Flight Module Online

Flight Module
Broad Based Technology
G.M.C.S.
Written by A. Jones
1
Grand Manan Community School
Flight Module
Activity 1:
So you want to learn how to fly? No problem! We’ve only been flying for just
over a hundred years (That’s why our Flight Simulator Software is called,
“Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004; A Century Of Flight”)
To start out, you’d better know something about the parts of an airplane.
These links will assist you: (Go to the BBT website so you can click directly on
the link)
NASA:
http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/fltmidparts.htm
4H Aerospace Adventure:
http://downloads.cas.psu.edu/4h/AerospaceSupp/Activities/Airplanes/Overview/
PlaneLesson2.htm
Young Eagles:
http://www.eaa52.org/flightfacts.html
Activity 1 Assignment:
On your own paper,
 number from 1 to 10.
 Name the part of the airplane
 explain what it does.
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2
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 2:
Today, you are going to learn to fly a Cessna 172 airplane. In the end, you will be
on your way to being a V.F.R. pilot’s license (VFR means Visual Flight Rules). A
VFR license lets private pilots fly in good weather and in daylight hours.
Here is how you start…
Start the Microsoft Flight Simulator software. There is probably an
Airplane Icon on the desktop. (Start > Programs > Microsoft Games >
Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004 > Flight Simulator 2004 )
Your will be introduced to flying by two very experienced pilots, John and Martha
King. Click Getting Started and Introductory Flight to John and Martha.
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Grand Manan Community School
1. Listen to the Instructors by clicking the play button, then when complete, click
the NEXT button to learn about using the flight controls.
You may have a joystick or a Yoke depending on which station you are at.
2. Watch the Video on the Left to find out about flying with a joystick.
Then, click NEXT!
Note: Students often ask me if they can change aircraft. You can come in
on your own sometime after school and try out the other aircraft. While
doing the module, stick with the Cessna 172.
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4
Grand Manan Community School
The Yoke:
This flight control is
called a Yoke. You
need to know what
each one does.
Switch Views: You can change the perspective on the screen from you in the pilot
seat to someone watching from the control tower, or to someone watching from
a nearby airplane.
Electric Trim/Rudder Trim: We won’t be using these switches.
Throttle: This is like the gas pedal in a car, it controls the speed of your engine.
Pan View: You can look side to side and behind you when you are flying.
Elevator Trim: You shouldn’t have to fight the controls to keep the airplane in
straight and level flight. You adjust the trim knob a little at a time so you can fly
straight without your hands on the controls.
Flaps: You only use flaps when you are landing. They slow the airplane down and
they give the airplane lift.
Gear Switch: Some other airplanes require the landing gear to be put down. A
Cessna 172 has fixed gear (down all the time) so you don’t need this switch.
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Grand Manan Community School
The Primary Instruments
1. Click on the Video to find
out about the first two
instruments:
 Attitude Indicator
 Airspeed Indicator
“Attitude” that can’t be the
name of this instrument, can it? Yes, Attitude indicates the way the airplanes
nose is point (nose up attitude, or nose down attitude)
Here are a few more controls that you need to know:
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Grand Manan Community School
Activity 2 Assignment:
After listening to the video, answer these questions on your own paper.
1. The Attitude Indicator shows whether the airplane’s nose is ____________
or ____________.
2. The Dot in the Attitude indicator represents what part of the airplane?
_________________
3. We know that we are climbing at a safe rate by putting the Attitude
Indicator Dot on the _____________ tick mark above the horizon line.
4. To descend, we keep the airplane’s controls (yoke) the same but we reduce
the ___________ so the nose will go down.
5. You get the best results when flying by making ____________ adjustments.
6. Air Speed Indicator shows you how fast you are going through the air.
7. The needle in the Air Speed Indicator should always be in the
_____________ area when you are flying.
Let’s Fly!
Note: Students often ask me if they can change aircraft. You can come in
on your own sometime after school and try out the other aircraft. While
doing the module, stick with the Cessna 172.
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7
Grand Manan Community School
When you click NEXT, click the Play button to learn about your first flight.
Then, you will fly with the instructor by clicking FLY NOW!
Follow the instruction s of your flight instructor (Rod). He is in the airplane with
you so you will hear his instructions and sometimes he will take control of the
airplane.
You can always redo the lesson if it doesn’t turn out the way the instructor
intended. Hopefully, he has nerves of steel!!
Written by A. Jones
8
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 3:
Today, we will start our flight lessons. Click on the Lesson 1: Straight and Leve
Flight link as indicated by the arrow.
Lesson 1: Straight and Level Flight
Instructions:
1. Read the information in the Simulator lesson. Your goal is to know:




The forces that act on your airplane
The “axis” on which the airplane rotates
The Primary Flight Instruments
Setting the Trim on your Yoke
2. Do the Activity 3 assignment (next page).
3. When you are done the theory part of the lesson, click Fly Now and practice
your skills.
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9
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 3 Assignment:
On your own paper, answer each
question:
1. Name each force that acts on
an airplane and explain them.
2. Name the 3 axis on which an
aircraft rotates.
3. Explain the terms:
a. Yaw
b. Roll
c. Pitch
4. Look at the ailerons and
decide which way the pilot is
trying to bank (Left or Right)
5. The pilot has move the controls so
the elevators look like the picture
to the right. How does this effect:
a. the tail of the airplane
b. the nose of the airplane
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6. Which 3 primary instruments show you if
you are in Straight and Level Flight?
1
7. Indicate what the
airplane is doing in:
#1
#2
#3
2
1
2
8. What compass direction
are the aircraft flying in:
#1
#2
9. Answer each question by looking at
the primary instruments to the right:
a. How many degrees of pitch are
indicated by the attitude
indicator? _____ degrees
b. What altitude is the airplane
flying at? ____ feet
c. How fast is the airplane
climbing at? _____feet per
minute
Written by A. Jones
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3
Grand Manan Community School
10. Somehow you have flow into a cloud (which you
are never allowed to do with a VFR license). You
can see a thing outside. What does the Altimeter
indicate your airplane is doing?
11. If you set your trim tab
correctly, you hardly need
to steer the airplane. If a
trim tab is not set
correctly, it’s very difficult
to maintain straight and
level flight (you’ll be
fighting the controls all the time). If your airplane is trimmed properly
and you change speeds, you will have to change the trim setting.
a. How does a trim alter the airflow over the elevator?
Click Fly This Lesson Now and flow the instructor’s instructions.
Written by A. Jones
12
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 4: Turns
Click on Lesson 2: Turns
Read the information so you can answer the questions on your own paper.
Then you can fly!
Note: We don’t have a rudder controls at our flight simulator (It sort of
looks like gas & brake pedals in a car), so the flight simulator will apply the
right amount of rudder automatically when you move the ailerons by
rotating the yoke.
Rudder
Pedals
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Grand Manan Community School
Activity 4 Assignment:
1. The degrees of bank are located on the attitude indicator. What
degree of bank is indicated for each of the 5 marks?
2. Indicate the degree of bank
for:
#1
#2
1
2
3. When banking the airplane 30 degrees, what do you have to do in
order to stay level?
4. Which part of the airplane turns the airplane?
5. What part of the airplane simply keeps the nose and tail of the
airplane pointed in the right direction in the turn?
6. What is the effect called that is caused by the rudder?
7. The rudder should be applied to cause the tail to follow the nose into
a turn (as indicated in the center picture).
a. In #1 the rudder is applied opposite the way it should. What is
this called?
b. In #2 the rudder is applied too much. What is this called?
2
1
Written by A. Jones
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Grand Manan Community School
8. What is the name of this instrument?
9. What does the “Inclinometer” portion of
this instrument indicate?
10. What would you have to do to make the
ball on the “Inclinometer” go to center?
11. What does the turn coordinator indicate?
12. What does it say about the rudder?
13. What part of the airplane is controlled by turning the yoke side to
side?
14. What part of the airplane is controlled by pulling the yoke towards
you (or away from you)?
Click Fly This Lesson Now and flow the instructor’s instructions.
Written by A. Jones
15
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 5: Climbs and Descents
Click on Lesson 3: Climbs and Descents
Read the information so you can answer the questions on your own paper.
Then you can fly!
Activity 5 Assignment:
1. What does Stall really mean? (no, the engine doesn’t turn off)
2. What is the optimum climb speed for a Cessna 172?
3. The minimum forward speed of an airplane so that it doesn’t start to
fall out of the air is called _________________.
4. Think for a minute… What is one thing you could do to reduce your
airspeed, without changing the throttle (such as during a landing)?
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16
Grand Manan Community School
5. If your airspeed is too slow (and you’re scared your wings will stall),
what can you do to increase the airspeed, if you are already at full
power.
6. Think for a minute… When is the most dangerous place to stall?
(Remember, you usually stall because you’re climbing too steeply)
7. This airplane is in a climb (probably taking off).
a. Which 3 instruments should
you be looking at to make
sure you’re climbing
properly?
b. What airspeed is indicated?
c. How far are you climbing
every minute?
d. What degree of pitch does
the Attitude indicator show?
8. What does this instrument indicate?
9. Which image shows an
angle of attack that
indicates:
a. A proper take-off
b. A condition that would
lead to a stall
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17
Grand Manan Community School
10. Overall, what do the
instruments indicate?
1
11. What is the altitude in each case?
a. #1
b. #2
c. #3
2
3
12. Changing the pitch also changes the _______.
Click Fly This Lesson Now and flow the instructor’s instructions.
Written by A. Jones
18
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 6: Slow Flight
Click on Lesson 4: Slow Flight
Read the information so you can answer the questions on your own paper.
Then you can fly!
We’re in an airplane, why do we want to practice Slow Flight? Practicing
slow flight is important to prepare the pilot for two things:
1. Landing
2. What to do in an emergency
Goal:
 Learn what keeps an airplane in the air
 How to enter (and recover) from slow flight
Written by A. Jones
19
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 6 Assignment:
1
3
1. Name the four parts of the
wing.
2
2. What does 18 degrees indicate
in this picture?
3. The Bernoulli Principal is one of the most import concepts in flying.
Explain what Bernoulli discovered related to flying.
4. List the 5 steps to entering Slow Flight
5. List the 5 steps to recover from Slow Flight
Click Fly This Lesson Now and flow the instructor’s instructions.
Did you ever wonder: What keeps VFR pilots from crashing into each
other in the air? Airplanes are tiny and hard to see (and they travel very
quickly) so some rules are in place to prevent collisions. Here is the rule:
If you are flying:
 Heading 000-179 (Easterly) then set your altitude at odd thousands
+ 500ft (3,500 5,500 etc)
 Heading 180-359 (Westerly) , Even thousands + 500ft (4,500 6,500
etc)
Activity
7: Takeoffs
Written by A. Jones
20
Grand Manan Community School
4
Click on Lesson 5: Takeoffs
Read the information so you can answer the questions on your own paper.
Takeoffs and landings are the most dangerous times flying because you
are so close to the ground, there is very little time to recover from a
mistake. You need to know the important performance details so you will
know when to takeoff safely and at what rate to climb.
Activity 7 Assignment:
1. What is the speed at which your aircraft is ready to liftoff (you start to
pull back on the controls)?
2. What speed is your airplane ready to become “unglued” from the
runway?
3. At what pitch should a Cessna 172 climb at on takeoff?
4. What does it mean to “Rotate the Controls”?
Click Fly This Lesson Now and flow the instructor’s instructions.
Written by A. Jones
21
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 8: Landings
Click on Lesson 6: Landings
Read the information so you can answer the questions on your own paper.
Then you can fly!
Landing is probably the most difficult and nerve wracking part of flying,
especially when you’re landing on a small runway like Grand Manan. Most
runways allow you to land into the wind because there are two runways
going in opposite directions. Grand Manan airport is a single runway so
there are times you have to land in a cross-wind.
Your goal is to discover the conditions necessary for landing. You have to
know your aircraft so you can reduce speed to the proper speed for that
aircraft. You must also learn the proper approach to a “Non controlled”
airport such as the one on Grand Manan. Non-controlled means there
isn’t anyone in a tower telling you what to do. You are on your own. Most
of this information is not in the simulator so pay close attention:
Written by A. Jones
22
Grand Manan Community School
Here is the procedure for approaching a non-controlled airport:
Steps:
1. Fly over the runway coming from the upwind side at 1200 feet altitude.
This lets us look down on the runway to make sure there are no
obstacles on the runway. What could be on a runway?? There could
be work crews on the runway or even deer hanging out near the
runway. These could be bad news if you didn’t see them.
2. Downwind Leg: Once you cross the runway at 1200 feet, turn
downwind and fly well past the end of the runway. You will need lots of
distance to get lined up for your base leg and final approach.
3. Base Leg: Turn the aircraft 90 degrees until you get perpendicular with
the runway.
4. Final Approach: Turn 90 degrees again. You should be far enough
back from the runway that you have time to get lined up, reduce speed,
and be able to descend at a gradual rate of pitch.
5. While on final approach, keep the airplane lined up with the runway and
check your primary instruments, especially to make sure you are at the
proper landing speed. Lower your flaps to help slow you down and to
give you more lift.
Written by A. Jones
23
Grand Manan Community School
When you are on final approach, it is difficult to tell if you are too high (and
will overshoot the landing zone), or too low (and you will land in the grass
before the runway). Many small airfields don’t have a Visual Approach
Slope Indicator so you need to get used to looking at what the runway
should look like when landing:
You are too
low
Just right!
You are
too high
In flying, “Power saves your butt”! If you are too low,
increase the throttle slightly; if you miss the runway,
immediately hit full throttle, gain airspeed, and then gradually
pull up; if you are in trouble at anytime, make sure you
increase power.
Here is a summary of your Airspeed indicator:
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Grand Manan Community School
Activity 8 Assignment:
1. We need to know some things about our aircraft in order to land it:
a. What is the stall speed with flaps up?
b. What is the stall speed with flaps down (40 degrees)?
c. Landing speed is 30% above stall speed. What is proper landing
speed?
d. The Cessna 172 is a tricycle airplane. Which wheels do you touch
down first?
2. At the last seconds before landing you flare your aircraft.
a. What does Flare mean?
b. How high above the runway do you flare?
3. In the diagram to the right:
a. What does the beginning of the green arc
represent (the spot at 60)?
b. What does the beginning of the White Arc
represent (the spot at 53)?
c. What does the end of the White Arc
represent (the spot at 107)?
d. Think… how would you ever reach the
“never exceed speed”?
4. Flaps are located at the trailing edge of the wings:
a. How does extending the flaps change the
aerodynamics of the airplane?
b. When do we extend the flaps?
Click Fly This Lesson Now and flow the instructor’s instructions.
Written by A. Jones
25
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 9: Your First Solo Flight
Click on Lesson 7: You First Solo
Read the information so you can answer the questions on your own paper.
Then you can fly!
Every student pilot looks forward to flying the airplane him/herself without
the instructor onboard. This is your chance! The instructor will be in
contact with you on the radio.
Your Goals is to fly within the range that would allow you to pass your
flight exam. Fly at 1500 feet and maintain your:
 altitude with +/- 100 feet
 airspeed +/- 10 knots
 heading +/- 10 degrees
 pitch +/- 3 degrees
 bank at no more than 20 degrees
Click Fly This Lesson Now and flow the instructor’s instructions.
Written by A. Jones
26
Grand Manan Community School
Activity 10: Your Flight Test
I will evaluate you in two ways:
 Your ability to answer questions related to
the information in this module
 Your ability to fly
When you complete the Flight Simulator lesson,
you need to practice so you are ready for your flight exam. In real life, you
need to fly 40 hours before you can take your exam. Practice:
 Straight and Level Flight
 Take-offs and Landings
 Slow Flight
Instructions - Click on “Create a Flight”: Here you may change the
location where you fly. Try the Grand Manan airport. It is listed in the
airports available on the simulator. You might also change flying conditions
but remember that your VFR license doesn’t allow you to fly into clouds, at
night, or in bad weather.
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Grand Manan Community School
Click the Flight Analysis tab after each flight and see how well you did at
maintaining the parameters in your goal.
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Grand Manan Community School
Enrichment: (optional)
You need to learn how to use your radio so that you can communicate with
other planes and the tower to ensure safety. A VFR pilot has to write an
exam as part of his/her pilots license.
Activity A:
In the pilot’s world, there is a special alphabet – The Phonetic Alphabet,
where each letter is represented by a word. Locate the Study Guide for the
Rasiotelephone Operator’s Restricted Certificate (Aeronautical).
Instructions:
Read pages 1 – 6 of the Study Guide. You will learn about:




 Time and Date
 Phoenic
General Information
Communication Priorities
Control of Communications
Alphabet
Assignment A: Answer these questions;
1. What are the Candidates Requirements – give them all.
2. What is the first priority of communications?
3. What is the difference between Distress communications and
Urgency?
4. Is it a punishable violation to discuss someone else’s conversation
5. Can yo ube fined formaking a false distress call?
6. Why is 12:45 expressed as 0045 on the radio?
7. What is the name of the universal time?
8. Can you swear on the radio?
9. What must you do to call a ground station?
10. Name each word for each letter in the Phonetic Alphabet
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29
Grand Manan Community School
Activity B:
Read pages 7- 12 of the Study Guide.
You will learn about:
 Transmitting numbers
 Procedural Words and Phrases
 Call Signs
Answer these questions to test your knowledge:
1. Tell how you would say ten on the radio
2. How would you say: $17.25?
3. What would 2700 become on the radio?
4. What does 0920Z stand for?
5. How would you talk to an airport traffic control tower?
6. What do you say if the aircraft has a private registration?
7. What are the initial words said to a ground station?
8. Give an example if you called up Toronto Tower – what would you
say?
9. Give all phrases that should not be said on the radion.
10. What is the main purpose of the ATIS?
Written by A. Jones
30
Grand Manan Community School
Activity C:
Read pages 13- 19 of the Study Guide.
You will learn about:
 Radio Checks
 Distress calls (very important)
Answer these questions to test your knowledge:
1. When you do a signal check, how does the controler tell you your
signal?
2. What do you say in a distress situation?
3. How many times do you say the distress word?
4. Give an example of a distress call and what would be said?
5. Give an example of a distress relay call and what would be said?
6. What would happen if someone else had talked the same time you
did and your message did not get through?
7. What can you do to improve the chances of then finding you?
8. What are the first and second choices Unicom frequencies?
9. What is the Urgency call on the radio?
10. On initial contact, the pilot of C-FVGW will relay his call sign to ATC
as…?
Written by A. Jones
31
Grand Manan Community School
Activity D:
Read pages 20 - 25 of the Study Guide.
You will learn about:
 Cancelling a distress call
 Urgency Communications
 Communications Terms
Answer these questions to test your knowledge (based on all the activities):
1. How would you end the silence on the frequency that the distress
was issued on?
2. What is the word for the Urgency message on the radio?
3. How would you reply to an Urgency message (give an example)?
4. Give a brief description of the word Aerodome - in your own words.
5. Give the abbreviation for Air Traffic Control Service.
6. If I told you your radio was “fair”, what do I mean?
7. What does a pilot mean the he says his aircraft is “Heavy”?
8. What informationshould be included in a VFR positon report?
9. What does “W” stand for in the Phonemic Alphabet?
10. How do you pronounce the number 6 on the radio?
Read this article about talking on the airplane’s radio.
http://www.gg-pilot.com/ggweeklyarticle.asp?id=24
This lesson totally ignores the pre-flight tasks necessary for every pilot.
You can learn about Pre-flight tasks at this site:
http://www.firstflight.com/lessons/flt00.htm
Written by A. Jones
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Grand Manan Community School