R&S®UPV-K9, R&S®UPV-K91 Operating Manual

Operating Manual
LTE/UMTS/GSM Mobile Phone Tests
R&S UPV-K9
R&S UPV-K91
1402.0008.02
1402.0108.02
Version 3.1.1.68
Test & Measurement
1402.0043.12-08
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Dear Customer,
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
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Contents
Contents
Safety Instructions
1 Overview ................................................................................................. 7
2 Preparation and Start of the Application Software .................................. 8
Required Measuring Instruments and Accessories ........................... 8
Installing the Software ...................................................................... 12
Verification of the Installation ........................................................... 14
Test Setup ........................................................................................ 15
Starting the Application Software ..................................................... 19
Options (General settings) ............................................................... 23
Standard ..................................................................................... 23
Select standard at startup ........................................................... 23
Release ....................................................................................... 23
Select release at startup ............................................................. 24
Ear simulator ............................................................................... 24
Select ear simulator at startup .................................................... 24
Artificial mouth ............................................................................ 24
Select artificial mouth at startup .................................................. 24
System simulator ........................................................................ 24
Hands free settings ..................................................................... 24
Activation signal for distortion tests ............................................. 24
Show operator instructions ......................................................... 25
CMU remote control .................................................................... 26
CMU subsystem .......................................................................... 27
CMW Remote Control................................................................. 27
Noise Calibration Configuration .................................................. 27
Equalization method ......................................................... 28
Speaker configuration ....................................................... 29
Bandwidth and tolerance .................................................. 29
Ear Equalization ................................................................ 30
Speaker Distance Range .................................................. 31
Level Tolerance ................................................................ 31
Harmonic Distortion Limit ................................................. 31
Additional Delay Modification for Each Speaker ............... 32
Maximum Iteration Count for Equalization Steps ............. 32
Final Spectrum Check ...................................................... 32
Refinement of Total Spectrum Equalization ..................... 33
Minimizing Operator Interaction ........................................ 33
Report of intermediate results .......................................... 34
UPP Remote Control .................................................................. 34
Input Switcher ............................................................................. 34
Report settings ............................................................................ 35
Generate temporary export files ................................................. 35
Generate temporary image files.................................................. 35
Store results of further measurements ....................................... 35
Do not change scale for further meas......................................... 35
Store loaded curve data to results .............................................. 35
Enable remote control ................................................................. 35
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Contents
3 Calibration ............................................................................................. 36
Calibration Devices .......................................................................... 36
Microphone Calibration .................................................................... 39
Calibration of Artificial Ear ................................................................ 40
Calibration of Ear Type 1 ............................................................ 40
Calibration of Ear Type 3.2 Low Leakage ................................... 40
Calibration of Ear Type 3.2 High Leakage .................................. 41
Calibration of Ear Type 3.3 ......................................................... 42
Calibration of Ear Type 3.4 ......................................................... 43
Calibration of Artificial Mouth for Handset Tests .............................. 44
P.50 Speech Spectrum Calibration .................................................. 45
Calibration of CMU Speech Codec .................................................. 46
Calibration of CMW Speech Codec ................................................. 47
Calibration of Ambient Noise Field ................................................... 48
Calibration of Noise Field for “Speech Quality in Presence of
Background Noise” Test .................................................................. 50
Connections ................................................................................ 50
Establishing the remote control connection between
UPV and UPP ............................................................................. 51
Prerequisites ............................................................................... 51
Configuration ............................................................................... 51
Choice of calibration method ............................................ 52
Speaker configuration and setup ...................................... 53
Bandwidth and tolerance settings ..................................... 54
Switcher Usage................................................................. 54
Other settings ................................................................... 55
Switcher Support ......................................................................... 56
Starting the calibration process ................................................... 58
Stopping and resuming the calibration process .......................... 59
Preparatory Measurements for Delay Measurement .................. 61
Measurement of Sound Pressure ..................................... 61
Measurement of Level Change at Microphone
Amplifier Output ................................................................ 61
Measurement of Level Change at Reference Input .......... 62
Delay Measurement .................................................................... 62
Preparatory Measurements for Equalization ............................... 65
Noise Floor ....................................................................... 65
Frequency Response of unequalized Speakers ............... 65
Total Harmonic Distortion ................................................. 67
Cabling Check .................................................................. 67
Shared Equalization Method ....................................................... 67
Individual Equalization Method ................................................... 68
Level Adjustment ........................................................................ 69
Equalization................................................................................. 69
All Speaker Post Equalization ........................................... 70
Final Test of All Ambiances ........................................................ 71
Calibration Sections and Resuming Points ................................. 71
Calibration Report ....................................................................... 73
Synchronization of CMW clock ........................................................ 76
Preparations ................................................................................ 76
Starting the synchronization process .......................................... 76
Stopping the synchronization process ........................................ 77
Steps of synchronization process ............................................... 77
Options after termination of synchronization ............................... 81
Synchronization report ................................................................ 81
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Contents
4 Data Entry for Reporting........................................................................ 83
Operator ........................................................................................... 83
Test object ....................................................................................... 83
5 Measurements ...................................................................................... 84
General ............................................................................................ 84
Starting measurements .................................................................... 85
Functionality and control of the measurement macros .................... 86
Zooming ...................................................................................... 87
Changing the Scale of the Graph................................................ 87
Cursor ......................................................................................... 87
Data Point Size ........................................................................... 87
Entering a Comment ................................................................... 87
Storing a Hardcopy of the Graph ................................................ 88
Making Additional Measurements ............................................... 88
Storing and Loading Curves ....................................................... 88
Storing Curves as Limit Curves .................................................. 89
Deleting Additional Curves in the Measurement Graph .............. 89
Creating a Report ........................................................................ 89
Closing the Measurement Window ............................................. 89
Notes on Handset Measurements ................................................... 90
Applicability of Measurements and Equipment Depending
on the Release ................................................................................. 90
Sending Frequency Response and Loudness Rating ...................... 90
Sending Frequency Response .................................................... 90
Sending Loudness Rating ........................................................... 90
Sending Tests using Artificial Voice acc. to ITU-T P.50
as Test Signal ............................................................................. 92
Receiving Frequency Response and Loudness Rating ................... 93
Receiving Frequency Response ................................................. 93
Receiving Loudness Rating ........................................................ 94
Receiving Tests using Artificial Voice acc. to ITU-T P.50 or
Single-Talk Speech acc. to ITU-T P.501 as Test Signal............. 95
Sidetone Masking Rating (STMR) ................................................... 96
STMR Tests using Artificial Voice acc. to ITU-T P.50 or
Single-Talk Speech acc. to ITU-T P.501 as Test Signal............. 97
Sidetone Delay ................................................................................. 98
Roundtrip Delay................................................................................ 99
Echo Loss (TCLw) ......................................................................... 100
Stability Margin ............................................................................... 101
Stability Loss .................................................................................. 102
Echo Control Characteristics ......................................................... 103
Interpretation of the results: ............................................ 105
Sending Distortion .......................................................................... 105
Receiving Distortion ....................................................................... 108
Idle Channel Noise Sending ........................................................... 111
Idle Channel Noise Receiving ........................................................ 113
Ambient Noise Rejection ................................................................ 114
Speech Quality in Presence of Ambient Noise .............................. 116
Setup ......................................................................................... 116
Connections .............................................................................. 116
Switcher Support ....................................................................... 117
Prerequisites ............................................................................. 118
Measurement ............................................................................ 118
Continuing Aborted Measurements .......................................... 120
Typical Problems during measurement .................................... 120
Additional operations when finished.......................................... 122
Extended Speech Quality Measurements ................................. 122
Continuing Aborted Extended Measurements .......................... 123
ANR Tests using Artificial Voice according
to ITU-T P.50 as Test Signal .................................................... 124
Notes on Hands-Free Measurements ............................................ 126
General Remarks ........................................................................... 126
Test Setup ...................................................................................... 126
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Contents
Acoustic Calibration for Hands Free Tests .................................... 128
“Utilites” Measurements ................................................................. 129
Sidetone Distortion ......................................................................... 129
Gain Variation Tests....................................................................... 130
Delay Measurements ..................................................................... 130
Background Noise Measurements ................................................. 131
6 Customizing Measurements................................................................ 133
Editing Parameters......................................................................... 134
Editing Limit Curves ....................................................................... 134
7 Measurements with electric connections ............................................ 136
Introduction .................................................................................... 136
Calibration values for electric connections ..................................... 136
Electric connection replacing artificial ear ................................. 136
Electric connection replacing artificial mouth ............................ 136
Electric connection replacing encoder ...................................... 136
Electric connection replacing decoder ...................................... 136
Performing the measurements ...................................................... 137
8 Automatic Test Sequences ................................................................. 138
Creating and Editing a Sequence .................................................. 138
Remote Control of R&S CMU200 within a Sequence .................... 139
Opening an Existing Sequence ...................................................... 140
Running a Sequence...................................................................... 140
Running a Single Measurement out of a Sequence ...................... 141
Reporting on Sequence Results .................................................... 141
9 Reporting, Storing, Loading and Deleting Results .............................. 142
Result Files .................................................................................... 142
Report Settings .............................................................................. 142
Generating a Single Report............................................................ 142
Generating a Sequence Report ..................................................... 143
Selection Report............................................................................. 143
Preview Window............................................................................. 143
Storing and Loading Curves........................................................... 144
ASCII Result Files .......................................................................... 144
Deleting Results ............................................................................. 144
10 Remote Controlled Start of Testcases via GPIB ................................. 146
Preparations ................................................................................... 146
Starting a Measurement ................................................................. 146
Reading the Results ....................................................................... 146
Determining the Termination of a Measurement ........................... 148
11 Terminating the Application ................................................................. 149
Appendix A Settings on the R&S CMU200............................................... 150
Settings for GSM: ........................................................................... 150
Settings for UMTS WCDMA FDD: ................................................. 153
Appendix B Settings on the R&S CMW500.............................................. 157
Settings for LTE: ............................................................................ 157
Settings for UMTS WCDMA FDD: ................................................. 160
Settings for GSM: ........................................................................... 162
Appendix C Troubleshooting .................................................................... 164
Error message 2908 during installation ......................................... 164
Damaged setup file is reported ...................................................... 164
Damaged results file is reported .................................................... 164
A test is not starting properly.......................................................... 164
A calibration value is missing or no device is selected for a
required calibration type ................................................................. 164
The receiving noise test produces an overrange error .................. 164
ARL for the sending distortion test cannot be adjusted ................. 165
A measurement using a custom limit curve produces an error ..... 165
Other problems of unknown reason ............................................... 165
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Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF Power
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Caution ! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
To identify any terminal which is intended for
connection to an external conductor for
protection against electric shock in case of a
fault, or the terminal of a protective earth
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Earth (Ground)
Class II Equipment
to identify equipment meeting the safety
requirements specified for Class II equipment
(device protected by double or reinforced
insulation)
Frame or chassis Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution degree 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the mains-supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the mains, or if the power switch is not
suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product from the
mains. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and accessible at all
times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the connecting cable
must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing disconnection
from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into racks or systems,
the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1 or IEC 61010-1 / EN 61010-1 standards that
apply in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
 Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
 Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Significado
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
1171.0000.42 - 08
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión U eff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
1171.0000.42 - 08
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados ―los llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)―. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
 Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
 Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
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Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
customer.support@rsa.rohde-schwarz.com
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
customersupport.la@rohde-schwarz.com
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
customersupport.asia@rohde-schwarz.com
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
customersupport.china@rohde-schwarz.com
1171.0200.22-06.00
Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
1 Overview
The acoustic transmission and reproduction quality of a mobile phone is
its most important characteristic in everyday use. Even the most visually
appealing design and wonderfully sophisticated operating concept are not
much use, when the user cannot or can hardly understand what is being
said at the other end.
Instruments and methods for measuring acoustic characteristics are therefore
essential tools for assessing the quality and suitability of a mobile phone.
These tests are based on standards for 3GPP mobile phones. The test
methods are stipulated in 3GPP TS 26.132 and the values to be attained in
3GPP TS 26.131.
As of release 4 of the GSM 51.010 standard (successor to GSM 11.10), even
GSM mobile phones may be tested to 3GPP TS 26.132.
®
®
The R&S UPV-K9 and R&S UPV-K91 options (LTE/UMTS/GSM Mobile
®
Phone Tests) of the Audio Analyzer R&S UPV, called herein below “UPV”,
are now available for measuring the acoustic characteristics of LTE, UMTS
and GSM mobile phones. The measurements are in line with 3GPP TS
26.131, TS 26.132 and TS 51.010 and have been validated by an
independent test house for conformance testing on LTE, UMTS and GSM
mobile phones.
The current version of the software supports 3GPP TS 26.131 and TS 26.132
up to Release 12.
From version 2.3.1.47 of the software, a new “Release” menu is available
which allows to determining and starting the test cases applicable to a given
combination of speech codec bandwidth, type of tested device (handset,
headset or handheld, desktop or vehicle-mounted handsfree) and release
number of the test specifications.
1402.0043.12
7
E-8
Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
2 Preparation and Start of the Application Software
Required Measuring Instruments and Accessories
The UPV audio analyzer with the options as described below is required for
the measurements.
The mobile phone under test is connected via the RF interface using
®
either Wideband Radio Communication Tester R&S CMW500, called
herein below CMW500 or the Universal Digital Radio Communication
®
Tester R&S CMU200, called herein below CMU200. These testers
simulate a base station for the mobile phone so that a speech call can
be set up.
The CMW500 must be equipped with the options CMW-B400B (Audio
Board) and CMU-B405A (Speech Board) in addition to the options
required for the signalling of the respective radio access technology. For
detailed information on the configuration of the CMW500 please contact
your R&S sales office.
Note:
The firmware version in the R&S CMW500 must the
following or later:
Base
Audio
LTE Signalling
Data Application
WCDMA Signalling
GSM Signalling
3.5.40
3.5.12.4
3.5.21
3.5.20
3.5.21
3.5.20
If using newer versions, make sure that the installed
versions are compatible with each other.
For GSM, the R&S CMU200 must be equipped with the options
R&S CMU-B21 (signalling unit), R&S CMU-B52 (speech coder/decoder)
and the appropriate software options for the GSM band used.
For WCDMA (UMTS), the option R&S CMU-B69 is required. WidebandAMR tests require option R&S CMU-K46 for both GSM and/or WCDMA
(UMTS).
Note:
The firmware version in the R&S CMU200 must be 5.04 or
higher.
Acoustic devices such as an artificial mouth, artificial ear and other
accessories are required for the measurements. The following
equipment from Brüel & Kjær or G.R.A.S. is normally used:
Table 1
1402.0043.12
Equipment for mobile phone tests
Device
Description
Type (examples)
Telephone test head
(up to Release 8)
Device for fixing the DUT in the
prescribed position
B&K 4602B
Wideband ear simulator
(up to Release 8)
IEC 711 type occluded ear simulator
with adapters for connection to the
ear piece of the DUT
B&K 4195 (type 3.2)
Artificial mouth
(up to Release 8)
Special loudspeaker for simulation
of the mouth
B&K 4227 or
G.R.A.S. 44AB or
44AA (with power
amplifier)
Head and torso simulator
Head and torso simulator with
artificial ear (type 3.3) and artificial
mouth, may be used alternatively to
the abovementioned devices
B&K 4128D
Driver amplifier for artificial
Buffer amplifier to deliver the
B&K 2735
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Device
Description
mouth
required current into the 5 Ω load
impedance of the loudspeaker
Second (left) artificial ear
for head and torso
simulator
Required for handsfree tests and
adjustment of the background noise
field for “speech quality in presence
of ambient noise”
B&K 4159C
Handset fixture for Head
and Torso simulator
Required to position the handset on
the artificial head, and to apply a
defined force with the earpiece
against the pinna
B&K 4606
Measurement microphone
½” or ¼” measurement microphone
for measurement of artificial mouth
output during calibration. This
microphone can use the preamplifier
of the artificial ear type 3.2 if
existing. Use a ¼” measurement
microphone for calibration of the
HATS mouth.
B&K 4939 with
preamplifier B&K
2670 for calibration
of the HATS mouth
and as reference
microphone for
background noise
tests
Acoustic calibrator
Sound level calibrator for calibrating
the measuring microphone
B&K 4231
Microphone power supply
Power supply and preamplifier for
the measuring microphone
B&K 2829, 5935L or
2690A0S2
or G.R.A.S. 12AD or
12AA
Note:
Type (examples)
With the amplifier set to 0 dB, the microphone power supply
B&K 2690A0S2 produces too much noise for measuring idle
noise and distortion. It is therefore advisable to set a gain of
20 dB.
From Release 9 of TS 26.132, the use of the HATS is mandatory for
handset and headset measurements. From Release 10, only artificial
ear type 3.3 (anatomically shaped soft pinna) may be used.
A cable with a BNC connector and special small or angled banana
plugs is required for connecting the P.51 artificial mouth, as the space
between the mouth connectors and the LRGP test head (B&K 4602B) is
too small for common banana plugs.
The transformer supplied with option R&S UPV-K9 can only be used
with the MMS test signal. It must be connected between generator
output 1 of Audio Analyzer R&S UPV and the connector of the artificial
mouth. The transformer matches the impedance of the loudspeaker in
the artificial mouth to that of the generator output of the R&S UPV.
Without this transformer, the available power is too low for driving the
artificial mouth.
Alternatively, a power amplifier, preferably with a voltage gain of approx.
0 dB, can be connected between generator output and mouth instead of
the transformer. In this case, the gain set must be kept absolutely stable
after calibration.
For tests using artificial voice according to ITU-T P.50 or real speech
according to ITU-T P.501, a power amplifier is required. It may also be
required for high-level activation signals with high crest factor.
For connection to the audio input and output of the radiocommunication
tester R&S CMW500, use BNC cables and the UP-Z1 adapters (XLR to
BNC) supplied with UPV-K9. Connect UPV generator output 2 to CMW
AF1 IN and CMW AF1 OUT to UPV analyser input 2.
For connection to the "Speech" connector of the Digital Radio
Communication Tester R&S CMU200 a cable with male (analyzer) and
female (generator) XLR connector is supplied.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
UPV Analyzer
1
5
Fig. 1
Generator
Assignment of 9-contact speech connector on CMU front
panel
This cable is configured for connection to link handler #1 in the
R&S CMU200. Depending on the CMU hardware, link handler #2 in the
R&S CMU200 can also be used for GSM; in this case, the supplied
adapter must be inserted between the cable and the speech connector
on the R&S CMU200.
Note:
If the CODEC calibration fails, the adapter has most likely to
be inserted.
Note:
The R&S CMU200 connects pin 1 and 3 of the R&S UPV
generator output to the equipment grounding conductor of
the mains. If an external power amplifier is used, care must
be taken that the external power amplifier does not connect
R&S UPV generator output pin 2 to the equipment grounding
conductor of the mains. If available, a balanced connection
to the power amplifier should be preferred.
Attention: An external power amplifier should be switched on after the
R&S UPV-K9x program has been started, and switched off
before the program is ended. This prevents the artificial
mouth from undue power loading by setups which are
loaded external to the application.
Note:
An external USB keyboard and a mouse must be connected
to the R&S UPV.
Caution: R&S UPV-K9x does not support the use of headphones. Do
not connect headphones to the R&S UPV during mobile
phone tests. High level signals may be present at the
headphone connector.
The UPV audio analyzer must be equipped as follows:
 R&S UPV firmware version 4.0.3.136 or higher.
 License Key R&S UPV-K9 installed.
 License Key R&S UPV-K91 installed.
 For use of test signal according to ITU-T P.50 and distortion tests with
CSS or customer specific activation signal License Key R&S UPVK9101 or higher must be installed.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
 For the use of requirements and test methods according to Release 10
of TS 26.131 and TS 26.132, License Key R&S UPV-K9102 must be
installed.
 For the use of requirements and test methods according to Release 11
of TS 26.131 and TS 26.132, License Key R&S UPV-K9103 must be
installed.
 For the use of requirements and test methods according to Release 12
of TS 26.131 and TS 26.132, License Key R&S UPV-K9104 must be
installed.
 License Key R&S UPV-K9104 includes R&S UPV-K9103, R&S UPVK9102 and R&S UPV-K9101
 For testcases 7.11 and 8.11 (“echo control characteristics”), option UPVB3 (second analog generator) is required.
For testcases 7.12 and 8.12 (“speech quality in the presence of ambient
noise”) the following additional equipment and options are required:
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Description
Instrument Type
Ordering Number
R&S® UPV-K98
Background noise control software
acc. ETSI ES 202 396-1
1424.2003.02
Measurements using background
noise acc. ETSI TS 103 106 and
EG 202 396-3
1424.2203.02
R&S® UPV-K101
R&S® UPP200
Audio Analyzer two channels
1411.1003.02
®
Eight-channel generator
1411.2700.02
®
8-channel analog cable for
R&S®UPP-B8
1411.3206.02
R&S UPP-B8
R&S UP-Z8A
The following equipment not supplied by Rohde & Schwarz is also required:
Device
Description
Type (examples)
2 Pairs of full-range
speakers
Frequency response at least
100 Hz to 10 kHz
Behringer Truth
B2031A
Subwoofer
Frequency response at least
40 Hz to 120 Hz
M-Audio SBX-10
5 Speaker cables
XLR male – XLR female
length approx. 10m
4 Speaker stands
The base plane of the speaker
should be adjustable such that the
tweeter of the speaker is at the
same height as the artificial ears of
the head-and-torso simulator. With
the B2031A speakers, the tweeter is
about 31 cm above the base. With
the Bruel & Kjaer HATS, the
entrance of the artificial ear is about
60 cm above the base.
Installing the Software
The application program requires license keys R&S UPV-K9 and R&S
UPV-K91 to be installed. The application program and the license keys
are installed together with license key R&S UPV-K9104 in the factory in
case a new R&S UPV is ordered together with these options. If the
options are ordered separately, the license keys as well as the
installation instructions are part of the delivery.
The program required and the associated files are in the folder “UPVK9x Software” on the installation CD supplied with the R&S UPV-K91
option. It is recommended to copy the files MCRInstaller.exe,
CRRuntime_12_3_mlb.exe, UPV-K9x_31168.msi, and dotnetfx35.exe
from the folder “UPV-K9x Software” on the installation CD to drive D: on
the R&S UPV hard disk drive, e.g. to a folder named “D:\R&S
Software\UPV-K9x\Version 3.1.1”. Run the file “UPV-K9x_31168.msi” to
start the installation. Follow the instructions of the installer on the
screen. If prompted to do so, also run “dotnetfx35.exe”. Subsequently,
run also “MCRInstaller.exe” and “CRRuntime_12_3_mlb.exe”.
Note (1)
“MCRInstaller.exe” must be run, unless UPV-K9x software version
3.0.3.56 or UPV-K9y software version 3.0.0.65 (or higher) is already
installed on the R&S UPV.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Note (2)
If a UPV-K9y software version below 3.0.0.65 is installed it is
recommended to update to the latest version (currently 3.0.0.65). It can
be downloaded from:
http://www.rohdeschwarz.com/www/FileTran.nsf/alias/A439BFD0CDDFEF90C1257E4
D0025C349id?OpenDocument
Note (3)
Prior to an upgrade of UPV-K9x software to version 3.1.1 (from
version 2.3.1 or below) and of UPV-K9y software to version 3.0.0 the
program “MATLAB® Component Runtime” must be de-installed using
the windows tool “Add or Remove programs” (XP) or “Programs and
Features” (Win7) respectively.
Note (4)
In case it is desired to run an older version of the UPV-K9y software,
the old version of “MCRInstaller.exe” (from the older version UPV-K9y
installation CD) must be re-installed after installation of the new version.
To have full control over minimized windows, it is recommended to set
the windows taskbar to “Auto-hide”, on top of other windows. Right-click
on the Windows Start button and click “properties”.
Fig. 2
Context menu for taskbar
In the properties window, click tab “Taskbar” and activate “Auto-hide the
taskbar” and “Keep the taskbar on top of other windows”. Click “Apply”
and close the window.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Fig. 3
Properties window for taskbar
Verification of the Installation
After the installation, check the existence of the subfolder “UPV-K9x
Mobile Phone Tests” in “C:\Program Files\Rohde&Schwarz”. This
subfolder must contain 85 files plus 2 more subfolders.
If the software reports a missing key code at the first start, delete folder
“D:\3GPP” (if existing) and install the missing key code before starting
the software again.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Test Setup
1402.0043.12
Fig. 4
Test setup and connection of external components with
CMU200
Fig. 5
Test setup and connection of external components with
CMW500
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
1402.0043.12
Fig. 6
Test setup and connection of external components with
input switcher UPZ and CMU200
Fig. 7
Test setup and connection of external components with
input switcher UPZ and CMW500
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Fig. 8
Test setup and connection of external components for the
adjustment of the background noise field
Generator channel 10 is the reference channel for the delay
measurement. If no switcher is used, it has to be connected according
to the instructions from the K9x software.
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Fig. 9
Test setup and connection of external components with
input switcher UPZ for the adjustment of the background
noise field
Fig. 10
Test setup and connection of external components with
CMU200 for measurements with background noise field
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
1402.0043.12
Fig. 11
Test setup and connection of external components with
CMW500 for measurements with background noise field
Fig. 12
Test setup and connection of external components with
CMU200 and input switcher UPZ for measurements with
background noise field
Fig. 13
Test setup and connection of external components with
CMW500 and input switcher UPZ for measurements with
background noise field
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Switching of connections between tests is required for binaural
measurements (handsfree tests and tests of binaural headsets) and for
calibration, in particular for the adjustment of the background noise
reproduction. In the setups in figures 4, 5, 8, 10 and 11, connections
have to be changed manually between tests and even during the
background noise adjustment. This can be avoided by using a UPZ
input switcher as shown in figures 6, 7, 9, 12 and 13.
Table 2 Assignment of UPZ switcher connectors
UPZ Input
Connected Device
1
Second (left) artificial ear
2
First (right) artificial ear
3
Decoder output
4
Free field microphone
5
Diffuse field microphone
6
UPP-B8 output 10
A
UPV analyzer input 1
B
UPV analyzer input 2
Starting the Application Software
After installation, the program can be started by double-clicking the Icon
“UPV-K9x Mobile Phone Tests” or by clicking “R&S UPV Applications 
UPV-K9x Mobile Phone Tests” in the “Programs” menu.
At the first start of the program, selection windows appear for the
standard according to which the measurements should be made, and
for the artificial ear and artificial mouth used.
Fig. 14 Query window for selection of applied standard
If “none” is selected in the standard selection window, all
measurements appear in the “Measurement” menu. If a standard is
selected, all measurements appear in the “Measurement” menu, but
compliant measurements are checked in the menu. If “Allow only
selected measurements” is checked, non-compliant measurements are
suppressed in the Measurement menu. “Non-standard handset” and
“non-standard hands free” select handset or hands-free tests,
respectively, which can be customized.
The next window is for selection of relevant measurements according to
tested device type, codec bandwidth, test signal and Release of the
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
3GPP standards TS 26.131 and TS 26.132. All test cases relevant for
the selected combination will be offered in the “Release” menu.
1402.0043.12
Fig. 15
Query window for the Release menu
Fig. 16
Query window for selection of artificial ear
20
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Fig. 17
Query window for selection of artificial mouth
When the checkbox “Do not show this dialog again” is checked, the
corresponding selection window will not appear at the program start in
future. However, the selection is still available in the “Options” menu
(see below). After the last of the four selection windows has been
closed, the main window of the R&S UPV-K9 opens.
Fig. 18
Main window
Initially the data grid in the centre of the screen which shows the result
overview is empty. The screenshot in Fig. 18 shows an example after a
number of measurements have been made.
By clicking with the right mouse button on the data grid, a context menu
opens which allows to create a report of a result marked by a solid
triangle in the respective row header, edit the comment for a marked
result, to delete the marked result or to export one of the curves in the
marked result graph to an ASCII format.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Fig. 19
Context menu of the result data grid
Fig. 20 A triangle in the row header indicates a marked row
The “Report Selection” submenu allows to report on or delete a
selection of results which have been marked in the “Select” column of
the data grid. To select or unselect a result, click the checkbox in the
“Select” column of the respective row.
If the results have been sorted alphabetically according to one of the
columns by clicking on the respective column header, the chronological
order can be restored using the context menu item “Sort
Chronologically”.
Operating Concept
R&S 3GPP mobile phone tests consist of the main user interface
window which allows general settings, calibration routines, data
handling, automatic sequencing and reporting tools, and of test macros
for basic measurement types defined in the standards. Each
measurement type provides a set of parameters (R&S UPV setup files,
limits etc.) which are defined in separated measurement definition files,
one for each test case.
Attention: Do not attempt to modify files with extensions “set”, “sup”,
“xml”, “cal” “seq” or “mdf”, using a text editor. Any change
with a text editor may make the files unusable and cause
malfunction of the software.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Options (General settings)
Fig. 21
Options menu
The “Options” menu in the main window allows changing a set of
general settings like ear type and mouth type used which are valid for all
or at least a plurality of the tests.
Standard
“Standard” allows selecting one of the available standards.
Measurements belonging to this standard will be checked in the
measurement menu. If “Allow only standard measurements” is checked,
it is not possible to start single measurements which do not belong to
the standard.
Select standard at startup
If “Select standard at startup” is checked, the selection window for the
standard is opened at each start of the program.
Release
“Release” opens the window to select type of tested device, codec
bandwidth, test signal and Release of 3GPP standards TS 26.131 and
26.132 to be applied. Any change in these settings will re-build the
“Release” menu with the applicable test cases.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Select release at startup
If “Select release at startup” is checked, the selection window for the
“Release” menu is opened at each start of the program.
Ear simulator
“Ear simulator” allows selecting the type of ear simulator used. For
details on the handling of calibration data see section 4 “Calibration”
below.
Select ear simulator at startup
If “Select ear simulator at startup” is checked, the selection window for
the ear simulator is opened at each start of the program.
Artificial mouth
“Artificial mouth” allows selecting the type of artificial mouth used. For
details on the handling of calibration data see section 4 “Calibration”
below.
Select artificial mouth at startup
If “Select artificial mouth at startup” is checked, the selection window
for the artificial mouth is opened at each start of the program.
System simulator
“System simulator” allows selecting the type of system simulator used.
For details on the handling of calibration data see section 4 “Calibration”
below.
Hands free settings
“Hands free settings” allows selecting the acoustic instruments used
for hands free testing. It is possible to use an ITU-T P.51 artificial mouth
together with a free field microphone, a HATS with one artificial ear or a
HATS with two artificial ears. If two artificial ears are used, the decoder
has to be disconnected from analyzer input 2 and the second artificial
ear has to be connected to it for receiving measurements. Do not forget
to re-connect the decoder for any measurement in sending direction.
Activation signal for distortion tests
In the sub-menu to “Activation signal for distortion tests”, signals can be
imported to the test system. If more than one imported signal is
available, it is possible to choose one of them for actual use.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Fig. 22 Window for import of activation signals
Use the “Browse” button to select a wave file which fulfills the conditions
shown on top of the window. The selected signal is analyzed and
checked for appropriateness. Note that a high crest factor of the signal
may overdrive the codec or artificial mouth. If “Equalize for Selected
Artificial Mouth” is activated, the file is immediately equalized for the
selected artificial mouth when the “Ok” button is clicked. Otherwise or
when the mouth calibration has been re-done or a different artificial
mouth has been selected in the meantime, the signal is equalized
automatically immediately before the sending distortion test starts.
If “Immediately select this activation signal” is checked, the signal is
selected for use when the “Ok” button is clicked.
Show operator instructions
If “Show operator instructions” is checked, instructions to the operator
are displayed in a window before the measurement starts. The operator
may be prompted to position the mobile in a defined way or to set the
volume to a certain setting.
Auxiliary delay measurements
For the alignment of the acquisition with the arrival of the test signal at
the analyzer input, an auxiliary end-to-end delay measurement is
performed before the main measurement. The item “Auxiliary delay
measurements → Configure” allows to select the measurement method
(sine burst or cross correlation), the test signal for the cross correlation
method (composite source signal or real speech word “five”) and the reuse of a delay value which has been measured for the same device
under test on the same path for a previous test. A maximum age has to
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
be specified for the use of existing delay values to avoid the use of
outdated values.
Fig. 23 Window for configuration of auxiliary delay measurements
The recommended method for auxiliary delay measurement is crosscorrelation using the real speech word “five” as test signal. Re-use of
existing delay results speeds up the tests, which is particularly helpful in
automatic test sequences. It avoids changing of the test setup when
uplink and downlink delay values are required for echo loss and stability
loss
tests.
However, if changes are done in the setup which could have an
influence on the end-to-end delay, like changing the device under test,
the codec or codec rate etc., the auxiliary delay measurement has to be
re-run. If a different device under test is selected in menu item “Data →
Test object → Select …”, the memorized auxiliary delay values are
automatically invalidated. In all other cases the operator has to
invalidate them using menu item “Auxiliary delay measurements →
Invalidate all existing values”.
CMU remote control
If it is intended to remote control a R&S CMU200 from a sequence of
this program, menu item “CMU remote control” can be used to select
the communication interface (GPIB or RS-232) and, if multiple devices
are found, to select one of them.
Fig. 24 Window for configuration of the CMU remote control
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
For remote control via RS-232, an external USB-to-serial converter has
to be connected and installed. For remote control via GPIB, the
R&S VISA has to be installed. The installer for the R&S VISA is
distributed with the Option R&S UPV-K91. For details of the remote
control see section 8 and the operation manuals of the R&S CMU200.
CMU subsystem
In “CMU subsystem”, one of the communication standards / GSM
frequency bands can be selected. This allows sequences to be run in
different GSM bands without changing the subsystem in every single
CMU control instance in the sequence.
CMW Remote Control
For clock adjustment in Voice over LTE (VoLTE), and for roundtrip
delay measurements using the wideband radiocommunication tester
®
R&S CMW500 as system simulator, the CMW500 has to be remote
controlled from the UPV-K9 program. Available remote control
interfaces are TCP/IP (LAN), GPIB and USB. The item “CMW Remote
Control” in the options menu allows selecting the device and the
interface to be used. For TCP/IP connections, enter the device name
("CMW50050-", followed by the serial number) or the current IP address
of the CMW500. For GPIB connection use the connector labelled “IEEE
488 CH1” on the backplane of the CMW500.
Noise Calibration Configuration
In “Noise Calibration Configuration” parameters for the background
noise field used for the “Speech Quality in Presence of Ambient Noise”
test can be set.
Fig. 25 Window for configuring the background noise calibration
The configuration of the noise field calibration comprises
1. Choice of the calibration method
2. Speaker configuration
3. Bandwidth and tolerance settings
4. Other settings
The configuration is saved in the settings of the UPV-K9x program, so
that it has to be done at least once and can then be re-used as long as
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
the speaker configuration and calibration methods do not need to be
changed. Section 3.4.3 may be skipped by a non-expert operator.
Equalization method
Three different equalization methods are available with different tradeoff between required measurement time and achieved accuracy:
1. Individual equalization and level alignment for each ambient
noise condition
The complete equalization procedure is repeated for each ambient
noise condition. This allows equalizing individual responses of each
noise condition and obtains best matching equalization results. The
required measurement time is the highest of all three alternatives and
requires at least eight hours.
Fig. 26
Setting for individual speaker equalization of each ambient
noise condition
2. Equalization using pink noise and individual level alignment for
each ambient noise condition
The room response is measured using stochastic pink noise. The
obtained equalization is used for all ambient noise conditions. The
stochastic nature of the pink noise ensures that the energy is distributed
evenly of the complete bandwidth. Required calibration time is about
three hours.
Fig. 27 Configuration of pink noise for speaker equalizations
The level of the pink noise can be chosen between 40 and 70 dBspl(A).
For obtaining a similar level as with the noise fields, it should be chosen
as 60 dBspl(A) or higher.
The pink noise duration (and averaging time for the measurement) can
be chosen between 10 s and 120 s. Recommended duration is 30 s
which equals the averaging time for equalization with real ambient noise
condition. An increased averaging time increases the accuracy in
particular at the low frequency end.
Alternative to the default pink noise file, a user-defined pink noise file
can be loaded. It must be located in the working directory (i.e.
“D:\3GPP”) and be at least 120 seconds long.
3. Equalization using a selected one of the ambient noise
conditions and individual level alignment for each ambient noise
condition
This method determines the equalization using one of the available
ambient noise conditions as test signal. This equalization is then used
for all ambient noise conditions. Only the level is aligned individually for
each ambient noise condition. The measurement time is about 3 hours.
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Acoustic Measurements on Mobile Phones
Fig. 28 Selection of ambient noise for the speaker equalization
As the result of this method depends on the spectral distribution of the
energy in the chosen noise condition, this method cannot be generally
recommended.
Speaker configuration
Currently only the following two configurations are supported:
1. Four full-range speakers without subwoofer
Fig. 29 Settings for using four speakers without subwoofer
2. Four full-range speakers with one subwoofer
Fig. 30 Settings for using four speakers with one subwoofer
The speakers have to be connected as follows:

Full-range speaker front left:
UPP generator channel 3

Full-range speaker rear left:
UPP generator channel 4

Full-range speaker front right:
UPP generator channel 5

Full-range speaker rear right:
UPP generator channel 6

The subwoofer (if existing) can be connected to one of the
channels 7 … 9 according to the configuration setting.
Bandwidth and tolerance
The permissible tolerance of the equalized spectrum is stipulated by the
standards to be ±3 dB and cannot be changed. For special cases it is,
however, possible to raise the lower end of the tolerance template if the
room has acoustic drawbacks (standing waves, structure-borne noise)
which cannot be improved with acoustic means.
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Fig. 31 Bandwidth and tolerance settings
“Bandlimit low” limits the transmission frequency range of the speaker
setup by applying a highpass filter. This sets the lower end of the
equalized frequency range. It is recommended to suppress frequencies
below the 50 Hz third octave, which means to set the bandlimit low to
about 44.5 Hz. For other third octaves the recommended lower band
limit is fc / 1.122 with fc being the center frequency of the third octave.
The value of “Flatness start at” is automatically adapted to an increased
lower band limit if required.
“Bandlimit high” sets the upper frequency limit for the equalization.
The default value of 20,000 Hz should not be altered.
“Flatness starts at” sets the lower frequency limit for the tolerance
check. The standard ETSI EG 202 396-1 stipulates a value of 50 Hz.
“Flatness ends at” sets the upper frequency limit for the tolerance
check. The standard ETSI EG 202 396-1 stipulates a value of 10,000
Hz.
Ear Equalization
Combobox “Ear Equalization” allows to set the equalization for both
artificial ears to the equalization applied with the recording of the
ambient noise condition.
Fig. 32 Selection of ear equalization
Besides diffuse field equalisation (“DF”) and free field equalization
(“FF”), a so-called “independent of direction” (“ID”) equalization can be
applied. This equalization curve must be imported for each artificial ear
in use with menu item “Calibration → ID (Independent of Direction)
Equalization → ... ”.
Fig. 33 Import of ID equalization data
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An average ID equalization curve is provided with file
"ID_equalization.veq". Alternatively an individually determined curve can
be loaded.
If an equalization curve of the chosen type is missing for one of the
artificial ears in use, the calibration procedure is aborted with an
appropriate error message.
Speaker Distance Range
The following controls allow specifying a restricted range for the
distance between each speaker and the artificial ears of the HATS:
Fig. 34 Setting the range for the speaker distance
This allows detecting for example swapped ear connections, because
the delay from the speaker to the contra-lateral ear takes a detour over
wall reflections. The default values are appropriate for the room size
specified in standard ETSI EG 202 396-1.
The distance between full-range speakers and artificial ears is
determined by delay measurements. The distance between the
subwoofer and the HATS must be measured by the operator and
entered in the configuration window.
Level Tolerance
The control
Fig. 35 Control for maximum allowable level deviation
defines the maximum allowable tolerance for the level adjustment.
Higher accuracy usually requires more iteration steps (up to 5), and is
possibly not even adjustable with this maximum number of iterations. Is
the required tolerance not reached, the operator is prompted in a
message box whether to start more iterations or accept the tolerance. If
the adjustment process is to run automatically without operator
interaction, this message can be deactivated with checking tick box
“Accept single level deviation”.
Fig. 36 Deactivation of window prompting to accept a level tolerance
Harmonic Distortion Limit
A violation of the harmonic distortion specified in “Max THD” can be a
sign for clipping in a speaker due to overrange.
Fig. 37 Entry of THD limit
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If a speaker generally has higher distortion, this value can be increased.
If a THD value above the specified limit is detected, the operator has
the following options:
1. Reduce the gain settings in the speaker and repeat the
measurement.
2. Cancel the calibration process, reduce the setting in “Maximum
output level” and restart the calibration process.
Fig. 38 Entry of THD limit
3. Accept the observed THD value and continue without
modification of parameters.
Additional Delay Modification for Each Speaker
According to ETSI ES 202 396-1, in all test rooms each loudspeaker
signal should be delayed additionally with an individual value in order to
increase the diffusity of the noise field and avoid comb filter effects. The
operator can modify the individual delays which are added to the delays
determined in the delay measurement step. Maximum allowed value is
50 ms.
Fig. 39 Entry of additional speaker delay
It is also possible to disable the additional delay. Then only the delays
determined in the delay measurement step are applied.
Maximum Iteration Count for Equalization Steps
The following control can be used to set the number of iteration steps
for the equalization of individual speakers and of speaker pairs.
Fig. 40 Entry of maximum iteration count
Additional iteration steps improve the equalization accuracy on the cost
of increased measurement time. The iteration process continues until
either a flatness better than 1 dB is achieved or the maximum number
of iteration steps id reached.
More than three iteration steps cannot be expected to improve the
equalization significantly. Maximum input number is 5 iterations. A value
of 1 disables iteration altogether. In this case the equalization function is
calculated from the first measured frequency response.
Final Spectrum Check
If the following tick box is activated, the equalization of all ambiences is
finally checked, and the flatness and absolute level difference is
determined.
Fig. 41 Checkbox for final equalization test of all ambient noise files
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This measurement takes approximately 20 minutes and can also be
started after the calibration has been finalized.
The result of this check is stored in the database and appears in the
report of the calibration process. A “Fail” in a single ambience only has
influence on the total verdict if the ambiences had been chosen to be
equalized individually (see above).
Refinement of Total Spectrum Equalization
Activating the following tick box enables an algorithm which tries to
improve the result of the total equalization into a tolerance scheme of ±3
dB.
Fig. 42 Activating refinement of the total spectrum equalization
Fig. 43 Selection of the total spectrum equalization method
This is attempted by a re-equalization of single speakers. It is possible
to choose between the algorithm recommended in ES 202 396-1 and a
proprietary algorithm developed by R&S. The standard algorithm
requires at least 1 hour in addition to the preceding adjustment process
and is not in all cases successful. The R&S algorithm is faster and has
so far been successful in more cases. Alternatively it is recommended
to optimize the speaker positioning in the room and re-run the
adjustment process.
Minimizing Operator Interaction
After the initial plausibility check and delay measurements it is desirable
to run the calibration process without operator supervision. The settings
required for this must be made before starting the calibration process.
A “Fail” of the final check of the total equalization may be caused by an
unexpected background noise in the test room. In this case it is possible
to repeat the check to avoid an immediate fail.
The combo box “Action on final flatness deviation” allows the operator
to select the action to be taken in case of a failing final check of the total
equalization.
Fig. 44
Selection of the action performed if the final equalization
check fails
“Prompt” leads in case of a fail to a message box where the operator
can choose
1. to repeat the final check
2. to cancel the calibration process in order to improve the
acoustic properties of the speaker setup in the room, or
3. continue the measurement with this check being finally failed.
Choose “Retry once” or “Retry twice” for unattended operation.
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Report of intermediate results
For thorough investigation of a failed adjustment it may be helpful to get
reports of the results of individual and pair-wise equalization of the
loudspeakers. This can be activated with the checkbox “Report
intermediate steps”.
Fig. 45
Selection of the addition of intermediate adjustment results to
the report.
UPP Remote Control
This dialog allows to detect and connect a UPP with option UPP-B8 on
the LAN, to be used as playback system for the background noise
generation.
Fig. 46 Window for connecting to a UPP on the LAN
A click on the “find devices...” button searches the local area network
for audio analyzers and fills the combobox next to the button with the
computer names and IP addresses of the found devices. Select the
appropriate instrument in the combobox and click “Ok”.
Input Switcher
“Input Switcher” allows configuring the use of an R&S UPZ input
switcher connected to the R&S UPV RS-232 port, to switch analyzer
input 2 between sending tests and binaural receiving tests.
Fig. 47
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Report settings
“Report settings” allows defining the type of information which should
appear in the reports. For details on reporting, see section 8 below.
Generate temporary export files
If “Generate temporary export files” is checked, some of the
measurement macros create “result.exp” with result value and verdict,
and, if applicable, “curve.exp” or “abscurve.exp” and “relcurve.exp” files
with curve data in ASCII format. This function is provided for
compatibility with R&S UPL-B9.
Generate temporary image files
Item “Generate temporary image files” causes the measurement
macros to store a screenshot of the measurement window after
completion of the test to a file “Image.TIF” for use by a remote
controlling host.
Store results of further measurements
If “Store results of further measurements” is checked, curves and
calculated values like loudness ratings are also stored for additional
measurements started with the “Add Measurement” key. They will
appear in reports of the respective measurements.
Do not change scale for further meas.
Menu item “Do not change scale for further meas.” deactivates the
automatic Y-axis scaling if the curve of an additional measurement
leaves the plot area partially or totally.
Store loaded curve data to results
If “Store loaded curve data to results” is checked, curves loaded from
file with the “Load Curve” softkey are stored to the results database and
will appear in reports of the respective measurements.
Enable remote control
Menu item “Enable remote control” activates the interface of the
program for remote control using the client “ControlK9.exe”.
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3 Calibration
Calibration Devices
R&S UPV-K9 allows to simultaneously storing calibration values for
multiple individuals of the same type. This allows switching devices
without the requirement for re-calibration. However, regular recalibration is recommended in order to assure the correct function of
the used devices.
Fig. 48
Calibration menu
For every device to be calibrated, an entry must be created using
“Calibration  New device” in the main menu. This menu item opens
an entry window to specify the calibrated device. A category of device
must be chosen from the combo box on top. Type, manufacturer and
serial number are entered into the text boxes below. The entries are
confirmed by clicking on the “Save and close” button. If the box
“Immediately select this device” is checked, the device is selected for
immediate use with the “Save, select and close” button.
For ease of use, a “default” device is present and selected for each
device type (category) upon first start of the program.
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Fig. 49
Input window for information about calibrated device
Before a device can be calibrated or used, it must be selected. This can
be done from the “Calibrated Device” input window if the checkbox
“Immediately select this device” is checked. Existing devices may be
selected with “Calibration  Select device” in the main menu. Clicking
on this item opens a window with a table of all entered devices.
Fig. 50
Window for selection of calibrated devices
In the combo box lower left, a category of devices must be selected.
Subsequently the table is reduced to available devices in this category.
At first startup, there is only a “Default” device for each category, but
when more devices have been created with the “New device” function, a
choice will be available in this view. In this state a row in the table can
be marked with a mouse click on its left end. A mouse click on the
button “Select” selects this device for the associated usage.
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Fig. 51
Selection window for particular device type
Subsequently this procedure may be repeated for other categories.
Finally all selections are confirmed by clicking the “Ok” button.
A calibrated device may be deleted, using menu item “Calibration 
Delete device”. The device to be deleted must not be selected for use.
Another device of the same type must be selected before the device
can be deleted. Select the device to be deleted the same way as in the
preceding paragraph the device to be used. Note that all calibration
information is deleted for this device except result data required for
reporting previous test results.
All calibration data are stored on the R&S UPV hard disk and are
therefore automatically available again after every restart. The
calibration values for the R&S UPV-K91 option are stored independently
of other options. Calibration values for 3GPP tests and CDMA2000
tests are handled separately.
All calibration routines below require as pre-requisite that a device for
the respective usage has been generated and selected.
To simplify the procedure for the case that it is not intended to use
multiple devices of the same category nor to include information about
the used devices into a report, there is a “Default” device selected for
each device type or category after the first start of the program.
An overview of all selected calibration devices together with the
calibration values is given under the menu item “Calibration  Show
selected devices”.
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Microphone Calibration

Insert the measuring microphone fully into the adapter of the sound level calibrator and switch on
the calibrator. A ½” adapter or ¼” adapter is required according to the microphone diameter.
Note:

After inserting the microphone, wait about 10 s to allow
for static pressure equalization.
Call the test routine with “Calibration  Microphone  Free field” or “Calibration  Microphone
 Diffuse field” from the main menu, depending on the microphone.
Fig. 52
Initial window of microphone calibration
For calibrators providing a sound pressure level of 114 dB (10 Pa), the
checkbox “Calibration level increased by 20 dB” must be checked. In all
other cases the checkbox must remain unchecked! If a calibrator with a
frequency other than 1000 Hz is used, make sure that the “Selective”
item in the Calibration menu is unchecked.
The output voltage of the microphone is measured and the sensitivity
displayed with reference to 1 Pa. If a mere power supply without gain is
used, the displayed sensitivity must approximately match the value in
the calibration certificate of the microphone cartridge (typical value for
microphone capsule 4134 of artificial ear 4185 is approx. 12 mV/Pa). If
a conditioning amplifier with 20 dB gain (recommended value) is used,
the displayed sensitivity must be about 10 times higher (e.g.
120 mV/Pa). If the voltage measured is below 3 mV, an error message
is displayed. Possible error sources are, for example, a switched-off
microphone power supply or a disabled calibrator. In this case, the
program requests that the test be repeated. After switching on the
microphone power supply, wait approx. 20 s before starting the
calibration again.
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Calibration of Artificial Ear
Prior to the measurements, the absolute sensitivity of the microphone in
the artificial ear must be determined using a sound level calibrator such
as the Brüel & Kjær 4231 with a sound pressure level of 94 dBSPL or a
sound pressure of 1 Pa at 1 kHz.
Calibration of Ear Type 1

Switch off the microphone power supply.
Attention: The 200 V polarization voltage of the microphone may
cause a slight electric shock. The current is harmless, but
the microphone preamplifier may be damaged.

Remove the microphone from the artificial ear.

Screw back the microphone capsule and switch on the operating voltage.

Insert the microphone fully into the adapter of the sound level calibrator and switch on the
calibrator.
Note:
After inserting the microphone wait about 10 s to allow for
static pressure compensation.
 Select “Calibration  Artificial ear  Type 1” from the main
menu.
For calibrators providing a sound pressure level of 114 dB (10 Pa),
the checkbox “Calibration level increased by 20 dB” must be
checked. In all other cases the checkbox must remain unchecked!
The output voltage of the microphone is measured and the
sensitivity displayed with reference to 1 Pa. If a mere power supply
without gain is used, the displayed sensitivity must approximately
match the value in the calibration certificate of the microphone
cartridge (typical value for microphone capsule 4134 of artificial ear
4185 is approx. 12 mV/Pa). If a conditioning amplifier with 20 dB
gain (recommended value) is used, the displayed sensitivity must be
about 10 times higher (e.g. 120 mV/Pa). If the voltage measured is
below 3 mV or fluctuating by more than 0.2 dB, an error message is
displayed. Possible error sources are, for example, a switched-off
microphone power supply or a disabled calibrator. In this case, the
program requests that the test be repeated. After switching on the
microphone power supply, wait approx. 20 s before restarting the
calibration.
The reference value measured is stored in a file on the hard disk
and used for all subsequent measurements when the same artificial
ear type 1 is used as currently selected.
Calibration of Ear Type 3.2 Low Leakage

Connect the sound level calibrator tightly to the artificial ear using the adapter DP0939 and switch
on the calibrator.
 Select “Calibration  Artificial ear  Type 3.2 Low Leak” from
the main menu.
For calibrators providing a sound pressure level of 114 dB (10 Pa),
the checkbox “Calibration level increased by 20 dB” must be
checked. In all other cases the checkbox must remain unchecked!
The output voltage of the microphone in the ear is measured and the
sensitivity displayed with reference to 1 Pa. If the voltage measured
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is below 3 mV or fluctuating by more than 0.2 dB, an error message
is displayed. Possible error sources are, for example, a switched-off
microphone power supply or a disabled calibrator. In this case, the
program requests that the test be repeated. After switching on the
microphone power supply, wait approx. 20 s before restarting the
calibration.
The measured reference value is stored in a file on the hard disk
and used for all subsequent measurements when the same ear type
3.2L is used as currently selected.
Reading the DRP-ERP Correction Data of the Artificial Ear of Type
3.2L:
The frequency response of the artificial ear of type 3.2L is supplied
on a floppy together with the artificial ear. The data is used for
transforming the measurement values from the drum reference point
to the ear reference point.

Connect a USB floppy disk drive with the calibration disk to the R&S UPV, copy the file
“OES_LL.ADA” from the manufacturer’s calibration disk to a USB stick or a CD-ROM or make this
file available on a network drive via LAN.

Call the routine “Calibration  DRP to ERP Correction  Type 3.2 Low leak”. Browse to the file
“OES_LL.ADA” and click “Open”.
The calibration file is read. The modified data is stored on the
R&S UPV hard disk. This procedure needs only be repeated after a
change of the calibration data, e.g. after a recalibration of the ear by
the manufacturer, or when the “3GPP” directory has been renamed
or removed.
Calibration of Ear Type 3.2 High Leakage

Connect the sound level calibrator tightly to the artificial ear using the adapter DP0939 and switch
on the calibrator.
 Select “Calibration  Artificial ear  Type 3.2 High Leak” from
the main menu.
For calibrators providing a sound pressure level of 114 dB (10 Pa),
the checkbox “Calibration level increased by 20 dB” must be
checked. In all other cases the checkbox must remain unchecked!
The output voltage of the microphone in the ear is measured and the
sensitivity displayed with reference to 1 Pa. If the voltage measured
is below 3 mV or fluctuating by more than 0.2 dB, an error message
is displayed. Possible error sources are, for example, a switched-off
microphone power supply or a disabled calibrator. In this case, the
program requests that the test be repeated. After switching on the
microphone power supply, wait approx. 20 s before restarting the
measurement.
The measured reference value is stored in a file on the hard disk
and used for all subsequent measurements when the same ear type
3.2H is used as currently selected.
Reading the DRP-ERP Correction Data of the Artificial Ear of
Type 3.2H:
The frequency response of the artificial ear of type 3.2H is supplied
on a floppy together with the artificial ear. The data is used for
transforming the measurement values from the drum reference point
to the ear reference point.
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
Connect a USB floppy disk drive with the calibration disk to the R&S UPV, copy the file
“OES_HL.ADA” from the manufacturer’s calibration disk to a USB stick or a CD-ROM or make this
file available on a network drive via LAN.

Call the routine “Calibration  DRP to ERP Correction  Type 3.2 High leak”. Browse to the file
“OES_HL.ADA” and click “Open”.
The calibration file is read. The modified data is stored on the
R&S UPV hard disk. This procedure needs only be repeated after a
change of the calibration data, e.g. after a recalibration of the ear by
the manufacturer, or when the “3GPP” directory has been renamed
or removed.
Calibration of Ear Type 3.3


Remove the pinna from the artificial ear according to the manufacturer’s instructions
Connect the sound level calibrator tightly to the artificial ear using the adapter UA-1546 and
switch the calibrator on.
 Select “Calibration  Artificial ear  HATS Type 3.3” from the
main menu.
For calibrators providing a sound pressure level of 114 dB (10 Pa),
the checkbox “Calibration level increased by 20 dB” must be
checked. In all other cases the checkbox must remain unchecked!
The type 3.3 ear calibration requires the calibrator with adapter UA1546 to be held manually against the ear. If the HATS is installed
remote from the R&S UPV, the checkbox “Delay start by …
seconds” can be checked and a time interval can be entered by
which the start of the calibration measurement is delayed. The
countdown is displayed on the R&S UPV screen.
Fig. 53
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The output voltage of the microphone in the ear is measured and the
sensitivity displayed with reference to 1 Pa. If the voltage measured
is below 3 mV or fluctuating by more than 0.2 dB, an error message
is displayed. Possible error sources are, for example, a switched-off
microphone power supply or a disabled calibrator. In this case, the
program requests that the test be repeated. After switching on the
microphone power supply, wait approx. 20 s before restarting the
calibration.
The measured reference value is stored in a file on the hard disk
and used for all subsequent measurements when the same ear type
3.3 is used as currently selected.
Reading the DRP-ERP Correction Data of the Artificial Ear of Type
3.3:
Call the routine “Calibration  DRP to ERP Correction  Type 3.3
From ITU-T P.57 Table 2b”. This procedure needs only be
repeated when the “3GPP” directory has been renamed or removed.
Alternatively it is also possible to load individual DRP-ERP correction
data from a calibration disk. This option is not conformant with the
standards.
Reading the Diffuse Field Equalization Data of the Artificial Ear of
Type 3.3:
From Release 10 of 3GPP TS 26.132, diffuse field equalization is
applied to receiving frequency response results with handset and
headset UEs. Call the routine “Calibration  Diffuse field
equalization  Type 3.3 From ITU-T P.58 Table 3”. This
procedure needs only be repeated when the “3GPP” directory has
been renamed or removed.
Alternatively it is also possible to load individual diffuse field
equalization data from a calibration disk. This option is not
conformant with the standards.
Calibration of Ear Type 3.4

Remove the pinna and the ear canal simulator, connect the sound level calibrator tightly to the
artificial ear using the short steel adapter and switch the calibrator on.
 Select “Calibration  Artificial ear  HATS Type 3.4” from the
main menu.
For Head Acoustics HMS II, calibrator B&K 4231 must be used in
conjunction with the short steel calibration adapter.
The output voltage of the microphone in the ear is measured and the
sensitivity displayed with reference to 1 Pa. If the voltage measured
is below 3 mV or fluctuating by more than 0.2 dB, an error message
is displayed. Possible error sources are, for example, a switched-off
microphone power supply or a disabled calibrator. In this case, the
program requests that the test be repeated. After switching on the
microphone power supply, wait approx. 20 s before restarting the
calibration.
The measured reference value is stored in a file on the hard disk
and used for all subsequent measurements when the same ear type
3.4 is used as currently selected.
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Reading the DRP-ERP Correction Data of the Artificial Ear of
Type 3.4:
Call the routine “Calibration  DRP to ERP Correction  Type 3.4
 From ITU-T P.57 Table 2b”. This procedure needs only be
repeated when the “3GPP” directory has been renamed or removed.
Alternatively it is also possible to load individual DRP-ERP correction
data from a calibration disk. This option is not conformant with the
standards.
Reading the Diffuse Field Equalization Data of the Artificial Ear of
Type 3.4:
From Release 10 of 3GPP TS 26.132, diffuse field equalization is
applied to receiving frequency response results with handset and
headset UEs. Call the routine “Calibration  Diffuse field
equalization  Type 3.4  From ITU-T P.58 Table 3”. This
procedure needs only be repeated when the “3GPP” directory has
been renamed or removed.
Alternatively it is also possible to load individual diffuse field
equalization data from a calibration disk. This option is not
conformant with the standards.
Calibration of Artificial Mouth for Handset Tests
Before a mobile phone can be tested, the absolute sensitivity and
frequency response of the artificial mouth have to be measured and
corrected with the aid of a previously calibrated free-field or diffuse-field
(pressure-field) microphone. The measuring microphone removed from
artificial ear type 1 can be used for this purpose or an additional
microphone capsule is screwed to the microphone preamplifier. The
standard microphone is used as a reference for determining the
frequency response of the mouth. The frequency response of the
microphone can be ignored in the test frequency range (100 Hz to
8 kHz) (see also calibration certificate of microphone capsule).
Since interfering sound falsifies the corrections, the artificial mouth must
be calibrated in the anechoic and isolated test chamber. In order to
reject any noise present in the test chamber, it is recommended to
activate item “Selective” in the calibration menu.
First of all, a calibrated measuring microphone has to be selected.
 Select a reference microphone type with “Calibration 
Artificial mouth  Select reference mic”.
For the selected microphone type, a device must be selected and
calibrated (see above). This device must be connected to R&S UPV
analyzer input 1 via power supply/conditioning amplifier.
For calibration of a P.51 type artificial mouth using a diffuse field type
microphone (e.g. B&K 4131 or 4134) or a microphone from a Type1
artificial ear, fit the microphone at right angles to the mouth at the
mouth reference point (MRP) using the gauge supplied with the
mouth (positioning at right angles is necessary because diffuse field
or pressure-calibrated microphones have a flat frequency response
to sound from random incident direction and therefore exhibit an
emphasis on high frequencies with frontal sound incidence).
For calibration of a P.51 type artificial mouth using a free field
microphone, the microphone must be mounted in the axis of the
sound outlet of the artificial mouth.
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For calibration of the HATS (P.58 type) artificial mouth, a ¼”
microphone is clamped in the fixture attached to the HATS.

Call the calibration routine with “Calibration  Artificial mouth  LRGP ITU-T P.51  Without
Reference Spectrum”, “Calibration  Artificial mouth  LRGP ITU-T P.51  with P.50 Ref.
Spectrum”, “Calibration  Artificial mouth  HATS ITU-T P.58  Without Reference Spectrum” or
“Calibration  Artificial mouth  HATS ITU-T P.58  with P.50 Ref. Spectrum” from the main
menu.
The sound pressure generated at the MRP is set to exactly -4.7 dBPa in
an automatic measurement routine at 1 kHz. The generator voltage
required is stored in a file on the hard disk and used as a reference for
all subsequent settings with the same artificial mouth. If the sound
pressure cannot be adjusted to -4.7 dBPa, an error message is
displayed with a request to check the connection of the artificial mouth
and to repeat the measurement. A possible error source would be that
the transformer supplied is not connected between the generator and
the artificial mouth.
The uncorrected frequency response of the artificial mouth is
measured and displayed. Next, the frequency response is measured
with the inverse frequency response correction automatically
selected in the generator (equalization). Residual errors caused by
nonlinearities of the speaker in the mouth are measured and taken
into account in the final equalization file as fine correction.
To verify the results, the absolute sound pressure versus frequency
is measured at a sound pressure of 4.7 dBPa (reference value for
most of the measurements). The absolute sound pressure at each
frequency must be within a tolerance band of 0.2 dB. Correct
calibration without interfering sound yields an almost straight line in
the middle between the two limit lines.
If mouth calibration with reference spectrum measurement is
chosen, the test signal is subsequently filtered with the inverse
mouth frequency response, and the resulting spectrum at the MRP
is recorded as reference for sending frequency response tests.
If a mouth calibration is performed without reference spectrum
measurement, previously recorded reference spectra are
invalidated. A sensing measurement using artificial voice according
to ITU-T P.50 can only performed after an additional reference
spectrum calibration (see below).
P.50 Speech Spectrum Calibration
For tests using artificial voice according to ITU-T P.50 as test signal, the
spectrum of the test signal has to be measured and stored as reference
spectrum for the transfer function (gain) calculation. For sending and
sidetone tests, the signal has to be filtered in addition with the inverse
frequency response of the artificial mouth. A calibrated reference
microphone must be placed at the Mouth Reference Point (MRP) for
this purpose. It is recommended to perform the reference spectrum
calibration directly after the mouth calibration, using sub-menu item
“Calibration Artificial Mouth  …  With P.50 Ref. Spectrum”.
The reference spectrum calibration for the receiving direction does not
require external equipment or wiring. The reference signal at the output
from the R&S UPV generator to the speech input of the system
simulator is measured via internal connection to the R&S UPV analyzer
input. For narrow-band tests in receiving direction, a band-limited
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version of the test signal is used. Each version of the test signal has to
be calibrated separately.
For ambient noise rejection according to Release 10 of 3GPP TS
26.132, a separate speech reference spectrum calibration is necessary
because the active speech level at the MRP is specified to be
+1.3 dBPa instead of -4.7 dBPa for this test. The test routines can be
found in sub-menu “Calibration __> P.50 Speech Ref. Spectrum 
Sending for ANR”.
Fig. 54
Submenu for reference speech spectrum calibration
Calibration of CMU Speech Codec
The calibration of the CMU speech coder and decoder is necessary to
be able to calculate absolute loudness. Calibration has to be performed
only once and must be repeated only if the R&S CMU200 used is
replaced. If the R&S CMU200 is equipped with model 14 of the Link
Handler R&S CMU-B21, GSM as well as WCDMA use the same paths.
Calibration of the coder is therefore identical for both operating modes
and need not be repeated when switching from GSM to WCDMA or vice
versa.
If GSM and WCDMA use different link handlers, separate calibration
devices have to be generated for the two link handlers (i.e. with and
without the supplied adapter).
Note that encoder and decoder are handled as separate devices but
calibrated with one routine.
Auxiliary settings required for calibration can be found in the
R&S CMU200 under Bit Stream (for GSM) and under BS Signal,
Dedicated Channel, Voice settings (for WCDMA) (firmware version 4.52
or higher). Call the calibration routines with “Calibration → Codec →
CMU/CBT” from the main menu.
The following information is displayed:
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Fig. 55
Message box during decoder calibration
Set up a call to the mobile phone. Set bit stream or voice setting on the
R&S CMU200 to "Decoder Cal" and then click the “OK” button.
The actual voltage at the decoder output of the R&S CMU200 is now
measured for a digital full-scale signal and the required correction value
is calculated and saved in the R&S UPV. The following request is then
displayed:
Fig. 56
Message box during encoder calibration
After the “OK” button has been clicked, the input sensitivity of the
speech coder is measured and the input voltage required for digital full
scale is measured at the speech coder and saved in the R&S UPV.
Calibration of CMW Speech Codec
The CMW500 does not provide the “Decoder Cal” and “Encoder Cal”
functionalities. Instead the maximum peak input and output voltage can
be set in the user interface.
Fig. 57
Setting of the full-scale peak input and output values in the
CMW user interface
“Calibration → Codec → CMW” opens windows where these values can
be entered in unit mV in the mobile phone test program.
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Calibration of Ambient Noise Field
Fig. 58
Measurement window for ambient noise field calibration.
Please refer to application note 1GA51, available on the R&S download
web site, for suggestions how to generate the noise field for the ambient
noise rejection test. For the calibration of the noise field for ambient
noise rejection tests, all obstacles (test head or HATS, Telephone etc.)
have to be removed from the test chamber. For the generation of the
noise field, additional equipment is necessary. The noise field should
have sufficient homogeneity (sound pressure level independent of
place) and diffuseness (randomly incident sound at the place of the
microphone). This can either be achieved in a reverberation room with
omni-directionally radiating sound source or in an anechoic room with a
number of uncorrelated noise sources. Limited homogeneity can be
achieved in the centre between two speakers. For good diffuseness a
minimum of four speakers distributed in different spatial directions are
required.
A diffuse field or pressure field microphone must be positioned at the
spot of the mouth reference point of the (removed) test head or HATS.
The menu Item Calibration  Ambient noise field opens the window
shown in Fig. 26.
The button “Adjust Spectrum” starts a continuous spectrum
measurement which allows to adjust the spectrum of the noise, e.g.
using equalizers. The template is centred around the curve irrespective
of the absolute level.
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Fig. 59
Measurement window for spectrum adjustment.
The continuous spectrum measurement can be aborted by clicking
“Stop Adjustment”.
The button “Adjust level” starts a continuous level measurement. If a
multitude of sources is used, each source must produce a sound
pressure level of -24 dBPa – 3 * LOG n dB, whereby n is the number of
noise sources.
Fig. 60
Measurement window for level adjustment.
The left thermometer column gives a coarse overview. The right column
has an enlarged scale for fine adjustment. The numeric field in the
centre shows the numeric value.
The continuous level measurement can be aborted by clicking “Stop
Adjustment”.
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Once the noise field has been adjusted, the result can be documented
by pressing “Start Measurement”. Although there is no calibration value
to be used in the ambient noise rejection measurement, the level is
stored and can be included for reference in the measurement report.
Fig. 61
Result of ambient noise calibration.
Calibration of Noise Field for “Speech Quality in
Presence of Background Noise” Test
Connections
Fig. 62
Test setup and connection of external components for the
adjustment of the background noise field.
Connect
1. LAN socket of UPV to LAN socket of UPP
2. UPP trigger output to UPV trigger input
3. UPP-Z8A output 3 to input of front left active speaker
4. UPP-Z8A output 4 to input of rear left active speaker
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5. UPP-Z8A output 5 to input of front right active speaker
6. UPP-Z8A output 6 to input of rear right active speaker
7. UPP-Z8A configured subwoofer output (by default 7) to input of
active subwoofer
8. Right artificial ear to UPV analyzer input 1 via microphone power
supply
9. Left artificial ear to UPV analyzer input 2 via microphone power
supply
For the delay measurements, user will be prompted to modify the input
connections: a connection has to be made from UPP-Z8A output 10 to
UPV input 1, and both artificial ears have to be connected subsequently
to UPV analyzer input 2.
Optional a UPZ input switcher can be used; see chapter 'Switcher
Support'
Establishing the remote control connection between UPV and UPP
After power up of both instruments and the interconnection with a LAN
switch cable, first an IP connection has to be established between UPV
and UPP.
1. Start the UPV-K9x program and open window “Options → UPP
remote control”.
2. Once the “LAN” LED on the UPP is on, press button “CASCADE /
LAN RESET” once and wait until the “CASCADE” LED is blinking.
3. Press the “CASCADE / LAN RESET” button again.
4. Click the “Find” button in the UPP remote control window on the
UPV.
5. Now the computer name on the UPP appears in the UPP remote
control window. Select it and close the window with “Ok”.
Prerequisites
The calibration of both artificial ears of the HATS is required for
performing the calibration of the background noise field.
Configuration
The configuration of the noise field calibration comprises
1. Choice of the calibration method
2. Speaker configuration and setup
3. Bandwidth and tolerance settings
4. Switcher usage
5. Other settings
and is done in the 'Noise Calibration Configuration' window. This
window is opened with item 'Noise calibration configuration' in the
“Options” menu. The figure below shows the default settings; if any item
has been changed then user can retain the default settings by selecting
the button "Set to default".
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Fig. 63 Noise Calibration Configuration Window, Default state.
The configuration is saved in the settings of the UPV-K9x program, so
that any modification will be effective and re-used as long as the
speaker configuration and calibration methods do not need to be
changed.
Choice of calibration method
Three different calibration methods are available that differs in time
consumption and accuracy:
Pink Noise Equalization (recommended by Rohde & Schwarz)
equalizes speaker and room with an uncorrelated, non-periodical Pink
Noise signal and uses this equalization for all ambiances. It offers the
best compromise between calibration time and accuracy. After room
equalization with the pink noise signal only an individual level correction
has to be done for each ambiance.
Fig. 64 Configuration Window, calibration method Pink Noise.
Although it is not recommended to change the default settings a user
can select level and duration of the Pink Noise; specifying a longer
duration results in longer calibration time but might increase the
accuracy especially at low frequencies. Instead of using the
recommended WAV file user could provide an own noise file.
Equalization with one shared ambiance (recommended by ETSI ES
202 396) equalizes speaker and room with one of the ambiances and
uses this equalization for all other ambiances, too. Because the real
ambiances do not contain the same energy in each frequency band the
equalization is optimal only for the selected ambiance.
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Fig. 65 Configuration Window, calibration method shared ambiance.
This method takes the same calibration time as Pink Noise but normally
offers worse accuracy. After room equalization the individual level
correction has to be done for each ambiance.
Individual equalization of each ambiance results in best equalization
accuracy but makes the calibration process more than 3 times longer
(about 8 hours). It could be considered if the room and speaker setup
will never be changed.
Fig. 66 Configuration Window, calibration method individual ambiance.
Speaker configuration and setup
Currently two different speaker configurations are allowed for
background noise generation:
Fig. 67 Configuration Window, speaker configuration.
4 full range speakers (2 pairs) with 1 subwoofer or 4 full range speakers
without subwoofer. A subwoofer must be used if the full range speakers
do not pass frequencies down to 50 Hz. The full range speakers are
connected to UPP channel 3..6; the optional subwoofer is connected to
channel 7. UPP channel 10 is reserved for connection to UPV output.
If a subwoofer is used then the cross over frequency between full range
speakers and subwoofer can be adjusted:
Fig. 68 Configuration Window, speaker crossover frequency.
To avoid overdriving the speakers' (or amplifier's) maximum input
voltage user can adjust the UPP maximum (RMS) output level:
Fig. 69 Configuration Window, speaker maximal output level.
At the beginning of the calibration process checks for each speaker are
performed to acchieve a minimum sound preasure level and to detect
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speaker overdrive by measuring THD. User is instructed to increase the
speaker (or amplifier) gain if the required sound level could not be
reached. The required Sound Preasure Level could be set in the range
from 80 to 99 dBspl:
Fig. 70 Configuration Window, speaker Min Sound Pressure Level.
For speakers that generate higher harmonics than 10% (-20 dB) the
tolerable THD can be increased (to e.g. -10 dB):
Fig. 71 Configuration Window, speaker Max THD.
To detect left/right speaker connection faults the calibration process
need to know the rough speaker-to-microphone distances. If your room
is much larger or smaller than the recommended size, then user has to
adjust the minimum or maximum speaker distance:
Fig. 72 Configuration Window, expected HATS to speaker distance.
Bandwidth and tolerance settings
The bandlimit specifies the frequency range where the equalization will
be performed.
Fig. 73 Configuration Window, Bandlimit.
The 'low' value additionally enables a highpass filter. To include the
lowest third octave (50 Hz) the lower bandlimit should be lower or equal
to a half third octave (f / 1.122) below. To exclude the 40 Hz third octave
from equalization the bandlimit low should be set to 44.5 Hz
Flatness check is limited to the frequency range between start and end.
Fig. 74 Configuration Window, Flatness range.
According to ETSI ES 202 396 the equalization must be flat to +/-3 dB,
thus the flatness width must not be greater than 6 dB.
Fig. 75 Configuration Window, Flatness width.
To achieve an even better flatness this value might be reduced by 1 or
2 dB, if room and speaker setup are able to fulfil such narrow flatness.
Switcher Usage
To reduce user interaction during calibration and measurement an R&S
Input switcher UPZ can be used. This allows hard wired connection to
be established between each signal source and the UPZ while the
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calibration process automatically switches the required UPZ input
channels to UPV input
Fig. 76 Configuration Window, Use Input Switcher UPZ.
Other settings
All other configuration settings normally need not to be changed. User
should modify these settings only to change the default behaviour of the
calibration.
Fig. 77 Configuration Window, Ear equalization.
Instead of using ID ear equalization (Independent of Direction) user can
select 'free field (FF)' or 'diffuse field (DF)' ear equalization.
Fig. 78 Configuration Window, Modify speaker delay.
To avoid coherent superposition of sound from each speaker the
measured speaker delay is individually increased. Only experienced
users should modify these settings to fix acoustical problems!
Fig. 79 Configuration Window, Max iterations during equalization.
To achieve flat frequency response several iterations of equalization are
performed for single and pair of speakers. Iteration is terminated if
flatness is better than 1 dB or 'Max iterations during equalization' is
reached. This value can be selected between 1 (no iteration) and 5.
Fig. 80 Configuration Window, Action on final flatness deviation.
This item specifies how the calibration process should behave if – after
all iteration steps – the flatness deviation is higher than 'Flatness width'.
By default it would prompt the user how to proceed (retry, ignore or
abort). To avoid this interruption of calibration process user can
predefine if (and how often) the measurement should be retried.
Fig. 81 Configuration Window, Max level deviation.
During level adjustment the sound pressure level of each speaker is
iterated to the requested value. This iteration terminates if the level
deviation is below the selected 'Max level deviation'. To achieve higher
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level accuracy this value can be decreased; however, this might
increase the count of iteration steps and total calibration time.
Fig. 82 Configuration Window, Ignore uncritical warnings.
To avoid interruption of calibration process by default only errors are
reported to user; warnings about uncritical deviations (e.g. noise floor,
flatness of unequalised room, level deviation during single speaker
adjustment) are suppressed, but entered in report.
To get uncritical warning as soon as they appear this tick box has to be
deactivated.
Fig. 83 Configuration Window, Use All speaker Equalization.
If the sound super positioning of all speakers degrades the flatness to
more than 6 dB (or the selected 'flatness width') a post equalization
process should be used to improve this flatness. Otherwise the
calibration would fail!
Instead of using the R&S recommended algorithm the post equalization
can be done according to ES 202 396-1.
Fig. 84 Configuration Window, Final test of all ambiances.
After successful calibration a final level and equalization test of all
ambiances should be performed. Additionally this test adjusts the total
level setting to minimum deviation.
Disabling this test reduces the total calibration time.
The final test of successfully calibrated noise field (but without level
optimization) can be performed separately from the calibration process
by executing the calibration and skipping all calibration steps.
Fig. 85 Configuration Window, report intermediate steps.
In case of problems during the calibration process a user can activate a
detailed reporting that logs all intermediate steps.
Selecting 'Report intermediate steps' does not increase total calibration
time but the pages of report.
Switcher Support
If 'Input Switcher UPZ' is enabled in 'Noise Calibration Configuration'
then the calibration process will try to connect all required signal
sources automatically to UPV input instead of prompting user to change
cabling. This presumes:
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
UPV is connected to UPZ via serial cable (RS232) OR USB
cable (do not connect USB if you want to use RS232!);

USB-to-serial device driver is installed (only if using USB
connection);

UPZ is powered ON (green 'ON'-LED on switcher front panel)
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Fig. 86 Test setup and connection of external components with input
switcher UPZ for the adjustment of the background noise field.
When starting the calibration process a dialogue is displayed to instruct
the user how to connect the input switcher's analogue input and output
connections. The connections to UPZ input channel 3, 4 and 5 are not
necessary for the calibration, but will be needed for later measurement
(note: only 1 microphone need to be connected to input channel 4 or 5,
respectively).
Fig. 87 Switcher support, analogue connection instructions.
or – if switcher could not be detected – how to establish the control
connection from UPV to UPZ:
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Fig. 88 Switcher support, control connection instructions.
If the switcher cannot be enabled at this point, then 'Cancel' will disable
switcher for the current calibration; cabling has to be done manually.
The corresponding setting in configuration window will not be changed.
On next start of calibration the switcher will be tried to use again.
The calibration process checks the connection to UPZ whenever the
switcher needs to be operated. If switcher control fails while calibration
is running (e.g. by unplugging the control or power cable), then the user
will be prompted to establish the analogue connections manually. This
allows the calibration to terminate correctly:
Fig. 89
Switcher support, error message if switcher failed during
calibration.
Starting the calibration process
Before calibration can be started user has to select the reference
microphone:
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Calibration is started by selecting the 'Office Room':
Fig. 90 Starting the background noise calibration process.
A brief set of cabling instructions appears first of all:
Fig. 91 Cabling instructions for the speakers.
Stopping and resuming the calibration process
The calibration process can be stopped at any time. All of the calibration
data recorded up to this point are then available and can be viewed in
the report.
To abort a running calibration (e.g. to improve the loudspeaker
positions) is possible in the following ways:
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
If a dialog box appears, click the "Abort" or "Cancel" button
Fig. 92 Dialogue with 'Abort' button to abort calibration.
Fig. 93 Dialogue with 'Cancel' button to abort calibration.

Fig. 94
If measurement is running, click the "Cancel" button and
confirm with 'Break':
Window during running
confirmation dialogue.
measurement
and
'Cancel'
After calibration had been stopped a dialog box inform the user about
the calibration section that was aborted.
Fig. 95
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A calibration that had been aborted can be resumed at certain resuming
points. When restarting a calibration that partly had been finished the
calibration process will prompt the user at every resuming point

to resume the calibration at this point (recalibrate this and the
following)

to skip this calibration section

to abort the calibration
By skipping all successfully terminated calibration sections the
calibration process will be resumed at the beginning of the section
where it had been aborted. For details please see chapter 'Calibration
Sections and Resuming Points'.
Preparatory Measurements for Delay Measurement
Before the delay measurement is performed, additional plausibility
checks are carried out at each speaker to ensure that the wiring is
correct and that the sound pressure level is high enough:
Measurement of Sound Pressure
The unweighted sound pressure level should reach at least 80 dBspl (or
the value selected as 'Min sound pressure level' in configuration
window, if modified) at normal drive level.
Fig. 96 Message for insufficient level.
If this sound pressure is not reached, an error message appears which
cannot be ignored. After the gain factor has been increased, the
measurement can be repeated (by selecting 'Retry').
Measurement of Level Change at Microphone Amplifier Output
During this measurement 2 different levels are successively applied to
each speaker. The output at the microphone amplifier (measured by
UPV input channel 2) is expected to change by the same amount
(5 dB).
Fig. 97 Message for insufficient sound pressure level increase.
If the amplifier output does not change with the UPP output level, this
may have the following causes:
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
the microphone amplifier is switched off

the HATS ear is not connected to the correct amplifier channel

the microphone amplifier is not connected or is incorrectly
connected to UPV input channel 2

the desired speaker is switched off
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
the desired speaker is not connected to the correct UPP output
channel

the requested sound pressure level cannot be output by the
speaker (speaker gain to high or 'Maximum output level' to
high),
After the error has been rectified, the measurement can be repeated by
selecting 'Retry'. If the configuration has to be changed, then the
calibration must be aborted ('Cancel' button).
Measurement of Level Change at Reference Input
During this measurement 2 different levels are successively applied to
UPP output channel 10. The input level at UPV input channel 1 is
expected to change by the same amount (5 dB).
Fig. 98 Message for insufficient level change at reference input.
If the reference input does not change with the UPP output level, there
is no connection between UPV channel 1 and UPP output channel 10.
After the error has been rectified, the measurement can be repeated by
selecting 'Retry'.
Delay Measurement
The delay measurement determines the time it takes for the sound to
travel from the speaker membranes to the left and right ear of the
HATS. The travel time and therefore the distance of the full-range
speakers from the HATS is measured by means of cross-correlation of
the acoustic (sound pressure) signal and the electrical reference signal.
Since the delay measurement is quite complicated owing to the required
cabling modifications, it can be skipped if a valid delay calibration is
already available and if the speaker layout and the HATS position have
not been changed in the meantime. The latter is not recognizable by the
calibration process; it is therefore the responsibility of the user to repeat
the delay calibration if necessary.
Fig. 99 Message querying the start of the delay calibration.
To perform the delay measurement, the reference signal from channel
10 of the UPP generator is connected to analyzer channel 1 of the UPV,
and the signal from the respective ear is connected to analyzer channel
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2 (via a preamplifier). Which ear is currently being measured and
therefore must be connected (to UPV input channel 2) is shown in
dialog boxes. If the R&S input switcher UPZ is used, then the
connection will be switched automatically without any user interaction.
Fig. 100
Instruction for connections during delay measurement.
This box must be confirmed after reconnection of the UPV analyzer;
then the measurement and the generator signal are started.
Connection problems can be determined from the measured value
obtained during the delay measurement:

Checking of the delay differences between the measurement
channel and reference channel
Fig. 101
Plausibility check for the delay result.
If the reference channel has a greater delay than the
measurement channel, it is not connected to the reference
signal but instead to the 2nd channel of the microphone
amplifier.

Distance between the speaker and associated HATS ear is too
great
Fig. 102
Message for unexpectedly long delay.
If the measured distance is greater than the intended maximum
distance, the longer indirect sound path to the ear located
opposite may possibly have been measured. In this way it is
possible to detect inadvertent swapping of the HATS ears. The
'Max distance HATS to speaker' can be adjusted in the
configuration window after cancelling the calibration.
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
Distance between the speaker and associated HATS ear is too
small
Fig. 103
Message for unexpectedly short delay.
If the distance is less than the intended minimum distance, the
speaker is too close to the HATS. This warning can be ignored,
if the measured distance matches the actual position of the
speaker. The 'Min distance HATS to speaker' can be adjusted
in the configuration window after cancelling the calibration.
The measurement can be repeated after the cabling or the amplifier
level has been corrected.
If the R&S Input switcher UPZ is used, then the connections are
automatically switched without any user interaction. Otherwise the
cabling must be changed during and after the delay measurement; the
user is instructed to do this in dialog boxes.
Fig. 104 Instructions for change of cabling during the calibration
process.
The distance between HATS and subwoofer cannot be measured but
must be entered manually. This value is not critical for the
measurement and can be given with an accuracy of 10 cm.
Fig. 105 Delay measurement, manual entry of subwoofer distance.
After completion of the delay measurement, it is thus ensured that the
HATS ears are correctly cabled and the output level is high enough. A
list showing all of the determined distances is displayed before the
actual equalization begins.
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Fig. 106
List of determined distances.
Preparatory Measurements for Equalization
Equalization can only be performed successfully if the room acoustics
meet certain requirements.
Noise Floor
The acceptable noise floor is max. 30 dB(A)spl. If it is above this value,
equalization may fail in the case of weak noise fields.
Fig. 107
Warning for exceeded noise floor limit.
This warning is suppressed if 'Ignore uncritical level warnings' is
activated in configuration window. After the soundproofing has been
improved, the measurement can be repeated. "Ignore" continues the
calibration process although this limit has been exceeded.
Frequency Response of unequalized Speakers
The frequency response of each speaker before equalization is
measured in the range of 40 Hz to 20 kHz (or the range selected as
'Bandwidth low/high' in configuration window, if modified)
The acceptable flatness deviation for fullrange speakers is max. ±9 dB
in the range 50 Hz to 10 kHz (or the range selected as 'Flatness
start/end at' in configuration window, if modified).
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The graph displays the frequency range that is to be equalized, the Y
axis is scaled from -20 to +20 dB. The limit curve shows the range that
is checked for flatness.
Fig. 108
Frequency response of unequalised fullrange speaker.
If the flatness deviation is above this value, equalization is hard to
achieve for the room and the room properties and the speaker layout
should be improved before equalization is performed.
Fig. 109
Warning for excessive equalization needs.
'Ignore' continues the calibration process although this limit has been
exceeded.
This warning is suppressed if 'Ignore uncritical level warnings' is
activated in configuration window.
The final curve for each speaker and the flatness result for each
fullrange speaker are added to the report.
The subwoofer frequency response can be used to determine the cutoff
frequency, if unknown. If it is below the default value of 120 Hz, then the
actual cutoff frequency must be modified in the configuration window. If
the subwoofer does not pass frequencies down to 40 Hz, then the
lowest third octave should not be equalized. In this case the user should
set the Bandlimit Low in configuration window to 50 Hz. If it does not
pass 50 Hz, then this subwoofer is not appropriate for this calibration.
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Fig. 110
Frequency response of unequalised subwoofer.
Total Harmonic Distortion
Measurement of the total harmonic distortion is performed for each
speaker at nominal level in order to prevent speakers from being
overdriven. Since destructive interference of the fundamental can occur
at discrete frequencies which then results in a poorer total harmonic
distortion being determined, the measurement is repeated at different
frequencies in the case of an error.
Fig. 111 Warning for excessive total harmonic distortion of a speaker.
If speakers with a high total harmonic distortion are used, the tolerance
limit 'Max THD' must be set higher (e.g. -10 dB) in the configuration
window.
Cabling Check
This measurement which was already performed during the delay
measurement is intended to ensure that the cabling is correct if the
delay measurement is skipped and after the cabling has been changed.
The results are the same as those under "Measurement of Level
Change at Microphone Amplifier Output".
Shared Equalization Method
The fastest way to establish a valid calibration is to equalize room and
speakers with only one signal – preferably Pink Noise – and use the
equalization data for all ambiances. Afterwards the ambiances are
individually level adjusted. This is the default setting; in configuration
window user alternatively can select any of the ambiances as
equalization signal (see ' Choice of calibration method').
At the beginning of equalization, a check is performed to determine
whether a valid equalization data set is available. If this is the case,
equalization can be skipped (by selecting 'No') and the calibration
process continues with individual level setting:
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Fig. 112
Valid Shared Equalization, recalibration prompt.
Once started the equalization as well as the subsequent level
adjustment are largely performed without input from the user. The only
time input is required is if errors occur and the user is asked what
should happen next.
During calibration process the equalization result graph – if equalization
had been performed – and the values of the level adjustment are stored
and can be reviewed in the report after termination or abort of
calibration.
Individual Equalization Method
Alternatively the calibration process can generate individual equalization
data for each ambiance. Depending on the room and speaker
characteristic this method could generate even better flatness, but is
very time consuming. Each ambiance will first be level adjusted and
then equalized. Before starting the calibration process user has to
select this calibration method in configuration window (see ' Choice of
calibration method').
For each ambiance a check is performed to establish whether a valid
calibration data set is available. If this is the case, equalization of this
ambiance can be skipped by selecting 'No':
Fig. 113
Valid Individual Equalization, recalibration prompt.
Once started the level adjustment and equalization are largely
performed without input from the user. The only time input is required is
if errors occur and the user is asked what should happen next.
During calibration process each measured equalization result graph and
the values of the level adjustment are stored and can be reviewed in the
report after termination or abort of calibration.
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Level Adjustment
Level adjustment is performed with a maximum of five iteration steps.
Normally two steps are sufficient to achieve the desired level tolerance
(< 0.3 dB, can be modified as 'Max level deviation' in the configuration
window). This number may not be sufficient for the subwoofer,
especially for ambiances with weak bass. A message is then displayed
where the user can choose whether to accept the actual level deviation
or to perform a further iteration. This dialog box by default is disabled in
the noise calibration configuration window:
Fig. 114 Checkbox for suppressing the message caused by excessive
single level deviation or other uncritical warnings.
Level adjustment is performed before (in case of individual equalization)
of after (in other cases) the single speaker equalization.
Equalization
Equalization is performed in 4 steps:

single speaker equalization

pairwise equalization of the two left and the two right speakers

flatness check of all speakers

all speaker post equalization (optional)
Each of the two steps is performed with a maximum number of iteration
steps which is selected in the configuration dialog box; 2 or 3 iterations
are usually enough to achieve a flatness of 1 dB. If additional iterations
are expected (up to 5) then the user can modify this setting in the
configuration window
If the all speaker equalization check does not result in a PASS, then the
user can try to achieve a PASS by repeating this measurement. This
may be successful if, for example, the tolerance violation is only slight
or unwanted noise had impaired the measurement.
Fig. 115 Message for failed verification of all speaker equalizations.
This dialog can be suppressed by predefining the desired behavior in
the configuration window:
Fig. 116 Selection of action on failed verification of all speaker
equalizations in the noise calibration configuration window.
Additionally optional post equalization can be performed if the all
speaker equalization check fails. Activated by default this part of the
calibration slightly modifies the equalization of individual speakers to
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fulfil the flatness requirement.The result of each intermediate step is
displayed as a trace during equalization. By selecting 'Report
intermediate steps' in configuration window all these traces are stored in
the report.
Fig. 117
Display of intermediate equalization results.
All Speaker Post Equalization
Following an unsuccessful all speaker equalization check, it is possible
to adjust the all speaker equalization to within the ±3 dB tolerance band
by subsequent correction of individual speakers.
Since the algorithm recommended by ES 202 396-1 is extremely timeconsuming and not always successful, a much faster post equalization
is selected by default. Alternatively user can select the ETSI
recommendation or deactivate the post equalization in the configuration
window.
Fig. 118 Checkbox in the noise calibration configuration window for
deactivating the additional all speaker equalization step.
Note: deactivating the 'Use All speaker Equalization' is not
recommended because it will cause a final FAIL of calibration if the first
all speaker check fails.
If 'All Speaker Post Equalization according to ES 202 396-1' is
activated, these further equalization steps are performed:
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
Measurement of the crosstalk flatness separately for left and
right. If at least one of these is outside the tolerance, the
crosstalk speaker which impairs the frequency response most
is determined (by switching off the other crosstalk speaker).
Starting with this speaker, the four crosstalk speakers are
equalized again individually (next is the other speaker on the
same side followed by the next worse speaker) until the
interaction of all speakers is below the tolerance limit or
repeated equalization of all four speakers was unsuccessful.

If this equalization step was unsuccessful, adjustment with the
direct speakers is attempted. Once again the direct speaker
which impairs the frequency response most is determined.
Starting with this speaker, the four direct speakers are
equalized again individually until the interaction of all speakers
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is below the tolerance limit or repeated equalization of all four
speakers was unsuccessful.
If 'All Speaker Post Equalization Fast (recommended by R&S)' is
activated, these further equalization steps are performed:

Equalization of each pair (left and right) with the attenuated
inverse frequency response of the opposite pair.

If this equalization step was unsuccessful, then equalization of
each pair (left and right) with the attenuated inverse frequency
response of the same pair.
If this equalization step is also unsuccessful, equalization has
definitively failed and must be repeated with improved room properties.
Otherwise the calibration data now are valid and can be used for
measurements in the presence of background noise.
Fig. 119
Message of successful calibration or verification.
Final Test of All Ambiances
This test performs a flatness and level check of each ambiance, with
the A-weighting filter activated. It can be performed during the
calibration process or separately after a calibration had successfully
been terminated. So it allows checking a valid calibration to see if any
modification had been done that requires a recalibration.
For each checked ambiance a report entry is generated with the graph
(documenting the flatness over frequency) and the numeric deviations
of flatness and level for left and right channel. Note that the +/-3 dB
tolerance limits in graph are displayed centered to the highest left and
right deviation.
If performed during the calibration process the final test section
additionally adjusts the total level to minimum level deviation of both
channels. To have this final level optimization it is strongly
recommended not to deactivate the final test!
To perform the final test separately user has to start the calibration and
skip all calibration sections. Note that the preparatory measurements
cannot be skipped but has to be done to ensure proper cabling. The
final test cannot be skipped but of course aborted at any time.
Calibration Sections and Resuming Points
The calibration process consists of the following sections, depending on
the calibration method used:
For Pink Noise Equalization or Equalization with shared ambiance:
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
Delay Measurement

Preparatory Measurements

Pink Noise Frequency response before equalization
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
Equalization with Pink noise or shared Ambiance

Level adjustment of each ambiance

Final test of all ambiances
For Individual Equalization of each ambiance:

Delay Measurement

Preparatory Measurements

Pink Noise Frequency response before equalization

Level adjustment and Equalization of each ambiance

Final test of all ambiances
Resuming points are located after successful termination of

Delay Measurement
Fig. 120

Resuming Point after delay measurement
Equalization with Pink noise or shared Ambiance
Fig. 121
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Resuming Point after (shared) equalization
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
Level adjustment (and Equalization) of each ambiance
Fig. 122
Resuming Point after level adjustment or
individual equalization of any ambiance, e.g. Pub_Noise_V2
Selecting 'Yes' always resumes the calibration at the current resuming
point (with the current beginning calibration section), 'No' skips the
current calibration section and goes to the next resuming point. If the
calibration section following the current resuming point is not valid, then
the calibration process will continue with this section.
Calibration Report
In the report list an entry is available to open the report of the – failed,
aborted or passed – calibration process. For each calibration that has
been started a new entry is generated.
The complete report includes

frequency response (unequalized) of all speakers
limit check is done for fullrange speakers only; no FAIL verdict
Fig. 123
Report Content: frequency response of
unequalised (fullrange) speaker

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all speaker flatness of equalization method used (graph and
values)
limit check for flatness and level deviation
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Fig. 124
equalization

Report Content: All speaker flatness after
final test results of all ambiances (graph, flatness and level
deviation)
limit check for flatness (FAIL verdict for individual equalization
method only) and level (including PASS/FAIL verdict)
Fig. 125

Report Content: final test of each ambiance
other numeric calibration results
including Delays (verdict for fullrange speakers only), Noise
Floor (no FAIL verdict)
Fig. 126
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Report Content: other numeric values
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
General Settings

Test Parameters (configuration window and internal settings)
unused or irrelevant parameters are skipped
Fig. 127

Report Content: Test parameters
Calibration data (of HATS) used
Fig. 128
Report Content: HATS Calibration data
If the calibration process was aborted or partly skipped, then only a
subset of these data is stored
If 'Report intermediate steps' is activated in configuration window, then
additional graphs and numeric values are stored, that represents the
iteration of single speaker equalization, pair of speaker equalization and
all speaker equalization. To avoid this unnecessary information it is
recommended to activate this option only for support purposes.
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Synchronization of CMW clock
For packet switched connections such as VoLTE the clock of the
system simulator has to be synchronized to the clock of the UE.
Unlike the calibration of mouth, ear or room the clock synchronization
has to be repeated whenever the UE is replaced.
Preparations
The Clock Synchronization sets the "Clock Drift" value in CMW.
Therefore a remote connection to CMW must be established before
starting the clock synchronization. The remote connection is selected in
the "CMW remote control" dialogue that is opened from the "Options"
menu
Fig. 129
CMW Remote Control dialogue
The CMW can be controlled via GPIB, LAN or USB. For remote control
via LAN either CMW name ("CMW50050-", followed by the serial
number) or IP address can be entered.
The call between CMW and UE should be established before running
the clock synchronization. At the beginning of synchronization process a
check is performed to ensure that connection between UPV and CMW
and call between CMW and UE are established. The call yet can be
established at this point; to establish the CMW connection however the
synchronization must be aborted.
Fig. 130
Missing CMW connection
Starting the synchronization process
The synchronization is started by selecting the "CMW500 Clock
Synchronization" in the Calibration Menu. There are different entries for
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Handset and Handsfree. When running the first synchronization for a
UE the "… New" entry must be selected.
Fig. 131
Starting the Clock Synchronization
As long as the same UE is used the clock should be stable. To ensure
this the "… Update" entry can be selected at any time. It checks the
overall delay and compares it to the value of the last completed ("New")
synchronization. If the delay did not significantly change since last
adjustment, then a dialogue appears and the synchronization can be
skipped by selecting "No".
Fig. 132
Delay check of update synchronization
If the value differs by more than 2 ms or if the user decides to resynchronize (by selecting "Yes"), then a new synchronization will be
performed
Stopping the synchronization process
A new synchronization takes about 6 to 18 minutes, an update
synchronization at least 4 minutes. The synchronization can be aborted
at any point by selecting the "Cancel" button, but cannot be resumed.
Fig. 133
Cancel button during measurement
Once aborted the synchronization process must be restarted from the
beginning to get a valid result.
Steps of synchronization process
The requirement for maximum delay drift is 1 ppm. To ensure this
requirement the synchronization process uses up to 3 iterations to
adjust the CMW clock to a drift value of +/- 1 ppm. Normally 2 iteration
steps are sufficient. If the resulting delay drift after 3 steps is still greater
than 1 ppm, the synchronization will report a "Fail", but nevertheless
adjust the CMW "clock drift" value. In case of "Fail" a second "New"
synchronization can be performed that starts with the best "clock drift"
value and finally should result in "Pass".
Each synchronization step takes about 6 minutes and consists of 5
parts:

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Recording of the speech signal
The downlink signal at the ear is measured for 160 s while the
nd
UPV generator plays the 2 sentence of the first english female
speaker 40 times to the audio input of CMW.
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measuring – recording speech signal
Fig. 134
After recording is finished the total peak level of the recorded
speech signal is checked. If it is below 25 mV, then a warning
will be displayed and user should check the measurement
setup. Anyway the measurement can be continued.
Fig. 135

Level check of recorded signal
Adjusting the UPV delay measurement
If necessary an internal adjustment for the UPV delay
measurement is performed. This takes less than a second
measuring – adjusting delay measurement
Fig. 136

Calculating the total overall delay
This step calculates the total delay between outgoing signal to
CMW and incoming signal at the ear. It covers delays up to 1 s;
the calculation takes about 20 s. Subsequent measurements
use this delay to reduce the calculation time.
measuring – calculating total delay
Fig. 137

Calculating the delay of each 4 s interval
For each of the 40 intervals the delay difference to total delay is
calculated. Each measurement takes about 4 s. During these
measurements the current numeric delay value (ms) and the
delay-versus-time curve is displayed. The red limit lines display
the maximum allowed delay variation of 1 ppm after 160 s.
measuring – calculating delay in each interval
Fig. 138
In each interval the level is checked to detect a "no signal" error
(e.g. caused by a lost call). If the level falls 20 dB below then
the synchronization process is aborted and must be restarted.
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These – and all following steps – may be skipped for "update
synchronization", if total delay did not significantly change.

Calculation of delay drift and adjustment of CMW clock
The delay values versus time are median filtered to eliminate
delay spikes and stitched (if necessary) to delete delay jumps
caused by delay buffer over-/underrun).
Fig. 139
Delay drift calculation, buffer underrun
Fig. 140
Delay drift calculation, stitched, FAIL result
The measured curve should not cross any of the two red curves
by the end of plot. Otherwise the current iteration is failed and
an additional iteration is required to verify and possibly re-adjust
the synchronization. At this point user can decide to abort the
synchronization process by selecting "No". Skipping the
verification would spare time (about 6 minutes) of the next
iteration, but will cause a FAIL result. It is recommended to run
all iteration steps until the delay drift is within tolerance (PASS
result).
At the end of each iteration step the delay drift is calculated,
displayed and used for adjusting the CMW clock. If the delay
drift is higher than the adjustment limits of CMW clock drift
(+/- 100 ppm), then user can decide to set the limited value
(Yes) or to skip this result (No). Skipping is only recommended
if the delay drift result obviously is unusable (e.g. high
impairments or lost call).
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Fig. 141
Delay drift calculation, out of CMW limit
At the end of each iteration the graph displays the following information:

Total Verdict PASS (green) or FAIL (red)

Calculated Delay Drift (in ppm)

Delay of last interval (in ms)

Dialogue with instruction how to proceed
If the calculated delay drift is within +/- 1 ppm, then a PASS result (and
report entry) is generated. The last delay is stored for subsequent
"Update" synchronizations.
Fig. 142
PASS result
rd
If the 3 iteration had failed, then the synchronization could not properly
be completed and a FAIL result (and report entry) is generated.
Fig. 143
Final FAIL result
Even in case of FAIL the CMW clock had been adjusted as accurately
as possible. Thus a FAIL means that the correct clock adjustment had
not be verified.
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Options after termination of synchronization
If synchronization is aborted by user during measurement, then the
window of the synchronization process is automatically closed.
If synchronization is terminated with a Fail or Pass result, then the
window stays open, displaying the last iteration result.
3 Softkeys are available for further options:

"Close" closes the window of the synchronization process and
returns to the test result overview. The results now are stored
and a new line is generated in the test result overview:
Fig. 144
Result entry of clock synchronization

"Enter Comment" allows adding an individual comment for this
synchronization. It appears in the right column of the test result
overview and in the report.

"Create Report" creates a report of the current synchronization.
The result can also be created from the test result overview
after closing the synchronization window
Synchronization report
A report can be generated after termination of the synchronization
process.

Report of the current synchronization run by using softkey
"Create Report" from the synchronization window.

Report of any synchronization run from the test result overview
The result section of the report contains

3 graphs per iteration containing the raw, filtered and stitched
delay values (ms) versus time (s). They correspond to the
graphs displayed during the synchronization process.

A list of numeric values
Fig. 145
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Synchronization report, numeric values
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For each iteration the "Values" section contains the following entries:

"Delay Drift measured" in ppm; PASS if within +/- 1 ppm;
negative if the CMW clock was to slow.

"Clock Drift Value for CMW" in ppm, calculated as sum of
current CMW clock drift value and the negated delay drift
measured; PASS if within the CMW adjustment limit (+/- 100
ppm).
Does not appear if out of CMW adjustment limit and user
decided not to set the value.

"Clock Drift Value set on CMW" in ppm, rounded to full ppm
values and limited to the CMW adjustment limit (if necessary);
no limit values and no verdict.
Does not appear if out of CMW adjustment limit and user
decided not to set the value.

Minimum and maximum of the delay in ms after filtering and
stitching (if necessary); no limit values and no verdict.

The last measured delay in ms; "Delay Last" of the last iteration
will be used for all following update synchronizations; no limit
values and no verdict.
The example above shows 3 iteration of a (fictive) synchronization
process:

1 iteration is performed with a current CMW clock drift of
100 ppm, resulting in adjustment value of 100.68 ppm that
cannot be set in CMW. User decided not to set this value in
CMW, thus it does not appear in the report. This requires a
second iteration.

2 iteration is performed with the same, unmodified CMW clock
drift, resulting in adjustment value of 100.79 ppm that cannot be
set in CMW. This time user decided to store the limited value in
CMW. The delay drift value was in tolerance (Pass), but the
CMW clock drift value was out of adjustment limit (Fail),
requiring a third iteration.

3 iteration is performed with the adjusted CMW clock drift.
This time the CMW clock drift value was in adjustment limit and
could be set (Pass), but the delay drift value (1.04 ppm) was out
of tolerance (Fail). An additional iteration would be necessary,
but was not performed, because already 3 iterations had been
done. The total verdict was FAIL.
st
nd
rd
As the delay drift is only slight out of tolerance a new synchronization
executed by user will result in a "Pass".
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4 Data Entry for Reporting
Operator
Under “DataOperator” an operator’s name can be entered which is
stored in association with all calibration and measurement results. If
“Operator” is activated in the report settings, the name will appear in all
reports about these measurements.
Test object
Under “Data  Test object  New” a description of the device under
test can be entered.
Fig. 146 Window for input of information about a test object
If the checkbox “Immediately select this test object” is checked, the test
object associated with the entered data is automatically selected upon
closing the window. The data of this selected test object will be stored in
association with all measurements and appear on the associated
reports if “DUT information” is activated in the report settings.
A previously entered test object can be selected with “Data  Test
object  Select”.
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5 Measurements
General
Special problems caused by the coding and decoding algorithms of
mobile phones are encountered when measuring acoustic
characteristics. Voice codecs are used to attain the lowest possible data
rate. Mobile phone voice codecs are optimized for transmitting human
speech with low data rate. Not the actual voice signals but only the filter
and fundamental parameters required for signal reconstruction are
transmitted.
Purely sinusoidal tones normally used for audio measurements cannot be
transmitted with such a system. Therefore, the coder and decoder had
initially been excluded from the measurement, which required a
specially prepared test mobile phone with a specific test interface.
In modern mobile phones, this interface is not available anymore.
Measurements are generally performed via the air interface with the
speech coder and decoder included. As mentioned above,
measurements using sinusoidal tones cannot be performed because
the static sinusoidal input signal becomes a more or less stochastic
output signal as a result of coding, particularly in the medium and high
audio frequency ranges.
Signals similar to voice therefore have to be used for the measurement, i.e.
either artificial voice according to ITU-T P.50 or a multitone signal according
to ITU-T P.501 is possible. At the same time, modulation of the signal in
time must largely correspond to voice, since many modern mobile phones
use algorithms for interference suppression which use the modulation to
distinguish the useful from the interfering signal.
The test routines in the R&S UPV-K91 use an amplitude-modulated
multitone signal according to ITU-T P.501 as described in 3GPP TS 26.132
or alternatively artificial voice according to ITU-T P.50 (update key UPVK9101 or UPV-K9102 required).
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Starting measurements
Measurements can be started from the “Measurement” menu. This
menu contains either all available measurements, or the measurements
belonging to the selected standard if the checkbox “Allow only selected
measurements” in the “Options  Select standard” window is checked.
The menu “Standards” allows to start any measurement, whereby the
measurements are structured into submenus according to the
standards to which they belong. This allows a quick and easy access to
all available measurements.
Fig. 147 “Standards” menu with submenu for narrow band handset
tests according to 3GPP TS 26.132, using artificial voice
according to ITU-T P.50.
The menu “Release” offers all applicable test cases for a selected
combination of UE device type, speech codec bandwidth, test signal
and release of the 3GPP test specifications. Item “Select Release”
opens the selection window of Fig. 7. Sub-menu “Settings” has the
same test case entries and allows to open the editing window of Fig. 66.
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Fig. 148
“Release” menu
A fourth possibility to start a single measurement is the button “Run
highlighted as single measurement” in the sequence menu (see
chapter 7 below).
Functionality and control of the measurement
macros
Fig. 149 Example of a measurement window
When a measurement macro is started, e.g. from the “Measurement”
menu, the standardized measurement is immediately executed. With a
single measurement, the window of the measurement macro stays
open after the measurement is terminated. At that time, the following
functionality is available:
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Fig. 150 Context menu of the graph window
Zooming
When the “Shift” key on the keyboard is pressed, the mouse cursor
changes to the zoom cursor. When the left mouse button is pressed, a
rectangle can be marked in the graph. As soon as the left mouse button
is released, the graph is zoomed into the area of the marked rectangle
“Zoom Out” in the graph context menu reverses the last zooming step.
“Unzoom” zooms completely out to the original scaling.
Changing the Scale of the Graph
“Change Scale” in the context menu opens a window in which the upper
and lower bounds of both axes can be entered by numbers.
Fig. 151 Window for changing the scale of the graph
Cursor
When the item “Show Cursor” is marked in the graph context menu, a
cursor is displayed which can be dragged along the graph with the
mouse. X and Y values of the data points below the cursor are
displayed.
Data Point Size
“Data Point Size” in the graph context menu opens a window in which
the size of marks at the measured data points can be specified. Moving
the mouse cursor over one of the marks causes the associated X and Y
values to be displayed.
Entering a Comment
With the softkey “Enter Comment” or the item “Comment” in the graph
context menu, a comment can be entered and edited which will appear
in the report about the respective measurement.
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Storing a Hardcopy of the Graph
With the menu item “Save Screenshot as …” in the graph context
menu, a hardcopy of the current graph window with all numeric displays,
legend etc. can be stored as image. The current view of the graph
including additional curves, current scaling and size is copied. However,
colours are inverted to a printer-friendly colour set.
Fig. 152 Hardcopy of measurement graph
Making Additional Measurements
The softkey “Add Measurement” triggers another measurement
according to the specification of the test. Loudness ratings and other
result values like total noise level are calculated and displayed in the
legend. The additional curves and results will appear in the report if item
“Store results of further measurements” had been activated before the
measurement was started. However, limits are not checked for
additional measurements.
This function can e.g. be used to find the correct volume setting to pass
nominal RLR. It can further be used for adjustments in the device under
test.
Storing and Loading Curves
All curves in the graph can be stored to an ASCII file (*.tra), and such
curves can be loaded back into the graph. For easy import to Excel the
csv format is also offered. The softkey “Store Curve” opens a window in
which a combo box offers choice between the legends of all curves in
the graph. The curve associated in which the selected entry is stored to
the file with the specified format at the specified location.
If the “Options” menu item “Store loaded curves to results database” is
checked, loaded curves are stored together with the measurement
results and will appear in reports about the measurement.
Frequency response curves may also be stored as (relative!) UPLcompatible trace files.
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Storing Curves as Limit Curves
With “Store As Limit Curve” a curve can be selected and stored into a
R&S UPV format limit file with a specified shift in Y axis direction. This
functionality can be used to generate limit curves from “golden” devices
for evaluation purpose.
Deleting Additional Curves in the Measurement Graph
By pressing or clicking “Delete Curve”, an additional curve in the
measurement graph can be removed. A window pops up with a combo
box in which the curve to be deleted can be selected. Note that it is not
possible to delete the curve of the first measurement, as this is the
measurement for which the verdict is given. The selected curve
disappears from the graph on the screen and is removed from the
database such that it does not appear in reports anymore.
Creating a Report
The softkey “Create Report” causes a report to be prepared. The report
preview window (see below) opens and shows the preview of the report.
Buttons in the preview window allow to print the report or to export it to
PDF, WORD, EXCEL or Rich Text format.
Closing the Measurement Window
The softkey “Close” closes the measurement window. The control is
returned to the R&S UPV-K9 main window. All relevant data associated
with the measurement is imported to the results data. A new entry
appears for the measurement as new row on the bottom of the overview
data grid in the main window.
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Notes on Handset Measurements
Applicability of Measurements and Equipment
Depending on the Release
The 3GPP standard is constantly updated according to technical
advances etc. Therefore different versions of the specifications exist in
parallel, the so-called releases. Use the “Release” menu to display
testcases applicable for a certain release. Furthermore, a separate
spreadsheet “TestCaseList_23147.xls” is provided which lists all tests
and their applicability for the different releases. This test case list also
serves as a reference for the file names used as parameters when
starting a test case remotely.
Sending Frequency Response and Loudness Rating
Sending Frequency Response
The sending frequency response is specified as the transmission ratio
in dB of the voltage at the decoder output to the input noise pressure at
the artificial mouth.
With ear type 3.1 and 3.2 the mobile phone under test is installed in the
LRGP (loudness rating guard-ring position) according to ITU-T P.76,
and the receiver is sealed to the artificial ear. With ear types 3.3 and 3.4
the mobile phone is mounted on the HATS using the handset positioner.
The adjustment angles on the handset positioner are not specified in
the standard but should be noted for later reference.
A test signal with a sound pressure of -4.7 dBPa are created with the
artificial mouth at the MRP (mouth reference point), and the
corresponding output voltage is measured at the R&S CMU200 speech
decoder output and evaluated.
The sending frequency response must be within the limit lines specified
according to table 1 of 3GPP TS 26.131. The absolute sensitivity is not
yet taken into account. The valid limit lines depend on the release of the
specification and are different for narrowband and wideband speech.
The offset of the measured frequency response to the upper or lower limit
line is calculated and then the whole limit template is shifted to be centered
with respect to the measured curve. Then another limit check is performed.
If the shifted curve is now within the limit lines, PASS is output, otherwise
FAIL is displayed. The limit check is performed at each measured
frequency. If the measured value and the end point of a limit line are not at
the same frequency, it may happen that the trace slightly crosses a corner
of the limit line although there are no limit violations. The remaining margin
is displayed. A negative margin shows the amount of limit violation.
Sending Loudness Rating
The sending loudness rating (SLR) takes into account the absolute
loudness in the transmit direction and weights the tones in compliance
with the average speech spectrum and the normal sensitivity of the
average human ear.
To this end, the frequencies (Hz) of bands 4 to 17 (narrowband) or
bands 1 to 20 (wideband), resp., are evaluated according to table 1 of
ITU-T P.79.
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Table 3 Frequencies (Hz) of bands 1 to 20 acc. to table 3 of ITU-T P.79
Band
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
f (Hz)
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
Band
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
f (Hz)
500
630
800
1000
1250
1600
2000
Band
15
16
17
18
19
20
f (Hz)
2500
3150
4000
5000
6300
8000
The sensitivity in dBV/Pa at each frequency is defined as the difference
between the level at the network interface (digital level measured at the
analog R&S CMU200 speech output) and the sound pressure level at
the mouth reference point (MRP), and the sending loudness rating is
calculated according to formula 5-1 of ITU-T P.79. The weighting
factors are taken from ITU-T P.79, table A2 for narrowband and for
wideband according to release 8 and later, and from ITU-T P-79, table
G1 for wideband according to release 6 and 7. Note that loudness rating
values are loss values, i.e. a high loudness rating values indicates a low
gain and a low loudness rating value indicates a high gain.
Due to the input sensitivity tolerance of the R&S CMU200 speech coder,
the individual sensitivity of the R&S CMU200 used has to be taken into
account in order to calculate the sending loudness rating (see
calibration routines). According to 3GPP TS 26.131, the sending
loudness rating should be between 5 dB and 11 dB, with lower dB
values corresponding to greater loudness (5 dB = maximum loudness,
11 dB = minimum loudness). The measured SLR is indicated in a
window in the frequency response display and checked for compliance
with these limits. In addition to the numeric value, either PASS or FAIL
is displayed.
The general PASS or FAIL information is obtained from the limit check of
the frequency response curve and the loudness rating. PASS is output only
if both the curve and the loudness value are within tolerances.
Fig. 153 Sending frequency response with SLR value displayed
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Sending Tests using Artificial Voice according to ITU-T P.50 as
Test Signal
Modulated multisine as test signal is proven to pass GSM and 3GPP
codecs “enhanced full rate” and AMR (adaptive multi-rate) with
12.2 kbit/s without significant degradation. However, most recent
background noise reduction algorithms employ more sophisticated
indicators than just variation over time to distinguish between voice
signals and background noise signals. As a consequence, the spectrum
of the modulated multisine signal may be altered by such algorithms,
which results in a change in the measured frequency response. For this
reason all sending, receiving, sidetone and ambient noise rejection tests
are alternatively offered with artificial voice according to ITU-T P.50 as
test signal, although background noise reduction is mainly employed in
the sending path of mobile phones (update key UPV-K9101,
UPV-K9102 or UPV-K9103 required).
The test signal simulates the spectrum and time structure of human
voice without having any semantic content. It consists of 10 seconds
“female” voice and 10 seconds “male” voice.
Other than with the modulated multisine, the reference spectra at the
respective inputs of the transmission path are measured in advance
and stored in files. Therefore the speech spectrum calibration for
sending direction is a prerequisite for this test (see chapter 3
“Calibration”).
To make sure that the spectral transform is performed on the same
portion of the test signal during reference spectrum measurement and
output spectrum measurement, the output spectrum measurement is
preceded by a delay measurement employing a sine burst. The start of
the measurement is then delayed against the playback of the test signal
by the measured amount of delay in the transmission path. If the
transmission path is interrupted, e.g. due to a dropped call, the test
stops with a suitable warning message.
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Receiving Frequency Response and Loudness Rating
The following three groups of measurement definitions are available, as
the permissible limit values of the loudness rating depend on the
volume set in the mobile phone under test: “…, nom. Vol” checks
loudness rating limits for nominal loudness setting and at the same time
compliance with the frequency response limit template. “…, max. Vol.”
checks the receiving loudness rating at the highest volume setting
against a minimum. “…, min. Vol.” checks the receiving loudness rating
at the lowest volume setting against a maximum. (Note: As the
loudness rating is a loss value, a high RLR is associated with a soft
speech signal and a low RLR is associated with a loud speech signal).
Receiving Frequency Response
The receiving frequency response is specified as the transmission ratio
in dB of the sound pressure in the artificial ear to the rms value at the
network interface, applied as input voltage at the speech coder input of
the R&S CMU200. The measured sound pressure is either referenced
to the ear reference point (ERP) or (from release 10) to DRP with
diffuse field correction. For ear type 1, the measuring microphone is
directly applied to the ERP and no further correction is required. For ear
types 3.x, the measuring microphone is applied to the drum reference
point (DRP), which is the reason why any measured value has to be
converted to the ERP by means of calibration factors. For special
purpose there are separate measurements supplied with R&S UPV-K91
which measure the sound pressure referenced to the DRP.
The mobile phone under test is installed in the LRGP (ITU-T P.76) or on
the HATS. In case of ear type 1, the receiver is sealed to knife edge of
the artificial ear. In case of ear type 3.2, the receiver is sealed to the
rubber gasket of the artificial ear. If the low leak version of this ear type
is used, care must be taken that the defined leak opening at the
circumference of the artificial ear is not accidentally covered. On the
HATS with artificial ear type 3.3, a certain application force, e.g. 8N has
to be set on the handset fixture.
The speech coder is driven such that a signal with a system reference
level of -16 dBm0 is obtained. The sound pressure in the artificial ear is
measured and evaluated.
Ear type 1 will no longer be used for measurements on 3GPP mobile
phones. Therefore, 3GPP TS 26.131 defines limit values only for ear
types 3.x, whereas the limit values specified in 3GPP TS 51.010
(previously GSM 11.10) are still valid for ear type 1.
Use tests “3GPP GSM Rel. 4 Receiving Handset, nom. Vol”, “3GPP
GSM Rel. 4 Receiving Handset, max. Vol”, “3GPP GSM Rel. 4
Receiving Handset, min. Vol” for receiving tests with type 1 artificial ear.
From Release 9 only ear types 3.3 and 3.4 are allowed for standardconformal tests. From Release 10 only ear type 3.3 is allowed.
Frequency response limits have been adjusted accordingly. Use the
appropriate versions of the receiving testcase.
When ear type 1 is used, the receiving frequency response must be
within the limit lines specified in table 30.2 of 3GPP TS 51.010. When
ear type 3.x is used, it must be within the limit lines specified in 3GPP
TS 26.131. In the frequency response curve, the limit template is shifted
to be centred with respect to the displayed absolute sensitivity.
The margins of the measured frequency response to the upper and
lower limit lines are calculated separately, and then the whole template
is shifted such that the resulting margins to upper and lower limit are
equal. Then another limit check is performed. If the shifted curve is now
within the limit lines, PASS is output, otherwise FAIL is displayed. The limit
check is performed at each measured frequency. If the measured value and
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the end point of a limit line are not at the same frequency, it may happen
that the trace slightly crosses a corner of the limit line although there are no
limit violations. The remaining margin is displayed. A negative margin shows
the amount of limit violation.
Receiving Loudness Rating
The receiving loudness rating (RLR) takes into account the absolute
loudness in the receive direction and weights the spectral components
in compliance with the difference between an average speech spectrum
and the normal threshold of hearing in quiet of the average human ear.
To this end, the frequencies (Hz) of bands 4 to 17 (narrowband) or
bands 1 to 20 (wideband), resp., are evaluated according to table 1 of
ITU-T P.79 (see table 3)
The sensitivity at each frequency is specified as the ratio dBPa/V,
calculated from the level difference between the level at the network
interface (measured at the analog R&S CMU200 speech decoder
output) and the sound pressure level at the artificial ear, referenced to
the ERP, and the receiving loudness rating is calculated according to
formula 5-1 of ITU-T P.79. The weighting factors are taken from ITU-T
P-79, table A2 for narrowband and for wideband according to release 8,
and from ITU-T P-79, table G1 for wideband according to release 6 and
7.
Due to the output gain tolerance of the R&S CMU200 speech decoder,
the individual sensitivity of the R&S CMU200 used has to be taken into
account in order to calculate the receiving loudness rating (see section
“Calibration” above).
The receiving loudness rating depends on the volume setting on the
mobile phone under test and, according to 3GPP TS 26.131, should be
between -1 dB and +5 dB for narrowband and for wideband according
to release 8 and later, and between 2 dB and 8 dB for wideband
according to release 6 and 7, obtained at a rated (“nominal”) loudness
setting, with lower dB values corresponding to a higher loudness.
The RLR must not fall below -13 dB (-10 dB for wideband in release 6
and 7) when maximum loudness is set on the mobile phone. To prevent
damage to the human ear, the maximum receiving loudness must not
exceed a certain value.
The measured RLR is indicated in a window in the frequency response
display and checked for compliance with these limits. In addition to the
numeric value, either PASS or FAIL is displayed.
With “3GPP Receiving Handset, nom. Vol”, the general PASS or FAIL
information is obtained from the limit check of the frequency response
curve and the loudness rating. PASS is output only if both the curve and
the loudness value are within tolerances.
“3GPP Receiving Handset, max. Vol” checks only the RLR against a
minimum of -13 dB. The frequency response curve is shown for
information only.
“3GPP Receiving Handset, min. Vol” checks the RLR against a
maximum of +18 dB.
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Fig. 154 Receiving frequency response with RLR value displayed
Receiving Tests using Artificial Voice according to ITU-T P.50 or
Single-Talk Speech according to ITU-T P.501 as Test Signal
Receiving tests are alternatively offered with artificial voice according to
ITU-T P.50 or Single-Talk Speech according to ITU-T P.501 as test
signal (update key UPV-K9101, UPV K9102 or UPV-K9103 required for
P.50, update key UPV-K9103 required for P.501).
The P.50 test signal simulates the spectrum and time structure of
human voice without having any semantic content or language-specific
characteristics. It consists of 10 seconds “female” voice and 10 seconds
“male” voice.
The P.501 single-talk test signal contains six sentences recorded with
male voices and six sentences recorded with female voices.
Other than with the modulated multisine, the reference spectra at the
respective inputs of the transmission path are measured in advance
and stored in files. Therefore the respective speech spectrum
calibration narrowband or wideband for receiving direction is a
prerequisite for this test (see chapter 3 “Calibration”).
To make sure that the spectral transform is performed on the same
portion of the test signal during reference spectrum measurement and
output spectrum measurement, the output spectrum measurement is
preceded by a delay measurement employing a sine burst. The start of
the measurement is then delayed against the playback of the test signal
by the measured amount of delay in the transmission path. If the
transmission path is interrupted, e.g. due to a dropped call, the test
stops with a suitable warning message.
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Sidetone Masking Rating (STMR)
The sidetone path is the deliberate output of a part of the signal picked
up by the microphone to the phone's receiver. This is to create a natural
hearing impression for the person speaking on the phone as is
encountered under normal conditions involving an acoustic path
between mouth and ear.
Up to release 7.0 the STMR can only be measured according to
standard using ear type 3.2 (low leakage) (“3GPP STMR, LRGP
Method”). Up to release 4, ear type 1 may alternatively be used for
3GPP TS 51.010 only (“3GPP GSM Rel. 4 Sidetone Masking Rating”).
For these tests the mobile phone under test is installed in the LRGP
(ITU-T P.76), and the receiver is sealed to the artificial ear.
From release 7.1 it is also possible to use ear type 3.3 or 3.4 for this
test. “3GPP STMR, HATS Method, Nom. Vol” has to be passed in the
nominal setting of the user volume control. “3GPP STMR, HATS
Method, All Vol. Steps” has to be passed in all (other) settings of the
volume control. From release 9 either ear type 3.3 or 3.4 has to be
used, from release 10 ear type 3.3 is mandatory.
The artificial mouth generates a test signal with a sound pressure of
-4.7 dBPa at the MRP (mouth reference point), and the sound pressure
is measured in the artificial ear. With ear types 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, DRPERP correction is applied.
The attenuation of the sidetone path is determined at each frequency
according to table 1 of ITU-T P.79, and the sidetone masking rating
(STMR) is calculated according to formula 5-1 of ITU-T P.79 with the
weighting factors of table 3 of ITU-T P.79 taken into account. In
addition, the gain of the sidetone path is displayed as a curve.
When the phone is set to nominal receiving loudness, the STMR should
be within 13 dB and 23 dB according to 3GPP TS 26.131 when the
LRGP method is applied. With the HATS method, the target STMR is
between 12 dB and 20 dB at nominal volume setting. At all other
volume settings, the STMR must not be below 8 dB with the HATS
method.
From version 8.2 and 9.2 of TS 26.131 the target STMR range for the
HATS method has been changed to within 13 and 23 dB. From Version
8.2. and 9.1 of TS 26.132 the weighting factors for unsealed condition of
ITU-T P.79 Table B2 have to be used for the STMR calculation. These
changes are taken into account with the test cases according to “Rel.
8.2+9” and later.
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Fig. 155 Typical measurement of sidetone masking rating
STMR Tests using Artificial Voice according to ITU-T P.50 or
Single-Talk Speech according to ITU-T P.501 as Test Signal
Sidetone tests are alternatively offered with artificial voice according to
ITU-T P.50 or Single-Talk Speech according to ITU-T P.501 as test
signal (update key UPV-K9101, UPV-K9102 or UPV-K9103 required for
P.50 signal, update key UPV-K9103 required for P.501 signal).
The P.50 test signal simulates the spectrum and time structure of
human voice without having any semantic content or language-specific
characteristics. It consists of 10 seconds “female” voice and 10 seconds
“male” voice.
The P.501 single-talk test signal contains six sentences recorded with
male voices and six sentences recorded with female voices.
Other than with the modulated multisine, the reference spectra at the
respective inputs of the transmission path are measured in advance
and stored in files. Therefore the speech spectrum calibration for
sending direction is a prerequisite for this test (see chapter 3
“Calibration”).
To make sure that the spectral transform is performed on the same
portion of the test signal during reference spectrum measurement and
output spectrum measurement, the output spectrum measurement is
preceded by a delay measurement employing a sine burst. The start of
the measurement is then delayed against the playback of the test signal
by the measured amount of delay in the transmission path. If the
transmission path is interrupted, e.g. due to a dropped call, the test
stops with a suitable warning message.
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Sidetone Delay
The sidetone delay measurement is specified from release 8 of the
3GPP specifications for wideband AMR. Digital signal processing in the
sidetone path can cause a delay of the sidetone, which would result in
an annoying local echo in the handset or headset.
The test according to release 8 and 9 produces a short click in the
artificial mouth and analyzes the amplitude-over-time response at the
artificial ear, starting from the time when the click was produced at the
artificial mouth. The first occurring maximum after approx. 1 ms is
associated with the acoustic propagation from the HATS mouth to the
HATS ear. There may be more maxima during the first milliseconds due
to different propagation paths around the head. The time difference
between the last occurring maximum exceeding a pre-defined level
difference to the noise floor in the observed period, and the first peak, is
defined as sidetone delay. This value must not exceed 10 ms. If no
significant maximum is found before 8 ms from the start of the click at
the artificial mouth, the sidetone delay is defined to be smaller than 8
ms. In the measurement window, “< 8ms” is displayed as result
whereas in the report the value will be simply displayed as “0 ms”.
Fig. 156 Typical sidetone delay result according to release 8 and 9
From release 10 of 3GPP TS 26.132 the sidetone delay is measured by
cross-correlation between the electric input signal to the artificial mouth
and the electric signal from the artificial ear. The sidetone delay is
defined as difference between first and second maximum of the crosscorrelation envelope.
Test signal is a composite source signal (CSS) according to ITU-T
P.501 which consists of a voiced part and a pseudo-noise multisine
part. Before the test, the test signal is offline-filtered according to the
mouth speaker equalization curve obtained during mouth calibration.
This offline filtering is only performed when the valid speaker
equalization curve is newer than the file with the filtered test signal.
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Fig. 157
Typical sidetone delay result according to release 10
Roundtrip Delay
From Release 11 of 3GPP TS 26.131 and TS 26.132 the measurement
of the roundtrip delay is required. The roundtrip delay is defined as the
sum of the contributions of the UE under test to the uplink and downlink
end-to-end delay. To obtain the roundtrip delay value, the end-to-end
delay can either be measured separately for uplink and downlink, or the
loopback delay can be measured by establishing a loopback of the
voice data in the system simulator. In both cases the contribution of the
system simulator has to be subtracted from the measured end-to-end
delay.
Fig. 158
Typical roundtrip delay result according to release 11
The uplink, downlink or loopback delay is measured by cross-correlation
between the generator output signal and the analyser input signal.
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Test signal is a composite source signal (CSS) according to ITU-T
P.501 which consists of a voiced part and a pseudo-noise multisine
part. For uplink and loopback on the network side the test signal is
offline-filtered according to the mouth speaker equalization curve
obtained during mouth calibration. This offline filtering is only performed
when the valid speaker equalization curve is newer than the file with the
filtered test signal.
®
For system simulator R&S CMU200, an estimated processing delay is
®
subtracted for each direction. For system simulator R&S CMW500, the
actual processing delay of speech data inside the instrument is
determined at the time of the test. For this purpose a remote control
®
®
connection must be established between R&S UPV and R&S
®
CMW500. See “CMW remote control” in the “Options” menu. The R&S
®
UPV-K9 program controls the R&S CMW500 to start and stop the
internal delay measurement, and queries the result for the internal
processing delay via the remote control connection.
Echo Loss (TCLw)
The echo loss is the attenuation between the speech coder input and
the speech decoder output (gain of speech coder + decoder = 1).
Normally the echo is caused by internal acoustic coupling between the
telephone receiver and the microphone. Since the echo considerably
reduces the sound transmission quality, it must not exceed a certain
level.
For measurement of echo loss up to release 9 of 3GPP TS 26.132, the
testing shall be made under real use environmental conditions. A typical
“office-type” room should be used. The mobile phone under test is
suspended in free air. From release 10, echo loss is measured with the
handset or headset mounted on the HATS as for most other
measurements.
A modulated multitone signal according to ITU-T P.501 is generated as
a test signal and applied to the speech coder. First, the spectral energy
distribution of the generated signal is measured in the third-octave
bands from 200 Hz to 4 kHz. Then, the spectral distribution in the output
signal of the speech decoder is measured. The echo loss is calculated
from the differences of the bands according to ITU-T G.122. According
to 3GPP TS26.132, the mobile phone under test has to be fed for
approx. 10 s with the male and female version of artificial voice
according to ITU-T P.50 prior to this measurement. This training
sequence is to facilitate optimization for potential echo cancellers. A
quicker test without training sequence is available as “3GPP Echo loss
without training”.
The actual gain of the speech coder and decoder must also be considered
in the result. These values are obtained during codec calibration.
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Fig. 159 Typical result of echo loss measurement
In addition, the attenuation of the echo path is displayed as a curve.
3GPP TS 26.131 specifies an echo loss of at least 46 dB; mobile
phones with good echo cancellers can meet this requirement. Since the
microphone of the mobile phone under test also picks up any side noise
and treats it like an echo, it is essential that the test chamber is well
shielded against external noise.
Stability Margin
The stability margin is measured to test the susceptibility of the phone
to acoustic feedback and instability.
For the test, the telephone is placed on an even, hard board with the
receiver and microphone pointing downwards.
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Fig. 160 Window during stability margin test
A loop is closed in the R&S UPV between the receiving and the voice
channel, and an overall gain of 6 dB is set. The gain of the coder is
automatically taken into account (see also Echo Loss).
To activate the loop, a noise signal of -10 dBm0 in line with ITU-T O.131
is applied for 1 s and then switched off, with the loop remaining closed.
The test person has to listen to determine whether any resonances or
oscillations are produced. If there are no oscillations, the minimum
requirements according to 3GPP TS 26.131 for a stability margin of 6
dB are met.
The stability margin test is specified up to release 9 of 3GPP TS 26.132.
Stability Loss
From release 10 of 3GPP TS 26.132, the stability margin test case is
replaced by a stability loss test case. The test measured the attenuation
between input and output of the system simulator, similar to the echo
loss measurement. Other than with the echo loss measurement, the
result is not integrated over frequency, but the spectral minimum is
searched.
The test routine first looks for valid delay results of the selected device
under test in sending and receiving direction. If no results are found, or
if the delay results are older than specified in the parameters of this
measurement, the UE has to be first mounted on the HATS for the
delay measurements.
When valid delay values are available, the mobile has to be set up
according to the following illustration:
min 400 mm
Clear Area
min 500 mm
Area of
Test Setup
min 400 mm
Clear Area
Surface min 500 mm
Fig. 161
Test setup for stability loss test
As soon as the operator has acknowledged the UE to be correctly
placed, a PN signal with high rms level is send to the network interface,
and the returned signal at the output of the system simulator after the
roundtrip delay is measured. The spectral attenuation is calculated from
the difference of the level spectra.
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Fig. 162 Window of stability loss test
A second measurement is performed without test signal to show the
noise “floor” of the measurement. As the graph plots the path loss, the
noise-induced result will usually be above the stability loss result.
Echo Control Characteristics
The “Echo Control Characteristics” test has been added to 3GPP TS
26.132 in Release 11. It requires update key UPV-K9103 and option
second analog generator (UPV-B3). It is a so-called “double-talk” test in
which test signals are sent in both uplink and downlink direction
simultaneously. The signal sent by the mobile to the network simulator
is analyzed.
The uplink signal contains a section with single words separated by
pauses (“single near-end words”) and a section with continuous talk
(“continuous double-talk”). These sections are analysed separately.
In a first run, both uplink and downlink signals are played
simultaneously. In a second run only the uplink signal is played while
the downlink path is silent. The level difference between both situations
is anlayzed in frames of 5 ms. The results are summarized separately
for the following two categories:
“Double-talk” frames are defined as the frames where both the far-end
(receiving direction) signal includes active speech (extended with a
hang-over period of 200 ms) and the near-end signal is composed of
active speech.
“Far-end single-talk adjacent to double-talk” frames are similarly defined
as the frames with active far-end speech and no active near-end
speech.
The test method measures the duration of any level difference between
the sending signal of a double-talk sequence (where the echo canceller
has been exposed to simultaneous echo and near-end speech) and the
sending signal of the same near-end speech only. The level difference
is classified for each of the two situations (with and without
simultaneous downlink signal) and for each of the two classified frame
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categories separately into eight categories according to the following
figure and table:
Fig. 163
categories
Classification of level differences and their duration into
Cat
Level difference (ΔL)
A1
-4 dB ≤ ΔL < 4 dB
A2
-15 dB ≤ ΔL < -4 dB
B
ΔL < -15 dB
D < 25 ms
C
ΔL < -15 dB
25 ms ≤ D < 150 ms
D
ΔL < -15 dB
D ≥ 150 ms
Clipping resulting in loss
of words
E
ΔL ≥ 4 dB
D < 25 ms
Very short residual echo
F
ΔL ≥ 4 dB
25 ms ≤ D < 150 ms
G
ΔL ≥ 4 dB
D ≥ 150 ms
Table 4
Duration (D)
Description
Full-duplex and full
transparency
Full-duplex with level
loss in Tx
Very short clipping
Short clipping resulting
in loss of syllables
Echo bursts
Continuous echo
Description of categories
For each category, the ratio of frames in this category to the total
number of frames is given, as well as the average level difference.
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Fig. 164
Result screen of the “Echo Control Characteristics” test.
Interpretation of the results:
A positive level difference means that the level of the signal sent by the
mobile is higher with simultaneous downlink speech than without. This
is an indication of echo.
Short duration (category E) indicated short echo bursts.
Long duration (category G) indicates continuous echo.
A negative level difference is an indication of clipped uplink speech.
Short duration (category B) indicates short clipping, e.g. at the start of
sentences or words.
Medium duration (category C) indicates loss of syllables.
Long duration (category D) indicates continuous high attenuation.
Sending Distortion
The SINAD (signal to noise and distortion) ratio in the transmit path is
measured as a function of the sound level.
A pulsed sinusoidal tone with a pulse length of approx. 360 ms is used
for the measurement. For tests according to up to release 8
(narrowband) and up to release 7 (wideband), the frequency of the tone
is 1015 Hz. For measurements according to later releases the
frequency is 1020 Hz (see also table 12 below). At these frequencies,
coding yields a sufficiently stable output signal. Voice activity detection
continues to be active in the mobile phone under test due to this
pulsating signal.
The mobile phone under test is installed in the LRGP or on the HATS.
The test signal is generated with the artificial mouth at the MRP (mouth
reference point) and the SINAD value of the received signal is
measured at the R&S CMU200 decoder output.
The acoustic reference level (ARL) is defined as the sound pressure
which creates a signal level of -10 dBm0 in the transmit channel. An
automatic routine varies the sound pressure at the artificial mouth until
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the desired level is attained. This value is then used as a reference for
determining the SINAD value versus level.
The SINAD value is measured at sound pressures between -35 dB and
+10 dB relative to the acoustic reference level (ARL) and compared with
the limits specified in table 7 of 26.131 of 3GPP.
Signal processing of a modern mobile phone comprises a voice activity
detector which determines whether a voice signal is present or whether
the sending signal just comprises background noise. With such mobile
phones the sending distortion test according to 3GPP TS 26.132 before
release 6.0.0 may be failed at low levels because the 1 kHz sinewave
test signal is classified as background noise and suppressed. For this
reason the sending distortion measurement according to release 6.0.0
and onwards omits levels below -25 dB and starts at high test tone
levels gradually reducing the level. For this release, use “3GPP
Distortion sending, Rel. 6”, for earlier releases use “3GPP Distortion
sending, Rel. 4/5”.
The measurement is performed up to a maximum sound pressure of
10 dBPa at the artificial mouth if the value 10 dB relative to ARL with
10 dBPa cannot be attained. The actual trace may therefore end at a lower
pressure. This occurs for mobile phones under test which have a low
sensitivity in the transmit direction.
If the measured trace is above the limit line, PASS is output, otherwise
FAIL is displayed.
Fig. 165 Sending distortion measurement
For tests in WB-AMR mode starting from release 8 of 3GPP TS 26.131
and TS 26.132, additional measurements are performed at the
frequencies of 315 Hz, 408 Hz, 510 Hz and 816 Hz with a SPL of -4.7
dBPa at the MRP. Other than in the previous version of the test, the
levels are not defined relative to ARL, but as absolute SPL at the MRP.
A MMS activation signal is issued before each measurement to activate
the VAD (voice activity detector) of the mobile under test. To avoid an
impact of the activation signal on the result due to the processing delay
in the transmission chain, the test routine comprises a delay
measurement. The start of the analysis is delayed against the start of
the test signal by the measured delay time.
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Fig. 166 Sending distortion measurement for wideband according to
release 8
From release 9, version 9.2 of 3GPP TS 26.132, a CSS activation
signal is recommended for test of narrowband and wideband terminals.
Alternatively an activation signal specified by the terminal manufacturer
may be used. Update key UPV-K9101 or UPV-K9102 is required for this
version of the distortion test.
Fig. 167 Recommended activation signal according to version 9.2
The UPV-K9x software provides the CSS activation signal as a default.
However, before first use the signal has to be imported using “Options
 Activation Signal  Import” (see Chapter 2). This step checks the
conditions on the wav file and calculates the active level of the signal.
With the same menu item also other wave files can be imported for use
as activation signal. The wav files must be mono with 48 kHz sampling
frequency and have a duration of 10 seconds or less.
For the sending direction the activation signal must be pre-equalized
according to the inverse frequency response of the artificial mouth. This
can be done during import of the wav file. After a re-calibration of the
artificial mouth, the equalization has become obsolete and has to be redone. The macro for the test case automatically detects an obsolete
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equalization of the activation signal and does a new equalization before
the test is started.
If more than one activation signal is imported at the same time, the
signal to be used can be globally chosen with menu item “Options 
Activation Signal  Select”. In addition, the measurement definition for
this test case has a parameter to specify the file name without
extension of the activation signal to be used. If this parameter is
provided, it overrides the global choice of the activation signal. Thus the
test can be repeated several times within a sequence, using different
activation signals.
The test macro for distortion tests with activation signals from wav files
also provides a spectrum display of the signal sent by the mobile. This
is provided for information e.g. for troubleshooting purpose.
Fig. 168 Spectrum display of the sending distortion test
During the test, the latest spectrum is displayed. After the test has
finished, button “Show Spectrum” or “Hide Spectrum”, respectively,
toggles between spectrum display and result display. In this state the
spectra to be displayed can be configured in the context menu of the
graph, and the spectra can be exported to ASCII files.
The spectrum display is only available for distortion tests according to
release 9 and later.
Receiving Distortion
The SINAD (signal to noise and distortion) ratio in the receiving path is
measured as a function of the acoustic signal level.
A pulsed sinusoidal tone is used for the measurement. For tests
according to up to release 8 (narrowband) and up to release 7
(wideband), the frequency of the tone is 1015 Hz. For measurements
according to later releases the frequency is 1020 Hz (see also table 12
below). At these frequencies, coding yields a sufficiently stable output
signal.
Voice activity detection continues to be active in the mobile phone under
test due to this pulsating signal.
The mobile phone under test is installed in the LRGP (ITU-T P.76) with
the receiver is sealed to the artificial ear, or on the HATS.
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The test signal is applied to the input of the R&S CMU200 speech
coder, and the SINAD value of the sound pressure in the artificial ear is
measured with psophometric weighting according to ITU-T G.714.
The SINAD value of the sound pressure is measured at levels between
-45 dBm0 and 0 dBm0 and compared with the limits given in table 8 of
3GPP TS 26.131.
The measurement is performed up to a maximum sound pressure of
10 dBPa in the artificial ear; the actual trace may end at an earlier point.
If the operator desires to see the receiving distortion value at the point
exceeding 10 dBPa, this can be achieved by pressing the “add
measurement” button. This causes the measurement to be repeated at
all specified levels. The second measurement is not taken into account
for reporting and Pass/Fail decision.
If the measured trace is above the limit line, PASS is output, otherwise
FAIL is displayed.
Fig. 169 Typical result of receiving distortion measurement
For tests in WB-AMR mode starting from release 8 of 3GPP TS 26.131
and TS 26.132, additional measurements are performed at the
frequencies of 315 Hz, 408 Hz, 510 Hz and 816 Hz with a digital level of
-16 dBm0 at the network interface (encoder input). An activation signal
precedes the test signal. To avoid an impact of the activation signal on
the result due to the processing delay in the transmission chain, the test
routine comprises a delay measurement. The start of the analysis is
delayed against the start of the test signal by the measured delay time.
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Fig. 170 Typical result of receiving distortion measurement in wideband
according to release 8.
From release 9, version 9.2 of 3GPP TS 26.132, a CSS activation
signal is recommended for test of narrowband and wideband terminals
(see previous section about sending distortion tests). Alternatively an
activation signal specified by the terminal manufacturer may be used.
Update key UPV-K9101 or UPV-K9102 is required for this version of the
distortion test.
The UPV-K9x software provides the CSS activation signal as a default.
However, before first use the signal has to be imported using “Options
 Activation Signal  Import” (see Chapter 2). This step checks the
conditions on the wav file and calculates the active level of the signal.
With the same menu item also other wave files can be imported for use
as activation signal. The wav files must be mono with 48 kHz sampling
frequency and have a duration of 10 seconds or less.
If more than one activation signal is imported at the same time, the
signal to be used can be globally chosen with menu item “Options 
Activation Signal  Select”. In addition, the measurement definition for
this test case has a parameter to specify the file name without
extension of the activation signal to be used. If this parameter is
provided, it overrides the global choice of the activation signal. Thus the
test can be repeated several times within a sequence, using different
activation signals.
The test macro for distortion tests with activation signals from wav files
also provides a spectrum display of the signal output at the earpiece of
the mobile. This is provided for information e.g. for troubleshooting
purpose.
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Fig. 171 Spectrum display of the receiving distortion test
During the test, the latest spectrum is displayed. After the test has
finished, button “Show Spectrum” or “Hide Spectrum”, respectively,
toggles between spectrum display and result display. In this state the
spectra to be displayed can be configured in the context menu of the
graph, and the spectra can be exported to ASCII files.
The spectrum display is only available for distortion tests according to
release 9 and later.
Idle Channel Noise Sending
The noise voltage at the speech decoder output is measured with the
phone set up in a quiet environment (< 30 dB(A)).
The mobile phone under test is installed in the LRGP (ITU-T P.76) or on
the HATS.
The decoder output voltage is measured, weighted and recalculated for
the internal level in dBm0p.
For the narrow band test, the weighting is done psophometrically
according to ITU-T G.223. For the wideband version of the test, A
weighting according to IEC 60651 is applied.
To keep the mobile phone under test in the normal operating mode, a
pulsed signal is applied. The noise level is measured during the signal
pauses. The voice activity decoder (VAD) is activated and the mobile
phone remains in the active normal sending mode.
The idle noise level should not exceed -64 dBm0p. The measured noise
voltage is also displayed as a spectrum, making it easier to find causes
if the limit value is exceeded.
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Fig. 172 Typical result of sending noise measurement
The idle channel noise test employs a sinewave activation signal to
activate the sending path of the mobile. To avoid the activation signal
leaking into the measurement, a delay measurement is performed first.
If the signal path is interrupted, e.g. due to a dropped call, the
measurement is aborted with a suitable message.
From release 10 of 3GPP TS 26.132, idle channel noise measurements
also comprise the determination of a spectral maximum to detect
single-frequency disturbances. The spectral maximum is determined
from a 8192 points FFT in a 48 kHz sample rate system. The test
system averages five subsequent measurements, whereby spectral
maxima to be averaged can occur at different frequencies during
averaging. This version of the idle channel noise test requires update
key UPV-K9102.
Fig. 173 Sending noise measurement according to release 10
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Idle Channel Noise Receiving
The sound pressure in the artificial ear is measured with the phone set
up in a quiet environment.
The mobile phone under test is installed in the LRGP (ITU-T P.76) with
the receiver sealed to the artificial ear, or mounted on the HATS.
The sound pressure in the artificial ear is measured with A-weighting
on.
To keep the mobile phone under test in the normal operating mode, a
pulsed signal is applied to the speech coder input. The noise level is
measured during the signal pauses. The voice activity decoder is
activated and the mobile phone remains in the active normal receiving
mode.
With rated loudness set on the mobile phone, the sound pressure
should not exceed -57 dBPa(A). In this case use test “3GPP Idle
channel noise receiving, nom. Vol”.
At maximum receiving loudness, the sound pressure should not exceed
-54 dBPa(A). In this case use test “3GPP Idle channel noise receiving,
max. Vol”.
The measured noise voltage is also displayed as a spectrum, making it
easier to find causes if the limit value is exceeded.
Fig. 174 Typical result of receiving noise measurement
The idle channel noise test employs a sinewave activation signal to
activate the sending path of the mobile. To avoid the activation signal
leaking into the measurement, a delay measurement is performed first.
If the signal path is interrupted, e.g. due to a dropped call, the
measurement is aborted with a suitable message.
From release 10 of 3GPP TS 26.132, idle channel noise measurements
also comprise the determination of a spectral maximum to detect
single-frequency disturbances. The spectral maximum is determined
from a 8192 points FFT in a 48 kHz sample rate system. The test
system averages five subsequent measurements, whereby spectral
maxima to be averaged can occur at different frequencies during
averaging. This version of the idle channel noise test requires update
key UPV-K9102.
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Fig. 175 Receiving noise measurement according to release 10
This measurement makes high demands on the sound insulation of the
test chamber and the S/N ratio of the measuring microphone including
preamplifier in the artificial ear. A comparison measurement with the
test mobile phone switched off or without a DUT shows the
measurement reserves of the test equipment. Due to the low inherent
noise of the Audio Analyzer R&S UPV, measurements can be made to
about -80 dBPa(A) at 0 dB microphone gain, and even to lower values
when a higher microphone gain is set.
Ambient Noise Rejection
Ambient noise rejection describes the weighted ratio of voice signal
transmission to transmission of ambient noise. An ANR value >0 dB
means that voice as the useful signal is transmitted more loudly than
any ambient noise. The minimum requirement according to 3GPP TS
26.131 is ANR > 0 dB. A value >= 3 dB is recommended. From version
5.1 (with the exception of wideband measurement according to release
6 and 7), an additional allowance of 3 dB should take measurement
tolerances into account, such that the effective minimum value is -3 dB.
To perform this measurement, a homogeneous noise field for
simulating the noise in the environment has to be generated. This
sound field must be generated by additional loudspeakers and noise
generators. To obtain a sufficiently homogeneous sound field, several
uncorrelated generators and loudspeakers are required. The use of 2 to
8 generators and loudspeakers is common practice. The noise sources
have to generate pink noise (spectral power density ~ 1/f). The
permissible error in the relevant third-octave bands must be smaller
than ±3 dB with the frequency response of the loudspeakers used also
being taken into account. Please refer to application note 1GA51,
available on the R&S download web site, for suggestions how to
generate the noise field for the ambient noise rejection test.
The adjustment and testing of the sound field is done as a calibration
process (see section 4 above). With sufficient long-term stability of the
noise generators and loudspeakers it can be used for a number of
subsequent tests. Alignment of the noise field has to be repeated if
anything in the setup of the noise sources (loudspeaker position,
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amplifier gain etc.) is changed. Furthermore it is recommended to check
the noise field in regular intervals.
After the noise field calibration, the artificial mouth and the artificial ear
must be installed again for the actual measurement of ANR. The MRP
must be installed at the same position as the reference microphone had
during the calibration of the noise field.
The mobile phone under test is installed in the LRGP (ITU-T P.76) or on
the HATS (ITU-T P.58). If installed on the LRGP, the receiver is sealed
to the artificial ear.
Set up a call to the R&S CMU200 and set the bit stream to "Handset
Low" (GSM) or the dedicated channel voice to "Speechcodec Low"
(WCDMA).
At first the noise spectrum picked up by the phone and sent on the
uplink is measured. After completion of the measurement, the request
to switch off the noise field will be displayed on the screen. If this is
confirmed, the speech sending sensitivity will be measured
automatically and the ANR value will be calculated afterwards.
The minimum value in the tests named “…, w. 3 dB uncert. allow.” is 3 dB. In all other ANR tests the minimum requirement is 0 dB.
Fig. 176 Typical result of ambient noise rejection measurement
The graph displays the difference of the room noise sensitivity and the
speech sending sensitivity (DELSM) for information.
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Speech Quality in Presence of Ambient Noise
Setup
Fig. 177 Test setup and connection of external components with
CMW500 and input switcher UPZ for measurement “Speech
Quality in Presence of Background Noise”
The arrangement of the elements in the block schematic does not
reflect the physical setup in the test room. See ETSI ES 202396-1 for
details on the requirements for the test room and the speaker setup.
For the speaker positioning the following rules and advice apply:

The four full-range speakers are to be arranged in a square

Distance of each of the four full-range speakers from the center
of the HATS is 2m

Avoid positioning any speaker in any of the room corners

Avoid positioning of speakers including subwoofer or HATS
exactly
in the room center or at one half, one third or one fourth of the
room length or width
Connections
Connect
1. LAN socket of UPV to LAN socket of UPP
2. UPP trigger output to UPV trigger input
3. UPP-Z8A output 3 to input of front left active speaker
4. UPP-Z8A output 4 to input of rear left active speaker
5. UPP-Z8A output 5 to input of front right active speaker
6. UPP-Z8A output 6 to input of rear right active speaker
7. UPP-Z8A configured subwoofer output (by default 7) to input of
active subwoofer
8. UPV generator output 1 to artificial mouth via drive amplifier
9. Artificial ears to microphone power supply during noise field
calibration
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10. During the acquisition for the speech quality evaluation, a ¼”
microphone is connected to UPV analyzer input 1 via the
microphone power supply
11. Output 1 of the CMU / CMW to UPV analyzer input 2.
Switcher Support
If 'Input Switcher UPZ' is enabled in 'Noise Calibration Configuration'
then the measurement will try to connect all required signal sources
automatically to UPV input instead of prompting user to change cabling.
This presumes:

UPV is connected to UPZ via serial cable (RS232) OR USB
cable (do not connect USB if you want to use RS232!);

USB-to-serial device driver is installed (only if using USB
connection);

UPZ is powered ON (green 'ON'-LED on switcher front panel)
When starting the measurement the first time a dialogue is displayed to
instruct the user how to connect the input switcher's analogue input and
output connections (note: only 1 microphone need to be connected to
input channel 4 or 5, respectively):
or – if switcher could not be detected – how to establish the control
connection from UPV to UPZ:
If the switcher cannot be enabled at this point, then 'Cancel' will disable
switcher for the current measurement; cabling has to be done manually.
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The corresponding setting in configuration window will not be changed.
On next start of measurement the switcher will be tried for usage again.
The measurement checks the connection to UPZ whenever the
switcher needs to be operated. If switcher control fails while
measurement is running (e.g. by unplugging the control or power cable),
then user will be prompted to establish the analogue connections
manually. This allows the measurement to continue correctly:
Prerequisites

Reference Microphone Calibration

Artificial Mouth Calibration

Codec Calibration

Noise Field Calibration
Measurement
Place the reference microphone close to the opening of the UE’s main
microphone.
Start the test case from the “Measurement” or “Standard” menu. The
test will start right away in the following processing order:
1. For each ambiance, measurement of uplink delay and checking
if established call still is alive
2. For each ambiance, recording the raw signals
3. For each ambiance, checking again if established call still is
alive
4. Pre-processing all recordings for calculation
5. Processing of the acquired signals with simultaneous display of
the results according to the progress, including the
“PASS/FAIL” criteria.
6. Deleting of temporary files.
A typical image showing the completion of steps 1-3 looks like following:
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Fig. 178 Running “Speech Quality in Presence of Background Noise” –
all recordings are just done
Each recording resp. calculation can be repeated by clicking “Repeat
current sequence” in the status box:
Fig. 179 Busy message of “Speech Quality in Presence of Background
Noise” with Pause, Emergency Off, Cancel, Repeat
The “cancel” button cancels the complete measurement.
The “repeat … sequence” button repeats the current step. This may be
a delay measurement, a recording of a specific noise ambiance or its
calculation.
The “crossed speaker” symbol button stops the playback of the noise
and test signal and aborts the current acquisition which can be repeated
thereafter.
The “pause” button symbol suspends execution and shows a message
box which will allow cancelling or continuing the measurement:
When all recordings are done, the calculation process starts. For each
ambiance, the 3QUEST batch calculator will be started with the
preprocessed recordings.
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Results are S-MOS, N-MOS and G-MOS for each ambiance and overall
average. The coloured values are the averages over all sentences, and
the grey values are the standard deviations between the sentences.
Depending of the predefined PASS / FAIL criteria, the result values will
be coloured in green or red. If any of a MOS value fails, the complete
ambiance fails. If any of the ambiances fails, the total summary fails.
Continuing Aborted Measurements
When a measurement has been cancelled by “Cancel” for some reason
and the “Speech Quality in Presence of Ambient Noise” window has
been closed, there is a possibility of recovering the already existing
recording within 1 hour.
When opening the measurement window again, the software will try to
find the raw data for each ambiance signal which has been recorded
during the last hour with exact the same settings like the current.
If raw data is found, the software will ask the user to reuse it for each
ambiance:
Fig. 180 Recovering raw data from last “Speech Quality in Presence of
Background Noise” measurement
Typical Problems during measurement
Since the recording of the signals takes a quite long time and often this
is done without supervising what happens, the software contains a
security check if the call still is alive:
1. Before any recording will be started, the current signal delay
and signal level is detected. If the signal level exceeds a lower
limit, the measurement stops and allows a retry.
2. After a recording is done the signal level is detected again. If
the level exceeds a lower limit, the measurement stops, too.
This is the most often happening problem: that a mobile under test
cannot hold a call for many minutes.
In both cases following message box appears:
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Fig. 181 Common Problem 1: “Speech Quality in Presence of Background Noise” detected lost call
“Retry” will repeat the current noise ambiance measurement (e.g. after
resetting the call), “Ignore” will skip this measurement and continue with
the next one (e.g. during a demo if the result does not matter), “Abort”
will cancel the measurement.
A second problem may occur when the recordings are all done and the
calculation process is started: The 3QUEST does not find its license.
This typically would look like this:
Fig. 182 Common Problem 2: “Speech Quality in Presence of Background Noise” running 3QUEST with missing License dongle
There may be two reasons for it:
1. The 3QUEST license dongle is missing on the UPV
2. The UPV is being operated remotely with Microsoft Remote
Desktop while the dongle is plugged in.
In both cases the user may either press the “Cancel” button in the
yellow progress window or he may quit the 3QUEST license message.
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Additional operations when finished
When the noise measurement is completely finished, there are some
extended features which may be reached through the soft key bar:
Fig. 183 The soft key tool bar of the “Speech Quality in Presence of
Background Noise” measurement
Verify Delay
Takes a single delay measurement of the
current call
Verify Noise Field
Checks the sound pressure level of each
ambiance according to the specification. For
this measurement, both artificial ears are
used.
Verify Speech Level
Checks the sound pressure level of the
artificial mouth according to the specification.
For this measurement, the reference
microphone must be placed to the HATS
MRP.
Repeat Measurement
Repeats the complete measurement
Enter Comment
Allows to enter an additional comment for the
report.
Clear Temp Files
Normally, the intermediate files belonging to a
specific noise field calibration will not be
removed. This button allows to clear all
temporary files to get more space on the hard
disk.
The files will be recreated automatically during
next measurement – but this will take some
more time.
Create Report
Allows direct creation of a report
Extended Speech Quality Measurements
In addition to the normative Speech Quality Measurements, R&S
provides some extra functionality which can be reached across the
Menu. It is called “Extended Speech Quality in Presence of Ambient
Noise”
When the extended version of the background noise measurement is
started, it will be possible to measure only a subset of the given signals
and to repeat a single signal as well. This is done be using the
additional check boxes in the window. Only for checked ambiances the
recordings and calculations will be done.
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Fig. 184 Running “Extended Speech Quality in Presence of
Background Noise” with only 3 ambiances: Recording is just
done.
In this example, the steps 1-3 of only three selected signals has just be
performed before the calculation starts.
Continuing Aborted Extended Measurements
In addition to the recovery functionality of already recorded raw signals,
the extended mode provides recovery of calculations already done, too:
Fig. 185 Restarting “Extended Speech Quality in Presence of
Background Noise” with only 3 ambiances: The first two
ambiances have been calculated, now recording of third
ambiance is just done.
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This image shows a recovery situation after two ambiances have been
calcuated and a third one had been added. The calculation of the third
one has not been done yet. When reopening, the check marks of “Train
Station”, “Cafeteria”, “Mensa” and “Callcenter” had been set
automatically again but were removed by the user.
When “Repeat Measurement” is clicked now, nothing will happen
except that the calculation of the missing ambient noise will be done. A
typical final result will show like this:
Fig. 186 Compleded “Extended Speech Quality in Presence of
Background Noise” measurement
In a recovery situation, there also would be the ability for adding new
noise ambiances. The condition between each check mark and current
display decides what exactly will happen:

If a check mark is set, the corresponding noise ambiance will be
recorded and calculated again no matter if already a raw data
set exists or not.

If a check mark is cleared, the corresponding noise ambiance
will never be recorded again. If there is still a result, nothing will
happen. Otherwise, if there exists a raw data set, the
calculation will be performed.
ANR Tests using Artificial Voice according to ITU-T P.50 as Test
Signal
Sending, receiving, sidetone and ambient noise rejection tests are
alternatively offered with artificial voice according to ITU-T P.50 as test
signal. This version of the ambient noise rejection test requires update
key UPV-K9101 or UPV-K9102.
The test signal simulates the spectrum and time structure of human
voice without having any semantic content or language-specific
characteristics. It consists of 10 seconds “female” voice and 10 seconds
“male” voice.
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Other than with the modulated multisine, the reference spectra at the
respective inputs of the transmission path are measured in advance
and stored in files. Therefore the speech spectrum calibration for
sending direction is a prerequisite for this test (see chapter 3
“Calibration”).
To make sure that the spectral transform is performed on the same
portion of the test signal during reference spectrum measurement and
output spectrum measurement, the output spectrum measurement is
preceded by a delay measurement employing a sine burst. The start of
the measurement is then delayed against the playback of the test signal
by the measured amount of delay in the transmission path. If the
transmission path is interrupted, e.g. due to a dropped call, the test
stops with a suitable warning message.
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Notes on Hands-Free Measurements
General Remarks
The standards 3GPP TS 26.131 and TS 26.132 define requirements
and test specifications for the tests of the acoustic behaviour of the
mobile phone in this mode, but not all details are specified yet.
R&S UPV-K91 3GPP Mobile Phone tests provide test cases for
handheld hands-free and desktop hands-free mode with narrow band
and wideband speech. Test specifications and limits for hands free car
kits are the same as for desk top hands-free terminals.
Hands-free tests with R&S UPV-K91 support the use of either artificial
mouth according to ITU-T P.51 together with a free field measurement
microphone or alternatively the use of a HATS with type 3.3 or 3.4
artificial ear and artificial mouth according to ITU-T P.58.
Test Setup
All tests must be performed in an anechoic room. Background noise
must be less than 24 dBSPL(A). Furthermore the room should be big
enough and its walls should have sufficient absorption to provide nearly
free-field conditions at the hands-free reference point. Not all test boxes
which are appropriate for handset tests can be used for hands free
measurements.
If a free-field microphone with a discrete P. 51 mouth is used, it should
be configured to the Handheld hands-free UE as per Figure 58 for
receiving measurements and Figure 59 for sending measurements. The
measurement instrument should be located at a distance dHF from the
centre of the visual display of the mobile station. The distance dHF is
specified by the manufacturer.
Fig. 187 Configuration of handheld hands-free UE, free-field
microphone for receiving measurements
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Fig. 188 Configuration of handheld hands-free UE and artificial mouth
according to ITU-T P.51 for sending measurements
If a HATS is used, the measurement can either be performed binaurally
(with two artificial ears and correction of the RLR by 6 dB) or monaural.
The selection of acoustic accessories used for the hands free tests can
be entered in menu item “Options  Hands free settings”.
Fig. 189 Hands free settings
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Fig. 190 Configuration of handheld hands-free UE with HATS
For desk top hands-free it is referred to ITU-T P. 340 (http://www.itu.int)
for the use of free field microphone and discrete P.51 mouth. The
2
hands free terminal should be placed on a table of approximately 1 m
with the centre of its front edge 400 mm perpendicularly from the centre
of the front edge of the table. The surface area should not be less than
2
0.96 m and its width should not be less than 0.8 m. The front centre of
the measuring microphone or centre of the lip ring, respectively, should
be placed 300 mm above the centre of the front edge of the table with
the axis of the microphone or artificial mouth inclined towards the centre
of the front edge of the hands-free terminal.
For the use of a HATS with both types of hands-free terminals it is
referred to ITU-T P.581. For handheld hands free the setup of ITU-T
P.581 corresponding to “portable hands-free” should be used. For desk
top hands-free, the centre of the lip ring is positioned as described
above, but the axis of the artificial mouth should be horizontal.
Acoustic Calibration for Hands Free Tests
The calibration for the free field microphone or type 3.3 or type 3.4
HATS ear, respectively, is done as described in chapter 4 above.
For binaural measurements, the second artificial ear has to be
calibrated accordingly, using the sub-item “Second Type 3.3 ear” or
“Second type 3.4 ear”, respectively, in “Calibration  Artificial Ear”.
Note that the second artificial ear must be connected to Analyzer input 2
instead of the R&S CMU200 connection.
According to 3GPP TS 26.132, free field equalization has to be taken
into account. Free field data can either be imported as an average table
from the standard or from an individual calibration disk, using the menu
item “Calibration  Free field equalization”.
The calibration of the artificial mouth for hands free tests comprises two
additional steps. After the level has been adjusted and the frequency
response has been equalized at the MRP, the reference microphone
has to be repositioned at the so-called Hands-Free Reference Point
(HFRP or HATSHFRP).
For the mouth according to ITU-T P.51 the HFRP is in 50 cm distance
from the lip ring on the axis of the mouth. The calibration has to be
performed at this point independent of the measuring distance currently
used.
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The HATS HFRP is stipulated in ITU-T P.581. It is one of the points 11
to 17 defined in table 6a of ITU-T P.58. It should be on the axis which is
closest to the actual axis from the lip ring to the microphone under test.
The distance is always 50 cm from the lip ring. The axis may be
azimuthally centric (i.e. 0° horizontally) with an elevation (vertical) angle
of 0°, ±15° or ±30°. Points 16 and 17 are located on an axis with 0°
elevation and an azimuth angle of 15° or 30°.
The level at this point is adjusted to -28.7 dBPa. For the last step, the
reference microphone is returned to the MRP, and the level and
spectrum at the MRP are measured as reference for the transfer
function calculation.
The mouth calibration for hands-free tests is started with the menu item
“Calibration  Artificial Mouth (Hands Free)”. This procedure comprises
the mouth calibration for handset tests and has also effect on
subsequent handset tests with the same individual artificial mouth.
“Utilites” Measurements
This item of the “Standards” menu contains useful measurements which
are either from other standards or for checking test conditions.
Sidetone Distortion
A sidetone distortion test is specified in 3GPP TS 51.010 30.8 for
measurements using the DAI. As the downlink conveys only silence
during this test, it is, however, more or less independent of the kind of
transmission between system simulator and mobile. The sidetone
rd
distortion test determines 3 order harmonic distortion at a given set of
frequencies (in the case of TS 51.010 at 315, 500 and 1000 Hz) with a
level of -4.7 dBPa at the MRP. The third order harmonic distortion is
required to be less than 10 % (-20 dB) at all frequencies.
Fig. 191 Sidetone distortion test
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Gain Variation Tests
Gain variation tests in sending and receiving direction are specified in
3GPP TS 43.050 Annex C.5. The limits given in TS 43.050, sections
3.9.1 and 3.9.2 are meant for measurement over DAI and cannot be
fulfilled when a Codec is in the transmission chain. The configurable
versions of the gain variation tests allow to define specific limit curves.
Fig. 192 Sending gain variation test
Delay Measurements
Sending and receiving delay can only be measured end-to-end, i.e. from
the acoustic origin of the artificial mouth to the decoder output of the
system simulator or from the encoder input of the system simulator to
the DRP. The measurements offered with R&S UPV-K91 allow to
subtract the estimated delay of the R&S CMU200 from the total
measured value. As the data is interleaved on the air interface, no exact
time instance can be determined when the audio data are transmitted
between mobile phone and system simulator. The values used in the
present measurements are estimations with an uncertainty of about 10
ms. The delay measurement is performed for a given set of
frequencies, and an average is calculated over all frequencies.
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Fig. 193 Sending delay measurement
Background Noise Measurements
3GPP TS 26.132 demands the background noise in the test room to be
below -64 dBPa(A) for idle channel noise measurements and below
-30 dBPa(A) for all other handset measurements. For hands free
measurements the background noise needs to be below -70 dBPa. The
background noise measurements offered in R&S UPV-K91 check the
overall noise level against these limits and display the spectrum of the
noise. A lower limit assures that the test is not erroneously passed if no
microphone is connected or the microphone supply is switched off. The
test requires a diffuse field (pressure field) microphone to be connected
to analyzer input 1 and to be placed in the test room, preferably at the
place of the MRP.
Fig. 194 Background noise measurement
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If the noise in the test room does not fulfil the requirements it may first
be attempted to remove noise sources in the vicinity of the test
chamber. If no further reduction is possible, the sound isolation of the
chamber should be improved. This can be achieved e.g. by heavier
walls. Low frequency noise may possibly be conducted as structure
borne sound, which may be reduced by an isolating support of the
chamber. High frequency noise can be caused by a leakage e.g. at the
door and may be reduced by an improved gasket.
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6 Customizing Measurements
Measurements which implement a test case of a standard are locked
and cannot be edited. However, for each measurement type there is
also a configurable measurement provided, in which the limits can be
customized. The parameters of the measurements are accessible
through the menu item “Config. Meas.”
Fig. 195 Measurement configuration menu
Clicking on one of the entries opens a window in which all parameters
can be viewed and most of them can be customized:
Fig. 196 Measurement parameters window
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As Sequences create copies of the parameter files, each instance of a
measurement in a sequence can have different settings which remain
independent of the setting of this measurement in the main window and
in other sequences. It is for example possible to compile a sequence
with a number of stability margin tests having different loop gain.
The titles of the tests and the messages displayed to the operator
before start of the measurement can also be edited in the “Parameters”
window.
To facilitate copies of test definitions with small adaptations, it is
possible to store a copy of the current parameter set under a different
file name (button “Save copy”). Each measurement definition must have
a unique title to be distinguished from other definitions like for example
the original from which the copy was made.
For the purpose of making adapted copies it is possible to unlock a
standard test definition (uncheck the “Locked” checkbox). In this case
the “ok” button is disabled to avoid unintentional changes in standard
tests.
All newly created test definitions appear in the last sub-menu of the
“Standards” menu” (“More…”).
Editing Parameters
Parameters can be edited by entering their number in the “number” field
below the data grid and clicking “Edit”.
Fig. 197 Entry window for parameters
Note that the type conformity of the entered value is checked, but not
the value itself against any range limits.
Editing Limit Curves
Clicking “Add” or “Edit” below the data grid for the limit curves opens the
window for selecting limit files.
It is important to know that limit files have to start with the label “UPV
LIMIT FILE” in the first line. They have to be ANSI coded, and the X and
Y values have to be separated by a “TAB” character in each line.
Note that currently “Desired” limit curves are not supported in all test
routines. Most of the measurement allow to specify either lower limits or
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upper limits or both. An exception is formed by the sending response
and receiving response measurements. As the limit template is
centered around the measured curve with these measurements, upper
and lower mandatory limits have to be specified pair-wise.
An existing limit file can be selected using the “browse” button. New
limit files can be created by copying an existing limit file and editing the
copy with a text editor (“Send to  Notepad” in the context menu of the
file in the windows explorer). The number of data points on the curve
must be specified in the “Datacount” line.
Fig. 198 Entry window for selecting limit curves
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7 Measurements with electric connections
Introduction
Usually the mobile under test is connected via RF connection to the
R&S CMU200 and via acoustic interfaces (artificial mouth and ear) to
the R&S UPV. Therefore no intrusion in the mobile device is required.
There may, however, be cases during the design process of a mobile
phone where the usual interfaces are not available:
-
if a mechanic mockup is to be measured just with the acoustic
components but without the rest of the circuitry
-
if a circuit of a mobile phone is to be measured without acoustic
components
-
if a hands free kit or headset is to be measured without mobile
phone
-
if the hands free or headset connection of a mobile phone is to be
measured without hands free kit or headset, respectively.
In these cases either coder and decoder or artificial ear and artificial
mouth may be replaced by direct electrical connections to the
R&S UPV. To use electric connections, select “Electric connection” in
the respective item of the “Options” menu.
Calibration values for electric connections
Electrical connections cannot be calibrated. Instead a virtual sensitivity
has to be entered for each type of electrical connection under
“Calibration  Electric connections  …”.
Electric connection replacing artificial ear
R&S UPV Analyzer input 1 is directly connected to the earpiece
amplifier output.
A nominal sensitivity of the receiver (earpiece speaker) for which the
circuit is intended has to be entered in dB re 1 Pa/V.
Electric connection replacing artificial mouth
R&S UPV generator output 1 is directly connected to the microphone
input of the mobile phone circuit.
A nominal sensitivity of the microphone for which the circuit is intended
has to be entered in dB re 1 V/Pa.
Electric connection replacing encoder
R&S UPV generator output 2 is directly connected to a earpiece or
headset speaker or to the speech input of a hands free kit.
A nominal full scale output voltage (output voltage corresponding to
digital full scale) of the circuit intended to drive the speaker or car kit
has to be entered.
Electric connection replacing decoder
R&S UPV analyzer input 2 is directly connected to a microphone or to
the speech output of a hands free kit.
A nominal full scale input voltage (input voltage corresponding to digital
full scale) of the respective microphone or speech input has to be
entered.
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Performing the measurements
After applying the settings in the “Options” menu and after entering
appropriate calibration values for the electric connections in use, the
measurements may be started as usual.
Some parts of the standard require the use of particular artificial ears for
particular measurements. Therefore the checkbox “Allow only selected
measurements” should be unchecked in “Options  Standard”.
For sending tests, the output voltage range in the R&S UPV is set to a
large value in order to be able to drive the speaker of the artificial
mouth. In rare cases sending distortion and/or sending noise results
may be degraded with electric connections if a low microphone
sensitivity is entered. In this case please contact R&S support.
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8 Automatic Test Sequences
Fig. 199 Sequence menu
Creating and Editing a Sequence
The menu item “Sequence  New” first produces a window where a
name for the new sequence has to be entered. Subsequently the
sequence window opens.
Fig. 200 Sequence window
Initially the right checked list box is empty. The tree view box on the left
side displays all available measurement definitions structured according
to the standards, similar to their order in the “Standards” menu. A
measurement is appended to the sequence by highlighting it in the tree
view box on the left side and clicking the “Append” button. Subsequently
a measurement, which is highlighted in the checked list box on the right
side, can be moved within the sequence using the buttons “Move up”
and “Move down” and deleted from the sequence with the “Delete X”
button. For non-standard measurements which allow to change
parameters like limit curves, it is possible to edit the parameters before
appending the measurement to the sequence. This is done by clicking
the button “Edit and append”. It is for example possible to assemble a
test sequence which contains stability margin tests with different loop
gains.
A sequence should be run with option “Show operator instructions”
disabled. This avoids interruption of the execution. If a message to the
operator is to be inserted into the sequence on purpose, e.g. “Set user
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volume control to maximum!”, the items provided in the tree view under
“Messages and Control” may be used. Such a message will stop the
execution of the sequence until it is closed by acknowledgement of the
operator.
Remote Control of R&S CMU200 within a Sequence
It is possible to remote control radiocommunication tester R&S CMU200
from the R&S UPV within an automatic test sequence, for example to
wait for a mobile to register, or for originating a call to the mobile. First
the connection interface to the R&S CMU200 has to be set up using
menu item “Options  CMU remote control”. To insert a control
instance into a sequence, choose one of the examples offered in
branch “Messages and Control” of the tree view and edit it if necessary.
For details on the remote control of the R&S CMU200 see the
respective operation manuals.
Each control instance consists of a block of an arbitrary number of
remote commands followed by a status query. The query command
(e.g. “SIGN:STAT?”) and the response to wait for (e.g. “SYNC” or
“CEST”) can be specified as well as a timeout for the case that the
desired response is not received. As the R&S CMU200 is organized into
subsystems for the different mobile phone systems / GSM bands, the
subsystem has to be specified as a parameter. Parameter “Auto”
causes the control instance to use the subsystem set with menu item
“Options  CMU Subsystem”. Note that for different GSM bands the
remote commands are usually compatible, but they are not always
compatible between GSM and WCDMA.
In addition, a message to the operator like “Please switch on the
mobile!” can be entered in the “Operator Instruction” field of the
parameter window. Parameter 1 allows to choose whether the message
is shown before or after the block of commands is sent to the
R&S CMU200.
When the R&S CMU200 control instance is executed within a
sequence, a window opens, showing the progress of the control action.
Note:
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By default, the R&S CMU200 changes its state when
switching from local control to remote control or vice versa.
As a consequence, synchronicity / registration or an
established call would be lost during the transition. Therefore
the command “SYSTem:GTRMode:COMPatible OFF” has to
be issued before the first real remote control instance. Insert
“CMU run this first!” in your sequence before any other
remote CMU remote control.
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Fig. 201 CMU remote control window
“Action” shows the current remote control action. “Target state” shows
the desired query response. “CMU Response” shows the actual
response of the R&S CMU200 to the query. Error information returned
from the R&S CMU200 after the last command / query is displayed in
the “Error” field. The “Communication” box lists all commands and
responses issued during the control process. During the status query,
the box “Time left” shows the time left until the timeout expires.
Opening an Existing Sequence
The menu item “Sequence  Open …” opens a file selector for
specifying the sequence to be loaded. The sequence file is usually
found in a subfolder of D:\3GPP with the same name as the sequence.
The sequence window opens with the specified sequence loaded. The
sequence can then be edited and/or run.
Running a Sequence
When the softkey “Start sequence” is pressed, all checked
measurements in the right list box are executed in sequence. The state
of the checkboxes may be altered by marking a measurement and then
clicking on the checkbox.
A running sequence may be interrupted with one of the buttons in the
measurement control window which is visible while a measurement is
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running. “Cancel and continue sequence” cancels the currently running
measurement and resumes execution of the sequence with the next
measurement. “Cancel and stop sequence” aborts both running
measurement and sequence. “Stop sequence after this measurement”
completes the running measurement and stops the sequence
afterwards.
Fig. 202 Measurement control window
Running a Single Measurement out of a Sequence
A single measurement of a sequence may be started by highlighting the
measurement in the right checked list box and clicking the button “Run
Highlighted”.
Reporting on Sequence Results
A report on all executed measurements of the last run sequence is
prepared and displayed after the “Report Sequence” softkey has been
pressed. After the sequence window has been closed, a report on the
last sequence can be obtained by pressing the “Report last sequence”
softkey in the main window.
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9
Reporting, Storing, Loading and Deleting Results
Result Files
Measurement results are stored together with all associated data in
XML files. Separate files can be used for different projects or operators.
They can be archived together with other project data and re-opened
later for generating reports.
It is recommended to keep result files small and to generate backups at
frequent intervals.
Fig. 203 File menu
A new (empty) result file can be created with “File  New Result File”
from the main menu.
An existing result file can be opened with “File  Open Result File”
from the main menu.
A currently opened result file can be stored under a new name with “File
 Store results as” from the main menu.
Report Settings
With “Report  Settings” or “Options  Report settings”, a selection
can be made of data which should appear in the reports. Thus,
information which is the same for a larger number of measurements
does not have to be printed with every report again.
The size of diagrams in the report can be scaled between 100%
(approx. page width) and 50%.
Generating a Single Report
A report on a single measurement result can be generated from the
window of a measurement macro by clicking or pressing the softkey
“Generate report”.
From the result overview of the main window, a report on a single
measurement can be generated by marking the row with the selected
result by clicking on the row header to the left (see Fig. 12), rightclicking into the data grid and selecting “Generate report” from the
context menu.
Subsequently data associated with the selected measurement is
assembled, a graph for existing curve data is generated, and the
preview window is opened. Depending on the amount of measurement
data, this may take a few seconds.
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Generating a Sequence Report
A report on a sequence of measurements can be generated from the
sequence window by clicking or pressing the softkey “Report
sequence”.
Once the sequence window has been closed, a report on the last
executed sequence can be generated by selecting “Report  Last
sequence” from the main menu. Reports about previous sequences can
be generated as single reports on the measurements of this sequence,
as all results appear in the overview data grid in the main window.
Selection Report
A report on a selection of measurements can be generated from the
results overview data grid in the main window by marking the rows with
the desired results in the “Select” column and choosing item “Report
Selection  Report Selected Results” (see Fig. 11). Rows marked with
“XXXXX” in the “Select” column will be added to the report. The
selection can be toggled by clicking into the respective “Select” cells.
Note that another cell must be clicked before the same cell can be
toggled again.
Preview Window
Fig. 204 Report preview window
The main area of the preview window shows a preview of the report as
it will be printed or appear in an exported PDF file. If the report
comprises more than one page, the pages can be browsed using the
buttons
To open the print dialog for installed windows printers click
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To open a file selector for export of the report to PDF, WORD, EXCEL
or Rich Text format, click
The scale of the document in the preview can be adjusted with
Fig. 205 Scale menu of the preview window
Storing and Loading Curves
Measured curves can be stored from and loaded into the graph of a
measurement macro (see above). This allows easy import into
spreadsheets as well as direct comparison of curves measured at
different times or places. Measured curves can also be stored in a
R&S UPV limit file for use as a limit curve either in a R&S UPV sweep
graph or in the graph of a R&S UPV-K9/K91 window. This allows e.g. to
derive tolerance schemes from “golden devices”. The measured curve
can be arbitrarily shifted before being stored.
Fig. 206 Input window for defining a shift of a measured curve for
storage as limit curve
Furthermore curves can be exported from the main results window by
marking the result in the data grid, right-clicking on it and choosing the
item “Save curve of selected row as …” in the context menu.
ASCII Result Files
When the item “Generate temporary export files” in the “Options” menu
is checked, the standard tests generate “curve.exp” or “abscurve.exp”
and “relcurve.exp” and “result.exp” files similar to those generated by
R&S UPL-B9. These files are always deleted and overwritten by
subsequent tests.
This feature is provided only for compatibility reason. It is not available
in all measurement types.
Deleting Results
It may be desirable to delete results of selected measurements from the
result file, e.g. because the measurement was repeated due to a
missing call to the mobile, a wrong setting etc. To delete the result of a
particular measurement, mark the row for the selected measurement in
the data grid of the main window by clicking on the row header to the
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left, right-click into the data grid and select “Delete result” from the
context menu. After confirmation by the operator, the selected row of
the result overview will be deleted from the result file together with all
associated data.
A set of results may be selected in the “Select” column of the results
data grid and commonly deleted using the context menu item “Report
Selection  Delete Selected Results”.
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10
Remote Controlled Start of Testcases via GPIB
Preparations
- Start the K9x test program on the R&S UPV.
- In the “Options” menu, deactivate item “Show operator instructions”
and activate “Generate temporary export files”.
- If it is desired to download screenshots from the R&S UPV to the host,
activate also “Generate temporary image files” in the Options menu.
- Activate “Enable remote control” in the Options menu
- Do all necessary settings and calibrations as would be done for
manual control.
Starting a Measurement
A measurement can be started with remote command:
SYST:PROG:EXEC
'C:\ControlK9.exe D:\3GPP\3G_rec_handset_narrow_max.mdf'
wherein “ControlK9.exe” is the client program controlling the application
and “D:\3GPP\3G_rec_handset_narrow_max.mdf” specifies a file which
defines the test to be executed. A list of files for various tests is given
separately in the spreadsheed file “TestCaseList_23147.xls”. The file
name must be separated from the program name by a space character.
Thus it is recognized by the client program as a command line
parameter.
Attention:
Do not attempt to control the UPV-K9x software locally
while a remotely started test case is running.
Reading the Results
Result values and curves are available in memory buffers in the
R&S UPV firmware according to the following tables:
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Table 5 Assignment of string buffers for result values
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
String Buffers
Title <Tab> Date <Tab> Time
Total verdict
Result 1 heading
Result 1 value
Result 1 verdict
Result 2 heading
Result 2 value
Result 2 verdict
Margin 1 (upper) heading
Margin 1 (upper) value
Margin 2 (lower) heading
Margin 2 (lower) value
Margin 3 heading
Margin 3 value
Margin 4 heading
Margin 4 value
Delay heading
Delay value
Error message
Result 3 heading
Result 3 value
Result 3 verdict
Result 4 heading
Result 4 value
Result 4 verdict
Result 5 heading
Result 5 value
Result 5 verdict
Result 6 heading
Result 6 value
Result 6 verdict
Result 7 heading
Result 7 value
Result 7 verdict
String buffers can be queried using the remote command
SYSTem:MEMory:STRing<i>?
Table 6 Assignment of trace buffers for result curves
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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Trace Buffers
Result 1 (absolute) curve X values
Result 1 (absolute) curve Y values
Result 1 shifted / upper limit X values
Result 1 shifted / upper limit Y values
Result 1 lower limit X values
Result 1 lower limit Y values
Result 1 relative curve X values
Result 1 relative curve Y values
Result 2 (absolute) curve X values
Result 2 (absolute) curve Y values
Result 2 shifted / upper limit X values
Result 2 shifted / upper limit Y values
Result 2 lower limit X values
Result 2 lower limit Y values
Result 2 relative curve X values
Result 2 relative curve Y values
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Trace buffers can be queried using the remote command
SYSTem:MEMory:DATA<i>?
Results
are
also
available
in
files
“D:\3GPP\result.exp”,
“D:\3GPP\relcurv.exp” and / or “D:\3GPP\abscurv.exp”, depending on
the type of measurement. If “Options  Generate temporary image
files” is activated, a screenshot of the last finished test is available in
“D:\3GPP\Image.TIF”. The command for the file transfer is (for the
example of the results file)
MMEM:DATA? 'D:\3GPP\result.exp '
All results are stored in the database. However, it is not possible to
change the test object remotely. The results can be identified later by
the test time given in the “result.exp” file.
Determining the Termination of a Measurement
A running test is indicated with bit 13 of the Operation register in the
status system set. It is recommended to configure a service request on
the GPIB for a negative transition of this bit:
STAT:OPER:NTR 8192
STAT:OPER:ENAB 8192
*SRE 128
A service request will be issued as soon as the test has terminated.
To avoid obsolete result files to be downloaded from the R&S UPV,
existing result files can be deleted before the start of the measurement,
using the commands:
MMEM:DEL 'D:\3GPP\result.exp'
MMEM:DEL 'D:\3GPP\relcurv.exp'
MMEM:DEL 'D:\3GPP\abscurv.exp'
Note that an attempt to delete a non-existing file will lead to an entry in
the error queue. The error queue can be flushed using the query
“SYST:ERR?” until the response is ‘0,”No error”’. Alternatively existing
files can be overwritten by uploading empty files with the same name.
Downloaded files can then be checked for their size before they are
processed further, to determine whether they are empty dummy files.
For further details on remote control of the R&S UPV via GPIB and on
the remote commands mentioned above please see the user manual of
the R&S UPV.
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11 Terminating the Application
The measurement can be terminated from the main window with the
“Exit” softkey. This causes the result file to be written to the hard disk.
Please allow a few seconds for the results file to be written before
shutting down windows.
Do not shut down the instrument before the application program has
been closed.
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Appendix A Settings on the Radio Communication Tester
R&S CMU200
Firmware 5.04
Settings for GSM:
Selection of the GSM band:
Fig. 207 CMU200: Selection of GSM 900 signalling
Taking a coupling loss of the antenna coupler into account:
Fig. 208 CMU200: Setting of external attenuation
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Select EFR (full rate version 2), HR (half rate version 1), AMR full rate
or AMR half rate speech coder. 3GPP TS26.132 specifies AMR at 12.2
kbit/s which is identical with full rate version 2:
Fig. 209 CMU200: Selection of the codec for narrowband tests in GSM
Selection of the Bit Stream Handset Low setting for the measurements
or Decoder Cal and Encoder Cal for the calibration:
Fig. 210 CMU200: Selection of bit stream in GSM
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Setting of the desired TCH and BCCH levels:
Fig. 211 CMU200: Setting of the RF levels in GSM
Typical setting with EFR speech coder (corresponds to AMR 12.2) for
measurements in the call established status:
Fig. 212 CMU200: Traffic mode and bit stream with call established
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Settings for WB-AMR:
Fig. 213 CMU200: Selection of the codec for wideband tests in GSM
Settings for UMTS WCDMA FDD:
Selection of mode:
Fig. 214 CMU200: Selection of WCDMA FDD signalling
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Setting dedicated channel to voice:
Fig. 215 CMU200: Setting of dedicated channel in WCDMA
Selection of the Narrowband AMR Speechcodec Low setting and AMR
Bit Rate for the measurements or Decoder Cal and Encoder Cal for the
calibration (selection is possible only if call is deactivated):
Fig. 216 CMU200: Selection of codec and rate for narrowband tests
3GPP TS 26.132 specifies 12.2 kbps bit rate for audio testing with the
NB AMR codec.
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Selection of the Wideband AMR Speechcodec Low setting and AMR Bit
Rate for the measurements or Decoder Cal and Encoder Cal for the
calibration (selection is possible only if call is deactivated). For the sake
of consistency with Wideband AMR tests in GSM, 3GPP TS 26.132
specifies 12.65 kbps for audio with the WB AMR codec:
Fig. 217 CMU200: Selection of codec and rate for wideband tests
Mobile phone registered status, codec settings possible:
Fig. 218 CMU200: WCDMA signalling overview with registered UE
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Call active (connected) status for the measurements:
Fig. 219 CMU200: WCDMA signalling overview with UE connected
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Appendix B Settings on the Radio Communication Tester
R&S CMW500
Settings for LTE:
Fig. 220 CMW500: Example of LTE signalling settings
In The Config menu of LTE signalling, the external attenuation values
have to be set appropriately for the type of RF coupling applied.
Fig. 221 CMW500: IMS service tab
The IMS configuration contains network specific parameters and is not
explained in detail here.
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Fig. 222 CMW500: Codec settings for wideband tests (1 of 2)
Fig. 223 CMW500: Codec settings for wideband tests (2 of 2)
The DTX setting has only effect on the downlink signal. The DTX setting
for uplink is defined in the UE.
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In the “Audio Measurement”, set “Controlled by” to “DAU IMS Server”.
Fig. 224 CMW500: Audio measurement settings before a call is
established
After a call has been established, “Signaling” shows “LTE Sig1”.
Fig. 225 CMW500: Audio measurement settings after a call has been
established
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Settings for UMTS WCDMA FDD:
Fig. 226 CMW500: Example of settings in WCDMA signalling
Fig. 227 CMW500: RF settings in WCDMA signalling
The external attenuation must be set according to the RF coupling
applied.
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Fig. 228 CMW500: Voice settings in WCDMA signalling
Fig. 229 CMW500: Audio measurement settings for WCDMA signalling
The “Controlled by” combobox must be set to the signalling of the radio
access technology in use. In the “Signaling” field on the left side the
selection of the combobox is confirmed if the audio board connected
successfully to the signalling unit. The full-scale encoder input and
decoder output values are set with the “Input Level ...” and “Output
Level ...” buttons. The values set must be identical with the values set in
“Calibration → Codec → CMW”. The “CMW Voice Info” field reports the
internal speech processing delay in the CMW.
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Settings for GSM:
Fig. 230 CMW500: Example of settings in GSM signalling
Fig. 231 CMW500: RF settings in GSM signalling
The external attenuation must be set according to the RF coupling
applied.
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Fig. 232 CMW500: Connection settings in GSM signalling
Fig. 233 CMW500: Audio measurement settings for GSM signalling
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Appendix C Troubleshooting
Error message 2908 during installation
Please contact customer support.
Damaged setup file is reported
If the program is unable to load the latest setup file, it will automatically
offer to restore a backup of the damaged file. Only if there is no backup
available, or loading of the backup fails again, the following procedure
can be applied:
Copy “Settings.sup” from C:\Program Files\Rohde&Schwarz\UPV-K9x
Mobile Phone Tests” to “D:\3GPP”, overwriting the damaged file of the
same name. Alternatively, “D:\3GPP\settings.sup” may just be deleted.
Subsequently all settings in the “Options” menu have to re-done and for
all used calibration types calibrated devices have to be selected again.
Damaged results file is reported
There are backup files available of the file containing the test results,
with appendix ~1 and ~2 to the file name of the results file (usually
“D:\3GPP\Results.xml”). If the results file cannot be opened for some
reason, the program automatically offers to restore the latest backup
file.
If this does not work, a backup file can be renamed by removing the
respective ~1 or ~2 extension, and opened subsequently. It is
recommended to store the damaged results file under a different name.
A test is not starting properly
Re-select devices for the calibration types required for the respective
test, using menu item Calibration  Select device. If this does not solve
the
problem,
copy
all
files
from
“C:\Program
Files\Rohde&Schwarz\UPV-K9x
mobile
phone
tests\3GPP
files\Overwrite” to “D:\3GPP”, overwriting the existing files therein.
A calibration value is missing or no device is selected
for a required calibration type
If re-selecting the calibration device and re-calibrating it does not help,
create a new device with “Calibration  New device”. Tick the
“Immediately select this device” box before clicking the “Ok” button and
do the calibration for this device. All selected devices and their
calibration values can be checked with “Calibration  Show selected
devices”.
The receiving noise test produces an overrange error
Reduce the gain of the conditioning amplifer in the signal path of the
artificial ear, re-calibrate the artificial ear and re-try the test.
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ARL for the sending distortion test cannot be adjusted
First, try a sending test to see if the connection to the mobile is existing.
If the RLR value is too high, the sending sensitivity of the mobile under
test may be too low to adjust the ARL. If there is no signal in the
sending test (SLR > 60 dB) check the connection between
R&S CMU200 and mobile. If no signal from the artificial mouth is
audible during the sending test, check the signal path between
R&S UPV and artificial mouth. Re-calibrate the artificial mouth.
A measurement using a custom limit curve produces
an error
Limit files must start with a line containing “UPV LIMIT FILE”. They must
be stored as ASCII files with ANSI coding. Any other coding will produce
an error. X and Y values must be separated by a TAB character. Using
space characters instead of a TAB character will produce an error.
Other problems of unknown reason
If the problem cannot be solved with the information given above, the
folder “D:\3GPP” can be renamed or deleted. At the next start of the
application, this folder is created anew with all files in default state.
Attention: Store a backup copy of the results file in a different folder
before deleting “D:\3GPP”.
Note:
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Subsequently all settings in the Options menu and all data
entries have to be re-done, all calibrated devices have to be
created and calibrated again.
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