WORK TTERN OUT AND ARRANGE KING

SPECIAL
COLL
TS
1490
.K5
1915
FIGURE OUT AND ARRANGE
TTERN WORK
EAVING COLORED FABRICS
KING
LIBRARY
^NSSACHOs^^
1895
Gift of Mr. Clifford C. Canfield
l£ C^MPAN^)
WOONSOCKET, RHODE INLAND.
SHAMBOW
3t^yi
•
HOW
TO FIGURE OUT AND ARRANGE
PATTERN
VV^ORK
FOR WEAVING COLORED FABRICS
EXPLAINED
ILLUSTRATED
TOGETHER WITH:
OTHER SIMPLE RULES AND
CALCULATIONS PERTAINING
TO WEAVING DEPARTMENTS
lYj.G. KING, SU PERr NTENDENT
UMIRA COTTON MILLS COMPANY
3URLINGTON, NORTH CAROL NA
Price $1.25
1915
The Washburn Press
CHARLOTTE.
N. C.
T5
If-jo
C0PYRI(4HTED, 1915, BY
J. G. KING
BURLIXGTOX, X. V.
PREFACE
Being a practical mill man, and having come in conmore or less superintendents, boss weavers and
boss beamers that are not familiar with the methods of
figuring out and arranging pattern work to best advantage which it is quite important to know in order to
tact with
—
—
handle a colored goods mill successfully ^the idea was
suggested to me, by one that wanted to learn, that I get
up a plain and simple book on the subject, together with
a few other simple rules and calculations that have proven
quite useful to everyone connected with weaving departments ahd being aware of the fact that this part of the
work was so little understood by so many that ought to
;
view of the fact that there are scores
beamsr hands, etc., who are
in line for promotion who would like to have the information as contained in this book, I have made special effort
to get the book up in the plainest and simplest manner
possible, avoiding all signs and abbreviations, etc. or, in
other words, I have put the feed way down on the lowest
shelf, so that anyone with only a slight knowledge of
arithmetic can understand and master it as well as those
that happen to be better informed.
I have no knowledge of any such book ever being
published on this subject, as herein illustrated and
explained, and it is the writer's opinion that it will eventually be appreciated as it becomes known, especially so
among those who have never had the apportunity of
much schooling or any special textile training.
knoiv,
and
also in
of second hands, loom fixers,
;
Respectfully,
J.
m..
G.
KING.
KIXO
INTRODUCTORY
While this book is
anyone how to work
arrange them to best
classes of colored work,
designed to teach
out patterns and
advantage
in
all
checks, dress pat-
in order to make the
each pattern is illustrated in a stripe it being understood by all
that are likely to be interested that the pattern in the filling of a piece of goods has
nothing to do with the figuring out and
arranging of the warp ends.
The patterns as shown here are not
designed with the view of showing any
terns, stripes, etc.,
illustrations plain,
;
were
works out dif-
specially attractive effects, but they
selected because each pattern
ferently; and you will find that practically
every question that is likely to come up in
working out and arranging a pattern, is
brought out and explained in some of the
designs as shown in this book.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
A
very simple 2-colored pattern worked out and illustrated.
CHAPTER TWO
Another 2-colored pattern worked out and
illustrated.
CHAPTER THREE
A
2-colored pattern
A
2-colored pattern
A
4-colored pattern
worked out and
illustrated.
CHAPTER FOUR
worked out and
illustrated.
CHAPTER FIVE
worked out and
CHAPTER
A
4-colored
illustrated.
SIX
worked out and
pattern, with cord uiork,
trated.
illus-
CHAPTER SEVEN
A 4-colored pattern, with cord ivork and fancy stripe, worked
out and illustrated.
CHAPTER EIGHT
A
2-colored pattern of Bed-Ticking
worked out and
illustrated.
CHAPTER NINE
A
and
2-colored pattern, with cord ivork of ply yarn,
explained.
worked out
CHAPTER TEN
How
to get out Blanket Sheets,
worked out and
illustrated.
CHAPTER ELEVEN
How
To
to find the Percentage of Sizing on a warp.
find out how much the cloth will Take-up in
Width
in
Weaving.
To
To
find the
find the
Take-up
Number
in
of
warp in length.
Ends Required
in a
warp
for a given
width of goods.
CHAPTER TWELVE
How
to
figure the
Weight of a piece
of goods before
it is
woven, plain weave.
How
How
to figure the
to figure the
Weight of a piece of goods with cord work.
weight of goods after they are woven, by
pounds, and by ounces.
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
How
How
to find the iveight of a warp.
to find the length, and how to find the yiumber
yarn.
of
the
CHAPTER FOURTEEN
Short rules on figuring Percentage of Production.
How to find Loom Constant.
How to find Cloth Constant.
How
to find
Average Speeds
speeds.
(6)
of
Looms
running
different
CHAPTEE ONE
We will take for our first pattern to be worked out
a very simple one, as follows
8 JDlack
8 white
16 Total ends in pattern
In this
warp we
vage
we will have 1400 ends in
we will have 32 ends for sel-
will say
addition to the selvage, and
— 16
ends on each side of the cloth; therefore, our
of ends in the warp will be 1432.
Now in working out the pattern we will simply use
the 1400 ends and add the other 32 ends, we propose to
use for selvage later.
Our pattern should read as follows
total
number
8 ends of black
8 ends of white
16
Now
we
find
the above represents one complete pattern and
16 ends to each complete pattern, and
we have
how much of each color is required
warp, we must first find out how many complete
patterns there will be in the full width of the cloth therefore, as we are to have 1400 ends in the full width of the
cloth besides the selvage, we must first divide 1400 by 16,
which will give us the total number of complete patterns,
in order to find out
in the
;
thus:
16)1400(87 complete patterns
128
120
112
ends over
(7)
Now we find we
have 87 complete patterns and 8 ends
over.
By
referring to our pattern
we
find
we
call for 8
ends
of black to each pattern, and as we have 87 patterns we
must multiply our 87 by 8 in order to find out how many
ends of black are required in the warp, thus
87
8
696 ends of
brck required
For the white, we get that the same way
87
of white required
696 ends
Now we
take the 696 ends of black and the 696 ends
of white and add them together, thus
696 black
696 white
1392
Here,
amount
we
find the total ends of black
to 1392,
Now we
and
it
and white only
should be 1400.
where we worked out the pattern on page seven and we find we have 8 ends ocer. This
8 ends added to the 1392 makes the 1400. Thus
refer back to
1392
8
1400
Now
which color should these 8
suppose that as the
might
One
the next question
is,
ends be added on to?
pattern calls for just as much
we should divide it and add
that would not be right. By
will possibly be more clearly
(8)
white as it does black, that
4 ends on each color; but
referring to cut below this
understood.
•ONE
COMPLE.TL
THIS
PATTERN
^/
SPACL RtPRLSLNTS
THE 87 COMPLETE!
CUT
This cut
N°
PATTERNS
1
Number 1 is supposed to represent the cloth
we are working on, and you will notice
in the pattern
we have 8 of black next to the selvage on both sides
we have one more black stripe in the total width
of the cloth than we have of the white, and as we have 8
ends of black to each stripe we will add the 8 ends we
that
therefore,
have over onto the black, making
it
704 ends
696 ends
of black
of white
1400
32 ends
of white
read as follows
for
selvage
1432
In this case it is important that we add the 8 ends
on the black so as to make both sides of the cloth look
alike, as
shown in cut Number 1 and in order to make it
beamer hand or slasher man, when he com;
clear to the
mences
to
lay in this
warp,
follows
(9)
it
should be written as
End he re
Total Ends
704 black
728 white, selvage
8 black
"
8 white
—
included
16
87
patterns.
Selvage
16
1432
ends on both sides.
The point marked ''End
here'' shows the beamer or
the last pattern should come out
when he lays in the warp, and if it does not come out as
marked it proves that he has made a mistake in laying
slasher
in,
man
just
or that there
is
how
a
mistake in the number of ends in the
warp.
(10)
CHAPTER TWO
Now we
first one,
will take
up another pattern similar
to the
as follows
16 black
16 white
32 ends in pattern
In this pattern we will use 1400 ends besides the selwe did before. But, in order to find out
how many complete patterns there will be, we must divide
the 1400 ends by 32, as that is the number of ends to each
vage, just as
complete pattern in this warp.
32)1400(43 complete patterns
128
120
96
24 ends over.
Now we have 16 ends of black to the pattern, and as
we have 43 complete patterns we must multiply the 43 by
16 to find out the number of ends of black required
43
16
258
43
688 ends of black
And
as
we have
16 ends of white also to the pattern
white the same way
find the required ends of
43
16
258
43
688 ends of white
(11)
'11
Li
we
Now we add together the 688 ends of black and the 688
ends of white, as follows
688 black
688 white
1376
Here we
we have only 1376 ends, when we should
By referring back to where we worked out
we find we had 2U ends over, and by adding
find
have 1400.
this pattern,
the 24 ends to the 1376, thus
1376
24
1400
we
find
Now
we have our
the 24 ends onto?
number
correct
the next question
of ends.
which color should we add
case, we would not want to
is,
In this
on the black as we did in the first pattern, but
in order to make both sides of the cloth look alike we
should add 16 ends on the black and 8 ends on the white.
The 8 ends added on the white should be included in the
selvage, making 20 of white on each side for this pattern,
which would read as follows, and the cloth would show
up on both sides like Cut Number 2:
add
it all
End
here
Total Ends
704 black
728 white, selvage included
16 black
16 white
32
1432
43 patterns.
20 selvage on both sides.
(12)
ONE COMPLETL PATTER.M
THIS SPACE- RLPRLSLNTS TH£ 43 COVAPLLTL PATTERNS
V
uJ
CUT
N?2
CHAPTER THREE
Suppose we take another pattern with 1400 ends,
same as the first two we have just gone over, but have
this one read as follows
20 black
20 white
40 ends in pattern
We
will
work
this one out just the
same way as the
first
two, as follows:
40)1400(35 complete patterns
120
200
200
and nothing over
We
tern, so
have 20 of black, also 20 of white,
we
to each patproceed to find the required number of ends
of each color as before:
35
20
700 ends of black
35
20
700 ends of white
700 ends of black
700 ends of white
1400
In this case, our total
number
of ends comes out just
we let our pattern go through, without any
change, our cloth will show up like Cut Number 3, which
you will admit, I am sure, will not show up to best advantage, as both sides are not alike.
right, but if
(14)
U-ONE COMPLETE PATTERN
THIS SPACE REPRE.5LNT5
TH L 35 COMPLETE PATTERNS
CUT N°5
CUT N?4
(15)
This pattern, however, should be written as follows,
and in that case it would show up on both sides alike, as
shown in Cut Number 4
Start with 10
10
End with
Total Ends
700 black
732 white, selvage
20 black
/ 20 white
included
40
1432
35
patterns.
16
ends
selvage on both sides.
Start the
The above marking means
when laying the warp in on the beamer or
:
first
pattern,
slasher,
with
10 ends of black instead of 20, and the last pattern will
come out with 10 ends of black on the other
shown in Cut Number 4.
(16)
side,
as
CHAPTER FOUR
We
will take the following pattern
16 black
2 white
4 black
2 white
ends in one pattern
24
Here we have 24 ends to each pattern. Considering our
warp to have 1400 ends, besides the selvage, as before, we
of course follow the same rule in working out the pattern
24)1400(58 complete patterns
120
200
192
8
ends over
Now we have 20 ends of black to the pattern, so
multiply the 58 by 20 to find out how much black
required
we
is
58
20
1160 ends of black required.
We
have 4 ends of white to the pattern, so we multiply
the 58 by 4 to see how much white is required
58
4
232 ends of white
Adding the 1160 ends
required
of black to the 232 ends of white,
we have
1160
232
1392
and by adding the 8 ends we have over, to the 1392, we
find we have the correct number of ends
1400; or, in
other words, it proves our example to be correct.
—
(17)
Now we must
ends
we have
find out the right place to put these 8
over,
and
also
know how
show up
in
we commence
at
it
will
the cloth next to the selvage.
In reading over the pattern,
we
find
the top and read 16 of black and at the bottom of the pattern is 2 of white, while of course every time you read
the pattern over you start at the top 16 black and wind up
at the 2 of white at the bottom. Well, now, we will just
we have read the pattern over 58 times,
number of complete patterns we have in this
warp. Now^ you will understand we have 58 patterns
and 8 ends over, so when we start over the pattern the
59th time we are counting the 8 ends we have over, and
when we get as much as 8 ends of black on the 59th pattern we have used up all our 1400 ends, so you see the 8
ends we have over will come on the black; therefore our
warp, when laid in on the beamer or slasher, would show
suppose that
which
is
the
up 16 black next to selvage on one side and 8 of black
next to selvage on other side, as shown in Cut Number 5.
-ONE.
COMPLETE. PATTERN
SPACL REPRESENTS THE 58 COMPLETE
THIS
CUT N°5
(18)
PATTERNS
V
CUT
N?6
CHAPTER FIVE
Now we
will
take
a
pattern having 4
colors,
as
follows
blue
white
red
white
red
white
much towards
This
the 37th pattern
complete patterns
width of the cloth
36
black
in
the
white
Ends
here
red
2 white
2 red
2 white
38
total ends in pattern.
we
In working out this pattern
rule
will follow the
and methods as before, using 1400 ends
in the
same
warp
in addition to the selvage
38)1400(36 complete patterns
114
260
228
32 ends over
In working out a pattern with several colors,
to
make a memorandum
of the
number
of each color in one pattern, as
getting out the total
the
same time helps
number
it
it is
well
of ends required
proves convenient in
and at
So we will make
of ends of each color,
to avoid errors.
our memorandum as follows, which is the number of ends
required in one pattern of each color
14 ends of blue
12 ends of white
8 ends of red
'
4 ends of black
38
(20)
This, you see, adds up 38, which shows that it balances
with the 38 ends called for in the pattern (see page 20).
Referring back to our example on page 20 where we
divided the 1400 by 38, we find we have 36 complete patterns, so to find the amount of each color required we
proceed as before.
In our memorandum we find we have 14 ends of blue
to the pattern, so we multiply the 36 by 14 to find the
total number of ends of blue required, etc.
Here the question comes up again, what should we do
with the 32 ends? Now get this fixed in your mind
thoroughly, that the 36 complete patterns are all included
and the 32 ends we have over is simply
in the 1368 ends,
many more ends belonging to our warp and is that
much on to the 37th pattern. So by referring back to
our pattern on page 20, counting on down from the first
that
of the pattern to the point indicated at 2 of red,
you
will
takes up the 32 ends which we have over, and
by counting from this point back to the top, and making
see that
it
notes of the
number
of ends of each color, you will find
out where to add the 32 ends, as follows:
the 2 of red, as marked,
Starting at
we have
6 ends of red
8 ends of white
4 ends of black
14 ends of blue
32
Now
going back to page 21, where
of ends of each color, we
above to it, we have the following:
number
14 added to 504 gives
8 added to 432 gives
6 added to 288 gives
4 added to 144 gives
us
us
us
us
518
440
294
148
we
got out our total
find,
ends
ends
ends
ends
by adding the
of blue
of white
of red
of black
With the pattern arranged, as we now have it on page 20,
our cloth would show up on both sides like Cut Number
7 below.
(22)
liumim
imiimui'mik^iu
COMPLtT^ PATTLRN
RLPRESENTS ThL
THIS SPAC£
CUT
3(b
iisri
COMPLETL
PATTERNS
N? 7
The above cut would pass, of course, but it would not be
arranged to best advantage. Therefore it should
be
arranged as follows, and then both sides of the cloth
would show up like Cut Number 8:
Start with 8
having enough
to complete the last pattern (or, in other
words, the 37th pattern), as we had 36 complete patterns
and 32 ends over. But, in order to arrange this pattern
to best advantage, we will take 8 of the 32 ends we propose to use for selvage, and use these 8 ends towards
completing our last or 37th pattern.
By
referring again to the pattern on page 20 you will
note below the point indicated, that we requira 4 ends of
white and 2 ends of red to complete the 37th pattern.
So here, we use 6 of the 8 ends we have taken off of the
selvage,
on the
and we have 2 ends
and our pattern
blue,
14 blue
2
left over,
which we
will be as follows
will use
start
with
End with
8
8
14 blue
.4
over on the other side. Now we will just say we will
take 4 ends out of the first pattern where we commence
and place them over on the other side with the other ^
ends and make our cloth show up with 10 of blue in first
pattern next to selvage instead of 14, and 8 ends on the
other side coming next to the selvage, and the pattern
should be written as follows
Start with 10
42
12 white
84
42
Selvage
504
32 ends
536
42
8 red
CHAPTER SIX
In this chapter we will take up a pattern having some
corded work, which you will note brings about a slight
change in the way
tained in the warp.
we
find the
We
16 blue
cord
cord
number
of patterns con-
will take the following pattern
60)1400(23 complete patterns
120
200
180
20 ends over
Now
way
comes out leaves our selvage ir
So we will have to do some changing
around to get both sides to look alike. You will understand, of course, that the 20 ends over are that many ends
on towards the 24th pattern; that being the case, of
course, we will start back at the top of the pattern to add
on and we find our pattern first calls for 16 of blue, and
next 4 of white, so we would add 16 ends on to the blue
and 4 on to the white, which takes up the 20 ends we
have over the 23 patterns. Now if we should add these
ends on this pattern, as just suggested, our pattern should
be written as follows, and the selvage would show up like
Cut Number 9, page 32:
the
this pattern
rather bad shape.
Total
16 blue
End
4 white
16 blue
752
280
184
92
184
2 white
2 black
cord
4 white one eye (one dent)
Ends
blue
white
black
red
white for cord
2 black
1492
32 white for
2 white
4 red
2
white
selvage.
1524
2 black
cord
4 white one eye (one dent)
2 black
2
white
64
23
Note
complete patterns
—The last four
come next
16 ends selvage on first side
20 ends selvage on other side
ends of white where the pattern ends
making 20 ends of white for
to selvage on last side,
selvage on that side.
(30)
We
will first get out
each pattern, as follows:
32
our
memorandum
of colors for
I
If
ill
HI
i_ ONt COMPLETE PATTERN
THIS 3PACL RLrRLSENT5 THE 23 COMPLETE!
PATTERNS
CUT N°9
» s&0}iiti^m
V:
\
^n
V
V.
CUT
N°
lO
This pattern as arranged on page 30, which would
show up on the selvages as in Cut Number 9, is not correct, but should be arranged as follows and would then
show up
Number
as in Cut
Start with
End with
8
8
10,
which
16 blue
4 white
'^6
blue
is
correct:
CHAPTER SEVEN
In this chapter we will have still another example in
corded work, which, together with the one we have just
explained, should enable anyone to handle anything
along this line, as the general principles in working out
all such patterns are included in these two.
As you will
understand, the number of heddles required to weave a
piece of goods has nothing to do with the number of e7ids
The number of heddles required
required in the warp.
for producing a piece of goods depends entirely on the
kind of weave called for, etc. This part of the work,
however, would of course come under the head of designing, while the object of this book is to teach you how to
figure out the patterns whether you understand anything
about designing or not.
12 black
shown on page 34, we
suppose our warp is to have 1600 ends in addition
to the 32 ends for selvage.
We find the total number of ends in this pattern is
98.
We also find that we have 8 extra ends used in the
pattern on account of doublings in the reed, and as we
are to work out the pattern on a basis of only 2 ends to
each dent in the reed, in order to maintain a given width
in the reed, regardless of the doublings in the reed, we
simply subtract the 8 extra ends from the 98 in the pattern and use the 90 to work out our pattern by, as folIn working out this pattern, as
will
lows:
90)1600(17 complete patterns in the warp
90
700
630
70 ends over
Here we find we have 17 complete patterns and 70 ends
on towards the 18th pattern, so we begin at the top of our
pattern now and count the ends on down until we count
and we
where the 18th pattern would end.
ends with 3 ends of blue at the point
Now if we should let this pattern
indicated (page 34)
go at that, the selvages of the cloth when woven would
70,
Well,
will find
now we
find
it
.
show up
like
Cut Number
11.
(35)
ONE COMPLETE PATTERN
THIS SPACE REPRESENTS THE
CUT
I
7
COMPLETE] PAjT T E RnS" a:
8
N2||
Q
Z
o
CUT
(36)
N5 12
In this pattern you will note from Cut Number 11
that the selvages show up quite different, while in Cut
Number 12 both selvages are exactly alike therefore, we
will mark off the pattern showing the starting and stopping points as shown in Cut Number 12, which is correct,
;
and should be written as follows
and that is the reason we sometimes have to mark
our starting point down below the beginning of the pattern.
However, when we once find out how the pattern
will end up, and we get it laid off to best advantage, as
we have now done in this case, we can re-write the pattern, as shown below, which will be exactly the same
thing and possibly will be a more desirable arrangement
one,
for the slasher or beamer hand
4 blue
Now we proceed to work out this pattern as follows
Referring to pattern as written on page 38
90)1600(17 complete patterns
90
700
630
70 ends over
By referring to the pattern on page 38 we find, by counting
down from first of pattern to point indicated where the
last or 18th pattern should end, that we have only 62 ends
called for, while we have 70 ends over that we are supposed to take care of. But you will note, as we have the
pattern arranged, both sides are exactly alike; so in this
case we will just add the other 8 ends onto the selvage,
making the pattern read 20 white on each side, and the
total number of ends would be as follows.
First we
will see
how many ends
of each color
is
called for to a pat-
tern; starting at the top of pattern and picking out the
blue
first,
we
find
40
Now we
680
total
it all
up as follows
we
shown on page
where the last pat-
will begin at the top of the pattern (as
38) and count
down
to point indicated
tern should end; taking the blue
first,
we have:
40 ends of blue
14 ends of white (cord work)
8 ends of white (plain)
62
—8
the ends we propose to add
on selvage
70
Here we have taken care of the 70 ends we have over, as
shown in our example on page 39 so now, in order to get
the total number of ends of each color, we add the ends as
shown above to the amount called for on page 39, and we
;
have:
40 ends added to 680 totals
14 ends added to 238 totals
8 ends added to 204 totals
—
62
720
252
212
408
136
ends
ends
ends
ends
ends
of blue
of white
(for cord)
of white
(plain)
of black
of red
8
8 ends
added
to selvage
1736
70
Here we have a
total
number
total of
1736 ends, which agrees with our
shown on page 40 this being
—
of ends as
another check on our work showing it is correct (as the
32 ends for selvage are not included in the above).
Now when this pattern goes to the beamer or slasher man
it should be written out as follows:
(41)
4 blue
CHAPTER EIGHT
All that has been written so far in this book regarding the importance of having both selvages of the cloth
look as near alike as possible, has reference to all kinds of
fancy and staple gingham, dress goods, plaids, domets,
etc.
;
but
when
it
comes
to bed-ticking, counterpanes, car-
important that we have both
when the goods are sewed
together along the selvages, a complete pattern will be
formed, and in order to illustrate this we will take the
pets, etc., it is equally as
selvages so arranged that
following pattern in ticking
M « S
1 %^m
1 1
I
i # i
i
J
mill
1 1 m
U-ON!
•ONL COMPLLTE PATTERN
5PACL RE.PRLSENTS THE, 25 COMPlLTE. PATTERNS
THIS
CUT
THIS
SPACE REPRESENTS
N°I3
COMPLLTE.
THE 25
CUT
N2
(44)
14
PATTERN-S
You will note if this pattern should finish up like
Cut Number 13, when the two selvages are sewed together you would have a badly disfigured pattern at the
seam, as you would have only one small stripe of blue and
white separating two of the broad stripes of blue therefore it will be necessary to make a slight change in the
;
pattern in order to make the pattern work out nearer
In this case this pattern should be written as
even.
follows
start with 18
CHAPTER NINE
In working out a pattern that has corded work of a
ply yarn, where you have only one thread of the ply yarn
to a dent in the reed, when we are working on a basis of
2 ends to each dent,
it
should be worked as follows, taking
the following pattern:
End here
one
dent
one
dent
14 black
1 cord (ply yarn)
4 black
1 ^ord (ply yarn)
20
2
22
Here we have 2 cords in the pattern using only one
end to the dent. So in cases of this kind we add just as
many ends to the total ends in the pattern as there are
ends left out in the reed on account of the cord, which in
this case is 2 ends to the pattern (this you will note works
just the reverse when using cords composed of single
yarn) therefore we add 2 to the 20 and use the figure
22 to divide by to find the correct number of patterns in
Suppose we are working on a basis of 1400
the warp.
ends to the warp, we would have the following example
;
22)1400(63 complete patterns
132
80
66
14 ends over
(47)
Cord
Black 18 ends to the pattern
63 patterns
2 ends
to
the pattern
63
126 total ends
54
108
1134
14 the
14
1148 ends
ends over
black
required
Here we have added the 14 ends over on to the black,
which would make the pattern read as follows, and the
cloth would be exactly alike on both sides:
End here
Total Ends
1148 black
126 cord (ply yarn)
14 black
cord (ply yarn)
4 black
1 cord (ply yarn)
one dent
1
one dent
_
total 1274
126 equals
20
2
2
multiplied
by 63
—
1400
22
63
complete
patterns.
Selvage 16 on both sides.
Here, you will note, our total number of ends required is
only 1274, while we were working the pattern on a basis
of 1400 ends; you will note also that by multiplying the
2 ends we added to each pattern by 63
the number of
—we get
—
This amount, added to
the 1274, totals 1400, which proves our example correct.
complete patterns
126.
(48)
CHAPTER TEN
BLANKET SHEETS
Quite often it becomes necessary to get out a lot of
samples of pattern work, especially so with the mills that
make more or less of gingham, dress goods, etc. and it is
most alwaj^s customary to get them out in what is called
While this is rather expensive and
''blanket sheets."
;
lots of trouble, yet
it
enables the mills to get out quite a
variety of samples in a comparatively short time, with-
out having
much yarn and goods tied up
know what styles will
styles before they
in a lot of new
be most accept-
able to the trade.
In making blanket sheets it is simply a matter of
making 2 or more different styles of patterns, side by
side in the reed, all beamed on the same beam, and is
simply a piece of cloth made up of different patterns, the
full
width of the piece being equally divided, according
number of different patterns bein*^ made.
If your pattern happens to be small and medium-sized
to the
checks,
it
is
usually the practice to
make each pattern
about 7 inches wide in the reed; therefore you can easily
make 4 such patterns at a time, giving each pattern a
space of 7 inches in the reed, making your warp spread
28 inches in the reed. If you should happen to have very
large checks or stripes, it would possibly be necessary to
make each pattern about 9 1/3 inches wide in the reed.
This being the case, you would be able to weave only 3
patterns at a time, in a reed space of 28 inches.
Before deciding on the width of your blanket sheets,
however, it is well to first find out what ividths can be
handled successfully in the finishing process.
Don't
under any circumstances, make your blanket sheets any
wider than can be handled satisfactorily in the finishing
plant.
I have seen good nice samples ruined simply by
(49)
making them wider than the regular run of cloth in the
finishing machines, making it necessary to readjust the
guides, etc., on every machine, and before the few yards
of samples get through, more or less of it is damaged all
on account of making the goods a little too wide, in order
to save a little
We
time in the weaving.
an illustration that
will suppose for
we want
to
make the following 4 patterns into a blanket sheet form
for samples, and we want each pattern to cover a space
making the total width in the
reed 28 inches besides the selvage. We will suppose we
are going to use a 27- dent reed that is, 27 dents in the
reed to the inch and we will draw our warp in the reed
2 ends to each dent.
First we must find out how many ends our entire
width of blanket will contain that is, all four of the patterns. We have a 27-dent reed and we propose to spread
our warp 28 inches, using 2 ends to each dent therefore
we have the following, using 27 dents to the inch and 2
of 7 inches in the reed,
—
—
—
;
ends to each dent
27
2
54 ends per inch in reed
Here we have 54 ends to each inch of reed space we propose to use, and as we are to have a total width of 28
inches in the reed we have 54 times 28, as follows, for the
total number of ends
54
28
432
108
1512 total ends required besides selvage
Now,
as
we
are to have 4 different patterns in the width
we divide the 1512 total ends required for
—
of this cloth,
total
width
—by
4,
thus
(50)
4)1512(378
total ends required for each pattern
12
31
28
32
32
In working out the total
blanket
number
we must work
rately, using the
of ends required for the
out each different pattern sepaWe will
378 ends required for each.
take the following 4 patterns:
No. 3
50)378(7 complete patterns
No. 4
76)378(4 complete patterns
304
350
28 ends over
Now
find the total
Vv^e
ends
74
number
ends
of
over
of
each
color
required for each different pattern.
—
Number 1 We find we call for 6 ends of blue and 6
ends of white to the pattern, so we refer to Number 1, on
preceding page, and we find we have 31 complete patterns
and 6 ends over. So we multiply the 31 by 6 to find the
ends of blue required
31
31
6
6
186 blue required
The
6 ends
186
white
required
we have over we add on to the blue, making
Number 1 as follows
the total ends required for
192 blue
186 white
378
Number
2 calls for 14 ends of blue to the pattern and
8 ends of white, and as
Number
we have 17 complete patterns
we multiply the 17 by 14
in
2 and 4 ends over
17
17
14
8
136 white required
68
17
238 blue required
The 4 ends we have over we add on the
ends for
Number
2 as follows
242 blue
136 white
378
(52)
blue,
making
total
Number 3 calls for 40 ends of blue and 10 ends of white
for each pattern, and as we have 7 complete patterns in
Number 3 we multiply the 40 by 7:
40
10
7
7
70 white
280 blue required
we have 28 ends
In this pattern
from the top
it
of the pattern until
ends on the second 16 of blue
start at point indicated
required
over, so we count down
we count 28 and we find
with only 4 ends, so we
commencing with the 4 and count
find we require 24 ends for the
blue and 4 for the white, which takes care of the 28 ends
back
to the top,
and we
So we add 24 on to the blue and 4 on
to the white, making total ends of each color for this pat-
we have
to
add
on.
tern as follows:
280
24
304
70
4
blue
74
white
Total ends required
304 blue
74 white
378
—
Number 4 We find we require 36 of blue and 40 of
white to each pattern, and as we have only 4 complete patterns in Number 4, we multiply the 36 by 4 to find the
blue required, and 40 by 4 to find the white required.
36
40
4
4
144 blue
In this pattern
160
we have 74 ends
over,
white
and by counting
we find our last
pattern ends with 2 ends at the last 4 of white. So by
counting down from top of pattern to point indicated,
we find we require 36 of blue and 38 of white, which we
down from
the top to the point indicated
(53)
add on
to each color,
making the
total
ends required for
each color in this pattern as follows:
144
198 white required
CHAPTER ELEVEN
—
Note We have used the decimal method of expressing all
fractions in these examples, for the reason that they are so much
more easily understood and easier to handle in calculations. For
example: .1 equals 1/10 (one tenth) ; .6 equals 6/10 (six tenths) ;
.07 equals 7/100 (seven hundredths) ; .24 equals 24/100 (twentyfour
hundredths)
.073
equals
73/1000
(seventy-three
thousandths)
.814 equals 814-1000 (eight hundred and fourteen
thousandths), etc. In other words, where there is only one figure
to the right of the decimal point, it expresses tenths; two figures
to the right of the decimal point expresses hundredths; three figures to the right of the decimal point expresses thousandths, etc.
;
While the principal object of this book is to teach
those desirous of learning, how to figure out all kinds of
pattern work what is generally termed ''figuring out
patterns" for gingham, fancy dress goods, plaids, ticking,
—
—
will be interesting to some,
no doubt, to know
width of a piece of goods, number of ends
required to weave it, and about what the goods wiF
weigh that is, the number of yards per pound. So I
will give a few simple rules which will enable anyone
with a very slight knowledge of mathematics to underetc.,
how
it
to find the
—
stand.
well to bear in mind that there
always work out exact in cases of
this kind, as it is next to impossible to hit just right on
a few things that have to be estimated in figuring the
width and weight of the cloth such as the exact takeup, the exact percentage of size on the warp, etc.
and
in making such calculations it is necessary to use reason-
In the
is
first
no rule that
place
it is
will
—
—
judgment in allowing for the take-up in weaving in
width and length; also in the amount of size on the warp,
keeping in mind the fact that there is no sizing on the
able
filling.
(55)
TO FIND THE PERCENTAGE OF SIZING ON A WARP
Take one average warp, weigh it before it is sized and
then weigh the i^ame luarp after it is sized and you will get
Thus, if the warp weighs 100 pounds
a fair average.
before it is sized and the same warp weighs 107 pounds
afterwards, you have:
107 weight after being sized
100 weight before being sized
7
100
Weight of warp before
being sized
>
100)700(7 per cent
size
on warp
700
TO FIND HOW MUCH THE CLOTH WILL TAKE UP IN WIDTH
If convenient go to a loom weaving on a similar piece
of goods and see how wide it is in the reed and then
measure it down on the cloth roller. First see that the
warp has about the right tension, as you can very easily
vary the width of the cloth one-half inch or more by
tightening or loosening up on the
On ordinary gingham,
beam
weights.
with about 28-inch reed
space, the goods will come off the loom about 26 V2 to 27
If the goods should be of a rather open
inches wide.
construction it will pull down to as low as 26 inches,
while if it is closely woven it will average about 27 inches.
On wider goods, the difference, of course, will be in proetc.,
portion to the width.
TO FIND THE TAKE-UP
IN
LENGTH
This will vary according to the picks per inch being
put in, also according to the number of yarn of the filling
used and the number of warp yarn and the nature of the
weave that is, whether it is a plain weave or a three or
four harness twill, etc. so it is a good idea to get a
similar piece of cloth just like it comes off the loom (thai
—
—
cut off 10 inches in length, warp
warp
ends, straighten them out good
few
tvay, pull out a
and see how much longer the warp threads are than the
is,
before
it is
finished)
,
(55)
if the cloth is 10 inches long and the warp
ends measure out lOi/^ inches long, you have a 5 per cent,
piece of cloth
;
take-up, thus:
warp ends
10.5
iSubtractor
10.0 cloth
.5
100
Divisor
100)500(5 per cent take-up
500
In order to simplify this rule, we simply use the decimal
point thus, 10.5, which is the same as 101/2'
Rule:
In finding the percentage of take-up by this rule sub-
tract the length in inches of the cloth from the length of the warp
ends in inches, multiply this difference by 100 and then divide by
length of cloth in inches, using same nwniber of figures for divisor as are used in subtracting.
TO FIND NUMBER OF ENDS REQUIRED FOR GIVEN WIDTH
Suppose you wanted to weave a piece of goods 28
inches wide in the reed and you were going to use a 29dent reed (that is, 29 dents to the inch) and you wanted
to
have 2 ends to each dent; find the number of ends
required
29 dent
2 ends
reed
each dent
in
58 ends in one inch
28 inches wide in reed
464
116
1624 ends
required besides the selvage
(This cloth would come off the loom about one inch
or one and a half inches less in width, according to the
yarn used, picks put
in,
weight on loom beam,
(57)
etc.)
CHAPTER TWELVE
HOW TO FIGURE THE WEIGHT OF GOODS BEFORE BEING
WOVEN
On pages 56 and 57 we have explained how to find the
Now when you go to
and take-up, work it in as follows:
First, supposing you have 5 per cent, sizing on your warp
and the take-up amounts to 10 per cent. add them both
But
together, making it 15 per cent, size and take-up.
instead of multiplying by 15 make it 1.15, placing the
percentage of sizing and take-up.
work
in the sizing
;
decimal point before the 15 as shown.
Take the pattern as we have worked out in Chapter
One, we have a total of 1432 ends
1432 Total ends in warp
1.15 Size and take-up
1160
1432
1432
1646.80
Note
—Bring
This
is
the dividend for
down your decimal
warp
only.
point.
Now for a divisor for the warp only, multiply 840 by the
number of warp yarn you propose to use. We will suppose we are going to use for this warp No. 26's
840
26 number of warp yarn
5040
1680
^
Div.soft.^
21840
Divisor
,/o?'
warjo
only
21840) 1646.80 (.075 weight of warp in one yard of
1528.80
cloth
118.000
109.200
(58)
Now we have gotten out the weight of the warp for
one yard of cloth, so we next get out the weight of filling
for one yard.
To determine this, however, we must
know what number of filling we propose to use, the number of picks to the inch, and the width of warp in the
reed.
We
REEDdent,
which
will use a 26-dent reed, 2 threads to
each
will give us 52 threads to the inch in the
reed.
PICKS: We will have 54 picks to the inch
we will use No. 24's yarn for filling.
in this
goods and
In order to be exact, regarding the width in the reed,
half of the number of warp ends
we should deduct just
we propose to use for
selvage (as the selvage is drawn
4 ends to the dent) from total ends in warp, when figuring for the width in the reed, but as that little difference
amounts to practically nothing in figuring the weight, we
will take the total number of ends to figure from.
Now we
warp ends
divide the 1432 by 52, which
is
the
number
of
each inch of reed space this, of course, will
Thus:
give us the width in inches in the reed.
to
;
52)1432(27.54 inches wide in the reed
104
392
364
280
260
200
208
Now,
as
we
are to have 54 picks of
filling to
cloth
we
the inch,
used to one inch of
multiply the 27.54 by 54, thus
in order to find the length of filling
:
(59)
27.54 width in reed
54 picks per inch
110 16
1377
Divid'd for filling (yards) 1487.16 inches of filling used in one inch
of cloth
or
Yards of filling used in one
yard of cloth
Now
the 1487.16 yards above is our dividend for the
fining, and to get the divisor for the filling we multiply
the number of filling we propose to use by 840, thus
840
24 No. of
filling
yarn
3360
1680
20160 Divisor
QtVlDEND
.^1^^^^^^=^ 20160) 1487.16 (.073 of a
pound weight
of filling to
one yard of cloth
1411 20
75 960
60 480
15 480
Now to find the yards per pound of this goods, we add
together the 73/1000 of a pound (weight of filling to one
yard of cloth) to the 75/1000 of a pound (weight of warp
to one yard of cloth) and divide 1000 by that product,
thus:
73 filling
75 warp
148)1000(6.77 yards per pound.
888
1120
1016
1040
1016
(60)
Weight
of goods
—
In working out the weight of a piece of goods you
not fail to carry your decimal point on through as
It requires several small calculations to figure out what
outlined.
a piece of goods will weigh, yet you will note that this, like all the
other examples in this book, is worked down to the plain and simple rules of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and
if you can do that, you will have no trouble to master everything in
Note
should
this book.
CORDED GOODS
Take the pattern as shown and explained in Chapter
which has 184 ends for cord work. The cord in this
pattern should be run on a separate beam from the rest
of the warp, as it will not take-up in weaving like the
Six,
other part of the warp. In fact, this cord will lay pracTherefore, there will be no
tically straight in the cloth.
We will figure the
take-up to allow for these 184 ends.
weight of this piece of goods, taking the same construction, number of warp and filling, etc., as we used in the
preceding example, which would make the goods weigh
the same as the piece of goods illustrated in Chapter One,
as shown in example on page 60, but for the additional
ends required on account of the doubling for cord work
which will cause this piece of goods to run a little heavier,
as you will note by the following examples:
Total ends in
warp
Deducting ends for cord
1524
184
Now
we add both
for a complete dividend,
parts of
the dividend together, thus
1541.00
193.20
1734.20 Dividend
For a divisor for the warp we multiply 840 by the
number of warp yarn, thus:
840
26 No.
of
warp
5040
1680
21840 Divisor
piviDENp
-""^'"^*'
21840) 1734.20 (.079 of a pound. Weight of one
1528 80
yard of warp
205 400
196 560
8 840
Now,
picks,
had
as
we
are to have the same spread in the reed,
filling in this piece of goods as we
and number of
in the piece as illustrated in
Chapter One and as
fllli7ig in one
figured out on pages 59 and 60, the weight of
yard of this cloth would of course be the same therefore
the weight of this piece of goods would be as follows:
;
79 warp
73 filling
152)1000(6.57 yards per pound.
912
Weight of goods.
880
760
1200
1054
You
on account of the extra ends used
it will run practically 20 points heavier than the same goods without
the corded work which means that out of every 200 yards
will notice that
in the corded
work
in this piece of goods,
;
(62)
of the goods with the cord you would use about one
pound more cotton than you would in the same goods
without the cord work. Counting cotton at 10 cents per
pound, this would mean about 5/100 (five one hundredths) of a cent extra cost per yard.
TO FIGURE THE WEIGHT OF GOODS AFTER THEY ARE
WOVEN.
Use yards for dividend, and pounds for a
thus:
divisor,
YARDS
po^JNDS
^1024)7103(6.93 yards per pound
6144
9590
9216
3740
3072
Suppose you have one piece of goods 451/4 yards long that
weighs 6 pounds and 12 ounces. Multiply the yards,
45l^, by 16 for a dividend, thus45.25 equals 45 1/4
16
27150
452 5
724.00 dividend
Now multiply the 6 pounds by 16 and then add to this
product the other 12 ounces for a divisor, thus
:
16
ja
ouftd e
_6 ctJU
96
12 ounces
108 divisor
DIVIDEND
.21:^^^^^=^
108)724.00(6.70 yards per pound
648
760
756
40
(63)
I
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
TO FIGURE THE WEIGHT,
ETC.,
OF WARPS
TO FIND THE WEIGHT OF A WARP
For a dividend multiply
number of yards:
the
number
of ends by the"
yards
1700
1600 ends
1020000
1700
2720000 Dividend
For a
divisor, multiply the
number
of
yarn by 840
840
26 No. of yarn
5040
1680
21840 Divisor
21840)2720000(124.54
21840
pounds.
Weight
of
warp
53600
43680
99200
87360
118400
109200
92000
87360
TO FIND THE LENGTH OF A WARP
Multiply the weight of the warp by the number of
yarn and then multiply that product by 840 for a dividend, thus:
(64)
124.54 weight of warp
26 No. of yarn
747 24
2490 8
3238 04
840
12952 160
259043 2
2719953.60 Dividend
For a divisor use the number of ends
to the
warp
as
follows
Ends
in
warp
1600)2719953.60(1699.97 yards long, length of
warp
1600
11199
9600
15995
14400
15953
14400
15536
14400
11360
11200
TO FIND THE NUMBER OF YARN OF A WARP
Multiply the net weight of the warp by 840 for a
divisor, thus:
124.52
weight of warp
840
498 080
99616
10459
6.^=8#.
Divisor (here
we
cancel the decimal)
For a dividend multiply the length of the warp in
yards by the total number of ends it contains, thus:
(65)
yards long
1700
1600 ends in warp
1020000
1700
2720000 Dividend
104596) 2720000 (26
209192
s
number
628080
627576
(66)
of yarn
CHAPTER FOURTEEN
In order to be able to figure the production of a room
or section without going through a long string of calculations each time to do so, it is a good idea to have your
loom and
work
cloth constant to figure from, thus
making the
short and simple.
To find your loom constants for 10 hours per day or
60 hours per week, any speed, multiply speed of loom by 6.
Example'
Loom
speed 160
6
960 Constant
Another example'
Loom
speed
170
6
1020 Constant
TO FIND CONSTANT FOR CLOTH— ANY LENGTH CUTS
Multiply picks per inch by 36.
Example'
50 picks
86
HOW TO
FIND THE PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCTION
First, multiply all the looms run for the week of anyone speed by the constant for that speed.
For all the looms you wish to figure on, of different
speeds, figure them out as above suggested and add the
product of each example together for a divisor, thus:
We will suppose we have a section of 60 looms, 30 of
which have a speed of 160 pick and the other 30 a speed
of 170 pick; we will also suppose now that these 60
looms have run all the week (6 days), so we have
30 looms, speed 160
—run
6
days
6
equals
180 looms
run one day at 160 pick
30 looms, speed 170
—run
6
days
6
equals
180 looms
run
one day at 170 pick
180 looms run at 160
960 constant
10800
1620
172800 part of divisor in this case
180 looms run at 170
1020 constant
3600
180
183600 other part of divisor in this case
183600
172800
356400 Divisor
For a dividend multiply total yards of each kind of
goods woven by the constant for that kind of goods; if
more than one kind of goods is woven, add the product
of each together; this will give you the dividend, thus:
We will suppose we wove on this section for the week
the following:
(68)
7200
9000
yards
yards
of
50
goods
pick
of 56 pick goods
—
Note It makes no difference which looms the goods are
woven on, just so it comes off the looms included in our calculations.
yards of 50 pick goods
7200
1800 constant for 50 pick goods
5760000
7200
12960000 Part of dividend
9000 yards 56 pick goods
2016 constant, for 56 pick goods
54000
9000
18000
18144000 the
other part
dividend
of
18144000
12960000
31104000 Dividend
Now
divide
the
dividend by the
which
divisor,
will
give a percentage of possible production, thus
356400)31104000(87 per
2851200
cent,
production
2592000
2494800
While
it
has taken right
much
figuring to
rule clear to the inexperienced, yet, if
closely
you
will find after all
it is
you
make
this
will study
quite simple.
The
it
idea,
is to get out the constants for the different
speeds of looms you happen to be running, also for the
different kinds of goods you are running on; and it is
only a few minutes work to figure the entire production
of course,
for a large room, running on quite a mix-up of different
speeds and different pick goods.
(69)
Each
section, of course,
supposed to be worked out on the same basis; if you
wish to figure them separately, take the average length
of cuts to get at the yards woven on each section of the
is
different kinds of goods.
The entire calculation can be shortened considerably
by cutting off the ciphers in the constants but in taking
advantage of this method be sure you cut off the samnumber of ciphers or figiires in the loom constants as you
;
do in the cloth constants.
A short way, however, to figure the production for a
large room, when there are more or less looms of different
speeds, first get the average speed.
Rule
—Multiply
the looms run of one speed by the speed
and add these products together for a diviThen add all the looms run together and take this product
all
(picks per minute)
dend.
for a divisor, thus:
180 multiplied by 160
180 multiplied by 170
Divisor
equals
equals
Dividend
360
28800
30600
59400
360)59400(165 average speed
360
2340
2160
1800
1800
Note
—Take any number of looms you may happen to have of
different speeds
and you
will get the
average speed by following
the above rule.
165
average
speed of loom
990 constant for speed of 165 pick
360 looms run
59400
2970
356400 Divisor
—
Note By this method you will see we
as we have on page 68, which of course will
shown on page 69.
(70)
get the same divisor
give same results as
INDEX
To Find Percentage
of Size on
Warps
To Find Take-up
in Cloth in
Width
To Find Take-up
in Cloth in
Length
To Find Ends Required
How
How
for Given
Width
56
56
56
of Cloth
57
Woven
to
Figure Weight of Goods Before Being
to
Figure Weight of Goods Before Being Woven (Cord
58
Work)
61
How to Figure Weight of Goods After Being Woven
How to Figure Weight of Warps
How to Find Length of Warps
How to Find Number of Yarn of a Warp
How to Find Loom Constant
How to Find Cloth Constant
How to Figure the Percentage of Production
How to Find the Average Speed of Looms Running
63
64
64
65
67
67
68
on Dif69-70
ferent Speeds
(71)
i
news generally appears in
the Mill News fiYst.''—s.K.oLivER,
''Textile
i
\
Agent, Columbia Mills, Columbia, S. C.
I
has become a thing that the
whole family looks forward to."
*'It
BROWN,
I
N. T.
?
Raleigh, N. C.
Supt.
Pilot Cotton Mills
Company,
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MILL NEWS,
Charlotte, N. C.
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EMMONS LOOM HARNESS
CO.
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THE LARGEST MANUFACTURERS OF LOOM HARNESS AND REEDS IN AMERICA
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the chemically correct
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goes a long
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Jersey City
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SHAMBOW SHUTTLE
THE
successful overseer
is
the one
weave shed with good weavers.
mean
increased yardage.
who equips his
Good weavers
Bear in mind that Sham-
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and workmanship, and thus save labor of weavers,
bow
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spectors.
The master
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producing the most particular weaves
& Knowles Box Looms,
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In standardizing
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of
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ProHe-
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sample shuttle with filling
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WOONSOCKET,
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SOUTHEASTERN MASSACHUSETTS UNIVERSITY
3
5TE2
C
D3E1 3^1
E
SPECIALCOLL TS1490.K5 1915
King, John Groom, 1870How to figure out and
arrange pattern work for