^ "^

^
"^
I
V*
\
/.
foundryman's
Reference Book
A
convenient pocket-book of reference for all
persons interested in iron or brass foundrys,
either as draftsman, pattern makers, foun-
dry foreman, moulders, or coremakers
BY
JAMES
Practical
F.
POWE
Moulder and Foundry Manager
PITTSFIELD, MASS.
PRICE
$2.50
EAGLE PRINTING AND BINDING
Pittsfield,
Mass.
Copyrighted by
JAS. F.
BOWE
CO.
PREFACE
men engaged or interested in foundry work,
matters not in what capacity, often require
information which cannot be carried in the mind
All
it
or
remembered
To
at the
obviate the
moment.
necessity
of
looking through
and more pretentious volumes
is the
In preparing the following pages
the aim has been to present in a convenient, brief
and condensed form, tables, rules, formula and
other data which experience has proved to be of
value to foundrymen.
several large
object sought.
•The Author
©CLA420365
JAN 15 1915
INDEX
Page
Aluminum
Properties of
21
astin g s
.;.*;.;;:::";;:::::::::
g
Bronze
50
51
Patterns
Solders
.
.
.
47
.
cn
fiux
Hardener
:::::::::::::
I*
50
Analysis of
Coke
''
Coal
'
'
'
Iron
'
Sand
"
".
29
29
30
9a
Acids
For Cleaning Iron Castings
For Cleaning Brass Castings
Resisting Metals
55
57
52
Arsenic
Properties of
22
Antimony
Properties of
21
Boron
Properties of
In Copper Castings
........ ..IV. /..'.. *V.
Bismuth
22
55
22
Blow Holes
To
Control
44
Boxes
Capacity of
iq
v e<
Brass
Yellow
**
KA
::::::::::::::::::::::::
Bronzes
Phosper
"
Manganese
'
'
;
silicon
•
•
;
'
Bearing
'
Bay berry Wax
-
ft
5
~
£
%l
„
48
48
Beeswax
3
INDEX
Page
Cadmium
22
Properties of
Carbon
23
Properties of
Copper
23
55
Properties of
Castings
Core
Sand Mixtures
Sand Binder
38-9-40
41
41
41
Paste
Putty
Chill
Wash
42
Chills
Thickness of
Coatings for
Cupola
Capacity and How to Charge and other data
Crushes
Crucibles
Diam. and Capacity of
Coloring
Brass Castings
Composition or Red Metals
Contraction
How to Control
Casting One Metal on Another
Cost of Castings
Conversion Table
Metric and English
,
16
42
36
45
49
55
54
43
44
60
9
Castings
Light, Strong
Drops and Drawn
Down
Copes
34
45
Distance
Between American Cities
Decimal Equivalents
Facing Sands
Green
76-77
10
Skin Dry
Oven Dried
Follow Boards and Match Boards
First Aid to the Injured
Fluxes Used in
Brass Foundry
28
37
37
42
19
Iron Foundry
58
58-59
Figuring
Iron Mixtures
32
4
INDEX
Page
Heat
Degrees Used in Metallurgy
Specific of Metals
11
20
Iron
Properties of
Analysis of Foundry
Mixtures of for Various Classes of
Mixing by Analysis
Work
Strength of
Weight
Lead
24
30
33
32
48
60
Filler
Cost of Castings
Estimating on New
Work
of as usually piled
Properties of
61
62
13
24
Ladles
Dimension and Capacity
18
Mercury
Properties of
25
Metals
Strength of
Melting Point
Wt. per Cu. Inch
Conductivity Heat
Conductivity Electricial
20-62
20
20
20
20
Manganese
Properties of
25
Magnesium
Properties of
24
Metaloids
Effect of
on Cast Iron
Metric System
Melting
To Mix by Analysis
Magnalium
31
9
32
50
Nickel
Properties of
25
For Iron Moulds
Phosphorus
42
Oil
Properties of
Pattern
Metals Non-Shrinking
Varnishes
Filler
of
Wt.
Casting from Wt. of
Pressure in Moulds
25
47
47-48
48
46
17
INDEX
Page
Relative Value of
Net Tons and Gross Tons
15
Rat Tails
How
to Prevent
45
Silicon
Properties of
26
Sands
Analysis of
28
Shrinkage
To Control
Of Castings
44
46
Scabbed Castings
To Prevent
45
Sulphur
Properties of
.26
Specific
Heat
20
20
Gravity
Strength of
Ropes and Chains
12
62
54
Metals
Steam Metals
Tin
27
Properties of
Thermometer
Conversion
18
Table
For Changing Percentages to Ounces and Drams 65-66
Giving Diameter, Circumference, Area and Weight
of
Round
Plates
Titanium
Weights and Measures
Weight of
One Cubic Foot of Materials
7
13
64
67-74
73
63
Balls
Round
67-74
59
Plates, Etc
Hexagon and Octagon Section
To Find the Weight of Castings from Dimensions ...
To Find the Weight From Wt. of Patterns
Per Cubic Inch of Metals
Vanadium
46
20
59
Vents
Wax
41
Composition
Warping
To
43
Control
Zinc
27
Properties of
6
Weights and Measures
TROY
24 grains
20 pwt
——pwt.
pennyweight
1
(gr.)
1
ounce oz.
3.2 grains
1 carat, diamond wt.
By this weight gold, silver and jewels only are weighed.
The ounce and pound in this are the same as in apothecaries'
weight.
APOTHECARIES'
20 grains
1 scruple
1 drachm
3 scruples
8 drs
12 ozs
ounce
1
1
pound
AVOIRDUPOIS
—
4 grs
1 ounce
100 weight cwt.
16 drachms
20 hundred weight
1 pound
1 ton
16 ounces
qr_
1 quarter
25 lbs
1 lb.
5,760 grains apothecaries' or troy weight
1 lb.
7,000 grains avoirdupois weight
Therefore, 144 lbs. avoirdupois equal 175 lbs. apothecaries'
—
or troy.
LIQUIDS
1
1
weighs 7.32 lbs.
avoirdupois
gallon distilled water. 8. 33
gallon
oil
.
.
lbs.
1
gallon sea water.
1
gallon proof spirits 7.68 lbs.
.
.8.55 lbs.
MISCELLANEOUS
Iron, Lead, etc.
14 pounds
stones
21
8 pigs
1
H
stone
pig
father
1
1
Beef, Pork,
200 pounds
196 lbs. (flour)
100 lbs. (fish)
etc.
1
DRY
2 pint's
—
—pk.
quart
1
8 quarts
1
peck
qt.
4 pecks
36 bushels
1
barrel
barrel
quintal
1
1
—
bushel bu.
1 chaldron
LIQUID OR WINE
——
—
—
—
pint pt.
4 gills
1
1 quart
2 pints
qt.
gallon gal.
4 quarts
1
31 }/2 gallons ... 1 barrel bbl.
21 barrels. .1 hogshead hhd.
U.
S.
Standard Gallon
231 cubic inches
282 cubic in.
Beer gal
36 beer gallons
1 bbl.
TIME
60 seconds
60 minutes
24 hours
7 days
4 weeks
1
minute
1
hour
day
1 week
lunar month
1
1
28, 29, 30, or 31
1
days
30 day s
(in
inter-
1 month
day or 12 cal.
.
months
365 days, 5
seconds
calendar
computing
est)
52 weeks and
h.,
1
1 year
48 min. and 49
1 solar year
month
CIRCULAR
60 seconds
60 minutes
30 degrees
degree
90 degrees
quadrant
1
4 quadrants or 360 degrees
sign
1 circ]£
minute
1
1
1
.
.
—
—
K
Metric Equivalents
1
1
LINEAR MEASURE
—
—
centimeter 0.3937 in.
decimeter 3.937 in. 0.328
feet
—39.37
meter
yards
1
dekameter— 1.9884 rods
1
1
1
1
1
1
aq. centimeter
in.
1 in.
1 ft.
— 1.0936
1
0.62137 mile
—2.54 —
centimeters
3.048 decimeters
—
yard—0.9144 meter
rod—0.5029 dekameter
mile— 1.6093 kilometers
kilometer
1
—
1
1
1
SQUARE MEASURE
—0.1550sq.in.
decimeter—€.1076
meter— 1.196
yard
—3.954 square rods
hektar— 2.47 acres
1
square kilometer—0.386 sq.
1
sq.
sq.
are.
—
—
—
acre—0.4047 hektar
mile— 2.59
kilometer
6.452 sq. ceDtimetera
1 sq. in.
9.2903 sq. decimeters
sq. ft. 1 sq. ft.
1 sq. yard
0.8361 sq. meter
1 square rod—0.2529 are.
sq.
sq
sq.
in.
MEASURE OF VOLUME
—0.061
—0.0353
cu. centimeter
1 cu. decimeter
1
1
cu.
m'r
\
1 ster
/
—
f
I
rnn^o
— 16.39
cu. in. 1 cu.
inch
meter
cu. ft.
1.308 cu. yd.
0.2759 cd.
^
j
gram 0.03527 ounce
kilogram— 2.2046 lbs.
metric
}
}
1
1.101 liters
1 at.
-9463 liter>
1 qt liq
1 gallon—0.3785 dekaliter
x pec
0.881 dekiliter
1 bushel—0.3524 hektoliter
—
WEIGHTS
—
ton— 1.1023
English
1
1
1
*
—28.35 grams
oucce
pound— 0.4536 kilogram
English ton—0.9072 metric
ton
ton
1
1
1
1
l
centi-
'
_o
k—
_
1
1
1
-
dry—
7^;^
liter— ( ?-2?f
hq
( x Oo67 qt
_ . .
(2.6417 gal.
1 dekaliter— |
135 pe cks
1 hektoliter— 2.8375 bush.
!
I
cu.
U decil etera
cu H \— 2
%W*a
?
6 6 cu meter
cu '/ d
?
cord '.riL'
3.624 sters
decimeter
—
Approximate Metric Equivalents
4 inches
..
}
1.06 qt. liquid
meter— 1.1 yards
*
hter—
kelometer
Y% of mile
hektar 2 Yi acres
ster. or cu. meter
cord
1
hektoliter
1
kilogram 2 1/5 pounds
metric ton 2200 pounds
—
—
of a 1
,
9 qt fay
bushels
— 2%
—
METRIC SYSTEM
Measures
(Unit
Centigramme.
.
.
Decigramme ....
Gramme
Decagramme
Hectogramme
Kilogramme.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
of
Weight
Gramme)
Oz. Troy
Grains
0.15432
1.54323
15.43235
154.32349
1543.23488
15432.34880
Measures
0.003
0.032
0.321
3.215
32.150
of
Lb. Avor.
Cwt.
6.002
0.022
0.220
2.204
0.009
0.011
Yards
Miles
Length
(Unit Metre)
Inches
Millimetre
0.03937
0.39371
3.93708
39.37079
393 70790
3937 .07900
39370 79000
.
Centimetre
Decimetre.
.
Ivletre
Decimetre'.
'
.
Hectometre
Kilometre
.
Feet
0.003
0.032
0.328
3.280
32.808
328.089
3280 899
.
0.001
0.010
0.109
1.093
10.936
109.363
1093 .633
0.006
0.062
.
621
Convenient Multiples for Conversion
Grains to
To Convert
Grammes
multiply by
Ounces to Grammes
Pounds to Grammes
"
" Kilogrammes
"
Cwts. to
"
Tons "
Grammes
"
.45
50.8
1016.
15.4
0.35
35.3
2.2
to Grains
M Ounces
Kilogrammes to Ounces
" Pounds
"
"
Cwts
Tons
.02
.001
25.4
2.54
.3048
Inches to Millimetres
"
" Centimetres
Feet to Metres
Yards to
"
.9144
.0009
1.6
"
" Kilometres,
"
Miles "
Millimetres to Inches
Centimetres to
Metres to Feet
M Yards
.04
.4
**
3.3
1.1
1093.6
Kilometres to Yards
"
" Miles
1
.065
28.35
453.6
Yard=0.9144 Metre.
1
.62
Sq. Metre=1.196 Sq. Yard.
Litrezil.760 Pintsor 0.22 Gals.
1
=
=
FRACTIONAL PART OF AN INCH
Expressed in Decimals.;
=
=
1-64 = 015625
3-64 = 046S75
.5-64 = 078125
7-64 = .109375
9-64 = .140625
11-64 = .171875
13-64 = .203125
12500
25000
3-S = 37500
1-2 = 50000
5-8 = 62500
3-4 = 75000
7-8 = 87500
1-16 = 06250
3-16 = .18750
1-S
1-4
=
1.5-64
17-64
=
=
.234375
.265625
.31250
19-64= .296875
7-16 =
9-16 = 56250
11-16 = 68750
13-16 = .81250
21-64 = .328125
23-64 = .359375
.5-16
=
1.5-16
1-32
=
=
2.5-64
.03750
.03125
3-32 = .00375
=
.
.25
27-64 =
29-64
31-64 =
33-64 =
.421875
=
.546875
.453125
.484375
.515625
=
=
,15625
3.5-64
.21875
37-64 = .578125
9-32=
11-32 =
.28125
39-64= .609375
.34375
41-64
,64062o
=
1.5-32 =
17-32 =
19-32 =
.40625
4:3-64
.671875
5-32
7-32
13-32
=
=
4.5-64 =
47-64 =
49-64 =
51-64 =
.46875
.53125
,59375
21-32 = ,65625
23-32 = .71875
=
27-32 =
2.5-32
53-64 =
=
.703125
.734375
765625
796875
.828125
.859375
890625
.
.
.78125
5-5-64
.S4375
57-64 =
59-64 = .921875
61-64 = .953125
63-64 = .984375
,
29-32
,90625
31-32 = 96875
.
10
\
Degrees
6400 deg.
6300 "
5400 "
5100 "
4700 M
4600 "
4200 "
4000 "
3900 "
3800 "
3600 "
3500 "
3200 "
3100 ; "
3000 ".
2800 "
2700 "
2600 "
2500 "
2400 "
2300 "
2200 "
2100 "
2000 "
1800 "
1600
"
1400
"
1300
4
*
F.
"
of
Heat Used
in Metallurgy
Electric furnace
"
Oxy. Acetylene torch
Thermit welding
Oxy-hydrogen blow pipe
"
Lime melts
"
"
"
"
Iridium melts
"
"
"
Cromite and Boron melts
Magnesia Brick melts
Alundum and Alumina melts
Tungsten melts
"
"
Blast furnace at tuyeres
"
"
Silica
"
Open hearth
"
"
Iron
"
"
Platinum and vanadium melts
is
Brilliant white
is
bright white
is
white
4
1
*
*'
"
"
fire
brick
Steel
Pig Iron Blast furnace
"
"
Brick melts
Bessemer Converter and
1
1
Pouring heat for grey cast iron
clear orange
bright orange, cast iron melts
dull orange, copper melts
deep orange, red metal melts
"
'
plear red, yellow brass melts
"
*
full
1
cherry red
'*
red
"
Pouring temperature
dull red
" red just visible
1000 " "
400 to 600 core oven heat
*
11
Aluminum
Diameter and Safe Working Load in Pounds of
Wire Ropes, Chains and Manilla Ropes
of
When
Good
Quality
used double or other multiples increase
load proportionally.
Safety First
Wire Rope
Diam.
Work. Load
%
A
l
Vs
%
%
1
lVs
1U
1%
IV2
1%
2
'
Chain
Fibre Ropes
Work. Load Work. Load
1200
2400
4000
5500
7500
9500
12000
15000
22000
30000
40000
50000
1500
2400
4000
6000
8000
10000
13000
16000
19000
22000
27000
33000
12
120
250
360
520
620
750
1000
1200
1400
1600
2100
2800
Weight
of
Cubic Foot of Materials Used
1
in
Foundry
Lbs. per Wt.
cubic
Ashes
Brass trimmings
Charcoal not crushed
37
157
Coke
32
60
53
140
35
90
36
102
103
90
88
40
90
53
62
84
Coal, Bituminous
Cast Iron turnings
Core compound (Tar)
Fire Clay
Flour
Fire Brick
gravel
Limestone
Moulding sand
Plumbago
River sand
Sea coal
Soap stone
White sand
lbs.
per bush.
18
Coal, Anthracite
Loam
ft.
20
40
86
80
Pig iron as usually piled will average 73^ cubic
feet per ton.
When
piled very closely 7 cubic
Loosely piled 8 cubic
Cubic
ft.:
to ton.
ft.
1728 cubic inches.
One Bushel: 2150
cubic inches.
13
ft.
to ton.
Equivalent of Tons in Pounds,
2240
Pounds
to
Ton
Ton
Pounds
Ton
Pounds
Ton
Pounds
17
38080
38640
39200
39760
40320
40880
41440
42000
42560
43120
43680
44240
44800
45360
45920
46480
47040
47600
48160
48720
49280
49840
50400
50960
41520
52080
52640
53200
53760
54320
54880
55440
25
25
56000
56560
57120
57680
58240
58800
59360
59920
60480
61040
61600
62160
62720
63280
63840
64400
64960
65520
66080
66640
67200
67760
68320
68880
69440
70000
70560
71120
71680
72240
72800
73360
33
35%
73920
74480
75040
75600
76160
76720
77280
77840
78400
78960
35
79520
17%
17 J*
17%
18
18%
W$
18%
19
19%
19^
19%
20
20%
20^
20%
21
21
%
2iy2
21%
22
22%
22 J^
22J4
23
23
%
23^
23%
24
24
24
%
H
24%
%
25^
25%
26
26%
26^
26%
27
27
27
%
y
2
27%
28
28%
28^
28%
29
29%
29^
29%
30
30%
30%
30%
31
31%
31H
31%
32
32%
32
H
32%
14
33%
33^
33%
34
34%
34 J*
34%
35
y2
35%
36
36%
36%
36%
37
37%
37J^
37%
38
38%
38%
38%
39
39%
39%
39%
40
40%
40%
40%
80080
80640
81200
81760
82320
82880
83440
84000
84560
85120
85680
86240
86800
87360
87920
88480
89040
89600
90160
90720
91280
Relative Value of Net
pounds and Gross Ton
Net Ton
Gross
Ton
Ton
of 2000
of 2240
Gross
Ton
I
pounds
Net Ton
1
$10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
$11.20
12.32
13.44
$10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
14.56
15.68
16.80
17.92
19.04
20.16
21.28
22.40
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
15
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
$8,929
9.821
10.714
11.607
12.50
13.392
14.286
15.179
16.072
16.966
17.858
•
Usual Thickness of Chills for Chilled
JO
0>
ISo
Work
gfl
CQ
BO
91
00
°.1
©_
•So
Qtf
Ho.S
-1
-sua ©
.5
Qg
Ho.S
3"
4
5
6
2^"
2^
3
3
11
SH
SH
SH
3%
*X
12
*V2
7
8
9
10
R. R. car wheels
d
.2
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
5"
20
21
7^
7H
22
8
chills
5H
f>V*
6
6^
63^
7
also
—
o
Qtf
o
^3
Ho.S
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
8M"
9
9H
9^
10
io
10
li
y
M
2
run from 4 to 5" thick and
give from 3^ to %" chill.
Chill is increased by sulphur
crominum
00
09
by pouring
16
hot.
manganese
and
Pressure Per Sq. Inch in Moulds Below Cope Joint
a
©•
o>'~
A
~
A
t3
&
Q>
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
02
•
£
<v
Dep
4.94
5.20
5.46
5.72
5.98
6.24
6.50
6.76
7.02
7.28
7.50
7.80
8.06
8.32
8.58
8.84
9.10
9.36
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
For each additional inch
multiply this by the
which pressure
To
is
c
t-
,FH
0Q
CO
CO
1
2?
o
_i
- -PhO<
21
1.04
1.30
1.56
1.82
2.08
2.34
2.60
2.86
3.12
3.38
3.64
3.90
4.16
4.42
4.68
A
+3
i
MOD
S
o
Inch
19
.26
.52
.78
d
d
s
of
number
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
5
6
7
8
9
10
ft.
ft.
ft.
ft.
ft.
ft.
9.62
9.88
10.14
10.40
10.66
10.92
11.18
11.44
11.70
11.96
12.22
12.48
15.60
18.72
21.84
24.96
28.08
31.20
depth add .26 and
of sq. inches
upon
exerted.
find the weight required to resist the
upward
pressure on copes multiply the area in inches of
surface acted against
by the depth
of cope plus the
height of pouring heads and then divide
multiply by
.26.
17
by 4
or
.
How To
Change One Thermometer Reading Into
Another
1
degree
1
degree
F = 5556 C.
C = 1. 8 F.
Reaumur 80, Centigrade
Fahrenheit to Centigrade.
Subtract 32 from Fahrenheit reading and multiply
the remainder by 5/9ths. To Reaumur subtract
Boiling point of water
100, Fahrenheit 212.
32 and multiply by 4/9ths. To change Centigrade
to Fahrenheit multiply Centigrade by 9/5ths and
add 32. To change Centigrade to Reaumur multiply Centigrade by 4/5ths. To change Reaumur to
Fahrenheit multiply Reaumur reading by 9/4ths
and add 32 degrees.
Ladles.
Diam
5 inches
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
17
20
22
24
27
31
34
39
43
46
49
52
54
60
66
72
Up and Capacity
Molten Cast Iron
Their Dimensions Lined
in
Pounds
of
Depth
Capacity
per inch
5.1
6 inches
7
8
9
10
7.3
9.5
13.
16.5
20.4
11
12
13
18
20
22
25
28
32
35
40
44
48
50
53
56
62
68
74
25.
35.
59.
82.
99.
118.
149.
197.
237.
311.
379.
434.
491.
553.
597.
737.
892.
1061.
18
Total
Capacity
lbs.
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
30.6
51.1
76.
117.
165.
224.
300.
455.
1062.
1640.
2178.
2950.
4172.
6304.
8295.
12440.
16676.
20832.
24550.
29309
33432.
45694.
60656.
78514.
lbs.
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
Capacity of Boxes
inches
Half Bushel,
3X 3X 3H
4X 4X 4i/5
7X 7X 2^
8X 8X ±Vs
8X 8X 8
10 X 10 X 10%
Bushel,
18X15}^X8
inches
Pint Box,
"
Quart
Half Gallon,
Gallon,
2
Peck,
Help in Care
of Burns, Fainting, Etc.
/5
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
For Burns
Use a two per cent solution of picric acid or cover
with cooking soda and lay wet cloth over it, or
apply a mixture of linseed oil and lime water.
Whites of eggs and olive oil or linseed oil plain or
mixed with chalk or whitening may be applied.
Fainting
Loosen clothing, place
flat
on back with head
lower than rest of body, allow plenty of fresh
air,
sprinkle with water, chafe hands, give patient twenty
drops of spirit of
ammonia
in half glass of water.
Strong coffee or wine glass of whiskey will help revive.
Do not try to pour liquid down throat of
unconscious person. It may cause death from
choking.
fresh air
glass of
If partially overcome by gas get into the
and take twenty drops of ammonia in
water at short intervals.
19
Table giving Sp. Gr., Sp. Heat, Tensile Strength,
Heat and Electrical Conductivity, Melting
Point and Wt. per cu. in. of Metals
- r4
.'E
.
o
o
«a.t3
'-5
a
Aluminum
Arsenic
Bismuth
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Gold
Iridium
Iron Cast
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Platinum
Potassium
Silver
Sodium
Tin
Titanium
Tungston
Vanadium
Zinc
-d
•**
"d
0>
o
-2
o
2.6 20000 .225 31.33 54.20
6.7
.050 4.03 2.05
2.67
5.72
.083
i!8
.87
9.82
.030
.055 20.06 13.46
8.65
12.5
25.4
1.58
.168
.099
.107 17l2
.093 73.6
.0316 53.2
.0323
.112 li".9
8.5
.032
.245 34.3
8.
.122
13.60
.032
5.3
8.6
.108
21.5
.032 37\9
.166 45.
.865
10.53 40000 .057 100.
.2734 36.5
.97
7.35 4600 .056 15.2
5.3
.1135
5.
8.55
8.85 36000
19.3 20000
22.38
7.48 25000
11.35 3000
1.75
17.3
5.5
7.
a
q
-»j
WO HO 12 FO
ft r*
Antimony
a
to
*
7500 .096
Boron
Phosphorus
36*.
1214
1166
1562
510
612
1490
2750
Silicon
Carbon
20
.244
.312
.057
.1804
.308
.3195
.6949
.8076
.2604
9168 2782
1949
54.
43.84 1947
3960
9*.68 2350
620 .41
4.8
22.84 1200 .064
2273 .288
il'
—39
.49
7.37 2646 .317
8.042 3236 .775
144 .031
63 '.84 1751 .379
18.3
208 .035
12.4
450 .265
3270 .1913
5430 .6243
3146 .1987
29*.'
786 .2526
4262
111
241
2588
over 6500
Sulphur
.096
.244
Aluminum: AL,
A
At.
Wt.
27.1, Sp. Gr. 2.6
silvery white metal, weighs 1/3 as
much
as
and 5 times as much as white pine, tenacity
being 1/3 that of wrought iron. Hydrochloric
Acid dissolves it with ease. Nitric and sulphuric
do not act upon it at ordinary temperatures. Small
percentages are used to deoxodize steel.
.1% added
cast iron
to cast iron in the ladle increases the fluidity, decreases the
combined and increases the graphitic
In the brass foundry 1 to S ounces may be
added to 100 lbs. of molten brass to decrease the
zinc fumes and cause the metal to run up sharp.
Various percentages are used in the production of
carbon.
manganese and aluminum bronzes.
for castings is improved in castAluminum
ing quality by the addition of .1%
die
castings,
Zinc
when melted
.
castings in general use contain percentages of zinc
or copper, often both.
It
can be melted in either plumbago or cast iron
pots and fluxed with salammoniac or chloride of
The sand used for moulding should be fine,
from mica, worked quite dry and not rammed
too hard. Use chills and risers to prevent shrinkPour at a low heat.
age.
zinc.
free
Antimony:
Sb., At.
Wt.
120., sp. gr. 6.7
Bluish white metal, very crystalline and easily
pulverized.
when
it
Because
property of expanding
used largely in mixtures for
of its
solidifies it is
type and Brittania ware, also in antiand antimonial lead because
of its hardening property. It melts at 1166 F. and
burns in open air with a bluish white flame. Cubical expansion from 32 to 212 F. is .007.
patterns,
friction bearing metals
21
Arsenic: As., At. Wt. 75., Sp. gr. 5.7
Bright steel grey
color.
Volatilized at 356 F«
heated gives off an odor of garlic. It is used
as a hardening element in Copper and Lead.
Bearing Bronze, Copper 80, Tin 9, Lead 10,
When
Bismuth:
Bi., At.
Wt.
208.5, Sp. gr. 9.82
Hard, brittle and distinctly crystaline reddishwhite metal with a metallic lustre. It looks like
Antimony but is distinguished from it by its reddish
tint. Bismuth pulverizes readily, melts at about 510 F.
Its tensile strength is 6400 lbs per sq. inch.
Cubical
expansion from 32 to 212 F. is .0040. As it imparts
the properties of low fusing points and expansibility
it is used in making safety-plugs for boilers, fuseable
alloys stereotype, pattern metals etc.
A small
centage will harden and toughen lead.
As
per-
alloys
Bismuth, tin and Lead take very fine impressions
they are often used for moulds and medals.
of
Boron:
E., At.
Wt.
Boron Suboxide
11.
used as a flux in the production
of copper castings where high electrical conductivity
is
is
required.
Cadmium:
Cd., At.
Wt.
112.4, Sp. gr. 8.65
A white metal closely resembling Tin and
of about
Like Tin it gives a creaking
sound when bent.. It melts at about 500 F. It is
malleable and ductile, cubical expansion from 32 to
the same hardness.
212 F. .0094. It is used in some fuseable alloys
with Lead, Tin and Bismuth.
Carbon: C.
This element is more widely distributed than
any other except Oxygen. Its melting point is
above 6500 F. Graphite, Lampblack, Charcoal,
Coal, Coke and Diamonds are composed very largely of Carbon.
Regular foundry grades of cast
Iron usually contain from three to four percent.
The fluidity and life is largely determined by the
amount and the ratio which exists between its two
Silicon decreases
forms, graphitic and combined.
the total carbon and changes it from the combined
Total Carbon may be into the graphitic state.
It also has a
creased by the use of Manganese.
quality imparted to it by the kind of fuel with which
the iron ore
is
smelted.
This accounts in part for
the difference between charcoal and coke iron.
Copper:
Cu., At. wt. 63.6
Reddish colored metal, very tenacious, malleable)
and ductile. With the exception of Silver it is the
known conductor of electricity. Its tenacity
next to Iron. Tensile strength from 20,000 to
30,000 lbs. per sq. inch. Its melting point is about
1950 F. It is used as a base in Bronze and Brass
best
is
mixtures.
.0051.
Cubical expansion from 32 to 212 F.
Acid dissolves it, Sulphuric Acid
Nitric
when heated with
the metal will attack it, HydroAcid does not act upon it. There are many
grades and brands of Copper. Lake and Electrolytic being considered the best for casting purchloric
poses.
23
Iron: Fe., At. Wt. 56., Sp. gr. 7.48
Pure Iron is almost unknown. Its melting point
given as 3000 F. The grades used in foundries
usually have from 6 to 8% of metaloids and melt
at 2360 F.
The various grades of foundry Irons
are determined by the percentages of the metaloids,
carbon, silicon, sulphur, manganese and phosphorus which they contain. See table analysis of
is
cast iron.
Lead: Pb., At. Wt. 206.9, Sp. gr. 11.38
Melts at about 625 F. It is a heavy soft malleable dark grey metal of a brilliant lustre when first
cut.
Its tensile strength is about 1800 lbs. per sq.
inch.
Its weight per cubic foot 710 lbs.
It is
us 3d extensively for sulphuric acid chambers and
evaporating pans, also as an alloy in many serviceable metals.
In the brass foundry it is often used
in mixtures to lower the cost of the metal.
1
to
3%
is
which are to be rapidly finished on machine
From
5 to
From
frequently used in red metal castings
10%
is
tools.
generally introduced into Acid
Bronze and from 5 to 30% in Bearing Bronze. As
an alloy it is used in the composition of pattern,
type and white metals, also fusible alloys and soft
It should
solders, cheap babbits and box finings.
not be used in mixtures containing
Aluminum
or
Silicon.
Magnesium: Mg.,
At.
Wt.
24.36, Sp. gr. 1.75
metal with a high lustre, very
malleable and ductile. It is used in taking flashfight pictures, in making fire-works and as an alloy
It is one of the lightin some Aluminum mixtures.
Cubical
It melts at about 1200 F.
est of metals.
expansion of .0083 from 32 to 212 F.
Silvery white
24
Manganese: Mn.,
At.
Wt.
55., Sp. gr. 8.
White-grey metal, melting at about 2280 F. Used
as an alloy in cast Iron, steel and Manganese bronze.
Its tendency is to reduce sulphur, increase density
and combined carbon.
It also raises the saturation
point of total carbon.
Light soft castings should
Medium
have about .60%.
Heavy 1.00%
weight castings .70%.
work 2.00%. Semi Steel
from .75 to 1.25 Manganese Bronze .1. Small
percentages of Manganese Copper are often used
chilled
to deoxidize brass mixtures.
Mercury:
Hg., At. Wt. 200.3, Sp. gr. 13.60
The only metal
that
is
liquid at ordinary
tem-
peratures becoming solid at 39 F. below zero.
is
It
silvery white with a high lustre.
Nickel: NL, At. Wt. 53.7, Sp. gr. 8.6
A
hard yet ductile metal with tenacity about the
same as
is high, being
used as an alloy in making
nickel-steel and for nickel plating, also with copper to produce German-Silver. Cubical expansion
from 32 to 212 F. .0037. Mixtures of Copper and
Iron.
about 2600 F.
Lead
Its
melting point
It is
for bearings contain small
amounts to pre-
vent lead sweat.
Phosphorus: P.
A
pale
amber colored metal, waxy
in appearance.
under ordinary temperatures and
must be kept under water. It can be cut like wax,
melts at 112 F. boils at 290 F. When heated to
240 F. out of contact with the air it changes to red
or amorphous Phosphorus. This is not so poisonous nor does it ignite as readily as the other. It
It ignites readily
25
adds fluidity and hot-shortness to Phospor Bronze.
Iron it adds fluidity and cold-shortness. Because it possesses a great affinity for oxygen it is
often used in brass foundries as a deoxidizer to remove the surplus oxygen which the metal may
contain or has absorbed while being melted. It is
usually introduced in the shape of Phosphor Tin or
Phosphor Copper. 1% of Phosphorus is generally
sufficient to remove the oxygen from copper alloys.
Cast Iron for ordinary work usually contains about
To
Silicon:
When
Si.,
At.
Wt. 28.4
obtained in the form of crystals, Silicon
and harder than
is
one of
the most widely distributed of the non-metalic elements. At a very high temperature it combines
with Iron and other metal. Its melting point is
about 3600 F. Xo. 1 Foundry Iron usually contains
It has the property of adding fluidity to Iron
3%
and of changing the carbon from the combined to
the graphitic state. It is also used in the Brass
Foundry as a flux and deoxidizer. It burns out
the oxids. gives to the castings an even smooth
grain and increases the strength very perceptably.
Do not use in mixtures containing Lead. It is
generally introduced into the molten metal in the
of a grey color
glass.
It is
•
form
to
of Silicon
20%
Silicon,
Copper which contains from 15%
about
1%
of the latter being suffi-
cient.
Sulphur: S.
A yellow brittle substance which melts at 114 F.
It
makes Iron hard, white, red-short and
sluggish.
It also gives rise to blow-holes during solidification.
26
removed to a limited extent by silicon, lime,
and Manganese. It should never exceed
.07% in Iron, or .8 in coke when making the usual
grade of machinery castings. Chilled rolls and car
wheels often contain .1% as it increases the combined carbon, closes the grain and promotes chill.
It
is
flour spar
1%
is
used in mixtures of copper containing high
percentages of lead to prevent lead sweat.
Tin: Sn.
Lustrous and white in color, tenacity about 3400
per sq. inch. It melts at 450 F, is soft and mal-
lbs.
leable,
a bar of
it
giving forth a creaking sound
when bent. It is used as an alloy in Bronze,
Aluminum and composition castings, also as a base
in many well known bearing, pattern, and die cast
Britanna metal and fusible alloys
metal mixtures.
contain large percentages.
Safety plugs for boilers
are usually filled with pure tin.
are
two
of the best
known
Billiton
and Banca
brands.
Zinc: Zr.
A
bluish white metal, highly crystaline.
at about 788 F.
and weighs 436
lbs.
Melts
per cubic foot.
Tenacity 6000 lbs. per sq. inch. Electric conductivity 29.
Cubical expansion between 32 and 212
F. .0088. Specific heat .096. Heat conductivity
36.
As an
alloy
it is
of brassy bronze,
used extensively in the production
German
silver, die
When
and aluminum
used alone for castings flux with
Bertha
sal ammoniac and add .01% of Aluminum.
and Horse Head are the trade names of the two
castings.
best
brands.
27
.
.
Sands Analysis
..
Foundry
of
I
2
M
r:
Fire
Sand
Sand
:-.
Coarse Molding Sand
Medium Molding Sand
Stove plate Bene!
...
Sand
B
<
X
i2J
7
9.
.20
.10
.30 1.50
.75
2.15 .50
S3
9.5
4.5
1
.40
1.50
2
.
!
for Various
.15—
.
50 20
.
.75 .5
.701.
.
Thickness
of
Casting
Heap
Sand
B*
2"
6 parts
S parts
1
part
5 parts
6
pans
1
part
2" to 3 4"
4 parts
5 parts
1
part
4 parts
4 parts
1
part
4 parts
3 parts
1
part
4 ps
2
12
1
part
4"
too
3/4"
1
fcc
1" to 1 1 2"
1 1 2" to 4"
To make
.1
1
1
.85.5
New
3/8" to
1
I
-JS
Moulding
Thickness
1
r;
-
98
95
SS
S7
French Moulding Sand
Green Sand Facing
a
-
parts
Sea
Coal
the facing more open mix with
it
coarse
sharp sand.
For Skin dry work temper with beer or molasses
water and mix with the facing 1 part flour to 15 or
20 parts sand.
Facing sand should be thoroughly mixed and
carefully tempered.
28
Coke and
Coal, Analysis of For Melting Iron
d
-
2
a
fe
-9
XII
Coke
Coal, Anthracite
One pound
.
of
.
88
.85
to
to
to
90
84
.70
7.88
.75
8.
good coke
will
10.
1.25
to
.75
4.38
produce in blast
furnace about 1 pound of pig iron.
In cupola 8 pounds of molten metal.
In Brass pit furnace 2
lbs.
In Brass pit furnace 2 1/2
molten metal.
lbs.
with good hard
coal.
Tilting coke furnace with blast 1 lb. coke to 4 1/2
lbs.
melted metal.
Crucible
oil
furnace 3 gal.
oil
per 100
lbs. of
melted
per 100
lbs. of
metal.
Open flame
melted metal.
Not many
oil
furnace 2 gal.
oil
iron foundry s produce
lbs. of castings
per
lb. of
more than 41/2
coke purchased.
29
:
.
.
Approximate Analysis of Iron Used in Making
Castings
c
s
t£
X
.*
,
3
=
O
•a
1
'J
'J
£
§
'J
ci
OD
barl
XIX
\2'f
No.
1
Foundry
....
44
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3.00
2.50
1.75
.02
.04
.05
.75
.70
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.40
.40
.55
.153.40
.11 :::
.30 3.25
.40 3.00
.12 2300
.13 2500
T.C.
Spiegeleisen
Fero Phosphorus
.
Malleable, Common
Bressemer, Straight
Grey Forge
.75
.25
1.00
1.25
1.00
.75
Basic
nil.
"
.05
.04
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20.
.15
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.50
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5.
.15
3.75
3.80
C.C.
CharcoalNo.
"
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2.40 .031
1.50 .035
1
2
"3
"4
"
.75 .04
.37 .042
5
Fero Silicon
Fero Manganese
.
11.00 .04
2.5 .04
"6
C.C.
Machinery Scrap,
heavy
Machinery Scrap,
1.75 .08
.70
.50
Light
2.25 .08
.80
.40
.85
.10
.50
.60
.45
Car Wheel Scrap
Stove Plate Scrap
Steel Scrap
.
.60 .14
.
2.75 .09
.03 .04
30
C.G.
.22 3.55 .125 2400
.35 .45
.35 .44 .22 3.50 .125 2600
.35 .35 .34 3.30 .13 2900
.63 2.90
.14 3300
.35 .24
.13 2.10 1.19
.35
..
.80 .60 T.C 3
.70 SO.
.5
G.C.
.30 3.25
..
..
.20 3.40 ..
.75 3.25 ..
.15 2.75..
T.C. .60
..
—
..
..
g
o
1
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31
—
.
To Figure Iron Mixture
for
Cupola
Prepare the following form and fill it out with the
analysis of the irons to be used in the mixture.
Multiply the percentage of the element in the irons
by the percentage it is proposed to use in 100 lbs.
Should it not total up as wanted change the percentage to be used until the right result is obtained.
After having found the percentage of each iron
necessary to produce the required analysis in 100
lbs. multiply the amount of charge by these percentages.
By using ferro irons and
may be produced.
The
steel
following form will help to explain
Analysis of Iron
M
-3
.s
5
Used
Sul-
O «
£
any desired analysis
Silicon
phur
Phosphorus
Manganese
fcij
03
fcS-S
40
10
10
30
10
No. 2
No. 3
Re melt
Scrap
Ferro
.
.
Sil.
100%
.
in
in
Iron
Cge.
in
1600 2.50 1.000
400 1.75 .175
400 2.25 .225
1200 2.25 .675
400 11.00 1.100
4000
«
12.175
Iron
Cge.
.04
.05
.06
.08
.04
.016
.005
.006
.024
.004
.055
in
in
in
in
Iron Chg. Iron
.70
.70
.70
.80
.80
.28
.07
.07
.24
.08
.40
.55
.50
.50
.60
Chg.
.16
.055
.050
.150
.060
.475
.74
Analysis of Iron Mixture as Charged
The usual
ganese
.10,
loss of silicon in
and the gain
melting
in sulphur
.03.
32
is
is .25,
of
man-
approximately
Analysis of Iron Mixtures
cializing
Used by Foundrys Spe-
the Following Classes of
in
Work
o3
D
72
1.50
2.25
1.65
1.70 .09
1.50 .06
2.00 .09
Acid
Agricultural.
Air Cyl
,
Ammonia
Annealing Pots
.70
.60
.60
1.851 .091 .45| .60
.
.
Auto Parts
Auto Cyl
Brake Shoes.
Car Wheel
.
.
.70
.80
to .90
to 1.
to .80
to .80
3.25
3.40
3.25
3'30
3.00
3.25
C. C. .60
G. C. 3.15
3.50
.50 to .70
3.25
60
C. C. .75
G. C. 3.50
1.00 .09 .40
1.00
C.C. 3.00
G. C. 2.75
2.00 .07 .30
.80
C.C. .50
Work
R. R.
1.25
.
Chilled Castings.
Chills
2. 001.08 .50
1.50 .10 .30
.60 .11 .30
70
1.00
1.40
2.50
2.25
1.75
2.00
2.25
1.50
1.25
1.50
.06i.20
.08 .40
.09 .40
.09 .50
2.00| .09 .60
2.25 .06 .20
1.10 .06 .25
.90
.70
.40
.75
.65
.60
.75
.80
.90
.80
.70
.75
.90
1.00 .06 .20
1.00
T. C.
Crusher Jaws ....
Dies Hammer ....
Electrical
Fire Pots
Work.
.
Fly Wheel
Friction Clutches
Furnace
Gas Engine Cyl.
.
Gears, heavy ....
Gears, medium.
Gears, light
.
Grate Bars
Gun
Carriage.
.
.
Gun
Ingot Moulds.
.
Locomotive Cyl.
.
.
.09 .30
.07 20
.OS 60
.06 20
.08 50
.09 30
1.40
1.25
.75
.90
3.25
3.20
3.25
3.00
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.50
3.50
3.50
C. C. .75
G. C.2.75
C. C. .80
C. C. .40
G. C. 3.00
C. C. .50
G.C.3.00
33
—
o
O
c8
HO
Low
Machinery, heavy
Machinery, medium
Machinery, light
Permanent Moulds
Permanent Mould Castings
.
.
Piano Plate
Pipe Water
Pipe Fittings
Plow Points
Piston Rings
Propeller Wheels
Pulleys, heavy
Pulleys, light
Radiator
1.25
1.75
2.50
2.25
.10
.09
.06
.07
.40
.50
.75
.30
.90
.75
.30
.75
C. C. .60
3.00
3.80
3.75
2.50
2.25
2.00
2.25
1.00
1.75
1.50
2.00
2.50
2.25
.06
.40!
.25
.60
.75
.75
.50
.90
.70
.75
3.75
3.50
3.75
3.75
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.75
3.50
3.25
3.75
3.40
3.50
3.75
.60
.70
.60
3.50
3.25
3.50
1
.09j .35
091.60
08 .60
.75
Rolls, Chilled
2.25
1.25
1.50
2.75
Scales
Steam Cyl., heavy
Steam CvL, medium
Stove Plate
Transformer Tank,
.75
.30
.75
.30,
.40
.75j
1.00
.50
.75
.75
.50
.60
1.2
me-
dium
2.70
1.50
2.25
Size
Valves, large
Valves,
.09,.50i
.09|.50;
.081.60;
.08'.30!
.081. 40|
medium
.80
.30
.50)
castings depends upon the
combined carbon in casting and varies
Strength in light
amount
with
of
it.
The total carbon should be high in order to get
plenty of combined carbon without hardness. Silicon rather low to enable combined carbon to form.
Phosphorous enough to cause the metal to run
well.
Manganese high
to get clean close grain
crease absorption of carbon.
left in
sand until
cold.
34
and
in-
Castings should be
Semi Steel
To
cupola charge of pig and machinery scrap
add from five to forty per cent of clean soft steel
horse shoes, rail ends, steel castings, boiler plate
clippings,
etc.
Use enough
ferro
manganese to give from 2 to 3%
depending on percent of steel
in mixture as charged
used.
Add 10%
amount used
for regular
Analysis of Mixtures as Charged and
Used Suc-
of coke to
grey iron.
cessfully
t.'N
03 iH
fcfi
"o
o
o3
Auto Cyl
Gas Engine
Corlis Cyl's.
.
.
.
.
Heavy Frames
.
20%
25%
30%
35%
a
02
2.%
1.75
1.60
1.25
35
"9
CO
J2
.05
.06
.06
.07
.60
.60
.DO
.50
03
i.
1.25
2.50
3.00
ox
——
o
X
2550
2700
3000
3600
•
lbs.
lbs.
lbs.
lbs.
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73
Srd
Dry Sand Facing Mixtures Oven Dried
"3
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Mouldin
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Temper with
•i
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TarCom.
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.15
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41
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S
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11
"
M
Xos. 1-2-3-4 for heavy work, large cylinders, engine beds, anvil blocks, balance wheels, etc.
Xos. 5 and 6 not so strong for
Xo. 7 for thin
medium heavy work.
light castings.
Skin Dry Facing Mixtures
Xo.
Xew
1.
Skin dry facing 1" thick on pattern.
coarse moulding sand 20 parts, flour
1
part,
wet with molasses water.
Xo. 2. Millville gravel 1, fire sand 1, coarse
moulding 3, flour 1/3, sea coal 1/4; wet with molasses water.
Black wash before drying with
Plumbago 5 parts, talc 1 part, charcoal 1 part,
mixed with molasses water. Molasses 1 and water
8 to 10 parts. Used on large valves, elbows, planer
sea coal 2 1/2 parts,
beds, etc.
37
CORE SAND MIXTURES
Aluminum and Light Brass
Silica or lake sand,
30 parts.
Moulding sand,
10 parts.
Linseed
1 part.
oil,
Temper with
water.
Fine gray bank or beach sand 10 parts.
Brass moulding sand
5 parts.
Rye
Mix
flour
1 part.
and pass through No. 12 riddle while
dry, then temper with weak molasses water.
well
Beach or fine bank sand
2
Xew brass moulding sand 1
Gangway sand
Have the sand
lasses water,
parts.
part.
1 part.
quite dry
(molasses
1,
and temper with mowater 8). Bake with
care.
Glue Core
Dissolve
1
part of Lepage's liquid glue in 5 parts
warm water. L'se fine dry beach sand and temper
quite damp with the glue water. The dampness
of
of the
of core.
in
sand determines the hardness and strength
Bake with care. Glue cores soften if left
mould too
long.
CORE SAND MIXTURES
Glue Cores.
Light Small
Work
Fine bank lake or beach sand and Gangway equal
Temper with the following: 1 lb. granulated
glue dissolved in 12 quarts hot water.
parts.
38
Rosin Cores
Bench sand
Beach sand
8 parts.
8 parts.
1 part.
Ground rosin
Temper with water.
Small Cores.
—Port—Valve, Etc.
Jacket
Lake or silica sand
Bench moulding sand
Linseed
20 parts.
10 parts.
1 part.
oil
Temper with molasses
Medium
Size Cores.
water.
Cylinder Jackets, Etc.
Beach sand
Xew moulding sand
Mix
bean
14 parts
6 parts
together equal parts of dexterine and soy
oil;
add to sand
Temper with
1 part.
water.
Large Solid Cores. Cylinder,
Sharp or bank sand
20
Gangway sand
8
Moulding sand
5
Rosin
1
Dampen to suit with water.
Etc.
parts
parts
parts
part
CORE SAND MIXTURES
Large Size Cylinders, Columns, Etc.
Coarse bank sand
11 parts
Gangway and
old cores
Xew
moulding
side floor
9 parts
5 parts
Black tar compound
1/2 part
Rye flour
Temper with
1/2 part
clay water.
39
Large Cyl. and Jacket Cores
Jersey or Millville gravel
8 parts
Old dry sand
Rosin
8 parts
1/2 part
Rye flour
Temper with
1/2 part
clay water.
VENTLESS CORES
For cores nearly surrounded by metal and very
difficult to
vent the following mixture
is
being used
successfully without venting.
Mix twenty
parts of beach sand and one part of
Phil Smith's Phelim core
oil
manner and place on oven
together in a thorough
some place
where the heat is just sufficient to steam the sand
thoroughly with the oil for about ten hours. When
Black
cold make cores and dry same as linseed oil.
wash well and when placing in mould break skin
on the prints or supports drawing vent wire through
cope drag or joint same as when core is vented.
Rods are seldom necessary.
floor or in
Cupola Breast Core
Crushed fire brick four parts
Moulding sand one part
Temper with Linseed
oil.
Or
Bank sand
three parts
sand one part
Temper with Linseed
Silica
oil.
40
CORE SAND BINDERS
Glucose
Flour
3 lbs.
Brown sugar
2 ounces
Alum
Mix in one
1/2 ounce
8 ounces
gallon hot water
parts of core sand.
work,
dampen with
If
sand
plain or
and use 1 part to 20
not wet enough to
is
weak molasses
water.
Wax and Composition Vents
Warm parafhne wax in hot
water and force
through vent machine.
Equal parts of beeswax and
rosin.
wax and
ly.
stir in
Warm
the powdered rosin.
and
Melt the
Mix thorough-
force through vent machine.
Core Paste
Rye or wheat flour mixed with water.
or mixed with molasses strength is added.
If boiled
Core Putty
Moulding sand five parts, plumbago one part;
dampened with molasses water.
Anchor Cores
Where
in Anvil Blocks
surrounded with a very heavy
is danger of melting
it wrap the core with asbestos wicking or fasten
sheets of asbestos about it with heavy wrought iron
core
is
thickness of metal and there
wire.
Use a piece of wrought iron pipe the inside diamewhich is the same as size of hole desired.
Clean and tin the pipe, then ram the inside with a
facing made of fire sand and sea coal.
Iron cores and chills must be free from moisture
rust and dirt.
ter of
41
Chill
Wash
Dissolve 1/2
lb.
of rosin in alcohol, thicken to
with soapstone.
An iron screw well coated with this mixture can
be removed from casting with ease.
suit
Plumbago mixed with lard oil rub on chill.
Plumbago mixed with molasses or glue water is
often used.
Dip Iron core in silicate of soda or oil or shellac
and cover with fine sharp sand. For iron moulds
used in casting brass or bronze use lard
oil.
SAND MATCHES, FOLLOW BOARDS, ETC.
Plaster of Paris
Sieve the plaster into the water until
right consistency to run well.
Connecticut Clay
it is
of the
Oil the patterns.
Match
Moisten and work into the condition of stiff
putty any good plastic clay. Next flatten out into
a form the shape of the match frame and about one
inch thick. This is oiled and placed over the patterns which have been previously arranged in nowel
with parting carefully made. Tuck the clay firmly
all about the patterns, being careful to press it into
all corners.
After this is done ram up remainder
Fasten on
of match frame with moulding sand.
bottom board roll over, remove nowel and finish
match.
The advantage
of
a clay follow board
is
that
and firmly on them
degree of dampness
light gated patterns rest evenly
without rocking. The right
must be maintained at all times.
42
FOLLOW BOARDS
Fine dry, sharp sand 20 parts
1 part
Litharge
Raw
linseed oil
moulding sand in
Iron
enough to temper as damp as
use.
filings or fine cast iron
1/2 part
1/4 part
chips
Litharge
10 parts
Dry fine moulding sand
Put through No. 12 riddle and temper quite
damp with
linseed
After follow boards are
oil.
finished spray surface with the oil
and dry
slowly.
Cement Follow Board
Portland cement
2 parts
Plaster of Paris
1
part
Fine sharp sand
1
part
Water
3 parts
—
Warping To Control
1.
Use an iron mixture with the least possible
amount of shrinkage.
2.
Make mould in such a way that casting will
cool evenly.
Strip heavy sections or pour hot iron
near light parts to equalize cooling.
Place weights on parts which tend to
3.
rise.
Leave copes on light plates and free the sand
around risers and sprues or remove them.
5.
Make pattern out of line and let contraction
4.
pull
it
straight.
To Control Contraction
Decrease Sulphur, Manganese and combined carbon. Leaving casting in mould until completely
cold often suffices.
43
Blow Holes To Control
When caused by the
An
iron the sulphur
is
usually
manganese and pouring at
a higher temperature help to remedy this trouble.
Too much dampness in moulds, cores or chills often
too high.
increase of
produce them.
Mould rammed too hard
sand too fine and close also cause blow holes.
Shrinkage,
1.
2.
To
or
Control
Use high graphatic low sulphur, soft iron.
Increase the pressure on mould by using deep
copes or high pouring heads.
3.
Use feeding heads which
until casting
will
remain
fluid
is solid.
Use chills on heavy parts.
Churn casting through riser using hot iron
to feed up with.
Keep risers and shrink heads open with ther6.
Covering
mit pieces of aluminum or hot iron.
4.
5.
risers
with crushed charcoal or sand
them
liquid.
7.
will help
keep
Use an iron mixture having a low percentage
of phosphorus.
One Metal Upon Another
The metal which is to be surrounded by molten
Casting
must be absolutely free
from moisture, rust or other foreign substance.
iron or other molten metal
Inserts are often coated with silicate of soda, red
lead and
oil or tinned, all of which is unnecessary
provided the metal insert is clean, dry and hot
when the molten metal comes in contact with it.
Hydrofluoric acid or the sand blast should be used
to clean the metal upon which the molten metal is
to be poured.
44
Scabbed Moulds
Are caused by using sand that is to wet or fine
and close or is not properly vented. Avoid hard
ramming and too much slicking.
Drops and Drawn Down Copes
Are caused by using sand that
is
old .and burned
out or too dry.
Bars too far removed from face of mould not
enough gaggers and improper venting are other
causes.
Leaving the
risers
open while pouring
practice except on light, thin work.
and permits the sand
mould more easily.
air pressure
or cope of
is
bad
It releases the
to leave the face
Crushes
Result from imperfect mould joints and the use
of old
w orn
T
out flasks the joints of which do not
match.
Rat Tails
These depressed lines and indentations are caused
by the use of old burned out sand the bond of which
destroyed by repeated use. Add new sand to the
heap and they usually disappear. Light bag facings which float and run before the metal must be
is
avoided.
45
.
r
To Determine Weight
of Casting
From Weight
of
Pattern
Pattern weighing one pound when cast of the
following metals will weigh:
W.
Aluminum
.
Pine
White
Bay
Wood
Wood
Y. Brass
Bronze
19.
15.
19.5
18.5
15.
26.
4.
18.
15.
12.
22.
15.2
12.5
15.
12.
Iron
15.5
16.
26.
15.
15.
26.5
15.5
14.5
Make
Cherry
19.
4.
Lead
Tin
Zinc
3.5
18.5
5.
.
allowance for core prints and metal on
pattern, etc.
Shrinkage of castings made in green sand:
Iron from 1/16 to 3/16 average 1/10 inch per
foot.
Steel about
Malleable iron
Brass, light
Brass, heavy
Bronze
Lead
Tin
Zinc
Aluminum
1/4 inch per foot
1/8 inch per foot
11/64 inch per foot
10/64 inch per foot
9/64
5/64
4/64
6/64
inch per foot
inch per foot
inch per foot
inch per foot
(casting) 11/64.
46
NON-SHRINKING
White Metal Mixtures
0Q
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Melt,
2
17
30
15
&1
2
o
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3
3
tures
temperature
1
2
1
1
q
d
a
for Patterns
Fh
<u
£
d
d
<J
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Parts
well and
these mixat
a low
stir
pour
Aluminum Mixtures
92
90
88
80
75
for Patterns
ft
Parts
8 "
"
12
20 "
25 "
a
o
O
Xo. 12 Alloy
8 parts
"
2
Make
allowance for
shrinkage
of
about
ft.
Per
re
Composition Pattern Mixture
Copper 16, Tin 1, Zinc 1, Lead
1.
PATTERN VARNISH
Wood Patterns
Use gum shellac
alcohol.
To color
For
dissolved in grain or denatured
black use lampblack or black
For red use Indian red
aniline soluble in alcohol.
powder. Copal varnish requires a longer time to
dry but is more durable.
Color to suit same as shellac.
47
—
Pattern Varnishes
Red
iron oxid varnish for
wood
or metal patterns.
First apply a priming coat of either orange or
black shellac varnish.
Then add enough dry red
body
iron oxid to the orange shellac to give a good
and apply to pattern. This will dry very hard and
produce a nice hard smooth surface.
Pattern Filler
holes of
r filling
any description on wood pat-
terns.
Melt one
lb. of rosin
and
1-2 lb. of
beeswax
gether, then cut into shavings 1-2 lb. of
to-
common
yellow soap and mix with the hot beeswax and rosin.
When mixed
thoroughly add 4
lbs. of
whiting,
stir-
Cool enough to handle and roll
into sticks 3-4 " diam. and 6" to 8" long.
An alcohol lamp flame will cause it to melt and
run into the holes, checks or cracks in the pattern
which are to be filled.
ring continually.
For Iron Patterns
Heat the pattern
sufficient to
rub well into grain
Bayberry
Make
melt beeswax and
of metal.
Wax
by mixing or cutting the
with benzine or turpentine. Apply with clean
woolen cloth to pattern and rub to a polish. Keep
a soft paste
the paste in an air tight box or can.
Iron Filler or
Cement
d filings put through 60
mesh
Plaster of paris 16 pa:
Gum Arabic powdered 3 parts
Color to suit with lamp black.
48
sieve 16 parts
AND CAPACITY
CRUCIBLES, DIMENSIONS
Diam'l'r
Diam't'r
Diam't'r
(A
at lop
at bilge
at b't'm
s
M
Outside
Outside
Outside
To
s
Inches
Inches
Inches
Inches
10
12
7%
6%
4%
7
5
14
16
18
8%
9%
9%
m
6%
7%
7%
5%
Height
Nos.
Outside
8
7
n
w%
7%
7%
s%
12
9
io%
125
150
17%
19%
20%
12%
21
15%
200
225
250
300
400
9%
9%
io%
io%
10%
11%
11%
13%
14
14%
15%
151-4
%
22%
23%
12
13
15
%
15
i
i
16%
17%
The capacity
is
17
18
19%
usually
3
3
1
2
1
3
1
10%
11%
11%
12%
15
1
7%
7%
7%
10
16%
17%
2
2
3
1
2
2
2
3
3
8%
8%
9%
9%
9%
12%
12%
13%
14%
t/a
.5
a*
1
8
12
e5
6%
6%
10%
10%
11%
11%
9%"
13
24
9
9%
12%
16
8%
m
n%
5%
5%
6%
8
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
U
4
4
4
6
7
9
10
12
11
13
14%
15
lb.
per
1
2
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
2
3
1
3
1
number
Brass or Bronze.
49
Hi
for
.
ALUMINUM CASTINGS
-
•j
<
E
2
z
C
r
=
t
t
s
^
Xo. 12 Allov Al for general work
and strong works well
v
90
Stiff
>:
15
>>
10
Works
2
:
9
s
')
BS
well tor general
work
ng metal
Magna lium
10
o
Aluminum Solders
Melt in separate crucibles. 1 of tin and 4 of
pour together, mix well, and pour into pencil
zinc:
shapes.
Tin 11
Phosphor
parts,
tin
1.
zinc
-i
aluminum 1 part
and aluminumlpart
parts,
zinc 11. tin 29
Copper may be added to molten aluminum by
the use of clean sheet copper or wire.
Heat the aluminum to about 1300
F.
and
it
will
dissolve the sheet or wire rapidly.
Hardener or temper metal for aluminum: Melt
50 lbs. of copper and just before it is all melted start
adding 50 lbs. of aluminum. The al. will raise the
heat sufficient to melt the remaining copper. Stir
well with plumbago stirrer and pour into ingots.
of the temper metal will produce Xo. 12 alloy.
50
ALUMINUM BRONZES
App. Melting Point 1700 F.
Aluminum Bronze
Aluminum
Copper
85
85
90
2
4
2
12
10
2
7
90
92
90
Phosper Tin
Zinc
1
1
6
3
2
6
Tensile Strength 70000 lbs.
10
Melt the copper under a cover of charcoal and
and introduce the aluminum as soon as copper
becomes fluid.
glass
Use skim gates and pour rapidly from bottom of
mould in such a manner as to cause the least amount
of agitation of metal.
Large
risers
and
chills
are necessary on
heavy
parts.
Keep
all
risers
closed air tight.
Flux with one ounce of chloride of manganese
lbs. when metal is ready to remove from fire.
per 100
1%
of
manganese copper helps to produce clean
castings.
51
i
ACID RESISTING METALS
Approximate Melting Point 1735 F.
Tin
Cop.
85
78
86
85
84
Zinc
Lead
10
Blue vitrol mine water
Blue vitrol mine water
5
15
7
5
6
6
3
3
Paper mill (Sulphite)
Paper mill Screen Plates
6
6
10
General
Ant in aony
75
20
85
>
Excellent acid
possible to use
)
j
metals
when
BEARING METALS, BRONZES
Appro. Melting 1735 F.
Nickel
65
85
79
10
70
77
9
8
When
lead content
4
5
1
Phos.
1
Bronze
30
Plastic
10
10
Brass Rolling Mill
R. R. Engine
20
15
R. R. Car
Auto Truck
Anti-
mony
1
low temperature.
nickel or 1
1/2%
is
The
high
stir
well
and pour at
addition of 1 per cent of
sulphur stirred well into the cop-
per helps to prevent lead sweat.
52
MANGANESE BRONZE
Melting Point 1600 F.
Copper
56
58
56
Aluminum
Zinc
Tin
Manganese
Iron
41.25
.75
.25
1.25
1
manganese
40.
38.
.50
1.
1.
1.
copper 4
Melt copper carefully under charcoal.
manganese copper.
To
Add
the
introduce iron use tin plate.
Heat the
zinc before placing in crucible
slowly to prevent chilling the bath.
all in
add the aluminum and
when molten metal
flares zinc
furnace and pour.
Use
large
and add
When
zinc
is
and
fumes remove from
risers and chills to
tin.
Stir well
overcome shrinkage.
Pour from bottom when possible.
used should be the best.
The metals
Tensile strength about 70000 lbs.
Phosper Bronze
Melting Point 1800 F.
5%
Copper
80
85
90
88
90
Use
10%
Phos.
Phos.
Tin
Copper
Tin
4
6
Lead
10
5
10
10
8
10
large gates
4
and
Bearings
Acid Metal
Gears
Bushings
Strong and tough
risers.
Pour cold and black mould well with plumbago.
53
M
YELLOW BRASS MIXTURES
Approximate Melting Point 1645 F.
Copper
50
60
62
62
65
66
75
86
Tin
Zinc Lead
50
40
37
38
29
32
22
1
1H
2
13
Art Castings, Panels, Locks,
Wi
2
GeDeral Work
Brazing Metal
1
1
Steam Metal Appro. Melting Point 1780
86
84
88
87
90
86
80
6
7
10
6
2
4H
4H
sy2
sy2
7V2
10
7
Red Metal
2
2
3
F.
Steam Metal Flanges, Elbows,
6
2
5
4^
etc.
Bolts & Nuts
Naval Brass
Common High Brass
Passenger Car Trimmings
Plumbers' Goods
Muntz Metal,
)
r
3j
etc.
Small Valve Bodies
Half inch to six
inches diameter
or Composition General
Work, Melting
Point 1780 F.
80
6.5
80
87
90
88
85
80
88
10
5
9
4
2
3
6.5
10
10
10
5
10
6.5 Ounce metal
Low
pressure steam
and general work
More dense and strong
General purpose
Hydrant and valve stems
Gun Metal
Pumps and
liners
Propellers
Pump
water. Melt all
pig then use the
re melted metal for the castings
liners, acid
new metal and
54
__
—
COPPER CASTINGS
Boronized Copper Castings
electrical conductivity use two clean
In one melt Lake copper well covered
with charcoal to 2400 deg. F. Have the second
crucible red hot and after placing 1% of Boron flux
in it pour the molten copper and charcoal into second
Stir well with plumbago skimmer.
The
crucible.
metal may be cooled to proper pouring heat with
gates and risers from previous casts. When cool
enough to pour skim clean and pour quickly.
Shrinkage is about the same as aluminum or man-
For high
crucibles.
ganese bronze.
Melt good grade
When
stick until
oxygen
5%
Or
zinc.
is
to
1
under charcoal.
with hard wood
of casting copper
thoroughly melted pole
reduced.
1
1/2%
it
Then add from
2 to
of silicon.
Phosper copper is also used.
10% of 15% phosper copper being usually sufficient.
Coloring Brass and Bronze Castings
Use metal
free
from iron or other impurities and
mould until they attain the
Then remove quickly and set the
leave castings in the
desired color.
by plunging into water.
The length of time to leave in mould must be
determined by experience. Thickness of casting,
color
heat at which
ture are
all
it
was poured and the metal
to be taken into consideration.
mixValve
in
bodies running from Y^ to 2" diam. usually require 10 to 30 minutes to cool before dipping in
water.
55
Acids Used for Cleaning Castings and Remarks
Good ventilation and protection from the acid
and fumes must be provided.
Aqua Regia is composed of one part Nitric and
three parts Hydrochloric acid.
It
is
the strongest
solvent known.
Nitric acid or
aqua
fortis is
The
powerful and active.
a colorless liquid very
gases are poisonous.
Hydrochloric Acid. Known also as muriatic.
and marine acid is yellowish in color,
Spirit of salt
has a sharp penetrating taste and
fumes produce suffocation.
The
smell.
Acid Pickle for Iron Castings
Hydrofluoric acid in a concentrated state
solution on the market usually contains
and
it
acts
30%
upon the sand
attacks lead, glass or porcelain
it
very
acid
diluted for use with about 20 parts water.
is
Unlike sulphuric acid
As
is
The standard commercial
strong and powerful.
mixed
in a
wooden vat
it is
direct.
usually
well lined with a coating of
tar or asphaltum.
Should any of the acid or pickle come in contact
with the skin wash at once with diluted ammonia
water or apply Unseed oil and lime water.
As the pickle produces a smooth, clean surface
on cast iron it is used on work that is to be polished
or nickled.
Always pour the acid slowly into the water.
For cleaning cast iron that is to be nickel plated
use the following:
Hydrofluoric acid
Sulphuric acid
1
part
3 parts
4 parts
Water
Leave in pickle about 20 minutes.
Remove and rinse in lime water composed
lime
1,
water 20 parts.
56
of
Acid Pickles for Iron Castings
is reduced or mixed
with from two to ten parts of water, depending upon strength of the acid and the thickness of sand
Use a lead lined tank or
scale to be removed.
earthenware jar. Pour the acid slowly into the
Sulphuric acid (Oil of vitrol)
water and
stir well.
Dip the work in the pickle and let soak a moment.
Then remove and place in drain rack until sand
becomes loose. It can then be washed off with
clean water.
Acid Pickles for Brass Castings
To clean and
Nitric acid one part
Sulphuric acid one part
brighten
Muriatic one eighth part
If
work
white add
is
too dull in color add muriatic.
nitric.
If
too
Rinse in hot, clear water.
Bright Yellow Brass Dip
Sulphuric acid three quarts
two quarts
Nitric acid
Salt one tablespoon
Bright Dipping Pickle
Sulphuric acid one gallon
Muriatic acid one half pint
Nitric acid one half pint
Water one
Nitre 6
half pint
lbs.
Fumeless Acid Dip
Water
five lbs.
Sulphuric acid ten lbs.
Saltpetre
two
lbs.
57
A
Dip for Brass Casting to be Tinned
Heat castings and dip in muriatic acid cut with
zinc, then dip into molten tin.
Again dip in the
acid and remove surplus tin by shaking.
FLUXES USED IN BRASS FOUNDRY
Brass, Bronze and Copper Castings
Crushed charcoal enough to thoroughly cover the
Coke dust, saw dust and tan bark are also
metal.
used.
Glass enough to produce a fluid slag covering
over the metal.
Salt one tablespoon to 50 lbs. of copper.
Aluminum
Zinc cloride tablespoon to 50
on molten metal and
stir in.
lbs.
metal.
Place
Do not breathe fumes.
Babbit Metals and All Zinc and White Metals
Sprinkle surface with Sal Ammoniac or tallow
and
rosin.
Borings and Sweepings
Plaster of paris.
German
Silver
Plaster of paris
and
nitre equal parts.
Stir well
into metal.
FLUXES AND PURIFIERS OF IRON
Fluorspar Marble Chips, Lime Stone or Oyster
Shells
Use from 25 to 50 lbs. of either of the above per
ton of iron. Vary the amount used until the slag
attains the right degree of fluidity.
Place the flux
on third and each succeeding charge
of coke.
58
Aluminum
.2
to .1.% used in ladle to
to
life
the iron.
It
remove gases and add
the softness* and
increases
strength of white iron and decreases the strength
of soft iron.
Crominum
About 1% used
and strength.
in ladle to increase the density
Fero Manganese
Used
in cupola or ladle to
the grain and
It
make
toughens the
castings
chill
on
remove sulphur, close
more sound and clean.
chilled work.
FLUXES AND PURIFIERS OF IRON
Titanium
2% of 10% Fero Titanium cleanses the iron of
oxygen and nitrogen, adds to the strength and lessens the tendency to chill.
Vanadium
.1% used in ladle
to toughen, clean
iron.
59
and strengthen
Cost of Iron Castings
The
labor cost of producing 100 lbs. of castings
in foundry's well equipped for producing the fol-
lowing lines
is
taken from actual records for 1914:
Coke per cwt. 6
l-2c,
Sand 3 c,
facings, clays, core
These items remain fairly constant while iron labor and indirect vary. The following figures represent labor cost only, and are obtained by dividing the foundry pay roll by the lbs.
of good castings produced.
Indirect and all other
binders, etc., 4c.
charges being omitted.
Pump Shop
100
Capacity 40 ton.
Labor
cost per
S .90
lbs.,
Power Transmission, Pulleys, Boxes, Hangers, etc.
Labor cost per 100 lbs.,
1.03
Jobbing Shop 30 ton, half light and heavy,
1.08
Electrical Transformer
and Light Motor, 50
ton capacity,
Electrical
1.07
Heavy Motor Turbine Engine,
etc.,
1.01
Engine Air Compressors Rock Drills,
Capacity of Shop 80 ton,
Paper Mill Machinery, Rag Engine, Pulp
1.19
Corliss
Grinders,
etc.,
capacity 12 ton,
.92
Stone Working Machinery, rubbing beds,
Stone Planers, Derrick Castings, 20 ton
capacity,
.73
Tool Work Shop, Lathes, Planers, Milling
Machinery, capacity 40 ton,
Printing Press Work, 12 ton shop,
Valve and Hydrant Shop, capacity 30 ton,
Wages Average for Moulders,
Core Makers,
Helpers,
60
.82
1.11
.88
S3. 00
2.50
1.80
Estimating on the Cost of Castings
Many
schedule
form or
on new work Coke $8.50 and
cost accountants use the following
when
Sand $2.50
figuring
in fdy. bins:
Per cwt. Per ton
Coke
Sand
$.065
.030!
Sundries
Flasks and Rigging
Iron
Shrinkage
.040
,050
.750
.040
.400
.300
.050
.300
Moulding
Cores
Discount 6%
Cleaning
Shipping Fgt
Overhead
.500
.250
,
Profit
For Small Orders and Single Castings
Foundries are rapidly adopting the method used
machine shops on repair work. The customer
pays for stock used and time spent on job.
in
61
Str r-r±
Ont
::
Me:£i TrmsTfrsr
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.:
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62
To Find the Weight
ments Given
of Castings
From Measure-
in Inches
If square or rectangular multiply length by
breadth by thickness, which gives the total number
Then multiply total number of
of cubic inches.
cubic inches by the wt. of one cubic inch of the
metal to be used.
Round
Plates,
Solid
Round Columns
or Shafts,
Capacity of Ladles, Etc.
Square the diameter and multiply by .7854 which
number of cubic inches for one inch of
thickness.
Again multiply by the number of inches
in length or depth and lastly by the weight of one
cubic inch of the metal to be used.
gives the
Cylinders, Pulley or Balance
Wheel Rims,
Straight
Pipes, Etc.
To
the inside diameter add the thickness of one
and multiply by 3.1416 then by the thickness,
again by number of inches in length or depth. This
gives total number of cubic inches contained which
must again be multiplied by the weight of one cubic
side
inch of the metal to be used.
Balls
Cube
the diameter and multiply
by
.5236.
The
be the number of cubic inches contained
in pattern.
This multiplied by the weight of one
cubic inch of metal to be used gives the weight of
result will
baU.
To find the weight per cubic inch specific gravity
being given, multilpy specific gravity by .036085
Wt. per cu. ft. Multiply specific gravity by 62.425.
63
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fifty
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be encountered.
The two examples further explain its use.
Copper
Ounces
Drams
80.= 40 =
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6
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42
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Lead
38
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Round
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To
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.102.
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a
B
N
c
o
b
<
<
pq
69.115
69.508
69.900
70.293
70.686
71.079
71.471
71.864
72.257
72.649
73.042
73.435
73.827
74 220
74.613
75.006
75.398
75.791
76.184
76.576
76.969
77.362
77.754
78.147
78 540
78.933
79.325
79.718
80.111
380.13
384.46
388.82
393.20
397.61
402.04
406.49
410.97
415.48
420.00
424.56
429.13
433.74
438.36
443.01
447 69
452.39
457.11
461.86
466.64
471.44
476.26
481.11
485.98
490.87
495.79
500.74
505.71
510.71
515.72
520.77
525.84
530.93
536.05
541.19
546.35
a
a
V
5
22.
Vs
H
X
Vs
%
Vs
v%
23.
v%
A
H
Vs
%
l
Vs
Vs
24.
Vs
H
y2
Vs
%
Vs
Vs
25.
.
.
Vs
M
Vs
V*
Vs
80 503
.
%
80.896
Vs
81 .289
26.
Vs
h
Vs
V2
Vs
%
Vs
27.
Vs
M
Vs
Vi
Vs
V*
Vs
81.681
82.674
82.467
82.860
83.252
83.645
84.038
84.430
84.823
85.216
85 608
86.001
86.394
86 786
87.179
87.572
.
.
.
551 .55
556.76
562.00
567.27
572.56
577.87
583.21
588.57
593.96
599.37
604.81
610.27
38.77
39.21
39.66
40.11
40.56
41.01
41.46
41.92
42.38
42.84
43.31
43.77
44.24
44.71
45.19
45.66
46.14
46.63
47.11
47.60
48.09
48.58
49.7
49.57
50.07
50.57
51.08
51.58
52.09
52.60
53.12
53.64
54.15
54.68
55.20
55 .73
56.26
56.79
57.32
57.86
58.40
58.94
59.49
60.03
66.58
61.14
61.69
62.25
71
121.5
122.8
124.2
125.6
127.
128.5
129.9
131.3
132.7
134.2
135.6
137.1
138.6
140.1
141.5
143.
144.5
146.
147.6
149.1
150.6
152.2
153.7
155.3
156.8
158.4
160.
161.6
163.2
164.8
166.4
168.
169.6
171.3
172.9
174.6
.176.2
-177.9
1179.6
181.2
182.9
184.6
J186.3
;188.
189.8
191.5
193.2
195.
02
oa
M
a
o
c3
115.2
116.5
117.8
119.1
120.5
121.8
123.2
124.5
125.9
127.3
128.6
130.
131.4
132.8
134.2
135.7
137.1
138.5
140.
141.4
142.8
144.3
145.8
147.3
148
150.2
151.7
153.2
154.7
156.3
157.8
159.3
160.9
162.4
.
164.
165.5
167.1
168.7
170.3
171.9
173.5
175.1
176.7
178.3
180.
181.6
183.3
184.9
98.99
100.1
101.2
102.4
103.5
104.7
105.8
107.
109.2
109.4
110.6
111.7
112.9
114.1
115.4
116.6
117.8
119.
120.2
121.5
122.8
124.
125.3
126.5
127.8
129.1
130.4
131.7
133.
134.3
135.6
136.9
138.3
139.6
140.9
142.3
143.6
145.
146.3
147.7
149.1
150.5
151.9
153.3
154.7
156.1
157.5
158.9
.
.
=
^
-•
i
a
r
Q
5
•-
28.
H
H
87.965
SS.357
88.750
S9 143
.
;
-
%
29.
y%
H
H
H
H
i
30.
S9.535
S9.92S
90.321
90.713
91.106
91.499
91.852
92.2S4
92.677
93.070
93.462
93.S55
94.24S
94.
H
:
31.
<
8
-
%
'--.
%
32.
H
X
%
H
-:
H
H
v%
33.
y%
m
H
H
%
WO
95.033
95.426
95.819
96.211
96.604
96.997
97.389
17
782
9S.175
98.567
98.960
99.353
99.746
100.38
100.53
100.92
101.31
101.70
102.10
102.49
102. SS
103.28
103.67
104.06
104.45
104. S5
105.24
105.63
106.02
106.42
z
H
615.75
621 26
.
.
7.54.77
760.87
766.99
773.44
779.31
785.51
791.73
797.98
804.25
810.54
S16.S6
823.21
S29.58
835 97
842.39
84S.83
855.30
861.79
868.31
874.85
881.41
.
888.
S94.62
901.26
9
2
6
1
7
1
X
X
-
"
<
62.81
63.37
63.93
64.50
65.07
65.64
66.22
66.79
67.37
67.96
68.54
69.13
69.72
70.31
70.90
71.50
72.10
72 70
.
73.31
73.90
74.52
75 14
75 75
76.37
76.99
77.61
7S.23
78.89
79.49
80.12
80.76
81.39
82.03
S2.68
83.33
S3. 97
S4.62
S5.27
85.92
86.58
87.24
87.90
SS.57
89.23
S9.96
90.58
91.25
91.93
.
.
.
7
a
o
s
'I
<
626.80
632.36
637.94
643 55
649.18
654 85
660.52
666.23
671.96
677.71
6S3.49
6S9.30
695.13
700.98
706.86
712.76
718.69
724.64
730.62
736.62
742.64
748.69
6
2
1
—X
s
~
u
186.6
1SS.2
1161.8
196.7
198.5
200.3
190.
202.
203. S
191.6
193.3
205.6
207.4
209.2
195.
167.6
196.7
198.4
200.1
201.9
203.6
205.3
207.1
169.
208.
179.5
211.
212.9
214.7
216.5
21S.5
220
222.1
.
224.
225. S
227.7
229.6
231.5
233.4
235.4
237.3
239
241.1
243
245
.
.
.
247.
249.
251.
253
255
257.
259.
261.
263.
265
.
267.
269.
271.
273.3
275.3
277.4
279.5
281.
2S3.7
2S5.8
288.
210.6
212.4
214.2
216.
217.8
219.6
221.4
223.2
225.
226.9
22S.7
230.5
232.4
234.4
236
.
238.
239.9
241.8
243
245
247.5
249.4
251.3
253.3
255
257
259.2
261.1
263
.
.
.
.
.
265.
267.1
269.1
271.1
273
.
160.3
163.2
164.7
1166.1
170.5
172.
173.5
175.
176.5
178.
181.
1S2.5
1&4.1
185.6
187.1
1SS.7
190.3
191.8
193.4
195.
196.5
198.1
199.7
206.4
202.9
204.5
206.2
207.8
209.4
211.1
212.7
214.4
216.
217.7
219.4
221.
222.7
224.4
226.1
227.8
229.5
231.2
233
234
.
c
s
B
13
—
*
c3
o
u
t9
O
P
a
3
g"
<
o
c
H
C
C
ri
02
«
K
o
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r.
|
34.
Vs
H
H
H
H
%
^
o
35.
Vs
H
M
Vs
Vs
*A
%
36.
907.92
914.61
921.32
928.06
935.82
941.61
948.42
955.25
962.11
969.00
975.91
982.84
989.80
996.78
1003.8
1010.8
1017.9
106.81
107.20
107.60
107.99
108.38
108.77
109.17
109.56
109.95
110.34
110.74
111.13
111.52
111.91
112.31
112.70
113.09
;
i
1
!
92.61
93.29
93.97
94.66
95.45
96.04
96.71
97.44
98.14
98.84
99.54
100.2
100.9
101.6
102.4
103.1
103.8
290.1
292.2
294.4
296.5
299.
300.8
302.9
305
307.4
.
310.
311.8
314.
316.2
318.5
320.7
323.
325.2
275.1
277.1
279.2
281.2
283.6
285.3
287.3
289.4
291.5
293.6
295.7
297.8
300.
302.
304.2
306.3
308.4
236.4
238.2
240.
241.7
243.7
245.2
246.9
248.7
250.5
252.3
254.1
255.9
257.7
259.6
261.4
263.2
265.1
I
To
find the weight of
hexagon section multiply
the weight given for round section of same diameter
by
1.12.
If
octagon multiply by 1.082.
73
Table Giving Circumference, Area and Weight of
Round Plates 1 Inch Thick From 3 to 12
Feet Diam.
Is
a
.5
45
46
47
48
49
<o
OS
5
37"
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
a
f->
116.23
119.38
122.52
225.66
128.80
131.94
135. 08
138. 23
141.37
!
!
144. 5l|
50
147.65
150.79
153.93
157.08
51
160.22;
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
163.36
166.50
169.64
172.78
175.92
179.07
182.21
185.35
188.49
191.63
194.77
197.92
201.06
204.20
207.34
210.48
213.62
216.77
219.91
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
1075.21
1134.11
1194.59
1256.64
1320.25
1385.45
1452.2
1520.53
1590.43
1661.91
1734.95
1809.56
1885.75
1963.5
2042.83
2123.72
2206.19
2290.23
2375.83
2463.01
2551.76
2642.09
2733.98
2827.44
2922.47
3019.08
3117.25
3217.65
3318.31
3421.2
3525.66
3631.69
3739.29
3848.46
I
5
280
296
71"
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
311
327
344
361
379
396
415
434
453
472
491
512
533
553
575
597
620
642
665
689
713
737
762
787
813
838
865
892
919
9 ft.
945 10 "
975 11 "
"
1003 12
i
74
5to
Ji
OS
223.05
226.19
229.33
232.47
235.62
238.76
241.90
242.04
248.18
251.32
254.46
257.61
260.75
263.89
267.03
270.17
273.31
276.46
279.60
282.74
285.88
289.02
292.16
295.31
298.45
301.59
304.7
307.8
311.01
314.16
339.29
376.99
414.69
452.39
<o
1
3959.2
1032
4071.51 1061
1091
4185.4
4300.85 1122
4417.87 1153
4536.47 1183
4656.64 11214
4778.37| 1246
4901.68 1278
5026.56! 1310
5153.011 1343
5281.03 1377
5410.62' 1410
5541.78! 1445
5674.51! 1479
5808.82 1515
5944.69 1550
6082 14 1586
6221.15 1622
6367.74 1658
6503.90 1696
6647.63 1733
6792.92 1772
6939.79 1809
7088.24 1848
7238.25 1887
7389.83 1927
7542.98: 1967
7697.71 2007
7854.00 2048
9160.88 2382
11309.73 2941
13684.78 3558
16286.02 4234
.
CUTTING PRICES
(With Apologies to 'Hamlet.")
*
To
That is the question.
not better in the end
the chap who knows not the worth
cut or not to cut.
Whether
it is
To let
Have the business at cut-throat prices, or
To take up arms against his competition,
And by opposing cut for cut, end it.
To cut and by cutting put the other cutter
—
—
'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To cut to slash
Perchance myself to get it in the neck
Out
Aye
The
of business
—
—there's the rub;
for
other fellow's prices,
He's up against
it
when one
'tis like
starts to
meet
as not
good and hard.
is not to end the confusion
To cut and to slash
And the many evils
the trade
is
pestered with;
Nay, nay, Pauline; 'tis but the forerunner
Of debt and mortgage such a course portends.
'Tis well to get the price the goods are worth
And not be bluffed into selling them for what
So-and-so will
sell his
goods
for.
Price-cutting doth appear unseemly
And fit only for the man who knows not
What his goods are worth, and who, ere
By stress of making vain comparison
long,
'Twixt bank account and liabilities,
Will make his exit from the business.
Anon.
75
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7
^
MEMORANDA
MEMORANDA
Y
V^
MEMORANDA
MEMORANDA
MEMORANDA
MEMORANDA
Pig Iron
Coke
Over 40 Brands
35 Brands
Spiegeleisen, Fluor Spar
Ferro-Manganese
HPHE
knowledge gained
* by
daily contact with
melters
throughout the
country since 1880 might
prove valuable in making
up mixtures
work.
for
special
This knowledge
is
yours for the asking.
ROGERS, BROWN & CO.
New York—Cincinnati — Chicago
Buffalo —Philadelphia —Boston
St. Louis — Cleveland —Pittsburgh
84
The Vulcan Facing Co.
Producers and Distributers of
the highest grade foundry facings
for
loam dry or green sand
ings
cast-
and cores. Graphite facings
which
will
not
run,
peel
or
buckle from mold or core and
produce
always
a clean blue
satin finish with a
minimum
of
cleaning expense.
Your inquiry and
solicited
orders are
by
The Vulcan Facing Co.
Easton, Penna.
The
various steps of the building of
BARTLEY
CRUCIBLES
are based on four important points:
FIRS T—The careful
material
grading of the raw
by repeated
analysis.
SECOND —Painstaking mixture and preparation.
T H I R D —Perfect molds and machinery for
the formation of the crucibles
under just the right pressure to
make the walls homogeneous.
FOURTH —Exact and sufficient burning.
RESULT:
Bartley Crucibles show a service factor which makes them
economical
'tools"
crucible work.
*
Send for our
—
cibles,, retorts,
all
It covers all
literature.
Bartley products
in
tilting
furnace cru-
stoppers, color bowls,
etc.
Jonathan Bartley
Crucible Co.
Trenton,
-
-
-*
-
N. J.
Albany
Molding
Sand
"The World's
'Best"
Carefully selected and graded
for the
work required
FRENCH SAND
Sand Blast Sand
Jersey Fire Clay and Sand
Seacoal Facing
Etc., Etc.
ALBANY SAND & SUPPLY
ALBANY, N.Y.
85
CO.
YOU
are paying from
15 to 50% too
much
for your Castings, unless
you are using
Arcade
Molding
Machines
Forty years' foundry experience behind every one
Correspondence solicited
ARCADE
MANUFACTURING COMPANY
1700 Arcade
FREEPORT
-
86
Avenue
-
ILLINOIS
Plumbago
Pettinos
The Best
Your Money
for
Gives your Castings a
smooth, bright
color
Pettinos Molding Sands
Uniform and carefully
selected
men.
by experienced
.".
.".
.\
.".
Write us for prices
Pettinos Brothers
Main
new york
Office
Bethlehem, Pa.
87
Philadelphia
<dN/^>
^ WYOMING-MAYARI
SOME FACTS
ABOUT
Wyoming-Mayari
RED EDGE MOLDER
SHOVELS
1
.
—The
blades are of Mayari
Steel, the toughest
and
Chrome Nickel
finest spring steel
ever put into a shovel.
)
2.
—The
3.
—Handle has our new patent malleable dirigo
handles are of selected
White Ash, second growth.
grip that
is
XX
especially strong,
Northern
immune
against accidents and an excellent tamper.*
4.
—Very sturdy construction.
c
_Light weight
*^Well
balanced
)
\
^
F
sy to use
'
jb.
—Will outlast any other
shovel two or three to
7.
—The blade edge never
curls up.
It
may
eventually wear
down, but
will
the edge
always be in good
shape.
8.
—Every
shovel guaranteed to the purchaser's
complete
satisfaction.
9.
—Red
m older
edge
shovels have trebled
our sale of molders.
and han-
10,-Steel rolled
dles. made in
factory.
sole
our
We
own
are
guardians
of
the quality.
The Wyoming Shovel Works
WYOMING,
PA.
MIEIMIEJEJ^JEJEJEJ^J ^1EJE1E1MJ I
Walter-Wallingford
&
Co.
Pig Iron
Coke
Alloys
CHICAGO
DETROIT
CINCINNATI
PITTSBURGH
90
•
^A "^^ f
leffiS"
'.
PREPAREDNESS and QUALITY
mean SAFETY FIRST
That covers all the ground, when applied to the
Miller Fluxes, for Foundry practice of all metals,
ferrous and non-ferrous.
The Miller Keystone Flux
has been on the market for the last ten years and
is well known for its all around saving and quality
raising.
Here is a brief outline of what it will do.
It saves its cost ten times
over by the saving of
Coke, dropping of Cupola clean, faster melting, hot
fluid Iron and consequently clean Iron.
Our RADIOCLARITE for Brass. Bronze and
Non-ferrous metals is the wonder of the metal trade.
It is more than a Flux.
It is an amalgamator,
cleaner, strengthener, beautifyer and above all an
economizer. It saves tin and will take care of from
two to three per cent Iron particles.
A great
railroad
company claims
cent for them.
Send for a
it
takes care of
five
per
keg of Radioclarite and a barrel
We are willing to send it
of Keystone Cupolo Flux.
free of charge to anyone in the Foundry business
who
trial
will give it a fair trial.
Don't wait
for correspondence,
but send now.
THE BASIC MINERAL CO.
Box
276, N. S. Pittsburgh, Pa.
91
Just as interesting as this reference
book is our
BULLETIN-CATALOGUE
OF
FOUNDRY EQUIPMENT
We
will
send you on request,
catalogue or the bulletin
devoted to the subject in which
the
full
you are interested.
Our New England Branch in
Providence, R. I., will take good
care of inquiries from that section,
and we solicit orders and corre-
spondence.
J.
W. PAXSON CO.
Manufacturers and Jobbers
1021 N. Delaware Ave., Philada., Pa.
92
.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
003 275 794 7
«