Cruise Report Bering Ecosystem Study-Bering Sea Integrated Research Program

Cruise Report
Bering Ecosystem Study-Bering Sea Integrated
Research Program
USCGC Healy Cruise HLY0802
March 31 – May 6, 2008
Dutch Harbor, AK – Dutch Harbor, AK
Carin Ashjian (WHOI) and Evelyn Lessard (UW), Chief Scientists
Funded by the National Science Foundation and the North Pacific Research Board
Prepared by Carin Ashjian and the HLY0802 Science Team
Contact Information: Carin Ashjian
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Woods Hole, MA 02543
cashjian@whoi.edu
Note: All data and summaries in this report are preliminary unpublished data subject to
revision or correction with intellectual property reserved to the scientist contributing to
the report. Please contact the individual scientist responsible for each section for
additional information.
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Introduction
The overall objective of this cruise was to describe the lower trophic levels of the Bering
Sea ecosystem under varying conditions of ice cover in order to better understand
ecosystem response to ongoing changes in climate, ice cover (extent of ice cover and
timing of ice formation and retreat), and accompanying oceanographic conditions. To
this aim, twelve projects were supported on cruise HLY0802 on board the USCGC Healy
in the Bering Sea during the period of March 31-May 6, 2008. The cruise was loosely
divided into two segments because of a personnel exchange on April 20 at St. Paul,
Alaska. Forty-six science party members were embarked for much of the first portion of
the cruise; forty-one were embarked during the second portion.
Science Activities
Three major cross-shelf transects – the NP (southernmost east-west) line, the MN (central
east-west) line, and the SL (northernmost east-west) line – were surveyed (Figure 1). The
middle portion of the NP line was sampled three times during the cruise, ~14 days apart.
A transect (W line) extending inshore from the 70 m line along which a series of
moorings will be deployed during the summer 2008 cruise was also surveyed. Following
completion of the major cross-shelf transects, work was conducted near the ice-edge and
in open water to identify and track ice-edge blooms (ZZ transects). Starting at the end of
April, the 70 m isobath line was surveyed from north to south, with process and ice
stations occurring on 1-2 days at the beginning of the survey. Finally, 10 stations along
the CN line were sampled with CTD only on the last day of the cruise.
Figure 1. Cruise track. Track of ship shown in red; stations shown in green.
Each transect consisted of a series of stations at which several sampling activities were
routinely conducted, including Conductivity-Temperature-Depth with rosette casts,
Video Plankton Recorder casts, and CalVET net tows. At many locations, the benthic
camera also was deployed to survey the benthos. More intensive sampling was
conducted every other day at “Process” stations, where a fuller suite of sampling and
experimentation was conducted to measure phytoplankton, microzooplankton,
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 2
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mesozooplankton (copepods, krill), and benthic composition and selected rates (e.g.,
grazing, reproduction, nutrient regeneration, production). Other sampling (e.g., benthic
grabs, plankton tows, benthic cores) also was conducted several times per day at selected
locations. One hundred eight four stations were conducted, many with multiple
deployments of different instruments and sampling devices including 241 CTD casts, 73
Video Plankton Recorder casts, 14 MOCNESS tows, 93 CalVET tows, 43 Bongo tows,
28 quantitative Ring Net tows, ~60 qualitative Ring Net tows, >150 Van Veen grabs, and
~34 Multicores. Floating sediment traps were deployed for 24 hours at three locations at
the shelf-break (>300 m) when ice and weather permitted. The traps were easy to track
and it was no trouble to re-locate them after each deployment.
On-ice sampling also was supported when in ice-covered regions through eight long (6
hour) and five short (2 hour) ice stations and through helicopter based ice core sampling
at locations remote from the ship. Usually, a long ice station was conducted at least
every other day in conjunction with the process stations while the short ice stations were
conducted on intervening days, although occasionally long ice stations were conducted
on successive days. On three occasions, when satisfactory ice could not be found in
proximity to the ship, sampling was conducted from the helicopter. Up to seven research
groups participated in the on-ice deployments.
Underway sampling of the surface water for temperature, salinity fluorescence, oxygen,
and other chemical parameters, acoustic backscatter from krill and fish, water velocity,
and seafloor topography from SeaBeam and underway observations of marine mammal
and bird distributions and sea ice extent and type also was conducted. Underway
sampling using the flow-through seawater system was compromised because the system
periodically became clogged with ice. It appears that this resulted from the ice separator
in the seawater system becoming clogged because of the increased volume of seawater
required to furnish cooling water for the water bath/incubators on the bow of the ship
(these incubators are where the rate process experiments for phytoplankton,
microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton are conducted under near-ambient temperature
and light conditions). The science party worked with the Coast Guard to set up a system
whereby ambient seawater is pumped into a ballast tank while the ship is at station (to
avoid in taking ice) and from there directly to the incubator, reducing the flow demand on
the science seawater system and ice separator and preventing blockage of the underway
science system by ice.
During the period of the cruise, the ice edge retreated to the N and the ice itself started to
melt in the southern portion of the region (NP Line). Biological activity in the water
column was low, in contrast to that of the sea ice that supported a bloom of ice algae and
the organisms that utilize the algae. At times, gales in the Bering Sea limited our
sampling at the ice edge and in open water.
Janet Scannell and John Allison from EOL developed a field catalog that includes a
comprehensive event log as well as data from underway sensors, satellite imagery,
reports, CTD data, and other useful information (http://catalog.eol.ucar.edu/best_hly-0802). Steve Roberts served satellite imagery, including ocean color when possible,
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 3
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underway data, and ship location through the map server. The Map Server program on
the science network was used both by the science party and the Coast Guard and was
extremely useful.
Outreach Activities
Multiple outreach activities focused on web based dissemination of information, local
newspapers, presentations to local communities, and communication with high schools
both informally and through the ARCUS Polar Trec Program. At least five on-line web
logs1 were established and maintained for most of the cruise. The cruise plans and
activities were presented to the community of Unalaska (Dutch Harbor) prior to and
following the cruise (facilitated by Reid Brewer, UAF Assistant Professor and Sea Grant
Alaska Marine Advisory Agent in Unalaska). Several articles were published in the
Tundra Drums newspaper from Bethel, AK, serving the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region,
by Ann Fienup-Riordan, a BEST sociologist and specialist in Yupik culture who
participated in the cruise for the first 2 weeks. Fienup-Riordan also sent four dispatches
to local (Bering Sea) high schools. Chief Scientist Carin Ashjian and Healy Operations
Officer LCDR Jeffrey Stewart visited Gambell, St. Lawrence Island on April 29 to
discuss the cruise with the whalers there at the invitation of Merlin Koonooka, Alaska
Eskimo Whaling Commissioner from Gambell. We met with Merlin Koonooka, Clement
Ungott, Thomas Antaghame, Bruce Boolowan, Mike Apataki, and Dexter Irrigoo. In
addition, Chief Scientist Carin Ashjian sent near daily reports of ship position, activities,
weather, ice conditions, and marine mammal and oceanographic conditions to the
communities of Gambell and Savoonga.
PIs David Shull and Al Devol and Western Washington University graduate student
Emily Davenport participated in the ARCUS Polar Trec program during the cruise.
Davenport maintained a web-based journal, communicating with high school and middle
school students during the cruise and organized a "live event” (teleconference) on May 1
through ARCUS with approximately 110 students and educators, ARCUS, Healy science
party members Davenport, Shull, Ashjian, Sherr, Kelly, and Whitefield and CG Marine
Science Officer LTJG Stephen Elliott. During the event, the audience went through a
previously prepared powerpoint presentation and asked questions of the researchers on
board Healy. The event is archived at the ARCUS PolarTrec “Live from IPY!” Web site
(http://www.polartrec.com/live-from-ipy/archive).
Independent journalist Gaelin Rosenwaks participated in the second portion of the cruise,
covering multiple aspects of the research in a web log that was accessed by several
schools as well as the general public. Rosenwaks will be preparing articles for several
media outlets as well as preparing video to be broadcast after the cruise on NOAA’s
Ocean Live web site (www. oceanslive.org).
Acknowledgments
This was a highly successful cruise, achieving all of our planned objectives and more.
This success could not have been achieved without the contributions of many people. In
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particular, we would like to thank the Captain, officers, and crew of the USCGC Healy
for their tireless efforts on our behalf and for keeping us warm, moving, and well fed.
Particular thanks to Executive Officer CDR Dale Bateman, Operations Officer LCDR
Jeffrey Stewart, Navigator BMCS Tim Sullivan, and Bosun CWO3 John Ward. Thanks
also to Dave Forcucci for his assistance in planning and on-shore logistics prior to the
cruise. Many thanks to Dale Chayes for finding the critically needed laboratory vans that
we used on the cruise as well as for coordinating outstanding science support. Thanks to
Bill Martin at UW for coming through with a van at the last minute, to Scott Hiller and
Lynne Butler for their help and good spirits on the CTD (and VPR) watch as well as for
their work on the underway seawater system, to Tom Bolmer and Steve Roberts for help
keeping the science systems running and for the Map Server, and to Mike Merchant for
cheerfully assisting us with our e-mail and computer glitches. Special thanks to our
Marine Science Officer Stephen Elliott and to our Marine Science Technicians MSTC
Mark Rieg, MST1 Chuck “Run-Amok” Bartlett, MST1 Rich Layman, MST1 Eric
Rocklage, MST1 Tiffany Wright, MST3 Tommy Kruger, and LTJG Elizabeth Newton.
Thanks to Merlin Koonooka (AEWC Commissioner from Gambell) and George
Noongwook (AEWC Commissioner from Savoonga) for their interest and for their
invitation to visit and to the communities of Gambell and Savoonga for their support of
our science. Finally, a very special thanks to Captain Tedric Lindström for all of his
enthusiasm, interest, and attention to our science.
1
www.polartrec.com/bering-sea-benthic-studies
http://bsierp.nprb.org/cruises/healy/hly0802/0802logbook.html
http://www.ecofoci.noaa.gov/cruiseWeb/ice08/
http://arctic.globaloceanexploration.com/
2
“Icebreaker Healy pursues scientific adventure in the Bering Sea”, Ann Fienup-Riordan, Tundra Drums,
Vol. 36, No. 5, April 10, 2008.
“Ever-changing sea ice provides show for observers”, Ann Fienup-Riordan, Tundra Drums, Vol. 36, No. 6,
April 17, 2008.
“Breaking ice with the Healy”, Ann Fienup-Riordan, Tundra Drums, Vol. 36, No. May 1, 2008.”
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 5
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Impacts of sea-ice on the hydrographic structure, nutrients, and the
distribution of chlorophyll-a over the eastern Bering Sea shelf – Rolf
Sonnerup, Dean Stockwell, Terry Whitledge, Calvin Mordy, Phyllis Stabeno
Leg 1: Nancy Kachel, David Kachel, Carol Ladd, Jeremy Malczyk,
Calvin Mordy, Dan Naber
Leg 2: Ned Cokelet, Rolf Sonnerup, Peter Proctor, Dylan Righi,
David Strausz, Jeremy Mathis
The BEST Hydrography Group conducted 241 CTD casts at 184 oceanographic stations.
The group conducted “standard” CTD casts each of which included nutrient samples
from up to 12 Niskin bottles, six chlorophyll samples from the upper bottle depths, two or
more Winkler oxygen samples for calibration of the CTD oxygen sensor, three O18
samples for Tom Weingartner, and one (on average) TOC/DIC/Alkalinity sample for
Jeremy Mathis. Table 1 summarizes the sampling. At approximately one-third of the
stations, six additional fractionated chlorophyll samples were collected to compare with
the total chlorophyll analyses as typically done in the Bering Sea by scientists from
NOAA’s Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Scott Hiller and Lynne Butler, Scripps
Institution of Oceanography, operated the CTD console during the cruise and analyzed
salinity samples for calibration. We collected water samples and kept logs of the Niskin
bottle samples taken for other groups.
Table 1. Sampling by Hydrographic Group, 29 March–6 May 2008
Hydrographic Stations
CTD casts
Nutrient Samples Analyzed
Total Chlorophyll Samples
Fractionated Chlorophyll Samples
Winkler Oxygen Samples
TOC Samples
DIC/Alk Samples
O18 Samples
184
241
1191
1068
330
389
250
250
400
Underway Samples
Total Chlorophyll Samples
Nutrient Samples
43
43
43
Ice Stations
Temp/Chlorophyll Cores Collected
Salt/Nutrient Cores Collected
Surface Water Samples Collected
Ice-Well Samples Collected
12
12
12
5
21
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Calvin Mordy and Peter Proctor analyzed nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, silicate and
phosphate) on the standard CTD casts at high precision and quickly analyzed selected
nutrient samples for the Sherr and Sambrotto groups to assist in determining appropriate
levels for their incubations and experiments. Nutrients were also analyzed for the ice
stations sampled by the Hydrography Group and the Gradinger, Shull and Prokopenko
groups.
The Hydrography Group took samples at 10 ice stations, analyzing those and the samples
from two more stations. We collected one core for temperature profile readings and total
chlorophyll samples, and a second core for salinity and nutrient analyses. Each core was
photographed and described during a visual inspection prior to sampling. PAR
measurements were recorded both above and below the ice during the station. Ice wells
were augured to 20 cm depth intervals. These filled with brine that was sampled for
chlorophyll, salinity and nutrients upon return to the ship. At nine ice stations, a CTD
cast was taken by lowering a pumped SeaCAT-19+ through an ice hole to a depth of
~15m. Many of these data were collected in collaboration with the ice-well oxygen
experiments of Masha Prokopenko. Upon our return to the ship, 1000 ml of filtered
seawater were added to each chlorophyll core section. Ice core segments thawed in the
dark and sampled as soon as they melted, or stored in the refrigerator until sampling
could take place. Two cores at the first nine ice stations were sampled for O18 for Tom
Weingartner, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Ned Cokelet arranged for the underway seawater sampling system to be augmented for
this cruise, and Scott Hiller set up the instruments. Additions included an Aanderaa
Optode oxygen probe (on loan from Brad Moran, University of Rhode Island), a
WetLabs ac-9 optical absorption and attenuation meter, and a Satlantic ISUS nitrate
meter (both on loan from Lisa Eisner, NOAA Auke Bay Laboratory). Seawater samples
were collected from the system and analyzed for dissolved oxygen, nitrate and
chlorophyll concentration for calibration.
Following are preliminary plots of some of the variables from across the transects or as
measured by the underway seawater sampling system. For all plots, the measurements
shown are uncalibrated and may change. For the underway data, values when the
seawater flow rate was reduced due to ice jams are excluded.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 7
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Figure 2. (a, left) Water temperature and (b, right) salinity along the SL (Saint Lawrence) transect.
Figure 2. (c, left) Mass density (sigma-t) and (d, right) chlorophyll concentration (inferred from
fluorescence) along the SL (Saint Lawrence) transect.
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Figure 2. (e) Oxygen concentration along the SL (Saint Lawrence) transect.
Figure 3. Nitrate, phosphate, silicate, ammonia and total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) on the SL
transect.
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Figure 4. (a, left) Water temperature and (b, right) salinity along the W (Weingartner) transect.
Figure 4. (c, left) Mass density (sigma-t) and (d, right) chlorophyll concentration (inferred from
fluorescence) along the W (Weingartner) transect.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 10
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Figure 4. (e) Oxygen concentration along the W (Weingartner) transect.
Figure 5. Nitrate, phosphate silicate ammonia and total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) on the W
(Weingartner) line.
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Figure 6. (a, left) Water temperature and (b, right) salinity along the MN transect.
Figure 6. (c, left) Mass density (sigma-t) and (d, right) chlorophyll concentration (inferred from
fluorescence) along the MN transect.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 12
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Figure 6. (e) Oxygen concentration along the MN transect.
Figure 7. Nitrate, phosphate, silicate, ammonia and total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) on the first
transect of the MN line.
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Figure 8. (a, b) Water temperature (upper row) and (c, d) salinity (lower row) along two occupations
(March 20-Apriil 3, left; April 18-20, right) of the NP (Nunivak-Saint Paul) transect.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 14
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Figure 8. (e, f) Mass density (sigma-t) (upper row) and (g, h) chlorophyll concentration (inferred from
fluorescence) (lower row) along two occupations (March 20-Apriil 3, left; April 18-20, right) of the NP
(Nunivak-Saint Paul) transect.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 15
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Figure 8. (i, j) Oxygen concentration along two occupations (March 20-Apriil 3, left; April 18-20, right) of
the NP (Nunivak-Saint Paul) transect.
Figure 9. Nitrate, phosphate, silicate, ammonia and total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) on the first
occupation (March 30 – April 3) of the NP transect.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 16
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Figure 10. (a) Water temperature, (b) salinity, (c) mass density (sigma-t), (d) chlorophyll concentration
(inferred from fluorescence) and (e) oxygen concentration along the 70-m transect.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 17
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Figure 11. (a) Water temperature, (b) salinity, (c) mass density (sigma-t), (d) chlorophyll concentration
(inferred from fluorescence) and (e) oxygen concentration along the CN transect.
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Figure 12. Water temperature at 8 m depth measured by the underway seawater sampling system. The
outer boundary of the sea ice extent is shown every 9 days.
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Figure 13. Salinity at 8 m depth measured by the underway seawater sampling system. The outer
boundary of the sea ice extent is shown every 9 days.
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Figure 14. Dissolved nitrate concentration at 8 m depth measured by the underway seawater sampling
system. The outer boundary of the sea ice extent is shown every 9 days.
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Figure 15. Chlorophyll concentration (inferred from fluorescence) at 8 m depth measured by the underway
seawater sampling system. The outer boundary of the sea ice extent is shown every 9 days.
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Figure 16. Dissolved oxygen concentration at 8 m depth measured by the underway seawater sampling
system. The outer boundary of the sea ice extent is shown every 9 days.
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The Role of Ice Melting in Providing Available Iron to the Surface
Water of the Bering Sea. Jingfeng Wu
On-board Participants: Ana Aguilar-Islas and Robert Rember
Sample collection of seawater and ice for the analysis of dissolved iron, total dissolvable
iron, soluble iron, and iron speciation was successful during the HLY0802 BEST cruise.
Sampling took place from 30 March to 19 April 2008.
Water Column Sampling
Collection of seawater samples was focused on outer shelf, shelf break and offshore
waters along the NP, MN, and SL lines. Collection at the WOCE station P14-4 was
cancelled prior to 19 April due to weather. Adequate south-to-north sampling of our area
of interest was accomplished. Trace metal-clean vertical profiles were collected using our
UAF/ATE vane samplers at 12 stations. Water samples were also collected at ice stations
using a pump and acid-cleaned Teflon tubing. Over 40 seawater samples were collected
from depths ranging from immediately below the ice to 2500 m. To avoid contamination
from the ship, samples were filtered in a class 100 laminar flow hood. Samples were
filtered through 0.4 µm PCTE filters, collecting 1 L for Fe organic speciation (natural Febinding ligands), 500 ml for archival purposes, and duplicate 30 ml samples for dissolved
Fe measurements. Additionally, a 30ml subsample for dissolvable Fe was collected using
0.02 µm Whatman anodisc filters. The remaining unfiltered sample will be used for the
analysis of total dissolvable Fe (pH 2). Speciation samples were frozen on-board ship,
and will be transported frozen to the lab at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Ice Sampling
Ice samples were collected from 9 stations on ice floes adjacent to the ship, and from 9
stations on ice floes reached by helicopter. Ice stations were located in the outer, mid and
inner shelf along the NP, MN, SL, and W lines. These stations provided a variety of ice
types and thicknesses (~20 cm to < 1m) including sediment-laden ice at a shallow station
near Nunivak Island, to ‘clean’ ice at most other stations. Our goal to collect ~50 ice
cores with better spatial coverage than achieved last year was accomplished during this
cruise. Cores were frozen on-board ship, and will be transported frozen to the lab at the
University of Alaska Fairbanks for processing. After processing, samples will be
analyzed for total dissolvable iron, dissolved iron, and soluble iron.
In summary, HLY0802 was a successful cruise providing our research group with
an excellent platform for sampling sea ice and the water column. The availability of the
helicopter as transportation during ice sampling facilitated acquiring ice cores of different
characteristics and from different locations in a time-efficient manner. This was
important to our group’s goal of better constraining the large variability in Fe content
observed on last year’s ice samples.
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Relevance of Sea Ice-Derived Organic Matter for Pelagic and Benthic
Herbivores. Rolf Gradinger, Katrin Iken, and Bodil Blum
On Board Participants: Rolf Gradinger, Katrin Iken, Rebecca Neumann, and Sarah
Story-Manes
Our research project focuses on the quality and quantity of organic matter produced by
ice algal communities and its relevance for pelagic and benthic herbivores. As of 20 April
2008, we collected during HLY0802 sea ice (13 stations), CTD water (42 stations),
plankton (32 stations) and benthic (25 stations) samples (Table 2).
Table 2: Overview of sampling events, for details regarding ice sampling see Table 3. “MUC” indicates
benthic samples taken with the Multicore; all other benthic samples were collected using Van Veen Grabs.
Sta #
1
3
5
6
9
11
13
15
16
18
20
20
22
23
25
28
31
34
35
36
37
40
42
43
46
48
51
52
54
55
56
St name
NP15
NP13
NP11
NP10
NP7
NP5
NP3
NP1
NP1 – ice
MN2
MN4
MN4 – ice
MN6
MN7
MN8.5 – ice3
MN12
MN15
MN20
St 35
SL14
SL12
SL10
SL8.5
SL8.25
SL6
SL4
SL1
W1
W3
W4
W6
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 25
Date
30-Mar-08
1-Apr-08
1-Apr-08
1-Apr-08
1-Apr-08
2-Apr-08
3-Apr-08
3-Apr-08
3-Apr-08
3-Apr-08
4-Apr-08
4-Apr-08
5-Apr-08
5-Apr-08
6-Apr-08
7-Apr-08
8-Apr-08
9-Apr-08
10-Apr-08
10-Apr-08
11-Apr-08
11-Apr-08
12-Apr-08
12-Apr-08
13-Apr-08
13-Apr-08
14-Apr-08
14-Apr-08
15-Apr-08
15-Apr-08
15-Apr-08
CTD water plankton
sampling
sampling
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
benthic
ice
sampling
sampling
yes (MUC)
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
no
no
6/26/08
59
62
63
73
75
78
79
87
101
107
110
111
116
122
149
W7.5
NP7/2
NP3/2
NP13/2
BS1
BS2
BS3
ZZ8
ZZ13
MN15/2
St. 110
70M58
70M53
70M47
NP7/3
16-Apr-08
18-Apr-08
18-Apr-08
20-Apr-08
21-Apr-08
23-Apr-08
23-Apr-08
24-Apr-08
26-Apr-08
27-Apr-08
28-Apr-08
29-Apr-08
30-Apr-08
1-May-08
3-May-08
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes (MUC)
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
no
no
Table 3: Ice-sampling activity details
Date
Station
Sea ice
community
analysis
Underice CTD
Sediment
traps
In situ
Under-ice
incubations video
4/3/08
NP1
X
X
-
X
X
4/4/08
MN4
X
X
X
X
X
4/5/08
MN7
X
X
-
-
X
4/6/08
MN8.5
X
X
X
X
X
4/8/08
MN15
X
X
X
X
X
4/12/08
SL8.25
X
X
X
X
X
4/13/08
SL6
X
X
-
-
X
4/14/08
W1
X
X
-
-
X
4/15/08
W4
X
-
-
-
-
4/16/08
W7.5
X
X
X
X
X
4/28/08
St. 110
X
X
X
X
X
4/29/08
70M58
X
X
X
X
-
4/30/08
70M53
X
X
X
-
X
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 26
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Under-ice CTD
12. April 2008 ice station Healy 0802
Healy 0801 Under-ice CTD; Gradinger et al.
-2.000
-1.600
10-2
0.000
10-1
Potential Temperature [ITS-90, deg C]
-1.200
-0.800
-0.400
PAR/Irradiance,
Biospherical/Licor 1
100
10
0.000
102
Depth [salt water, m]
6.000
12.000
18.000
Under-ice CTD measurements
were conducted with a Seabird
19plus equipped with additional
PAR and algal fluorescence
sensors. The instrument could be
deployed at nine stations. The
instrument malfunctioned at
station W4 due to freezing of the
pump.
24.000
30.000
0.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
Fluorescence, Wetlab ECO-AFL/FL [mg/m^3]
4.000
5.000
Figure 17: Example for under-ice CTD measurements with
the following parameters: T (blue), S (red), PAR (yellow),
algal fluorescence (green, rel. units).
31.500
32.000
32.500
Salinity [PSU]
33.000
33.500
34.000
The under-ice CTD
measurements (Fig. 17) revealed
a well mixed and homogenous
water column structure.
The 1% light level was found at
about 5 to 12m water depth
below the ice.
Sea ice sampling
Ice cores for algal pigment, species composition and C and N stable isotope ratios were
collected at 13 stations. Ice cores were partitioned into 2 to 10cm long sections and
melted in the dark partially with addition of filtered seawater. After complete melt,
samples were filtered onto GF/F filters and frozen (-80deg C) for further analysis in the
home lab. Nutrient concentrations in the ice segments were determined by the BEST
Service team (Mordy/Procter.). Subsamples were taken and fixed for count of ice algal
abundances. We observed a distinct change in ice algal community at the late-April
stations with sudden increases in Pleurosigma abundance. In addition, 200-500ml of
melted ice were sieved through 20um gaze and the retained meiofauna was counted alive
under a dissecting scope. Dominant meiofauna taxa were rotifers and nematodes. In
addition, we regularly observed polychaete juveniles and harpacticoid copepods.
In situ incubations and sediment trap deployments
Ice algal primary productivity and N-uptake were determined with in situ incubations (45h) at 8 locations. Ice algal samples were incubated just at the ice-water interface, water
samples (from 5m depth) at 5m with additions of stable isotope trace amounts of 13C and
15N.
Sediment traps were deployed through holes in the sea ice at 8 locations for about 5 hours
in 5m depth. Collected material will be analyzed for algal pigment content, particle
analysis, and POC/PON concentrations. At 5 locations, subsamples were provided to
Moran et al. for Thorium measurements (see their report for details).
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 27
6/26/08
Under-ice video observations
A black-and-white video camera was lowered through a core hole and connected to a
mini-DV camcorder at 11 locations during Healy 0802. One hour of tape was recorded at
each station with the camera positioned directly under the ice. The core hole was covered
with snow to reduce light effects. The particle composition differed between stations
from day to day. For example, on April 5 (MN7) marine snow dominated, while on April
6 (MN8.5), dense accumulations of euphausiids (Thysanoessa rashii) were seen attached
to the bottom of the ice, likely feeding on ice algal biomass.
Ice observations
More than 90 ice observations (period March 30 to May 3) were done every day during
daylight hours, while the ship was in transit or on station. No observations were done
during the dark night period or when the ship was completely out of sea ice region. The
observations together with two digital images per observation were logged on the Healy
ice observational sheet and are available on the Healy 0802 event catalog at
http://192.168.10.94/cgi-bin/best_hly-08-02/research/index.
CTD water sampling
CTD water was sampled at 42 stations. At all stations, water from ~20m depth was
filtered onto pre-combusted GF/F filters and frozen for later C and N stable isotope
analysis of POM. At process stations, 20m depth water was also collected for chlorophyll
analysis and bottom water (usually 5 m above bottom) for C and N stable isotope analysis
of POM. All samples are kept frozen until further processing at our home lab. A small
water sample was taken from 10m depth for δ18O analysis.
Plankton sampling
Plankton samples were collected with a 150um hand net at 3 stations and with a 150um
ring net (vertical haul) at 30 stations. After collection, samples were sorted alive and
dominant taxa were frozen. Taxa collected at many stations, depending on their
occurrence, included copepods (Calanus marshallae, Metridia pacifica, Neocalanus
cristatus, N. plumchrus/flamingeri, Pseudocalanus spp., Eucalanus bungi), euphausids
(mainly Thysanoessa rashii), chaetognaths (Sagitta elegans), cnidarians (hydromedusae),
and occasionally ctenophores (Beroe cucumis, Bolinopsis infundibulum, Mertensia
ovum). Samples were dried for later C and N stable isotope analysis at UAF.
Benthos sampling
For benthos, two van Veen grabs per station were collected at 25 stations and replicate
surface sediment samples taken for chlorophyll and POM (stable isotope) measurements.
At station 70M47, no surface samples could be taken because the sediment was gravelly
and the grab did not close completely. While some fauna was retained, all fine materials
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 28
6/26/08
were washed out from the grabs, preventing sampling of the sediment surface. The
remaining parts of the grab sediments were sieved through 1mm sieves and biota sorted
immediately for stable isotope analyses. Main target groups were mollusks (e.g. Yoldia
hyperborea, Macoma calcarea), polychaetes (Maldanidae, Spionidae, Polynoidae,
Phyllodocidae and other families), amphipods (incl. Byblis spp., Ampelisca spp., and
others), and cumaceans (various species). After freezing, samples were dried and will be
further processed in the home lab at UAF for C and N stable isotope analysis. Occasional
interesting finds included Hemichordata and Cudofoveata, which were preserved in
ethanol for molecular analysis. In addition, selected polychaete, amphipod and mollusk
species were preserved for molecular analysis.
Mesozooplankton-Microbial Food Web Interactions in a Climatically Changing Sea
Ice Environment. Evelyn Sherr, Barry Sherr, Robert Campbell, Carin Ashjian
A. Microzooplankton Grazing on Phytoplankton and Herbivorous Protists as Food
for Mesozooplankton
Evelyn Sherr, Celia Ross
The overall objective of our project is to collaborate with our colleagues Carin Ashjian
and Bob Campbell to improve understanding of specific feeding interactions and thus
pathways of carbon flow in the pelagic food webs of the Bering Sea during early season
conditions of sea ice and spring blooms, focusing on a comparison of the roles of
mesozooplankton and microzooplankton as herbivores, as well as on the importance of
microzooplankton as a food resource for mesozooplankton. Our research is designed to
evaluate the rates and impact of microzooplankton grazing on algae suspended in the
upper water column, including sea ice algae when present, to describe the
microzooplankton community composition and abundance under varying conditions of
spring sea ice extent, and to assess the importance of microzooplankton as a food
resource for key copepod and krill species present during spring sea ice conditions by
collecting samples from the Ashjian/Campbell mesozooplankton grazing experiments.
During this cruise, we completed 14 microzooplankton grazing experiments. We
compared the rates of algal growth in whole water and in 10% whole water diluted with
particle-free filtered water over a 24 hour day-night cycle at light levels about 15% of
ambient. We incubated our 10% diluted water samples on the Ashjan/Campbell plankton
wheel incubator (Figure 18) and also in our flow through incubator when air temperatures
were sufficiently warm to keep out drain hoses from freezing. In four of the experiments,
there were separate treatments with and without added ice algae. Growth rates of algae
were determined by change in chlorophyll-a concentrations from the initial to final times
of the incubations. The results (Table 4) suggested low or no microzooplankton grazing
in 8 experiments, and significant rates of microzooplankton grazing in 4 experiments. In
the last experiment, chl-a concentrations were too low to determine growth and grazing
based on change in chlorophyll, so we took an extra set of samples for flow cytometric
analysis to evaluate the growth and grazing mortality of smaller sized phytoplankton by
change in abundance. Phytoplankton growth rates in the 10% diluted water treatments
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 29
6/26/08
varied from negligible to about 0.3 day-1, while ice algal growth varied from 0.01 to 0.16
day-1. We took samples for each experiment at initial and final times for
microzooplakton abundance and for flow cytometric analysis of abundances of small
sized phytoplankton and potential changes in cell-specific fluorescence of larger algae,
which would affect chlorophyll values
Table 4. Results of dilution experiments. Microzooplankton grazing rate is calculated as the difference
between the 10% diluted water growth rate and the whole water growth rate. In some experiments,
microzooplankton grazing was estimated for both ambient water algae and for ice algae added to the
ambient water sample. Negative values (in bold) for micro-zooplankton grazing rate indicate
microzooplankton grazing losses for algae in the water: values close to 0 or positive indicate net growth of
algae and no apparent microzooplankton grazing.
Site
Depth
sampled,
m
To WW
chl-a,
ug/liter
4/2/2008
NP-7
15
0.28
4/4/2008
MN-4
16
0.20
-0.044
0.128
-0.038
0.026
0.006
4/6/2008
MN-8.5
10
0.17
0.080
0.155
0.092
0.228
0.013
4/8/2008
MN-15
2
4/11/2008
SL-12
10
0.88
10.2
1.63
0.136
0.009
0.060
0.065
0.047
0.005
-0.361
-0.128
0.069
0.212
0.028
0.036
-0.497
-0.137
0.009
4/13/2006
MG-6
14
0.152
0.009
2
4/18/2008
NP-7
10
4/21/2008
BS-1
4/23/2008
BS-2
14
14
10
4/25/2008
ZZ-14
20
6.4
4/27/2008
ZZ-27
10
9.9
4/29/2008
70m58
10
8.5
0.005
0.062
0.295
0.031
0.027
0.042
0.046
0.099
0.027
0.028
0.029
0.036
0.016
0.056
0.104
0.095
0.042
W-7.5
-0.064
0.161
0.008
0.074
0.267
0.179
0.306
0.215
0.299
0.249
0.232
0.311
0.118
0.077
0.059
0.087
0.169
4/15/2008
0.76
9.28
0.17
6.73
0.30
5.75
20
20
7.1
0.213
0.068
0.297
0.219
0.280
0.233
0.148
0.215
0.082
0.047
-0.027
0.134
0.109
0.078
0.047
0.054
0.045
0.041
0.003
0.074
0.078
0.058
0.054
-0.111
-0.009
0.005
-0.019
-0.016
-0.084
-0.096
-0.036
-0.030
-0.046
5/1/2008
70m47
2
0.2
Date of
exp
10% diluted
water growth
rate, 1/day
stn
dev
average
0.095
0.159
Whole water
growth rate
1/day
stn
dev
average
-0.112
0.181
Microzoop
grazing
rate 1/day
-0.207
Sampling during the first part of the cruise was under heavy ice conditions with low algal
biomass in the water column. Inspection of water and sea ice samples via
epifluorescence microscopy, as well as additional images obtained by Evelyn Lessard on
her FlowCam, confirmed that the phytoplankton stocks in the water were either very
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 30
6/26/08
small cells which most mesozooplankton likely can’t utilize as food, or large and chainforming diatoms which appear to be primarily sloughed off from the overlying ice.
Images of such algae from previous work in the Arctic are shown in Figure 19. Similar
ice algae are present in Bering Sea ice. During the second part of the cruise, diatom
blooms were encountered which were composed of species similar to ice algae diatoms,
as well as strictly pelagic diatom genera such as Chaetocerous. All the blooms consisted
of a number of diatom species, including large single cell centric and pennate diatoms, as
well as chains of pennate and centric diatoms of several sizes.
Microscopic and FlowCam analysis of water samples has also shown the presence of
abundant microzooplankton, including large sized ciliates and heterotrophic
dinoflagellates such as those shown in Figure 20. The heterotrophic dinoflagellates,
which have been observed in all of our samples, are known to be able to ingest large
sized diatoms and we speculate they could be feeding on ice algae suspended in the
water. In high chlorophyll water samples with abundant diatoms, we observed numerous
cases of heterotrophic dinoflagellates with ingested diatoms. We will make images of
both the diatoms and the heterotrophic protists to post on our website: Sherr Lab, after
our samples are returned.
We also inspected by epifluorescence microscopy fecal pellets produced by copepods and
krill during the mesozooplankton grazing experiments (examples seen by light
microscopy from previous work in the Arctic are shown in Figure 21). If the
mesozooplankton were primarily ingesting algae, their fecal pellets would be expected to
show chlorophyll or phaeopigment autofluorescence. Most of the fecal pellets we have
observed showed little fluorescence, although some did have obvious red fluorescence
indicative of feeding on algae.
In addition to the grazing rate experiments, we collected profile samples for analysis of
microzooplankton abundance and flow cytometric analysis of phytoplankton in the upper
water column from depths sampled for primary production. These data will be used to put
the water depth sampled for our grazing experiments either just after or just before the
primary production cast in context of the overall distribution of microzooplankton in the
water.
In addition to the 1-day grazing experiments, we did 5 longer term experiments of up to
12 days to determine growth rates of selected species or morphotypes of
microzooplanktonic protists. Water was collected for 4 of these experiments at sites
where diatoms were blooming, with initial chl-a values of 7 to 27 ug chl-a/liter. Samples
were held in 2-liter bottles in the dark in an environmental chamber set at 0 to -1 oC for
two of the experiments, and for two experiments samples were incubated both at 0 to 1oC and at 5 to 6 oC in a second environmental chamber. Samples were taken every 1 to
3 days for analysis of chl-a and microzooplankton abundance. One other growth
experiment was done in the on-deck incubator at a light level of 25% of incident. Water
for this experiment was collected at Site NP-7 when initial chl-a concentrations were low,
about 0.3 ug/liter. Individual 2-liter bottles were sampled over a 12 day period. During
the first 10 days, a mixed species diatom bloom grew up to a final chl-a concentration of
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 31
6/26/08
about 4 ug/liter (Figure 22). After that time, the remaining samples were incubated in the
dark since the on-deck incubator froze up. The maximum growth rate of the diatoms was
about 0.4/day. We will analyze samples for growth or grazing of small size
phytoplankton via flow cytometry, and for potential growth of identifiable types of
microzooplanktonic protists, in our laboratory. We saw numerous examples of
heterotrophic protists, notably dinoflagellates, with ingested diatoms, and of
dinoflagellates in various stages of division, during inspection of epifluorescence slides
prepared during the growth experiments, so we are hopeful that we will be able to
determine growth rates of the protists.
Figure 18. Ashjian/Campbell plankton wheel incubator, showing incubation bottles wrapped to simulate
15% in situ light level being placed on the plankton wheel. Bottles are slowly rotated for a 24 hour period
while being immersed in flowing water at near surface seawater temperatures.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 32
6/26/08
Figure 19. Examples of sea ice algae imaged by top: light microscopy after fixation with acid Lugol
solution, and bottom: epifluorescence microscopy after fixation with formalin and staining with a bluefluorescing dye that shows the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual cells.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 33
6/26/08
Figure 20. Examples of herbivorous protists in the microzooplankton seen in the Arctic Ocean. Similar
protists have been observed during this cruise. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates known to ingest large sized
diatoms appear to be especially abundant in our samples.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 34
6/26/08
Figure 21. Examples of copepod fecal pellets like those we have inspected for the presence of chlorophyll
autofluorescence in the mesozooplankton grazing experiments during this cruise, seen by light microscopy
after preservation with acid Lugols solution.
Figure 22. Increase in chl-s concentration over 10 days during a grow-up experiment in which
water of initially low chlorophyll concentration and high nutrients was held at 25% light level for
10 days at about 0 oC, after which the incubator froze and the remaining samples were incubated
in the dark at 0 to -1 oC. Mixed species of diatoms grew up at a maximum rate of 0.4 / day.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 35
6/26/08
B. Mesozooplankton Feeding and Reproduction
Bob Campbell, Carin Ashjian, Philip Alatalo, Donna Van Keuren
Feeding experiments using the dominant mesozooplankton taxa were conducted at
process stations. An on-deck plankton wheel/incubator was used to maintain the animals
under in situ temperature and light conditions during the experiments. A total of 14
feeding experiments were conducted . The experiments were comprised of 6 different
copepod (Calanus marshallae, Pseudocalanus spp., and Metridia pacifica, Neocalanus
cristatus, N. flemingeri/plumchrus, Eucalanus bungi bungi) and 3 euphausiid (T. raschii,
T. inermis and T. longipes) taxa. Chlorophyll concentrations were quite low (<0.2 µg chl
a/l) at most process stations early in the cruise with concomitant low grazing on
chlorophyll at those stations. Grazing rates were substantially higher later in the cruise at
stations with higher chlorophyll concentrations (5 to 20 µg chl a/l) and also on ambient
water enriched with ice algae. Samples from the experiments were taken to estimate
feeding on microzooplankton and phytoplankton/ice algae taxa to be analyzed later.
There were problems supplying ambient science seawater to the incubators to maintain
incubator temperatures while in heavy ice. The science seawater system clogged with ice
and flow slowed or stopped completely resulting in frozen supply hoses. The Coast
Guard worked with us to solve this problem using the ballast water system developed
during SBI. The system was able to usually deliver water at temperatures a little more
than 1 °C above ambient or about 0.5 °C higher than the science seawater system. Thus,
it allowed us to keep the incubators running in heavy ice conditions. We still preferred to
use the science seawater when it was available. We also note that during very cold
weather (around –15 °C or below) the drains on most of the incubators froze, which
resulted in water overflowing onto the deck and freezing, creating a hazardous situation.
Our “Heatline” designed drains did not have a single problem. Even after water had not
been flowing for more than 12 hrs they remained open and ice free. We highly
recommend that all incubators use drains heated with heat tape or heated seawater on
future cruises where similar temperature conditions are expected to keep the drains open
and prevent flooding of the bow.
Egg production experiments were conducted with the dominant copepod species at
selected stations. A total of 38 measurements were made with the three dominant
species. Reproduction was initially low for Calanus marshallae but increased over the
course of the cruise to very high rates. The highest rates are probably at or near
maximum for this species at these temperatures. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus spp.
and Metridia pacifica was much lower than Calanus.
Over 2500 samples were also collected for mesozooplankton morphometrics, carbon and
nitrogen content, RNA and DNA content, and genetic sequencing from process stations
and selected other locations.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 36
6/26/08
Table 5. Summary of sampling activities by station. “Grazing” refers to locations where a grazing
experiment was conducted and “EPR” refers to locations where egg production rates were measured.
Copepods and euphausiids were collected also for analysis of RNA/DNA content, carbon and nitrogen
content, and for genetic analysis at the indicated stations.
Date
St #
St Name
3/30/08
4/2/08
4/4/08
4/5/08
4/6/08
4/7/08
4/8/08
4/11/08
4/12/08
4/13/08
4/13/08
4/15/08
4/16/08
4/18/08
4/19/08
4/20/08
4/21/08
4/23/08
4/24/08
4/25/08
4/26/08
4/27/08
4/29/08
4/30/08
5/1/08
5/2/08
5/3/08
1
9
20
23
25
27
31
38
42
44
46
55
59
62
63
73
75
78
87
93
101
106
111
116
122
138
149
NP15
NP7
MN4
MN7
MN8.5
MN11
MN15
SL12
SL8.75
SL8
SL6
W4
W7.5
NP7
NP3
NP13
P14-3
BS2
ZZ8
ZZ14
ZZ13
ZZ27
70M58
70M53
70M47
70M31
NP7
Grazing
GE1
GE2
GE3
GE4
GE5
GE6
GE7
GE8
GE9
GE10
GE11
GE12
GE13
GE14
RNA/DNA
CHN
Genetics
EPR
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
C. Fine Scale Vertical Distribution of Plankton and Particles from a Video Plankton
Recorder
Carin Ashjian and Philip Alatalo
The fine scale vertical distribution of plankton and particles in association with
hydrographic features and water column structure was described using a self-contained
Video Plankton Recorder (see Ashjian et al., 2004 for more information on the
instrument). Casts have been conducted at all stations across the cross-shelf transects,
surveying the water column from the surface to 5 m off of the bottom or to 300 m depth
where water depth exceeds that. Seventy-three casts were conducted across the NP, MN,
SL, the second and third samplings of the NP lines, and at selected locations during the
ice-edge bloom sampling. Casual viewing of the data has been conducted but only
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 37
6/26/08
limited progress has been made on image identification because of our intense work
schedule. Qualitative assessment of the plankton and particles shows low
particle/plankton concentrations at most locations and a predominance of small copepods.
Complete analysis will be conducted in the laboratory following the cruise.
Figure 23. Philip Alatalo (L, WHOI) and Marine Science Officer LTJG Stephan Elliott (R, USCG) deploy
the Video Plankton Recorder.
Meso-Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance - Alexei Pinchuk
The primary task of the mesozooplankton component was to assess the
abundance, biomass and species composition of the mesozooplankton on the shelfbreak/outer, middle and inner shelf domains of the southeastern Bering Sea. The data
from these samples will aid in determining the fate of new and recycled production on the
shelf. A total of 14 MOCNESS tows were taken: 9 west and northwest of Pribilofs in
shelf-break and outer shelf regime and 5 east of Pribilofs and near a NOAA permanent
mooring site (M2) in the middle domain. Heavy ice prevented us from deploying
MOCNESS at other stations and in the inner domain beyond 50 m isobath. We obtained
93 CalVET samples at all CTD stations along NP, MN, SL and W transect lines and at
evenly spaced selected locations along 70M line.
The large mesozooplankton component was sampled using a 1-m MOCNESS
(Multiple Opening Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System), equipped with 0.5
mm mesh nets. The MOCNESS was equipped with salinity, temperature and
fluorescence sensors to provide depth profiles of physical oceanographic data during the
tows. Samples were consistently taken in 20 m depth increments from 100 m or the
bottom to the surface.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 38
6/26/08
The small mesozooplankton were sampled with a 25 cm CalVET (CalCOFI
Vertical Egg Tow) net equipped with 0.15 mm mesh nets. The net was towed vertically
from the bottom to the surface and from 100 m to the surface at sites deeper than 100 m.
The nets were equipped with General Oceanics digital flow meters to monitor volume
filtered. The CTD sample number was recorded with each net to facilitate comparison of
CalVET samples with physical oceanographic data.
Samples were preserved in 10% formalin seawater and returned to the lab for
processing. Samples will be split and organisms identified to the lowest possible
taxonomic category. Copepods will be staged and wet weights will be determined for
each species and stage. The above procedure will generate the species composition,
abundance and wet weight biomass for all identified taxa from each tow.
Casual observation of the samples indicates that oceanic zooplankton species
were common in the shelf-break and outer shelf region, but large copepods were rare or
absent from the middle and inner domains stations. It appears that the mesozooplankton
community was dominated by medium-sized and small copepods, gelatinous zooplankton
and, at some stations, euphausiids. Oceanic Neocalanus spp., Eucalanus bungii and
Thysanoessa longipes were common on the offshore ends of NP and MN transects
indicating advection of oceanic water on the outer shelf (up to ~100 m isobath). Calanus
marshallae, Metridia pacifica and Thysanoessa raschii were common on the middle
shelf, while Sagitta elegans and small copepod Pseudocalanus spp. were abundant in all
domains. Spawning of T. raschii as indicated by attached spermatophores and blue
ovaries on ovigerous females appeared to start the first week of May. A detailed
assessment of zooplankton abundance, biomass and distribution will be made after the
samples have been processed.
Table 6. Summary of zooplankton net samples collected during HLY0802 by this project.
STATION ID
DATE
CalVET#
MOCNESS#
NP15
NP14
NP13
NP12
NP11
NP10
NP9
NP8
NP7
NP6
NP5
NP4
NP3
NP2
NP1
MN1
3/30/2008
4/1/2008
4/1/2008
4/1/2008
4/1/2008
4/1/2008
4/2/2008
4/2/2008
4/2/2008
4/2/2008
4/3/2008
4/3/2008
4/3/2008
4/3/2008
4/3/2008
4/4/2008
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
MOC1
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 39
MOC2
6/26/08
MN2
MN3
MN4
MN5
MN6
MN7
MN8
MN8.5
MN10
MN11
MN12
MN13
MN14
MN15
MN18
STLAW
SL14
SL13
SL12
SL11
SL10
SL9
SL8
SL7
SL6
SL5
SL4
SL3
SL2
SL1
W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
W6
W7
W7.5
NP7
NP3
NP4
NP5
NP6
NP7
NP8
NP9
NP10
NP11
4/4/2008
4/4/2008
4/4/2008
4/5/2008
4/5/2008
4/5/2008
4/6/2008
4/6/2008
4/7/2008
4/7/2008
4/7/2008
4/8/2008
4/8/2008
4/8/2008
4/9/2008
4/10/2008
4/11/2008
4/11/2008
4/11/2008
4/12/2008
4/12/2008
4/12/2008
4/13/2008
4/13/2008
4/13/2008
4/13/2008
4/14/2008
4/14/2008
4/14/2008
4/14/2008
4/14/2008
4/15/2008
4/15/2008
4/15/2008
4/15/2008
4/16/2008
4/16/2008
4/16/2008
4/18/2008
4/19/2008
4/19/2008
4/19/2008
4/19/2008
4/19/2008
4/19/2008
4/19/2008
4/19/2008
4/20/2008
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 40
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
6/26/08
NP12
NP13
BHS
T2(P14-4)
BS2
ZZ6
ZZ8
ZZ14
ZZ18
ZZ13
ZZ24
ZZ25
ZZ26
ZZ27
MN15
70M58
70M55
70M53
70M47
70M42
70M37
70M34
70M30
70M26
NP9
70M23
70M19
70M17
70M15
70M11
70M7
70M3
70M1
4/20/2008
4/20/2008
4/21/2008
4/22/2008
4/23/2008
4/24/2008
4/24/2008
4/25/2008
4/26/2008
4/26/2008
4/27/2008
4/27/2008
4/27/2008
4/27/2008
4/27/2008
4/29/2008
4/30/2008
4/30/2008
5/1/2008
5/1/2008
5/2/2008
5/2/2008
5/2/2008
5/2/2008
5/3/2008
5/3/2008
5/4/2008
5/4/2008
5/4/2008
5/4/2008
5/4/2008
5/5/2008
5/5/2008
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
MOC3
MOC4
MOC5
MOC6
MOC7
MOC8
MOC9
MOC10
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
MOC11
MOC12
MOC13
MOC14
Underway Acoustics -Alex De Robertis
Project description: The focus of this work is to improve our understanding of the how
temperature and sea ice cover alters the distribution of fish and euphausiids in the eastern
Bering Sea. The Eastern Bering Sea supports very large fisheries, particularly for
walleye pollock. Although the distribution of fish is well-known in the summer, little is
known about their ecology and distribution during the months when much of the Bering
sea is ice covered. In addition, little is known about how changes in ice extent might
impact pelagic population of fish and their macrozooplankton prey. In this ancillary
project, we instrumented Healy with calibrated scientific echosounders in order to
continuously measure acoustic backscatter from fish and euphausiids. The work was
supported by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center under the auspices of NOAA’s loss of
sea ice initiative.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 41
6/26/08
Methods and instrumentation: Two transducers (120-7C and 38-120 were mounted 10
cm apart in a transducer well on Healy’s hull which is at a depth of 8.4 m. The
transducers were mounted 5 cm from the face of a composite urethane acoustic window
which is bolted to the hull. The wells were filled with a 1.3 % propylene glycol and
freshwater solution to prevent freezing of the water in the wells. The transducers were
connected to Simrad EK60 120 and 38 kHz general purpose transceivers. The time on
the logging computer was synchronized every 5 minutes to a timeserver aboard the ship
to ensure that the echosounder time stamp matched that of other data streams. A standard
sphere calibration of the system and transducer cabling was conducted prior to the
installation. This calibration was conducted with a spare transducer window 5cm away
from the transducer face to account for transmission losses associated with the acoustic
window.
A sequential instrument triggering system was used avoid interference from other
instruments. The trigger was based on the transmit pulse of a Seabeam 2112 system
delayed by 0.75 seconds in order for the EK60 to receive after energy from the Seabeam
transmission had attenuated. The EK60 ran at ~0.7 pings per second when not limited by
travel time to the bottom (i.e. < ~750m depth). The Sperry SRD500 doppler speed log,
which cannot be triggered, was turned off to avoid interference at 120 kHz. Acoustic data
were logged continuously during Healy0801 and 0802.
Data processing: Two acoustic categories, one attributed to swimbladdered fish and one
to euphausiids were developed based on the observed frequency response at 120 and 38
kHz (e.g. Figure 24). Experience on cruises on NOAA acoustic surveys the Bering Sea,
where organisms are sampled to verify the acoustic backscatter in the Bering Sea as well
as other studies suggest that this is a reasonable generalization (Korneliussen and Ona,
2002, Miyashita et al., 1997, De Robertis, unpublished data). Acoustic records were
averaged into 5 ping by 5m cells, and the frequency difference was in each cell was
computed. Cells with a Sv120-Sv38 (Sv is a log10 unit of backscatter strength) in the range
of –8 to -16 dB were assigned to the fish category and those in the range of 8to 30 dB
were assigned to the euphausiid category (see figure 24). Acoustic backscatter in these
categories was averaged into 0.5 nm elementary sampling distance units (EDSU’s) in 5m
depth cells along the vessel trackline. Backscatter passing the "fish" category was
integrated at 38 kHz and fish passing the "euphausiid" category was integrated at 120
kHz using a -80 Sv integration threshold. Acoustic backscatter strength is given in sA
with units of m2 nmi-2 averaged over the water column. sA is a linear measure of
backscatter strength (see MacLennan et al, 2002 for a good discussion of acoustic units).
Preliminary observations: Preliminary processing up to the date of April 17 was
conducted during the cruise. The resulting preliminary maps can be seen in figure 25.
Overall, backscatter from euphausiids and particularly backscatter from fish was lower in
the northern and inshore parts of the vessel track, where cold water and ice cover was
present.
Much of the fish backscatter (especially that near the shelf break near the Pribilof
islands) is consistent in appearance and location with that of walleye pollock. The
euphausiid backscatter performs clear vertical migrations, and a substantial portion of the
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 42
6/26/08
population migrates above the transducer during the night. In contrast to observations in
on the 2007 Healy cruise, very little fish backscatter was observed north of 58 N. For
example, the offshore portion of the MN line (>100 m depth) which was not ice covered
in 2007 had substantial backscatter from fish, but this area of the outer shelf and shelf
break was ice covered in 2008, and very little backscatter from fish was observed.
References:
Korneliussen, R. J., and Ona, E. 2002. An operational system for processing and
visualizing multi-frequency acoustic data. ICES J. Mar Sci 59: 293-313.
MacLennan, D. N., Fernandes, P. G., and Dalen, J. 2002. A consistent approach to
definitions and symbols in fisheries acoustics. ICES J. Mar Sci 59: 365-369.
Miyashita, K., Aoki, I., Seno, K., Taki, K., and Ogishima, T. 1997. Acoustic
identification of isada krill, Euphausia pacifica Hansen, off the Sanriku coast,
north-eastern Japan. Fisheries Oceanography 6: 266-271.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 43
6/26/08
Figure 24. 38 and 120 kHz echograms from Healy showing backscatter from fish schools that are evident
at 38 kHz. The fish are also visible at 120 kHz and 38 kHz, while the light blue backscatter from
macrozooplankton which is much weaker at 38 kHz than 120 kHz. This frequency dependence is the basis
for the classification used in this data set.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 44
6/26/08
Figure 25. Acoustic backscatter (SA m2 nmi-2) attributed to A) euphausiids and B) fish in along Healy’s
trackline in 2007 and 2008. The approximate position of the 200, 100, 70 and 50m isobaths are shown as
gray dotted lines. Symbol size and color is proportional to the intensity of acoustic backscatter.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 45
6/26/08
Denitrification and Globel Change in Bering Sea Shelf Sediments- Alan
Devol and David Shull
Alan Devol and David Shull with Emily Davenport and Heather Whitney
The primary goal of the benthic group was to measure benthic denitrification rates,
nutrient fluxes, and sediment bioirrigation rates in order to evaluate the role of the
benthos in the nitrogen cycle of the Bering Sea. Cycling of P and Si were also
investigated. A secondary goal was to measure gas exchange rates to help determine
primary productivity in conjunction with measurements of the triple isotopes of dissolved
oxygen. We also deployed an ROV under the ice to survey ice algae and krill and to test
a method for future measurements of ice algal productivity.
Core samples
Seventeen stations were sampled using an Ocean Instruments MC-800 multicorer
equipped with eight 10-cm diameter polycarbonate core tubes. Two drops were made at
each station resulting in as many as sixteen cores per station. The actual number of
usable samples averaged approximately thirteen. Cores were processed on deck and,
depending upon the number of usable cores recovered, were generally allocated as
follows:
2 - 3 flux cores (incubated for ca. 5d, overlying water sampled for N2/Ar, O2/Ar, nitrate,
nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, and silicate). Following flux measurements, these
were frozen for later CT-scanning of burrow distributions
1-2 squeeze cores
Profiles of dissolved oxygen measured by microelectrode and by optode
Profiles of dissolved nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate) by
whole-core squeezing
2 section cores cut at 0.5- or 1-cm intervals to 20 cm and centrifuged for later
measurements of pore-water nutrients, dissolved Fe and Mn. Remaining sediment
reserved for measurements of solid-phase elements (Fe, Mn, Al, OC, N, 210Pb)
3 cores sectioned at 2-cm intervals for measurement of 222Rn/226Ra disequilibrium
2-3 cores sieved over 0.5-mm sieve and preserved in 10% formalin for later enumeration
of benthic infauna
1 core for use in phosphate sorption experiment
1 core for determination of sulfate reduction rates
Water-column sampling
At all process stations, vertical profiles of 222Rn/226Ra were measured. The 222Rn/226Ra
measurements will be used for determining gas exchange rates and, combined
with oxygen isotope data collected by other BEST investigators, rates of net
primary production.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 46
6/26/08
Sea Ice surveys
At three ice stations, a mini ROV was deployed and used to survey ice algae and krill
observable under the ice. At three ice stations vertical profiles of brine were
collected and run for 222Rn/226Ra to investigate gas transport within sea ice.
Table 7. Multicore locations.
Stn
Date
Latitude
Longitude
Depth (m)
Measurements
1
3/30/2008
56º 5.18' N
171º 15' W
2608
All
9
4/2/2008
57º 56.1' N
169º 11.05' W 67
No pore water
21
4/5/2008
59º 52' N
170º 22.1' W 63
All
27
4/7/2008
59º 55' N
174º 1.4' W
103
All
31
4/8/2008
59º 55.9' N
176º 32.4' W 145
All
33
4/9/2008
59º 53.1' N
178º 12.7' W 145
All
38
4/11/2008
62º 14.4' N
175º 5.4' W
78
All
46
4/13/2008
61º 54.8' N
171º 10.8' W 53
All
59
4/16/2008
59º 52.5' N
171º 6.9' W
70
All
62
4/18/2008
57º 53.5' N
169º 8.8' W
70
Only flux cores
72
4/19/2008
56º 45.2' N
170º 31' W
110
All
75
4/21/2008
57º 48.4' N
171º 36.6' W 100
All
76
4/22/2008
57º 32.6' N
125º 17.6' W 3437
All
79
4/23/2008
58º 9.7' N
173º 52.7' W 120
All
94
4/25/2008
58º 34.6' N
176º 48.4' W 544
All
106
4/27/2008
59º 11.6' N
176º 2.5' W
140
All
110
4/28/2008
62º 15.3' N
172º 33.6' W 42
All
All = Oxygen microelectrode profile, measurements of fluxes of N2/Ar, O2/Ar, NH4 +, NO2+,
NO3+, P, Si, pore-water profiles of all five nutrients, profiles of 222Rn/226Ra, benthic
infauna, phosphate sorption experiments.
Attempted to core at stations 2, 20, 25, 63 but were unsuccessful at collecting usable samples.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 47
6/26/08
Conc (mM)
Conc (mM)
50
100
0
Conc (mM)
0.5
1
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
2
4
6
8
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Depth (cm)
0
Depth (cm)
Depth (cm)
0
10
12
14
NH4
Conc (mM)
0
10
30
0
Depth (cm)
Depth (cm)
2
4
6
8
14
10
NO3
Conc (mM)
20
0
10
12
10
12
14
NO2
5
P
500
1000
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Si
14
Figure 26. Examples of nutrient profiles (Stn. 27, water depth = 103 m)
Outreach Activities
PIs Shull and Devol and WWU graduate student Emily Davenport participated in the
Polartrec program during the cruise. Davenport maintained a web-based journal,
communicating with high school and middle school students during the cruise and
organized a "live event" with approximately 110 students and educators. The Chief
Scientist and five other researchers aboard the Healy participated in the live event. Shull
responded to student questions during the cruise via both the web site and the live event.
Benthic Ecosystem Investigation - Jackie Grebmeier and Lee Cooper
Edward Davis and Boris Sirenko (On-Ship Team Members)
This benthic sampling component included sampling of bottom sediments with both a
van Veen grab and HAPS multi-corer. Four benthic grabs were collected at twenty-one
benthic stations for quantitative benthic community collections Organisms sieved from
each of these grabs through 1-mm screens were preserved and will be returned to the
laboratory for species identification and determinations of biomass. Expected laboratory
processing time for these identification and data analyses will be approximately one year
before data will be available. These species and biomass data will be compared to past
collections at the sampled locations and in other areas of the northern Bering Sea.
Additional grabs of the sediment were also undertaken at each station to provide surface
sediments for determinations of sediment chlorophyll, total organic carbon, organic
carbon: nitrogen ratios and potentially other sediment chemical parameters. Sediment
chlorophyll was determined onboard, but the other data will be generated in shore
laboratories. These sediment samples were collected out of the top of the grab before it
was opened to obtain surface sediments; previous published studies have shown that
bioturbation is significant enough in these sediments that additional care in collection of
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 48
6/26/08
surface sediments by using coring devices does not provide any additional margin for
providing undisturbed surface sediments. Surface sediments and organisms will also be
made available from additional grabs to support the work of Rebecca Neumann and
Katrin Iken (ice-benthos connections research group).
The benthic camera system that was deployed is a new experimental system
manufactured by A.G.O. Environmental Electronics, Ltd., Victoria, British Columbia. It
consists of a weatherized sub-sea camera mounted in a stainless steel cage with two 33
watt green lasers to provide a size scale on the seafloor. The sub-sea camera was
connected by a multi-conductor cable to the shipboard control system and a separate
Canon GL1 video camera recording the bottom images on mini-DV tapes that will be
transferred to computer storage for analysis of epibenthic communities on the sea floor
using video imaging software. A video overlay box provides the capability for providing
GPS coordinates, temperature and depth data on the videotape.
The camera wasdeployed at a total of thirty-eight stations. We thank Mr. Scott Hiller, the
Scripps CTD technical support staff onboard for helping us work through initial problems
with equipment freezing and focus. Several different ways of deploying the camera were
experimented with; an efficient procedure for deployment using the starboard SeaMac
winch was eventually resolved. Ship drift at high winds continues to pose some
challenges for good video quality as well as surface swell.
Using the CTD casts at stations where we also deployed the camera and/or the Van Veen
grab, we collected water samples for determinations of d18O values at forty-one stations
from surface, bottom and a mid-depth rosette bottle.
Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys Aboard HLY0802 (March 30 – April 15,
2008) Mid-cruise Report – Kathy Kuletz
Kathy J. Kuletz, Elizabeth A. Labunski, and Robert Ambrose
Project
We surveyed marine birds and mammals in conjunction with the National Science
Foundation spring 2008 BEST cruise onboard the USCGC Healy March 30 – May 3,
2008. The seabird and marine mammal data will be archived in the North Pacific Pelagic
Seabird Database (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska) and are part of the
Bering Sea Ecosystem Integrated Research Program funded by the North Pacific
Research Board (Anchorage, Alaska).
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 49
6/26/08
Methods
We surveyed marine birds and mammals from the port side of the bridge (22m above the
sea surface), using standard survey protocol during daylight hours while the vessel was
underway at cruising speeds over 5 knots. One observer scanned the water ahead of the
ship using hand-held 10x binoculars and recorded all birds and mammals within a 300-m
arc, extending 900 from the bow to the beam. Birds on the water, on ice, or foraging were
counted continuously. Flying birds were counted during ‘snapshots’ at intervals that
varied with ship speed, typically about once every minute. We recorded the animal’s
behavior as flying, on water, on ice, or actively foraging. We used strip transect
methodology with three distance bins extending from the vessel: 0-100 m, 101- 200 m,
201-300 m. We determined the distance to bird sightings using geometric and laser handheld rangefinders. Unusual sightings beyond the 300 m strip transect were also recorded
for rare birds, for large bird flocks, and mammals.
We used the DLOG2 data entry program (Ford Ecological Consultants, Inc.) to record
observations directly into a laptop computer interfaced with the Healy’s global
positioning system. Every entry by the observer was recorded with location, date, and
time stamps, along with associated environmental and observer variables. Location data
were also automatically written to the data file in 20 second intervals, and allowed us to
simultaneously record changing weather conditions, Beaufort Sea State, ice type and
coverage, and glare conditions. We recorded other environmental variables at the
beginning of each transect, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, and sea
surface temperature.
Preliminary Results and Discussion
Here we report on surveys through 3 May, although we will continue to survey enroute to
Dutch Harbor. From 30 March to 3 May, we surveyed 123 transects totaling 3,774 km.
During this time we recorded a total of 5,652 birds, of which 82 % were identified to
species for a total of 28 species (Table 7). The majority of birds observed were Common
and Thick-billed Murres (Uria spp.) which were 53 % of the on-transect bird
observations. Species diversity was low, and only five species comprised 93 % of the
identified birds; these were Common Murre, Thick-billed Murre, Black-legged
Kittiwake, Glaucous Gull, and Northern Fulmar (Table 7). These locally-breeding
species forage primarily on fish, but will also consume squid, euphausiids, and medusae.
During the first half of the cruise (March 30 – April 15), the Thick-billed Murre was the
dominate species, but we observed more Common Murres later in the cruise. There was
very low bird density in areas of heavy ice coverage, but we did observe pagophilic arctic
species such as Ivory Gulls, Slaty-backed Gulls, and Black Guillemots in these areas.
West of Nunivak Island, we also found a relatively high density of Kittlitz’s murrelets in
an area of heavy ice coverage; this is unique information on early spring locations for this
rare, pagophilic species (a candidate for listing under the ESA). Kittlitz’s murrelets feed
on euphausiids and small crustacea in addition to fish, and underway acoustics of that
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 50
6/26/08
area showed moderately high levels of acoustic backscatter attributed to euphausiids (Fig.
25, Alex De Robertis data).
A preliminary examination of the broad-scale distribution of marine birds show that they
were aggregated near the ice edge and open polynyas near their summer breeding areas.
Murres were the most ubiquitous of the seabirds, but they were particularly abundant in
the polynyas south of St. Mathew Island and northwest of the Pribilof Islands (Fig. 27).
Black-legged Kittiwakes were also ubiquitous and abundant south of St. Mathew Island,
but were also present farther north, in polynyas between St. Mathew and St. Lawrence
islands, and south along the shelf edge (Fig. 28). The shelf edge and waters south of St.
Mathew had generally high acoustic backscatter attributed to equphausiids and fish (Fig.
25).
As with the 2007 BEST cruise we observed few Aethia auklets (< 0.5 % of birds on
transect), a group that dominates the avifauna of the north Bering Sea in summer, and are
primarily plankton feeders. We retained one Least Auklet that apparently struck the
bridge of the Healy and died. Aberrant shorebird and landbird observations for 2008
included a Short-eared Owl, Golden Plover, Dunlin, and McKay’s Bunting, all of which
briefly hitched a ride on the Healy.
Marine Mammals: We recorded 617 marine mammals of 9 identified species (including
those > 300 m from the ship), plus one arctic fox (Table 8). Of those, 252 were ‘on
transect’. Spotted Seals were the most common marine mammal encountered, followed
by Bearded Seal, Pacific Walrus, and Ribbon Seal. On April 10, we recorded a large
concentration of Ribbon Seals (Fig. 29) in the northwestern part of the study area. We
also observed a Minke Whale, Humpback Whales, and a group of 4 Beluga Whales north
of Nunivak Island on April 14 (Fig. 30). With the exception of the Beluga whales,
cetaceans were observed near the shelf edge in open water and Pinnipeds were more
abundant to the north in the pack ice.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 51
6/26/08
Table 7. Marine bird observations during the BEST cruise on the USCGC Healy, 30 March – 3 May, 2008.
Preliminary density is the total number of birds of a given species per total km2 surveyed (1132 km2), and
does not incorporate variance among transects.
Preliminary
% of
Density
identified
Common name
Latin name
N % of total
spp.
(birds • km-2)
Laysan Albatross
Northern Fulmar
Short-tailed Shearwater
Fork-tailed Storm-petrel
Pelagic Cormorant
Red-faced Cormorant
Unid. Cormorant
Common Eider
Harlequin Duck
White-winged Scoter
Golden Plover spp.
Dunlin
Parasitic Jaeger
Pomarine Jaeger
Herring Gull
Glaucous Gull
Glaucous-winged Gull
Slaty-backed Gull
Unidentified Gull
Black-legged Kittiwake
Red-legged Kittiwake
Unid. Kittiwake
Ivory Gull
Common Murre
Thick-billed Murre
Unidentified Murre
Black Guillemot
Pigeon Guillemot
Unidentified Guillemot
Kittlitz's Murrelet
Brachyramphus Murrelet
Unid. Murrelet
Least Auklet
Parakeet Auklet
Unid. Small Dark Alcid
Unid. Alcid
McKay's Bunting
Short-eared owl
Unid. Bird
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 52
Phoebastria immutabilis
Fulmaris glacialis
Puffinus tenuirostris
Oceanodroma furcata
Phalacrocorax pelagicus
Phalacrocorax urile
Phalacrocorax spp.
Somateria mollissima
Histrionicus histrionicus
Melanitta fusca
Pluvialis spp.
Calidris alpina
Stercorarius parasiticus
Stercorarius pomarinus
Larus argentatus
Larus hyperboreus
Larus glaucescens
Larus schistisagus
Family Laridae
Rissa tridactyla
Rissa brevirostris
Rissa spp.
Pagophila eburnea
Uria aalge
Uria lomvia
Uria spp.
Cepphus
Cepphus columba
Cepphus spp.
Brachyramphus brevirostris
Brachyramphus spp.
Family Alcidae
Aethia pusilla
Aethia psittacula
Aethia spp.
Family Alcidae
Plectrophenax hyperboreus
Asio flammeus
Class Aves
1
648
1
3
6
7
5
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
5
677
114
11
34
891
26
16
4
1439
648
946
67
4
3
43
2
4
25
1
4
4
2
1
2
0.02
11.46
0.02
0.05
0.11
0.12
0.09
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.09
11.98
2.02
0.19
0.60
15.76
0.46
0.28
0.07
25.46
11.46
16.74
1.19
0.07
0.05
0.76
0.04
0.07
0.44
0.02
0.07
0.07
0.04
0.02
0.04
0.02
14.00
0.02
0.06
0.13
0.15
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.11
14.63
2.46
0.24
19.25
0.56
0.09
31.09
14.00
1.45
0.09
0.93
0.54
0.02
0.04
0.02
0.001
0.572
0.001
0.003
0.005
0.006
0.004
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.004
0.598
0.101
0.010
0.030
0.787
0.023
0.014
0.004
1.271
0.572
0.836
0.059
0.004
0.003
0.038
0.002
0.004
0.022
0.001
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.002
6/26/08
Table 8. Marine mammal observations during the BEST cruise on the USCGC Healy, March 30–May 3,
2008. Off transect counts were observations > 300 m from the ship’s center line.
Common Name
Latin name
Beluga Whale
Minke Whale
Humpback Whale
Killer Whale
Unid. Whale
Delphinapterus leucas
Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Megaptera novaeangliae
Orcinus orca
Cetacean
Bearded Seal
Ribbon Seal
Ringed Seal
Spotted Seal
Pacific Walrus
Unid. Pinniped
Unid. Seal
Erignathus barbatus
Phoca fasciata
Phoca hispida
Phoca largha
Odobenus rosmarus
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 53
On Transect Counts
% of
% of
identified
N
total
4
1.6
1.9
1
0.4
0.5
4
1.6
1.9
0
0.0
0.0
0
0.0
44
38
1
87
29
3
41
17.5
15.1
0.4
34.5
11.5
1.2
16.3
21.2
18.3
0.5
41.8
13.9
Off Transect
N
0
0
0
4
5
66
43
1
93
60
8
83
6/26/08
Figure 27. Common and Thick-billed Murre observations during surveys from the Healy, 30 March – 3
May, 2008. Black lines indicate survey track lines.
Figure 28. Black-legged Kittiwake observations during surveys from the Healy, 30 March – 3 May, 2005.
Black lines indicate survey track lines.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 54
6/26/08
Figure 29. Pinniped observations during surveys from the Healy, 30 March – 3 May, 2008. Black lines
indicate survey track lines.
Figure 30. Cetacean observations during surveys from the Healy, 30 March – 3 May, 2008. Black lines
indicate survey track lines.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 55
6/26/08
Nitrogen Supply for new production and its relation to climatic
conditions on the eastern Bering Sea Shelf- Raymond Sambrotto and Daniel
Sigman
A) Sambrotto Component: Kris Swenson and Peng Wang (On-Ship Team
Members)
The principal goal of our group was to access the primary productivity of the
Bering Sea by taking 15N & 13C uptake profiles, derived from on-deck incubations of
water from various depths, depending on the CTD PAR light sensor readings. Other
sampling methods included filtration of whole water for natural abundance, analysis of
urea in the water column, DNA filtration, preserved samples taken for phytoplankton
identification, as well as samples taken for Dissolved Organic Nitrogen and Phosphate.
A final component of our sampling involved ice station sampling. In-situ
incubations were performed at various ice stations, and were run in parallel with on-deck
incubations, as far as incubation time, water depths, and light levels were concerned. A
second component of our ice station sampling work involved analysis of ice cores for
phytoplankton identification. These ice cores were obtained with the help of the
Grandinger/Iken group.
The procedures and the stations that they were performed at can be seen in
Table 9 and Figure 31, respectively.
Results and Conclusions
Throughout the cruise, we successfully completed on-deck incubations at all
designated productivity process stations, and performed in-situ incubations at five ice
stations. Our other sampling procedures listed above were all performed at spatially
designated short and long stations.
A few problems that we encountered dealt with the on-deck and in-situ
incubations. The frigid conditions that were experienced early in the cruise made it
difficult to keep the incubators running, despite attempts at insulating and heating the
connections and hoses that allowed the water to reach to and drain from the incubators. A
switch to water from the ship’s ballast tank provided temporary relief, until the pump for
it went down. Using the science seawater was the best method for keeping a constant,
ambient temperature for the seawater, although when it got clogged the science seawater
froze the manifolds, and thus froze the rest of our incubation setup.
The conditions on the ice made it difficult for our in-situ incubations to take
place, but we fought through the elements and collected six profiles, which will undergo
isotopic analysis upon return to our lab at LDEO.
We feel that we have achieved our sampling goals for this cruise, and upon
analysis of our samples, we hope to employ our findings to obtain a better understanding
of the Bering Sea’s primary productivity, and how it aids in the understanding of the
Bering Sea ecosystem as a whole.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 56
6/26/08
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the Gradinger/Iken group for their assistance with on-ice work, as
well as Tom Bolmer for his work with our sample station mapping.
Table 9. Summary of sampling activities by station.
Station
Cast
1
1
2
5
7
9
10
13
17
18
19
20
23
24
25
25
26
29
31
34
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
55
57
59
62
64
73
75
75
76
76
77
1
3
4
8
10
16
18
21
25
26
27
31
35
36
38
39
42
45
49
54
59
64
66
68
73
75
77
79
82
84
88
95
91
106
109
111
112
113
115
OnDeck
Prod.
Insitu
Prod.
Urea
DON/P
Nat.
Abun.
filt.(whole
H2O)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Nat.
Abun. filt.
(5micron)
Nat. Abun.
Filt
(64micron)
Phyto
ID
DNA
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 57
6/26/08
78
88
93
99
105
106
109
111
112
116
116
119
122
124
128
135
138
139
147
149
151
152
160
162
172
117
129
136
144
150
154
157
162
164
168
168
172
177
179
183
190
193
194
202
204
207
208
216
218
228
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 58
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
6/26/08
Figure 31. Locations of stations sampled by the Sambrotto group during HLY0802.
B. Sigman Component
Julie Granger – postdoctoral fellow (Princeton University), Maria Prokopenko – sailing
scientist (USC)
Objective 1
To construct nitrogen budget for of the eastern shelf of the Bering Sea using natural
abundance ∂15N and ∂18O of nitrate, ∂15N of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN=Nitrate +
DON + ammonium, if present), as well as Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON). Isotopic
analysis will be run in the laboratory of D. Sigman at Princeton University.
Corresponding activity (Table 10): Collected samples for ∂15N and ∂18O analysis of
nitrate and ∂15N of TDN in the water columns ranging from under-ice “winter” water
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 59
6/26/08
column, across the winter ice floe edges, within the phytoplankton blooms along the shelf
break and outer shelf regions, as well within the “ice edge” blooms, regions with elevated
Chl concentrations encountered in the areas of recent ice melting events. Also, a few
stations were sampled along 70 m isobath as the Healy was moving across the southern
boundary of ice covered region to examine ice – open water transition not associated with
onshore-offshore variability. Normally, in a well mixed under-ice water column 2 or 3
depths were sampled. Several underway samples were taken along the southern most part
of the cruise track at the very beginning of the cruise, and in the middle of the cruise
across the shelf break. At the sites two or more distinct water masses present 6-10
samples were collected. At selected stations (Table 10), samples of total PON and Size
Fractionated PON (SFPON) were taken. For total PON, 60 ml of sea water collected from
selected depths of the CTD casts was filtered through GF/F filters. For SFPON, 2L of sea
water from CTD casts, was gravity filtered through 0.2 µm and 5 µm Millipore filters.
Filters were frozen at -20 C for subsequent isotopic analysis. The isotopic composition of
the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) will be analyzed on the splits of samples taken for
nitrate isotopic analysis. In some instances, separate water aliquots were taken for TDN.
At two stations (see Table 10), TDN was collected by gravity filtration to compare with
pressure filtered TDN samples. Also, at selected stations, mostly where SFPON was
collected, individual zooplankton from Bongo nets (333 µm mesh) were hand picked and
identified by Alexej Pinchuk (University of Alaska, Fairbanks). Individual animals were
placed on GF/F filters and frozen in pre-combusted glass vials for subsequent isotopic
analysis at Princeton. The main groups were found to be: Calanus marshallae, Sagitta
elegans, Metridia pacifica, Thysanoessa raschii, Neocalanos flemingeri, Parathemisto
libellula, Neonysis ragii (see Table 11 for complete list of stations and species).
Objective 2
To compare the ∂15N signal of the water column nitrate to that of larger phytoplankton
(diatoms). For this purpose, samples were collected for the ∂15N analysis of diatombound nitrogen, or DBN. DBN is present in the organic matrix of diatom silica frustules,
and is believed to be protected from bacterial degradation during early diagenesis,
preserving the original ∂15N. This can provide information on the ∂15N of water column
nitrate and regional nutrient status. Such property of DBN makes it an attractive
paleoceanographic proxy for nutrient availability on geologic time scales. Information on
∂15N of nitrate at locations of diatoms collection will help to ground-truth the validity of
this proxy. Variations in ∂15N of DBN in the context of ice distribution and associated
hydrographic variability will be investigated as well.
Corresponding activity: At selected stations (Table 10), a small 50 µm-mesh net
(referred to in the Event Log as a Russian Nyet) was towed from the A-frame through the
upper 30-35 m of the water column vertically or obliquely if ice conditions permitted, at
2 knots per hour; at a couple of stations, the net was hand-held and lowered to 10 m (see
Table 1o for these stations). Plankton biomass was collected and stored frozen at -20 C
for subsequent isotopic analysis. Whenever available, surface sediments (upper 3 cm)
were taken for our group at the locations of the net tow from multicore samples by the
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 60
6/26/08
members of Devol/Shull group and from Van Veen grabs by the members of
Edwards/Sirenko group.
Objective 3
To quantify the net community production by determining the O2 fluxes using the
underway O2/Ar ratios measured with Equilibrator Inlet Mass Spectrometer (EIMS). This
work has been initiated by Julie Granger and Maria Prokopenko during the HLY0701
cruise; the HLY0802 season provides an excellent opportunity for inter-annual
comparison between the two spring seasons.
Corresponding activity: EIMS is designed to continuously measure through the
duration of the cruise dissolved gas ratios (N2/Ar, O2/Ar and CO2/Ar). Discrete samples
are collected into pre-evacuated gas-tight glass bottles from the underway system to
calibrate the EIMS O2/Ar measurements to be run in the laboratory of M. Bender
(Princeton University). Water column radon measurements by D. Shull, Washington
Western University will be used to determine the rates of air-sea exchange necessary for
calculations of oxygen fluxes. Also, discrete dissolved gases samples from the upper 8 10 m of the mixed layer are taken from selected CTD casts (for B.Moran group). Discrete
gas samples from the CTD casts will be analyzed for O2/Ar ratios, as well triple oxygen
isotope ratios at the laboratory of M. Bender at Princeton University. The latter will be
used to constrain the rates of gross photosynthetic production and evaluate net to gross
community production ratios. Oxygen concentrations were measured in the underway
system by the Optode provided by B. Moran (URI). Every 24 hours two calibration
samples were taken from the underway system and oxygen concentrations were analyzed
by Winkler titrations by the PMEL group. The O2 calibration file is to be submitted to
the data base of HLY0802. Our group will also submit the final calibrated and salinity
corrected underway oxygen data set measured by the optode (designated as oxygen
sensor #2) to the data repository at UCAR website once it is completed.
Objective 4
To quantify the rates of photosynthetic production within seasonal sea ice by quantifying
the O2 fluxes through ice, and measuring O2/Ar ratios and triple oxygen isotopes in the
ice brines1. This work has been initiated during HLY0701 in collaboration with C.
Mordy, N. and Kachel and Ned Cokelet (PMEL, NOAA) is continuing during HLY0802
expedition. This work has been done with the much appreciated assistance of Alex
DeRobertis and Rolf Sonnerup (PMEL, NOAA).
Corresponding activity: Spatial variability in O2 concentrations within an individual ice
floe was investigated at two ice stations (IS # 3 and IS # 4). [O2] were measured by
immersing an optode into an ice holes drilled with an auger. The O2 concentrations will
be interpreted in the context of data collected on the same ice floes by the NOAA-PMEL
group: PAR values, temperatures and salinities of ice and brines, ice porosities, depth1
“Brine” is defined as saline water within ice pore spaces in thermal equilibrium with ice at a given
temperature.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 61
6/26/08
binned chlorophyll, etc. O2 concentrations (not yet corrected for salinity) were found to
vary from 600 to 900 µm in the bottom layers of the ice, where the most of algae biomass
is found. D. Shull group has been collecting brine samples for Rn measurements to assist
with quantification of gas exchange rates within atmosphere-ice-sea water system
Composite depth-resolved brine O2 profiles have been measured with the optode at Ice
Stations 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, see Fig. 32 for the profile from IS # 5, 9 and 12). Dissolved
O2/Ar ratios were determined for several discrete brine samples introduced directly into
EIMS within 0.5-2 hours of collection. The measured (but not calibrated yet) O2/Ar
indicated up to 200 % O2 supersaturation, produced by algae photosynthetic activity in
ice. 2-4 samples for Winkler O2 determination were collected at each of sampled ice
stations. At each ice station, a sample was collected for triple oxygen isotope analysis
into a pre-evacuated bottle to determine the contribution of gross photosynthesis to the
oxygen dissolved in brines.
Table 10
Location/Station/Cast
d15
NNO3
d15NTDN
Slope/1/001
Slope/1/002
NP14/02/004
NP13/03/005
NP12/04/007
NP11/05/008
NP8/08/011
NP7/09/012
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
IS 1/16/24
MN3/19/027
MN4/20/032
MN8/24/036
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
MN8.5/25/039
MN13/29/045
MN14/30/046
MN15/031/047
MN16/32/051
MN18/33/053
MN20/34/054
SL14/36/056
SL12/38/058
SL9/41/065
SL8/44/068
SL6/46/70 and 71
SL2/50/077
SL1/51/078
W3/54/081
W7.5/59/086
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 62
d15
NPO
N
d15N SFPO
N
Ind. Zoop
Tow nyet
Surface
sediments
O2/Ar and
triple O2
isotopes
x
x (at 500 m)
x (at 300 m)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x (hand
held)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x (hand held)
x
x
x
x (at sta
23)
x
x
x
x
x (at sta 28 and 27)
x
x
x
x underway
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x and x
underway
6/26/08
NP3/63
NP5/65/098
NP7/62/092
NP12/72/105
NP13/73/106
BS1/75/108
P14-4/76/112 deep
P14-4/76/113
shallow
P14-4/77/115
shallow
BS2/78/116
BS3/79/120
ZZ5/84/125
ZZ6/85/120
ZZ8/87/128
Zzline/91
ZZ13/92/133
ZZ14/93/134
ZZ19/98/142
ZZ13/101/146
ZZ27/106/152
MN15/107/155
IS10/110/158
70m 58/111/159
IS12/116/169
70m 47/122/175
70m 37/132/187
70m 31/138/193
NP7/149/204
70m 17/158/214
70m 7/168/224
70m 2/173/229
CN13/183/240
x underway
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
gravity
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
at sta 79
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
gravity
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
at sta 94
x
x
x
x
x
x
x @ 174
Table 11.
Station #
19
25
31
59
62
Zooplankton collected
Calanus marshallae,Sagitta elegans, Thysanoessa raschii, Neomysis rayi
Calanus marshallae, Sagitta elegans, Metridia pacifica, Thysanoessa
raschii
Parathemisto libellula, Sagita elegans, Thysanoessa raschii, Eucalanus
bungii, Neocalanus flemingeri, Neocalaus cristatus, Calanus marshallae,
Pareuchaeta elongata
Sagitta elegans, Calanus marshallae, Thysanoessa raschii
Parathemisto libellula, Thysanoessa raschii, Sagitta elegans, Crangon sp.
Calanus marshallae, Metridia Pacifica
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 63
6/26/08
65
Parathemisto libellula, Sagitta elegans, Thysanoessa raschii, Neonysis
ragii, Calanus marshallae
Sagitta elegans, Clione limacina, Thysanoessa ineruis, Metridia pacifica,
Calanus, Neocalanus evistetus, Neocalaus plumchrous/flemingeri
Neocalaus cristata, marshallae Eucalaus bongii, Neocalaus
plumchrous/flemingeri,Sagitta elegans, Thysanoessa ineruis, Clione
limacina
Sagitta elegans, Neocalaus plumchrous/flemingeri, Metridia pacifica,
Calanus marshallae, Thysanoessa raschii, Clione limacina
Sagitta elegans, Neocalaus plumchrous/flemingeri, Metridia pacifica,
Calanus marshallae, Thysanoessa raschii, Clione limacina, Neocalaus
cristatus
Neonysis ragii, Sagitta elegans, Calanus marshallae, Limacina helicina
73
78
93
106
122
[O2] dissolved in brines
[O2], uM, not corrected for salinity
300
500
700
900
1100
Depth under the ice surface
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
[O2], IS #5
[O2], IS #9
70
[O2], IS #12
Figure 32.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 64
6/26/08
The Impact of Changes in Sea Ice on Primary Production,
Phytoplankton Community Structure, and Export in the Eastern Bering
Sea – Brad Moran and Mike Lomas
A. Moran Component
Pat Kelly, on-board team member
Project Objectives:
1) Quantify the flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the surface water to the
deep waters of the Bering Sea using 234Th as a tracer of particle export.
2) Determine POC/234Th ratio and phytoplankton community values for particles
collected in drifting sediment traps at five different depths.
3) Estimate particle export using measurements of total 234Th – 238U disequilibrium in
water column.
4) Estimate gross primary production using triple-oxygen isotope method. Collected
in collaboration with Maria Prokopenko.
5) Measure dissolved oxygen using underway oxygen optode.
6) Estimate cross-shelf exchange using short-lived radium isotopes (223, 224Ra).
Samples Collected:
Table 12. Samples collected from floating sediment traps
Station
T1
041208 RT*
041608 RT*
T2
T3
042808 RT*
042908 RT*
043008 RT*
Depths (m)
25,40,50,60,100
5, 20
5, 20
25,40,50,60,100
25,40,50,60,100
5, 20
5, 20
5, 20
POC/234Th samples
2 per depth
1 per depth, 234Th only
1 per depth, 234Th only
2 per depth
2 per depth
1 per depth, 234Th only
1 per depth, 234Th only
1 per depth, 234Th only
Pigment samples
2 per depth
NC
NC
2 per depth
2 per depth
NC
NC
NC
* These samples graciously provided by Rolf Gradinger et al. Numerical code
corresponds to date of collection.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 65
6/26/08
Table 13. Samples collected from the CTD for Small Volume 234Th
Station
1-NP15
9-NP7
25-MN8.5
32-MN15
34-MN20
38-SL12
46-SL6
59-W8
62-NP7
75-OHS
76-P14-4
93-ZZ14
94-ZZ15
106-ZZ 27
111-70M58
122-70M47
148-NP8
Depths (m)
1,10,20,30,40,60,150,250,300
1,10,20,30,40,50,60
1,8,20,30,40,50,70
10,20,31,40,60,80,100,120,136
1,10,20,40,100,300,600,800,1200,1500,2000, 2500
10,20,30,40,60,75
10,20,30,40,48
10,20,30,40,50,60,67
10,20,30,40,60,65
10,20,30,39,60,75,98
0,20,60,100,125,150,200,250,300
10,20,30,40,60,75,100,135
10,20,30,40,50,75,100,200,300
10,20,30,40,50,75,100,135
1,10,20,30,40,45,69
10,20,30,40,50,60,66
10,20,30,40,50,65
Table 14. Samples collected from the CTD for Triple-oxygen isotopes
Date
3/30/08
3/30/08
4/3/08
4/7/08
4/8/08
4/9/08
4/11/08
4/13/08
4/16/08
4/16/08
4/18/08
4/19/08
4/20/08
4/21/08
4/21/08
4/23/08
4/23/08
4/25/08
4/25/08
4/26/08
4/27/08
Station
1-NP15
16-MN1
25-MN8.5
31-MN15
32-MN16
38-SL12
46-SL6
59-W7.5
59-W7.5
62-NP7
63-NP3
72-NP12
74/75
75-OHS
78-BS2
79-BS3
91-ZZ12
93-ZZ14
98-ZZ18
106-ZZ27
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 66
Depth (m)
500
500
10
8
Underway**
8
8
10
8
Underway**
8
Underway**
8
Underway**
20
8
8
8
8
Underway**
8
6/26/08
4/29/08
5/2/08
5/4/08
111-70M58
131-70M38
156-70M19
Underway**
Underway**
Underway**
** These samples collected using science seawater line.
Table 15. Samples collected from the CTD for Short-lived Radium isotope samples
Station
NP-1
11070M57
12270M47
13170M38
14470M25
15670M19
17270M3
Depth (m)
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
Data Summary
Trap Results:
Measurable quantities of 234Th have been collected in the sediment traps, though
further comment is unwarranted due to incomplete analysis. CHN and pigment analysis
will be completed upon return to URI-GSO.
Small Volume Results:
Measurable quantities of 234Th have been collected, though further comment is
unwarranted due to incomplete analysis.
Triple Oxygen Productivity Results:
Samples will be analyzed post-cruise, no comment is warranted at this time.
Optode Results:
Underway oxygen data has been collected for the entirety of HLY-08-02. Some
early cruise data may be compromised by sediment accumulation in optode flow-cell.
Since that remediation, it has been observed that the optode does track generally well
with the SeaBird oxygen sensor, though the optode offers less resolution. It is also
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 67
6/26/08
hypothesized that the oxygen values from the flow through system are compromised by
icebreaking activities (bubble injection, for example).
Short Lived Radium Results:
Analysis of the only sample collected up to this point revealed low activities of
Ra and 224Ra, with a trend of decreasing radium activity from north to south along the
70m line. More sampling is required to evaluate this observation.
223
B. Lomas Component
Jonathon Whitefield and John Casey
The Phytoplankton Ecology Lab (PEL) from the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
(BIOS) sent two technicians on HLY0802. The project, part of a collaborative effort
between BIOS and URI, is aimed at answering the question of whether climate-driven
interannual variability in sea ice extent has altered the magnitude of gross and net
primary production, its autotrophic community structure, and subsequently, carbon
export, and degree of pelagic-benthic coupling in the eastern Bering Sea. This research
contains a central hypothesis:
Climate-driven interannual variability in sea-ice extent and duration shifts the eastern
Bering Sea autotrophic community between one of two states; marginal ice-zone (MIZ)
blooms vs. open-water blooms. The MIZ bloom state is characterized by high biomass,
diatom-dominated blooms, high pelagic export and tight pelagic-benthic coupling,
whereas the open-water bloom state is characterized by lower biomass, flagellate
blooms, low pelagic export, and reduced pelagic-benthic coupling.
On HLY0802 PEL began the research in to this hypothesis by taking a range of samples:
micro- and picoplankton (FCM), Chlorophyll A, and two types of primary production –
both C13 stable isotope and traditional C14 (see Table 16 for sample details). These
samples will be analyzed at BIOS after the end of the cruise. PEL are also sharing the
data from the URI sediment trap deployment – two samples from each of the 5 depths
will have pigment samples run on an HPLC.
With the use of primary production to determine the rate of growth, and sediment traps to
record the export, PEL is in a good position to answer its hypothesis.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 68
6/26/08
Table 16. Summary of samples collected on HLY0802. * = no C14 production samples were collected at
this station. ** = For the second leg of the cruise, DIC and TOC samples were collected by Jeremy Mathis
(UAF).
Sample type
Number of samples
Stations sampled
1785
7 depths / cast
17 samples / depth
3 x light incubation }
1 x dark incubation } Size fractionated – GF/F and 5um
1 x T0 }
1 x Specific activity t0
C14 production
ChlA
HPLC / Pigments
1 x incubated specific activity
5 x DOC14 / depth
224
7 depths / cast
2 samples / depth } Size fractionated – GF/F and 5um
224
7 depths / cast
2 samples / depth } Size fractionated – GF/F and 5um
48
C13 Production
6 depths / cast
FCM (pico plankton)
177
Microplankton
177
TOC
79**
DIC
189**
BS1, BS2, ZZ14, ZZ27,
70M58, 70M50, 70M47,
NP8.5
NP15, NP11, NP7,
MN1, MN4, MN8.5,
MN13, MN15, MN20,
SL12, SL8.5, SL6, W1,
W5, W7.5, NP7, NP11,
BS1, P14-3, BS2, ZZ9,
ZZ14, ZZ27, 70M58,
70M50, 70M47, NP8.5
105 x 250ml bottles
84 x 500ml bottles
VOLUME COLLECTED
NP15, NP7, MN8.5,
MN4*, MN15, SL12,
SL6, W7.5, NP7, BS1,
BS2, ZZ14, ZZ27,
70M58, 70M47, NP8.5
NP15, NP11, NP9,
NP8.5, NP7, MN1,
MN4, MN9, SL12, SL8,
SL8.5, SL6, W5, W7.5,
NP7, NP11
Every station
except W line!!
763.85 litres
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 69
6/26/08
The Trophic Role of Euphausiids in the eastern Bering Sea: Ecosystem
Responses to Changing Sea-Ice Conditions - Rodger Harvey and Evelyn
Lessard
The goal of our project is to understand how climatically-driven changes in sea-ice
conditions may affect the ecology and population dynamics of euphausiids in the eastern
Bering Sea. Our primary hypothesis is that seasonal and interannual variation in the
timing and coverage of sea-ice and associated food resources will lead to differences in
age structure, diet history, and nutritional condition for euphausiids, which ultimately
translate into differences in production rates and availability as prey to higher trophic
levels. To determine diet, nutritional condition, and feeding rates, we are performing
shipboard krill feeding experiments to measure ingestion rates of specific prey taxa
(phytoplankton, heterotrophic protists, copepods) and we are determining the lipid
profiles of both euphausiids and prey field. We are also isolating and culturing specific
prey species to identify prey biomarkers. Identifying the lipid profiles and specific
biomarkers for different prey taxa (particularly the poorly known heterotrophic protists)
will enable us to infer diets from lipid profiles of field-caught euphausiids. We are also
measuring euphausiid growth and egg production rates and estimating euphausiid age
using the lipofuscin method. Our colleague, Alexei Pinchuk, will conduct laboratory
rearing to allow calibration of the lipofuscin aging method when eggs can be collected in
the field.
A. WATER COLUMN PARTICLES AND KRILL COLLECTION
Rodger Harvey and Rachel Pluethner
Grazing Experiments for Determination of Euphausiid Grazing Rates and Food Source
Preferences
Grazing experimental setup was detailed in the report from Lessard. For characterization
of food resources and tracking of consumption, water taken from designated Niskin
bottles was used for these grazing experiments (Table 17). This water sampled at T0 was
filtered through combusted GF/F filters for carbon and detailed lipid analysis to
characterize the algal and detrital food available to krill. At the conclusion of each of the
first thirteen grazing experiment conducted by Lessard, water was collected individually
from each bottle containing animals and placed on separate particulate filters for lipid
analysis to compare food amounts and potential for selective grazing. Water from each of
the animal bottles was combined for the last six experiments, and likewise with the
control samples. This was in an effort to conserve filters.
At the conclusion of each grazing experiment, the experiment animals were either
sacrificed or frozen for later lipid analysis; refer to Table 18 for dates of animal storage.
The eyes and eye stalks were removed for those who were sacrificed; both the lipofuscin
(Part A) and protein content (Part B) in each pair of eyes were determined via flowthrough fluorescence using an Agilent 1100 HPLC. The rest of each euphausiid was
frozen in the -80ºC chest freezer for future lipid analysis.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 70
6/26/08
Growth Experiments for the Determination of Age in Euphausiids Found in the Bering
Sea
Ten growth experiments in total were performed over the course of the cruise (Table 17).
These experiments have included animals of a large size range to provide a first estimate
of lipofuscin indices in field animals of differing ages. Alexei Pinchuk will conduct
growth experiments spanning the next two years in order to allow age calibrate the field
specimen that have been analyzed.
LIPOFUSCIN SAMPLE ANALYSIS
High Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Identification and Quantification of
Lipofuscin
Part A
Toward the beginning of the cruise, the optimal excitation and emission wavelengths for
lipofuscin - an oxidation product that accumulates in euphausiid neural tissue - from T.
inermis was determined by running a three-dimensional fluorescent scan of the extracted
product present in a composite of samples of krill neural tissue (see Figure 33). That
scan allowed a qualitative identification of lipofuscin for that species, and will be used to
measure lipofuscin content in euphausiids for the duration of the cruise. A calibration
curve using quinine sulfate allowed quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity
to be performed for each run.
Part B
For protein analysis, tryptophan fluorescence was measured using known excitation and
emission wavelengths. This is a proxy for the quantification of protein in each pair of
krill eyes. A calibration curve utilizing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) acts as a means to
quantify protein in the eye tissues.
At the beginning of the analysis stages of Grazing Experiment 12, the HPLC quaternary
pump began to malfunction, preventing sample runs for the remainder of the cruise.
Consequently, all animals after that were frozen.
Lipofuscin analysis is performed for every krill sample, regardless of whether it
originated from a grazing or a growth experiment. The dominant euphausiid species
throughout the majority of the experiments has been T. raschii; however T. inermis, T.
spinifera, and T. longipes, to name a few, were also caught and/or used in experiments.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 71
6/26/08
Table 17: Water Sample Collection for Experiments
Experiment Type and No.
Grazing Experiment #1
Grazing Experiment #2
Grazing Experiment #3a
Grazing Experiment #3b
Grazing Experiment #4
Grazing Experiment #5
Grazing Experiment #6
Grazing Experiment #7
Grazing Experiment #8
Grazing Experiment #9
Grazing Experiment #10
Grazing Experiment #11
Grazing Experiment #12
Grazing Experiment #13
Grazing Experiment #14
Grazing Experiment #15
Grazing Experiment #16
Grazing Experiment #17
Grazing Experiment #18
Grazing Experiment #19
Station
NP-13
NP-7
MN-5
MN-5
MN-8.5
MN-16
SL-9
W-7.5
NP-7
NP-13
BS-1
P14-4
BS-2
ZZ-5
ZZ-14
ZZ-18
ZZ-27
70M8
70M47
70M37
T0 filtration date
3/31/2008
4/1/2008
4/5/2008
4/6/2008
4/7/2008
4/9/2008
4/12/2008
4/16/2008
4/18/2008
4/20/2008
4/21/2008
4/22/2008
4/23/2008
4/24/2008
4/25/2008
4/26/2008
4/27/2008
4/29/2008
5/1/2008
5/2/2008
Tf filtration date
4/1/2008
4/2/2008
4/5/2008
4/6/2008
4/8/2008
4/10/2008
4/13/2008
4/17/2008
4/19/2008
4/21/2008
4/22/2008
4/23/2008
4/24/2008
4/25/2008
4/26/2008
4/27/2008
4/28/2008
4/30/2008
5/2/2008
5/3/2008
Growth
Growth
Growth
Growth
Growth
Growth
Growth
Growth
Growth
Growth
MN-4
MN-16
EL-1
NP-7
NP-5
NP-13
BS-1
BS-2
ZZ14
ZZ19
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Experiment #1
Experiment #2
Experiment #3
Experiment #4
Experiment #5
Experiment #6
Experiment #7
Experiment #8
Experiment #9
Experiment #10
*All filters frozen in -80ºC immediately following filtration
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 72
6/26/08
Table 18. HPLC sample runs performed throughout the entire cruise, barring calibration curves. A
malfunctioning HPLC quaternary pump prevented full analysis of Grazing Experiment #12 and any
experiment thereafter.
Grazing Experiment #1
Grazing Experiment #2
Grazing Experiment #3a
Grazing Experiment #3b
No.
Animals
in the
Experim
ent
12
32
24
24
Grazing Experiment #4
Grazing Experiment #5
47
32
Grazing Experiment #6
16
T. raschii
T. inermis
50:50,
raschii:
inermis
4/15/2008
4/15/2008
No
Grazing Experiment #7
Grazing Experiment #8
Grazing Experiment #9
Grazing Experiment #10
Grazing Experiment #11
33
24
12
24
18
T. raschii
T. raschii
T. inermis
T. raschii
T. inermis
N/A
4/19/2008
4/22/2008
N/A
N/A
N/A
4/21/2008
4/22/2008
N/A
N/A
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Grazing Experiment #12
Grazing Experiment #13
Grazing Experiment #14
Grazing Experiment #15
Grazing Experiment #16
8
16
24
16
24
T. inermis
T. raschii
T. raschii
T. inermis
T. raschii
4/25/2008
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
16
24
16
24
4/25/2008
4/26/2008
4/27/2008
4/28/2008
Grazing Experiment #17
Grazing Experiment #18
Grazing Experiment #19
12
24
27
T. raschii
T. raschii
T. raschii
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
Yes
12
24
27
4/30/2008
5/2/2008
5/3/2008
Growth Experiment #1
50
T. raschii
4/8/2008
4/9/2008
No
Growth Experiment #2
Growth Experiment #3
Growth Experiment #4
Growth Experiment #5
Growth Experiment #6
51
60
42
76
24
T. inermis
T. raschii
T. raschii
T. raschii
T. inermis
4/13/2008
4/20/2008
4/21/2008
4/21/2008
4/24/2008
4/14/2008
4/20/2008
4/21/2008
4/23/2008
4/24/2008
No
Some
No
Some
Yes
23 of 60
4/20/2008
10 of 76
24
4/21/2008
4/22/2008
Growth Experiment #7
Growth Experiment #8
Growth Experiment #9
Growth Experiment #10
50
50
50
50
T. raschii
T. inermis
T. raschii
T. inermis
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
50
50
50
50
4/3/2008
4/25/2008
4/27/2008
4/28/2008
Experiment No.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 73
Dominant
Species
Krill Eye
Lipofuscin
Analysis
Krill Eye
Protein
Analysis
T. inermis
T. raschii
T. raschii
T. raschii
N/A
4/3/2008
4/6/2008
4/7/2008
N/A
4/4/2008
4/8/2008
4/8/2008
Whole
Sample
s
Frozen
Yes
No
No
No
N/A
4/11/2008
N/A
4/11/2008
Yes
No
Total
Whole
Frozen
Storage
date
All
4/1/2008
All
4/8/2008
All
4/17/2008
24
18
4/22/2008
4/23/2008
6/26/08
Figure 33: Three-dimensional scan of lipofuscin in T. inermis ocular and neural tissues.
B. Krill Collections and Experiments and Microplankton Distributions
Evelyn Lessard, Tracy Shaw, and Megan Bernhardt
The goal of our project is to understand how climatically-driven changes in sea-ice
conditions may affect the ecology and population dynamics of euphausiids in the eastern
Bering Sea. Our primary hypothesis is that seasonal and interannual variation in the
timing and coverage of sea-ice and associated food resources will lead to differences in
age structure, diet history, and nutritional condition for euphausiids, which ultimately
translate into differences in production rates and availability as prey to higher trophic
levels. To determine diet, nutritional condition, and feeding rates, we are performing
shipboard krill feeding experiments to measure ingestion rates of specific prey taxa
(phytoplankton, heterotrophic protists, copepods) and we are determining the lipid
profiles of both euphausiids and prey field. We are also isolating and culturing specific
prey species to identify prey biomarkers. Identifying the lipid profiles and specific
biomarkers for different prey taxa (particularly the poorly known heterotrophic protists)
will enable us to infer diets from lipid profiles of field-caught euphausiids. We are also
measuring euphausiid growth and egg production rates and estimating euphausiid age
using the lipofuscin method. Our colleague, Alexei Pinchuk, will conduct laboratory
rearing to allow calibration of the lipofuscin aging method when eggs can be collected in
the field.
Bongo net tows
We performed 43 Bongo tows (Figure 34, Table 19) to capture live euphausiids
for feeding and growth experiments and for lipid, carbon and lipofuscin analyses. The
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 74
6/26/08
nets were towed obliquely when ice conditions permitted. As the MOCNESS sampling
system is not towable in ice, we took 8 quantitative Bongo tows for assessing euphausiid
species and biomass at selected ice-covered stations.
Feeding experiments with euphausiids
We performed nineteen feeding experiments (Table 20) under varying ice cover
and in open water. For the feeding experiments, we captured live euphausiids with a
Bongo net (Fig. 34) and added known numbers and species to bottles filled with seawater
and incubated them for 12-24h on a rotating wheel in a flowing seawater incubator. The
prey for each experiment were unaltered seawater plankton, ice protists (algae and
heterotrophs) from ice cores that had been gently melted into seawater, or seawater
supplemented with ice protists. Shipboard, herbivorous feeding was assessed by
measuring changes in size-fractionated chlorophyll and by live plankton cell counting
and identification using an automated imaging flow-cytometer (FlowCAM). Samples
were also fixed for microscopic counts of phytoplankton and heterotrophic protists to be
analyzed back in the laboratory.
Growth experiments
We performed 10 growth experiments, assessing instantaneous growth rates on
486 euphausiids (Table 21). We provided >500 euphausiids with species and size
determinations, from the feeding and growth experiments, to Harvey for lipid profiles and
lipofuscin content (an index of age).
Preliminary findings
Feeding and growth experiments were done under a wide range of conditions,
from inner shelf to slope, in heavy early ice with healthy ice algal communities, under
melting ice, and in an open water ice edge bloom. As expected, the dominant euphuasiid
species on the mid to inner shelf was Thysanoessa raschii, with Thysanoessa inermis
dominating on the outer shelf. During the first half of the cruise, phytoplankton biomass
was low (<0.7µg chlor/l) and dominated by small (< 5 µm) pico- and nanoplankton
(cyanobacteria, picoeukaryotes, small flagellates), with heterotrophic protists
(dinoflagellates and ciliates) present in modest numbers. In the low biomass water,
herbivorous feeding by euphausiids was not detectable based on chlorophyll
measurements. However, preliminary FlowCAM assessments indicated that the larger
heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates were consumed. As the season progressed, ice
algae were present in the water column under ice or which had been recently ice-covered
and phytoplankton biomass increased substantially, except at the northern stations along
the 70m isobath. When the plankton in experiments was supplemented with algae melted
from ice cores (usually large single or chain-forming pennate diatoms, but also centric
diatoms, particularly Thalassiosira spp.), or at those stations where ice algae appeared in
the water column, very significant rates of herbivory were measured. Direct video
observations by Shull and Gradinger showed euphausiids actively congregating and
feeding on the bottom of the ice. Together, these observations show for the first time that
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 75
6/26/08
euphausiids exploit ice or ice-derived biota as an important food resource in the early
spring in the Bering Sea.
Figure 34. Sampling euphausiids with a Bongo net in the ice. Tracy Shaw (left) directing the operation
with assistance from Tom Kruger, one of the excellent Coast Guard Marine Science Technicians.
Table 19. Euphausiid Bongo Tows
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 76
6/26/08
Table 20. Euphausiid Feeding Experiments
Table 21. Euphausiid Growth Rate Experiments
LDEO Science Support Activities on HLY0802
Tom Bolmer and Steve Roberts
This is a brief summary of the performance of the Underway Science systems during
the research cruise HLY0802 on the USCGC Healy, 03/29/08 – 05/06/08 from Dutch
Harbor to Dutch Harbor, AK. A more complete log of events that affected the recording
of data can be seen in the ELOG entries by the shipboard technicians for this leg. The
Data Synopsis Report for HLY0802 has additional information.
Acoustic Data
SeaBeam 2112 Multibeam Sonar
The SeaBeam worked well for this leg. However, much of the cruise was in shallow
water (less than 100 meters deep.) This water depth is less than optimal for the SeaBeam
system. This data should be aggressively edited for use in mapping. The Center Beam
data that was averaged in the 1-minute average file is a good summary of that data. A
brief power outage appears to have corrupted the Magneto Optical(MO) disk and the
system was down for a couple of hours to identify the problem and replace the disk. Also
the internal Exabyte tape drive appears to have failed so we are no longer generating a
backup copy of the data. These failures should serve as a reminder as to how fragile this
system has become and the need for it to be replaced.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 77
6/26/08
Knudsen 320BR Sub-Bottom Profiler
The Knudsen was run in the Low Frequency “CHIRP” (3 - 6 KHz) mode for the
whole cruise. These data look good. Again, care must be taken when using this data,
particularly if the desire is to use it for water depth. We do not recommend using
subbottom profiler data for bathymetry. For this cruise the multibeam data is a better
choice. They should be edited for spikes due to ice affecting the transducers and
occasional bad picks of water depth by the system. The trigger for this was slaved off of
the SeaBeam transmission to reduce interference with the EK60 fish sonar.
The Knudsen “KEL” formatted file saved in the SCS data directory Knudsen has the
wrong internal time. The Knudsen adds about 22.8 seconds to it’s internal clock each
day. The time to use for this data is the SCS time stamp in the first columns of the file.
The depth and location in the file are right.
We occasionally operated this system in 12kHz pinger mode to allow accurate depth
determination of the multicorer.
ADCP 75
The ADCP 75 was operated for the whole leg. From quick looks at the data it appears
to have recorded satisfactorily. This was also triggered from the SeaBeam transmission.
Worked with Alex De Robertis of NOAA to install a trigger delay box provided by him
to allow the ADCP to trigger at a ping interval of not more than 1.7 seconds. This
allowed the ADCP to trigger at its optimal ping rate even while we were operating in
deep water and not interfere with the NOAA supplied EK60 fish stock assessment sonar.
ADCP150
Like the ADCP75 it was determined that the ADCP150 interferes with the EK60.
Unlike the ADCP75, this sonar cannot be externally triggered. So to avoid interference
with the EK60 it was decided to leave this sonar off for the duration of the science cruise.
No data was generated or collected by this sonar.
EK60 (NOAA “Fish Finder”)
During the first phase of the cruise this sonar was maintained by Alex De Robertis of
NOAA. During the second phase Alex departed the ship and the operation and
monitoring became our responsibility. This sonar is a temporary installation.
Navigation
POS/MV-320
The POSMV recorded the ship’s position, heading, pitch and roll well during the
cruise.
Ashtech ADU5
The ADU5 operated well except for an occasional drop outs which are logged in the
ELOG. There were also events where the receiver stopped producing heading and
attitude data even though the data streams remained active. The ETs have take this
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 78
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system up and down for repair and tests during the cruise. Be sure to check the ELOG
entries if you are using this data.
Sperry Gyrcompasses
Two new Sperry Gyroscopes were added to the Healy to replace the old Sperry
MK27s prior to this season. They have been up to 1.5 degree different from the POSMV
and the ADU5 and show surprisingly large “wander” in heading. With its current
behavior the systems have been shown to not be an acceptable fall back in the event of a
problem with the POSMV. We do not recommend using this data. The ETs have done
several tests and adjustments trying to improve the quality of the data during this cruise.
We have been monitoring and generating plots for the ETs during this period.
Sea Water Flow Through data
Uncontaminated Sea Water
Early in the cruise the system experienced major and frequent blockages from ice
getting past the ice separator. This caused significant interruptions to the TSG underway
data collection. This behavior was completely at odds with the prior cruise where the
system operated in similar ice conditions but without a single incident of ice blockage.
The only thing different with this cruise was the addition of incubators on the bow
drawing a substantial amount of water from the system. After monitoring the situation the
consensus was that this extra draw on the system was the most likely cause of these ice
blockage events. Eventually a separate system was set up by the ship crew to allow the
incubators to draw most of their water from the ship ballast. However, about a week after
the ballast system was set up the ballast pump failed so all the incubators were once again
drawing all their water from the science sea water system. A few days after this the ship
headed north and re-entered regions of significant ice and once again the science sea
water system experienced several more episodes of ice blockages.
Thermosalinographs
New primary and a spare TSGs were installed by SIO/ODF (Scott Hiller) was
installed for this season in the Biochem Lab. These appeared to operate satisfactorily
when there was no ice blockage.
Dissolved Oxygen, Flurometer, and Flowmeter
In addition to temperature and salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence and the rate of
flow of the water through the TSG were also recorded. It appears that these systems
worked satisfactorily.
Meteorological Sensors
New Meteorological sensors were installed for this season by SIO/ODF (Scott Hiller.)
The sensors were operated in addition to the ship’s existing sensors. These sensors
operated satisfactorily for the leg. For the wind speed and direction 2D ultrasonic
instruments were installed on the Yard Arm and the Jack Staff.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 79
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Mapserver
A web-based real-time GIS system (Mapserver) was actively maintained and kept upto-date with the most current science cruise data and information.
RadarSat Images from the National Ice Center
RadarSat images were ftped from the National Ice Center roughly once a day and
displayed using the Mapserver GIS interface.
Gravity
Two Bell BGM-3 marine gravity meters were installed in IC/Gyro prior to this season
and appeared to operate satisfactorily.
Data Logging
LDS (Lamont Data System)
The LDS data logging system was run to record and store underway data for the leg.
This system logged the Navigation, SeaBeam, the SIO MET data, gravity, and web
camera images.
Underway Data Distribution
At the end of the cruise a set of DVDs containing all the underway data along with
various documentation were created and provided to the chief scientist.
Data QC
Continuously monitored all underway data streams and addressed anomalies as they
became apparent.
Terrascan
Monitored and maintained the Terascan system plus a separate laptop with a second
Terascan license. This second laptop was used to generate various ice imagery for general
science use and inclusion into the Mapserver. Since we were operating in the Fairbanks,
Alaska station range circle all DMSP data was collected in unencrypted mode.
Web Cameras
Web cameras were operated in Aloft Con, Aft Con and the Board of Lies. Images
from the cameras were logged on LDS. In addition once an hour an image from Aloft
Con was emailed to shore for use in a web site there.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 80
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Appendix A. Science Party Members, March 31 – April 20, 2008
Name
Carin Ashjian
Robert Campbell
Philip Alatalo
Evelyn Sherr
Celia Ross
Evelyn Lessard
Megan Bernhardt
Tracy Shaw
Rachel L. Pleuthner
Rodger Harvey
Alexei Pinchuk
Ed Davis
Boris Sirenko
Maria Prokopenko
Jonathan Whitefield
John Casey
Roger Kelly
Nancy Kachel
David Kachel
Carol Ladd
Calvin Mordy
Jeremy Malczyk
Daniel Naber
Elizabeth Labunski
Robert Ambrose
Alex De Robertis
Rolf Gradinger
Katrin Iken
Rebecca Neumann
Sarah Story Manes
Steve Roberts
Tom Bolmer
Scott Hiller
Lynne Butler
Paul Walczak
Allan Devol
Heather Whitney
Ana Aguilar-Islas
Rob Rember
Peng Wang
Kris Swenson
David Shull
Emily Davenport
Ann Fienup-Riordan
Janet Scannell
Donna Van Keuren
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 81
Institution
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
GSO-University of Rhode Island
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
COAS- Oregon State University
COAS- Oregon State University
University of Washington
University of Washington
Hatfield Marine Center, NOAA
University of Maryland
University of Maryland
University of Alaska
University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
University of Southern California
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
GSO-University of Rhode Island
University of Washington/JISAO
NOAA-PMEL
NOAA-PMEL
Contractor Aquatic Solutions
University of Washington/JISAO
University of Alaska Fairbanks
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
NOAA-AFSC
Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks
Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks
Univ. of Oldenburg, Germany
Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks
UCAR
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
GSO-University of Rhode Island
Oregon State University
University of Washington
University of Washington
University of Alaska Fairbanks
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
Western Washington University
Western Washington University
Independent Researcher
NCAR
GSO-University of Rhode Island
6/26/08
Appendix B. Ship’s Crew, Helicopter Support, and TAD, March 29 –
April 20, 2008
Angelo, James YNC
Manangan, Sorjen OSC
Arakaki, Rebecca SK2
Mandrie, Montarno DC3
Ayers, Silas LT
Marsden, George DCC
Bartlett, Charles MST1
Mastrota, Leigh FN
Baldwin, Robin FS3
McNally, Terence SK1
Bateman, Dale CDR
McManus, Gene SN
Beasley, Corey HSCS
Meadowcroft, Brian LTJG
Beckmann, Rachel LTJG
Merten, James SN
Bender, Zachary ENS
Miller, Valerie CWO2
Berringer, Mike ETC
Murphy, Nicholas MK2
Blas, Paul FN
Newton, Elizabeth LTJG
Brogan, John MKC
Olson, James EM3
Buford, Aimee BM2
Passalacqua, Joseph ETCM
Carr, Michael LTJG
Pentecost, James DC1
Carter, John FS2
Podhora, Curtis EMCM
Cole, Tyler SN
Quichocho, Robert MK1
Conroy, William BM3
Redd, Davion DC2
Coombe, Jeffrey MK2
Rieg, Mark MSTC
Dabe, Jeffrey IT2
Rivera-Maldonado, Abner SKC
Daem, Steven ET2
Rocklage, Eric MST1
Davidson, Ash BM1
Rudibaugh, Kenneth MK1
Davis, Jonathon ET2
Shaffer, Hans EM1
Dull, Steven FS2
Siciak, Anthony MK3
Dunning, Lara BM3
Smith, Corey MK3
Elliott, Stephen LTJG
Smith, Josh LTJG
Fernandez, Chelsey SN
Stewart, Jeffrey LCDR
Finley, Nathan EM2
Sullivan, Timothy BMCS
Ford, Angela SN
Swanson, Shawn ET1
Galvez, Oscar R. LT
Thomas, Tasha ENS
Glenzer, William BM1
Thompson, Emily SN
Gonzalez, Fernando MK2
Tomlin, Mathew SN
Ghosn, Kathleen FN
Travers, Cynthia LTJG
Hamilton, H. Mark FS3
Von Kauffmann, Daniel IT1
Hammond, Mark LCDR
Wagner, Alexander FN
Harbinsky, Mark ET2
Ward, John CWO3
Harris, Daniel SK1
Whiting, Allan, MK2
Hurtado, Daniell EM1
Williams, Tony FSCS
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 82
6/26/08
Jacobs, Bryson ENS
Worrell, Kenneth EM1
Johnston, Garrett SN
Wright, Tiffany MST2
Jones, Greg MKCS
Yeckley, Andy BM3
Kidd, Wayne BMC
Zitting, Arrene FS1
Kruger, Thomas MST3
Cleveland, Christopher FNMK
Laisure, Jeremy SK2
Hickey, Anthony
Lambert, Douglas MK1
Merchant, Mike
Layman, Rich MST1
Newby, Vance IT2
Liebrecht, Brian ET1
Spink, Mike
Lindstrom, Tedric CAPT
Springer, Bill
Loftis, Jon MK1
Stanco, Lesley HS2
Lyons, Sean R CWO3
Starling, Wendy MK2
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 83
6/26/08
Appendix C. Science Party Members, April 20 – May 6, 2008
Name
Carin Ashjian
Robert Campbell
Philip Alatalo
Evelyn Sherr
Celia Ross
Evelyn Lessard
Megan Bernhardt
Tracy Shaw
Rachel L. Pleuthner
Alexei Pinchuk
Ed Davis
Boris Sirenko
Maria Prokopenko
Jonathan Whitefield
John Casey
Roger Kelly
Edward Cokelet
Dylan Righi
Rolf Sonnerup
Peter Proctor
David Strausz
Jeremy Mathis
Elizabeth Labunski
Kathy Kuletz
Katrin Iken
Rebecca Neumann
Sarah Story Manes
Steve Roberts
Tom Bolmer
Scott Hiller
Lynne Butler
Paul Walczak
Allan Devol
Heather Whitney
Peng Wang
Kris Swenson
David Shull
Emily Davenport
Gaelin Rosenwaks
John Allison
Donna Van Keuren
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 84
Institution
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
GSO-University of Rhode Island
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
COAS- Oregon State University
COAS- Oregon State University
University of Washington
University of Washington
Hatfield Marine Center, NOAA
University of Maryland
University of Alaska
University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
University of Southern California
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
GSO-University of Rhode Island
NOAA-PMEL
University of Washington-JISAO
University of Washington-JISAO
University of Washington-JISAO
NOAA/NOAA Corp, Lt JG
University of Alaska Fairbanks
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
University of Alaska Fairbanks
University of Oldenburg, Germany
University of Alaska Fairbanks
UCAR
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
GSO-University of Rhode Island
Oregon State University
University of Washington
University of Washington
Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
Western Washington University
Western Washington University
Independent Journalist
NCAR
GSO-University of Rhode Island
6/26/08
Appendix D. Ship’s Crew, Helicopter Support, and TAD, April 20 –
May 6, 2008
Angelo, James YNC
Manangan, Sorjen OSC
Arakaki, Rebecca SK2
Mandrie, Montarno DC3
Ayers, Silas LT
Marsden, George DCC
Bartlett, Charles MST1
Mastrota, Leigh FN
Baldwin, Robin FS3
McNally, Terence SK1
Bateman, Dale CDR
McManus, Gene SN
Beasley, Corey HSCS
Meadowcroft, Brian LTJG
Beckmann, Rachel LTJG
Merten, James SN
Bender, Zachary ENS
Miller, Valerie CWO2
Berringer, Mike ETC
Murphy, Nicholas MK2
Blas, Paul FN
Newton, Elizabeth LTJG
Brogan, John MKC
Olson, James EM3
Buford, Aimee BM2
Passalacqua, Joseph ETCM
Carr, Michael LTJG
Pentecost, James DC1
Carter, John FS2
Podhora, Curtis EMCM
Cole, Tyler SN
Quichocho, Robert MK1
Conroy, William BM3
Redd, Davion DC2
Coombe, Jeffrey MK2
Rieg, Mark MSTC
Dabe, Jeffrey IT2
Rivera-Maldonado, Abner SKC
Daem, Steven ET2
Rocklage, Eric MST1
Davidson, Ash BM1
Rudibaugh, Kenneth MK1
Davis, Jonathon ET2
Shaffer, Hans EM1
Dull, Steven FS2
Siciak, Anthony MK3
Dunning, Lara BM3
Smith, Corey MK3
Elliott, Stephen LTJG
Smith, Josh LTJG
Fernandez, Chelsey SN
Stewart, Jeffrey LCDR
Finley, Nathan EM2
Sullivan, Timothy BMCS
Ford, Angela SN
Swanson, Shawn ET1
Galvez, Oscar R. LT
Thomas, Tasha ENS
Glenzer, William BM1
Thompson, Emily SN
Gonzalez, Fernando MK2
Tomlin, Mathew SN
Ghosn, Kathleen FN
Von Kauffmann, Daniel IT1
Hamilton, H. Mark FS3
Wagner, Alexander FN
Hammond, Mark LCDR
Ward, John CWO3
Harbinsky, Mark ET2
Whiting, Allan, MK2
Harris, Daniel SK1
Williams, Tony FSCS
Hurtado, Daniell EM1
Worrell, Kenneth EM1
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 85
6/26/08
Jacobs, Bryson ENS
Wright, Tiffany MST2
Johnston, Garrett SN
Yeckley, Andy BM3
Jones, Greg MKCS
Zitting, Arrene FS1
Kidd, Wayne BMC
Cleveland, Christopher FNMK
Kruger, Thomas MST3
Hickey, Anthony
Laisure, Jeremy SK2
Merchant, Mike
Lambert, Douglas MK1
Newby, Vance IT2
Layman, Rich MST1
Spink, Mike
Liebrecht, Brian ET1
Springer, Bill
Lindstrom, Tedric CAPT
Stanco, Lesley HS2
Loftis, Jon MK1
Starling, Wendy MK2
Lyons, Sean R CWO3
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 86
6/26/08
Appendix E: Sampling Plan
Types of Stations and Activities at Each:
1) Short Station:
A short station normally will consist of a CTD cast from the starboard A-frame to near
bottom and, on cross-shelf transects and at the ice edge, a Video Plankton Recorder
(VPR) cast from the 3/8” wire off of the stern to 10 m off of the bottom or to a maximum
depth of 300 m at locations where the bottom depth is greater than 300 m, a Calvet Net
tow from the 3/8” wire off of the stern to 10 m off of the bottom, and, at stations
shallower than 150 m, a 20 min deployment of the benthic camera from the port side of
the fantail. It is hoped that the benthic camera can be deployed at the same time as other
operations. For all operations, the ship should be stationary. Calvet net tows will be
conducted at a subset of the short stations (number presently undetermined). At some
stations, an additional CTD cast may be necessary to accommodate the Fe sampling of
Wu.
List of Activities at Regular Short Station (not in order):
CTD Cast
VPR Cast
Benthic Camera (< 150 m water depth)
Calvet Net Tow
(CTD cast for Fe)
Order of Operations:
The order of operations will alternate between stations between starting with operations
on the starboard side and starting with operations from the stern. For starts from the
starboard side, the order will be CTD, Fe sampling, VPR, Calvet net, Extra nets (see
below) with benthic camera work occurring during the CTD and Fe sampling (if it works
out that the benthic camera can be deployed simultaneously with other sampling). For
starts from the stern, the order will be VPR, Calvet net, Extra nets, CTD, Fe sampling
with benthic camera work occuring during one of the operations.
2) Short Station plus Extra Net Tow:
Once per 24 hour period a second net tow will be conducted usually during the morning
using a ring net from the 3/8” wire off of the stern. This will be a vertical tow (ship not
moving) to a maximum depth of 100 m or to 10 m off the bottom where the bottom depth
is less than 110 m.
This is in addition to the activities described for a short station.
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3) Short Station plus Krill Fishing during the Night:
1-2 net tows will be conducted from the 3/8” wire off of the stern to collect krill at night.
This is in addition to the activities described for a short station.
4) Process Stations:
The following activities will occur at each process station:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CTD casts (at least 4) from starboard A-Frame– Hydro Team
Fe CTD cast (1) at some locations - Wu
VPR cast (1) from stern A-frame, 3/8” wire – Ashjian
Plankton ring net tows (4-5) from stern A-frame, 3/8” wire –
Campbell/Ashjian/Iken/Prokopenko
Calvet net tow (1) from the stern A-frame, 3/8” wire –Pinchuk
Bongo Net tows (2-3) at night – Lessard
Multinet or MOCNESS net tow (1) from stern A-frame, 0.68” conducting –
Pinchuk
Benthic grabs from the stern A-frame, 3/8” wire – Cooper/Grebmeier team,
Gradinger/Iken team
Benthic camera cast (1) from the starboard aft quarter using portable spool of wire
– Cooper/Grebmeier Team
Multicore (2) from stern A-frame, 9/16” wire – Devol
The following activities will be added at process stations in ice:
• On-ice sampling and deployment of sub-ice sediment traps (helicopter retrieval of
traps may be necessary; see section below for description of ice work)
• ROV surveys under ice deployed from ice-Shull
• Benthic camera deployed from ice-Cooper/Grebmier team
• If necessary, small boat work to access ice- Gradinger
At up to 5-6 process stations located over the slope:
• Deployment of floating sediment traps, requires small boat – Moran
At 5-6 Open Water Stations:
• Van Veen Grab sampling from stern A-frame, 3/8” wire, 3 replicates – Gradinger
et al.
A minimum of four CTD casts will be conducted at each process station. One should
occur in the morning of each day with succeeding casts interspersed with activities
occurring on the stern in order to maximize efficiency and minimize down time while the
CTD bottles are being emptied. The ship should remain stationary for all CTD casts.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 88
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VPR casts should be conducted as described above.
Benthic grabs and the multicore casts will be conducted with the ship stationary.
Benthic sampling will likely occur at the end of the station or at a location slightly offset
from the station location in order to minimize benthic disturbance at the station and in
order to avoid washing sediment into the water column during sample sieving and
processing and deck cleanup.
The benthic camera will be deployed for ~20 min using a manually spooled cable off of
the aft deck. The ship should be stationary during the camera deployment. Camera
deployment will only occur at stations of ≤150 m water depth.
The Multinet tow will be conducted with the ship stationary when in heavy ice or at a
speed of 1-2 knots. The MOCNESS tow will be conducted at a speed of 1-2 knots.
At process stations in ice, the order of activities will be driven by the timing of daylight
so as to maximize the period of time that the sampling teams can be deployed onto the
ice. Once the ship is safely positioned next to the ice, a team of scientists (12) from the
PI groups of Gradinger et al., Wu, Devol/Shull, Lessard/Harvey, and Hydro will be
deployed onto the ice with equipment to begin the ice work (see more complete
description below). The scientists will remain on the ice for up to 6 hours; during the
first half of the cruise, a smaller team (Gradinger) will need to return to the ice ~12 hours
after the deployment of sediment traps hanging below the ice surface. All ice work will
be conducted during daylight hours and deployment of personnel to the ice will occur as
soon as possible following the onset of daylight so as to potentially allow collection of
the sediment traps 12 hours later. If the sun has set 12 hours after the deployment of the
sediment traps and if the station is completed before daylight, the traps may be recovered
during the following day by returning to the station location by helicopter. During the
period of work on the ice, a small ROV will be deployed through a hole in the ice or
potentially from the ship off of the stern at night, moving away from the ship under the
ice (Shull).
5) Short station plus ice work only
At some locations, the Gradinger et al. team may need to conduct ice work for ~6 hours
(standard activities) at a short station (rather than waiting for the next process station) in
order to achieve 10 ice stations during the first portion of the cruise. These stations will
be planned for days between process station dates.
Other Activities:
1) Small Boat Use
Moran: The small boat will be used to deploy and retrieve the floating sediment traps
close to the ice edge at stations located over the slope (~300 m). For deployment, the
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 89
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traps will be carried to the ice edge on the boat and deployed from the boat. For
recovery, the small boat will secure the upper end of the trap string and gently move that
upper end to the stern of the Healy where a line through a block off of the stern A-frame
will be used to bring the full traps directly on board Healy. The traps weigh 300-350 #.
The small boat also will be used to recover the traps when deployed in open water (traps
can be deployed in open water directly from Healy). As for the ice edge situation, the
traps will be secured to the small boat and brought over to the stern of Healy where they
will be lifted on board using the stern A-frame.
Gradinger: We would work within 1 mile around the ship with a science party of three
for our project. The payload would consist of five action packers, two ice corers and a
power generator (total weight about 150lbs). Everything fits nicely in the small boats we
used frequently during our 2005 expedition. We only want to use the small boats during
daylight hours.
We will bring our own gasoline for science operations as discussed during the planning
meeting.
Lessard/Harvey: Will work in conjunction with other PIs using the small boat to sample
krill and ice biota (using hand nets and slurp guns) at the ice edge.
2) Sampling Activities on the Bridge
Both the Kuletz group (seabirds) and the Gradinger et al. group (sea ice) will post
observers on the bridge during daylight hours to monitor ice conditions and to enumerate
and identify seabirds. Both groups will use laptops on the bridge. Kuletz requires a GPS
feed to her laptop. Gradinger et al. requires a feed of ship position, heading, speed etc.
that will be arranged by Chayes.
The Moran team, led by Kelly, will need to install a “Gonio” box and antenna on the
bridge in order to track the floating sediment traps (RDF tracking). Kelly has discussed
antenna installation with Chayes. Both the Gonio box and the antenna are quite small
(1.5’ x 1.5’ x 8” for the box).
3) Acoustic detection of plankton using a fish sonar (Simrad EK 60)
This will be conducted by Alex De Robertis. As for HLY0701, the sonar will be installed
in the sonar well by Alex working together with D. Chayes. Data will be collected on a
computer in the Future Lab. We request that the ship minimize the use of the Sperry
SRD500 Doppler speed log when not required for navigation as this device
interferes with scientific acoustic equipment (Simrad EK60 echosounders). During
HLY0701, the Sperry SRD500 was turned off except when entering or leaving port.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 90
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4) Open-Water Deep Sediment Trap Deployment (Moran Group)
Number of sediment trap stations
We anticipate at least 5 deep sediment trap stations as part of HLY-08-02 (not to be
confused with the Gradinger ice sediment trap). Deep traps consist of a trap line (5/8”
dia poly-dac rope) that is 110m long with samples collected at 25 m, 40 m, 50 m, 60 m
and 100 m (Fig. 1). Stations will be limited to shelf-slope locations with water depths
greater than 300 m, and deployments will last approximately 24 hours. Several of these
stations may be conducted in ice conditions requiring the sediment traps to be anchored
to ice floes.
Operational procedure of typical sediment trap deployment:
(1) Preparation for deck operations
Prior to arriving on station - Fantail should be prepared for sediment trap deployment.
This includes: (a) placement of deck snatch-block, (b) start-up for the capstan hydraulics,
(c) setting the trap line in the A-frame block and (d) placement of ballast, sub-surface,
surface and spar buoys on fantail where they can be accessed (Fig. 2).
On station – The Healy’s bow should be directed into the wind/swell (whichever is
dominant), and the stern props should be used as little as possible to maintain this
orientation. The sediment trap holders, tubes, will then be brought out and placed near
the transom. Trap ballast (135 – 150 lbs) will be secured to trap downline.
(2) Bridge permission
Prior to be deployment of sediment traps, the bridge will be contacted to confirm
permission to put equipment over the side. It may be deemed necessary to drop the lifelines spanning the transom at this time.
(3) Sediment trap deployment
Using the capstan to control payout, the trap ballast will be lifted and passed over the
transom. If sea conditions require, a tagline may be used to stabilize the load. The
ballast will be lowered to the first trap stop, where the first crosspiece will be attached to
the line and the first set of tubes inserted into the crosspiece. The traps will be lowered
until all 5 stops are completed. Following the last set of traps, 3 sets of sub-surface buoy
strings will be attached to the downline. After the shock cord and back-up trap line pass
through the A-frame block and the trap top is at deck height, the array will be secured to
the vessel with a tagline. Finally, the surface buoy string will be attached.
(4) Sediment trap release
At this point contact will be made with the bridge to verify permission to release the
sediment traps. The strobe light, RDF beacon, and ARGOS beacons will be activated at
this time, then the buoys will be cast into the water. The tagline will be released, and the
capstan will be used to allow the trap array to drift ~10 m from the ship, at which point a
slip knot will be released to allow the array to drift freely.
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(5) Sediment Trap Tracking
The position (lat and long) of the sediment trap will be recorded every 15 min using the
Gonio 400P receiver and a laptop. If the array drifts beyond the vessels line-of-sight, the
positions will also be relayed every 6 hours via email to shipboard scientists via the
ARGOS satellite network. In addition, the spar buoy will be fitted with an RDF beacon,
strobe light, and radar reflector to aid in tracking and recovery.
(6) Sediment Trap Recovery
After the 24 hour soak time, the traps will be recovered. The Healy will steam to the last
known position of the sediment traps, and begin to search for them from there. Upon
their sighting, a small boat will be launched to tow the traps to the stern of the Healy.
Again, the Healy should be positioned with its bow into the wind/swell. A lead line will
be connected to the trap downline, and the capstan will be used to haul in the traps.
When the top of the downline is at deck height, the surface buoys will be disconnected
and recovered. The sub-surface buoys and traps will be hauled in and removed from the
downline as they are brought to the surface. Finally, the trap ballast will be brought on
deck and the lifelines made secure on the transom.
It may be helpful to deploy a helicopter to assist with searching for the sediment traps.
This should not be necessary for every deployment, but should remain an option if
circumstances require it.
Additional request for support from ship
(1) Additional array tracking
It would be helpful for drifter recovery if the trap GPS positions, radar bearings, or RDF
bearings could be logged into the electronic navigation chart if possible/when available.
(2) The Gonio box will need to be installed on the bridge.
Contacts:
S. Bradley Moran
Roger P. Kelly
Graduate School of Oceanography
University of Rhode Island
215 S. Ferry Rd
Narragansett, RI 02882
Phone (401) 874-6530 (Moran), (401) 874-6273 (Kelly)
E-Mail: moran@gso.uri.edu, rokelly@gso.uri.edu
5) Helicopter
The primary use of the helicopter for science will be by R. Gradinger who will need it to
return to locations where he has deployed under-ice sediment traps to recover the traps
after Healy has left that station (during daylight the day following the deployment of the
traps). Gradinger may also use the helicopter for 1 hour trips to sample ice floes while
the ship is underway.
HLY0802 Cruise Report, 92
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The helicopter also may be used for personnel transfers at St. Lawrence Island and at St.
Paul. At the moment, it is anticipated that a minimum of 11 people will disembark at St.
Paul and 10 will embark in their place. It is also anticipated that 2 additional people will
disembark at St. Lawrence. Additional people (press, local community members,
teachers) may also need to embark or disembark at mid-cruise. These needs will be
identified.
Ashjian and the Captain, XO, or Ops have been invited to visit Gambell by Merlin
Koonooka to discuss the science of the cruise with the whalers. If our scheduled closest
approach to Gambell does not coincide with whaling, we will make this trip. We will
coordinate this with Merlin Koonooka during the cruise. One-two people may disembark
(see preceeding paragraph) at St. Lawrence Island.
The helicopter may be used to search for the floating sediment traps deployed by the
Moran group (Kelly contact). See sediment trap section.
The helicopter also may be used by the ship for ice reconnaissance. It is anticipated that
this will be a particularly heavy ice year, based on conditions now and the ongoing La
Niña event.
6) Ice Station Detailed Operational Plan
Teams Working on the Ice
Gradinger (2-3 people)
Rember (2 people)
Shull (2 people)
PMEL (2 people)
Lessard/Harvey (1-2 people)
Media (1-2 people; will join one of the teams and not work alone)
Sambrotto (1-2 people)
Prokopenko (1 person)
Number of off-ship ice coring sorties (ice stations)
(1) At least10 stations; each with a mean time of 6 hours on the ice, depending on ice
conditions (snow and ice thickness, dimensions of the ice floe, weather) and progress of
work. Stations can be conducted mainly in parallel to the water column and benthic
stations.
(2) Recovery of sediment traps by helicopter 12-24 hours after each ice station.
Operational procedure of typical ice station:
(1) PMEL team notified of arrival at ice station 1 hour prior to arrival.
(2) Selection of ice floe to be sampled
R. Gradinger and R. Rember will be notified 40 min prior to arrival at selected position.
Gradinger and Rember select together with ship officers a suitable ice floe for the sea ice
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research. Shull, Sambrotto, PMEL, and Lessard/Harvey teams will sample ice floes
selected by Gradinger.
Ashjian will resolve disputes regarding location (of course, there will be no disputes).
(2) Safety briefing
Prior to be deployment on ice a safety briefing will be held on the bridge for final
approval by the ship’s command. A polar bear watch will be identified by the CG. All
science teams will attend.
(3) Transfer of equipment and personnel
- Personnel:
Gradinger Team: At each station 2-3 people will be transferred to the ice at the start and
end of the station (typically 6 hrs duration).
Rember Team: 2 people to the ice for ~ 2 hours.
Shull Team: 2 people on ice for ~ 6 hours, depending on the CTD and multicore
sampling schedule.
PMEL Team: 2-3 people on the ice for ~4 hours
Lessard/Harvey Team: 1-2 people for ~1-2 hours at some point during Gradinger’s time
on the ice (Lessard/Harvey will join the Gradinger team for their sampling)
Sambrotto Team: At each station 1-2 people will be transferred to the ice at the start and
end of the station (typically 6 hrs duration).
Prokopenko: 1 person on ice for 1-2 hours
- Access to ice during ongoing work:
To allow intermediate sample transfer, access to the ship by crane/basket needs to be
available at any time, also for safety reasons.
- Equipment and samples:
At each station the following pieces of equipment would have to be hauled to the ice and
back:
Gradinger Team:
- 1 ice corer (4 ft long, 20 lbs), 1 ice auger (4 ft long, 20 lbs), coring equipment (3 boxes
3x2x2 ft, 60 lbs each), electric generator (3x2x2 ft, 80 lbs)
- 2 boxes (3x2x2) containing biological sampling and measuring devices, (ca 15 lbs each)
- 1 box with video equipment, camera, monitor etc. (ca. 30 lbs)
- 2 10-gallon containers for samples (100 lbs full each on way back to ship)
- 3 coolers (4x2x3 ft, 70 lbs full), 1 sample box (2x2x2 ft, 30 lbs full)
- 3 sleds
- 2 sediment traps with floatation and mounting equipment (4x3x2 ft, 10lbs)
Rember Team:
-1 ice corer (20 lbs)
-1 cooler for sample collection (20 lbs full)
-1 cooler with battery (50 lbs)
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At some stations we may collect water and will require:
-1 ice auger (10 lbs)
-1 box with inverter, pump, tubing and sample bottles (40 lbs)
Shull Team:
- 1 crate containing a mini ROV with oxygen microprofiling adapter, control box, light
meter, picoammeter, and 100m cables (about 40 lbs).
- 1 ROV control box (in pelican case, 25 lbs.)
- 1 marine battery with transformer for powering ROV in a case (about 40 lbs.)
PMEL Team:
-Red box (4x0.5x0.5 ft, ~30 lbs) containing: ice corer, core sun shade, meter stick
-White box (2x2x1 ft, ~20 lbs) containing: gasoline engine for ice corer
-Blue equipment bag (4x1x1 ft, ~25 lbs) containing: ice auger, ski poles, slurp gun,
water-sampling bottle, ice screws, rope, ice cutting board, radiometer stand, electric drill,
etc.
-Orange Pelican box (~20 lbs) containing: GPS, compass, camera, ice-thickness gauge,
ice saw, air and water PAR sensors, Zip-Loc bags, thermometer, drill bits, log sheets
-2 coolers (4x2x3 ft, 30 lbs full)
-2 sleds (brought by PMEL)
Lessard/Harvey Team:
- 3 coolers (4x2x3 ft) for ice, krill and water samples (ca 80 lbs. on return trip)
- 2 boxes (2x3x2) of biological sampling devices (small nets, slurp gun, bags, containers)
ca 20 lbs.
- 2 10L containers for water (ca. 45 lbs on return trip)
Sambrotto Team:
- 1 box with 8 - 2.4 L bottles (20 lbs.)
- 1 spool of 3/8” cable with weight (30 lbs.)
- 2 floats (5 lbs)
- 10 L carboys; plasticware (10 lbs.)
Prokopenko Team:
- 1 box with car battery and power inverter ( 50 lbs)
- 1 box peristaltic pump + computer + tubing (15-20 lbs)
- 1 box with glass bottles + optode (< 5 lbs)
- 1 box with Winkler reagents (< 5 lbs)
(4) Work on ice
Gradinger Team:
The progression of a typical ice station is as follows:
a) select final sampling location on ice
b) take two ice cores
c) deploy primary productivity incubation (for four hours)
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d) deploy sediment traps (about 50m from sampling site) – no other sampling can take
place close to the trap, - if floe is very small than they will be deployed at the very end of
the station.
e) collect water and ice samples
f) make snow measurement transect (200x200m around the sampling area
After completion of all sampling, walk to second and a third sampling site on same ice
floe (if of sufficient size) and repeat e and f).
After completion of three sampling sites (total time demand about four hours) return to
site 1 and recover primary productivity incubation. Take ice cores for other working
groups interested in ice samples – return to ship.
Rember Team:
Select ice sampling location in conjunction with other researchers. We will require that
other researchers maintain some distance (50-100 ft) from our sampling sight so that we
can maintain a somewhat cleaner environment. Others may use our locations for snow
sampling etc once we have completed our sampling.
We will likely take 5 ice cores from each station.
If we collect water then we drill an auger hole and pump water into bottles from varying
depths.
We are available to collected cores and water once our work is completed at most
stations.
Shull Team:
a) select final sampling location on ice based on Gradinger’s assessment
b) create opening for ROV (with help from Gradinger group)
c) calibrate microelectrode probe with water from station (compare to optode)
d) fly ROV under ice for O2-profile measurements and PAR measurements at several
stations (about 2 hours)
e) fly video/PAR transects under ice (about one hour)
After completion of all sampling, and if time remains, walk to second or a third sampling
site on same ice floe (if of sufficient size) and repeat d and e).
After completion of sampling (about four hours) return to ship.
PMEL Team:
a. select final sampling location on ice
b. observe ice conditions and snow depth
c. drill chlorophyll core, characterize, photograph, measure ice thickness, sample in
10 cm increments, measure PAR above and below ice
d. auger sequence of brine holes 20, 40, … cm deep,
e. drill salinity/nutrient core, characterize, photograph, measure ice thickness,
sample in 10 cm increments
f. drill temperature/productivity core, characterize, photograph, measure ice
thickness, measure temperature at 5, 15, … cm depth, sample in 10 cm
increments, measure PAR above and below ice
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g. sample brine holes
h. drill a fourth core if requested by other investigators
After completion of all sampling, walk to a second sampling site on same ice floe (if of
sufficient size) and repeat (b) to (h).
After completion of two sampling sites (total time demand about four hours) drill other
cores if requested by other parties. Return to ship.
Lessard/Harvey Team:
a) At sample location designated by Gradinger, take 1-3 ice cores, depending on
biomass. Sample the bottom section of ice cores.
b) Take water samples
c) Take net tows
d) Return to ship
Work will be conducted in consultation with Gradinger.
Sambrotto Team:
The progression of a typical ice station will follow that of the Gradinger team. We will
sample at the locations selected at an appropriate distance from other sampling activities.
a) create ice hole with help from the Gradinger team.
b) deploy nitrogen productivity incubation (for four hours)
c) collect water and ice samples
Prokopenko Team (will work with PMEL team):
1) Get an auger hole drilled into the ice (will use auger from PMEL team)
2) Lower the optode into the hole
3) Observe [O2] for 10-15 minutes
4) Lower the tubing into the hole and pump for brine samples for 45 minutes
(4) Use of helicopter for ice access
Gradinger Team:
A helicopter is requested for recovery of ice sediment traps. Dale Chayes still needs to
provide information regarding locating the ice floes after 12 to 24 hours.
Also we would like to use helicopters for short time ice sampling (<1h) to collect ice
samples while the ship is underway if approved by chief scientist.
PMEL Team:
Some ad hoc experiments may be devised and left behind on the sea ice for 12 to 24
hours and retrieved via helicopter. Loads will be the size of 1 or 2 ice chests.
(5) Additional requests for support from ship
(a) Equipment
Gradinger:
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- radio communication (hand-helds) for communication with ship (2 radios on the ice)
- 3 larger sleds for transport of equipment on the ice) – had been available on the Healy in
2002, 2004 and 2005.
Shull: Request the use of a Healy sled for moving equipment on the ice (if available).
PMEL Team: as per Gradinger. PMEL group has own hand-held radio.
Lessard/Harvey: Same equipment as Gradinger.
Sambrotto: radio communication (hand-helds) for communication with ship (1 radio on
the ice).
(b) Polar bear watch
As we are limited in the number of personnel in our team, we would require polar bear
protection support from the ship. Ideally, this would consist of one additional person on
the ice and a person on the bridge responsible for scanning the vicinity of the ship for
polar bears and communication with the ice team.
Other Operational Considerations
We will be working near four NOAA moorings. The positions are listed below. Note that
there are additional moorings within 1 nm of NOAA mooring M2.
Bering Sea 2 (M2) 56.877°N, 164.057°W, 73m water depth. There are some other
moorings nearby, within 1 nm
Bering Sea 4 (M4) 57.853°N, 168.870, 71m water depth
Bering Sea 5 (M5) 59.898°N, 171.711°W, 72m water depth
Bering Sea 8 (M8) 62.194°N, 174.668°W, 73m water depth
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Appendix F: Twelve Days of Healy
The Twelve days of Healy.
On the first day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
a sediment trap deployment.
On the second day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the third day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the fourth day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the fifth day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the sixth day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
6 frozen inflow hoses,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the seventh day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
7 frozen outflow hoses,
6 frozen inflow hoses,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
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On the eighth day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
8 overflowing incubators,
7 frozen outflow hoses,
6 frozen inflow hoses,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the ninth day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
9 night time pages,
8 overflowing incubators,
7 frozen outflow hoses,
6 frozen inflow hoses,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the tenth day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
10 unanswered alarm clocks,
9 night time pages,
8 overflowing incubators,
7 frozen outflow hoses,
6 frozen inflow hoses,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
On the eleventh day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
11 presses of the snooze button,
10 unanswered alarm clocks,
9 night time pages,
8 overflowing incubators,
7 frozen outflow hoses,
6 frozen inflow hoses,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
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On the twelfth day of the Healy cruise, my Chief Scientist gave to me,
12 all night shifts,
11 presses of the snooze button,
10 unanswered alarm clocks,
9 night time pages,
8 overflowing incubators,
7 frozen outflow hoses,
6 frozen inflow hoses,
5 flooded decks,
4 hours in a small boat,
3 refrigerator breakdowns,
2 cut loops on the trap line,
and a sediment trap deployment.
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Appendix G: Bo-Healy-an Rhapsody
(to the tune of Bohemian Rhapsody)
Is this the North Sea,
Or is it the Bering Sea?
Caught in an ice floe
No escape from the Healy
Open your eyes
Long along the ice and see...
I'm just a poor tech, I need your sympathy
Put the A-frame in, A-frame out,
Winch it up, winch it down.
Any way the Healy goes, doesn't really matter to me...
To me.
Mama, just killed a krill
Put a scalpel to his head
Took his eyeballs now he's dead.
Mama, my HPLC had just begun
But now the valve has gone and drained it all away.
Mama, oooo
Deployed my sediment traps
If they're not back again this time tomorrow,
Carry on, carry on.
It's not as if they mattered.
Too late, the cold has come.
Ice clogging up the drain,
Hoses freezing all the time.
Goodbye, incubator. You've got to go!
Gotta defrost you first and try again.
Mama, oooo
I don't want to freeze,
I sometimes wish I'd rigged the hoses right.
I see a multi-corer on the deck!
Aft con – Bridge, Aft con – Bridge, will you get the speed right?
Bongo nets are winching, very very frightening me.
In the water (In the water)
In the water (In the water)
In the water, there they go, magnifico
I'm just a poor tech, nobody loves me
He's just a poor tech from a poor PI
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Spare him his life from his low budget gear!
Now the heads are secure, we won't let you go!
But what the? No! I really want to go! (Let me go!)
But what the? No! I really want to go! (Let me go!)
But what the? No! I really want to go! (Let me go!)
We will not let you go! (Let me go!)
We will not let you go! (Let me go!)
No, no, no, no, no, no!
Oh my captain (oh my captain),
Oh my captain let me go!
Carin Ashjian has a net tow put aside for me, for me, for meeeeeee!!
<Insert head banging guitar solo here...>
So you think you can freeze me and my seawater line?
So you think that the mess deck is a good place to dine?
Oh, baby! Mesozooplankton, baby!
Just gotta get back, just gotta get right back to Dutch.
Nothing really matters,
Anyone can see...
Science doesn't matter,
Science doesn't matter to me.
Any way the Healy goes.
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