DATA SHEET
Converters
Order code
82-0676
Manufacturer code
LM2917N8
Description
LM2917N8 FREQUENCY TO VOLTAGE CONVERTOR
Converters
The enclosed information is believed to be correct, Information may change ‘without notice’ due to
product improvement. Users should ensure that the product is suitable for their use. E. & O. E.
Sales: 01206 751166
Sales@rapidelec.co.uk
Technical: 01206 835555
Tech@rapidelec.co.uk
Page 1 of 19
Revision A
04/07/2003
Fax: 01206 7551188
www.rapidelectronics.co.uk
LM2907/LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter
Y
General Description
Y
The LM2907, LM2917 series are monolithic frequency to
voltage converters with a high gain op amp/comparator designed to operate a relay, lamp, or other load when the input
frequency reaches or exceeds a selected rate. The tachometer uses a charge pump technique and offers frequency
doubling for low ripple, full input protection in two versions
(LM2907-8, LM2917-8) and its output swings to ground for a
zero frequency input.
Y
Y
Y
Applications
Y
Advantages
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Output swings to ground for zero frequency input
Easy to use; VOUT e fIN c VCC c R1 c C1
Only one RC network provides frequency doubling
Zener regulator on chip allows accurate and stable frequency to voltage or current conversion (LM2917)
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Features
Y
Y
Y
Y
Ground referenced tachometer input interfaces directly
with variable reluctance magnetic pickups
Op amp/comparator has floating transistor output
50 mA sink or source to operate relays, solenoids, meters, or LEDs
Frequency doubling for low ripple
Tachometer has built-in hysteresis with either differential input or ground referenced input
Built-in zener on LM2917
g 0.3% linearity typical
Ground referenced tachometer is fully protected from
damage due to swings above VCC and below ground
Y
Y
Over/under speed sensing
Frequency to voltage conversion (tachometer)
Speedometers
Breaker point dwell meters
Hand-held tachometer
Speed governors
Cruise control
Automotive door lock control
Clutch control
Horn control
Touch or sound switches
Block and Connection Diagrams Dual-In-Line and Small Outline Packages, Top Views
TL/H/7942 – 1
Order Number LM2907M-8 or LM2907N-8
See NS Package Number M08A or N08E
TL/H/7942 – 3
Order Number LM2907N
See NS Package Number N14A
C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation
TL/H/7942
TL/H/7942 – 2
Order Number LM2917M-8 or LM2917N-8
See NS Package Number M08A or N08E
TL/H/7942 – 4
Order Number LM2917M or LM2917N
See NS Package Number M14A or N14A
RRD-B30M115/Printed in U. S. A.
LM2907/LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter
February 1995
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1)
Power Dissipation
LM2907-8, LM2917-8
LM2907-14, LM2917-14
(See Note 1)
Operating Temperature Range
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales
Office/Distributors for availability and specifications.
Supply Voltage
Supply Current (Zener Options)
Collector Voltage
Differential Input Voltage
Tachometer
Op Amp/Comparator
Input Voltage Range
Tachometer LM2907-8, LM2917-8
LM2907, LM2917
Op Amp/Comparator
28V
25 mA
28V
1200 mW
1580 mW
b 40§ C to a 85§ C
Storage Temperature Range
Soldering Information
Dual-In-Line Package
Soldering (10 seconds)
Small Outline Package
Vapor Phase (60 seconds)
Infrared (15 seconds)
28V
28V
g 28V
0.0V to a 28V
0.0V to a 28V
b 65§ C to a 150§ C
260§ C
215§ C
220§ C
See AN-450 ‘‘Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect
on Product Reliability’’ for other methods of soldering surface mount devices.
Electrical Characteristics VCC e 12 VDC, TA e 25§ C, see test circuit
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
g 10
g 25
g 40
mV
TACHOMETER
Input Thresholds
VIN e 250 mVp-p
@
1 kHz (Note 2)
Hysteresis
VIN e 250 mVp-p
@
1 kHz (Note 2)
Offset Voltage
LM2907/LM2917
LM2907-8/LM2917-8
VIN e 250 mVp-p
@
1 kHz (Note 2)
Input Bias Current
VIN e g 50 mVDC
VOH
Pin 2
VIN e a 125 mVDC (Note 3)
8.3
V
VOL
Pin 2
VIN e b125 mVDC (Note 3)
2.3
V
I2, I3
Output Current
V2 e V3 e 6.0V (Note 4)
I3
Leakage Current
I2 e 0, V3 e 0
K
Gain Constant
(Note 3)
Linearity
fIN e 1 kHz, 5 kHz, 10 kHz (Note 5)
30
140
mV
3.5
5
10
15
mV
mV
0.1
1
mA
180
240
mA
0.1
mA
0.9
1.0
1.1
b 1.0
0.3
a 1.0
%
OP/AMP COMPARATOR
VOS
VIN e 6.0V
3
10
mV
IBIAS
VIN e 6.0V
50
500
nA
Input Common-Mode Voltage
0
Voltage Gain
VCCb1.5V
200
40
V
V/mV
Output Sink Current
VC e 1.0
50
mA
Output Source Current
VE e VCC b2.0
10
mA
Saturation Voltage
ISINK e 5 mA
0.1
ISINK e 20 mA
ISINK e 50 mA
1.0
2
0.5
V
1.0
V
1.5
V
Electrical Characteristics VCC e 12 VDC, TA e 25§ C, see test circuit (Continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
15
X
ZENER REGULATOR
Regulator Voltage
RDROP e 470X
7.56
Series Resistance
10.5
Temperature Stability
a1
TOTAL SUPPLY CURRENT
3.8
V
mV/§ C
6
mA
Note 1: For operation in ambient temperatures above 25§ C, the device must be derated based on a 150§ C maximum junction temperature and a thermal resistance
of 101§ C/W junction to ambient for LM2907-8 and LM2917-8, and 79§ C/W junction to ambient for LM2907-14 and LM2917-14.
Note 2: Hysteresis is the sum a VTH b ( b VTH), offset voltage is their difference. See test circuit.
Note 3: VOH is equal to */4 c VCC b 1 VBE, VOL is equal to (/4 c VCC b 1 VBE therefore VOH b VOL e VCC/2. The difference, VOH b VOL, and the mirror gain,
I2/I3, are the two factors that cause the tachometer gain constant to vary from 1.0.
Note 4: Be sure when choosing the time constant R1 c C1 that R1 is such that the maximum anticipated output voltage at pin 3 can be reached with I3 c R1. The
maximum value for R1 is limited by the output resistance of pin 3 which is greater than 10 MX typically.
Note 5: Nonlinearity is defined as the deviation of VOUT ( @ pin 3) for fIN e 5 kHz from a straight line defined by the VOUT
C1 e 1000 pF, R1 e 68k and C2 e 0.22 mFd.
General Description (Continued)
The op amp/comparator is fully compatible with the tachometer and has a floating transistor as its output. This
feature allows either a ground or supply referred load of up
to 50 mA. The collector may be taken above VCC up to a
maximum VCE of 28V.
The two basic configurations offered include an 8-pin device
with a ground referenced tachometer input and an internal
connection between the tachometer output and the op amp
non-inverting input. This version is well suited for single
speed or frequency switching or fully buffered frequency to
voltage conversion applications.
@
1 kHz and VOUT
@
10 kHz.
The more versatile configurations provide differential tachometer input and uncommitted op amp inputs. With this
version the tachometer input may be floated and the op
amp becomes suitable for active filter conditioning of the
tachometer output.
Both of these configurations are available with an active
shunt regulator connected across the power leads. The regulator clamps the supply such that stable frequency to voltage and frequency to current operations are possible with
any supply voltage and a suitable resistor.
Test Circuit and Waveform
Tachometer Input Threshold Measurement
TL/H/7942 – 7
TL/H/7942 – 6
3
Typical Performance Characteristics
Total Supply Current
Zener Voltage vs
Temperature
Normalized Tachometer
Output vs Temperature
Normalized Tachometer
Output vs Temperature
Tachometer Currents I2
and I3 vs Supply Voltage
Tachometer Currents I2
and I3 vs Temperature
Tachometer Linearity
vs Temperature
Tachometer Linearity
vs Temperature
Tachometer Linearity vs R1
Tachometer Input Hysteresis
vs Temperature
Op Amp Output Transistor
Characteristics
Op Amp Output Transistor
Characteristics
TL/H/7942 – 5
4
Applications Information
The size of C2 is dependent only on the amount of ripple
voltage allowable and the required response time.
The LM2907 series of tachometer circuits is designed for
minimum external part count applications and maximum versatility. In order to fully exploit its features and advantages
let’s examine its theory of operation. The first stage of operation is a differential amplifier driving a positive feedback
flip-flop circuit. The input threshold voltage is the amount of
differential input voltage at which the output of this stage
changes state. Two options (LM2907-8, LM2917-8) have
one input internally grounded so that an input signal must
swing above and below ground and exceed the input
thresholds to produce an output. This is offered specifically
for magnetic variable reluctance pickups which typically provide a single-ended ac output. This single input is also fully
protected against voltage swings to g 28V, which are easily
attained with these types of pickups.
The differential input options (LM2907, LM2917) give the
user the option of setting his own input switching level and
still have the hysteresis around that level for excellent noise
rejection in any application. Of course in order to allow the
inputs to attain common-mode voltages above ground, input
protection is removed and neither input should be taken
outside the limits of the supply voltage being used. It is very
important that an input not go below ground without some
resistance in its lead to limit the current that will then flow in
the epi-substrate diode.
Following the input stage is the charge pump where the
input frequency is converted to a dc voltage. To do this
requires one timing capacitor, one output resistor, and an
integrating or filter capacitor. When the input stage changes
state (due to a suitable zero crossing or differential voltage
on the input) the timing capacitor is either charged or discharged linearly between two voltages whose difference is
VCC/2. Then in one half cycle of the input frequency or a
time equal to 1/2 fIN the change in charge on the timing
capacitor is equal to VCC/2 c C1. The average amount of
current pumped into or out of the capacitor then is:
DQ
V
e ic(AVG) e C1 c CC c (2fIN) e VCC c fIN c C1
T
2
CHOOSING R1 AND C1
There are some limitations on the choice of R1 and C1
which should be considered for optimum performance. The
timing capacitor also provides internal compensation for the
charge pump and should be kept larger than 500 pF for very
accurate operation. Smaller values can cause an error current on R1, especially at low temperatures. Several considerations must be met when choosing R1. The output current
at pin 3 is internally fixed and therefore VO/R1 must be less
than or equal to this value. If R1 is too large, it can become
a significant fraction of the output impedance at pin 3 which
degrades linearity. Also output ripple voltage must be considered and the size of C2 is affected by R1. An expression
that describes the ripple content on pin 3 for a single R1C2
combination is:
VCC C1
c
c
VRIPPLE e
2
C2
#1
V c fIN c C1
b CC
I2
J pk-pk
It appears R1 can be chosen independent of ripple, however response time, or the time it takes VOUT to stabilize at a
new voltage increases as the size of C2 increases, so a
compromise between ripple, response time, and linearity
must be chosen carefully.
As a final consideration, the maximum attainable input frequency is determined by VCC, C1 and I2:
I2
fMAX e
C1 c VCC
USING ZENER REGULATED OPTIONS (LM2917)
For those applications where an output voltage or current
must be obtained independent of supply voltage variations,
the LM2917 is offered. The most important consideration in
choosing a dropping resistor from the unregulated supply to
the device is that the tachometer and op amp circuitry alone
require about 3 mA at the voltage level provided by the
zener. At low supply voltages there must be some current
flowing in the resistor above the 3 mA circuit current to operate the regulator. As an example, if the raw supply varies
from 9V to 16V, a resistance of 470X will minimize the zener voltage variation to 160 mV. If the resistance goes under 400X or over 600X the zener variation quickly rises
above 200 mV for the same input variation.
The output circuit mirrors this current very accurately into
the load resistor R1, connected to ground, such that if the
pulses of current are integrated with a filter capacitor, then
VO e ic c R1, and the total conversion equation becomes:
VO e VCC c fIN c C1 c R1 c K
Where K is the gain constantÐtypically 1.0.
Typical Applications
Minimum Component Tachometer
TL/H/7942 – 8
5
Typical Applications (Continued)
‘‘Speed Switch’’ Load is Energized When fIN t
1
2RC
TL/H/7942 – 9
Zener Regulated Frequency to Voltage Converter
TL/H/7942 – 10
Breaker Point Dwell Meter
TL/H/7942 – 11
6
Typical Applications (Continued)
Voltage Driven Meter Indicating Engine RPM
VO e 6V @ 400 Hz or 6000 ERPM (8 Cylinder Engine)
TL/H/7942 – 12
Current Driven Meter Indicating Engine RPM
IO e 10 mA @ 300 Hz or 6000 ERPM (6 Cylinder Engine)
TL/H/7942 – 13
Capacitance Meter
VOUT e 1V – 10V for CX e 0.01 to 0.1 mFd
(R e 111k)
TL/H/7942 – 14
7
Typical Applications (Continued)
Two-Wire Remote Speed Switch
TL/H/7942 – 15
100 Cycle Delay Switch
VCC c C1
C2
for each complete input cycle (2 zero crossings)
V3 steps up in voltage by the amount
TL/H/7942 – 16
Example:
If C2 e 200 C1 after 100 consecutive input cycles.
V3 e 1/2 VCC
8
Typical Applications (Continued)
Variable Reluctance Magnetic Pickup Buffer Circuits
Precision two-shot output frequency
equals twice input frequency.
VCC C1
Pulse width e
.
2 I2
Pulse height e VZENER
TL/H/7942 – 39
TL/H/7942 – 17
Finger Touch or Contact Switch
TL/H/7942 – 19
TL/H/7942 – 18
Flashing LED Indicates Overspeed
Flashing begins when fIN t 100 Hz.
Flash rate increases with input frequency
increase beyond trip point.
TL/H/7942 – 20
9
Typical Applications (Continued)
Frequency to Voltage Converter with 2 Pole Butterworth Filter to Reduce Ripple
fPOLE e
0.707
2qRC
uRESPONSE e
2.57
2qfPOLE
TL/H/7942 – 21
Overspeed Latch
Output latches when
fIN e
1
R1 a R2 RC
R2
Reset by removing VCC.
TL/H/7942–22
10
TL/H/7942 – 23
Typical Applications (Continued)
Some Frequency Switch Applications May Require Hysteresis in the
Comparator Function Which can be Implemented in Several Ways:
TL/H/7942 – 24
TL/H/7942 – 25
TL/H/7942 – 26
TL/H/7942 – 27
TL/H/7942 – 28
11
Typical Applications (Continued)
Changing the Output Voltage for an Input Frequency of Zero
TL/H/7942 – 30
TL/H/7942 – 29
Changing Tachometer Gain Curve or Clamping the Minimum Output Voltage
TL/H/7942 – 32
TL/H/7942–31
12
Anti-Skid Circuit Functions
‘‘Select-Low’’ Circuit
TL/H/7942 – 34
VOUT is proportional to the lower of the
two input wheel speeds.
TL/H/7942 – 33
‘‘Select-High’’ Circuit
TL/H/7942 – 36
VOUT is proportional to the higher of
the two input wheel speeds.
TL/H/7942 – 35
‘‘Select-Average’’ Circuit
TL/H/7942 – 37
13
14
**This connection made on LM2917 and LM2917-8 only.
*This connection made on LM2907-8 and LM2917-8 only.
TL/H/7942 – 38
Equivalent Schematic Diagram
15
Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters)
8-Lead (0.150× Wide) Molded Small Outline Package, JEDEC
Order Number LM2907M-8 or LM2917M-8
NS Package Number M08A
16
Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) (Continued)
Molded SO Package (M)
Order Number LM2917M
NS Package Number M14A
Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N)
Order Number LM2907N-8 or LM2917N-8
NS Package Number N08E
17
LM2907/LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter
Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) (Continued)
Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N)
Order Number LM2907N or LM2917N
NS Package Number N14A
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