APRIL - Volume 14 Number 4

de N1NC
April 2005 Volume 14 Number 4
This Month’s Meeting
This month we have elections. It is necessary for
the proper operation of the club to have a full staff of
officers and board members. If you are interested in
serving the club in any capacity let us know.
The meeting program will be on filters by Bob
W1XP. Bob will talk about How filters work and
what they can do for a Ham.
Welcome to New Member
Welcome to new member Richard Lyons KB1MBR
of Littleton. Richard joined at the last meeting.
Last Month’s Meeting
Last month’s meeting was a presentation by Ken
Williams AB1BE on Bletchley Park. This is the facility in England where much of the Allied code breaking was done during World War II and is probably
best known for the work relating to the German cryptographic machine called Enigma. Ken described
the facilities and though most was destroyed after
the war there has recently be some historical restoration. He showed a number of books that describe
the work that went on there. He mentioned that a
local radio club has a station there.
You can find more information on the history and
www.bletchleypark.org, www.codesandciphers,org,
and www.gchq.gov.uk/about/bletchley.html.
There are also several books on the subject such
as; Codebreakers, Britain’s Best Kept Secret, Station X, The Secret War of Hut 3, The Legacy of
Bletchley Park.
Show and Tell from Earls machine shop above and
below a right angle drive called a “Hookes right angle coupler” used to drive a tuned circuit using a
basket weave coil.
pass filter project is past the half way point with four
bands designed and at least three copies of 15, 20,
40 meters and two copies of 80 meters built. The
goal was six sets of 15 through 80 for Field Day.
At the last meeting we asked the membership if
NVARC should sponsor the Worked All Massachusetts Counties Award (WAMC). With a strong positive response members started to develop the necessary items to make it a reality. With a flurry of
email over the course of two weeks they thrashed
out the many details. The Worked All Massachusetts Counties award certificate was designed, rules
established, and submitted to several Web sites and
organizations for publicity. Materials were collected
to minimize the start up costs until the program becomes self sufficient. By April 14th we were listed on
the County Hunters Web page and the New England
QSO Party Web page as the club sponsoring the
WAMC Award. The award will be mentioned in a
future edition of CQ magazine.
For those interested in Field Day it seems like we
just cleaned up from the last one. Some of us have
been working on various items to be used this year
for what seems like a long time. Some said it was
too early to start those projects. Well Field Day
2005 is less than 90 days away. If you’d like to help
on some aspect talk to Bruce K1BG or Jim N8VIM.
Above an electric motor Earl designed that uses electro magnets pulling iron pieces connected to the
shaft. The commutator is a brass strip rubbing on
four protrusions on the armature.
In attendance were Karen KA1JVU, Bob W1XP,
Dwight AA1MT, Ralph KD1SM, Peter N1ZRG, John
KB1HDO, Ben KB1FJ, Wolfgang KA1VOU, Larry
KB1ESR, Chris KB1KUZ, Skip K1NKR, Dick
KB1MBR, Den KD2S, Hank KB1JLA, Russ WR1Y,
Dennis K1LGQ, Jan N1LBA, Bruce K1BG, Bob
N1DVC, Les N1SV, Dave N1MNX, Jim N8VIM, Joel
W1JMM, Ken AB1BE, Gary K1YTS, Nancy
KB1KEF, Ginny N1THO, Rod WA1TAC, Stan
From the President
It has been a busy spring with many projects underway or completed. To highlight some of what we
have accomplished Les’ soundcard interface kit is
being distributed to those who signed up. The band2
NVARC members generate many great ideas. With
the lively exchange of ideas and suggestions at the
various meetings and via the reflectors those ideas
get refined quickly. Then with help from the general
membership in the actual work it takes to complete
the projects we accomplish a lot in a short time. The
Massachusetts Worked all Counties Award in 30
days from suggestion to completion is a perfect example.
Stan KD1LE
Adopt A Highway
Our first cleanup of 2005 was April 10th. Helping
out were John KB1HDO, Peter N1ZRG, Linda
N1UPR, Larry KB1ESR, Jim AA1PO, Earl WR1Y,
Ralph KD1SM, Stan KD1LE, Gary K1YTS, Nancy
KB1KEF, Peter N1ZRG, and John KB1HDO. Great
turnout and we picked up 21 bags of trash. The first
cleanup is always the worst with 10 or 12 bags being
more typical.
We are “signed up” with both MassHighways and
Groton for road cleanups. The next cleanup will be
May 22nd.
We meet at the traffic island on the east side of the
Nashua River at 9:00 AM. The normal clean up day
is the Sunday after the club meeting.
Bandpass Filter Project
As of the Filterfest the participants had filters for 20
and 40 meters. Two weeks later the second 15 meter filter was tested and accepted. This allowed the
release of the rest of the 15 meter kits which were
distributed starting March 26th.
Winding coils above are (l-r) Peter N1ZRG, Les
N1SV, Bob W1XP, Larry KB1ESR, Stan KD1LE. Off
to the left John KB1HDO and behind the camera
Ralph KD1SM.
Most wrapped the wire around the core by just holding it, but John KBHDO wanted his to have the tightest windings (below).
80 meter filter in a dual case.
This freed up the model shop to work on the 80 meter filter shown above. It is a two box design that
takes advantage of the two boxes to accommodate
the five coils and provide isolation. The 80 meter
filters have been kitted and are being distributed.
The Filterfest kicked things off with instruction
books, parts kits, and a quick demo on winding coils.
As of April 14th three of the 40, 20, and 15 meter
filters and two of the 80 meter filters have been completed. Six kits for each band were produced.
N1MNX Repeaters
Dave N1MNX would like to thank all who have donated to the N1MNX Repeater. Your contributions
and help are greatly appreciated.
Thanks from Dave N1MNX
Sound Card Interface Project
Everyone had a different approach to winding the
coils which was acceptable as long as the final product met Bob’s approval.
I recently completed assembly and testing of my
Sound Card Interface. The circuit is constructed on
a commercially fabricated printed circuit board that I
laid out. All components are housed in this 6”x 4”x
2” box which fits neatly in my shack. The rear panel
contains all the necessary connectors for interfacing
the unit between my transceiver and computer.
Sound card interfaces are handy devices that properly route audio, data and control signals between
your transceiver and your computer. With the right
software program you can use them to expand the
capability of your transceiver. You can use them to
communicate using some of the digital modes like
RTTY, PSK31 and WSJT. Or if you are CW challenged like myself you can use them to help decode
CW or generate CW using your keyboard. In the
past I found sound card interfaces valuable during a
contest for playing prerecorded audio files helping to
conserve my voice.
For those who expressed an interest in this project,
kits will be available at the meeting and contains all
needed parts and a full color documentation package. The cost for the kits will be $38.
Les N1SV
Groton Road Race April
Groton Road Race - April 24
The Groton Road Race is a nice country foot race
attracting about 2,000 runners to the town of Groton
on a Sunday in April. Since its first running in 1992,
the Groton Road Race has relied heavily on Amateur Radio operators to provide communications
essential to managing the race.
This event truly highlights Amateur Radio at its best.
The race is organized by a local running club, the
Squannacook River Runners.
The Club has an excellent relationship with the
Groton Police Department -- vital to the safety of the
event. In turn the small Groton Police force has to
call in officers from neighboring towns, and even the
Massachusetts Environmental Police, to cover all
the road intersections along the course. These several Police Departments of course have no shared
radio communications between themselves.
Here is where we Hams prove our worth to the public for the frequencies that the FCC preserves for our
In a letter thanking us, race director Sue Podolske
wrote "We truly could not even consider allowing a
single runner across the starting line if you were not
there to insure communications were open to safeguard the participants."
Sue is not understating her need for our services.
The only way the Groton Police Officer who is responsible for ordering road closings and approving
the starting musket to fire can communicate these
orders to the entire course and to the starting line is
by instructing his Ham 'shadow' to communicate his
instructions. We even station a Ham in the Groton
Dispatch center so that out-of-town officers have a
direct path to Groton Dispatch.
It takes about 40 Hams to meet the full needs of this
event. Please consider spending a few hours on
Sunday, April 24 and joining us. It is very rewarding;
both the runners and the spectators have approached Hams at various checkpoints and thanked
us "just for being there". Volunteers are needed
starting at 9am and 11am but the major event is the
10k race at 12:30pm. If you are able to spend 3
hours with us and show how Amateur Radio serves
the public, please contact Ralph Swick KD1SM at
kd1sm@arrl.net or 978.582.7351 evenings. More
information about the race itself may be found at
Board Meeting Notes
The NVARC Board met April 14th at the KD1LE
QTH. In attendance were Stan KD1LE, Ralph
KD1SM, Peter N1ZRG, Les N1SV, John KB1HDO,
Dave N1MNX and Larry KB1ESR.
Tell them you saw it in the Signal. Advertisers
should contact the NVARC Treasurer for information.
Items discussed
Listed with Handi-Hams for local support.
Field Day subjects; bandpass filters, soundcard interface, signage, invitations to local officials.
Worked All Counties Award; purchase of certificates,
process flow, expected turn around time, printing,
lot’s of publicity already including New England QSO
Party Web site, County Hunters Web site, to be
mentioned in CQ Magazine column.
Mention of NVARC FoxBox in April CQ Magazine.
NVARC Web site hosting issues, mail reflector issues.
$April Treasurers Report$
Ordering more PowerPole connectors. Since the
club started promoting standardization with PowerPoles we have purchased over 1100 connectors
which were sold to members at reduced cost.
Income for March was $165 in membership dues,
$0.02 from the road cleanup, $1.07 in bank interest,
and $20 for PowerPole connectors. Expenses were
$22.20 for newsletter and miscellaneous postage,
net $28.80 for book raffle materials, and $25.19 for
certificate materials leaving a net income of $105.18
for the month.
Need coordinators for; cookout, Grotonfest, Fall
Classic Soccer Tournament.
Flea Markets and Such
May 6-7 Hosstraders, Hopkinton NH
May 9 Franklin County ARC, Whately
May 15 MIT
June 11-12 Newington ARL Hamfest, Newington CT
June 19 MIT
We received a $125 donation from the Squannacook
River Runners for helping with the 2004 Groton
Road Race. This has been placed in the Community Fund.
Current balances:
General fund
Community fund
As of 14 April we have 51 current members and
eleven renewals outstanding.
Apr 24 Groton MA
Groton Road Race
Ralph KD1SM 978-582-7351
May 1 Walk For Hunger, Boston to Newton
See the Crocker Public Service Group Web site.
May 14 Devens MA
Parker Classic Road Race
Stan KD1LE
The road cleanup netted $0.02 for the treasury,
thanks to certain members of the crew with good
Many of the original Club members' membership
anniversaries are April 1. Please check the mailing
label on your newsletter, the member roster I circulate at the monthly meeting, or ask me if you don't
know when your dues are due.
The ARRL rebates a portion of your new or renewal
ARRL membership fees to affiliated clubs when I
handle the mailing. When you need to renew your
ARRL membership, you can save yourself the cost
of a stamp and add to the Club treasury by handing
me a check in the amount of your ARRL dues. If
you are not yet an ARRL member, please consider
joining. Numbers matter when the ARRL talks to
legislators about matters that impact us, such as
NVARC Club Net
The April 4th net was run by KD1LE and like our recent weather the theme was rain. Checkins were
Bruce K1BG, Dave N1MNX, Bob AB1CV, Ken
K1KEY, Ralph KD1SM, Larry KB1ESR and Stan
The net is a good place to bring information for the
club and questions or discussions. The net meets at
8:00 PM Monday evenings on the 442.900 N1MNX
ARRL Letter
The role of Amateur Radio Emergency Service
(ARES) volunteers in Connecticut in this week's
massive TOPOFF 3 exercise has drawn praise from
the American Red Cross, for which ARES provided
virtually all radio communication. Sponsored by the
US Department of Homeland Security and intended
as a realistic test of the nation's homeland security
system, TOPOFF 3's goal was to push the system of
first responders beyond its limits to find the weak
spots. American Red Cross emergency services
director Mario J. Bruno extolled ARES' performance.
"Operators were there when we needed them, and
messages got to where they were needed," he said
in a note to ARRL Connecticut Section leadership.
"We have learned a lot about what ARES can really
do when things get messy, and TOPOFF 3 has been
a clear example of how complicated a disaster can
Bruno said the Red Cross doesn't have to worry if
today's fancy telecommunications devices fail, because ARES will always be there to provide the
needed support. "Thank you ARES for helping us
respond to the largest disaster exercise in the history of the United States," Bruno concluded. "We will
not forget."
Connecticut's phase of TOPOFF 3 began April 4
with a bang--an explosion in New London meant to
simulate a terrorist attack. "Loud enough that the
organizers passed out earplugs for the media gathered on the bluffs above," recounted ARRL Media
and Public Relation for more information on the history and important function of Bletchley Park s Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP—a former Connecticut
Section Emergency Coordinator and current ARES
Visual realism was very much a part of the $16 million exercise, and prospective ARES volunteers
were cautioned in advance. "As the mushroom cloud
of smoke drifted away," Pitts said, describing the
explosion's immediate aftermath, "hundreds of gory
victims processed into the site to assume positions
of death and agony." Pitts says Amateur Radio's real
work only began in earnest after the media also
drifted away, once the smoke and simulated blood
were gone.
After ARES stood down from the drill late on April 6,
ARRL Connecticut Section Manager Betsey Doane,
K1EIC, and SEC Chuck Rexroad, AB1CR, said they
felt Amateur Radio acquitted itself very well during
the drill.
"The energy, enthusiasm and absolute dedication of
all the volunteers for this event are a testament to
the real dedication and teamwork in the Connecticut
Section," Doane said in a statement thanking all who
took part.
Rexroad agreed. "It's just been amazing," he said.
"People came into this drill prepared and ready to
stay. It was a very positive experience."
Under the National Disaster Plan, the Red Cross
has primary responsibility for mass care. ARES provided communication among all of the Red Cross
emergency response vehicles (ERVs), mobile canteens, kitchen, headquarters and other sites the organization needed stay in touch with.
In all, as many as 40 of the 150 ARES volunteers
from Connecticut and other states in the Northeast
were deployed to the field at any given time, and
everyone got to take part at some point. "Everybody
had a job to do," Rexroad said. "Everyone had at
least one shift when they were able to get on the
radio and provide communications support."
Doane also credited the ARRL Amateur Radio
Emergency Communications courses and other
training with raising the overall level of operating
skill—even among newer operators.
"There were a few new people that were assigned to
be observers, and before the end of the drill ended
up trained well enough to be an operator on an
ERV," she said. "I have to tell you, I was impressed."
TOPOFF 3 required participants to be ready for unexpected events, and the ARES operation was no
exception. "The only big curveball we got thrown
was when one of the judges decided they were going to take one of our repeaters down," Rexroad explained. Connecticut ARES was able to promptly
switch to a backup. Ironically, a genuine repeater
breakdown occurred just before the exercise got
under way.
Rexroad and Doane agreed that TOPOFF 3 not only
was a success but a helpful learning experience for
ARES. "We learned a fair number of lessons, and
most of them were organizational, not technical, in
nature," Rexroad remarked.
Rexroad says Connecticut ARES also prepared to
assist the Connecticut Office of Emergency Management and actually activated several of its stations to show the state officials that it had the backup coverage in case they needed it.
A bioterrorism incident was the scenario in New Jersey--the only other TOPOFF 3 site. Emergency officials there not only were key to the exercise, they
had real problems owing to flooding in the northern
part of the state. ARES teams in New Jersey, New
York and Pennsylvania participated in the flood
emergency response and relief effort.
Brian Fernandez, K1BRF, a Connecticut Assistant
SM and ARES liaison to the Red Cross said Amateur Radio's performance in TOPOFF 3 did not go
unnoticed within the Department of Homeland Security. "Amateur Radio made a major contribution to
the nation," he said, "and those who contribute to
making it safer and stronger and folks in the right
places know it."
With some 130 schools now on board, the ARRL
Education & Technology Program (ETP)--also
known as "the Big Project"--has set its sights on
transforming the teaching of wireless technology in
the US. ETP Coordinator Mark Spencer, WA8SME,
acknowledges that incorporating what he calls "wireless literacy" into the broader educational landscape
is not something that will happen overnight. Even so,
he believes the ETP not only can have a role in de7
veloping a favorable climate for wireless literacy and
establishing it as an educational mainstay but in ultimately setting academic standards. Spencer says
reaching teachers first is key.
"You've got to have a jazzed teacher," Spencer
stresses, pointing out that many teachers remain
uncomfortable with wireless technology and are unaware of the best ways to teach it. To address this
problem, the ETP last summer sponsored its first
Teachers Institute on Wireless Technology, an intensive weeklong, hands-on session aimed at getting the nine attendees up to speed on wireless and
electronics technology basics and how to teach
Expanding on the success of the inaugural institute,
the ETP this year will sponsor three sessions--two at
ARRL Headquarters and one "on the road" in Ohio
in July. The institutes at ARRL Headquarters will
immerse two dozen educators from across the US in
wireless technology--all expenses paid. Spencer
plans to augment the 2005 Teachers Institutes with
more radio operating experience, evening sessions
and more hands-on and interactive projects.
The ARRL Education & Technology Program recently kicked off its 2005 fund-raising effort, and
ARRL Chief Development Officer Mary Hobart,
K1MMH, says subsidizing the expansion of the
Teachers Institute initiative is one facet of the current drive. She reports the ARRL Teachers Institute
has leadership funding for 2005 with gifts from the
Brandenburg Life Foundation and from ARRL Vice
President Kay Craigie, N3KN, and her husband
Carter, N3AO.
"Those contributions will provide about one-half of
the total funding needed for the three Teachers Institute programs in 2005," Hobart notes. ARRL corporate partner Parallax will contribute robotics kits for
participating teachers to build and program during
this year's sessions.
Hobart says the ARRL has dedicated close to
$470,000 in resources and member contributions to
make the ETP a success. In addition to subsidizing
the Teachers Institutes, the program's major expenses include station equipment--some $2200 per
school--and project and activity boards and kits,
which run between $20 and $100 apiece.
As of March, 134 schools are part of the Big Project,
and the program has provided turnkey Amateur Radio stations to 110 of them--up from 80 schools a
year earlier. In many instances teachers working
with the ETP have encouraged many of their stu-
dents to become radio amateurs, although that's not
a primary program objective.
Beyond local schools and teachers, Spencer looks
to Amateur Radio clubs in the community to establish close relationships with participating schools,
sharing their expertise and providing assistance. "It
really comes down to the local community drives
what gets taught in the local schools," he says. "The
teachers can be jazzed, but if they don't have any
support from the local ham community, they're just
going to get themselves burned out." Spencer says
he's frequently on the stump asking amateurs to
"walk the walk as well as talk the talk."
Overall, Spencer feels the program is moving in the
right direction, although he said the progress is not
easy to document. "Any real change in the educational community takes at least 12 years to come to
fruition," Spencer said. In many cases, he believes,
the program plants a seed that might flower down
the road when a youngster exposed to wireless
technology and electronics via the ETP makes his or
her academic plans and career choices.
"We need to be patient," he cautions those who may
feel that an enterprise like the Big Project should
yield more immediate, obvious results. "Contributions that are given today don't necessarily turn into
rubber on the road today."
"We're really talking about changing the culture of
the school," Spencer concluded.
The 2005 Teachers Institute sessions at ARRL
Headquarters will be June 13-17 and August 1-5.
For more information, visit the ARRL Web site
<http://www.arrl.org/FandES/tbp/TI-2005announce.pdf> or contact Mark Spencer, WA8SME,
mspencer@arrl.org; 860-594-0396. To help support
the ARRL Education & Technology Program, visit
the secure donation form on the ARRL Web site
ARRL Amateur Radio Direction Finding Coordinator
Joe Moell, K0OV, is asking radio amateurs in the
Northeast to assist in a wildlife radio-tracking project
from mid-April to early May. "The New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation is placing tiny VHF radio transmitters on Indiana bats--an
endangered species--as they leave their winter
homes in two caves," Moell says. "The goal is to
track them to determine their summer habitat." Ac8
cording to wildlife technician Carl Herzog, AB2SI, 40
bats will be trapped, tagged and released as they
emerge from caves in the Watertown and Kingston
areas. Possible destinations are in New York, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ontario and
Quebec. Initial tracking will be by aircraft. When
breeding locations are determined, the bats' activity
will be monitored from the ground. The tiny transmitters are on six spot frequencies between 150 and
151 MHz. Herzog expects the bats to emerge
around April 15, but he notes that the exact date will
depend on the weather--and especially the temperature. Moell says a receiver with SSB/CW capability
will give optimum range. "Volunteers with high fixed
antennas and computer logging equipment in their
homes may be able to detect flyover and roosting,"
he said. Visit Moell's Homing In Web site
<http://www.homingin.com/> for project updates and
additional information on biological radio tags and
the best equipment to monitor them.
Working under harsh conditions, Indonesian Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) volunteers
this week established VHF links between earthquake-stricken Nias Island and northern Sumatra.
Nias Island was hit March 28 by nearby magnitude
8.2 and 8.7 underwater earthquakes. More than
1000 people are reported to have died as a result of
the earthquakes. The tremors affected some of the
same areas still recovering from the December
earthquake and tsunami. Although officials and residents remained on alert for tsunamis this week,
none occurred. A magnitude 6.3 aftershock occurred
in the vicinity March 30.
Organization of Amateur Radio for Indonesia
(ORARI) headquarters in Jakarta this week called
on its members to be ready to assist. An ORARI
team deployed by air to Nias Island March 29 set up
"zulu" (emergency) station YB6ZAH in Gunung Sitoli, the island's largest city. YB6ZAH has been in
contact with the ORARI District 6 command post in
Medan, North Sumatra. The ORARI team already
had experience supporting communication following
the December 2004 tsunami that claimed an estimated 300,000 lives in South Asia.
In the earthquake's immediate aftermath, ORARI
ARES members reportedly were on duty with little or
no food to eat, although they did have drinking water. At that point, many victims had not yet been
evacuated, and some remained trapped in the debris.
ORARI team members include Zulkarman Syafrin,
YC6PLG, Herman Rangkuti, YC6IQ, and Soejat
Harto, YB6HB--a medical doctor. Syafrin reports that
the earthquake damaged the power, telecommunication and transportation infrastructure or took them
out altogether on Nias Island. Buildings in Gunung
Sitoli were reportedly flattened and roads severely
damaged or impassable.
Ascension Is
till 2008
till April 2005
till March 2006
till March 2006
In the early going, the team was using portable generators and had to restrict operation to every two
hours to conserve scarce fuel. TELKOM, the Indonesian Department of Public Telecommunication,
has since provided the ORARI ARES team with a
bigger generator, and the operation has relocated to
the TELKOM building, where fuel is no longer a
problem. ORARI District 6 plans to supply more logistical and radio equipment, while Ady Susanto,
YB6VK, was preparing a set of solar cells for the
ORARI ARES team's use in Gunung Sitoli.
New Mexico radio amateur Earl Campbell, N8TV,
now working with the International Red Cross in
Banda Aceh on post-tsunami relief, plans to set up
an emergency Amateur Radio station on Simeulue
Island, which also was affected by the earthquakes.
Campbell's IT team reportedly is headed for Nias
Island to set up a satellite Internet connection and to
support the ARES team in Gunung Sitoli.
Updates on ham radio earthquake relief activity in
Indonesia are available on the AB2QV Web site
Contest Calendar and DXpeditions
The information for a DXpedition can be quite detailed and may include bands, dates, number of stations, and times of day they plan to work certain continents so I can not list it all here. But if a country or
prefix is of interest you can get more information at
Contests April
16 Holyland DX Contest
16 TARA Digital Prefix Contest
23-24 SP DX RTTY Contest
Contests May
PO Box # 900
Pepperell Mass 01463-0900
President: Stan Pozerski KD1LE
Vice President: Peter Nordberg N1ZRG
Secretary: John Griswold KB1HDO
Treasurer: Ralph Swick KD1SM
Board Members:
Les Peters 2002-2005
Dave Peabody 2003-2006
Bob Reif 2004-2007
Editor: Stan Pozerski KD1LE
Emergency Coordinator: Den Connors KD2S
Photographer: Ralph Swick KD1SM
PIO: Dave Peabody N1MNX
Librarian: Peter Nordberg N1ZRG
Property Master: John Griswold KB1HDO
N1NC Trustee: Bruce Blain K1BG
Meetings are held on the 3rd Thursday of the month
- 7:30 p.m. - Pepperell Community Ctr. Talk-in
146.490 simplex
442.900 + 100Hz Repeater
147.345 + 100 Hz Repeater
53.890 – 100Hz Repeater
This newsletter is published monthly. Submissions,
corrections and inquiries should be directed to the
newsletter editor. Articles and graphics in most IBMPC formats are OK.
Copyright 2005 NVARC