Functional Performance Requirements Document

Gemini Planet Imager
Functional and Performance
Requirements Document
GPI_FPRD.doc
2010-04-01
Version:7.3
Issued By:
Approved By:
Date:
_Leslie Saddlemyer______________ ___________ ( SE )
_Dave Palmer___________________ _
_ ( PM )
_Bruce Macintosh________________ _
_ ( PI )
_________________________________ __________ (
)
_________________________________ __________ (
)
Page 1 of 59
Gemini GPI FPRD
Revision History
Date
Rev. Revised By
No.
Description
Sept. 23, 2004
0.1
Leslie Saddlemyer
Initial draft
Oct 26, 2004
0.7
Leslie Saddlemyer
Oct 29, 2004
0.8
Leslie Saddlemyer
Nov 01, 2004
Nov 02, 2004
0.9
0.10
Leslie Saddlemyer
Bruce Macintosh
Nov 02, 2004
0.11
Bruce Macintosh
Dec 07, 2004
0.12
Leslie Saddlemyer
Jan 08, 2005
0.14
Bruce Macintosh
Jan 14, 2005
0.15
Bruce Macintosh
Jan. 19, 2005
0.16
Leslie Saddlemyer
Jan 21, 2005
Jan 24, 2005
Jan 24, 2005
Jan. 31, 2005
0.17
0.18
0.19
1.0
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Bruce Macintosh
Leslie Saddlemyer
Feb 18, 2005
2007-04-11
1.01
2.0
Bruce Macintosh
Leslie Saddlemyer
2007-04-18
2. 1
Leslie Saddlemyer
2007-04-18
2.2
Leslie Saddlemyer
2007-04-20
2.3,
2.4
2.5
Leslie Saddlemyer
Incorporate major requirements from MidTerm Review
Incorporate review comments from team
members.
Latest input from team members.
Detailed edits including provisional values for
most quantities
Some minor changes by Les. Bruce added
discussion of error spatial frequencies and
LLNL logo. Reformatted TOC to fix Word
error under Office for OS/X.
Added traceabilities, updated specifications
etc.
Tried to identify areas to be filled in (marked
with #) and areas possibly to be removed
from FPRD (marked with **)
Modifications based on comments from the
midterm review; some # removed but not all
Further update of T.B.D.’s, move some
sections to internal ICDs.
More details on detectors etc.
More details
Minor changes
Changes based on constructive comments
from Doug Simons and Joe Jensen
Minor formatting changes for final version
Major re-write and formatting for GPI and
Knowledge Tree ingestion. Some sub-system
specifics inserted.
Details corrected/added in sub-system
sections
Changes to IWD and ASU source
requirements
Error in updating protocol
2007-04-24
Leslie Saddlemyer
Approval
Bruce Macintosh
Bruce Macintosh
Bruce Macintosh
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
More updating of OMSS requirements and Leslie Saddlemyer
assigning of new REQ numbers
GPI FPRD
Page 2 of 59
Gemini GPI FPRD
2007-04-24
2.6
Leslie Saddlemyer
2007-4-27
2007-5-08
2.7
2.8
Bruce Macintosh
Bruce Macintosh
2007-07-13
3.0
Leslie Saddlemyer
2007-08-11
3.1
Leslie Saddlemyer
2007-10-22
2007-12-10
4.2
4.3
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
2008-02-26
4.4
Leslie Saddlemyer
2008-03-10
2008-04-13
2008-04-16
4.5
4.6 4.8
4.9
Leslie Saddlemyer
Bruce Macintosh &
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
2008-05-01
5.0
Leslie Saddlemyer
2008-05-07
5.1 – Leslie Saddlemyer
5.3
2008-05-08
5.4
Leslie Saddlemyer
2008-10-30
2008-11-23
5.5
6.0
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
2008-11-26
6.1
Leslie Saddlemyer
2008-12-12
7.0
Leslie Saddlemyer
2009-04-27
7.1
Leslie Saddlemyer
2009-07-15
7.2
Leslie Saddlemyer
2010-01-05
7.3
Leslie Saddlemyer
Bruce Macintosh
Stephen Goodsell
Fixed duplicated req. numbers and some
improved wording for temp. control
Updated requirements in several subsystems
Updated OCDD; final definition of midfrequency; final contrast and coronagraph
requirements; final
oronagraph masks
(incorporates some 2.7b stuff)
Moving of some sub-system requirements to
the SSDDs. Some minor typos fixed
Updates based on discussions with Bruce,
UCLA and JPL. More TBDs filled in
More refined updates
Further updates based on mid-CDR face-face
meeting
Revisions w/Bruce, including changes to
FPM responsibility
Updates with Dave Palmer, Bruce Macintosh
Almost final CDR updates
Leslie Saddlemyer
Included AOI of FPM, including elliptical
potential for FPMs
Final updates for CDR, including OCDD
table.
Late breaking Lyot mask and FPM wavefront
quality values, updated for GS (smaller input
pupil)
Lyot mask table includes a Blank for IFS
darks
Ready for revision control review by CCB
V6.0 incorporates final changes agreed upon
by CCG, ready for CCB review for V7.0
release
REQ-FPR-0520 changed to 1x10-7 averaged
from 6-7 λ/D from 6x10-7 to be testable
GPI CCB approvals received, ready for
Gemini submission
Further TBD resolutions, Joe Jensen and
Bruce Macintosh assistance.
Add signature to title page, sign-offs started
for 8.0
Revisions and clarifications.
Leslie Saddlemyer
GPI FPRD
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Leslie Saddlemyer
Page 3 of 59
Gemini GPI FPRD
Table of Contents
1
Purpose ...............................................................................................................................................................................9
2
References ........................................................................................................................................................................10
3
Acronyms and Abbreviations .........................................................................................................................................12
4
Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................................12
4.1
Definitions of contrast and performance .................................................................................................................12
4.2
Wavefront error spatial frequency bands ................................................................................................................13
4.3
Wavelength and Coronagraph Operation Definitions.............................................................................................14
4.3.1
Wavelength Definitions ......................................................................................................................................14
5
System Requirements ......................................................................................................................................................15
5.1
Requirements Summary ...........................................................................................................................................15
5.1.1
OCDD Requirements ..........................................................................................................................................15
5.1.2
Software Requirements .......................................................................................................................................16
5.2
Top Level..................................................................................................................................................................17
5.2.1
Top Level Functional Requirements...................................................................................................................17
5.2.1.1
Gemini Telescope Optical Compatibility ..................................................................................................17
5.2.1.2
Gemini Facility Instrument / Mechanical capability .................................................................................17
5.2.1.3
Automatic Operation .................................................................................................................................17
5.2.1.4
Observing Efficiency.................................................................................................................................17
5.2.1.5
Non-common Path Flexure........................................................................................................................18
5.2.1.6
Downtime ..................................................................................................................................................18
5.2.1.7
Lifetime .....................................................................................................................................................18
5.2.1.8
Wavelength Bands.....................................................................................................................................19
5.2.2
Top Level Performance Requirements ...............................................................................................................20
5.2.2.1
Internal Static Contrast Ratio ....................................................................................................................20
5.2.2.2
Seeing condition Limits.............................................................................................................................20
5.2.2.3
Zenith Distance Limits ..............................................................................................................................20
5.2.2.4
Optical Throughput ...................................................................................................................................21
5.2.2.5
Science Image Position Stability ...............................................................................................................21
5.2.2.6
Plate Scale Stability ...................................................................................................................................21
5.2.2.7
Field of View .............................................................................................................................................21
5.2.2.8
Instrumental polarization and Stability .....................................................................................................21
5.3
AO Requirements .....................................................................................................................................................22
5.3.1
AO Functional Requirements..............................................................................................................................22
5.3.1.1
ICD requirements ......................................................................................................................................22
5.3.1.2
Limiting Magnitudes .................................................................................................................................22
5.3.1.3
Residual Fast Tip/Tilt ................................................................................................................................22
5.3.2
AO Performance Requirements ..........................................................................................................................23
5.3.2.1
WFS Optical Throughput ..........................................................................................................................23
5.3.2.2
RMS wavefront error (common path) .......................................................................................................23
5.3.2.3
RMS wavefront error (non-common path)................................................................................................23
5.3.2.4
WFS Read noise ........................................................................................................................................23
5.3.2.5
WFS Dark Current.....................................................................................................................................23
5.3.2.6
AO system temporal performance.............................................................................................................23
5.3.2.7
WFS QE.....................................................................................................................................................23
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Gemini GPI FPRD
5.4
Coronagraph Requirements.....................................................................................................................................24
5.4.1
Coronagraph Functional Requirements ..............................................................................................................24
5.4.1.1
ICD requirements ......................................................................................................................................24
5.4.1.2
Inner Working Distance ............................................................................................................................24
5.4.1.3
Operating wavelength................................................................................................................................24
5.4.1.4
Optical Transmission.................................................................................................................................24
5.4.1.5
Pupil Plane Masks .....................................................................................................................................24
5.4.1.6
Focal Plane Masks .....................................................................................................................................25
5.4.1.7
Lyot Masks ................................................................................................................................................25
5.4.2
Coronagraph Performance Requirements ...........................................................................................................26
5.4.2.1
Residual Diffraction Contrast....................................................................................................................26
5.4.2.2
FPM wavefront error .................................................................................................................................27
5.4.2.3
PPM wavefront error .................................................................................................................................27
5.4.2.4
Chromatic wavefront error ........................................................................................................................27
5.5
Science Instrument Requirements ............................................................................................................................28
5.5.1
Science Instrument Functional Requirements.....................................................................................................28
5.5.1.1
ICD requirements ......................................................................................................................................28
5.5.1.2
Spectral Resolution....................................................................................................................................28
5.5.1.3
Wavelength Coverage ...............................................................................................................................28
5.5.1.4
Filter positions ...........................................................................................................................................28
5.5.1.5
Lyot Stop ...................................................................................................................................................28
5.5.1.6
IFS Optical Throughput.............................................................................................................................28
5.5.1.7
Internal Opto-Mechanical Flexure Stability ..............................................................................................29
5.5.1.8
Image Scale ...............................................................................................................................................29
5.5.1.9
FOV ...........................................................................................................................................................29
5.5.1.10
Pupil Viewing Mode..................................................................................................................................29
5.5.1.11
Polarimetry ................................................................................................................................................29
5.5.1.12
Cryogenic Cooling System........................................................................................................................29
5.5.1.12.1 Cool Down Time.................................................................................................................................29
5.5.1.12.2 Partial Warmup Tolerance ..................................................................................................................30
5.5.1.12.3 Warm Up Time ...................................................................................................................................30
5.5.1.13
Cold Blank-Off ..........................................................................................................................................30
5.5.1.14
Lenslet position calibration .......................................................................................................................31
5.5.2
Science Instrument Performance Requirements .................................................................................................31
5.5.2.1
Pixel Intensity Crosstalk............................................................................................................................31
5.5.2.2
Flat Fielding Accuracy and Stability .........................................................................................................31
5.5.2.3
Science Instrument Detector......................................................................................................................31
5.5.2.3.1 Detector noise and background ............................................................................................................31
5.5.2.3.2 Quantum Efficiency (QE).....................................................................................................................31
5.5.2.3.3 Readout Speed ......................................................................................................................................31
5.5.2.3.4 Object Saturation ..................................................................................................................................31
5.5.2.3.5 Integration Times..................................................................................................................................32
5.6
Calibration System Requirements............................................................................................................................33
5.6.1
Calibration System Functional Requirements.....................................................................................................33
5.6.1.1
ICD requirements ......................................................................................................................................33
5.6.1.2
Initial calibration measurements................................................................................................................33
5.6.1.3
Night-time calibration measurements........................................................................................................33
5.6.1.4
Bright Star Operation ................................................................................................................................33
5.6.1.5
Filters .........................................................................................................................................................34
5.6.1.6
Tilt Calibration ..........................................................................................................................................34
5.6.1.7
Cool-down time .........................................................................................................................................34
5.6.1.8
FPM Mechanism .......................................................................................................................................34
5.6.2
Calibration System Performance Requirements .................................................................................................34
5.6.2.1
Absolute Accuracy ....................................................................................................................................34
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5.6.2.2
5.6.2.3
5.6.2.4
5.6.2.5
Update Rates and Noise.............................................................................................................................35
Tilt Update Rates and Precision ................................................................................................................35
Tilt Accuracy .............................................................................................................................................35
RMS wavefront error.................................................................................................................................36
5.7
OMSS Requirements ................................................................................................................................................37
5.7.1
OMSS Functional Requirements ........................................................................................................................37
5.7.1.1
ICD requirements ......................................................................................................................................37
5.7.1.2
Telescope Input Pointing and Centering ...................................................................................................37
5.7.1.3
IFS Optical Feed........................................................................................................................................37
5.7.1.4
Input Calibration Source............................................................................................................................37
5.7.1.5
AOWFS Pointing and Centering ...............................................................................................................38
5.7.1.6
AOWFS Focus...........................................................................................................................................38
5.7.1.7
Mechanisms ...............................................................................................................................................38
5.7.1.7.1 Input Shutter .........................................................................................................................................39
5.7.1.7.2 AOWFS Spatial Filter...........................................................................................................................39
5.7.1.7.3 AOWFS Filters .....................................................................................................................................39
5.7.1.7.4 PPM Mechanism...................................................................................................................................39
5.7.1.7.5 ADC ......................................................................................................................................................40
5.7.1.7.6 FPM Mechanism...................................................................................................................................40
5.7.1.7.7 Polarisation Modulator .........................................................................................................................40
5.7.2
OMSS Performance Requirements .....................................................................................................................40
5.7.2.1
AO Pupil flexure and thermal requirements..............................................................................................40
5.7.2.2
AOWFS to Tweeter flexure and thermal registration ...............................................................................40
5.7.2.3
PPM to Lyot flexure and thermal registration ...........................................................................................41
5.7.2.4
FPM to IFS lenslets flexure and thermal registration................................................................................41
5.8
Optical Requirements...............................................................................................................................................42
5.8.1
Optical Functional Requirements........................................................................................................................42
5.8.1.1
Temperature Range of Warm Optics.........................................................................................................42
5.8.1.2
Optical Coatings Lifespan .........................................................................................................................42
5.8.2
Optical Performance Requirements ....................................................................................................................42
5.8.2.1
Thermal Cycling ........................................................................................................................................42
6
Overall system operability and environmental requirements.....................................................................................43
6.1
System Functional Requirements.............................................................................................................................43
6.1.1
Operation and performance over temperature ranges .........................................................................................43
6.1.2
Thermal Gradients and Transients ......................................................................................................................43
6.1.3
Thermal Cycling .................................................................................................................................................44
6.1.4
Space Requirement .............................................................................................................................................44
6.1.4.1
Space Envelope .........................................................................................................................................44
6.1.4.2
Access to Thermal Enclosures...................................................................................................................44
6.1.4.3
Access to Services Ports............................................................................................................................44
6.1.4.4
Mounting Access .......................................................................................................................................44
6.1.5
Mass Requirements .............................................................................................................................................45
6.1.5.1
Total Mass on ISS .....................................................................................................................................45
6.1.5.2
Centre of Gravity .......................................................................................................................................45
6.1.6
Cooling Requirements.........................................................................................................................................45
6.1.6.1
Cooling System .........................................................................................................................................45
6.1.6.2
Cooler Vibration ........................................................................................................................................45
6.1.7
Vacuum Requirements ........................................................................................................................................46
6.1.7.1
Vacuum Facilities Compatibility...............................................................................................................46
6.1.7.2
Vacuum Facilities Access on Telescope ...................................................................................................46
6.1.8
Mechanism Safety...............................................................................................................................................46
6.1.9
Over-Pressure Safety...........................................................................................................................................47
6.1.10
Environmental Cover .....................................................................................................................................47
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Gemini GPI FPRD
6.1.11
6.1.11.1
6.1.11.2
6.1.12
6.1.13
6.1.14
Environment Control......................................................................................................................................47
Dry Air and Dust Reduction System .........................................................................................................47
Relative Humidity Sensor..........................................................................................................................48
Instrument Handling.......................................................................................................................................48
Metric Dimensioning......................................................................................................................................48
Metric Fasteners .............................................................................................................................................48
6.2
System Performance Requirements..........................................................................................................................48
6.2.1
Mechanisms Operation .......................................................................................................................................48
6.2.1.1
Mechanism Set Time .................................................................................................................................48
6.2.1.2
Mechanism Configuration Time................................................................................................................49
6.2.1.3
Repeatability of Configuration ..................................................................................................................49
7
Electrical and Electronic Requirements........................................................................................................................50
7.1
Grounding and Shielding.........................................................................................................................................50
7.2
Electrostatic Discharge ...........................................................................................................................................50
7.3
Power Dissipation....................................................................................................................................................50
7.3.1
Unconditioned Heat Release ...............................................................................................................................50
7.3.1.1
Heat Released Into Ambient Air ...............................................................................................................50
7.3.1.2
Heat Conducted into the ISS .....................................................................................................................50
7.3.1.3
Individual Mechanism Temperatures ........................................................................................................50
7.3.2
Conditioned Heat Load .......................................................................................................................................50
8
Software Requirements...................................................................................................................................................52
8.1
Software Function Requirements.............................................................................................................................52
8.1.1
Conforming Instrument.......................................................................................................................................52
8.1.2
Meet GPI Software Requirements Specifications...............................................................................................52
8.1.3
Engineering Interface ..........................................................................................................................................52
8.1.4
Assembly Control ...............................................................................................................................................52
8.1.5
Temperature Control ...........................................................................................................................................52
8.1.5.1
Cold Working Surface Temperatures ........................................................................................................53
8.1.5.2
Science Detector Temperature Control .....................................................................................................53
8.1.5.2.1 Temperature Rate of Change ................................................................................................................53
8.1.5.2.2 Temperature Stability ...........................................................................................................................53
8.1.5.3
AOFWFS Detector Temperatures .............................................................................................................53
8.1.5.4
CAL Detectors Temperatures....................................................................................................................54
8.1.5.5
Environmental Monitoring ........................................................................................................................54
8.1.5.6
Detector Temperature During Cool-Down/Warm-Up ..............................................................................54
8.2
Software Performance Requirements ......................................................................................................................55
8.2.1
Configuration Time.............................................................................................................................................55
8.2.2
Temperature Control ...........................................................................................................................................55
8.2.3
Science Instrument Detector ...............................................................................................................................55
9
External Interfaces ..........................................................................................................................................................56
9.1
ISS Interface.............................................................................................................................................................56
9.1.1
ISS Ports..............................................................................................................................................................56
9.1.2
ISS Mounting Material........................................................................................................................................56
9.1.3
ISS Mounting Fasteners ......................................................................................................................................56
9.1.4
Optical Feed ........................................................................................................................................................56
9.1.5
Services ...............................................................................................................................................................56
9.1.6
Gemini Interlock System ....................................................................................................................................57
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10
11
Environmental Requirements ........................................................................................................................................58
10.1
Storage .....................................................................................................................................................................58
10.2
Shipping ...................................................................................................................................................................58
10.3
Operation .................................................................................................................................................................58
Other Requirements ........................................................................................................................................................59
11.1
Training of Gemini Personnel .................................................................................................................................59
11.2
Single Point Failures ...............................................................................................................................................59
11.3
Handles ....................................................................................................................................................................59
11.4
Toxic Components....................................................................................................................................................59
GPI FPRD
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Gemini GPI FPRD
1 Purpose
The science requirements of the GPI instrument are defined in the Operational Concept
Definition Document (OCDD), along with appropriate operational scenarios. Being a
facility instrument, there are a variety of interface, environmental and operational
constraints and requirements that must be met.
This document, the GPI Functional and Performance Requirements Document (FPRD),
has multiple purposes. First, it translates the science requirements, as outlined in the
OCDD, into technical requirements. Secondly, it identifies the technical requirements to
properly exist as a facility instrument at either Gemini telescope. Thirdly, in association
with the OCDD requirements and the Software Requirements Document (SRD), forms
the basis for what will become the Acceptance and Test Plan (ATP). In all cases, the
requirements are directly traceable to requirements in the OCDD, other sections in the
FPRD, Gemini ICDs or Gemini relevant documents.
The FPRD provides the Gemini scientific community with an understanding of the
performance capabilities of the GPI and as a guide to the requirements on which to base
the GPI designs. In short, the design of the GPI instrument shall be based on this
document. All features described here must be satisfied.
The requirements of the GPI will change over time; particularly at the time of each main
review (the CoDR, the PDR and the CDR).
GPI FPRD
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Gemini GPI FPRD
2 References
“Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems”, Ott, H.W., Second Edition,
AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1988
“GPI Operational Concept Definition Document”, James Graham, Bruce Macintosh,
UC Berkeley, LLNL
ICD 1.1.1/1.9, “Telescope Structure to Science Instruments Interface Control
Document”, IGPO
ICD 1.5.3/1.9, “Instrument Support Structure to Science Instruments Interface
Control Document”, IGPO
ICD-G0015, “Gemini Facility Handling Equipment and Procedures for
Instrumentation”, IGPO
SPE-ASA-G0008, “Gemini Electronic Design Specification”, Garry Sedun, February
23, 1994, IGPO
AspenSoft-03072004-6, “Guidelines for Designing Gemini Aspen Instrument
Software”, Kim Gillies, IGPO
“The GPI OCDD”, James Graham et. al.,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1395
ICD 1.9.x, “Gemini Extreme Adaptive Optics Coronagraph, ICD Top Level and
Description Document”, Leslie Saddlemyer, HIA
“1.9.x.1/1.9.x.5 AO to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL
“1.9.x.2/1.9.x.5 COR to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL
“1.9.x.3/1.9.x.5 IFS to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL
“1.9.x.4/1.9.x.5 CAL to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL
“1.9.x.n Supplemental GPI Sub-system ICDs”, Karla Hagans, LLNL
ICD-G0013, “Gemini Environmental Requirements”, IGPO, D. Montgomery and J.
Robinson, October 8, 1996
“Anodic Oxidation and Reliability of MEMS Poly-Silicon Electrodes at High
Relative Humidity and High Voltages”, Herbert R. Shea et. Al., Bell Labs, SPIE
Vol 4180, 2000.
“Analytic error budget spreadsheet”, Bruce Macintosh,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=3799
AURA Contract No. 0084699-GEM00383, “Design Study for ExAOC”,
AURA/Gemini
ICD 1.9. “Science Instruments Interface Control Documents Overview and Guide”,
IGPO
Email from Doug Simons, Monday January 17, 2005
“Software Requirements Document”, Jennifer Dunn, HIA, January 24, 2005
“Official GPI Acronyms”, Karla Hagans, LLNL,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1202
“IFS Sub-System Design Document”, 2007-07-13,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1921
“GPI Software Requirements Document”, Jennifer Dunn, et. al.,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1631
“GPI Dust Budget”, Leslie Saddlemyer, HIA, 2008-02-05,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=2462
GPI FPRD
Page 10 of 59
Gemini GPI FPRD
“OMSS Sub-System Design Document”, Leslie Saddlemyer, HIA 2007-07-12,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1922
“AO Sub-System Design Document”,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1918
“CAL Sub-System Design Document”,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1919
“GPI PSF Chromaticity Study, Optical Tolerance Analysis and Contrast Performance
Predictions”, GPI-COR_SYS-001, Christian Marois, 2007-05-08,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/browse.php?fFolderId=834
“Ground Layer Adaptive Optics Feasibility Study Report”, GLAO-PRO-001,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=3311
“Gemini South Bottom Port Test Time Series”,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=2149
“Volume 2b, Detailed Systems Engineering”,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=3344
GPI System Fundamental Values, http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=2164
“COR Sub-System Design Document”,
http://dms.hia.nrc.ca/view.php?fDocumentId=1920
GPI FPRD
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Gemini GPI FPRD
3 Acronyms and Abbreviations
All GPI acronyms and abbreviations are listed in the official GPI acronym list 0.
4 Introduction
This document describes the current technical capabilities and performance of the Gemini
Planet Imager (formerly known as the Extreme Adaptive Optics Coronagraph)
instrument.
The GPI is primarily a planet finding and characterising instrument. Although operating
over a larger wavelength range, the primary wavelength for discussion and requirements
is H band (1.65 µm). Coupling a high-strehl AO system with a high performance
coronagraph and calibration systems, a science instrument will receive a high quality,
high contrast field of view of about 3 arcsec. For more details relating to the science, see
0, the GPI OCDD.
This document makes the distinction between the “functional” requirements and the
“performance” requirements. The functional requirement specifies what must happen
(e.g. the instrument must bolt onto the ISS standard ports and weigh 2000 kg), in contrast
with performance requirements that specify how well something has to happen (e.g. the
AO system shall achieve a Strehl of 92% in K in medium seeing at a zenith distance of 60
degrees). However, there is sometimes an almost arbitrary distinction between these two.
4.1 Definitions of contrast and performance
The term contrast is used widely in this document. When used without modifiers,
“contrast” refers to the “detectable companion contrast”. A contrast of x means that a
point source as faint as x times the central star's total intensity at the specified wavelength
and image location will have an integrated signal in a photometric aperture (normally of
radius λ/D) equal to 5 times the RMS scatter in the PSF halo signal at that location
(typically measured by comparing the PSF intensity in multiple apertures in the same
region.) This specification refers to a detection in fully reduced data (including postprocessing software speckle suppression). We also refer to “raw contrast”, indicating the
contrast in the final image before speckle suppression post-processing, and “intensity
contrast”, defined as the ratio of the halo intensity per unit area to the peak intensity per
unit area of the unocculted coronagraphic PSF.
It is important to stress that the system design should be science driven rather than
technology driven; what matters is not some formal measure of residual PSF noise in the
brightest-star case, but the expected fraction of extrasolar planets that are successfully
detected in a given observing campaign. Contrast will be a function of target star
brightness, planet spectral properties, atmospheric conditions, and many other factors.
For example, post-processing to remove speckle noise will also suppress part of the
signal from a planet with a smooth spectrum at small radii but will have less effect on a
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planet with broad molecular features in its spectrum. Section 5.2.2.1 is formulated to
capture this dynamic.
Unless otherwise noted, all specifications are set at the primary science wavelength of H
band (1.5-1.8 µm). In general, contrast due to residual wavefront errors at a given angle
on the sky, is a complicated but weak function of wavelength, while other factors – such
as inner and outer working distance – scale linearly with wavelength.
4.2 Wavefront error spatial frequency bands
A key concept in ExAO system design is the recognition that a given spatial frequency of
wavefront error f (measured in cycles per aperture) corresponds (to first and second
order) to a given location in the PSF θ = fλ/D. Hence, optimal performance within the
range of angles between the inner edge of the coronagrah (~2.5) λ/D and outer working
distance ~22 λ/D requires minimizing not the total wavefront error, but the wavefront
errors with between 3 and 22 cycles across the primary mirror. A NxN subaperture
wavefront sensor can control spatial frequencies up to N/2. Hence, for our nominal
architecture with 44 subapertures across the primary mirror, we can control errors up to
22 cycles/aperture and achieve an OWD of ~22 λ/D.
As a result, the error budget (see reference 0) specifies not just total WFE but WFE
within three spatial frequency bands. The first, low frequency errors, corresponds to 0 < f
< 3 cycles per aperture. These spatial frequencies primarily scatter light within the IWD,
an area most likely blocked by the coronagraph focal plane spot. These errors degrade the
final Strehl ratio, but static errors in this range do not severely impact contrast. Classical
optical errors, such as astigmatism or coma, are in this category. High-frequency errors
are errors outside the controllable spatial frequency range, corresponding to f > N/2
cycles/aperture (22 for the GPI design on a 7.9 m primary). These errors scatter light to
large radii and similarly do not directly impact contrast within the dark hole. Small
surface roughness errors are primarily in this category. The most important wavefront
errors are the mid-frequency errors ranging from 3 < f < N/2, which scatter light directly
into the region where GPI will be searching for planets. An example of this class of error
are polishing errors on optics, for example, such as those that would be created by a 1
mm tool on a 2 cm mirror. These categories also map into the wavefront sensing
capabilities of the CAL system; the CAL LOWFS measures up to 2.5 cycles/aperture, the
HOWFS from 3-22, and higher frequencies are not measured.
One additional historic note: the original GPI was designed for N = 44 apertures on a
D = 7.9 m Gemini primary mirror. Since the Gemini South primary is stopped down to a
smaller size, and since the selected wavefront sensor detector only has 128 pixels, a
decision was taken to set N = 43 apertures on the WFS and CAL detector, for a f > 21.5
cycles/aperture cutoff. However, the specs on optics, etc., were left at the N = 44 cutoff.
In practice this makes very little difference to the specification of an individual optic.
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In each case where a wavefront error spec is given, therefore, it is broken down into
low/mid/high frequency components. The mid-frequency component is derived directly
from the error budget 0 and directly determine contrast. The low-frequency component is
based on an analysis of plausible optical designs and the error budget. High-frequency
errors are extrapolated from the mid-frequency errors assuming a typical power law for
optical surface quality, but could be adjusted based on discussions with the
manufacturers.
These spatial frequency components are defined in Table 1.
Spatial Frequency
Designation
Frequency
Low
0<f<3
Medium
3 < f < 22
High
f > 22
Table 1 GPI Spatial Frequency Designations
4.3 Wavelength and Coronagraph Operation Definitions
4.3.1 Wavelength Definitions
For the purposes of GPI, we define the wavelength bands as:
Name
½ power bandpass
[microns]
Y
J
H
K1
K2
0.95 – 1.14
1.12 – 1.35
1.50 – 1.80
1.9 – 2.19
2.13 – 2.4
Geometric Central
Wavelength
[microns]
1.040
1.230
1.643
2.040
2.260
½ power bandpass
[%]
18
19
18
14
12
Table 2 GPI Wavelength definitions
Where “1/2 power bandpass” is defined as the ratio of the spectral width of the filter
divided by the central wavelength. Filter cut-on and cut-off are where the transmission
reaches 50%. For example, for the H filter in the table above, that reaches 50%
transmission at 1.50 microns, and falls to 50% at 1.80 microns would have a ½ power
bandpass of (1.80 – 1.50) / 1.643 * 100 = 18%.
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5 System Requirements
5.1 Requirements Summary
The official requirements for GPI are the set of OCDD, FPRD and SR (Software
Requirements). OCDD requirements and SR are specified in the appropriate documents,
and the OCDD requirements are repeated here for convenience sake only. It would be
redundant, and prone to inconsistencies, to repeat fully these requirements in this
document.
This section presents the requirements from all three sources, and forms the basis for the
acceptance and test plan (ATP) developed during the PDR and CDR phases.
The requirements are partitioned into logical sections: the initial top-level requirements
for the instrument as a whole, then by sub-system as appropriate. As the FPRD forms the
basis of the ATP, this will also form the separate sub-system ATPs. Keeping these in one,
all-inclusive document is to reduce redundantly kept requirements and to ease readability;
both risk reducing goals.
5.1.1 OCDD Requirements
This section presents a summary of the OCDD science requirements for the instrument.
In case of discrepancy, the official OCDD requirements are as listed in 0.
Final requirement
Contrast vs. angular
separation
WFS mag. limit & λ
Speckle suppression
Science wavelength
range
REQ-SCI-0010: Planet recovery ≥ 7% at H for I ≤ 8 mag. field-star survey.
REQ-OCD-0011: H-band point source contrast of C ≤ 3 × 10-7 at 0.17 arc
sec, ≤ 2 × 10-8 at 0.5 arc sec (1 hr 1-σ) for I ≤ 8 mag. to edge of dark hole.
REQ-SCI-0012: Detect τ ≤ 3 × 10-5 debris disks for I ≤ 8 mag.
REQ-OCD-0013: Surface brightness contrast Q ≤ 5 × 10-8 for I ≤ 8 mag.
REQ-OCD-0014: Inner working distance ≤ 0.14 arc sec.
REQ-OCD-0020: WFS limiting magnitude I ≥ 8 mag.
REQ-OCD-0021: WFS bright magnitude I ≤ 0 mag.
REQ-OCD-0022: Graceful WFS degradation for I = 8–9 mag.
REQ-OCD-0030: Speckle noise suppression ≥ × 5 using ADI/SDI.
REQ-OCD-0031: Suppression of unpolarized speckles ≥ × 100.
REQ-OCD-0040: Science operating wavelength: 1.1–2.35 µm.
Spectral
resolution
REQ-OCD-0050: Spectral resolution ≥ 45 in H band.
REQ-OCD-0051: Instantaneous wavelength coverage ≥ 20%.
Polarimetry
REQ-OCD-0060: Dual channel polarimetry mode
REQ-OCD-0061: Precision of linear polarization ≤ 0.3%
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Sensitivity
REQ-OCD-0070: H = 23 mag., ≥ 5-σ, 1 hour.
Detector
REQ-OCD-0080: Detector noise is ≤ 20% of residual photon shot noise and
residual speckle noise at R ≈ 50.
Operability, reliability REQ-OCD-0090: Survey 2000 stars in 200 nights to REQ-OCD-0011
level.
REQ-OCD-0091: Statistical false alarm rate ≤ 5%
Zenith distance limit REQ-OCD-0100: Zenith distance range ≤ 50o
Accessible Dec. range REQ-SCI-0110: Working declination range is -70o – +15o
Astrometric accuracy REQ-OCD-0120: Astrometric accuracy ≤ 1.8 mas, 1σ, (1-axis).
REQ-OCD-0121: location of target star is known to << 1.8 mas, 1σ, (1axis).
REQ-OCD-0122: 10-yr instrument lifetime & astrometric stability
Flat fielding accuracy REQ-OCDD-0130: Flat field accuracy ≤ 1.5 × 10-4 RMS per beam on
spatial frequencies ~ λ/D.
Photometric accuracy REQ-OCD-0140: Absolute photometric calibration ≤ 10%
REQ-OCD-0141: Relative photometric accuracy ≤ 5%.
Pixel sampling
REQ-OCD-0150: 14±0.5 mas pixel sampling.
Field of view
PSF stability
REQ-OCD-0160: Field of view in direct imaging is ≥ 2.8 × 2.8 arc sec2
REQ-OCD-0161: Polarimetry field of view is square ≥ 2.8 × 2.8 arc sec2
REQ-OCD-170: PSF stability at 4% precision over ≥ 3 hours
5.1.2 Software Requirements
The software requirements are presented in the GPI Software Requirements Document 0.
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5.2 Top Level
These requirements relate the very top-most requirements for the GPI instrument as a
whole. Requirements that pertain quite specifically to a specific sub-system or discipline
are covered separately.
5.2.1 Top Level Functional Requirements
5.2.1.1 Gemini Telescope Optical Compatibility
REQ-FPR-0110: GPI will accept the raw Gemini telescope beam as defined in the asbuilt optical prescriptions provided by Gemini to the project, with the pupil at the
secondary mirror, either directly on the bottom ISS port or either science instrument sidelooking port fed by the Science Fold Mirror. The only ISS orientations that are required
to be supported are with GPI at 0 and 180 degrees with respect to the elevation axis (with
45 / 225 as a goal.)
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9 and SOW 0 Section 3.1(e)(3).
5.2.1.2 Gemini Facility Instrument / Mechanical capability
REQ-FPR-0111: GPI will be adhere to standard Gemini mechanical interfaces as defined
in ICD 1.5.3/1.9 and be capable of mounting to either the up-looking or side-looking ISS
ports.
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9 and SOW 0 Section 3.1(a)(10).
5.2.1.3 Automatic Operation
REQ-FPR-0130: GPI shall be capable of, when presented with a suitable object on-axis
to within 2.0 arcsec, locking on and starting an exposure without manual intervention.
Derived from OCDD.
NOTES:
1. This does not require that a single command from the OCS is all that is necessary
to start an observation, only that a sequence of commands may be used to
configure and start an observation without an observer explicitly checking the
status of sub-systems as the observation proceeds. It is nominally the AO system
capture range, as this is the first sub-system that will start up.
5.2.1.4 Observing Efficiency
REQ-FPR-0140: The observing time (as defined as science instrument acquiring science
target photons) shall be greater than 90%, exclusive of weather, down-time attributed to
other systems, or telescope acquisition (i.e. slew and settle on-target) time, with exposure
times of 60 minutes. This is interpreted as GPI requiring less than 6 minutes to acquire,
lock, calibrate and then start exposure, including overhead between individual
subexpsosures (exclusive of delays between subexposures caused by the Gemini DHS.)
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Derived from REQ-OCD-0090 (Leslie Saddlemyer).
5.2.1.5 Non-common Path Flexure
REQ-FPR-0150: Flexure, after compensation, will be limited to the following over the
specified zenith angle range.
Location 1
Location 2
Tweeter
WFS lenslets
Max flexure rate with
elevation changes
----
Max total flex
0.2%. [pupil]
(35 microns at Tweeter)
Tweeter
PPM
---0.3% [pupil]
(35 microns at PPM)
PPM
Lyot stop
1% (goal 0.5%) [pupil]
(98 microns at Lyot)
FPM
IFS lenslets
<=0.5 mas/0.25 degrees
1 IFS lenslet
(~3.5 microns/0.25
degrees at IFS lenslets)
(Note that some flexures are specified in mm while others are specified as a percentage of
the beam size.)
Derived from error budget 0 and astrometric requirement OCDD-121
NOTES:
1. Note that since the normal mode of operation is with the rotator off and GPI at
either the 0 or 180 degree position wrt the telescope, the instrument will rotate about
an axis parallel to the elevation bearing but not about its own optical axis.
2. Additional specifications (not FPRD-level) are maintained in an alignment
document.
5.2.1.6 Downtime
REQ-FPR-0160: The downtime of the instrument shall be less than 2 %, with a goal of
less than 1%. This is measured as lost night-time scheduled observing.
Derived from SOW 0 Section 3.1(e)(2).
NOTES:
1. Nominal daytime maintenance that does not require new night-time recalibrations or alignment of the instrument is not considered downtime. This
includes, but is not limited to pumping, cooling/warming and mounting or
dismounting GPI on the telescope
2. Any repairs or maintenance that require night-time calibrations or alignments, and
hence lost night observing time, count as downtime.
5.2.1.7 Lifetime
REQ-FPR-0170: The GPI instrument shall be designed to operate for 10 years at a duty
cycle of 10 hours/night 100 nights per year before requiring more than one re-coating of
optical surfaces.
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Derived from REQ-OCD-0090 and REQ-OCD-0122
NOTES:
1. A simplified reliability table has been created. In general, components with
MTBFs of less than about 20 years are specifically called out, and rate high for
spares and/or routine replacement.
5.2.1.8 Wavelength Bands
REQ-FPR-0175: The GPI instrument shall cover in a single exposure any one of J, H, K1
or K2. (Y band is a goal). These are as defined in Table 2.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0040
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5.2.2 Top Level Performance Requirements
5.2.2.1 Internal Static Contrast Ratio
REQ-FPR-0180: GPI, will attain 1.59 µm internal contrast ratio, including
multiwavelength processing (see Section 4.1) given by the following operating on its
internal calibration source with no external aberrations.
Contrast (1-sigma)
1 x10-7
2x10-8
1.5 x10-8
Radius [λ/d]
5.5-6.5
10-12
15-17
Derived from REQ-OCD-011 and error budget 0.
NOTES:
1. Since atmospheric aberrations ultimately average out, the raw contrast obtained in
a long-exposure image will be limited by internal aberrations, calibration errors,
etc., and can be no better than the contrast obtained with only these errors.
2. It is a goal to meet these requirements before multiwavelength processing
3. Will be measured by using the internal artificial star source or external telescope
simulator
5.2.2.2 Seeing condition Limits
REQ-FPR-0190: GPI will meet all requirements, in the required zenith distance limits, in
median seeing or better conditions. GPI will be capable of operating in seeing conditions
representing the 70%ile seeing conditions, but with no guaranteed performance.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0090 and error budget 0.
NOTES:
1. This is necessary to ensure that survey programs may be completed in a
reasonable time period. Required to operate in the 70%ile since that’s the Gemini
band definition. Goal to operate in the 85%ile conditions.
2. Median seeing is r0=14cm. 70%ile seeing is r0=11cm. Based on GLAO
feasibility study 0, Figure 3.
3. This requirement sets the conditions under which testing of AO requirements
(FPRD and SSDD) occur; it is met by passing the relevant tests.
5.2.2.3 Zenith Distance Limits
REQ-FPR-0200: GPI will meet all requirements, in required seeing conditions, from a
zenith distance of 5 to 30 degrees, with a goal of from 1 to 50 degrees under 25% seeing
conditions.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0100 and error budget 0.
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NOTES:
1. The science requirement is to achieve a zenith distance of 50 degrees.
Performance in general will scale with r0 which in turn scales with airmass, so
obtaining full contrast at higher airmass may require better than average seeing
conditions.
2. This requirement sets the conditions under which e.g. flexure testing to meet
requirements (FPRD and SSDD) occur; it is met by passing the relevant tests.
5.2.2.4 Optical Throughput
REQ-FPR-0210: There shall be a total throughput of the system (from input of
instrument to detected photons at the science instrument) of 13% in H band, including the
attenuation caused by the coronagraph.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0070, error budget 0.
5.2.2.5 Science Image Position Stability
1. REQ-FPR-0350: Deprecated, redundant with REQ-FPR-0150.
5.2.2.6 Plate Scale Stability
REQ-FPR-0390: The GPI system will maintain a maximum change in the plate scale of
0.2% over a 4 hour period, 30 degree orientation change and 3.2°C temperature change,
and 0.4% over a 12 hour period, full range of orientations and 9.6°C temperature change.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0220, REQ-OCD-0120 and REQ-OCD-0121.
5.2.2.7 Field of View
REQ-FPR-0392: The GPI FOV will be >= 2.8 x 2.8 arcsec at the IFS. As a goal, the
2.8x2.8 arcsec IFS field will be steerable over a (total) 5x5 arcsec range.
Derived from trade studies of FOV vs spectral resolution.
5.2.2.8 Instrumental polarization and Stability
REQ-FPR-0340: The complete optical path upstream of the polarization modulator,
excluding telescope optics, will have a total linear polarization of less than 10%, with a
stability over >1 week timescales of better than 0.8% RMS, or better. Total instrument
circular polarization will be 10% or less.
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5.3 AO Requirements
This section specifies the requirements that pertain directly to the AO system.
5.3.1 AO Functional Requirements
5.3.1.1 ICD requirements
REQ-FPR-0310: The AO system shall meet all the interface requirements as specified in
the ICD “1.9.x.1/1.9.x.5 AO to OMSS/SCC ICD” 0 and “1.9.x.n Supplemental GPI Subsystem ICD’s” 0.
5.3.1.2 Limiting Magnitudes
REQ-FPR-0320: The AO system shall be capable of locking onto and maintaining lock
on objects from 0 to 9th I magnitude at a zenith distance of up to 50 degrees in 50th
percentile seeing conditions. It is a goal to be able to maintain lock down to 10th I
magnitude.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0020, REQ-OCD-0021, REQ-OCD-0022, REQ-OCD-0010,
REQ-FPR-0190.
NOTES:
1. Contrast performance at I=9 is not specified – the OCD requires only full
performance to I=8 and not to the full 50 degree zenith distance.
2. The goal will accommodate more ancillary science (Les Saddlemyer)
5.3.1.3 Residual Fast Tip/Tilt
REQ-FPR-0360: In 50% best seeing conditions with no additional windshake, or external
vibration, the AO module will exhibit a residual Tip/Tilt measured at the WFS of <2 mas
RMS (on a bright star / excluding measurement noise contributions).
Derived from error budget 0.
NOTES:
1. With expected Gemini input vibration, total residual tip/tilt measured at the WFS
will be <4 mas RMS.
2. To ensure on-axis Strehl ratio is not degraded by more than 5%. Values from the
tip/tilt error budget
3. Note that we have no accurate estimates of telescope windshake so this has been
removed.
4. Telescope vibration conditions as per 0
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5.3.2 AO Performance Requirements
5.3.2.1 WFS Optical Throughput
REQ-FPR-0400: The optical throughput of the WFS path of all optical components
(including the GPI input window and WFS beamsplitter) shall be > 60% over the
wavelength range of 0.7 to 0.9 µm (goal > 70%). This excludes the WFS detector array
QE.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0210 and error budget 0.
NOTES:
1. This is a compromise between the science throughput, ghosting and AOWFS
throughput, and was lowered from the initial 70% (Les Saddlemyer and Bruce
Macintosh).
5.3.2.2 RMS wavefront error (common path)
1. REQ-FPR-0410: Replaced with the OMSS requirement REQ-OMSS-0010 in the
OMSS SSDD 0.
5.3.2.3 RMS wavefront error (non-common path)
1. REQ-FPR-0420: Replaced with the OMSS requirement REQ-OMSS-0020 in the
OMSS SSDD 0.
5.3.2.4 WFS Read noise
1. REQ-FPR-0421: Replaced with the AO requirement REQ-AO-0010 in the AO
SSDD 0.
5.3.2.5 WFS Dark Current
1. REQ-FPR-0422: Replaced with the AO requirement REQ-AO-0020 in the AO
SSDD 0.
5.3.2.6 AO system temporal performance
1. REQ-FPR-0423: Replaced with the AO requirement REQ-AO-0030 in the AO
SSDD 0..
5.3.2.7 WFS QE
1. REQ-FPR-0424: Replaced with the AO requirement REQ-AO-0030 in the AO
SSDD
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5.4 Coronagraph Requirements
This section specifies the requirements that pertain directly to the COR system.
5.4.1 Coronagraph Functional Requirements
5.4.1.1 ICD requirements
REQ-FPR-0465: The Coronagraph system shall meet all the interface requirements as
specified in the ICD “1.9.x.2/1.9.x.5 COR to OMSS/SCC ICD”0 and “1.9.x.n
Supplemental GPI Sub-system ICD’s” 0.
5.4.1.2 Inner Working Distance
REQ-FPR-0470: The coronagraph module shall achieve the throughput specifications at
an inner working distance of 4λ/D (goal 3.5 λ/D), where D is the telescope entrance
diameter of 7.7701 m.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0014
NOTES:
1. This equates to 175 (goal 153) mas at a wavelength of 1.65 µm
2. This is the smallest angle at which anything would be visible, NOT the highest
contrast region. See 5.4.2.1.
5.4.1.3 Operating wavelength
REQ-FPR-0500: The coronagraph will include masks for operating in J, H and K’ bands
with a goal of Y.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0040.
5.4.1.4 Optical Transmission
REQ-FPR-0505: The coronagraph will have an optical transmission, averaged from the
IWD to the edge of the field, of > 35%, for the pupil mask, the focal plane mask and the
Lyot stop (explicitly excluding any relay optics and folds).
Derived from error budget 0.
NOTES:
1. Reduced from original 50% due to increased contrast performance.
5.4.1.5 Pupil Plane Masks
REQ-FPR-0510: The coronagraph will supply PPMs that cover the following 7 cases.
These will be supplied suitable for the Gemini South telescope, the properties of which
are recorded in 0
GPI FPRD
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PPM designation
Bandpass
See Table 1
N.A.
N.A.
Y
J
H
K1
K2
CLEAR
CLEARGP
APOD_Y
APOD_J
APOD_H
APOD_K1
APOD_K2
Description
Open, larger than GPI pupil
GPI pupil (with M2 obstruction but no spiders)
Apodizer
Apodizer
Apodizer
Apodizer for K1 with 5.6 lambda/D FPM
Apodizer for K2 with 5.05 lambda/D FPM
NOTES:
1. Additonal masks are being provided as goals: H_L, which is a large-IWA H-band
mask with slightly improved contrast, and a starshape H mask, and a 15-aperture
non-redundant mask.
2. The GS masks will work for GN, but don’t take advantage of the slightly larger
entrance pupil on GN.
5.4.1.6 Focal Plane Masks
REQ-FPR-0512: The coronagraph will supply the following 5 focal plane masks (FPM).
FPM designation
Diameter (microns)
BLANK
FPM_Y
FPM_J
FPM_H
FPM_K1
383
453
605
751
Target Wavelength
[microns] ([bandpass])
N.A.
Y
J
H
K1 and K2
Description
No hole
Hole
Hole
Hole
Hole
NOTES:
1. A pinhole mask, for test and alignment purposes, not used for operations is
provided by JPL.
2. Diameter tolerance is +-1%
3. The design AOI (angle of incidence) on the FPM is 5.77° (total included angle of
11.54°).
5.4.1.7 Lyot Masks
REQ-FPR-0514: The coronagraph will supply 10 Lyot masks, to be designed and used to
optimize the APLC performance.
Position
1
2
3
4
Lyot Name
Open
Blank
Lyot_2_0
Lyot_3_0
OD/ID
10 [mm]
Solid
9.571/2.775
9.571/2.775
GPI FPRD
Spider
Width
Nominal
Orientation
Notes
Full GN
pupil.
2%
3%
0
0
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5
6
7
8
9
10
Lyot_3_45
Lyot_4_0
Lyot_4_45
Lyot_7_0
Lyot_10_0
9.571/2.775
9.571/2.775
9.571/2.775
9.571/2.775
8.754/3.543
Lyot_small
7.708/2.237
3%
4%
4%
7%
10%
3.5%
45
0
45
0
0
Tolerance on spider and outer diameter is +-0.5% of the pupil diameter. Pupil diameter is
10 mm so 2% spiders = 200 microns, etc.
Derived from alignment budget.
NOTES:
1. These sizes are specified for the GS telescope, the baseline. Due to the smaller
input pupil on GS, this will also work for GN.
2. Due to the 2-way symmetry of the M2 spiders, a single Lyot mask will permit two
fixed Cassegrain rotator angle observing positions. Multiple identical masks
(rotated 60 or 90 degrees from each other) are be provided to permit multiple field
angles to be observed. (all observing is with fixed Cassegrain rotator angles).
3. The spider rotations are nominal; the final alignment wrt the telescope will be a
calibration effort once installed.
4. ALT APLC masks will likely be further undersized to potentially mask bad pupil
regions
5.4.2 Coronagraph Performance Requirements
5.4.2.1 Residual Diffraction Contrast
REQ-FPR-0520: The coronagraph shall achieve a residual intensity contrast of 1x10-7
averaged from 6-7 λ/D and >2x10-8 at 10-12 λ/D in the absence of wavefront and tilt
errors at its optimal wavelength and excluding the spider-induced diffraction spike region
over ±1 λ/D.
Derived from error budget 0.
NOTES:
1. This is meant to describe the intensity contrast that the coronagraph achieves with
an injected flat wavefront.
2. Current modeling indicates that we can take advantage of the excellent APLC
performance at the optimal wavelength use require comparison of data to
modeling, hunting for PSF asymmetries, rather than a direct image.
3. The contrasts explicitly exclude the spider effects.
4. It is a goal to achieve comparable performance over a 10% bandpass.
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5.4.2.2 FPM wavefront error
REQ-FPR-0522: The focal plane masks shall exhibit a surface quality < 20 nm RMS
wavefront excluding focus (goal < 10 nm RMS), and < 50 nm RMS wavefront focus
measured over a 20mm clear aperture.
Derived from simulations of coronagraph performance and optical performance feed to
the IFS and CAL.
5.4.2.3 PPM wavefront error
REQ-FPR-0524: The pupil plane masks shall exhibit a surface quality of better than:
• < 50 (goal 20) nm RMS at low spatial frequencies
• < 5 nm RMS at mid-frequencies
• < 5 (goal 2) nm RMS at high frequencies
Derived from simulations of coronagraph performance and NCP error tolerances..
5.4.2.4 Chromatic wavefront error
REQ-FPR-0540: The average change in wavefront error across each standard filter band
from the coronagraph masks shall be < 5 nm (spatial RMS) at low frequencies and <0.5
nm (spatial RMS) at mid frequencies.
NOTES:
1. Present in the AMNH contract
2. This specification is required to insure good PSF quality across the entire band,
since the AO/CAL system can only provide a achromatic correction. If inherent
chromaticity of the APLC diffraction suppression leads to normal operations
using only a subset of the band, this requirement could be relaxed to cover only
10% bandwidths.
3. This can be verified by interpolating wavefront maps between visible and IR
wavelengths, or comparison of PSF structure.
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5.5 Science Instrument Requirements
This section specifies the requirements that pertain directly to the IFS system.
5.5.1 Science Instrument Functional Requirements
5.5.1.1 ICD requirements
REQ-FPR-0615: The IFS shall meet all the interface requirements as specified in the
ICDs “1.9.x.3/1.9.x.5 IFS to OMSS/SCC ICD” 0 and “1.9.x.n Supplemental GPI Subsystem ICD’s” 0.
5.5.1.2 Spectral Resolution
REQ-FPR-0620: The science instrument(s) shall achieve an average single fixed spectral
resolution (λ/Δλ per 2 pixels) ≥ 40 in H and ≥ 30 in all other bands.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0050.
5.5.1.3 Wavelength Coverage
REQ-FPR-0630: The science instrument shall cover at least one complete band of Y, J, H
simultaneously. It is a goal to cover 1.9 to 2.4 microns in at most 2 filters. These are as
defined in Section 4.3.1.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0051 and SOW0 3.1(c)(5).
5.5.1.4 Filter positions
REQ-FPR-0633: The IFS shall have at least 5 filter positions (goal of 6). This will be
populated with Y, J, H, K1 and K2 filters as defined in Section 4.3.1.
Derived from science requirements.
5.5.1.5 Lyot Stop
REQ-FPR-0638: The IFS shall provide a cold Lyot stop mechanism with 10, nonrotating, positions (goal of 12) defined as to hold the Lyot masks defined in 5.4.1.7.
Derived from contract and science requirements.
NOTES:
1. The individual masks are not rotatable.
2. This fully restricts observing to the baseline of a fixed Cassegrain angle during an
exposure.
5.5.1.6 IFS Optical Throughput
REQ-FPR-0640: Replaced with the IFS requirement REQ-IFS-0010 in the IFS SSDD 0.
5.5.1.7 Internal Opto-Mechanical Flexure Stability
REQ-FPR-0650: Replaced with the IFS requirement REQ-IFS-0020 in the IFS SSDD 0.
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5.5.1.8 Image Scale
REQ-FPR-0670: The science instrument will have a pixel scale of 14 ± 0.5 mas.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0150.
5.5.1.9 FOV
REQ-FPR-0675: The science instrument will have a FOV of ≥ 2.8 arcsec x 2.8 arcsec.
Derived from a trade study of FOV vs spectral resolution and spectral cross-talk
constraints with a limited detector size.
5.5.1.10
Pupil Viewing Mode
REQ-FPR-0680: The science instrument will provide a pupil imaging mode, in H, with at
least 200 pixels (goal: 500 pixels) across the Gemini pupil. This shall achieve a SNR of
10:1 per pixel in 1 second on a 5th H magnitude star with the coronagraph elements
(PPM, FPM and Lyot) in the brightest parts of the pupil.
Derived from requirement to test, debug and calibrate the integrated instrument.
NOTES:
1. The pupil viewing mode is required for calibration (e.g. flexure), diagnostics and
setup of the instrument. Not expected to be required for regular operations.
5.5.1.11
Polarimetry
REQ-FPR-0690: The science instrument will incorporate a dual-channel polarization
analyzer. This will permit simultaneous observation of linear orthogonal polarizations,
and together with an external modulator mechanism, the ability to observe all Stokes
parameters.
NOTE: The waveplate modulator mechanism will be provided by the OMSS.
Derived from contract, REQ-OCD-0060 and REQ-OCD-0061.
5.5.1.12
5.5.1.12.1
Cryogenic Cooling System
Cool Down Time
REQ-FPR-0720: The science instrument will have a cryogenic cooling system capable of
cooling the instrument from 20º C to operating conditions within 6 days.
Derived from operational maintenance efficiency and experience with OSIRIS and other
cryogenic instruments (James Larkin and Leslie Saddlemyer).
NOTES:
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1. This is a balance between the operational desire to have a short warm-cool cycle
time to speed I&T, ease operations at the telescope, safety of optics and detectors
in the dewar and simplicity of cooling systems (e.g. avoiding complexity of precooling strategies) and the desire to use low vibration CCRs, which tend to have
lower cooling capacities.
2. Concerns at UCLA to large thermal gradients in some of the more sensitive
optical elements (e.g. CaFl), and hence limits the maximum rate of cool-down and
warm-up.
3. Anecdotal evidence that HAWAII-II RG detectors might experience pixel loss
when temperatures changed too quickly. Recommended maximum rate is
0.25K/min. This is about 20 hours, and implies a maximum cool-down or warmup rate.
4. Consider pre-cooling mechanisms to improve the cool-down rate.
5.5.1.12.2
Partial Warmup Tolerance
REQ-FPR-0722: The IFS shall reach thermal stability, and be ready for observing, within
24 hours after the cryocoolers have been re-started after having been powered down for
up to 2 hours.
Derived from operational and maintenance efficiency concerns (Bruce Macintosh, James
Larkin and Leslie Saddlemyer).
NOTES:
1. The intention is to accommodate the Gemini process of disconnecting GPI from
the services while being installed on the telescope, and still permit operations by
the evening of the following day.
5.5.1.12.3
Warm Up Time
REQ-FPR-0730: The science instrument will not require more than 4 days (96 hours) to
warm up the entire instrument from operating conditions to 20º C. It is a strong goal to
reduce this to 2 days (48 hours).
Derived from experience with OSIRIS and other cryogenic instruments (James Larkin).
NOTES:
1. See 5.5.1.12.1.
2. Not to utilize additional heaters.
5.5.1.13
Cold Blank-Off
REQ-FPR-0725: The science instrument will have a cryogenic cold blank-off to facilitate
dark current measurements.
Derived from REQ-OCD-0070 and REQ-OCD-0130 (Leslie Saddlemyer/GSAOI
example)
NOTES:
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1. The location of this blank-off isn’t important provided it provides a proper dark
(e.g. could be the filter wheel, Lyot wheel.
5.5.1.14
Lenslet position calibration
REQ-FPR-0740: Removed as redundant with REQ-IFS-0020 in the SSDD 0.
5.5.2 Science Instrument Performance Requirements
5.5.2.1 Pixel Intensity Crosstalk
REQ-FPR-0770: Replaced with the IFS requirement REQ-IFS-0040 in the IFS SSDD 0.
5.5.2.2 Flat Fielding Accuracy and Stability
1. REQ-FPR-0790: Replaced with the IFS requirement REQ-IFS-0050 in the IFS
SSDD 0
5.5.2.3 Science Instrument Detector
5.5.2.3.1 Detector noise and background
REQ-FPR-0800: Replaced with the IFS requirements REQ-IFS-0050 in the IFS SSDD 0.
5.5.2.3.2 Quantum Efficiency (QE)
REQ-FPR-0822: Replaced with the IFS requirement REQ-IFS-0050 in the IFS SSDD 0.
5.5.2.3.3 Readout Speed
REQ-FPR-0840: Replaced with the IFS requirement REQ-IFS-0050 in the IFS SSDD 0.
5.5.2.3.4 Object Saturation
REQ-FPR-0845: The science detector will be capable of not saturating on a 2nd H
magnitude star with no coronagraph occultation (e.g. fully reflective mirror at FPM). It is
acceptable for this to be accomplished with a higher readout noise than for the normal
mode and very short exposure times and/or sub-arrays with a minimum size of at least 0.2
x 0.2 arcsec.
Derived from requirement to observe bright targets (Bruce Macintosh and Leslie
Saddlemyer)
Notes:
1. Softened from 0 magnitude, since on that bright a star other techniques can be
used to normalize the PSF.
5.5.2.3.5 Integration Times
REQ-FPR-0852: The science detector will support integration times of between 1 and
1,200 seconds for a full frame image.
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Derived from REQ-OCD-0011.
NOTES: These are NOT co-added values, but single exposures without reset.
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5.6 Calibration System Requirements
5.6.1 Calibration System Functional Requirements
5.6.1.1 ICD requirements
REQ-FPR-0900: The CAL shall meet all the interface requirements as specified in the
ICD “1.9.x.4/1.9.x.5 CAL to OMSS/SCC ICD” 0 and “1.9.x.n Supplemental GPI Subsystem ICD’s” 0.
5.6.1.2 Initial calibration measurements
REQ-FPR-0940: The daytime procedures needed to calibrate the calibration system
relative to the science path will require no more than 10 minutes per coronagraph
observing configuration.
Derived from operational requirement to not occupy too much time during daytime
maintenance. (Leslie Saddlemyer).
NOTES:
1. The frequency of this (and other daytime) calibrations are assumed to be
performed daily. It is understood that during the I&T and commissioning phases
that these might be relaxed as knowledge of the stability is gained.
5.6.1.3 Night-time calibration measurements
REQ-FPR-0942: Night-time calibrations, if necessary at the beginning of a science
observing sequence, shall require less than 60 seconds, with a strong goal of less than 30
seconds. A 5 second every 10 minute closed-loop calibration (e.g. with DM poke pattern)
is permitted during the 1 hour exposure
Derived from operational requirement to maintain the 90% acquire science photons
requirement REQ-FPR-0140 and initial allocation towards REQ-FPR-0140 (< 6 min to
acquire, lock, calibrate and start exposure).
NOTES:
1. The beginning of observation calibration sequence shall be the added time to the
observation. We assume than any mechanism deployments are made during
telescope slew time. Hence the time limit is for any measurements and iterations
required (e.g. HOWFS, LOWFS, dithering etc) and motion of mechanisms to a
position suitable for observations.
5.6.1.4 Bright Star Operation
REQ-FPR-0910: The CAL system will be capable of operating with full performance on
a star as bright as 0th magnitude in H band.
NOTES:
1. Permits operation on the brightest star. Note that this is a limited target list.
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5.6.1.5 Filters
REQ-FPR-0920 The CAL shall have a fixed H-band internal filter for all spatial
frequencies (eg both LOWFS and HOWFS). This will be utilized for all the bands (i.e.
FPMs) as presented in Table 2.
5.6.1.6 Tilt Calibration
REQ-FPR-0925: Now included with the CAL requirement REQ-FPR-0940..
5.6.1.7 Cool-down time
REQ-FPR-0930: The CAL system shall cool from ambient (20C) to operating
temperature in less than 12 hours.
Derived from need to ease operations and I&T (Leslie Saddlemyer).
5.6.1.8 FPM Mechanism
REQ-FPR-0945: FPM Mechanism
The CAL system will provide a FPM assembly that will accept 9 FPMs including those
shown in, REQ-FPR-0512.
NOTES:
1. For the spare slots, one is nominally allocated for the CAL subsystem calibration
source.
2. This will provide some spare slots.
5.6.2 Calibration System Performance Requirements
5.6.2.1 Absolute Accuracy
REQ-FPR-0950: The calibration module will achieve an absolute accuracy (while
operating in closed-loop mode) of 5/1 nm of low/mid-frequency error in its measurement,
on an arbitrarily bright star with no noise, of the science wavefront at the coronagraph
occulting spot on a internal reference source, and sustain this accuracy over the course of
a 1-hour integration with no additional calibrations (except possibly rephasing as
discussed above). Spatial frequencies as defined in Table 1.
Derived from error budget 0
NOTES:
1. Need to define how this is measured – probably through calibration measurements
of a quasi-monochromatic source or internal PSF reconstruction. In presence of
typical GPI intensity errors.
2. This requirement is specifically to define the limits on systematic errors.
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5.6.2.2 Update Rates and Noise
REQ-FPR-0960: The calibration module will provide time-averaged wavefront
measurements to the AO system at the following rates and noise in the mid-frequency
band (see Table 1).
I Magnitude
5
8
Update Rate
[min-1]
>1
>1
Noise per Update [nm
mid-frequency]
< 1.0
< 12.0
Derived from error budget 0
NOTES:
1. These measurements are to be new measurements once/minute with no additional
lag.
2. The 8th magnitude noise has been relaxed from the original 5nm (as per the CAL
design) as simulations indicate that this value can be relaxed, although
significantly reducing margin.
3. Noise is defined as the RMS deviation of measurements, I.e. from a series of
continuous measurements of the same wavefront.
5.6.2.3 Tilt Update Rates and Precision
REQ-FPR-0970: The CAL system will update tilt information at ≥ 1 Hz, with a precision
of 1 mas/update on an 8th magnitude star.
NOTES:
1. This is driven by flexure.
5.6.2.4 Tilt Accuracy
REQ-FPR-0972: The CAL system will achieve an absolute accuracy in tilt at the FPM of
1 mas during a 1 hour exposure with no additional calibrations.
Derived from error budget 0 and coronagraph requirement (PDR appendix 2.25)
NOTES:
1. This is defined as verifying that the star, during CAL closed-loop operations (with
no chromatic atmospheric dispersion) changes by no more than 1 mas in a1-hour
change in gravity vector and temperature.
2. It is expected that the most likely causes of errors are the gravity vector change
due to telescope tracking and the maximum 0.8°C environmental change in 1
hour.
3. It is considered acceptable for the gravity change due to tracking to be taken as 10
degrees per hour.
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5.6.2.5 RMS wavefront error
REQ-FPR-0530: Replaced with REQ-CAL-0060 in the CAL SSDD 0
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5.7 OMSS Requirements
5.7.1 OMSS Functional Requirements
5.7.1.1 ICD requirements
REQ-FPR-0975: The OMSS shall meet all the interface requirements as specified in the
GPI sub-system ICDs. This includes:
• “1.9.x.1/1.9.x.5 AO to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL0
• “1.9.x.2/1.9.x.5 COR to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL 0
• “1.9.x.3/1.9.x.5 IFS to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL0
• “1.9.x.4/1.9.x.5 CAL to OMSS/SCC ICD”, Karla Hagans, LLNL0
• “1.9.x.n Supplemental GPI Sub-system ICDs”, Karla Hagans, LLNL0
5.7.1.2 Telescope Input Pointing and Centering
REQ-FPR-0977: The OMSS shall provide a method to allow GPI to be pointed and
aligned to the telescope beam to accommodate flexure and installation nonrepeatability’s. This needs to be accomplished to < 1% of the pupil diameter for the pupil
alignment (centering), with a resolution of 0.1%. The pupil alignment mechanism shall
be capable of performing its full stroke in < 2 seconds.
Derived from the pupil registration budget and astrometric requirements. Mechanism
speed to be able to accept AOWFS pupil alignment feedback.
NOTES:
1. Nominally this requires GPI to have an input P&C pair. This is expected to be an
input fold mirror (centering) and M2 (pointing).
5.7.1.3 IFS Optical Feed
REQ-FPR-0979: The OMSS will provide the following resolutions of motion of the
CAL-IFS P&C mechanisms.
o ≤ 0.1 mas pointing
o ≤ 0.05% pupil steering
Derived from pupil alignment budget and astrometric requirements.
NOTES:
1. There is a goal to be able to move the FOV off-axis by 2 arcsec to accommodate
special observing cases where the desired FOV is to one side of the guide star.
5.7.1.4 Input Calibration Source
REQ-FPR-0981: The OMSS will provide an input focus calibration mechanism. This
mechanism shall be deployable, and shall, when inserted, define the input focal point for
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GPI. This source is not required to reproduce the telescope pupil, but be a flood source,
with an output f/ratio faster than f/12. The sources shall include:
• A broad-band light source capable of:
o 5 – 10th magnitude intensity in I band.
o Output in the 0.7 – 2.3 micron band.
• A bright IR laser source at 1.58 microns +/- 0.03 microns (goal +/- 0.01 microns).
• A bright VIS laser source, (0.6 microns < λ < 0.75 microns)
The internal broad-band source will be the normal operating source. It is permissible for
the sources to each have their own, dedicated output at the GPI input focus.
The deployment mechanism will have:
• Absolute precision of positioning in the focal plane to < 50 mas (goal < 10 mas)
which is < 30 microns (goal < 6 ) w.r.t. the optical bench coordinate system (i.e.
the AO relay optical train).
• Capable of small motions of source < 1 mas (< 0.6 microns) for closed loop
feedback adjustments.
• Goal of precision ≤ 1 mas absolute offsets (< 0.6 microns).
• Patrol a total field of ≥ 4.0 x 4.0 arcsec, centered on the optical axis.
• A goal to reduce the default deploy time of < 30s to 10s.
Derived from obvious requirement for an internal absolute calibration source.
5.7.1.5 AOWFS Pointing and Centering
REQ-FPR-0983: The OMSS will provide an AOWFS P&C capability. This shall have
pointing resolution of < 1 mas and centering resolution of < 0.1% of the pupil diameter.
There shall be sufficient range of motions for both corrections, simultaneously, for the
compensation of mechanical flexure of the structure.
Derived from obvious requirement for keeping AOWFS aligned. As well, this permits the
AO system to be simplified by permitting it to operate to a T/T NULL.
5.7.1.6 AOWFS Focus
REQ-FPR-0985: The OMSS will provide an AOWFS focus stage. This shall have a total
range of 2 mm, with a precision of <= 100 microns and a motion resolution of <= 50
microns.
Derived from requirement to mechanically focus the AOWFS to the CAL feedback,
which simplifies the AO system by being able to operate to a focus NULL.
Notes:
1. 0.1mm (100 microns) of stage motion corresponds to 5nm PV focus at the FPM.
5.7.1.7 Mechanisms
REQ-FPR-0987: The OMSS will provide the following explicit mechanisms. Note that
further OMSS mechanism requirements are contained within the appropriate ICDs.
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Derived from contract and obvious need.
NOTES: There is a basic, generic requirement for a maximum configuration time of 30s
for any device. We assume this here, and list only goals.
5.7.1.7.1 Input Shutter
The input shutter shall be nominally light-tight, and be upstream of the input window as
protection during GPI handling. There is a goal for a configuration time of 5s.
5.7.1.7.2 AOWFS Spatial Filter
The spatial filter mechanism will provide a continuously variable square opening of <=
0.7 arcsec (1.75mm) on a side to >= 2.0 arcsec (5.0mm) on a side
5.7.1.7.3 AOWFS Filters
The OMSS will provide an AOWFS filter selector. This mechanism will have at least 6
positions and be populated with:the following nominal lower cutoff filters. Any long
wavelength cutoff must be longer than 1.0 microns.:
1. 0.60 microns
2. 0.70 microns
3. 0.80 microns
4. 0.9 microns
5. 0.90 – 0.91 Narrowband
6. Open
NOTES:
1. The SFWFS performs best over restricted bands and at high WFS strehl ratios.
Normal observing will use a bandpass from 0.7 microns to the dichroic cutoff.
The main purpose of the additional filters is to attenuate the flux for bright stars.
As well, operating at red wavelengths closer to the science band will reduce
chromatic differences between the AO system and the science path monitored by
the CAL and further enhance SFWFS performance. Hence we attenuate by
shortening up on the short wavelength cut-off.
2. As the AOWFS beam-splitter and detector QE will define the long cut-off, we can
be very tolerant to any long-wavelength cutoff, it any at all.
5.7.1.7.4 PPM Mechanism
The OMSS will provide a pupil plane mask (FPM) mechanism that will accept the 6
PPMs shown in 5.4.1.5 and 4 spare slots. This is NOT a wheel-in-wheel assembly. There
is no requirement to be able to rotate the mask, either at setup/alignment time or anytime
after. This will meet the requirements as defined in “1.9.x.2/1.9.x.5 COR to OMSS/SCC
ICD”, 0.
NOTES:
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5.7.1.7.5 ADC
The OMSS will provide a “front end” ADC mechanism that feeds the entire instrument
with the following:
1. The ability to deploy. It is permissible to require re-focus of the telescope when
the ADC is deployed/removed.
2. Arbitrary zenith orientation. This is to accommodate arbitrary Cassegrain rotator
angles.
3. Compensate for the entire range of zenith distances in 5.2.2.3, with the assumed
goal of from 1 to 50 degrees.
5.7.1.7.6 FPM Mechanism
• Deprecated, moved to the CAL system responsibility (see Section 5.6.1.8)
5.7.1.7.7 Polarisation Modulator
The OMSS will provide a polarization modulator mechanism that is deployable. It is a
strong goal to reduce the arbitrary angle setting time to less than 15 seconds.
5.7.2 OMSS Performance Requirements
5.7.2.1 AO Pupil flexure and thermal requirements
REQ-FPR-0989: The OMSS will ensure that the relative pupil registrations between
tweeter and the coronagraphic PPM don’t move out of alignment by more than 0.4% of
the pupil diameter.
Derived from pupil alignment budget. In turn, to retain telescope flux rate and resolution.
NOTES:
1. Expected that this will be accomplished by design of the structure, and not use
any active elements (i.e. fold mirrors).
2. Woofer – tweeter is 10% of the woofer pitch, large enough to ignore.
3. The frequency with which it will be necessary to re-calibrate the alignment
(accomplished by updating the X-Y zero points of the PPM mechanism) will have
to be determined during operations. The design of GPI is such that this will only
have to be performed after any component replacement, but structural drift (ie
aging) might require a periodic recalibration on time periods of many months.
5.7.2.2 AOWFS to Tweeter flexure and thermal registration
REQ-FPR-0991: The OMSS will ensure that the AOWFS lenslets will remain registered
with the tweeter DM to within 10% of a lenslet pitch RMS.
Derived from AO lenslet registration budget (See PDR appendix 3.10.), produces a 2%
increase in WF variance.
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NOTES:
1. The registration of the lenslets is expected to by accomplished by a P&C mirror
pair in the AOWFS leg. It is a CDR level task to determine if this can be
accomplished with a lookup table, or requires feedback from the AO control
system.
2. The frequency with which it will be necessary to re-calibrate the alignment
(accomplished by updating the X-Y zero points of the P&C stages) will have to be
determined during operations. The design of GPI is such that this will only have
to be performed after any component replacement, but structural drift (ie aging)
might require a periodic recalibration on time periods of many months.
5.7.2.3 PPM to Lyot flexure and thermal registration
REQ-FPR-0993: The OMSS will ensure that the PPM pupil will remain registered with
the Lyot pupil to within 1% of the pupil diameter under any normal operating
gravitational vector and range of temperatures.
Derived from pupil alignment budget.
NOTES:
1. This is expected to require active control, likely through a P&C pair.
2. This is measured w.r.t. the mechanical fiducial on the IFS dewar.
3. The frequency with which it will be necessary to re-calibrate the alignment
(accomplished by updating the X-Y zero points of the P&C mechanism) will have
to be determined during operations. The design of GPI is such that this will only
have to be performed after any component replacement, but structural drift (ie
aging) might require a periodic recalibration on time periods of many months.
5.7.2.4 FPM to IFS lenslets flexure and thermal registration
REQ-FPR-0995: The OMSS will ensure that the FPM (occultor) will remain registered
with the IFS lenslets to within 4 µm under any normal operating conditions for a 10
degree change in elevation.
Derived from pupil alignment budget and REQ-FPR-0150.
NOTES:
1. This is expected to require active control, likely through a P&C pair.
2. The frequency with which it will be necessary to re-calibrate the alignment
(accomplished by updating the X-Y zero points of the P&C mechanism) will have
to be determined during operations. The design of GPI is such that this will only
have to be performed after any component replacement, but structural drift (ie
aging) might require a periodic recalibration on time periods of many months.
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5.8 Optical Requirements
5.8.1 Optical Functional Requirements
5.8.1.1 Temperature Range of Warm Optics
REQ-FPR-1000: The optics, other than those within the science instrument dewar, will
meet specifications at all temperatures within the range of –5 °C to 20 °C, at a maximum
temperature change of 0.8 °C/hour.
Derived from ICD-G0013 0.
NOTES:
1. Derived for CP site.
2. It is expected that this is verified by design (e.g. through use of low CTE
materials in critical optics.) See below for performance issues.
5.8.1.2 Optical Coatings Lifespan
REQ-FPR-1010: All optical coatings and environment control will be designed to meet
reflectivity requirements for a period of 5 years, under normal use and with no regular
daytime maintenance.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0170.
NOTES:
1. Meant to meet the nominal lifespan of the instrument assuming a single re-coating
of optics.
2. It is a goal for the semi-sealed opto-mechanical bench environment to increase the
lifespan of the optical coatings to the 10-year life of the instrument.
5.8.2 Optical Performance Requirements
5.8.2.1 Thermal Cycling
REQ-FPR-1020: The overall performance of all optical components and coatings will not
be degraded by repeated thermal cycling at a maximum rate of temperature change of 0.8
K/hour at the operating temperature range.
Derived from ICD-G0013 and ICD-G0015.Mechanical
GPI FPRD
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6 Overall system operability and environmental requirements
6.1 System Functional Requirements
6.1.1 Operation and performance over temperature ranges
REQ-FPR-1005: The instrument will be fully operational at temperatures within the
range of –5 °C to 20 °C,
Derived from ICD-G0013 0.
NOTES:
1. Derived for CP site.
2. The following requirements also explicitly call out a temperature range and must
also be verified: REQ-FPR-0390 (plate scale stability);
3. The following subsystem-level requirements will also be tested, though need not
be signed off on for FPRD compliance: WFS dark current; IFS flexure stability;
IFS dark current; CAL absolute wavefront measurement.
4. The instrument can be started from “off” condition and brought to operation
5. All computers, detectors and mechanisms operate
6. Internal static contrast ratio (REQ-FPR-0180)
7. Operation of all OMSS mechanisms (REQ-FPR-0987)
8. Input calibration source (REQ-FPR-0981)
9. Operation of CAL system FPM (REQ-FPR-0945)
10. Maximum total flexures (REQ-FPR-0150)
6.1.2 Thermal Gradients and Transients
REQ-FPR-1030: GPI will meet performance requirements over one-hour observation
sequence operation during which the temperature changes by no more than the standard
Gemini environmental rate (0.8ºC/hour for CP), with per-target calibrations at the
beginning of the 1-hour period,
Derived from ICD-G0013 and ICD-G0015.
NOTES:
1. ICD-G0013 stipulates 0.8ºC/hour for CP.
2. In particular, this includes the following:
1. Internal static contrast ratio (REQ-FPR-1080)
2. CAL system absolute wavefront accuracy (REQ-FPR-0950) defined for this
test as a change in reported wavefront (with no other conditions changing) of
less than 5/1 nm low/mid frequency over the 1-hour temperature change.
(Since the CAL system is recalibrated at the start of science operations the 12hour change number is less critical.)
3. CAL system tilt accuracy (REQ-FPR-0972) defined for this test as the change
in position of the CAL tilt control point relative to the center of the FPM
being less than 1 mas
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4. OMSS flexure requirements explicitly call out temperature changes and musst
be verified over both temperature changes: REQ-FPR-0989 (AO pupil
flexure), REQ-FPR-0991 (AOWFS to tweeter), REQ-FPR-0995 (FPM to IFS)
6.1.3 Thermal Cycling
REQ-FPR-1040: The overall performance of all mechanical components will not be
degraded by repeated thermal cycling at a maximum rate of temperature change of 0.8
K/hour of the operating temperature range.
NOTES:
1. This refers to long-term changes/damage due to thermal cycling and is verified by
design.
Derived from ICD-G0013 and ICD-G0015.
6.1.4 Space Requirement
6.1.4.1 Space Envelope
REQ-FPR-1050: GPI will be designed to conform to the space envelope requirements as
per ICDs 1.1.1/1.9 and 1.5.3/1.9. This space envelope will include any/all thermal
enclosures to be mounted on the ISS.
Derived from ICDs 1.1.1/1.9 and 1.5.3/1.9.
6.1.4.2 Access to Thermal Enclosures
REQ-FPR-1060: For servicing, the thermal enclosures will be accessible, both front and
rear panels and any bulkhead connectors, without removing GPI from the ISS or
unplugging any services.
Derived from ICD 1.9/3.7.
6.1.4.3 Access to Services Ports
REQ-FPR-1070: All service ports (coolant, helium, dry compressed air, LAN, GIS,
power and any special connections such as fibres) will be accessible for
connection/disconnection without removing GPI from the ISS, removing more than one
GPI access panel or partially disassembling GPI.
Derived from requirement to simplify and ease instrument maintenance (Leslie
Saddlemyer).
6.1.4.4 Mounting Access
REQ-FPR-1080: GPI will be able to be mounted/dismounted from the ISS without
disturbing instruments/facilities on other ISS ports. GPI will be mounted/dismounted as a
single unit.
Derived from simplify and ease instrument maintenance (Leslie Saddlemyer).
GPI FPRD
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6.1.5 Mass Requirements
6.1.5.1 Total Mass on ISS
REQ-FPR-1090: GPI, including support frame, thermal enclosures, electronics, cabling,
services connections and coolant (i.e. all mass mounted on the ISS) will have a total mass
of 2000 kg .
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9.
NOTES:
1. ICD 1.5.3/1.9 does not indicate a tolerance value.
2. Gemini has (technically) accepted a mass waiver to permit a GPI mass of up to an
additional 200 kg.
6.1.5.2 Centre of Gravity
REQ-FPR-1100: GPI will exhibit, for the total ISS mass, a centre of gravity (CofG)
located 1000mm out from the ISS mechanical interface (i.e. into GPI) on a line
perpendicular to the centre of the science port. The tolerance on the CofG is such that the
out-of-balance will not exceed 400 Nm w.r.t. the telescope elevation axis. This must
include static imbalance, change in mass moment due to moving elements, and change in
mass due to changes in coolant volumes.
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9.
NOTES:
1. Gemini has (technically) accepted a mass waiver. This waiver requires that the
moment on the ISS face NOT be changed.
6.1.6 Cooling Requirements
6.1.6.1 Cooling System
REQ-FPR-1120: GPI will use no liquid cryogens.
Derived from requirement to simplify operations. (Leslie Saddlemyer)
6.1.6.2 Cooler Vibration
REQ-FPR-1130: The cryogenic closed-cycle coolers on the IFS will not introduce
vibrations greater than the following into the overall GPI mechanical structure.
GPI FPRD
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Frequency
Limit
[g2/Hz]
<= 2 x 10-9
<= 3 x 10-7
<= 2 x 10-9
<= 2 x 10-8
<= 2 x 10-9
< 50
50 to 100
100 to 200
200 to 350
> 350
Derived from error budget 0.
NOTES:
1. Nominally 20% of the Gemini ISS vibration limits agreed upon in the GPI
vibration operational levels waiver. 20% is considered to be an insignificant
contribution to the existing environment.
6.1.7 Vacuum Requirements
6.1.7.1 Vacuum Facilities Compatibility
REQ-FPR-1140: GPI will require only existing vacuum pumping system facilities at the
Gemini Telescopes holding and staging areas. This requires that GPI utilize a KF-40 on
the vacuum pumping port.
Derived from requirement for operational simplicity. (Leslie Saddlemyer)
NOTES:
1. GPI has self-contained, redundant pressure gauges so will not require any external
readouts.
2. These are intended to be the same as used by NIRI and GSAOI to simplify
equipment requirements at the Gemini Facilities.
3. The intention here is to also allow the same standard operating procedures for
vacuum pumping and maintenance as for NIRI and GSAOI.
4. QF and KF series are the same fittings.
6.1.7.2 Vacuum Facilities Access on Telescope
REQ-FPR-1141: Vacuum ports and any service connections (e.g. external vacuum
readouts) will be accessible while GPI is mounted on the ISS, and without disturbing any
compliant instruments mounted on any of the other ISS ports.
Derived from requirement for operational simplicity (Leslie Saddlemyer).
6.1.8 Mechanism Safety
REQ-FPR-1150: No mechanism will cause harm to personnel, equipment or mechanisms
in the event of loss of electrical power.
Derived from OBVIOUS.
GPI FPRD
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NOTES:
1. Some devices may move in the event of power loss (e.g. power-off brakes). The
intention is that nothing will move in a manner that could cause human harm or
damage equipment.
6.1.9 Over-Pressure Safety
REQ-FPR-1155: All vacuum dewars, and any containers that may be subject to a
potential over-pressurisation risk will have automatic pressure release safety valves.
Derived from obvious safety requirement.
NOTES:
1. Primarily meant for vacuum dewars (which are not designed for pressurized
conditions, which can occur due to CCRs, getters and accidental handling).
6.1.10 Environmental Cover
REQ-FPR-1160: GPI will be fitted with an environmental cover that can be operated
either by the control system or manually in case of power failure. Manual operation must
not require more than one access panel to be removed or GPI being removed from the
ISS. The cover shall be dust and light tight.
Derived from requirement to have a safety cover for GPI and light-tight enclosure for
calibration purposes (Leslie Saddlemyer).
6.1.11 Environment Control
6.1.11.1
Dry Air and Dust Reduction System
REQ-FPR-1170: GPI will be fitted with a dry air and dust reduction system to keep the
relative humidity within the optomechanical enclosure to less than 40% relative humidity
under any Gemini telescope and instrument operating conditions (See ICD-G0013 0).
With all covers on and dust reduction system in operation, the opto-mechancial enclosure
will maintain a Class 100 environment.
Derived from REQ-FPR-1010 and “GPI Dust Budget” 0
NOTES:
1. The MEMs DM humidity and high voltage damage potential will be eliminated
by the use of a hermetically sealed DM, removing this as a driver for the humidity
reduction.
2. Informal discussions with coating vendors indicate that dry environments increase
the lifespan of metallic coatings. It is a goal for the environmental control to
increase the life of all optical coatings to the 10-year life of the instrument.
GPI FPRD
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3. Static, due to very dry conditions, can contribute to dust build-up on optics
(discussions with LLNL dust/cleanliness experts). However, this alleviated inside
the closed Optics Enclosure..
6.1.11.2
Relative Humidity Sensor
REQ-FPR-1172: GPI will be fitted with a relative humidity sensor(s).
Derived from requirement to monitor RH of optics enclosure and general monitoring of
environment.
6.1.12 Instrument Handling
REQ-FPR-1180: The GPI structure shall have feet permitting free-standing storage (both
in side looking and upward looking configurations) and attachment points for the Gemini
instrument handling facilities as per ICD-G0015. This is to include all attachment
points/fixtures to permit rotating the instrument from side looking to upward looking
positions (and vice-a-versa).
Derived from ICD-G0015
NOTES:
1. Appropriate labels including safe lifting fixtures to be provided on structure.
6.1.13 Metric Dimensioning
REQ-FPR1190-: Metric dimensioning will be used in GPI. All dimensions will be in
millimetres with appropriate tolerances called out.
Derived from SOW, Leslie Saddlemyer
6.1.14 Metric Fasteners
REQ-FPR-1200: All screws, bolts, nuts, tapped holes and fasteners will be of standard
metric sizes, and called out as such on the as-built drawings. The only exception will be
internal components of commercially purchased mechanisms, or fixtures to attach these
(e.g. pre-tapped holes).
Derived from SOW, Leslie Saddlemyer
6.2 System Performance Requirements
6.2.1 Mechanisms Operation
6.2.1.1 Mechanism Set Time
REQ-FPR-1210: Individual GPI mechanisms will have a maximum set time of 30s.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0140.
NOTES:
GPI FPRD
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1. The intention is to keep observing efficiency as high as possible. Here we limit
the maximum time that may be taken for individual mechanisms (software and
hardware).
6.2.1.2 Mechanism Configuration Time
REQ-FPR-1220: A complete reconfiguration of GPI (i.e. all mechanisms) will be
performed in less than 60s.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0140 and REQ-FPR-1210.
NOTES:
1. The intention is to keep observing efficiency as high as possible. Here we limit
the overall maximum time (software and hardware).
6.2.1.3 Repeatability of Configuration
REQ-FPR-1230: The total error at the IFS lenslet plane resulting from a total
reconfiguration will be less than 0.5 lenslets.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0140.
NOTES:
1. This ensures that no time be lost to calibration after an overall re-init of GPI or
moving back to a previous configuration. It is aimed mainly at the repeatability
(or precision) of re-indexing assemblies.
GPI FPRD
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7 Electrical and Electronic Requirements
7.1 Grounding and Shielding
REQ-FPR-1300: Separate ground returns will be provided for low-level signals,
electrically noisy components such as relays and motors and hardware components such
as enclosures, chassis and racks.
Derived from 0 and SPE-ASA-G0008 0,
7.2 Electrostatic Discharge
REQ-FPR-1310: All sensitive components will be protected from electrostatic discharge
and labelled.
Derived from 0 and SPE-ASA-G0008 0,
7.3 Power Dissipation
7.3.1 Unconditioned Heat Release
7.3.1.1 Heat Released Into Ambient Air
REQ-FPR-1320: GPI will not release more than 50W heat into the ambient air.
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9 0.
NOTES:
1. This includes heat dissipated through the thermal enclosures and any electronics
outside the thermal enclosures.
7.3.1.2 Heat Conducted into the ISS
REQ-FPR-1330: GPI will not conduct more that 50W of heat into the ISS structure.
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9 0.
7.3.1.3 Individual Mechanism Temperatures
REQ-FPR-1340: The GPI surface will not contain any significant external area
(>100 cm2) with a temperature more than ±2 C from ambient.
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9 0.
NOTES:
1. Consistent with tests on LAO high-contrast test-bed. Probably overly stringent.
Leslie Saddlemyer
7.3.2 Conditioned Heat Load
REQ-FPR-1350: GPI will have a maximum heat load into the cooling glycol of 4 KW.
GPI FPRD
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Gemini GPI FPRD
Derived from ICD 1.5.3/1.9 0, ICD 1.9
NOTES:
1. Email from Doug Simons clarifies that the specification is a total instrument limit
into the ISS coolant of 4 kW 0 (e.g. 2 kW/enclosure assuming two enclosures).
GPI FPRD
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Gemini GPI FPRD
8 Software Requirements
8.1 Software Function Requirements
8.1.1 Conforming Instrument
REQ-FPR-1400: GPI will be a conforming instrument, adhering to the “Guidelines for
Designing Gemini Aspen Instrument Software” guidelines.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0111 and SOW Key Requirements
NOTES:
1. This means GPI will either have an EPICS control system or the newer Aspen
Gemini API control system
8.1.2 Meet GPI Software Requirements Specifications
REQ-FPR-1405: GPI will meet all the software specifications indicated in the GPI SRD.
Derived from REQ-FPR-1400.
NOTES:
1. As the SRD lists explicitly all required commands and interactions, it is redundant
to repeat them here. See 0.
8.1.3 Engineering Interface
REQ-FPR-1410: GPI will provide engineering interfaces that will run on standard
Gemini workstations (Linux only), to allow the exercising, testing and verification of all
GPI mechanisms and functionality. This includes controlling all mechanisms, reading of
sensors and reading all status. This code is a deliverable, but not required to meet any
Gemini standard; Gemini will provide engineering GUIs.
Derived from “Guidelines for Designing Aspen Instruments” 0 and REQ-FPR-0111
8.1.4 Assembly Control
REQ-FPR-1420: All GPI mechanisms will be controlled through the GPI control system.
This includes all low level and coordinated and virtual mechanisms (such as representing
a pair of filter wheels as a single virtual filter wheel).
Derived from REQ-FPR-0111
8.1.5 Temperature Control
REQ-FPR-1430: The GPI control system will configure the temperature controller(s)
controlling any thermally stabilised systems. This includes detectors, cooled/heated
mechanisms and monitoring of ambient temperature(s).
Derived from REQ-FPR-0111
GPI FPRD
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NOTES:
1. This requirement fundamentally ensures that operating temperatures are
configurable in software.
8.1.5.1 Cold Working Surface Temperatures
REQ-FPR-1440: The control system will configure the temperature control of the Cold
Working Surfaces (CWS) in the IFS. This includes cool-down, warm-up and operational.
Derived from REQ-FPR-1430
8.1.5.2 Science Detector Temperature Control
8.1.5.2.1 Temperature Rate of Change
REQ-FPR-1450: The control system will monitor that the maximum rate of change of the
detector is 0.25 K/min. The control system will raise a software alarm if this rate is
exceeded.
Derived from GSAOI recommendations for HAWAII-2RG, Leslie Saddlemyer. See
REQ-FPR-0720.
NOTES:
1. This requirement is only valid when the control system is running, and in no way
implies that the cooling system can’t be activated with the control system turned
off.
8.1.5.2.2 Temperature Stability
REQ-FPR-1452: The control system will configure the temperature setpoint of the
science instrument detectors, and raise a software alarm if the monitored temperature
deviates by more than 20 mK when in observing mode.
NOTES:
1. The characteristics of the IR detector may/are sensitive to temperature. GSAOI
REQ-FPR-0315 in ATP indicates 1 mK to meet bias specification of < 50e/hour.
8.1.5.3 AOFWFS Detector Temperatures
REQ-FPR-1460: The control system will configure the temperature setpoint of the AO
fast wavefront sensor detector, and raise a software alarm if the monitored temperature
deviates by more than 2 degrees C when in observing mode.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0421.
NOTES:
1. As well, some classes of CCD may have temperature-sensitive gains.
GPI FPRD
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2. Value of 2 degrees selected mainly as an indication that something might be
going wrong.
8.1.5.4 CAL Detectors Temperatures
REQ-FPR-1465: The control system must be able to configure the temperature setpoints
of the wavefront sensor detectors if they can be set in software, and raise a software
alarm if the monitored temperature from the setpoint when in observing mode.
.
Derived from REQ-FPR-0111
NOTES:
1. In particular the HOWFS may have significant temperature dependencies.
8.1.5.5 Environmental Monitoring
REQ-FPR-1470: The control system will monitor and permit turning on and off the
logging of the following environmental conditions within GPI. This will allow logging at
an adjustable rate of once every 10 to 60 seconds. This includes, but is not limited to:
• Science detector
• Calibration detectors
• AOWFS detector
• CWS temperatures (near cold straps and at furthest mechanical point)
• ambient temperature(s)
• coolant temperatures (inlet and outlet)
• base of all major sub-components (DMs, T/T mirror, AOWFS).
• Relative Humidity.
Derived from REQ-FPR-1430 and general requirement to be able to log GPI state
NOTES:
1. RH primarily to protect the optical coatings.
8.1.5.6 Detector Temperature During Cool-Down/Warm-Up
REQ-FPR-1480: The control system will allow that the following two conditions are able
to be kept:
1. Cool-Down: the detector(s) are maintained at a temperature between 5º and
20º C higher than the CWS during cool-down until the CWS is at operating
temperature.
2. Warm-Up: the detector(s) are maintained at a temperature between 5º and
20º C higher than the CWS during warm-up until the detector(s) are at
ambient temperature.
Derived from GSAOI example (Leslie Saddlemyer).
NOTES:
GPI FPRD
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1. This requirement is to minimize the risk of condensation on the detector.
2. This may be a manual mode of operation. For example, for the operator to select
an operating temperature of the detector of 20º C when the cryocooler is turned
off in order to warm up GPI, which would keep the detector a little warmer than
the CWS.
8.2 Software Performance Requirements
8.2.1 Configuration Time
REQ-FPR-1490: The software control system overhead for mechanism control will not
increase the configuration time by more than the larger of: 5% of the mechanical
operation time or 1 second. The software will be able to move multiple assemblies
simultaneously.
Derived from REQ-FPR-1210.
NOTES:
1. This is to ensure that the configuration times are maintained.
8.2.2 Temperature Control
REQ-FPR-1500: The accuracy of the GPI temperature control will not be limited by the
performance of the software system.
Derived from requirement to not have the normal software system, which might be rebooted etc, potentially adversely affect critical temperatures (Les Saddlemyer).
NOTE:
1. This implies that electronic temperature control system(s) is required, and that the
software configures, but does not control the temperatures.
8.2.3 Science Instrument Detector
REQ-FPR-1510: The software system will not add to the overhead for readout in any way
that increases the readout rate, in order to ensure that the detector readout rates as
specified in REQ-FPR-0840 can be met.
Derived from REQ-IFS-0050 in the IFS SSDD 0.
NOTES:
1. DHS throughputs likely to be an issue.
GPI FPRD
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9 External Interfaces
9.1 ISS Interface
9.1.1 ISS Ports
REQ-FPR-1600: GPI will be capable of being mounted on and used on any side-looking
port and the upward-looking port of the ISS.
Derived from ICD 1.9.
9.1.2 ISS Mounting Material
REQ-FPR-1610: GPI will take into account the material of which the ISS is made and
will hold differential temperature effects to a level that permits GPI to meet all optical
alignment and safety requirements over the entire operating temperature range.
Derived from ICD1.5.3/1.9 0.
9.1.3 ISS Mounting Fasteners
REQ-FPR-1620: GPI will utilise fasteners sized for a safe working load including static
and dynamic factors of safety to accommodate predicted loads on the Gemini telescope.
Derived from ICD1.5.3/1.9 0.
9.1.4 Optical Feed
REQ-FPR-1630: GPI will accept and use the optical feed of the telescope, off of the
science fold mirror if mounted on a side-looking port.
Derived from ICD1.5.3/1.9 0.
9.1.5 Services
REQ-FPR-1640: GPI will make use of only the following services at the Cassegrain
Rotator Utility Box. The umbilical cord(s) will be of sufficient length to reach from the
GPI connector(s) location to the Cassegrain Rotator Utility Box. Connectors and
specifications will be as specified in ICD 1.9/3.6. All line(s) will be flexible enough to
permit easy routing in the ISS environment.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
One high and one low pressure connection to the helium service.
One pair of “clean” UPS power, 120 VAC (NEMA 5-15).
One pair of “dirty” power, 120 VAC (NEMA 5-15).
One coolant water supply and return.
One dry air supply.
Control LAN
Time LAN
Data LAN
Synchro Bus
GPI FPRD
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Gemini GPI FPRD
•
Gemini Interlock System
9.1.6 Gemini Interlock System
REQ-FPR-1650: GPI will interface to the GIS as described in ICD 12 and ICD
1.1.13/1.9.
Derived from ICD 12, ICD 1.1.13/1.9 and SOW.
NOTES:
1. The response to a GIS request from the GIS will be at least a shutdown of all high
voltage supplies (> 48V) and the cessation of any motions.
2. GPI should trigger an interlock event for at lease the opening of any access panel,
including the doors on the electronics enclosures, and the pressing of any
emergency buttons that exist on the GPI instrument.
GPI FPRD
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10 Environmental Requirements
These environmental requirements are all derived from ICD-G0013. As for other Gemini
Instruments (e.g. GSAOI ATP), no formal analyses are to be performed to test these.
However, they form the basis for design and selection of the components of GPI and are
listed here for completeness sake.
10.1 Storage
REQ-FPR-1700: GPI will meet all the environmental specifications for storage as
specified in ICD-G0013.
Derived from ICD-G0013.
10.2 Shipping
REQ-FPR-1710: GPI will meet all the environmental specifications for shipping as
specified in ICD-G0013.
Derived from ICD-G0013.
10.3 Operation
REQ-FPR-1720: GPI will meet all the environmental specifications for operation as
specified in ICD-G0013.
Derived from ICD-F0013
GPI FPRD
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11 Other Requirements
11.1 Training of Gemini Personnel
REQ-FPR-1810: The GPI development team will provide training material and course(s)
for Gemini personnel on the operation, maintenance and repair of GPI.
NOTES:
1. This will officially occur during the commissioning phase of GPI. However,
training will commence earlier as Gemini personnel attend components of the
acceptance tests and integration phases.
11.2 Single Point Failures
REQ-FPR-1820: Single point failure modes that will result in significant down-time will
be identified, and critical spares list presented.
Derived from necessity to minimise impacts of critical components of GPI. (Leslie
Saddlemyer).
11.3 Handles
REQ-FPR-1830: Modules meant to be handled directly by personnel weighing more that
20 kg will have suitable handles and be labelled with the nominal mass.
Derived from requirement to protect personnel (Leslie Saddlemyer).
11.4 Toxic Components
REQ-FPR-1840: No toxic products will be used for the development, construction or
maintenance of GPI without explicit approval of Gemini Observatory and appropriate
inclusion in GPI safety document.
Derived from GSAOI example and obvious safety and environmental issues (Leslie
Saddlemyer).
GPI FPRD
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