p5 entr tech support

Front cover
IBM Eserver Certification Study Guide
Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise
Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Developed specifically for the purpose
of preparing for certification test 180
Makes an excellent companion
to classroom education
For Eserver p5 and pSeries
enterprise support professionals
Thierry Huché
David Kgabo
Hansjörg Schneider
ibm.com/redbooks
International Technical Support Organization
IBM Eserver Certification Study Guide:
Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical
Support AIX 5L V5.3
December 2005
SG24-7197-01
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in
“Notices” on page ix.
Second Edition (December 2005)
This edition applies to IBM Sserver p5 and pSeries enterprise servers for use with the IBM AIX
5L Version 5.3 operating system (program number 5765-G03).
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP
Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
The team that wrote this redbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Chapter 1. Certification overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Certification requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Required prerequisite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Recommended prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 Information and registration for the certification exam . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.4 Core requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Certification education courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 2. System planning and design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 p5-570 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.1 System specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1.2 Physical package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1.3 Minimum and optional features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.4 Processor features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1.5 Memory features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1.6 Disks and media features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.7 I/O drawers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.8 Architecture and technical overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.9 Dynamic logical partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1.10 Boot process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.11 Operating system requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.12 Capacity on Demand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2 p5-575 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.1 System specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.2 Physical package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.3 Minimum system configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2.4 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2.5 Logical partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2.6 Advanced POWER Virtualization and Partition Load Manager. . . . . 23
2.2.7 System control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2.8 I/O drawers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
iii
2.2.9 Disks, boot devices, and media devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.2.10 PCI-X slots and adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.2.11 Software requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.12 For the required Hardware Management Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.3 p5-590 and p5-595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.3.1 Model abstract for 9119-590 and 9119-595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.3.2 System frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.3.3 Installation planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.3.4 Minimum and optional features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.3.5 Processor features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.6 Operating system support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.7 Memory subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.8 Internal I/O subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.3.9 Disks and boot devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.3.10 Media options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.3.11 PCI-X slots and adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.3.12 Internal storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.4 Simultaneous multithreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.4.1 Enhanced simultaneous multithreading features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4.2 Single threading operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4.3 Benefits of simultaneous multithreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.5 POWER Hypervisor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.5.1 Virtual SCSI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.5.2 Virtual Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.5.3 Virtual (TTY) console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.6 Workload and partition management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.6.1 Partition Load Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.6.2 IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.6.3 AIX Workload Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.6.4 Enterprise Workload Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.7 Guidelines for dynamic LPAR and virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.8 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.8.1 Server firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.8.2 Power subsystem firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.8.3 Platform initial program load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.9 Capacity on Demand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.9.1 Types of Capacity on Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation . . . . . 65
3.1 Initial system configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.1.1 Advanced System Management Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.1.2 System Management Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.2 Basic system management tasks (HMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
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3.2.1 Managing the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.2.2 Rebuilding the managed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
3.2.3 Managing a frame and resources connected to the HMC. . . . . . . . . 76
3.3 Logical partitioning of a system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.3.1 Types of partitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.3.2 Managing a partitioned system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.3.3 Partition profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3.3.4 System profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.3.5 Overall requirements for partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.4 LPAR resource administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.4.1 Assignable resources for logical partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.4.2 Operating states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.4.3 Creating logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.4.4 Activating partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.4.5 Deleting partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.4.6 Partition startup and shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.4.7 Setting up service authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.4.8 Changing default partition profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.4.9 Viewing system profile properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.4.10 Modifying system profile properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.5 Installation of the operating system into a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.5.1 Operating system capability and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.5.2 Recommended configuration for a basic AIX 5L installation . . . . . . . 94
3.5.3 Disks, boot devices, and media devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.5.4 Overview of the AIX 5L installation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.5.5 Introduction to Network Installation Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.5.6 Installing a partition using alternate disk installation . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.5.7 Using a CD-ROM to manually install a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.5.8 Choosing the 64-bit or 32-bit kernel on installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.5.9 Creating a system backup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.6 Dynamic LPAR operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.6.1 Dynamically adding resources to a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.6.2 Dynamically moving resources between partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.6.3 Dynamically removing resources from a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Chapter 4. Hardware management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.1 HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.1.1 Local HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.1.2 Remote HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.1.3 Redundant HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.1.4 Web-based System Manager Remote Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.1.5 HMC connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.1.6 HMC code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Contents
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4.2 Service applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.2.1 Electronic Service Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.2.2 Service Focal Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.2.3 Licensed Internal Code maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.3 LPAR Validation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Chapter 5. Ongoing support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5.1 Perform preventative hardware maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
5.2 Hardware performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
5.2.1 Memory bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
5.2.2 I/O bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5.3 AIX 5L performance monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5.3.1 CPU analysis and tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
5.3.2 Performance considerations for POWER5-based systems . . . . . . 138
5.3.3 Memory analysis and tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
5.3.4 The nmon tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
5.3.5 Performance Toolbox for AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
5.3.6 LoadLeveler for AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
5.4 Manage system software updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
5.4.1 Software packaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
5.4.2 AIX 5L Version 5.3 installation pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
5.4.3 Service Update Management Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
5.4.4 System documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.5 Linux introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.5.1 Planning for Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.5.2 Minimum configuration requirements for a Linux partition . . . . . . . 159
5.5.3 Shared processor support for Linux logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . 159
5.5.4 Installing a Linux distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
5.5.5 Virtual I/O Server and Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
5.5.6 Dynamically managing physical I/O devices and slots on Linux . . . 160
5.6 Basic problem determination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
5.6.1 Error analyzing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.6.2 Managing the error log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
5.6.3 Capturing service data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
5.7 Logical volume management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.7.1 LVM introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.7.2 Physical volume management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5.7.3 Adding a physical disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
5.7.4 Disk replacement procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.7.5 Volume group management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
5.7.6 Logical volumes and file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5.8 Planning and performing backup and recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.8.1 System backup (mksysb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
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5.8.2 System recovery methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
5.8.3 Cloning a system backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
5.8.4 Alternate disk installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.8.5 NIM client (mksysb installation). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.8.6 Using NIM with alternate disk install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.8.7 Using tape or CD/DVD-R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.8.8 Non-root volume group backup and recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.8.9 The savevg command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.8.10 Disaster recovery (business continuity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Chapter 6. Advanced POWER Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
6.1 Overview of Advanced POWER Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.2 Micro-Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
6.2.1 Shared processor partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.2.2 Shared pool overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.3 Virtual networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.3.1 Virtual LAN (VLAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.3.2 Virtual Ethernet adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
6.3.3 Shared Ethernet Adapter (SEA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6.3.4 Virtual networking example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.4 Virtual I/O Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6.4.1 Overview of the Virtual I/O Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6.4.2 Virtual SCSI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.4.3 Installing the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.4.4 Backup and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.4.5 Availability of the Virtual I/O Server partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.5 Partition Load Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
6.5.1 Memory management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
6.5.2 Processor management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
6.5.3 Limitations and considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Contents
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult
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COPYRIGHT LICENSE:
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
ix
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AIX 5L™
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Electronic Service Agent™
Enterprise Storage Server®
ESCON®
Eserver®
Eserver®
eServer™
GDPS®
Geographically Dispersed
Parallel Sysplex™
HACMP™
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Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.
x
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Preface
The IBM® AIX® 5L™ and IBM System p5™ Certifications, offered through the
Professional Certification Program from IBM, are designed to validate the skills
required of technical professionals who work in the powerful and often complex
IBM AIX 5L and IBM System p5 environments. A complete set of professional
certifications are available. They include:
 IBM Certified Specialist - Sserver p5 and pSeries® Administration and
Support for AIX 5L V5.3
 IBM Sserver Certified Specialist - AIX Basic Operations V5
 IBM Sserver Certified Specialist - p5 and pSeries Technical Sales Support
 IBM Certified Systems Expert - Sserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise
Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
 IBM Sserver Certified Systems Expert - pSeries Cluster 1600 PSSP V5
 IBM Sserver Certified Systems Expert - pSeries HACMP™ for AIX 5L
 IBM Sserver Certified Advanced Technical Expert - pSeries and AIX 5L
Each certification is developed by following a thorough and rigorous process to
ensure that the exam is applicable to the job role and is a meaningful and
appropriate assessment of skill. Subject matter experts who successfully perform
the job participate throughout the entire development process. They bring a
wealth of experience into the development process, making the exams much
more meaningful than the typical test that only captures classroom knowledge
and ensuring that the exams are relevant to the real world. Thanks to their effort,
the test content is both useful and valid. The result of this certification is the value
of the appropriate measurements of the skills required to perform the job role.
This IBM Redbook is designed as a study guide for professionals wanting to
prepare for the certification exam to achieve IBM Certified Systems Expert Sserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3. This
technical support certification validates a broad scope of configuration,
installation, and planning skills. In addition, it covers administrative and
diagnostic activities needed to support logical partitions and virtual resources.
This publication helps IBM Eserver® p5 and pSeries professionals seeking a
comprehensive and task-oriented guide for developing the knowledge and skills
required for the certification. It is designed to provide a combination of theory and
practical experience needed for a general understanding of the subject matter.
This publication does not replace the practical experience you should have, but is
an effective tool that, when combined with education activities and experience,
should prove to be a very useful preparation guide for the exam. Due to the close
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
xi
association with the certification content, this publication might reflect older
software and firmware levels of the IBM Sserver p5 systems and available
features. If you are planning to take the Sserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise
Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3 certification exam, this redbook is for you.
For additional information about certification and instructions about how to
register for an exam, visit our Web site at:
http://www.ibm.com/certify
The team that wrote this redbook
This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world
working at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center.
Thierry Huché is an IT Specialist working at the Products and Solutions Support
Center in Montpellier, France, as an IBM Sserver pSeries Benchmark Manager.
He has worked at IBM France for 16 years, and he has more than 14 years of AIX
System Administration, RS/6000®, and Sserver p5 and pSeries experience
working in the pSeries Benchmark Center and AIX support center in Paris. He is
an IBM Certified pSeries AIX System Administrator. His areas of expertise
include benchmarking, performance tuning, networking, high availability, and
problem determination. He coauthored the IBM Redbook Communications
Server for AIX Explored, SG24-2591.
David Kgabo is a Advisory IT Support Specialist in South Africa. He has six
years of experience in UNIX® and Sserver p5 and pSeries administration and
support for AIX 5L. His areas of expertise include UNIX system support.
Hansjörg Schneider is an IBM System p5, Sserver p5, and pSeries Hardware
Support Specialist at the IBM International Technical Support Central Region
Front Office in Ehningen, Germany. He has 11 years of experience in the System
p5, Sserver p5, and pSeries, and AIX 5L fields. He has worked at IBM Germany
for 17 years. He supports clients and customer engineers to provide critical
support related to IBM UNIX systems. His areas of expertise include hardware
and SAN, and he is also an AIX Certified Specialist.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Grace Bauer
IBM Seattle
Gary Moehnke, Donald Heller
IBM Rochester
Jerry J. Petru
IBM Minneapolis
xii
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
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Preface
xiii
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
1
Chapter 1.
Certification overview
This chapter provides an overview of the skill requirements needed to obtain an
IBM Certified Systems Expert certification. The following sections are designed
to provide a comprehensive review of specific topics that are essential for
obtaining the certification IBM Certified Systems Expert - Eserver p5 and
pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3.
This level certifies an advanced level of pSeries and AIX 5L knowledge and
understanding, both in breadth and depth. It verifies the ability to perform
in-depth analysis, apply complex AIX 5L concepts, and provide resolution to
critical problems, all in a variety of areas within AIX 5L including the hardware
that supports it.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 Certification requirements
To attain the IBM Certified Systems Expert - Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise
Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3 certification, you must pass two tests:
 One test must be from the list in the following Required prerequisite section.
 The other test must be the Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical
Support AIX 5L V5.3 exam (Test 180).
1.1.1 Required prerequisite
Prior to attaining the IBM Certified Systems Expert - Eserver p5 and pSeries
Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3 certification, candidates must have the
following certification:
 IBM Certified Specialist - Sserver p5 and pSeries Administration and
Support for AIX 5L V5.3 (Test 222)
1.1.2 Recommended prerequisites
The following prerequisites are recommended:
 Minimum of six months experience in implementing or supporting enterprise
systems.
 Both Test 180 and Test 222 are required for IBM Certified Systems Expert Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3.
 Either Test 197 or Test 232 can be combined with Test 222 or Test 180,
respectively, but the V5.2 level will be indicated on this certification until the
corresponding V5.3 tests are earned.
1.1.3 Information and registration for the certification exam
For the latest certification information, see the following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/certify
1.1.4 Core requirements
Proficiency is established upon passing the following tests.
eServer p5 and pSeries Administration and Support for AIX 5L
Test 222 was developed for the AIX 5L V5.3 level certification.
2
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
eServer p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L
Test 180 was developed for this certification.
Preparation for this exam is the subject of this publication. To pass the test, you
need knowledge about the following topics.
Section I - System Planning and Design
To plan for the system:
 Determine detailed information about the applications (for example, operating
system dependency and compatibility).
 Determine operating system requirements (AIX 5L V5.2, AIX 5L V5.3, Linux®,
or IBM i5/OS®).
 Evaluate performance data (such as average and peak utilizations).
 Define sizing, capacity, performance, and growth requirements of the solution.
 Determine site and hardware requirements (such as power, cooling, space,
cabling, and rack).
 Identify application availability requirements.
 Determine backup and recovery requirements.
 Determine LPAR profile requirements (such as dynamic LPAR, virtual I/O,
Micro-Partitioning™, adapter, CPU, and memory).
 Determine virtual input/output (I/O) requirements.
 Determine load manager requirements (for example, Workload Manager and
Partition Load Manager).
 Design the hardware and software solution and position appropriate
alternatives.
 Validate the proposed solution.
 Determine provisioning requirements (for example, memory and CPU).
 Determine installation and system management requirements.
 Determine specific administrative parameters.
Section II - Installation and Configuration
To install and configure the system:
 Verify that components for installation match the order, and install plans have
not changed.
 Assign boot devices for the machine or LPAR.
 Implement an Advanced System Management Interface installation.
Chapter 1. Certification overview
3
 Install the OS using an appropriate method (for example, SAN, NIM, or
alternate disk installation).
 Configure and validate DLPAR and remote commands, including Web-based
System Manager and SSH.
 Verify network parameters and connectivity.
 Configure initial tuning parameters (such as SMT).
 Configure appropriate volume groups, logical volumes, and file systems.
 Determine when to select 32-bit instead of the 64-bit kernel.
Section III - Hardware Management
To manage the hardware:
 Prepare the server for hardware additions and removals.
 Select resource dependencies (such as the Hardware Management Console,
or HMC, and server).
 Determine LPAR dependencies.
 Manage server firmware.
 Configure IBM Electronic Service Agent™.
 Maintain HMC software and BIOS versions.
 Plan and perform HMC backup and recovery.
Section IV - Ongoing Support
To perform ongoing support:
 Perform preventative hardware maintenance.
 Monitor and tune system performance.
 Manage system software updates.
 Isolate causes of failure and determine appropriate actions.
 Plan and perform system backup and recovery.
 Plan and perform disk management.
Section V - Virtualization
To install and optimize virtualization:
 Identify the advantages of Advanced POWER™ Virtualization features for
pSeries enterprise servers (such as Partition Load Manager and Enterprise
Workload Manager, virtual LAN, virtual SCSI, virtual CPU, and tools to reduce
requirements for physical adapters).
4
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
 Implement Virtual I/O (VIO) Servers (such as, virtual Ethernet, Shared
Ethernet Adapters, virtual SCSI, memory requirements, CPU requirements,
physical adapter requirements, multiple VIO Servers).
 Install VIO Servers (for example, using HMC, using CD-ROM, or using NIM).
 Maintain VIO Servers (such as maintain VIO Server software, OEM drivers,
and applications).
 Configure and maintain Micro-Partitioned LPARs (such as fractional CPU
LPAR allocation, CPU pooling shared processor pool, virtual processors,
capped, or weighted, and uncapped).
 Determine client dependencies to VIO Servers.
1.2 Certification education courses
Courses are offered to help you prepare for the certification tests. For a current
list, visit the following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/certify/tests/edu180.shtml
Chapter 1. Certification overview
5
6
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
2
Chapter 2.
System planning and design
This chapter provides information about system planning and design for the
following systems:
 IBM Sserver p5 570
 IBM Sserver p5 575
 IBM Sserver p5 590 and p5-595
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
7
2.1 p5-570
The IBM Eserver p5 570 rack-mount server is designed for greater application
flexibility, with innovative technology, to capitalize on the e-business revolution at
the midrange level for server environments. With IBM POWER5™
microprocessor technology, the 9117 p5-570 is the first cost-effective,
high-performance midrange UNIX server to include the next development of the
IBM partitioning concept, Micro-Partitioning.
Dynamic logical partitioning is supported from the 2-way p5-570 to the 16-way
p5-570 system, allowing up to 16 dedicated partitions. In addition, the optional
Advanced POWER Virtualization hardware feature enables a technology called
Micro-Partitioning technology. The p5-570 system has been designed to support
up to 160 partitions on a 16-way system. The Micro-Partitioning technology is an
advanced feature of the POWER5 processor that enables multiple partitions to
share a physical processor. The extended POWER Hypervisor controls
dispatching the physical processors to each of the partitions using
Micro-Partitioning technology. In addition to Micro-Partitioning technology, the
Advanced POWER Virtualization feature enables sharing of network and storage
adapters to satisfy the I/O requests of partitions that do not have a dedicated
physical I/O adapter.
In combination with the extraordinary POWER5 processor, the Micro-Partitioning
technology is designed to increase system management efficiency and lower
operating expenses through the multiple use of single physical resources that are
installed in the p5-570 system.
Simultaneous multithreading, a standard feature of POWER5 technology,
enables two threads to be executed at the same time on a single processor.
Simultaneous multithreading is user-selectable with dedicated or processors
from a shared pool for use by partitions using Micro-Partitioning technology.
The symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) p5-570 system features base 2-way, 4-way,
8-way, 12-way, and 16-way, 64-bit, copper-based, SOI-based POWER5
microprocessors running at 1.5 GHz, 1.65 GHz, and 1.9 GHz with 36 MB off-chip
Level 3 cache configurations. The system is based on a concept of system
building blocks. The p5-570 building blocks are facilitated with the use of
processor interconnect and system SP Flex cables that enable as many as four
4-way p5-570 building blocks to be connected to achieve a true 16-way SMP
combined system. Additional processor configurations are possible with the
installation of IBM Eserver Capacity on Demand (CoD) features. Main memory
starting at 2 GB can be expanded to 128 GB in a single drawer, based on the
available DIMMs, for higher performance and exploitation of 64-bit addressing to
meet the demands of enterprise computing, such as large database applications.
8
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
One p5-570 building block includes six hot-plug PCI-X1 slots with Enhanced
Error Handling (EEH) and an enhanced blind-swap mechanism, two Ultra320
SCSI controllers, one 10/100/1000 Mbps integrated dual-port Ethernet controller,
two service processor communications ports, two USB 2.0 ports, two HMC ports,
two remote RIO-2 ports, and two System Power Control Network (SPCN) ports.
The p5-570 includes two 3-pack front-accessible, hot-swap-capable disk bays.
The six disk bays of one IBM Sserver p5 570 building block can accommodate
up to 880.8 GB of disk storage using the 146.8 GB Ultra320 SCSI disk drives.
Two additional media bays are used to accept optional slimline media devices,
such as DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM drives. The p5-570 also has I/O expansion
capability using the RIO-2 bus, which enables attachment of the
7311 Model D10, 7311 Model D11, and 7311 Model D20 I/O drawers.
Additional reliability and availability features include redundant hot-plug cooling
fans and redundant power supplies. Along with these hot-plug components, the
p5-570 is designed to provide an extensive set of reliability, availability, and
serviceability (RAS) features that include improved fault isolation, recovery from
errors without stopping the system, avoidance of recurring failures, and predictive
failure analysis.
2.1.1 System specifications
Table 2-1 lists the general system specifications of a single p5-570 drawer.
Table 2-1 p5-570 specifications
Description
Range
Operating temperature
5 to 35 degrees Celsius (41 to 95° Fahrenheit)
Relative humidity
8% to 80%
Maximum wet bulb
23 degrees C (73° F) (operating)
Noise level
6.5 bels (operating)
Operating voltage
200 to 240 V AC 50/60 Hz
Maximum power consumption
1,300 watts (maximum)
Maximum power source loading
1.37 kVA (maximum configuration)
Maximum thermal output
4,437 Btua/hr (maximum configuration)
a. British thermal unit (Btu)
1
PCI stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect, and the X stands for extended performances.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
9
2.1.2 Physical package
One p5-570 drawer is packaged in a 4U2 rack-mounted enclosure, and it is
available only in the rack-mounted form factor. Table 2-2 shows the major
physical attributes found on the p5-570 building block.
Table 2-2 Physical packaging of the p5-570
Dimension
One p5-570 building block
Height
174.1 mm (6.85 in.)
Width
483 mm (19.0 in.)
Depth
790 mm (31.1 in.)
Weight
63.6 kg (140 lb)
Using the p5-570 building block, an installed system can be made of one to four
building blocks. To help ensure the installation and serviceability in non-IBM,
industry-standard racks, review the vendor’s installation planning information for
any product-specific installation requirements. The processor and SP Flex cables
present an additional planning requirement.
Figure 2-1 on page 11 shows an p5-570 drawer.
2
10
One Electronic Industries Association Unit (1U) is 44.45 mm (1.75 in.).
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
View from the front
power supply 1
PCI-X adapter with
blind-swap mechanism
FSP card
power supply 2
I/O blowers
two slim-line
media bays
three processor
power regulators
processor card 1
processor card 2
six disk drive bays
operator panel
optional RIO-2 ports HMC Eth ports
CUoD card
Power Supply 1
Power Supply 2
SPC port 1
SPC port 2
Rear view
PCI-X slots 1 to 5
PCI-X slot 6 or RIO-2 expantion card
Ethernet and USB ports
default RIO-2 ports
system connector
Figure 2-1 Views of the p5-570
2.1.3 Minimum and optional features
The p5-570 full configuration system is made of four p5-570 building blocks. It
features:
 Up to eight processor books using the POWER5 chip, for a total of 16
processors
 From 2 GB to 512 GB of total system memory capacity using DDR1 DIMM
technology, or from 2 GB to 64 GB total memory with DDR2 DIMM technology
in a four-drawer system
 24 SCSI disk drives for an internal storage capacity of 3.5 TB using 146.8 GB
drives
 24 PCI-X slots
 Eight slimline media bays for optional optical storage devices
The combined system (made up of more than one p5-570 building block)
requires the proper processor interconnect cable and the system SP Flex cable.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
11
The p5-570 building block includes the following native ports:
 Two 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports
 Two system ports
 Two USB 2.0 ports
Optional external USB diskette drive 1.44 can be used.
 Two HMC ports
 Two remote I/O (RIO-2) ports
 Two SPCN ports
In addition, the p5-570 building block features two internal Ultra320 SCSI
controllers, redundant hot-swap power supply and redundant hot-swap cooling
fans, and redundant processor power regulators.
There is a CoD card as part of the hardware configuration. This card stores vital
product data (VPD) and processor information required for management of CoD
features. Because the p5-570 can have processors in up to four physical building
blocks, the card can be replaced or updated by an IBM service representative to
reflect hardware configuration changes.
Note: In a p5-570 combined system made up of more than one building block,
only the two HMC ports and the two service processor communications ports
in the building block with the service processor are available to use.
The system supports 32-bit and 64-bit applications, and it requires specific levels
of operating system.
2.1.4 Processor features
Each p5-570 building block can contain 2-way processor cards with 64-bit,
copper-based, POWER5 microprocessors running at 1.5 GHz, 1.65 GHz, or
1.9 GHz. The processor cards running at 1.5 GHz support up to eight processors
per combined system. All card features are available only as Capacity on
Demand (CoD). The initial order of the p5-570 system must contain the feature
code related to the desired processor card, plus it must contain the processor
activation feature code.
2.1.5 Memory features
The processor cards that are used in the p5-570 system offer eight sockets for
memory DIMMs. The total memory capacity requires four p5-570 building blocks
and eight processor cards. DDR1 and DDR2 DIMMs are different technologies
12
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
that require different memory sockets, so the processor card with POWER5
microprocessors running at 1.9 GHz is available with two feature codes to allow
the two different memory technologies. We recommend that each processor card
has an equal amount of memory installed. Balancing memory across the
installed processor cards enables memory accesses to be distributed evenly
over system components to provide optimal performance.
2.1.6 Disks and media features
Each p5-570 building block features six disk drive bays and two slimline media
device bays. In a full configuration with four connected p5-570 building blocks,
the combined system supports up to 24 disk bays; therefore, the maximum
internal storage capacity is 3.5 TB (using the disk drive features available at the
this time of writing). The minimum configuration requires at least one 36.4 GB
disk drive. In a full configuration, with four connected p5-570 building blocks, the
combined system supports up to eight slimline media device bays. To support
two slimline devices in each p5-570 building block, the optional media enclosure
and backplane are required.
2.1.7 I/O drawers
The p5-570 has six internal blind swap PCI-X slots: Five are long slots and one is
a short slot. The short PCI-X slot can also be used for the Remote I/O expansion
card. If more PCI-X slots are needed, such as to extend the number of LPARs
and partitions using Micro-Partitioning technology, up to 20 7311 Model D10,
7311 Model D11, or 7311 Model D20 I/O drawers can be attached.
2.1.8 Architecture and technical overview
This section discusses the overall system architecture with its major components
described in the following sections. The bandwidths that are provided throughout
the section are theoretical maximums used for reference. You should always
obtain real-world performance measurements using production workloads.
Memory subsystem
The p5-570 memory controller is internal to the POWER5 chip. It interfaces to
either two (DDR1) or four (DDR2) SMI-II buffer chips and eight pluggable DIMMs
per processor card. The minimum memory for a p5-570 processor-based system
is 2 GB. The maximum installable memory is 512 GB (using DDR1 memory
DIMM technology). The p5-570 total memory depends on the number of
available processor cards.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
13
PCI-X slots and adapters
PCI-X, where the X stands for extended, is an enhanced PCI bus that delivers a
bandwidth of up to 1 GBps, running a 64-bit bus at 133 MHz. PCI-X is
backward-compatible, so the p5-570 can support existing 3.3 V PCI adapters.
The system planar provides six PCI-X slots and several integrated PCI devices
that interface the three PCI-X to PCI-X bridges to the primary PCI-X buses on the
PCI-X host bridge chip.
PCI-X slot 6 can accept a short PCI-X or PCI card, and its space is shared with
the Remote I/O expansion card. Therefore, if the Remote I/O expansion card is
installed, this slot must remain empty. The remaining PCI-X slots are full-length
cards. The dual 1 Gb Ethernet adapter is integrated on the system planar.
The PCI-X slots in the p5-570 system support hot-plug and Extended Error
Handling (EEH). In the unlikely event of a problem, EEH-enabled adapters
respond to a special data packet that is generated from the affected PCI-X slot
hardware by calling system firmware, which examines the affected bus, allows
the device driver to reset it, and continues without a system reboot.
64-bit and 32-bit adapters
IBM offers 64-bit adapter options for the p5-570 as well as 32-bit adapters.
Higher-speed adapters use 64-bit slots because they can transfer 64 bits of data
for each data transfer phase. Generally, 32-bit adapters can function in 64-bit
PCI-X slots; however, some 64-bit adapters cannot be used in 32-bit slots. For a
full list of the adapters that are supported on the p5-570 systems, and for
important information regarding adapter placement, visit the IBM ^®
pSeries and AIX Information Center at:
http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base/
Internal storage
Two Ultra320 SCSI controllers under EADS-X (PCI-X host bridge) chips that are
integrated into the system planar are used to drive the internal disk drives. The
six internal drives plug into the disk drive backplane, which has two separate
SCSI buses and controllers with three disk drives per bus. Each of these
controllers can be dynamically assigned to partitions if required.
The internal disk drive bays can be used in two different modes, depending on
whether the SCSI RAID Enablement Card is installed.
The p5-570 supports a split 6-pack disk drive backplane, which is designed for
hot-pluggable disk drives. The disk drive backplane docks directly to the system
planar. The virtual SCSI enclosure services (VSES) hot-plug control functions
are provided by the Ultra320 SCSI controllers.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Note: Linux does not support hot-swap of any disk drive at the time of writing;
therefore, the Linux operating system does not support these hot-swappable
procedures. A p5-570 system running Linux must be shut down and powered
off before you replace any disk drives.
2.1.9 Dynamic logical partitioning
The logical partition (LPAR) was introduced with the IBM POWER4™ processor
product line and the AIX 5L Version 5.1 operating system. The technology
offered the capability to divide a system into separate systems, where each
LPAR runs an operating environment on dedicated attached devices, such as
processors, memory, and I/O components. Clients requested system flexibility to
change the system topology on demand, and this was achieved by modifying the
system layout on the required HMC. Global or individual changes take part on all
involved partitions to redefine the new partition layout. Therefore, a reboot of one
or more partitions was required.
Later, dynamic LPAR increased the flexibility, enabling selected system
resources such as processors, memory, and I/O components to be added and
deleted from dedicated partitions while they were executing. Therefore, AIX 5L
V5.2 with all necessary enhancements to enable dynamic LPAR was introduced
in 2002. This required an attached HMC with the proper level of software to
control the system resources and an updated system firmware level to
electronically isolate systems resources. The ability to reconfigure dynamic
LPARs encourages system administrators to dynamically redefine all available
system resources to reach the optimum capacity for each defined dynamic
LPAR.
On the p5-570, the USB devices are considered a group, as are the slimline
devices. Devices within a group must be moved from partition to partition as a
group. Other devices, such as individual I/O slots, can be relocated individually.
When a system is not featured with the SCSI RAID Enablement Card, each
3-pack of disks will be assigned to an independent integrated SCSI adapter, thus
enabling you to configure the system with boot disks for two partitions per
building block. When a SCSI RAID Enablement Card is present, all six disks will
be logically connected to a single integrated SCSI adapter (even if using JBOD),
and therefore, they can only belong to a single active partition at a time.
Virtualization
On the p5-570 server, logical partitions requiring dedicated resources may now
be able to take advantage of a new technology that enables resources to be
Chapter 2. System planning and design
15
virtualized, allowing for a better overall balance of global system resources and
their effective utilization.
Advanced POWER Virtualization feature
The Advanced POWER Virtualization feature is an optional additional cost
hardware feature that is available on all IBM Sserver POWER5
processor-based systems. Each system has a unique feature code for this
feature. The Advanced POWER Virtualization feature includes:
 Firmware enablement for Micro-Partitioning
 Installation image for the IBM Virtual I/O Server software that supports:
– Ethernet adapter sharing
– Virtual SCSI server
 Partition Load Manager:
– Automated CPU and memory reconfiguration
– Real-time partition configuration and load statistics
 Graphical user interface
For more information about virtualization, go to Chapter 6, “Advanced POWER
Virtualization” on page 191.
2.1.10 Boot process
From the earlier RS/6000 systems, through the previous pSeries systems, the
boot process passed through several enhancements. With the implementation of
the POWER5 technology, the boot process is enhanced to accommodate the
flexibility that the POWER5 processor-based hardware features. Depending on
the client’s needs, a system might or might not require the use of an HMC to
manage the system. The boot process, based on the initial program load (IPL)
setup, is determined by the hardware setup and the way you use the features
that POWER5 processor-based systems provide.
The IPL process starts when power is connected to the system. Immediately
after, the SP starts an internal self test (built-in self-test, or BIST) that is based on
integrated diagnostic programs. The system status changes to standby only
when all of the test units have passed.
IPL flow without an HMC attached to the system
When system status is standby, the SP presents a System Management
Interface (SMI), which can be accessed by pressing any key on an attached
serial console keyboard, or the Advanced System Management Interface (ASMI),
which uses a Web browser3 on a client system that is connected to the SP on an
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Ethernet network. For more information about ASMI, go to 3.1.1, “Advanced
System Management Interface” on page 66.
The SP and the ASMI are standard on all POWER5 processor-based hardware.
Both system management interfaces require the general or admin ID password,
and they both enable you to set flags that affect the operation of the system
according to the provided password, such as auto-power restart, view
information about the system (such as the error log and VPD), network
environment access setup, and control of system power.
The p5-570 has a permanent firmware boot side, or A side, and a temporary
firmware boot side, or B side. New levels of firmware should be installed on the
temporary side first in order to test the update’s compatibility with your
applications. When the new level of firmware has been approved, it can be
copied to the permanent side.
In the SMI and ASMI, you can view and change IPL settings:
 System boot speed
Fast or Slow: Fast boot results in skipped diagnostic tests and shorter
memory tests during the boot.
 Firmware boot side for next boot
Permanent or Temporary: Firmware updates should be tested by booting from
the temporary side before being copied into the permanent side.
 System operating mode
Manual or Normal: Manual mode overrides various automatic power-on
functions, such as auto-power restart, and enables the power switch button.
 AIX 5L/Linux partition-mode boot (available only if the system is not managed
by the HMC)
– Service mode boot from saved list: This is the preferred way to run
concurrent AIX diagnostics.
– Service mode boot from default list: This is the preferred way to run
stand-alone AIX 5L diagnostics.
– Boot to open firmware prompt.
– Boot to System Management Service (SMS): To further select the boot
devices or network boot options.
 Boot to server firmware
– Select the state for the server firmware: Standby or Running.
3
Supported browsers are Netscape (Version 7.1), Microsoft® Internet Explorer (Version 6.0), and
Opera (Version 7.23). At the time of writing, older or previous versions of these browsers are not
supported. JavaScript™ and cookies must be enabled.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
17
– When the server is in the server firmware standby state, partitions can be
set up and activated.
IPL flow with an HMC attached to the system
When system status is standby, you can either use the HMC to open a virtual
terminal and access the SMI, or launch a Web browser to access the ASMI.
Using the SMI or the ASMI, you can view or modify the proper IPL settings in
order to set the boot mode to partition standby and then turn the system on, but
the HMC can be also used to power on the managed system (and is highly
recommended). Using the HMC to turn the system on requires selecting one of
the following options:
 Partition Standby
The Partition Standby power-on mode enables you to create and activate
logical partitions:
– When the Partition Standby power-on is completed, the operator panel on
the managed system displays LPAR..., indicating that the managed
system is ready for you to use the HMC to partition its resources and,
possibly, activate them.
– When a partition is activated, the HMC requires you to select the boot
mode of the single partition.
 System Profile
The System Profile option powers on the system according to a predefined
set of profiles. Profiles are activated in the order in which they are shown in
the system profile.
 Partition autostart
This option powers on the managed system to partition standby mode and
then activates all partitions that have been designated autostart.
After the system succeeds to boot with any of these choices, the HMC can be
used to manage the system, such as continuing to boot from operating system or
managing the logical partitions.
Note: The same HMC cannot be attached to POWER4 and POWER5
processor-based systems simultaneously, but for redundancy purposes, one
POWER5 server can be attached to two HMCs.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
2.1.11 Operating system requirements
All new POWER5 servers are capable of running IBM AIX 5L for POWER and
support appropriate versions of Linux. AIX 5L has been specifically developed
and enhanced to exploit and support the extensive RAS features on IBM
Sserver pSeries systems.
For more information about the supported operating systems, go to 3.5.1,
“Operating system capability and configuration” on page 92.
2.1.12 Capacity on Demand
p5-570 systems can be shipped with non-activated resources (processors and
memory) that can be added as they are needed. Processors and memory can be
brought online to meet increasing workload demands without affecting system
operations.
IBM Eserver Capacity on Demand (CoD) is supported on p5 Model 570 when
the 1.65 GHz and 1.9 GHz POWER5 processors are used.
The following sections outline the different methods that are available, namely:
 Processor
– Capacity Upgrade on Demand
– Reserve Capacity on Demand
– Dynamic processor sparing
 Memory
– Permanent Capacity Upgrade on Demand for memory
– On/Off Capacity on Demand
– Reserve Capacity on Demand
 Processor and memory
– Trial Capacity on Demand for processors and memory
2.2 p5-575
The 9118 IBM Sserver p5 Model 575 delivers an 8-way, 1.9 GHz POWER5
high-bandwidth cluster node, ideal for many high-performance computing
applications.
The p5-575 offers a highly competitive platform for addressing the needs of users
who can take advantage of the distinctive combination of high-performance
Chapter 2. System planning and design
19
computation and extraordinary per-processor memory bandwidth offered by the
p5-575. The p5-575 is designed with a strong affinity to applications such as
oceanographic and atmospheric studies, quantum physics, and computer-aided
engineering (CAE), as well as meeting the requirements of supporting
large-scale, data-intensive applications, such as business intelligence and data
warehousing found in the retail, banking, finance, and insurance sectors, among
others.
The p5-575 is packaged in a super-dense 2U form factor, with up to 12 nodes
installed in a 42U-tall, 24-inch rack. Multiple racks of p5-575 nodes can be
combined to provide a broad range of powerful cluster solutions. Up to 16 p5-575
nodes can be clustered together for a total of 128 processors. Clusters larger
than 16 nodes are available through special bid at this time; clusters of 128
nodes (1024 processors) are available.
The symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) node uses 64-bit, copper-based,
single-core POWER5 microprocessors in an 8-way configuration. Each
microprocessor is supported by 36 MB of Level 3 cache and up to eight memory
DIMMs with point-to-point memory to processor connections. Each 8-way
includes 64 slots for memory DIMMs. Memory sizes are offered from 1 GB up to
256 GB. With the optional I/O Assembly with PCI-X and RIO-2, along with a
system I/O drawer, up to twenty-four PCI-X cards and up to eighteen 15,000 rpm
disk drives are available.
The p5-575 offers:
 2U rack-mount design
 1.9 GHz single-core IBM POWER5 processors in 8-way configuration
 12.4 GBps memory bandwidth per CPU
 Up to 256 GB of memory
 Up to 1,468 GB of internal disk storage
 Up to 18 hot-swap disk bays and 24 hot-swap PCI-X slots
 Up to six independent I/O buses
 36 MB of low-latency cache per CPU
 Redundant rack power subsystem
 Dynamic logical partitioning (DLPAR)
 Optional Advanced POWER Virtualization
 Cluster 1600 enhancements include Cluster Systems Management (CSM)
support for the p5-575
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
2.2.1 System specifications
Table 2-3 lists the general system specifications of a p5-575 system.
Table 2-3 p5-575 specifications
Description
Range
Operating temperature
5 to 32 degrees C (41 to 95° F)
Relative humidity
8% to 80%
Maximum wet bulb
23 degrees C (73° F) (operating)
Operating voltage
200 to 240 V AC 50/60 Hz
Maximum power consumption
41.6 kW (maximum)
Maximum power source loading
22.3 (maximum, assuming 0.93 pf) kVA (x2)
Maximum thermal output
41,600 joules/sec (142,000 Btu/hr) maximum
2.2.2 Physical package
The p5-575 cluster node uses the 24-inch System Rack (FC 5793) with 42U of
rack space for:
 p5-575 nodes
 Two identical, fully redundant bulk power assemblies (BPA)
 Two identical, fully redundant, optional internal battery features (IBF)
 I/O drawers
 Covers, front and rear (option for either slimline or acoustic)
The p5-575 rack incorporates two identical, redundant BPAs mounted in the front
and rear (redundant) sections of the top of the rack. The rack has an option for
fully redundant internal battery features (IBF) mounted in the front and rear
(redundant) sections of the rack, as shown in Table 2-4.
Table 2-4 Physical packaging of the p5-575 rack
Dimension
p5-575
Height
2025 mm (79.7 in.)
Width
785 mm (30.9 in.)
Depth
1530 mm (60.2 in.)
Weight
1573 kg (3460 lb) with acoustic door and IBF
Chapter 2. System planning and design
21
2.2.3 Minimum system configuration
The minimum configuration for an IBM Sserver 9118 575 includes the items (for
the first node in a rack) listed in Table 2-5.
Table 2-5 Minimum system configuration
Quantity
Component description
One
p5-575 (9118-575)
One
8-way 1.9 GHz POWER5 processor, 288 MB L3 cache and system
planar
One
I/O assembly without PCI-X or RIO-2 capability
One
Power cable group, 09U (or 09U Left)
One
Ethernet cable, node to hubs, EIA01 through EIA17
One
1024 MB (4 x 256 MB) DIMMs, 208-pin, 266 MHz DDR SDRAM
Two
73.4 GB 10,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI disk drive assembly
One
System rack
One
Rack content specify
Two
Slimline or acoustic door kit
Two
Bulk power regulators
Two
Power controller assemblies
Two
Line cords
One
Ethernet cable, Hardware Management Console to system unit
One
Language specify
2.2.4 Memory
The p5-575 uses Double Data Rate (DDR) DRAM memory DIMMs.
2.2.5 Logical partitioning
Logical partitioning (LPAR) allows the p5-575 node resources to be allocated and
for multiple instances of the supported operating systems to be run
simultaneously on a single node:
 LPAR allocation, monitoring, and control is provided by the Hardware
Management Console.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
 Each LPAR functions under its own instance of the operating system.
 A minimum of 128 MB of memory is required per LPAR.
2.2.6 Advanced POWER Virtualization and Partition Load Manager
The optional Advanced POWER Virtualization feature allows partitions to be
created that are in units of less than one CPU (sub-CPU LPARs) and allows the
same system I/O to be virtually allocated to these partitions. For more details, go
to Chapter 6, “Advanced POWER Virtualization” on page 191.
 With Advanced POWER Virtualization, the processors on the system can be
partitioned into as many as 10 LPARs per processor.
 Advanced POWER Virtualization includes Partition Load Manager, which
provides cross-partition workload management across the system LPARs.
 An encryption key is supplied to the client and installed on the system,
authorizing the partitioning at the subprocessor level.
 Using Advanced POWER Visualization, the p5-575 can be divided into as
many as 80 logical partitions per node. System resources can be dedicated to
each LPAR.
 Advanced POWER Virtualization requires AIX 5L V5.3 or SUSE LINUX
Enterprise Server 9 for POWER.
2.2.7 System control
The following key points pertain to system control:
 Each p5-575 node must be connected to a Hardware Management Console
(HMC) for system control, LPAR, and service functions. The HMC is capable
of supporting multiple POWER5 nodes.
 Each p5-575 node can be connected to two HMCs for redundancy if desired.
 The p5-575 is connected to the HMC using Ethernet connections. Each
P5-575 connects to the integrated Ethernet hubs within the system rack. The
hubs are connected to the HMC through two Ethernet cables.
2.2.8 I/O drawers
The following key points pertain to available I/O drawers:
 The p5-575 uses optional 4U-tall remote I/O drawers for additional directly
attached PCI or PCI-X adapters and SCSI disk capabilities.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
23
 Each I/O drawer is divided into halves. Each half contains 10 blind-swap
PCI-X slots and one or two Ultra3 SCSI 4-pack backplanes for a total of 20
PCI slots and up to 16 hot-swap disk bays per drawer.
 Existing 7040-61D I/O drawers can be attached to a p5-575 node if available.
 Only 7040-61D I/O drawers containing PCI-X planars are supported. Any PCI
planars must be replaced with PCI-X planars before the drawer can be
attached.
 SP Switch2 PCI-X Attachment Adapter must be removed from the 7040-61D
if present.
 A maximum of one I/O drawer can be connected to a p5-575 node.
 One single-wide, blind-swap cassette is provided in each PCI-X slot of the I/O
drawer. To ensure the proper environmental characteristics for the drawer, FC
4599 should be ordered for adapters requiring a blind swap cassette.
 All 10 PCI-X slots on each I/O drawer planar are capable of supporting either
64-bit or 32-bit PCI or PCI-X adapters. Each I/O drawer planar provides 10
PCI-X slots capable of supporting 3.3 V signaling PCI or PCI-X adapters
operating at speeds up to 133 MHz.
 Each I/O drawer planar incorporates two integrated Ultra3 SCSI adapters for
direct attachment of the two 4-pack hot swap backplanes in that half of the
drawer. These adapters do not support external SCSI device attachments.
 Each half of the I/O drawer is powered separately.
2.2.9 Disks, boot devices, and media devices
A minimum of two identical internal SCSI hard disk drives are required per
p5-575 node. We highly recommend that these disks be used as mirrored boot
devices. This configuration provides service personnel the maximum amount of
diagnostic information if the system encounters errors in the boot sequence.
The p5-575 incorporates an early power-off warning (EPOW) capability that
assists in performing an orderly system shutdown in the event of a sudden power
loss. IBM recommends use of the Integrated Battery Backup features or an
uninterruptible power system (UPS) to help ensure against loss of data due to
power failures.
2.2.10 PCI-X slots and adapters
System maximum limits for adapters and devices might not provide optimal
system performance. These limits are given for connectivity and functionality
assurance.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Configuration limitations have been established to help ensure appropriate PCI
or PCI-X bus loading, adapter addressing, and system and adapter functional
characteristics when ordering I/O drawers.
Adapters
Most PCI and PCI-X adapters for the p5-575 system are capable of being
hot-plugged. Any PCI adapter supporting a boot device or system console
should not be hot-plugged.
The following adapters are not hot-plug-capable:
 POWER GXT135P Graphics Accelerator with Digital Support
 2-Port Multiprotocol PCI Adapter
2.2.11 Software requirements
The minimum software requirements are:
 AIX 5L for POWER V5.2 with the 5200-04 Recommended Maintenance
Package (APAR IY56722), or later, plus APAR IY60347
 AIX 5L for POWER V5.3 with APAR IY60349, or later
 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 for POWER systems, or later
 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS for POWER Version 3, or later
For more information about software requirements, see 3.5.1, “Operating system
capability and configuration” on page 92.
2.2.12 For the required Hardware Management Console
The HMC must have Hardware Management Console for POWER5 Licensed
Machine Code Version 4.4 provided in APAR MB00691.
2.3 p5-590 and p5-595
The IBM Sserver p5 590 and IBM Sserver p5 595 servers are redefining the
IT economics of enterprise UNIX and Linux computing. The up to 64-way p5-595
server is the new flagship of the product line with nearly three times the
commercial performance (based on rPerf estimates) and twice the capacity of its
predecessor, the IBM Sserver pSeries 690. Accompanying the p5-595 is the up
to 32-way p5-590 that offers enterprise-class function and more performance
than the pSeries 690 at a significantly lower price for comparable configurations.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
25
These servers come standard with mainframe-inspired reliability, availability, and
serviceability (RAS) capabilities and IBM Virtualization Engine™ systems
technology with breakthrough innovations such as Micro-Partitioning.
Micro-Partitioning allows as many as 10 logical partitions (LPARs) per processor
to be defined. Both systems can be configured with up to 254 virtual servers with
a choice of the AIX 5L, Linux, and i5/OS operating systems in a single server,
designed to enable cost-saving consolidation opportunities.
Note: Not all system features available under the AIX 5L operating system are
available under the Linux operating system.
2.3.1 Model abstract for 9119-590 and 9119-595
The 9119 IBM ^ p5 Model 590 and 595 systems provide an expandable
high-end enterprise solution for managing e-business computing requirements.
Table 2-6 represents the major product attributes of these models with the major
differences highlighted by shading.
Table 2-6 9119-590 and 9119-595 attributes
26
Attribute
9119-590
9119-595
SMP processor configurations
8- to 32-way
16-, 32-, 48- and
64-way
Maximum 16-way CPU books
2
4
Processor clock rate
1.65 GHz
1.65 GHz Standard
or
1.9 GHz Turbo
Processor cache per processor pair
1.9 MB Level 2
36 MB Level 3
1.9 MB Level 2
36 MB Level 3
Processor packaging
Multichip Module
(MCM)
MCM
64-bit copper technology POWER5
processor
Y
Y
Maximum memory configuration
1 TB
2 TB
Rack space
42U 24-inch custom
rack
42U 24-inch custom
rack
Maximum number of I/O drawers
8
12
Maximum number of PCI-slots
160
240
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Attribute
9119-590
9119-595
Maximum number of 15 K rpm disks
128
192
Dual service processors
Y
Y
Integrated redundant power
Y
Y
Battery backup option
Y
Y
Powered expansion rack available
N
Y
Dynamic LPAR
Y
Y
Micro-Partitioning with up to 254
partitions
Y
Y
Acoustic rack doors available
Y
Y
Support for AIX 5L, Linux, and i5/OS
Y
Y
Each 16-way processor book also includes 16 slots for memory cards and six
Remote I/O-2 attachment cards for connection of the system I/O drawers.
Each I/O drawer contains twenty 3.3-volt PCI-X adapter slots and up to sixteen
disk bays.
The AIX 5L V5.2 and V5.3, Linux, and i5/OS V5R3 operating systems can run
simultaneously in different partitions within the a server.
2.3.2 System frames
Both the p5-590 and p5-595 systems are based on the same 24-inch wide,
42 EIA height frame. Inside this frame, all the server components are placed in
predetermined positions. This design and mechanical organization offers
advantages in optimization of floor space usage.
The p5-590 and p5-595 servers are designed with a basic server configuration
that starts with a single frame (Figure 2-2 on page 28) and is featured with
optional and required components.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
27
24-inch System Frame, 42U
8U
(HMC)
18U
IBM Hardware
Management
Console
required
4U
4U
4U
4U
Bulk Power Assembly
(second fully redundant Bulk
Power Assembly on rear)
Central Electronics Complex (CEC)
Up to four 16-way books
Each book contains:
- two Multichip Modules
- up to 512 GB memory
- six RIO-2 I/O hub adapters
Two hot-plug redundant blowers with
two more on the rear of the CEC
Optional I/O Drawer or
Internal batteries
Optional I/O Drawer or
Internal batteries
First I/O Drawer (required)
Optional I/O Drawer or High
Performance Switch
Figure 2-2 Primary system frame organization
For additional capacity, either a powered or non-powered frame can be
configured for a p5-595, or a non-powered frame for the p5-590, as shown in
Figure 2-3 on page 29.
A powered Expansion Rack is available for large system configurations that
require more power and space than is available from the primary system rack. It
provides the same redundant power subsystem available in the primary rack. For
example, when p5-595 servers contain three or four processor books, the power
subsystem in the primary system rack can support only the central electronics
complex (CEC) and any I/O drawers that can be mounted in the system rack
itself. In such configurations, additional I/O drawers must be mounted in the
powered Expansion Rack.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Powered
p5-595
Required for 48- or 64-way server
with more than 4 I/O drawers
Consider this frame if anticipating
future rapid I/O growth, where CEC
will not handle power requirements
A bolt-on frame may be added later
for more capacity
Bolt-on
May be used for 16- or 32-way server
with more than 4 I/O drawers, using
power from the primary CEC frame
A powered frame may be added later
Figure 2-3 Powered and bolt-on frames
2.3.3 Installation planning
Product installation and in-depth system cabling are beyond the scope of this
publication. Complete installation instructions are shipped with each order.
Comprehensive planning advice is available at the following Web page:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/index.jsp
We describe key specifications in the following sections.
System specifications
Table 2-7 lists the general system specifications of the p5-590 and p5-595
servers.
Table 2-7 p5-590 and p5-595 server specifications
Description
Range
Recommended operating temperature
(8-way, 16-way, 32-way)
10 degrees to 32 degrees C
(50 degrees to 89.6 degrees F)
Recommended operating temperature
(48-way and 64-way)
10 degrees to 28 degrees C
(50 degrees to 82.4 degrees F)
Chapter 2. System planning and design
29
Description
Range
Operating voltage
200 to 240, 380 to 415, or 480 volts AC
Operating frequency
50/60 plus or minus 0.5 Hz
Maximum power consumption (1.9 GHz
processor)
22.7 kW
Maximum power consumption (1.65 GHz
processor)
20.3 kW
Maximum thermal output (1.9 GHz
processor)
77.5 kBtu/hr (British thermal unit)
Maximum thermal output (1.65 GHz
processor)
69.3 kBtu/hr (British thermal unit)
Physical package
Table 2-8 lists the major physical attributes found on the p5-590 and p5-595
servers.
Table 2-8 p5-590 and p5-595 server physical packaging
Dimension
Height
2025 mm (79.7 in.)
Width
785 mm (30.9 in.)
Depth
1326 mm (52.2 in.)a or 1681 mm (66.2 in.)b
Weight
Minimum configuration
1241 kg (2735 lb)
Maximum configuration
2458 kg (5420 lb)
a. With slimline doors installed
b. Without slimline doors installed
There are several possible frame configurations of the p5-590 and p5-595
servers. FC 7960 (Compact Rack Option) is designed to provide improved
access through doorways during shipment.
Figure 2-4 on page 31 shows service clearances for double-frame systems with
acoustical doors.
Note: The p5-595 and p5-590 servers must be installed in a raised floor
environment.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Figure 2-4 Service clearances
2.3.4 Minimum and optional features
The purpose of this section is to establish the minimum configuration for a
p5-590 and p5-595.
Table 2-9 identifies the components required to construct a minimum
configuration for a p5-590.
Table 2-9 p5-590 minimum system configuration
Quantity
Component description
One
IBM Sserver p5-590.
One
Media drawer for installation and service actions (additional media
features might be required) without Network Installation Management
(NIM).
One
16-way, POWER5 processor book, 0-way active.
Eight
1-way, processor activations.
Two
Memory cards with a minimum of 8 GB of activated memory.
Two
Processor clock cards, programmable.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
31
Quantity
Component description
One
Power cable group, bulk power to CEC and fans.
Three
Power converter assemblies, central electronics complex.
One
Power cable group, first processor book.
Two
System service processors.
One
Multiplexer card.
Two
RIO-2 loop adapters, single loop.
One
I/O drawer.
Note: Requires 4U frame space.
One
Remote I/O (RIO) cable, 0.6 m.
Note: Used to connect drawer halves.
Two
Remote I/O (RIO) cables, 2.5 m.
Two
15,000 rpm Ultra3 SCSI disk drive assemblies.
One
I/O drawer attachment cable group.
One
Slimline or acoustic door kit.
Two
Bulk power regulators.
Two
Bulk Power Controller assemblies.
Two
Bulk power distribution assemblies.
Two
Line cords.
One
Language specify.
One
Hardware Management Console.
Table 2-10 identifies the components required to construct a minimum
configuration for a p5-595.
Table 2-10 p5-595 minimum system configuration
32
Quantity
Component description
One
IBM Sserver p5-595.
One
16-way, POWER5 processor book,
0-way active.
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Quantity
Component description
Note: The following two components must be added to p5-595 servers with one
processor book:
 One - Cooling group
 One - Power cable group
Sixteen
1-way, processor activations.
Two
Memory cards with a minimum of 8 GB of activated memory.
Two
Processor clock cards, programmable.
One
Power cable group, bulk power to CEC and fans.
Three
Power converter assemblies, central electronics complex.
One
Power cable group, first processor book.
One
Multiplexer card.
Two
Service processors.
Two
RIO-2 loop adapter, single loop.
One
I/O drawer.
Note: 4U frame space required.
One
Remote I/O (RIO) cable, 0.6 m.
Note: Used to connect drawer halves.
Two
Remote I/O (RIO) cables, 3.5 m.
Two
15,000 rpm Ultra3 SCSI disk drive assembly.
One
PCI SCSI Adapter or PCI LAN Adapter for attachment of a device to read
CD media or attachment to a NIM server.
One
I/O drawer attachment cable group.
One
Slimline or acoustic door kit.
Two
Bulk power regulators.
Two
Power controller assemblies.
Two
Power distribution assemblies.
Two
Line cords.
One
Language specify.
One
Hardware Management Console.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
33
Note: An HMC is required, and two HMCs are recommended. A private
network with the HMC providing DHCP services is mandatory on these
systems.
2.3.5 Processor features
The p5-590 system features base 8-way Capacity on Demand (CoD), 16-way,
and 32-way configurations with the POWER5 processor running at 1.65 GHz.
The p5-595 system features base 16-way, 32-way, 48-way, and 64-way
configurations with the POWER5 processor running at 1.65 GHz or 1.9 GHz.
The p5-590 and p5-595 system configuration is based on the processor book. To
configure it, it is necessary to order one or more of the following components:
 One or more 16-way processor book, 0-way active
 Activation codes to reach the expected configuration
Note: Any p5-595 or p5-590 system made up of more than one processor
book must have all processor cards running at the same speed.
For a list of available processor features, refer to Table 2-11.
Table 2-11 Available processor options
Description
16-way POWER5 Turbo Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD) processor book,
0-way active
16-way POWER5 Standard Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD) processor book,
0-way active
Note: POWER5 Turbo refers to 1.9 GHz clocking; POWER5 Standard refers
to 1.65 GHz clocking.
2.3.6 Operating system support
The p5-590 and p5-595 server are capable of running IBM AIX 5L for POWER
and i5/OS and support appropriate versions of Linux. AIX 5L has been
specifically developed and enhanced to exploit and support the extensive RAS
features on IBM Sserver systems.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
For more details, see 3.5.1, “Operating system capability and configuration” on
page 92.
2.3.7 Memory subsystem
The p5-590 and p5-595 memory controller is internal to the POWER5 chip. It
interfaces to four Synchronous Memory Interface II (SMI-II) buffer chips and eight
DIMM cards per processor chip. There are 16 memory card slots per processor
book, and each processor chip on an Multichip Module (MCM) owns a pair of
memory cards.
The p5-590 and p5-595 use Double Data Rate (DDR) DRAM memory cards. The
two types of DDR memory used are DDR1 and the higher-speed DDR2. Memory
migration from previous systems is not supported.
Note: Because the DDR1 and DDR2 modules use different voltages, mixing
the memory technologies is not allowed within a server.
Table 2-12 lists the memory features available for the p5-590 and the p5-595 at
the time of writing.
Table 2-12 Types of available memory cards for p5-590 and p5-595
Memory type
Size
Speed
Number of memory
cards
DDR1
COD
4 GB (2 GB active)
266 MHz
1
8 GB (4 GB active)
266 MHz
1
DDR1
16 GB
266 MHz
1
32 GB
200 MHz
1
256 GB package
266 MHz
32 * 8 GB
512 GB package
266 MHz
32 * 16 GB
512 GB package
200 MHz
16 * 32 GB
4 GB
533 MHz
1
DDR2
Memory configuration and placement
The minimum memory for a p5-590 processor-based system is 2 GB, and the
maximum installable memory is 1024 GB using DDR1 memory DIMM technology
(128 GB using DDR2 memory DIMM). The total memory depends on the number
of available processors (16 per processor book).
Chapter 2. System planning and design
35
Table 2-13 lists the possible memory configurations.
Table 2-13 Memory configuration table
System
p5-590
p5-595
8 GB
8 GB
Max. configurable memory using DDR1 memory
1,024 GB
2,048 GB
Max. configurable memory using DDR2 memory
128 GB
256 GB
32
64
Min. configurable memory
Max. number of memory cards
The following rules must be observed:
 Memory must be installed in identical pairs.
 Servers with one processor book must have a minimum of two memory cards
installed.
 Servers with two processor books must have a minimum of four memory
cards installed per processor book (two per MCM).
The following memory configuration guidelines are recommended:
 The same amount of memory should be used for each MCM (two per
processor book) in the system.
 Each 8-way MCM (two per processor book) should have some memory.
 No more than two different sizes of memory cards should be used in each
processor book.
 All MCMs (two per processor book) in the system should have the same
aggregate memory size.
 A minimum of half of the available memory slots in the system should contain
memory.
 It is better to install more cards of smaller capacity than fewer cards of larger
capacity.
For p5-590 and p5-595 servers being used for high-performance computing, the
following guidelines are strongly recommended:
 Use DDR2 memory.
 Install some memory in support of each 8-way MCM (two MCMs per
processor book).
 Use the same sized memory cards across all MCMs and processor books in
the system.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
2.3.8 Internal I/O subsystem
The p5-590 and p5-595 use remote I/O drawers (that are 4U) for directly
attached PCI or PCI-X adapters and SCSI disk capabilities. A minimum of one
I/O drawer is required per system.
Note: The p5-590 supports up to eight I/O drawers, while the p5-595 supports
up to 12 I/O drawers.
2.3.9 Disks and boot devices
A minimum of two internal SCSI hard disks are required per server. We
recommend that these disks be used as mirrored boot devices. These disks
should be mounted in the first I/O drawer whenever possible. This configuration
provides service personnel the maximum amount of diagnostic information if the
system encounters errors in the boot sequence.
Boot support is also available from local SCSI, SSA, and Fibre Channel
adapters, or from networks using Ethernet or token-ring adapters.
If the boot source other than internal disk is configured, the supporting adapter
should also be in the first I/O drawer.
2.3.10 Media options
The p5-590 and p5-595 servers must have access either to a device capable of
reading CD media or to a Network Installation Management (NIM) server:
 The recommended devices for reading CD media are the rack-mounted
media drawer or an IBM Storage Device Enclosure. The media drawer is
mounted in the 13U location of the CEC Rack; the 7212-102, 7210-025, and
7210-030 enclosures attach using a PCI SCSI adapter in one of the system
I/O drawers.
 If a NIM server is used, it must attach through a PCI LAN adapter in one of
the system I/O drawers. We recommend an Ethernet connection.
The rack-mounted media drawer provides a 1U high internal media drawer for
use with the p5-590 and p5-595 servers. The media drawer displaces any I/O
drawer or battery backup feature components that would be located in the same
location of the primary system rack. The media drawer provides a fixed
configuration that must be ordered with three media devices and all required
SCSI and power attachment cabling.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
37
This media drawer can be mounted in the CEC rack with three available media
bays, two in the front and one in the rear. The device in the rear is only accessible
from the rear of the system. New storage devices for the media bays include:
 16X/48X IDE DVD-ROM drive
 4.7 GB, SCSI DVD-RAM drive
 36/72 GB, 4 mm internal tape drive
2.3.11 PCI-X slots and adapters
PCI-X, where the X stands for extended, is an enhanced PCI bus, delivering a
theoretical peak bandwidth of up to 1 GBps, running a 64-bit bus at 133 MHz.
PCI-X is backward compatible, so the p5-590 and p5-595 I/O drawers can
support existing 3.3 volt PCI adapters.
Most PCI and PCI-X adapters for the p5-590 and p5-595 servers are capable of
being hot-plugged. Any PCI adapter supporting a boot device or system console
should not be hot-plugged. The following adapters are not hot-plug-capable:
 POWER GXT135P Graphics Accelerator with Digital Support
 2-Port Multiprotocol PCI Adapter
System maximum limits for adapters and devices might not provide the optimal
system performance. These limits are given to help assure connectivity and
function.
Configuration limitations have been established to help ensure appropriate PCI
or PCI-X bus loading, adapter addressing, and system and adapter functional
characteristics when ordering I/O drawers. These I/O drawer limitations are in
addition to individual adapter limitations shown in the feature descriptions section
of the IBM Universal Sales Manual CD-ROM (SK3T-8287-59).
The maximum number of a specific PCI or PCI-X adapter allowed per p5-590
and p5-595 servers might be less than the number allowed per I/O drawer
multiplied by the maximum number of I/O drawers.
The PCI-X slots in the I/O drawers of p5-590 and p5-595 servers support
Extended Error Handling (EEH). In the unlikely event of a problem, EEH-enabled
adapters respond to a special data packet generated from the affected PCI-X slot
hardware by calling system firmware, which is designed to examine the affected
bus, allow the device driver to reset it, and continue without a system reboot.
Note: As soon as a p5-590 or p5-595 server is connected to a Hardware
Management Console, the POWER Hypervisor will prevent the system from
using non-EEH OEM adapters.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
2.3.12 Internal storage
Each I/O drawer contains four integrated Ultra3 SCSI adapters and SCSI
Enclosure Services (SES hot-swappable control functions).
Each of the 4-packs supports up to four hot-swappable Ultra3 SCSI disk drives,
which can be used for the installation of the operating system or storing data.
Table 2-14 lists hot-swappable disk drives.
Table 2-14 Hot-swappable disk drive options
Description
36.4 GB 15,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
73.4 GB 15,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
Note: Disks with 10,000 rpm rotational speeds from earlier systems are not
supported.
Prior to the hot-swap of a disk in the hot-swap-capable bay, all necessary
operating system actions must be undertaken to ensure that the disk is capable
of being deconfigured. After the disk drive has been deconfigured, the SCSI
enclosure device will power off the bay, enabling the safe removal of the disk. You
should ensure that the appropriate planning has been given to any
operating-system-related disk layout, such as the AIX 5L Logical Volume
Manager, when using disk hot-swap capabilities. For more information, see
Problem Solving and Troubleshooting in AIX 5L, SG24-5496.
2.4 Simultaneous multithreading
Simultaneous multithreading is the ability of a single physical processor to
simultaneously dispatch instructions from more than one hardware thread
context. Because there are two hardware threads per physical processor,
additional instructions can run at the same time. The POWER5 processor is a
superscalar processor that is optimized to read and run instructions in parallel.
Simultaneous multithreading enables you to take advantage of the superscalar
nature of the POWER5 processor by scheduling two applications at the same
time on the same processor. No single application can fully saturate the
processor. Simultaneous multithreading is a feature of the POWER5 processor
and is available with shared processors.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
39
The simultaneous multithreading mode maximizes the usage of the execution
units. In the POWER5 chip, more rename registers have been introduced (for
floating-point operation, rename registers increased to 120), which are essential
for out of order execution, and then vital for simultaneous multithreading.
Figure 2-5 shows two threads executed on the same processor.
Simultaneous multithreading
FX0
FX1
LS0
LS1
FP0
FP1
BFX
CRL
Processor Cycles
Thread 0 active
Thread 1 active
Figure 2-5 Simultameous multithreading
If simultaneous multithreading is activated:
 More instructions can be executed at the same time.
 A single physical POWER5 processor appears to the operating system to be
two logical processors.
 Support is provided in mixed environments:
– Capped and uncapped partitions
– Virtual partitions
– Dedicated partitions
– Single partition systems
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Note: Simultaneous multithreading is supported on POWER5
processor-based systems running AIX 5L Version 5.3 or Linux operating
system-based systems at an appropriate level. AIX 5L Version 5.2 does not
support this function.
The simultaneous multithreading policy is controlled by the operating system and
is thus partition specific. AIX 5L provides the smtctl command that turns
simultaneous multithreading on and off either immediately, or on next reboot. For
a complete listing of flags, see:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/index.jsp
For Linux, an additional boot option must be set to activate simultaneous
multithreading after a reboot.
2.4.1 Enhanced simultaneous multithreading features
To improve simultaneous multithreading performance for various workloads and
provide robust quality of service, the POWER5 processor provides two features:
 Dynamic resource balancing
Dynamic resource balancing is designed to ensure that the two threads
executing on the same processor flow smoothly through the system.
Depending on the situation, the POWER5 processor resource balancing logic
has different thread throttling mechanisms (a thread that reaches a threshold
of L2 cache misses will be throttled to allow other threads to pass the stalled
thread).
 Adjustable thread priority
Adjustable thread priority that allows software to determine when one thread
should have a greater (or lesser) share of execution resources. The POWER5
processor supports eight software-controlled priority levels for each thread.
2.4.2 Single threading operation
Having threads executing on the same processor will not increase the
performance of applications with execution unit limited performance, or
applications that consume all the chip’s memory bandwidth. For this reason, the
POWER5 processor supports the single threading execution mode. In this mode,
the POWER5 processor gives all the physical resources to the active thread,
allowing it to achieve higher performance than a POWER4 processor
based-system at equivalent frequencies. Highly optimized scientific codes are
one example where single threading operation may provide more throughput.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
41
2.4.3 Benefits of simultaneous multithreading
To provide improved performance at the application level, simultaneous
multithreading functionality is embedded in the POWER5 chip technology.
Applications developed to use process-level parallelism (multitasking) and
thread-level parallelism (multithreads) can shorten their overall execution time.
Simultaneous multithreading is the next stage of processor saturation for
throughput-oriented applications to introduce the method of instruction-level
parallelism to support multiple pipelines to the processor.
Simultaneous multithreading is primarily beneficial in commercial environments
where the speed of an individual transaction is not as important as the total
number of transactions that are performed. Simultaneous multithreading is
expected to increase the throughput of workloads with large or frequently
changing working sets, such as database servers and Web servers.
Workloads that see the greatest simultaneous multithreading benefit are those
that have a high cycles per instruction (CPI) count. These workloads tend to use
processor and memory resources poorly. Large CPIs are usually caused by high
cache-miss rates from a large working set. Large commercial workloads are
somewhat dependent on whether the two hardware threads share instructions or
data, or the hardware threads are completely distinct.
Workloads that do not benefit much from simultaneous multithreading are those
in which the majority of individual software threads use a large amount of any
resource in the processor or memory. For example, workloads that are
floating-point intensive are likely to gain little from simultaneous multithreading
and are the ones most likely to lose performance.
IBM has documented a 25% to 40% increase in commercial workloads
throughput using simultaneous multithreading.
For more information, see the following URL:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/hardware/system_perf.html
2.5 POWER Hypervisor
Combined with features designed into the POWER5 processor, the POWER
Hypervisor delivers functions that enable other system technologies, including
Micro-Partitioning, virtualized processors, IEEE VLAN-compatible virtual switch,
virtual SCSI adapters, and virtual consoles. The POWER Hypervisor is a
component of system firmware that is always active, regardless of the system
configuration.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
The POWER Hypervisor performs the following tasks:
 Provides an abstraction layer between the physical hardware resources and
the logical partitions using them.
 Enforces partition integrity by providing a security layer between logical
partitions.
 Controls the dispatch of virtual processors to physical processors.
 Saves and restores all processor state information during logical processor
context switch.
 Controls hardware I/O interrupt management facilities for logical partitions.
 Provides virtual LAN channels between physical partitions that help to reduce
the need for physical Ethernet adapters for interpartition communication.
Three types of virtual I/O adapters are supported by the POWER Hypervisor,
which we discuss in the following sections.
2.5.1 Virtual SCSI
The POWER5 server uses SCSI as the mechanism for virtual storage devices.
This is accomplished using two paired adapters: a virtual SCSI server adapter
and a virtual SCSI client adapter.
2.5.2 Virtual Ethernet
The POWER Hypervisor provides a virtual Ethernet switch function that allows
partitions on the same server a means for fast and secure communication. Virtual
Ethernet working on LAN technology allows a transmission speed in the range of
1 to 3 GBps depending on the MTU4 size. Virtual Ethernet requires a POWER5
system with either AIX 5L Version 5.3 or the appropriate level of Linux and an
HMC to define the virtual Ethernet devices. Virtual Ethernet does not require the
purchase of any additional features or software such as the Advanced POWER
Virtualization feature.
Virtual Ethernet features include:
 A partition supports 256 virtual Ethernet connections, where a single virtual
Ethernet resource can be connected to another virtual Ethernet, a real
network adapter, or both in a partition. Each virtual Ethernet adapter can also
be configured as a trunk adapter.
4
Maximum transmission unit
Chapter 2. System planning and design
43
 Each partition operating system detects the virtual local area network (VLAN)
switch as an Ethernet adapter, without the physical link properties and
asynchronous data transmit operations. Layer-2 bridging to a physical
Ethernet adapter is also included in the virtual Ethernet features. The virtual
Ethernet network is extendable outside the server to a physical Ethernet
network.
Note: Virtual Ethernet is based on the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard. No
physical I/O adapter is required when creating a VLAN connection between
partitions, and no access to an outside network is required.
2.5.3 Virtual (TTY) console
Each partition needs to have access to a system console. Tasks such as
operating system installation, network setup, and some problem analysis
activities require a dedicated system console. The POWER Hypervisor provides
virtual console using a virtual TTY or serial adapter and a set of Hypervisor calls
to operate on them. Virtual TTY, or VTerm, does not require the purchase of any
additional features or software such as the Advanced POWER Virtualization
feature.
Depending on the system configuration, the operating system console can be
provided by the Hardware Management Console virtual TTY, or from a terminal
emulator connected to an synchronous adapter in an I/O drawer.
Note: The POWER5 Hypervisor is active when the server is running in
partition and non-partition mode, and also when not connected to the HMC.
Consider the Hypervisor memory requirements when planning the amount of
system memory required. For planning information, see:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/lpar/systemdesign.htm
In AIX 5L Version 5.3, the lparstat command using the -h and -H flags
displays Hypervisor statistical data. Using the -h flag adds summary
Hypervisor statistics to the default lparstat output. For more information
about this command, go to “The lparstat command” on page 144.
2.6 Workload and partition management
AIX 5L offers two methods of vertical server consolidation: workload
management and partitioning, of which the most recent development is shared
processor logical partitions (Micro-Partitioning technology) with Partition Load
Manager.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
This section gives you information about the software related to this topic:
 Partition Load Manager
 IBM Tivoli® Provisioning Manager
 AIX Workload Manager
 Enterprise Workload Manager
2.6.1 Partition Load Manager
The Partition Load Manager is a resource manager that assigns and moves
resources based on defined policies and utilization of the resources. It helps
clients to maximize the utilization of processor and memory resources of
DLPAR-capable logical partitions running AIX 5L on pSeries servers.
PLM manages memory, both dedicated and shared processors, and partitions
using Micro-Partitioning technology to readjust the resources. This adds
additional flexibility on top of the micro-partitions flexibility added by the POWER
Hypervisor.
Other key Partition Load Manager features include:
 Increased CEC resource utilization
 Demand-based and automated resource management
 Support for either dedicated or shared processor LPARs
There are some restrictions for this product:
 Response time goals are not available.
 Cannot control the addition or removal of LPAR resources.
For more information about Partition Load Manager (PLM), go to 6.5, “Partition
Load Manager” on page 211.
2.6.2 IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager
Provisioning is the process of providing IT resources to enable business
functions to run. The provisioning goal is to be able to have an application
running as quickly as possible with as little manual intervention as possible.
Systems provisioning, powered by Tivoli Provisioning Manager, provides for rapid
provisioning across an environment and it is the most comprehensive solution
available from IBM.
It supports the separation of physical resources so that the IT infrastructure can
be based on a pool of virtual resources. Tivoli Provisioning Manager uses
Chapter 2. System planning and design
45
predefined procedures known as workflows to automatically create, install, and
configure partitions. On pSeries, these partitions can run AIX 5L or Linux. Tivoli
Provisioning Manager uses the tools provided by pSeries (the HMC and NIM) to
perform these tasks.
Other key Tivoli Provisioning Manager features include:
 Allows resources to be dynamically assigned to workloads that need capacity.
 Allows for sharing of resources between different workloads.
2.6.3 AIX Workload Manager
The AIX 5L Workload Manager provides system administrators a task and
policy-based method for managing the resources used by applications and users
within one AIX image. Workload Manager delivers automated resource
administration for multiple applications running on a single server. This capability
helps to ensure that critical applications are not impacted by the resource
requirements of less critical jobs. Workload Manager helps deliver the benefits of
server consolidation and centralized systems administration.
Workload Manager is dynamic LPAR-aware and makes the appropriate
adjustments when LPAR resources are added or removed; however, it currently
does not control the addition or removal of LPAR resources.
Other key Workload Manager features include:
 Support for use of either Web-based SM graphical interface or SMIT menus
to create profiles (job classes) and manage job assignment
 Creation of profiles to allocate processor, memory, and disk I/O resource
usage with minimum and maximum limits
 Assignment of jobs to profiles based on user/group ownership, application
name or tag, process type, or manual assignment
 Automatic event notification for system administrators with ability to define
responsive actions
 Flexible policy definition for processors associated with a Workload Manager
class
 Prioritization of applications
There are some restrictions for this product:
 Response time goals are not available.
 Cannot control the addition or removal of LPAR resources.
 Workload management only within one AIX 5L image.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
2.6.4 Enterprise Workload Manager
Enterprise Workload Manager monitors workload across a set of heterogeneous
environments based on user-defined business goals and offers a single view of
workload activity.
Other key Enterprise Workload Manager features include:
 Goal-based resource optimization
 End-to-end topology view and statistics for business transactions
 Improved effectiveness of physical resources
 Workload management of heterogeneous environments
 End-to-end response time reporting
2.7 Guidelines for dynamic LPAR and virtualization
This section provides information about dynamic LPAR and virtualization.
Table 2-15 lists AIX 5L and Linux support for dynamic LPAR and virtualization.
Table 2-15 Operating system supported function
Function
AIX 5L
Version 5.2
AIX 5L
Version 5.3
Linux
SLES 9
Linux
RHEL AS 3
Linux
RHEL AS 4
Processor
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Memory
Y
Y
N
N
N
I/O
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Micro-partitions
(1/10th of
processor)
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Virtual Storage
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Virtual Ethernet
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Partition Load
Manager
Y
Y
N
N
N
Dynamic LPAR
Virtualization
Chapter 2. System planning and design
47
Dynamic LPAR minimum requirements
The minimum following resources are needed per LPAR (not per system):
 At least one processor per partition for a dedicated processor partition, or at
least 1/10th of a processor when using Micro-Partitioning technology.
 At least 128 MB of physical memory per additional partition.
 At least one disk (either physical or virtual) to store the operating system.
 At least one disk adapter (either physical or virtual) or integrated adapter to
access the disk.
 At least one Ethernet adapter (either physical or virtual) per partition to
provide a network connection to the HMC, as well as general network access.
Note: We recommend that you use separate adapters for the management
and the public LAN to protect the access of your system’s management
functions.
 A partition must have an installation method, such as NIM, and a means of
running diagnostics, such as network diagnostics.
Processor
Each LPAR requires at least one physical processor if virtualization is not used.
Based on this, the maximum number of dynamic LPARs without virtualization is
32 for the p5-590 server and 64 for the p5-595 server. With the use of the
Advanced POWER Virtualization feature, the number of partitions per processor
is 10.
Memory
It is important to highlight that the IBM Sserver p5 servers and their associated
virtualization features have adopted an even more dynamic memory allocation
policy than the previous partition-capable pSeries servers.
In a partitioned environment, some of the physical memory areas are reserved
by several system functions to enable partitioning in the partitioning-capable
server. You can assign unused physical memory to a partition. You do not have to
specify the precise address of the assigned physical memory in the partition
profile, because the system selects the resources automatically.
The Hypervisor requires memory to support the logical partitions on the server.
The amount of memory required by the Hypervisor varies according to several
factors. Factors influencing the Hypervisor memory requirements include:
 Number of logical partitions
 Partition environments of the logical partitions
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
 Number of physical and virtual I/O devices used by the logical partitions
 Maximum memory values given to the logical partitions
Generally, you can estimate the amount of memory required by server firmware
to be approximately 8% of the system installed memory. The actual amount
required will generally be less than 8%. However, there are some server models
that require an absolute minimum amount of memory for server firmware,
regardless of the previously mentioned considerations.
The minimum amount of physical memory for each partition is 128 MB, but in
most cases, the actual requirements and recommendations are between 256 MB
and 512 MB for AIX 5L, Red Hat, and Novell SUSE LINUX. After that, you can
assign further physical memory to partitions in increments of 16 MB. This is
supported for partitions running AIX 5L Version 5.2 with the 5200-04
Recommended Maintenance Package, AIX 5L Version 5.3, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux AS 3 (no dynamic LPAR), Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4, and SUSE
LINUX Enterprise Server 9. There are implications about how big a partition can
grow based on the amount of memory allocated initially. For partitions that are
initially sized less than 256 MB, the maximum size is 16 times the initial size. For
partitions initially sized 256 MB or larger, the maximum size is 64 times the initial
size.
Note: For a more detailed impression of the amount of memory required by
the server firmware, use the LPAR Validation Tool (LVT). Refer to 4.3, “LPAR
Validation Tool” on page 133.
I/O
The I/O devices are assigned on a slot level to the LPARs, meaning an adapter
(either physical or virtual) installed in a specific slot can only be assigned to one
LPAR.
If an adapter has multiple devices, such as the 4-port Ethernet adapter or the
Dual Ultra3 SCSI adapter, all devices are automatically assigned to one LPAR
and cannot be shared.
Devices connected to an internal controller must be treated as a group. A group
can only be assigned together to one LPAR and cannot be shared.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
49
Therefore, the following integrated devices can be independently assigned to
LPARs:
 I/O drawer with Integrated Ultra320 SCSI controller
All SCSI resources in the disk bays must be assigned together to the same
LPAR. There is no requirement to assign them to a particular LPAR; in fact,
they can remain unassigned if the LPAR minimum requirements are obtained
using devices attached to a SCSI adapter installed in the system.
 Media devices
The p5-590 and p-595 servers can be configured with an optional
rack-mounted media drawer or storage device enclosure (IBM 7212-102).
These devices must belong to only a single LPAR at a time; therefore, all
devices in the media bays will be available to only one LPAR at a time.
Virtual I/O devices are also assigned to dynamic LPARs on a slot level. Each
partition is capable to handle up to 256 virtual I/O slots. Therefore, each partition
can have up to:
 256 virtual Ethernet adapters, with each virtual Ethernet capable of being
associated with up to 21 VLANs
 256 virtual SCSI adapters
Note: For more detailed planning of the virtual I/O slots and their
requirements, use the LPAR Validation Tool.
Every LPAR requires disks (either physical or virtual) for the operating system.
Partitions must be assigned to the boot adapter and disk drive from the following
options:
 An internal disk drive inserted in one of the 4-pack disk bays on the I/O
drawer and the SCSI controller on the drawer. Each of the disk bays is
connected to a separate internal SCSI controller on the drawer.
 A boot adapter inserted in one of 20 PCI-X slots in a I/O drawer connected to
the system. A bootable external disk subsystem is connected to this adapter.
Therefore, for additional LPARs without using virtualization, external disk space
is necessary, which can be accomplished by using external disk subsystems.
The external disk space must be attached with a separate adapter for each LPAR
by using SCSI or Fibre Channel adapters, depending on the subsystem.
For additional LPARs using virtualization, the required disk drives for each
partition is provided by the Virtual I/O Server partition or partitions. Physical disks
owned by the Virtual I/O Server partition can either be exported and assigned to
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
a client partition whole, or can be partitioned into several logical volumes. The
logical volumes can then be assigned to different partitions.
Additional disk space can be provided by using an external storage subsystem
such as the IBM TotalStorage® DS4500 for LPARs using virtualization or direct
attachment.
Therefore, for additional LPARs without using virtualization, an additional
Ethernet adapter is necessary. As stated previously we highly recommend that
you use separate Ethernet adapters for the connection to the management LAN
and public LAN.
Additional partitions using virtualization can implement the required Ethernet
adapters as virtual Ethernet adapters. Virtual Ethernet adapters can be used for
all kind of interpartition communication. To connect the virtual Ethernet LANs to
an external network, one or more Shared Ethernet Adapters (SEAs) can be used
in the Virtual I/O Server partition.
2.8 Firmware
Depending on your service environment, you can download your server firmware
fixes using different interfaces and methods. The p5-590 and p5-595 servers
must use the HMC to install server firmware fixes. Firmware is loaded on to the
server and to the Bulk Power Controller over the HMC to the frame Ethernet
network.
2.8.1 Server firmware
Server firmware is the part of the Licensed Internal Code that enables hardware,
such as the service processor. Check for available server firmware fixes
regularly, and download and install the fixes if necessary. The server firmware
binary image is a single image that includes code for the service processor, the
POWER Hypervisor, and platform partition firmware. This server firmware binary
image is stored in the service processor’s flash memory and executed in service
processor main memory.
Because there are dual service processors per CEC, both service processors
are updated when firmware updates are applied and activated using the
“Licensed Internal Code Updates” section of the HMC.
Firmware is available for download at:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/mdownload/systems.html
Chapter 2. System planning and design
51
2.8.2 Power subsystem firmware
Power subsystem firmware is the part of the Licensed Internal Code that enables
the power subsystem hardware in the model p5-590 and p5-595 servers. You
must use an HMC to update or upgrade power subsystem firmware fixes.
The Bulk Power Controller (BPC) has its own service processor. The power
firmware not only has the code load for the BPC service processor itself, but it
also has the code for the distributed converter assemblies (DCAs), bulk power
regulators (BPRs), fans, and other more granular field replaceable units that have
firmware to help manage the frame and its power and cooling controls. The BPC
service processor code load also has the firmware for the cluster switches that
can be installed in the frame.
In the same way that the central electronics complex (CEC) has dual service
processors, the power subsystem has dual BPCs. Both are updated when
firmware changes are made using the “Licensed Internal Code Updates” section
of the HMC.
The BPC initialization sequence after the reboot is unique. The BPC service
processor must check the code levels of all the power components it manages,
including DCAs, BPRs, fans, and cluster switches, and it must load those if they
are different from what is in the active flash side of the BPC. Code is cascaded to
the downstream power components over universal power interface controller
(UPIC) cables.
2.8.3 Platform initial program load
The main function of the p5-590 and p5-595 service processors is to initiate
platform initial program load (IPL), also referred to as platform boot. The service
processor has a self-initialization procedure and then initiates a sequence of
initializing and configuring many components on the CEC backplane.
The service processor has various functional states, which can be queried and
reported to the POWER Hypervisor. Service processor states include, but are not
limited to, standby, reset, power up, power down, and runtime. As part of the IPL
process, the primary service processor will check the state of the backup. The
primary service processor is responsible for reporting the condition of the backup
service processor to the POWER Hypervisor. The primary service processor will
wait for the backup service processor to indicate that it is ready to continue with
the IPL (for a finite time duration). If the backup service processor fails to initialize
in a timely fashion, the primary will report the backup service processor as a
non-functional device to the POWER Hypervisor and will mark it as a GARDed
resource before continuing with the IPL. The backup service processor can later
be integrated into the system.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Open Firmware
IBM Sserver p5 and OpenPower™ servers have one instance of Open
Firmware both when in the partitioned environment and when running as a Full
System Partition. Open Firmware has access to all devices and data in the
system. Open Firmware is started when the system goes through a power-on
reset. Open Firmware, which runs in addition to the Hypervisor in a partitioned
environment, runs in two modes: global and partition. Each mode of Open
Firmware shares the same firmware binary that is stored in the flash memory. In
a partitioned environment, partition Open Firmware runs on top of the global
Open Firmware instance. The partition Open Firmware is started when a
partition is activated. Each partition has its own instance of Open Firmware and
has access to all the devices assigned to that partition. However, each instance
of partition Open Firmware has no access to devices outside of the partition in
which it runs. Partition firmware resides within the partition memory and is
replaced when AIX 5L takes control. Partition firmware is needed only for the
time that is necessary to load AIX 5L into the partition system memory.
The global Open Firmware environment includes the partition manager
component. That component is an application in the global Open Firmware that
establishes partitions and their corresponding resources (such as CPU, memory,
and I/O slots), which are defined in partition profiles. The partition manager
manages the operational partitioning transactions. It responds to commands
from the service processor external command interface that originate in the
application that is running on the HMC.
The ASMI can be accessed during boot time or using the ASMI and selecting to
boot to the Open Firmware prompt.
For more information about Open Firmware, refer to Partitioning Implementations
for IBM Sserver p5 Servers, SG24-7039, at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247039.html
Temporary and permanent side of the service processor
The service processor and the BPC (when present) maintain two copies of the
firmware:
 One copy is considered the permanent or backup copy and is stored on the
permanent side, sometimes referred to as the “p” side.
 The other copy is considered the installed or temporary copy and is stored on
the temporary side, sometimes referred to as the “t” side. We recommend that
you start and run the server from the temporary side.
 The copy actually booted from is called the activated level, sometimes
referred to as “b”.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
53
(The concept of “sides” is an abstraction. The firmware is located in flash
memory and pointers in NVRAM determine which is “p” and “t”.)
Note: The default value the system will boot is “temporary”.
To view the firmware levels on the HMC, select Licensed Internal Code →
Updates Change Internal Code → Select managed system → View System
Information → None and the window in Figure 2-6 opens. (The power
subsystem is always machine type 9458, while the server is machine type 9119).
We discuss this because it provides the most comprehensive example.
Figure 2-6 p5-590 and p5-595 code levels
In Figure 2-6:
 The Installed Level indicates the level of firmware that has been installed and
will be installed into memory after the managed system is powered off and
powered on using the default “temporary” side.
 The Activated Level indicates the level of firmware that is active and running
in memory.
 The Accepted Level indicates the backup level (or “permanent” side) of
firmware. You can return to the backup level of firmware if you decide to
remove the installed level.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
The following example is the output of the lsmcode command for AIX 5L and
Linux, showing the firmware levels as they are displayed in the outputs:
 AIX 5L:
The current permanent system firmware image is SF230_120
The current temporary system firmware image is SF230_120
The system is currently booted from the temporary firmware image.
 Linux:
system:SF230_120 (t) SF230_120 (p) SF230_120 (b)
Firmware level naming conventions
The format of the firmware level as reported by the system is:
01SF225_096 → PPNNSSS_FFF
 PP Package identifier 01 = managed system 02 = power code
 NN Machine type SF = POWER5 system BP = bulk power code
 SSS Release level
 FFF Fix pack number
Note: The following points are of special interest:
 The server firmware fix is installed on the temporary side only after the
existing contents of the temporary side are permanently installed on the
permanent side (the service processor performs this process automatically
when you install a server firmware fix).
 If you want to preserve the contents of the permanent side, you need to
remove the current level of firmware (copy the contents of the permanent
side to the temporary side) before you install the fix.
However, if you get your fixes using Advanced features on the HMC interface
and you indicate that you do not want the service processor to automatically
accept the firmware level, the contents of the temporary side are not
automatically installed on the permanent side. In this situation, you do not
need to remove the current level of firmware to preserve the contents of the
permanent side before you install the fix.
You might want to use the new level of firmware for a period of time to verify that
it works correctly. When you are sure that the new level of firmware works
correctly, you can permanently install the server firmware fix. When you
permanently install a server firmware fix, you copy the temporary firmware level
from the temporary side to the permanent side.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
55
Conversely, if you decide that you do not want to keep the new level of server
firmware, you can remove the current level of firmware. When you remove the
current level of firmware, you copy the firmware level that is currently installed on
the permanent side is copied from the permanent side to the temporary side.
Choosing which firmware to use when powering on the system is done using the
Power-On Parameters tab in the server properties box, as shown in Figure 2-7
on page 29.
Figure 2-7 Power-on parameters
Get server firmware fixes using an HMC
Periodically, you need to download and install fixes for your server and power
subsystem firmware.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
How you get the fix depends on whether or not the HMC or server is connected
to the Internet:
 If the HMC or server is connected to the Internet:
There are several repository locations from which you can download the fixes
using the HMC. For example, you can download the fixes from your service
provider's Web site or support system, from optical media that you order from
your service provider, or from an FTP server on which you previously placed
the fixes.
 If neither the HMC nor your server is connected to the Internet:
You need to download your new system firmware level to a CD-ROM media or
FTP server.
For both of these options, you can use the interface on the HMC to install the
firmware fix (from one of the repository locations or from the optical media). The
Change Internal Code wizard on the HMC provides a step-by-step process for
you to perform the required steps to install the fix:
1. Ensure that you have a connection to the service provider (if you have an
Internet connection from the HMC or server).
2. Determine the available levels of server and power subsystem firmware.
3. Create the optical media (if you do not have an Internet connection from the
HMC or server).
4. Use the Change Internal Code wizard to update your server and power
subsystem firmware.
Note: The tasks in the “Licensed Internal Code Updates” view on the HMC
vary according to the HMC code level:
 Version 4.4.x and earlier:
– Use “Change Internal Code” to update within a release.
– Use “Manufacturing Equipment Specification Upgrade” to upgrade
to a new release.
 Version 4.5.x and later:
– Use “Change Licensed Internal Code for the current release” to
update within a release.
– Use “Upgrade Licensed Internal Code to a new release” to upgrade
to a new release.
5. Verify that the fix installed successfully.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
57
Note: To view existing levels of server firmware using the lsmcode command,
you need to have the following service tools installed on your server:
 AIX 5L
You must have AIX 5L diagnostics installed on your server to perform this
task. AIX 5L diagnostics are installed when you install the AIX 5L operating
system on your server. However, it is possible to deselect the diagnostics.
Therefore, you need to ensure that the online AIX 5L diagnostics are
installed before proceeding with this task.
 Linux
– Platform Enablement Library: librtas-xxxxx.rpm
– Service Aids: ppc64-utils-xxxxx.rpm
– Hardware Inventory: lsvpd-xxxxx.rpm
Where xxxxx represents a specific version of the RPM file.
If you do not have the service tools on your server, you can download them
from the following Web page:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/lopdiags
2.9 Capacity on Demand
Through unique CoD offerings, IBM servers can offer either permanent or
temporary increases in processor and memory capacity. CoD is available in four
activation configurations, each with specific pricing and availability terms. In this
section, we discuss the four types of CoD activation configurations from a
functional standpoint. Contractual and pricing issues are outside the scope of
this document and should be discussed with either your IBM Global Financing
Representative, IBM Business Partner, or IBM Sales Representative.
Capacity on Demand is supported by the following operating systems:
 AIX 5L Version 5.2 and Version 5.3
 i5/OS V5R3, or later
 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 for POWER, or later
 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3 for POWER (update 4), or later
For additional information about Capacity on Demand, see:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/ondemand/cod/
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
2.9.1 Types of Capacity on Demand
Capacity on Demand for the Sserver p5 systems with dynamic logical
partitioning (dynamic LPAR) offers system owners the ability to non-disruptively
activate processors and memory without rebooting partitions. CoD also gives
Sserver p5 systems owners the option to temporarily activate processors to
meet varying performance needs and to activate additional capacity on a trial
basis.
IBM has established four types of CoD offerings, each with a specific activation
plan. Providing different types of CoD offerings gives clients flexibility when
determining their resource needs and establishing their IT budgets. IBM Global
Financing can help match individual payments with capacity usage and
competitive financing for fixed and variable costs related to Capacity on Demand
offerings. By financing Capacity on Demand costs and associated charges
together with a base lease, spikes in demand need not become spikes in a
budget.
After a system with CoD features is delivered, it can be activated in the following
ways:
 Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD) for processors and memory
 On/Off Capacity on Demand (CoD) for processors and memory
 Reserve Capacity on Demand (CoD) for processors only
 Trial Capacity on Demand (CoD) for processors and memory
The servers use specific feature codes to enable CoD capabilities. All types of
CoD transactions for processors are in whole numbers of processors, not in
fractions of processors. All types of CoD transactions for memory are in 1 GB
increments.
Table 2-16 on page 60 provides a brief description of the four types of CoD
offerings, identifies the proper name of the associated activation plan, and
indicates the default type of payment offering and scope of enablement
resources. The payment offering information is intended for reference only; all
pricing agreements and service contracts should be handled by your IBM
representative. The subsequent sections provide a functional overview of each
CoD offering.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
59
Table 2-16 Types of Capacity on Demand (functional categories)
Activation plan
Functional
category
Applicable
system
resources
Type of
payment
offering
Description
Capacity Upgrade
on Demand
Permanent
capacity for
nondisruptive
growth
Processor
and memory
resources
Pay when
purchased
Provides a means of planned
growth for clients who know
they will need increased
capacity but are not sure
when.
On/Off Capacity
on Demand
Temporary
capacity for
fluctuating
workloads
Processor
and memory
resources
Pay after
activation
Processor
resources
only
Pay before
activation
Provides for planned and
unplanned short-term growth
driven by temporary
processing requirements such
as seasonal activity,
period-end requirements, or
special promotions.
Reserve Capacity
on Demand
Trial Capacity on
Demand
Temporary
capacity for
workload
testing or any
one time need
Processor
and memory
resources
One-time,
no-cost
activation for
a maximum
period of 30
consecutive
days
Provides the flexibility to
evaluate how additional
resources will affect existing
workloads, or to test new
applications by activating
additional processing power or
memory capacity (up to the
limit installed on the server) for
up to 30 contiguous days.
Capacity Backup
Disaster
recovery
Off-site
machine
Pay when
purchased
Provides a means to purchase
a machine for use when
off-site computing is required,
such as during disaster
recovery.
Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD) for processors
Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD) for processors allows inactive processors
to be installed in the server and can be permanently activated by the client as
required.
All processor books available on the p5-590 and p5-595 are initially implemented
as 16-way CoD offerings with zero active processors.
A minimum of 8 or 16 permanently activated processors are required on the
p5-590 or p5-595 server.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
The number of permanently activated processors is based on the number of
processor books installed:
 One processor book installed requires 8 (p5-590) or 16 (p5-595) permanently
activated processors.
 Two processor books installed requires 16 permanently activated processors.
 Three processor books installed requires 24 permanently activated
processors.
 Four processor books installed requires 32 permanently activated processors.
Additional processors on the CoD books are activated in increments of one by
ordering the appropriate activation feature number. If more than one processor is
to be activated at the same time, the activation feature should be ordered in
multiples.
After receiving an order for a CUoD for the processor activation feature, IBM will
provide the client with a 34-character encrypted key. This key is entered into the
system to activate the desired number of additional processors.
CUoD processors that have not been activated are available to the p5-595 server
for dynamic processor sparing when running the AIX 5L operating system. If the
server detects the impending failure of an active processor, it will attempt to
activate one of the unused CoD processors and add it to the system
configuration. This helps to keep the server's processing power at full strength
until a repair action can be scheduled.
Capacity Upgrade on Demand for memory
Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD) allows inactive memory to be installed in
the p5-590 or p5-595 server and can be permanently activated by the client as
required.
CUoD for memory can be used in any available memory position.
Additional CoD memory cards are activated in increments of 1 GB by ordering
the appropriate activation feature number. If more than one 1 GB memory
increment is to be activated at the same time, the activation code should be
ordered in multiples.
After receiving an order for a CUoD for memory activation feature, IBM will
provide the client a 34-character encrypted key. This key is entered into the
system to activate the desired number of additional 1 GB memory increments.
Chapter 2. System planning and design
61
Memory configuration rules for the p5-590 and p5-595 servers apply to CUoD for
memory cards as well as conventional memory cards. The memory configuration
rules are applied based on the maximum capacity of the memory card:
 Apply 4 GB configuration rules for 4 GB CoD for memory cards with less than
4 GB of active memory.
 Apply 8 GB configuration rules for 8 GB CoD for memory cards with less than
8 GB of active memory.
On/Off Capacity on Demand (On/Off CoD)
On/Off Capacity on Demand (On/Off CoD) allows clients to temporarily activate
installed CUoD processors and memory resources and later deactivate the
resources as desired.
On/Off processor and memory resources is implemented on a pay-as-you-go
basis using:
 On/Off Processor and Memory Enablement features.
Signing an On/Off Capacity on Demand contract is required. An enablement
code will be supplied to activate the enablement feature.
 After the On/Off Enablement feature is ordered and the associated
enablement code is entered into the system, the client must report on/off
usage to IBM at least monthly. This information, which is used to compute the
billing data on a quarterly basis, is provided to the sales channel, which will
place an order for the quantity of On/Off Processor Day and Memory Day
billing features used and invoice the client.
Each On/Off CoD activation feature provides 30 days of usage for the CUoD
processor or memory feature. Each On/Off CoD feature applies to any of the
inactive CUoD processors or memory installed in the system. The following
examples are of the usage calculation:
 A processor day is measured each time a processor is activated in a 24-hour
period or any fraction hours of testing or production. The result is four
processor usage days.
 A new measurement day starts each time processors are activated. If a client
activates four processors for a two-hour test and later in the same 24-hour
period activates two processors for two hours to meet a peak workload, the
result is six processor days usage.
Reserve Capacity on Demand (Reserve CoD)
Reserve Capacity on Demand (Reserve CoD) is available for p5-590 and p5-595
servers. Reserve CoD is an innovative offering allowing clients to temporarily
activate in an automated manner installed CoD processors used within a shared
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
processor pool. Charges for the temporary activation of Reserve CoD processors
are only incurred when processing needs exceed the fully entitled level.
Reserve CoD is a pre-pay method of temporary activation. It is ordered by
purchasing the quantity of Reserve CoD features appropriate for the model and
speed of installed processors. Each feature includes 30 days of temporary usage
time. When Reserve CoD is ordered, the user will receive a 34-digit activation
code to be entered at the HMC. The activation code establishes the Reserve
CoD balance of available usage time. Inactive CoD processors can then be
assigned to the shared processor pool, which will be available for workload
processing. Charges for the inactive processors will only be incurred when the
workload in the shared pool exceeds 100% of the entitled (permanently
activated) level of performance. Charges are made against the Reserve CoD
account balance in increments of processor days, and Advanced POWER
Virtualization must be activated in order to use Reserve CoD.
Trial Capacity on Demand
Trial Capacity on Demand (Trial CoD) is a function delivered with all pSeries
servers supporting CUoD resources beginning May 30, 2003. Those servers with
standby CoD processors or memory will be capable of using a one-time, no-cost
activation for a maximum period of 30 consecutive days. This enhancement
allows for benchmarking of CoD resources or can be used to provide immediate
access to standby resources when the purchase of a permanent activation is
pending.
Trial CoD is a complimentary service offered by IBM. Although IBM intends to
continue it for the foreseeable future, IBM reserves the right to withdraw Trial
CoD at any time, with or without notice.
Capacity BackUp
Also available are three new Capacity BackUp features for configuring systems
used for disaster recovery. Capacity BackUp for IBM Sserver p5 590 and 595
systems offers an off-site, disaster recovery machine at an affordable price. This
disaster recovery machine has primarily inactive Capacity on Demand (CoD)
processors that can be activated in the event of a disaster. Capacity BackUp for
IBM Sserver p5 offering includes:
 Four processors that are permanently activated and can be used for any
workload
 Either 28 or 60 standby processors to be used in the event of a disaster
 Either 900 (4/32-way) or 1800 (4/64-way) of On/Off CoD processor days
available for testing or for use in the event of a disaster
Chapter 2. System planning and design
63
Capacity BackUp systems can be turned on at any time by using the On/Off CoD
activation procedure for the needed performance during an unplanned system
outage. Each Capacity BackUp configuration is limited to 450 On/Off CoD credit
days per processor book. For clients who require additional capacity or
processor days, additional processor capacity can be purchased under IBM CoD
at regular On/Off CoD activation prices. IBM HACMP V5 and HACMP/XD
software (5765-F62), when installed, can automatically activate Capacity BackUp
resources on failover. When needed, HACMP can also activate dynamic LPAR
and CoD resources.
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3
Chapter 3.
System partitioning and
operating system
installation
This chapter describes the installation and configuration of logical partitions.
Partitioning enables users to configure a single computer into several
independent systems. Each partition is capable of running applications in its own
independent environment. Unless the system is client of a Virtual I/O Server, it
contains its own operating system, set of system processors, set of system
memory, and I/O adapters. If it is a Virtual I/O Server client, network adapters, as
well as the physical disk where the operating system is installed, might be virtual
devices from a Virtual I/O Server. Such systems will still behave as though they
use dedicated devices.
This chapter contains the following sections:
 Initial system configuration
 Basic system management tasks
 Logical partitioning a system
 LPAR resource administration
 Installation of the operating system into a partition
 Dynamic LPAR operation
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
65
3.1 Initial system configuration
There are things to consider when planning the initial installation of your IBM
Sserver p5 server. Use this section as a guide to setup and customize your
system. This section contains information about the Advanced System
Management Interface (ASMI), system management services, and basic system
management tasks.
Important: It is very important that you do not attempt to power up a new
enterprise server without a correctly installed HMC.
3.1.1 Advanced System Management Interface
The Advanced System Management Interface (ASMI) is an interface to the
service processor that enables you to set flags that affect the operation of the
server, such as auto power restart, and to view information about the server,
such as the error log and vital product data.
This interface is accessible using a Web browser on a client system that is
connected to the service processor on an Ethernet network. It can also be
accessed using the HMC. The service processor and the ASMI are standard on
all IBM Sserver i5, Sserver p5, and OpenPower servers.
Accessing the ASMI using a Web browser
The Web interface to the Advanced System Management Interface is accessible
through Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, Netscape 7.1, or Opera 7.23 running on
a PC or mobile computer connected to the service processor. The Web interface
is available during all phases of system operation including the initial program
load and run time. However, some of the menu options in the Web interface are
unavailable during IPL or run time to prevent usage or ownership conflicts if the
system resources are in use during that phase.
The following instructions apply to p5-590/p5-595 systems that are disconnected
from a Hardware Management Console (in most cases because of an error), or if
you need to change the network configuration in the service processor and the
HMC is unavailable. This is normally a serious condition left to trained service
engineers. These instructions also apply to other Sserver p5 servers.
If you are managing the server using an HMC, access the ASMI using the HMC.
Complete the following tasks to set up the Web browser for direct or remote
access to the ASMI:
1. Connect the power cord from the server to a power source, and wait for the
STBY LED (on the Bulk Power Controller) to be on solid.
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2. Select a PC or mobile computer that has Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0,
Netscape 7.1, or Opera 7.23 to connect to your server. If you do not plan to
connect your server to your network, this PC or mobile computer will be your
ASMI console. If you plan to connect your server to your network, this PC or
mobile computer will be temporarily connected directly to the server for setup
purposes only. After setup, you can use any PC or mobile computer on your
network that is running Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, Netscape 7.1, or
Opera 7.23 as your ASMI console.
3. Determine the IP address of the Ethernet port to which your PC or mobile
computer is connected, and enter the IP address in the address field of the
Web browser, for example, 192.168.2.130. You can use a standard or a
crossover Ethernet cable.
For example, if you connected your PC or mobile computer to Port A, enter
the following IP address in your Web browser address field:
https://192.168.2.147
For all other Sserver systems, connect you PC or mobile computer to the
HMC2 port on the service processor. The standard address is:
https://192.168.3.147
Accessing ASMI using HMC or Web-based System Manager
Note: Since HMC Machine Code V4.5, the ASMI menu works with the
Web-based System Manager as well.
To access the Advanced System Management Interface using the Hardware
Management Console, complete the following steps:
1. Ensure that the HMC is set up and configured.
2. In the Navigation Area, expand the managed system with which you want to
work.
3. Expand Service Applications and click Service Focal Point.
4. In the content area, click Service Utilities.
5. From the Service Utilities window, select the managed system with which you
want to work.
6. From the Selected menu on the Service Utilities window, select Launch
ASMI.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
67
ASMI user accounts
ASMI enables you to create several types of users. In Table 3-1 provides the
default user login and passwords. Usually, you will use the admin login; however,
be aware that the default passwords can be changed.
Table 3-1 ASMI user accounts
User ID
Password
admin
admin
general
general
Figure 3-1 shows the ASMI menu with all the functions.
Figure 3-1 ASMI menu
3.1.2 System Management Services
System tasks and monitoring tasks can be accomplished using the System
Management Service (SMS).
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To start the system in SMS mode using the HMC, perform the following steps:
1. Use the HMC to activate the server or partition and select Advanced.
2. From the Boot Mode pull-down menu, select SMS.
Using System Management Services
The System management Services (SMS) menus can be used to view
information about your system or partition and to perform tasks such as setting a
password, changing the boot list, and setting the network parameters.
Note: In a partitioned system, only the devices assigned to the partition being
booted display in the SMS menus. In a Full System Partition, all devices in the
system display in the SMS menus.
To start the system management services using a terminal or vterm, perform the
following steps:
1. For a partitioned system, use the Hardware Management Console to restart
the partition.
2. For a partitioned system, watch the virtual terminal window on the HMC.
3. Look for the POST indicators, memory, keyboard, network, SCSI, speaker,
which appear across the bottom of the screen.
Press the numeric 1 key after the word keyboard appears and before the word
speaker appears.
After the system management services starts, a screen similar to the one shown
in Example 3-1 opens.
Example 3-1 SMS main menu
Main Menu
1 Select Language
2 Change Password (Options NOT available in LPAR mode)
3 View Error Log (Option NOT available in LPAR mode)
4 Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load)
5 Change SCSI Settings
6 Select Console
7 Select Boot Options
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Navigation keys:
X = eXit System Management Services
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Type the number of the menu item and press Enter or select a Navigation key: _
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
69
We describe each option on the system management main menu in this section.
Select Language
This option enables you to change the language used by the text-based System
Management Services menus.
Change Password Options
The Change Password Options menu enables you to select from the following
password utilities:
 Set Privileged-Access Password
 Remove Privileged-Access Password
The privileged-access password protects against the unauthorized start of the
system programs. If the privileged-access password has been enabled, the
system will prompt for the password whenever it reboots.
View Error Log
When you select this option, you can view or clear your system error messages.
Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load)
This option allows you to enable and set up the remote startup of your system or
partition. You must first specify the network parameters. This is typically used to
do a ping test to see if a Network Installation Management (NIM) client can
communicate with a NIM server.
Change SCSI Settings
SCSI utilities enable you to set delay times for the SCSI hard disk spin-up and to
set SCSI IDs for SCSI controllers installed in the system.
Select Console
Select this option to define which display is used by the system for system
management. If no console is selected, the console defaults to serial port 1 on
the primary I/O book.
Note: This option is not available on partitioned systems. A virtual terminal
window on the HMC is the default firmware console for a partitioned system.
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Select Boot Options
Use this menu to view and set various options regarding the installation and boot
devices:
 Select Install or Boot a Device: Enables you to select a device from which to
boot or install the operating system. This option is for the current boot only.
 Select Boot Devices: Select this option to view and change the customized
boot list, which is the sequence of devices that the system searches when
booting an operating system. The boot device list can contain up to five
devices.
 Multiboot Startup: Toggles the multiboot startup flag, which controls whether
the multiboot menu is invoked automatically on startup.
Note: In a partitioned system, only those devices from which an operating
system can be booted that are assigned to the partition that is being booted
display on the Select Boot Devices menu. In a Full System Partition, devices
from which an operating system can be booted display on the Select Boot
Devices menu.
Exiting System Management Services
After you have finished using the system management services, type x (for exit)
to boot your system or partition.
3.2 Basic system management tasks (HMC)
This section describes how to perform the following system operations:
 Managing the system and a frame
 Powering on the managed system
3.2.1 Managing the system
You can perform the tasks discussed in this chapter when the managed system
is selected in the Contents area. The managed system (actually the CEC) is
shown below a frame in the Contents area.
The HMC communicates with the managed system to perform various system
management service and partitioning functions. Systems connected to an HMC
are recognized automatically by the HMC and are shown in the Contents area.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
71
You can connect up to two HMC in the following ways on a p5-590 or p5-595:
 The first (the main or only) HMC is connected using a private network to
BPC-A (Bulk Power Controller). The HMC must be set up to provide DHCP
addresses on that private (eth0) network.
 A secondary (redundant) HMC is connected using a separate private network
to BPC-B. That second HMC must be set up to use a different range of
addresses for DHCP.
 Additional provisions must be made for an HMC connection to the BPC in a
powered expansion frame.
On other systems, the HMC is connected to one of the available HMC ports.
To view more information about the managed system, select the Server
Management icon in the Navigation Area. Figure 3-2 shows an example of
server manager. The Contents area expands to show a frame, which you can
then expand to show information about the managed system, including its name,
its state, and the operator panel value.
Figure 3-2 The Server Management window
To expand the view of the managed system’s properties, click the plus sign (+)
next to the managed system’s name to view its contents.
In the Contents area, you can also select the managed system by right-clicking
the managed system icon to perform the following tasks:
 Power the managed system on or off.
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 View the managed system’s properties.
 Open and close a terminal window.
 Create, restore, back up, and remove system profile data.
 Manage on demand activations.
 Rebuild the managed system.
 Release the HMC lock on this managed system.
 Delete the managed system from the HMC graphical user interface.
You can also access these options by clicking the managed system and clicking
Selected from the menu.
Powering on the managed system
You can use your HMC to power on the managed system.
You must be a member of one of the following roles: System Administrator,
Advanced Operator, Service Representative, or Operator.
To power on the managed system, perform the following steps:
1. In the Navigation Area, click the Partition Management icon.
2. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
3. From the menu, select Selected.
4. Select Power On.
A panel opens that offers the four power-on modes: System Profile, Full System
Partition, Partition Standby, and Auto Start Partitions.
Note: You must power off your managed system to switch between using the
Full System Partition and using logical partitions.
System Profile
The System Profile option powers on the system according to a predefined set of
profiles. The profiles are activated in the order in which they are shown in the
system profile.
Partition Standby
The Partition Standby power-on option enables you to create and activate logical
partitions. When the Partition Standby power-on is completed, the operator panel
on the managed system displays LPAR..., indicating that the managed system is
ready for you to use the HMC to partition its resources.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
73
Note: The Full System Partition is displayed as Not Available because the
managed system was powered on using the Partition Standby option.
Auto Start Partitions
The option powers on the managed system to partition standby mode and
activates all partitions that have been powered on by the HMC at least once. For
example, if you create a partition with four processors, use the DLPAR operation
to remove one processor, and then shut down the system, the Auto Start
Partitions power-on mode activates this partition with three processors. This is
because the 3-processor configuration was the last configuration used, and the
HMC ignores whatever you have specified in the partition’s profile. Using this
option, the activated partitions boots the operating system using a normal mode
boot, even if the default profile for the partition specifies the other modes, such as
boot to SMS.
Note: This power-on mode is available on the HMC software release
beginning with Release 3, Version 2.
Power-on options
The Full System Partition has predefined profiles. You cannot change, add, or
delete them. The predefined profiles are as follows:
 Power On Normal
This boots an operating system from the designated boot device.
 Power On Diagnostic Stored Boot List
This causes the system to perform a service mode boot using the service
mode boot list saved on the managed system. If the system boots AIX 5L
from the disk drive, and AIX 5L diagnostics are loaded on the disk drive,
AIX 5L boots to the diagnostics menu.
Using this option to boot the system is the preferred way to run online
diagnostics.
 Power On SMS
This boots to the System Management Services (SMS) menus.
 Power On Diagnostic Default Boot List
Similar to Power On Diagnostic Stored Boot List Profile, except the system
boots using the default boot list that is stored in the system firmware. This is
normally used to try to boot diagnostics from the CD-ROM drive.
Using this option to boot the system is the preferred way to run stand-alone
diagnostics.
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 Power On Open Firmware OK Prompt
When this selection is enabled, the system boots to the Open Firmware
prompt.
Powering off the managed system
You can also use your HMC to power off the managed system. Ensure that all
partitions have been shut down and their states have changed from Running to
Ready.
To power off the managed system, you must be a member of one of the following
roles: System Administrator, Advanced Operator, or Service Representative.
To power off the managed system, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Power Off.
If you attempt to power off a system that has active partitions, you will receive a
warning to that effect, but you will still be able to power off the managed system.
Each partition associated with that managed system will also power off. That
might be a fatal exercise to applications running on the partition.
Viewing managed system properties
To view your managed system’s configuration and capabilities, use the
Properties window.
Any user can view managed system properties.
To view your managed system’s properties, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Properties.
If you have powered on your system using the Full System Partition option, the
HMC displays the system’s name, partition capability, state, serial number, model
and type, and policy information. A system that is powered on using the Partition
Standby option displays this information, as well as available and assigned
processors, memory, I/O drawers and slots, and policy information. The
Processor tab displays information that is helpful when performing dynamic
logical partitioning processor tasks.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
75
Use the Processor tab to view the processor status, the processor state, and
whether a processor is assigned to a partition. The information in the Processor
tab is also helpful when you need to know if processors are disabled and
therefore are not able to be used by any partition.
Notes:
 You can back up, restore, initialize, and remove profiles that you have
created. Also, you can release an HMC lock on the managed system if you
have two HMCs connected to your managed system and one of the HMCs
is not responding.
 You can access most menu options by right-clicking.
3.2.2 Rebuilding the managed system
Rebuilding the managed system acts much like a refresh of the managed system
information. Rebuilding the managed system is useful when the system’s state
indicator in the Contents area is shown as Recovery. The Recovery indicator
signifies that the partition and profile data stored in the managed system must be
refreshed. It might also be required when major components of the system, such
as I/O drawers, are replaced for service reasons.
This operation is different from performing a refresh of the local HMC panel. In
this operation, the HMC reloads information stored on the managed system.
Any user can rebuild the managed system.
To rebuild the managed system, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Rebuild Managed System.
After you select Rebuild Managed System, the current system information
appears.
3.2.3 Managing a frame and resources connected to the HMC
A frame is a collection of a managed system and resources. Each frame is
shown in the Contents area as the root of a resource tree. The managed system
is listed underneath the frame.
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If the managed system does not appear under the frame in the Contents area,
refresh the frame as follows:
1. In the Contents area, select the frame.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Rebuild Managed Frame.
Any user role can refresh a frame. Refreshing the frame is the only option
available at the frame level.
3.3 Logical partitioning of a system
Partitioning your system is similar to partitioning a hard drive. When you partition
a hard drive, you divide a single physical hard drive so that the operating system
recognizes it as a number of separate logical hard drives. You have the option of
dividing the system’s resources (memory, processor, or adapters) by using the
HMC to partition your system. On each of these partitions, you can install an
operating system and use each partition as you would a separate physical
system. With the introduction of Virtual I/O Server, it is possible to further
partition I/O adapters as well as processors.
3.3.1 Types of partitions
The HMC enables you to use the following types of partitions: logical partitions,
Micro-Partitioning, and the Full System Partition. We introduce Micro-Partitioning
in Chapter 6, “Advanced POWER Virtualization” on page 191.
The most important features to know about virtualization and Micro-Partitioning
include the ability to partition a processor and share I/O adapters on a single
system. Each system will have its own operating system and act independently.
A Virtual I/O Server logical partition needs to be created before other partitions
can use virtual I/O because it controls the resources shared between all other
LPARs. Figure 3-3 on page 78 shows the creation of a Virtual I/O Server.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
77
Figure 3-3 The selection for creating a Virtual I/O Server
Logical partition
Logical partitions are user-defined system resource divisions. Administrators
determine the number of processors, memory, and I/O that a logical partition can
have when active.
Full System Partition
A Full System Partition assigns the managed system’s resources to one large
partition. The Full System Partition is similar to the traditional, non-partition
method of operating a system. You can use AIX 5L commands such as lsdev
and lscfg to view resources. Because all resources are assigned to this
partition, no other partitions can be started when the Full System Partition is
running. Likewise, the Full System Partition cannot be started while other
partitions are running.
The HMC enables you to easily switch from the Full System Partition to logical
partitions. The setup of the operating system in a partition might require some
careful planning to ensure that no conflicts exist between the two environments.
3.3.2 Managing a partitioned system
The HMC can be used to manage your partitioned system. Different
managed-object types exist within the user interface. You can perform
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management functions by selecting the appropriate object type and then
selecting an appropriate task. The main types of objects are managed systems,
partitions, and profiles.
Managed systems
Managed systems are systems that are physically attached to and managed by
the HMC. The HMC can perform tasks that affect the entire managed system,
such as powering the system on and off. You can also create partitions and
profiles within each managed system. These partitions and profiles define the
way you configure and operate your partitioned system.
Partitions
Within your managed system, you can assign resources to create partitions.
Each partition runs a specific instance of an operating system. The HMC can
perform tasks on individual partitions. These tasks are similar to those you can
perform on traditional, non-partitioned servers. For example, you can use the
HMC to start the operating system and access the operating system console.
Because the HMC provides a virtual terminal for each partition, a terminal
window can be opened for each partition. This virtual terminal can be used for
software installation, system diagnostics, and system outputs. Only one instance
of the terminal can be opened at a time. The managed system firmware and
device drivers provide the redirection of the data to the virtual terminal.
Profiles
A profile defines a configuration setup for a managed system or partition. You
can then use the profiles you created to start a managed system or partition in a
particular configuration.
3.3.3 Partition profiles
A partition does not actually own any resources until it is activated. Resource
specifications are stored within partition profiles. The same partition can operate
using different resources at different times, depending on the profile you
activated. When you activate a partition, you enable the system to create a
partition using the set of resources in a profile created for that partition. For
example, a logical partition profile might indicate to the managed system that its
partition requires three processors, 2 GB of memory, and I/O slots 6, 11, and 12
when activated.
You can have more than one profile for a partition. However, you can only
activate a partition with one profile at a time. Partition profiles are not affected by
changes you make using the dynamic logical partitioning feature. If you want
permanent changes, you must then reconfigure partition profiles manually. For
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
79
example, if your partition profile specifies that you require two processors and
you use dynamic logical partitioning to add a processor to that partition, you must
change the partition profile if you want the additional processor to be added to
the partition the next time you use the profile.
3.3.4 System profiles
Using the HMC, you can create and activate often-used collections of predefined
partition profiles. A collection of predefined partition profiles is called a system
profile. The system profile is an ordered list of partitions and the profile that is to
be activated for each partition. The first profile in the list is activated first, followed
by the second profile in the list, followed by the third, and so on.
The system profile helps you change the managed systems from one complete
set of partitions configurations to another. For example, a company might want to
switch from using 12 partitions to using only four every day. To do this, the system
administrator deactivates the 12 partitions and activates a different system
profile, one specifying four partitions. You cannot select a system profile from the
power-on screen when there are no predefined system profiles. The option
appears unavailable.
3.3.5 Overall requirements for partitioning
Before you begin to create partitions, complete the following activities:
 Record the required subnet mask, any gateway information, and address of
your DNS server.
 Check that you have a suitable LAN (hub or switch and cables) to connect to
each HMC and each network adapter used by partitions.
 Record the TCP/IP names and addresses to be resolved by a DNS server, or
to be entered into the /etc/hosts file in each partition, and on the HMC.
 Determine the following information:
– Your current resources for each partition
– The operating system host name for each partition
– The partition you want to use for service actions
– The operating system to be loaded on the partition
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3.4 LPAR resource administration
Allocating resources, changing partition profiles, and modifying system profiles
are key server management tasks. These tasks require special levels of authority
and are very significant in LPAR administration.
3.4.1 Assignable resources for logical partitioning
A partition profile stores the information of the three types of resources: CPU,
memory, and I/O slots. Partition profiles store the information of the specific PCI
slots assigned in the I/O drawers where the I/O devices are possibly plugged in.
Note: Partition profiles do not store the information about specific I/O devices
and PCI adapters.
Processors
Each installed and configured processor in the partioning-capable pSeries server
can be assigned to a partition. You do not have to specify the precise location of
the assigned processors in the partition profile, because the system selects the
resources automatically. At least one processor must be assigned to each
partition. Starting with the POWER5 technology, sharing processors between
multiple active partitions is possible.
Memory
In a partitioned environment, some of the physical memory areas are reserved
by several system functions to enable partitioning in the partioning-capable
pSeries server. You can assign unused physical memory to a partition. The
minimum amount of physical memory for each partition is 128 MB. You can
assign further physical memory to partitions in increments of 128 MB.
I/O slots
I/O devices are assignable to partitions on a PCI slot (physical PCI connector)
basis. This means that it is not the PCI adapters in the PCI slots that are
assigned as partition resources, but the PCI slots into which the PCI adapters
are plugged. To install an operating system, you need a device adapter and a
boot/install media. For application and network usage, you also need a network
adapter. The adapters and boot disks may or may not be physical adapters.
Refer to Chapter 6, “Advanced POWER Virtualization” on page 191 to learn
more about virtual adapters.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
81
Types of values for resource assignment
In a partition profile, you need to specify three types of values for each resource.
For CPU and memory, specify minimum, desired, and maximum values.
If any of the three types of resources cannot satisfy the specified minimum and
required values, the activation of a partition will fail. If the available resources
satisfy all the minimum and required values, but do not satisfy desired values, the
activated partition will get as many of the resources as are available.
The maximum value is used to limit the maximum CPU and memory resources
when dynamic logical partitioning operations are performed on the partition. If
you exceed the total amount of memory in the system during profile creation, an
error occurs stating that you have exceeded maximum system memory.
Note: The maximum value is not shown and is unavailable if the HMC
software level is earlier than Release 3, Version 1.
If you are going to install operating systems that do not support dynamic logical
partitioning, you should specify the same values for both the desired and
maximum values.
Assigning a host name to a partition
Each partition, including the Full System Partition, must have a unique host
name that can be resolved. Host names cannot be reused between the Full
System Partition and the logical partitions. If you need to change the host name
of the partition manually, you might need to update the Network Settings on the
HMC. You need to update if a short partition name is used or if a DNS server is
not used.
3.4.2 Operating states
The HMC Contents area displays an operating state for the managed system.
Operating states for managed systems
The operating states provided in Table 3-2 apply to the managed system.
Table 3-2 States for managed systems
82
State
Description
Operating
The managed system is powered on and is initializing.
Power off
Server is off.
Initializing
The managed system is powered on and is initializing.
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
State
Description
Pending authentication
System is waiting for password to be authenticated.
Failed authentication
Processor password not synchronized with HMC.
Error
The managed system’s operating system or hardware is
experiencing errors.
On demand recovery
System VPD card is replaced and waiting replacement code
for Virtual engine or Capacity on Demand technologies.
No connection
The HMC cannot contact the managed system.
Standby
System is on LPAR mode and awaits LPARs to be restarted.
Incomplete
HMC failed to get information from the managed system.
Recovery
Save area in the service processor is not synchronized with
the HMC database.
Operating states for partitions
The operating states provided in Table 3-3 apply to the logical partition.
Table 3-3 States for partitions
State
Description
Ready
The partition is not active but is ready to be activated.
Starting
The partition is activated and is booting.
Running
The partition has finished its booting routines. The operating
system might be performing its booting routines or is in its
normal running state.
Error
The managed system’s operating system or hardware is
experiencing errors.
Not available
This partition is not available for use. Reasons can include:

The managed system is powered off.

The Full System Partition is not available when the
managed system is powered on with the Partition
Standby power-on option.

Logical partitions are not available when the managed
system is powered on with the Full System Partition
power-on option.
Shutting down
LPAR is powering off.
Open firmware
The partition was activated by a profile that specified an
OPEN_FIRMWARE boot mode.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
83
3.4.3 Creating logical partitions
To create a logical partition, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the Selected menu, select Create.
3. Select Logical Partition. The Create Logical Partition and Profile wizard
opens. See Figure 3-3 on page 78 for logical partition creation.
4. In the first window of the Create Logical Partition and Profile wizard, provide a
name for the partition profile that you are creating. Use a unique name for
each partition that you create. Names can be up to 31 characters long.
Click Next.
5. Type the name of the profile you are creating for this partition.
Click Next unless you want to assign the partition to a workload management
group.
6. Select the desired, minimum, and maximum number of processors you want
for this partition profile.
Click Next.
7. Select the desired and minimum number of memory.
Click Next.
8. The left side of the new window displays the I/O drawers available and
configured for use. To expand the I/O tree to show the individual slots in each
drawer, click the icon next to each drawer. Because the HMC groups some
slots, if you attempt to assign a member of one of these grouped slots to a
profile, the entire group is automatically assigned. Groups are indicated by a
special icon named Group_XXX.
Select the slot for details about the adapter installed in that slot. When you
select a slot, the field underneath the I/O drawer tree lists the slot’s class code
and physical location code.
Note: The slots in the I/O Drawers field are not listed in sequential order.
9. Select the slot you want to assign to this partition profile and click either
required or desired. If you want to add another slot, repeat this process.
Slots are added individually to the profile; you can add slots one at a time,
unless they are grouped. Minimally, assign a boot device to the required list
box. This might be real or virtual depending on the choice of your server.
There are two groups to which you can add adapters: a required group and a
desired group. Desired adapters will be used if they are available at the time of
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activation. Required adapters are adapters that you require for this partition. If
the adapters in this group are not available at the time of activation, the
partition does not activate.
Click Next.
10.This window enables you to set service authority and boot mode policies for
this partition profile.
Select the boot mode that you want for this partition profile. Click Next.
11.This window supplies you with summary information about this partition.
Review the information to ensure that you have the appropriate resources
assigned to this partition.
12.If you want to change the configuration, click Back. Otherwise, click Finish to
create the partition and profile.
13.The new partition, along with the default profile you just created appears
under the Managed System tree in the Contents area.
After you have created a partition, you must install an operating system and
configure inventory data collection on the HMC and on the partition.
Note: For operating system installation steps, refer to 3.5, “Installation of
the operating system into a partition” on page 92.
3.4.4 Activating partitions
To activate a partition, select the partition itself, and click Activate from the
Selected menu. A window opens that lists activation profiles. The default partition
profile is automatically highlighted, but you can activate the partition with any of
the listed profiles.
If the required resources you specified in the partition profile that you are using to
activate the partition exceed the amount of available resources, this partition
does not activate. All resources currently not being used by active partitions are
considered available resources. It is important that you keep track of your
system’s resources at all times.
Note: The lshsc command (using SSH) can be used to determine available
resources as long as all the LPARs are in the running state.
For service, you must also configure Inventory Scout Services for each partition
you activate.To activate partitions, you must be a member of one of the following
roles: Operator, Advanced Operator, System Administrator, or Service
Representative.
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Activating a specific partition profile
To activate a partition profile, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select a partition profile.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Activate.
4. The profile name is highlighted. Click OK to activate the partition profile.
The virtual operator panel next to the partition cycles through hardware boot
sequence error and information codes, and then displays operating system error
and information codes. For a complete description of these codes, refer to the
hardware service documentation provided with your managed system and the
documentation provided with your operating system.
Activating the default partition profile
To activate a partition without selecting a specific partition profile, perform the
following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the partition.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Activate.
4. The default profile name is highlighted. Click OK. If you want to activate a
different profile, select another profile in the list and then click OK.
Reactivating a partition with a partition profile
Reactivating a partition with a different profile requires shutting down the
operating system that is running in that partition and activating another profile.
To reactivate a partition with a partition profile, you must be a member of one of
the following roles: Operator, Advanced Operator, System Administrator, or
Service Representative.
To reactivate a partition with a different profile, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the partition for which you want to change
profiles.
2. Open a terminal window for that partition to look at the operating system.
3. Run an appropriate shutdown command. The system shuts down the
operating system, and the partition’s state changes from Running to Ready in
the Contents area. The shutdown -Fr command will not change the hardware
configuration of a profile.
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4. In the Contents area, select the new partition profile you want to activate for
that partition.
5. From the menu, select Selected.
6. Select Activate.
3.4.5 Deleting partitions
To delete a partition, the managed system must be powered on using the
Partition Standby power-on option. If you delete a partition, all of the profiles
associated with that partition are also deleted. The partition is also automatically
deleted from all system profiles.
You can delete partitions if you are a member of the System Administrator role.
You cannot delete an activated partition. The option will be unavailable.
To delete a partition, perform the following steps:
1. Select the partition from the Contents area.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Delete.
3.4.6 Partition startup and shutdown
This section describes the processes for starting and stopping partitions
containing the AIX 5L Version 5.3 operating system. We cover the following
topics:
 Normal partition startup
 Partition shutdown
 Partition reboot
 Partition recovery
– Soft reset
– Hard reset
Normal partition startup
To start AIX 5L in a partition, make sure that the partition profile boot mode is set
to NORMAL and the partition is in the Ready state. Ensure that the default profile
has sufficient resources to start the operating system.
To activate the partition, select the partition, right-click, and select Activate.
When you select Activate, the HMC uses the boot mode selection in the partition
profile.
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87
The partition performs a virtual power-on, and the operating system starts
booting. The partition then enters the Starting state, and the LED codes appear
on the virtual operator panel within the HMC.
Partition shutdown
When a partition is up, it is in the Running state. To use AIX 5L to shut down an
LPAR, perform one of the following actions:
 At the AIX 5L command prompt, type:
shutdown -F
 For a forced shutdown, right-click the partition and select Shut Down
Partition.
The partition eventually changes to the Ready state. You have now shut down
AIX 5L and its partition.
Partition reboot
When a partition is up, it is in the Running state. To use AIX 5L to reboot an
LPAR, type the following command at the AIX 5L command prompt:
shutdown -Fr
Notice the use of the -r flag; this tells the system to reboot after shutting down.
The partition eventually changes to the Starting state, and AIX 5L begins booting.
The virtual operator panel displays LED codes during the boot.
Note that this will not activate resources that have been added to a profile. The
partition must be shut down to the Ready state, and the changes must be
activated using the HMC.
Partition recovery
When an operating system stops responding, the HMC enables the operating
system on a partition to be reset when errors are encountered in the operating
system. The system can undergo either a soft or hard reset, as described in the
following sections.
Soft reset
Soft reset actions are determined by your operating system’s policy settings.
Depending on how you have configured these settings, the operating system
might do the following actions:
 Perform a dump of system information
 Restart automatically
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If there is a problem with the running operating system, the following procedure
performs a soft reset. This is the equivalent of pressing the yellow reset button on
an RS/6000 system.
To reset the operating system on a partition, select the partition, right-click, and
select Restart partition. Choose between the following options: Dump,
operating systems and Operating system immediate. Figure 3-4 on page 90
shows the Reset Partition window.
In the window that opens, select soft reset and click Yes.
Hard reset
A hard reset virtually powers off the system. Issuing a hard reset forces
termination and can corrupt information. Use this option only if the operating
system is disrupted and cannot send or receive commands. To reset the
operating system on a partition, select the partition, right-click, and select Reset.
Select Operating System. Figure 3-4 on page 90 shows the Reset Partition
window.
In the window that opens, select hard reset and click Yes.
The partition powers off and returns to a Ready state.
Important: Pay attention to the message about other operating systems, such
as Linux and i5/OS, when selecting reset. See Figure 3-4.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
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Figure 3-4 Options to reset partitions
3.4.7 Setting up service authority
When partitions are created, we recommended that one partition is given service
authority. The partition designated as having service authority can be used to
perform system firmware upgrades and set other system policy parameters
without having to power off the managed system.
The partition with the service authority must have a floppy drive or a CD-ROM
attached to it. The Virtual I/O Server is a perfect candidate for a service
authorized partition.
To see if a partition has service authority enabled, perform the following steps:
1. Select the partition.
2. Right-click and select Properties.
3. Go to the Settings tab.
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Figure 3-5 shows service authorized partition enabled.
Figure 3-5 Service authorization partition enabled
3.4.8 Changing default partition profiles
When you create a partition, the HMC requires that you create at least one profile
called the default profile. In the Contents area, the default profile is represented
by an icon. The default profile cannot be deleted.
When activating a partition, the HMC highlights the default profile as the one to
use during activation unless you specify that it activate a different partition profile.
To change default profiles, you must be a member of one of the following roles:
System Administrator or Advanced Operator.
To change the default partition profile, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the default partition profile that you want to
change.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Change Default Profile.
4. Select the profile that you want to make the default profile from the list.
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91
3.4.9 Viewing system profile properties
Any user can view system profile properties.
To view the properties of the system profile, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the system profile.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Properties.
3.4.10 Modifying system profile properties
To modify system profiles, you must be a member of one of the following roles:
System Administrator or Advanced Operator.
To modify system profiles, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the system profile that you want to modify.
2. From the menu, select Selected.
3. Select Properties from the menu.
4. Change the system profile information as appropriate.
3.5 Installation of the operating system into a partition
This section provides an overview of the AIX 5L installation process and various
installation scenarios you can use.
3.5.1 Operating system capability and configuration
The IBM Sserver p5 590 and p5 595 servers are capable of running the
following operating systems:
 AIX 5L
AIX 5L for POWER Version 5.2 with the 5200-04 Recommended
Maintenance Package (APAR IY56722), or later, plus APAR IY60347 and AIX
5L for POWER Version 5.3 with APAR IY60349, or later
Note: Advanced POWER Virtualization is not supported on AIX 5L for
POWER Version 5.2. It requires AIX 5L Version 5.3.
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 Linux
– Novell SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 for POWER, or later
– Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS for POWER Version 3, or later
 i5/OS
i5/OS V5R3, or later
The p5-570 server is capable of running the following operating systems:
 AIX 5L
AIX 5L Version 5.3 or AIX 5L Version 5.2 Maintenance Package 5200-04
(IY56722), or later
 Linux
– SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 for POWER systems, or later
– Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS for POWER Version 3, or later
Note: The following notes apply:
 For Linux:
– Not all server features available on the AIX 5L operating system are
available on the Linux operating systems.
– Dynamic LPAR is not supported by Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS for
POWER Version 3.
– IBM only supports the Linux systems of clients with a SupportLine
contract covering Linux. Otherwise, contact the Linux distributor for
support.
 For i5/OS:
– It is supported on 1.65 GHz POWER5 models only.
– Only one or two processors on the p5-590 and p5-595 systems can be
dedicated to i5/OS, while the other servers do not support i5/OS at the
time of writing.
– Only an AIX 5L or Linux logical partition can be designated as the
service partition. An i5/OS partition cannot be designated as the
service partition.
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93
3.5.2 Recommended configuration for a basic AIX 5L installation
When installing your AIX 5L system, it is important to understand the basic usage
of the system. This enables you to adequately design a system capable of
handling its workload.
Consider the following list of recommendations for a basic installation:
 Hard disks
Use at least two physical volumes (PV) to be used by rootvg. Each of the
volumes needs to be able to handle the operating system on its own. These
physical volumes need to be mirrored. The operating system is not more than
3 GB in size, but 5 GB advised for future growth, maintenance upgrades, and
fixes.
 File systems
Some applications use root file systems as their root for binaries, and this can
be hard coded. Try to isolate the binaries from the root file system by using a
separate file system with a mount point pointing to a root file system. For
example, if an application uses a directory such as /usr/tivoli, create a file
system with a mount point of /usr/tivoli. In doing that, /usr becomes a file
system and /usr/tivoli another file system.
 Paging space
This is controlled mainly by the applications running on the system. For
example, some applications require that your paging space be three to four
times the size of your real memory. AIX 5L provides the following default sizes
based on your initial configuration.
Paging space can use no less than 16 MB, except for hd6, which can use no
less than 64 MB in AIX Version 4.3 and later. Paging space can use no more
than 20% of total disk space. If real memory is less than 256 MB, paging
space is twice the real memory. If real memory is greater than or equal to 256
MB, paging space is 512 MB.
 System dump device
After system installation, use the sysdumpdev -e command to estimate the
size of the system dump device. AIX 5L Version 5.3 isolates the dump device
from the default hd6 to lg_dumplv. Make sure that dumpcheck is activated in
cron. It periodically estimates the size of the system dump and compares it
with the size of the dump device. It will notify the administrator when the dump
device becomes too small.
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 Memory
This depends on the application. The more the memory you have, the more
chances of improving performance. This is only a subset of performance
factors. The whole set is beyond the scope of this publication. AIX 5L
Practical Performance Tools and Tuning Guide, SG24-6478, provides more
information about system performance.
 Network
If possible, we recommend two or more physical adapters for both
redundancy and load balancing. You might need a separate adapter to run
backups.
3.5.3 Disks, boot devices, and media devices
The servers and partitions must have access to a device capable of reading CD
media or to a Network Installation Management (NIM) server. A minimum of two
internal SCSI hard disks are required per server, but not for the LPARs. We
recommend that you use these disks as mirrored boot devices. Mount these
disks in the first I/O drawer whenever possible.
Boot support is available from local SCSI, virtual SCSI, SSA, and Fibre Channel
adapters, or from networks using Ethernet, virtual Ethernet, or token-ring
adapters.
Virtual I/O:
 Virtual Ethernet clients can only connect partitions within a single system.
 The target partition must run AIX 5L Version 5.3 or Linux with the
appropriate kernel or a kernel that supports virtualization. AIX 5L V5.2
does not support virtualization.
 Virtual disk and virtual Ethernet depend on the availability of the Virtual I/O
Server.
For more information about virtual I/O, refer to 6.2, “Micro-Partitioning” on
page 193.
3.5.4 Overview of the AIX 5L installation process
Due to the physical configuration of a managed system, we recommend the use
of the Network Installation Management (NIM) environment to install AIX 5L.
Table 3-4 on page 96 compares how different forms of media proceed through
the AIX 5L installation process.
Chapter 3. System partitioning and operating system installation
95
Table 3-4 AIX 5L installation process comparison
Steps
CD-ROM
produce media
NIM
mksysb on CD-R
or DVD-RAM
mksysb on tape
Booting
Boot image is
stored and
retrieved from CD.
Boot image is
stored on NIM
server and
retrieved from
network by
firmware.
Boot image is
stored and
retrieved from
CD-R or DVD.
Boot image is
stored and
retrieved from the
first image on
tape.
Making BOS
installation
choices
Manually step
through the BOS
menu selections
for disks, kernel,
language, and so
on.
Perform
nonprompted
installation using a
bosinst.data file to
answer the BOS
menu questions.
Manually proceed
through the BOS
menu selections
for disks.
Manually proceed
through BOS
menu selections
for disks and other
choices.
Executing
commands during
installation
CD-file system is
mounted, and
commands are
executed.
Shared Product
Object Tree
(SPOT) file
system is NFS
mounted, and
commands are
run from the
SPOT.
CD-file system is
mounted, and
commands are
executed.
Command files
are retrieved from
second image on
tape to RAM file
system in
memory.
Installing product
images
Installation
images stored on
CD in a file
system.
Installation
images are stored
in LPP_Source,
which is NFS
mounted during
installation.
Backup image is
stored on CD-R or
DVD-RAM in a file
system.
Backup image is
stored and
retrieved from
fourth image on
tape.
Rebooting system
and logging in to
the system
Use configuration
assistant (or
installation
assistant) to
accept license
agreements, set
paging space, and
so on.
No configuration
assistant (or
installation
assistant). Boot to
login prompt.
No configuration
assistant (or
installation
assistant). Boot to
login prompt.
No configuration
assistant (or
installation
assistant). Boot to
login prompt.
3.5.5 Introduction to Network Installation Management
Network Installation Management (NIM) gives you the ability to install and
maintain the AIX 5L operating system (BOS) and any additional software and
fixes that might be applied over time. It can be used to customize the
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configuration of machines both during and after installation. Using NIM
eliminates the need for access to physical media, such as tapes and CD-ROMs,
because the media is a NIM resource on a NIM server. System backups can be
created with NIM and stored on any server in the NIM environment, including the
NIM master. Use NIM to restore a system backup to the same partition or to
another partition. Before you begin configuring the NIM environment, you must
have completed the following actions:
 NFS and TCP/IP installed
 TCP/IP configured correctly
 Name resolution configured
The nimish command
In previous versions of AIX, NIM used the rsh and rcmd commands to perform
remote execution of commands on clients. These r-commands were a potential
security exposure.
AIX 5L Version 5.3 is enhanced with the nimsh command environment that is part
of the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset.
The AIX 5L which_fileset command is a useful tool that searches the
/usr/lpp/bos/AIX_file_list file for a specified file name or command.
On NIM operations, the client and server send authentication information that will
be validated by nimish. The nimish command requires the following
authentication information:
 Host name of NIM client
 CPUID of NIM client
 CPUID of NIM master
 Return port for secondary (stderr) connection
 Query flag
The rsh and rcmd commands are still supported for compatibility reasons. The
nimish command allows the following two remote execution environments:
 NIM service handler for client communication: Basic nimsh
 NIM cryptographic authentication: OpenSSL
Existing clients not using the current nimish command authentication can be
updated using the smitty nim_config_services fast path. Although it is not
recommended, the use of the niminit command will archive the same goal.
Example 3-2 on page 98 shows the execution of the niminit command.
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97
Example 3-2 Using niminit for using nimish
# . /etc/niminfo
# mv /etc/niminfo /etc/niminfo.bak
# niminit -aname=server2 -amaster=server4 -aconnect=nimsh
nimsh:2:wait:/usr/bin/startsrc -g nimclient >/dev/console 2>&1
0513-044 The nimsh Subsystem was requested to stop.
0513-059 The nimsh Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 442484.
# nimclient -C
0513-059 The nimsh Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 417820.
OpenSSL
AIX 5L Version 5.3 introduces a cryptographic extension for NIM on the
OpenSSL environment, which is delivered on the Linux Toolbox for AIX media.
High Available NIM (HA_NIM)
The most significant single point of failure in a NIM environment is the NIM
master. AIX 5L Version 5.3 introduces a way to define a backup NIM master to
take over to the backup master and then fall back to the primary master. The
takeover is done by an administrator command from the backup server.
Figure 3-6 shows a typical HA_NIM environment. The NIM master has to run a
backup operation regularly to synchronize the configurations from the primary to
the backup server.
N I M c lie n t
s e rv e r3
backup
s e rv e r4
p r im a r y
s e rv e r2
s e c o n d a ry
lp p _ s o u r c e
S P O T
m ksysb
lp p _ s o u r c e
S P O T
m ksysb
Figure 3-6 HA_NIM environment
To set up an HA_NIM environment, perform the following steps:
1. On the backup server, install the NIM master and Shared Product Object Tree
(SPOT) filesets using regular AIX 5L procedures.
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Define the primary master by running the smit nim_mkaltmstr command on
the master or by using the following command:
nim -o define -t alternate_master -aplatform=chrp -aif1=’network1 server2
0’ \ -anetboot_kernel=mp server2.
2. Initialize the backup master:
# niminit -ais_alternate=yes -aname=server2 -amaster=server4 -apif_name=en0
\ -aplatform=chrp
3. Synchronize the NIM masters, by running:
nim_master_recover
Or:
nim -o sync -aforce=yes server2
Creating a NIM master
To create a NIM master, perform the following steps:
1. Make sure that the correct version of the AIX 5L operating system has been
installed on the master (AIX 5L Version 5.2 with the current maintenance level
or AIX 5L Version 5.3 with the correct maintenance level for clients using
virtualization).
2. Ensure that the NIM master has enough disk space for NIM resources and a
CD-ROM assigned to it.
3. Verify that your network environment is already defined and working correctly
before configuring the NIM environment.
4. As the root user, you will set up the NIM environment using the
nim_master_setup script. The nim_master_setup script automatically installs
the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset, configures the NIM master, and creates
the required resources for installation, including a mksysb system backup.
The nim_master_setup script uses the rootvg volume group and creates an
/export/nim file system by default.
Using the NIM master to install partitions on the same system
To prepare a client LPAR for installation, perform the following steps:
1. Use the nim_clients_setup script to define your NIM clients.
2. Allocate the installation resources.
3. Initiate a NIM BOS installation on the clients.
4. Using the HMC, activate the client partitions and configure them to boot off
the network.
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99
Prerequisites
Before beginning with this procedure, the following tasks must be completed:
 A NIM master must be setup.
 Network communication to the master and the server must be configured.
 Use the HMC to create logical partitions and partition profiles for each NIM
client. Be sure that each LPAR has a network adapter assigned. Set the boot
mode for each partition to SMS mode. After you have successfully created the
partitions and partition profiles, leave the partitions in the Ready state. Do not
activate the partitions yet.
Note: It is possible to use a virtual network with the NIM master and clients on
the same system. If the LPARs use the virtual I/O, it is important to make sure
that the Virtual I/O Server is operational, because there is no “real” network
adapter between the NIM client and master.
Use the NIM master to perform the following steps:
1. Activate the Master_LPAR (using the HMC interface).
2. Configure the NIM master and initiate the installation of the partitions.
Confirm or enter your host name, IP address, name server, domain name,
default gateway, and ring speed or cable type when configuring your network.
3. Activate and install the partitions (using the HMC interface).
To activate the partitions, perform the following steps:
a. Select the partition (or partition profile) you want to activate.
b. Right-click the partition (or partition profile) to open the menu.
c. Select Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of
partition profiles. Select a partition profile that is set to boot to the SMS
menu.
d. Select Open terminal at the bottom of the menu to open a virtual terminal
(vterm) window.
e. Select OK. A vterm window opens for each partition. After several
seconds, the System Management Services (SMS) menu opens in the
vterm window.
After the installation completes and the system reboots, the vterm window
displays a login prompt.
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Using NIM on a separate system to install each partition
In this procedure, a separate system running AIX 5L Version 5.3 is used as a
NIM master and server to install logical partitions. It is assumed that the steps to
create the NIM master are completed. As with any NIM environment, you must
make sure that your network environment is already defined and working
correctly. In this case, the availability of a physical network is required.
You then define your clients using SMIT or using the NIM clients.def file. Next,
use the nim_clients_setup script to allocate the installation resources, and
initiate a NIM BOS installation on the clients. Then using the HMC, you activate
the partitions and configure them to boot off the network.
Prerequisites
Before you begin this procedure, you should have used the HMC to create
partitions and partition profiles for each partition that you want to install. Be sure
that each partition has a network adapter assigned. Set the boot mode for each
partition to be SMS mode. After you have successfully created the partitions and
partition profiles, leave the partitions in the Ready state. Do not activate the
partitions yet.
Perform the following steps:
1. Configure the NIM master and initiate the installation of the partitions (perform
these steps in the AIX 5L environment).
2. Activate and install the partitions (using the HMC interface).
3. Log in to your partition (perform this step in the AIX 5L environment).
When the installation has completed and the system has rebooted, the vterm
window displays a login prompt.
Note: You can also select the nimsh command for the BOS install operation. At
the time of writing, there was no SMIT menu to do this. Use the nim command
as follows:
nim -o bos_inst -a connect=nimsh -a source=rte -a spot=spot530 \ -a
lpp_source=aix530 server3
3.5.6 Installing a partition using alternate disk installation
An existing disk image can be cloned to another disk or disks without using NIM.
However, you can choose to use NIM at a later time. With the appropriate filesets
installed, SMIT panels can be used to help facilitate the alt_disk_install
command.
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When using alt_disk_install command to clone a system image to another
disk, the -O option must be used to remove references in the object data
manager (ODM) and device (/dev) entries to the existing system. The -O flag tells
the alt_disk_install command to call the devreset command, which resets the
device database. The cloned disk can now be booted as though it were a new
system.
The following steps illustrate an example of this scenario:
1. Boot the managed system as a Full System Partition so that you have access
to all the disks in the managed system.
2. Configure the system and install the necessary applications.
3. Run the alt_disk_install command to begin cloning the rootvg on hdisk0 to
hdisk1, as follows:
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -O -B -C hdisk1
The cloned disk (hdisk1) is named altinst_rootvg by default.
4. Rename the cloned disk (hdisk1) to alt1 so that you can repeat the operation
with another disk:
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -v alt1 hdisk1
5. Run the alt_disk_install command again to clone to another disk and
rename the cloned disk, as follows:
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -O -B -C hdisk2
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -v alt2 hdisk2
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 for all of the disks that you want to clone.
7. Use the HMC to partition the managed system with the newly cloned disks.
Each partition you create will now have a rootvg with a boot image.
8. Boot the partition into SMS mode. Use the SMS MultiBoot menu to configure
the first boot device to be the newly installed disk. Exit the SMS menus and
boot the system.
3.5.7 Using a CD-ROM to manually install a partition
In this procedure, you use either the system's built-in CD device or a virtual CD
device assigned to the LPAR to perform a new and complete Base Operating
System installation on a partition.
Prerequisites
Before using this procedure, create a partition and partition profile for the client
using the HMC. Assign the SCSI (or vSCSI in the Virtual I/O Server client) bus
controller attached to the CD-ROM device and enough disk space for the AIX 5L
operating system to the partition. Set the boot mode for this partition to be SMS
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mode. After you have successfully created the partition and partition profile,
leave the partition in the Ready state.
Manually installing a partition using a CD-ROM
Perform the following steps:
1. Activate and install the partition (using the HMC interface).
To set advanced options, press 3 and then press Enter. The advanced options
available in AIX 5L Version 5.3 enable you to change the desktop application
and enable or disable the Trusted Computing Base option.
2. Manage your partition (perform this step in the AIX 5L environment).
When the installation completes and the system reboots, the vterm window
displays a login prompt.
Note: The following changes apply to the BOS installation:
 The AIX 5L operating system previously contained both a uniprocessor
32-bit kernel and a multiprocessor 32-bit kernel. Effective with AIX 5L
Version 5.3, the operating system supports only the multiprocessor kernel.
 AIX 5L Version 5.2 is the last release of AIX that supports the uniprocessor
32-bit kernel.
 Prior to AIX 5L Version 5.3, the default kernel was 32-bit, but with AIX 5L
Version 5.3, the default kernel is 64-bit with a 32-bit option. Enhanced
journaled file system (JFS2) is the default file system when installing the
64-bit kernel.
The AIX 5L Version 5.3 32-bit multiprocessor kernel supports the following
systems: RS/6000, Sserver pSeries, p5, and OEM hardware based on the
Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) architecture, regardless of
the number of processors.
3.5.8 Choosing the 64-bit or 32-bit kernel on installation
It can be very difficult for system administrators to decide which default kernel to
use on installation. The decision is mostly affected by the applications that will
run on the system. We recommend choosing a 64-bit kernel. This is supported
by the following points:
 The 64-bit kernel introduced with AIX 5L Version 5.1 addresses bottlenecks
that might have limited throughput on 32-way systems.
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 The 64-bit kernel also improves scalability by allowing you to use larger sizes
of physical memory, while the 32-bit kernel is limited to 96 GB of physical
memory.
 The performance of 64-bit applications running on the 64-bit kernel on
POWER5-based systems should be greater than, or equal to, the same
application running on the same hardware with the 32-bit kernel.
 The 64-bit kernel allows 64-bit applications to be supported without requiring
system call parameters to be remapped or reshaped.
 32-bit applications can run on the 64-bit kernel with less than 5% performance
degradation compared to the 32-bit call because of parameter reshaping.
 64-bit applications from AIX 4.3 need to be recompiled in order to correctly
run on AIX 5L.
3.5.9 Creating a system backup
Before any system migration, upgrade, or installation, we recommended that you
perform a full system backup of the old system. A system backup, referred to as
mksysb, is an image of the operating system with all fixes, upgrades, and
configurations applied after the BOS installation.
The following list provides the recommended methods of system backup listed in
order of preference:
 Using NIM
 Using the alt_disk_install command
 Creating a bootable CD/DVD media
 Creating a bootable tape
Note: Because of its flexibility, NIM is the recommended method to back up
and reinstall your partitions. See 5.8, “Planning and performing backup and
recovery” on page 180 for more information about backup and recovery.
3.6 Dynamic LPAR operation
A dynamic logical partition provides the ability to logically attach and detach a
managed system’s resources to and from a partition’s operating system without
rebooting.
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3.6.1 Dynamically adding resources to a partition
This task enables you to add resources, such as processors, memory, and I/O
slots, to a partition without rebooting the partition’s operating system.
Processors
You can add up to the amount of free system processors (processors that are not
assigned to a running partition) to a partition. You cannot exceed the maximum
number specified in the partition’s active profile.
Memory
You can only add up to the amount of free memory, or memory that is not
assigned to a running partition. You also cannot exceed the maximum number
specified in the partition’s active profile.
Adapters
You can dynamically add any free adapters to the partition.
3.6.2 Dynamically moving resources between partitions
This task enables you to move resources, such as processors, memory, and I/O
slots, from one partition to another without rebooting either partition’s operating
system.
Processors
You can move processors from one partition to another partition. You have to
select appropriate values so that these two partitions satisfy the following
conditions:
 The partition whose processors will be removed must be assigned more than
or equal to the number of processors defined in the partition profile as the
minimum value after the operation.
 The partition whose processors will be added must be assigned less than or
equal to the number of processors defined in the partition profile as the
maximum value after the operation.
Memory
You can move memory from one partition to another partition. You have to select
appropriate values so that these two partitions satisfy the following conditions:
 The partition whose memory will be removed must be assigned more than or
equal to the memory size defined in the partition profile as the minimum value
after the operation.
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 The partition whose memory will be added must be assigned less than or
equal to the memory size defined in the partition profile as the maximum
value after the operation.
Adapters
This task enables you to move a PCI I/O slot containing a PCI adapter from one
partition to another without rebooting the partition’s operating system. Before
moving an I/O slot, you must log in to the operating system on the source
partition and unconfigure the adapter and the I/O slot. The adapter that you are
going to move must not be defined as Required in the current active partition
profile on the source partition.
Note: To ensure that Service Focal Point and Dynamic LPAR operations
continue to function correctly, do not dynamically move the Ethernet adapter,
which is used to communicate with the HMC.
3.6.3 Dynamically removing resources from a partition
This task enables you to remove resources, such as processors, memory, and
I/O slots, from a partition without rebooting the partition’s operating system.
Processors
You can remove processors from a partition without rebooting the partition’s
operating system. When you remove a processor, it is freed by the partition and
available for use by other partitions.
Note: The number of processors remaining after the removal operation cannot
be less than the minimum value specified in this partition’s active profile.
Memory
You can remove memory from a partition without rebooting the partition’s
operating system. When you remove memory, it is freed by the partition and
available for use by other partitions.
Note: The size of the memory remaining after the removal operation cannot
be less than the minimum value specified in this partition’s active profile.
Adapters
This task enables you to remove I/O slots, which can contain an adapter, from a
partition without rebooting the partition’s operating system. Before continuing
with this task, you must use the partition’s operating system to manually
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deconfigure each adapter that you want to remove. You cannot remove an
adapter defined as Required in the current active partition profile.
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4
Chapter 4.
Hardware management
The Hardware Management Console (HMC) uses its connection to the processor
subsystem to perform various functions. These functions include creating and
maintaining a multiple partition environment, detecting, reporting, and storing
changes in hardware conditions, and acting as a Service Focal Point for service
representatives to determine an appropriate service strategy.
This chapter includes the following sections:
 HMC
 Service applications
 Licensed Internal Code maintenance
 LPAR Validation Tool (LVT)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
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4.1 HMC
The Hardware Management Console is a dedicated workstation that controls
managed systems, including IBM Sserver hardware, logical partitions, and
Capacity on Demand. To provide flexibility and availability, there are different
ways to implement HMCs, including the local HMC, remote HMC, redundant
HMC, and the Web-based System Manager Remote Client. One HMC is capable
of controlling multiple POWER5 processor-based systems.
Note: At the time of writing, one HMC supports up to 48 POWER5
processor-based systems and up to 256 LPARs using the HMC Machine Code
Version 4.4.
4.1.1 Local HMC
A local HMC is any physical HMC that is directly connected to the system it
manages through a private service network. An HMC in a private service network
is a DHCP1 server from which the managed system obtains the address for its
service processor and Bulk Power Controller.
4.1.2 Remote HMC
A remote HMC is a stand-alone HMC or an HMC installed in a 19-inch rack that
is used to remotely access another HMC. A remote HMC can be present in an
open network.
4.1.3 Redundant HMC
A redundant HMC manages a system that is already managed by another HMC.
When two HMCs manage one system, those HMCs are peers and can be used
simultaneously to manage the system.
4.1.4 Web-based System Manager Remote Client
The Web-based System Manager Remote Client is an application that is usually
installed on a PC. You can then use this PC to access HMCs remotely.
Web-based System Manager Remote Clients can be present in private and open
networks. You can perform most management tasks using the Web-based
System Manager Remote Client.
1
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DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Control Protocol.
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The remote HMC and the Web-based System Manager Remote Client provide
you with the flexibility to access your managed systems (including HMCs) from
multiple locations using multiple HMCs.
4.1.5 HMC connectivity
There are some significant differences regarding the HMC connection to the
managed server with the p5-590 and p5-595 servers and other POWER5
processor-based systems:
 At least one HMC is mandatory, and two are recommended.
 The first (or only) HMC is connected using a private network to BPC-A (Bulk
Power Controller). The HMC must be set up to provide DHCP addresses on
that private (eth0) network.
 A secondary (redundant) HMC is connected using a separate private network
to BPC-B. The second HMC must be set up as a DHCP server to use a
different range of addresses for DHCP.
 Additional provision has to be made for an HMC connection to the BPC in a
powered expansion frame.
Note: DHCP must be used, because the BPCs depend on the HMC to provide
them with addresses. There is no way to set a static address as with all other
p5 systems on a BPC.
If there is a single managed server (with powered expansion frame), no
additional LAN components are required. However, if there are multiple managed
servers, an additional LAN switch or switches and cables will be needed for the
HMC private networks. You must plan for these switches and cables.
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Figure 4-1 shows two p5-590s controlled with dual HMCs.
Network for dual HMCs with two p5-590 systems
Rear
Front
To front BPC port A
ETH0
P5-590
HMC 1
ETH1
To rear BPC port A
Private
Network 1
Hub
Set HMC1 ETH0 to be the DHCP server on address range 192.168.x.x.
This will supply four addresses to both 590s (each system requires four
more addresses for the front network).
Public
Network
Hub
ETH1
Set HMC2 ETH0 to be the DHCP server on address range 172.16.x.x.
This will supply four addresses to both 590s (each system requires four
more addresses for the rear network).
To rear BPC port A
Private
Network 2
Hub
HMC 2
P5-590
ETH0
To front BPC port A
Front
Rear
There are two completely separate networks, each with access to both BPCs and both FSPs in each frame. If one network fails, each system can still
Be controlled by the HMCs. Note: DHCP range can be any range so long as the second HMC uses a different range.
Figure 4-1 Network for two p5-590s controlled with dual HMCs
HMC network interfaces
The HMC supports up to three separate physical Ethernet interfaces. In the
desktop version of the HMC, this consists of one integrated Ethernet and up to
two plug-in adapters. In the rack-mounted version, this consists of two integrated
Ethernet adapters and up to one plug-in adapter. Use each of these interfaces in
the following ways:
 One network interface can be used exclusively for HMC-to-managed system
communications (and must be the eth0 connection on the HMC). This means
that only the HMC, Bulk Power Controllers (BPCs), and service processors of
the managed systems are on that network. Even though the network
interfaces into the service processors are SSL-encrypted and
password-protected, having a separate dedicated network can provide a
higher level of security for these interfaces.
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 Another network interface is typically used for the network connection
between the HMC and the logical partitions on the managed systems for the
HMC-to-logical partition communications.
 The third interface is an optional additional Ethernet connection that can be
used for remote management of the HMC. This third interface can also be
used to provide a separate HMC connection to different groups of logical
partitions. For example, you can use any of the following options:
– An administrative LAN that is separate from the LAN on which all the usual
business transactions are running. Remote administrators can access
HMCs and other managed units using this method.
– Different network security domains for your partitions, perhaps behind a
firewall with different HMC network connections into each of those two
domains.
Note: With the rack-mounted HMC, if an additional (third) Ethernet port is
installed in the HMC (using a PCI Ethernet card), that PCI-card becomes the
eth0 port. Normally (without the additional card), eth0 is the first of the two
integrated Ethernet ports.
4.1.6 HMC code
For updates of the machine code, HMC functions, BIOS updates, and hardware
prerequisites, refer to the following Web page:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/hmc
POWER4 HMC models, such as the 7315-CR2 or 7315-C03, can be upgraded to
support POWER5 processor-based systems.
BIOS updates
Before updating your HMC code, check that the correct BIOS level is installed.
Follow these steps to determine the current BIOS revision level on your HMC:
1. Shut down the HMC.
2. Power on the HMC, and then press the F1 key to display the Setup utility.
3. On the Main menu, check the Flash EEPROM Revision Level.
It is possible to start run the rshterm command on the HMC, or open a SSH
connection to the HMC and enter following command:
hscroot@590hmc:~> lshmc -b
"bios=2AKT38RUS
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Note: It is not possible to connect POWER4 and POWER5 processor-based
systems simultaneously to the same HMC.
To upgrade an existing POWER4 HMC:
 Contact your IBM Sales Representative for help.
 Call an IBM Service Center and order APAR MB00691.
 Order the CD online, selecting Version 4.5 machine code updates → Order
CD → Go at the Hardware Management Console (HMC): Support for HMC
for UNIX servers and Midrange servers Web page, available at:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/hmc
Note: You must have an IBM ID to use this freely available service.
Registration information and online registration form is available at this Web
page.
HMC fixes
HMC fixes are periodically released for the HMC. If you want to download HMC
fixes from the service and support's system or Web site to your HMC or server,
you must set up a connection to service and support either through a local or
remote modem or through a VPN connection. You typically set up the service
connection when you first set up your server. However, the service connection is
not required for initial server setup.
If you do not have an Internet connection from the HMC, you must obtain the
HMC fixes either on CD-ROM or on an FTP server. Refer to the following link to
download or order HMC fixes:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/hmc
Backup the HMC
Before installing fixes and after changing LPARs or any configuration data you
must backup the HMC.
When backing up critical HMC data using the HMC, you can backup all important
data, such as:
 User-preference files
 User information
 HMC platform configuration files
 HMC log files
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The Backup function saves the HMC data stored on the HMC hard disk to DVD, a
remote system mounted to the HMC file system (such as NFS), or a remote site
through FTP. Back up the HMC after you have made changes to the HMC or to
the information associated with logical partitions.
Note: Use the archived data only in conjunction with a reinstallation of the
HMC from the product CD-ROMs, for example, after a disk change of the HMC
or if the HMC is not responding.
To back up the HMC, perform the following steps:
1. In the Navigation area, click the Licensed Internal Code Maintenance icon.
2. In the Contents area, click the HMC Code Update icon.
3. Select Back up Critical Console Data.
4. Select an archive option. You can back up to DVD on the HMC, to a remote
system mounted to the HMC file system (such as NFS), or to a remote site
through FTP.
5. Follow the instructions on the panel to back up the data.
Note: The DVD must be formatted in the DVD-RAM format before data can be
saved to the DVD.
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Figure 4-2 shows the HMC Code Update window.
Figure 4-2 HMC Code Update window
Restoring critical HMC data
Only restore the HMC backup data in conjunction with a reinstallation of the
HMC.
To restore the HMC data, you must be a member of one of the following roles:
Super Administrator, Operator, or Service Representative.
Perform the following steps:
1. Shut down and power off the HMC.
2. Power on the HMC console and insert the HMC recovery CD. The HMC
powers on from the media and displays the recovery panel.
3. Press F8 to select the 1 - Install/Recover option.
4. After the installation of the first CD completes, you are prompted to insert the
second installation CD into the DVD drive. Press any key to continue. The
HMC reboots.
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5. After the installation of the second CD completes, select 1 - Install additional
software from CD media from the menu to install the information center from
the third CD.
6. After the information center installation, select 1 - Restore Critical Console
Data from the menu to restore data from your backup DVD. To restore from a
remote server, select 2.
Save Upgrade Data task
You can save the current HMC configuration in a special disk partition on the
HMC. Only save upgrade data immediately prior to upgrading your HMC software
to a new release. This enables you to restore HMC configuration settings after
upgrading.
Note: The special disk partition can hold only one level of backup data. Every
time you perform this task, previous backup data is overwritten by the latest
backup. To proceed with the upgrade after saving upgrade data, you can must
place the new HMC recovery CD in the DVD drive and immediately reboot the
HMC. Any configuration changes on the HMC after you saved upgrade data
will not be saved.
To save the upgrade data, perform the following steps:
1. Expand the Licensed Internal Code Maintenance folder, and then select the
HMC application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Save Upgrade Data task in the Content area. An information
window opens that prompts you to select the media (hard drive or DVD).
3. Select the appropriate media.
4. Click Continue.
5. Click OK to confirm and close the information window.
Working with partition profile information
You can back up, restore, initialize, and remove profiles that you have created.
These profiles are stored on the HMC hard disk. This section describes each of
these options.
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Figure 4-3 shows the Profile Data menu.
Figure 4-3 Profile Data functions
Backing up partition profile data
To back up partition profile data, you must be a member of one of the following
roles: Super Administrator or Service Representative.
To back up partition profile data, perform the following steps:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu, select Selected → Profile Data → Backup.
3. Type the name you want to use for this backup file.
4. Click OK.
Initializing profile data
When you initialize profile data, you return the managed system to a state that
does not have any logical partitions or profiles. You can perform this task in order
to stabilize your managed system if the profile data becomes corrupt.
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Important: After you perform this task, any profiles that you created prior to
initialization are erased. Use this procedure only under the direction of your
service provider.
Note: You can initialize profile data only when the managed system is in the
Operating or Standby state and all the partitions are in the Not Activated state.
Restoring profile data
Selecting this menu item restores profile data to the HMC from a backup file
stored on the HMC hard drive. There are different options to restore the saved
data.
Note: This is not a concurrent procedure. When the data is restored, the
managed system powers on to Partition Standby.
Figure 4-4 shows the Profile Data Restore window with the options.
Figure 4-4 Profile Data Restore window
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Removing profile data
This option is used to remove a stored profile from the HMC hard disk drive.
Figure 4-5 shows the Profile Data Delete window.
Figure 4-5 Profile Data Delete window
4.2 Service applications
Remote support enables connectivity to IBM from the HMC. IBM Electronic
Service Agent must to be enabled to allow the HMC to connect to IBM to transmit
the inventory of the managed system to IBM. Enabling remote support also
allows for the reporting of problems to IBM using the HMC. Remote support must
be enabled if IBM needs to connect to the HMC for remote servicing. This remote
servicing is always initiated from the managed system end rather than the IBM
end for security reasons. The following options are available for remote support:
 Client information
Used to enter the client contact information, such as address, phone
numbers, contact person.
 Outbound connectivity settings
The information required to make a connection to IBM form the HMC for
problem reporting and Electronic Service Agent inventory transmissions.
 Inbound connectivity settings
The information needed for IBM to connect to the HMC for remote service.
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 E-mail settings
This option is used to set a notification by e-mail when the HMC reports a
problem to IBM. The user defines what e-mail address will receive the
notification.
 Remote support requests
 Remote connections
The Electronic Service Agent application monitors your servers. If the Electronic
Service Agent is installed on your HMC, the HMC can monitor all the managed
servers. If a problem occurs and the application is enabled, Electronic Service
Agent can report the problem to your service and support organization. If your
server is partitioned, Electronic Service Agent, together with the Service Focal
Point application, reports serviceable events and associated data collected by
Service Focal Point to your service and support organization.
4.2.1 Electronic Service Agent
The Electronic Service Agent Gateway maintains the database for all the
Electronic Service Agent data and events that are sent to your service and
support organization, including any Electronic Service Agent data from other
client HMCs in your network. You can enable Electronic Service Agent to perform
the following tasks:
 Report problems automatically; service calls are placed without intervention.
 Automatically send service information to your service and support
organization.
 Automatically receive error notification either from Service Focal Point or from
the operating system running in a Full System Partition profile.
 Support a network environment with a minimum number of telephone lines for
modems.
For the client, we can define e-mail notification to the e-mail account.
Remote Support Facility
The Remote Support Facility is an application that runs on the HMC and enables
the HMC to call out to a service or support facility. The connection between the
HMC and the remote facility can be used to:
 Allow automatic problem reporting to your service and support organization
 Allow remote support center personnel to directly access your server in the
event of a problem
Ask the client for this information, or fill it out together with the client.
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Figure 4-6 shows an example of a VPN connection.
Figure 4-6 VPN connection
4.2.2 Service Focal Point
The Service Focal Point (SFP) application is used to help service personnel to
diagnose and repair problems on partitioned systems. Service personnel use the
HMC as the starting point for all hardware service issues. The HMC gathers
various hardware system-management issues at one control point, allowing
service personnel to use the Service Focal Point application to determine an
appropriate hardware service strategy. Traditional service strategies become
more complicated in a logically partitioned environment. Each logical partition
runs on its own, unaware that other logical partitions exist on the same system. If
a shared resource such as a power supply has an error, the same error might be
reported by each partition using the shared resource. The Service Focal Point
application enables service personnel to avoid long lists of repetitive call-home
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information by recognizing that these errors repeat and by filtering them into one
serviceable event. To keep the SFP running, we need an Ethernet or virtual
Ethernet connection from the HMC to each LPAR.
The following options are available under Service Focal Point:
 Repair serviceable event
 Manage serviceable events
 Add/install/remove hardware
 Replace parts
 Service utilities
Repair serviceable event
This option enables the user or the service representative to view a serviceable
event and then initiate a repair against that service event. Here, we provide an
example of the steps taken to view an event and initiate a repair.
The Service Focal Point is a system infrastructure on the HMC that manages
serviceable event information for the system building blocks. It includes resource
managers that monitor and record information about different objects in the
system. It is designed to filter and correlate events from the resource managers
and initiate a call to the service provider when appropriate. It also provides a user
interface that enables a user to view the events and perform problem analysis.
Figure 4-7 shows how to select a system.
Figure 4-7 Select a system
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Figure 4-8 shows selecting the service events to see more data.
Figure 4-8 Manage service events
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Figure 4-9 shows details of an event.
Figure 4-9 Detailed view of a service event
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Figure 4-10 shows an example from the Information Center for this event.
Figure 4-10 Example from Information Center for an event
After following these steps, the event is closed.
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Figure 4-11 shows two closed events.
Figure 4-11 Closed events
Add/install/remove hardware
The Add/Install/Remove Hardware option enables the user or the service
representative to add or remove hardware. Figure 4-12 shows the
Add/Install/Remove Hardware window.
Figure 4-12 Add/Install/Remove Hardware
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In the window shown in Figure 4-13, you can select a slot.
Figure 4-13 Select the slot
This procedure guides you in the Information Center on the HMC.
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Figure 4-14 shows a page from the Information Center. Here you can find details
about the adapters and the slots.
Figure 4-14 Expansion back view with PCI slot description
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Figure 4-15 gives you information about Linux support of the adapter and if the
adapter is hot-pluggable. All adapters are hot-pluggable except the graphics
adapter and the 2-Port Multiprotocol PCI Adapter.
Figure 4-15 More details about the adapter
Replace parts
This option enables the user or service representative to replace parts. The
procedure is similar to the Add/Install/Remove Hardware option.
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Service utilities
This option is normally used by the service representative. Figure 4-16 shows the
options on the Service Utilities window.
Figure 4-16 Service Utilities window
4.2.3 Licensed Internal Code maintenance
IBM will periodically release firmware updates for the pSeries systems. These
updates provide changes to your software, Licensed Internal Code (LIC), or
machine code that fix known problems, add new function, and keep your server
or Hardware Management Console operating efficiently. For example, you might
install fixes for your operating system in the form of a program temporary fix
(PTF). Or, you might install a server firmware fix with code changes that are
needed to support new hardware or new functions of the existing hardware.
A good fix strategy is an important part of maintaining and managing your server.
You should install fixes on a regular basis if you have a dynamic environment that
changes frequently. If you have a stable environment, you do not have to install
fixes as frequently. However, you should consider installing fixes whenever you
make any major software or hardware changes in your environment.
For additional information about Licensed Internal Code maintenance and a
example of how to load the code on a p-590/595, go to 2.8, “Firmware” on
page 51.
Chapter 4. Hardware management
131
Licensed Internal Code updates
Detailed firmware updating information can be found in the IBM Sserver
Hardware Information Center.
Firmware (Licensed Internal Code) fixes
This topic describes the following types of firmware (Licensed Internal Code)
fixes. For more details and an example how to load the code, see 2.8, “Firmware”
on page 51.
Server firmware
Server firmware is the part of the Licensed Internal Code that enables hardware,
such as the service processor. Check for available server firmware fixes
regularly, and download and install the fixes if necessary. Depending on your
service environment, you can download, install, and manage your server
firmware fixes using different interfaces and methods, including the HMC or by
using functions specific to your operating system. However, if you have a pSeries
server that is managed by an HMC, you must use the HMC to install server
firmware fixes.
Power subsystem firmware
Power subsystem firmware is the part of the Licensed Internal Code that enables
the power subsystem hardware. You must use an HMC to update or upgrade
power subsystem firmware fixes.
I/O adapter and device firmware fixes
I/O adapter and device firmware is the part of the Licensed Internal Code that
enables hardware, such as Ethernet PCI adapters or disk drives:
 AIX 5L
If you use an HMC to manage your server, you can use the HMC interface to
download and install your I/O adapter and device firmware fixes. If you do not
use an HMC to manage your server, you can use the functions specific to
your operating system to work with I/O adapter and device firmware fixes.
 i5/OS
I/O adapter and device firmware PTFs for i5/OS partitions are ordered,
packaged, delivered, and installed as part of the Licensed Internal Code
using the same processes that apply to i5/OS PTFs. Regardless of whether
you use an HMC to manage your server, you use the usual i5/OS PTF
installation functions on each logical partition to download and install the I/O
adapter and device firmware fixes.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Notes: For all models except model 57x and 59x servers, if you use an HMC
to manage your system and you are setting up the server for the first time or
upgrading to a new server firmware release, we recommend that you install
the HMC fixes before you install server firmware fixes so that the HMC can
handle any fixes or new function updates that you apply to the server.
For model 57x and 59x servers, you must install HMC fixes before you install
server or power subsystem fixes so that the HMC can handle any fixes or new
function updates that you apply to the server.
4.3 LPAR Validation Tool
When configuring dynamic or virtual partitions on Sserver p5 systems, you can
use the LPAR Validation Tool (LVT) to verify system resource requirements. With
the LVT, you can customize the partition design by selecting PCI slots for given
adapters, specific drives to selected bays, and much more. The LVT provides a
useful report that can complement the organization and validation of features
required for configuration of a complex partition solution. The LVT supports
IBM Eserver p5 and Sserver i5 servers, iSeries™, and OpenPower systems.
A proficient knowledge of LPAR design requirements, limitations, and best
practices facilitates the use of this tool.
The LVT tool provides the following functions:
 Supports partitions running AIX 5L Version 5.2 and Version 5.3, Linux, and
i5/OS.
 Validates of dynamic LPAR design.
 Validates of virtual partition design, including Virtual I/O Server and virtual
clients.
 Calculates unallocated memory and shared processor pool.
 Calculates Hypervisor memory requirements.
 Calculates number of operating system licenses needed to support partition
design.
 Validates number of virtual slots required for partitions.
Important: We recommend the use of the LVT to calculate Hypervisor
requirements to determine memory resources required for all partitioned and
non-partitioned servers.
Chapter 4. Hardware management
133
Figure 4-17 shows the calculated Hypervisor memory requirements based on
sample partition requirements.
Figure 4-17 LVT window showing Hypervisor requirements
The LVT is a stand-alone Java™ application that runs on a Microsoft Windows®
95 or later with 128 MB minimum of free memory.
For download and installation information, including the User’s Guide, visit:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/lpar/systemdesign.htm
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
5
Chapter 5.
Ongoing support
This chapter discusses the ongoing support issues for the IBM Eserver pSeries
Enterprise systems. It includes an introduction to the system maintenance
possibilities and introduces features of the AIX 5L operating system and
hardware performance management.
This chapter discusses the following topics:
 Perform preventative hardware maintenance
 Hardware performance
 AIX 5L performance monitoring
 Manage system software updates
 Basic problem determination
 Logical volume management
 Planning and performing backup and recovery
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
135
5.1 Perform preventative hardware maintenance
The next section describes key preventative maintenance steps.
The Electronic Service Agent can report all critical errors to an IBM service
representative. When the Electronic Service Agent is not used, it is necessary to
check in the HMC for the serviceable events in the Service Focal Point menu and
also the AIX error log. For more information about Service Focal Points, see
4.2.2, “Service Focal Point” on page 122.
Especially in a dirty environment, it is necessary to check from time to time the
air filter inside the front door of the p5-590 and p5-595 systems.
Dirty filters reduce the air circulation and the system can overheat. Dust
accumulation inside servers might require cleaning to prevent errors.
5.2 Hardware performance
The performance of pSeries systems is directly affected by the following factors:
 Memory bandwidth
 I/O bandwidth
Each of these factors can be properly configured for optimal performance,
depending on your workload. This section discusses the methods and
techniques for achieving optimal performance.
5.2.1 Memory bandwidth
For optimum performance, install memory based on a specific plugging order
based on the server.
All memory in a node must be of the same size and type. There are two types of
memory in some servers, DDR1 and DDR2.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
5.2.2 I/O bandwidth
To maximize I/O bandwidth for a partition, it is important to consider the following
guidelines:
 Avoid I/O drawer contention.
Keep partitions in separate I/O planars as much as possible. If possible,
allocate an entire I/O planar to partitions to eliminate I/O contention. When I/O
planars are shared, plan to locate high-bandwidth devices on separate PCI
host bridges. Use the remaining PCI slots for low bandwidth devices where
possible.
 Maximize data bandwidth.
Use multiple I/O planars and multiple I/O drawers to increase the total
bandwidth available to a partition.
 Use dedicated adapters.
The use of physical adapters will provide more consistent application
performance compared to the use of virtual adapters.
5.3 AIX 5L performance monitoring
The performance analysis tools in AIX 5L provides a number of tools designed to
monitor and analyze operating and resource performance. The following list
shows the most commonly used performance monitoring commands:
truss
Traces a process's system calls, received signals, and
incurred machine faults.
alstat
Shows alignment exception statistics.
iostat
Reports central processing unit (CPU) statistics and I/O
statistics for the entire system, adapters, TTY devices,
disks, and CD-ROMs.
vmstat
Reports virtual memory statistics.
sar
Collects, reports, or saves system activity information.
prof
Displays object file profile data.
tprof
Reports CPU usage.
gprof
Displays call graph profile data.
emstat
Shows emulation exception statistics.
filemon
Monitors the performance of the file system, and reports
the I/O activity on behalf of logical files, virtual memory
segments, logical volumes, and physical volumes.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
137
fileplace
Displays the placement of file blocks within logical or
physical volumes.
netpmon
Monitors activity and reports statistics on network I/O and
network-related CPU usage.
pprof
Reports CPU usage of all kernel threads over a period of
time.
rmss
Simulates a system with various sizes of memory for
performance testing of applications.
svmon
Captures and analyzes a snapshot of virtual memory.
topas
Reports selected local system statistics.
lparstat
Reports LPAR-related information and utilization
statistics.
mpstat
Reports performance statistics for all logical CPUs in the
system.
5.3.1 CPU analysis and tuning
When investigating a performance problem, we usually start by monitoring the
CPU utilization statistics. It is important continuously observe system
performance, because you have to compare the loaded system data with normal
usage data.
Generally, CPU is one of the fastest components of the system, and if CPU
utilization keeps the CPU 100% busy, this also affects system-wide performance.
If you discover that the system keeps the CPU 100% busy, you need to
investigate the process that causes this. AIX 5L provides many trace and profiling
tools for the system and processes.
5.3.2 Performance considerations for POWER5-based systems
POWER5 provides new and improved functions for more granular and flexible
partitioning. It contain new technologies, such as Micro-Partitioning and
simultaneous multithreading (SMT).
Micro-Partitioning provides the ability to share a single processor between
multiple partitions. These partitions are called shared processor partitions.
POWER5-based systems continue to support partitions with dedicated
processors. These partitions are called dedicated partitions. Dedicated partitions
do not share a single physical processor with other partitions.
In a shared-partition environment, the POWER Hypervisor schedules and
distributes processor entitlement to shared partitions from a set of physical
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
processors. This physical processor set is called a shared processor pool.
Processor entitlement is distributed with each turn of the Hypervisor’s dispatch
wheel, and each partition consumes or cedes the given processor entitlement.
Figure 5-1 shows a sample of a dedicated partition and a micro-partition on
POWER5-based server.
Micro-partitions
AIX 5L V5.3
Linux
AIX 5L V5.3
Linux
AIX 5L V5.3
Shared Pool of 6 CPUs
AIX 5L V5.3
AIX 5L V5.2
Dedicatedpartitions
POWER Hypervisor
Figure 5-1 LPARs configuration on POWER5-based server
Some monitoring and tuning tools are new in AIX 5L Version 5.3.
 Monitoring tools:
– lparstat (new command in AIX 5L Version 5.3)
– mpstat (new command in AIX 5L Version 5.3)
– procmon (new tool in AIX 5L Version 5.3)
 Tuning tool:
– smtctl (new command in AIX 5L Version 5.3)
5.3.3 Memory analysis and tuning
There are many ways to investigate different parameters and settings, but
combining several tools and commands can give you the best overall picture of
performance. These commands have many uses. In this section, we only discuss
how they can be used to monitor memory. We show how these commands can
be used to gauge how the memory of the system is performing at any given
moment:
 Memory monitoring:
– The ps command
– The sar command
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
139
– The svmon command
– The topas monitoring tool
– The vmstat command
 Memory tuning:
– The vmo command
The svmon command
The svmon command is an analysis tool for virtual memory. It captures the current
state of memory, including real, virtual, and paging space memory. The svmon
command invokes the svmon_back command. Both are located in /usr/lib/perf,
and both part of the perfagent.tools fileset.
Useful combinations of the svmon command include:




svmon
svmon
svmon
svmon
or svmon -G
-P
-C
-i
With the svmon command, you can display memory usage statistics for processes
using the -P flag and specifying the process ID (PID). If no PID is supplied, it
provides statistics for all active processes. Example 5-1 shows the output of the
svmon -P command.
Example 5-1 Example using the svmon -P command
[p630n04][/]> svmon -P |grep -p Pid
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pid
Command
Inuse
Pin
Pgsp Virtual 64-bit Mthrd LPage
68532 java
80615
5485
0
29922
N
Y
N
Pid
Command
Inuse
Pin
Pgsp Virtual 64-bit Mthrd LPage
29290 tnameserv
25022
5471
0
17630
N
Y
N
Pid
Command
Inuse
Pin
Pgsp Virtual 64-bit Mthrd LPage
15510 hagsd
18305
5487
0
15091
N
N
N
Process ID 68532 is using 80615 pages of real memory and no paging space.
The topas command
The topas command is a performance monitoring tool that is ideal for broad
spectrum performance analysis.
The topas command requires that the perfagent.tools fileset is installed on the
system. The topas command resides in /usr/bin and is part of the bos.perf.tools
fileset that is obtained from the AIX 5L base installable media.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Useful combinations of the topas command include:
 topas
 topas -i
The topas command is a very useful and common command for CPU
performance analyses. It is used to display statistics about the activity on the
local system. The topas command reports the various kinds of statistics, such as
CPU utilization, CPU events and queues, process lists, memory and paging
statistics, disk and network performance, and NFS statistics. The topas
command resides in /usr/bin and is part of the bos.perf.tools fileset, which is
installable from the AIX 5L base installation media.
Default output
Starting with AIX 5L Version 5.3, if the topas command runs on a shared
partition, the following two new values are reported for the CPU utilization. If the
topas command runs on a dedicated partition, these values are not displayed.
Physc
Number of physical processors granted to the partition
%Entc
Percentage of entitled capacity granted to the partition
The topas command shows following information in default mode:
System host name
Current date
Refresh interval
CPU utilization
CPU events and queues
Process lists
Memory and paging statistics
Disk and network performance
Workload Manger performance (displayed only when Workload Manager is
used)
 NFS statistics









Example 5-2 on page 142 shows the standard topas command and its output. In
this example, it runs on a shared partition. If you run the topas command without
flags, the output is refreshed every two seconds.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
141
Example 5-2 The topas command
Topas Monitor for host:
Thu Aug 11 15:09:59 2005
vio_client2
Interval: 2
Kernel
User
Wait
Idle
Physc =
0.5
0.1
0.0
99.4
0.00
|#
|
|#
|
|
|
|############################|
%Entc=
1.0
Network
en0
lo0
KBPS
0.2
0.0
I-Pack
0.5
0.0
Disk
hdisk0
Busy%
0.0
KBPS
0.0
Name
topas
syncd
getty
gil
xmgc
rgsr
rpc.lock
nmon_aix
pilegc
rmcd
PID
294994
98426
241866
57372
45078
127052
172192
229540
40980
217196
O-Pack
0.5
0.0
CPU%
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
KB-In
0.0
0.0
KB-Out
0.1
0.0
TPS KB-Read KB-Writ
0.0
0.0
0.0
PgSp
1.4
0.5
0.4
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.8
0.1
2.5
Owner
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
EVENTS/QUEUES
Cswitch
158
Syscall
57
Reads
0
Writes
0
Forks
0
Execs
0
Runqueue
0.0
Waitqueue
0.0
FILE/TTY
Readch
Writech
Rawin
Ttyout
Igets
Namei
Dirblk
0
115
0
115
0
0
0
PAGING
Faults
Steals
PgspIn
PgspOut
PageIn
PageOut
Sios
MEMORY
Real,MB
% Comp
% Noncomp
% Client
512
49.0
45.2
48.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NFS (calls/sec)
ServerV2
0
ClientV2
0
ServerV3
0
ClientV3
0
PAGING SPACE
Size,MB
512
% Used
10.9
% Free
89.0
Press:
"h" for help
"q" to quit
The new -L flag has been added to the topas command to display the logical
partition. In this mode, the result of the topas command is similar to the mpstat
command. Example 5-3 shows a sample of the topas command with the -L flag.
Example 5-3 The topas command with the -L flag
Interval:
2
Logical Partition: VIO_client2
Thu Aug 11 15:13:19 2005
Psize:
6
Shared SMT ON
Online Memory:
512.0
Ent: 0.50
Mode: Capped
Online Logical CPUs: 2
Partition CPU Utilization
Online Virtual CPUs: 1
%usr %sys %wait %idle physc %entc %lbusy
app
vcsw phint %hypv
hcalls
0
0
0 100 0.0
0.80 0.00 5.98
334
0
0.0
0
===============================================================================
LCPU minpf majpf intr
csw icsw runq lpa scalls usr sys _wt idl
pc
lcsw
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.00
0
Cpu2
0
0
30
135
66
0 100
24
6 60
0 34 0.00
192
Cpu3
0
0
167
0
0
0
0
0
0 26
0 74 0.00
142
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Paging statistics
There are two parts of the paging statistics reported by the topas command. The
first part is total paging statistics. This simply reports the total amount of paging
available on the system and the percentages free and used. The second part
provides a breakdown of the paging activity. The reported items and their
meanings are as follows:
Faults
Reports the number of faults.
Steals
Reports the number of 4 KB pages of memory stolen by the
Virtual Memory Manager per second.
PgspIn
Reports the number of 4 KB pages read in from the paging
space per second.
PgspOut
Reports the number of 4 KB pages written to the paging space
per second.
PageIn
Reports the number of 4 KB pages read per second.
PageOut
Reports the number of 4 KB pages written per second.
Sios
Reports the number of I/O requests per second issued by the
Virtual Memory Manager.
Memory statistics
The memory statistics are as follows:
Real
Shows the actual physical memory of the system in megabytes.
%Comp
Reports real memory allocated to computational pages.
%Noncomp
Reports real memory allocated to non-computational pages.
%Client
Reports on the amount of memory that is currently used to cache
remotely mounted files.
The vmstat command
The vmstat command is useful for reporting statistics about virtual memory. The
vmstat command is located in /usr/bin, is part of the bos.acct fileset, and is
installable from the AIX 5L base installation media.
The vmstat command summarizes the total active virtual memory used by all of
the processes in the system, as well as the number of real memory page frames
on the free list. Active virtual memory is defined as the number of virtual memory
working segment pages that have been touched. This number can be larger than
the number of real page frames in the machine, because some of the active
virtual memory pages might have been written out to paging space.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
143
Useful combinations of the vmstat command include:
 vmstat
 vmstat Interval Count
 vmstat -v
The vmstat command provides data about virtual memory activity to standard
output. The first line of data is an average since the last system reboot.
Example 5-4 shows a sample of the vmstat command.
Example 5-4 The vmstat command
#vmstat 1 5
System configuration: lcpu=2 mem=512MB ent=0.50
kthr
----r b
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
memory
page
faults
cpu
----------- ------------------------ ------------ ----------------------avm fre re pi po fr sr cy in
sy cs us sy id wa
pc
ec
70722 10604
0 0
0
0
0
0 2
58 145 0 1 99 0 0.01 1.4
70722 10604
0 0
0
0
0
0 6
14 142 0 1 99 0 0.00 1.0
70722 10604
0 0
0
0
0
0 1
29 149 0 0 99 0 0.00 0.9
70722 10604
0 0
0
0
0
0 9 106 174 0 1 99 0 0.01 1.3
70722 10604
0 0
0
0
0
0 2
9 147 0 1 99 0 0.01 1.1
The lparstat command
The lparstat command is a performance monitoring tool that provides a report
about LPAR-related information and utilization statistics. This command provides
a display of current LPAR-related parameters, POWER Hypervisor information,
and utilization statistics for the LPAR.
The lparstat command has the following three modes.
Monitoring mode (default)
The lparstat command with no options generates a single report containing
utilization statistics related to the LPAR since boot time. The utilization statistics
provide the following information:
144
%user
Shows the percentage of the entitled processing capacity
used while executing at the user (or application) level.
%sys
Shows the percentage of the entitled processing capacity
used while executing at the system (or kernel) level.
%idle
Shows the percentage of the entitled processing capacity
unused while the partition was idle and did not have any
outstanding disk I/O requests.
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
%wait
Shows the percentage of the entitled processing capacity
unused while the partition was idle and had outstanding
disk I/O requests.
For the dedicated partitions, the entitled processing capacity is the number of
physical processors.
The following statistics are displayed only on the shared partition:
physc
Shows the number of physical processors consumed.
%entc
Shows the percentage of the entitled capacity consumed.
lbusy
Shows the percentage of logical processors utilization
while executing at the user and system level.
app
Shows the available physical processors in the shared
pool.
phint
Shows the number of phantom (targeted to another
shared partition in this pool) interruptions received.
Example 5-5 shows a sample of the lparstat command showing a utilization
statistics report.
Example 5-5 Displaying the utilization statistics with the lparstat command
#lparstat 1 5
System configuration: type=Shared mode=Capped smt=On lcpu=2 mem=512 psize=6 ent=0.50
%user
----0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
%sys
---0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
%wait
----0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
%idle physc %entc lbusy
----- ----- ----- -----99.6 0.00
0.9
0.0
99.6 0.00
0.9
0.0
99.7 0.00
0.8
0.0
99.7 0.00
0.7
0.0
99.8 0.00
0.6
0.0
app
--5.99
5.99
5.99
5.99
5.99
vcsw phint
---- ----978
0
992
0
976
0
868
0
660
0
Information mode
The lparstat command with the -i flag displays static LPAR configuration.
Example 5-6 on page 146 shows a sample of a static LPAR configuration report.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
145
Example 5-6 Displaying the static LPAR configuration report
#lparstat -i
Node Name
Partition Name
Partition Number
Type
Mode
Entitled Capacity
Partition Group-ID
Shared Pool ID
Online Virtual CPUs
Maximum Virtual CPUs
Minimum Virtual CPUs
Online Memory
Maximum Memory
Minimum Memory
Variable Capacity Weight
Minimum Capacity
Maximum Capacity
Capacity Increment
Maximum Physical CPUs in system
Active Physical CPUs in system
Active CPUs in Pool
Unallocated Capacity
Physical CPU Percentage
Unallocated Weight
: vio_client2
: VIO_client2
: 1
: Shared-SMT
: Capped
: 0.50
: 32769
: 0
: 1
: 32
: 1
: 512 MB
: 1024 MB
: 128 MB
: 0
: 0.10
: 2.00
: 0.01
: 16
: 8
: 6
: 0.00
: 50.00%
: 0
Hypervisor mode
The lparstat command with the -H flag provides detailed Hypervisor
information. This option displays the statistics for each of the Hypervisor calls.
5.3.4 The nmon tool
The AIX community provides a tool called nmon. It is a no-charge performance
monitoring tool for AIX 5L and Linux, available at:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/eserver/articles/analyze_aix/index.html
The nmon command gives you information on one screen and can save data to a
comma-separated value (.csv) file for later analysis. It is helpful in presenting all
the important performance tuning information on one screen and dynamically
updating it.
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IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Example 5-7 shows the default output of the nmon command.
Example 5-7 The nmon command output
#nmon
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ -----------------------------¦
¦ N
N M
M
OOOO
N
N
For online help type: h
¦
¦ NN
N MM MM O
O NN
N
For command line option help:
¦
¦ N N N M MM M O
O N N N
quick-hint nmon -?
¦
¦ N N N M
M O
O N N N
full-details nmon -h
¦
¦ N
NN M
M O
O N
NN
To start nmon the same way every time?
¦
¦ N
N M
M
OOOO
N
N
set NMON ksh variable, for example:
¦
¦ -----------------------------export NMON=cmt
¦
¦
Version v10p for AIX53
¦
¦
2 - CPUs currently
¦
¦
2 - CPUs configured
¦
¦
1656 - MHz CPU clock rate
¦
¦
PowerPC_POWER5 - Processor
¦
¦
64 bit - Hardware
¦
¦
64 bit - Kernel
¦
¦
Dynamic - Logical Partition
¦
¦
5.3.0.30 - AIX Kernel Version
¦
¦
vio_client2 - Hostname
¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Example 5-8 shows the output of nmon command with the m and c options
showing memory and CPU usage.
Example 5-8 The nmon output for memory and CPU usage
--nmon-v10p---a=disk-Adapters----Host=vio_client2----Refresh=2 secs---14:54.24---------------+-CPU-Utilisation-Small-View------------EntitledCPU= 0.50 UsedCPU= 0.005-------------------+
¦Logical
0----------25-----------50----------75----------100
¦
¦CPU User% Sys% Wait% Idle%|
|
|
|
|
¦
¦ 2
0.0
0.0
0.0 100.0| >
|
¦
¦ 3
0.0
0.0
0.0 100.0|>
|
¦
¦Logical/Physical Averages +-----------|------------|-----------|------------+
¦
¦Log
0.0
0.0
0.0 100.0|
|
¦
¦Phy
8.3 54.1
0.0 37.6|UUUUsssssssssssssssssssssssssss
|
¦
¦Entitlement Used= 1.1%
+-----------|------------|-----------|------------+
¦
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+-Memory-Use---------------------Paging------------------------Stats-------------------------+
¦
Physical PagingSpace
pages/sec In
Out FileSystemCache
¦
¦% Used
95.1%
10.3%
to Paging Space
0.0
0.0 (numperm) 45.8%
¦
¦% Free
4.9%
89.7%
to File System
0.0
0.0 Process
15.5%
¦
¦MB Used
486.9MB
52.9MB Page Scans
0.0
System
33.8%
¦
¦MB Free
25.1MB
459.1MB Page Cycles
0.0
Free
4.9%
¦
¦Total(MB)
512.0MB
512.0MB Page Steals
0.0
-----¦
¦
Page Faults
0.0
Total
100.0%
¦
¦Min/Maxperm
92MB( 18%) 368MB( 72%) note: % of memory
¦
¦Min/Maxfree
960
1088
Total Virtual
1.0GB
User
55.2%
¦
¦Min/Maxpgahead
2
8
Accessed Virtual
0.3GB 27.6% Pinned
35.3%
¦
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
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5.3.5 Performance Toolbox for AIX
The Performance Toolbox for AIX is a product for monitoring a group of systems.
The Performance Toolbox for AIX can be used for the following actions:
Load monitoring
Resource load must be monitored so that
performance problems can be detected as they
occur or (preferably) predicted well before they do.
Analysis and control
When a performance problem is encountered, the
proper tools must be selected and applied so that
the nature of the problem can be understood and
corrective action taken.
Capacity planning
Long-term capacity requirements must be analyzed
so that sufficient resources can be acquired well
before they are required.
The Performance Toolbox for AIX consists of a Manager and Agents. The
manager acts as a central repository for collecting performance data from each
Agent.
Performance Toolbox Manager
The Manager component of the Performance Toolbox for AIX contains
commands for collecting and analyzing performance data from the various
agents. The following list shows the most common components:
148
xmperf
The main user interface program providing a graphical
display of local and remote performance information and
a menu interface to commands of your choice.
3dmon
A program that can monitor and display statistics in a
3-dimensional graph.
3dplay
A program to play 3dmon recordings back in a 3dmon-like
view.
chmon
This program enables monitoring of vital statistics from a
character terminal.
exmon
This program enables monitoring of alarms generated by
the filtd daemon running on remote hosts.
azizo or jazizo
This program enables you to analyze long-term xmtrend
recordings of performance data.
wlmperf
A program for analyzing Workload Management activity
from xmtrend recordings.
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Performance Toolbox Agent
The Agent component of the Performance Toolbox for AIX contains a number of
commands and applications for collecting data from various system resources.
The following list shows the most common components:
xmservd
The data-supplier daemon, which permits a system where
this daemon runs to supply performance statistics to the
Manager.
xmtrend
Long-term recording daemon. Provides large metric set
trend recordings for post-processing by jazizo.
filtd
A daemon that can be used to do data reduction of
existing statistics and to define alarm conditions and
triggering of alarms.
xmpeek
A program that enables you to display the status of
xmservd on the local or a remote host and to list all
available statistics from the daemon.
For detailed information about these commands, tools, and required fileset, refer
to the appropriate manual pages or refer to AIX 5L Practical Performance Tools
and Tuning Guide, SG24-6478.
5.3.6 LoadLeveler for AIX
LoadLeveler® for AIX schedules jobs and provides functions for building,
submitting, and processing jobs quickly and efficiently in a dynamic environment.
Jobs are allocated to partitions in the cluster by a scheduler. The allocation of the
jobs depends on the availability of resources within the cluster and various rules,
which can be defined by the LoadLeveler administrator.
A user submits a job using a job command file, and the LoadLeveler scheduler
attempts to find resources within the cluster to satisfy the requirements of the job.
At the same time, it is the job of LoadLeveler to maximize the efficiency of the
cluster. It attempts to do this by maximizing the utilization of resources, while at
the same time minimizing the job turnaround time experienced by users.
5.4 Manage system software updates
In 3.5, “Installation of the operating system into a partition” on page 92, we
introduce the operating system installation procedures. In this section, we
discuss system documentation and ongoing software support. In addition, this
section introduces a topic about the basic installation requirements for Linux.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
149
5.4.1 Software packaging
Understanding this packaging will assist in the proper maintenance and support
of the AIX 5L operating system.
Each software product can contain separately installable parts. The following list
explains how AIX 5L Version 5.3 is organized:
Filesets
The smallest installable base unit for the AIX 5L operating
system. For example, bos.net.uucp.
Packages
A group of separately installable filesets that provides a
set of related functions. For example, bos.net.
Licensed Program Product
A complete software product including all packages
associated with that licensed program. For example, BOS
is a licensed program.
Bundle
A list of software that can contain filesets, packages, and
licensed program products (LPPs) put together for a
particular use. For example, CDE, GNOME, and
Netscape.
PTFs
PTF is an acronym for program temporary fix. A PTF is an
updated fileset or a fileset that fixes a previous system
problem.
APAR
An interim fix is a fix for a unique problem on the system.
APARs will eventually become PTFs after testing and
verification.
APARs are further divided into:
 Security APAR fix packages
AIX 5L security advisory notifications per ITCS104. All requisites are
included.
 Hiper APAR fix packages
Individual “hiper” APARs for highly pervasive problems. All requisites
are included.
 Critical APAR fix packages
Individual packaging APARs for IBM-designated PTF collections that
address combinations of hiper and security APARs. All requisites are
included.
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5.4.2 AIX 5L Version 5.3 installation pack
This section describes the physical installation package provided for installing
AIX 5L Version 5.3. The packaging discussed in this document is based on AIX
5L Version 5.3 5765-G03 of 08/2004 and is subject to change with future
releases.
You should receive the following CDs:
 Volumes 1 to 8 of AIX 5L Version 5.3 CDs
– The basic installation of AIX is on the Volume 1 and Volume 2 CDs.
Volume 1 contains mainly the boot image and the minimum programs
required to have the operating system running. Volume 1 also has basic
device drivers for devices required to start the system.
– Depending on the options selected with the installation, you might be
prompted to insert Volume 2.
– AIX 5L V5.3 Volume 3 CD contains printer drivers and tools for system and
performance management.
– AIX 5L V5.3 Volume 4 CD contains additional support for software.
– AIX 5L V5.3 Volumes 5-8 contain national language support (NLS) which
is support for languages and regions outside the default installation
language and regional support (us_english). Volumes 5-6 include time
zones and support for different currencies and regions.
 Linux Toolbox CD
This delivery includes the RPM Package Manager (RPM), compilers (gcc and
g++), and a substantial number of GNU utilities. The current list of available
packages is available in the CONTENTS file in the top-level directory of the
CD. If you chose to use GNOME and KDE desktop, you will be prompted to
insert the Linux Toolbox CD.
 Mozilla Web browser CD
This CD contains the Mozilla Web browser.
 Documentation CD
This CD contains the Information Center.
 Expansion CD
This CD includes useful bundles such as SSL or an HTTP server.
5.4.3 Service Update Management Assistant
Between installations and code releases, there are improvements,
enhancements, and problems fixes. Problems that are found after a release are
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
151
fixed with program temporary fixes (PTFs). These might be problems with the
code or incompatibility for heterogeneous systems, such as running IBM
products with products from other vendors. This section explains how to maintain
your operating system after the basic operating system installation.
Classic method for software management
The old method of software management involved logging in to the Internet and
finding fixes or upgrades. This method can still be used. You can access fixes for
your operating systems using the Fix Central Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/eserver/support/fixes/
From the Web site, follow these steps:
1. From the Server list, select the appropriate family, for example, the iSeries
family or pSeries family.
2. From the Product or fix type list, select the operating system for which you
want to get a fix.
3. Depending on your selections for Server and Product or fix type, you might
see additional lists from which you can select specific options.
4. Click Continue.
For more information about fixes for the operating systems, see the following
Web sites:
 AIX 5L and Linux
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/support/unixservers/index.html
 i5/OS
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/iseries/v5r3/ic2924/index.htm?info
/rzam8/rzam81.htm
New preferred method for software management
Using the previous method can be a time-consuming exercise for the system
administrator. Through the compare_report command and its SMIT interface, AIX
5L Version 5.2 and later enables you to compare installed software or fix
repositories to a list of available fixes from the IBM Support Web site. This
enables system administrators to develop a proactive fix strategy.
AIX 5L Version 5.3 introduces automatic download, scheduling, and notification
capabilities through the new Service Update Management Assistant (SUMA) tool.
SUMA is fully integrated into the AIX 5L Base Operating System. SUMA provides
unattended task-based download of APARs, PTFs, and recommended
maintenance levels (MLs). SUMA can also be configured to periodically check
the availability of specific new fixes and entire maintenance levels. All SUMA
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modules and the suma command are contained in the bos.suma fileset. The
lslpp -p bos.suma command can be used to verify the requisites for the
bos.suma fileset:
# lslpp -p bos.suma
Fileset
Requisites
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Path: /usr/lib/objrepos
bos.suma 5.3.0.0
*prereq bos.rte 5.1.0.0
Functional description
SUMA is implemented as a task-oriented utility that supports the following
features:
 Automated task-based retrieval of the following fix types and categories:
– Specific APAR
– Specific PTF
– Latest critical PTFs
– Latest security PTFs
– All latest PTFs
– Specific fileset
– Specific maintenance level
 Three different task actions to initiate download preview, code download, or
combined download and fix repository cleanup (using the lppmgr command).
 Support for FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS transfer protocols and proxy servers.
(HTTPS requires OpenSSL to be installed from the AIX Toolbox for Linux
Applications.
 E-mail notification of update availability and task completion.
 Messaging function providing six verbosity levels (Off, Error, Warning,
Information, Verbose, and Debug) for sending information to the screen, log
file, or e-mail address.
Concepts and implementation specifics
The SUMA controller uses certain SUMA modules to execute SUMA operations
and functions. Figure 5-2 on page 154 shows module dependencies.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
153
Figure 5-2 SUMA module dependencies
The SUMA modules supply the following services and functions:
 Download module
Provides functions related to network activities and is solely responsible for
communicating with the IBM Sserver pSeries support server.
 Manage configuration module
Represents a utility class containing global configuration data and
general-purpose methods.
 Messenger module
Provides messaging, logging, and notification capabilities. There are two log
files located in the /var/adm/ras/ directory. The /var/adm/ras/suma.log log file
contains any messages that pertain to SUMA controller operations. The other
log file, /var/adm/ras/suma_dl.log, tracks the download history of SUMA
download operations and contains entries of the form DateStamp:FileName.
 Notify module
Manages the file that holds the contact information for event notifications.
 Task module
Creates, retrieves, views, modifies, and deletes SUMA tasks.
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 Scheduler module
Handles scheduling of SUMA task execution and interacts with the AIX cron
daemon.
 Inventory module
Returns the software inventory (installed or in a repository) of the local
system (localhost) or a NIM client.
 Utility and database modules
These are additional modules that supply private utilities for SUMA code and
utilities for handling the stanza-style SUMA databases.
Command line interface
The suma command provides task-related SUMA control functions. The
command can be used to perform the following operations on a SUMA task:
 Create
 Edit
 List
 Schedule
 Unschedule
 Delete
The usage information of the suma command is as follows:
# suma -?
Usage:
Create, Edit, or Schedule a SUMA task.
suma { { [-x][-w] } | -s CronSched } [ -a Field=Value ]... [ TaskID ]
SMIT user interface
SUMA related tasks and functions are supported by SMIT menus and panels.
The new main suma menu shown in Example 5-9 on page 156 can be directly
accessed through the SMIT fast path smitty suma.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
155
Example 5-9 Smitty main menu for SUMA operations
Service Update Management Assistant (SUMA)
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
Download Updates Now (Easy)
Custom/Automated Downloads (Advanced)
Configure SUMA
Esc+1=Help
Esc+9=Shell
Esc+2=Refresh
Esc+0=Exit
Esc+3=Cancel
Enter=Do
Esc+8=Image
Using the download options of this menu and closely examining the SMIT
command output will give some insight into the way SUMA retrieves updates
from the IBM Sserver Support Web site.
5.4.4 System documentation
The AIX 5L Version 5.3 Documentation CD contains AIX 5L documentation
including online help facilities and the information center. Starting with AIX 5L
Version 5.3, IBM Sserver pSeries and AIX 5L documentation is available in one
of two information centers: the IBM Sserver pSeries and AIX Information
Center on the Web and the AIX Information Center on the documentation CD.
Figure 5-3 on page 157 shows the information center.
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Figure 5-3 AIX Information Center on the documentation CD
The AIX and pSeries Information Center is more than a portal to documentation.
From this Web site, you can access the following tools and resources:
http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base/
 A message database that shows what error messages mean and, in many
cases, how you can recover. The database also includes LED codes.
 How-to tips with step-by-step instructions for completing system administrator
and user tasks.
 FAQs for quick answers to common questions.
 The entire AIX 5L software documentation library for Version 5.1, Version 5.2,
and Version 5.3. Each publication is available in PDF format, and abstracts
are provided for books for Version 5.2 and Version 5.3.
 Centralized information previously located throughout the library and easier
access to information about some new AIX 5L functions:
– A new selection in the navigation bar centralizes all partitioning
information, including planning, installation, and implementation
information for partitioned system operations.
– A new Advanced Accounting publication is available. Advanced
Accounting offers increased flexibility, enabling users to customize it to
meet their needs.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
157
– A new Partition Load Manager for AIX Guide and Reference provides
experienced system administrators with information about how to perform
such tasks as installing, configuring, and managing the Partition Load
Manager for AIX.
– Links to the entire pSeries and p5 hardware documentation library.
– A resources page that links users to other IBM and non-IBM Web sites
proven useful to system administrators, application developers, and users.
– Links to related documentation from IBM, including white papers, IBM
Redbooks, and technical reports.
– Several new videos are available for client-installable features and
client-replaceable parts.
For complete information about setting up and starting up the information center,
see the following document:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/aixi
ns/insgdrf/insgdrf.pdf
5.5 Linux introduction
Linux is one of the operating systems that can be installed on your server or
logical partition. This section provides information about how to prepare for
installing Linux on your system, how to install a Linux for POWER distribution,
and how to install software to enable dynamic logical partitioning and hot plug
capabilities.
5.5.1 Planning for Linux
Before installing Linux on an IBM Sserver hardware system, determine whether
you want to install Linux with or without logical partitions.
It is essential that you understand Linux concepts before you start creating Linux
logical partitions. The purpose of this information is to familiarize you with the
hardware and software required for Linux logical partitions. For the most current
information about supported hardware devices for Linux, refer to the following
link:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/hardware/factsfeatures.html
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5.5.2 Minimum configuration requirements for a Linux partition
In order to use features that require logical partitions on an IBM Sserver
OpenPower system, you need the appropriate Advanced OpenPower
Virtualization technologies activated in your system's Hardware Management
Console.
Each Linux logical partition on an IBM Sserver hardware system requires the
following minimum hardware resources:
 1 dedicated processor or 0.1 processing unit
 128 MB
 Storage adapter (physical or virtual)
 Network adapter (physical or virtual)
 Approximately 1 GB storage
5.5.3 Shared processor support for Linux logical partitions
The POWER5 processor-based systems provide shared processor support that
allows Linux to run on less than 100% of a processor. The minimum number of
shared processing units that can be allocated to a Linux partition is 0.1.
On IBM Sserver i5, p5, and OpenPower systems, the system administrator can
alter the shared processor units for a Linux for POWER distribution with the Linux
2.6 kernel and the Dynamic Resource Manager (DRM) without restarting the
operating system by using a dynamic LPAR operation. On a Linux for POWER
distribution with the Linux 2.4 kernel, changing the shared processing units
allocated to the partition requires the operating system to be restarted. On Linux
on iSeries systems, the system administrator can alter the shared processor
units without involving Linux.
5.5.4 Installing a Linux distribution
You can find installation information for both Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 3
and for SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 in the documentation provided on the
Linux installation CDs.
For detailed information about installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 3 on
POWER hardware, see Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Installation Guide for the IBM
Sserver iSeries and IBM Sserver pSeries Architectures at:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/RHEL-3-Manual/ppc-multi-insta
ll-guide/
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
159
For detailed information about installing SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9, see
the installation information at:
http://www.novell.com/documentation/sles9/index.html
We highly recommended that you use the additional software for Linux topic to
enhance your Linux on POWER solutions. Visit the following link for more
information:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/lopdiags
5.5.5 Virtual I/O Server and Linux
The Virtual I/O Server provides virtual storage and shared Ethernet capability to
client logical partitions on the system. It allows physical adapters with attached
disks on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition to be shared by one or more client
partitions. Virtual I/O Server partitions are not intended to run applications or for
general user logins. The Virtual I/O Server is installed in its own logical partition.
The Virtual I/O Server supports client logical partitions running the following
Linux operating systems:
 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 for POWER
 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS for POWER Version 3
5.5.6 Dynamically managing physical I/O devices and slots on Linux
A Linux distribution with Linux kernel Version 2.6 or later is required in order to
dynamically move I/O devices and slots to or from a Linux logical partition.
If you add slots with adapters, the devices are automatically configured by Linux
kernel modules (rpaphp and PCI Hotplug Core). However, after the devices have
been added with the HMC, you must log in to the running Linux logical partition
as root so that you can set up those devices that have been added using the
appropriate user space tools, such as the mount command or the ifup command.
If you remove adapters for storage devices, you must unmount the file systems
on those devices before you remove the slots and adapters. Also, if you remove
network adapters, you should shut down the network interfaces for those devices
before removing the slots and adapters.
5.6 Basic problem determination
This section describes the error handling of the Sserver p5 system and how to
capture service data for IBM service representatives.
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5.6.1 Error analyzing
Because the service processor monitors the hardware environmental and FFDC
(FIR bits) activities, it is the primary collector of platform hardware errors and is
used to begin the analysis and processing of these events. The service
processor will identify and sort errors by type and criticality. In effect, the service
processor initiates a preliminary error analysis to categorize events into specific
categories:
 Errors that are recoverable but should be recorded for threshold monitoring.
These events do not require immediate service but should be logged and
tracked to look for, and effectively respond to, future problems.
 Fatal system errors (initiate server reboot and IPL, error analysis, and call
home if enabled).
 Recoverable errors that require service either because an error threshold has
been reached or a component has been taken offline (even if a redundant
component has been used for sparing).
When a recoverable and serviceable error (the third type) is encountered, the
service processor notifies the POWER Hypervisor, which places an entry into the
operating system error log. The operating system log contains all recoverable
error logs. These logs represent either recoverable platform errors or errors
detected and logged by I/O device drivers. Operating system error log analysis
(ELA) routines monitor this log, identify serviceable events (ignoring
information-only log entries), and copy them to a diagnostic event log. At this
point, the operating system sends an error notification to a client-designated user
(by default, the root user). This action also invokes the Electronic Service Agent
application, which initiates appropriate system serviceability actions:
 On servers that do not include an HMC, the Electronic Service Agent notifies
the system operator of the error condition and, if enabled, also initiates a call
for service. The service call can be directed to the IBM support organization,
or to a client-identified pager or server identified and set up to receive service
information. Note that an HMC is required on p5-590 and p5-595 servers.
 On servers equipped with an HMC (including the p5-595 and p5-590 servers),
the Electronic Service Agent forwards the results of the diagnostic error log
analysis to the Service Focal Point application running on the HMC. The
Service Focal Point consolidates and reports errors to IBM or a
user-designated system or pager.
 The AIX conslog provides a log of boot messages. All messages can be
found in /var/adm/ras/conslog.
In either case, the failure information includes:
 The source of the error
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161
 The part numbers of the components needing repair
 The location of those components
 Any available extended error data
The failure information is sent back to IBM service for parts ordering and
additional diagnosis if required. This detailed error information enables IBM
service representatives to bring probable replacement hardware components
when a service call is placed, minimizing system repair time.
In a multisystem configuration, any HMC-attached Sserver p5 server can be
configured to forward call home requests to a central Electronic Service Agent
Gateway (SAG) application on an HMC that owns a modem and performs the call
home on behalf of any of the servers.
Figure 5-4 shows the error reporting structure of a POWER5 environment.
Serviceability: LPAR Global and Local Error Reporting
Network
Resource
Manager
(RMC)
Call for Service
Resource
Manager
(RMC)
Call home
Resource
Manager
(RMC)
Service
Agent
Gateway
Service Focal Point
Service
Action
Event
Hardware Management Console
Point of Service
Logging, correlation, and
call home functions
AIX
Error
log
AIX
Error
log
Hypervisor
Recoverable
Errors
POWER5
hardware
Power, Cooling, Memory, Processors
I/O
I/O
Fatal Errors
Service processor
On POWER5, non-fatal runtime errors are
also reported to the Service Processor.
Figure 5-4 Error reporting structure of a POWER5 environment
5.6.2 Managing the error log
The following sections discuss various error log management-related functions.
In addition to the AIX conslog, the error log is an important repository for all
system-related errors.
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Configuring an error log file (/var/adm/ras/errlog)
This section discusses the use of the errdemon command to customize the error
log file:
 To list the current values for the error log file name, error log file size, and
buffer size that are currently stored in the error log configuration database
settings, use the following command:
# /usr/lib/errdemon -l
Error Log Attributes
-------------------------------------------Log File
/var/adm/ras/errlog
Log Size
4096 bytes
Memory Buffer Size
8192 bytes
The preceding example shows the default error log file attributes. The log file
size cannot be made smaller than the hard-coded default of 4 KB, and the
buffer cannot be made smaller than the hard-coded default of 8 KB.
 To change the log file name to /var/adm/ras/errlog.test, use the following
command:
/usr/lib/errdemon -i /var/adm/ras/errlog.test
 To change the log file size to 8 KB, use the following command:
/usr/lib/errdemon -s 8192
If the log file size specified is smaller than the size of the log file currently in
use, the current log file is renamed by appending .old to the file name and a
new log file is created with the specified size limit. The amount of space
specified is reserved for the error log file and is not available for use by other
files. Therefore, be careful not to make the log excessively large. But, if you
make the log too small, important information might be overwritten
prematurely. When the log file size limit is reached, the file wraps. That is, the
oldest entries are overwritten by new entries.
 To change the size of the error log device driver's internal buffer to 16 KB, use
the following command:
# /usr/lib/errdemon -B 16384
0315-175 The error log memory buffer size you supplied will be rounded up
to a multiple of 4096 bytes.
If the specified buffer size is larger than the buffer size currently in use, the
in-memory buffer is immediately increased, and if the specified buffer size is
smaller than the buffer size currently in use, the new size is put into effect the
next time the error daemon is started after the system is rebooted. The size
you specify is rounded up to the next integral multiple of the memory page
size (4 KB).
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163
You should be careful not to impact your system's performance by making the
buffer excessively large. But, if you make the buffer too small, the buffer might
become full if error entries are arriving faster than they are being read from
the buffer and put into the log file. When the buffer is full, new entries are
discarded until space becomes available in the buffer. When this situation
occurs, an error log entry is created to inform you of the problem.
The following command shows the new attributes of the error log file:
# /usr/lib/errdemon -l
Error Log Attributes
-------------------------------------------Log File
/var/adm/ras/errlog.test
Log Size
8192 bytes
Memory Buffer Size
16384 bytes
Starting the error logging daemon
To determine if error logging daemon is on or off, issue the errpt command. The
errpt command output can contain entries, as shown in Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-5 Sample errpt command output
If the errpt command does not generate entries, error logging has been turned
off. To activate the daemon, use the following command:
/usr/lib/errdemon
The errdemon daemon starts error logging and writes error log entries in the
system error log.
Stopping the error logging daemon
To stop the error logging daemon from logging entries, use the following
command:
/usr/lib/errstop
Cleaning an error log
Cleaning the error log implies deleting old or unnecessary entries from the error
log. Cleaning is normally done as part of the daily cron command execution. If it
is not done automatically, you should probably clean the error log regularly.
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To delete all the entries from the error log, use the following command:
errclear 0
To selectively remove entries from the error log, for example, to delete all
software errors entries, use the following command:
errclear -d S 0
Alternatively, use the SMIT fast path command (smit errclear), which will
display the screen shown in Figure 5-6. Fill in the appropriate fields, as per your
requirements, to clean the error log.
Figure 5-6 Clean the error log menu
Generating an error report
The errpt command generates the default summary error report that contains
one line of data for each error. It includes flags for selecting errors that match
specific criteria. By using the default condition, you can display error log entries
in the reverse order they occurred and were recorded. By using the -c
(concurrent) flag, you can display errors as they occur. You can use flags to
generate reports with different formats. Example 5-10 on page 166 shows the
syntax of the errpt command.
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165
Example 5-10 Syntax of the errpt command
errpt [ -a ] [ -c ] [ -d ErrorClassList ] [ -e EndDate ] [ -g ] [ -i File ]
[ -j ErrorID [ ,ErrorID ] ] | [ -k ErrorID [ ,ErrorID ] ] [ -J ErrorLabel
[ ,ErrorLabel ] ] | [ -K ErrorLabel [ ,ErrorLabel ] ] [ -l SequenceNumber ]
[ -m Machine ] [ -n Node ] [ -s StartDate ] [ -F FlagList ]
[ -N ResourceNameList ] [ -R ResourceTypeList ] [ -S ResourceClassList ]
[ -T ErrorTypeList ] [ -y File ] [ -z File ]
Table 5-1 provides the flags commonly used with the errpt command.
Table 5-1 Common flags for the errpt command
Flag
Description
-a
Displays information about errors in the error log file in
detailed format.
-e EndDate
Specifies all records posted prior to and including the
EndDate variable, where the EndDate variable has the form
mmddhhmmyy (month, day, hour, minute, and year).
-J ErrorLabel
Includes the error log entries specified by the ErrorLabel
variable. The ErrorLabel variable values can be separated by
commas or enclosed in double-quotation marks and
separated by commas or space characters.
-j ErrorID [,ErrorID]
Includes only the error log entries specified by the ErrorID
(error identifier) variable. The ErrorID variables can be
separated by commas or enclosed in double-quotation marks
and separated by commas or space characters.
-K ErrorLabel
Excludes the error log entries specified by the ErrorLabel
variable.
-k ErrorID
Excludes the error log entries specified by the ErrorID
variable.
-N ResourceNameList
Generates a report of resource names specified by the
ResourceNameList variable, where ResourceNameList is a
list of names of resources that have detected errors.
-s StartDate
Specifies all records posted on and after the StartDate
variable, where the StartDate variable has the form
mmddhhmmyy (month, day, hour, minute, and year).
The output of errpt command without any flags displays the error log entries with
the following fields:
166
IDENTIFIER
Numerical identifier for the event.
TIMESTAMP
Date and time of the event occurrence.
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
T
Type of error. Depending on the severity of the error, the
the possible error types are as follows:
C
PEND
The loss of availability of device or component is
imminent.
PERF
The performance of the device or component
has degraded to below an acceptable level.
PERM
Most severe errors, due to a condition that could
not be recovered.
TEMP
Condition that was recovered after a number of
unsuccessful attempts.
UNKN
Not possible to determine the severity of an
error.
INFO
This is an informational entry.
Class of error. The possible error classes are as follows:
H
Hardware.
S
Software.
O
Informational message.
U
Undetermined.
RESOURCE_NAME Name of the failing resource.
DESCRIPTION
Summary of the error.
Using the errpt command without a flag outputs all the entries in the log, as
shown in Example 5-11. Because the number of error log entries can exceed a
single page, you can use errpt | pg to have a page-wise view.
Example 5-11 Output of the errpt command without a flag
# errpt
IDENTIFIER
0BA49C99
E18E984F
2A9F5252
E18E984F
E18E984F
AD331440
E18E984F
E18E984F
E18E984F
E18E984F
E18E984F
E18E984F
TIMESTAMP
1106154298
1106110298
1106094298
1102120498
1101105898
1101104498
1030182798
1030182698
1030182598
1023175198
1023175098
1023174898
T
T
P
P
P
P
U
P
P
P
P
P
P
C
H
S
H
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
RESOURCE_NAME
scsi0
SRC
tok0
SRC
SRC
SYSDUMP
SRC
SRC
SRC
SRC
SRC
SRC
DESCRIPTION
SCSI BUS ERROR
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
WIRE FAULT
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
SYSTEM DUMP
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
ERROR
ERROR
ERROR
ERROR
ERROR
ERROR
ERROR
ERROR
ERROR
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2A9F5252
35BFC499
AD331440
0BA49C99
35BFC499
1022143498
1022081198
1021185998
1021185798
1021180298
P
P
U
T
P
H
H
S
H
H
tok0
hdisk0
SYSDUMP
scsi0
hdisk0
WIRE FAULT
DISK OPERATION ERROR
SYSTEM DUMP
SCSI BUS ERROR
DISK OPERATION ERROR
The preceding example shows that the resource name for a disk operation error
is hdisk0. To obtain all the errors with the resource name hdisk0 from the error
log, use the errpt command with the -N flag, as shown in Example 5-12.
Example 5-12 The errpt command with the -N flag
# errpt -N
IDENTIFIER
35BFC499
35BFC499
hdisk0
TIMESTAMP T C RESOURCE_NAME
1022081198 P H hdisk0
1021180298 P H hdisk0
DESCRIPTION
DISK OPERATION ERROR
DISK OPERATION ERROR
Reading an error log report
To read the contents of an error log report, use the errpt command with the -a
flag. For example, to read an error log report with the resource name hdisk0, use
the errpt command with the -a and -j flags with an error identifier, as shown in
the sample error report in Example 5-13.
Example 5-13 Sample error report
# errpt -a -j 35BFC499
-------------------------------------------------------------------------LABEL:
DISK_ERR3
IDENTIFIER:
35BFC499
Date/Time:
Thu Oct 22 08:11:12
Sequence Number: 36
Machine Id:
006151474C00
Node Id:
sv1051c
Class:
H
Type:
PERM
Resource Name: hdisk0
Resource Class: disk
Resource Type: scsd
Location:
04-B0-00-6,0
VPD:
Manufacturer................IBM
Machine Type and Model......DORS-32160
FRU Number..................
ROS Level and ID............57413345
Serial Number...............5U5W6388
EC Level....................85G3685
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!#
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Part Number.................07H1132
Device Specific.(Z0)........000002028F00001A
Device Specific.(Z1)........39H2916
Device Specific.(Z2)........0933
Device Specific.(Z3)........1296
Device Specific.(Z4)........0001
Device Specific.(Z5)........16
Description
DISK OPERATION ERROR
Probable Causes
DASD DEVICE
STORAGE DEVICE CABLE
Failure Causes
DISK DRIVE
DISK DRIVE ELECTRONICS
STORAGE DEVICE CABLE
Recommended Actions
PERFORM PROBLEM DETERMINATION PROCEDURES
Detail Data
SENSE DATA
0A06 0000 2800
0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0088
0000
0000
0000
0000
0002
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000 0200 0200 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 0001 2FC0
0000
0000
0000
0000
In this example, the errpt output indicates that the error was hardware in nature
and a PERM type, or severe error from which the system could not recover. This
error was a disk operation error on hdisk0 and might be due to a failing disk drive
or a bad device cable. Given that the error appeared twice in the errpt output, it
might be necessary to have a customer engineer service the machine by
checking cables and hardware, replacing any parts that have worn out.
Copying an error log to diskette or tape
You might need to send the error log to the AIX System Support Center for
analysis. To copy the error log to a diskette, place a formatted diskette into the
diskette drive and use the following commands:
ls /var/adm/ras/errlog | backup -ivp
To copy the error log to tape, place a tape in the drive and enter:
ls /var/adm/ras/errlog | backup -ivpf/dev/rmt0
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169
Log maintenance activities
The errlogger command enables a system administrator to record messages in
the error log. Whenever you perform a maintenance activity, replace hardware, or
apply a software fix, it is a good idea to record this activity in the system error log.
The following example shows the log entries before and after a message (Error
Log cleaned) was logged by an operator (using the errlogger command) in the
error log.
Example 5-14 Log entries before and after a message
# errpt
IDENTIFIER TIMESTAMP T C RESOURCE_NAME
9DBCFDEE
1109164598 T O errdemon
192AC071
1109164598 T O errdemon
# errlogger "Error Log cleaned"
# errpt
IDENTIFIER TIMESTAMP T C RESOURCE_NAME
AA8AB241
1109164698 T O OPERATOR
9DBCFDEE
1109164598 T O errdemon
192AC071
1109164598 T O errdemon
DESCRIPTION
ERROR LOGGING TURNED ON
ERROR LOGGING TURNED OFF
DESCRIPTION
OPERATOR NOTIFICATION
ERROR LOGGING TURNED ON
ERROR LOGGING TURNED OFF
The identifier AA8AB241 in the preceding example is the message record entry
with a description of OPEARATOR NOTIFICATION.
5.6.3 Capturing service data
A useful command to gather system data for an IBM representative is the snap
command.
The snap command gathers system configuration information and compresses
the information into a PAX file. The file can then be written to a device, such as
tape or DVD, or transmitted to a remote system. The information gathered with
the snap command might be required to identify and resolve system problems.
Note: Root user authority is required to execute the snap command. Use the
snap -o /dev/cd0 command to copy the compressed image to DVD. Use the
snap -o /dev/rmt0 command to copy the image to tape.
The snap -g command gathers general system information, including the
following information:
 Error report
 Copy of the customized Object Data Manager (ODM) database
 Trace file
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 User environment
 Amount of physical memory and paging space
 Device and attribute information
 Security user information
The output of the snap -g command is written to the
/tmp/ibmsupt/general/general.snap file.
The snap command checks for available space in the /tmp/ibmsupt directory, the
default directory for snap command output.
For detailed information about the snap, refer to the appropriate manual pages.
5.7 Logical volume management
This section describes the basics of disk management. This is the basic
knowledge of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM). For more information, consult
AIX Logical Volume Manager from A to Z: Introduction and Concepts,
SG24-5432, available at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247039.html
5.7.1 LVM introduction
This topic provides an overview of the LVM concepts. Figure 5-7 on page 172
contains a basic description of logical volume management.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
171
Journaled
File System
Application
Layer
Logical
Layer
Logical
Volume
Manager
Volume
Group
Raw
Logical Volume
Logical Volume
Logical Volume
Logical Volume Device Driver
Physical
Volume
Physical
Layer
Physical
Volume
Device Driver
Physical
Disk
Physical
Disk
Physical
Volume
RAID Adapter
Physical
Array
Figure 5-7 How LVM entities fit together
At the physical layer of the LVM are physical disks (PVs). The physical disks
consist of small partitions called physical partitions (PPs). A physical partition is a
smallest allocatable unit of the physical disk. A PV is not usable unless it belongs
to a volume group (VG). A volume group contain one or more physical volumes.
The total size of the volume group is the sum of all physical partitions in all the
physical volumes in the volume group. To access a physical volume, logical
volumes (LVs) must be created. Logical volumes consist of logical partitions
(LPs) that directly map to physical partitions on the physical disks. Logical
volumes are used by applications either as raw devices or as file systems. The
file system and the raw devices are used by applications to access the disks. The
software that manages the creation and usage is called the Logical Volume
Manager (LVM), which employs the Logical Volume Device Driver (LVDD) to
submit the read/write requests to the physical disks.
5.7.2 Physical volume management
This section describes physical volume management.
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Before adding a disk, answer the following questions:
 Is the physical volume a real hard disk or an exported logical volume from a
Virtual I/O Server?
 Can the physical volume be replaced online (hot plug)?
 Is it used as a hot spare?
Hot-spare disks
Beginning with AIX 5L Version 5.1, you can designate disks as hot-spare disks
for a volume group with mirrored logical volumes. You must also specify a policy
to be used if a disk or disks start to fail. You must also specify synchronization
characteristics. A hot-spare disk must at least have the same capacity as the
smallest disk in the volume group. The use of a hot spare is to wait for a disk in
the volume group to have failures above the acceptable threshold based on the
specified policies and replace the disk when the threshold is reached.
The chvg and chpv commands enable hot-spare disk support. They provide
several options used for the hot-spare features. The chpv -h command sets a
physical volume as a hot spare and the chvg command specifies the hot-spare
policies and synchronization policy. It has the following syntax:
chvg -hhotsparepolicy -ssyncpolicy VolumeGroup
The hot-spare policy determines how and when the hot spare should take over
the failing disk. The synchronization policy determines when and how to
synchronize the new disk.
There are some changes in the output of the lsvg and lspv commands to reflect
the hot-spare features. Example 5-15 shows the lsvg command output changes.
Example 5-15 The lsvg command output with hotspare at the bottom
# lsvg rootvg
VOLUME GROUP:
0010256185b3f
VG STATE:
VG PERMISSION:
MAX LVs:
LVs:
OPEN LVs:
TOTAL PVs:
STALE PVs:
ACTIVE PVs:
MAX PPs per VG:
MAX PPs per PV:
LTG size (Dynamic):
HOT SPARE:
rootvg
VG IDENTIFIER:
00cc489e00004c00000
active
read/write
256
12
9
1
0
1
32512
1016
256 kilobyte(s)
no
PP SIZE:
TOTAL PPs:
FREE PPs:
USED PPs:
QUORUM:
VG DESCRIPTORS:
STALE PPs:
AUTO ON:
64 megabyte(s)
542 (34688 megabytes)
403 (25792 megabytes)
139 (8896 megabytes)
2
2
0
yes
0
32
no
relocatable
MAX PVs:
AUTO SYNC:
BB POLICY:
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173
5.7.3 Adding a physical disk
This section helps with the basic steps to add disks to your system. Use one of
the following methods to add disks to the system.
Method 1
This method is suitable for non-hot plug devices and it is possible to get down
time from the client. Perform the following steps:
1. Shut down the system.
2. Add the disk.
3. Restart the system. If the disk is added to the system, it will be configured by
cfgmgr when the system runs its rc.boot 3 step.
4. Add the disk to a volume group using the extendvg command.
Method 2
This method is suitable for hot plug disks. Perform the following steps:
1. At the command line, type diag and press Enter.
2. On the Function Selection window, select Task Selection.
3. On the Tasks Selection window, select Hot Plug Task.
4. Select SCSI and SCSI RAID Hot Plug Manager.
5. Select Attach a Device to a SCSI Hot Swap Enclosure Device.
6. A list of empty slots in the SCSI hot swap enclosure device is shown.
7. Select the slot where you want to install the disk drive and press Enter.
8. Run the cfgmgr (or mkdev -l) command to configure the device, and use the
lspv command to see the newly configured disk.
9. Add the disk to a volume group using the extendvg command.
Note: This procedure uses the diag command to insert the disk. The diag
command is the recommended method. It is possible to use the command line
for this procedure. The lsslot command identifies hot-plug slots while the
drslot command manages a dynamically reconfigurable slot, such as a
hot-plug slot. Use online manual pages to see specific usage and flags for the
lsslot and drslot commands.
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Method 3
This method is used when a disk is part of a Virtual I/O Server logical volume.
Perform the following steps:
1. On the Virtual I/O Server, allocate a logical unit to the target client.
2. Run cfgmgr from the receiving client to configure the newly inserted disk.
3. Add the disk to a volume group for use using the extendvg command.
5.7.4 Disk replacement procedure
This section explains how and when to replace a physical volume. It is good
practice to take a recent backup of your data before removing or replacing disks
on the system. Consider the following questions before replacing a disk:
 Is the disk mirrored?
 Can it be replaced online without shutting down?
 Is it a hot spare?
 Is it part of rootvg?
 Can the data be salvaged and migrated?
 Is it part of the root volume group?
Replacing a mirrored disk
A mirrored disk can be replaced without losing data. This is because the second
or third member disk has a copy of the data. We highly recommend that all
critical systems have their data mirrored.
Follow this procedure to replace a mirrored disk:
1. Follow the steps to add a new disk in 5.7.3, “Adding a physical disk” on
page 174. The new disk must have capacity at least as large as the failed
disk.
2. Run the configuration manager to configure the new disk: cfgmgr or mkdev -l.
3. Replace the physical volume so that it can begin using the new disk, using the
following replacepv olddisk newdisk command
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175
Note: If the mirror for the logical volume is stale, the replacepv command
does not work correctly.
The replacepv command is similar to running the extendvg command to
introduce a disk to a volume group, the migratepv command to move data,
and then the reducevg command to remove the old disk from the volume
group.
Additional steps for a mirrored rootvg
For the rootvg volume group, you must also run the following commands to clear
the boot image from the failed disk and add the new disk to the boot image:
chpv -c failingdisk
bootlist newdisk
bosboot -a -d /dev/newdisk
The chpv -c command clears the boot image from the failing disk. The bootlist
command adds the new disk to the list of possible boot devices from which the
system can be booted. The bosboot -a command creates a complete boot image
on the default boot logical volume.
Replacing a non-mirrored disk
It is important to have regular backups of all non-mirrored disks because it is not
always possible to salvage data in a situation where a disk is not mirrored. All
vital data such as databases should always be mirrored.
If the data can be retrieved from the failing disk, perform the following steps:
1. Follow the steps to add a new disk drive in 5.7.3, “Adding a physical disk” on
page 174.
2. Add the new disk to the volume group using the extendvg command.
3. Move the data from the failing disk to the new disk using the migratepv
command.
Note: Steps 2 and 3 can be replaced with the replacepv command.
4. Remove the failing disk from the system.
If the data is corrupted and cannot be salvaged, perform the following steps:
1. Remove the failing disk from the system.
2. Follow the steps to add a new disk drive.
3. Add the new disk to the volume group.
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4. Restore the data from backup.
5.7.5 Volume group management
After adding a physical volume, the next step is to assign it to a volume group.
Prior to AIX V4.3.1, standard volume groups were used. AIX Version 4.3.1
implemented a new volume group factor (also known as a t factor), which can be
specified by the -t flag of the mkvg and the chvg commands. AIX Version 4.3.2
expanded the LVM scalability by introducing a big volume group, which is
specified by the use of a -B flag. AIX 5L Version 5.3 further introduces scalable
volume group (scalable VG). Scalable volume groups have the advantage of
growth when needed. Be careful not to define a volume too large, because it will
come with a reduction in performance because the internal tables require more
time to search and other data areas are larger.
Table 5-2 shows the variation of configuration limits with the different VG types.
Table 5-2 Configuration limits for volume groups
VG type
Normal VG
Big VG
Scalable VG
Maximum
PVs
Maximum
LVs
Maximum
PPs per VG
Maximum
PP size
32
256
32512
(1016 * 32)
1 GB
128
512
130048
(1016 * 128)
1 GB
1024
4096
2097152
128 GB
The following user commands were changed in support for the new scalable
volume group type: chvg, lsvg, and mkvg.
Notes:
 The conversion of a previously configured standard or big VG to a scalable
VG type requires the volume group to be varied off (with the varyoffvg
command).
 AFter the volume group is converted, it cannot be imported into AIX 5L
Version 5.2 or previous versions.
The new scalable volume group is fully supported by the System Management
Interface Tool (SMIT) and the Web-based System Manager graphical user
interface. Example 5-16 on page 178 shows the added support for scalable
volume groups.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
177
Example 5-16 Added support for scalable volume groups
Add a Volume Group
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
Add an Original Volume Group
Add a Big Volume Group
Add a Scalable Volume Group
Esc+1=Help
Esc+9=Shell
Esc+2=Refresh
Esc+0=Exit
Esc+3=Cancel
Enter=Do
Esc+8=Image
Concurrent volume groups
Concurrent volume groups are used when several systems needs to access the
same set of disks. This is typically used by HACMP and virtual shared disks.
Restriction: HACMP and the virtual shared disk subsystem both use the
concurrent LVM functions. To prevent conflicts, only one product can manage
concurrent disks. A virtual shared disk server cannot be defined as part of a
concurrent volume group cluster if HACMP is installed and is already
managing concurrent volume groups. If HACMP is installed but not managing
concurrent volume groups, concurrent virtual shared disks can be defined.
Root volume group
The root volume group is automatically created when installing the basic
operating system or when restoring from mksysb. It is varied on automatically by
the system using special procedures. The system is inaccessible without the root
volume group. Wherever possible, administrators are advised not to place user
data on the root volume group.
The root volume group contains:
 Startup files
 Base Operating System (BOS)
 System configuration information
 Optional software products
Non-root volume groups
This is a volume group typically used for user data. All file systems and logical
volumes not used for running the system should be created in non-root volume
groups. These are created as needed.
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5.7.6 Logical volumes and file systems
Journaled file system (JFS) and enhanced journaled file system (JFS2) are
supported by AIX 5L. If a 64-bit kernel is selected on BOS installation, the JFS2
support will also be enabled. JFS2 gives enhanced capabilities such as a
maximum file size of 1 TB and maximum a file system size of 4 petabytes (PB).
Note: Starting with AIX 5L Version 5.3, it is possible to shrink a file system if
the new size is large enough to handle the data in the file system and the file
system is created as an enhanced journaled file system (JFS2).
Within each volume group, one or more logical volumes (LVs) are defined.
Logical volumes contain file systems, paging space, and raw data. Data on
logical volumes appears to be contiguous to the user, but can be discontiguous
on one or more physical volumes. If mirroring is specified for the logical volume,
additional physical partitions are allocated to store the additional copies of each
logical partition. Logical volumes are used either as a file system or as raw
devices allocated for applications. AIX 5L creates the raw devices, but the
management of the raw devices is up to the application. Applications place
headers and trailers on the raw devices. For this reason, raw devices are
normally backed up using a tool that plugs in to the application using the raw
device. For example, backing up and restoring IBM DB2® when it uses raw
devices requires a use of a tool such as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. This
subject is beyond the scope of this publication. Creating a logical volume
requires thorough consideration.
Understanding the usage of the data in the logical volume is the first step to
deciding how to create a logical volume. Here, we provide some guidelines (not
rules) for creating logical volumes.
Consider the following items when creating logical volumes:
 Considerations for creating a logical volume for availability:
– Using hot spares
– Using mirroring
– Using mirror write consistency check
 Considerations for creating a logical volume for performance:
– Using multiple disks (stripping)
– Using multiple adapters (multipathing)
– Data placement on disk:
•
Edge
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
179
•
Middle
•
Center
•
Inner-middle
•
Inner-edge
•
Mirror Write Consistency Check (MWCC) on the outer edge
– Allocation policy:
•
Normal
•
Strict
•
Super strict
5.8 Planning and performing backup and recovery
This section describe how to plan and perform AIX 5L backup and recovery. We
also introduce some methods to back up non-root volume groups at the end of
the section. These methods are only a subset of many other methods that can be
used for non-root volume group backup and recovery.
5.8.1 System backup (mksysb)
This section describes how to create and verify a bootable system backup copy,
a mksysb image of the root volume group. Before any system migration, upgrade,
installation, or major system change, we recommend that you take a full backup
of the system.
A mksysb is an image of the operating system with all fixes and configurations
applied after the BOS installation. This backup can be used to reinstall a system
to its original state after it has been corrupted. If the backup is created on tape,
the tape is bootable and has the installation programs needed to install from the
backup.You can use the Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the mksysb
command to make a backup image of the root volume group.
A system backup transfers the following configurations from the source system to
the target system:
 Root volume group information
 Paging space information
 Logical volume information
 Placement of logical partitions (if creating map files has been selected in the
Web-based System Manager or SMIT)
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Note: We do not recommend the use of map files if you plan to reinstall the
backup to target systems other than the source system, or when the disk
configuration of the source system is to be changed before reinstalling the
backup.
The Web-based System Manager or the SMIT backup menu lets you preserve
configuration information, thus avoiding some of the configuring tasks normally
required after restoring a system backup. A backup preserves the configuration if
the following conditions are met:
 The target system has the same hardware configuration as the source
system.
 The target disk has enough space to hold the backup image.
Both the Web-based System Manager and SMIT use the mksysb command to
create a backup image, stored either on CD, DVD, tape, or in a file.
System backup to tape
This method creates a bootable operating system backup to tape.
The basic requirements for backing up to tape are:
 A tape drive must be assigned on both the source and the target partition.
 A tape must be present in the tape device and it must be in writable.
 There is enough space in /tmp or rootvg; the -X flag can be used to extend
/tmp when needed.
To create a system backup, perform the following steps. It is assumed that
/dev/rmt0 is the available tape device on the system.
1. Run smitty mksysb.
2. Press F4 or Esc+4 to get a list of available devices.
3. Select the required device and press Enter.
Example 5-17 shows an example of smitty mksysb.
You can also use the mksysb -i /dev/rmt0 command.
Example 5-17 Example of the smitty mksysb command
Back Up the System
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
[TOP]
[Entry Fields]
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WARNING:
Execution of the mksysb command will
result in the loss of all material
previously stored on the selected
output medium. This command backs
up only rootvg volume group.
* Backup DEVICE or FILE
Create MAP files?
EXCLUDE files?
List files as they are backed up?
Verify readability if tape device?
Generate new /image.data file?
EXPAND /tmp if needed?
Esc+1=Help
Esc+2=Refresh
Esc+5=Reset
Esc+6=Command
Esc+9=Shell
Esc+0=Exit
[/dev/rmt0]
no
no
no
no
yes
no
Esc+3=Cancel
Esc+4=List
Esc+7=Edit
Esc+8=Image
Enter=Do
+/
+
+
+
+
+
+
Creating a system backup to file
This method creates a system backup to file. It is important to have enough
space in the file system where the backup image is created. The backup image
file must be excluded if the backup will be written to a rootvg file system. We do
not recommend writing the image to rootvg. The file creates a system image, but
the image cannot be used for boot or install operations. You need to boot or
install from the product CD or NIM master to use this file for system recovery. It is
possible to create a bootable CD/DVD from this image using the mkcd command
for CD-R or the mkdvd command for DVR-R. Another way to use a backup image
created to a file is by using NIM to create a mksysb Shared Product Object Tree
(SPOT) resource.
To create the image, use one of the following methods:
 Run the smitty mksysb command and select the name of the file to contain
the backup image from the Backup Device or File field. See Example 5-17 on
page 181, which shows where to specify a file or device. Instead of a device,
list the full path name of your backup image file.
 Run the mksysb -i /mymksysbfile command.
System backup to DVD-R/CD-R
The mkcd command creates a multivolume CD (or CDs) from a mksysb or savevg
backup image. If used with the -L flag, the mkcd command can create the backup
to a DVD-R device. You can also use the mkdvd command to create a bootable
mksysb to DVD. You can elect to create a bootable CD/DVD from an existing
image or create a new mksysb image using the mkcd or mkdvd commands. You
are required to have a CD-R or DVD-R drive configured. When using the mkcd -L
or mkdvd command to write to DVD, the system will expect the use of 4 GB before
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it writes to a multiple DVD. Avoid using a DVD-R smaller than 4 GB; otherwise,
the backup will fail.
5.8.2 System recovery methods
This section describes how to restore the basic operating system (BOS) using a
system backup image, the mksysb image. You can install a system from a
backup image that is stored on tape, CD, or DVD, or in a file.
BOS reinstallation from system backup is useful for:
 Restoring a corrupted operating system.
 Using an existing system image to reduce (or even eliminate) repetitive
installation and configuration tasks.
 Transferring many user configuration settings to the target system (a different
machine on which you are installing the system backup).
 It is also used to reduce the size of rootvg file systems. This is valid only when
using AIX 5L Version 5.2 or earlier and if your rootvg is not using JFS2.
 The procedure used to install from a system backup depends on whether you
are installing on the system where the backup was created, or on another
system which might be of a different system architecture.
 Cloning a system backup helps to install a system backup on a target
machine to propagate a consistent operating system, optional software, and
configuration settings.
5.8.3 Cloning a system backup
Beginning with AIX 5L Version 5.2, all device and kernel support is automatically
installed during a Base Operating System installation. With this feature, the
system backup copies all known device drivers shipped with the AIX 5L Version
5.3 product. That means the mksysb image can be used to install the mksysb on
heterogeneous systems with devices different from the source machine without
the use of the product media to boot the system.
The installed device and kernel support filesets are follows:
 devices.*
 bos.mp
 bos.mp64, if necessary
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5.8.4 Alternate disk installation
Alternate disk installation lets you install the operating system while it is still up
and running. Alternate mksysb installation involves installing a mksysb image
that has already been created from a system onto an alternate disk of the same
system or another system. The alternate disk or disks cannot contain a volume
group. With all device support, the target system does not have to be the same
architecture as the system where the backup was created.
The following file sets are required for alternate disk installation:
 bos.alt_disk_install.boot_images
Must be installed for alternate disk mksysb installations.
 bos.alt_disk_install.rte
Must be installed for rootvg cloning and alternate disk mksysb installations.
Alternate disk installation can be used in the following ways:
 Installing a mksysb image on another disk while the system is running
 Cloning the current running rootvg to an alternate disk
 Using the Network Installation Management (NIM) environment to perform a
alternate disk migration installation of a NIM client
The advantages of using alternate disk install include:
 Installing BOS on LPARs on the same system where NIM is unavailable, there
is no CD or tape device, and Virtual I/O Server cannot be set up. This is done
by installing a single image to many disks and creating preinstalled partitions
using the disks.
 A system can be updated to another version on the alternate disk while the
current disk is running. The upgrade or migration will only involve changing
the boot list and restarting the system. This reduces the installation and
upgrade down time considerably.
 Falling back to the old version after a migration or installation using alternate
disk involves changing the bootlist and restarting the system.
The following steps show how to run the alt_disk_install command with some
common flags:
1. Run the alt_disk_install command to begin cloning the rootvg on hdisk0 to
hdisk1:
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -O -B -C hdisk1
The cloned disk (hdisk1) will be named altinst_rootvg by default.
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2. Rename the cloned disk (hdisk1) to alt1 so that you can repeat the operation
with another disk:
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -v alt1 hdisk1
3. Run the alt_disk_install command again to clone to another disk and
rename the cloned disk, as follows:
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -O -B -C hdisk2
# /usr/sbin/alt_disk_install -v alt2 hdisk2
Functional changes implemented in AIX 5L Version 5.3 include:
 The alt_disk_install command has been partitioned into separate modules
with separate syntax based on operation and function.
 The man pages have been improved by creating a separate man page for
each module.
 The following three new commands have been added:
– alt_disk_copy creates copies of rootvg on an alternate set of disks.
– alt_disk_mksysb installs an existing mksysb on an alternate set of disks.
– alt_rootvg_op performs Wake, Sleep, and Customize operations.
Note: The alt_disk_install module will continue to ship as a wrapper to the
new modules. However, it will not support any new functions, flags, or
features.
5.8.5 NIM client (mksysb installation)
A mksysb installation restores the BOS and additional software to a target from a
mksysb image in the NIM environment.
The major prerequisites include:
 A mksysb image must be created and made available on the hard disk of the
NIM master or a running NIM client.
 The NIM master must be configured. SPOT and mksysb resources must be
defined. The mksysb resource can be created from the image in the previous
prerequisite.
 The NIM client must be installed.
 There must be network connectivity between the target client and the NIM
master. Performing a ping test from the client’s SMS menu can assist in
confirming the network connectivity.
 The SPOT and mksysb resources should be at the same level of AIX when
used for NIM BOS installations.
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185
Note: We recommend that you either have no sparse files on your system or
that you ensure that you have enough free space in the file system for future
allocation of the blocks.
For more information about AIX 5L backup and recovery procedures, refer to the
AIX information center, available at:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/index.jsp
5.8.6 Using NIM with alternate disk install
The alt_disk_install command (available in AIX 4.3 or later) can be used to
install a mksysb image on a NIM client’s alternate disk or disks, or it can be used
to clone a client running rootvg to an alternate disk. The target of an
alt_disk_install operation can be a stand-alone NIM client or a group of
stand-alone NIM clients. The clients must also have the bos.alt_disk_install.rte
fileset installed.
The syntax for the alt_disk_install NIM mksysb operation is as follows:
nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=mksysb -a mksysb=mksysb_resource -a
disk=target_disk(s) -a attribute=Value.... TargetName|TargetNames
5.8.7 Using tape or CD/DVD-R
Restoring of a system using tape or CD/DVD requires that the device is installed
on the system. No network connectivity is required to a NIM master. This is not
always the preferred method because most system partitions do not have a tape
or CD device attached. SP systems used nodes without these devices and also
required network installation and booting.
Use the following basic steps, assuming that the required devices are configured:
1. Insert the disk or tape into the drive.
2. Remove all media in other drives that might have a BOS or mksysb image.
3. Switch the system off, and then on.
4. Press the appropriate key when the icons appear to change the bootlist so
that the system boots from CD (5 or F5).
5. Change the bootlist and follow the BOS installation.
6. When BOS Welcome menu opens, select the system recovery option to
start.
7. Select the option to install from system backup.
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5.8.8 Non-root volume group backup and recovery
A user volume group, also called the non-root volume group, typically contains
data files and application software.
Back up and restore of data on virtual disks
Data on virtual disks can be backed up and restored as usual from the client
operating system. File system or database utilities can be used to accomplish
these tasks, because the virtual disks behave exactly like physical disk drives.
The advantage of a virtual disk is that it can be sized to match the requirements
of the operating system. For example, a boot disk does not have to be a complete
physical disk drive, especially because the drives designed currently can be
larger than 128 GB, while the operating system uses less than 3 GB. The rest of
the disk is wasted. Using virtual boot disk, you can create many systems on a
128 GB hdisk.
5.8.9 The savevg command
The savevg command finds and backs up all files belonging to a specified volume
group. The volume group must be varied-on, and the file systems must be
mounted. The savevg command uses the data file created by the mkvgdata
command.
Restrictions:
 The savevg command will not save a file system that is not mounted.
 Although it will create a map of logical volumes created, it will not save the
data in the logical volumes (raw device). Application tools such as IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager are required to back up the data in the raw devices.
Other backup and restore commands include:
tar
The tar command manipulates archives by writing files to, or
retrieving files from, an archive storage medium.
cpio
The cpio command copies files into and out of archive storage and
directories.
5.8.10 Disaster recovery (business continuity)
It is important to understand the importance of data availability for critical
business applications. Disaster recovery is a process that assists in bringing a
business back to operation after incidental outages. Natural disasters such as
earthquakes and floods and disasters such as blackouts and terrorism can affect
entire neighborhoods and cities, disrupting your ability to deliver application
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
187
services for days, weeks, or even months. Local clustering provides valuable
protection from small-scale network, hardware, or software glitches. Classic
methods of disaster recovery involved moving tapes off-site and recovery took
too long. Businesses today seek protection from problems that reach beyond a
single data center.
Costs play an important role in the disaster recovery plan. It is important for
business to understand the cost of an outage and to align it with the investment
made on their business continuity. IBM offers business continuity solutions
including HACMP.
Tape and off-site disaster recovery method
It is possible to reduce costs by implementing a disaster recovery plan using the
method of moving tapes off-site. This option must be thoroughly investigated
because the cost of losing business at the time of recovery might be well more
than the costs saved. The worst disadvantages of using an off-site tape disaster
recovery plan is the time it takes to recover. It can take hours and even days.
This plan requires a good tape management solution (such as IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager).
Use the following steps to perform off-site backup:
1. Back up the data to tape.
2. Get a list of tapes to be moved off-site.
3. Get a courier to move the tapes.
4. Move the tapes to the off-site location.
Use the following steps to recover using off-site tape management:
1. Move to disaster recovery site.
2. Prepare the hardware and operating system.
3. Prepare the tape management system.
4. Request the tapes from off-site.
5. Enter the tapes.
6. Start recovery.
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Note:
 These steps can be taken while business is unavailable due to data loss.
 The transportation of tapes can be delayed by the environment, for
example, traffic, accidents, and strikes.
 The actual restore, excluding manual intervention, will take about twice the
amount of time it took to back up.
 This method cannot be used for 24x7 data centers. A high availability
business continuity solution is required for 24x7 applications.
High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing
High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing (HACMP) has the following major
features:
 Helps reduce unplanned outages and improve system availability.
 Offers ease of use through configuration wizards, auto-discovery, and a
Web-based interface.
 Backup systems can be located at a remote site for geographic disaster
recovery.
 Provides on demand failover to enable system maintenance without service
interruption.
HACMP for AIX 5L helps businesses ensure availability with reliable system
monitoring and failure response.
The HACMP Extended Distance (HACMP/XD) option extends the protection of
HACMP for AIX to geographically remote sites to help ensure business continuity
even if an entire site is disabled by catastrophe. HACMP/XD automatically
manages the replication and synchronization of your Web site, databases, and
other critical data and applications to a separate location from your primary
operations and keeps this replicated data updated in real time.
Table 5-3 on page 190 lists major components of the HACMP and HACMP/XD
methods of protection. Note that off-site mirroring is included; however, basic
off-site mirroring can be accomplished without HACMP through the use of
storage area network (SAN) storage.
Chapter 5. Ongoing support
189
Table 5-3 Backup feature comparison
Overview of high availability and data backup/recovery options
Offering
Location of backup
data
Technology
Max. distance
primary/backup
processors/DASD
HACMP
AIX/LVM mirror
SAN
15 kilometers; can be
extended with DWDMa or
CWDMb
Remote ESS
Metro-Mirror (PPRC)
unit
ESCON® Fibre
Channel
103 kilometers (> 103 km by
special order latency impact
over 40 km)
Fibre Channel
300 km
eRCMF
ESCON or Fibre
Channel
> 103 km
Any remote site
IP-based
Unlimited distance; must
consider latency > 40 km
HACMP with XD feature
HACMP/XD with IBM
ESS Metro-Mirror
(formerly PPRC)
HACMP/XD IP
GLVM
HAGEO
a. DWDM: Dense Wave Division Multiplexor
b. CWDM: Coarse Wave Division Multiplexor
Tivoli Storage Manager
Another backup and recovery product is IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. The Tivoli
Storage Manager product set is an enterprise-wide solution integrating
automated network backup, archive and restore, storage management, and
disaster recovery. The Tivoli Storage Manager product set is ideal for
heterogeneous, data-intensive environments, supporting more than 35 platforms
and more than 250 storage devices across LANs, WANs, and SANs, plus
providing protection for leading databases and e-mail applications.
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6
Chapter 6.
Advanced POWER
Virtualization
This chapter discusses the Virtualization Engine technologies that are now
integrated into the IBM Sserver p5 servers, AIX 5L Version 5.3, and Linux.
The Advanced POWER Virtualization feature allows more flexibility in the use of
the IBM Sserver p5 hardware. Virtualization can apply to microprocessors,
memory, I/O devices, or storage. Fine-grain virtualization permits near
instantaneous matching of workload to resources allocated, eschewing the
wasted resources common to the one-server/one-application model of
computing.
Note: Advanced POWER Virtualization is a no-charge feature (FC 7992) on
the p5-590 and p5-595. On other Sserver p5 systems, it is a priced feature.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
191
6.1 Overview of Advanced POWER Virtualization
The Advanced POWER Virtualization feature includes:
Micro-Partitioning
Allows partitions to be created in units of less than one
CPU. The processors on the system can be partitioned
into as many as 10 LPARs per processor
Virtual networking
A function of the POWER Hypervisor, virtual LAN allows
secure communication between logical partitions without
the need for a physical Ethernet adapter.
Virtual I/O Server
Provides the capability for a single physical I/O adapter
to be used by multiple logical partitions of the same
server, allowing consolidation of I/O resources and
minimizing the number of I/O adapters required.
Partition Load Manager (PLM)
Provides cross-partition workload management across
the system LPARs.
Note: Virtual Ethernet, Micro-Partitioning, LPAR, and dynamic LPAR are
available without the Advanced POWER Virtualization feature when the server
is attached to an HMC. Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) is available on the
base hardware with no additional features required.
Figure 6-1 on page 193 shows how several of these technologies combine to
provide you the flexibility to help meet your computing requirements.
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Virtual Ethernet
Memory
Resources
CPU
CPU
CPU CPU
CPU CPU
I/O
Resources
CPU CPU
MEM MEM
MEM MEM
IOA
IOA
CPU CPU
MEM MEM
MEM MEM
IOA
IOA
IOA
IOA
IOA
IOA
CUoD
MEM MEM
MEM MEM
Active
Pool
CUoD
Active
Pool
I/O
Server
Partition
Virtual Storage
POWER Hypervisor
Processor
Resources
CPU CPU
i5/OS
Partitions
Linux
Partitions
AIX
Partitions
Virtual
TTY
Service
Processor
Active
Hardware
Figure 6-1 Virtualization technologies implemented on POWER5 servers
The Virtual I/O Server and Partition Load Manager (PLM) are licensed software
components of the Advanced POWER Virtualization feature. They contain one
charge unit per installed processor, including software maintenance. The initial
software license charge for the Virtual I/O Server and PLM is included in the
price of the Advanced POWER Virtualization feature. The related hardware
features that include Virtual I/O Server and PLM are:
 9117-570 FC 7942
 9119-590 and 595 FC 7992
6.2 Micro-Partitioning
Micro-Partitioning is the ability to run more partitions on a server than there are
physical processors by allocating fractions of processors to the partition. On
POWER5 systems, you can choose between dedicated processor partitions and
shared processor partitions using Micro-Partitioning.
The main benefit of Micro-Partitioning is that it allows increased overall utilization
of system resources by automatically applying only the required amount of
Chapter 6. Advanced POWER Virtualization
193
processor resource needed by each partition. The other advantage associated
with this technology is that you can have up to 254 partitions running on a single,
properly configured platform.
The POWER Hypervisor continually adjusts the amount of processor capacity
allocated to each shared processor partition and any excess capacity
unallocated based on current partition profiles within a shared pool. Tuning
parameters enable the administrator extensive control over the amount of
processor resources that each partition can use.
This section discusses the following topics about Micro-Partitioning:
 Shared processor partitions
 Shared pool overview
6.2.1 Shared processor partitions
Micro-Partitioning allows multiple partitions to share one physical processor.
Partitions using Micro-Partitioning technology are referred to as shared
processor partitions. Within this model, physical processors are abstracted into
virtual processors that are then assigned to partitions, but the underlying physical
processors are shared by these partitions. Virtual processor abstraction is
implemented in the hardware and the POWER Hypervisor, a component of
firmware. From an operating system perspective, a virtual processor is
indistinguishable from a physical processor. The key benefit of implementing
partitioning in the hardware is that it allows any operating system to run on
POWER5 technology with little or no changes.
Partitions can be allocated in units as small as 1/10th of a processor and can be
incremented in units of 1/100th of a processor. Each processor can be shared by
up to 10 shared processor partitions. The shared processor partitions are
dispatched and time sliced on the physical processors under the control of the
POWER Hypervisor.
Table 6-1 shows the maximum number of logical partitions and shared processor
partitions supported on the different models.
Table 6-1 Micro-Partitioning overview on p5 systems
p5 servers
194
Model 570
Model 590
Model 595
Processors
2-16
16-32
16-64
Dedicated processor partitions
2-16
16-32
16-64
Shared processor partitions
160
160-254
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Shared processor partitions still need dedicated memory, but they do not more
need physical I/O adapters using virtual Ethernet and virtual SCSI.
The shared processor partitions are created and managed by the HMC. When
you start creating a partition, you have to choose between a shared processor
partition and a dedicated processor partition.
When setting up a partition, you have to define the resources that belong to the
partition, such as memory and I/O resources. For processor shared partitions,
you need to configure these additional options:
 Minimum, desired, and maximum processing units of capacity
 The processing sharing mode, either capped or uncapped
If the partition is uncapped, specify its variable capacity weight. An uncapped
weight of 0 has the same effect as capped.
 Minimum, desired, and maximum virtual processors
We discuss these settings in the following sections.
Processing units of capacity
Processing capacity can be configured in fractions of 1/100th of a processor. The
minimum amount of processing capacity that has to be assigned to a partition is
1/10 of a processor.
On the HMC, processing capacity is specified in terms of processing units. The
minimum capacity of 1/10th of a processor is specified as 0.1 processing units.
To assign a processing capacity representing 75% of a processor, 0.75
processing units are specified on the HMC.
On a system with two processors, a maximum of 2.0 processing units can be
assigned to a partition. Processing units specified on the HMC are used to
quantify the minimum, desired, and maximum amount of processing capacity for
a partition.
After a partition is activated, processing capacity is usually referred to as
capacity entitlement or entitled capacity.
Figure 6-2 on page 196 shows a graphical view of the definitions of processor
capacity.
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195
Minimum Requirement
0.1 Processing Units
0.5 Processing Units
0.4 Processing Units
Processing Capacity
1 Physical Processor
1.0 Processing Units
Figure 6-2 Processing units of capacity
Capped and uncapped mode
The next step in defining a shared processor partition is to specify whether the
partition is running in a capped or uncapped mode:
Capped mode
The processor unit never exceeds the assigned processing
capacity.
Uncapped mode
The processing capacity can be exceeded when the
shared processing pools have available resources.
When a partition is run in an uncapped mode, you must specify the uncapped
weight of that partition.
If multiple uncapped logical partitions require idle processing units, the managed
system distributes idle processing units to the logical partitions in proportion to
each logical partition's uncapped weight. The higher the uncapped weight of a
logical partition, the more processing units the logical partition gets.
The uncapped weight must be a whole number from 0 to 255. The default
uncapped weight for uncapped logical partitions is 128. A partition's share is
computed by dividing its variable capacity weight by the sum of the variable
capacity weights for all uncapped partitions. If you set the uncapped weight to 0,
the managed system treats the logical partition as a capped logical partition. A
logical partition with an uncapped weight of 0 cannot use more processing units
than those that are committed to the logical partition. It is functionally identical to
a capped partition.
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Virtual processors
Virtual processors are the whole number of concurrent operations that the
operating system can use. The processing power can be conceptualized as
being spread equally across these virtual processors. Selecting the optimal
number of virtual processors depends on the workload in the partition. Some
partitions benefit from greater concurrence, while other partitions require greater
power.
By default, the number of processing units that you specify is rounded up to the
minimum number of virtual processors needed to satisfy the assigned number of
processing units. The default settings maintain a balance of virtual processors to
processor units. For example:
 If you specify 0.50 processing units, one virtual processor will be assigned.
 If you specify 2.25 processing units, three virtual processors will be assigned.
You also can use the Advanced tab in your partition profile to change the default
configuration and to assign more virtual processors.
A logical partition in the shared processing pool will have at least as many virtual
processors as its assigned processing capacity. By making the number of virtual
processors too small, you limit the processing capacity of an uncapped partition.
If you have a partition with 0.50 processing units and 1 virtual processor, the
partition cannot exceed 1.00 processing units because it can only run one job at
a time, which cannot exceed 1.00 processing units. However, if the same
partition with 0.50 processing units was assigned two virtual processors and
processing resources were available, the partition can use an additional 1.50
processing units.
6.2.2 Shared pool overview
The POWER Hypervisor schedules shared processor partitions from a set of
physical processors that is called the shared processor pool. By definition, these
processors are not associated with dedicated partitions.
In shared partitions, there is no fixed relationship between virtual processors and
physical processors. The POWER Hypervisor can use any physical processor in
the shared processor pool when it schedules the virtual processor. By default, it
attempts to use the same physical processor, but this cannot always be
guaranteed. The POWER Hypervisor uses the concept of a home node for virtual
processors, enabling it to select the best available physical processor from a
memory affinity perspective for the virtual processor that is to be scheduled.
Figure 6-3 on page 198 shows the relationship between two partitions using a
shared processor pool of a single physical CPU. One partition has two virtual
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197
processors and the other a single one. The figure also shows how the capacity
entitlement is evenly divided over the number of virtual processors.
When you set up a partition profile, you set up the desired, minimum, and
maximum values you want for the profile. When a partition is started, the system
chooses the partition's entitled processor capacity from this specified capacity
range. The value that is chosen represents a commitment of capacity that is
reserved for the partition. This capacity cannot be used to start another shared
partition; otherwise, capacity might be overcommitted.
LPAR 2 Capacity Entitlement 40
LPAR 1 Capacity Entitlement 50
Virtual
Processor 2
Virtual
Processor 1
25
Virtual
Processor 1
40
25
0.5 Processing Units
0.4 Processing Units
1 Physical Processor
1.0 Processing Units
Figure 6-3 Distribution of capacity entitlement on virtual processors
When starting a partition, preference is given to the desired value, but this value
cannot always be used because there might not be enough unassigned capacity
in the system. In that case, a different value is chosen, which must be greater
than or equal to the minimum capacity attribute. Otherwise, the partition cannot
be started.
The entitled processor capacity is distributed to the partitions in the sequence in
which the partitions are started. For example, consider a shared pool that has 2.0
processing units available.
Partitions 1, 2, and 3 are activated in sequence:
 Partition 1 activated
Min. = 1.0, max. = 2.0, desired = 1.5
Allocated capacity entitlement: 1.5
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 Partition 2 activated
Min. = 1.0, max. = 2.0, desired = 1.0
Partition 2 does not start because the minimum capacity is not met.
 Partition 3 activated
Min. = 0.1, max. = 1.0, desired = 0.8
Allocated capacity entitlement: 0.5
The maximum value is only used as an upper limit for dynamic operations.
Figure 6-4 shows the usage of a capped partition of the shared processor pool.
Partitions using the capped mode are not able to assign more processing
capacity from the shared processor pool than the capacity entitlement will allow.
Pool Idle Capacity Available
Maximum Processor Capacity
Processor
Capacity
Utilization
Entitled Processor Capacity
Ceded
Capacity
LPAR Capacity
Utilization
Minimum Processor Capacity
Utilized Capacity
Time
Figure 6-4 Capped shared processor partition
Figure 6-5 on page 200 shows the usage of the shared processor pool by an
uncapped partition. The uncapped partition is able to assign idle processing
capacity if it needs more than the entitled capacity.
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Pool Idle Capacity Available
Maximum Processor Capacity
Processor
Capacity
Utilization
Entitled Processor Capacity
Ceded Capacity
Minimum Processor Capacity
Utilized Capacity
Time
Figure 6-5 Uncapped shared processor partition
6.3 Virtual networking
Virtual Ethernet technology is supported on AIX 5L V5.3 on POWER5 hardware.
This technology enables IP-based communication between logical partitions on
the same system using a VLAN-capable software switch in POWER5 systems.
In this section, we discuss the following topics about virtual networking:
 Virtual LAN
 Virtual Ethernet
 Shared Ethernet Adapter
6.3.1 Virtual LAN (VLAN)
A virtual LAN is an internal LAN that connects a set of partitions. These LANs
exist only in the memory of the server and are implemented through the POWER
Hypervisor. They provide fast communication between partitions through virtual
Ethernet and look like Ethernet LANs to the operating system in the partition.
This section discusses the concepts of virtual LAN (VLAN) technology with
specific reference to its implementation within AIX 5L.
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Virtual LAN overview
Virtual LAN is a technology used for establishing virtual network segments on top
of physical switch devices. Typically, a VLAN is a broadcast domain that enables
all nodes in the VLAN to communicate with each other without any L3 routing or
inter-VLAN bridging. The use of VLAN provides increased LAN security and
flexible network deployment over traditional network devices.
AIX 5L virtual LAN support
Some of the technologies for implementing VLANs include:
 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
 Port-based VLAN
 Layer 2 VLAN
VLAN is described by the IEEE 802.1Q standard. VLAN is a method to logically
segment a physical network such that Layer 2 connectivity is restricted to
members that belong to the same VLAN. This separation is achieved by tagging
Ethernet packets with their VLAN membership information and then restricting
delivery to members of that VLAN.
The VLAN tag information is referred to as VLAN ID (VID). Ports on a switch are
configured as being members of VLAN designated by the VID for that port. The
default VID for a port is referred to as the port VID (PVID). The VID can be added
to an Ethernet packet either by a VLAN aware host or by the switch in the case of
VLAN unaware hosts.
A port will only accept untagged packets or packets with a VLAN ID (PVID or
additional VIDs) tag of the VLANs to which the port belongs. A port configured in
the untagged mode is only allowed to have a PVID and will receive untagged
packets or packets tagged with the PVID. The untagged port feature helps
systems that do not understand VLAN tagging communicate with other systems
using standard Ethernet.
Each VLAN ID is associated with a separate Ethernet interface to the upper
layers (for example, IP) and creates unique logical Ethernet adapter instances
per VLAN (for example, ent1 or ent2). You can configure multiple VLAN logical
devices on a single system.
6.3.2 Virtual Ethernet adapter
Virtual Ethernet enables interpartition communication without requiring any
additional hardware. The POWER Hypervisor provides a virtual Ethernet switch
function based on the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard that enables the
administrator to define in-memory, point-to-point connections between partitions
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within the same server. These connections exhibit characteristics similar to
physical high-bandwidth Ethernet connections and support multiple protocols
(IPv4, IPv6, and ICMP).
The virtual Ethernet adapters can be dynamically created, and you can use the
Hardware Management Console to make the VID assignments. The POWER
Hypervisor transmits packets by copying the packet directly from the memory of
the sender partition to the receive buffers of the receiver partition without any
intermediate buffering of the packet.
Figure 6-6 is an example of an interpartition VLAN.
Figure 6-6 Logical view of an interpartition VLAN
6.3.3 Shared Ethernet Adapter (SEA)
The Shared Ethernet Adapter (SEA) hosted in the Virtual I/O Server acts as a
Layer 2 switch between the internal and external VLAN using a physical network
adapter.
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The SEA must run in a Virtual I/O Server partition. The advantage of the SEA is
that partitions can communicate outside the system without having a physical
network adapter attached to the partition.
Shared Ethernet Adapters are configured in the Virtual I/O Server partition.
Setting up a SEA requires one or more physical Ethernet adapters assigned to
the I/O partition and one or more virtual Ethernet adapters with the trunk
property defined using the HMC. The physical side of the SEA is either a single
Ethernet adapter or a link aggregation of physical adapters. The link aggregation
can also have an additional Ethernet adapter as a backup in case of failures in
the network.
A single SEA setup can have up to 16 virtual Ethernet trunk adapters, and each
virtual Ethernet trunk adapter can support up to 20 VLAN networks. Therefore, it
is possible for a single physical Ethernet to be shared between 320 internal
VLANs. The number of Shared Ethernet Adapters that can be set up in a Virtual
I/O Server partition is limited only by the resource availability because there are
no configuration limits.
6.3.4 Virtual networking example
This section shows how virtual networking can be implemented to allow
communication between partitions and external networks in more detail.
The sample configuration in Figure 6-7 on page 204 uses four client partitions
(Partition 1 through Partition 4) and one Virtual I/O Server. Each of the client
partitions is defined with one virtual Ethernet adapter. The Virtual I/O Server has
a Shared Ethernet Adapter that bridges traffic to the external network.
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Figure 6-7 Virtual networking configuration
Interpartition communication
Partition 2 and Partition 4 use the port virtual LAN ID (PVID) only. This means
that:
 Only packets for the VLAN specified as PVID are received.
 Packets sent have a VLAN tag added for the VLAN specified as PVID by the
virtual Ethernet adapter.
In addition to the PVID, the virtual Ethernet adapters in Partition 1 and Partition 3
are also configured for VLAN 10 using a specific network interface (en1) created
through smitty vlan. This means that:
 Packets sent through network interfaces en1 have a tag added for VLAN 10
by the network interface in AIX 5L.
 Only packets for VLAN 10 are received by the network interfaces en1.
 Packets sent through en0 are automatically tagged for the VLAN specified as
PVID.
 Only packets for the VLAN specified as PVID are received by the network
interfaces en0.
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Table 6-2 lists which client partition can communicate which each other through
what network interfaces.
Table 6-2 Interpartition VLAN communication
VLAN
Partition / network interface
1
Partition 1 / en0
Partition 2 / en0
2
Partition 3 / en0
Partition 4 / en0
10
Partition 1 / en1
Partition 3 / en1
Communication with external networks
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is configured with PVID 1 and VLAN 10. This
means that untagged packets that are received by the Shared Ethernet Adapter
are tagged for VLAN 1. Handling of outgoing traffic depends on the VLAN tag of
the outgoing packets:
 Packets tagged with the VLAN that matches the PVID of the Shared Ethernet
Adapter are untagged before being sent out to the external network.
 Packets tagged with a VLAN other than the PVID of the Shared Ethernet
Adapter are sent out with the VLAN tag unmodified.
In our example, Partition 1 and Partition 2 have access to the external network
through the network interface en0 using VLAN 1. Because these packets are
using the PVID, the Shared Ethernet Adapter will remove the VLAN tags before
sending the packets to the external network.
Partition 1 and Partition 3 have access to the external network using the network
interface en1 and VLAN 10. These packets are sent out by the Shared Ethernet
Adapter with the VLAN tag. Therefore, only VLAN-capable destination devices
will be able to receive the packets. Table 6-3 lists this relationship.
Table 6-3 VLAN communication to external network
VLAN
Partition / Network interface
1
Partition 1 / en0
Partition 2 / en0
10
Partition 1 / en1
Partition 3 / en1
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6.4 Virtual I/O Server
The IBM Virtual I/O Server is a special POWER5 partition that provides the ability
to implement the virtual I/O function. Virtual I/O enables client partitions to share
I/O resources.
We discuss the following topics related to the Virtual I/O Server:
 Overview of the Virtual I/O Server
 Virtual SCSI
 Installing the Virtual I/O Server
 Backup and maintenance
 Availability of the Virtual I/O Server partition
6.4.1 Overview of the Virtual I/O Server
The Virtual I/O Server is an appliance that provides virtual storage and shared
Ethernet capability to client logical partitions on a POWER5 system. It allows a
physical adapter on the Virtual I/O Server partition to be shared by one or more
partitions, enabling clients to consolidate and potentially minimize the number of
physical adapters.
The Virtual I/O Server is the link between the virtual and the real world. It can be
seen as an AIX 5L-based appliance, and it is supported on POWER5 servers
only. The Virtual I/O Server runs in a special partition that cannot be used for the
execution of application code.
It mainly provides two functions:
 Server component for virtual SCSI devices (VSCI target)
 Support of Shared Ethernet Adapters for virtual Ethernet
Using the Virtual I/O Server facilitates the following functions:
 Sharing of physical resources between partitions on the system
 Creating partitions without requiring additional physical I/O resources
 Creating more partitions than there are I/O slots or physical devices available
with the ability for partitions to have dedicated I/O, virtual I/O, or both
 Maximizing physical resource use on the system
The generic term virtual I/O relates to five different concepts:
 Three adapters: virtual SCSI, virtual Ethernet, and virtual Serial
 A special AIX 5L partition, called the Virtual I/O Server
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 A mechanism to link virtual network devices to real devices, called Shared
Ethernet Adapter (SEA)
Figure 6-8 shows an organization view of Micro-Partitioning including the Virtual
I/O Server. The figure also includes virtual SCSI and Ethernet connections and
mixed operating system partitions.
Dynamically resizable
2
CPUs
6
CPUs
2
CPUs
AIX 5L V 5.3
Ethernet
sharing
Virtual I/O Server
Storage
sharing
AIX 5L V5.3
AIX 5L
V5.3
AIX 5L V5.3
AIX 5L
V5.2
Linux
Linux
Linux
Micro-partitioning
AIX 5L V5.3
Virtual I/O
server
partition
2
CPUs
Virtual I/O
paths
POWER Hypervisor
HMC
Figure 6-8 Virtual partition organization view
The Virtual I/O Server eliminates the requirement that every partition own a
dedicated network adapter, disk adapter, and disk drive.
Note: To increase the performance of I/O-intensive applications, dedicated
physical adapters are preferred using dedicated partitions.
6.4.2 Virtual SCSI
Virtual SCSI is based on a client and server relationship. The Virtual I/O Server
owns the physical resources and acts as a server or, in SCSI terms, a target
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device. The logical partitions access the virtual SCSI resources that are provided
by the Virtual I/O Server as clients.
The virtual I/O adapters are configured using an HMC. The provisioning of virtual
disk resources is provided by the Virtual I/O Server. Often, the Virtual I/O Server
is also referred to as hosting partition, and the client partitions as hosted
partitions.
Physical disks owned by the Virtual I/O Server can either be exported and
assigned to a client partition as whole or can be partitioned into several logical
volumes. The logical volumes can then be assigned to different partitions.
Therefore, virtual SCSI enables sharing of adapters as well as disk devices.
To make a physical or a logical volume available to a client partition, it is assigned
to a virtual SCSI server adapter in the Virtual I/O Server.
In Figure 6-9, one physical disk is partitioned into two logical volumes inside the
Virtual I/O Server. Each of the two client partitions is assigned one logical
volume, which it accesses through a virtual I/O adapter (virtual SCSI client
adapter). Inside the partition the disk is seen as a normal hdisk.
Figure 6-9 Virtual SCSI architecture overview
Virtual SCSI enables the attachment of previously unsupported storage
solutions. As long as the Virtual I/O Server supports the attachment of a storage
resource, any client partition can access this storage by using virtual SCSI
adapters. For example, a Linux client partition can access an EMC storage
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attached to the Virtual I/O Server through a virtual SCSI adapter. Requests from
the virtual adapters are mapped to the physical resources in the Virtual I/O
Server. Therefore, driver support for the physical resources is needed only in the
Virtual I/O Server.
For the latest list of Virtual I/O Server supported environments, refer to:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/vios/documentation/datasheet.html
6.4.3 Installing the Virtual I/O Server
You install the Virtual I/O Server partition from a special mksysb CD that is
provided to clients that order the Advanced POWER Virtualization feature.
The Virtual I/O Server can be installed by:
 Media (assigning the DVD-ROM drive to the partition and booting from the
media)
 The HMC (inserting the media in the DVD-ROM drive on the HMC and using
the installios command)
 NIM
The Virtual I/O Server is not accessible as a standard partition. Administrative
access to the Virtual I/O Server partition is only possible as the user padmin, not
as the root user. After login, the user padmin gets a restricted shell, which is not
escapable, called the command line interface.
The Virtual I/O Server supports the following operating systems as virtual I/O
clients:
 IBM AIX 5L Version 5.3
 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 for POWER
 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS for POWER Version 3
6.4.4 Backup and maintenance
The following sections describe the backup and maintenance of the Virtual I/O
Server.
Backup
Back up the Virtual I/O Server regularly using the backupios command to create
an installable image of the root volume group onto either a bootable tape or a
multi-volume CD/DVD. The creation of an installable NIM image on a file system
is provided as well.
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Additionally, the system’s partition configuration information, including the virtual
I/O devices, should be backed up on the HMC. The client data should be backed
up from the client system to ensure the consistency of the data.
The backupios command supports the following backup devices:
 Tape
 File system
 CD
 DVD
Maintenance
The Virtual I/O Server should be regarded as an appliance running in a
dedicated partition. Fixes or upgrades for the Virtual I/O Server will be grouped
into special fix packs and distributed separately from AIX 5L or other IBM
operating systems.
To determine the level of Virtual I/O Server installed, run the ioslevel command.
To download the latest level, refer to:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/vios/download/home.html
To install a fix pack, make a backup of the Virtual I/O Server and use the
updateios command.
6.4.5 Availability of the Virtual I/O Server partition
The Virtual I/O Server partition is a critical partition; it always needs to be
available for clients partitions. To achieve higher availability, you must install a
second Virtual I/O Server, which provides further virtual SCSI disks and an
Ethernet connection.
Because the Virtual I/O Server is an operating system-based appliance,
redundancy for physical devices attached to the Virtual I/O Server can be
provided by using capabilities such as Multipath I/O and IEEE 802.3ad Link
Aggregation.
At the power-on of the system, the Virtual I/O Server partition can be started
before all the client partitions using a system profile in the HMC.
Using the HMC, you can create and activate often-used collections of predefined
partition profiles. This list of predefined partition profiles is called a system
profile. The system profile is an ordered list of partitions and the profile to be
activated for each partition. The system profile is referred to when the whole
system is powered off and back on.
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6.5 Partition Load Manager
The Partition Load Manager (PLM) software is part of the Advanced POWER
Virtualization feature and helps clients maximize the utilization of processor and
memory resources of dynamic logical partitioning (DLPAR)-capable logical
partitions running AIX 5L on pSeries servers.
The Partition Load Manager is a resource manager that assigns and moves
resources based on defined policies and utilization of the resources. PLM
manages memory, both dedicated and shared processors, and partitions using
Micro-Partitioning technology to readjust the resources. This adds additional
flexibility on top of the Micro-Partitioning flexibility added by the POWER
Hypervisor.
PLM, however, has no knowledge about the importance of a workload running in
the partitions and cannot readjust priority based on the changes of the types of
workloads; this is a function of another product, Enterprise Workload Manager,
that can dynamically monitor and manage distributed heterogeneous workloads
to achieve user-defined business goals.
Enterprise Workload Manager provides the following functions:
 End-to-end topology view and statistics for business transactions
 Goal-based resource optimization
 Physical resources improvement
 Workload management of heterogeneous environments
 End-to-end response time reporting
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Figure 6-10 shows a comparison of features between the PLM and Enterprise
Workload Manager.
Feature
HW Support
OS Support
Capability
PLM
eWLM
X
POWER5
X
AIX 5L V5.2
X
AIX 5L V5.3
X
Linux for POWER
X
X
Dedicated
X
Capped shared
X
Uncapped shared
X
X
Virtual Processor
Management
Virtual processor minimization for efficiency
X
X
Virtual processor adjustment for physical processor growth
X
X
Physical Memory
Management
Share-based
X
Minimum and maximum entitlements
X
Entitlement-based
X
Physical Processor
Management
Goal-based
Management Policy
X
Application/middleware instrumentation required
Management Domains
Administration
Multiple management domains on a single CEC
X
X
Cross platform (CEC)
X
X
Simple administration
X
Centralized LPAR monitoring
X
TOD-driven policy adjustment
X
X
Figure 6-10 Comparison of features of PLM and Enterprise Workload Manager
Partition Load Manager is set up in a partition or on another system running AIX
5L Version 5.2 ML4 or AIX 5L Version 5.3. A single instance of the Partition Load
Manager can only manage a single server.
To configure Partition Load Manager, you can use the command line interface or
the Web-based System Manager for a graphical setup.
Partition Load Manager uses a client/server model to report and manage
resource utilization. The clients (managed partitions) notify the PLM server when
resources are either under-utilized or over-utilized. Upon notification of one of
these events, the PLM server makes resource allocation decisions based on a
policy file defined by the administrator.
Partition Load Manager uses the Resource Monitoring and Control (RMC)
subsystem for network communication, which provides a robust and stable
framework for monitoring and managing resources. Communication with the
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HMC to gather system information and execute commands PLM requires a
configured SSH connection.
Figure 6-11 shows an overview of the components of Partition Load Manager.
Figure 6-11 Partition Load Manager overview
The policy file defines managed partitions, their entitlements, and their
thresholds and organizes the partitions into groups. Every node managed by the
PLM must be defined in the policy file along with several associated attribute
values:
 Optional maximum, minimum, and guaranteed resource values
 The relative priority or weight of the partition
 Upper and lower load thresholds for resource event notification
For each resource (processor and memory), the administrator specifies an upper
and a lower threshold for which a resource event should be generated. You can
also choose to manage only one resource.
Partitions that have reached an upper threshold become resource requesters.
Partitions that have reached a lower threshold become resource donors. When a
request for a resource is received, it is honored by taking resources from one of
three sources when the requester has not reached its maximum value:
 A pool of free, unallocated resources
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 A resource donor
 A lower priority partition with excess resources over the entitled amount
As long as there are resources available in the free pool, they will be given to the
requester. If there are no resources in the free pool, the list of resource donors is
checked. If there is a resource donor, the resource is moved from the donor to
the requester. The amount of resource moved is the minimum of the delta values
for the two partitions, as specified by the policy. If there are no resource donors,
the list of excess users is checked.
When determining if resources can be taken from an excess user, the weight of
the partition is determined to define the priority. Higher priority partitions can take
resources from lower priority partitions. A partition's priority is defined as the ratio
of its excess to its weight, where excess is expressed with the formula (current
amount - desired amount) and weight is the policy-defined weight. A lower value
for this ratio represents a higher priority. Figure 6-12 shows an overview of the
process for partitions.
Figure 6-12 PLM resource distribution for partitions
In Figure 6-12, all partitions are capped partitions. LPAR3 is under heavy load
and over its high CPU average threshold value, becoming a requestor. There are
no free resources in the free pool and no donor partitions available. PLM now
checks the excess list to find a partition having resources allocated over its
guaranteed value and with a lower priority. Calculating the priority, LPAR1 has the
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highest ratio number and therefore the lowest priority. PLM deallocates
resources from LPAR1 and allocates them to LPAR3.
If the request for a resource cannot be honored, it is queued and reevaluated
when resources become available. A partition cannot fall below its minimum or
rise above its maximum definition for each resource.
The policy file, when loaded, is static and has no knowledge of the nature of the
workload on the managed partitions. A partition's priority does not change upon
the arrival of high priority work. The priority of partitions can only be changed by
some action, external to PLM, by loading a new policy.
Partition Load Manager handles memory and both types of processor partitions:
dedicated and shared processor partitions. All the partitions in a group must be
of the same processor type.
6.5.1 Memory management
PLM manages memory by moving logical memory blocks (LMBs) across
partitions. To determine when there is demand for memory, PLM uses two
metrics:
 Utilization percentage (ratio of memory in use to available)
 The page replacement rate
For workloads that result in significant file caching, the memory utilization on
AIX 5L can never fall below the specified lower threshold. With this type of
workload, a partition can never become a memory donor, even if the memory is
not currently being used.
In the absence of memory donors, PLM can only take memory from excess
users. Because the presence of memory donors cannot be guaranteed, and is
unlikely with some workloads, memory management with PLM is only effective if
there are excess users present. One way to ensure the presence of excess users
is to assign each managed partition a low guaranteed value, such that it will
always have more than its guaranteed amount. With this sort of policy, PLM will
always be able to redistribute memory to partitions based on their demand and
priority.
6.5.2 Processor management
For dedicated processor partitions, PLM moves physical processors, one at a
time, from partitions that are not using them, to partitions that have a demand for
them. This enables dedicated processor partitions running AIX 5L Version 5.2
and AIX 5L Version 5.3 to better use their resources. If one partition needs more
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processor capacity, PLM automatically moves processors from a partition that
has idle capacity.
For shared processor partitions, PLM manages the entitled capacity and the
number of virtual processors (VPs) for capped or uncapped partitions. When a
partition has requested more processor capacity, PLM will increase the entitled
capacity for the requesting partition if additional processor capacity is available.
For uncapped partitions, PLM can increase the number of virtual processors to
increase the partition's potential to consume processor resources under high
load conditions. Conversely, PLM will also decrease entitled capacity and the
number of virtual processors under low-load conditions to more efficiently use
the underlying physical processors.
With the goal of maximizing a partition's and the system's ability to consume
available processor resources, the administrator now has two choices:
 Configure partitions that have high workload peaks as uncapped partitions
with a large number of virtual processors. This has the advantage of allowing
these partitions to consume more processor resource when it is needed and
available, with very low latency and no dynamic reconfiguration. For example,
consider a 16-way system using two highly loaded partitions configured with
eight virtual processors each, in which case, all physical processors could
have been fully utilized. The disadvantage of this approach is that when these
partitions are consuming at or below their desired capacity, there is a latency
associated with the large number of virtual processors defined.
 Use PLM to vary the capacity and number of virtual processors for the
partitions. This has the advantages of allowing partitions to consume all of the
available processor resource on demand, and it maintains a more optimal
number of VPs. The disadvantage to this approach is that, because PLM
performs dynamic reconfiguration operations to shift capacity to and from
partitions, there is a much higher latency for the reallocation of resources.
Though this approach offers the potential to more fully use the available
resource in some cases, it significantly increases the latency for redistribution
of available capacity under a dynamic workload, because dynamic
reconfiguration operations are required.
6.5.3 Limitations and considerations
You must consider the following limitations when managing your system with the
Partition Load Manager:
 The Partition Load Manager can be used in partitions running AIX 5L Version
5.2 ML4 or AIX 5L Version 5.3.
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 A single instance of the Partition Load Manager can only manage a single
server. However, multiple instances of the PLM can be run on a single
system, each managing a different server.
 The PLM cannot move I/O resources between partitions. Only processor and
memory resources can be managed by the PLM.
 The PLM requires HMC Release 3 Version 2.6 or later on an HMC and an
IBM Sserver p5 system.
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Abbreviations and acronyms
ABI
Application Binary Interface
CLVM
Concurrent LVM
AC
Alternating Current
CPU
Central Processing Unit
ACL
Access Control List
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
AFPA
Adaptive Fast Path
Architecture
CSM
Cluster Systems
Management
AIO
Asynchronous I/O
CoD
Capacity on Demand
APAR
Authorized Program Analysis
Report
CUoD
Capacity Upgrade on
Demand
API
Application Programming
Interface
DCM
Dual Chip Module
DES
Data Encryption Standard
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
DGD
Dead Gateway Detection
ASMI
Advanced System
Management Interface
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol
BFF
Backup File Format
DLPAR
Dynamic LPAR
BIND
Berkeley Internet Name
Domain
DMA
Direct Memory Access
BIST
Built-In Self-Test
DNS
Domain Name System
BLV
Boot Logical Volume
DRM
Dynamic Reconfiguration
Manager
BOOTP
Boot Protocol
DR
Dynamic Reconfiguration
BOS
Base Operating System
DVD
Digital Versatile Disk
BSD
Berkeley Software Distribution
EC
EtherChannel
CA
Certificate Authority
ECC
CATE
Certified Advanced Technical
Expert
Error Checking and
Correcting
EOF
End of File
CD
Compact Disk
EPOW
Early Power-Off Warning
CDE
Common Desktop
Environment
ERRM
Event Response Resource
Manager
CD-R
CD Recordable
ESS
Enterprise Storage Server®
CD-ROM
Compact Disk Read-Only
Memory
F/C
Feature Code
FC
Fibre Channel
FCAL
Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop
FDX
Full Duplex
FLOP
Floating Point Operation
CEC
Central Electronics Complex
CHRP
Common Hardware
Reference Platform
CLI
Command Line Interface
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
219
FRU
Field Replaceable Unit
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
GDPS®
Geographically Dispersed
Parallel Sysplex™
LACP
Link Aggregation Control
Protocol
LAN
Local Area Network
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol
GID
Group ID
GPFS
General Parallel File System
LED
Light Emitting Diode
GUI
Graphical User Interface
LMB
Logical Memory Block
HACMP
High Availability Cluster
Multi-Processing
LPAR
Logical Partition
LPP
Licensed Program Product
HBA
Host Bus Adapter
LUN
Logical Unit Number
HMC
Hardware Management
Console
LV
Logical Volume
LVCB
Logical Volume Control Block
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language
LVM
Logical Volume Manager
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
MAC
Media Access Control
Hz
Hertz
Mbps
Megabits Per Second
I/O
Input/Output
MBps
Megabytes Per Second
IBM
International Business
Machines
MCM
Multichip Module
ML
Maintenance Level
MP
Multiprocessor
MPIO
Multipath I/O
MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit
Network File System
ID
Identification
IDE
Integrated Device Electronics
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
IP
Internetwork Protocol
NFS
IPAT
IP Address Takeover
NIB
Network Interface Backup
IPL
Initial Program Load
NIM
IPMP
IP Multipathing
Network Installation
Management
ISV
Independent Software Vendor
NIMOL
NIM on Linux
ITSO
International Technical
Support Organization
NVRAM
Non-Volatile Random Access
Memory
IVM
Integrated Virtualization
Manager
ODM
Object Data Manager
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First
JFS
Journaled File System
PCI
JFS2
Enhanced Journaled File
System
Peripheral Component
Interconnect
PIC
Pool Idle Count
L1
Level 1
PID
Process ID
L2
Level 2
PKI
Public Key Infrastructure
L3
Level 3
PLM
Partition Load Manager
LA
Link Aggregation
POST
Power-On Self-Test
220
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
POWER
Performance Optimization
with Enhanced RISC
(Architecture)
SDD
Subsystem Device Driver
SMIT
System Management
Interface Tool
PPC
Physical Processor
Consumption
SMP
Symmetric Multiprocessor
PPFC
Physical Processor Fraction
Consumed
SMS
System Management
Services
PTF
Program Temporary Fix
SMT
Simultaneous Multithreading
PTX®
Performance Toolbox
SP
Service Processor
PURR
Processor Utilization
Resource Register
SPOT
Shared Product Object Tree
SRC
System Resource Controller
PV
Physical Volume
SRN
Service Request Number
PVID
Physical Volume Identifier
SSA
Serial Storage Architecture
PVID
Port Virtual LAN Identifier
SSH
Secure Shell
QoS
Quality of Service
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer
RAID
Redundant Array of
Independent Disks
SUID
Set User ID
SVC
SAN Virtualization Controller
RAM
Random Access Memory
TCP/IP
RAS
Reliability, Availability, and
Serviceability
Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol
UDF
Universal Disk Format
RCP
Remote Copy
UDID
Universal Disk Identification
RDAC
Redundant Disk Array
Controller
VIPA
Virtual IP Address
VG
Volume Group
VGDA
Volume Group Descriptor
Area
VGSA
Volume Group Status Area
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network
VP
Virtual Processor
VPD
Vital Product Data
VPN
Virtual Private Network
VRRP
Virtual Router Redundancy
Protocol
VSD
Virtual Shared Disk
WLM
Workload Manager
RIO
Remote I/O
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
RISC
Reduced Instruction Set
Computer
RMC
Resource Monitoring and
Control
RPC
Remote Procedure Call
RPL
Remote Program Loader
RPM
Red Hat Package Manager
RSA
Rivet, Shamir, Adelman
RSCT
Reliable Scalable Cluster
Technology
RSH
Remote Shell
SAN
Storage Area Network
SCSI
Small Computer System
Interface
Abbreviations and acronyms
221
222
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a
more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this redbook.
IBM Redbooks
For information about ordering these publications, see “How to get IBM
Redbooks” on page 226. Note that some of the documents referenced here may
be available in softcopy only.
 Linux Applications on pSeries, SG24-6033
 Managing AIX Server Farms, SG24-6606
 AIX Logical Volume Manager from A to Z: Introduction and Concepts,
SG24-5432
 Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management
Console for pSeries, SG24-7038
 Introduction to pSeries Provisioning, SG24-6389
 i5/OS on Sserver p5 Models: A Guide to Planning, Implementation, and
Operation, SG24-8001
 NIM: From A to Z in AIX 4.3, SG24-5524
 A Practical Guide for Resource Monitoring and Control (RMC), SG24-6615
 Partitioning Implementations for IBM Sserver p5 Servers, SG24-7039
 Practical Guide for SAN with pSeries, SG24-6050
 Problem Solving and Troubleshooting in AIX 5L, SG24-5496
 Understanding IBM Sserver pSeries Performance and Sizing, SG24-4810
 Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5, SG24-7940
 IBM Sserver p5 570 Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-9117
 IBM Sserver p5 590 and 595 Technical Overview and Introduction,
REDP-4024
 IBM Sserver p5 590 and 595 System Handbook, SG24-9119
 AIX 5L Practical Performance Tools and Tuning Guide, SG24-6478
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
223
Other publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources.
The following types of documentation are available at the following URL:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/library
 User guides
 System management guides
 Application programmer guides
 All commands reference volumes
 Files reference
 Technical reference volumes used by application programmers
Online resources
These Web sites and URLs are also relevant as further information sources:
 IBM Certification Web site
http://www.ibm.com/certify
 AIX 5L operating system maintenance packages downloads
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/support/unixservers/aixfixes.html
 Autonomic computing on IBM Sserver pSeries servers
http://www.ibm.com/autonomic/index.shtml
 Capacity on Demand
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/ondemand/cod/
 Hardware documentation
http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base/
 IBM Sserver Information Center
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/eserver/
 IBM Sserver pSeries and RS/6000 microcode update
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/mdownload2/download.html
 Support for AIX 5L and Linux servers
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/support/unixservers/index.html
 IBM Sserver support: Tips for AIX administrators
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/aix.srchBroker
224
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
 Hardware Management Console (HMC): Support for HMC for UNIX servers
and Midrange servers
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/hmc
 Virtual I/O Server Supported Environment
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/vios/documentation/datasheet.html
 IBM LPAR Validation Tool for POWER processor-based systems
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/lpar/systemdesign.html
 IBM System p5, Eserver p5, pSeries, OpenPower and IBM RS/6000
Performance Report
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/hardware/system_perf.html
 nmon performance: A free tool to analyze AIX and Linux performance
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/eserver/articles/analyze_aix/index.html
 Service and productivity tools for Linux on POWER
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/lopdiags
 IBM Linux news: Subscribe to the Linux Line
https://www6.software.ibm.com/reg/linux/linuxline-i
 Information about UnitedLinux for pSeries from Turbolinux
http://www.turbolinux.com
 Linux on Sserver p5 and pSeries
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/linux/
 Microcode Discovery Service
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/aix.invscoutMDS
 POWER4 system microarchitecture, comprehensively described in the IBM
Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 46, No.1, January 2002
http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd46-1.html
 SCSI T10 Technical Committee
http://www.t10.org
 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 8 for pSeries information
http://www.suse.de/us/business/products/server/sles/i_pseries.html
 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Installation Guide for the IBM Eserver iSeries
and IBM Eserver pSeries Architectures
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/RHEL-3-Manual/ppc-multi-insta
ll-guide/
Related publications
225
 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 Documentation
http://www.novell.com/documentation/sles9/index.html
How to get IBM Redbooks
You can search for, view, or download Redbooks, Redpapers, Hints and Tips,
draft publications and Additional materials, as well as order hardcopy Redbooks
or CD-ROMs, at this Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks
Help from IBM
IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support
IBM Global Services
ibm.com/services
226
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Index
Numerics
1.9 GHz POWER5 34
2-Port Multiprotocol PCI Adapter 25, 38, 130
32-bit or 64-bit kernel 103
3dmon command 148
3dplay command 148
64-bit and 32-bit adapters 14
9117 8
9118 19
9119 26
A
accessing the ASMI using a Web browser 66
Internet Explorer 66
Netscape 66
Opera 66
accessing the ASMI using an HMC or Web-based
System Manager 67
activating partitions 85
activating a specific partition profile 86
activating the default partition profile 86
reactivating a partition with a partition profile 86
adding a physical disk (PV) 174
Advanced POWER Virtualization
packaging 191
Virtual I/O Server 206
virtual networking 200
Advanced POWER Virtualization and Partition Load
Manager 23
Advanced POWER Virtualization feature 16
Advanced System Management Interface 66–67
accessing the ASMI using a Web browser 66
accessing the ASMI using an HMC or
Web-based System Manager 67
ASMI user accounts 68
auto power restart 66
vital product data 66
advantages of using alt_disk_install 184
AIX 5L
performance 137
Performance Toolbox 148
AIX 5L performance monitoring 137
AIX 5L Performance Toolbox 148
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004, 2005. All rights reserved.
AIX 5L Version 5.3 installation pack 151
AIX and pSeries Information Center 157
AIX Workload Manager 46
AIX/Linux partition-mode boot 17
allocation policy 180
alstat command 137
alt_disk_copy command 185
alt_disk_install 101, 184
alt_disk_mksysb command 185
alt_rootvg_op command 185
alternate disk install
advantages 184
functional changes with AIX 5L Version 5.3 185
alternate disk installation 101
analysis and control, Performance Toolbox 148
APAR 150
architecture and technical overview
internal storage 14
ASMI 66–67
ASMI user accounts 68
assignable resources for LPAR 81
I/O slots 81
memory 81
processor 81
auto power restart 66
auto start partition 74
availability considerations for logical volumes 179
azizo command 148
B
back up the HMC 114
backing up partition profile data 118
backupios command 209
basic problem determination 160
basic system management tasks 71
frame management 76
managing the system 71
rebuild managed system 76
benefitting from simultaneous multithreading 42
BIOS updates 113
boot 71
boot devices 95
boot options 71
227
multiboot 71
boot devices 95
NIM 95
boot list 74
boot process 16
IPL flow with an HMC attached to the system 18
IPL flow without an HMC attached to the system
16
boot to server firmware 17
bootlist command 176
bos.perf.tools 140
bosboot commands 176
BPC 72
BPC-A 111
BPC-B 111
building blocks 8
Bulk Power Controller 66, 72
Bulk Power Controllers (BPCs) 112
bundle 150
C
Capacity BackUp 63
Capacity on Demand 58
Capacity on Demand (CoD) 19
types of Capacity on Demand 59
capacity planning, Performance Toolbox 148
Capacity Upgrade on Demand for memory 61
Capacity Upgrade on Demand for processors 60
capped mode 196
capture service data 170
CEC 28, 52
cfgmgr command 174
changing
error log file name 163
changing default partition profiles 91
chmon command 148
chpv command 173
CHRP 103
chvg command 173, 177
classic method for software management 152
commands
3dmon 148
3dplay 148
alstat 137
alt_disk_copy 185
alt_disk_install 101
alt_disk_mksysb 185
alt_rootvg_op 185
228
azizo 148
backupios 209
bootlist 176
bosboot 176
cfgmgr 174
chmon 148
chpv 173
chvg 173, 177
compare_report 152
cpio 187
devreset 102
diag 174
drslot 174
dumpcheck 94
emstat 137
errlogger 170
errpt 164
exmon 148
extendvg 174
filemon 137
fileplace 138
gprof 137
installios 209
ioslevel 210
iostat 137
jazizo 148
lparstat 44, 139, 144
lscfg 78
lsdev 78
lshmc 113
lshsc 85
lsslot 174
lsvg 173, 177
migratepv 176
mkcd 182
mkdev 174
mkdvd 182
mksysb 181
mkvg 177
mkvgdata 187
mpstat 138–139
netpmon 138
nim 101
nim_config_services 97
nim_master_recover 99
nim_master_setup script 99
niminit 97
nimsh 97
pprof 138
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
procmon 139
prof 137
rcmd command 97
reducevg 176
replacepv 175
rmss 138
rsh 97
sar 137
savevg 187
shutdown 86
smtctl 139
snap 170
suma 153, 155
svmon 138, 140
svmon_back 140
sysdumpdev 94
tar 187
topas 138, 140
tprof 137
truss 137
updateios 210
varyoffvg 177
vmstat 137, 143
which_fileset 97
wlmperf 148
xmperf 148
common hardware reference platform 103
communication with external networks 205
compare_report command 152
computer-aided engineering (CAE) 20
concurrent volume groups
HACMP 178
configuring
error log file 163
considerations when creating logical volumes
allocation policy 180
availability 179
multipathing 179
performance 179
placement of data on disk 179
stripping 179
console 69
copying
error log onto tape 169
cpio command 187
CPU analysis and tuning 138
customizing
error log file 163
D
data bandwidth 137
data placement on disk 179
DDR1 12, 35
DDR2 12, 35
dedicated memory 195
dedicated processor partition 195
deleting partitions 87
depth
p5-570 10
p5-575 21
p5-590/595 30
devreset command 102
diag command 174
diagnostics 74
disaster recovery 187
HACMP 188
off-site tape method 188
disk and boot devices 13
p5-570 13
disk replacement procedures 175
replacing a mirrored disk 175
replacing a non-mirrored disk 176
disks and boot devices 37
p5-575 24
p5-590/595 37
DLPAR 104
DLPAR operation 104
adding resources to a partition 105
moving resources between partitions 105
removing resources from a partition 106
donor, PLM 213
drawer contention 137
drslot command 174
dual HMC 112
dumpcheck command 94
dynamic logical partitioning 15, 104
dynamic LPAR minimum requirements 48
I/O 49
memory 48
processor 48
dynamically adding resources 105
adapters 105
memory 105
processors 105
dynamically moving resources 105
adapters 106
memory 105
processors 105
Index
229
dynamically removing resources 106
adapters 106
memory 106
processors 106
E
Electronic Service Agent 121
Remote Support Facility 121
Electronic Service Agent Gateway 121, 162
emstat command 137
enhanced simultaneous multithreading features 41
Enterprise Workload Manager 47
errlogger command 170
error analyzing 161
error log 70
cleaning 164
configuration 163
copy onto tape or diskette 169
understanding output report 168
error log analysis 161
error logging daemon
starting, stopping 164
error report 165
fields description 166
errpt
commands 165
errpt command 164–165
exmon command 148
expansion rack 28
extendvg command 174
F
faults 143
file system 94
filemon command 137
fileplace command 138
files
/var/adm/ras/conslog 161
/var/adm/ras/errlog 163
filesets 150
filtd, toolbox daemon 149
firmware 51, 75
firmware level naming convention 55
power subsystem firmware 52
server firmware 51
firmware (Licensed Internal Code) fixes 132
I/O adapter and device firmware fixes 132
power subsystem firmware 132
230
server firmware 132
firmware boot side for next boot 17
firmware level naming convention 55
frame 27, 76
frame management 76
Full System Partition 78
G
generating
error report 165
get server firmware fixes using an HMC 56
gprof command 137
graphics adapter 25, 38, 130
guidelines for dynamic LPAR and virtualization 47
H
HA_NIM 98
HACMP
disaster recovery 188
hard disk 94
hard reset 89
hardware management 109
HMC 110
HMC connectivity 111
local HMC 110
redundant HMC 110
remote HMC 110
Web-based System Manager Remote Client
110
Hardware Management Console 66–67
hardware performance 136
height
p5-570 10
p5-575 21
p5-590/595 30
High Available NIM 98
high-performance computation 19
high-performance computing 36
high-performance computing applications 19
HMC 66–67, 69, 71, 73, 76–78, 210
connectivity 111–112
fixes 114
local HMC 110
network interfaces 112
redundant HMC 110
remote HMC 110
Web-based System Manager Remote Client
110
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
HMC code 113
backup the HMC 114
BIOS updates 113
HMC fixes 114
restoring critical HMC data 116
save upgrade data 117
working with partition profile information 117
HMC network interfaces 112
host management console 76
hot-plug-capable 38
hot-spare disks 173
hot-swap 39
hot-swappable 39
system profile 18
IPL flow without an HMC attached to the system 16
AIX/Linux partition-mode boot 17
boot to server firmware 17
system boot speed 17
system operating mode 17
J
jazizo command 148
JFS 179
JFS2 179
K
I
I/O adapter and device firmware fixes 132
I/O bandwidth 137
I/O drawers 13, 23
p5-570 13
p5-575 23
p5-590/595 37
i5/OS 26, 132
IBM Storage Device Enclosure 37
IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager 45
IBM Virtualization Engine 26
initial system configuration 66
Advanced System Management Interface 66
ASMI 66
SMS 68
System Management Services 68
initializing profile data 118
install/add/remove hardware 127
installation planning p5-590/595 29
installation using a CD 102
installing the operating system 92
alternate disk installation 101
installation using a CD 102
prerequisites 102
recommended configuration 94
installios command 209
internal I/O subsystem p5-590/595 37
internal storage 14
interpartition communication 201
ioslevel command 210
iostat command 137
IPL flow with an HMC attached to the system 18
partition autostart 18
partition standby 18
kernel
32-bit 103
64-bit 103
L
LIC (Licensed Internal Code) 131
Licensed Internal Code maintenance 131
firmware (Licensed Internal Code) fixes 132
Licensed Internal Code updates 132
Licensed Internal Code updates 132
Licensed Program Product (LPP) 150
licensed software components 193
limitations and considerations
Partition Load Manager, PLM 216
Linux 5L
an introduction 158
dynamically managing physical I/O devices and
slots on Linux 5L 160
installing a Linux distribution 159
minimum configuration requirements for a Linux
5L partition 159
planning for Linux 158
shared processor support for Linux 5L logical
partitions 159
Virtual I/O Server and Linux 5L 160
Linux Toolbox 151
load monitoring, Performance Toolbox 148
LoadLeveler, AIX 149
logging operator messages 170
logical partition 77–78
logical partitioning 22
logical partitioning a system 77
HMC 77
Virtual I/O Server 77
Index
231
logical volume management 171–172
logical volumes and file systems 179
LVM introduction 171
physical volume management 172
volume group management 177
logical volume manager
logical volume device driver 172
logical volumes and file systems
enhanced journaled file systems 179
journaled file systems 179
mirroring 179
LPAR resource administration
activating partitions 85
assignable resources for LPAR 81
changing default partition profiles 91
creating logical partitions 84
desired adapters 84
required adapters 84
deleting partitions 87
modify system profile properties 92
operating states 82
partition shutdown 87
partition startup 87
setting up service authority 90
viewing system profile properties 92
LPAR Validation Tool 133
lparstat command 44, 139, 144
lscfg command 78
lsdev command 78
lshmc command 113
lshsc command 85
lsslot command 174
lsvg command 173, 177
LVM introduction 171
explaining logical volume
logical partitions 172
logical volumes 172
physical disks 172
physical partitions 172
volume group 172
logical volume management 172
LVT (LPAR Validation Tool) 133
M
manage system software updates 149
managed system 79
managing a partitioned system 78
HMC 78
232
managed system 79
partition profile 79
partitions 79
managing the system 71
DHCP 72
powering off the managed system 75
powering on the managed system 73
viewing managed system properties 75
media devices 24
media drawer 37
media options 37
memory 95
p5-570 12
p5-575 22
p5-590/595 35
memory analysis and tuning 139
memory bandwidth 136
memory features 12
memory management, PLM 215
memory statistics 143
memory subsystem 35
micro partitions 77
Micro-Partitioning 138
dedicated memory 195
dedicated processor partition 195
overview 194
processing capacity 195
processing units 195
virtual processors 197
migratepv command 176
minimum and optional features 11, 31
p5-570 11
p5-575 22
p5-590/595 31
minimum value of memory 106
minimum value of processors 106
mirroring
rootvg mirroring 176
mkcd command 182
mkdev command 174
mkdvd command 182
mksysb 180
mksysb to file 182
mksysb command 181
mksysb to file 182
mkvg command 177
mkvgdata command 187
model abstract for 9119-590 and 9119-595 26
monitor and optimize system performance
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
hardware performance 136
I/O bandwidth 137
memory bandwidth 136
monitoring performance 137
mpstat command 138–139
multiboot 71
multipathing 179
multiprocessor kernel 103
N
netpmon commands 138
Netscape 66
network 95
NIM 96, 209
creating a NIM master 99
NIM restore 185
security 97
HA_NIM 98
nimish 97
OpenSSL 98
nim command 101
NIM cryptographic authentication 97
NIM service handler 97
nim_config_services command 97
nim_master_recover command 99
niminit command 97
nimish 97
nmon tool 146
non-powered frame 28
normal partition startup 87
O
On/Off Capacity on Demand (On/Off CoD) 62
ongoing support 135
Open Firmware 53
OpenSSL 98
Opera 66
operating states 82
managed systems 82
partitions 83
operating system installation 92
operating system support 34
p5-570 19
p5-575 25
p5-590/595 34
output report
error log 168
P
p5-570 8
architecture and technical overview 13
boot process 16
Capacity on Demand (CoD) 19
disk and boot devices 13
dynamic logical partitioning 15
I/O drawers 13
internal view 11
introduction 8
IPL flow with an HMC attached to the system 18
IPL flow without an HMC attached to the system
16
memory features 12
memory subsystem 13
minimum and optional features 11
operating system requirements 19
PCI-X slots and adapters 14
physical package 10
processor features 12
system specifications 9
virtualization 15
p5-575 19
Advanced POWER Virtualization and Partition
Load Manager 23
disks, boot devices, and media devices 24
I/O drawers 23
logical partitioning 22
memory 22
minimum system configuration 22
PCI-X slots and adapters 24
physical package 21
software requirements 25
system control 23
system specifications 21
p5-590 66
p5-590/595 25
disks and boot devices 37
installation planning 29
internal I/O subsystem 37
internal storage 39
media options 37
memory configuration and placement 35
memory subsystem 35
minimum and optional features 31
model abstract 26
operating system support 34
PCI-X slots and adapters 38
physical package 30
Index
233
platform initial program load 52
processor features 34
system frames 27
system specifications 29
packages 150
PageIn 143
PageOut 143
paging space 94
paging statistics 143
faults 143
PageIn 143
PageOut 143
PgspIn 143
PgspOut 143
Sios 143
steals 143
partition 73, 77
auto start partition 74
partition autostart 18
Partition Load Manager, PLM 45, 73, 211
donor 213
entitlements 213
limitations and considerations 216
memory management 215
partition priority 214
policy file 213
processor management 215
requester 213
software license charge 193
thresholds 213
partition priority, PLM 214
partition profile 79
partition reboot 88
partition recovery 88
partition requirements 80
partition reset 88–89
partition shutdown 87–88
partition standby 18, 73
partition startup 87
normal partition startup 87
partitioned system
managing 78
partitions 79, 83
types of partitions 77
PCI-X slots and adapters 14, 24, 38
64-bit and 32-bit adapters 14
p5-570 14
p5-575 24
p5-590/595 38
234
perfagent.tools 140
perform preventative hardware maintenance 136
performance
monitoring 137
toolbox 148
performance considerations 179
performance considerations with POWER5-based
systems 138
Performance Toolbox Agent 149
Performance Toolbox Manager 148
per-processor memory bandwidth 20
pgspin 143
pgspout 143
physical package 10, 21
p5-570 10
p5-575 21
physical package p5-590/595 30
physical volume management 172–173
disk replacement procedures 175
plan and perform backup and recovery 180
alternate disk installation 184
cloning a system backup 183
NIM 185
NIM with alternate disk install 186
non-rootvg backup and recovery 187
restore 183
system recovery methods 183
using CD/DVD-R and tape 186
virtual disk 187
platform initial program load 52
PLM 45
policy 75
POWER GXT135P 25, 38
POWER Hypervisor 42, 52
virtual (TTY) console 44
virtual Ethernet 43
virtual SCSI 43
power on diagnostic default boot list 74
power on diagnostics 74
boot list 74
diagnostics 74
power on normal 74
power on options 74
power on SMS 74
power on the managed system
partition manager 73
power subsystem firmware 52, 132
POWER5 8
powered expansion rack 28
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
powering on the managed system 73
partition standby 73
power on diagnostic default bootlist 74
power on diagnostic firmware OK prompt 75
power on diagnostics 74
power on normal 74
power on options 74
power on SMS 74
system profile 73
pprof command 138
primary system rack 28
privilege 70
problem determination 160
capture service data 170
error analyzing 161
processing capacity 195
processing units 195
processor books 28
processor features 12, 34
p5-570 12
p5-590/595 34
processor interconnect 8
processor management 215
procmon command 139
prof command 137
profile 73, 79
ps 139
PTF (program temporary fix) 131
PTFs 150
R
reboot 88
rebuilding the managed system
refreshing the managed system 76
recommended configuration for AIX 5L installation
94
hard disk 94
memory 95
network 95
system dump device 94
recovery 88, 183
Redbooks Web site 226
Contact us xiii
reducevg commands 176
redundant HMC 110
refresh the managed system 76
remote HMC 110
remote support 120
Remote Support Facility 121
removing profile data 120
repair serviceable event 123
replace parts 130
replacepv commands 175
replacing a mirrored disk 175–176
replacing a mirrored disk in rootvg 176
replacing a non-mirrored disk 176
requester, PLM 213
requirements for a partition 80
Reserve Capacity on Demand (Reserve CoD) 62
reset partition 88–89
resource management 76
restoring critical HMC data 116
restoring profile data 119
rmss command 138
rsh command 97
S
sar 139
sar command 137
save upgrade data 117
savevg command 187
serial number 75
server firmware 51, 132
server management 72
service applications 120
Electronic Service Agent 121
Service Focal Point 122
service authority 90
Virtual I/O Server 90
Service Focal Point 67, 106, 122
install/add/remove hardware 127
repair serviceable event 123
replace parts 130
service utilities 131
service processor 53, 66
temporary and permanent side of the service
processor 53
service representative 123, 131
service update management assistant 151–152
service utilities 131
serviceable event 123
SFP (Service Focal Point) 122
Shared Ethernet Adapter 202
shared processor partition 138, 193
shared processor pool 139, 197
shutdown command 86
Index
235
simultaneous multithreading 39
benefitting from simultaneous multithreading 42
enhanced simultaneous multithreading features
41
single threading operation 41
single threading operation 41
sios 143
SMIT user interface, suma 155
SMS 68
smtctl command 139
snap command 170
soft reset 88
software license charge, PLM 193
software packaging 150
APAR 150
bundle 150
filesets 150
Licensed Program Product (LPP) 150
packages 150
PTFs 150
SP Flex cables 8
starting
error logging daemon 164
steals 143
stripping 179
suma
command line interface 155
suma command 152–153, 155
svmon command 138, 140
svmon_back command 140
sysdumpdev command 94
system backup 104, 180
backup to file 182
bootable 180
mksysb 104
tape backup 181
system boot speed 17
system documentation
information center 156
system documentations 156
system dump device 94
system frames 27
System Management Services 68
system operating mode 17
system partitioning and operating system installation 65
system planning and design 7
p5-570 8
p5-575 19
236
p5-590/595 25
system profile 18, 73, 80
system properties 75
system specifications 9, 21
p5-570 9
p5-575 21
system specifications p5-590/595 29
T
tagged packets 201
tape backup 181
tar command 187
temporary and permanent side of the service processor 53
terminal 69
Tivoli Provisioning Manager 45
toolbox, performance 148
tools, performance 137
topas 140
topas command 138, 140–141
using topas 141
tprof command 137
Trial Capacity on Demand (Trial CoD) 63
truss command 137
types of Capacity on Demand 59
Capacity BackUp 63
Capacity Upgrade on Demand for memory 61
Capacity Upgrade on Demand for processors
60
On/Off Capacity on Demand (On/Off CoD) 62
Reserve Capacity on Demand (Reserve CoD)
62
Trial Capacity on Demand 63
types of partitions 77
logical partition 77
micro-partitions 77
U
uncapped mode 196
uniprocessor kernel 103
updateios command 210
using System Management Services
boot 71
password 70
change password 70
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
V
varyoffvg command 177
viewing managed system properties
model 75
policy 75
serial number 75
state 75
type 75
viewing system profile properties 92
virtual disk 187
virtual Ethernet
communication with external networks 205
interpartition communication 204
Virtual I/O Server 65, 77, 90, 95, 206
backup 209
command line interface 209
installation 209
introduction 206
maintenance 210
redundancy 210
Shared Ethernet Adapter 202
software license charge 193
virtual LAN, VLAN 200
AIX 5L support 201
overview 201
virtual networking 200
virtual processor 197
virtual SCSI 43, 207
virtual terminal 69
virtualization 15
virtualization systems technologies 191
vital product data 66
vmo command 140
vmstat command 137, 140, 143
using the vmstat command 144
volume group management
chvg 177
concurrent Volume groups 178
mkvg 177
non root volume group 178
root volume group 178
VPD 12, 17
VPN connection 122
vterm command 69
weight 196
p5-570 10
p5-575 21
p5-590/595 30
which_fileset command 97
width
p5-570 10
p5-575 21
p5-590/595 30
wlmperf command 148
working with partition profile information 117
backing up partition profile data 118
initializing profile data 118
removing profile data 120
restoring profile data 119
workload and partition management 44
AIX Workload Manager 46
Enterprise Workload Manager 47
IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager 45
Partition Load Manager 45
Workload Manager 46, 148
X
xmpeek, Performance Toolbox 149
xmperf command 148
xmservd, Performance Toolbox 149
xmtrend, Performance Toolbox 149
W
Web interface 66
Web-based System Manager Remote Client 110
Index
237
238
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
(0.5” spine)
0.475”<->0.875”
250 <-> 459 pages
Back cover
®
IBM Eserver Certification Study Guide
Eserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise
Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3
Developed
specifically for the
purpose of preparing
for certification test
180
Makes an excellent
companion to
classroom education
For Eserver p5
and pSeries
enterprise support
professionals
This IBM Redbook is designed as a study guide for
professionals wanting to prepare for the certification exam to
achieve IBM Certified Systems Expert - Sserver p5 and
pSeries Enterprise Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3. This
technical support certification validates a broad scope of
configuration, installation, and planning skills. In addition, it
covers administrative and diagnostic activities needed to
support logical partitions and virtual resources.
This publication helps IBM Eserver p5 and pSeries
professionals seeking a comprehensive and task-oriented
guide for developing the knowledge and skills required for the
certification. It is designed to provide a combination of theory
and practical experience needed for a general understanding
of the subject matter.
This publication does not replace the practical experience you
should have, but is an effective tool that, when combined with
education activities and experience, should prove to be a very
useful preparation guide for the exam. Due to the close
association with the certification content, this publication
might reflect older software and firmware levels of the IBM
Sserver p5 systems and available features. If you are
planning to take the Sserver p5 and pSeries Enterprise
Technical Support AIX 5L V5.3 certification exam, this book is
for you.
SG24-7197-01
ISBN 0738494054
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
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ORGANIZATION
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
IBM Redbooks are developed by
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create timely technical
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to help you implement IT
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your environment.
For more information:
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