INTRODUCTION - Position the voltage change disk so that the selector... may be set only to the desired voltage shown on...

INTRODUCTION
Electrical arc welding is the procedure used to join two metal
parts, taking advantage of the heat developed by the electric
arc that forms between an electrode (metal filler) and the
material to be welded. The welding arc may be powered by
an alternating current generator machine (welder). This welding machine is basically a single-phase static transformer
suitable for melting RUTILE (sliding) acid electrodes. Alkaline
electrodes may also be melted by alternating current if the
secondary open-circuit voltage is greater than 70 V.
The welding current is continuously regulated (magnetic
dispersion) by turning the handwheel on the outside of the
machine, which makes it possible to select the current value,
indicated on a special graded scale, with the utmost precision.
To prevent the service capacities from being exceeded, all of
our machines are fitted with an automatic overload protection
which cuts of the power supply (intermittent use) in the event
of an overload. The operator must then wait for a few minutes
before returning to work.
This welding machine must be used only for the purpose
described in this manual.
Read the entire contents of this manual before installing,
using or servicing the equipment, paying special attention to
the chapter on safety precautions. Contact your distributor if
you do not fully understand these instructions
EXPLANATION OF TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Single-phase transformer
.....
Downslope
...........................
.....................Suitable for covered electrode welding
Ø..................................Usable electrode diameter
I2. ..................................Welding current
U0. ..............................Open-circuit voltage
1~ ..........................Single-phase power supply
U1................................Supply voltage
I1. ..................................Current absorbed at the corresponding welding
current I2
IP21. .......................Protection level of the housing.
Grade 1 as the second digit means that this
equipment is not suitable for use outdoors in the
rain.
- Position the voltage change disk so that the selector switch
may be set only to the desired voltage shown on the panel
(fig. 1).
fig.1
- Replace the knob and tighten the screw.
PREPARING THE WELDING MASK
Prepare the mask (with CE approval marking) using colored glass (adiactinic) and clear protective glass as shown
in fig. 2:
- mount the protective glass (with CE marking) in the case
provided, in the following order:
1 - the transparent glass A on the outside.
2 - the colored glass (non-actinic) B, which must have a level
of protection of:
DIN 10 if used with welding currents of up to 80 A,
DIN 11 if used with welding currents of up to 175 A,
DIN 12 if used with welding currents of up to 300 A,
- tighten the screw;
- install the mask handle.
Some masks have supplementary appendices C to increase
PLACEMENT AND INSTALLATION
Dust, dirt or any other foreign matter that may enter the welder can jeopardize ventilation and thus correct operation.
All connections must be made in compliance with the following standards, and in full respect of current safety regulations (see standards CEI 26-10 CENELEC HD 427).
Make sure that the voltage and frequency of the power supply system correspond to the values given on the technical
specifications plate.
The brown and blue wires of the power cable must be connected to the mains voltage, while the third yellow-green wire
must be connected to an efficient earth socket.
If the welder is set up for two supply voltages:
- Set the selector switch knob to the position “0” (machine off).
- Remove the knob by unscrewing the holding screw.
fig.2
the protection surface.
CONNECTING THE WELDING CIRCUIT (fig. 3)
Before using this welding machine, read the standards CEI
26/9 or CENELEC HD 407 and CE 26/11, or CENELEC HD
433 carefully; also make sure the cable insulation is intact.
The earth cable D and the electrode clip cable B are con-
fig.3
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Welder
Electrode holder cable
Electrode
Earth cable
Electrode holder
Switch
Power cable
Clamp
nected to the welder by means of special clamps (tighten
firmly to prevent overheating), unless the welder is the type
with pre-connected cables. To use alkaline electrodes for
alternating current, use the clamp H.
The earth cable clamp is connected to the workpiece or support surface in such a way as to provide the best possible
contact. It should therefore be free of rust, grease, paint, etc.
The welding circuit must not be deliberately placed in direct
or indirect contact with the protection wire except in the workpiece.
If the workpiece is deliberately grounded by means of the
protection wire, the connection must be as direct as possible
and made using a wire having a cross-section at least equal
to that of the welding current return wire. It should also be
connected to the workpiece at the same point as the return
wire, using a second earth clamp placed next to it. Install the
electrode C in the housing of the electrode holder E, making
sure it is tight enough.
Turn the setting handwheel and set the gauge to the position
corresponding to the diameter of the electrode chosen for the
type of welding to be performed (see table), and start the wel-
fig.4
GUIDE TABLE FOR SELECTING THE ELECTRODE
DIAMETER BASED ON THE THICKNESS TO BE WELDEDFOR FLAT WELDING IN A SINGLE MOTION
THICKNESS
in mm
ELECTRODE DIAM.
inmm
<2
1.5
2
2
3
2.5
4
2.5÷3.25
5
3.25÷4
der by turning on the switch.
The mask should be used for all welding operations as a
shield against the electric arc, which may cause eye inflammations that appear as an annoying sensation of having
“sand” in the eye. Therefore, do not attempt to start the arc
without a shield to try to see the operations better (fig. 4).
You should also use a pair of gloves and leather apron to pre
vent drops of molten metal from causing burns.
After welding, remove the slag deposited by the electrode
coating. This may be done using a small hammer, with the
work cool if possible and very carefully, especially if the operation must be repeated several times. This makes it possible
to achieve a weld without sticking or inclusions.
N.B. Use safety goggles during above operation.
BEGINNERS’ GUIDE TO WELDING.
Start the arc by moving the electrode to approximately
10 mm away from the point to be welded,
at an approximate angle of 70-80° in relation to the work surface. Take care not to
accidentally touch the workpiece (to avoid
arc rushes). Place the mask in front of your eyes, strike the
electrode lightly against the workpiece, and move the electrode slightly away as soon as the arc forms. You may then
begin welding, moving from left to right.
It may occur that the electrode is not moved away quickly
enough, and thus remains stuck to the workpiece; in this case, pull it sharply to the side to detach it. On the other hand, excessive separation
may cause the arc to go out. For easy starting, the electrode is often pulled across the
workpiece (not too quickly).
At this point, it is a good idea to carry out a
few welding beads to gain experience and skill. We shall therefore attempt to analyze and correct any defects.
Appearance according to arc length.
Arc too short.
This irregularity causes irregular masses of
weld metal, which are likely to include slag.
Arc too long.
This causes poor penetration, sticking, blowing
and considerable spraying. The weld is also
likely to be defective.
The optimal length corresponds approximately to the electrode
diameter.
Appearance according to welding speed.
DISTANCE (D) IN mm BETWEEN EDGES TO BE JOINED
fig. 5
S mm
2÷ 3
3÷4
4÷5
horizontal
1 ÷ 1.5
1.5 ÷ 2.5
2÷3
vertical
1 ÷ 1.5
1.5 ÷ 2
2 ÷ 2.5
frontal
1 ÷ 1.5
1.5 ÷ 2.5
2÷3
be placed directly next to one another. For larger thicknesses,
follow fig. 5.
Corner (fig. 6) and L - joints (fig. 7)
This is a very convenient joints to prepare, but only for thicknes-
Too slow.
This causes a wide, thick and shorter than normal deposit. It wastes electrodes and time.
Too fast.
This causes poor penetration into the base
material, a narrow, high bead, and makes it difficult to remove slag.
Appearance according to current intensity.
(40A x 1mm. thickness. Example: 2.5mm = 40x2.5 = 100A)
Current too low.
This causes poor penetration, sticking, a very
irregular bead (narrow and tall), and slag is
quite difficult to remove.
Current too high.
This creates a very wide bead which penetrates too far into the base material, sprays a great
deal of molten metal and forms a deep crater. It
may also cause tiny cracks in the material.
fig.6
fig.7
ses of up to 10 mm. For larger
thicknesses, it is best to use a
joints as shown in fig. 7.
Inner corner joints (fig. 8)
This joints is very easy to prepare, and is carried out for
thicknesses of up to 5 mm.
The two pieces must be in
touch.
fig.8
Top-quality welding.
With the correct arc length, welding speed, current setting and electrode angle, the bead is
smooth with a fine grain; the weld is not porous
and does not contain slag.
TYPES OF JOINTS AND WELDING POSITIONS
There are two basic types of joints in welding: butt joints and
corner joints (outer corner, inner corner and overlapping).
Butt joints (fig. 5).
In butt joints up to 2 mm thick, the edges to be welded must
Overlapping junctions (fig. 9)
The most common preparation
is with straight edges, and the
fig.9
weld becomes a normal corner
bead. The two workpieces must
be as close together as possible.
WELDING TECHNIQUES
Once the joints to be welded have been prepared, we must
choose the most appropriate technique.
When it is possible to place the workpiece in a flat, horizontal
position, the welding quality is better. In some cases this is
not possible, and the workpiece must be arranged horizontally on a vertical plain, or even
upside-down.
Flat end welding (fig. 10)
fig.10
The operator must attempt to
weld without excessive or
insufficient penetration. The following factors affect the welding execution: the current, the
distance between the edges,
the angle and diameter of the
electrode.
Keep the electrode at a 45/55° angle in relation to the horizontal surface, and vertically aligned with the welding axis.
An increased electrode angle increases penetration, and
vice-versa.To prevent or reduce the effects of deformities that
occur when the material solidifies, where possible the workpieces should be arranged
appropriately, in the opposite
direction to that in which the
material shrinks (fig. 11).
Avoid stiffening the welded
structure, to prevent the weld
from breaking. This may be
done by welding in two opposite motions. In this case the
fig.11
electrode should be kept at a
50-70° vertical angle from the
joints axis, moving smoothly
with a slight horizontal oscillation.
Front end welding (fig. 12)
Up to 4 mm, the edges must
not be bevelled, and the weld
must be carried out with the
fig.12
electrode angled as shown in
figure 12. The current should
be adjusted as for flat welding.
tely~10÷15% lower than for flat
welding. For good penetration
and correct welding, the weld
must be repeated on the back.
Upside-down end welding
(fig. 14)
It is essential that the current
be adjusted so as to avoid a
bath that is too liquid, but must
still ensure good penetration. fig.14
The arc must be very short,
and perform a few forward strokes if necessary to give the
bath time to solidify.
CORNER WELDING
Flat welding (figs. 15-16)
When the workpiece may be handled, it should be arranged
as shown in figure 15.
If the workpiece cannot be rotated, eliminate the horizontal
fig.15
fig.16
movement while welding, and
hold the electrode at a 40÷50°
angle in the movement direction and a 40° angle from the
horizontal plane (fig. 16).
Vertical joints. (fig. 17)
For angle joints in the vertical
position, the rules described for
fig.17
vertical welding of head joints
are valid. The welding current
must be increased by approximately 10% with respect to the
corresponding value of the head joints.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
Vertical end welding (fig. 13)
For thicknesses of up to 4 mm,
the junction need not be bevelled. The welding technique
may be downward, used for
small thicknesses, or upward
fig.13
for general use.
Keep the electrode on a plane
perpendicular to the joints axis and at an angle of approximately~90÷120°, and move it in a U-shape with an emphasis at the end. If the bath is too hot, move upwards a few
times. The welding current must generally be set approxima-
Fire
• Avoid causing fires due to sparks, slag, hot
metal and spatter which are produced during
normal welding operations.
• Make sure that a suitable fire-extinguisher is located near
the welding sight.
• Remove all flammable material within 30 feet of the welding area.
• Do not weld containers (tanks or drums) containing flammable material, even when empty. Tese must be carefully
cleaned before being welded.
• Allow the welded metal to cool down before touching it or
putting it into contact with flammable material.
• Do not weld structures with hollow spaces containing
flammable substances.
• Do not work in conditions where there are high concentrations of combustible vapours, gases, or flammable dust.
• Always check the work area half an hour after welding so as
to make sure that no fire has started.
• Do not keep any flammable material such as lighters or
matches in your pockets while using this equipment.
• The welding cables must not be used for current loads
which exceed their rated capacity. If the cables draw current
in excess of the rated capacity, overheating can occur which
will cause the rapid deterioration of the insulation which
covers the cables.
• Alwais weld with are adeguately insulated.
• The connections between cables must be well tightened
and properly insulated.
• Frequently inspect the cables and repair any cuts or tears
that might be found.
• Keep all connections well tigtened.
graphite, cadmium, zink, chrome, quicksilver, or mercury
unless you have an approved respirator set.
• The electric arc creates ozone. Long exposures to high
ozone concentrations may cause headaches; nasal, throat
and eye irritation; as well as congestion and chest pains.
WARNING: NEVER USE OXYGEN FOR VENTILATION.
• Gas leaks in confined spaces should be avoided. Leaked
gas in large quantities can dangerously alter oxygen levels
in the air surrounding the weld sight. Do not place gas cylinders in confined spaces.
• DO NOT WELD where solvent vapors can be drawn into
the welding shield atmosphere or where arc rays can
come into contact with even minute quantities of trichloroethylene or perchloroethylene.
Burns
• Protect your entire body by wearing fire-proof clothing
This will protect your skin against burns caused by: ultraviolet radiation given off by the arc, sparks and molten slag.
• The protective clothing should include: gloves, a hat, and
high shoes. Your shirt collar and pocket flaps should be buttoned , and cuff-less trousers should be worn to prevent
contact with sparks and molten slag.
• Wear a helmet equipped with the appropriate lens shade
and a clear glass cover plate. This is imperative when welding, cutting, and chipping to protect your eyes from ultra-violet arc rays and molten spatter. Replace the glass cover plate
when cracked or covered with spatter etc.
• Do not wear clothing spotted with oil or grease as a spark
may set them on fire.
• Hot metal, electrode stubs and workpieces, should never
be handled without gloves.
• First-aid equipment and a qualified first-aid person should
always be available when welding, unless medical facilities
are in the immediate vicinity, to treat flash burns of the eyes
and skin burns.
• Ear plugs should be worn when working in the overhead
position or in confined spaces. A hard hat should be worn
when others are working overhead.
• Flammable hair sprays and gels should not be used by
those persons intending to weld.
Radiation
Ultra-violet radiation emitted by arc rays may
damage your eyes and burn you skin. Therefore:
• Wear proper clothing and helmet.
• Do not use contact lenses!! The intense heat created by
the arc may cause them to stick to the cornea.
• Use a mask or helmet equipped with lens shades that have
a minimum DIN rating of 10
• Warn people in the area surrounding the welding sight that
you are going to be welding.
Remember: the arc may dazzle or damage the eyes. It is
considered dangerous up to a distance of 15 meters (50
feet). Never look at an arc with the naked eye.
• Prepare the welding area so as to reduce the reflection and
transmission of ultra-violet radiation: paint walls and exposed surfaces in black to reduce reflection, install shielding
systems or curtains to reduce the transmission of ultra-violet rays.
• Replace protective lenses whenever damaged or broken.
Fumes
Welding operations produce harmful fumes and
metal dusts which may be hazardess to your health,
therefore:
• Work in well-ventilated areas.
• Keep your head out of the fumes.
• In closed areas, use a fume exhaust system, preferrably
placed under the welding area if possible.
• If ventilation is inadequate, use an approved respirator
set.
• Clean the metal to be welded of any solvents or halogen
degreasers which give rise to toxic gases. During some
welding operations clorine solvents may be decomposed
by arc radiation thus creating phosgene gas.
• Do not weld coated metals or those containing lead,
Explosions
• Do not weld above or near containers under pressure.
• Do not weld in environments containing explosive dusts, gases or vapours.
Electric shock
Electric shocks are hazardous and potentially fatall!!
• Do not touch live electrical parts.
• Insulate yourself from the workpiece and the ground
by wearing insulated gloves and clothing.
• Keep garments (gloves, shoes, hats, clothing) and body dry.
• Do not work in humid or wet areas.
• If you are welding near a body of water take precautions to
ensure that the machine cannot fall into the water.
• Avoid touching or holding the workpiece by hand.
• Should you work in a dangerous area or close to one , use
all possible precautions.
• Stop welding immediately if you should feel even the slightest sensation of electric shock. Do not use the machine
until the problem is identified and corrected.
• Often inspect the mains input cable.
• Disconnect the power input cable from the mains supply before replacing cables or before removing the unit
covers.
• Do not use the unit without protection covers.
•Always replace any damaged parts with GENUINECEBORA SPARE PARTS.
• Never disconnect any of the unit's safety devices.
• Make sure that the mains power supply line is equipped
with a good electrical ground.
• Make sure that the workbench and the workpiece are connected to a good electrical ground.
• Servicing of the machine must be done by qualified personnel who aware of the risks involved with the high voltage levels necessary to make the machine operate.
Pacemaker
Magnetic fields created by the high currents in the weld circuit can affect pacemaker operation. Persons wearing electronic life support equipment (pacemakers) should consult
their doctor before going near any arc welding, gouging, cutting, or spot welding equipment in operation.
Noise
These power sources alone do not produce noise
levels exceeding 80 dB.The cutting procedure, however, may produce noise levels in excess of 80 dB in
which case the operator must take the necessary safety precautions as prescribed by the national safety regulations.
MAINTENANCE
Simple and sturdy, your welding unit practically requires no
maintenance, You only have to:
• Keep conductive surfaces clean (oxide and dirt may reduce
machine output); avoid accumulation of dust and filings inside the machine. Take good care of the cables (they have to
be crack-free).
•Avoid introducing metal parts inside the machine for they
could cause short circuits.
•Clean the machine from time to time with compressed air,
after disconnecting it from the mains.