, 152-161
Paper VI:
Low Temperature Studies of Iron Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Alkyl
Grignards with Aryl Electrophiles
J. Kleimark, P.-F. Larsson, P. Emamy, A. Hedström, P.-O. Norrby
Accepted for publication in Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis
Publication not included in this thesis:
Computational Insights into Palladium-Mediated Allylic Substitution
Jonatan Kleimark and Per-Ola Norrby in Transition Metal Catalyzed Enantioselective Allylic
Substitution in Organic Synthesis, Ed: U. Kazmaier; Top. Organomet. Chem. 2011, 38, 65-94
DOI: 10.1007/3418_2011_8
iii
Contribution to the papers I.
Performed all the computational work. Contributed to the interpretation of the
results. Wrote a large part of the manuscript.
II. Outlined the study. Planned and performed all the computational work. Contributed
to the interpretation of the results. Wrote the major part of the manuscript.
III. The computational study was performed in collaboration with Dr. Christian Sköld
at Uppsala University. Performed part of the computational work for each of the
steps in the catalytic cycle. Contributed to the interpretation of the results and the
writing of the paper.
IV. Planned and performed all the computational work and analyzed the results. Wrote
the part of the manuscript concerning the computational work.
V. Contributed to the ouline of the study. Performed a large part of the experimental
work and all of the computational work. Contributed to the interpretation of the
results. Wrote a large part of the manuscript.
VI. Outlined the study. Planned and performed the kinetic study and the computational
work. Contributed to the interpretation of the results. Wrote a large part of the
manuscript.
iv
Abbreviations 1D
2D
Ac
acac
BINAP
BQ
COD
DCM
DBU
DFT
DIPEA
DMF
dpe
dppe
dppf
dppp
ECP
FES
GC
GC-MS
GGA
HF
Hz
L
LCAO
LDA
LG
MBE
MBPT
MP
NBO
NLDA
NMP
NMR
NPA
Nu
OA
Tf
PBF
PCM
PHOX
Sol
RE
TBAB
TESOTf
THF
TM
TMEDA
TS
1-dimensional
2-dimensional
acetate
acetylacetone
2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl
benzoquinone
1,5-cyclooctadiene
dichloromethane
1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene
density functional theory
diisopropyl ethyl amine
dimethyl formamide
diphosphinoethane
1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane
1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene
1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane
effective core potential
free energy surface
gas chromatography
gas chromatography - mass spectrometry
generalized gradient approximation
Hartree-Fock
Hertz
ligand
linear combination of atomic orbitals
local-density approximation
leaving group
Mislow-Braverman-Evans
many-body perturbation theory
Møller-Plesset
natural bond orbital
nonlocal-density approximation
N-methyl pyrrolidine
nuclear magnetic resonance
natural population analysis
nucleophile
oxidative addition
trifluromethanesulfonate (triflate)
Poisson-Boltzmann finite element
polarizable continuum model
diphenylphosphinophenyloxazoline
solvent
reductive elimination
tetrabutylammonium bromide
triethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate
tetrahydrofuran
transmetalation
tetramethyl ethylenediamine
transition state
v
vi
Table of contents Abstract................................................................................................................................................ i List of publications........................................................................................................................ iii Contribution to the papers..........................................................................................................iv Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................... v 1. Introduction..................................................................................................................................1 1.1 Transition metal catalysis ...................................................................................................................................1 1.2 Palladium assisted allylic alkylation...............................................................................................................1 1.3 Alkene insertion reactions..................................................................................................................................2 1.4 Cross coupling reactions......................................................................................................................................4 1.5 Kinetic experiments...............................................................................................................................................5 1.6 Theoretical methods..............................................................................................................................................6 1.7 Aims of the thesis.................................................................................................................................................11 2. Palladium assisted allylic substitution (Papers I-­‐II) ................................................... 12 2.1 Background ............................................................................................................................................................12 2.2 A tethered ligand – a way to investigate regioselectivity (Paper I) ...............................................18 2.3 Allylic sulfinylation – mechanism and the MBE rearrangement (Paper II)................................28 3. Alkene insertion reactions (Papers III-­‐IV)...................................................................... 35 3.1 The Mizoroki-­‐Heck reaction............................................................................................................................35 3.2 Chelation controlled atypical diarylation reaction (Paper III).........................................................38 3.3 Nickel catalyzed Mizoroki-­‐Heck reaction (Paper IV) ...........................................................................50 4. Iron catalyzed cross coupling reactions (Papers V-­‐VI) ............................................... 59 4.1 Background ............................................................................................................................................................59 4.2 Possibilities for iron catalyzed cross coupling........................................................................................61 4.3 Mechanistic investigation of iron catalyzed cross coupling (Papers V and VI) ........................64 5. Summary and concluding remarks.................................................................................... 86 6. Outlook........................................................................................................................................ 88 7. Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................. 90 7. References.................................................................................................................................. 92 vii
viii
1. Introduction 1.1 Transition metal catalysis Catalysis is the phenomenon where an additive can increase the rate of a reaction without being
consumed. This is accomplished through a lowering of the activation barrier of the reaction. All
life on earth is dependent on the catalytic ability of our enzymes, which carry out most of the
chemical transformations in our bodies. Humans have tried to harness the tremendous potential of
catalysts for many years.
There are two different kinds of catalysis, heterogenous and homogenous. In the former the
catalyst acts in a different phase than the reactants, the most well known examples are the
catalytic converters in cars, which are solid-state catalyst that convert NOx-gases, carbon
monoxide and hydrocarbons to N2, water and carbon dioxide, or the Haber-Bosch process,
responsible for the production of fertilizers for the agricultural industry. Homogenous catalysis,
where the catalyst acts in the same phase as the reactants, is the process which this thesis will
focus on, and this is where most of the transition metal catalysis occurs. The versatility of the
transition metals as catalysts has ensured that they have been employed for a long time in
chemistry. Applications such as the Ziegler-Natta[1] or the Wacker[2] processes have been used for
several decades in large scale.
Today, reactions catalyzed by transition metals constitute a large part of the tools used in organic
synthesis. The rich chemistry provided by the accessible d-orbitals make complexes of transition
metals favorite aides in the never-ending quest for ways to build new molecules. As a testament
to the importance of the field, several Nobel prizes have been awarded to transition metal
catalyzed reactions in the last decade.[3]
The research presented in this thesis has been focused on three different classes of catalyzed
reactions, which each constitutes an important part of modern organic chemistry. The
mechanistic investigations performed and introduced here give further insight into the complex
nature of catalytic reactions, and can be of importance in the ongoing work to improve the
existing reactions as well as to facilitate the development of new and more efficient reactions.
1.2 Palladium assisted allylic alkylation The palladium assisted allylic alkylation has a long history within organic chemistry.[4] The most
common version of this reaction is the Tsuji-Trost reaction (Scheme 1), where the nucleophilic
carbon in a stabilized carbanion, for example in a malonate, attacks a palladium allyl moiety.
1
Tsuji and co-workers, who reacted pre-formed palladium allyls with malonates, reported the
reaction in the mid 1960s.[5] Further development of the reaction by Trost and co-workers in the
following years, using allylic acetates and palladium complexes with phosphine ligands, resulted
in both catalytic activity and asymmetric versions of the reaction.[6]
R
LG
Pd(0), Ln
Nu-
R
Nu
Scheme 1. The classic Tsuji-Trost reaction
The continued efforts over the last 50 years have resulted in a reaction that can be performed
under mild conditions, with many different leaving groups, such as acetates, benzoates, epoxides,
carbonates, carbamates and halides.[7] A multitude of nucleophiles have also been shown to be
feasible for the reaction, for example alkali metal enolates[8] or heteroatom nucleophiles such as
amines or anions of imides, but the most common are the above-mentioned stabilized carbon
nucleophiles, the malonates.[7]
Knowledge about the mechanism of the palladium catalyzed allylic alkylation reaction has been a
crucial factor in the development of improvements for this reaction. Even if much information is
known, there is still a need for mechanistic investigations. New data are imperative for further
knowledge of important factors governing regio- and enantioselectivity, as well as development
of new and more efficient conditions. In this thesis, some ways to get insights into the mechanism
of the allylic alkylation reaction are presented.
1.3 Alkene insertion reactions The insertion of an unsaturated ligand, such as an alkene, into an adjacent metal-ligand bond, is a
very common reaction for many organometallic complexes. A schematic representation of this
reaction class, known as migratory insertion, is depicted in Scheme 2. As the insertion generates
a vacant coordination site, a ligand, L, is used in this example to bind to this site. Some of the
most famous of the insertions are carbonylation, hydroformylation, hydrogenation, or alkene
insertion reactions. The reverse reaction is also a feature of many of the same organometallic
complexes, and is referred to as decarbonylation, if Y = CO, or a β-elimination if X = H or alkyl.
2
X
M Y
L
M Y X
L
M Y X
X = H, Ar
MY =
M
, M
,
M C
, M CO
M = transition metal
Scheme 2. Migratory insertion and different ligands able to participate in this reaction
This thesis will deal with one of the mentioned insertion reactions, namely the insertion of an
alkene into a M-C bond. Some important applications of this reaction type are the dimerization,
oligomerization and polymerization of alkenes, which are extremely important industrial
reactions. The polymerization reaction generates millions of tons of polypropylene and
polyethylene annually through the Ziegler-Natta process.[1] Furthermore, the Shell higher olefins
process, utilizing a Ni-catalyst, produces large amounts of 1-alkenes of various lengths.[9]
The insertion of an alkene into a metal-alkyl bond has a higher thermodynamic driving force than
the insertion into a metal-hydride bond, but the former reaction has a larger kinetic barrier,
primarily for steric reasons.[10] The hydride version of the reaction takes place via an agostic
intermediate as shown in Scheme 3. The reverse reaction, the β-hydride elimination, is important
for the product-forming step in the alkene reactions discussed in this thesis. For some metals, for
example the f-block metals, the M-H and M-alkyl bonds are comparable in strength, and for
these, both β-hydride and β-alkyl elimination can be seen.[11]
LnM H
+ C C
insertion
elimination
LnM
C
C
H
LnM
C
C
H
agostic
intermed.
Scheme 3. Insertion/β-hydride elimination equilibrium with agostic intermediate
A common alkene insertion reaction in synthetic organic chemistry is the Mizoroki-Heck
reaction, which is a versatile and flexible reaction, usually catalyzed by palladium, but some
nickel versions also exist (Scheme 4).[12] Even though it was discovered in the 1970’s, new
variants and ways to control selectivities are still discovered. In this thesis, two different
Mizoroki-Heck reactions are studied, the first a chelation-controlled version employed in a
tandem reaction, the second a nickel catalyzed version.
3
+
R
Ar
Pd, Ni
Ar-X
R
Scheme 4. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction
1.4 Cross coupling reactions The cross coupling reaction emerged in the field of organic chemistry in the beginning of the
1970s and has since evolved to one of the most important reactions, as indicated by the awarding
of the Nobel prize in 2010 to three of the most influential people in this field.[3c]
The endeavor began with the pioneering work of Kumada[13] and Corriu[14] who discovered the
possibility to couple an aryl halide with a Grignard reagent in the presence of a nickel catalyst. In
the following years the development of other carbon nucleophiles has resulted in the use of
organozinc, organotin, organoboron, and organosilicon reagents. These are all more tolerant
toward functional groups than the original Grignard reagent. The development of the palladium
catalyst, which is less toxic and more stable towards oxygen, has in most cases replaced the
original nickel catalyst.[15] This improvement has given many new and versatile couplings,
among the most famous are Suzuki,[16] Kumada,[13] Negishi,[17] Hiyama,[18] Stille,[19] and
Sonogashira[15c] coupling reactions (Scheme 5).
Kumada
Suzuki
X
R-MgX
Stille
X
R-B(OH)2
Negishi
X
X
R-SnR'3
R-ZnX
Sonogashira
Hiyama
X
X
R-SiX3
Pd(0)
or
Ni(0)
Pd(0)
R
R
R
Pd(0)
Cu(I)
R
Scheme 5. The most common named carbon-carbon bond forming cross coupling reactions
Further development of the cross coupling reaction includes new ways of performing the
reaction, such as employing new ligands or substrates. One other important improvement is the
4
use of other metals as catalysts. One of the most promising metals for this purpose, iron, will be
presented in this thesis.
1.5 Kinetic experiments In kinetic investigations one measures the rate of product formation or reactant disappearance for
a specific reaction. From this, insight into several aspects of the reaction mechanism can be
acquired.
1.5.1 Absolute and relative kinetics
Absolute kinetic studies measures the rate of formation of products or disappearance of starting
materials, where one parameter is varied, and the others are kept constant. The parameter could
be the concentration of one of the reactants or the catalyst. Equation 1 shows the rate of
disapperance for reactant A in a bimolecular reaction between A and B, k is the rate constant and
m and n is the reaction order of each reactant.
(1)
The reaction order of the involved species can be deduced from the kinetic experiments. A first
order dependence means that one molecule is engaged in the rate-determining step, a second
order dependence that two molecules are involved. In Equation 1, m and n represent the reaction
order for the two involved reactants. By varying each parameter all the reaction orders for the
involved species can be determined and information about the rate-limiting step can be
established. One can also vary the temperature of a reaction to gain information about the
enthalpy and entropy of activation. It is imperative to take great care when carrying out absolute
kinetic experiments, since the methods are highly sensitive to small alterations in the reaction
conditions.
In relative kinetic experiments two different substrates for a specific reaction are subjected to the
reaction at the same time. The relative rates of formation of the products or disappearance of
starting material are then measured. This kind of competition experiment is much less sensitive to
variations and the analysis of the data is easier. From this, knowledge about the selectivitydetermining step can be gained.
5
1.6 Theoretical methods Because of the rapid progress of computers and processing speed, the area of computational
chemistry has developed extremely fast in the last decades. From the small systems, consisting of
only few atoms that were possible to manage in the end of the 1980s, the computational chemists
of today can handle enzymatic systems with several thousand atoms.
1.6.1 Wavefunction methods
One of the important developments for calculations in organic chemistry was the Hartree-Fock
(HF) method, in which the Schrödinger equation (Equation 2) can be solved iteratively.[20]
(2)
However, HF calculations use the approximation that each electron interacts with the average of
all the other electrons, and ignores the important electron correlation, which postulates that when
one electron moves to a certain point in space, all the other electrons must move away from that
point. In spite of this simplification, the HF method is able to give fairly accurate total energies
for molecules, as well as molecular geometries and reaction barriers. In cases with higher
electron densities, such as transition metals, the electron correlation is large enough to give
significant errors for HF results. Therefore, other more accurate methods are needed in these
occasions.
Small perturbations can be introduced to the HF wavefunction, in order to obtain a more accurate
solution. An easy way to do this is to mix the ground state with other low-energy states. In the
many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), or Møller-Plesset theory (MP), the HF exited states are
used in this way.[20] MP2 uses the single and double excitations. Three or more electrons can be
excited simultaneously in MP3, MP4 and MP5 methods, of course at a much greater
computational cost. A development of this technique is the coupled-cluster theory, the variant
termed CCSD(T) is used today as a “gold standard” for computational benchmarking, but this
method is very costly, and is practical only for up to around a dozen atoms.
1.6.2 Density functional theory
An alternative to the wavefunction methods is density functional theory (DFT),[20] which, unlike
the above-mentioned methods, does not solve the Schrodinger equation; instead it solves a
corresponding equation for the electron density.
6
Initially, DFT was used to calculate the total energy of a system by considering the electron
density at each point in space, the local density approximation (LDA). The further development
of this technique resulted in the non-local density approximation (NLDA or GGA) where the
variation in density, the gradient, was taken into account. This approach was at least as accurate
as HF methods, and at a lower computational cost.[20-21] In more recent years, new improvements
have resulted in a method that is as fast as HF calculations and has the accuracy of the MP
methods. Particularly the work from Becke providing the hybrid theory, a merge between HF and
DFT has been instrumental in the development of DFT as the standard method of today.[22] The
hybrid theory uses a combination of a partially exact treatment of the exchange term and an
approximation of the electron correlation term to generate a more accurate and generalized DFT
method. Most of the published computational studies today employ Becke’s hybridization
methods,[23] especially the B3LYP variant.[22,
24]
Even more recent improvements of these
methods involve accounting for van der Waals dispersion forces, for example by a parameterized
functional, such as M06-2X,[25] or by calculation of a correction term.[26]
1.6.3 Basis sets
All of the aforementioned methods require a mathematical description of the distribution of
electrons in space. In an atom, the electrons are distributed in orbitals, with each orbital able to
confine two electrons. The atomic orbitals are the well-known 1s, 2p and so on, orbitals. Usually
the molecular orbitals are constructed from the atomic orbitals, this is called linear combination
of atomic orbitals (LCAO). In trivial cases the simple atomic orbitals are employed, but in more
complex examples, the requirement of accurate results demands the need of the orbitals to be able
to change size and shape. Giving each orbital two different sizes is denoted double-ζ (DZ),
whereas using three different sizes is termed triple-ζ (ΤΖ). Sometimes very large orbitals are
used, especially when anions need to be accounted for, these are called diffuse orbitals and are
indicated by a “+” or “aug-“ in the name of the basis set.
The shape of the orbitals can be adjusted by adding orbitals of a higher quantum number. The
mixing of these different orbitals result in new orbitals that better describe chemical bonds, such
as π-bonds. The use of the extra orbitals is called polarization and is denoted with a “*” or “**”
describing the use of an extra set of d-orbitals on heavy atoms and p-orbitals on hydrogens,
respectively. Another way to indicate this is by adding (d) or (d,p) to the name of the basis set.
The large number of electrons in the heavier elements is a problem in calculations since they
increase the required time for each calculation, without significantly changing the result. Because
it is the valence electrons that constitute the part of the atom that contribute to bonds and other
7
interactions, it is these that will give changes to the total energy. Therefore, the core electrons of
heavy atoms are sometimes treated with an effective core potential[27] (ECP) that is as a total
charge from these electrons. This greatly reduces the basis set size.
1.6.4 Solvent
Since most organic reactions are carried out in a solvent, and not in the ideal “gas phase” that
makes up the best arena for calculations, some consideration must be spent to account for the
implementations of the solvent. Most structures will be reasonably accurate when optimized in
gas phase, as long as they do not carry opposite charges. This problem occurs when dealing with,
for example, two ionic species of opposite charge. The reaction between these will generally be
barrier-less in gas phase, something that can be far from the reality in solution. The most popular
way to answer this problem is to use a continuum solvent model. Several are available and one of
the most common is the polarizable continuum model[28] (PCM). It encloses the molecule with a
cavity dotted by parameterized point charges, which has been modeled to simulate the average
influence of the solvent. The method employed in this thesis is a variant of the PCM method, the
Poisson-Boltzmann finite continuum model (PBF).[29] This method uses two parameters to
describe different solvents, the probe radius, derived from the size of the solvent molecule and
used to contruct the solvent accessible surface area, and the dielectric constant of the solvent.
1.6.5 Calculating energies and analyzing results
A simple DFT optimization of an organic molecule in gas phase results in a large amount of
information. The most important property is the energy of the molecule. It is provided in the unit
Hartree and can only be used as a relative value. The energy can only be compared to other
calculated energies with the same setup as the first one. This is the potential energy of the
molecule. A more accurate energy for the molecule is the Gibbs free energy, denoted G, which
can be calculated by adding the thermodynamic and solvation effects. The method employed in
this thesis approximates this by adding the vibrational contributions to the single-point energy
with solvation of an optimized gas-phase structure.
When comparing energies there are a few rules of thumb that can be important to remember
when the energy is used to indicate ratios, enantiomeric excesses or selectivities. A difference of
2 kJ/mol is equivalent to a 2:1 ratio, and a difference of 6 kJ/mol corresponds to a 10:1 ratio, this
of course means that a 12 kJ/mol difference is equivalent to a 100:1 ratio. All of these ratios are
valid at room temperature.
The easiest way to analyze a chemical reaction computationally is to construct a reaction profile,
a free energy surface (FES), where the starting point is the sum of all starting reactants, and
8
consequently, the end point is the sum of all products. All intermediate points are the sum of the
relevant intermediates, not yet consumed reactants and already formed products. In catalytic
systems it is important to note that the starting point is arbitrary. The relationship between all
steps are easiest seen when drawing two full catalytic cycles after each other, as depicted in
Figure 1.[30]
(TS c)
TS c
TS a
(III)
TS b
I
II
III
(TS a)
(TS b)
IV = I
(II)
(III)
Figure 1. Free energy surface (FES) for a catalytic reaction
The overall exergonicity of the reaction can be seen as the difference between the same point in
two subsequent catalytic cycles (e.g. between I and IV in Figure 1). The interpretation of the
surface reveals several interesting points. Firstly, all transition states that are higher than all the
subsequent points can be identified as effectively irreversible. In Figure 1 this is true for TS c,
maybe also for TS a, even if the difference between these points is hard to determine, and can be
within the accuracy limit of the method employed. However, these transition states are selectivity
determining for the bonds formed in the corresponding step. TS b, on the other hand, is a
completely reversible step, and will not have any influence on the reaction. This is a classic
Curtin-Hammett situation where II and III are in rapid equilibrium.[31] With the important TS a
and TS c established, the activation free energy can be calculated as the difference between the
TS and the lowest preceding point. In Figure 1 the barriers corresponds to G(TS a) – G(I) and
G(TS c) – G(II). The rate determining step is the one with the highest barrier (TS c in Figure 1)
and the resting state is the lowest preceding point (II in Figure 1). Other ways to analyze free
9
energy surfaces are present in the literature, one example is the energetic span model by Shaik
and co-workers.[30]
The barriers calculated must be compared to the reaction conditions, especially the temperature,
which of course is the factor that most greatly influences the possibility for the reaction to
progress. At room temperature, a good estimate is that a barrier should not be above 100 kJ mol-1
in order to proceed at an acceptable rate.
10
1.7 Aims of the thesis The overall goal of this work was to provide information about new and existing tools for
synthetic organic chemistry. The studies were done through mechanistic investigations of
transition metal catalyzed reactions, using a combination of kinetic experiments and
computational studies.
In this thesis, the aims have been to investigate several different transition metal catalyzed
reactions:
1. For the palladium catalyzed allylic alkylation reaction, the factors that are determining the
observed regioselectivity and the mechanistic pathways for a sulfinylation version of the
reaction were examined.
2. In two different versions of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction, understanding of the critical role
of benzoquinone in a chelation-controlled domino Mizoroki-Heck-Suzuki reaction and the
catalytic cycle for a new and mild nickel catalyzed version of the reaction were
investigated.
3. The mechanism and the nature of the active catalyst for the environmentally friendly iron
catalyzed cross coupling reaction was thoroughly studied.
11
2. Palladium assisted allylic substitution (Papers I-­‐II) The palladium assisted allylic alkylation reaction is under constant development, with new
features added to the reaction continuously. Some of the most important fields for progress are
enantioselectivity, regioselectivity and development of new nucleophiles. The selectivity is
important since there is always a need for new ways to control the sterochemical outcome of a
reaction. Development of novel nucleophiles can open new pathways to the formation of new
bonds, such as carbon-heteroatom bonds, but can also provide milder and more efficient ways to
form chemical bonds.
2.1 Background 2.1.1 Ligands for palladium assisted allylic alkylation
Ligands have a profound effect on the allylic alkylation reaction; it is therefore an area that has
been intensely studied. There are two different purposes for the ligands in the reaction. Firstly to
enhance the reactivity of the palladium allyl complex towards nucleophilic attack, and secondly,
they are responsible for controlling the stereo- and regioselectivity of the reaction. The πaccepting ligands will remove electron density from the metal; a feature known as back
bonding,[32] and thereby making the allyl moiety more positively charged and more prone to be
attacked by a nucleophile. The most frequently used π-accepting ligands are the phosphorouscontaining ones, such as PPh3 or 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (dppp) (Figure 2).
Chiral versions of the ligands are used to induce stereoselectivity, and there is an enormous
amount of different ligands at hand.[7a] Many of these are bidentate so called P,P-ligands with two
phosphorous atoms coordinating to the palladium center, but there are many P,X-ligands, where
X represents a heteroatom, such as N, S or O. Some of the most frequently used chiral ligands are
the BINAP-ligands,[33] but others, such as the Trost modular ligand,[34] and the PHOX-ligands[35]
are regularly used in asymmetric allylic alkylation (Figure 2).
O
P
PPh2
PPh2
P
dppp
PPh2 Ph2P
Trost Modular Ligand
Figure 2. Some important ligands in palladium catalyzed allylic substitution reactions
12
O
NH HN
N
Ph2P
(S)-PHOX
(R)-BINAP
O
2.1.2 Catalytic cycle and mechanism
The catalytic cycle of the reaction starts with coordination of the alkene to the Pd0 complex in an
η2-fashion, followed by an ionization and expulsion of the leaving group to form the η3-complex,
with the leaving group as the counter ion. This PdII complex can undergo a nucleophilic attack to
again give an η2-complex with the product coordinated. In the final step, the product is released
from the palladium complex. The cycle has been closed, and the reformed Pd0 can perform
another cycle (Scheme 6).
Nu
LG
LnPd0
LnPd0
Nu
Nu
LnPd0
LG
LnPd0
LG
Scheme 6. Catalytic cycle for the Tsuji-Trost reaction
Both the ionization and the nucleophilic attack go through an inversion of the stereochemistry
when soft nucleophiles such as malonates are used. This results in an overall retention of the
stereochemistry in the reaction.[36] On the other hand, when using hard, unstabilized carbon
nucleophiles, such as Grignard or other organometallic reagents, the reaction pathway is
different. The nucleophile will coordinate to palladium in the η3-allylic complex, and form the
product via a reductive elimination (Scheme 7). This will result in an overall inversion of the
stereochemistry.[36b] Heteroatom nucleophiles, such as amines and alcohols usually follow the
same pathway as the stabilized carbon nucleophiles, giving retention of stereochemistry.[37]
13
R1
R2
LnPd0
R2
R1
soft Nu-
R1
PdIILn
LG
R2
s-Bu
R2
+
Nu
Nu
Hard Nu-
R1
Nu
R1
R2
PdIILn-1
R2
+
R1
Nu
R2
Nu
Scheme 7. The different stereochemical outcomes when using soft or hard nucleophiles
2.1.3 Regioselectivity
(η3-Allyl)palladium complexes react almost exclusively at the terminal carbons of the allylic
moiety. The factors governing the regioselectivity for the nucleophilic attack are both electronic
and steric. When the electronic properties of the termini are similar, nucleophiles tend to attack at
the least hindered site. For example, the linear product is the major outcome when an allylic
substrate that proceeds via a mono-substituted (η3-allyl)palladium intermediate, is subjected to
the reaction.[7a]
Since the branched product can be chiral, much effort has been put into directing the attack to this
position. It has been shown that the electronic properties of the ligand and the allylic moiety are
important in controlling regioselectivity, the nucleophilic attack of a nucleophile occurs at the
more electron-rich position of the allyl. This can be seen as somewhat counterintuitive but one
must remember that this must also be regarded as the site where a cation is most stable.
Åkermark and co-workers demonstrated that more π-accepting ligands lead to attack at the more
substituted position, due to the greater degree of positive charge residing at the more substituted
carbon.[38] Special ligands have been designed to promote attack at the more substituted terminus.
These are unsymmetrical ancillary ligands that facilitate an attack at the most hindered site, either
by orienting the nucleophile to this position or by making the position more electrophilic.[39]
Scheme 8 shows two examples where electronic properties determine the regiochemical outcome
of an allylic substitution reaction.[40]
14
O
O
O
OAc
OH
A
+
O2N
O
ONa
O
Pd(dba)2
OMe PPh
3
O 2N
OMe
O
O2N
OH
OMe
B
A:B = 3:97
MeO
Pd(PPh3)4
NaCMe(CO2Et)2
OAc
MeO
CMe(CO2Et)2
Scheme 8. Two examples of electronically controlled regioselectivity
2.1.4 Nucleophiles
A wide range of nucleophiles have been utilized in allylic alkylations and, as already mentioned,
the most important of these are the stabilized carbon nucleophiles, which come in many different
forms. The common motif for these reagents is the methylene or methine group, surrounded by
electron-withdrawing groups, such as carbonyl, cyano, nitro and sulfonyl groups (Figure 3).[7a]
The active nucleophile is formed upon deprotonation. Also neutral nucleophiles, such as
enamines, are reactive in this kind of reaction.[41]
O
O
R
R
O
R
N
NC
CN
CN
R
NO2
R
O
R
O
O
O
O
N
R'
R'
R
NO2
R
SO2R'
R, R' = alkyl or alkoxy
Figure 3. Some pronucleophiles used in allylic substitution
Alkali metal enolates have been employed, although with mixed outcome,[42] and other milder
enolates, such as boron,[43] silicon[44] and zinc enolates[45] show better results.
15
Heteroatom nucleophiles have been shown to be more prone to attack at the more hindered site
than the carbon nucleophiles. Oxygen nucleophiles, such as O-aryl species, follow this pattern,[46]
and so does nitrogen nucleophiles, such as amines, aziridines, hydroxylamines and hydrazines.[47]
2.1.5 Trans effect and trans influence
Since allylic alkylations are carried out with the aid of a palladium catalyst, in the shape of a
square-planar metal-ligand complex, it is important to take special notice of this kind of structure.
Very important features of these complexes are the trans influence and the trans effect. These two
concepts provide a strong control of the reactivity and structure of the complexes.
The trans influence is a purely thermodynamic phenomenon, and is used to describe effects on
the ground state of the complexes. It can be described as “to which extent a ligand weakens the
bond trans to itself”. For example, a certain ligand can extend the metal-ligand bond or influence
the magnitude of the M-P coupling constant trans to it.
The trans effect, on the other hand, is a kinetic effect on the rate of dissociation or on the
reactivity of the ligand trans position. The effect can be very large, as much as several orders of
magnitude on the rate constants. There is a close relationship between the trans effect and trans
influence, even if some exceptions exist.
In general, a trans influence series can be described as in Figure 4.[7a] As can be seen from the
series, strong σ-donors, such as hydrides, result in large trans influence, but π-acceptor ligands,
such as olefins, can also lead to a fairly strong trans influence.
H- ~ CH3- ≈ CN- ≈ olefins, CO > PR3 ≈ NO2- ≈ I- > Br- > Cl- > RNH2 ≈ NH3 > OH- > NO3- ≈ H2O
Figure 4. An approximate trans influence series[7a]
2.1.6 Factors influencing selectivity
Asymmetric versions of the Tsuji-Trost reaction have been applied to complexes that give
symmetrically
substituted
(η3-allyl)Pd
intermediates,
such
as
cycloalkenyl
or
1,3-
diphenylallyl,[48] and unsymmetric (η3-allyl)Pd intermediates, such as monosubstituted allyls. In
the former case, the enantioselectivity is governed by the regioselectivity of the nucleophilic
attack,[46] which is governed by the stereochemical control from the ligand.[4c, 48-49] In the latter
case, however, several factors can influence the outcome, for example steric and electronic
influences from the substrate,[50] regiochemical memory of the position of the leaving group,[51]
the preferred configuration being anti or syn
[52]
(see Figure 5 for an explanation of the anti/syn
nomenclature) and dynamic exchange in the intermediate,[53] the nucleophile,[54] and the nature of
16
the ligands.[46,
55]
As one example of one of these factors, the syn configuration of a
monosubstituted allylic substrate has a strong preference for terminal attack, whereas the anti
configuration results in product mixtures, with considerable quantities of internal attack.[52] Since
the consequence of an internal attack is a new stereocenter, there is a great interest in learning
how to control this selectivity and it is worth mentioning that other metals, such as molybdenum,
tungsten, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium, have been extensively employed to achieve the
branched product.[7a]
Pd
anti
Pd
syn
Pd
Pd
Figure 5. Anti and syn configuration of a (η3-allyl)Pd complexes
However, by manipulating the ligands of the palladium complex they can be able to direct the
attack to the more substituted carbon of the allylic moiety. Ligands that induce distortions in the
intermediate have proven to have a strong effect on the regioselectivity of the nucleophilic
attack.[56] Ligands containing phosphorous have been widely employed because of the large trans
effect of the phosphorous will increase reaction at the carbon trans to any phoshine.[38b] Other
heteratoms have also been used in the ligand synthesis, such as oxygen, nitrogen and in some
cases sulfur.[7a] As mentioned before, several different classes of ligands have been developed
and provide great opportunites to achieve selectivity. Although high selectivities can be
accomplished in many cases, still there does not exist a general approach to control selectivity
and a lack of knowledge of the balance between the different effects, steric and electronic, is
apparent.
2.1.7 Computational work on the palladium mediated allylic alkylation
Several important issues regarding palladium mediated allylic alkylation reaction have been
studied computationally.[57] The structure and geometry of the (η3-allyl)Pd complex have been
rationalized, and can be accurately reproduced with many different methods.[58] Other important
features, including ligand effects, such as the trans effect, and dynamic processes can also be
understood and rationalized through computational methods. Most importantly, the reactivity and
17
selectivity can be explained and predicted. The important contributions in this field have been
summarized recently.[57b]
2.2 A tethered ligand – a way to investigate regioselectivity (Paper I) Trying to distinguish and measure the different factors controlling regioselectivity in the title
reaction is a challenging task. Some examples exist in the literature, for example has the
difference in trans effect between phosphorous and chloride been measured,[59] but the results are
hard to interpret due to the influence of dynamic processes in the system. It has also been
established that the efficient apparent rotation (Scheme 9) of the cationic (η3-allyl)Pd complexes
can diminish the apparent trans effect.[60] It should be noted that some doubt about the influence
of the dissociative mechanism for apparent rotation has been presented.[60]
R
a)
R
X-
Pd
L
L
L'
Pd
L'
X
R
b)
X
Pd
L'
R
Pd
Pd
L
L'
L'
L
L
R
-X-
Pd
L'
X
Pd
L
R
R
-L'
L
R
R
R
L'
Pd
Pd
L
L
L'
Pd
L
Scheme 9. Apparent rotation via a) pseudorotation b) a dissociative mechanism
In an attempt to quantify the trans effect, and separate it from steric effects, a tethered ligand
system was devised (Figure 6). The tethered system hinders the apparent rotation and ensures that
the sulfur atom always is positioned trans to the terminal position of the allylic moiety and that
the auxiliary ligand is positioned trans to the internal position.
BF4Cl
Pd
S
Ph
2.1a
Ph3P
Pd
S
Ph
2.2a
BF4-
Cl
Pd
S
Ph
Ph3P
Pd
S
Ph
2.2b
2.1b
Figure 6. (η3-allyl)Pd complexes with a tethered sulfide ligand
This system has been utilized earlier but at that time there were no means to elucidate the
preferred configuration of the complex.[61] Krafft and co-workers performed studies on a range of
18
tethered ligands in a catalytic system, including alkenes[62] and sulfides,[63] and postulated that the
tethered ligand interacted with the incoming nucleophile instead of the Pd, thereby ruling out the
trans effect as a factor influencing the selectivity. A similar study has been conducted by Yoshida
and co-workers on the effect of a removable pyridine tether, but no analysis of the reasons for the
regioselectivity was presented.[64]
To investigate this area further and to ensure the coordination of the tethered ligand, our study
was performed with preformed Pd-complexes, and by running the reaction with stochiometric
amounts of the tethered complex, any interference from exchangeable ligands in the reaction
mixture was minimized.
2.2.1 Experimental results†
The above-mentioned Pd complexes were employed in an allylic alkylation reaction with sodium
malonate as the nucleophile (Scheme 10).
Nu
n
X
Pd
S
Ph
2.1-2.2
+
n = 1, 2
n
O
Nu- =
Ph
2.3
Nu-
n
S
S
Ph
Nu
O
2.4
O
O
X = Cl or PPh3
Scheme 10. Allylic alkylation reaction and potential regioisomeric outcome for the Pd complexes
The regioisomeric outcome of the reactions was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy.
The product distribution between the terminal and internal attack is found in Table 1.
Table 1. Product distribution from reactions in Scheme 10
complex
ligand X
tether length
linear 3 (%)
Branched 4 (%)
2.1a
Cl
2
40
60
2.1b
Cl
3
80
20
2.2a
PPh3
2
20
80
2.2b
PPh3
3
80
20
The results for the phosphorous containing complexes show a dependence on the nature of the
allyl part and very little influence from the auxiliary ligand. The shift in preference from
†
Experimental study performed by Dr. Charlotte Johansson
19
branched to linear when going from the shorter tether to the longer indicates that the important
factor for the regioselectivity is the steric influence from the tethered ligand, and not the trans
effect. However, when comparing the result between the chloride and the phosphine complexes
an increase in the amount of branched product is seen when employing the shorter tether. This
indicates that attack trans to phosphorous is favored, which is in agreement with the difference in
trans effect arising from these ligands. The result from our study is in agreement with the
previously mentioned investigation by Krafft and co-workers,[63] implying that the tethered ligand
indeed is coordinated to Pd during the reaction.
Furthermore, complex 2.1a was subjected to another reaction where the tethered ligand complex
first was treated with an excess of two different phosphorous ligands, PPh3 and 1,2bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe), followed by the same nucleophile as in the previous
reaction, sodium malonate (Scheme 11). These experiments gave mainly terminal attack in both
cases, mirroring the result from isolated syn complexes[52a, 65] and similar experiments conducted
by Krafft and co-workers.[63] These results definitely disprove the proposal by Krafft and coworkers that uncoordinated ligands direct the nucleophilic attack.[63]
Nu
S
S
Ph
2.3
Ph3P
Pd
S
2.1a Ph
AgBF4
PPh3
+
Nu
Ph
2.4
NaNu
20
:
80
NaNu
93
:
7
NaNu
95
:
5
SPh
Ph3P
Pd
PPh3
SPh
AgBF4
dppe
Ph2P
Pd
PPh2
Counterion = BF4- ; Nu = CH(COOMe)2
Scheme 11. Selectivities with and without coordination of the tethered sulfide ligand
The obtained results could be explained by a difference in configuration for the two tether
lengths, where the longer tether could prefer the syn configuration and the shorter the anti
configuration, which would result in different product distribution according to earlier work.[52]
However, preliminary results from calculations employing a molecular mechanics force field
adjusted to (η3-allyl)Pd complexes, indicated that both tethers preferred the syn configuration.[61]
20
To be certain of which of the configurations that was preferred, further structural determination
was needed.
2.2.2 Structural determination of complexes
All four complexes were fully characterized by 1D- and 2D-1H NMR spectroscopy. The coupling
constants were measured and special care was taken to investigate the coupling constant between
the proton in the allylic moiety that can be in anti or syn position, and the proton on the center
carbon in the allylic moiety (Figure 7). This coupling constant, for all the involved structures,
was found to be in the range of 11-13 Hz, corresponding to syn complexes in solution.[66]
H
R
L
Pd H
L
Pd R
Figure 7. Schematic figure of the proton anti and syn
complexes
The solid state of the complexes was analyzed with X-ray crystallography,† which revealed that
all four structures feature Pd in a distorted square-planar geometry and with syn-geometry. One
aspect, which was noted as a difference between the different tethers, was that the shorter tether
displays slightly more strain, indicated by the internal carbon being somewhat out of the allylic
plane.
The unanimous result from the structural data regarding the syn configuration of the Pd
complexes disproves the theory that different configurations can lead to the dissimilar product
distribution in the studied allylic alkylation. In order to understand the reason behind this
tantalizing problem, a DFT study was initialized.
2.2.3 Computational approaches and results
A molecular mechanics force field, especially constructed for this system,[61] was used to
examine the conformational and configurational space of the complexes. The generated structures
were re-optimized using DFT calculations and from these the transition states were located.
The results from the DFT calculations were verified by testing against the known X-ray structure
2.5 (Figure 8).[67] An overlay of the optimized DFT structures and the X-ray structures revealed
an overall rms deviation of 0.0531 Å, where almost all of the error originates from the slightly
elongated Pd-S bond in the DFT structures. Since this is a systematic error that will occur in all of
the calculations, we can expect error cancellation when comparing related structures.
†
X-ray crystallography performed by Susanne Olsson
21
Cl
Pd
S
2.5
Figure 8. X-ray structure 2.5 that was used to verify the DFT method
The molecular mechanics conformational search generated 8 geometries for the short tether and
12 for the longer tether, including both anti- and syn-isomers, for the chloride complexes. The reoptimization at the DFT level could exclude the anti-isomers, due to their much higher energy, at
least 18 kJ mol-1 higher than the most stable syn-complex. For each tether-length, two low-energy
complexes were selected and used in the further studies. These four structures were used as
starting points for the optimization of the corresponding phospine complexes, for which no
molecular mechanics data could be obtained.
The transition state searches were conducted with sodium dimethylmalonate as the nucleophile.
The sodium moiety was coordinatively saturated with two explicit dimethyl ether molecules, to
minimize non-physical interactions with the substrate. For every complex, at least three different
rotamers of the malonate were tested. A typical transition state structure is shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9. Transition state for terminal attack on complex 2.2a (hydrogens omitted for clarity)
The preference for internal attack was calculated as the difference in free energy between the
most stable complexes for the nucleophilic attack on the terminal and internal position,
respectively. When comparing to the experimental results, it is important to remember that the
ratios in Table 1 corresponds to a ΔΔG‡exp = 4 kJ mol-1 for 2.2a and -4 kJ mol-1 for 2.2b
(preference for terminal attack). The first computational approach used a standard basis set,
22
lacvp*, which gave a preference for terminal attack for both complexes with ΔΔG‡ = -2 kJ mol-1
for 2.2a and -23 kJ mol-1 for 2.2b. Single point calculations with a larger basis set, LACVP**++,
gave considerably better results for the shorter tether with ΔΔG‡ = 5 kJ mol-1, reproducing the
preference for the internal attack. For the longer tether, results were still showing a favored
terminal attack but it is strongly exaggerated, 31 kJ mol-1. When applying a vdW correction[26] to
the transition state structures the calculated energy differences closely resembles the experimental
values with ΔΔG‡ = 6 kJ mol-1 for 2.2a and -10 kJ mol-1 for 2.2b. It is worth mentioning that
independent of the level of calculation, the amount of internal attack decreases when going from
the short to longer tether.
2.2.4 Factors influencing the stereochemical outcome of the reaction
The computational study could fairly accurately reproduce the experimental results, but the
energies do not provide any clues regarding the reason for the surprising shift in selectivity. To
rationalize this anomaly we decided to subject the structures of 2.2a-b to further investigation.
As already mentioned, many different factors can affect the regioselectivity in an allylic
alkylation reaction. The difference in selectivity between the syn/anti configurations has already
been ruled out due to high-energy ground states. To further strengthen this, the anti transition
states were located and similarly found to be too high in energy.
The reactivity has also been shown to be dependent on the length of the breaking Pd-C bond, the
preferred rotation of the η3-allyl moiety, and steric hindrance.[56] Since previous research[56] had
shown that a difference in only 0.01 Å provided twice as high reactivity, the solid-state structures
in our study were scrutinized (Figure 10).
Nu-
Nu60%
40%
2.175
Cl
2.116
Pd
80%
2.151
S
Ph
Pd
Ph3P
2.1a
2.2a
Nu-
Nu20%
80%
2.174
Cl
20%
Pd
S
Ph
20%
80%
2.194
2.145
2.1b
2.185
Ph3P
S
Ph
Pd
2.232
2.2b
S
Ph
Figure 10. Length of the bonds in the X-ray structures versus the regioselectivity in the nucleophilic attack
23
The calculated structures from the DFT study showed similar trends as the solid state ones and
are therefore omitted for clarity.
As can be seen from Figure 10, there is no relationship between the Pd-C bond length and the
position where the nucleophilic attack takes place. For example, in complex 2.1a the shortest PdC bond length is the most reactive, something that also is true for complex 2.2b. On the other
hand, in the remaining two complexes, 2.2a and 2.1b, the nucleophilic attack takes place at the
carbon with the longest Pd-C bond. A trans influence can be observed within the system, the PdC bonds trans to phosphorous are slightly longer than those trans to chloride. In spite of this, no
kinetic trans effect can be perceived.
Another factor that has proven to influence the reactivity of the allylic carbons is the enforced
product-like rotation of the (η3-allyl)Pd moiety in the ground state. To investigate this, we
measured the displacement of the terminal and internal allylic carbons, with respect to the S-Pd
P(or Cl) plane (Figure 11).
A
P
B
Pd
P
S
Pd
C
P
S
Pd
Nu
P
Pd
S
Plane S-Pd-P(Cl)
Nu
S
Nu
Nu
D
P
Pd
S
E
Figure 11. Different orientations of the η3-allyl with respect to the S-Pd-P(or Cl) plane
The three different situations, A, B, and C represent the different orientations the allylic moiety
can exhibit. Situation B is the simple symmetric form. A and C are the unsymmetric versions,
where A represents the orientation where the ground state resembles the product from the internal
attack (structure D) and therefore should favor this attack, and C instead shows a resemblence to
the product from the terminal attack (structure E) leading to a preferential terminal attack. The
measured distances from both X-ray structures and calculated DFT structures have been
compiled in Table 2.
24
Table 2. Torsion angles (°) of the allylic moiety for 1a-b and 2a-b, in the X-ray structures and two lowest
energy DFT structures for each complex
Structure
C1 to plane
C3 to plane
Structure
C1 to plane
C3 to plane
a
[P(or Cl)-Pd-S]a
[P(or Cl)-Pd-S]a
[P(or Cl)-Pd-S]a
[P(or Cl)-Pd-S]a
2.1a (x-ray)
0.309
-0.199
2.2a (x-ray)
0.072
-0.317
2.1a (DFT_1)
0.144
-0.311
2.2a (DFT_1)
0.098
-0.268
2.1a (DFT_2)
0.087
-0.121
2.2a (DFT_2)
0.106
-0.162
2.1b (x-ray)
-0.107
-0.419
2.2b (x-ray)
-0.116
-0.185
2.1b (DFT_1)
-0.067
-0.330
2.2b (DFT_1)
-0.055
-0.078
2.1b (DFT_2)
-0.294
-0.275
2.2b (DFT_2)
-0.328
-0.607
Positive value if situated on the same side of the plane as H2.
In both the X-ray structures and the calculated structures the shorter tether displays an orientation
similar to situation A that corresponds to a preference for internal attack, something that
satisfactorily correlates to experimental results. However, the longer tether is almost symmetrical
and it is therefore difficult to rationalize the regioselective results from this structure with an
enforced rotation.
Steric interactions have also been shown to be of great importance on the selectivity in allylic
alkylations,[56] and a strong indication of this was the necessity to include vdW interactions[26] in
the calculations to accurately reproduce the experimental results. In an attempt to reveal the
important steric interactions in the studied nucleophilic attack, the four lowest energy transition
states, including both the long and short tether, were overlayed (Figure 12). When doing this, a
great differece can be noticed between the two sets of structures, where the longer tether adopts
an orientation similar to an unstrained syn-configuration.[37b, 68] In contrast to this, the first nonallylic methylene group in the shorter tether is bent down from the allylic plain, due to the higher
strain in the smaller ring, giving more space for the incoming nucleophile to attack at the internal
position.
25
Figure 12. Overlay of the two lowest energy conformers of the short 2.2a (grey) and long 2.2b (black)
tether, showing steric interactions with a nucleophile attacking the internal position. Some hydrogens
omitted for clarity
To further investigate the apparently vital steric interactions, we measured the distance of the
forming bond lengths in the transition states for the nucleophilic attack (Table 3). As has been
shown, the Bell-Evans-Polanyi theory,[69] as well as the Hammond postulate,[70] implies that
increased steric hindrance should result in a “later” transition state.[71] In agreement with this, our
data suggest that the “earliest” attack takes place for the internal position in the shorter tether
complex, with a 0.02 Å shorter forming bond of the terminal position. In the longer tether, the
opposite is true, with the forming bond of the internal position being shorter by 0.03 Å, indicating
steric hindrance at this position.
Table 3. Average length of the forming C-C bond in nucleophilic attack on 2.2a-b
Complex
Internal attack
Terminal attack
distance (Å)
distance (Å)
2.2a
2.31
2.29*
2.2b
2.23*
2.26
*Preferred site of nucleophilic attack
2.2.5 Conclusions
The experimental results from an allylic alkylation reaction between four different preformed
(η3-allyl)Pd complexes and a malonate nucleophile showed large dependence on the geometry of
26
the allyl. Surprisingly, the electronic effects seemed to be of lesser importance, even if a small
trans effect could be detected. Structural investigation, both in solution phase and solid state Xray crystallography, revealed similar syn-configuration of all palladium complexes.
The subsequent DFT study could reproduce the results from the experimental examination, but a
vdW correction was necessary to achieve a good agreement.
To inspect the reasons for the change in selectivity, various factors for controlling selectivity
were investigated, including length of the reacting Pd-C bond, enforced rotation of the allyl
moiety in the ground state, interactions between the nucleophile and the (η3-allyl)Pd complex as
well as trans effects from the ligands on Pd. The decisive regioselective factors were found to be
a combination of important steric hindrance from hydrogens in the adjacent methylene group and
the rotation of the allylic moiety.
27
2.3 Allylic sulfinylation – mechanism and the MBE rearrangement (Paper II) 2.3.1 Background
The sulfoxide is an important functional group in organic chemistry. Sulfoxides can act as chiral
ligands[72] or auxiliaries[73] in organic reactions, as well as being key groups in the pharmaceutical
industry.[74] The standard way of synthesizing sulfoxides today is through controlled sulfide
oxidation.[75] In a study aimed at finding new ways to synthesize sulfoxides, Poli and co-workers
used the sulfenate anion as nucleophile in a palladium catalyzed allylic sulfinylation reaction to
produce sulfoxides under mild conditions (Scheme 12).[76]
The sulfenate anions were generated in situ from β-sulfinyl esters via a base promoted
elimination (Scheme 12).[77] This nucleophile was then reacted in both palladium catalyzed
allylation[76] and arylation[78] reactions. Both cyclic and acyclic allyls were coupled to aryl or
alkyl sulfoxides in the allylation, and the arylation was possible to perform with aryl and vinyl
iodides. An enantioselective version of the latter reaction was also be developed.[79] Furthermore,
the versatile nucleophile was employed in different pseudo-domino palladium catalyzed
processes.[80]
R
O
S
CO2tBu
O
S
LG
B
Pd(0) cat.
R
O
S
R
RSO
CO2tBu
CO2tBu
ArX
Pd(0) cat.
R = Tol, 2-Naphtyl, iPr
Ar
O
S
R
Ar = aryl or vinyl
X=I
Scheme 12. Generation and reaction of sulfenate anions as nucleophiles in allylic sulfinylations and
arylations
28
2.3.2 The Mislow-Braverman-Evans rearrangement
The conversion of sulfenate esters to sulfoxides is of interest to the mechanism of the
sulfinylation. The nucleophilic attack of the anion could be achieved through either an attack
from the sulfur or the oxygen of the sulfenate anion (Scheme 13). A fast conversion between the
two possible products can thereafter give the thermodynamically most stable product.
Ph
O
S
Ph
O S
CO2tBu
OAc
PhS
PdL2
O
MBE
O
S
PdL2
Ph
Scheme 13. Sulfenate allylation via either nucleophilic S- or O-attack
The possible involvement of the Mislow-Braverman-Evans[81] (MBE) rearrangement was
therefore considered (Scheme 14). The only isolated product was the sulfoxides and therefore the
attack was either restricted to only sulfur-attack, or the MBE rearrangement was responsible for
the rapid conversion of the sulfenate ester to the sulfoxide.
R
O
S
R
S
O
Scheme 14. The Mislow-Braverman-Evans rearrangement
Some previous computational investigations regarding the MBE rearrangement have been
conducted. Jones-Hertzog and Jorgensen studied the transition state of the reaction.[82] They
found that the endo-transition state was favored over the exo by ca 8 kJ/mol, but they also
errounously concluded that the sulfenate ester was more stable by at least 12 kJ/mol. The latter
conclusion was a bit surprising since the experimental evidence points at the sulfoxide as the
more stable structure. In a later study, the same group could also rationalize the regioselectivity
of the rearrangement when using substituted allyls.[83]
2.3.3 Computional study of the Mislow-Braverman-Evans rearrangement
Our standard setup for computational investigations of mechanistic problems is DFT at the
B3LYP level[22,
24a]
with a polarized double-ζ basis set (6-31G*), augmented by vibrational
corrections, ECP basis sets for heavy elements,[27] continuum solvation,[28-29] and dispersion
29
correction.[26] However, previous work by Jorgensen and coworkers, employing similar methods,
predicted an equilibrium shifted towards the sulfenate product in the MBE rearrangement.[82] We
could verify this problem when employing our standard setup on the same system. The solution
to this problem was to employ larger basis sets. At the cc-PVDZ level, the results were fairly
converged, but since a slight shift in energy occurred when using cc-PVTZ,[84] the latter basis set
was chosen for further studies. The geometries were well converged at the 6-31G* level,
something that was confirmed by small differences in energy between cc-PVTZ and cc-PVTZ//631G* calculations. Single point cc-PVTZ calculations at 6-31G*-derived IRC points also
revealed that the transition state of the rearrangement shifted with less than 0.1 Å with the larger
basis set (Figure 13). Applying a solvent model of dichloromethane (DCM) did not give any
large effects either.
120
6-31G*
DCM
cc-PVTZ
Tot
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
Figure 13. IRC points for the Mislow-Braverman-Evans rearrangement at different levels of theory
In summary, to guarantee proper energetics in the study of this rearrangement, we employ
geometry optimizations at the B3LYP level with a lacvp* basis set, validate all stationary points
with vibrational calculations, and calculate the final free energies by adding contributions from
vibrations, solvation and basis set correction using cc-PVTZ basis set for the organic moieties
and lacv3p*+ for Pd.
This method was utilized for three model systems, the methyl allyl sulfoxide, 2.6a, and the
experimentally more relevant phenyl allyl sulfoxide, 2.6b, and phenyl cinnamyl sulfoxide, 2.6c.
For all the MBE pairs the devised method correctly predicted the sulfoxide 2.6a-c as being
30
preferred over the corresponding sulfenate 2.7a-c, by 7-25 kJ mol-1. In addition to this, the
transition states for the rearrangements were identified[85] and the barriers were calculated to 82104 kJ mol-1.
To further extend the method to the above-mentioned sulfinylation conditions we also
investigated the palladium catalyzed MBE rearrangement, using palladium with a
diphosphinoethane (DPE, H2PCH2CH2PH2) ligand, as the model for the experimentally
competent DPPE-ligand. The transition states for the same rearrangements were localized; a
typical transition state for the Pd-catalyzed MBE rearrangement is shown in Figure 14. The metal
fragment is similar to an (η3-allyl)Pd complex, but the distances between Pd and the terminal
carbons are considerably longer.
Figure 14. Typical transition state for the Pd-catalyzed MBE rearrangement
The barriers for the rearrangement were found to be only 10-26 kJ mol-1 in the presence of the
Pd0 DPE complex. Consequently, the rate of the rearrangement can be increased by palladium
complexes, something that previously not has been shown, but Pd-catalysis of the similar
Overman rearrangement has been demonstrated.[86] Scheme 15 summarizes the results from the
computational study on the MBE rearrangement.
31
R
O
S
R'
R
2.6a-c
R
S
‡
O
‡
O
R'
Pd
R'
H2P
O
∆G‡ =
82-104
kJ mol-1
S
SR
R'
2.7a-c
∆G = 7-25 kJ mol-1
PH2
∆G‡ =
10-26
kJ mol-1
Scheme 15. Uncatalyzed vs. Pd-catalyzed MBE rearrangement
2.3.4 Investigation of the allylic sulfinylation reaction
The method was then employed in the previously described allylic sulfinylation reaction. An
NPA analysis[87] of the sulfenate anion revealed a full negative charge on the oxygen, but the
HOMO still has a significant component on the sulfur, therefore we assumed that both S and O
could act as competent nucleophiles (Scheme 13). As has been shown before, nucleophilic attack
in gas phase on η3-allyl Pd complexes is monotonous, without a transition state on the potential
energy surface.[88] Location of TSs therefore required optimization in solvent, and consequently
excluded accurate calculation of the vibrational free energy component with our currently
available software. However, for relative energies of similar competing transition states, the
influence of this factor should be negligible.
For the unsubstituted allyl, attacks by S or O were found to be almost isoenergetic, differing only
by 1 kJ mol-1. Nevertheless, the product will undergo rapid MBE rearrangement and only the
sulfoxide will be isolated (Scheme 13). The energy surface for the reaction is somewhat irregular;
the addition TS does not lead directly to the product, but to another, lower saddle point that is
also a TS for the MBE rearrangement (Figure 15). It is important to note that care must be taken
in search of the TS for the nucleophilic attack, since the automatic search procedures easily can
identify the lower energy TS for the rearrangement. The latter TS can also be located in vacuo.
32
Sulfenate
MBE TS
Addition TS
Sulfoxide
Figure 15. Potential energy surface for the sulfenate attack on (η3-allyl)Pd
For the cinnamyl substrate, the reaction is more complex with four different types of attack
possible, each with several rotameric vectors. This will lead to two manifolds of rapidly
equilibrating products, where only one of the sulfoxides was experimentally observed (Scheme
16). When investigating this reaction, the manifold containing the observed product was indeed
found to be lowest in energy. Several different approach vectors were examined, and the one
leading to the observed sulfoxide, 2.6c, was favored, however only by 2 kJ mol-1 in comparison to
the oxygen attack in the internal position (2.7c). The paths leading to the internal sulfoxide (2.8a)
or terminal sulfenate (2.8b) were at least 12 kJ mol-1 higher in energy. Since the lowest energy
paths will lead to the same product, either directly or through a MBE rearrangement, these results
were in excellent agreement with the experimental observation for the p-tolyl sulfenate. Steric
effects and charge distribution can rationalize the results. The cationic charge is most highly
concentrated at the benzylic position, the preferred reaction site for the formally anionic oxygen.
On the other hand, the formally neutral and larger sulfur atom preferentially attacks the sterically
least hindered position.
33
O
Ph
S
2.6c
Ph
observed
Ph
O S
low ∆G‡
Ph
PdL2
O
S
Ph
2.7c
Ph
O
Ph
S
Ph
2.8a
Ph
O S
high ∆G‡
Ph
O
PdL2
Scheme 16. Cinnamyl sulfinylation pathways
S
Ph
Ph
2.8b
2.3.5 Conclusions
In conclusion, a viable method for treating the intricate sulfoxide-sulfenate equilibrium has been
presented, and showed excellent results for several different rearrangement pairs. Furthermore,
the catalytic effect of palladium complexes on the MBE rearrangement has been shown.
The new method was employed in an investigation of the synthetically interesting allylic
sulfinylation, and revealed that there is little difference in reactivity between the two potential
nucleophilic sites. The difference in regiochemical preference for these sites, and the rapid,
catalyzed equilibrium between the products, ensures that the reaction shows a very strong
preference for one of the two possible sulfoxide products.
34
3. Alkene insertion reactions (Papers III-­‐IV) There are several different important reactions where an alkene insertion constitutes an important
step. One example of this is the Mizoroki-Heck reaction, which since its discovery has proved to
be an effective and useful way to generate substituted alkenes.[12]
3.1 The Mizoroki-­‐Heck reaction In the Mizoroki-Heck reaction,[12] an alkene substrate is coupled to an aryl halide or an equivalent
reagent (Scheme 17). During the last decades, continuous research has made the reaction a very
convenient and useful way to achieve vinylation or arylation of olefins.[89]
X
+
[Pd]
R
base
R
Scheme 17. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction
The general catalytic cycle is displayed in Scheme 18 (for clarity only the reaction that gives the
terminal insertion is displayed). The oxidative addition of the aryl halide (or equivalent reagent)
is followed by an alkene coordination and insertion of the aryl into the alkene to form an alkyl
intermediate, which through a β-hydride elimination forms the product alkene and a palladium
hydride. Through a base-assisted reductive elimination the catalyst is reformed and the catalytic
cycle is closed.
35
Base-HX
Ar-X
Base, L or X
Ln-Pd
Ar
Ln-Pd
H
Ln-1 Pd
X
X
or
H
Ln Pd
R
Ar
R
R
Ar
Ln-1 Pd
Ar
Ln-1 Pd
X
X
R
or
or
Ar
R
Ln Pd
L or X
Ln Pd
Ar
R
Scheme 18. The neutral and cationic catalytic cycle of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction to the terminal product
If the halide in the aryl moiety instead is replaced by a weakly coordinating anion, such as OTf, a
cationic catalytic cycle will occur (Scheme 18). In the opposite case, an anionic catalytic cycle
can take place if an excess of anions, such as Br-, is present and replaces the ligand.[90] The
classic Mizoroki-Heck reaction is catalyzed by a Pd0 species, but in 1975 PdII was reported as a
competent mediator for the reaction.[91]
Since the oxidative addition and reductive elimination will be scrutinized later in this thesis (see
Section 4.1), this section will discuss the two steps which separates the Heck reaction from most
of the other cross coupling reactions: the alkene insertion and β-hydride elimination steps.
The insertion step of the Heck reaction occurs through a planar or nearly planar complex, where
the metal, alkene and aryl/vinyl form a coplanar assembly.[89b] This feature ensures that the
insertion process occurs in a syn manner, and is stereospecific, something that was observed
experimentally by Heck already in the end of 1960s.[92] For substituted olefins, the selectivity
between the α- and β-insertion is dependent on many different factors. The preferred reaction
pathway (neutral or cationic), substitution pattern on the olefin, steric and electronic preferences
36
of the Pd-ligands, and the solvent are some factors capable of influencing the product
distribution.
In general it can be postulated that the electronic properties of the olefin are important for the
regioselective outcome. Olefins can be divided into three different groups: electron-rich, neutral,
and electron-poor. Electron-poor olefins almost exclusively lead to terminal arylation, which is
favored by both electronic and steric effects. The neutral olefins, for example styrenes and
aliphatic alkenes, which are governed by steric properties, give rise to predominantly linear
products, but can be forced to give branched products by clever selection of reaction
conditions.[89b, 93] For the electron-rich olefins, the important factors, steric and electronic effects,
favors different products. The steric hindrance promotes the linear product, but the more electronrich β-carbon is more prone to bind to the electron-poor Pd(II) moiety resulting in the branched
product. This contradiction results in product mixtures. One way to circumvent this problem was
the development of the cationic reaction pathway, where the electronic properties are more
important and therefore can promote a selective reaction giving the branched product.[89b, 93]
The mechanism of the reverse reaction, the β-hydride elimination, is also stereospecific since it,
like the insertion, occurs through a syn complex.[92] It also worth mentioning that since the
elimination requires a vacant cis coordination site, complexes that are coordinatively saturated
give stable metal-alkyl species, and will not easily perform a β-hydride elimination.[7a]
The palladium(II) catalyzed version of this reaction, often called the oxidative Heck reaction, has
gathered more attention the last decade, starting with the pioneering work of Uemura and Cho,
who presented the first catalytic version of the reaction.[94] Development of a specific and
efficient re-oxidant,[95] for example the use of molecular oxygen,[96] has further increased the
usefulness of the reaction. The mechanism of the palladium(II) catalyzed oxidative Heck reaction
is believed to be analogous to the Pd(0) version. The potential involvement of a Pd(IV) species
has been debated but found to be unlikely.[97] The regioselectivity is also considered to follow the
same pattern as the Pd(0) catalyzed reaction, with the insertion step usually being the decisive
step.
37
3.2 Chelation controlled atypical diarylation reaction (Paper III) 3.2.1 Background
One strategy to control the regio- and stereoselectivity in the Heck reaction is through chelationcontrol, where the coordination of an auxiliary group creates a pseudointramolecular reaction
pathway.[89b, 98] With the aid of an electron rich nitrogen-containing alkene (3.1), Andersson et al.
could generate a highly regioselective terminal substitution giving 3.3 (Scheme 19).[98a]
Surprisingly, when searching for a Pd(II)-catalyzed protocol for this reaction, the saturated
diarylation product 3.4 was isolated (Scheme 19). Optimized conditions for the diarylation
reaction, using both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl boronic acids, have now been
established.[99]
Ar
O
N
Pd(II)
ArB(OH)2
Ar
N
O
3.1
+
3.2
N
O
3.3
Suppressed due to
chelation-control
3.1
5 mol% Pd(O2CCF3)2
PhB(OH)2 (2 equiv)
BQ (1 equiv.)
1,4-dioxane
40 oC, 12 h
Ph
Ph
N
O
BQ = O
O
3.4
(81% isolated yield)
Scheme 19. Conditions for chelation-controlled terminal insertion of the standard Heck reaction (above)
and atypical diarylation reaction (below).
The choice of re-oxidant proved to be critical for the formation of the diarylated product as 1,4benzoquinone (BQ) was the only oxidant that resulted in this type of reaction. Mechanistically,
the saturated diarylation can be envisioned to proceed via an interception of the σ-alkyl complex
by a second transmetalation of the boronic acid, and a subsequent reductive elimination to yield
the product. In other words, the second part of the diarylation reaction consists of the final steps
in the classic Suzuki-Miyaura reaction (Scheme 20).
38
B(OH)2X
3.1 + Ar-B(OH)2
O
hydroquinone
N Pd Ar
PdX2
X
BQ + 2 HX
O
Pd0
Ar
N Pd
3.3 + HX
X
Ar
O
BQ
N Pd H
X
3.4
O
Ar
N Pd
X
BQ
O
Ar
N Pd
Ar
BQ
Ar-B(OH)2
B(OH)2X
Scheme 20. Proposed catalytic cycle of the chelation controlled arylation
A reaction pathway like the one proposed in Scheme 20 would require a preferred pathway for
the second transmetalation, outcompeting the β-hydride elimination of the standard oxidative
Heck reaction. This phenomenon has been observed earlier when allylic stabilization of the σalkyl complex was possible, yielding similar diarylation products of conjugated terminal alkenes
and arylstannanes.[100] However, in the present study, allylic stabilization was not possible, and
some other mechanistic motif must be responsible for the repression of the β-hydride elimination.
The Heck reaction[96b, 97d, 101] and the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction[102] have been the subject of many
theoretical investigations that have provided an extensive knowledge about the mechanism of
these reactions. In spite of this, no mechanistic insight about the problem at hand was available,
and therefore a thorough theoretical examination was needed.
3.2.2 Theoretical investigation of the chelation-controlled diarylation
Due to the complexity of the reaction, the different steps and the free energy state diagram will be
presented (Figure 16) and the individual steps will thereafter be thoroughly discussed to provide a
complete picture of the reaction. The absence of any additives promoting a cationic pathway and
the use of a non-polar solvent (dioxane) ensures that we can focus on the neutral pathway. The
39
experimentally competent catalyst, Pd(OAc)2 was chosen as the model catalyst, even if the
trifluoroacetate was a more efficient palladium source.[99] The calculations were performed using
the B3LYP functional[22b,
24a]
with the lacvp** basis set, all geometries were optimized in gas
phase and the final free energy was found by adding the vibrational contributions and dispersion
correction[26] to the single-point energy with solvation of an optimized gas-phase structure.
The first step of the reaction is the initial transmetalation, which generates a Pd(II)-Ph complex
3.6. Since this complex will be formed regardless of the following reaction steps, the present
investigation will focus on the subsequent steps.
Grel
(kJ mol-1)
O
N Pd Ph
0
OAc
TS3.a
O
N Pd OAc
Ph
O
OAc
-50
3.5
N Pd
HO
BQ (!2)
Ph
Ph
B
OH
HO
TS3.b
O
O
Ph
N Pd
N Pd Ph
BQ (!2)
TS3.c
OAc
3.6
Ph
Ph
O
O
BQ (!2)
N Pd
H
O
N Pd
OAc
HO
H
B
OH
OH
3.7a
3.8
BQ (!2)
Ph
Ph
N
O
Pd
BQ
Ph
( !2)
3.9
Initial transmetalation
Migratory insertion
Transmetalation
Figure 16. Free energy state diagram of the investigated arylation reaction
40
Reductive elimination
The migratory insertion
From complex 3.6 a migratory insertion can lead to either internal or terminal phenylation. Both
possibilities were investigated computationally, and the transition state for internal arylation was
found to be 25 kJ mol-1 higher in energy compared to the terminal arylation (TS3.a) in Figure 16.
This result fits the experimental data for the “standard” oxidative Heck reaction, which favors
terminal arylation with a selectivity of >50:1,[99a] and is also in agreement with the outcome of
the Pd(II) catalyzed version.[98a,
103]
Consequently, the internal phenylation pathway was not
considered for further calculations. Furthermore, a coordination shift of the acetate counterion
from monodentate to bidentate after the insertion lowers the energy of the σ-alkyl complex (not
shown).
BQ-association
To our surprise, the apparently coordinatively saturated square planar Pd complex formed after
the migratory insertion, could gain stability by association with a η2-coordination, such as the
BQ-ligand (3.7b),[104] giving a new complex with an approximate trigonal bipyramid geometry
(Figure 17), which could gain further stabilization by exchange of the acetate moiety with a water
molecule (3.7a). This discovery was somewhat unexpected, and a natural bond orbital (NBO)
analysis[22a, 105] disclosed a very strong donation-backdonation situation giving a large influence
of a metallacyclopropane resonance form with a formal oxidation state of +IV. There are
previous examples of the ability of BQ to coordinate to a palladium moiety and influence the rate
of a reaction.[106]
Figure 17. Complex 3.7a (left) and 3.7b (right) showing the Pd complexes with the coordinated BQ ligand
41
Transmetalation vs. β-hydride elimination
The next step in the catalytic cycle is selectivity determining, it is either the β-hydride
elimination of the oxidative Heck pathway or the Suzuki-Miyaura transmetalation. Accordingly,
two different reaction pathways were investigated (Scheme 20). For the β-hydride elimination,
naturally without the BQ-coordination, three different transition states were calculated, forming
either (Z)-3.3 or (E)-3.3 product. The energies are presented in Table 4. The lowest energy
pathway formed (Z)-3.3 (entry 3), but the difference in energy to the transition state giving (E)3.3 (entry 2), was only 1 kJ mol-1. This is in agreement with the poor stereoselectivity observed
when the oxidative Heck reaction is carried out.[99a]
Table 4. Free energy barriers for the investigated β-hydride elimination and transmetalation TSs
Entry
TS
Complex
Ph
O
1
TS3.c
β-hydride elim.
N Pd H
O
O
TS3.d
β-hydride elim.
116
N Pd H
OAc
Ph
O
3
121
Ph
O
2
ΔG (kJ mol-1)
TS3.e
β-hydride elim.
115
N Pd H
OAc
Ph
O
4
N Pd Ph
OH
O
B
O OH
TS3.f
Transmetal.
111
Ph
O
5
TS3.g
Transmetal.
N Pd
Ph
AcO
HO
B
118
OH
Ph
O
6
TS3.h
Transmetal.
N Pd
Ph
HO
HO
B
105
OH
Ph
O
7
N Pd
TS3.b
Transmetal.
HO
HO
42
BQ (!2)
Ph
B
OH
85
For the competing transmetalation several pathways were envisioned, in this investigation both
pathways using the associated acetate to activate the boronic acid, as well as pathways including
hydroxy complexes have been considered. For some processes, such as the counterion exchange,
the association of boronic acid and the following dihedral rotation have not been calculated, since
there are numerous pathways possible, and it is improbable that any of the barriers for these
processes is higher than the competing β-hydride elimination barrier. Several recent reports have
discussed these steps, and none of them have found a high-energy barrier.[107] Therefore, it is
reasonable to assume that the TS for the transmetalation is the highest in this part of the reaction
(Figure 18).
The different calculated transition states for the transmetalation can be found in Table 4. The
transition states without a coordinated BQ (entries 4-6) were first calculated. The TSs containing
an associated acetate, both 4- and 6-atom transmetalations, were found to be 6-12 kJ mol-1 higher
in energy than the one utilizing PhB(OH)3- as the transmetalating agent (entry 6). Interestingly,
the barrier for transmetalation is lower than the barrier for the β-hydride elimination by 10 kJ
mol-1. On the other hand, these values are calculated for the conditions leading to the diarylated
product 3.4, and not the oxidative Heck product 3.3. Accordingly, changing the solvent model to
DMF, which was employed in the oxidative Heck reaction,[99a] resulted in a switch to preference
for the β-hydride elimination pathway by 17 kJ mol-1. In other words, TS3.e was lower in energy
than TS3.h when BQ was absent and with DMF as solvent. Figure 18 shows the complete free
energy surface for the two competing reactions, the transmetalation and the β-hydride
elimination.
43
Grel
(kJ mol-1)
Ph
O
Ph
O
N Pd H
-50
OAc
Ph
-73
N Pd
HO
-100
O
N Pd
N Pd
O
O
3.10
H
O
Ph
BQ (!2)
Ph
B
HO
O
N Pd
N Pd
O
HO
-188
Ph
Ph
O
N Pd
-170
Ph
-102
-138
-144
3.11
Ph
OH
O
O
O
-200
BQ (!2)
BQ (!2)
B
OH
HO
TS3.b
BQ (!2)
B
HO Ph
3.12
Ph
-164
HO
O
TS3.e
-150
N Pd
OH
HO
B
OH
BQ (!2)
Ph
OH
3.8
-191
3.13
BQ (!2)
OAc
H
3.7a
Figure 18. Transmetalation vs. β-hydride elimination
The inclusion of BQ in the transmetalation step resulted in a calculated barrier that was 20 kJ
mol-1 lower, suggesting that BQ indeed aids in this step. Due to the above mentioned donation of
electrons to the electron-poor BQ in the σ-alkyl complexes, the electrophilicity of the Pd(II)
moiety is increased. This should promote the transmetalation and lead to the diarylated product,
in agreement with the experimental results.[99a]
The investigated complexes are sterically encumbered and the inclusion of correction for
dispersion had a profound effect on the free energies.[26] This correction resulted in selective
lowering of the activation barriers where BQ was coordinated to the palladium moiety. Without
this correction, the β-hydride elimination would in fact have been identified as the favored
pathway under all conditions.
As mentioned before, the conditions for the standard oxidative Heck and the investigated
diarylation reaction differ in the solvent of choice. Therefore, parameters suitable for DMF in the
solvent model were employed on TS3.b and TS3.e and resulted in a favored β-hydride
elimination (TS3.e) by 13 kJ mol-1. This implies that the use of DMF severely diminishes the
production of 3.4 compared to 3.3, regardless of BQ in the mixture, something that is in
agreement with the previous experimental results,[99] even if the effect is slightly overestimated.
44
Due to the importance of inclusion of dispersion effects, calculations employing the M06
functional were also performed. The energy difference between the two competing transition
states, TS3.b and TS3.e, was found to be reduced from 30 kJ mol-1 to 14 kJ mol-1. Furthermore,
the relative energy between complexes 3.10 and 3.7a (Figure 18) was lowered to only 2 kJ mol-1
with M06. Nonetheless, we can deduce that M06 also identifies the transmetalation as the
preferred reaction pathway over the β–hydride elimination.
Water dependence
As shown in Table 4, the complex with the lowest barrier contained a PhB(OH)3- unit, which
only can be formed if water is present in the reaction mixture. The previous protocols did not
contain water,[99] but the solvents and reagents used probably contained small amounts of water.
To explore the water effect an experiment was initialized where various controlled amounts of
water was added to the reaction mixture. Eight different concentrations of water, starting from
anhydrous conditions, were investigated (Table 5).†
Table 5. Yield of 3.4 using different amounts of water in the reaction mixture
N
O
3.1
Entry
5 mol% Pd(O2CCF3)2
PhB(OH)2 (2 equiv)
BQ (1 equiv.)
1,4-dioxane
water
Amount water
Ph
Ph
3.4
Yielda (%)
(eq.)
a
†
1
0
3
2
0.01
12
3
0.1
30
4
1
60
5
5
38
6
10
41
7
30
28
8
100
24
By 1H-NMR of the crude product
Water experiments conducted by Alejandro Trejos
45
N
O
The results from the water experiments conclude that water is instrumental for the reaction to
work, since the anhydrous conditions gave almost no product. Increasing the amount of water
resulted in an increased amount of product up until the addition of one equivalent of water,
whereafter the yield dropped steadily with increased amount of water.
The unoptimized
conditions of this experiment are probably the reason for the discrepancy between the maximum
yield of 60% for this experiment and the previously reported 80%.
Reductive elimination
In the final product-forming step, the reductive elimination, the diarylated product is formed.
Several different reductive elimination pathways were investigated. As seen before, the transition
states without BQ resulted in much higher barriers than the ones containing a coordinated BQ,
with the tetra-coordinated BQ-containing complex having the smallest barrier of 72 kJ mol-1
(Figure 19). In this step, the positive effect of BQ as ligand was not a complete surprise, since a
similar effect from electron-poor olefins as ligands to promote reductive eliminations has been
investigated previously.[108]
In addition, a possible pathway to the oxidative Heck product 3.3 via β-hydride elimination from
3.8 was investigated. The barrier for this transformation was calculated to be 112 kJ mol-1, well
above the competing reductive elimination. In summary, the inclusion of BQ ensures that the
reductive elimination pathway to diarylated product is followed through lowering of the barrier
for this transformation. Exclusion of BQ would lead to the oxidative Heck product through βhydride elimination, since the barrier for the reductive elimination would increase above the
barrier of the β-hydride elimination.
46
Grel
(kJ mol-1)
Ph
O
N Pd H
-50
Ph
TS3.f
Ph
-78
O
Ph
-100
N Pd
BQ (!2)
Ph
O
BQ
N Pd
-150
TS3.c
-119
(!2)
Ph
3.14
-168
-191 Ph
O
-200
N Pd
HO
B
OH
BQ (!2)
Ph
-357
N
OH
3.8
Ph
O
Pd
Ph
BQ
(!2)
3.9
Figure 19. Free energy profile of the lowest found pathway for red. elim. versus β-hydride elimination
The reductive elimination leading to product is highly exergonic, forming the low-energy
complex 3.9 (Figure 20). This is a formal Pd(0) complex, coordinated to the product in a
bidentate fashion, utilizing both the nitrogen and oxygen to form dative bonds, and to BQ via one
of its alkene bonds. The square planar geometry, usually favored by Pd(II) complexes, is due to
the π-accepting ability of BQ. A similar complex, reported by Milani et al., with a formal Pd(0)
coordinating 2,2’-bipyridine as a bidentate ligand, also adopts a square planar geometry.[109]
47
Figure 20. The low-energy complex 3.9 formed after β-hydride elimination, most hydrogens are
omitted for clarity
The final steps to close the catalytic cycle is the release of the product, 3.4, and oxidation of the
palladium complex to the starting Pd(II) complex. The transition states for these steps have not
been calculated, but two potential pathways are depicted in Scheme 21. The pathway with
product-coordinated complexes has lower-energy intermediates, but since the transition states are
not calculated, both pathways must be considered viable.
Ph
Ph
N
N
O
Pd
Ph
BQ (!2)
O
Ph
N
O
Pd
Ph
AcO OAc
Pd
Ph
O OAc
OH
OH
O
N Pd
BQ (!2)
O
O
N Pd O
N Pd OAc
OAc
OAc
Scheme 21. Two potential pathways of catalyst oxidation to starting point complex 3.5
48
3.2.3 Conclusions
In summary, DFT calculations have been used to investigate a reaction that forms a saturated
diarylated product in a combination of both a Mizoroki-Heck and a Suzuki reaction. The
calculated reaction pathway satisfactorily agrees with the experimental results, and also explains
the vital role of BQ in the reaction. Apart from its role as re-oxidant, BQ is also acting as a ligand
to the Pd complex and this way opens up a new low-energy pathway to the diarylated product.
The BQ-induced lowering of the barriers for both the second transmetalation and the subsequent
reductive elimination ensures that the experimental results can be reproduced in this
computational study. The crucial second transmetalation is favored over the competing β-hydride
elimination by 30 kJ mol-1. The highest free energy barrier is the 86 kJ mol-1 for the second
transmetalation, but it is difficult to conclude that this is the rate-determining step since the other
steps have similar barriers. Both the migratory insertion and the reductive elimination can be
considered to be effectively irreversible, as no subsequent step is close in transition state energy.
This is probably also true for the second transmetalation, but the difference with respect to the
reductive elimination is small, and the conclusion is therefore less certain. The inclusion of
dispersion correlation was imperative for acheiving good agreement with experimental data.
49
3.3 Nickel catalyzed Mizoroki-­‐Heck reaction (Paper IV) 3.3.1 Background
The Mizoroki-Heck reaction, with its amazing functional group tolerance and easy access to
enantioselectivity, is sometimes considered to be the most powerful of the cross coupling
reactions.[7a,
89a, 110]
During the last decades, the cost and toxicity of the premier catalyst,
palladium, has prompted many efforts to replace this noble metal with a less expensive
alternative, such as the fellow transition metal nickel.[111]
Nickel catalysis has several advantages, such as sustainability and the relatively low price of the
nickel precursors, which makes it attractive for transition metal catalysis. A wide variety of
processes have proven to be nickel catalyzed, including such diverse reactions as
cycloadditions[112] and multicomponent couplings.[113] However, in this thesis the focus will be on
the cross coupling reactions,[111] which constitute a very important part of the cross coupling
family, especially since the nickel catalysts can accommodate a wide range of electrophiles. Not
only the classic aryl and vinyl halides, as well as sulfonates, but diverse functional groups, such
as ethers, metal alkoxides, carboxylates and carbamates have been efficient coupling partners
employed in cross coupling reactions.[114] This is a resourceful way to achieve orthogonal
functionalization of various aromatic systems, where several functional groups can offer multiple
reactive sites.
The versatility of nickel in cross coupling reactions has further been shown by the ability to
create both C(sp3) - C(sp3) and C(sp3) - C(sp2) bonds through coupling reactions.[115] Also
enantioselective versions of this reaction have been presented.[116]
In spite of all this, there has been a considerable lack of nickel catalyzed version of the Heck
reaction in the literature, something that could be accounted either to the inherent reluctance of
nickel towards performing a β-hydride elimination, a transformation vital to the Mizoroki-Heck
reaction, or to the strong Ni-H bond, which has a larger bond energy than the similar Pd-H
bond.[117] To overcome this problematic reaction step, the reported nickel catalyzed MizorokiHeck reactions have been hampered by harsh conditions, such as high temperatures, highly polar
solvents, long reaction times and metal additives, in order to progress.[118] In order to achieve a
milder version of the nickel catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction, a way to facilitate both the βhydride elimination and the proton abstraction must be uncovered.
Previous studies on the nickel catalyzed vinylation of allylic ethers and carbonates have
suggested that a cationic nickel(II) complex, formed via the addition of triethylsilyl
50
trifluoromethanesulfonate (TESOTf), could accomplish a β-hydride elimination.[119] Triflates
have been used earlier in the palladium catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reactions,[120] as well as in
nickel catalyzed benzylation of olefins,[121] even if the cationic palladium(II) intermediate has
been difficult to form, something that has been solved through the addition of ionic liquids or
halide scavengers.[122] Since the cationic pathway seems to work for other types of nickel
catalyzed transformations, it might be possible to extend this to the cross coupling reaction as
well.
3.3.2 Experimental results†
In the light of the above-mentioned reports, the nickel catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction was
envisioned to proceed with the aid of Ni(COD)2, a bidentate phosphine ligand and a tertiary
amine base, catalyzing the reaction between aryl triflates and butyl vinyl ether. The initial
catalyst and base screenings revealed that the reaction was possible and Scheme 22 shows the
optimized conditions for the test reaction between 4-biphenyl triflate (3.15) and butyl vinyl ether
(3.16) yielding the acetophenone (3.17) after hydrolysis with HCl/H2O.
1) Ni(COD)2 (5 mol%)
DPPF (5 Mol%)
Cy2NMe (3 equiv.)
dioxane, 100 C
OTf
+
Ph
OnBu
2) 6 M HCl, rt, 1 h
3.15
O
Ph
3.17
3.16
Scheme 22. Optimized conditions for the nickel catalyzed Heck reaction between aryl triflates and butyl
vinyl ether
The successful results prompted further investigation and a study of the triflate scope was
initialized. A range of different aryl triflates proved to be competent coupling partners with good
to excellent yields, giving the aryl methyl ketone. Both electron withdrawing and donating groups
were viable in the reaction, as well as different functional groups, such as esters, amides, cyano,
diazo, and trifluoromethyl groups. Electron donating groups in para position or ortho substituents
lowered the yield to some degree, but the high yields could be restored by a slight increase in
catalytic loading.
The role of the leaving group was investigated by switching to arylsulfonates instead of triflates.
Unfortunately, the reaction did not demonstrate the same good results with sulfonates. In most
cases mixtures of regioisomers were observed when isolating the products, and for the nitro
†
Study performed by Thomas Gøgsig
51
containing leaving groups the catalytic ability was greatly reduced, probably because of the
chelating effects of the nitro moiety. The only exception from the negative results was the
pentafluoro-containing sulfonate, which showed yields in the same region as the triflates, and
only produced one regioisomer.
Halide additives, such as LiCl and TBAB, completely inhibited the reaction, most likely because
of strong coordination to the Ni(II) complex, and thereby encumbering the cationic pathway.
A range of different olefins was tested in the reaction with 4-biphenyl triflate. Steric hindrance
significantly lowered the yield and essentially no reaction was achieved when employing N-vinyl
acetamide, N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidine or vinyl acetate. The lack of reactivity for the latter can
potentially be explained with a coordination of the carbonyl group to the nickel complex, most
probably after the insertion step, where the cationic Ni(II) complex would be stabilized by such
an interaction, leading to an unwillingness to perform the following β-hydride elimination.
Finally, a competition experiment was initialized. A 1:1 mixture of butyl vinyl ether and N-vinyl
acetamide was added to a solution of 4-biphenyl triflate, DPPF, Cy2NMe and nickel catalyst.
Only traces of the two possible alkene products were detected, further strengthening the
hypothesis that the carbonyl containing substrates can coordinate to the nickel complex and
inhibit the catalyst.
In summary, the experimental results indicated that a cationic nickel intermediate was responsible
for the catalytic activity. To further explore this pathway, theoretical studies were needed.
3.3.3 DFT study of the nickel catalyzed Heck reaction
The aim of the DFT study was to examine the catalytic cycle, and especially to investigate the
role of cationic nickel intermediates. The model system for the computational study was the
catalytically active Ni(dppp) complex with the substrates phenyl triflate and ethyl vinyl ether.
The experimentally viable THF was chosen as the solvent for the study. The initial state of the
reaction was opted to be the pre-complex of the oxidative addition where the phenyl triflate is
coordinated to the nickel complex via the phenyl ring (complex 3.18).
The first step of the catalytic cycle is the oxidative addition of phenyl triflate to yield the Ni(II)
complex 3.19 (Figure 21). This reaction proved to be highly exergonic, -131 kJ mol-1, with a low
barrier of only 15 kJ mol-1 (TS3.g). The following exchange of the labile OTf anion with the
substrate vinyl can be expected to be a facile process; particularly since the OTf anion is known
to be a weakly coordinating species.[123] The resulting cationic complex 3.20 is somewhat more
stable than the neutral precursor.
52
P
G (kJ mol-1)
Ni
OTf
P
TS3.g
140
P
Ni
P
OTf
3.18
70
P
Ni
0
Ph
P
OTf
P
3.19
Ph
Ni
P
O
3.20
Figure 21. The oxidative addition and the subsequent ligand exchange
In the subsequent step, the vinyl ether is inserted into the phenyl-Pd bond. Two pathways are
possible, internal and terminal insertion, giving two different products. Experimentally, the only
observed product was from the internal insertion (Scheme 22). To encompass as large part of the
conformational space as possible, 20 and 15 transition state structures for internal and terminal
insertion were inspected, respectively. The final free energy difference between the best
transition state for internal (TS3.h) and terminal insertion (TS3.i) was found to be 20 kJ mol-1 in
favor of the internal attack (Figure 22). This corresponds to less than 1% of the internal product,
which mirrors the experimental results.
53
G (kJ mol-1)
P
Ph
Ni
P
80
TS3.i OEt
20 kJ mol-1
P
Ph
Ni
60
OEt
P
TS3.h
P Ph
H
Ni
P
O
TS3.k
13 kJ mol-1
40
Ph
P
Ni
O
P
TS3.j
20
Ph
P
Ni
OEt
P
3.21
0
P
Ph
Ni
P
-20
O
3.20
O
P
Ni
P
Ph
3.22
Figure 22. The selectivity for the insertion step, and the subsequent torsional rotation to the more stable
O-coordinated complex
The post insertion complex 3.21 has a Ni-phenyl π-interaction, and can, through a torsional
rotation about the former alkene C-C bond, form either an agostic complex (through TS3.k) or
the oxygen coordinated complex 3.22 (via TS3.j). The barrier for the latter is 13 kJ mol-1 lower in
energy, giving complex 3.22 that is 37 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the preceding complex 3.21.
In order to be able to perform a β-hydride elimination, another torsional rotation must take place,
to form the agostic complex 3.23, via 3TS.l (Figure 23). The barrier for this rotation is fairly
large, 68 kJ mol-1, and is followed by the β-hydride elimination (TS3.m) with a smaller barrier of
only 22 kJ mol-1. The importance of torsional rotations in similar reactions has been observed
before, and even been found to be the selectivity-determining step.[101s]
54
NMe3
G (kJ
H
P
mol-1)
Ni
H
P
Ni
60
P
OEt
P
O
TS3.n
Ph
H
P
TS3.l
Ni
P
40
Ph
TS3.m
O
Ph
Ph Ph
P
Ni
P
Ph Ph
20
H
P
Ni
O
Ph
P
3.23
0
P H
Ni OEt
P
Ph
3.24
OTf
3.18
P
Ni
OEt
P
Ph
3.25
-20
O
P
Ni
Ph
P
3.22
Figure 23. The elimination and proton abstraction steps to give product and complex 3.18
The resulting Ni-hydride, 3.24, coordinated to the product alkene, is subjected to a proton
abstraction by an amine base, modeled by the computationally simpler NMe3 instead of the
experimentally favored Cy2NMe. The barrier for this reaction was found to be 47 kJ mol-1
(Figure 23). Several other possible base-assisted proton abstractions were examined, for example
without the coordinated alkene or a reductive elimination from a Ni-complex with a coordinated
base, but none was found to be more effective than via TS3.n, depicted in Figure 23. The last
transformation in the catalytic cycle is a ligand exchange to give complex 3.18, from complex
3.25. This reaction is slightly endergonic, 30 kJ mol-1, and regenerates the starting structure for
the catalytic cycle.
The free energy state diagram of two catalytic cycles of the reaction is shown in Figure 24. As
can be seen in the figure, the final two steps of each catalytic cycle, the β-hydride elimination and
the proton abstraction, going from complex 3.22 to complex 3.18, are slightly endergonic.
55
Nevertheless, the subsequent catalytic cycle will ensure a total lowering in energy due to the
strongly exergonic first step, the oxidative addition.
There are two transition states in this reaction that can be considered effectively irreversible, that
is, transition states that are higher than any subsequent points on the free energy surface, in this
catalytic cycle. These are TS3.g and TS3.n, and this would imply that the insertion step would be
a reversible step, but it is important to note that even if this is true, the competing pathway to
terminal insertion is still energetically inaccessible, since TS3.n is lower than TS3.i.
In total, the resting state can be identified as complex 3.22 and the total barrier is 87 kJ mol-1,
which is satisfactorily compatible with the experimental conditions. These results are also in
good agreement with a previous study that also identified the catalyst regeneration as the ratedetermining step.[117]
G (kJ mol-1)
First catalytic cycle
Second catalytic cycle
TS3.g
150
3.18
TS3.i
100
TS3.h
TS3.n
TS3.l
TS3.g
50
3.24
3.20
3.18
87
kJ/mol
0
TS3.i
3.22
TS3.h
TS3.n
TS3.l
-50
3.18
3.24
3.20
-100
3.22
Oxidative
addition
Insertion
Beta-H
elim.
Catalyst
regener.
Oxidative
addition
Insertion
Beta-H
elim.
Catalyst
regener.
Figure 24. Free energy state diagram showing two catalytic cycles in sequence
The two lowest points on the free energy surface, complex 3.20 and 3.22, are likely points for
inhibition of the reaction. Since several conditions have proven to induce non-reactivity for the
56
present reaction conditions, such as certain olefins or halide additives, we decided to examine this
further.
Complex 3.20, the Ni(II) species after oxidative addition, is sensitive to stabilization by, for
example other more coordinating anions. Since halides had proven to inhibit the reaction it is
easy to envision the halide anion coordinating to this complex and stabilizing it enough to prevent
further reaction. To investigate this, an analogous version of complex 3.20, with a Br anion
instead of an OTf anion was constructed and the energy for this (complex 3.26) was calculated
(Scheme 23). Indeed, it was found that complex 3.26 was 69 kJ mol-1 lower in energy,
strengthening the hypothesis that halide anions can lead to the formation of stable Ni(II) species
that cannot react further.
P
Ph
Br- OTf-
P
Ni
P
Ph
Ni
OTf
Br- OTf-
3.20
P
Br
3.26
Scheme 23. Potential bromide stabilization of complex 3.20.
For the post-insertion complex 3.22, the inhibition of the reaction when adding N-vinyl
acetamide to the reaction mixture was examined (Figure 25). The additional chelating ability by
the carbonyl oxygen of the acetamide was considered the reason for the lack of reactivity,
especially since the similar substrate vinyl acetate did not react either. The post-insertion
complex of vinyl acetamide was envisioned as analogous to complex 3.22 and is depicted in
Figure 25, with a stable six-membered ring formed via the covalent bond and the coordination of
the carbonyl oxygen (complex 3.27) to nickel.
P
O
Ni
NH
P
Ph
3.27
Figure 25. Stable Ni-complex 3.27 after insertion to the vinyl acetamide substrate.
From complex 3.27 the transition state of the subsequent β-hydride elimination was located and
the free energy barrier of this transformation was found to be 94 kJ mol-1, a barrier sufficiently
large to inhibit this reaction pathway, and therefore making the reaction ineffective for this class
of substrates. This reasoning is further strengthened by the results from the base optimization,
where the strongly coordinating bases, DBU and pyridine, give almost no reactivity. On the other
hand, the sterically encumbered bases, which do not coordinate as well, such as DIPEA, Et3N and
Cy2NMe, give good conversions.
57
3.3.4 Conclusions
In summary, a new efficient protocol for the nickel catalyzed Heck reaction of aryl triflates with
vinyl ethers has been presented. New and mild reaction conditions, corresponding to the
palladium catalyzed Heck reaction, are applied, giving a practical and sustainable alternative to
the classic regioselective arylation of vinyl ethers. The catalytic system consisting of Ni(COD)2,
DPPF, and the amine base Cy2NMe, proved to work effectively, coupling both electron deficient
and electron rich arenes, yielding the corresponding aryl methyl ketone after hydrolysis in very
good yields with good functional group tolerance.
Mechanistic studies, primarily DFT calculations, revealed the cationic nickel pathway as a viable
path for the catalytic cycle. The extremely exergonic oxidative addition of phenyl triflate was
followed by an insertion where the internal product was found to be favored, in agreement with
the experimental results. The subsequent β-hydride elimination and catalyst regeneration are
slightly endergonic but the overall energy of the catalytic cycle is ensured by the oxidative
addition in the following catalytic cycle.
The inhibiting effect of halide additives could be explained by the trapping of inactive Ni(II)
species, and the reason for the lack of reactivity for certain carbonylic vinyls was explained with
the inability of these complexes to perform the β-hydride elimination due to the stabilizing effect
from the coordinating carbonyl oxygen.
58
4. Iron catalyzed cross coupling reactions (Papers V-­‐VI) Cross coupling reactions are today widely used in organic chemistry. They have since their
emergence in the 1970s been a seminal tool for many synthetic chemists. However, even though
much is known about this reaction class, there is still much to understand and many potential
developments are possible to envision. For example, the last decade has seen a rise in the interest
to perform more environmentally friendly versions of these reactions.
4.1 Background 4.1.1 Catalytic cycle and mechanism of the C-C bond-forming reaction
The catalytic cycle of the cross coupling reaction involves three different steps: oxidative
addition, transmetalation, and a reductive elimination to close the cycle. The mechanism for a
cross coupling reaction, exemplified with a coupling between an aryl halide and a carbon
nucleophile, is shown in Scheme 24. The most common metals involved in this reaction is
palladium and nickel.
R-Nu
Ln M
R-X
oxidative
addition
reductive
elimination
R
Ln M
R
Ln M
Nu
transmetalation
Nu-H
or
Nu-M'
HX
or
M'X
M: Pd, Ni
Scheme 24. Catalytic cycle of a cross coupling reaction
59
X
The oxidative addition occurs at a low-valent metal species and the relative rate of the reaction
usually follows the trend Ar-I > Ar-Br > Ar-Cl. The bromide and chloride electrophiles require
ligands, such as a phosphine ligand, coordinated to palladium to be able to perform the oxidative
addition.
The subsequent transmetalation is a more complex reaction than the preceding oxidative addition.
Scheme 25 shows a simple mechanistic suggestion for the reaction between a Grignard reagent
and the metal center.
LnM-X + RMgX(sol)2
LnM X
R Mg X
(sol)n
LnM-R
+
MgX2(sol)2
Scheme 25. Mechanistic suggestion for the transmetalation
One can envision the other organometallic reagents transferring the carbon group in the same
manner, but in reality the reaction is more complex. Different studies have been performed and
revealed a more complicated mechanism than expected. A number of studies on the organoboron
transmetalation have been presented,[124] and several other examinations concerning this crucial
step have been performed, dealing with organotin, organosilicon and organostannanes, among
others.[7a]
The closing step of the catalytic cycle is the reductive elimination, which must occur from a cis
orientation of the coupling partners. The rate of the reaction is faster for aryl and vinyl complexes
than from the alkyl species, this is one reason to why sp2-sp2 and sp2-sp3 couplings are favored
over the sp3-sp3 couplings.[7a]
A thorough review of the mechanistic aspects for the palladium catalyzed cross coupling
reactions has been published by Amatore and Jutand.[125]
4.1.2 Carbon-heteroatom bond-forming cross coupling reactions
In recent years the scope of the cross coupling reaction has been extended to include also carbonheteroatom bond-forming reactions. The most common of these is the carbon-nitrogen bondforming reaction, with the palladium catalyzed variant known as “the Buchwald-Hartwig
reaction”.[126] The mechanism of this reaction is similar to the above-mentioned mechanism for
the carbon-carbon counterpart, but differs in the second step, where the transmetalation is
replaced with an amination of the metal-complex. Several informative texts have been published
regarding this subject.[127] Other cross coupling reactions forming carbon-heteroatom bonds are
carbon-phosphorous,[128] carbon-sulfur,[129] carbon-oxygen,[130] and carbon-boron[131] bondforming reactions.
60
4.1.3 Drawbacks of today’s catalysts for cross coupling reactions
The classic catalysts for cross coupling reactions are palladium and nickel. These metals are
unfortunately toxic and in the case of Pd also expensive and fairly non-abundant. There is also
the environmental and medicinal problem with leaching of the catalyst. The potential risk of
having small amounts of toxic metals in our medicines is something that the companies must
invest large sums of money in trying to avoid.
Another way of circumventing this problem is to use other metals, which are not as dangerous to
the environment, and humans, and if possible, also cheap and abundant. One such metal, which in
fact can overcome all the mentioned obstacles, is iron. It is cheap, abundant, environmentally
friendly and non-toxic for humans. It has also been shown to be able to perform cross coupling
reactions.
4.2 Possibilities for iron catalyzed cross coupling 4.2.1 Scope and limitations
Already in the 1940s Kharasch could show the ability of stoichiometric amounts of iron salts to
mediate a cross coupling reaction between a Grignard reagent and a alkyl or aryl halide.[132]
Almost 30 years later Kochi and co-workers, along with some other groups, picked up the trail
again, making the reaction catalytic in iron and broadening the scope to include both alkyl/aryl
Grignard reagents coupled to aryl/alkyl halides to give the cross coupling product, even if the
yield and selectivity were somewhat unpredictable.[133]
The introduction of NMP as co-solvent by Cahiez and Avedissian in the 1990s was a major
breakthrough, which increased the yield and stereospecificity.[134] Further broadening of the
scope was achieved in the years that followed, with the use of heteroaryl halides[135] and
application in synthesis of complex molecules.[136]
The seminal work of Fürstner and co-workers in the last decade has been the source of the
standard experimental setup for conducting an iron catalyzed cross coupling reaction.
Furthermore, Fürstner and co-workers have greatly extended the scope, introducing important
features such as secondary alkyl halides[137] and investigated the tolerance for different functional
groups as coupling partners,[138] as well as screened the possible iron catalysts,[137-138] found new
halide-equivalent groups, for example triflates[139] and made extensive mechanistic studies (vide
infra). In addition to this, several other groups have made large contributions to the advancement
of the field of iron catalyzed cross coupling reactions. Some of the development has concerned
alkyl halides bearing β-hydrogens,[140] and further development of sp3-sp3 couplings.[141]
61
The development of ligands for the iron catalyst has resulted in the discovery of the salen-type
ligands as very well suited for the coupling of secondary alkyl halides,[138, 140a] and the use of
TMEDA as additive for the coupling between aryl Grignard and alkyl halides,[140b, 142] where the
preformed Fe-TMEDA complexes proved to be competent catalysts.[143] Additional research in
this area has provided a range of different ligands suited for this cross coupling reaction.[144] Also
iron nanoparticles have shown catalytic ability.[145]
For mechanistic reasons, Fürstner and co-workers explored low-valent iron complexes and their
abilities in the cross coupling reaction. An important study concerned the use of the
tetrakis(ethylene)ferrate complex [Li(tmeda)]2[Fe(C2H4)4] isolated by Jonas et al.[146] It proved to
be a capable catalyst in the reaction, able to catalyze both the aryl Grignard/alkyl halide and the
alkyl Grignard/aryl halide coupling with good results.[147] Several other low-valent complexes
have also shown catalytic activity, and Fürstner and co-workers have been able to demonstrate
the potential of iron at different oxidation states, –II to +III (except –I), to promote the cross
coupling reaction.[148] For further information about these low-valent iron complexes, see section
4.2.2 in this thesis.
The homocoupling of the Grignard reagent, both aryl-aryl and alkyl-alkyl, has been examined by
Xu et al., and found to give moderate to good yields in short times.[149] In addition to this,
unsymmetrical biaryls, an important structural unit, can be synthesized through iron catalyzed
cross coupling, at first using aryl copper reagents as a coupling partner,
[150]
and later with aryl
Grignard reagents where iron fluoride showed an ability to suppress the amount of
homocoupling.[111c, 151]
Grignard reagent generated in situ can also complete a cross coupling reaction, which has been
demonstrated by von Wangelin and co-workers.[152] This technique has showed an ability to work
nicely in iron catalyzed domino reactions.[152a, 153]
In order to extend the nucleophilic scope, several groups have been able to use zinc reagents
instead of the more reactive Grignard reagent. Nakamura et al. coupled both primary and
secondary halides with arylzinc reagents under iron catalysis,[154] Bedford and co-workers
managed to develop a coupling utilizing benzyl halides and phosphates as electrophiles,[155] and
recently Nakamura et al. have been able to use complex sulfonates as electrophiles in this
coupling.[156] Even though these findings are an important step towards a more versatile iron
catalyzed cross coupling, it is important to point out that all the “zinc reagents” so far require a
fair amount of Mg in order to carry out the coupling. The need for MgX2 is vital for the reaction,
and one can therefore speculate what the actual reagent is.
62
Several examples of iron catalyzed cross coupling used in synthesis of complex molecules is
present in the literature, and represents a diverse array of different structures.[157]
4.2.2 Mechanistic suggestions
The mechanistic investigations by Kochi and co-workers reached the conclusion, based on byproduct formations, that the active catalyst must be an FeI-species, even if this never could be
isolated.[133b-d] This elusive species was formed from reduction of the iron salt by the Grignard
reagent.[133d] Furthermore, Kochi and co-workers proposed that the mechanism was analogous to
the Kumada-Tamao-Corriu reaction mechanism with an oxidative addition, transmetalation and
reductive elimination, but they could not determine which of the oxidative addition and
transmetalation was the first step in the cycle.[133b, c] Scheme 26 shows the two different pathways
of the cross coupling reaction. Both the suggested mechanistic paths are valid and fit the kinetic
data from Kochi and co-workers.
Ar-X
R-MgX
"Fe"
Ar-R
Ar-"Fe"-X
R-"Fe"-MgX
R-MgX
MgX2
Ar-X
Ar-"Fe"-R
MgX2
Scheme 26. Catalytic cycle for iron catalyzed cross coupling
Regarding the catalytically active iron species, the FeI-catalyst put forward by Kochi and coworkers was not entirely proven and other, low-valent iron species such as Fe0, could not be
excluded.[133b, c]
In the last decade several new suggestions regarding the mechanism have been presented.
Fürstner and co-workers have reported that “inorganic Grignard reagents” of the type
Fe(MgX)2,[158] with iron in the formal oxidation state –II, can be formed in the presence of excess
Mg or organomagnesium.[137-138] These highly unorthodox reagents were proposed to be the
catalytically active species in iron catalyzed cross coupling and were formed in the same way as
Kochi and co-workers suggested, through reduction of the iron by the Grignard reagent according
to Scheme 27.
63
4R
MgX
[Fe(MgX)2]
FeX2
2 R
+
2 MgX2
2 R
Scheme 27. Generation of the potentially catalytically active “inorganic Grignard reagent”
In fact, it could be shown that isolated complexes of this type could enter the catalytic cycle and
work as catalysts for the cross coupling reaction.[147] Some examples of these complexes are
shown in Figure 26. In an extensive study, Fürstner and co-workers showed that almost the entire
range of oxidation states, -II to +III (except for -I, which could not be isolated) can perform the
cross coupling reaction.[148] Recently, Wolf and co-workers prepared several Fe(-I) complex
(Figure 26) and employed them in the cross coupling reaction, achieving moderate yields.[159]
N
N
Li
Fe
Fe
N
Fe Li N
Li
N
N
Fe-II
Fe0
Fe-I
Fe
FeI
Figure 26. Some low-valent iron complexes that are competent catalysts for iron catalyzed cross coupling
Several other research groups have performed mechanistic studies on the iron catalyzed cross
coupling. Cahiez et al. have proposed a Fe0-FeII cycle with a two-step electron transfer with polyaryl iron species as important intermediates.[160] A radical mechanism has been proposed by
various groups, and some evidence has been presented, for example by reactions with radical
clocks such as cyclopropylmethyl bromide.[140b, 141, 143, 145, 161]
4.3 Mechanistic investigation of iron catalyzed cross coupling (Papers V and VI) In order to improve and develop a catalytic reaction, a thorough knowledge of the mechanism is
imperative. It is the best way to understand which conditions or features to change to further
advance the reaction. Therefore, the following section will reveal our efforts to provide additional
insights to the knowledge of the mechanism and catalytic activity of the iron catalyzed cross
coupling reaction.
64
4.3.1 Active catalyst
With inspiration from Kochi and co-workers, a titration experiment was designed in order to
elucidate the nature of the active catalyst. Analysis of the potential pathways for formation of the
reduced active iron specie revealed that it could be achieved through four different paths leading
to three different organic products, alkene, alkane and the homocoupling of two alkyls (Scheme
28).
Alkane and alkene are formed through either a β-hydride elimination followed by a reductive
elimination (path a) or via a direct elimination (path b) from the pre-formed alkyl iron complex,
or by a second transmetalation, which yields a dialkyl iron, followed by internal elimination (path
c). The homocoupling product is generated through reductive elimination from the abovementioned dialkyl iron complex (path d).
R
+
a
HFeXn-1
MgX
R
R
MgX2
MgX
R
Xn-1Fe
FeXn
H
MgX2
b
R
R
MgX
+
MgX2
R
+
R
Xn-2Fe
c
FeXn-2
H
R
d
R
R
+
FeXn-2
Scheme 28. The four different pathways of catalyst activation and their byproducts
In these processes, two electrons are transferred to the iron moiety and a reduced iron species and
an oxidized organic byproduct (alkene or homocoupling) are formed. By measuring the amount
of oxidized byproduct, one can calculate the number of electrons relocated to iron, and from that
deduce the nature of the oxidation state of the catalytically active iron.
65
4.3.2 Titration experiments: a way to deduce the oxidation state of the active catalyst
The experimental study was conducted as a titration on a “standard” iron catalyzed cross
coupling reaction between octyl Grignard and an aryl chloride (4.1) in a THF/NMP mixture (35 105 mL THF), with dodecane as the internal standard, to yield a p-substituted octyl benzene
(4.2). Four different iron catalysts, Fe(acac)n and FeCln (n = 2, 3) were employed in different
amounts (5 – 15 mol%) (Scheme 29).
Cl
F3C
FeXn
THF/NMP
dodecane
MgBr
R
R
R
R
+
R
F 3C
4.1
4.2
F3C
R
CF3
R = hexyl
X = Cl, acac
n = 2, 3
Scheme 29. The cross coupling employed in the titration study
The Grignard reagent was added in small portions (10% of the total amount in each addition),
allowed to react for the time required for the reaction to use up all the Grignard, whereupon a
small sample was collected, and the next portion of Grignard was added. The amounts of product
and byproducts were analyzed by GC. The mass balance of the aryl was monitored, and found to
be constant indicating that all the added aryl fragments were accounted for, and the total sum of
alkyl fragments was verified to match the amount of Grignard added. All components were then
plotted against the amount of added Grignard reagent (Figure 27).
66
Figure 27. An example of a titration reaction plot
The resulting plot can be divided into three different sections:
1. The initiation phase, where the iron is reduced to the catalytically active form
2. The linear phase, where the cross coupling reaction is running, determined through a F-test
selection of the points for each experiment.
3. The deactivation phase, where the catalytic activity is diminished and the Grignard reagent
remains unreacted until the work-up, as indicated by the increasing amount of octane formed.
The line showing the number of electrons is represented with a dotted line, in an ideal situation it
should be constant in the linear region, but contaminants of both alkene and alkane in the
Grignard reagent results in a positive slope. However, when extrapolating this line to x = 0 the yintercept will give the amount of electrons added to the iron precatalyst in the initiation phase.
Dividing this number with the amount of iron complex added in each experiment yields the
number of electrons transferred to each Fe atom. The results from the different reaction
conditions can be seen in Table 6.
67
Table 6. Number of electrons added to each Fe atom including regression standard error
Entry
Catalyst
Fe (mol%) THF (ml)
Ratio e-/Fe
1
5
50
0.256 ± 0.004
2
10
50
0.146 ± 0.004
3
15
50
0.237 ± 0.006
4
5
70
0.566 ± 0.007
5
5
105
0.699 ± 0.067
5
50
0.684 ± 0.001
7
8
10
15
50
50
0.705 ± 0.010
0.695 ± 0.013
9
10
5
5
70
105
0.809 ± 0.010
0.736 ± 0.063
5
10
15
50
50
50
0.605 ± 0.006
0.614 ± 0.005
0.642 ± 0.014
5
5
70
105
1.094 ± 0.039
1.026 ± 0.029
5
10
15
50
50
50
0.991 ± 0.011
0.903 ± 0.040
1.127 ± 0.021
5
5
70
105
1.123 ± 0.023
1.169 ± 0.031
6
11
12
13
FeCl2
Fe(acac)2
FeCl3
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Fe(acac)3
As can be seen from Table 6, the results from the titration experiment are hard to interpret. There
is no doubt that we can measure the reduction of the iron precatalyst, but it seems like only part
of the added iron participates in the reaction, especially at higher concentrations. In more diluted
solutions, a greater amount of iron appear to be reduced, at least this is the case for the FeCln
complexes. This is probably due to oligimerization, which is easier at high concentrations. The
acetylacetonate complexes behave somewhat more consistent, something that could be explained
by the fact that they are more coordinatively saturated and therefore less prone to oligomerize.
One could easily think that the results from these studies indicate that one mol of electrons is
added to each mol of FeIII precatalyst, but that is in fact not the situation. This can simply be
deduced from the fact that the FeIII complexes do not show ratios that are one higher than the FeII
counterpart. Instead, we conclude that only a part of the added iron is actually reduced to the
active form and can then participate in the catalytic cycle. This would imply that a large part of
the iron resides in the +II or +III oxidation state, something that is a strong indication that iron in
low-valent states, such as –II, is highly unlikely since these iron complexes would
68
comproportionate with the iron remaining in higher oxidation states. However, the oxidation state
of the active catalyst cannot be determined with certainty from this experiment.
Several pieces of valuable information about the reaction conditions could be extracted from the
titration experiments. The importance of the co-solvent NMP was verified and several ways of
stabilizing the active catalyst were identified. These ways include dilution or the addition of
coordinating ligands such as TMEDA. Slow addition of the Grignard reagent prolonged the
catalyst lifetime, as well as excess amounts of the aryl substrate. As mentioned before, the
catalyst deactivation seems to be via oligomerization of iron complexes and if these processes
could be shifted towards the monomeric forms, the dectivation can be avoided.
4.3.3 Hammett study
To extract more kinetic information, a Hammett study was performed by reacting a mixture of
two different substrates, and measuring the disappearance of both. Due to low reactivity of the
aryl chlorides, the more reactive aryl triflates (4.3a-f) were chosen as substrates (Scheme 30).
OTf
R
Fe(acac)3
THF/NMP
dodecane
4.3a
+
OTf
+
RMgBr
X = OMe
Me
F
Cl
CF3
R
X
X
4.3b-f
Scheme 30. Competitive Hammett study performed with aryl triflates
The kinetic dependence was assumed to be the same for both substrates A and B, and the relative
rate of reaction, krel=kA/kB was obtained from fitting to the expression ln([A]0/[A]) =
krelln([B]0/[B]). Furthermore, the analysis was made in the linear region (Figure 27) and the
relative rates were then fitted to literature σ values[162] using the Hammett expression log(kx/kH) =
ρσx (Table 7).
69
Table 7. Relative rates and literature values of the substrates
–
p-Substituent
krel
σ
σ
OMe
0.32
-0.268
-0.26
0.24
Me
0.51
-0.17
-0.17
0.11
F
3.2
0.062
-0.03
-0.08
Cl
17.7
0.227
0.19
0.12
CF3
165a
0.54
0.65
0.08
σ•
[a]Determined in competition with the p-Cl substrate, k(CF3)/k(Cl) = 9.34
The linear correlation to the different σ values was calculated and the best correlation was
achieved with the standard σ scale, giving ρ = +3.8 (Figure 28).
Figure 28. Hammett correlation against the different σ values
Several important facts were obtained from the Hammett study, first of all the low reactivity of
aryl chlorides was noted; only p-substituted aryl chlorides with electron-withdrawing substituents
could perform the coupling. For the aryl triflates, a full range of p-substituted aryl triflate could
be used in the competition experiments.
Secondly, the reaction showed a large preference for electron withdrawing p-substituted aryl
triflates yielding a ρ-value of +3.8. The large positive value indicates that the oxidative addition
is an effectively irreversible step in the catalytic cycle. In comparison, the oxidative addition
using Pd0 is close to 1, sometimes up to 1.5.[97c,
101p, 163]
Even though this also means that a
considerable amount of negative charge is donated to the aromatic ring in the oxidative addition,
70
-
•
the correlation is still better with σ than σ . The correlation is not good to σ either, and we can
therefore rule out a possible SET mechanism with an aryl radical anion since this would correlate
-
•
to a combination of σ and σ . The relative rate of the p-fluoride substituted aryl is higher than the
unsubstituted substrate, which indicates a positive σF value, something that we only can find in
the standard σ scale.
•
However, few reactions show strong correlation to σ only, therefore we constructed a
•
combination between σ and σ. A considerable improvement was achieved when using this
combination, with a correlation coeffecient of r2 = 0.956 compared to 0.87 in the previous
correlation to only σ values (Figure 29).
2.5
! = 3.9" + 2.1"•
2
"
"+"•
#$%&'!
("+"•)
1.5
r2 = 0.956
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
Figure 29. Hammett correlation with σ and a combination of σ and σ
0.4
0.6
•
This points toward a transfer of spin from iron to the aryl moiety in the oxidative addition
transition state. This was also confirmed by the calculated transition states of this step, showing a
large spin density on the aromatic carbons (vide infra).
4.3.4 Computational investigation of the catalyst activation and the catalytic cycle
In a catalytic cycle all steps must be exergonic (in the worst case they can be slightly endergonic)
in order to result in a complete cycle. In our investigation of the active catalyst in the iron
catalyzed cross coupling reaction we therefore began our efforts with calculating the reaction free
energy for each step in the two postulated catalytic cycles (Scheme 26), for each plausible
oxidation state of iron. All cycles where one single step was above 80 kJ mol-1 were excluded due
71
to the improbability for this to have a lower barrier than 100 kJ mol-1, something that would be
required in order for the reaction to run at room temperature. For the most promising cycles,
transition states were located to achieve an energy profile.
Four different oxidation states, Fe-II to FeI, were employed in the study, and were modeled with
the simplest, but active, catalytic system, ferrous chloride. The charge was compensated with Cl-,
ClMg+ or Mg2+, and all possible spin states were explored. The reaction system was represented
with phenyl chloride and ethyl magnesium chloride. The solvent, THF, was modeled by a
variable number of coordinated dimethyl ether molecules, where the number of explicit solvent
molecules for each complex were determined from the final free energy of the system. All
geometries were determined in vacou.
The only step that is common for the two catalytic cycles in Scheme 26 is the final reductive
elimination; therefore we decided to investigate this step first. The favored spin states for the
complexes were high spin, except for the aryl substituted FeIII-complexes where an intermediate
spin (S = 3/2) was found to be preferred. The results from this initial study are shown in Table 8.
Table 8. Free energies (kJ mol-1) for postulated reductive elimination steps.
"Fe"
No Sol.a
Ox. Stateb
∆G
∆G
‡
FeMg
3
-II
195
–
FeMgCl
3
-I
94
–
Fe
2
0
30
191
FeCl
2
+I
-181
10
a
b
Number of explicit solvent molecules (Me2O) used in the calculation. Oxidation state of Fe after
reductive elimination.
The most important conclusion from these results is that iron in the two lowest oxidation states
cannot perform a reductive elimination, due to the endergonicity of this step. For the other two
oxidation states, transition states were located and reaction barriers were determined. The FeI FeIII cycle shows a small barrier, giving a facile elimination, whereas the Fe0 - FeII cycle has a
barrier of 191 kJ mol-1, which indicates that this step is not realistic for this cycle.
In conclusion, only the FeI - FeIII cycle is likely for the reaction, something that also is in
agreement with the proposal by Kochi and co-workers.[133b, c]
The next step in our examination of this reaction was to study the first steps in the catalytic cycle,
the oxidative addition and the transmetalation. As shown in Scheme 26, the order of these steps
has not been previously determined. The reaction energies for the different steps are shown in
Scheme 31.
72
Transmetalation
first
Oxidative addition
first
Cl
"Fe"
-3 kJ
+26 kJ mol-1
mol-1
Et
-181 kJ
"Fe"
-95 kJ mol-1
mol-1
Et
"Fe"
Cl
Cl
"Fe"
Cl
-124 kJ mol-1
Scheme 31. The two FeI - FeIII cycles with reaction free energies (kJ mol-1), “Fe” is a solvated iron species.
The left side of Scheme 31, depicting the cycle with transmetalation as the first step consists of
steps that all are exergonic. Nevertheless, the opposite reaction path, with the oxidative addition
as the initial step cannot be excluded since the highest endergonicity is only 26 kJ mol-1. To get a
deeper understanding of which one of these cycles that is the most favored, we calculated the
transition states for both cycles and constructed the complete free energy surface (Figure 30).
Cl
Et
s
Fe
Cl
s
TS4.a
s
Fe
Cl
4.7
s
Oxidative
additions
Et
Fe Mg Cl
s
s
Cl
4.5
TS4.c
s
Fe
Cl
s
s
TS4.b
Et
s
Fe
4.6
G
Fe
Cl
s
Cl
4.4
s
s
Cl
Mg
Reductive
elimination
Cl
Mg
Et
Cl
Cl
s
Fe
Cl
s
s
Fe
Et
Et
Fe Cl
s
TS4.d s
s
Cl
4.8
Et
Fe Cl
s
s
4.9
Transmetallations
Cl
s
Fe
4.10
Figure 30. Free energy surface of the two FeI - FeIII cycles, explicit solvent molecules are denoted by “s”
73
s
The more “classic” cycle (right side of Scheme 31) has the oxidative addiditon (TS4.a) as the
first step, with a barrier of 65 kJ mol-1 (Figure 31). The reaction is endergonic, but the resulting
complex 4.7 can be be stabilized by coordinating EtMgCl through one of the chlorides (4.8). The
subsequent transmetalation step was assumed to go through a four-center transition state, in
accordance with previous computational studies on similar reactions,[102e, 164] and such a transition
state could be localized (TS4.b, Figure 31), with a 18 kJ mol-1 barrier to form the resulting arylalkyl-FeIII complex (4.9), which is a common point for both cycles. Due to the strong trans effect
of both the alkyl and aryl groups, they end up cis to each other, well set up for the reductive
elimination.
Figure 31. Transition states for OA (TS4.a, left) and TM (TS4.b, right) for the "OA first" cycle, most H
are omitted for clarity
The other possible cycle (left side of Scheme 31) starts with the transmetalation. However, in this
case it was not possible to form the pre-complex with the Grignard reagent coordinated to the
iron moiety through one of the chlorides. This structure collapses, forming a bis-µ complex (4.5,
Figure 32), where the ethyl group has been partially transferred to the iron. This complex is a
minimum on the potential energy surface but, due to entropic and desolvation costs, most likely
close to a saddle point on the free energy surface. Dissociation of this complex forms the alkylFeI complex 4.6 that can perform an oxidative addition with a barrier of 69 kJ mol-1 (TS4.c,
Figure 32).
74
Figure 32. TM intermediate (4.5) and TS for OA (TS4.c) in the "TM first" cycle, most hydrogens are
omitted for clarity
The final step, common for both cycles, is the reductive elimination, which has a barrier of only
10 kJ mol-1, closing the catalytic cycle (TS4.d, Figure 33).
Figure 33. Transition state for the reductive elimination (TS4.d), most hydrogens are omitted for clarity
As can be seen from Figure 30 the oxidative addition is the rate-limiting step for both catalytic
cycles. Unfortunately it is not possible to differentiate between the two cycles, the highest point
differ only by 1 kJ mol-1. In fact, it is likely that both pathways are active simultaneously. As
already mentioned, both oxidative addition transition states show significant spin polarization of
the aromatic moiety, with Mulliken spin densities between 0.07 and 0.16 on the aromatic
carbons.
In the calculations a Fe0-FeII cycle was found to be non-feasible for the reaction, since it could
not close the catalytic cycle in a reductive elimination from R2Fe (Table 8). This is in contrast to
the experimental results (Table 6) where the added FeII pre-catalyst can perform the reaction.
However, as mentioned before, we have indications of that iron easily can oligomerize in
solution, we therefore postulate that a reductive elimination of R2Fe can be assisted by another
FeII species, such as FeCl2. To inspect this hypothesis we performed a computional analysis on a
75
small model system with the alkyl groups modeled with methyl groups (Figure 34). This reaction
forms two FeI-Cl species, and is by that a viable path into the FeI - FeIII cycle. In solution the
barrier for this transformation is only 85 kJ mol-1 (TS4.e).
Figure 34. Reductive elimination from a bis-FeII complex through TS4.e, most hydrogens are omitted for
clarity.
4.3.5 Low temperature cross coupling – scope and possibilities†
The scope of the low-temperature iron cross coupling was investigated by reacting a selection of
aryl electrophiles with an alkyl Grignard reagent at three different temperatures, -78 °C, -20 °C,
and ambient temperature (Scheme 32). The Grignard reagent was added in small portions at
intervals to avoid precipitation of the catalyst, which had been previously detected. The results
were analyzed by GC, and the threshold for a “successful” reaction was 50% yield or more.
R-MgX
+
Ar-X
FeL3, 5 mol%
THF/NMP
Ar-R
Scheme 32. Iron catalyzed cross coupling between an alkyl Grignard and an aryl electrophile
The result from the screening of the low-temperature coupling are shown in Figure 35. The need
for a strongly electron withdrawing group for the aryl chlorides to perform the coupling at very
low temperatures (-78 °C) are apparent. At somewhat elevated temperature, -20 °C, the
unsubstituted aryl chlorides still do not participate in the cross coupling, but both aryl triflates
and chloropyridine reacted well. When ambient temperature was reached, the unsubstituted aryl
chloride finally conceded and were able to partake in the reaction. The results are in total
agreement with the previously reported Hammett study (Paper V) and support the hypothesis of a
rate-limiting oxidative addition.
†
Experimental study performed by Parisa Emamy
76
-78
-20
Cl
r.t.
OTf
MeO
Cl
O
Cl
Cl
N
F3C
Figure 35. Substrates used in the cross coupling and the temperatures at which they reacted
4.3.6 Computational investigation of the low temperature cross coupling
A computational investigation was undertaken in order to give an explanation to the results from
the substrate screen. The rate-limiting step for this reaction is the oxidative addition, and
therefore we calculated barriers for this step for some selected substrates (Table 9).
The
calculated barriers agree fairly well with the experimental results in Figure 35. The highest
barrier is found for the only substrate requiring a room temperature reaction, chlorobenzene.
Phenyl triflate has a lower barrier, and p-CF3-substituted chlorobenzene even lower, as
anticipated. Somewhat surprisingly, the lowest barrier overall was found for 2-chloropyridine, a
substrate that was only active at -20 °C. The moderate reactivity observed for this substrate
could be due to coordination of the nitrogen lone pair, to magnesium or iron, in a geometry that
inhibits the oxidative addition. It is also important to note that this is the only substrate that
would give a coupling product without any iron catalyst at room temperature, presumably
through an SNAr reaction.
Table 9. Calculated barriers to oxidative addition for selected substrates
Substrate
ΔE‡ (kJ/mol)
Phenyl-Cl
65
Phenyl-OTf
52
pCF3-Phenyl-Cl
49
2-Cl-pyridine
40
4.3.7 Kinetic investigation of low temperature cross coupling
The further kinetic investigations involved an initial-rate study at -25 °C of the cross coupling
between octyl Grignard and phenyl triflate, using Fe(acac)3 as the catalyst (Scheme 32). The
standard reaction utilized 0.5 mmol of substrate and Grignard, and 0.025 mmol (5 mol%) of iron
77
catalyst. The total THF-volume was adjusted to 20 mL in all cases. During the investigation, the
initial concentration of each of the principal components, Grignard reagent, substrate and
catalyst, was varied systematically. The reaction was followed by GC monitoring until ca. 10%
product formation was reached, which made sure that all plots should be linear unless a change in
mechanism occurs.
The suggested mechanism (Paper V) which proposed a rate-limiting oxidative addition, would
give a first order dependence of both substrate and catalyst, and between 0 and 1 for the Grignard
reagent, depending on the order of the transmetalation and oxidative addition. As the active FeI
catalyst is formed from the FeIII pre-catalyst via a reductive elimination of two alkyl groups on
the Fe, we could identify hexadecane in all reaction mixtures, in an amount approximately
proportional to the amount of added Fe pre-catalyst.
The concentration of Grignard reagent was the first to be varied, using between 0.025 M and 0.5
M. At low concentrations the reaction rate is doubled when increasing the concentration of
Grignard from 0.025 M to 0.05 M, indicating a positive reaction order and an involvement of the
reagent in the rate-limiting step. However, the curvature of the plots shows a slow decline of the
catalyst activity over time (Figure 36).
Figure 36. Product formation at different Grignard concentrations
78
At higher concentrations, the catalyst activity is decreasing, reaching a minimum at 0.4 M which
stays constant at 0.5 M as well. For these two highest concentrations the rate seems to be constant
after the first minute of reaction. Consequently, comparative F-tests revealed that exclusion of the
first point resulted in a straight line, indicating no further deactivation of the catalyst. At the
lower concentrations, the behaviour is different, the plots show curvature throughout the entire
reaction time. In summary, the results are consistent with a dual catalyst activity, where the
inititally formed, highly active, iron catalyst is converted by excess Grignard to a less active
form. With higher Grignard concentrations, the rate of this catalyst detoriation increases. When
considering one of the strongest features of the Grignard reagent, its strong reducing ability, one
can speculate if the lowering of the catalytic activity is due to formation of more reduced iron
species, which are inferior catalysts or inactive. We can also observe minor formation of biphenyl
at the lowest Grignard concentrations, but this is suppressed at higher concentrations.
The second factor to be studied was the substrate concentration, phenyl triflate, which was varied
in the range 0.025-0.2 M. The reaction order was positive with a clear increase in the initial rate
with increased concentration (Figure 37).
Figure 37. Formation of the coupling product octyl benzene (left) and biphenyl (right) at varying
concentrations
Unfortunately, catalyst deactivation was observed at all concentrations, most notably at higher
concentrations of substrate, where the catalyst activity diminished almost completely after an
initial eruption. This behavior was somewhat surprising, since our previous report stated that
increased amount of substrate protected the active catalyst (Paper V). However, when comparing
79
these two studies, it is important to remember that the experimental systems were very different.
In the previously conducted examination, the concentration of the Grignard reagent was
constantly low, whereas in the later study there was a higher concentration of Grignard reagent at
all times, yielding a more reducing environment. Nevertheless, we did not expect the iron catalyst
to deactivate faster in an environment consisting of more of the “oxidant”, phenyl triflate. We can
only explain this behavior with the existence of several catalyst deactivation pathways.
Alonso et al. have shown that poly-aryl iron species can be isolated.[160a] These complexes are
formed from exchange reactions between iron centers, or by several oxidative additions and
electron transfer reductions in succession. Reactions like this would inevitable give rise to
biphenyl formation through reductive elimination from diphenyl FeIII complexes. Indeed, the
formation of biphenyl increases more rapidly than the desired product when increasing the
concentration of phenyl triflate (Figure 37). The catalytically inactive species that is formed
could be a Ph4FeIII anion,[160a] which would not undertake a reductive elimination, or, due to the
reducing environment, a Ph2FeII species, which also is known to be reluctant to perform a
reductive elimination as shown in Scheme 33 (Paper V).
FeI X
Ar
X
Ar
X
FeIII
X
Ar
disproportionation
Ar
Ar
Ar
FeIII + FeIIIX3
X
reduction or comproportionation with FeIX
Ar
FeII
disproportionation
X
Ar
FeII
Ar
+ FeIIX2
Scheme 33. Disproportionation pathways to arylated iron species
The final component that was varied was the iron catalyst, Fe(acac)3, which was varied from
0.25-5 mM, corresponding to 1-20 mol%. Following the pattern from the previous reagents, the
reaction order was positive at low concentrations, and the reaction rate increased up to ca 2 mM
(Figure 38).
80
Figure 38. Formation of octylbenzene with varying amount of the iron catalyst
With increasing concentrations of the catalyst, the level of catalyst deactivation seemed to
increase as well. As can be seen in Figure 38, the most dilute catalyst has almost no curvature,
indicating an absence of catalyst deactivation, and the highest catalyst concentration exhibits a
short burst of catalytic activity followed by catalyst death, similar to what could be observed for
the aryl triflate experiment series. We can only interpret this as a bimolecular catalyst
deactivation. Previous work has shown that reductive elimination from mononuclear FeII is
disfavored, but that a binuclear FeII can occur (Paper V). To explain the observed plots, one can
envision a comproportionation between FeI and FeIII to FeII. The formed FeII species can react to
form product in a bimolecular process, albeit it would be slower than the FeI - FeIII cycle, giving
FeI. The same processes, instead forming unreactive PhnFe complexes, could rationalize the
catalyst deactivation. The increased amounts of biphenyl at higher concentration of iron catalyst
support this suggestion (Figure 39).
81
Figure 39. Formation of biphenyl at varying concentrations of iron catalyst
4.3.8 Theoretical examination of low temperature cross coupling in a reducing environment
The strongly reducing environment in the kinetic investigation might suppress the catalytically
active FeI - FeIII cycle, and replace this with the more reduced Fe0 - FeII cycle. As a comparison,
the free energy surface of the Fe0 - FeII cycle was calculated (Figure 40), in order to investigate
whether this cycle could perform the catalytic cycle. According to the free energy surface, all
steps of this more reduced cycle, are less efficient than in the FeI - FeIII cycle. Common
knowledge suggests that a Fe0 species should more easily perform a oxidative addition than a
similar FeI species. That is not true here however, probably because the oxidative addition
involves additional steps, such as the coordination of a π-system.
The barrier for the oxidative addition (TS4.f) in the Fe0 - FeII cycle is 87 kJ mol-1, which is rather
modest, but hard to fit with the low-temperature setting of this reaction. The subsequent
transmetalation has an insignificant barrier from a bimetallic complex. The structure (4.13) in
Figure 40 is in fact an energy minimum, which on the potential energy surface is lower in energy
than the flanking structures. On the PES, this reaction is almost barrierless, and takes place
without saddle points, indicating very low free energy barriers.[107b] The final reductive
82
elimination is definitely the prohibiting step with a barrier of 204 kJ mol-1 (TS4.g), making it
impossible to reform the Fe0 species required to close the catalytic cycle.
TS4.f
Sol Fe Sol
Cl
Sol
Fe Sol
4.11
Et
Fe Sol
Sol TS4.g
Cl
Mg
Cl Et
Fe
Sol
Sol
4.13
G
204
kJ/mol
Sol Fe Sol
4.11
Cl
Fe Sol
Sol
4.12
Sol
Et
Fe Sol
4.14
Figure 40. Free energy surface of the Fe0-FeII cycle
The above-mentioned results indicate that the iron catalyst is reduced but not as far as to Fe0.
This would imply that FeIII complexes that are reduced to less active FeII species is the main path
towards catalyst deactivation. This process can occur through single electron transfer (SET) from
the Grignard reagent or through comproportionation (Scheme 34). FeII species cannot perform a
mononuclear reductive elimination, but can partake in a transmetalation or inefficient binuclear
couplings. Coupling, leading to the reformation of FeI catalyst is still viable, even if this is a slow
reaction (Paper V).
83
MgX2
X
Ar
FeIII
R
Ar-R
RMgX
X
Ar
FeIII
X
FeIX
Ar-X
FeIX
FeIIX2
ArFeIIX
RMgX
Ar-R
slow
ArFe(II)R
Scheme 34. Plausible catalytic cycles in a highly reducing environment
4.3.9 Conclusions
A titration experiment of the iron catalyzed cross coupling reaction has disclosed that the active
catalyst, most probably is a FeI species. Furthermore, a computational study supported this
suggestion, and revealed that the catalytic cycle is a FeI - FeIII cycle closed by a reductive
elimination and preceded by a rate-limiting oxidative addition and a transmetalation, even if the
order of these two steps could not be deduced. Iron in lower oxidation states can enter the
catalytic cycle, but is unable to complete the catalytic cycle with a reductive elimination.
In the oxidative addition, a significant spin transfer to the aryl moiety could be shown, and this
can explain why electron-rich substrates still perform the coupling rather unhindered. In spite of
this, the radical character on the aromatic ring is not sufficiently strong to cause the electron-rich
substrates to be faster than the unsubstituted versions as would be expected from a purely radical
reaction.
The cross coupling has been shown to tolerate low temperatures, even if the scope is somewhat
narrow, with electron-withdrawing substrates being able to complete the reaction at much lower
temperatures than the unsubstituted or electron-rich counterparts.
Initial rate studies could further strengthen the hypothesis that a FeI - FeIII cycle is responsible for
the catalytic activity of the iron catalyst, and several potientally problematic catalyst deactivation
pathways were identified. The main process of these non-productive paths seems to be a
bimolecular process, forming FeII complexes with low or no reactivity. In particular, stable polyaryl iron complexes appear to be inert in further catalytic reactions.
84
Computational studies have supported this hypothesis and shown good agreement between
experimental reactivity and calculated barriers. In addition, the inability of Fe0 to close a catalytic
cycle has been presented, and an alternative way for FeII species to re-enter the catalytic cycle
through a slow bi-nuclear step has been suggested.
In conclusion, the FeI - FeIII - FeI cycle is the most plausible catalytic cycle for the iron catalyzed
cross coupling, with lower oxidation states unable to perform the necessary reductive elimination
step. The existence of several rapid deactivation pathways has been identified, and measures to
avoid these have been presented.
85
5. Summary and concluding remarks The importance of transition metal catalyzed reactions has been proven many times during the
last 50 years, most notably by the many Nobel laureates in the field. One of the most important
ways to advance the research has been through careful mechanistic investigations, which have
revealed many significant properties for the different reactions. The areas covered in this thesis
have not been an exception, and several studies of the palladium catalyzed allylic alkylation or
Mizoroki-Heck reactions, as well as cross coupling reactions, have been performed. Nevertheless,
there is still a great need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for these reactions.
In the field of the palladium catalyzed allylic alkylation, many different factors can influence the
regioisomeric outcome of the reaction. In an attempt to isolate and study some of these effects, a
tethered ligand was employed. An initial experimental study was followed by a computational
investigation that could reproduce the experimental results. The factors controlling the
regioselectivity of the reaction were investigated and revealed that the preference for the
nucleophilic attack depended heavily on the steric hindrance as well as on the enforced rotation
of the allylic moiety.
The mechanism for the synthesis of sulfoxides through a palladium catalyzed sulfinylation
reaction was studied computationally. A new viable method to study this system was presented
and could accurately reproduce the experimental results. The importance of a palladium catalyzed
Mislow-Braverman-Evans rearrangement to reach the correct product was also shown.
The Mizoroki-Heck reaction has been investigated in two different studies. The reason for the
importance of the re-oxidant benzoquinone in a domino Mizoroki-Heck-Suzuki reaction has been
revealed. It was shown to allow access to a low-energy pathway to the new diarylation reaction.
In addition to this, a new nickel catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction has been presented. The novel
mild conditions provide new possibilities for this cross coupling reaction. The computational
study supported the mechanistic proposal of a cationic catalytic cycle and the free energy surface
was compatible with the reaction conditions. The investigation could also explain the reason why
some additives reduced the reactivity of the nickel catalysts.
The mechanism for iron, as an environmentally friendly alternative to the classic cross coupling
metals, has also been studied. Several kinetic and computational studies have been performed.
The plausible oxidation state for the active catalyst, as well as pathways leading to catalyst
deactivation have been revealed. The catalytic cycle for the proposed Fe(I) – Fe(III) cycle was
presented, revealing two possible pathways with either the oxidative addition or the
transmetalation as the initial step. Since the difference between the reaction barriers is small, the
86
preferred reaction pathway could not be determined. In addition, the scope of the reaction at low
temperatures and the reaction orders of the participating reactants and the catalyst have been
investigated. The results from the study of the reaction order showed positive orders for both
reactants and the catalyst. However, irregularities, such as the curvature of the plots indicated a
dual catalyst activity. Most probably, the initially formed, highly active iron catalyst, was
converted by excess Grignard to a less active form. Also, excess of the substrate and large
catalyst loadings displayed catalyst deactivation. Oligomerization or over-reduction of the
catalyst have been presented as reasons for these effects.
87
6. Outlook The need for more thorough knowledge about the mechanisms and optimal conditions for new
and existing reactions is still large. The kinetic investigation methods employed in this thesis
have been used for many years, but can still give much mechanistic information about a reaction.
In conjunction with computational efforts, which has seen great progress the last decades, a
versatile tool to uncover mechanistic details is available.
The continous development of processing speed for computers has enabled computational
chemists to explore new areas, such as biochemical reactions with large enzymes, but also made
it possible to do more exact calculations on moderately large systems, such as transition metal
catalyzed reactions. One example of this is the different dispersion correction methods that have
emerged lately. The importance of these interactions has been exemplified in this thesis for the
palladium catalyzed domino Mizoroki-Heck-Suzuki reaction. Here the inclusion of a correction
term was imperative in order to achieve accurate results. Even if these methods to date are not
perfect, the impact they have had must be stressed. In the future, inclusion of a dispersion
correction will probably be mandatory in all computational work.
In this thesis the calculations on the iron catalyzed cross coupling reactions have been without
adding any dispersion correction. This was done because of the small size of the system, and
assumed lack of important dispersion interaction. However, several issues such as the number of
explicit solvent molecules to include can probably be influenced by inclusion of a correction
method. These reactions are still not thoroughly understood, and much research is required to
fully comprehend this area. One interesting topic to study further would be the possibility to
synthesize a stable iron(I) complex that can be used in a coupling reaction. So far, only precatalysts are employed, or synthetically challenging or unstable iron complexes. Therefore, there
is a need for a stable and reliable source for an iron(I) catalyst able to carry out the cross
coupling.
Further studies of the palladium catalyzed allylic alkylation can include other nucleophiles, such
as substituted malonates, or heteroatom nucleophiles. The influence on the selectivity by
changing the nucleophiles would be an interesting continuation of the project. The computational
part of this research extension will of course include the above-mentioned dispersion correction,
since possible van der Waals interactions will be an important part of the nature of the
nucleophile.
Another possible area for further research, as well as the employment of the dispersion effects, is
the arylation version of the sulfinylation reaction. This reaction has not been mechanistically
88
studied and would be interesting to explore. The computational part would certainly benefit from
dispersion corrections, most notably due to the presence of aryl groups.
The newly developed nickel catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction can be further improved. The
scope of the vinyls can be extended beyond the vinyl ethers, and also the need for aryl triflates as
substrate might be possible to alleviate. Since a computational study already has been performed,
a combination of calculations and experimental work is probably the best way to advance this
reaction.
89
7. Acknowledgements Det är många som ska ha ett stort tack för stöd, idéer, uppmuntran, sällskap, kärlek, tålamod,
kunskap och allt annat som kan tänkas ha hjälpt mig under de här nästan fem åren.
Först och allra främst, Per-Ola Norrby, fantastisk handledare, och världens största idéspruta. I
mitt projekt har många idéer blivit testade, vissa har funkat, andra nästan, somliga definitivt inte,
men det är oerhört skönt att alltid kunna få mer att göra! Sedan är det inte fel att PO lyckas
kombinera idéerna med en fantastisk kunskap, som han gärna delar med sig av, samt med en
entusiasm som är få förunnad.
Min examinator, Kristina Luthman, frågar, lyssnar, förstår som få andra.
Mina två biträdande handledare. Sten Nilsson Lill, med din fantastiska förmåga att alltid hjälpa
till och dela med sig av tips och tricks, om det fanns ett Nobelpris i hjälpsamhet skulle du
prenumerera på det! Göran Hilmersson, med framförallt de träningsrelaterade diskussionerna,
det är skönt att det finns någon mer på våning 8 som uppskattar att röra på sig.
Medlemmar i grupp Norrby är värda ett stort tack, in order of appearance.
Anna, för din pålitlighet, hjälpsamhet och trevligt sällskap på konferenser, men tänk på att
Dagmar inte är ett killnamn!
PF, framförallt för din humor, konferenssällskap, för tillfällena att få diskutera annat än kemi på
jobbet, och för 10 år i kemihuset.
Charlotte, för trevligt rumssällskap, bra samarbete samt dålig humor!
Carina, Petra och Elaine för trevligt sällskap.
Jobbar man i POs grupp duggar samarbetena tätt, så en runda tacksamhet till de som jag har
samarbetat med under åren:
Prof. Giovanni Poli, for letting me stay for 5 weeks in his group in Paris, also Steven Giboulot
was a great support during my STSM.
Prof. Troels Skrydstrup and his group, especially Thomas Gøgsig, in Aarhus, Denmark, for
providing an excellent scientific challenge and great collaboration.
Christian Sköld, Uppsala, för ett mycket bra samarbete, samt intressant projekt.
90
Många andra har passerat genom grupp Norrby, som exjobbare, STSM-gäster eller annat. Kenan,
Parisa, Albin, Emelie, Peter, Erik, Volker, Julie, Helene, Steffi, Aaron och Javier. Ni
förtjänar ett tack för att ni alla bidragit med kunskap, stämning samt i vissa fall ett tillfälle till att
öva på engelskan.
Mina medförfattare, vissa har redan nämnts ovan, Guillaume Prestat, Sverker Hansson, Björn
Åkermark, Susanne Olsson (grym röntgeninsats!), Mikael Håkansson, Mats Larhed,
Alejandro Trejos samt Luke Odell ska ha ett stort tack för bra samarbete.
Alla andra på våning 8 och 9 för att ni lyckas göra det till en plats som är roligt att gå till, fortsätt
som ni gör! Ett speciellt tack riktas till Bisse för trevligt sällskap i SF, samt för alla rövarhistorier,
utan dem skulle åren varit mycket tråkigare.
Alla andra som jag umgås med utanför kemihuset förtjänar en stor eloge för att ha bidragit med
möjligheten att slappna av, ha roligt och tänka på annat. Framförallt Kalle ska en medalj för alla
träningstimmarna som han har ställt upp på.
Min familj, tack för stödet, även om det finns lite att jobba på när det gäller förståelsen.
Charlie, inga ord kan förklara hur mycket du betyder.
Hard pressed on my right; my left is in retreat.
My centre is yielding. Impossible to maneuver.
Situation excellent. I am attacking.
General Ferdinand Foch
91
7. References [1] a) G. Natta, P. Pino, P. Corradini, F. Danusso, E. Mantica, G. Mazzanti, G. Moraglio, J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 1955, 77, 1708-1710; b) K. Ziegler, E. Holzkamp, H. Breil, H. Martin, Angew. Chem.
Int. Ed. 1955, 67, 541-547; c) G. Natta, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1956, 68, 393-403.
[2] R. Jira, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 9034-9037.
[3] a) http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2001/;
b) http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2005/;
c) http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2010/;
[4] a) S. M. Ma, Z. Lu, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 258-297; b) B. M. Trost, M. L. Crawley,
Chem. Rev. 2003, 103, 2921-2943; c) B. M. Trost, D. L. VanVranken, Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 395422.
[5] J. Tsuji, H. Takahash, M. Morikawa, Tetrahedron Lett. 1965, 4387-4388.
[6] a) B. M. Trost, T. J. Dietsche, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 8200-8201; b) B. M. Trost, T. J.
Fullerton, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 292-294; c) B. M. Trost, P. E. Strege, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
1977, 99, 1649-1651; d) B. M. Trost, T. R. Verhoeven, J. Org. Chem. 1976, 41, 3215-3216.
[7] a) J. Hartwig, Organotransition Metal Chemistry, University Scince Books, 2010; b) L. S.
Hegedus, Organometallics in synthesis, A manual, (Ed. M. Schlosser) John Wiley & Sons Ltd.,
West Sussex, 2001.
[8] a) J. C. Fiaud, J. L. Malleron, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1981, 1159-1160; b) M. Braun, T.
Meier, Synlett 2006, 661-676; c) M. Braun, T. Meier, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 69526955; d) X. L. Hou, W. H. Zheng, B. H. Zheng, Y. Zhang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 77187719.
[9] M. Peuckert, W. Keim, Organometallics 1983, 2, 594-597.
[10] J. Chatt, B. L. Shaw, J. Chem. Soc. 1962, 5075-5084.
[11] P. L. Watson, D. C. Roe, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 6471-6473.
[12] a) T. Mizoroki, K. Mori, A. Ozaki, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1971, 44, 581; b) R. F. Heck, J. P.
Nolley, J. Org. Chem. 1972, 37, 2320-2322.
[13] K. Tamao, K. Sumitani, M. Kumada, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 4374-4376.
[14] J. P. Corriu, J. P. Masse, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1972, 144.
[15] a) L. Cassar, J. Organomet. Chem. 1975, 93, 253-257; b) H. A. Dieck, F. R. Heck, J.
Organomet. Chem. 1975, 93, 259-263; c) K. Sonogashira, Y. Tohda, N. Hagihara, Tetrahedron
Lett. 1975, 4467-4470; d) M. Yamamura, I. Moritani, S. I. Murahashi, J. Organomet. Chem.
1975, 91, C39-C42; e) S. I. Murahashi, M. Yamamura, N. Mita, J. Org. Chem. 1977, 42, 28702874; f) S. I. Murahashi, M. Yamamura, K. Yanagisawa, N. Mita, K. Kondo, J. Org. Chem.
1979, 44, 2408-2417.
[16] a) N. Miyaura, K. Yamada, A. Suzuki, Tetrahedron Lett. 1979, 20, 3437-3440; b) N.
Miyaura, H. Suginome, A. Suzuki, Tetrahedron Lett. 1981, 22, 127-130; c) N. Miyaura, K.
Yamada, H. Suginome, A. Suzuki, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985, 107, 972-980.
[17] E. Negishi, A. O. King, N. Okukado, J. Org. Chem. 1977, 42, 1821-1823.
[18] Y. Hatanaka, T. Hiyama, J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 918-920.
[19] J. K. Stille, Pure Appl. Chem. 1985, 57, 1771-1780.
[20] C. J. Cramer, Essentials of Computational Chemistry: Theories and Models, Wiley-VCH,
Weinheim, 2004.
[21] F. Jensen, Introduction to Computational Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006.
[22] a) A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 1993, 98, 5648-5652; b) A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 1993,
98, 1372-1377.
[23] M. J. Ramos, S. F. Sousa, P. A. Fernandes, J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 10439-10452.
[24] a) C. T. Lee, W. T. Yang, R. G. Parr, Phys. Rev. B 1988, 37, 785-789; b) P. J. Stephens, F. J.
Devlin, C. F. Chabalowski, M. J. Frisch, J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 11623-11627.
92
[25] Y. Zhao, D. G. Truhlar, Acc. Chem. Res. 2008, 41, 157-167.
[26] S. Grimme, J. Antony, S. Ehrlich, H. Krieg, J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 154104.
[27] P. J. Hay, W. R. Wadt, J. Chem. Phys. 1985, 82, 299-310.
[28] J. Tomasi, B. Mennucci, R. Cammi, Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 2999-3093.
[29] a) D. J. Tannor, B. Marten, R. Murphy, R. A. Friesner, D. Sitkoff, A. Nicholls, M.
Ringnalda, W. A. Goddard, B. Honig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116, 11875-11882; b) B. Marten,
K. Kim, C. Cortis, R. A. Friesner, R. B. Murphy, M. N. Ringnalda, D. Sitkoff, B. Honig, J. Phys.
Chem. 1996, 100, 11775-11788.
[30] S. Kozuch, S. Shaik, Acc. Chem. Res. 2011, 44, 101-110.
[31] H. Maskill, The Physical Basis of Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press, Oxford,
1985.
[32] R. Crabtree, The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2005.
[33] A. Miyashita, A. Yasuda, H. Takaya, K. Toriumi, T. Ito, T. Souchi, R. Noyori, J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 1980, 102, 7932-7934.
[34] B. M. Trost, D. L. Vanvranken, C. Bingel, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 9327-9343.
[35] a) G. J. Dawson, C. G. Frost, J. M. J. Williams, Tetrahedron Lett. 1993, 34, 3149-3150; b) J.
Sprinz, G. Helmchen, Tetrahedron Lett. 1993, 34, 1769-1772; c) P. von Matt, A. Pfaltz, Angew.
Chem., Int. Ed. 1993, 32, 566-569.
[36] a) T. Hayashi, T. Hagihara, M. Konishi, M. Kumada, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 105, 77677768; b) T. Hayashi, M. Konishi, M. Kumada, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1984, 107-108.
[37] a) J. E. Backvall, P. G. Andersson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 6374-6381; b) C. G. Frost,
J. Howarth, J. M. J. Williams, Tetrahedron Asymm. 1992, 3, 1089-1122.
[38] a) B. Åkermark, S. Hansson, B. Krakenberger, A. Vitagliano, K. Zetterberg,
Organometallics 1984, 3, 679-682; b) B. Åkermark, K. Zetterberg, S. Hansson, B. Krakenberger,
A. Vitagliano, J. Organomet. Chem. 1987, 335, 133-142; c) B. Åkermark, S. Hansson, B.
Krakenberger, K. Zetterberg, A. Vitagliano, Chem. Scr. 1987, 27, 525.
[39] a) T. Hayashi, K. Kishi, A. Yamamoto, Y. Ito, Tetrahedron Lett. 1990, 31, 1743-1746; b) R.
Pretot, A. Pfaltz, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1998, 37, 323-325; c) S. L. You, X. Z. Zhu, Y. M. Luo,
X. L. Hou, L. X. Dai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 7471-7472.
[40] a) M. Prat, J. Ribas, M. Morenomanas, Tetrahedron 1992, 48, 1695-1706; b) N. Vicart, B.
Cazes, J. Gore, Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 535-538; c) N. Vicart, J. Gore, B. Cazes, Synlett
1996, 850-852.
[41] For some recent examples, see: a) D. Liu, F. Xie, W. B. Zhang, Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48,
7591-7594; b) D. J. Weix, J. F. Hartwig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 7720-7721.
[42] E.-I. Negishi, S.-Y. Liou, Handbook of Organopalladium Chemistry for Organic Synthesis,
(Ed. E.-I. Negishi) Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002.
[43] a) E. Negishi, H. Matsushita, S. Chatterjee, R. A. John, J. Org. Chem. 1982, 47, 3188-3190;
b) E. Negishi, F. T. Luo, A. J. Pecora, A. Silveira, J. Org. Chem. 1983, 48, 2427-2430; c) E. I.
Negishi, S. Chatterjee, Tetrahedron Lett. 1983, 24, 1341-1344; d) F. T. Luo, E. Negishi,
Tetrahedron Lett. 1985, 26, 2177-2180.
[44] a) J. Tsuji, I. Minami, I. Shimizu, Chem. Lett. 1983, 1325-1326; b) T. Baba, K. Nakano, S.
Nishiyama, S. Tsurya, M. Masai, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1990, 348-349.
[45] T. Tsuda, Y. Chujo, S. Nishi, K. Tawara, T. Saegusa, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1980, 102, 63816384.
[46] B. M. Trost, F. D. Toste, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 4545-4554.
[47] a) I. D. G. Watson, S. A. Styler, A. K. Yudin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 5086-5087; b) I.
D. G. Watson, A. K. Yudin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 17516-17529; c) A. M. Johns, Z. J.
Liu, J. F. Hartwig, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 7259-7261.
93
[48] a) A. Pfaltz, M. Lautens in Comprehensive Asymmetric Catalysis, (Eds.: E. N. Jacobsen, A.
Pfaltz and H. Yamamoto), Springer, Berlin, 1999, pp. 833 - 886; b) B. M. Trost, C. Lee in
Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis, (Ed. I. Ojima), Wiley-VCH, New York, 2000, pp. 593-694.
[49] a) B. M. Trost, D. L. Vanvranken, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1992, 31, 228-230; b) G.
Knuhl, P. Sennhenn, G. Helmchen, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1995, 1845-1846; c) B. M.
Trost, B. Breit, S. Peukert, J. Zambrano, J. W. Ziller, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1995, 34,
2386-2388; d) B. M. Trost, A. C. Krueger, R. C. Bunt, J. Zambrano, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996,
118, 6520-6521; e) B. Wiese, G. Helmchen, Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 5727-5730; f) O.
Pamies, M. Dieguez, C. Claver, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3646-3647.
[50] a) V. Branchadell, M. Moreno-Manas, F. Pajuelo, R. Pleixats, Organometallics 1999, 18,
4934-4941; b) K. J. Szabo, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2001, 30, 136-143.
[51] G. C. Lloyd-Jones, S. C. Stephen, Chem.-Eur. J. 1998, 4, 2539-2549.
[52] a) M. Sjogren, S. Hansson, P. O. Norrby, B. Åkermark, M. E. Cucciolito, A. Vitagliano,
Organometallics 1992, 11, 3954-3964; b) P. Fristrup, T. Jensen, J. Hoppe, P.-O. Norrby, Chem.Eur. J. 2006, 12, 5352-5360.
[53] S. Hansson, P. O. Norrby, M. P. T. Sjogren, B. Åkermark, M. E. Cucciolito, F. Giordano, A.
Vitagliano, Organometallics 1993, 12, 4940-4948.
[54] U. Kazmaier, D. Stolz, K. Kramer, F. L. Zumpe, Chem.-Eur. J. 2008, 14, 1322-1329.
[55] a) T. Hayashi, A. Yamamoto, Y. Ito, E. Nishioka, H. Miura, K. Yanagi, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
1989, 111, 6301-6311; b) M. Kranenburg, P. C. J. Kamer, P. W. N. M. van Leeuwen, Eur. J.
Inorg. Chem. 1998, 25-27; c) A. Frolander, S. Lutsenko, T. Privalov, C. Moberg, J. Org. Chem.
2005, 70, 9882-9891; d) S. M. Ma, Z. Lu, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 258-297.
[56] J. D. Oslob, B. Åkermark, P. Helquist, P. O. Norrby, Organometallics 1997, 16, 3015-3021.
[57] a) A. Dedieu, Chem. Rev. 2000, 100, 543-600; b) J. Kleimark, P.-O. Norrby in Transition
Metal Catalyzed Enantioselective Allylic Substitution in Organic Synthesis, (Ed. U. Kazmaier),
Springer, 2011.
[58] H. Hagelin, B. Åkermark, P. O. Norrby, Organometallics 1999, 18, 2884-2895.
[59] N. Svensen, P. Fristrup, D. Tanner, P. O. Norrby, Adv. Synth. Catal. 2007, 349, 2631-2640.
[60] C. Johansson, G. C. Lloyd-Jones, P. O. Norrby, Tetrahedron Asymm. 2010, 21, 1585-1592.
[61] a) P. O. Norrby, Ph. D. Thesis, 1992; b) P. O. Norrby, B. Åkermark, F. Haeffner, S.
Hansson, M. Blomberg, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 4859-4867.
[62] M. E. Krafft, M. Sugiura, K. A. Abboud, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9174-9175.
[63] a) M. E. Krafft, Z. Fu, M. J. Procter, A. M. Wilson, O. A. Dasse, C. Hirosawa, Pure Appl.
Chem. 1998, 70, 1083-1090; b) M. E. Krafft, A. M. Wilson, Z. Fu, M. J. Procter, O. A. Dasse, J.
Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 1748-1749.
[64] K. Itami, T. Koike, J. Yoshida, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 6957-6958.
[65] M. P. T. Sjogren, S. Hansson, B. Åkermark, A. Vitagliano, Organometallics 1994, 13, 19631971.
[66] B. Åkermark, B. Krakenberger, S. Hansson, A. Vitagliano, Organometallics 1987, 6, 620628.
[67] R. Mccrindle, E. C. Alyea, G. Ferguson, S. A. Dias, A. J. Mcalees, M. Parvez, J. Chem. Soc.
Dalton 1980, 137-144.
[68] a) O. Reiser, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1993, 32, 547-549; b) E. PenaCabrera, P. O.
Norrby, M. Sjogren, A. Vitagliano, V. DeFelice, J. Oslob, S. Ishii, D. ONeill, B. Åkermark, P.
Helquist, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 4299-4313; c) P. Dierkes, S. Ramdeehul, L. Barloy, A.
De Cian, J. Fischer, P. C. J. Kamer, P. W. N. M. van Leeuwen, J. A. Osborn, Angew. Chem. Int.
Ed. 1998, 37, 3116-3118.
[69] a) R. P. Bell, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 1936, 154, 414-429; b) M. G. Evans, M. Polanyi, Trans.
Faraday Soc. 1936, 32, 1333-1360; c) F. Jensen, Introduction to Computational Chemistry,
Wiley, Chichester, 1999.
[70] G. S. Hammond, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1955, 77, 334-338.
94
[71] P. O. Norrby, J. Mol. Struc. - Theochem 2000, 506, 9-16.
[72] M. Mellah, A. Voituriez, E. Schulz, Chem. Rev. 2007, 107, 5133-5209.
[73] M. C. Carreno, Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 1717-1760.
[74] a) R. Bentley, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2005, 34, 609-624; b) J. Legros, J. R. Dehli, C. Bolm, Adv.
Synth. Catal. 2005, 347, 19-31.
[75] a) S. Patai, Rappoport, Z., Stirling, C. J. M. in The Chemistry of Sulphones and Sulphoxides,
John Wiley, New York, 1988, p. 56; b) P. C. B. Page, Organosulfur Chemistry II., Springer,
Berlin, Germany, 1999; c) Organosulfur Chemistry in Asymmetric Synthesis, (Ed. T. B. Toru, C.)
Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2008.
[76] G. Maitro, G. Prestat, D. Madec, G. Poli, J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 7449-7454.
[77] C. B. Caupéne, C.; Perrio, S.; Metzner, P., J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 2812-2815.
[78] G. Maitro, S. Vogel, G. Prestat, D. Madec, G. Poli, Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 5951-5954.
[79] G. Maitro, S. Vogel, M. Sadaoul, G. Prestat, D. Madec, G. Poli, Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 54935496.
[80] a) E. Bernoud, G. Le Duc, X. Bantreil, G. Prestat, D. Madec, G. Poli, Org. Lett. 2010, 12,
320-323; b) G. Maitro, G. Prestat, D. Madec, G. Poli, Tetrahedron Asymm. 2010, 21, 1075-1084.
[81] a) D. R. Rayner, E. G. Miller, P. Bickart, A. J. Gordon, K. Mislow, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1966,
88, 3138-3139; b) S. Braverman, Y. Stabinsky, Chem. Commun. 1967, 270-271; c) P. Bickart, F.
W. Carson, J. Jacobus, E. G. Miller, K. Mislow, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1968, 90, 4869; d) D. A.
Evans, G. C. Andrews, C. L. Sims, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1971, 93, 4956-4957; e) D. A. Evans, G. C.
Andrews, Acc. Chem. Res. 1974, 7, 147-155.
[82] D. K. Jones-Hertzog, W. L. Jorgensen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 9077-9078.
[83] D. K. Jones-Hertzog, W. L. Jorgensen, J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 6682-6683.
[84] a) T. H. Dunning, J. Chem. Phys. 1989, 90, 1007-1023; b) R. A. Kendall, T. H. Dunning, R.
J. Harrison, J. Chem. Phys. 1992, 96, 6796-6806; c) D. E. Woon, T. H. Dunning, J. Chem. Phys.
1993, 98, 1358-1371; d) D. E. Woon, T. H. Dunning, J. Chem. Phys. 1994, 100, 2975-2988.
[85] a) J. Amaudrut, D. J. Pasto, O. Wiest, J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 6061-6064; b) J. Amaudrut,
O. Wiest, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 3367-3374.
[86] L. E. Overman, F. M. Knoll, Tetrahedron Lett. 1979, 321-324.
[87] E. D. Glendening; J. K. Badenhoop; A. E. Reed; J. E. Carpenter, J. A. Bohmann, C. M.
Morales, F. Weinhold in NBO 5.0, Theoretical Chemistry Institute, University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI, 2001, http://www.chem.wisc.edu/~nbo5
[88] a) P. Fristrup, M. Ahlquist, D. Tanner, P. O. Norrby, J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 1286212867; b) C. P. Butts, E. Filali, G. C. Lloyd-Jones, P. O. Norrby, D. A. Sale, Y. Schramm, J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 9945-9957.
[89] a) I. P. Beletskaya, A. V. Cheprakov, Chem. Rev. 2000, 100, 3009-3066; b) W. Cabri, I.
Candiani, Acc. Chem. Res. 1995, 28, 2-7; c) A. De Meijere, F. E. Meyer, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit.
1994, 33, 2379-2411.
[90] B. P. Carrow, J. F. Hartwig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 79-81.
[91] H. A. Dieck, R. F. Heck, J. Org. Chem. 1975, 40, 1083-1090.
[92] R. F. Heck, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91, 6707-6714.
[93] P. Fristrup, S. Le Quement, D. Tanner, P. O. Norrby, Organometallics 2004, 23, 6160-6165.
[94] C. S. Cho, S. Uemura, J. Organomet. Chem. 1994, 465, 85-92.
[95] X. L. Du, M. Suguro, K. Hirabayashi, A. Mori, T. Nishikata, N. Hagiwara, K. Kawata, T.
Okeda, H. F. Wang, K. Fugami, M. Kosugi, Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 3313-3316.
[96] a) Y. C. Jung, R. K. Mishra, C. H. Yoon, K. W. Jung, Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 2231-2234; b) M.
M. S. Andappan, P. Nilsson, H. von Schenck, M. Larhed, J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 5212-5218.
[97] a) B. L. Shaw, New. J. Chem. 1998, 22, 77-79; b) B. L. Shaw, S. D. Perera, Chem. Commun.
1998, 1863-1864; c) V. P. W. Bohm, W. A. Herrmann, Chem.-Eur. J. 2001, 7, 4191-4197; d) D.
J. Cardenas, B. Martin-Matute, A. M. Echavarren, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 5033-5040.
95
[98] a) C. M. Andersson, J. Larsson, A. Hallberg, J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55, 5757-5761; b) N. D.
Duezo, J. C. de la Rosa, J. Priego, I. Alonso, J. C. Carretero, Chem.-Eur. J. 2001, 7, 3890-3900;
c) M. Oestreich, Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 783-792.
[99] a) M. Larhed, A. Trejos, A. Fardost, S. Yahiaoui, Chem. Commun. 2009, 7587-7589; b) M.
Larhed, S. Yahiaoui, A. Fardost, A. Trejos, J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 2433-2438.
[100] M. S. Sigman, K. B. Urkalan, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 3146-3149.
[101] a) R. J. Deeth, A. Smith, K. K. Hii, J. M. Brown, Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 3229-3232;
b) K. K. Hii, T. D. W. Claridge, J. M. Brown, A. Smith, R. J. Deeth, Helv. Chim. Acta. 2001, 84,
3043-3056; c) H. von Schenck, B. Åkermark, M. Svensson, Organometallics 2002, 21, 22482253; d) C. Amatore, A. Jutand, F. Lemaitre, J. L. Ricard, S. Kozuch, S. Shaik, J. Organomet.
Chem. 2004, 689, 3728-3734; e) D. Balcells, F. Maseras, B. A. Keay, T. Ziegler,
Organometallics 2004, 23, 2784-2796; f) R. J. Deeth, A. Smith, J. M. Brown, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2004, 126, 7144-7151; g) L. J. Goossen, D. Koley, H. Hermann, W. Thiel, Chem. Commun.
2004, 2141-2143; h) S. Kozuch, S. Shaik, A. Jutand, C. Amatore, Chem.-Eur. J. 2004, 10, 30723080; i) A. Stadler, H. von Schenck, K. S. A. Vallin, M. Larhed, A. Hallberg, Adv. Synth. Catal.
2004, 346, 1773-1781; j) Q. Chen, B. L. Lin, Y. Fu, L. Liu, Q. X. Guo, Res. Chem. Intermediat.
2005, 31, 759-767; k) G. T. de Jong, F. M. Bickelhaupt, J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 9685-9699;
l) L. J. Goossen, D. Koley, H. L. Hermann, W. Thiel, Organometallics 2005, 24, 2398-2410; m)
G. K. Datta, H. von Schenck, A. Hallberg, M. Larhed, J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 3896-3903; n) G.
T. de Jong, F. M. Bickelhaupt, J. Chem. Theory. Comput. 2006, 2, 322-335; o) S. Kozuch, S.
Shaik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 3355-3365; p) M. Ahlquist, P. O. Norrby, Organometallics
2007, 26, 550-553; q) C. H. Hu, M. T. Lee, H. M. Lee, Organometallics 2007, 26, 1317-1324; r)
T. B. Marder, K. C. Lam, Z. Y. Lin, Organometallics 2007, 26, 758-760; s) I. Ambrogio, G.
Fabrizi, S. Cacchi, S. T. Henriksen, P. Fristrup, D. Tanner, P. O. Norrby, Organometallics 2008,
27, 3187-3195; t) M. B. Hall, P. Surawatanawong, Y. Fan, J. Organomet. Chem. 2008, 693,
1552-1563; u) S. T. Henriksen, P. O. Norrby, P. Kaukoranta, P. G. Andersson, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2008, 130, 10414-10421; v) P. O. Norrby, S. T. Henriksen, D. Tanner, S. Cacchi,
Organometallics 2009, 28, 6201-6205; w) P. O. Norrby, C. Backtorp, J. Mol. Catal. A-Chem.
2010, 328, 108-113; x) L. Xue, Z. Lin, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2010, 39, 1692-1705.
[102] a) I. W. Davies, J. Wu, J. F. Marcoux, M. Taylor, D. Hughes, P. J. Reider, R. J. Deeth,
Tetrahedron 2001, 57, 5061-5066; b) A. A. C. Braga, N. H. Morgon, G. Ujaque, F. Maseras, J.
Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 9298-9307; c) Y. C. Chang, J. C. Lee, F. E. Hong, Organometallics
2005, 24, 5686-5695; d) L. J. Goossen, D. Koley, H. L. Hermann, W. Thiel, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2005, 127, 11102-11114; e) A. A. C. Braga, G. Ujaque, F. Maseras, Organometallics 2006, 25,
3647-3658; f) F. Maseras, A. A. C. Braga, G. Ujaque, Organometallics 2006, 25, 3647-3658; g)
F. E. Hong, Y. L. Huang, C. M. Weng, Chem.-Eur. J. 2008, 14, 4426-4434.
[103] M. Larhed, C. M. Andersson, A. Hallberg, Tetrahedron 1994, 50, 285-304.
[104] J. E. Backvall, A. Gogoll, Tetrahedron Lett. 1988, 29, 2243-2246.
[105] F. Weinhold, C. Landis, Valancy and Bonding. A Natural Bond Oribital Donor-Acceptor
Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
[106] A. Ishikawa, Y. Nakao, H. Sato, S. Sakaki, Dalton Trans. 2010, 39, 3279-3289.
[107] a) G. Ujaque, A. A. C. Braga, N. H. Morgon, A. Lledos, F. Maseras, J. Organomet. Chem.
2006, 691, 4459-4466; b) C. L. McMullin, J. Jover, J. N. Harvey, N. Fey, Dalton Trans. 2010,
39, 10833-10836; c) B. P. Carrow, J. F. Hartwig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 2116-2119; d) N.
N. Nair, J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 2312-2321.
[108] a) J. S. Temple, M. Riediker, J. Schwartz, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 1310-1315; b) T.
B. Marder, H. Zhang, X. C. Luo, K. Wongkhan, H. Duan, Q. Li, L. Z. Zhu, J. Wang, A. S.
Batsanov, J. A. K. Howard, A. W. Lei, Chem.-Eur. J. 2009, 15, 3823-3829; c) M. PerezRodriguez, A. A. C. Braga, M. Garcia-Melchor, M. H. Perez-Temprano, J. A. Casares, G.
Ujaque, A. R. de Lera, R. Alvarez, F. Maseras, P. Espinet, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 36503657.
96
[109] B. Milani, A. Anzilutti, L. Vicentini, A. S. O. Santi, E. Zangrando, S. Geremia, G.
Mestroni, Organometallics 1997, 16, 5064-5075.
[110] a) N. E. Carpenter, D. J. Kucera, L. E. Overman, J. Org. Chem. 1989, 54, 5846-5848; b) A.
Demeijere, F. E. Meyer, Angew Chem Int Edit 1994, 33, 2379-2411; c) W. J. Drury, N.
Zimmermann, M. Keenan, M. Hayashi, S. Kaiser, R. Goddard, A. Pfaltz, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
2004, 43, 70-74; d) X. L. Hou, W. Q. Wu, Q. Peng, D. X. Dong, Y. D. Wu, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2008, 130, 9717-9725; e) O. Loiseleur, P. Meier, A. Pfaltz, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1996,
35, 200-202; f) Y. Mata, M. Dieguez, O. Pamies, C. Claver, Org. Lett. 2005, 7, 5597-5599; g) Y.
Sato, M. Sodeoka, M. Shibasaki, J. Org. Chem. 1989, 54, 4738-4739.
[111] For some recent examples, see: a) M. Lautens, A. Rudolph, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009,
48, 2656-2670; b) E. Nakamura, N. Yoshikai, H. Matsuda, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 95909599; c) M. Nakamura, T. Hatakeyama, S. Hashimoto, K. Ishizuka, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131,
11949-11963; d) G. A. Molander, O. A. Argintaru, I. Aron, S. D. Dreher, Org. Lett. 2010, 12,
5783-5785; e) G. A. Molander, F. Beaumard, Org. Lett. 2010, 12, 4022-4025; f) M. Nakamura,
K. Ishizuka, H. Seike, T. Hatakeyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 13117-13119; g) L.
Ackermann, R. Sandmann, W. F. Song, Org. Lett. 2011, 13, 1784-1786; h) M. R. Biscoe, A.
Joshi-Pangu, M. Ganesh, Org. Lett. 2011, 13, 1218-1221; i) M. S. Sigman, R. Jana, T. P. Pathak,
Chem. Rev. 2011, 111, 1417-1492; j) Z. X. Wang, L. G. Xie, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50,
4901-4904.
[112] For some recent examples, see: a) I. Koyama, T. Kurahashi, S. Matsubara, J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 2009, 131, 1350-1351; b) F. Lopez, L. Saya, G. Bhargava, M. A. Navarro, M. Gulias, I.
Fernandez, L. Castedo, J. L. Mascarenas, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 9886-9890; c) T.
Miura, M. Morimoto, M. Murakami, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 15836-15838; d) S. Ogoshi,
A. Nishimura, M. Ohashi, Org. Lett. 2010, 12, 3450-3452; e) Z. Z. Qiu, S. R. Wang, Z. W. Xie,
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 4649-4652; f) P. Kumar, D. M. Troast, R. Cella, J. Louie, J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 7719-7721.
[113] For some recent examples, see: a) K. Namitharan, K. Pitchumani, Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2010,
411-415; b) K. Ogata, Y. Atsuumi, S. Fukuzawa, Org. Lett. 2010, 12, 4536-4539; c) K. Ogata, J.
Sugasawa, Y. Atsuumi, S. Fukuzawa, Org. Lett. 2010, 12, 148-151; d) C. M. Yang, M.
Jeganmohan, K. Parthasarathy, C. H. Cheng, Org. Lett. 2010, 12, 3610-3613.
[114] a) N. K. Garg, B. M. Rosen, K. W. Quasdorf, D. A. Wilson, N. Zhang, A. M. Resmerita, V.
Percec, Chem. Rev. 2011, 111, 1346-1416; b) Z. J. Shi, B. J. Li, D. G. Yu, C. L. Sun, Chem.-Eur.
J. 2011, 17, 1728-1759.
[115] a) A. C. Frisch, M. Beller, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 674-688; b) G. C. Fu, N. A.
Strotman, S. Sommer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 3556-3558; c) A. E. Jensen, P. Knochel,
J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 79-85; d) J. Terao, A. Ikumi, H. Kuniyasu, N. Kambe, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2003, 125, 5646-5647; e) J. Terao, H. Watanabe, A. Ikumi, H. Kuniyasu, N. Kambe, J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 4222-4223; f) J. Zhou, G. C. Fu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 1340-1341.
[116] a) G. C. Fu, B. Saito, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 6694-6695; b) G. C. Fu, S. W. Smith, J.
Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 12645-12647; c) F. Glorius, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 83478349; d) G. C. Fu, S. Lou, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 5010-5011; e) G. C. Fu, N. A. Owston,
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 11908-11909; f) Z. Lu, A. Wilsily, G. C. Fu, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2011, 133, 8154-8157.
[117] B. L. Lin, L. Liu, Y. Fu, S. W. Luo, Q. Chen, Q. X. Guo, Organometallics 2004, 23, 21142123.
[118] a) B. H. Bhanage, F. Y. Zhao, M. Shirai, M. Arai, Catal. Lett. 1998, 54, 195-198; b) C. H.
Cheng, P. S. Lin, M. Jeganmohan, Chem. -Asian J. 2007, 2, 1409-1416; c) K. Inamoto, J.
Kuroda, T. Danjo, T. Sakamoto, Synlett 2005, 1624-1626; d) K. Inamoto, J. Kuroda, K. Hiroya,
Y. Noda, M. Watanabe, T. Sakamoto, Organometallics 2006, 25, 3095-3098; e) S. Y. Ma, H. J.
Wang, K. M. Gao, F. Y. Zhao, J. Mol. Catal. A-Chem. 2006, 248, 17-20; f) W. Pei, L. Sun, C.
97
Shen, J. Chem. Res. -S 2006, 388-389; g) Z. X. Wang, Z. Y. Chai, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2007,
4492-4499.
[119] T. F. Jamison, R. Matsubara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 6880-6881.
[120] a) A. Bengtson, M. Larhed, A. Hallberg, J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 5854-5856; b) A. L.
Hansen, T. Skrydstrup, J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 5997-6003; c) T. Tu, X. L. Hou, L. X. Dai, Org.
Lett. 2003, 5, 3651-3653; d) K. S. A. Vallin, Q. S. Zhang, M. Larhed, D. P. Curran, A. Hallberg,
J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 6639-6645.
[121] R. Matsubara, A. C. Gutierrez, T. F. Jamison, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, In press,
DOI:10.1021/ja209235d.
[122] a) M. Larhed, R. K. Arvela, S. Pasquini, J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 6390-6396; b) J. Mo, L. J.
Xu, J. L. Xiao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 751-760; c) C. Sonesson, M. Larhed, C. Nyqvist, A.
Hallberg, J. Org. Chem. 1996, 61, 4756-4763; d) K. S. A. Vallin, M. Larhed, K. Johansson, A.
Hallberg, J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 4537-4542; e) J. L. Xiao, J. W. Ruan, J. A. Iggo, N. G. Berry,
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 16689-16699.
[123] G. A. Lawrance, Chem. Rev. 1986, 86, 17-33.
[124] a) K. Matos, J. A. Soderquist, J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 461-470; b) B. H. Ridgway, K. A.
Woerpel, J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 458-460.
[125] C. Amatore, A. Jutand in Structural and mechanistic aspects of palladium-catalyzed
cross-coupling, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002, pp. 943-972.
[126] a) A. S. Guram, R. A. Rennels, S. L. Buchwald, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1995, 34,
1348-1350; b) J. Louie, J. F. Hartwig, Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 3609-3612.
[127] a) J. Hartwig, Modern Amination Methods, (Ed. A. Ricci) Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2000; b)
J. Hartwig, Handbook of Organopalladium Chemistry for Organic Synthesis, (Ed. E.-I. Negishi)
Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002; c) J. Hartwig, Modern Arene Chemistry, (Ed. C. Astruc)
Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002.
[128] For some recent examples, see: M. A. Fernandez-Rodriguez, Q. L. Shen, J. F. Hartwig, J.
Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 2180-2181.
[129] For some recent examples, see: a) U. Schopfer, A. Schlapbach, Tetrahedron 2001, 57,
3069-3073; b) S. Cacchi, G. Fabrizi, A. Goggiamani, L. M. Parisi, Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 4719-4721.
[130] For some recent examples, see: a) N. S. Gray, S. Ding, X. Wu, Q. Ding, P. G. Schultz, J.
Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 1594-1596; b) X. P. Zhang, G. Y. Gao, A. J. Colvin, Y. Chen, Org.
Lett. 2003, 5, 3261-3264; c) S. L. Buchwald, A. V. Vorogushin, X. H. Huang, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2005, 127, 8146-8149.
[131] H. Y. Chen, S. Schlecht, T. C. Semple, J. F. Hartwig, Science 2000, 287, 1995-1997.
[132] a) M. S. Kharasch, E. K. Fields, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1941, 63, 2316-2320; b) M. S.
Kharasch, M. Kleiman, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1943, 65, 491-493; c) M. S. Kharasch, P. O. Tawney,
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1941, 63, 2308-2315.
[133] a) G. A. Molander, B. J. Rahn, D. C. Shubert, S. E. Bonde, Tetrahedron Lett. 1983, 24,
5449-5452; b) S. M. Neumann, J. K. Kochi, J. Org. Chem. 1975, 40, 599-606; c) R. S. Smith, J.
K. Kochi, J. Org. Chem. 1976, 41, 502-509; d) M. Tamura, J. Kochi, J. Organomet. Chem. 1971,
31, 289-309; e) M. Tamura, J. K. Kochi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1971, 93, 1487-1489; f) M. Tamura,
J. K. Kochi, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1971, 44, 3063-3073.
[134] G. Cahiez, H. Avedissian, Synthesis 1998, 1199-1205.
[135] J. Quintin, X. Franck, R. Hocquemiller, B. Figadere, Tetrahedron Lett. 2002, 43, 35473549.
[136] a) J. W. Han, T. Hayashi, Tetrahedron As. 2002, 13, 325-331; b) N. Ostergaard, B. T.
Pedersen, N. Skjaerbaek, P. Vedso, M. Begtrup, Synlett 2002, 1889-1891.
[137] A. Furstner, A. Leitner, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 609-612.
[138] A. Fuerstner, A. Leitner, M. Mendez, H. Krause, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 1385613863.
[139] B. Scheiper, M. Bonnekessel, H. Krause, A. Fuerstner, J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 3943-3949.
98
[140] a) R. B. Bedford, D. W. Bruce, R. M. Frost, J. W. Goodby, M. Hird, Chem. Commun.
2004, 2822-2823; b) R. B. Bedford, D. W. Bruce, R. M. Frost, M. Hird, Chem. Commun. 2005,
4161-4163; c) T. Nagano, T. Hayashi, Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 1297-1299.
[141] K. G. Dongol, H. Koh, M. Sau, C. L. L. Chai, Adv. Synth. Catal. 2007, 349, 1015-1018.
[142] M. Nakamura, K. Matsuo, S. Ito, E. Nakamura, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3686-3687.
[143] H. Nagashima, D. Noda, Y. Sunada, T. Hatakeyama, M. Nakamura, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2009, 131, 6078-6079.
[144] a) R. B. Bedford, M. Betham, D. W. Bruce, A. A. Danopoulos, R. M. Frost, M. Hird, J.
Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 1104-1110; b) R. R. Chowdhury, A. K. Crane, C. Fowler, P. Kwong, C. M.
Kozak, Chem. Commun. 2008, 94-96.
[145] R. B. Bedford, M. Betham, D. W. Bruce, S. A. Davis, R. M. Frost, M. Hird, Chem.
Commun. 2006, 1398-1400.
[146] K. Jonas, L. Schieferstein, C. Krueger, Y.-H. Tsay, Angew. Chem. 1979, 91, 590-591.
[147] R. Martin, A. Fuerstner, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 3955-3957.
[148] A. Fuerstner, R. Martin, H. Krause, G. Seidel, R. Goddard, C. W. Lehmann, J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 2008, 130, 8773-8787.
[149] X. Xu, D. Cheng, W. Pei, J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 6637-6639.
[150] C. C. Kofink, B. Blank, S. Pagano, N. Gotz, P. Knochel, Chem. Commun. 2007, 19541956.
[151] T. Hatakeyama, M. Nakamura, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 9844-9845.
[152] a) W. M. Czaplik, M. Mayer, A. Jacobi von Wangelin, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48,
607-610; b) W. M. Czaplik, M. Mayer, S. Grupe, A. Jacobi von Wangelin, Pure Appl. Chem.
2010, 82, 1545-1553; c) A. Jacobi von Wangelin, M. Mayer, W. M. Czaplik, Adv. Synth. Catal.
2010, 352, 2147-2152.
[153] A. Furstner, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 1364-1367.
[154] M. Nakamura, S. Ito, K. Matsuo, E. Nakamura, Synlett 2005, 1794-1798.
[155] R. B. Bedford, M. Huwe, M. C. Wilkinson, Chem. Commun. 2009, 600-602.
[156] M. Nakamura, S. Ito, Y. Fujiwara, E. Nakamura, Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 4306-4309.
[157] a) A. Fuerstner, R. Martin, Chem. Lett. 2005, 34, 624-629; b) L. K. Ottesen, F. Ek, R.
Olsson, Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 1771-1773; c) M. Seck, X. Franck, R. Hocquemiller, B. Figadere, J.F. Peyrat, O. Provot, J.-D. Brion, M. Alami, Tetrahedron 2004, 45, 1881-1884; d) G. Seidel, D.
Laurich, A. Fuerstner, J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 3950-3952.
[158] B. Bogdanovic, M. Schwickardi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 4610-4612.
[159] K. Weber, E.-M. Schnöckelborg, R. Wolf, ChemCatChem 2011, 3, 1572-1577.
[160] a) P. J. Alonso, A. B. Arauzo, J. Fornies, M. A. Garcia-Monforte, A. Martin, J. I. Martinez,
B. Menjon, C. Rillo, J. J. Saiz-Garitaonandia, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 6707-6711; b) G.
Cahiez, V. Habiak, C. Duplais, A. Moyeux, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 4364-4366.
[161] A. Guerinot, S. Reymond, J. Cossy, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 6521-6524.
[162] a) X. Creary, M. E. Mehrsheikhmohammadi, S. Mcdonald, J. Org. Chem. 1987, 52, 32543263; b) C. Hansch, A. Leo, R. W. Taft, Chem. Rev. 1991, 91, 165-195.
[163] a) C. Amatore, A. Jutand, Acc. Chem. Res. 2000, 33, 314-321; b) M. Ahlquist, P. Fristrup,
D. Tanner, P. O. Norrby, Organometallics 2006, 25, 2066-2073.
[164] a) R. Alvarez, O. N. Faza, C. S. Lopez, A. R. de Lera, Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 35-38; b) A.
Ariafard, Z. Y. Lin, I. J. S. Fairlamb, Organometallics 2006, 25, 5788-5794; c) A. Nova, G.
Ujaque, F. Maseras, A. Lledos, P. Espinet, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14571-14578.
”I've got an idea - an idea so smart that my head would explode if I even began to know what I'm talking about”
Peter Griffin
99
100