Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Windows Integration Guide

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
Windows Integration Guide
Integrating Linux Systems with Active Directory Environments
Ella Deon Ballard
Tomáš Čapek
Aneta Petrová
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Windows Integration Guide
Integrating Linux Systems with Active Directory Environments
Ella Deo n Ballard
Red Hat Custo mer Co ntent Services
dlackey@redhat.co m
To máš Čapek
Red Hat Custo mer Co ntent Services
tcapek@redhat.co m
Aneta Petro vá
Red Hat Custo mer Co ntent Services
apetro va@redhat.co m
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Abstract
Hetero geneo us IT enviro nments o ften co ntain vario us different do mains and o perating
systems that need to be able to seamlessly co mmunicate. Red Hat Enterprise Linux o ffers
multiple ways to tightly integrate Linux do mains with Active Directo ry (AD) o n Micro so ft
Windo ws. The integratio n is po ssible o n different do main o bjects that include users, gro ups,
services, o r systems. This guide also co vers different integratio n scenario s, ranging fro m lightweight AD pass-thro ugh authenticatio n to full-fledged Kerbero s trusted realms.
T able of Cont ent s
T able of Contents
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⁠1.1. Defining Wind o ws Integ ratio n
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⁠1.2. Direc t Integ ratio n
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⁠1.3. Ind irec t Integ ratio n
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⁠2 .1. Ab o ut SSSD
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⁠2 .2. Enviro nments fo r SSSD
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⁠2 .3. Ho w SSSD Integ rates with an Ac tive Direc to ry Enviro nment
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⁠2 .4. Co nfig uring an Ac tive Direc to ry Do main with ID Map p ing
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⁠2 .5. Co nfig uring an Ac tive Direc to ry Do main with PO SIX Attrib utes
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⁠2 .6 . Ad d itio nal Co nfig uratio n Examp les
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⁠3 .1. Ab o ut realmd
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⁠3 .2. realmd Co mmand s
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⁠3 .3. Dis c o vering and Jo ining Ac tive Direc to ry Do mains
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⁠3 .4. Manag ing Us er Lo g ins fro m Ac tive Direc to ry
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⁠3 .5. Ad d ing Default Us er Co nfig uratio n
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⁠3 .6 . Ad d itio nal Co nfig uratio n fo r the Ac tive Direc to ry Do main Entry
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⁠4 .1. Ab o ut Samb a and Ac tive Direc to ry Authentic atio n
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⁠4 .2. Summary o f Co nfig uratio n Files , O p tio ns , and Pac kag es
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⁠4 .3. Co nfig uring a Do main Memb er Us ing authc o nfig
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⁠5 .1. Intro d uc tio n to Trus ts
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⁠5 .2. Enviro nment and Mac hine Req uirements to Set up Trus ts
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⁠5 .3. Creating Id M G ro up s fo r Ac tive Direc to ry Us ers
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⁠5 .4. Maintaining Trus ts
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⁠5 .5. Verifying That Id M Mac hines Have Res o lvab le Names
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⁠5 .6 . Setting PAC Typ es fo r Servic es
⁠5 .7. Us ing SSH fro m Ac tive Direc to ry Mac hines fo r Id M Res o urc es
⁠5 .8 . Us ing Trus t with Kerb eriz ed Web Ap p lic atio ns
⁠5 .9 . Ac tive Direc to ry Trus t fo r Leg ac y Linux Clients
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⁠6 .1. A Trus t Relatio ns hip
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⁠6 .2. Setting up a Realm Trus t
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⁠7 .1. Sup p o rted Wind o ws Platfo rms
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⁠7 .2. Ab o ut Ac tive Direc to ry and Id entity Manag ement
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⁠7 .3. Ab o ut Sync hro niz ed Attrib utes
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⁠7 .4. Setting up Ac tive Direc to ry fo r Sync hro niz atio n
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⁠7 .5. Manag ing Sync hro niz atio n Ag reements
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⁠7 .6 . Manag ing Pas s wo rd Sync hro niz atio n
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⁠8 .1. Us er O verrid es and G ro up O verrid es
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⁠8 .1. Us er O verrid es and G ro up O verrid es
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⁠8 .2. Manag ing ID Views
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⁠8 .3. Mig rating fro m the Sync hro niz atio n-Bas ed to the Trus t-Bas ed So lutio n
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⁠Chapt er 1 . Ways t o Int egrat e Act ive Direct ory and Linux Environment s
Chapter 1. Ways to Integrate Active Directory and Linux
Environments
IT environments have a structure. The systems in them are arranged with a purpose. Integrating two
separate infrastructures requires an assessment of the purpose of each of those environments and
an understanding of how and where they interact.
1.1. Defining Windows Int egrat ion
Windows integration can mean very different things, depending on the desired interaction between
the Linux environment and the Windows environment. It could mean that individual Linux systems are
enrolled into a Windows domain, it could mean that a Linux domain is configured to be a peer to the
Windows domain, or it could simply mean that information is copied between environments.
There are several points of contact between a Windows domain and Linux systems. Each of these
points revolve around identifying different domain objects (users, groups, systems, services) and the
services which are used in that identification.
Use r Ide nt it ie s and Aut he nt icat io n
Where are user accounts located; in a central authentication system running on Windows (AD
domain) or in a central identity and authentication server running on Linux?
How are users authenticated on a Linux system; through a local Linux authentication system or a
central authentication system running on Windows?
How is group membership configured for users? How is that group membership determined?
Will users authenticate using a username/password pair, Kerberos tickets, certificates, or a
combination of methods?
POSIX attributes are required to access services on Linux machines. How are these attributes
stored: are they set in the Windows domain, configured locally on the Linux system, or
dynamically mapped (for UID /GID numbers and Windows SID s)?
What users will be accessing what resources? Will Windows-defined users access Linux
resources? Will Linux-defined users access Windows resources?
In most environments, the Active D irectory domain is the central hub for user information, which
means that there needs to be some way for Linux systems to access that user information for
authentication requests. The real question then is how to obtain that user information and how much
of that information is available to external systems. There also needs to be a balance between
information required for Linux systems (POSIX attributes) and Linux users (certain application
administrators) and how that information is managed.
Ho st and Se rvice Principals
What resources will be accessed?
What authentication protocols are required?
How will Kerberos tickets be obtained? How will SSL certificates be requested or verified?
Will users need access to a single domain or to both Linux and Windows domains?
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DNS Do m ains, Que rie s, and Nam e Re so lut io n
What will be a D NS configuration?
Is there a single D NS domain? Are there subdomains?
How will system host names be resolved?
How will service discovery be configured?
Se curit y Po licie s
Where are access control instructions set?
What administrators are configured for each domain?
Change Manage m e nt
How frequently are systems added to the domain?
If the underlying configuration for something related to Windows integration is changed, for
example the D NS service, how are those changes propagated?
Is configuration maintained through domain-related tools or a provisioning system?
D oes the integration path require additional applications or configuration on the Windows
server?
As important as which elements in the domains are integrated, is how that integration is maintained. If
a particular instrument of integration is heavily manual, yet the environment has a large number of
systems which are frequently updated, then that one instrument may not work for that environment
from a maintenance standpoint.
The following sections outline the main scenarios for integration with Windows. In direct integration,
Linux systems are connected to Active D irectory without any additional intermediaries. Indirect
integration, on the other hand, involves an identity server that centrally manages Linux systems and
connects the whole environment to Active D irectory of the server-to-server level.
1.2. Direct Int egrat ion
You need two components to connect a Linux system to Active D irectory (AD ). One component
interacts with the central identity and authentication source, which is AD in this case. The other
component detects available domains and configures the first component to work with the right
identity source. There are different options that can be used to retrieve information and perform
authentication against AD . Among them are:
N at ive LD AP an d K erb ero s PAM an d N SS mo d u les
Among these modules are nss_l d ap, pam_l d ap, and pam_krb5. As PAM and NSS
modules are loaded into every application process, they directly affect the execution
environment. With no caching, offline support, or sufficient protection of access credentials,
use of the basic LD AP and Kerberos modules for NSS and PAM is discouraged due to their
limited functionality.
Samb a Win b in d
Samba Winbind had been a traditional way of connecting Linux systems to AD . Winbind
emulates a Windows client on a Linux system and is able to communicate to AD servers.
4
⁠Chapt er 1 . Ways t o Int egrat e Act ive Direct ory and Linux Environment s
The recent versions of the System Security Services D aemon (SSSD ) closed a feature gap
between Samba Winbind and SSSD and SSSD can now be used as a replacement for
Winbind. In certain corner cases, Winbind might still be necessary to use but it is no longer
the first choice in general.
Syst em Secu rit y Services D aemo n ( SSSD )
The primary function of SSSD is to access a remote identity and authentication resource
through a common framework that provides caching and offline support to the system.
SSSD is highly configurable; it provides PAM and NSS integration and a database to store
local users, as well as core and extended user data retrieved from a central server. SSSD is
the recommended component to connect a Linux system with an identity server of your
choice, be it Active D irectory, Identity Management (IdM) in Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or any
generic LD AP and/or Kerberos server.
The main reason to transition from Winbind to SSSD is that SSSD can be used for both direct and
indirect integration and allows to switch from one integration approach to another without significant
migration costs. The most convenient way to configure SSSD or Winbind in order to directly integrate
a Linux system with AD is to use the real md service. It allows callers to configure network
authentication and domain membership in a standard way. The real md service automatically
discovers information about accessible domains and realms and does not require advanced
configuration to join a domain or realm.
D irect integration is a simple way to introduce Linux systems to AD environment. However, as the
share of Linux systems grows, the deployments usually see the need for a better centralized
management of the identity-related policies such as host-based access control, sudo, or SELinux
user mappings. At first, the configuration of these aspects of the Linux systems can be maintained in
local configuration files. With a growing number of systems though, distribution and management of
the configuration files is easier with a provisioning system such as Red Hat Satellite. This approach
creates an overhead of changing the configuration files and then distributing them. When direct
integration does not scale anymore, it is more beneficial to consider indirect integration described in
the next section.
1.3. Indirect Int egrat ion
The main advantage of the indirect integration is to manage Linux systems and policies related to
those systems centrally while enabling users from Active D irectory (AD ) domains to transparently
access Linux systems and services. There are two different approaches to the indirect integration:
T ru st - b ased so lu t io n
The recommended approach is to leverage Identity Management (IdM) in Red Hat Enterprise
Linux as the central server to control Linux systems and then establish cross-realm
Kerberos trust with AD , enabling users from AD to log on to and to use single sign-on to
access Linux systems and resources. This solution uses the Kerberos capability to
establish trusts between different identity sources. IdM presents itself to AD as a separate
forest and takes advantage of the forest-level trusts supported by AD .
In complex environments, a single IdM forest can be connected to multiple AD forests. This
setup enables better separation of duties for different functions in the organization. AD
administrators can focus on users and policies related to users while Linux administrators
have full control over the Linux infrastructure. In such a case, the Linux realm controlled by
IdM is analogous to an AD resource domain or realm but with Linux systems in it.
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
Note
In Windows, every domain is a Kerberos realm and a D NS domain at the same time.
Every domain managed by the domain controller needs to have its own dedicated
D NS zone. The same applies when IdM is trusted by AD as a forest. AD expects IdM
to have its own D NS domain. For the trust setup to work, the D NS domain needs to
be dedicated to the Linux environment.
Syn ch ro n iz at io n - b ased so lu t io n
An alternative to a trust-based solution is to leverage a user synchronization capability,
also available in IdM or Red Hat D irectory Server (RHD S). The synchronization allows user
accounts (and with RHD S also group accounts) to be synchronized from AD to IdM or
RHD S. However, this approach has a set of limitations, including:
duplication of users
the need to synchronize passwords, which requires a special component on all domain
controllers in an AD domain,
to be able to capture passwords, all users must first manually change them,
synchronization supports only a single domain,
only one domain controller in AD can be used to synchronize data to one instance of
IdM or RHD S.
In some integration scenarios, the user synchronization may be the only available option, but in
general, use of the synchronization approach is discouraged in favor of the cross-realm trust-based
integration.
6
⁠P art I. Adding a Single Linux Syst em t o an Act ive Direct ory Domain
⁠Part I. Adding a Single Linux System to an Active Directory
Domain
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
Chapter 2. Using Active Directory as an Identity Provider for
SSSD
The System Security Services D aemon (SSSD ) provides access to different identity and
authentication providers. This service ties a local system to a larger back-end system. That can be a
simple LD AP directory, domains for Active D irectory (AD ) or Identity Management (IdM) in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, or Kerberos realms.
SSSD configures a way to connect to an identity store to retrieve authentication information and then
uses that to create a local cache of users and credentials. SSSD can also pull in group information.
Authorization information is gathered by SSSD by using HBAC (Host-Based Access Control) in IdM
and GPO (Group Policy Object) in AD .
2.1. About SSSD
The SSSD service is an intermediary between local applications and any configured data store. This
relationship brings a number of benefits for administrators:
Reduced load on identification and authentication servers. Rather than having every application
service attempt to contact the identification server directly, each local application can contact
SSSD , which in turn connects to the identification server or checks its cache.
Option for offline authentication. SSSD keeps a cache of user identities (and optionally also user
credentials) that it retrieves from remote services. This allows users to authenticate even if the
remote identification server or the local machine is offline.
Single user account. Users can have two or more user accounts. For example, one for their local
system and another for the organizational system. This is necessary to connect to a virtual private
network (VPN). Because SSSD supports caching and offline authentication, remote users can
connect to network resources simply by authenticating to their local machine and then SSSD
maintains their network credentials.
2.1.1. SSSD Configurat ion
SSSD is a local service, which connects a system to a larger, external identity service. This is done
by configuring domains in the SSSD configuration file. Each domain represents a different, external
data source. D omains always represent an identity provider, which supplies user information, and,
optionally, define other providers for different kinds of operations, such as authentication or
password changes.
Note
SSSD allows all user identities to be created and maintained in a separate, external identity
source. For Windows integration, an AD domain is typically used to manage user accounts.
Local system users do not need to be created or synced with user accounts in AD – SSSD
uses those Windows identities and lets the Windows users access the local system and local
services.
SSSD also defines which services on the system use SSSD for credentials caching and user
accounts. These relate to foundational security services such as the Name Service Switch (NSS) and
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM), which are then used by higher-level applications.
8
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
Examp le 2.1. Simp le sssd . co nf File
​[sssd]
​d omains = WIN.EXAMPLE.COM
​services = nss, pam
​c onfig_file_version = 2
​[domain/WINDOWS]
​i d_provider = ad
​a uth_provider = ad
​a ccess_provider = ad
2.1.2. Act ive Direct ory Domain Configurat ion
As shown in Example 2.1, “ Simple sssd . co nf File” , the SSSD configuration file has two major
sections: the first configures the SSSD service ([sssd ]), the second configures configures the
identity domains ([d o mai n/NAME]). There might be additional sections that configure system
services which use SSSD as an identity cache; for example [nss] or [pam].
By default, only the identity provider (i d _pro vi d er) and authorization provider
(access_pro vi d er) options need to be configured. The i d _pro vi d er option is used for the
authentication (auth_pro vi d er) and password provider (chpass_pro vi d er) options if no other
types or servers are set. Active D irectory can be configured as any kind of provider using the ad
value.
​[domain/AD_EXAMPLE]
​i d_provider = ad
​a uth_provider = ad
​a ccess_provider = ad
​c hpass_provider = ad
​a d_server = dc1.example.com
​# only needed if DNS discovery is not working
​a d_hostname = client.example.com
​# only needed if the host name of the client machine is incorrect
​a d_domain = example.com
​# only needed if AD domain is named differently than SSSD domain
The connection information is required to identify what Active D irectory server to use. Past the basic
configuration, the Active D irectory identity provider can be configured specifically for the
Active D irectory environment and specific features, such as whether to use POSIX attributes or
mapping for Windows SID s on the local system, failover servers, and account information such as
home directories.
All of the LD AP domain parameters are available to the Active D irectory provider, as well as
Active D irectory-specific configuration parameters. The complete lists are available in the sssd-ldap
and sssd-ad man pages.
There is a number of options in the generic LD AP provider configuration which can be used to
configure an Active D irectory provider. Using the ad value is a shortcut which automatically pulls in
the parameters and values to configure a given provider for Active D irectory. For example, the
shortcut for an access provider is:
​a ccess_provider = ad
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Using generic LD AP parameters, that configuration expands to:
​a ccess_provider = ldap
​l dap_access_order = expire
​l dap_account_expire_policy = ad
Those settings are all set implicitly by using the ad provider type.
2.2. Environment s for SSSD
SSSD , for the most part, replaces older identity management services which were used for Windows
integration, including NIS and Winbind. SSSD is a local system service, so configuring it manually is
only feasible for environments with a small number of systems.
There are tools which can prepare the initial configuration for the SSSD Active D irectory domain; The
real md suite edits all underlying configuration files automatically. It simplifies editing the
configuration but must be run separately on each system. An IdM server can configure a client to
work with an Active D irectory-IdM trust, but that requires a configured and functioning IdM Linux
domain and an already-configured trust environment.
2.3. How SSSD Int egrat es wit h an Act ive Direct ory Environment
2.3.1. Act ive Direct ory Ident it ies on t he Local Syst em
There are inherent structural differences between how Windows and Linux handle system users. The
user schemas used in Active D irectory and standard LD APv3 directory services also differ
significantly. When using an Active D irectory identity provider with SSSD to manage system users, it
is necessary to reconcile Active D irectory-style users to the new SSSD users. There are two ways to
achieve it:
ID mapping in SSSD can create a map between Active D irectory security ID s (SID s) and the
generated UID s on Linux. ID mapping is the simplest option for most environments because it
requires no additional packages or configuration on Active D irectory.
Unix services can manage POSIX attributes on Windows user and group entries. This requires
more configuration and information within the Active D irectory environment, but it provides more
administrative control over the specific UID /GID values and other POSIX attributes.
Active D irectory can replicate user entries and attributes from its local directory into a global catalog,
which makes the information available to other domains within the forest. Performance-wise, the
global catalog replication is the recommended way for SSSD to get information about users and
groups, so that SSSD has access to all user data for all domains within the topology. As a result,
SSSD can be used by applications which need to query the Active D irectory global catalog for user
or group information.
2 .3.1 .1 . Abo ut Se curit y ID Mapping
T he Me chanism o f ID Mapping
Linux/Unix systems use a local user ID number (UID ) and group ID number (GID ) to identify users on
the system. These UID : G ID numbers are a simple integer, for example 50 1: 50 1.
10
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
Microsoft Windows and Active D irectory use a different user ID structure to identify users, groups,
and machines. Each ID , also called a Security Identifier (SID ) is constructed of different segments that
identify the security version, the issuing authority type, the machine, and the identity itself. The third
through sixth blocks are the machine identifier:
S-1-5-21-36 238110 15-336 10 4 4 34 8-30 30 0 820 -1013
The last block is the relative identifier (RID ) which identifies the specific entity:
S-1-5-21-3623811015-3361044348-30300820-10 13
A range of possible ID numbers is always assigned to SSSD . As this is a local range, it is the same
for every machine. By default, this range is divided into 10,000 sections with each section allocated
200,000 ID s.
When a new Active D irectory domain is detected, the SID is hashed. Then, SSSD takes the modulus
of the hash and the number of available sections to determine which ID section to assign to the
Active D irectory domain. This is a consistent way of assigning ID sections, so the same ID range is
assigned to the same Active D irectory domain on all client machines.
|
AD
|
AD
|
|
| domain 1 | domain 2 |
...
|
|___________|___________|_________|
| slice 1 | slice 2 |
...
|
min ID
max ID
Note
As long as all clients use SSSD for the ID mapping, the mapping will be consistent. However, if
some clients use different software, ensure that the same mapping algorithm is used or use
explicit POSIX attributes.
ID Mapping Param e t e rs
The ID mapping is enabled by default in the AD provider. The l d ap_i d _mappi ng parameter
enables the mapping while the l d ap_schema parameter configures which LD AP attribute is mapped
to which SSSD attribute.
Note
When ID mapping is enabled, the uidNumber and gidNumber attributes are ignored. This
prevents any manually-assigned values. If any values must be manually assigned, then all
values must be manually assigned, and ID mapping should be disabled.
Mapping Use rs
When an Active D irectory user attempts to log into a local system for the first time, an entry for that
user is created in the SSSD cache. The remote user is set up much like a system user:
A system UID is created for the user based on his SID and the ID range for that domain.
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A GID is created for the user, which is identical to the UID .
A shell attribute is used according to SSSD settings.
If the user belongs to any groups in the Active D irectory domain, SSSD uses the SID to add the
user to those groups on the Linux system.
2 .3.1 .2 . Abo ut SSSD and POSIX At t ribut e s
Active D irectory can be configured to create and store POSIX attributes such as uidNumber,
gidNumber, unixHomeDirectory, and loginShell. As with all user attributes, these are
originally stored in the local domain, but they can be replicated to the global catalog. Once they are
in the global catalog, they are available to SSSD and any application which uses SSSD for its
identity information.
Replicating the attributes is benefitial for performance but is not required. SSSD tries to detect if
POSIX attributes are present and if not, SSSD connects to the individual domain controllers directly
on the LD AP port instead of requiring POSIX attributes to be replicated to the global catalog.
Note
Note that it is possible to use ID mapping even when POSIX attributes are defined on the
server. In such a case, SSSD ignores the POSIX attributes.
To use existing POSIX attributes for the best performance, ensure the following:
publish the POSIX attributes to Active D irectory's global catalog,
disable ID mapping in SSSD by setting l d ap_i d _mappi ng = Fal se in the Active D irectory
domain entry.
2 .3.1 .3. Acce ssing a CIFS share wit h SSSD
SSSD is able to handle ID mapping between Windows security ID s (SID s) and POSIX ID s. An SSSD
client can therefore access and fully use a Common Internet File System (CIFS) share.
Note
In order to use a CIFS share for proper access control, it is necessary to translate the Windows
SID s to Linux POSIX UID s and GID s. Previously, only Winbind provided this functionality.
Now, SSSD clients are no longer required to run Winbind alongside SSSD for this purpose.
The CIFS file-sharing protocol is widely deployed on Windows machines; SSSD enables seamless
use of CIFS in environments with a trust between Identity Management and Active D irectory as if it
was a standard Linux file system. The SID -to-ID or SID -to-name algorithm that the SSSD client uses
for system identity information can now also be used for a CIFS share. For example, accessing the
Access Control Lists (ACLs) no longer requires to run Winbind in parallel to SSSD .
It is recommended to use SSSD for accessing a CIFS share instead of Winbind. IdM clients use
SSSD by default to map AD users to UNIX users; using SSSD for the CIFS mapping avoids the
possibility of inconsistent mapping, which can occur when IdM clients use Winbind. If a Linux client
uses SSSD instead of Winbind for general AD user mappings in an environment with direct AD
12
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
integration, where the client is directly joined into an AD domain, the client should also use SSSD as
the mapping service for CIFS.
On the server side, SSSD also enables SID -to-POSIX ID mapping, providing access to a CIFS share
to clients. However, Winbind on the server side still provides certain services that SSSD cannot, such
as support for authentication using the NT LAN Manager (NTLM) or NetBIOS name lookup. This does
not pose a problem for IdM clients because in IdM domains, Kerberos authentication and D NS name
lookup are available for the same purposes.
Note
If you require NTLM authentication or NetBIOS name lookup, use Winbind for accessing a
CIFS share instead of SSSD .
Co nfiguring Sam ba fo r Acce ssing a CIFS Share wit h SSSD
To configure Samba to provide access to a CIFS share using SSSD , modify the [g l o bal ] section
of the /etc/samba/smb. co nf file.
The following example of smb. co nf is intended for environments with direct AD integration. The
system keytab setting specifies that the keytab required for Kerberos access to the CIFS share is
the same as the keytab that SSSD uses:
[global]
security = ads
workgroup = ADSHORTNAME
realm = ADREALM
kerberos method = system keytab
An example of smb. co nf for environments with an AD trust, where the most-widely used solution is
to specify a dedicated keytab for Samba:
[global]
security = ads
workgroup = IPA
realm = IPA.TEST
dedicated keytab file = FILE:/etc/samba/samba.keytab
kerberos method = dedicated keytab
Package s Re quire d fo r Acce ssing a CIFS Share wit h SSSD
For a client to use SSSD to access a CIFS share, the following two packages are required.
sssd-client
The sssd-client package is installed automatically as an SSSD dependency. The package
provides the SSSD plug-in for the cifs-utils package. This plug-in contains the
l i bsss_nss_i d map. so library.
sssd-libwbclient
The sssd-libwbclient package is not installed automatically. To install it, run the following
command:
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# yum install sssd-libwbclient
The package provides the l i bwbcl i ent. so . 0 . 11-6 4 library, which is the SSSD
alternative to the library provided by the libwbclient package used by the Winbind service.
After installing sssd-libwbclient, you can verify that your system uses the SSSD implementation with
the al ternati ves tool. The tool displays the currently used alternative:
# alternatives --list | grep -E cifs\|libwbclient
cifs-idmap-plugin
auto
/usr/lib64/cifs-utils/cifs_idmap_sss.so
l i bwbcl i ent. so . 0 . 11-6 4 auto
/usr/l i b6 4 /sssd /mo d ul es/l i bwbcl i ent. so . 0 . 11. 0
Swit ching Be t we e n SSSD and Winbind
To find out if you are currently using SSSD or Winbind for accessing a CIFS share, use the
al ternati ves tool.
# alternatives --display cifs-idmap-plugin
cifs-idmap-plugin - status is auto.
l i nk currentl y po i nts to /usr/l i b/ci fs-uti l s/ci fs_i d map_sss. so
/usr/lib/cifs-utils/cifs_idmap_sss.so - priority 20
/usr/lib/cifs-utils/idmapwb.so - priority 10
Current `best' version is /usr/lib/cifs-utils/cifs_idmap_sss.so.
If the SSSD plug-in (ci fs_i d map_sss. so ) is installed, it has a higher priority than the Winbind
plug-in (i d mapwb. so ) by default.
To switch to a different plug-in, run the al ternati ves --set ci fs-i d map-pl ug i n command
and provide the path to the plug-in. For example, to switch to Winbind:
# alternatives --set cifs-idmap-plugin /usr/lib/cifs-utils/idmapwb.so
Important
It is recommended that IdM clients always use the SSSD plug-in.
If you want to switch to the Winbind plug-in, make sure that Winbind is running on the system.
Similarly, if you want to switch to SSSD , make sure that SSSD is running.
2.3.2. Act ive Direct ory Users and Range Ret rieval Searches
Microsoft Active D irectory has an attribute, MaxValRange, which sets a limit on how many values for
a multi-valued attribute is returned. This is the range retrieval search extension. The extension runs
multiple mini-searches, each returning a subset of the results within a given range, until all matches
are returned.
For example, when doing a search for the member attribute, each entry could have multiple values,
and there can be multiple entries with that attribute. If there are 1500 matching results or more, then
MaxValRange limits how many are displayed at once. The given attribute has an additional flag set,
showing which range in the set the result is in:
14
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
attribute:range=low-high:value
For example, to display results 100 to 500 in a search, use:
member:range=99-499: cn=John Smith...
SSSD supports range retrievals with Active D irectory providers as part of user and group
management, without any additional configuration.
When the search base in SSSD specifies a custom filter or scope, some LD AP provider attributes
which are available to configure searches (such as ldap_user_search_base) cannot be used
with range retrievals. When configuring search bases in the Active D irectory provider domain, be
aware what searches may trigger a range retrieval.
2.3.3. Linux Client s and Act ive Direct ory DNS Sit es
SSSD connects a local Linux system to a larger Active D irectory environment. This requires SSSD to
have an awareness of possible configurations within the Active D irectory forest and work with them
so that the Linux client is cleanly integrated.
Active D irectory forests can be very large, with numerous different domain controllers, domains and
subdomains, and physical sites. To increase client performance, Active D irectory uses a special kind
of D NS record to identify domain controllers within the same domain but at different physical
locations. Clients connect to the closest domain controller.
Active D irectory extends normal D NS SRV records to identify a specific physical location or site for its
domain controllers. Clients such as SSSD can determine which domain controllers to use based on
their own site configuration. SSSD can determine which domain controller to use by querying the
Active D irectory domain first for its site configuration, and then for the domain controller D NS
records:
1. SSSD attempts to connect to the Active D irectory domain and looks up any available domain
controller through normal D NS discovery.
2. SSSD sends an LD AP search to a domain controller which looks for the D NS domain,
domain SID , and version:
(& (& (DnsDomain=ad.domain)(DomainSid=S-1-5-21-1111-2222-3333))
(NtVer=0x01000016))
This is used to retrieve the information about the client's site if one is configured.
3. If a site is configured for the client, then the reply contains extended D NS SRV records for the
primary server, containing the site name (site-name._sites.):
_tcp._ldap.site-name._sites.domain.name
The backup server record is also sent, as a standard SRV record:
_tcp._ldap.domain.name
If no site is configured, then a standard SRV record is sent for all primary and backup
servers.
4. SSSD retrieves a list of primary and fallback servers.
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2.4 . Configuring an Act ive Direct ory Domain wit h ID Mapping
When configuring an Active D irectory domain, the simplest configuration is to use the ad value for all
providers (identity, access, password). Also, load the native Active D irectory schema for user and
group entries, rather than using the default RFC 2307.
Other configuration is available in the general LD AP provider configuration ⁠ [1] and Active D irectoryspecific configuration ⁠ [2] . This includes setting of LD AP filters for a specific user or group subtree,
filters for authentication, and values for some account settings. Some additional configuration is
covered in Section 2.6, “ Additional Configuration Examples” .
Note
Note that the following procedure covers the manual configuration of an Active D irectory
domain. By using real md , steps 3 to 7 below can be done automatically by using the real m
jo i n command. See Chapter 3, Using realmd to Connect to an Active Directory Domain for
details.
1. Make sure that both the Active D irectory and Linux systems have a properly configured
environment.
Name resolution must be properly configured, particularly if service discovery is used with
SSSD .
The clocks on both systems must be in sync for Kerberos to work properly.
2. On the Linux client, add the Active D irectory domain to the client's D NS configuration so that
it can resolve the domain's SRV records.
search adserver.example.com
nameserver 198.68.72.1
3. Set up the Linux system as an Active D irectory client and enroll it within the Active D irectory
domain. This is done by configuring the Kerberos and Samba services on the Linux system.
a. Set up Kerberos to use the Active D irectory Kerberos realm.
a. Open the Kerberos client configuration file.
[root@ server ~]# vim /etc/krb5.conf
b. Configure the [l o g g i ng ] and [l i bd efaul ts] sections so that they
connect to the Active D irectory realm.
[logging]
default = FILE:/var/log/krb5libs.log
[libdefaults]
default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
dns_lookup_realm = true
dns_lookup_kdc = true
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⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
ticket_lifetime = 24h
renew_lifetime = 7d
rdns = false
forwardable = yes
If auto-discovery is not used with SSSD , then also configure the [real ms]
and [d o mai n_real m] sections to explicitly define the Active D irectory server.
b. Configure the Samba server to connect to the Active directory server.
a. Open the Samba configuration file.
[root@ server ~]# vim /etc/samba/smb.conf
b. Set the Active D irectory domain information in the [g l o bal ] section.
[global]
workgroup = EXAMPLE
client signing = yes
client use spnego = yes
kerberos method = secrets and keytab
log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
password server = AD.EXAMPLE.COM
realm = EXAMPLE.COM
security = ads
c. Add the Linux machine to the Active D irectory domain.
a. Obtain Kerberos credentials for a Windows administrative user.
[root@ server ~]# kinit Administrator
b. Add the machine to the domain using the net command.
[root@ server ~]# net ads join -k
Joined 'server' to dns domain 'example.com'
This creates a new keytab file, /etc/krb5. keytab.
List the keys for the system and check that the host principal is there.
[root@ server ~]# klist -k
4. If necessary, install the o d d jo b-mkho med i r package to allow SSSD to create home
directories for Active D irectory users.
[root@ server ~]# yum install oddjob-mkhomedir
5. Use authco nfi g to enable SSSD for system authentication. Use the --enabl emkho med i r
to enable SSSD to create home directories.
[root@ server ~]# authconfig --update --enablesssd --enablesssdauth -enablemkhomedir
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6. Open the SSSD configuration file.
[root@ rhel-server ~]# vim /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
7. Configure the Active D irectory domain.
a. In the [sssd ] section, add the Active D irectory domain to the list of active domains.
This is the name of the domain entry that is set in [domain/NAME] in the SSSD
configuration file.
Also, add pac to the list of services; this enables SSSD to set and use MS-PAC
information on tickets used to communicate with the Active D irectory domain.
[sssd]
config_file_version = 2
domains = ad.example.com
services = nss, pam, pac
b. Create a new domain section at the bottom of the file for the Active D irectory domain.
This section has the format domain/NAME, such as d o mai n/ad . exampl e. co m. For
each provider, set the value to ad , and give the connection information for the specific
Active D irectory instance to connect to.
[domain/ad.example.com]
id_provider = ad
auth_provider = ad
chpass_provider = ad
access_provider = ad
c. Enable credentials caching; this allows users to log into the local system using
cached information, even if the Active D irectory domain is unavailable.
cache_credentials = true
8. Restart the SSH service to load the new PAM configuration.
[root@ server ~]# systemctl restart sshd.service
9. Restart SSSD after changing the configuration file.
[root@ rhel-server ~]# systemctl restart sssd.service
2.5. Configuring an Act ive Direct ory Domain wit h POSIX At t ribut es
18
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
Warning
The Identity Management for UNIX extension used in the following section is now deprecated. As
explained on the Microsoft D eveloper Network, an attempt to upgrade a system running
Identity Management for UNIX might fail with a warning suggesting you to remove the
extension. No replacement to the extension is currently available.
It is recommended to avoid using Identity Management for UNIX and instead set POSIX
information on the IdM server using the ID Views mechanism, described in Chapter 8, ID Views
and Migrating Existing Environments to Trust.
To use Active D irectory-defined POSIX attributes in SSSD , it is recommended to replicate them to the
global catalog for better performance. Once they are in the global catalog, they are available to
SSSD and any application which uses SSSD for its identity information. Additionally, if the POSIX
attributes are used, ID mapping has to be disabled in SSSD , so the POSIX attributes are used from
Active D irectory rather than creating new settings locally.
Other configuration is available in the general LD AP provider configuration ⁠ [3] and Active D irectoryspecific configuration ⁠ [4] . This includes setting of LD AP filters for a specific user or group subtree,
filters for authentication, and values for some account settings. Some additional configuration is
covered in Section 2.6, “ Additional Configuration Examples” .
Note
Note that the following procedure covers the manual configuration of an Active D irectory
domain. By using real md , steps 4 to 11 below can be done automatically by using the real m
jo i n command. See Chapter 3, Using realmd to Connect to an Active Directory Domain for
details.
1. Make sure that both the Active D irectory and Linux systems have a properly configured
environment.
Name resolution must be properly configured, particularly if service discovery is used with
SSSD .
The clocks on both systems must be in sync for Kerberos to work properly.
2. In the Active D irectory domain, set the POSIX attributes to be replicated to the global catalog.
a. Install Identity Management for UNIX Components on all primary and child domain
controllers. This allows the POSIX attributes and related schema to be available to
user accounts. These attributes are available in the UNIX Attri butes tab in the
entry's P ro perti es menu.
b. Install the Active D irectory Schema Snap-in to add attributes to be replicated to the
global catalog.
c. For the relevant POSIX attributes (uidNumber, gidNumber, unixHomeDirectory,
and loginShell), open the P ro perti es menu, select the R epl i cate thi s
attri bute to the G l o bal C atal o g checkbox, and then click O K.
3. On the Linux client, add the Active D irectory domain to the client's D NS configuration so that
it can resolve the domain's SRV records.
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search adserver.example.com
nameserver 198.68.72.1
4. Set up the Linux system as an Active D irectory client and enroll it within the Active D irectory
domain. This is done by configuring the Kerberos and Samba services on the Linux system.
a. Set up Kerberos to use the Active D irectory Kerberos realm.
a. Open the Kerberos client configuration file.
[root@ server ~]# vim /etc/krb5.conf
b. Configure the [l o g g i ng ] and [l i bd efaul ts] sections so that they
connect to the Active D irectory realm.
[logging]
default = FILE:/var/log/krb5libs.log
[libdefaults]
default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
dns_lookup_realm = true
dns_lookup_kdc = true
ticket_lifetime = 24h
renew_lifetime = 7d
rdns = false
forwardable = yes
If auto-discovery is not used with SSSD , then also configure the [real ms]
and [d o mai n_real m] sections to explicitly define the Active D irectory server.
b. Configure the Samba server to connect to the Active directory server.
a. Open the Samba configuration file.
[root@ server ~]# vim /etc/samba/smb.conf
b. Set the Active D irectory domain information in the [g l o bal ] section.
[global]
workgroup = EXAMPLE
client signing = yes
client use spnego = yes
kerberos method = secrets and keytab
log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
password server = AD.EXAMPLE.COM
realm = EXAMPLE.COM
security = ads
c. Add the Linux machine to the Active D irectory domain.
a. Obtain Kerberos credentials for a Windows administrative user.
[root@ server ~]# kinit Administrator
b. Add the machine to the domain using the net command.
20
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
[root@ server ~]# net ads join -k
Joined 'server' to dns domain 'example.com'
This creates a new keytab file, /etc/krb5. keytab.
c. List the keys for the system and check that the host principal is there.
[root@ server ~]# klist -ke
d. Test that users can search the global catalog, using an l d apsearch.
[root@ server ~]# ldapsearch -H
ldap://server.ad.example.com:3268 -Y GSSAPI -N -b
"dc=ad,dc=example,dc=com" "(& (objectClass=user)
(sAMAccountName=aduser))"
5. Install the sssd -ad package.
[root@ server ~]# yum install sssd-ad
6. Start the SSSD service.
[root@ server ~]# systemctl start sssd.service
7. Open the SSSD configuration file.
[root@ rhel-server ~]# vim /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
8. Configure the Active D irectory domain.
a. In the [sssd ] section, add the Active D irectory domain to the list of active domains.
This is the name of the domain entry that is set in [domain/NAME] in the SSSD
configuration file.
b. Create a new domain section at the bottom of the file for the Active D irectory domain.
This section has the format domain/NAME, such as d o mai n/ad . exampl e. co m. For
each provider, set the value to ad , and give the connection information for the specific
Active D irectory instance to connect to.
[domain/ad.example.com]
id_provider = ad
auth_provider = ad
chpass_provider = ad
access_provider = ad
c. D isable ID mapping. This tells SSSD to search the global catalog for POSIX
attributes, rather than creating UID : G ID numbers based on the Windows SID .
# disabling ID mapping
ldap_id_mapping = False
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d. If home directory and a login shell are set in the user accounts, then comment out
these lines to configure SSSD to use the POSIX attributes rather then creating the
attributes based on the template.
# Comment out if the users have the shell and home dir set on
the AD side
#default_shell = /bin/bash
#fallback_homedir = /home/%d/%u
e. Set whether to use short names or fully-qualified user names for Active D irectory
users. In complex topologies, using fully-qualified names may be necessary for
disambiguation.
# Comment out if you prefer to user shortnames.
use_fully_qualified_names = True
f. Enable credentials caching; this allows users to log into the local system using
cached information, even if the Active D irectory domain is unavailable.
cache_credentials = true
9. Set the file permissions and owner for the SSSD configuration file.
[root@ server ~]# chown root:root /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
[root@ server ~]# chmod 0600 /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
[root@ server ~]# restorecon /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
10. If necessary, install the o d d jo b-mkho med i r package to allow SSSD to create home
directories for Active D irectory users.
[root@ server ~]# yum install oddjob-mkhomedir
11. Use authco nfi g to enable SSSD for system authentication. Use the --enabl emkho med i r
to enable SSSD to create home directories.
[root@ server ~]# authconfig --update --enablesssd --enablesssdauth -enablemkhomedir
12. Restart the SSH service to load the new PAM configuration.
[root@ server ~]# systemctl restart sshd.service
13. Restart SSSD after changing the configuration file.
[root@ rhel-server ~]# systemctl restart sssd.service
Using authco nfi g automatically configured the NSS and PAM configuration files to use SSSD as
their identity source.
For example, the nsswi tch. co nf file has SSSD (sss) added as a source for user, group, and
service information.
passwd:
22
files sss
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
group:
...
services:
...
netgroup:
files sss
files sss
files sss
The different pam. d files add a line for the pam_sss. so module beneath every pam_uni x. so line
in the /etc/pam. d /system-auth and /etc/pam. d /passwo rd -auth files.
auth
...
account
...
password
...
session
session
sufficient
pam_sss.so use_first_pass
[default=bad success=ok user_unknown=ignore] pam_sss.so
sufficient
pam_sss.so use_authtok
optional
optional
pam_mkhomedir.so
pam_sss.so
2.6. Addit ional Configurat ion Examples
2.6.1. Account Set t ings
With Linux users, certain system preferences are set by default for new users. These system
preferences either may not be set in the Windows user accounts or may be set to something
incompatible with a Linux system. There are two such areas: the user home directory and default user
shell.
2 .6 .1 .1 . Se t t ing a Use r Ho m e Dire ct o ry
Red Hat Enterprise Linux has a PAM library (pam_o d d jo b_mkho med i r. so ) which automatically
creates user directories when a user first logs in. This includes Active D irectory users, when they first
log into a Linux system.
With SSSD , the format of the user directory is retrieved from the identity provider. If the identity
provider has a home directory format that is different than the format for the Linux system or if it does
not supply a value, then SSSD can be configured to set the home directory attribute value using a
template specified in its configuration. The template can be set globally in the NSS service section or
per domain. There are two possible parameters:
fallback_homedir, which supplies a template if the identity provider does not supply one,
override_homedir, which sets a template to use regardless of what information is set in the
identity provider.
Both can use variables within the template, such a %u for the login name and %d for the domain
name:
[nss]
fallback_homedir = /home/%u
...
[domain/AD_EXAMPLE]
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id_provider = ad
auth_provider = ad
...
override_homedir = /home/%d/%u
2 .6 .1 .2 . Se t t ing a Use r She ll
By default, SSSD attempts to retrieve information about user shells from the identity provider. In both
Active D irectory and LD APv3 schema, this is defined in the loginShell attribute. However, this is an
optional attribute, so it may not be defined for every user. For Active D irectory users, the defined login
shell may not be allowed on the Linux system.
There are a number of ways to handle shells in the SSSD configuration:
Set a fallback value if no shells are supplied using shell_fallback,
Set lists of allowed or blacklisted shells using allowed_shells and vetoed_shells,
Set a default value using default_shell,
Set a value to use, even if another value is given in the identity provider, using override_shell.
Note
The al l o wed _shel l s, veto ed _shel l s, and shel l _fal l back parameters can only be
set as global settings, not per domain. However, these parameters do not affect local system
users, only external users retrieved through SSSD identity providers. Using a general setting,
such as /bi n/rbash, is good for most external users.
D efault values can be set per domain while some values, such as the white and blacklists for shells,
must be set globally in the NSS service configuration. For example:
[nss]
shell_fallback = /bin/sh
allowed_shells = /bin/sh,/bin/rbash,/bin/bash
vetoed_shells = /bin/ksh
...
[domain/AD_EXAMPLE]
id_provider = ad
auth_provider = ad
...
default_shell = /bin/rbash
2.6.2. Enabling Dynamic DNS Updat es (Act ive Direct ory Only)
Active D irectory allows its clients to refresh their D NS records automatically. Active D irectory also
actively maintains D NS records to make sure they are updated, including timing out (aging) and
removing (scavenging) inactive records. Note that D NS scavenging is not enabled by default on the
AD side.
SSSD allows the Linux system to imitate a Windows client by refreshing its D NS record, which also
prevents its record from being marked inactive and removed from the D NS record. When dynamic
D NS updates are enabled, then the client's D NS record is refreshed at several times:
24
⁠Chapt er 2 . Using Act ive Direct ory as an Ident it y Provider for SSSD
When the identity provider comes online (always),
When the Linux system reboots (always),
At a specified interval (optional configuration).
Note
This can be set to the same interval as the D HCP lease, which means that the Linux client is
renewed after the lease is renewed.
D NS updates are sent to the Active D irectory server using Kerberos/GSSAPI for D NS (GSS-TSIG);
this means that only secure connections need to be enabled.
The dynamic D NS configuration is set for each domain. For example:
[domain/ad.example.com]
id_provider = ad
auth_provider = ad
chpass_provider = ad
access_provider = ad
ldap_schema = ad
d ynd ns_upd ate = true
d ynd ns_refresh_i nterval = 4 320 0
d ynd ns_upd ate_ptr = true
d ynd ns_ttl = 36 0 0
T ab le 2.1. O p t io n s f o r D yn amic D N S U p d at es
O p t io n
D escrip t io n
Fo rmat
dyndns_update
Sets whether to update the D NS server dynamically
with the client IP address. This requires secure
updates and must be set to true for any other
dynamic D NS setting to be enabled. The default
value is true.
Sets a time-to-live for the client's D NS record. The
default value is 3600 seconds.
Sets a frequency to perform an automatic D NS
update, in addition to the update when the provider
comes online. The default value is 86400 seconds
(24 hours).
Sets whether to update the PTR record when the
client updates its D NS records. The default value is
true.
Boolean
dyndns_ttl
dyndns_refresh_interval
dyndns_update_ptr
Integer
Integer
Boolean
2.6.3. Using a Filt er wit h Access Cont rols
The Active D irectory access provider is used as the source for authorization information. The
following configuration parameter option is actually a combination of several other generic LD AP
parameters:
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
access_provider = ad
This is the same as setting the following LD AP parameters:
access_provider = ldap
ldap_access_order = expire
ldap_account_expire_policy = ad
There is an additional option to identify which user accounts to grant access, based on an LD AP
filter. First, accounts must match the filter, and then they must pass the expiration check, which is
implicit in the access_provider = ad setting. For example, the following sets that only users
which belong to the administrators group and have a unixHomeDirectory attribute match the
access control check:
access_provider = ad
ad_access_filter = (& (memberOf=cn=admins,ou=groups,dc=example,dc=com)
(unixHomeDirectory=*))
[1] See the sssd -l d ap man p ag e.
[2] See the sssd -ad man p ag e.
[3] See the sssd -l d ap man p ag e.
[4] See the sssd -ad man p ag e.
26
⁠Chapt er 3. Using realmd t o Connect t o an Act ive Direct ory Domain
Chapter 3. Using real md to Connect to an Active Directory Domain
The real md system provides a clear and simple way to discover and join identity domains. It does
not connect to the domain itself but configures underlying Linux system services, such as SSSD or
Winbind, to connect to the domain.
3.1. About
real md
Chapter 2, Using Active Directory as an Identity Provider for SSSD describes how to use the System
Security Services D aemon on a local system and Active D irectory as a back-end identity provider.
There are a number of different configuration parameters for each possible identity provider and for
SSSD itself. All domain information must be available in advance and then properly formatted in the
SSSD configuration for SSSD to integrate the local system with Active D irectory. That can be a
complex task and real md simplifies that configuration; it can run a service discovery to identify
available Active D irectory and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Identity Management domains, and then join
the domain and manage user access. SSSD as an underlying service supports multiple domains
and real md can therefore discover and support multiple domains as well.
3.1.1. T ypes of Domains
The real md system can discover the following types of identity domains:
Microsoft Active D irectory
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Identity Management
You can use real md to join an Active D irectory or Identity Management domain; real md properly
configures the required system configuration files and services.
3.1.2. Support ed Domain Client s
The real md system automatically configures the required client services that are used to connect to
the given identity realm. There are two supported clients:
SSSD for both Red Hat Enterprise Linux Identity Management and Microsoft Active D irectory
Winbind for Microsoft Active D irectory
3.2. real md Commands
The real md system has two major task areas: managing system enrollment in a domain and setting
which domain users are allowed to access the local system resources. The central utility in real md
is called real m – this utility mostly specifies an action and the realm for which to perform that action.
realm command arguments
For example:
realm join ad.example.com
realm permit username
T ab le 3.1. realmd C o mman d s
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
C o mman d
R ealm C o mman d s
discover
join
leave
list
Lo g in C o mman d s
permit
deny
D escrip t io n
Run a discovery scan for domains on the network.
Add the system to the specified domain.
Removes the system from the specified domain.
Lists all configured realms for the system or all discovered and
configured realms.
Enables access for specified users or for all users within a configured
realm to access the local system.
Restricts access for specified users or for all users within a configured
realm to access the local system.
3.3. Discovering and Joining Act ive Direct ory Domains
3.3.1. Discovering Domains
The discovery process is handled by the d i sco ver command. It returns complete realm
configuration and a list of packages that must be installed for the system to be enrolled in the realm.
Note
Note that the real m d i sco ver command requires NetworkManager to be running; in
particular, it depends on the D -Bus interface of NetworkManager. If your system does not use
NetworkManager, specify the realm name in the command, for example, real m d i sco ver
ad . exampl e. co m.
[root@ server ~]# real m d i sco ver
ad.example.com
type: active-directory
realm-name: AD.EXAMPLE.COM
domain-name: ad.example.com
configured: kerberos-member
server-software: active-directory
client-software: sssd
required-package: oddjob
required-package: oddjob-mkhomedir
required-package: sssd
login-formats: %D\%U
login-policy: allow-realm-logins
real md can discover both Active D irectory and Identity Management domains. If both are in the
environment, then it is possible to limit the discovery results to a specific type of server:
[root@ server ~]# realm discover --server-software=active-directory
It is also possible to run a discovery for a specific domain, using the domain controller's host name
or IP address:
[root@ server ~]# realm discover ad.example.com
28
⁠Chapt er 3. Using realmd t o Connect t o an Act ive Direct ory Domain
3.3.2. Joining an Act ive Direct ory Domain
The jo i n command only requires the realm name:
[root@ server ~]# real m jo i n ad . exampl e. co m
See: journalctl REALMD_OPERATION=r1088239.6316
realm: Joined ad.example.com domain
This performs the join as the default Windows administrator and, in most environments, will prompt
for the password. The command can connect to the Active D irectory environment as a different user,
by using the -U option:
[root@ server ~]# realm join ad.example.com -U AD.EXAMPLE.COM\jsmith
If Kerberos is properly configured on a Linux system, the join operation can also be performed with a
Kerberos ticket for authentication. The real md system can use the -U option to select, which
principal to use, or can use the default credential cache or the KR B5_C C AC HE variable.
[root@ server ~]# kinit jsmith
[root@ server ~]# realm join ad.example.com -U jsmith
D uring joining, the real md system checks for the D NS SRV record:
_ldap._tcp.domain.example.com. // for IdM records
_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.domain.example.com. // for Active Directory records
The D NS SRV record is created by default when Active D irectory is configured, which enables it to be
found by the service discovery. real md uses the domain assigned through D HCP to discover any
LD AP servers on the network.
The actual join command configures both the local system services and the entries in the
Active D irectory domain by performing these steps:
1. Runs a discovery scan for the specified realm.
2. Installs any required packages to join the system to the domain. This includes SSSD and the
PAM home directory job packages. Note that the automatic installation of packages requires
the P ackag eKi t suite to be running.
Note
If P ackag eKi t is disabled, the system prompts you for the missing packages. You will
be required to install them manually using the yum utility.
3. Attempts to join the Active D irectory domain as the administrator unless a different user is
specified with the -U option. The command first attempts to connect without credentials, but it
prompts for a password if required.
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
Note
For Active D irectory, the administrator account is called Ad mi ni strato r, for IdM, it is
called ad mi n.
4. Once it connects to the domain, it creates an account entry for the system in the directory.
5. Creates the /etc/krb5. keytab host keytab file.
6. Configures the domain in SSSD and restarts the service.
7. Enables domain users for the system services in PAM configuration and the
/etc/nsswi tch. co nf file.
One of the attributes returned in the discovery search is l o g i n-po l i cy, which shows if domain
users are allowed to log in as soon as the join is complete. If logins are not allowed by default, then
they can be manually allowed by the permi t command. For details, see Section 3.4, “ Managing User
Logins from Active D irectory” .
3.3.3. Removing a Syst em from t he Act ive Direct ory Domain
If a system should ever be removed from an Active D irectory domain, this is done with the l eave
command. This removes the domain configuration from SSSD and the local system:
[root@ server ~]# realm leave ad.example.com
This command performs the removal as the default administrator account (admin in Identity
Management; Administrator in Active D irectory). The script may prompt for a password or, depending
on how the system was joined to the domain, it may require performing the operation as a different
user. A user can be specified with the -U option.
[root@ server ~]# realm leave ad.example.com -U AD.EXAMPLE.COM\jsmith
Note
When a client leaves a domain, the computer object is not deleted; the local client is only
deconfigured. If you want to delete it, run the command with the --remo ve option specified.
3.3.4 . List ing Domains
The l i st command lists every configured domain for the system, and the full details and default
configuration for that domain. This is the same information as is returned for the realm discovery,
only for a domain that is already in the system configuration.
[root@ server ~]# realm list
linux.example.com
type: kerberos
realm-name: LINUX.EXAMPLE.COM
domain-name: linux.example.com
configured: kerberos-member
server-software: ipa
30
⁠Chapt er 3. Using realmd t o Connect t o an Act ive Direct ory Domain
client-software: sssd
required-package: ipa-client
required-package: oddjob
required-package: oddjob-mkhomedir
required-package: sssd
login-formats: %U
login-policy: allow-realm-logins
The --al l option includes discovered domains (Active D irectory, Identity Management, and
Kerberos) as well as configured domains. The --name-o nl y limits the results to the domain name,
without the configuration details.
[root@ server ~]# realm list --all --name-only
linux.example.com
example.com
ad.example.com
3.4 . Managing User Logins from Act ive Direct ory
By default, login policies for domain users are defined in the domain itself. This can be overridden in
the realm configuration so that client-side access control is used – that is, the local policies only
define who is allowed to login. If a machine is joined to multiple domains, only one of them can apply
domain access control; the other domains have to employ client-side access control.
The real md command allows you to configure basic allow or deny access rules for users from a
specific domain. You can specify these permissions only if you are applying the client-side access
control.
Note
These access rules either allow all access to the system or no access. Finer-grained access
rules must be set on a specific system resource or in the domain.
There are two commands that set access rules:
The real m d eny command simply prevents access to all users within the realm. Use this
command with the --al l option.
The real m permi t command, on the other hand, grants access to either all users by using -al l , to only specified users, or it can withdraw permission from specified users by using -x.
For example, the following command adds an allow rule for every user within the ad . exampl e. co m
domain, and then withdraws login permission from the jsmi th user.
[root@ server ~]# realm permit ad.example.com --all
[root@ server ~]# realm permit ad.example.com -x AD.EXAMPLE.COM\jsmith
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
Important
It is recommended that you use permi t to allow access instead of permi t -x to deny it. It is
much safer to allow access to specifically selected users or groups than to deny access to
some, thus enabling it to everyone else.
Because SSSD is currently not capable to inform real md about available subdomains and user
logins must contain the domain name, allowing access works for users in primary domains but not
for users in trusted domains.
3.5. Adding Default User Configurat ion
The /etc/real md . co nf configuration file can add custom configuration for global logged-in user
settings. Some POSIX attributes may not be set in the Windows user accounts or may be set to
something different than other users on the local system. There are two such areas:
The user home directory
A default user shell
User settings are defined in the [users] section of the /etc/real md . co nf file.
The default-shell parameter can be any supported system shell.
The default-home parameter sets a template to use to create a home directory if none is defined
in the realm. A common format is /ho me/%d /%u, where %d is the domain name and %u is the user
name.
For example:
[users]
default-home = /home/%u
default-shell = /bin/bash
3.6. Addit ional Configurat ion for t he Act ive Direct ory Domain Ent ry
Each individual domain can have custom settings in the realm entry of the /etc/real md . co nf
configuration file. Each realm can have its own configuration section:
[realm.name]
attribute = value
attribute = value
Each attribute can be set by manually adding them to the configuration file or by passing them as
arguments when the system is joined to the realm.
T ab le 3.2. R ealm C o n f ig u rat io n O p t io n s
Paramet er
D escrip t io n
computer-ou
Sets the directory location for adding computer accounts to the domain. This
can be the full D N or an RD N, relative to the root entry. The subtree must
already exist.
32
⁠Chapt er 3. Using realmd t o Connect t o an Act ive Direct ory Domain
Paramet er
D escrip t io n
user-principal
automatic-idmapping
manage-system
Sets whether to create a host principal for the system.
Sets whether to enable dynamic ID mapping or disable the mapping and use
POSIX attributes configured in Active D irectory.
Sets whether certain login policies are set in the local system or by
Active D irectory.
The following example disables ID mapping, enables the host principal, and adds the system to the
specified subtree.
[domain.example.com]
computer-ou = OU=Linux Computers,DC=domain,DC=example,DC=com
user-principal = yes
automatic-id-mapping = no
manage-system = no
These same parameters can be passed when the system is joined to the domain:
[root@ server ~]# realm join --computer-ou="ou=Linux Computers," -automatic-id-mapping=no --user-principal=yes
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
Chapter 4. Using Samba, Kerberos, and Winbind
The Samba standard Windows interoperability suite of utilities allows Linux systems to join an
Active D irectory environment by making them appear to be Windows clients. As a means of systems
integration, Samba allows a Linux client to join an Active D irectory Kerberos realm and to use
Active D irectory as its identity store.
Winbind is a component of the Samba suite to provide unified logon. It uses a UNIX implementation
of Microsoft RPC calls, Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAMs), and the Name Service Switch
(NSS) to allow Windows domain users to appear and operate as UNIX users on a UNIX system.
4 .1. About Samba and Act ive Direct ory Aut hent icat ion
While the core functionality of Samba is to perform client-server networking for file and printer
sharing and associated operations, this chapter only focuses on one aspect of using Samba to
interact with Windows: allowing Linux clients to authenticate by using Active D irectory.
4 .1.1. Samba, Kerberos, and Act ive Direct ory Domains
Active D irectory is the domain controller for a number of services in Windows environments,
including Kerberos realms and D NS domains. Samba supports the full range of protocols used in
Active D irectory, including Kerberos, D NS, NTLMSSP, or D CE/RPC. Intergration with Active D irectory
means configuring a security environment that uses Kerberos as the native security context in
Active D irectory.
Several different system services should be configured on the Linux client to use Active D irectory as a
domain controller:
Samba – for users and authentication
D NS – to set the Active D irectory server as the name server
Kerberos – to use the Active D irectory KD C
PAM – to use Winbind
NSS – to use Winbind
4 .1 .1 .1 . Sam ba
There are several different ways how a Samba server can join an Active D irectory domain. In
SMB/CIFS networking, there are two types of security: user-level and share level. Samba provides
four ways to use user-level security. Collectively, we call them the security modes. Only two of them are
important for Windows integration:
ad s configures the local Samba server as a domain member within an Active D irectory domain. It
also enables support for the internal usage of LD AP queries and Kerberos authentication. This is
the preferred security mode.
d o mai n configures the Samba server as a domain member server within an Active D irectory
domain by using the D CE/RPC protocol.
The necessary configuration is located in the the [g l o bal ] section of /etc/samba/smb. co nf.
The essential settings include the security type (security); the name of the Active D irectory
Kerberos realm (realm), which is resolved by D NS discovery; and the Samba workgroup
(workgroup):
34
⁠Chapt er 4 . Using Samba, Kerberos, and Winbind
#================= Global Settings ====================
[global]
workgroup = ADEXAMPLE
security = ads
realm = ADEXAMPLE.COM
...
4 .1 .1 .2 . Ke rbe ro s
Kerberos must be configured to use the Active D irectory server as its KD C. It allows users to use
Kerberos tickets for authentication. Additionally, Samba must be configured to use the
Active D irectory Kerberos realm, which allows Winbind to manage the Kerberos principals.
The Active D irectory realm should be set as the default domain in the [l i bd efaul ts] section of the
/etc/krb5. co nf file, and then as a KD C in the [real ms] section. The [d o mai n_real m] section
should define the Active D irectory domain.
For seamless Kerberos experience, ensure the Winbind Kerberos locator plug-in is installed from the
samba-winbind-krb5-locator package. It ensures that Winbind and all its users and the Kerberos library
and all its users use the same KD C all the time.
[libdefaults]
...
default_realm = ADEXAMPLE.COM
[realms]
ADEXAMPLE.COM = {
kdc = kdc.adexample.com
}
[domain_realm]
adexample.com = ADEXAMPLE.COM
.adexample.com = ADEXAMPLE.COM
4 .1 .1 .3. DNS
The local D NS service must be configured to use Active D irectory as its domain controller. D NS is
critical for proper resolution of host names and domains for Kerberos. While many systems have
proper D NS settings so that the Samba-Active D irectory integration could work well without
configuring Active D irectory as a name server, using Active D irectory as a name server avoids any
potential resolution problems. The domain should also be added as a search directive, so that the
Active D irectory domain is used for searches and discovery.
D NS settings are configured in the /etc/reso l v. co nf file.
nameserver 1.2.3.4
search adexample.com
4 .1 .1 .4 . PAM and NSS
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
PAM and NSS allow local applications to use the Kerberos credentials provided by Active D irectory,
which enables single sign-on for system applications and domain users. For ease of use, offline
caching of credentials, and other features, it is recommended to use Winbind.
For PAM, the Winbind libraries are set for authentication, account, password, and optionally session
management. This is configured in the /etc/pam. d /system-auth file:
auth
required
pam_env.so
auth
sufficient
pam_unix.so nullok try_first_pass
auth
requisite
pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 500 quiet
auth suffi ci ent pam_wi nbi nd . so use_fi rst_pass
auth
required
pam_deny.so
account
required
pam_unix.so broken_shadow
account
sufficient
pam_localuser.so
account
sufficient
pam_succeed_if.so uid < 500 quiet
acco unt [d efaul t= bad success= o k user_unkno wn= i g no re] pam_wi nbi nd . so
account
required
pam_permit.so
password
requisite
pam_cracklib.so try_first_pass retry=3 type=
password
sufficient
pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass
use_authtok
passwo rd suffi ci ent pam_wi nbi nd . so use_authto k
password
required
pam_deny.so
session
optional
pam_keyinit.so revoke
session
required
pam_limits.so
session
[success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond
quiet use_uid
session
required
pam_unix.so
session
optional
pam_krb5.so
sessi o n o pti o nal pam_wi nbi nd . so use_fi rst_pass
Another important configuration file is /etc/securi ty/pam_wi nbi nd . co nf. In it, various
parameters and defaults are set, including Kerberos authentication, offline authentication, or
automatic home directory creation. For further details, see the pam_winbind.conf(5) man page.
For NSS, Active D irectory can be used for passwords, shadow (users), and groups by setting
Winbind as an option. Additionally, you can add the WINS service option to use the configuration
also for hosts. Always use fi l es as the first location to check for accounts; this allows local system
users and services to be able to log in and access resources.
NSS settings are configured in the /etc/nsswi tch. co nf file:
passwd:
shadow:
group:
files winbind
files winbind
files winbind
hosts:
files dns wins
36
⁠Chapt er 4 . Using Samba, Kerberos, and Winbind
Note
Note that PAM and NSS should not configured manually for integration with Active D irectory.
Instead, use the authco nfi g utility. See Section 4.3, “ Configuring a D omain Member Using
authco nfi g ” for details.
4 .1.2. Aut hent icat ion Using Winbind and Samba
There are two important tasks when managing files: to establish the proper ownership and to control
access to appropriate parties. Both relate to an effective way to identify and authenticate users.
Winbind provides three related but separate capabilities:
Authenticate users using local PAM configuration,
Resolve ID s, user names, and groups using NSS look-ups,
Create a database of mapped Active D irectory SID s and local UID /GID numbers.
Winbind is part of Samba and connects directly to the Active D irectory domain. The local Linux
system is a full domain member in Windows terminology, represented with a complete machine
account stored in AD . PAM and NSS are configured to use Winbind for user identities on the local
system.
Among other aspects of using Windbind are:
Winbind primarily maintains the machine account credentials (the Linux machine representation
as a machine account in Active D irectory). Among other functions, it can be used to update the
machine account credentials or to update (or comply to) local stores of password policies.
Winbind supports POSIX attributes in the form of RFC 2307 attributes or in the form of " Microsoft
Services for Unix" extensions (both version 3.5 and 3.0). See the idmap_ad(8) man page for
details.
Joining the domain is done with utilities provided by Samba (via commands such as net ad s
jo i n). Kerberos ticket management is done by Winbind, including ticket refresh and ticket reacquisition.
The smb. co nf file is the only location for defining ID mappings.
Note
In Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it is recommended to use SSSD as a capable alternative for direct
integration with Active D irectory. See Chapter 2, Using Active Directory as an Identity Provider for
SSSD for more information.
4 .2. Summary of Configurat ion Files, Opt ions, and Packages
T ab le 4 .1. Syst em C o n f ig u rat io n Files, R eq u ired O p t io n s, an d R eq u ired Packag es
37
Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
Servic C o n f ig u rat io n File R eq u ired Paramet ers
e
R eq u ired
Packag es
Samb
a
samba
/etc/samba/smb. c
o nf
Winbin /etc/securi ty/pa
d
m_wi nbi nd . co nf
Kerber /etc/krb5. co nf
os
[global]
workgroup = ADEXAMPLE
security = ads
realm = ADEXAMPLE.COM
[libdefaults]
default_realm = ADEXAMPLE.COM
[realms]
ADEXAMPLE.COM = {
kdc = kdc.adexample.com
}
[domain_realm]
adexample.com = ADEXAMPLE.COM
.adexample.com = ADEXAMPLE.COM
PAM
NSS
D NS
/etc/pam. d /syste
m-auth or
/etc/pam. d /syste
m-auth-ac (with
authconfig)
/etc/nsswi tch. c
o nf
/etc/reso l v. co n
f
auth
sufficient
pam_winbind.so use_first_pass
acco unt
[default=bad success=ok
user_unknown=ignore] pam_winbind.so
passwo rd sufficient
pam_winbind.so use_authtok
sessi o n
optional
pam_winbind.so use_first_pass
#required
passwd:
shadow:
group:
files winbind
files winbind
files winbind
#optional
hosts:
files dns wins
nameserver IPaddress
search domainName
4 .3. Configuring a Domain Member Using
38
authco nfi g
sambawinbind
krb5workstation
⁠Chapt er 4 . Using Samba, Kerberos, and Winbind
All of the configuration outlined in Section 4.2, “ Summary of Configuration Files, Options, and
Packages” can be done automatically using the authco nfi g utility, with the exception of the D NS
configuration. Configuration files can also be backed up by authco nfi g .
4 .3.1. Argument s and Configurat ion Paramet ers of authco nfi g
The Authentication Configuration utility automatically updates the required configuration files for
Samba, Kerberos, and Active D irectory integration when it is used to configure Winbind as the
authentication store for the local system. Table 4.2, “ authconfig Arguments and Configuration File
Parameters” shows what parameters are set with each command option.
T ab le 4 .2. au t h co n f ig Arg u men t s an d C o n f ig u rat io n File Paramet ers
Service
C LI O p t io n
G U I Field
C o n f ig u rat io n
File
C o n f ig u rat io n
Paramet er
Samba
--smbsecurity
--smbworkgroup
/etc/samba/smb.c
onf
/etc/samba/smb.c
onf
security
Samba
Security
Model
Winbind
D omain
Winbind
AD S Realm
Winbind
D omain
Controllers
/etc/krb5.conf
Samba
Kerberos
--smbrealm
Samba
/etc/samba/
smb.conf
Kerberos
/etc/krb5.co
nf
workgroup
Samba
realm in [global]
Kerberos
default_realm in
[libdefaults]
realm entry
(REALMNAME = {...})
in [realms]
Kerberos
--smbservers
Kerberos
--krb5realm
/etc/krb5.conf
PAM
-enablewinbindaut
h
--enablewinbind
--enablewins
--enablecache
-enablewinbindkrb
5
-enablewinbindoffl
ine
/etc/pam.d/system
-auth
The KD C in the realm entry
(e.g., REALMNAME {...}) in
[realms]
The domain entry in
[domain_realm]
auth, account, password,
sessions
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
passwd, shadow, group
hosts
NSS
NSS
Winbind
Winbind
Winbind
Important
The value of the --krb5real m option must be identical to the value given in --smbreal m for
the domain to be configured properly.
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4 .3.2. CLI Configurat ion of Act ive Direct ory Aut hent icat ion wit h authco nfi g
1. Install the samba-winbind package. It is required for Windows integration features in Samba
services, but is not installed by default:
[root@ server ~]# yum install samba-winbind
2. Install the krb5-workstation package. It is required to connect to a Kerberos realm and manage
principals and tickets:
[root@ server ~]# yum install krb5-workstation
3. Install the samba-winbind-krb5-locator package. It contains a plug-in for the system Kerberos
library to allow the local Kerberos library to use the same KD C as Samba and Winbind use.
[root@ server ~]# yum install samba-winbind-krb5-locator
4. Edit the D NS configuration in the /etc/reso l v. co nf file to use the Active D irectory domain
as a name server and for search:
nameserver 1.2.3.4
search adexample.com
5. The authco nfi g utility does not set any requirements for what options must be invoked at a
given time, since it can be used to modify configuration as well as to define new
configuration.
The following example shows all required parameters for Samba, Kerberos, PAM, and NSS. It
also includes options for Winbind, which allow offline access, and for the local system, which
allow system accounts to continue to work. The example command is split into multiple lines
and annotated for better readability.
​[root@ server ~]# authconfig
​
// NSS
​
--enablewinbind
​
--enablewins
​
// PAM
​
--enablewinbindauth
​
// Samba
​
--smbsecurity ads
​
--smbworkgroup=ADEXAMPLE
​
--smbrealm ADEXAMPLE.COM
​
// Kerberos
​
--smbservers=ad.example.com
​
--krb5realm=ADEXAMPLE.COM
​
// winbind
​
--enablewinbindoffline
​
--enablewinbindkrb5
​
--winbindtemplateshell=/bin/sh
​
// general
​
--winbindjoin=admin
​
--update
40
⁠Chapt er 4 . Using Samba, Kerberos, and Winbind
​
--enablelocauthorize
--savebackup=/backups
​
​[/usr/bin/net join -w ADEXAMPLE -S ad.example.com -U admin]
The --wi nbi nd jo i n option automatically runs the net jo i n command to add the system
to the Active D irectory domain.
The --enabl el o cal autho ri ze option sets local authorization operations to check the
/etc/passwd file. This allows local accounts to be used to authenticate users as well as the
Active D irectory domain.
Note
The --savebackup option is recommended but not required. It backs up the
configuration files to the specified directory before making the changes. If there is a
configuration error or the configuration is later changed, authco nfi g can use the
backups to revert the changes.
4 .3.3. Configuring Act ive Direct ory Aut hent icat ion in t he authco nfi g GUI
There are fewer configuration options in the authco nfi g GUI than are in the CLI. For example, it is
possible to configure Samba, NSS, Winbind, and to join the domain, but it does not configure
Kerberos or PAM. Those must be configured manually if using the UI.
Note
The authco nfi g command-line utilities are installed by default, but the GUI requires the
authconfig-gtk package, which is not available by default.
1. Install the samba-wi nbi nd package. It is required for Windows integration features in
Samba services, but is not installed by default.
[root@ se yum install samba-winbind
2. Install the krb5-wo rkstati o n package. It is required to connect to a Kerberos realm and
manage principals and tickets.
[root@ se yum install krb5-workstation
3. Configure the Active D irectory Kerberos realm as the default realm and KD C for the local
system.
[root@ se vim /etc/krb5.conf
[libdefaults]
...
default_realm PLE.COM
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[realms]
ADEXAMPLE.COM
kdc = kdc.adcom
}
[domain_realm]
adexample.com =LE.COM
.adexample.comMPLE.COM
4. Edit the D NS configuration in the /etc/reso l v. co nf file to use the Active D irectory domain
as a name server and for search:
nameserver 1.2.3
search adexample
5. Open the Authentication Configuration Tool.
[root2se authconfig-gtk
6. In the Id enti ty & Authenti cati o n tab, select Win b in d in the User Acco unt
D atabase drop-down menu.
42
⁠Chapt er 4 . Using Samba, Kerberos, and Winbind
7. Set the information that is required to connect to the Microsoft Active D irectory domain
controller.
Wi nbi nd D o mai n gives the Windows work group. The entry inthis field needs to be in
the Windows 2000 format, such as D O MAIN.
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Securi ty Mo d el sets the security model to use for Samba clients. The correct value is
ad s that configures Samba to act as a domain member in an Active D irectory Server
realm.
Wi nbi nd AD S R eal m gives the Active D irectory realm that the Samba server will join.
Wi nbi nd D o mai n C o ntro l l ers gives the host name or IP address of the domain
controller to use.
T empl ate Shel l sets which login shell to use for Windows user account settings. This
setting is optional.
Al l o w o ffl i ne l o g i n allows authentication information to be stored in a local
cache. The cache is referenced when a user attempts to authenticate to system resources
while the system is offline.
8. Click the Jo i n D o mai n button to run the net ad s jo i n command and join the
Active D irectory domain. This action is to join the domain immediately; the configuration can
be saved and then the net ad s jo i n command can be run manually later.
9. Click the Appl y button to save the configuration.
44
⁠P art II. Int egrat ing a Linux Domain wit h an Act ive Direct ory Domain
⁠Part II. Integrating a Linux Domain with an Active Directory
Domain
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Chapter 5. Creating Cross-Realm Trusts with Active Directory
and Identity Management
Kerberos allows the configuration of trusted realms. Each realm has its own resources and users, yet
the trust relationship allows users of any trusted realm to obtain tickets and connect to machines or
services in a peer realm as if they were members of that peer realm.
Because of differences in the way that Windows and Linux domains implement LD AP services, D NS
management, and even Kerberos realms, it is difficult to establish a direct trust between
Active D irectory and Linux domains manually. A trust relationship using IdM centrally defines and
establishes the Kerberos trust and D NS mappings so that Active D irectory users can access Linux
hosts and services completely transparently, using one set of credentials.
5.1. Int roduct ion t o T rust s
Kerberos has the ability to create a relationship between two otherwise separate realms. This is called
a cross-realm trust. These realms create a shared ticket and key so a member of one realm is
perceived as a member of both realms. In other words, one realm trusts another.
A cross-realm Kerberos trust is limited to Kerberos realms. However, identity management
environments such as Active D irectory or IdM in Red Hat Enterprise Linux include services other than
Kerberos (most notably LD AP and D NS) within their domain definitions. It is possible to establish a
trusted relationship across the full domain, not just the Kerberos realm, through IdM trusts.
5.1.1. T he Archit ect ure of a T rust Relat ionship
Both Active D irectory and Identity Management manage a variety of core services such as Kerberos,
LD AP, D NS, or certificate services. To transparently integrate these two diverse environments, all core
services need to be able to interact seamlessly with one another.
The core services interact through two major points: a Kerberos realm and a D NS domain. Certificate
stores, LD AP entries, and other services can be managed independently for Active D irectory and IdM.
The place where they intersect is where identities need to be authenticated (Kerberos) and a
mechanism to route queries between domains (D NS).
A trust establishes an identity/access relationship between two domains. Active D irectory
environments can be complex so there are different possible types and arrangements for
Active D irectory trusts, between subdomains, root domains, forests, and external domains. A trust is a
path from one domain or realm to another. The way that identities and information move between the
domains is called a trust flow.
On a basic level, a trust flows only in one direction. The trusted domain contains users and the trusting
domain allows access to resources. In a trust, users can access the trusting domain's resources but
users in the trusting domain cannot access resources in the trusted domain. In Figure 5.1, “ Basic
Unidirectional Trust” , Realm A is trusted by Realm B, but Realm B is not trusted by Realm A; the trust
is unidirectional.
46
⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
Fig u re 5.1. B asic U n id irect io n al T ru st
Trusts can be transitive so that a domain trusts another domain and any other domain trusted by that
second domain. Trusts can also be non-transitive which means the trust is limited only to the explicitly
included domains.
Fig u re 5.2. T ran sit ive T ru st s
Within a homogeneous Active D irectory environment, most trusts are bidirectional and transitive by
default. However, in a heterogeneous environment, Active D irectory can establish a trust with a nonActive D irectory domain, such as a Kerberos realm. This is a realm trust and it has a slightly different
default configuration than an Active D irectory domain trust:
It is unidirectional by default; even for bidirectional realm trusts, the actual configuration is set up
so that there are two unidirectional trusts, pointing different ways.
It uses Kerberos authentication rather than the native Microsoft NTLM authentication.
It is non-transitive by default, but some additional configuration can help support transitive trusts.
The default direction is for the external (IdM) domain to trust the Active D irectory domain. That
means that the external domain trusts all security principles within the Active D irectory domain.
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Fig u re 5.3. T ru st D irect io n
5.1.2. Act ive Direct ory Principles, Securit y Object s, and T rust
In a trust, users access resources in external domains. A trust path is a sequence of domains through
which secure communication flows in each individual case of getting access. Active D irectory trusts
use NTLM (NT LAN Manager) to evaluate identities. Realm trusts – including Identity Management
trusts – use Kerberos to create, send, and verify privileged access certificates and create Kerberos
tickets for external applications.
The protocol which an application uses to process authentication requests can either be NTLM or
Kerberos. Both of these protocols interact with the Net Logon layer in Active D irectory, from which
process for accessing domain objects is the same. Each Active D irectory server maintains a local
security authority (LSA), which include all locally-defined security policies and provides a way to
identify local users and identifiers, tickets and PACs, and other security data.
All Kerberos communication for both Active D irectory and IdM for trusts uses GSS-API. Past the local
security authority, there is the larger Active D irectory configuration. The domain system container
holds all security information, including principles, user, and group information for all objects in a
domain. At the root of the domain is a global catalog of all users, groups, and objects within the
entire forest. With a trust, information about Windows users can be retrieved from the system
container or from the global catalog.
IdM can also be part of trust relationships with different Active D irectory forests. Once a trust is
established, additional trusts with other forests can be added later, following the same commands
and procedures. IdM can trust multiple entirely unrelated forests at the same time, allowing users from
a different unrelated Active D irectory forest access to resources in the same shared IdM domain.
5.1.3. T rust Archit ect ure in IdM
On the Identity Management side, the IdM server has to be able to recognize Active D irectory
identities and appropriately process their group membership for access controls. The Microsoft PAC
(MS-PAC, Privilege Account Certificate) contains the required information about the user – their
security ID , domain user name, and group memberships. Identity Management has two components
to analyze data in the PAC on the Kerberos ticket:
SSSD , to perform identity lookups on Active D irectory and to retrieve user and group security
identifiers (SID s) for authorization. SSSD also caches user, group, and ticket information for
users and maps Kerberos and D NS domains,
Identity Management (Linux domain management), to associate the Active D irectory user with
an IdM group for IdM policies and access.
48
⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
Note
Access control rules and policies for Linux domain administration, such as SELinux, sudo,
and host-based access controls, are defined and applied through Identity Management.
Any access control rules set on the Active D irectory side are not evaluated or used by IdM;
the only Active D irectory configuration which is relevant is group membership.
Fig u re 5.4 . Ap p licat io n s an d Services f o r T ru st
5 .1 .3.1 . Act ive Dire ct o ry PACs and IdM T icke t s
Group information in Active D irectory is stored in a list of identifiers in each Kerberos ticket for
Active D irectory users in a special data set called privileged access certificates, or MS-PAC. The group
information in the PAC has to be mapped to the Active D irectory groups and then to the
corresponding IdM groups to help determine access. A PAC is essentially an account usability
extension an it is embedded in a Kerberos ticket as a way of identifying the entity to other Windows
clients and servers in the Windows domain.
On IdM resources, if an Active D irectory user requests a ticket for a service, then IdM forwards the
request to Active D irectory to retrieve the user information. The PAC information sent back by
Active D irectory is embedded in the Kerberos ticket.
IdM (through SSSD , as an IdM client), extracts the Active D irectory group security identifiers (SID s)
from the PAC. IdM then compares the Active D irectory SID s in the PAC to the group SID s configured
as members in IdM groups. If the Active D irectory group is a member of an IdM group, then the IdM
group SID is added to the PAC, and the Kerberos ticket is updated with the new PAC.
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Fig u re 5.5. Id M, SSSD , an d Act ive D irect o ry
That new ticket is then used to generate a service ticket for the user, and the user is granted access to
the IdM-hosted services. according to their access rules. Additionally, the IdM group information in
the SSSD user cache is updated to include the mapped IdM groups for the Active D irectory user.
SSSD stores multiple TGTs and tickets for each user, as new services are accessed.
A simpler way of saying this is that Active D irectory supplies a list of groups for each user, based on
an identifier for the group. IdM compares that list of Active D irectory groups to memberships in IdM
groups (where each group member is identified by that SID , rather than by a name or D N). If the
Active D irectory groups to which the user belongs are known to the IdM domain, then the user is
recognized by the IdM domain.
5 .1 .3.2 . Act ive Dire ct o ry Use rs and IdM Gro ups
T h e cru cial f act o r is t h at Act ive D irect o ry u sers are reco g n iz ed t o t h e Id M d o main n o t
b y t h eir Act ive D irect o ry u ser en t ry, b u t b y t h eir Act ive D irect o ry g ro u p memb ersh ip s. In
a sense, Active D irectory users are not trusted by the IdM domain — Active D irectory groups are.
But this method of mapping Active D irectory group SID s to IdM group members means that group
structure in IdM is important. Active D irectory groups have different attributes than Linux groups and,
therefore, different attributes than IdM groups. Most critically, Active D irectory groups are not POSIX
groups, while IdM groups are.
IdM uses an intermediary, non-POSIX group type, external groups, which allow entities outside IdM or
a Linux system to be added as member. That external group can then be added to a standard IdM
(POSIX) group as a member.
When Active D irectory groups are added to an IdM group, they can be identified by their SID or by
name, in the formats DOMAIN\group_name or group_name@domain. IdM then resolves the group name
to the SID and stores the SID as the group member entry, to be compared to any offered user PAC.
Actually configuring groups for Active D irectory users is described in Section 5.3, “ Creating IdM
Groups for Active D irectory Users” .
5 .1 .3.3. Mapping Use r IDs and Using POSIX At t ribut e s
50
⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
Active D irectory user entries do not exist in the IdM server; they are not synchronized or copied over.
Any information required by IdM resources is pulled in from Active D irectory and cached. The unique
identifiers on the Active D irectory side (the security ID , a combination of the security domain identifier
and the user identifier) are associated with usernames. When the username is used to access IdM
resources, IdM (through Samba) resolves that username to its SID , and then looks up the information
for that SID within the Active D irectory domain.
Linux systems require that every user has a local UID number and group ID number. When users are
created in IdM, the users are assigned UID /GID numbers by default. Even trusted users require a
UI/GID number on a Linux system. That UID /GID number can be generated by IdM, but if the
Active D irectory entry already has UID /GID numbers assigned, then assigning different numbers
creates a conflict. It is possible to use the Active D irectory-defined POSIX attributes (including the
UID /GID number and preferred login shell).
Active D irectory stores a subset of information for all objects within the forest in a global catalog. This
global catalog includes every entry for every domain in the forest.
NOT E
To use Active D irectory-defined POSIX attributes, those attributes must be published to the
global catalog. Otherwise, AD users with POSIX attributes cannot utilize IdM resources.
IdM auto-detects what kind of ID range to use when the trust is configured, but the range type can be
manually set with the i pa trust-ad d command.
ipa trust-add
–range-type=ipa-ad-trust-posix
T ab le 5.1. T yp es o f R an g es
R an g e O p t io n
D escrip t io n
ipa-ad-trust
ipa-ad-trust-posix
For ID s set with SID - username mapping.
For ID s defined in POSIX attributes in the
Active D irectory entry.
5 .1 .3.4 . Act ive Dire ct o ry Use rs and IdM Po licie s and Co nfigurat io n
Several IdM policy definitions — SELinux, host-based access control, sudo, and netgroups — rely
on user groups to identify how the policies are applied.
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Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 7 Windows Int egrat ion G uide
Fig u re 5.6 . Act ive D irect o ry U sers an d Id M G ro u p s an d Po licies
Active D irectory users are external to the IdM domain, but they can still be added as group members
to IdM groups, as long as those groups are configured as external groups. External groups in IdM
are non-POSIX groups. The external group is then added as a member of an IdM group (a POSIX
group).
The sudo, host-based access controls, and other policies are applied to that POSIX group and,
ultimately, to the Active D irectory user when accessing IdM domain resources.
The user SID in the PAC in the ticket is resolved to the Active D irectory identity. This means that
Active D irectory users can be added as group members using their fully-qualified username or their
SID .
NOT E
Testing tools such as hbactest will not work with trusted users because the trusted user
group associations are resolved dynamically, not stored in the IdM directory.
5.1.4 . Different DNS-T rust Environment s
Both Active D irectory and Identity Management can define D NS services, and those D NS domains
must interact cleanly with each other. There are two potential D NS configurations:
The D NS domains can be independent.
Identity Management can be configured as a subdomain of Active D irectory.
In all cases, the different domains forward requests to each other as necessary and maintain different
D NS namespaces. It is just a matter of defining how they recognize each other for forwarding queries.
IMPORT ANT
D NS caches all data, at all levels of the D NS domain. The time to propagate any changes to
the D NS records depends on the cumulative time for all of the configured time to live
parameters.
R eq u ired : Id en t ical R eco rd s in Su p erio r an d Su b d o main s
Within the Identity Management environment, every machine name must be fully resolvable. When
using trusts, this includes machines within the trusted Active D irectory domain. D epending on the
configuration of the D NS environment, there can be a couple of different ways that the D NS services
must be configured.
If IdM and Active D irectory are subdomains within a larger, shared namespace or if IdM is a
subdomain of the Active D irectory D NS namespace, then the best configuration is to use delegation to
create relationships between D NS domains. D elegation (NS) and glue (A or AAAA) records must be
identical in every superior zone (such as exampl e. co m) and inferior zone (such as
i pa. exampl e. co m). This means that the superior and subdomains must contain the exact same
NS, A, and AAAA records.
52
⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
If the Active D irectory and IdM D NS domains are in entirely different namespaces, then use
conditional forwarders. In that case, forwarding rules must be in place in both environments to allow
all machines to be resolved.
C o n f ig u rat io n O p t io n 1: Sep arat e D N S D o main s
In this case, there are two entirely different namespaces, such as i paexampl e. co m and
ad exampl e. co m. For these domains to communicate, they must be configured as conditional
forwarders of each other's domain.
Fig u re 5.7. T ru st wit h Sep arat e D N S D o main s
C o n f ig u rat io n O p t io n 2: Sep arat e D N S Su b d o main s
A similar scenario is where both the Active D irectory domain and the IdM domain are subdomains of
a larger, central domain. For example, the Active D irectory domain is ad . exampl e. co m, the
Identity Management domain is i pa. exampl e. co m, and the superior domain for both is
exampl e. co m. When using equivalent subdomains, do not use forwarders — use D NS delegation
instead. Forwarders set in global configuration override any delegation rules, even if the local server
is configured as authoritative. Instead, identical delegation rules should be set in the superior
domain and the subdomains.
C o n f ig u rat io n O p t io n 3: Id en t it y Man ag emen t as a Su b d o main o f Act ive D irect o ry
In this case, Identity Management is a namespace within the larger Active D irectory space, such as
l i nux. exampl e. co m and exampl e. co m. IdM can be configured to send all requests to the
Active D irectory domain (a forward-only policy) or it can send queries first to Active D irectory and
then attempt to resolve them itself (a forward-first policy).
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Fig u re 5.8. T ru st wit h Id M as a D N S Su b d o main o f Act ive D irect o ry
5.1.5. Ident it y Management Int eract ions wit h Mult iple Domains
Whenever the IdM server connects to its peer server in trust, the information about the Active D irectory
D NS domains are fetched from the domain controller and stored in the cn= R eal m
D o mai ns,cn= i pa,cn= etc,suffix subtree.
If there are multiple D NS domains defined within the Active D irectory domain, then those D NS
domains are added individually to the configuration subtree, and those are used to route queries to
the appropriate domain.
5.1.6. Pot ent ial Behavior Issues wit h Act ive Direct ory T rust
5 .1 .6 .1 . Act ive Dire ct o ry Use rs and IdM Adm inist rat io n
Trust relationships are unidirectional. Active D irectory users exist only within the Active D irectory
domain and are limited to what resources within the IdM domain they can access. Act ive D irect o ry
u sers can n o t b e ad min ist rat o rs f o r Id M b ecau se t h ey d o n o t exist wit h in Id M.
Active D irectory users, then, cannot use any IdM administrative tools, including the web UI and
command-line tools.
5 .1 .6 .2 . Aut he nt icat ing De le t e d Act ive Dire ct o ry Use rs
By default, every IdM client uses the System Security Services D aemon to cache user identities and
credentials. This allows the local system to reference identities for users who have already logged in
successfully once, even if one of the backend providers (IdM or Active D irectory) is temporarily
unavailable.
Because SSSD maintains a list of users locally, it is possible that changes that are made on the
backend are not immediately visible to clients.
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⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
If an Active D irectory user has successfully logged into an IdM client resource, that user identity is
cached in SSSD on both the local client and on the IdM server. If that Active D irectory user is then
deleted in Active D irectory, that identity is still cached in IdM, which means that the user could
successfully log into IdM resources.
The deleted Active D irectory user will be able to log into IdM resources until the SSSD cache on any
local client and on the IdM server expire. Then, when the IdM server attempts to retrieve the identity
from Active D irectory, it will receive notification that the user does not exist, and the login attempt fails.
5 .1 .6 .3. Cre de nt ial Cache and Se le ct ing Act ive Dire ct o ry Principals
The Kerberos credentials cache attempts to match a client principal to a server principal based on
the service name, then the hostname, then (possibly) the realm name. Because the client/server
mapping is done using the hostname and the realm name, this can create seemingly unexpected
behavior in binding as an Active D irectory user because the realm name of the Active D irectory user
is different than the realm name of the IdM system.
What this means in practice is that if an Active D irectory user ki ni ts and then uses SSH to connect
to an IdM resource, that principal is not selected for the resource ticket; an IdM principal is used
because the IdM principal matches the resource's realm name.
For example, if the Active D irectory user is Ad mi ni strato r and the domain is
AD EXAMP LE. AD R EALM, the principal is Ad mi ni strato r@ AD EXAMP LE. AD R EALM.
[root@ server ~]# kinit Administrator@ ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM
Password for Administrator@ ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM:
[root@ server ~]# klist
Ticket cache: KEYRING:persistent:0:0
Default principal: Administrator@ ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM
Valid starting
Expires
Service principal
27.11.2013 11:25:23 27.11.2013 21:25:23
krbtgt/ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM@ ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM
renew until 28.11.2013 11:25:16
This is set as the default principal in the Active D irectory ticket cache. However, if any IdM user also
has a Kerberos ticket (such as ad mi n), then there is a separate IdM credentials cache, with an IdM
default principal. That IdM default principal is selected for a host ticket if the Active D irectory user
uses SSH to connect to a resource.
[root@ vm-197 ~]# ssh -l Administrator@ adexample.adrealm
ipaclient.example.com
Administrator@ adexample.adrealm@ ipaclient.example.com's password:
[root@ vm-197 ~]# klist -A
Ticket cache: KEYRING:persistent:0:0
Default principal: Administrator@ ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM
Valid starting
Expires
Service principal
27.11.2013 11:25:23 27.11.2013 21:25:23
krbtgt/ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM@ ADEXAMPLE.ADREALM
renew until 28.11.2013 11:25:16
Ticket cache: KEYRING:persistent:0:0
D efaul t pri nci pal : ad mi n@ EXAMP LE. C O M >>>>> IdM user
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Valid starting
Expires
Service principal
27.11.2013 11:25:18 28.11.2013 11:25:16 krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@ EXAMPLE.COM
27. 11. 20 13 11: 25: 4 8 28. 11. 20 13 11: 25: 16
ho st/i pacl i ent. exampl e. co m@ EXAMP LE. C O M >>>>> host principal
This is because the realm name of the IdM principal matches the realm of the IdM resource.
5 .1 .6 .4 . Re so lving Gro up SIDs
Lo sin g K erb ero s T icket s
Running any command to obtain a SID from the Samba service — such as net g etl o cal si d or
net g etd o mai nsi d — kills any existing admin ticket in the Kerberos cache.
C an n o t Verif y G ro u p Memb ersh ip f o r U sers
There is no way to verify that a specific trusted user is associated with a specific IdM group, external
or POSIX.
C an n o t D isp lay ( R emo t e) Act ive D irect o ry G ro u p Memb ersh ip s f o r an Act ive D irect o ry
U ser
For Linux system users, local group associations can be shown for a user using the i d command.
However, Active D irectory group memberships are not displayed with i d for Active D irectory users,
even though they are with Samba tools.
The wbi nfo command can be used to obtain a SID for an Active D irectory user and then to display
groups associated with that SID .
[root@ ipaserver ~]# wbinfo -n ADDOMAIN\\jsmith
S-1-5-21-1689615952-3716327440-3249090444-1104 SID_USER (1)
[root@ ipaserver ~]# wbinfo --user-domgroups=S-1-5-21-16896159523716327440-3249090444-1104
S-1-5-21-1689615952-3716327440-3249090444-513
S-1-5-21-1689615952-3716327440-3249090444-1106
The same query using i d shows only the user information, not the Active D irectory group
membership information.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# id ADDOMAIN\\jsmith
uid=1921801104(jsmith@ adexample.com) gid=1921801104(jsmith@ adexample.com)
groups=1921801104(jsmith@ adexample.com)
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T IP
To work around this, ssh into an IdM client machine as the given Active D irectory user. After
the first successful login, the Active D irectory group memberships are detected and returned in
the i d search.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# id ADDOMAIN\jsmith
uid=1921801107(jsmith@ adexample.com)
gid=1921801107(jsmith@ adexample.com)
groups=1921801107(jsmith@ adexample.com),129600004(ad_users),192180051
3(domain users@ adexample.com)
5.2. Environment and Machine Requirement s t o Set up T rust s
Make sure that both the Active D irectory and IdM servers, machines, and environments meet the
requirements and settings in this section before configuring a trust agreement.
5.2.1. Support ed Windows Plat forms
Trust relationships can be configured with these Windows server versions:
Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2012 R2
5.2.2. Domain and Realm Names
The IdM D NS domain name and Kerberos realm name must be different than the Active D irectory D NS
domain name and Kerberos realm name.
5.2.3. Net BIOS Names
The NetBIOS name is the far-left component of the domain name. For example, if the domain is
linux.example.com, the NetBIOS name is linux, while if the domain name is simply example.com, it is
example. The NetBIOS name is critical for identifying the Active D irectory domain and, if the IdM
domain is within a subdomain of Active D irectory D NS, for identifying the IdM domain and services.
The IdM domain and Active D irectory domain must have different NetBIOS names.
5.2.4 . Int egrat ed DNS
Both the Active D irectory server and the IdM server must be configured to run their own respective
D NS services.
5.2.5. Int egrat ed Cert ificat e Aut horit ies
Both Active D irectory and Identity Management must be configured with integrated certificate
services.
5.2.6. Firewalls and Port s
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For a trust relationship, the Active D irectory server and IdM server must have the system ports
required for an IdM server installation open.
The IdM backend LD AP server must not be reachable by any Active D irectory domain controller. Make
sure the associated ports (389 and 636) on the IdM server host are shut down for the Active D irectory
domain controller. Note that the 389 and 636 ports must be shut down only for the domain
controllers; otherwise, they are required to remain open.
For a list of the ports required by IdM, see the corresponding chapter in the Linux D omain Identity,
Authentication, and Policy Guide.
The ports required for a trust relationship to work are listed in Table 5.2, “ Ports Required for a Trust” .
Opening ports requires the fi rewal l d service to be running. To configure fi rewal l d to start
when the system boots:
[root@ server ]# systemctl enable firewalld.service
The fi rewal l d configuration is required to allow access to the necessary IdM ports and, for each
Active D irectory host, to reject access to the IdM LD AP ports. To set the fi rewal l d configuration in
this way, assuming the used fi rewal l d zone is publ i c:
1. Add the rules to restrict access to LD AP ports for each Active D irectory host.
[root@ server ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-richrule='rule family="ipv4" source address="ad_ip_address" service
name="ldap" reject'
[root@ server ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --addrich-rule='rule family="ipv4" source address="ad_ip_address"
service name="ldaps" reject'
2. Open the ports to services required by IdM.
[root@ server ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=
{80/tcp,443/tcp,389/tcp,636/tcp,88/tcp,464/tcp,53/tcp,88/udp,464/u
dp,53/udp,123/udp}
3. Open the ports to services required for a trust relationship.
[root@ server ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=
{138/tcp,139/tcp,445/tcp,138/udp,139/udp,389/udp,445/udp}
4. Reload the fi rewal l d configuration, so that the change is applied immediately.
[root@ server ~]# firewall-cmd --reload
T ab le 5.2. Po rt s R eq u ired f o r a T ru st
Service
Po rt s
T yp e
NetBIOS-D GM
NetBIOS-SSN
LD AP
Microsoft-D S
138
139
389
445
TCP and UD P
TCP and UD P
UD P
TCP and UD P
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5.2.7. IPv6 Set t ings
The IdM system mu st have IPv6 enabled in the kernel. If IPv6 is disabled, then the CLD AP plug-in
used by the IdM services fails to initialize.
5.2.8. Clock Set t ings
Both the Active D irectory server and the IdM server must have their clocks in sync.
5.2.9. Support ed Username Format s
Username mapping is performed in the local SSSD client. A Python regular expression is used by
SSSD to identify the username and the domain to which it belongs.
By default in SSSD , the username format is defined in the form name@domain. This uses the regular
expression:
re_expression = (?P<name>[^@ ]+)@ ?(?P<domain>[^@ ]*$)
Active D irectory can support several different kinds of name formats, however, so the
re_expression parameter in the SSSD configuration file for IdM backends or Active D irectory
backends uses a more complex expression:
re_expression = (((?P<domain>[^\\]+)\\(?P<name>.+$))|((?P<name>[^@ ]+)@ (?
P<domain>.+$))|(^(?P<name>[^@ \\]+)$))
This supports usernames in multiple formats:
username
username@domain.name
DOMAIN\username
T IP
An additional SSSD parameter, default_domain_suffix, can be used to supply a default
domain value for usernames. For example, if all users are in a trusted Active D irectory domain
of ad exampl e. co m and the identity backend is the IdM domain of i pa. exampl e. co m, the
default_domain_suffix parameter can be set with the value ad exampl e. co m. All users
are automatically assumed to belong to that user domain unless the domain value is explicitly
given with the username.
5.3. Creat ing IdM Groups for Act ive Direct ory Users
User groups are required to set access permissions, host-based access control, sudo rules, and
other controls on IdM users. These groups are what grant access to IdM domain resources, as well
as restricting access.
As described in Section 5.1.2, “ Active D irectory Principles, Security Objects, and Trust” ,
Active D irectory users are added to the IdM domain in a kind of daisy chain. They are to an IdM
external group (meaning, a non-POSIX group), and then that external group is added to a local
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POSIX group as a member. The IdM POSIX group can then be used for user/role management of
Active D irectory users.
T IP
It is also possible to add Active D irectory user groups as members to IdM external groups.
This may make it easier to define policies for Windows users, by keeping the user and group
management within a single realm (Active D irectory).
1. Optional. Create or select the group in the Active D irectory domain to use to manage
Active D irectory users in the IdM realm. (Multiple groups can be used and added to different
groups on the IdM side.)
2. Create an external group in the IdM domain for the Active D irectory users. Using the -external argument indicates that this group will contain members from outside the IdM
domain. For example:
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add --desc='AD users external map'
ad_users_external --external
------------------------------Added group "ad_users_external"
------------------------------Group name: ad_users_external
Description: AD users external map
3. Create the POSIX group for actually administering the IdM policies.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add --desc='AD users' ad_users
---------------------Added group "ad_users"
---------------------Group name: ad_users
Description: AD users
GID: 129600004
4. Add the Active D irectory users or groups to the IdM external group as an external member.
The Active D irectory member is identified by its fully-qualified name, such as
DOMAIN\group_name or DOMAIN\username. The Active D irectory identity is then mapped to the
Active D irectory SID for the user or group.
For example, for an Active D irectory group:
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add-member ad_users_external -external "AD\Domain Users"
[member user]:
[member group]:
Group name: ad_users_external
Description: AD users external map
External member: S-1-5-21-3655990580-1375374850-1633065477-513
SID_DOM_GROUP (2)
------------------------Number of members added 1
-------------------------
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5. Add the external IdM group to the POSIX IdM group as a member. For example:
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add-member ad_users --groups
ad_users_external
Group name: ad_users
Description: AD users
GID: 129600004
Member groups: ad_users_external
------------------------Number of members added 1
-------------------------
5.4 . Maint aining T rust s
There are several layers to the trust configuration. There is the immediate trust agreement with IdM
and its peer Active D irectory. There is also a substantial backend configuration in IdM. When IdM is
configured to support trusts, it creates a number of different kinds of configuration areas:
Global trust configuration that is used to identify IdM within Windows domains (such as a SID )
Identified D NS domains in Active D irectory, which are pulled into the IdM D NS zone configuration
(realm domains)
The Kerberos trust configuration (the individual trust agreements, in trust domains)
Assigned available ID ranges, per IdM server, to use to assign UID and GID numbers to Windows
users as they enter the IdM domain
5.4 .1. Edit ing t he Global T rust Configurat ion
When the i pa-ad trust-i nstal l command is run, it automatically configures background
information for the IdM domain which is required to create a trust with the Active D irectory domain.
Even for external trusts, the Active D irectory domain assumes that its trusted peer has certain
configuration attributes, such as a security ID and domain ID . The attributes are created for the IdM
server, so that it is Active D irectory-compliant.
The global trust configuration contains five attributes:
A Windows-style security ID
A domain GUID
A Kerberos domain name
The default group to which to add Windows users
Only some of those attributes (the NetBIOS name and default group) can be edited. The GUID and
SID are autogenerated, and the Kerberos realm name is from the IdM configuration.
The trust configuration is stored in the cn= domain,cn= ad ,cn= etc,d c= exampl e,d c= co m subtree.
5 .4 .1 .1 . Changing t he Ne t BIOS Nam e
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The NetBIOS name is the far-left component of the domain name; this is a key identifier for the host
system of a domain controller. When IdM is enabled for trust, a NetBIOS name is set for the IdM server
so that it is compatible within an Active D irectory topology. This is configured in the i pa-ad trusti nstal l command. To change it, rerun the i pa-ad trust-i nstal l command.
[root@ ipaserver ]# ipa-adtrust-install --netbios-name=NEWBIOSNAME -a
secret
The -a option gives the IdM administrator password.
5 .4 .1 .2 . Changing t he De fault Gro up fo r Windo ws Use rs
IdM has a feature, automembership, which adds new users to specific groups automatically. There is a
default automembership rule to add Windows users automatically to the Default SMB Group (a group
created as part of the IdM trust configuration). This is a fallback group used if no other
automembership rules apply to the Windows users.
The default group can be changed, which can be particularly useful if there are different external
groups added for Windows users (Section 5.3, “ Creating IdM Groups for Active D irectory Users” ).
T h is g ro u p is a f allb ack o r d ef au lt g ro u p wh ich is u sed g lo b ally f o r all Win d o ws u sers;
o t h er ru les can b e set t o ap p ly sp ecif ic g ro u p s t o d if f eren t Win d o ws u sers, rat h er t h an
u sin g t h e d ef au lt .
The default group can be set using the trustco nfi g -mo d command:
[root@ server ~]# kinit admin
[root@ server ~]# ipa trustconfig-mod --fallback-primary-group="Example
Windows Group"
This can also be modified through the IdM web UI.
1. Open the IdM web UI.
https://ipaserver.example.com
2. Open the IP A Server main tab, and then select the T rusts subtab.
3. In the G l o bal C o nfi g urati o n subtab, select a new group from all of the IdM groups
listed in the Fallb ack p rimary g ro u p .
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4. Click the Upd ate link to save the new configuration.
5.4 .2. Discovering, Enabling, and Disabling T rust Domains
A transitive trust means that the trust path can follow a chain of domains. If D omain A trusts D omain
B, and D omain B trusts D omain C, then D omain A implicitly trusts D omain C. The trust it has with
D omain B is transitive — it follows the trust path to D omain C.
IdM has a trust with the root domain in a forest, and all of its subdomains and trusted domains are
implicitly included in that trust. IdM follows that topology as Windows users from anywhere in the
forest attempt to access IdM resources. Each domain and subdomain is a trust domain in the IdM trust
configuration. Each domain is stored in its own entry,
cn= subdomain,cn= trust_name,cn= ad ,cn= trusts,d c= exampl e,d c= co m in the trusts subtree.
IdM attempts to discover and map the full Active D irectory topology when the trust is first configured,
although in some cases it is required or beneficial to retrieve that topology manually. That is done
with the trust-fetch-d o mai ns command:
[root@ ipaserver ~]# kinit admin
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa trust-fetch-domains adexample.com
-------------------------------------------List of trust domains successfully refreshed
-------------------------------------------Realm name: test.adexample.com
Domain NetBIOS name: TEST
Domain Security Identifier: S-1-5-21-87535643-5658642561-5780864324
Realm name: users.adexample.com
Domain NetBIOS name: USERS
Domain Security Identifier: S-1-5-21-91314187-2404433721-1858927112
Realm name: prod.adexample.com
Domain NetBIOS name: PROD
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Domain Security Identifier: S-1-5-21-46580863-3346886432-4578854233
---------------------------Number of entries returned 3
----------------------------
NOT E
When adding a trust with a shared secret, you need to manually retrieve topology of the AD
forest. After running the " ipa trust-add ad.domain --trust-secret" command, validate incoming
trust at AD side using forest trust properties in the AD D omains and Trusts tool. Then, run the
" ipa trust-fetch-domains ad.domain" command. IdM will receive information about the trust,
which will then be usable.
Once the topology is retrieved (through automatic or manual discovery), individual domains and
subdomains in that topology can be enabled, disabled, or removed entirely within the IdM trust
configuration.
For example, to disallow users from a specific subdomain from using IdM resources, disable that
trust domain:
[root@ ipaserver ~]# kinit admin
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa trustdomain-disable test.adexample.com
-----------------------------------------Disabled trust domain "test.adexample.com"
-----------------------------------------That trust domain can be re-enabled using the trustd o mai n-enabl e command.
If a domain should be permanently removed from the topology, than it can be deleted from the IdM
trust configuration.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# kinit admin
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa trustdomain-del prod.adexample.com
------------------------------------------------------------------Removed information about the trusted domain " "prod.adexample.com"
-------------------------------------------------------------------
5.4 .3. Viewing and Managing DNS Realms
When a trust is created, the Active D irectory D NS configuration is added to the IdM D NS
configuration, with each realm being added as a special realm domain. Each domain is stored in the
cn= R eal m D o mai ns,cn= i pa,cn= etc,d c= exampl e,d c= co m subtree in the IdM directory.
Since these realm domains are added automatically, the D NS zones do not generally need to be
added or modified. The list of configured realm domains can be displayed (instead of listing all D NS
zones configured in IdM) using the real md o mai ns-sho w command.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# kinit admin
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa realmdomains-show
Domain: ipa.example.org, ipa.example.com, example.com
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If a single realm domain should be added to the configuration, this can be done with the --ad d d o mai n option.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# kinit admin
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa realmdomains-mod --add-domain=adexample.com
Domain: ipa.example.org, ipa.example.com, example.com, adexample.com
A single domain can be removed using the --d el -d o mai n option.
If there are multiple changes to be made to the list of domains, the list itself can be modified and
replaced using the --d o mai n option.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# ipa realmdomains-mod --domain=
{ipa.example.org,adexample.com}
5.4 .4 . Adding Ranges for UID/GID Numbers in a T ransit ive T rust
Windows systems treat ID numbers differently than Linux systems. When a user is created in Linux, it
is assigned a user ID number, and a private group is created for that user. The private group UI
number is the same as the user ID number. In Linux, there is no conflict in that. On Windows,
however, the security ID is unique for every object in the domain, so there is a conflict if a user and a
group have the same ID .
If the POSIX attributes (including uidNumber and gidNumber) are pulled from the global catalog in
Active D irectory, then the ID numbers are unique, because they are unique within the Active D irectory
environment. This is an ipa-ad-trust-posix range type, which is set in the trust-ad d command when
the trust is created. Essentially, no ID validation or range is required.
However, if instead the SID s will be generated in IdM, using SID /username mapping, then the ID
ranges for both the Windows identities and the IdM users and groups need to have unique, nonoverlapping ranges available. This is ipa-ad-trust range type.
A unique ID range is created for each Active D irectory domain automatically when it is added in a
trust to IdM. However, Active D irectory and IdM can work in a transitive trust. A transitive trust is a
daisy change, where if Realm A trusts Realm B, and Realm B trusts Realms C, then Realm A also
trusts Realm C. When the trust is configured, a range is only added for the domain specified in the
trust agreement. Ranges for the transitively-trusted domains need to be added manually.
To add an ID range, set the base ID for the POSIX range (the starting number), the starting number of
the RID (the far-right number in the SID ), the size of the range, and the domain SID (since there can
be multiple domains configured for trusts).
[root@ server ~]# kinit admin
[root@ server ~]# ipa idrange-add --base-id=1200000 --range-size=200000 -rid-base=0 --dom-sid=S-1-5-21-123-456-789 trusted_dom_range
The base ID is the starting POSIX ID number. The RID is a range to add to the base ID to prevent
conflicts. If the base ID is 1200000 and the RID is 1000, then the resulting ID number is 1201000.
5.5. Verifying T hat IdM Machines Have Resolvable Names
As Section 5.1.4, “ D ifferent D NS-Trust Environments” explains, regardless of the D NS configuration,
all hostnames within both the Identity Management and Active D irectory D NS domains must be fullyresolvable for trusted services to function reliably.
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After configuring trust, verify that the Identity Management servers are resolvable in both the IdM and
Active D irectory realms.
First , verif y t h at t h e Id M- h o st ed services are reso lvab le f ro m t h e Id M d o main .
1. Run a D NS query for the Kerberos record over UD P.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# dig +short -t SRV @ 10.1.1.1
_kerberos._udp.ipa.example.com.
0 100 88 ipamaster1.ipa.example.com.
2. Run a D NS query for the LD AP record over TCP.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# dig +short -t SRV @ 10.1.1.1
_ldap._tcp.ipa.example.com.
0 100 389 ipamaster1.ipa.example.com.
3. Run a D NS query for the TXT record with the Kerberos realm name. This must match the
Kerberos realm for the Identity Management servers.
[root@ ipaserver ~]# dig +short -t TXT @ 10.1.1.1
_kerberos.ipa.example.com.
O n t h e Act ive D irect o ry server, verif y t h at all o f t h e Id M- h o st ed servers an d services are
reso lvab le.
Active D irectory has a utility called nsl o o kup. exe which can query the D NS configuration.
1. Set the nsl o o kup. exe utility to look up service records.
C:\>nslookup.exe
> set type=SRV
2. Enter the name of the service and (optionally) the IP address of the IdM name server.
> _ldap._tcp.ipa.example.com 10.1.1.1
Server:
[10.1.1.1]
Address:
10.1.1.1
_ldap._tcp.ipa.example.com
SRV service location:
priority
= 0
weight
= 100
port
= 389
svr hostname
= ipaserver.ipa.example.com
ipaserver.ipa.example.com
internet address = 10.1.1.1
3. Change the service type to TXT to check the IdM Kerberos realm configuration ⁠ [5]
> set type=TXT
4. Query the Kerberos records.
> _kerberos.ipa.example.com. 10.1.1.1
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⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
Active D irectory caches the results of D NS lookups. The current cache can be viewed by running
i pco nfi g /d i spl ayd ns, and the cache can be deleted by running i pco nfi g /fl ushd ns.
5.6. Set t ing PAC T ypes for Services
On IdM resources, if an Active D irectory user requests a ticket for a service, then IdM forwards the
request to Active D irectory to retrieve the user information. Access data, associated with the
Active D irectory group assignments for the user, is sent back by Active D irectory and embedded in
the Kerberos ticket.
Group information in Active D irectory is stored in a list of identifiers in each Kerberos ticket for
Active D irectory users in a special data set called privileged access certificates or MS-PAC. The group
information in the PAC has to be mapped to the Active D irectory groups and then to the
corresponding IdM groups to help determine access.
POSIX systems have a similar data set called a POSIX authorization data element. PAD s, like PACs,
contain group-based authorization data for a user. The access data is returned in response to the
initial authentication request, so there is no additional cross-realm communication to retrieve group
data.
IdM services can be configured to generate PACs, PAD s, or both for each authentication request
when a user first attempts to authenticate to a domain service.
5.6.1. Set t ing Default PAC T ypes
The IdM server configuration defines which PAC types are generated by default for a service. The
global settings can be overridden by changing the local settings on a specific service.
1. Open the IP A Server tab.
2. Select the C o nfi g urati o n subtab.
3. Scroll to the Servi ce O pti o ns area.
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4. Select the check boxes by the PAC types to use. If both PAC types are selected, then both are
added to the Kerberos ticket.
MS-PAC adds a certificate that can be used by Active D irectory services.
PAD adds a certificate that can be used by POSIX (non-Windows) systems.
If no checkbox is selected, then no PACs are added to Kerberos tickets.
5. Click the Upd ate link at the top of the page to save the changes.
5.6.2. Set t ing PAC T ypes for a Service
The global policy sets what PAC types to use for a service if nothing is set explicitly for that service.
However, the global settings can be overridden on the local service configuration.
1. Open the Id enti ty tab, and select the Servi ces subtab.
2. Click the name of the service to edit.
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⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
3. In the Servi ce Setti ng s area, select the check boxes by the PAC types to use. If both PAC
types are selected, then both are added to the Kerberos ticket.
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MS-PAC adds a certificate that can be used by Active D irectory services.
PAD adds a certificate that can be used by POSIX (non-Windows) systems.
If no checkbox is selected, then no PACs are added to Kerberos tickets.
4. Click the Upd ate link at the top of the page to save the changes.
5.7. Using SSH from Act ive Direct ory Machines for IdM Resources
When a trust is configured, Active D irectory users can access machines, services, and files on IdM
hosts using SSH and their Active D irectory credentials.
NOT E
When using PuTTY on the Windows machine, make sure that GSS-API credential delegation is
enabled.
5.7.1. Username Requirement s for SSH
One critical factor when using SSH is the username. The username must meet several criteria:
The username must have the format ad_user@ad_domain.
The domain name itself must be lower-case. This is required for Kerberos principal mapping.
The case of the username must match, exactly, the case of the username in Active D irectory. jsmith
and JSmith are considered different users because of the different cases.
5.7.2. Using SSH Wit hout Passwords
Even if a proper Kerberos ticket is obtained, using SSH still prompts for a user password for
Active D irectory domain users. SSH specifies the username with the -l , but the Kerberos ticket
contains the Kerberos principal, not the username. The system requires a way to compare the offered,
local username to a principal name to see if the user has a ticket. The . k5l o g i n file offers a simple
way to map a local user to a Kerberos principal. The file is in a local user's home directory (and the
user is identified by the -l option with SSH), and it lists Kerberos principals for that user. If the
authenticating user matches the principal in an existing Kerberos ticket, then the user is allowed to
log in using the ticket for authentication, rather than requiring a password.
To change to Kerberos authentication (meaning, to use passwordless SSH authentication), each
Active D irectory user should have a . k5l o g i n file in their Linux home directory. The only contents
in the file are a list of Kerberos principals used by the user. The principals can be any of the formats
in Section 5.2.9, “ Supported Username Formats” , such as user@REALM.COM, AD.domain\user, or
AD\user.
For example, for the user jsmith in an Active D irectory realm named ENGINEERING.ADREALM.COM,
the . k5l o g i n is put in the home directory:
/home/engineering.adrealm/jsmith/. k5l o g i n
The contents of the file contain two different principal names:
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⁠Chapt er 5. Creat ing Cross- Realm T rust s wit h Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
jsmith@ ENGINEERING.ADREALM
ENGINEERING.ADREALM.COM\jsmith
The . k5l o g i n file is case-sensitive, so listing multiple principals in different formats and different
cases can be useful.
Because there are two different principals, either string can be used with ki ni t to obtain a ticket.
The . k5l o g i n manpage has more details.
5.8. Using T rust wit h Kerberiz ed Web Applicat ions
Any existing web application can be configured to use Kerberos authentication, which references the
trusted Active D irectory and IdM Kerberos realms. The full Kerberos configuration directives are
covered in the mod_auth_kerb module man pages.
For example, for an Apache server, there are several parameters that define how the Apache server
connects to the IdM Kerberos realm:
The KrbAuthRealms directive gives the application location to the name of the IdM domain. This
is required.
The Krb5Keytab gives the location for the IdM server keytab. This is required.
The KrbServiceName sets the Kerberos service name used for the keytab (HTTP). This is
recommended.
The Kerberos methods directives (KrbMethodNegotiate and KrbMethodK5Passwd) enables
password-based authentication for valid users. This is recommended for ease of use for many
users.
The KrbLocalUserMapping directive enables normal web logins (which are usually the UID or
common name of the account) to be mapped to the fully-qualified username (which has a format
of user@REALM.COM).
This parameter is strongly recommended. Without the domain name/login name mapping, the web
login appears to be a different user account than the domain user. This means that users cannot
see their expected data.
Section 5.2.9, “ Supported Username Formats” discusses different supported username formats.
Examp le 5.1. K erb ero s C o n f ig u rat io n in an Ap ach e Web Ap p licat io n
​< Location "/mywebapp">
​
AuthType Kerberos
​
AuthName "IPA Kerberos authentication"
​
KrbMethodNegotiate on
​
KrbMethodK5Passwd on
​
KrbServiceName HTTP
​
KrbAuthRealms IDM_DOMAIN
​
Krb5Keytab /etc/httpd/conf/ipa.keytab
​
KrbLocalUserMapping on
​
KrbSaveCredentials off
​
Require valid-user
​< /Location>
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NOT E
After changing the Apache application configuration, restart the Apache service:
[root@ ipaserver ~]# systemctl restart httpd.service
5.9. Act ive Direct ory T rust for Legacy Linux Client s
Linux clients running Red Hat Enterprise Linux with SSSD version 1.8 or earlier (legacy clients) do not
provide native support for IdM cross-realm trusts with Active D irectory. Therefore, for AD users to be
able to access services provided by the IdM server, the legacy Linux clients and the IdM server have
to be properly configured.
Instead of using SSSD version 1.9 or later to communicate with the IdM server to obtain LD AP
information, legacy clients use other utilities for this purpose, for example nss-l d ap, nss-paml d apd , or SSSD version 1.8 or earlier. Clients running the following versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux do not use SSSD 1.9 and are therefore considered to be legacy clients:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.7 – 5.10
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0 – 6.3
Important
D o not use the configuration described in this section for non-legacy clients, that is, clients
running SSSD version 1.9 or later. SSSD 1.9 or later provides native support for IdM crossrealm trusts with AD , meaning AD users can properly access services on IdM clients without
any additional configuration.
When a legacy client joins the domain of an IdM server in a trust relationship with AD , a compat LDAP
tree provides the required user and group data to AD users. However, the compat tree enables the AD
users to access only a limited number of IdM services.
Legacy clients do not provide access to the following services:
Kerberos authentication
host-based access control (HBAC)
SELinux user mapping
sud o rules
Access to the following services is provided even in case of legacy clients:
information look-up
password authentication
5.9.1. Server-Side Configurat ion for AD T rust for Legacy Client s
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Make sure the IdM server meets the following configuration requirements:
The ipa-server package for IdM and the ipa-server-trust-ad package for the IdM trust add-on have
been installed.
The i pa-server-i nstal l command has been run to set up the IdM server.
The i pa-ad trust-i nstal l --enabl e-co mpat command has been run, which ensures that
the IdM server supports trusts with AD domains and that the compat LD AP tree is available.
If you have already run i pa-ad trust-i nstal l without the --enabl e-co mpat option in the
past, run it again, this time adding --enabl e-co mpat.
The i pa trust-ad d ad.example.org command has been run to establish the AD trust.
If the host-based access control (HBAC) al l o w_al l rule is disabled, enable the system-auth
service on the IdM server, which allows authentication of the AD users.
You can determine the current status of al l o w_al l directly from the command line using the i pa
hbacrul e-sho w utility. If the rule is disabled, Enabl ed : FALSE is displayed in the output:
[user@ server ~]$ kinit admin
[user@ server ~]$ ipa hbacrule-show allow_all
Rule name: allow_all
User category: all
Host category: all
Service category: all
Description: Allow all users to access any host from any host
Enabl ed : FALSE
Note
For information on disabling and enabling HBAC rules, see the Linux D omain Identity,
Authentication, and Policy Guide.
To enable system-auth on the IdM server, create an HBAC service named system-auth and add
an HBAC rule using this service to grant access to IdM masters. Adding HBAC services and rules is
described in the Linux D omain Identity, Authentication, and Policy Guide. Note that HBAC services
are PAM service names; if you add a new PAM service, make sure to create an HBAC service with the
same name and then grant access to this service through HBAC rules.
5.9.2. Client -Side Configurat ion Using t he i pa-ad vi se Ut ilit y
The i pa-ad vi se utility provides the configuration instructions to set up a legacy client for an AD
trust.
To display the complete list of scenarios for which i pa-ad vi se can provide configuration
instructions, run i pa-ad vi se without any options. Running i pa-ad vi se prints the names of all
available sets of configuration instructions along with the descriptions of what each set does and
when it is recommended to be used.
[root@ server ~]# ipa-advise
config-redhat-nss-ldap : Instructions for configuring a system
with nss-ldap as a IPA client.
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This set of instructions is targeted
for platforms that include the
authconfig utility, which are all
Red Hat based platforms.
config-redhat-nss-pam-ldapd : Instructions for configuring a system
(...)
To display a set of instructions, run the i pa-ad vi se command with an instruction set as a
parameter:
[root@ server ~]# ipa-advise config-redhat-nss-ldap
#!/bin/sh
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------# Instructions for configuring a system with nss-ldap as a IPA client.
# This set of instructions is targeted for platforms that include the
# authconfig utility, which are all Red Hat based platforms.
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------# Schema Compatibility plugin has not been configured on this server. To
# configure it, run "ipa-adtrust-install --enable-compat"
# Install required packages via yum
yum install -y wget openssl nss_ldap authconfig
# NOTE: IPA certificate uses the SHA-256 hash function. SHA-256 was
# introduced in RHEL5.2. Therefore, clients older than RHEL5.2 will not
# be able to interoperate with IPA server 3.x.
# Please note that this script assumes /etc/openldap/cacerts as the
# default CA certificate location. If this value is different on your
# system the script needs to be modified accordingly.
# Download the CA certificate of the IPA server
mkdir -p -m 755 /etc/openldap/cacerts
wget http://vm-093.idm.lab.eng.brq.redhat.com/ipa/config/ca.crt -O
/etc/openldap/cacerts/ipa.crt
(...)
You can configure a Linux client using the i pa-ad vi se utility by running the displayed instructions
as a shell script or by executing the instructions manually.
To run the instructions as a shell script:
1. Create the script file.
[root@ server ~]# ipa-advise config-redhat-nss-ldap >
setup_script.sh
2. Add execute permissions to the file using the chmo d utility.
[root@ server ~]# chmod +x setup_script.sh
3. Copy the script to the client using the scp utility.
[root@ server ~]# scp setup_script.sh root@ client
4. Run the script on the client.
[root@ client ~]# ./setup_script.sh
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Important
Always read and review the script file carefully before you run it on the client.
To configure the client manually, follow and execute the instructions displayed by i pa-ad vi se from
the command line.
[5] There are us ually no TXT rec o rd s fo r Ac tive Direc to ry d o mains .
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Chapter 6. Setting up Kerberos Cross-Realm Authentication
Kerberos v5 creates a realm of clients. That realm can be trust and integrate with an Active D irectory
domain, as well as other Kerberos domains. Kerberos itself is system-agnostic, so it can work in a
number of different environments, systems, and applications.
A lot of Linux environments (and mixed environments) will already have a Kerberos realm deployed
for single sign-on, application authentication, and user management. That makes Kerberos a
potentially common integration path for mixed Windows-Linux environments, particularly if the Linux
environment is not using a more structured domain configuration like Identity Management.
6.1. A T rust Relat ionship
A trust means that the users within one realm are trusted to access the resources in another domain
as if they belonged to that realm. This is done by creating a shared key for a single principal that is held
in common by both domains.
Fig u re 6 .1. B asic T ru st
In Figure 6.1, “ Basic Trust” , the shared principal would belong to D omain B
(krbtg t/B. EXAMP LE. C O M@ A. EXAMP LE. C O M). When that principal is also added to D omain A,
then the clients in D omain A can access the resources in D omain B. The configured principal exists
in both realms. That shared principal has three characteristics:
It exists in both realms.
When a key is created, the same password is used in both realms.
The key has the same key version number (kvno).
A cro ss- realm t ru st is u n id irect io n al by default. This trust is not automatically reciprocated so
that the B. EXAMP LE. C O M realm are trusted to authenticate to services in the A. EXAMP LE. C O M
realm. To establish trust in the other direction, both realms would need to share keys for the
krbtg t/A. EXAMP LE. C O M@ B. EXAMP LE. C O M service — an entry with a reverse mapping from the
previous example.
A realm can have multiple trusts, both realms that it trusts and realms it is trusted by. With Kerberos
trusts, the trust can flow in a chain. If Realm A trusts Realm B and Realm B trusts Realm C, Realm A
implicity trusts Realm C, as well. The trust flows along realms; this is a transitive trust.
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⁠Chapt er 6 . Set t ing up Kerberos Cross- Realm Aut hent icat ion
Fig u re 6 .2. T ran sit ive T ru st
NOT E
While a Kerberos trust is transitive by default, that is not necessarily true for a Kerberos trust
with a Windows domain. In Windows, trusts with other Windows domains is transitive, but
trusts with external (meaning, non-Windows) realms are non-transitive by default. They can be
configured to be transitive.
The direction of a transitive trust is the trust flow. The trust flow has to be defined, first by recognizing
to what realm a service belongs and then by identifying what realms a client must contact to access
that service.
A Kerberos principal name is structured in the format service/hostname@REALM. The service is
generally a protocol, such as LD AP, IMAP, HTTP, or host. The hostname is the fully-qualified domain
name of the host system, and the REALM is the Kerberos realm to which it belongs. Clients usually
map the hostname or D NS domain name to the realm. The realm, then, somewhat related to the D NS
domain name (uncless a realm is explicitly defined in the d o mai n_real m section of
/etc/krb5. co nf).
When traversing a trust, Kerberos assumes that each realm is structured like a hierarchical D NS
domain, with a root domain and subdomains. This means that the trust flows up to a shared root.
Each step, or hop, has a shared key. In Figure 6.3, “ Trusts in the Same D omain” , A shares a key with
EXAMPLE.COM, and EXAMPLE.COM shares a key with B.
Fig u re 6 .3. T ru st s in t h e Same D o main
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The client treats the relam name as a D NS name, and it determines its trust path by stripping off
elements of its own realm name until it reaches the root name. It then begins prepending names until
it reaches the service's realm.
Fig u re 6 .4 . C h ild /Paren t T ru st s in t h e Same D o main
This is a nature of trusts being transitive. SITE.SALES.EXAMPLE.COM only has a single shared key,
with SALES.EXAMPLE.COM. But because of a series of small trusts, there is a large trust flow that
allows trust to go from SITE.SALES.EXAMPLE.COM to EVERYWHERE.EXAMPLE.COM.
That trust flow can even go between completely different domains by creating a shared key at the
domain level, where the sites share no common suffix.
Fig u re 6 .5. T ru st s in D if f eren t D o main s
It is also possible to reduce the number of hops and represent very complex trust flows by explicitly
defining the flow. The capaths section of the /etc/krb5. co nf file defines the trust flow between
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⁠Chapt er 6 . Set t ing up Kerberos Cross- Realm Aut hent icat ion
different realms.
The format of the capaths section is relatively straightforward: there is a main entry for each realm
where a client has a principal, and then inside each realm section is a list of intermediate realms from
which the client must obtain credentials.
For example, this has the realm of A. EXAMP LE. C O M, and a set of hops from A to D . A client in Realm
A must obtain credentials first from Realm B (the . means that it can obtain credentials directly,
without any intermmediate hops; otherwise, it would attempt to gain credentials by going through a
hierarchy). It must then use the B credentials to obtain credentials from C, and then use the C
credentials to obtain credentials for D .
​[capaths]
​A .EXAMPLE.COM
​B .EXAMPLE.COM
​C .EXAMPLE.COM
​D .EXAMPLE.COM
​
}
=
=
=
=
{
.
B.EXAMPLE.COM
C.EXAMPLE.COM
6.2. Set t ing up a Realm T rust
In this example, the Kerberos realm is KR B. EXAMP LE. C O M, and the Active D irectory realm is
AD . EXAMP LE. C O M.
1. Create the entry for the shared principal in Kerberos, using kad mi n.
​[root@ server ~]# kadmin -r KRB.EXAMPLE.COM
​kadmin: add_principal krbtgt/AD.EXAMPLE.COM@ KRB.EXAMPLE.COM
​E nter password for principal
"krbtgt/AD.EXAMPLE.COM@ KRB.EXAMPLE.COM":
​R e-enter password for principal
"krbtgt/AD.EXAMPLE.COM@ KRB.EXAMPLE.COM":
​P rincipal "krbtgt/AD.EXAMPLE.COM@ KRB.EXAMPLE.COM" created.
​q uit
2. A realm trust is configured in the Acti ve D i recto ry D o mai ns and T rusts console.
Select the appropriate domain, and create a new trust. These are the settings to use:
The T rust T ype is R eal m.
The T ransi ti vi ty o f T rust can be either transitive or non-transitive.
The D i recti o n o f T rust is O ne-way: i nco mi ng . This trusts Active D irectory users
in the Kerberos realm.
This creates a unidirectional trust, where Active D irectory users are trusted in the Kerberos
realm. To create a two-way trust, set the direction of trust to two-way. This is described in
the Microsoft TechNet documentation.
The Si d es o f T rust is T hi s d o mai n o nl y.
The T rust P asswo rd can be anything. This must be used when configuring the trust in
Kerberos.
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Chapter 7. Synchronizing Active Directory and
Identity Management Users
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Identity Management uses active synchronization to combine the user data
stored in an Active D irectory domain and the user data stored in the IdM domain. Critical user
attributes, including passwords, are copied and synchronized between the services.
Entry synchronization is performed through a process similar to replication, which uses hooks to
connect to and retrieve directory data from the Windows server. This is functionality is available
immediately in Identity Management, with no additional configuration in the Active D irectory domain.
Password synchronization is performed through a Windows service which is installed on the
Windows server and then communicates to the Identity Management server.
7.1. Support ed Windows Plat forms
Synchronization are supported with these Windows servers:
Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2012 R2
The version of the password sync service which works with Windows is 1.1.5. This is available in the
Red Hat D irectory Server downloads part of Red Hat Network.
7.2. About Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management
Within the IdM domain, information is shared among servers and replicas by copying that
information, reliably and predictably, between data masters (servers and replicas). This process is
replication.
A similar process can be used to share data between the IdM domain and a Microsoft Active D irectory
domain. This is synchronization.
Synchronization is the process of copying user data back and forth between Active D irectory and
Identity Management.
Fig u re 7.1. Act ive D irect o ry an d Id M Syn ch ro n iz at io n
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⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
Synchronization is defined in an agreement between an IdM server and an Active D irectory domain
controller. The sync agreement defines all of the information required to identify sync-able user
entries (like the subtree to synchronize and requisite object classes in the user entries) as well as
defining how account attributes are handled. The sync agreements are created with default values
which can be tweaked to meet the needs of a specific domain. When two servers are involved in
synchronization, they are called peers.
T ab le 7.1. In f o rmat io n in a Syn c Ag reemen t
Win d o ws In f o rmat io n
User subtree (cn= Users,$SUFFIX)
Connection information
Active D irectory administrator username
and password
Password Sync Service password
CA certificate
Id M In f o rmat io n
User subtree (o u= P eo pl e,$SUFFIX)
Synchronization is most commonly bi-directional. Information is sent back and forth between the IdM
domain and the Windows domain in a process that is very similar to how IdM servers and replicas
share information among themselves. It is possible to configure synchronization to only sync one
way. That is uni-directional synchronization.
To prevent the risk of data conflicts, only one directory should originate or remove user entries. This
is typically the Windows directory, which is the primary identity store in the IT environment, and then
new accounts or account deletions are synced to the Identity Management peer. Either directory can
modify entries.
Synchronization, then, is configured between one Identity Management server and one
Active D irectory domain controller. The Identity Management server propagates throughout to the IdM
domain, while the domain controller propagates changes throughout the Windows domain.
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Fig u re 7.2. Syn ch ro n iz at io n T o p o lo g y
There are some key features to IdM synchronization:
A synchronization operation runs every five minutes.
Synchronization can only be configured with one Active D irectory domain.
Synchronization can only be configured with one Active D irectory domain controller.
Only user information is synchronized.
Both user attributes and passwords can be synchronized.
While modifications are bi-directional (going both from Active D irectory to IdM and from IdM to
Active D irectory), creating accounts is only uni-directional, from Active D irectory to
Identity Management. New accounts created in Active D irectory are synchronized over to IdM
automatically. However, user accounts created in IdM must also be created in Active D irectory
before they will be synchronized.
Account lock information is synchronized by default, so a user account which is disabled in one
domain is disabled in the other.
Password synchronization changes take effect immediately. If a user password is added or
changed on one peer, that change is immediately propagated to the other peer server.
T h e Passwo rd Syn c clien t syn ch ro n iz es n ew p asswo rd s o r p asswo rd u p d at es.
Existing passwords, which are stored in a hashed form in both IdM and Active D irectory, cannot
be decrypted or synchronized when the Password Sync client is installed, so existing passwords
are not synchronized. User passwords must be changed to initiate synchronization between the
peer servers.
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⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
When Active D irectory users are synchronized over to IdM, certain attributes (including Kerberos and
POSIX attributes) will have IPA attributes are automatically added to the user entries. These attributes
are used by IdM within its domain. They are not synchronized back over the corresponding
Active D irectory user entry.
Some of the data in synchronization can be modified as part of the synchronization process. For
examples, certain attributes can be automatically added to Active D irectory user accounts when they
are synced over to the IdM domain. These attribute changes are defined as part of the
synchronization agreement and are described in Section 7.5.3, “ Changing the Behavior for Syncing
User Account Attributes” .
7.3. About Synchroniz ed At t ribut es
Identity Management synchronizes a subset of user attributes between IdM and Active D irectory user
entries. Any other attributes present in the entry, either in Identity Management or in Active D irectory,
are ignored by synchronization.
NOT E
Most POSIX attributes are not synchronized.
Although there are significant schema differences between the Active D irectory LD AP schema and the
389 D irectory Server LD AP schema used by Identity Management, there are many attributes that are
the same. These attributes are simply synchronized between the Active D irectory and IdM user
entries, with no changes to the attribute name or value format.
U ser Sch ema T h at Are t h e Same in Id en t it y Man ag emen t an d Win d o ws Servers
cn ⁠ [6 ]
physicalD eliveryOfficeName
description
postOfficeBox
destinationIndicator
postalAddress
facsimileTelephoneNumber
postalCode
givenname
registeredAddress
homePhone
sn
homePostalAddress
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st
initials
street
l
telephoneNumber
mail
teletexTerminalIdentifier
mobile
telexNumber
o
title
ou
userCertificate
pager
x121Address
Some attributes have different names but still have direct parity between IdM (which uses
389 D irectory Server) and Active D irectory. These attributes are mapped by the synchronization
process.
T ab le 7.2. U ser Sch ema Map p ed b et ween Id en t it y Man ag emen t an d Act ive D irect o ry
Id en t it y Man ag emen t
Act ive D irect o ry
cn ⁠ [a]
name
nsAccountLock
userAccountControl
ntUserD omainId
sAMAccountName
ntUserHomeD ir
homeD irectory
ntUserScriptPath
scriptPath
ntUserLastLogon
lastLogon
ntUserLastLogoff
lastLogoff
ntUserAcctExpires
accountExpires
ntUserCodePage
codePage
ntUserLogonHours
logonHours
ntUserMaxStorage
maxStorage
ntUserProfile
profilePath
ntUserParms
userParameters
ntUserWorkstations
userWorkstations
[a] The cn is map p ed d irec tly ( cn to cn ) when s ync ing fro m Id entity Manag ement to Ac tive Direc to ry.
When s ync ing fro m Ac tive Direc to ry cn is map p ed fro m the name attrib ute in Ac tive Direc to ry to the cn
attrib ute in Id entity Manag ement.
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⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
7.3.1. User Schema Differences bet ween Ident it y Management and Act ive
Direct ory
Even though attributes may be successfully synced between Active D irectory and IdM, there may still
be differences in how Active D irectory and Identity Management define the underlying X.500 object
classes. This could lead to differences in how the data are handled in the different LD AP services.
This section describes the differences in how Active D irectory and Identity Management handle some
of the attributes which can be synchronized between the two domains.
7 .3.1 .1 . Value s fo r cn At t ribut e s
In 389 D irectory Server, the cn attribute can be multi-valued, while in Active D irectory this attribute
must have only a single value. When the Identity Management cn attribute is synchronized, then,
only one value is sent to the Active D irectory peer.
What this means for synchronization is that,potentially, if a cn value is added to an Active D irectory
entry and that value is not one of the values for cn in Identity Management, then all of the
Identity Management cn values are overwritten with the single Active D irectory value.
One other important difference is that Active D irectory uses the cn attribute as its naming attribute,
where Identity Management uses uid. This means that there is the potential to rename the entry
entirely (and accidentally) if the cn attribute is edited in the Identity Management. If that cn change is
written over to the Active D irectory entry, then the entry is renamed, and the new named entry is written
back over to Identity Management.
7 .3.1 .2 . Value s fo r st re e t and st re e t Addre ss
Active D irectory uses the attribute streetAddress for a user's postal address; this is the way that
389 D irectory Server uses the street attribute. There are two important differences in the way that
Active D irectory and Identity Management use the streetAddress and street attributes,
respectively:
In 389 D irectory Server, streetAddress is an alias for street. Active D irectory also has the
street attribute, but it is a separate attribute that can hold an independent value, not an alias for
streetAddress.
Active D irectory defines both streetAddress and street as single-valued attributes, while
389 D irectory Server defines street as a multi-valued attribute, as specified in RFC 4519.
Because of the different ways that 389 D irectory Server and Active D irectory handle streetAddress
and street attributes, there are two rules to follow when setting address attributes in Active
D irectory and Identity Management:
The synchronization process maps streetAddress in the Active D irectory entry to street in
Identity Management. To avoid conflicts, the street attribute should not be used in Active
D irectory.
Only one Identity Management street attribute value is synced to Active D irectory. If the
streetAddress attribute is changed in Active D irectory and the new value does not already
exist in Identity Management, then all street attribute values in Identity Management are
replaced with the new, single Active D irectory value.
7 .3.1 .3. Co nst raint s o n t he init ials At t ribut e
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For the initials attribute, Active D irectory imposes a maximum length constraint of six characters,
but 389 D irectory Server does not have a length limit. If an initials attribute longer than six
characters is added to Identity Management, the value is trimmed when it is synchronized with the
Active D irectory entry.
7 .3.1 .4 . Re quiring t he surnam e (sn) At t ribut e
Active D irectory allows perso n entries to be created without a surname attribute. However, RFC 4519
defines the perso n object class as requiring a surname attribute, and this is the definition used in
D irectory Server.
If an Active D irectory perso n entry is created without a surname attribute, that entry will not be
synced over to IdM since it fails with an object class violation.
7.3.2. Act ive Direct ory Ent ries and POSIX At t ribut es
Windows uses unique, random security IDs (SIDs) to identify users. These SID s are assigned in
blocks or ranges, identifying different system user types within the Windows domain. When users are
synchronized between Identity Management and Active D irectory, Windows SID s for users are
mapped to the Unix UID s used by the Identity Management entry. Another way of saying this is that
the Windows SID is the only ID within the Windows entry which is used as an identifier in the
corresponding Unix entry, and then it is used in a mapping.
When Active D irectory domains interact with Unix-style applications or domains, then the
Active D irectory domain may use Services for Unix or IdM for Unix to enable Unix-style uidNumber
and gidNumber attributes. This allows Windows user entries to follow the specifications for those
attributes in RFC 2307.
However, the uidNumber and gidNumber attributes are not actually used as the uidNumber and
gidNumber attributes for the Identity Management entry. The Identity Management uidNumber and
gidNumber attributes are generated when the Windows user is synced over.
NOT E
The uidNumber and gidNumber attributes defined and used in Identity Management are not
the same uidNumber and gidNumber attributes defined and used in the Active D irectory
entry, and the numbers are not related.
7.4 . Set t ing up Act ive Direct ory for Synchroniz at ion
Synchronizing user accounts alone is enabled within IdM, so all that is necessary is to set up a sync
agreement (Section 7.5.2, “ Creating Synchronization Agreements” ). However, the Active D irectory
does need to be configured in a way that allows the Identity Management server to connect to it.
7.4 .1. Creat ing an Act ive Direct ory User for Sync
On the Windows server, it is necessary to create the user that the IdM server will use to connect to the
Active D irectory domain.
The process for creating a user in Active D irectory is covered in the Windows server documentation
at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732336.aspx. The new user account must have the
proper permissions:
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⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
Grant the sync user account R ep licat in g d irect o ry ch an g es rights to the synchronized Active
D irectory subtree. Replicator rights are required for the sync user to perform synchronization
operations.
Replicator rights are described in http://support.microsoft.com/kb/303972.
Add the sync user as a member of the Acco u n t O p erat o r and En t erp rise R ead - O n ly
D o main co n t ro ller groups. It is not necessary for the user to belong to the full D o main Ad min
group.
7.4 .2. Set t ing up an Act ive Direct ory Cert ificat e Aut horit y
The Identity Management server connects to the Active D irectory server using a secure connection.
This requires that the Active D irectory server have an available CA certificate or CA certificate chain
available, which can be imported into the Identity Management security databases, so that the
Windows server is a trusted peer.
While this could technically be done with an external (to Active D irectory) CA, most deployments
should use the Certificate Services available with Active D irectory.
The procedure for setting up and configuring certificate services on Active D irectory is covered in the
Microsoft documentation at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc772393(v=WS.10).aspx.
7.5. Managing Synchroniz at ion Agreement s
7.5.1. T rust ing t he Act ive Direct ory and IdM CA Cert ificat es
Both Active D irectory and Identity Management use certificates for server authentication. For the
Active D irectory and IdM SSL server certificates to be trusted by each other, both servers need to trust
the CA certificate for the CA which issued those certificates. This means that the Active D irectory CA
certificate needs to be imported into the IdM database, and the IdM CA certificate needs to be
imported into the Active D irectory database.
1. On the Active D irectory server, download the IdM server's CA certificate from
http: //i pa. exampl e. co m/i pa/co nfi g /ca. crt.
2. Install the IdM CA certificate in the Active D irectory certificate database. This can be done
using the Microsoft Management Console or the certutil utility.
Right-click on the executable, and select R un as ad mi ni strato r, then run certuti l with
the -i nstal l cert option. For example:
C:\Windows\system32\certutil -installcert -v -config
"ipaserver.example.com\Example Domain CA" c:\path\to\ca.crt
This command must be run as an administrative account, or it will fail because it cannot
access the certificate database.
For more details on installing certificates, see the Active D irectory documentation.
3. Export the Active D irectory CA certificate.
a. In My Netwo rk P l aces, open the CA distribution point.
b. D ouble-click the security certificate file (. crt file) to display the C erti fi cate dialog
box.
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c. On the D etai l s tab, click C o py to Fi l e to start the C ert if icat e Exp o rt Wiz ard .
d. Click Next, and then select Base-6 4 enco d ed X. 50 9 (. C ER ).
e. Specify a suitable directory and file name for the exported file. Click Next to export the
certificate, and then click Fi ni sh.
4. Copy the Active D irectory certificate over to the IdM server machine.
5. D ownload the IdM server's CA certificate from
http: //i pa. exampl e. co m/i pa/co nfi g /ca. crt.
6. Copy both the Active D irectory CA certificate and the IdM CA certificate into the
/etc/o penl d ap/cacerts/ directory.
7. Update the hash symlinks for the certificates.
cacertdir_rehash /etc/openldap/cacerts/
8. Edit the /etc/o penl d ap/l d ap. co nf file, and add the information to point to and use the
certificates in the /etc/o penl d ap/cacerts/ directory.
TLS_CACERTDIR /etc/openldap/cacerts/
TLS_REQCERT allow
7.5.2. Creat ing Synchroniz at ion Agreement s
Synchronization agreements are created on the IdM server using the i pa-repl i ca-manag e
co nnect command because it creates a connection to the Active D irectory domain. The options to
create the synchronization agreement are listed in Table 7.3, “ Synchronization Agreement Options” .
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⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
1. Make sure that the Active D irectory and IdM servers trust each other's CA certificates, as in
Section 7.5.1, “ Trusting the Active D irectory and IdM CA Certificates” .
2. Remove any existing Kerberos credentials on the IdM server.
$ kdestroy
3. Use the i pa-repl i ca-manag e command to create a Windows synchronization agreement.
This requires the --wi nsync option. If passwords will be synchronized as well as user
accounts, then also use the --passsync option and set a password to use for Password
Sync.
The --bi nd d n and--bi nd pwd options give the username and password of the system
account on the Active D irectory server that IdM will use to connect to the Active D irectory
server.
$ ipa-replica-manage connect --winsync
--binddn cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=example,dc=com
--bindpw Windows-secret
--passsync secretpwd
--cacert /etc/openldap/cacerts/windows.cer
adserver.example.com -v
4. When prompted, enter the D irectory Manager password.
5. Optional. Configure Password Synchronization, as in Section 7.6.2, “ Setting up Password
Synchronization” . Without the Password Sync client, user attributes are synchronized
between the peer servers, but passwords are not.
NOT E
The Password Sync client captures password changes and then synchronizes them
between Active D irectory and IdM. This means that it synchronizes new passwords or
password updates.
Existing passwords, which are stored in a hashed form in both IdM and
Active D irectory, cannot be decrypted or synchronized when the Password Sync client
is installed, so existing passwords are not synchronized. User passwords must be
changed to initiate synchronization between the peer servers.
T ab le 7.3. Syn ch ro n iz at io n Ag reemen t O p t io n s
O p t io n
D escrip t io n
--winsync
--binddn
Identifies this as a synchronization agreement.
Gives the full user D N of the synchronization
identity. This is the user D N that the IdM LD AP
server uses to bind to Active D irectory. This user
must exist in the Active D irectory domain and
must have replicator, read, search, and write
permissions on the Active D irectory subtree.
Gives the password for the sync user.
--bindpw
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O p t io n
D escrip t io n
--passsync
Gives the password for the Windows user
account which is involved in synchronization.
Gives the full path and file name of the
Active D irectory CA certificate. This certificate is
exported in Section 7.5.1, “ Trusting the
Active D irectory and IdM CA Certificates” .
Gives the D N of the Windows subtree containing
the users to synchronize. The default value is
cn= Users,$SUFFIX.
Gives the hostname of the Active D irectory
domain controller.
--cacert
--win-subtree
AD_server_name
7.5.3. Changing t he Behavior for Syncing User Account At t ribut es
When the sync agreement is created, it has certain default behaviors defined for how the
synchronization process handles the user account attributes during synchronization. The types of
behaviors are things like how to handle lockout attributes or how to handle different D N formats. This
behavior can be changed by editing the synchronization agreement. The list of attribute-related
parameters are in Table 7.4, “ Synced Attribute Settings” .
The sync agreement exists as a special plug-in entry in the LD AP server and each attribute behavior
is set through an LD AP attribute. To change the sync behavior, use the l d apmo d i fy command to
modify the LD AP server entry directly.
For example, account lockout attributes are synchronized between IdM and Active D irectory by
default, but this can be disabled by editing the ipaWinSyncAcctDisable attribute. (Changing this
means that if an account is disabled in Active D irectory, it is still active in IdM and vice versa.)
[jsmith@ ipaserver ~]$ ldapmodify -x -D "cn=directory manager" -w password
dn: cn=ipa-winsync,cn=plugins,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: ipaWinSyncAcctDisable
ipaWinSyncAcctDisable: none
modifying entry "cn=ipa-winsync,cn=plugins,cn=config"
T ab le 7.4 . Syn ced At t rib u t e Set t in g s
Paramet er
D escrip t io n
G en eral U ser Acco u n t Paramet ers
ipaWinSyncNewEntryFilter
Sets the search filter to use to
find the entry which contains
the list of object classes to add
to new user entries.
ipaWinSyncNewUserOCAttr
Sets the attribute in the
configuration entry which
actually contains the list of
object classes to add to new
user entries.
90
Po ssib le Valu es
The default is
(cn= i paC o nfi g ).
The default is
i pausero bjectcl asses.
⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
Paramet er
D escrip t io n
Po ssib le Valu es
ipaWinSyncHomeD irAttr
Identifies which attribute in the
entry contains the default
location of the POSIX home
directory.
Sets an additional attribute with
a specific value to add to
Active D irectory users when
they are synced over from the
Active D irectory domain. If the
attribute is multi-valued, then it
can be set multiple times, and
the sync process adds all of the
values to the entry.
The default is
i paHo mesR o o tD i r.
ipaWinSyncUserAttr
ipaWinSyncUserAttr:
attributeName attributeValue
NOT E
This only sets the
attribute value if the entry
does not already have
that attribute present. If
the attribute is present,
then the entry's value is
used when the
Active D irectory entry is
synced over.
ipaWinSyncForceSync
Sets whether to check existing
true | false
IdM users which match an
existing Active D irectory user
should be automatically edited
so they can be synchronized. If
an IdM user account has a uid
parameter which is identical to
the sAMAccountName in an
existing Active D irectory user,
then that account is not synced
by default. This attribute tells
the sync service to add the
ntUser and ntUserDomainId
to the IdM user entries
automatically, which allows
them to be synchronized.
U ser Acco u n t Lo ck Paramet ers
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Paramet er
D escrip t io n
ipaWinSyncAcctD isable
Sets which way to synchronize
account lockout attributes. It is
possible to control which
account lockout settings are in
effect. For example, to _ad
means that when account
lockout attribute is set in IdM,
its value is synced over to
Active D irectory and overrides
the local Active D irectory value.
By default, account lockout
attributes are synced from both
domains.
Sets the search filter to use to
find the D N of the group used
to hold inactivated (disabled)
users. This does not need to be
changed in most deployments.
Sets the search filter to use to
find the D N of the group used
to hold active users. This does
not need to be changed in most
deployments.
ipaWinSyncInactivatedFilter
ipaWinSyncActivatedFilter
G ro u p Paramet ers
ipaWinSyncD efaultGroupAttr
ipaWinSyncD efaultGroupFilter
R ealm Paramet ers
ipaWinSyncRealmAttr
ipaWinSyncRealmFilter
Po ssib le Valu es
both (default)
to_ad
to_ds
none
The default is (&
(cn= i nacti vated )
(o bjectcl ass= g ro upO fNam
es)).
The default is (&
(cn= acti vated )
(o bjectcl ass= g ro upO fNam
es)).
Sets the attribute in the new
user account to reference to see
what the default group for the
user is. The group name in the
entry is then used to find the
gidNumber for the user
account.
Sets the search filter to map the
group name to the POSIX
gidNumber.
The default is
i paD efaul tP ri maryG ro up.
Sets the attribute which
contains the realm name in the
realm entry.
Sets the search filter to use to
find the entry which contains
the IdM realm name.
The default is cn.
The default is (&
(g i d Number= *)
(o bjectcl ass= po si xG ro up
)(cn= groupAttr_value)).
The default is
(o bjectcl ass= krbR eal mC o
ntai ner).
7.5.4 . Changing t he Synchroniz ed Windows Subt ree
Creating a synchronization agreement automatically sets the two subtrees to use as the
synchronized user database. In IdM, the default is cn= users,cn= acco unts,$SUFFIX, and for
Active D irectory, the default is C N= Users,$SUFFIX.
The value for the Active D irectory subtree can be set to a non-default value when the sync agreement
is created by using the --wi n-subtree option. After the agreement is created, the Active D irectory
subtree can be changed by using the l d apmo d i fy command to edit the
nsds7WindowsReplicaSubtree value in the sync agreement entry.
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⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
1. Get the name of the sync agreement, using l d apsearch. This search returns only the values
for the dn and nsds7WindowsReplicaSubtree attributes instead of the entire entry.
[jsmith@ ipaserver ~]$ ldapsearch -xLLL -D "cn=directory manager" -w
password -p 389 -h ipaserver.example.com -b cn=config
objectclass=nsdswindowsreplicationagreement dn
nsds7WindowsReplicaSubtree
dn:
cn=meToWindowsBox.example.com,cn=replica,cn=dc\3Dexample\2Cdc\3Dco
m,cn=mapping tree,cn=config
nsds7WindowsReplicaSubtree: cn=users,dc=example,dc=com
... 8< ...
2. Modify the sync agreement
[jsmith@ ipaserver ~]$ ldapmodify -x -D "cn=directory manager" -W -p
389 -h ipaserver.example.com <<EOF
dn:
cn=meToWindowsBox.example.com,cn=replica,cn=dc\3Dexample\2Cdc\3Dco
m,cn=mapping tree,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: nsds7WindowsReplicaSubtree
nsds7WindowsReplicaSubtree: cn=alternateusers,dc=example,dc=com
EOF
modifying entry
"cn=meToWindowsBox.example.com,cn=replica,cn=dc\3Dexample\2Cdc\3Dc
om,cn=mapping tree,cn=config"
The new subtree setting takes effect immediately. If a sync operation is currently running, then it takes
effect as soon as the current operation completes.
7.5.5. Configuring Uni-Direct ional Sync
By default, all modifications and deletions are bi-directional. A change in Active D irectory is synced
over to Identity Management, and a change to an entry in Identity Management is synced over to
Active D irectory. This is essentially an equitable, multi-master relationship, where both
Active D irectory and Identity Management are equal peers in synchronization and are both data
masters.
However, there can be some data structure or IT designs where only one domain should be a data
master and the other domain should accept updates. This changes the sync relationship from a
multi-master relationship (where the peer servers are equal) to a master-consumer relationship.
This is done by setting the oneWaySync parameter on the sync agreement. The possible values are
fromWindows (for Active D irectory to Identity Management sync) and toWindows (for
Identity Management to Active D irectory sync).
For example, to sync changes from Active D irectory to Identity Management:
[jsmith@ ipaserver ~]$ ldapmodify -x -D "cn=directory manager" -w password
-p 389 -h ipaserver.example.com
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dn:
cn=windows.example.com,cn=replica,cn=dc\3Dexample\2Cdc\3Dcom,cn=mapping
tree,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: oneWaySync
oneWaySync: fromWindows
IMPORT ANT
Enabling uni-directional sync does not automatically prevent changes on the unsynchronized server, and this can lead to inconsistencies between the sync peers between
sync updates. For example, uni-directional sync is configured to go from Active D irectory to
Identity Management, so Active D irectory is (in essence) the data master. If an entry is modified
or even deleted on the Identity Management, then the Identity Management information is
different then the information and those changes are never carried over to Active D irectory.
D uring the next sync update, the edits are overwritten on the D irectory Server and the deleted
entry is re-added.
7.5.6. Delet ing Synchroniz at ion Agreement s
Synchronization can be stopped by deleting the sync agreement which disconnects the IdM and
Active D irectory servers. In the inverse of creating a sync agreement, deleting a sync agreement uses
the i pa-repl i ca-manag e d i sco nnect command and then the hostname of the Active D irectory
server.
1. D elete the sync agreement.
# ipa-replica-manage disconnect adserver.example.com
2. Remove the Active D irectory CA certificate from the IdM server database:
# certutil -D -d /etc/dirsrv/slapd-EXAMPLE.COM/ -n "Imported CA"
7.5.7. Winsync Agreement Failures
C reat in g t h e syn c ag reemen t f ails b ecau se it can n o t co n n ect t o t h e Act ive D irect o ry
server.
One of the most common sync agreement failures is that the IdM server cannot connect to the
Active D irectory server:
"Update failed! Status: [81
- LDAP error: Can't contact LDAP server]
This can occur if the wrong Active D irectory CA certificate was specified when the agreement was
created. This creates duplicate certificates in the IdM LD AP database (in the /etc/d i rsrv/sl apd D O MAIN/ directory) with the name Imported CA. This can be checked using certuti l :
$ certutil -L -d /etc/dirsrv/slapd-DOMAIN/
Certificate Nickname
Attributes
94
Trust
⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
SSL,S/MIME,JAR/XPI
CA certificate
Imported CA
Server-Cert
Imported CA
CTu,u,Cu
CT,,C
u,u,u
CT,,C
To resolve this issue, clear the certificate database:
# certutil -d /etc/dirsrv/slapd-DOMAIN-NAME -D -n "Imported CA"
This deletes the CA certificate from the LD AP database.
T h ere are erro rs sayin g p asswo rd s are n o t b ein g syn ced b ecau se it says t h e en t ry exist s
For some entries in the user database, there may be an informational error message that the
password is not being reset because the entry already exists:
"Windows PassSync entry exists, not resetting password"
This is not an error. This message occurs when an exempt user, the Password Sync user, is not
being changed. The Password Sync user is the operational user which is used by the service to
change the passwords in IdM.
7.6. Managing Password Synchroniz at ion
Synchronizing user entries is configured with the sync agreement. However, passwords in both
Active D irectory and Identity Management are not part of the normal user synchronization process. A
separate client must be installed on the Active D irectory servers to capture passwords as user
accounts are created or passwords are changed, and then to forward that password information with
the sync updates.
NOT E
The Password Sync client captures password changes and then synchronizes them between
Active D irectory and IdM. This means that it synchronizes new passwords or password
updates.
Existing passwords, which are stored in a hashed form in both IdM and Active D irectory,
cannot be decrypted or synchronized when the Password Sync client is installed, so existing
passwords are not synchronized. User passwords must be changed to initiate
synchronization between the peer servers.
7.6.1. Set t ing up t he Windows Server for Password Synchroniz at ion
Synchronizing passwords requires two things:
Active D irectory must be running in SSL.
The Password Sync Service must be installed on each Active D irectory domain controller.
The Password Sync Service records password changes and synchronizes them, over a secure
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connection, to the IdM entry.
T IP
Install the Microsoft Certificate System in Enterprise Root Mode. Active D irectory will then
automatically enroll to retrieve its SSL server certificate.
1. Make sure that the Active D irectory password complexity policies are enabled so that the
Password Sync service will run.
a. Run secpo l . msc from the command line.
b. Select Secu rit y Set t in g s.
c. Open Acco u n t Po licies, and then open Passwo rd Po licy.
d. Enable the P asswo rd must meet co mpl exi ty req ui rements option and save.
2. If SSL is not already enabled, set up SSL on the Active D irectory server. Setting up LD APS is
explained in more detail in the Microsoft knowledgebase at
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/321051.
a. Install a certificate authority in the Wi nd o ws C o mpo nents section in Ad d /R emo ve
P ro g rams.
b. Select the Enterpri se R o o t C A option.
c. Reboot the Active D irectory server. If IIS web services are running, the CA certificate
can be accessed by opening http: //servername/certsrv.
d. Set up the Active D irectory server to use the SSL server certificate.
a. Create a certificate request . i nf, using the fully-qualified domain name of the
Active D irectory as the certificate subject. For example:
;----------------- request.inf ----------------[Version]
Signature="$Windows NT$
[NewRequest]
Subject = "CN=ad.server.example.com, O=Engineering,
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⁠Chapt er 7 . Synchroniz ing Act ive Direct ory and Ident it y Management Users
L=Raleigh, S=North Carolina, C=US"
KeySpec = 1
KeyLength = 2048
Exportable = TRUE
MachineKeySet = TRUE
SMIME = False
PrivateKeyArchive = FALSE
UserProtected = FALSE
UseExistingKeySet = FALSE
ProviderName = "Microsoft RSA SChannel Cryptographic
Provider"
ProviderType = 12
RequestType = PKCS10
KeyUsage = 0xa0
[EnhancedKeyUsageExtension]
OID=1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1
;----------------------------------------------For more information on the . i nf request file, see the Microsoft
documentation, such as http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc783835.aspx.
b. Generate the certificate request.
certreq -new request.inf request.req
c. Submit the request to the Active D irectory CA. For example:
certreq -submit request.req certnew.cer
NOT E
If the command-line tool returns an error message, then use the Web
browser to access the CA and submit the certificate request. If IIS is
running, then the CA URL is http: //servername/certsrv.
d. Accept the certificate request. For example:
certreq -accept certnew.cer
e. Make sure that the server certificate is present on the Active D irectory server.
In the File menu, click Ad d /R emo ve, then click C ert if icat es and
Perso n al>C ert if icat es.
f. Import the CA certificate from D irectory Server into Active D irectory. Click
T rusted R o o t C A, then Impo rt, and browse for the D irectory Server CA
certificate.
e. Reboot the domain controller.
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7.6.2. Set t ing up Password Synchroniz at ion
Install the Password Sync Service on every domain controller in the Active D irectory domain in order
to synchronize Windows passwords.
1. D ownload the P assSync. msi file to the Active D irectory machine.
a. Log into the Customer Portal.
b. Click the D o wnl o ad s tab.
c. Click the R ed Hat Enterpri se Li nux downloads button in the middle of the page.
d. Filter the downloads by using a search term such as Directory Server, and then
expand one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions.
e. Click the D irectory Server link.
f. On the D irectory Server page, download the appropriate version of the WinSync
Installer. This is the Password Sync MSI file (R ed Hat-P assSync1. 1. 5-arch. msi ).
NOT E
Regardless of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux architecture, there are two PassSync
packages available, one for 32-bit Windows servers and one for 64-bit. Make sure to
select the appropriate packages for your Windows platform.
2. D ouble-click the Password Sync MSI file to install it.
3. The Passwo rd Syn c Set u p window appears. Hit Next to begin installing.
4. Fill in the information to establish the connection to the IdM server.
The IdM server connection information, including the hostname and secure port number.
The username of the system user which Active D irectory uses to connect to the IdM
machine. This account is configured automatically when sync is configured on the IdM
server. The default account is
ui d = passsync,cn= sysacco unts,cn= etc,d c= exampl e,d c= co m.
The password set in the --passsync option when the sync agreement was created.
The search base for the people subtree on the IdM server. The Active D irectory server
connects to the IdM server similar to an l d apsearch or replication operation, so it has to
know where in the IdM subtree to look for user accounts. The user subtree is
cn= users,cn= acco unts,d c= exampl e,d c= co m.
The certificate token is not used at this time, so that field should be left blank.
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Hit Next, then Fi ni sh to install Password Sync.
5. Import the IdM server's CA certificate into the Active D irectory certificate store.
a. D ownload the IdM server's CA certificate from
http: //i pa. exampl e. co m/i pa/co nfi g /ca. crt.
b. Copy the IdM CA certificate to the Active D irectory server.
c. Install the IdM CA certificate in the Password Sync database. For example:
cd "C:\Program Files\Red Hat Directory Password
Synchronization"
certutil.exe -d . -A -n "IPASERVER.EXAMPLE.COM IPA CA" -t
CT,, -a -i ipaca.crt
6. Reboot the Windows machine to start Password Sync.
NOT E
The Windows machine must be rebooted. Without the rebooting,
P asswo rd Ho o k. d l l is not enabled, and password synchronization will not
function.
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7. If passwords for existing accounts should be synchronized, reset the user passwords.
NOT E
The Password Sync client captures password changes and then synchronizes them
between Active D irectory and IdM. This means that it synchronizes new passwords or
password updates.
Existing passwords, which are stored in a hashed form in both IdM and
Active D irectory, cannot be decrypted or synchronized when the Password Sync client
is installed, so existing passwords are not synchronized. User passwords must be
changed to initiate synchronization between the peer servers.
The first attempt to synchronize passwords, which happened when the Password Sync application is
installed, will always fail because of the SSL connection between the D irectory Server and Active
D irectory sync peers. The tools to create the certificate and key databases is installed with the . msi .
7.6.3. Allowing Users t o Change Ot her Users' Passwords Cleanly
By default, every time an administrator changes a user password, that user is required to reset the
password at the next login. However, this behavior can be changed to allow administrators to reset a
password without requiring an immediate password reset.
The passSyncManagersDNs attribute lists administrator accounts which are allowed to perform
password change operations and which will not then require a password reset.
IMPORT ANT
This is required for password synchronization because, otherwise, whenever a password is
synchronized, the IdM server would interpret that as a password change operation and then
require a password change at the next login.
Edit the password synchronization entry, cn= i pa_pwd _exto p,cn= pl ug i ns,cn= co nfi g , and
add the passSyncManagersDNs attribute with the name of the user. This attribute is multi-valued.
For example:
$ ldapmodify -x -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret -h ldap.example.com
-p 389
dn: cn=ipa_pwd_extop,cn=plugins,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: passSyncManagersDNs
passSyncManagersDNs: uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com
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WARNING
Be careful to limit the listed D Ns only to administrator accounts which require the ability to set
user passwords. Any user listed here is given access to all user passwords, which is extremely
powerful.
[6 ] The cn is treated d ifferently than o ther s ync ed attrib utes . It is map p ed d irec tly ( cn to cn ) when
s ync ing fro m Id entity Manag ement to Ac tive Direc to ry. When s ync ing fro m Ac tive Direc to ry to
Id entity Manag ement, ho wever, cn is map p ed fro m the name attrib ute o n Wind o ws to the cn attrib ute in
Id entity Manag ement.
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Chapter 8. ID Views and Migrating Existing Environments to
Trust
The ID Views mechanism that is part of Red Hat Identity Management enables you to specify POSIX
attributes for users or groups. When you create a new ID view, you can define what user or group
attributes it should override; these newly defined attributes are then applied to the user or group. By
allowing this, ID views provide a solution to preserve existing environments during migration from
other identity management and system integration solutions.
After running the i pa-ad trust-i nstal l command, the D efault Trust View is created. The D efault
Trust View is always applied to Active D irectory users and groups, which allows you to define POSIX
attributes for AD users and groups regardless of how AD itself defined them. If you add a hostspecific ID view that overrides the AD users or groups, the attributes from the host-specific ID view are
applied on top of the D efault Trust View. While the new ID view overrides the D efault Trust View, you
cannot delete the default view itself. If no specific ID view is applied to a client, the D efault Trust View
always applies.
Note
If you do not run i pa-ad trust-i nstal l , you can still use the ID Views feature in a pure IdM
environment to manage ID views and overrides for IdM users.
In a setup with a synchronization-based AD integration, all users are copied to the IdM server with
generated POSIX attributes, such as login name, UID , GID , or shell. As explained in Section 1.3,
“ Indirect Integration” , the synchronization-based approach is generally discouraged, and it is
recommended to use the trust-based approach instead. By enabling the administrator to modify the
POSIX attributes that AD previously generated for AD users, the ID Views feature provides a solution
to migrate existing environments to a trust-based AD integration.
Use cases covered by ID Views include:
St o re PO SIX at t rib u t es an d SSH d at a f o r AD u sers
D efine POSIX attributes or SSH keys and SSH login information for AD users, and let them
be applied when an AD user authenticates to clients running SSSD with ID Views support
or when the AD user authenticates using a compat LDAP tree, which offers a simplified LD AP
tree with user and group data for legacy clients.
This capability is useful for migration from a synchronization-based solution or in a
situation when a Linux administrator would like to manually define POSIX attributes for AD
users but the AD policy does not allow it.
Mig rat e f ro m a syn ch ro n iz at io n - b ased t o a t ru st - b ased in t eg rat io n
Configure the POSIX attributes for users that are in a synchronization-based environment
by creating an ID view override specifying previously used UID or other tools. Then move
the users back to AD .
Perf o rm p er- h o st g ro u p o verrid e o f t h e Id M u ser PO SIX at t rib u t es
NIS-based infrastructure that is being migrated to an IdM integration with AD still often
requires that the original POSIX data remain unchanged on some NIS domains or the
company policies might prevent setting the original POSIX data in AD directly. In these
situations, you can use ID Views to configure the POSIX data directly on the Identity
Management server.
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Set d if f eren t PO SIX at t rib u t es o r SSH d at a f o r d if f eren t en viro n men t s
Set different POSIX attributes or different user SSH public keys for different production
environments – such as development, testing, or production – depending on the
corresponding host groups.
8.1. User Overrides and Group Overrides
Every ID view is a collection of user overrides and group overrides that applies to specified hosts. An
override provides a new user or group attribute that overrides the previous one; this enables you to,
for example, replace a previously generated attribute with a new one. Every override is related to an
AD or IdM user or group.
Note
Non-IdM integration systems can generate the UID and GID attributes using an algorithm that
is different from the algorithm used in IdM. By overriding the previously generated attributes so
that they are in compliance with the IdM system, a client that used to be a member of another
integration system can be fully integrated with IdM.
The following user attributes can be overridden in an ID view:
ui d : user login name
ui d Number: user UID number
g i d Number: user GID number
l o g i nShel l : user login shell
g eco s: user GECOS entry
ho meD i recto ry: user home directory
i paSshP ubkey: user SSH public key or keys
The following group attributes can be overridden in an ID view:
cn: group name
g i d Number: group GID number
Note
IdM uses ID ranges to avoid collisions of POSIX ID s from different domains. POSIX ID s in ID
Views do not use a special range type because IdM must allow overlaps with other kinds of ID
ranges: for example, AD users created through synchronization have POSIX ID s from the
same ID range as IdM users. If a collision occurs, it can be easily fixed by changing the
conflicting ID s because POSIX ID s are managed manually in ID Views on the IdM side.
8.2. Managing ID Views
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ID views can be added, modified, or deleted. You can define what ID attributes an ID view should
override and to which client hosts it should apply.
For AD users, overrides from the D efault Trust View are always applied. If an ID view assigned to the
host overrides the values present in the D efault Trust View or the original values from AD for some
attributes, these overridden values are visible on the host. If an ID view does not override a value
present in the D efault Trust View, all clients assigned to this other ID view see the D efault Trust View
value.
D efault Trust View accepts only AD user overrides; you cannot add overrides of IdM users or groups
to the D efault Trust View. For IdM users, the default view is represented by the values defined in their
corresponding IdM user records.
IdM servers and replicas always apply the D efault Trust View without any ID view overrides; you
cannot assign a different ID view to them. The default view is also always applied to AD users or
groups.
8.2.1. ID Views and SSSD
If the administrator applies another ID view on a client, the client and all the other clients applying
this ID view must restart the SSSD service. Moreover, if the new ID view changes a UID or GID , the
client and all the other clients applying the ID view must clear the SSSD cache.
Note
Applying an ID view can have a negative impact on SSSD performance because certain
optimizations and ID views cannot run at the same time.
For example, ID views prevent SSSD from optimizing the process of looking up groups on the
server. With ID views, SSSD must check every member on the returned list of group member
names if the group name is overridden. Without ID views, SSSD can only collect the user
names from the member attribute of the group object. This negative effect will most likely
become apparent when the SSSD cache is empty or when all entries are invalid, that is, after
clearing the cache.
ID views are applied on the client side, which means that clients running earlier versions of IdM only
see the D efault Trust View. If a client requires a different ID view, update SSSD on the client to a
version with ID View support or have the client use the compat LD AP tree.
8.2.2. Managing ID Views from t he Web UI
To manage ID views from the IdM Web UI, open the IP A Server main tab and then select the ID
Vi ews subtab.
To add a new ID view:
1. Click Ad d above the list of all ID views.
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⁠Chapt er 8 . ID Views and Migrat ing Exist ing Environment s t o T rust
Fig u re 8.1. Ad d in g a N ew ID View
2. Fill out the information about the new ID view in the form that shows up.
Fig u re 8.2. Fo rm f o r Ad d in g a N ew ID View
3. Click the Ad d button under the form.
To define the properties of an ID view:
1. Click on the name of the ID view in the list of ID views, and then choose the appropriate tab.
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Fig u re 8.3. ID View T ab s
2. Users shows the list of users whose user attributes the ID view overrides.
Fig u re 8.4 . Ad d in g a U ser O verrid e
Click Ad d to create a new user override; you will be asked to fill out the new values for the
user attributes.
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⁠Chapt er 8 . ID Views and Migrat ing Exist ing Environment s t o T rust
Fig u re 8.5. Ad d in g a U ser O verrid e
Click D el ete to remove selected user overrides.
3. User G ro ups shows the list of user groups whose group attributes the ID view overrides.
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Fig u re 8.6 . U ser G ro u p s T ab
Click Ad d to create a new user group override; you will be asked to fill out the new values for
the group attributes.
Fig u re 8.7. Ad d in g a G ro u p O verrid e
Click D el ete to remove selected user group overrides.
4. Ho sts shows the list of hosts or host groups to which the ID view applies.
Fig u re 8.8. H o st s T ab
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⁠Chapt er 8 . ID Views and Migrat ing Exist ing Environment s t o T rust
Click Appl y to ho sts or Appl y to ho st g ro ups to add a new host or to add hosts
belonging to a host group. In the form that shows up, move the required hosts or hosts group
from the Avai l abl e to P ro specti ve column and click Appl y.
Fig u re 8.9 . Ap p lyin g an ID View t o a H o st
Un-appl y removes the ID view from specified hosts. Un-appl y fro m ho st g ro ups
enables you to remove the ID view from specified host groups.
5. Setti ng s enables you to modify the ID view description.
Fig u re 8.10. Set t in g s T ab
8.2.3. Managing ID Views from t he command line
To manage ID views on the command line, use the following commands:
i pa i d vi ew-ad d adds a new ID view
i pa i d vi ew-appl y applies an ID view to specified hosts or host groups; any previously
applied ID view is overridden
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i pa i d vi ew-d el deletes an ID view
i pa i d vi ew-fi nd searches for a specified ID view
i pa i d vi ew-mo d modifies an ID view
i pa i d vi ew-sho w displays information about an ID view
i pa i d vi ew-unappl y removes an ID view from specified hosts or host groups
To manage group and user ID overrides, use the following commands:
i pa i d o verri d eg ro up-ad d adds a new group ID override
i pa i d o verri d euser-ad d adds a new user ID override
i pa i d o verri d eg ro up-d el deletes a group ID override
i pa i d o verri d euser-d el deletes a user ID override
i pa i d o verri d eg ro up-fi nd searches for a specified group ID override
i pa i d o verri d euser-fi nd searches for a specified user ID override
i pa i d o verri d eg ro up-mo d modifies a group ID override
i pa i d o verri d euser-mo d modifies a user ID override
i pa i d o verri d eg ro up-sho w displays information about a group ID override
i pa i d o verri d euser-sho w displays information about a user ID override
For detailed information on what options can be passed to these commands, see the corresponding
man pages or run one of them with the --hel p option added.
Examp le 8.1. St o rin g PO SIX At t rib u t es an d SSH K eys f o r AD U sers U sin g a H o st Sp ecif ic ID View
To change the UID of the testuser user to 6666:
1. Add a new host-specific ID view using i pa i d vi ew-ad d and supply the required values.
[user@ client ~]$ ipa idview-add testview --desc "Our new hostspecific view"
--------------------------------------------Added ID View "testview"
--------------------------------------------ID View Name: testview
Description: Our new host-specific view
2. Add an ID override to the ID view by running i pa i d o verri d euser-ad d and supplying
the required values.
[user@ client ~]$ ipa idoverrideuser-add testview
testuser@ example.com --uid 6666
--------------------------------------------Added User ID override "testuser@ example.com"
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⁠Index
--------------------------------------------Anchor to override: testuser@ example.com
UID: 6666
3. Apply the ID view to a specific host by running i pa i d vi ew-appl y and supplying the
host using the --ho sts option.
[user@ client ~]$ ipa idview-apply testview --hosts
examplehost.com
--------------------------------------------Applied ID View "testview"
--------------------------------------------hosts: examplehost.com
--------------------------------------------Number of hosts the ID View was applied to: 1
You can override the GID and other attributes using a similar procedure. For more information, run
the i pa i d o verri d euser-ad d --hel p command.
Note
The --ho stg ro ups option applies the ID view to hosts belonging in a specified host group
and can be used in the same way as the --ho sts option. The --ho stg ro ups option does
not associate the ID view with the host group itself; it expands the members of the specified
host group and applies --ho sts individually to every one of them.
8.3. Migrat ing from t he Synchroniz at ion-Based t o t he T rust -Based
Solut ion
In an environment that uses the synchronization-based integration, you can migrate to the trustbased integration by following these steps:
1. Create a trust with the synchronized domain. For information about creating trusts, see
Chapter 5, Creating Cross-Realm Trusts with Active Directory and Identity Management.
2. For every synchronized user or group, individually create an ID override in a host-specific
view or in the D efault Trust View to preserve the UID and GID generated by IdM. For an
example on how to do this, see Example 8.1, “ Storing POSIX Attributes and SSH Keys for AD
Users Using a Host-Specific ID View” .
3. Make a backup copy of the original synchronized user or group entry.
4. D elete all the original synchronized user or group entries.
Index
A
Act ive D irect o ry
- schema differences between Identity Management, User Schema D ifferences between
Identity Management and Active D irectory
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Act ive D irect o ry
- global catalog, Active D irectory Identities on the Local System
S
sch ema
- differences between Identity Management and Active D irectory, User Schema
D ifferences between Identity Management and Active D irectory
- cn, Values for cn Attributes
- initials, Constraints on the initials Attribute
- sn, Requiring the surname (sn) Attribute
- street and streetAddress, Values for street and streetAddress
SSSD
- Active D irectory
- global catalog, Active D irectory Identities on the Local System
- Microsoft Active D irectory domain, Configuring an Active D irectory D omain with ID
Mapping
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Revision Hist ory
Revision History
Note that revision numbers relate to the edition of this manual, not to version numbers of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
R evisio n 7.0- 16
T h u Ap r 02 2015
T o máš Č ap ek
Async update to include ipa-advise, additional information on accessing a CIFS share with SSSD ,
and admonition for the Identity Management for UNIX extension.
R evisio n 7.0- 15
Fri Mar 13 2015
Async update with last-minute edits for 7.1.
T o máš Č ap ek
R evisio n 7.0- 13
Version for 7.1 GA release.
T o máš Č ap ek
Wed Feb 25 2015
R evisio n 7.0- 11
Fri D ec 05 2014
Rebuild to update the sort order on the splash page.
T o máš Č ap ek
R evisio n 7.0- 7
Mo n Sep 15 2014
T o máš Č ap ek
Section 5.3 Creating Trusts temporarily removed for content updates.
R evisio n 7.0- 5
Ju n e 27, 2014
Improving Samba+Kerberos+Winbind chapters.
Ella D eo n B allard
R evisio n 7.0- 4
Ju n e 13, 2014
Adding Kerberos realm chapter.
Ella D eo n B allard
R evisio n 7.0- 3
Initial release.
Ella D eo n B allard
Ju n e 11, 2014
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