Red Hat NETSCAPE DIRECTORY SERVER 6.2 - GATEWAY CUSTOMIZATION Installation guide

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Installation Guide
Netscape Directory Server
Version 7.0
October 2004
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Contents
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Prerequisite Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directory Server Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conventions Used in This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 1 Preparing for a Directory Server Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing Unique Port Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a New Server Root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deciding the User and Group for Your Netscape Servers (UNIX only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Authentication Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining Your Directory Suffix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Location of the Configuration Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Location of the User Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Administration Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Process Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting an Installation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration and Upgrade Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unpacking the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the slapd Process (Unix Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 2 Computer System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of Supported Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32-bit Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64-bit Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dsktune Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HP-UX 11i Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Disk Space Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Required System Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuning the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Third-Party Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Machine to Run Directory Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Required System Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Windows 2000 Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Third-Party Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ensuring System Clock Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Windows Service Packs and Hotfixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the System Post Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 3 Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Disk Space Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Required System Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing System Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuning the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Third-Party Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sun Solaris 9 Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Disk Space Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Required System Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuning the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting File Descriptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuning TCP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DNS and NIS Requirements (UNIX Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3 Using Express and Typical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Express Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Typical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Typical Installation on UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Typical Installation on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 4 Silent Installation and Instance Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Silent Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing Silent Installation Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample File for Typical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample File for Using an Existing Configuration Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample File for Installing the Standalone Netscape Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Silent Installation Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silent Installation File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[General] Installation Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[slapd] Installation Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[admin] Installation Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Base] Installation Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[nsperl] Installation Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[perldap] Installation Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Silent Instance Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 5 Post Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Launching the Help System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Populating the Directory Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Chapter 6 Migrating from Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating a Standalone Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating a 6.x Replicated Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating a 6.x Multi-Master Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplier Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hub Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumer Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Console Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating a Single Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating a Multi-Master Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 7 Uninstalling Directory Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Directory Server Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uninstalling Directory Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uninstalling the Server on UNIX Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uninstalling Directory Server on Windows Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Directory Server’s Uninstall Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Windows Add/Remove Programs Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 8 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Running dsktune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Common Installation Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
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About This Guide
Welcome to Netscape Directory Server (Directory Server). This manual provides a
high-level overview of design and planning decisions you need to make before
installing the Directory Server and describes the different installation methods that
you can use.
This preface contains the following sections:
•
Prerequisite Reading (page 7)
•
Directory Server Overview (page 7)
•
Conventions Used in This Guide (page 8)
•
Related Information (page 9)
Prerequisite Reading
Before you install Directory Server, we recommend that you read the Netscape
Directory Server Deployment Guide. This guide covers key concepts on how to
design and plan your directory service.
After you finish planning your directory service, follow the steps in this installation
guide to install the Directory Server and its related software components.
Directory Server Overview
The major components of Directory Server include:
•
An LDAP server — The core of the directory service, provided by the
ns-slapd daemon, and compliant with the LDAP v3 Internet standards.
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Conventions Used in This Guide
•
Directory Server Console — An improved management console that
dramatically reduces the effort of setting up and maintaining your directory
service. The directory console is part of Netscape Console, the common
management framework for Netscape servers.
•
SNMP Agent — Permits you to monitor your directory server in real time
using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
•
Online backup and restore — Allows you to create backups and restore from
backups while the server is running.
Conventions Used in This Guide
This section explains the conventions used in this book.
•
Monospaced font — This typeface is used for any text that appears on the
computer screen or text that you should type. It is also used for filenames,
functions, and examples.
•
NOTE
Notes and Cautions mark important information. Make sure you
read the information before continuing with a task.
•
The greater-than symbol (>) is used as a separator for successive menu
selections. For example, Object > New > User means that you should pull
down the Object menu, drag the mouse down to highlight New, and drag the
mouse across to the New submenu in which you must select User.
•
Throughout this book you will see path references of the form:
serverRoot/slapd-serverID/...
serverRoot is the installation directory. On UNIX, /usr/netscape/servers is
the default installation directory. On Windows, c:\netscape\servers is the
default installation directory. If you have installed Directory Server in a
different location, you should adapt the path accordingly.
serverID is the ID or identifier you assigned to an instance of Directory Server
when you installed it. For example, if you gave the server an identifier of
phonebook, then the actual path would look like this:
/usr/netscape/servers/slapd-phonebook/. . .
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Related Information
•
All paths specified in this manual are in UNIX format. If you are using a
Windows-based Directory Server, you should assume the equivalent file paths
whenever UNIX file paths are shown in this guide.
Related Information
The document set for Directory Server also contains the following guides:
•
Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide. Contains procedures for the
day-to-day maintenance of your directory service. Includes information on
configuring server-side plug-ins.
•
Netscape Directory Server Deployment Guide. Contains procedures for the
day-to-day maintenance of your directory service. Includes information on
configuring server-side plug-ins.
•
Netscape Directory Server Configuration, Command, and File Reference. Contains
information about using the command-line scripts shipped with Directory
Server.
•
Netscape Directory Server Schema Reference. Contains information about the
Directory Server schema.
•
Netscape Directory Server Plug-in Programmer’s Guide. Describes how to write
server plug-ins in order to customize and extend the capabilities of Directory
Server.
•
Netscape Directory Server Gateway Customization Guide. Introduces Directory
Server Gateway and explains how to implement a gateway instance with basic
directory look-up functionality. Also contains information useful for
implementing a more powerful gateway instance with directory authentication
and administration capability.
•
Netscape Directory Server Org Chart. Introduces the Netscape Directory Server
Org Chart application and explains how to integrate it with an instance of
Directory Server.
•
Netscape Directory Server DSML Gateway Guide. Introduces the Netscape
Directory Server DSML Gateway function and explains how to customize it for
use as an independent Java Gateway.
For a list of documentation installed with Directory Server, open this file:
serverRoot/manual/en/slapd/index.htm
About This Guide
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Related Information
For the latest information about Directory Server, including current release notes,
complete product documentation, technical notes, and deployment information,
check this site:
http://enterprise.netscape.com/docs
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Chapter
1
Preparing for a Directory Server
Installation
Before you begin installing Netscape Directory Server (Directory Server), you
should have an understanding of the various Directory Server components and the
design and configuration decisions you need to make.
To help you prepare for your Directory Server installation, you should be familiar
with the concepts contained in the following sections:
•
Installation Components (page 11)
•
Configuration Decisions (page 12)
•
Installation Process Overview (page 19)
•
Installation Privileges (page 21)
The Netscape Directory Server Deployment Guide contains basic directory concepts as
well as guidelines to help you design and successfully deploy your directory
service. Be sure you understand the concepts presented in this manual before
proceeding with the installation process.
Installation Components
Directory Server contains the following software components:
•
Netscape Console — Netscape Console provides the common user interface
for all Netscape server products. From it, you can perform common server
administration functions such as stopping and starting servers, installing new
server instances, and managing user and group information. Netscape Console
can be installed as a stand-alone application on any machine. You can also
install it on your network and use it to manage remote servers.
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Configuration Decisions
•
Netscape Administration Server — Administration Server is a common
front-end to all Netscape servers. It receives communications from Netscape
Console and passes those communications on to the appropriate Netscape
server. Your site will have at least one administration server for each server
root in which you have installed a Netscape server.
•
Directory Server — Directory Server is Netscape’s LDAP implementation.
The Directory Server runs as the ns-slapd process (on UNIX) or slapd
service (on Windows). This is the server that manages the directory databases
and responds to client requests. Directory Server is a required component.
The order in which you install and configure the various components depends on
whether you are performing a new installation or an upgrade. See “Installation
Process Overview,” on page 19, for details.
Configuration Decisions
During Directory Server installation, you are prompted for basic configuration
information. Decide how you are going to configure these basic parameters before
you begin the installation process. You are prompted for some or all of following
information, depending on the type of installation that you decide to perform:
12
•
Port number; see “Choosing Unique Port Numbers,” on page 13.
•
Server root; see “Creating a New Server Root,” on page 13.
•
Users and groups to run the server as; see “Deciding the User and Group for
Your Netscape Servers (UNIX only),” on page 14.
•
Your directory suffix; see “Determining Your Directory Suffix,” on page 16.
•
Several different authentication user IDs; see “Defining Authentication
Entities,” on page 15.
•
The location of the configuration and user directory servers; see
“Determining the Location of the Configuration Directory,” on page 16 and
“Determining the Location of the User Directory”.
•
The administration domain; see “Determining the Administration Domain,”
on page 18.
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Configuration Decisions
Choosing Unique Port Numbers
Port numbers can be any number from 1 to 65535. Keep the following in mind
when choosing a port number for your Directory Server:
•
The standard Directory Server (LDAP) port number is 389.
•
Port 636 is reserved from LDAP over SSL. Therefore, do not use port number
636 for your standard LDAP installation, even if 636 is not already in use. You
can also use LDAP over TLS on the standard LDAP port.
•
Port numbers between 1 and 1024 have been assigned to various services by
the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. Do not use port numbers below
1024 other than 389 or 636 for directory services as they will conflict with other
services.
•
On UNIX platforms, Directory Server must be run as root if it will listen on
either port 389 or 636.
•
On Windows platforms, the directory service must have administrative
privileges if it will use ports 389 or 636.
•
Make sure the ports you choose are not already in use. Additionally, if you are
using both LDAP and LDAPS communications, make sure the port numbers
chosen for these two types of access are not identical.
For information on how to set up LDAP over SSL (LDAPS) for Directory Server,
see the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
Creating a New Server Root
Your server root is the directory where you install your Netscape servers. The
default server root for Directory Server is /usr/netscape/servers.
The server root must meet the following requirements:
•
The server root must be a directory on a local disk drive; you cannot use a
networked drive for installation purposes. The file sharing protocols such as
AFS, NFS, and SMB do not provide file locking and performance suitable for
use by the Directory Server. The server database index files may be damaged if
they are not held on a local file system.
•
The directory must not already exist or must be empty.
•
The server root directory must not be the same as the directory from which you
are running the setup program.
Chapter 1
Preparing for a Directory Server Installation
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Configuration Decisions
By default, the server root directory is one of the following:
•
/usr/netscape/servers (on UNIX systems)
•
c:\netscape\servers (on Windows systems)
Deciding the User and Group for Your Netscape
Servers (UNIX only)
For security reasons, it is always best to run UNIX-based production servers with
normal user privileges. That is, you do not want to run Directory Server with
root privileges. However, you will have to run Directory Server with root
privileges if you are using the default Directory Server ports. If Directory Server is
to be started by Administration Server, Administration Server must run either as
root or as the same user as Directory Server.
You must therefore decide what user accounts you will use for the following
purposes:
•
The user and group under which you will run Directory Server.
If you will not be running the Directory Server as root, it is strongly
recommended that you create a user account for all Netscape servers. You
should not use any existing operating system account and must not use the
nobody account. Also, you should create a common group for the directory
server files; again, you must not use the nobody group.
•
The user and group under which you will run Administration Server.
For installations that use the default port numbers, this must be root.
However, if you use ports over 1024, then you should create a user account
for all Netscape servers and run Administration Server as this account.
As a security precaution, when Administration Server is being run as root, it
should be shut down when it is not in use.
You should use a common group for all Netscape servers, such as gid Netscape,
to ensure that files can be shared between servers when necessary.
Before you can install Directory Server and Administration Server, you must
make sure that the user and group accounts you will use exist on your system.
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Configuration Decisions
Defining Authentication Entities
As you install Directory Server and Administration Server, you will be asked for
various user names, distinguished names (DN), and passwords. This list of login
and bind entities will differ depending on the type of installation that you are
performing:
•
Directory Manager DN and password.
The Directory Manager DN is the special directory entry to which access
control does not apply. Think of the directory manager as your directory’s
superuser. (In former releases of Directory Server, the Directory Manager DN
was known as the root DN).
The default Directory Manager DN is cn=Directory Manager. Because the
Directory Manager DN is a special entry, the Directory Manager DN does not
have to conform to any suffix configured for your Directory Server. Therefore,
you must not manually create an actual Directory Server entry that has the
same DN as the Directory Manager DN.
The Directory Manager password must be at least 8 characters long and is
limited to ASCII letters, digits, and symbols.
•
Configuration Directory Administrator ID and password.
The configuration directory administrator is the person responsible for
managing all the Netscape servers accessible through Netscape Console. If you
log in with this user ID, then you can administer any Netscape server that you
can see in the server topology area of Netscape Console.
For security, the configuration directory administrator should not be the same
as the directory manager. The default configuration directory administrator ID
is admin.
•
Administration Server User and password.
You are prompted for this only during custom installations. The
Administration Server user is the special user that has all privileges for the
local Administration Server. Authentication as this person allows you to
administer all the Netscape servers stored in the local server root.
Administration Server user ID and password is used only when the Directory
Server is down and you are unable to log in as the configuration directory
administrator. The existence of this user ID means that you can access
Administration Server and perform disaster recovery activities such as starting
Directory Server, reading log files, and so forth.
Chapter 1
Preparing for a Directory Server Installation
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Configuration Decisions
Normally, Administration Server user and password should be identical to the
configuration directory administrator ID and password.
Determining Your Directory Suffix
A directory suffix is the directory entry that represents the first entry in a
directory tree. You will need at least one directory suffix for the tree that will
contain your enterprise’s data. It is common practice to select a directory suffix
that corresponds to the DNS host name used by your enterprise. For example, if
your organization uses the DNS name example.com, then select a suffix of
dc=example,dc=com.
For more information on planning the suffixes for your directory service, see the
Netscape Directory Server Deployment Guide.
Determining the Location of the Configuration
Directory
Many Netscape servers, including Directory Server, use an instance of Directory
Server to store configuration information. This information is stored in the
o=NetscapeRoot directory tree. It does not need to be held on the same Directory
Server as your directory data. Your configuration directory is the Directory Server
that contains the o=NetscapeRoot tree used by your Netscape servers.
If you are installing Directory Server only to support other Netscape servers, then
that Directory Server is your configuration directory. If you are installing
Directory Server to use as part of a general directory service, then you will have
multiple Directory Servers installed in your enterprise, and you must decide
which one will host the configuration directory tree, o=NetscapeRoot. You must
make this decision before you install any Netscape servers (including Directory
Server).
For ease of upgrades, you should use a Directory Server instance that is dedicated
to supporting the o=NetscapeRoot tree; this server instance should perform no
other function with regard to managing your enterprise’s directory data. Also, do
not use port 389 for this server instance because doing so could prevent you from
installing a Directory Server on that host that can be used for management of your
enterprise’s directory data.
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Configuration Decisions
Because the configuration directory normally experiences very little traffic, you can
allow its server instance to coexist on a machine with another more heavily loaded
Directory Server instance. However, for very large sites that are installing a large
number of Netscape servers, you may want to dedicate a low-end machine to the
configuration directory so as not to hurt the performance of your other production
servers. Netscape server installations result in write activities to the configuration
directory. For large enough sites, this write activity could result in a short-term
performance hit to your other directory activities.
Also, as with any directory installation, consider replicating the configuration
directory to increase availability and reliability. See the Netscape Directory Server
Deployment Guide for information on using replication and DNS round-robins to
increase directory availability.
CAUTION
Corrupting the configuration directory tree can result in the
necessity of reinstalling all other Netscape servers that are
registered in that configuration directory. Remember the following
guidelines when dealing with the configuration directory:
•
Always back up your configuration directory after you
install a new Netscape server.
•
Never change the host name or port number used by the
configuration directory.
•
Never directly modify the configuration directory tree. Only
the setup program for the various Netscape servers should
ever modify the configuration.
Determining the Location of the User Directory
Just as the configuration directory is the Directory Server that is used for Netscape
server administration, the user directory is the Directory Server that contains the
entries for users and groups in your enterprise.
For most directory installations, the user directory and the configuration directory
should be two separate server instances. These server instances can be installed on
the same machine, but, for best results, you should consider placing the
configuration directory on a separate machine.
Chapter 1
Preparing for a Directory Server Installation
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Configuration Decisions
Between your user directory and your configuration directory, it is your user
directory that will receive the overwhelming percentage of the directory traffic.
For this reason, you should give the user directory the greatest computing
resources. Because the configuration directory should receive very little traffic, it
can be installed on a machine with very low-end resources (such as a
minimally-equipped Pentium).
Also, you should use the default directory ports (389 and 636) for the user
directory. If your configuration directory is managed by a server instance
dedicated to that purpose, you should use some non-standard port for the
configuration directory.
You cannot install a user directory until you have installed a configuration
directory somewhere on your network.
Determining the Administration Domain
The administration domain allows you to group Netscape servers together
logically so that you can more easily distribute server administrative tasks. A
common scenario is for two divisions in a company to each want control of their
individual Netscape servers. However, you may still want some centralized
control of all the servers in your enterprise. Administration domains allow you to
meet these conflicting goals.
Administration domains have the following qualities:
18
•
All servers share the same configuration directory, regardless of the domain
to which they belong.
•
Servers in two different domains may use two different user directories for
authentication and user management.
•
The configuration directory administrator has complete access to all installed
Netscape servers, regardless of the domain to which they belong.
•
Each administration domain can be configured with an administration
domain owner. This owner has complete access to all the servers in the
domain but does not have access to the servers in any other administration
domain.
•
The administration domain owner can grant individual users administrative
access on a server by server basis within the domain.
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Installation Process Overview
For many installations, you can have just one administration domain. In this case,
choose a name that is representative of your organization. For other installations,
you may want different domains because of the demands at your site. In the latter
case, try to name your administration domains after the organizations that will
control the servers in that domain.
For example, if you are an ISP and you have three customers for whom you are
installing and managing Netscape servers, create three administration domains
each named after a different customer.
Installation Process Overview
You can use one of several installation processes to install Directory Server. Each
one guides you through the installation process and ensures that you install the
various components in the correct order.
The sections that follow outline the installation processes available, how to
upgrade from an earlier release of Directory Server, and how to unpack the
software to prepare for installation.
Selecting an Installation Process
You can install Directory Server software using one of the four different installation
methods provided in the setup program:
•
Express Installation — Use this if you are installing for the purposes of
evaluating or testing Directory Server. Express installation is described in
“Using Express Installation,” on page 43.
•
Typical Installation — Use this if you are performing a normal installation of
Directory Server. Typical installation is described in “Using Typical
Installation,” on page 45.
•
Custom Installation — In Directory Server, the custom installation process is
very similar to the typical installation process. The main difference is that the
custom installation process allows you to import an LDIF file to initialize the
user directory database that is created by default.
•
Silent Installation — Use this if you want to script your installation process.
This is especially useful for installing multiple consumer servers around your
enterprise. Silent install is described in chapter 4, “Silent Installation and
Instance Creation.”
Chapter 1
Preparing for a Directory Server Installation
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Installation Process Overview
Beyond determining which type of installation process you will use, the process
for installing Directory Server is as follows:
1.
Plan your directory service. By planning your directory tree in advance, you
can design a service that is easy to manage and easy to scale as your
organization grows. For guidance on planning your directory service, refer to
the Netscape Directory Server Deployment Guide.
2.
Install your Directory Server as described in this manual.
3.
Create the directory suffixes and databases. You do not have to populate your
directory now; however, you should create the basic structure for your tree,
including all major roots and branch points. For information about the
different methods of creating a directory entry, refer to the Netscape Directory
Server Administrator’s Guide.
4.
Create additional Directory Server instances, and set up replication
agreements between your directory servers to ensure availability of your
data.
Migration and Upgrade Process
Directory Server supports migration and upgrade from previous releases of
Directory Server. The migration and upgrade processes are described in chapter
6, “Migrating from Previous Versions.”
For information on migrating servers involved in replication agreements, refer to
the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
Unpacking the Software
If you have obtained Directory Server software from the website, you will need to
unpack it before beginning installation.
1.
Create a new directory for the installation:
# mkdir ds
# cd ds
2.
Download the product binaries file to the installation directory.
3.
On UNIX, unpack the product binaries file using the following command:
# gzip -dc filename.tar.gz | tar -xvof -
where filename corresponds to the product binaries that you want to unpack.
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Installation Privileges
On Windows, unzip the product binaries.
Starting the slapd Process (Unix Only)
On UNIX systems, you will need to write an rc script to start the slapd process, as
it does not start automatically when the system boots.
Installation Privileges
On UNIX you must install as root if you choose to run the server on a port below
1024, such as the default LDAP ports: 389 and 636 (LDAP over SSL). If you choose
port numbers higher than 1024, you can install using any valid UNIX login. On
Windows, you must run the installation as administrator.
Chapter 1
Preparing for a Directory Server Installation
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Installation Privileges
22
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Chapter
2
Computer System Requirements
Before you can install Netscape Directory Server (Directory Server), you must
make sure that the systems on which you plan to install the software meet the
minimum hardware and operating system requirements.
Directory Server 7.0 is compiled as a 64-bit application for some platforms,
meaning Directory Server now supports deployments with memory cache sizes
larger than 4Gbytes and limited only by available memory.
It is still possible to use Directory Server as a 32-bit application on supported 32-bit
platforms. Even on on 64-bit platforms, if the memory cache size is smaller than
4Gbytes, it is recommended that you run the 32-bit application of Directory Server
since this may improve performance. The 32-bit and 64-bit applications are
separately available; be sure that you have the correct application for your
Directory Server deployment.
These requirements are described in detail for each platform in the following
sections:
•
Summary of Supported Platforms (page 23)
•
Hardware Requirements (page 26)
•
Operating System Requirements (page 27)
Summary of Supported Platforms
This release of Directory Server is supported on the platforms listed in Table 2-1
adn Table 2-2. The sections that follow provide information that is specific to each
of the supported platforms which are divided into two sections:
•
32-bit Process
•
64-bit Process
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Summary of Supported Platforms
Before you install Directory Server, check the required patches and kernel
parameter settings, as described in the sections that follow. Also, ensure that DNS
is properly configured on the system and that the system has a static IP address.
32-bit Process
Table 2-1
Supported Platforms - 32-bit
Microsoft Windows® Platform Requirements
OS Version
Windows 2000 Advanced Server with Service Pack 4. For details, see
“Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server,” on page 31.
CPU
500 MHz or higher, compatible with Pentium 3 or higher.
Memory/RAM
256Mbyte. However, you should plan for 1Gbyte of RAM for best
performance on large production systems.
Storage Space/Hard Disk
Approximately 300Mbyte of disk space for a minimal installation. For
production systems, you should plan at least 2Gbyte to support the
product binaries, databases, and log files (log files require 1Gbyte by
default); 4Gbyte and greater may be required for very large directories.
Other Requirements
You must install as Administrator or a user with Administrator privileges
(that is, the user must be in the Administrators group).
For additional details, see “Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server,”
on page 31.
Red Hat Linux® Platform Requirements
OS Version
Linux Advanced Server 3 (x86) with relevant upgrades/patches. For
details, see “Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 3 Operating System,” on
page 34.
CPU
500 MHz or higher, compatible with Pentium 3 or higher.
Memory/RAM
256Mbyte. However, you should plan from 1Gbyte of RAM for best
performance on large production systems.
Storage Space/Hard Disk
Approximately 300Mbyte of disk space for a minimal installation. For
production systems, you should plan at least 2Gbyte to support the
product binaries, databases, and log files (log files require 1Gbyte by
default); 4Gbyte and greater may be required for very large directories.
To support database files that are larger than 2Gbyte, the machine must be
configured to support large files.
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Summary of Supported Platforms
Supported Platforms - 32-bit (Continued)
Table 2-1
Other Requirements
You must install as root in order to use well-known port numbers (such as
389) that are less than 1024. If you do not plan to use port numbers less
than 1024, you do not need to install as root. If you plan to run as root,
you should also install as root and specify nobody as the default run-as user
and group.
Sun Solaris® Platform Requirements
OS Version
Solaris 9 with relevant patches. For details, see “Sun Solaris 9 Operating
System,” on page 37.
Solaris bits can run in 32-bit or 64-bit operating system mode.
CPU
Ultra 10 or faster (32 bit).
Memory/RAM
256 MB. However, you should plan for 1Gbyte of RAM for best
performance on large production systems.
Storage Space/Hard Disk
Approximately 300Mbyte of disk space for a minimal installation. For
production systems, you should plan at least 2Gbyte to support the
product binaries, databases, and log files (log files require 1Gbyte by
default); 4GB and greater may be required for very large directories.
To support database files that are larger than 2Gbyte, the machine must be
configured to support large files; you can do this by choosing largefile.
Other Requirements
You must install as root in order to use well-known port numbers (such as
389) that are less than 1024. If you do not plan to use port numbers less
than 1024, you do not need to install as root. If you plan to run as root,
you should also install as root and specify nobody as the default run-as user
and group.
64-bit Process
Table 2-2
Supported Platforms - 64-bit
HP-UX® Platform Requirements
OS Version
HP-UX 11i; must be fully patched. For details, see “HP-UX 11i Operating
System,” on page 28.
CPU
HP 9000 architecture with a PA-RISC 2.0 CPU.
Memory/RAM
256 MB. However, you should plan for 1Gbyte of RAM for best
performance on large production systems.
Chapter 2
Computer System Requirements
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Hardware Requirements
Table 2-2
Supported Platforms - 64-bit
HP-UX® Platform Requirements
Storage Space/Hard Disk
Approximately 300Mbyte of disk space for a minimal installation. For
production systems, you should plan at least 2Gbyte to support the
product binaries, databases, and log files (log files require 1Gbyte by
default); 4Gbyte and greater may be required for very large directories.
To support database files that are larger than 2Gbyte, the machine must be
configured to support large files; you can do this by choosing vxfs
filesystem with largefiles option. See the fsadm documentation for
more information.
Other Requirements
You must install as root in order to use well-known port numbers (such as
389) that are less than 1024. If you do not plan to use port numbers less
than 1024, you do not need to install as root. If you plan to run as root,
you should also install as root and specify nobody as the default run-as user
and group.
Sun Solaris® Platform Requirements
OS Version
Solaris 9 with relevant patches. For details, see “Sun Solaris 9 Operating
System,” on page 37.
Solaris bits can run in 32-bit or 64-bit operating system mode.
CPU
Ultra 10 or faster (64-bit).
Memory/RAM
256 MB. However, you should plan for 1Gbyte of RAM for best
performance on large production systems.
Storage Space/Hard Disk
Approximately 300Mbyte of disk space for a minimal installation. For
production systems, you should plan at least 2Gbyte to support the
product binaries, databases, and log files (log files require 1Gbyte by
default); 4Gbyte and greater may be required for very large directories.
To support database files that are larger than 2Gbyte, the machine must be
configured to support large files; you can do this by choosing largefile.
Other Requirements
You must install as root in order to use well-known port numbers (such as
389) that are less than 1024. If you do not plan to use port numbers less
than 1024, you do not need to install as root. If you plan to run as root,
you should also install as root and specify nobody as the default run-as user
and group.
Hardware Requirements
On all platforms, you will need:
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•
Roughly 200Mbyte of disk space for a minimal installation. For production
systems, you should plan at least 2Gbyte to support the product binaries,
databases, and log files (log files require 1Gbyte by default); 4Gbyte and greater
may be required for very large directories.
•
256Mbyte of RAM. However, you should plan for 1Gbyte of RAM for best
performance on large production systems.
The table below contains some guidelines for disk space and memory requirements
depending on the number of entries managed by your Directory Server. This
assumes entries in the LDIF file are approximately 100 bytes in size and only the
recommended indexes are configured. If you are using larger entries, make sure
that at least four times the size of the LDIF file is available on disk.
Number of Entries
Disk Space and Memory Required
10,000 - 250,000 entries
Free disk space: 2Gbyte Free memory: 256Mbyte
250,000 - 1,000,000 entries
Free disk space: 4Gbyte Free memory: 512Mbyte
Over 1,000,000 entries
Free disk space: 8Gbyte Free memory: 1Gbyte
Operating System Requirements
This section contains information on operating-system versions and patches
required for installing Directory Server:
•
dsktune Utility
•
HP-UX 11i Operating System
•
Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
•
Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 3 Operating System
•
Sun Solaris 9 Operating System
•
DNS and NIS Requirements (UNIX Only)
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dsktune Utility
For UNIX platforms, Directory Server provides a utility named dsktune that can
help you verify whether you have the appropriate patches installed on your
system. The utility also provides useful information and advice on how to tune
your kernel parameters for best performance.
To enable you to run dsktune before installing the Directory Server, the utility is
placed, along with the setup program, in the directory where you unpack
product binaries. The setup program allows specifying of a pre-pre-installation
program to be run before the Directory Server installation begins; in the
slapd.inf file, a new field named PrePreInstall is defined for specifying the
path to the executable, which must be relative to the setup program. By default,
the PrePreInstall field is set to the dsktune utility path, enabling you to run the
utility as a part of the Directory Server installation.
After you’ve installed the Directory Server, you can find the utility in this
directory:
serverRoot/bin/slapd/server
For information on running dsktune, see chapter 8, “Troubleshooting.”
TIP
It is strongly recommended that you run the dsktune utility if you
are operating a UNIX system. Kernel parameters make a significant
performance difference; for example, in some cases on HP-UX
systems, Directory Server may not run on stock kernel parameters.
HP-UX 11i Operating System
This section contains the following information:
•
Verifying Disk Space Requirements
•
Verifying Required System Modules
•
Installing Patches
•
Tuning the System
•
Installing Third-Party Utilities
Verifying Disk Space Requirements
Ensure that you have sufficient disk space before downloading the software.
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Download drive: 120Mbyte
Installation drive: 2Gbyte
Verifying Required System Modules
Directory Server is not supported on HP-UX 10 or earlier versions. The minimum
system module required is HP-UX 11. Directory Server may only be used on a
64-bit HP-UX 11 environment as a 64-bit process and may contain up to 8Gbytes of
process memory.
For best results, Directory Server requires an HP 9000 architecture with a PA-RISC
2.0 CPU.
Installing Patches
Before you install Directory Server, ensure that the host system is updated with the
latest patches recommended by the operating-system vendor. Because the list of
recommended patches changes with time, you must always check the operating
system vendor’s site for a list of patches that you may need to install. Listed below
are two URLs to aid you in this effort:
http://welcome.hp.com/country/us/eng/support.htm
http://www.hp.com/products1/unix/java/
Here are some recommendations:
•
For HP-UX 11i, install the latest HP-UX 11i Quality Pack (GOLDQPK11i)
patch, from June 2004 or later. For details, see
http://www.software.hp.com/SUPPORT_PLUS/qpk.html.
•
The following patch is critical before installation of Directory Server:
PHSS_30966:
•
ld(1) and linker tools cumulative patch
The following patches are recommended:
GOLDAPPS11i:
B.11.11.0406.5 Gold Applications Patches for HP-UX 11i
v1, June 2004
GOLDBASE11i:
B.11.11.0406.5 Gold Base Patches for HP-UX 11i v1, June
2004
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•
Run the dsktune utility to see if you need to install any other patches. The
utility helps you to verify whether you have the appropriate patches installed
on your system and provides useful information and advice on how to tune
your kernel parameters for best performance. For information on the dsktune
utility, see “dsktune Utility,” on page 28.”
Tuning the System
Set your kernel parameters as follows:
•
Set maxfiles to 1024.
•
Set nkthread to 1328; nkthread is a computed value: (((NPROC*7)/4+16).
❍
Set max_thread_proc to 512.
❍
Set maxusers to 64.
❍
Set maxuprc to 512.
❍
Set nproc to 750.
Typically, client applications that do not properly shut down the socket cause it to
linger in a TIME_WAIT state. To prevent this, you should consider changing the
TIME_WAIT setting to a reasonable value. For example, setting
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_time_wait_interval 60000
will limit the TIME_WAIT state of sockets to 60 seconds.
You also need to turn on large file support in order for Directory Server to work
properly. To change an existing file system (from one that has no large files to one
that accepts large files):
1.
Unmount the system using the umount command:
umount /export
2.
Create the large file system:
fsadm -F vxfs -o largefiles /dev/vg01/rexport
3.
Remount the file system:
/usr/sbin/mount -F vxfs -o largefiles /dev/vg01/export
For additional information and recommendations about setting these parameters,
consult your operating-system documentation.
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Installing Third-Party Utilities
You will need the gunzip utility to unpack the Directory Server software. The
GNU gzip and gunzip programs are described in more detail at
http://www.gnu.org/software/gzip/gzip.html and can be obtained from
many software distribution sites.
You may need Adobe Acrobat Reader to read the documentation. If you do not
have it installed, you can download it from
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
If you plan to install Directory Server on a machine running the Windows 2000
Advanced Server operating system (OS), follow the recommendations outlined in
these sections:
•
Configuring a Machine to Run Directory Server
•
Verifying Required System Modules
•
Installing Windows 2000 Server
•
Installing Third-Party Utilities
•
Ensuring System Clock Accuracy
•
Installing Windows Service Packs and Hotfixes
•
Configuring the System Post Installation
In addition to these recommendations, be sure to check the OS vendor’s web site
for the latest information pertaining to your OS version. Below are two URLs that
you may find useful:
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/
http://support.microsoft.com/
Configuring a Machine to Run Directory Server
Directory Server must be installed with a static IP address on a computer that is
isolated from the public Internet by a network-level firewall. This is necessary to
protect the operating system from IP-based attacks.
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Operating System Requirements
No other network functions should be provided by this computer. The computer
should not be a dual-booting system or run other operating systems. At a
minimum, the computer system should have at least 256Mbyte of RAM, 2Gbyte of
disk, a Pentium 3 or later processor, and a 100 MBps Ethernet connection.
Ensure that you have sufficient disk space before downloading the software.
Download drive: 120Mbyte
Installation drive: 200Mbyte
Verifying Required System Modules
Directory Server is not supported on Windows 2000 Pro or Windows 2000
DataCenter Server.
Installing Windows 2000 Server
During the installation of Windows 2000, observe the following:
•
If there is already an operating system present on the computer, choose to
perform a fresh install rather than an upgrade.
•
Format the drives with NTFS rather than FAT, as NTFS allows access controls
to be set on files and directories.
•
Specify that the computer will be a standalone server and will not be a
member of any existing domain or workgroup. This will reduce dependencies
on the network security services.
•
Choose an administrator password of at least 9 characters. Use punctuation or
other non-alphabetic characters in the first 7 characters.
•
Do not install Internet Information Server.
•
Specify only TCP/IP as network protocol, and do not install any other
network services.
Installing Third-Party Utilities
You need an UNZIP utility to unpack the directory server software. There are
many commercially licensed, free, and shareware tools available, such as PKZIP
or Winzip. Shareware unregistered versions of PKZIP 2.70 maintain a TCP/IP
connection to an Internet advertising service, so it may not be suitable for
installation on this system.
You may need Adobe Acrobat Reader to read the documentation. If you do not
have it installed, you can download it from
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
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To edit the server configuration file, you will need a text editor that is capable of
handling large text files (Notepad and Wordpad are not suitable). If you are
already familiar with Emacs text editor on UNIX, a port to Windows can be
downloaded from ftp://ftp.cs.washington.edu/pub/ntemacs/. There are
many other shareware and commercial text editors available.
To display non-English characters using any Netscape browser, you can obtain
general internationalization advice and more specific information about the
Bitstream Cyberbit font from the following URL:
http://developer.netscape.com/software/jdk/i18n.html
To download the Bitstream Cyberbit font use the following FTP link:
ftp://ftp.netscape.com/pub/communicator/extras/fonts/windows
Before downloading the font, read the READMEfirst.txt and ReadMe.htm files.
Ensuring System Clock Accuracy
To facilitate the correlation of date and time stamps in log files with those of other
computer systems, keep your system clock reasonably in sync. As the NET TIME
command requires NetBIOS, which will be disabled during post-installation
system configuration, either a TCP/IP based NTP client should be installed (such
as the shareware program Tardis) or a time radio receiver attached. See
http://www.ntp.org for more information on NTP clients for Windows.
Installing Windows Service Packs and Hotfixes
Windows 2000 Service Packs include key fixes that are needed to maintain the
security and reliability of the operating system. The hotfix series contains
important changes for problems discovered after the service pack has been
released.
Directory Server is certified with Service Pack 4 and security patches released by
the OS vendor at the time of this certification. It is recommended that you install
the latest service pack and all hotfixes and patches recommended by the OS
vendor.
Configuring the System Post Installation
The Windows 2000 environment requires tuning to provide optimum performance
for Directory Server in an operational environment. Consult the Windows 2000
system administrator’s documentation or support channel for information on
Windows 2000 tuning for multi-threaded internet services.
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It is recommended that you set the LargeSystemCache registry key to 0 to limit
the growth of system cache. The LargeSystemCache has a default value of 1,
which is not suitable for applications such as Directory Server, which do caching
internally.
Also, if there will be a lot of connections from clients, change the following:
•
tcp_time_wait_interval from its default value, which is 240 seconds, to 60
seconds. To do this, at Registry
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrectControlSet\services\Tcpip\Para
meters, create a key TcpTimeWaitDelay with value 60.
•
The upper range of ephemeral from the default value, which is 4999, to
65534. To do this, at Registry
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrectControlSet\services\Tcpip\Para
meters, create a key MaxUserPort with value 65534.
Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 3 Operating
System
If you plan to install Directory Server on a machine running the Linux Advanced
Server 3 operating system (OS), follow the recommendations outlined in these
sections:
•
Verifying Disk Space Requirements
•
Verifying Required System Modules
•
Installing System Patches
•
Tuning the System
•
Installing Third-Party Utilities
In addition to these recommendations, be sure to check the OS vendor’s web site
for the latest information pertaining to your OS version:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/support/
Verifying Disk Space Requirements
Ensure that you have sufficient disk space before downloading the software.
Download drive: 120Mbyte
Installation drive: 2Gbyte
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Verifying Required System Modules
Directory Server is certified to work on:
•
The Intel Pentium series processors [i686].
•
The default kernel/glibc revisions that comes along with Red Hat Linux
Advanced Server 3 and the other kernel revisions with their corresponding
glibc revisions as mentioned below.
❍
❍
❍
•
Default kernel - kernel-2.4.21-3.EL
Kernel used for certification - kernel 2.4.21-4.EL
Default glibc - glibc-2.3.2-95.3
glibc used for certification - glibc-2.3.2-95.20
Required Filesytem:
ext3 (LARGEFILES support enabled) filesystem has been used for the
certification process.
With certain installed rpm packages on Red Hat, the server will not start.
Red Hat distributes two RPM packages for glibc, one for 386 processors and
higher, the other for 486 or Pentium processors and higher. The 386 package
has no NPTL support. If the 386 package is installed on a machine, you will
lose NPTL support. Once this has happened, it's very hard to detect because
rpm -q reports the package name and version without the architecture tag.
To determine which RPM package is installed, run the following command:
getconf GNU_LIBPTHREAD_VERSION
Installing System Patches
Directory Server has been certified on Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 3 with
kernel revisions 2.4.21-4.EL (kernel-2.4.21-4.EL.i686.rpm) / glibc version
2.3.2-95.20 (glibc-2.3.2-95.20.i686.rpm). It is recommended that you use these
kernel and glibc versions. If the machine is a single CPU machine, the
corresponding kernel would be of the form kernel-x.x.x.x. If the machine is a
multi-CPU machine, the corresponding kernel would be of the form
kernel-smp-x.x.x.x.
You can get the list of installed software, including patches, on your system by
running rpm -qa.
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Tuning the System
This section contains some basic system tuning information. Keep in mind that
changing any of the following kernel-tuning parameters requires a system reboot.
•
NFS Tuning — This tuning is recommended if you are using Directory Server
to write to NFS mounted drives. On Linux, NFS is typically recommended to
be done over TCP and not over UDP. Make the following change to the
/etc/rc.d/init.d/autofs file:
+ localoptions='rsize=8192,wsize=8192,vers=3,tcp'
•
TCP Tuning — You can increase number of local system ports available by
running this command:
echo "1024 65000" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4.ip_local_port_range
You can also achive the same by editing this parameter in the
/etc/sysctl.conf file:
[ echo "1024 65000" >> /etc/sysctl.conf ]
•
File Tuning — You can increase the file descriptors by running these
commands:
echo "64000" > /proc/sys/fs/file-max
or edit this parameter in the /etc/sysctl.conf file:
[ echo "fs.file-max = 64000" >> /etc/sysctl.conf ]
echo "* soft nofile 8192" >> /etc/security/limits.conf
echo "* hard nofile 8192" >> /etc/security/limits.conf
echo "ulimit -n 8192" >> /etc/profile
echo "session required /lib/security/pam_limits.so" >>
/etc/security/limits.conf
Installing Third-Party Utilities
You will need the gunzip utility to unpack the Directory Server software. The
GNU gzip and gunzip programs are described in more detail at
http://www.gnu.org/software/gzip/gzip.html and can be obtained from
many software distribution sites.
You may need Adobe Acrobat Reader to read the documentation. If you do not
have it installed, you can download it from
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
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Sun Solaris 9 Operating System
If you plan to install Directory Server on a machine running the Solaris 9 operating
system (OS), follow the recommendations outlined in these sections:
•
Verifying Disk Space Requirements
•
Verifying Required System Modules
•
Installing Patches
•
Tuning the System
•
Setting File Descriptors
•
Tuning TCP Parameters
In addition to these recommendations, be sure to check the OS vendor’s web site
for the latest information pertaining to your OS version. For example, you should
read the Solaris Operating Environment Security Sun Blueprint at
http://www.sun.com/blueprints/0100/security.pdf for advice on guarding
against potential security threats.
Below are two URLs that you may find useful:
http://docs.sun.com
http://sunsolve.sun.com
Verifying Disk Space Requirements
Ensure that you have sufficient disk space before downloading the Directory
Server software.
Current working directory: 120Mbyte
Partition containing /usr/netscape: 2Gbyte
Verifying Required System Modules
Directory Server requires the use of an UltraSPARC (SPARC v9) processor, as this
processor includes support for high performance and multiprocessor systems.
Earlier SPARC processors are not supported.
If you run Directory Server on a 64-bit Sun Solaris 8 UltraSPARC machine, it will
run as a 32-bit application.
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Installing Patches
You must use Solaris 9 with the Sun recommended patches. The Sun
recommended patch clusters can be obtained from your Solaris support
representative or from the http://sunsolve.sun.com site.
Solaris patches are identified by two numbers; for example, 112233-04. The first
number (112233) identifies the patch itself. The second number identifies the
version of the patch; in the example above, the patch is version number 04.
Table 2-3 provides the list of Solaris 9 patches that were used during the testing of
this release of Directory Server. You must install these patches on your machine
before installing the Directory Server product. (The command showrev -p will
list the patches that have been installed on your machine.)
Also, keep in mind that Directory Server provides a utility named dsktune that
can help you verify whether you have the appropriate patches installed on your
system. For details, see “dsktune Utility,” on page 28.
In addition to the patches listed in Table 2-3 and the patches identified by the
dsktune utility, we recommend that you check the operating system vendor’s
web site for information on installing the latest version of the patch clusters to
benefit from the latest fixes.
You will need to reboot your machine after installing the patches.
Table 2-3
38
Solaris 9 Patch List
112998-03:
SunOS 5.9: patch /usr/sbin/syslogd
112875-01:
SunOS 5.9: patch /usr/lib/netsvc/rwall/rpc.rwalld
113146-04:
SunOS 5.9: Apache Security Patch
113068-05:
SunOS 5.9: hpc3130 Patch
112963-14:
SunOS 5.9: linker patch
113273-08:
SunOS 5.9: /usr/lib/ssh/sshd Patch
112233-12:
SunOS 5.9: Kernel Patch
112964-08:
SunOS 5.9: /usr/bin/ksh Patch
112808-06:
CDE1.5: Tooltalk Patch
113279-01:
SunOS 5.9: klmmod Patch
113278-07:
SunOS 5.9: NFS Daemon Patch
113023-01:
SunOS 5.9: Broken preremove scripts in S9 ALC packages
112764-07:
SunOS 5.9: Sun Quad FastEthernet qfe driver
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Table 2-3
Solaris 9 Patch List (Continued)
113033-04:
SunOS 5.9: patch /kernel/drv/isp and /kernel/drv/sparcv9/isp
112601-09:
SunOS 5.9: PGX32 Graphics
113923-02:
X11 6.6.1: security font server Patch
112817-18:
SunOS 5.9: Sun GigaSwift Ethernet 1.0 driver Patch
113718-02:
SunOS 5.9: usr/lib/utmp_update Patch
114135-01:
SunOS 5.9: at utility Patch
112834-04:
SunOS 5.9: patch scsi
112907-03:
SunOS 5.9: libgss Patch
113319-19:
SunOS 5.9: libnsl nispasswd patch
112785-43:
X11 6.6.1: Xsun Patch
112970-07:
SunOS 5.9: patch libresolv
112951-09:
SunOS 5.9: patchadd and patchrm Patch
113277-24:
SunOS 5.9: st, sd, and ssd Patch
113579-06:
SunOS 5.9: ypserv/ypxfrd Patch
112908-14:
SunOS 5.9: krb5 shared object Patch
113073-14:
SunOS 5.9: ufs and fsck Patch
Tuning the System
Basic Solaris tuning guidelines are available from several books, including Sun
Performance and Tuning: Java and the Internet (ISBN 0-13-095249-4). Advanced tuning
information is available in the Solaris Tunable Parameters Reference Manual
(816-7137), which can be obtained from http://docs.sun.com/db/doc/816-7137
Setting File Descriptors
The system-wide maximum file descriptor table size setting will limit the number
of concurrent connections that can be established to Directory Server. The
governing parameter, rlim_fd_max, is set in the /etc/system file. By default, if
this parameter is not present, the maximum is 1024. It can be raised to 4096 by
adding a line such as
set rlim_fd_max=4096
to /etc/system and rebooting the system.
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Operating System Requirements
CAUTION
This parameter should not be raised above 4096 without first
consulting your Sun Solaris support representative since it may
affect the stability of the system.
You should also set the soft limit for file descriptors:
ulimit -n
in csh limit desc 1024
Use the dsktune utility (see “dsktune Utility,” on page 28) to check about the
hard and soft limits for file descriptors.
Tuning TCP Parameters
By default, the TCP/IP implementation in a Solaris kernel is not correctly tuned
for Internet or Intranet services. The following /dev/tcp tuning parameters
should be inspected and, if necessary, changed to fit the network topology of the
installation environment.
The tcp_time_wait_interval in Solaris 9 specifies the number of milliseconds
that a TCP connection will be held in the kernel’s table after it has been closed. If
its value is above 30000 (30 seconds) and the directory is being used in a LAN,
MAN, or under a single network administration, it should be reduced by adding
a line to the /etc/init.d/inetinit file similar to the following:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_time_wait_interval 30000
The tcp_conn_req_max_q0 and tcp_conn_req_max_q parameters control the
maximum backlog of connections that the kernel will accept on behalf of the
Directory Server process. If the directory is expected to be used by a large number
of client hosts simultaneously, these values should be raised to at least 1024 by
adding a line to the /etc/init.d/inetinit file similar to the following:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_conn_req_max_q0 1024
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_conn_req_max_q 1024
The tcp_keepalive_interval specifies the interval in seconds between
keepalive packets sent by Solaris for each open TCP connection. This can be used
to remove connections to clients that have become disconnected from the
network.
The tcp_rexmit_interval_initial value should be inspected when
performing server performance testing on a LAN or high speed MAN or WAN.
For operations on the wide area Internet, its value need not be changed.
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Operating System Requirements
The tcp_smallest_anon_port controls the number of simultaneous connections
that can be made to the server. When rlim_fd_max has been increased to above
4096, this value should be decreased by adding a line to the
/etc/init.d/inetinit file similar to the following :
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_smallest_anon_port 8192
The tcp_slow_start_initial parameter should be inspected if clients will
predominately be using the Windows TCP/IP stack.
DNS and NIS Requirements (UNIX Only)
Prior to installation, it is necessary to have configured the DNS resolver and NIS
domain name.
The DNS resolver is typically set by the file /etc/resolv.conf. However, also
check the file /etc/nsswitch.conf and, on Solaris, /etc/netconfig to ensure
that the DNS resolver will be used for name resolution.
If you are not already using NIS, you will also need to set the default NIS domain
name. Typically, this is done by placing the NIS domain name in the file
/etc/defaultdomain and rebooting or by using the domainname command.
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Chapter
3
Using Express and Typical
Installation
This chapter describes how to perform basic installation activities. This chapter
contains the following sections:
•
Using Express Installation (page 43)
•
Using Typical Installation (page 45)
Using Express Installation
Use express installation if you are installing Directory Server to evaluate or test the
product. Because express installation does not offer you the choice of selecting your
server port number or your directory suffix, you should not use it for production
installations.
To perform an express installation, do the following:
1.
On UNIX machines, log in as root (root login is required for express
installation). On Windows machines, log in with administrator privileges.
2.
Create a new directory:
# mkdir ds
# cd ds
3.
If you have not already done so, download the product binaries file to the
installation directory.
4.
On UNIX, unpack the product binaries file using the following command:
# gunzip -dc filename.tar.gz | tar -xvof -
where filename corresponds to the product binaries you want to unpack.
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On a Windows system, unzip the product binaries.
5.
Run the setup program. You can find it in the directory in which you
untarred or unzipped the binary files. On a UNIX system, issue the following
command:
./setup
Select “yes” to continue with installation, then select “yes” to agree to the
license.
6.
When you are asked what you would like to install, select the default,
Netscape Servers.
7.
When you are asked what type of installation you would like to perform,
select Express Installation.
8.
For server root or destination directory, enter a full path to the location where
you want to install your server.
The location that you enter must be some directory other than the directory
from which you are running the setup program. Also, the name of the
directory where you install files must not contain any space characters. If the
directory that you specify does not exist, the setup program creates it for you.
9.
UNIX only. For the user and group to run the servers as, enter the identity that
you want this server to run as. For more information on the user and groups
that you should use when running Netscape servers, see “Deciding the User
and Group for Your Netscape Servers (UNIX only),” on page 14.
10. For configuration directory administrator ID and password, enter the name
and password that you will log in as when you want to authenticate to the
console with full privileges (think of this as the root or superuser identity for
the Netscape Console).
The server is then unpackaged, minimally configured, and started. You are told
on what host and port number the server is listening.
Note the following about your new Directory Server installation:
•
The Directory Server is listening on port 389.
•
The server is configured to use the following suffixes:
❍
dc=your_machine’s_DNS_domain_name
If your machine is named test.example.com, then you will have the
suffix dc=example,dc=com configured for this server.
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❍
o=NetscapeRoot
Do not modify the contents of the directory under the o=NetscapeRoot
suffix. Either create data under the first suffix or create a new suffix to be
used for this purpose. For details on how to create new suffixes for your
Directory Server, see the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
Using Typical Installation
Most first time installations of Directory Server can be performed using the Typical
Installation option of the setup program. Typical installation differs slightly
depending on whether you are installing on UNIX or Windows. The following
sections outline the different procedures.
Using Typical Installation on UNIX
To perform a typical installation on UNIX:
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Create a new directory:
# mkdir ds
# cd ds
3.
If you have not already done so, download the product binaries file to the
installation directory.
4.
Unpack the product binaries file using the following command:
# gunzip -dc filename.tar.gz | tar -xvof -
where filename corresponds to the product binaries that you want to unpack.
5.
Run the setup program. You can find it in the directory where you untarred
binary files. Issue the following command from the installation directory:
./setup
6.
The setup program asks if you would like to proceed with the setup. Press
Enter to respond with the default (the default for this prompt is Yes) or press n
if you would like to exit the setup program.
If you want to log in as root or superuser (su), you will need to exit the setup
program.
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7.
Next, the setup program asks you if you agree to the license terms. Press y to
agree with the license terms.
8.
When you are asked what you would like to install, press Enter to select the
default, Netscape Servers.
9.
When you are asked what type of installation you would like to perform,
press Enter to select the default, Typical Installation.
10. For server root, enter a full path to the location where you want to install
your server.
The location that you enter must be some directory other than the directory
from which you are running setup. Also, the name of the directory where you
install files must not contain any space characters. If the directory that you
specify does not exist, setup creates it for you.
By default, the setup program provides the following path:
/usr/netscape/servers
If you want to install the software into this directory tree, press Enter;
otherwise, supply your own path.
11. For the Server Products Core Components, Directory Suite, Administration
Services, nsPerl, and PerLDAP, press Enter to select the default (all
components).
12. Press Enter to select all of the Server Products Core Components.
13. Press Enter to select all the Directory Suite components.
14. Press Enter to select all of the Administration Services components (Netscape
Administration Server and the Administration Server Console).
15. Press Enter to install nsPerl.
16. Press Enter to install PerLDAP.
17. For the hostname, either enter a fully qualified hostname or select the default
(which is the local host).
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CAUTION
The default hostname may be incorrect if the installer cannot locate a
DNS name in your system. For example, you might not have a DNS
name if your system uses NIS.
The hostname must be a fully qualified host and domain name. If
the default hostname is not a fully qualified host and domain
name, installation will fail. Refer to “Common Installation
Problems,” on page 101, for more information about entering a fully
qualified domain name.
18. The setup program then asks you for the System User and the System Group
names. Enter the identity under which you want the servers to run.
For more information on the user and group names that you should use when
running Netscape servers, see “Deciding the User and Group for Your
Netscape Servers (UNIX only),” on page 14.
19. For the configuration directory, select the default if this directory will host
your o=NetscapeRoot tree. Otherwise, enter yes. You will then be asked for
the contact information for the configuration directory.
If the server you are currently installing is not the configuration directory, then
the configuration directory must exist before you can continue this installation.
20. The setup program then asks if the server you are currently installing will be
the one for your user data. For most cases, you can select the default. However,
if you intend this server instance to be used as a configuration directory only,
then you should enter yes.
21. For the Directory Server port, select the default (389) unless you already have
another application using that port.
22. For the Directory Server Identifier, enter a unique value (normally the default
is sufficient).
This value is used as part of the name of the directory in which the Directory
Server instance is installed. For example, if your machine’s host name is
phonebook, then this name is the default, and selecting it will cause the
Directory Server instance to be installed into a directory labeled
slapd-phonebook.
CAUTION
The Directory Server identifier must not contain a period. For
example, example.server.com is not a valid server identifier name.
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23. For configuration directory administrator ID and password, enter the name
and password that you will log in as when you want to authenticate to the
console with full privileges.
24. For a directory suffix, enter a distinguished name (DN) meaningful to your
enterprise.
This string is used to form the name of all your organization’s directory
entries. Therefore, pick a name that is representative of your organization. It
is recommended that you pick a suffix that corresponds to your internet DNS
name. Avoid space characters in the suffix.
For example, if your organization uses the DNS name example.com, then
enter dc=example,dc=com here.
25. For Directory Manager DN, enter the DN that you will use when managing
the contents of your directory with unlimited privileges.
NOTE
Any DN must be entered in the UTF-8 character set encoding. Older
encodings such as ISO-8859-1 are not supported.
In former releases of Directory Server, the Directory Manager was known as
the root DN. This is the entry that you use to bind to the directory when you
want access control to be ignored. This DN can be short and does not have to
conform to any suffix configured for your directory. However, it should not
correspond to an actual entry stored in your directory.
26. For the Directory Manager password, enter a value that is at least 8 characters
long.
27. For Administration Domain, enter the domain to which you want this server
to belong.
The name you enter should be a unique string that is descriptive of the
organization responsible for administering the domain. For information on
administration domains, see “Determining the Administration Domain,” on
page 18.
28. For the administration port number, enter a value that is not in use. Be sure to
record this value.
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29. For the user you want to run Administration Server as, enter root. This is the
default.
For information on why you should run Administration Server as root, see
“Deciding the User and Group for Your Netscape Servers (UNIX only),” on
page 14.
The server is then unpackaged, minimally configured, and started. You are told on
what host and port number Administration Server is listening.
The server is configured to use the following suffixes:
•
The suffix that you configured.
•
o=NetscapeRoot
Do not modify the contents of the directory under the o=NetscapeRoot suffix.
Either create data under the first suffix or create a new suffix to be used for this
purpose. For details on how to create new suffixes for your Directory Server, see
the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
Using Typical Installation on Windows
To perform a typical installation on Windows:
1.
Log in as a user with administrator privileges.
2.
If you have not already done so, download the product binaries file to the
installation directory.
3.
Unzip the product binaries files, and run the setup program.
4.
When you are asked what you would like to install, select the default, Netscape
Servers.
5.
When you are asked what type of installation you would like to perform, select
the default, Typical.
6.
For server installation root, enter a full path to the location where you want to
install your server.
The location that you enter must be some directory other than the directory
from which you are running setup. If the directory that you specify does not
exist, the setup program creates it for you.
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7.
For configuration directory, select the default if this directory will host your
o=NetscapeRoot tree. Otherwise, enter the appropriate contact information
for the configuration directory.
If this Directory Server instance is not the configuration directory, then the
configuration directory must exist and be running before you can continue
this installation.
8.
For the directory to store data in, you must decide if this Directory Server
instance will store your enterprise’s data. For most cases, you can select the
default, “Store data in this Directory Server.” However, if this Directory
Server instance is intended to be a configuration directory only, then you
should select “Store data in an existing Directory Server.”
9.
For server identifier, enter a unique value (normally the default is sufficient).
This value is used as part of the name of the directory in which the Directory
Server instance is installed. For example, if your machine’s host name is
phonebook, then this name is the default and selecting it will cause the
Directory Server instance to be installed into a directory labeled
slapd-phonebook.
10. For a directory suffix, enter a distinguished name (DN) that is meaningful to
your enterprise.
This string is used to form the name of all your organization’s directory
entries. Therefore, pick some name that is representative of your
organization. It is recommended that you pick a suffix that corresponds to
your Internet DNS name. For example, if your organization uses the DNS
name example.com, then enter dc=example,dc=com here. Avoid space
characters in the suffix.
11. For the Directory Server port, select the default (389) unless you already have
another application using that port.
12. For Configuration Directory Administrator ID and password, enter the name
and password that you will log in as when you want to authenticate to the
console with full privileges.
13. For Administration Domain, enter the domain to which you want this server
to belong.
The name that you enter should be a unique string that is descriptive of the
organization responsible for administering the domain. For information on
administration domains, see “Determining the Administration Domain,” on
page 18.
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14. For Directory Manager DN, enter the DN that you will use when managing the
contents of your directory with unlimited privileges.
NOTE
Any DN must be entered in the UTF-8 character set encoding. Older
encodings such as ISO-8859-1 are not supported.
In former releases of Directory Server, the Directory Manager was known as
the root DN. This is the entry that you bind to the directory as when you want
access control to be ignored. This DN can be short and does not have to
conform to any suffix configured for your directory. However, it should not
correspond to an actual entry stored in your directory.
15. For Directory Manager password, enter a value that is at least 8 characters
long.
16. For administration port number, enter a value that is not in use. Be sure to
record this value.
The server is then unpackaged, minimally configured, and started. You are told on
which host and port number the Administration Server is listening.
The server is configured to use the following suffixes:
•
The suffix that you configured.
•
o=NetscapeRoot
Do not modify the contents of the directory under the o=NetscapeRoot suffix.
Either create data under the first suffix or create a new suffix to be used for this
purpose. For details on how to create new suffixes for your Directory Server, see
the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
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Chapter
4
Silent Installation and Instance
Creation
Silent installation allows you to use a file to predefine all the answers that you
would normally supply to the setup program interactively; this provides you with
the ability to script the installation of multiple instances of Netscape Directory
Server (Directory Server). Instance creation enables you to use an existing
Directory Server instance to create additional instances of the server under the
same server root.
This chapter explains the following:
•
Using Silent Installation (page 53)
•
Using Silent Instance Creation (page 65)
Using Silent Installation
Silent installation is intended for use at sites where many server instances must be
created. For Directory Server, it is especially useful for heavily replicated sites that
will create a large number of consumer servers.
To use silent installation, you create a silent installation file, supply values for the
appropriate installation directives, and run the setup program with the -s and -f
command-line options.
The procedure below explains how to use silent installation:
1.
On Windows machines, log in with Administrator privileges. On UNIX
machines, log in as root.
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2.
Create a new directory:
# mkdir ds
# cd ds
3.
If you have not already done so, download the product binaries file to the
installation directory.
4.
On Windows machines, unzip the product binaries. On UNIX, unpack the
product binaries file using the following command:
# gunzip -dc filename.tar.gz | tar -xvof-
where filename corresponds to the product binaries file that you want to
unpack.
5.
Prepare the file that will contain your installation directives.
See "Preparing Silent Installation Files‚" on page 54, for instructions and for
some examples of the silent-install files.
6.
Fill in appropriate values for the installation directives.
See "Specifying Silent Installation Directives‚" on page 59, for the complete list
of silent installation directives that you can use when installing Directory
Server.
7.
Run the setup program with the -s and -f command-line options:
setup -s -f filename
where filename is the name of the file that contains your installation directives.
Preparing Silent Installation Files
The best way to create a file for use with silent installation is to use the setup
program to interactively create a server instance of the type that you want to
duplicate. To do this, run setup with the -k flag. The setup program will create
the following file:
serverRoot/setup/install.inf
This file contains all the directives that you would use with silent installation to
create the server instance. You can then use this file to create other server
instances of that type.
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You will have to make some modifications to this file before you use it. Specifically,
ensure that you have done the following:
•
FullMachineName — Set this directive to a value that is appropriate for the
machine on which Directory Server will be installed if it’s not to be the local
machine. In most circumstances, it is best not to use this directive because
FullMachineName will then default to the local host name. However, if you use
custom installation to generate your initial server instance, then this directive
will appear in the install.inf file.
•
ServerIpAddress — Set this directive appropriate for the local machine. The
same usage rules apply for ServerIpAddress as for FullMachineName.
Specifically, try not to include ServerIpAddress in your install.inf file
unless you absolutely have to (as may be necessary for multi-homed systems).
•
ServerRoot — Verify the installation path on this directive. If you are
installing on both Windows and UNIX machines, make sure the appropriate
path delimiter is used. Add or remove the Windows drive letter designation as
is appropriate for the host you are installing on. Also, the name of the
file-system directory where you install files must not contain any space
characters.
•
ServerIdentifier — If you are installing more than one Directory Server on
the same host, make sure that this directive contains a unique value for each
server instance.
•
SuiteSpotUserID and SuiteSpotGroup — If you create your install.inf
file on a Windows machine, then the SuiteSpotUserID and SuiteSpotGroup
directives are both set to nobody. If you subsequently use this file on a UNIX
machine, ensure the user and group specified by these directives are
appropriate for the machine. The SuiteSpotUserID and SuiteSpotGroup
directives determine what user and group a server will run under when
installed on a UNIX system.
NOTE
Be sure to protect your install.inf files because they contain
passwords in clear. Also ensure that any DNs in these files are in the
UTF-8 character set encoding.
The sections that follow provide examples of using silent installation to support the
following installation scenarios:
•
Sample File for Typical Installation
•
Sample File for Using an Existing Configuration Directory
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•
Sample File for Installing the Standalone Netscape Console
You can find a definition of the individual installation directives in "Specifying
Silent Installation Directives‚" on page 59.
NOTE
The silent.inf file provided with the Directory Server is merely a
template, an example of how to write your own. For the file to work,
many of the parameters (host name, ports, paths, and so on) in the
file must be replaced with appropriate values.
It is also easy to generate your own silent installation file using the
setup -k option and modify the resulting install.inf file as
needed.
Sample File for Typical Installation
The following is an example of the install.inf file that is generated for a typical
installation:
[General]
FullMachineName= dir.example.com
SuiteSpotUserID= nobody
SuiteSpotGroup= nobody
ServerRoot= /usr/netscape/servers
AdminDomain= example.com
ConfigDirectoryAdminID= admin
ConfigDirectoryAdminPwd= admin
ConfigDirectoryLdapURL= ldap://dir.example.com:389/o=NetscapeRoot
UserDirectoryAdminID= admin
UserDirectoryAdminPwd= admin
UserDirectoryLdapURL=
ldap://dir.example.com:389/dc=example,dc=com
Components= svrcore,base,slapd,admin,nsperl,perldap
[slapd]
SlapdConfigForMC= Yes
SecurityOn= No
UseExistingMC= No
UseExistingUG= No
ServerPort= 389
ServerIdentifier= dir
Suffix= dc=example,dc=com
RootDN= cn=Directory Manager
UseReplication= No
AddSampleEntries= No
InstallLdifFile= suggest
AddOrgEntries= Yes
DisableSchemaChecking= No
RootDNPwd= admin123
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Components= slapd,slapd-client
[admin]
SysUser= root
Port= 23611
ServerIpAddress= 111.11.11.11
ServerAdminID= admin
ServerAdminPwd= admin
Components= admin,admin-client
[base]
Components= base,base-client,base-jre
[nsperl]
Components= nsperl561
[perldap]
Components= perldap14
Sample File for Using an Existing Configuration Directory
The following is an example of the install.inf file that is generated when you
perform a typical installation and you choose to use an existing Directory Server as
the configuration directory:
[General]
FullMachineName= dir.example.com
SuiteSpotUserID= nobody
SuiteSpotGroup= nobody
ServerRoot= /usr/netscape/servers
AdminDomain= example.com
ConfigDirectoryAdminID= admin
ConfigDirectoryAdminPwd= admin
ConfigDirectoryLdapURL=
ldap://dir.example.com:25389/o=NetscapeRoot
UserDirectoryLdapURL=
ldap://dir.example.com:18257/dc=example,dc=com
UserDirectoryAdminID= cn=Directory Manager
UserDirectoryAdminPwd= admin123
Components= svrcore,base,slapd,admin,nsperl,perldap
[slapd]
SlapdConfigForMC= No
SecurityOn= No
UseExistingMC= Yes
UseExistingUG= No
ServerPort= 18257
ServerIdentifier= directory
Suffix= dc=example,dc=com
RootDN= cn=Directory Manager
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UseReplication= No
AddSampleEntries= No
InstallLdifFile= suggest
AddOrgEntries= Yes
DisableSchemaChecking= No
RootDNPwd= admin123
Components= slapd,slapd-client
[admin]
SysUser= root
Port= 33646
ServerIpAddress= 111.11.11.11
ServerAdminID= admin
ServerAdminPwd= admin
Components= admin,admin-client
[base]
Components= base,base-client,base-jre
[nsperl]
Components= nsperl561
[perldap]
Components= perldap14
Sample File for Installing the Standalone Netscape Console
The following is an example of the install.inf file that is generated when you
install just Netscape Console:
[General]
FullMachineName= dir.example.com
ConfigDirectoryLdapURL= ldap://dir.example.com:389/o=NetscapeRoot
SuiteSpotUserID= nobody
SuiteSpotGroup= nobody
ConfigDirectoryAdminID= admin
ConfigDirectoryAdminPwd= admin
ServerRoot= /usr/netscape/servers
Components= svrcore,base,slapd,admin
[base]
Components= base-client
[slapd]
Components= slapd-client
[admin]
Components= admin-client,base-jre
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Specifying Silent Installation Directives
This section describes the basic format of the file used for silent installation. It then
describes the directives that are available for each area of the silent installation file.
•
Silent Installation File Format
•
[General] Installation Directives
•
[slapd] Installation Directives
•
[admin] Installation Directives
•
[Base] Installation Directives
•
[nsperl] Installation Directives
•
[perldap] Installation Directives
Silent Installation File Format
When you use silent installation, you provide all the installation information in a
file. This file is formatted as follows:
[General]
directive=value
directive=value
directive=value
...
[slapd]
directive=value
directive=value
directive=value
...
[admin]
directive=value
directive=value
directive=value
...
[Base]
directive=value
directive=value
directive=value
...
The keywords [General], [slapd], and [admin] are required. They indicate that
the directives that follow are meant for a specific aspect of the installation. They
must be provided in the file in the order indicated above.
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[General] Installation Directives
[General] installation directives specify information of global interest to the
Netscape servers installed at your site. That is, the information you provide here
will be common to all your Netscape servers.
The [General] installation directives are listed in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1
[General] Installation Directives
Directive
Description
Components
Specifies components to be installed. The list of
available components will differ depending on the
Netscape servers available on your installation media.
For standalone directory installation, the list of
components is:
• svrcore — Uninstallation binaries
• base — The base installation package
• admin — The Administration Server binaries
• slapd — The Directory Server binaries
This directive is required. At a minimum, you should
always provide:
components= svrcore,base,admin
60
ServerRoot
Specifies the full path to the directory where the
Netscape server binaries are installed. This directive is
required.
FullMachineName
Specifies the fully qualified domain name of the
machine on which you are installing the server. The
default is the local host name.
SuiteSpotUserID
UNIX only. Specifies the user name as which Netscape
servers will run. This parameter does not apply to the
user as which the Administration Server runs. See the
SysUser directive in Table 4-3 for more information.
The default is user nobody, but this should be
changed for most deployments.
SuiteSpotGroup
UNIX only. Specifies the group as which Netscape
servers will run. The default is group nobody, but this
should be changed for most deployments.
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Table 4-1
[General] Installation Directives (Continued)
Directive
Description
ConfigDirectoryLdapURL
Specifies the LDAP URL that is used to connect to your
configuration directory. LDAP URLs are described in
the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide. This
directive is required.
AdminDomain
Specifies the administration domain under which this
server will be registered. See "Determining the
Administration Domain‚" on page 18 for more
information about administration domains.
ConfigDirectoryAdminID
Specifies the user ID of the entry that has
administration privileges to the configuration
directory. This directive is required.
ConfigDirectoryAdminPwd
Specifies the password for the
ConfigDirectoryAdminID. This directive is
required.
UserDirectoryLdapURL
Specifies the LDAP URL that is used to connect to the
directory where your user and group data are stored. If
this directive is not supplied, the configuration
directory is used for this purpose. LDAP URLs are
described in the Netscape Directory Server
Administrator’s Guide.
UserDirectoryAdminID
Specifies the user ID of the entry that has
administration privileges to the user directory.
UserDirectoryAdminPwd
Specifies the password for the
UserDirectoryAdminID.
[slapd] Installation Directives
[slapd] installation directives specify information of interest only to the Directory
Server instance that you are currently installing. These directives are classified as
follows:
•
Required [slapd] Installation Directives — You must provide these directives
when you use silent installation with Directory Server.
•
Optional [slapd] Installation Directives — You may provide these directives
when you use silent installation with Directory Server.
Table 4-2 lists the directives.
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Table 4-2
Required and Optional [slapd] Installation Directives
Required Directive
Description
Components
Specifies the slapd components to be installed. The
components are:
• slapd — Install Directory Server.
• slapd-client — Install Directory Server Console.
This directive is required. It is recommended that you
always install both components any time you install
the Directory Server.
ServerPort
Specifies the port the server will use for LDAP
connections. For information on selecting server port
numbers, see "Choosing Unique Port Numbers‚" on
page 13. This directive is required.
ServerIdentifier
Specifies the server identifier. This directive is required.
This value is used as part of the name of the directory in
which the Directory Server instance is installed. For
example, if your machine’s host name is phonebook,
then this name is the default and selecting it will cause
the Directory Server instance to be installed into a
directory labeled slapd-phonebook.
62
Suffix
Specifies the suffix under which you will store your
directory data. For information on suffixes, see
"Determining Your Directory Suffix‚" on page 16. This
directive is required.
RootDN
Specifies the distinguished name used by the directory
manager. For information on the directory manager,
see "Defining Authentication Entities‚" on page 15. This
directive is required.
RootDNPwd
Specifies the directory manager’s password. This
directive is required.
Optional Directive
Description
AddSampleEntries
If set to yes, this directive causes the example.ldif
sample directory to be loaded. Use this directive if you
are installing the Directory Server for evaluation
purposes and you do not already have an LDIF file to
populate your directory with. Default is no.
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Table 4-2
Required and Optional [slapd] Installation Directives (Continued)
Required Directive
Description
AddOrgEntries
If set to yes, this directive causes the new Directory
Server instance to be created with a suggested directory
structure and access control. If this directive is used and
InstallLdifFile is also used, then this directive has
no effect. Default is no.
InstallLdifFile
Causes the contents of the LDIF file to be used to
populate your directory.
[admin] Installation Directives
[admin] installation directives specify information of interest only to your Directory
Server’s Administration Server. That is, this is the installation information required
for the Administration Server that is used to manage the Directory Server instance
that you are currently installing.
The [admin] installation directives are listed in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3
[admin] Installation Directives
Directive
Description
Components
Specifies the admin components to be installed. The base
components are:
• admin — Install Administration Server. You must
install the Administration Server if you are also
installing some other Netscape server.
• admin-client — Install Netscape Console. Specify
just this component if you are installing Netscape
Console as stand-alone. Do not install this
component if you will remotely manage your servers
and Netscape Console will be installed somewhere
else on your network.
SysUser
UNIX only. Specifies the user that the Administration
Server will run as. For default installations that use the
default Netscape port numbers, this user must be root.
root is the default. For information on what users your
servers should run as, see "Deciding the User and Group
for Your Netscape Servers (UNIX only)‚" on page 14
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Table 4-3
[admin] Installation Directives (Continued)
Directive
Description
Port
Specifies the port that the Administration Server will
use. Note that the Administration Server’s host name is
given by the FullMachineName directive. For more
information on FullMachineName, see Table 4-1.
ServerAdminID
Specifies the administration ID that can be used to access
this Administration Server if the configuration directory
is not responding. The default is to use the value
specified by the ConfigDirectoryAdminID directive.
See "Defining Authentication Entities‚" on page 15 for
information on this directive.
ServerAdminPwd
Specifies the password for ServerAdminID.
ServerIpAddress
Specifies the IP address that the Administration Server
will listen to. Use this directive if you are installing on a
multi-homed system and you do not want to use the first
IP address for your Administration Server.
[Base] Installation Directives
There is only one [Base] installation directive, and it allows you to determine
whether Netscape Console is installed. Table 4-4 lists the directive.
Table 4-4
[Base] Installation Directive
Directive
Description
Components
Specifies the base components to be installed. The base
components are:
• base — Install the shared libraries used by all
Server Consoles. You must install this package if you
are also installing some other Netscape server.
• base-client — Install the Java run time
environment used by the Server Consoles.
• base-jre — Causes the Java run time environment
to be installed.
This directive is required if you are installing a Netscape
server (versus just Netscape Console). You must install
both packages when you are installing a Netscape server.
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[nsperl] Installation Directives
There is only one [nsperl] installation directive and it allows you to determine
whether nsPerl is to be installed. Table 4-5 lists the directive.
Table 4-5
[nsperl] Installation Directive
Directive
Description
Components
Specifies whether nsperl that is bundled with Directory
Server is to be installed. This nsPerl is CPAN perl, built
and maintained for use by Netscape server products.
• nsperl561 — Install nsPerl version 5.6.1.
This directive is required if you are installing a Netscape
server (versus just Netscape Console).
[perldap] Installation Directives
There is only one [perldap] installation directive, and it allows you to determine
whether PerLDAP is to be installed. Table 4-6 lists the directive.
Table 4-6
[perldap] Installation Directive
Directive
Description
Components
Specifies whether perldap that is bundled with
Directory Server is to be installed. This is mozilla.org
PerLDAP, built and maintained at Netscape and used by
Netscape server products.
• perldap14 — Install perLDAP version 1.4.1.
This directive is required if you are installing a Netscape
server (versus, for example, just Netscape Console).
Using Silent Instance Creation
If you have Directory Server installed in a server root, you can create additional
instances of Directory Server under the same server root without having to run the
setup program. You can create additional instances of the server either by using
Netscape Console or from the command-line.
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Because all instances of Directory Server under a server root use the same
Administration Server, the instance creation process does not install
Administration Server binaries; you cannot create two instances of
Administration Server in one server root.
Having multiple instances in a single server root is useful for testing and for when
one host is used for multiple purposes. Keep in mind that each Directory Server
instance must be assigned a different port number and server identifier.
The ds_create program, which is located in the serverRoot/bin/slapd/admin/bin
directory, enables you to create additional instances of Directory Server under a
server root. You may want to use this program when you already have Directory
Server installed and just want to create additional instances of the server from the
command-line.
To create a new instance of Directory Server, run this command from the
serverRoot/bin/slapd/admin/bin directory:
ds_create -f filename
where filename is the silent instance creation file, which must be similar to the file
used with the setup program (see "Preparing Silent Installation Files‚" on
page 54) except that the file must only contain the following two sections:
•
[Genaral]
•
[slapd]
These sections do not take Components directive.
Here’s a sample file for instance creation:
[General]
FullMachineName= testDir.example.com
ServerRoot= /usr/netscape/servers
AdminDomain= example.com
ConfigDirectoryAdminID= admin
ConfigDirectoryAdminPwd= secretPwd01
ConfigDirectoryLdapURL=
ldap://testDir.example.com:389/o=NetscapeRoot
UserDirectoryAdminID= admin
UserDirectoryAdminPwd= secretPwd02
UserDirectoryLdapURL=
ldap://testDir.example.com:389/dc=europe,dc=example,dc=com
[slapd]
ServerPort= 389
ServerIdentifier= instance02
RootDN= cn=Directory Manager
RootDNPwd= DirMgrPwd
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Suffix= dc=europe,dc=example,dc=com
SlapdConfigForMC= No
UseExistingMC= Yes
UseExistingUG= No
SecurityOn= No
UseReplication= No
SetupSupplier= No
SetupConsumer= No
AddSampleEntries= No
InstallLdifFile= suggest
AddOrgEntries= Yes
DisableSchemaChecking= No
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Chapter
5
Post Installation
This chapter describes the post-installation procedures for launching the online
help and populating the directory tree.
This chapter has the following sections:
•
Launching the Help System (page 69)
•
Populating the Directory Tree (page 70)
Launching the Help System
The help system for Directory Server is dependent upon Netscape Administration
Server. If you are running Directory Server Console on a machine remote to
Administration Server, you will need to confirm authorizations on Administration
Server.
Client IP address authorized on Administration Server. The machine running
Directory Server Console needs access to Administration Server. Configure
Administration Server to accept the client machine’s IP address in Administration
Server:
1.
Launch Administration Server Console. The console should be running on the
same machine as Administration Server.
2.
Click the Configuration tab, then click the Network tab.
3.
In the Connection Restrictions Settings, select “IP Addresses to Allow” from
the pull down menu. Click Edit.
4.
Edit the IP Addresses field to the following: *.*.*.*
This allows all clients access to Administration Server.
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5.
Restart Administration Server. You can now launch the online help by
clicking any of the Help buttons in the Directory Server Console.
Proxy authorized on Administration Server. If you use proxies for your HTTP
connections on the client machine running Directory Server Console, you need to
do one of the following:
1.
Remove proxies on the machine running Directory Server Console. This
allows the client machine to access Administration Server directly.
To remove the proxies on the machine running Directory Server Console, you
need to alter the proxy configuration of the browser you will use to run the
help. In Netscape Communicator, select Preferences from the Edit menu.
Select Advanced, then Proxies, to access the proxy configuration. In Internet
Explorer, select Internet Options from the Tools menu.
2.
Add the client machine proxy IP address to Administration Server list of
acceptable IP addresses.
CAUTION
Adding the client machine proxy IP address to Administration
Server creates a potential security hole in your system.
Populating the Directory Tree
During installation, a simple directory database was created for you. In addition,
a simple directory structure was placed in the database for you to use. This
directory structure contained basic access control and the major branch points for
the recommended directory structure.
Now you need to populate your database with user entries. There are several
ways you can create and populate your directory suffixes. These are explained in
detail in the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
The main methods are:
•
70
Create a database from LDIF — Use this method if you want to use the
sample directory data shipped with Directory Server, if you are importing
entries from another directory via LDIF, or if you have more than a few
entries to add at once. For more information about LDIF, refer to the Netscape
Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
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•
Start your Directory Server with an empty database and import data over
LDAP — This method requires you to populate your directory using an LDAP
client such as Directory Server Gateway or the ldapmodify command-line
utility. Use this method if you have just a few entries to add at a time. For
information on setting up the Directory Server Gateway, check the Netscape
Directory Server Gateway Customization Guide. This document is provided with
Netscape Directory Server Resource Kit.
As you are populating your directory, consider your access control needs and set
access control accordingly. For more information on access control, see the Netscape
Directory Server Deployment Guide and the Netscape Directory Server Administrator’s
Guide.
Chapter
5
Post Installation
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Chapter
6
Migrating from Previous Versions
If you have a previous installation of Directory Server, depending on its version,
you can migrate or upgrade to Netscape Directory Server 7.x. Migration refers to
the process of moving Directory Server 6.x files to Directory Server 7.x. Upgrade
refers to the process of updating Directory Server files; upgrade to Directory Server
7.0 is not supported.
This chapter covers the migration process in these sections:
•
Migration Overview (page 73)
•
Migration Prerequisites (page 74)
•
Migration Procedure (page 75)
Migration Overview
You can migrate Directory Server 6.11, 6.2, or 6.21; versions 6.1 and before cannot
be migrated or upgraded to Directory Server 7.0. For these releases, it is
recommended that you export the databases to LDIF, install a fresh Directory
Server, and import the LDIF data.
Before you migrate your directory service, you should become familiar with the
new features offered in 7.0 release of the Directory Server.
The migration process is performed by running the migrateInstance7 script on
the system where your Directory Server is installed. You must shut down your
directory service before running the migration script; if you do not, the script will
shut down the server.
The migration script performs the following tasks in sequence:
•
Checks the schema configuration files and notifies you of any changes between
the standard configuration files and the ones present on your system.
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•
Creates a database for each suffix stored in the legacy Directory Server. (In
current releases of Directory Server, you can have multiple databases but just
one suffix per database.)
•
Checks if any database exists and, if it does, gives you the option to save the
database (by exporting it to a file), skip the database, or overwrite the
database.
•
Migrates the server parameters and database parameters. (These are stored as
LDAP entries in the dse.ldif file.)
•
Migrates user-defined schema objects.
•
Migrates indexes.
•
Migrates standard server plug-ins.
•
Migrates the certificate database and SSL parameters.
•
Migrates database links.
•
Migrates replication entries (change log).
•
Migrates the SNMP configuration.
The migration script shuts down your legacy Directory Server before performing
the migration process. The migration script also backs up your current
configuration.
Migration Prerequisites
This section lists the prerequisites that your system must meet before you can
consider beginning the migration process.
74
•
You must be using Directory Server 6.x. When you run the migration script,
the legacy server process ns-slapd should be stopped. (If you don’t stop the
server, the migration script stops it.)
•
Your legacy Directory Server and your new Directory Server must be
installed on the same host; migration cannot occur over networked drives.
•
Do not install the new Directory Server on top of an existing Directory Server
installation. Install your new Directory Server in a separate directory. Migrate
your legacy directory data into your new directory and, when you are
satisfied with the result of the migration, remove your legacy Directory
Server.
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Migration Procedure
•
If you want to continue to run your legacy Directory Server, when you install
the new Directory Server, choose different ports for LDAP traffic and for
secured connections than the ones used by your legacy Directory Server.
If you will not be running your legacy Directory Server, use the same port
numbers to ensure that any directory clients that have static configuration
information (including Directory Server port numbers) will continue to work.
•
Your new Directory Server must be running when you execute the migration
script.
•
Any custom schema that you created in a 6.x Directory Server must be stored
in an LDIF file in the serverRoot/slapd-serverID/config/schema directory.
•
Before performing the migration, check that the user-defined variables contain
the following associated values, where server7Root is the path to where your
new Directory Server 7.x is installed:
On UNIX, set the following environment variables:
PERL5LIB=server7Root/bin/slapd/admin/bin
PATH=server7Root/bin/slapd/admin/bin:$PATH
On Windows, set the following environment variables:
PERL5LIB=server7Root\bin\slapd\admin\bin
PATH=server7Root\bin\slapd\admin\bin
•
Windows only. If you are migrating a multi-master replicated (MMR)
environment to Directory Server 7.x, before you run the migration script,
export all exports from the old server’s backend databases using the db2ldif
-r option. See "Migrating Windows‚" on page 87.
•
When you run the migration script, it migrates the configuration files or
configuration entries, database instances, and schema with minimum manual
intervention. For complete information on the configuration parameters and
attributes that are migrated, check chapter 6, “Migration from Earlier
Versions,” in the Netscape Directory Server Configuration, Command, and File
Reference.
•
Check the command syntax for the migration script in chapter 8,
“Command-Line Scripts,” of the Netscape Directory Server Configuration,
Command, and File Reference.
Migration Procedure
Before you start with migration process, ensure the following:
Chapter 6
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•
Read sections "Migration Overview‚" on page 73, and "Migration
Prerequisites‚" on page 74.
•
The migration script will automatically back up your Directory Server
configuration if it’s in the default location.
❍
❍
If you are migrating from Directory Server 6.x, all of the configuration
files in the /usr/netscape/servers/slapd-serverID/config directory
will be backed up to a directory named
serverRoot/slapd-serverID/config_backup.
If your configuration files are stored in non-default locations, before you
migrate your server, copy them to a secure place.
This section contains the following information:
•
Migrating a Standalone Server
•
Migrating a 6.x Replicated Site
•
Migrating a 6.x Multi-Master Deployment
•
Managing Console Failover
•
Migrating Windows
Migrating a Standalone Server
Once you have backed up your critical configuration information, do the
following to migrate a server:
1.
Stop your legacy Directory Server.
If you do not stop the legacy Directory Server, the migration script does it for
you.
2.
On the machine where your legacy Directory Server is installed, install a new
7.x Directory Server.
The installation process is described in chapter 3, “Using Express and Typical
Installation,” or chapter 4, “Silent Installation and Instance Creation.”
Use the same port numbers as your legacy production server if you want to
ensure that any directory clients that have static configuration information
(including Directory Server port numbers) will continue to work.
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3.
Run the migration script.
As root user (on UNIX) or administrator (on Windows), change directory to
serverRoot/bin/slapd/admin/bin. Then enter the following command:
On UNIX:
migrateInstance7 -D rootDN -w password -p port -o oldInstancePath -n
newInstancePath
On Windows (see also "Migrating Windows‚" on page 87):
perl migrateInstance7 -D rootDN -w password -p port -o
oldInstancePath -n newInstancePath -d "oldDataDirectoryPath"
where:
❍
rootDN is the Directory Server 7.x user DN with root permissions, such as
Directory Manager.
❍
password is the password for Directory Manager in Directory Server 7.x.
❍
port is the LDAP port number assigned to Directory Server 7.x.
❍
❍
❍
oldInstancePath is the path to the installation directory of the legacy Directory
Server (for example, /usr/netscape/server6/slapd-serverID).
newInstancePath is the path to the installation directory of Directory Server
7.x (for example, /usr/netscape/servers/slapd-serverID).
oldDataDirectoryPath is the path to the stored directory data from the legacy
installation (for example, c:\netscape\archives\ldif).
The following is an example of a command you would use on a UNIX machine
to migrate an instance of Directory Server 6.11 to Directory Server 7.0:
migrateInstance7 -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret -p 389
-o /usr/netscape/server611/slapd-phonebook
-n /usr/netscape/servers/slapd-phonebook
The following is an example of the same command on a Windows machine:
perl migrateInstance7 -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret -p
389
-o c:\netscape\server611\slapd-phonebook
-n c:\netscape\servers\slapd-phonebook
-d "c:\netscape\archives\ldif"
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4.
Follow the prompts. For example, if you’re prompted to provide a path and
filename for your backup directory, enter one or accept the default.
The migration process starts. At the end of migration, your legacy Directory
Server is migrated. Additionally, as a result of this migration, a new Directory
Server 7.x instance is installed using the configuration information obtained
from your legacy Directory Server; the data from your old server is migrated
to the new server; and the new server is started.
A sample output showing migration of Directory Server 6.11 to Directory
Server 7.0 is provided below. Notice that the script detects three backends,
backend1, backend2, and userRoot, which exist in the legacy server as well
as in the new server instances. To demonstrate the various options, for each
backend a different option was chosen: for backend1, the choice was to
continue with the migration and export processes; for backend2, the choice
was to continue with the migration process only (without exporting); and, for
userRoot, the choice was to skip the migration process.
migrate6to7 -D "cn=directory manager" -w secret12 -p 11440 -o
/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart -n
/export/home/jdoe/70-latest/slapd-bart -t 3 -L log.out
oldDir: /export/home/jdoe/611-latest,
oldHome:/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart,
oldConfDir: /export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config/,
ldif_rep: /export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/,
rootDN: cn=directory manager,
Port: 11440,
Newname: bart
Shutdown the legacy Directory Server instance:
/usr/netscape/servers/ds611/slapd-bart
Shutting down server slapd-bart . . .
. . .
Name of the old LDAP server: bart.netscape.com
Name of the new LDAP server: bart.netscape.com
6.11 localuser: jdoe, uid: 9871, gid: 10
7.0 localuser: jdoe, uid: 9871, gid: 10
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Backup /export/home/jdoe/70-latest/slapd-bart/config on
/export/home/jdoe/70-latest/slapd-bart/config_backup ...
Where do you want to back up your configuration directory
[/export/home/jdoe/70-latest/slapd-bart/config_backup] ?
Migrate the schema...
Connected to 7.0 LDAP server
------------------------------------------------------------------------Parse the old DSE ldif file:
/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config/dse.ldif
*****
This may take a while ...
Migrate DSE entries...
SECURITY - Update successfull: cn=encryption,cn=config
SNMP - Update successfull: cn=snmp,cn=config
Compared to the old instance, the current new plugin cn=referential
integrity postoperation,cn=plugins,cn=config belongs this attribute:
nsslapd-pluginarg7
Param: nstransmittedcontrols values To migrate: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.9 1.2.840.113556.1.4.473 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.29539.12
Param: nstransmittedcontrols new current values: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.9 1.2.840.113556.1.4.473 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.29539.12
Param: nsslapd-timelimit values To migrate: 3600
Param: nsslapd-timelimit new current values: 3600
Param: nsconcurrentbindlimit values To migrate: 10
Param: nsconcurrentbindlimit new current values: 10
Param: nsbindconnectionslimit values To migrate: 3
Param: nsbindconnectionslimit new current values: 3
Param: nsconnectionlife values To migrate: 0
Param: nsconnectionlife new current values: 0
Param: nsbindretrylimit values To migrate: 3
Param: nsbindretrylimit new current values: 3
Param: nsoperationconnectionslimit values To migrate: 10
Param: nsoperationconnectionslimit new current values: 10
Param: nsreferralonscopedsearch values To migrate: off
Param: nsreferralonscopedsearch new current values: off
Param: nsmaxtestresponsedelay values To migrate: 15
Param: nsmaxtestresponsedelay new current values: 15
Param: nsmaxresponsedelay values To migrate: 60
Param: nsmaxresponsedelay new current values: 60
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Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
Param:
nsbindtimeout values To migrate: 15
nsbindtimeout new current values: 15
nsabandonedsearchcheckinterval values To migrate: 2
nsabandonedsearchcheckinterval new current values: 2
nsconcurrentoperationslimit values To migrate: 10
nsconcurrentoperationslimit new current values: 10
nschecklocalaci values To migrate: off
nschecklocalaci new current values: off
nshoplimit values To migrate: 10
nshoplimit new current values: 10
nsslapd-sizelimit values To migrate: 2000
nsslapd-sizelimit new current values: 2000
nsproxiedauthorization values To migrate: on
nsproxiedauthorization new current values: on
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate LDBM backend instances...
*** LDBM_BACKEND_INSTANCE - cn=backend1,cn=ldbm database,cn=plugins,cn=config
already exists
*** Migration will overwrite existing database
Do you want to continue Yes/No [No] ? y
Do you want to export the existing data Yes/No [Yes] ?
Enter the full pathname of the file
[/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/db_backup/backend1.ldif]:
Existing data will be exported under
/export/home/jdoe/70-latest/slapd-bart/db_backup/backend1.ldif
Continue Yes/No [No] ? y
Now backing up database backend1 in
/export/home/jdoe/70-latest/slapd-bart/db_backup/backend1.ldif
Shutting down server slapd-bart . . .
ldiffile: /export/home/jdoe/70-latest/slapd-bart/db_backup/backend1.ldif
[12/Jun/2002:10:32:05 -0700] - export backend1: Processed 3 entries (100%).
[12/Jun/2002:10:32:05 -0700] - Waiting for 4 database threads to stop
[12/Jun/2002:10:32:07 -0700] - All database threads now stopped
try to reconnect to search cn=backend2,cn=ldbm database,cn=plugins,cn=config
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*** LDBM_BACKEND_INSTANCE - cn=backend2,cn=ldbm database,cn=plugins,cn=config
already exists
*** Migration will overwrite existing database
Do you want to continue Yes/No [No] ? y
Do you want to export the existing data Yes/No [Yes] ? n
We should add the backend instance cn=backend3,cn=ldbm
database,cn=plugins,cn=config
LDBM_BACKEND_INSTANCE - Add successfull: cn=backend3,cn=ldbm
database,cn=plugins,cn=config
*** INFORMATION - NetscapeRoot is NOT migrated
*** LDBM_BACKEND_INSTANCE - cn=userroot,cn=ldbm database,cn=plugins,cn=config
already exists
*** Migration will overwrite existing database
Do you want to continue Yes/No [No] ?
*** Migration will not update it
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate mapping tree...
*** MAPPING_TREE exists
*** Migration will
*** MAPPING_TREE exists
*** Migration will
cn="dc=backend1,dc=com",cn=mapping tree,cn=config already
not add the suffix
cn="dc=backend2,dc=com",cn=mapping tree,cn=config already
not add the suffix
MAPPING_TREE - Add successfull: cn="dc=backend3,dc=com",cn=mapping tree,cn=config
*** MAPPING_TREE - cn="dc=netscape,dc=com",cn=mapping tree,cn=config already
exists
*** Migration will not add the suffix
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate default indexes...
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate indexes...
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Migrate replicas...
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate replication agreements...
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate key/cert databases...
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate Certmap.conf...
Where do you want to back up the file
/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/shared/config/certmap.conf
[/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/shared/config/certmap.conf_backup] ?
***** Close the LDAP connection to the new Directory Server instance *****
Shutting down server slapd-bart . . .
. . .
------------------------------------------------------------------------Data processing...
ldiffile: /export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend1.ldif
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:25 -0700] - export backend1: Processed 3 entries (100%).
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:25 -0700] - Waiting for 2 database threads to stop
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:26 -0700] - All database threads now stopped
ldiffile: /export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend2.ldif
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:29 -0700] - export backend2: Processed 3 entries (100%).
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:29 -0700] - Waiting for 1 database threads to stop
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:30 -0700] - All database threads now stopped
ldiffile: /export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend3.ldif
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:32 -0700] - export backend3: Processed 2 entries (100%)
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:32 -0700] - Waiting for 1 database threads to stop
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:33 -0700] - All database threads now stopped
Done.
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:37 -0700] - import backend1: Index buffering enabled with
bucket size 15
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:37 -0700] - import backend1: Beginning import job...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:37 -0700] - import backend1: Processing file
"/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend1.ldif"
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:37 -0700] - import backend1: Finished scanning file
"/export/home/jdoe/60-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend1.ldif" (3 entries)
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[12/Jun/2002:10:33:40 -0700] - import backend1: Cleaning up producer thread...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:40 -0700] - import backend1: Indexing complete.
Post-processing...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:40 -0700] - import backend1: Flushing caches...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:40 -0700] - import backend1: Closing files...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:40 -0700] - import backend1: Import complete. Processed 3
entries in 3 seconds. (1.00 entries/sec)
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:44 -0700] - import backend2: Index buffering enabled with
bucket size 15
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:44 -0700] - import backend2: Beginning import job...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:44 -0700] - import backend2: Processing file
"/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend2.ldif"
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:44 -0700] - import backend2: Finished scanning file
"/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend2.ldif" (3 entries)
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:44 -0700] - import backend2: Workers finished; cleaning up...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:47 -0700] - import backend2: Workers cleaned up.
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:47 -0700] - import backend2: Cleaning up producer thread...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:47 -0700] - import backend2: Indexing complete.
Post-processing...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:47 -0700] - import backend2: Flushing caches...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:47 -0700] - import backend2: Closing files...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:47 -0700] - import backend2: Import complete. Processed 3
entries in 3 seconds. (1.00 entries/sec)
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:50 -0700] - import backend3: Index buffering enabled with
bucket size 15
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:50 -0700] - import backend3: Beginning import job...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:51 -0700] - import backend3: Processing file
"/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend3.ldif"
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:51 -0700] - import backend3: Finished scanning file
"/export/home/jdoe/611-latest/slapd-bart/config//ldif/backend3.ldif" (2 entries)
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:51 -0700] - import backend3: Workers finished; cleaning up...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:54 -0700] - import backend3: Workers cleaned up.
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:54 -0700] - import backend3: Cleaning up producer thread...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:54 -0700] - import backend3: Indexing complete.
Post-processing...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:54 -0700] - import backend3: Flushing caches...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:54 -0700] - import backend3: Closing files...
[12/Jun/2002:10:33:54 -0700] - import backend3: Import complete. Processed 2
entries in 4 seconds. (0.50 entries/sec)
------------------------------------------------------------------------Migrate Changelog...
------------------------------------------------------------------------***** Migrate ReplicaBindDN entries...
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
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***** Migrate MultiplexorBindDN entries...
******
End of migration
******
Migrating a 6.x Replicated Site
If you are upgrading from Directory Server 6.x to Directory Server 7.x, your
replication configuration is automatically migrated when you run the
migrateInstance7 script.
To migrate a 6.x replicated site:
1.
Stop your Directory Server 6.x.
2.
Install Directory Server 7.x.
3.
Run the migration script as shown in section "Migrating a Standalone Server‚"
on page 76.
4.
Once your 6.x server is migrated, test replication to make sure it is working
correctly.
5.
After you finish this process for the supplier, repeat the steps for the
consumers.
Migrating a 6.x Multi-Master Deployment
This section explains how to migrate a live multi-master replication (MMR)
architecture built using Directory Server 6.x to Directory Server 7.x in a
production environment. The procedure outlined here ensures that your
environment will stay live and no re-initialization will be needed.
NOTE
If you want to preserve your replication agreements, you must use
the same port numbers in your new installations that you used in
your legacy servers.
The instructions are written with these assumptions:
84
•
Your deployment consists of separate configuration and standard access
instances of Directory Server.
•
You are migrating to Directory Server 7.x.
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The migration process can be summarized into these steps:
1.
Stop directory writes on both suppliers.
It is imperative that there are no entries being written or changed on the
suppliers during the migration. After both the suppliers are migrated, writes
can resume.
2.
After stopping provisioning, make sure all changes have been replicated from
the server to migrate to all of its consumers.
Any changes left over in the changelog will be lost after migration, so make
sure all changes in the changelog have been replicated to all consumers.
3.
Migrate the first supplier; see section "Supplier Migration‚" on page 85.
4.
Verify that writes and changes are being replicated through the servers.
5.
Migrate the second supplier; see section "Supplier Migration‚" on page 85.
6.
Verify that writes and changes are being replicated through the servers.
7.
Migrate the hubs (if any); see section "Hub Migration‚" on page 86.
8.
Verify that writes and changes are being replicated through the servers.
9.
Migrate the consumers; see section "Consumer Migration‚" on page 86.
10. Verify that writes and changes are being replicated through the servers.
Supplier Migration
Follow these steps for the first supplier, and then repeat the steps for the others:
1.
Stop the 6.x Directory Server.
2.
Install Directory Server 7.x.
Make this your configuration instance since it is not replicated. For the other
suppliers, register against the first supplier’s configuration instance.
3.
Log into the Console, and create a new instance to which you are going to
migrate.
This instance will need to be created to listen on the port to which your
standard access will be (usually 389).
4.
Run the migration script following the instructions in "Migrating a Standalone
Server‚" on page 76.
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5.
Once your supplier is migrated, test replication to make sure that it is
working correctly.
6.
After you finish this process for the first supplier, repeat the steps for the
other suppliers.
You may wish to set up multi-master replication for o=NetscapeRoot
between the instances on the suppliers.
Hub Migration
To migrate a 6.x hub:
1.
Stop your Directory Server 6.x.
2.
Install Directory Server 7.x, registering against the first supplier’s
configuration instance.
3.
Run the migration script following the instructions in "Migrating a
Standalone Server‚" on page 76.
4.
Once your hub is migrated, test replication to make sure that it is working
correctly.
5.
After you finish this process for the first hub, repeat the steps for any
additional hubs.
Consumer Migration
To migrate a 6.x consumer server:
86
1.
Stop the 6.x Directory Server.
2.
Install Directory Server 7.x, registering against the first supplier’s
configuration instance.
3.
Run the migration script; see "Migrating a Standalone Server‚" on page 76.
4.
Once your consumer is migrated, test replication to make sure that it is
working correctly.
5.
After you finish this process for the first consumer, repeat the steps for any
additional consumers.
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Managing Console Failover
If you have a multi-master installation with o=NetscapeRoot replicated between
your two suppliers, server1 and server2, you can modify the Console on the second
server (server2) so that it uses server2’s instance instead of server1’s. (By default,
writes with server2’s Console would be made to server1 then replicated over.)
To accomplish this, you must:
1.
Shut down the Administration Server and Directory Server.
2.
Change these files to reflect server2’s values:
serverRoot/userdb/dbswitch.conf:directory default
ldap://configHostname:configPort/o%3DNetscapeRoot
serverRoot/admin-serv/config/adm.conf:ldapHost:configHostname
serverRoot/admin-serv/config/adm.conf:ldapPort:configPort
serverRoot/shared/config/dbswitch.conf:directory default
ldap://configHostname:configPort/o%3DNetscapeRoot
serverRoot/slapd-serverID/config/dse.ldif:nsslapd-pluginarg0:
ldap://configHostname:configPort/o%3DnetscapeRoot
3.
Turn off the Pass-through Authentication (PTA) Plug-in on server2 by editing
its dse.ldif file.
a.
In a text editor, open this file:
serverRoot/slapd-serverID/config/dse.ldif
b.
Locate the entry for the PTA plug-in:
dn: cn=Pass Through Authentication,cn=plugins,cn=config
c.
4.
Change nsslapd-pluginEnabled: on to nsslapd-pluginEnabled: off.
Restart the Directory Server and Administration Server.
Migrating Windows
The process of migrating Directory Server on Windows is slightly different than on
UNIX platforms. The following sections describe how to migrate a standalone
Windows Directory Server and Windows in a multi-master environment.
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Migrating a Single Instance
1.
Archive the old Directory Server installation.
2.
Create a data directory, and export all data to LDIF files in that directory by
running the db2ldif.pl -r option:
nsperl db2ldif.pl -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret -p 389
-n userroot -r -a c:\data\userroot.ldif -s
"dc=example,dc=com"
Do this separately for each instance of the old Directory Server. The data
directory should contain one LDIF file for each backend; for example,
userRoot.ldif, exampleRoot.ldif, and so on.
3.
Uninstall the old Directory Server.
4.
If necessary, upgrade the operating system of the machine. For example,
upgrade to Windows 2000, Service Pack 4, from Windows NT.
5.
Install Directory Server 7.0 on a different server root.
6.
Run the migration script, specifying the migration data directory (-d). The
command syntax for running the script is shown below:
nsperl migrateInstance7 -D rootDN -w password -p port -o
oldInstancePath -n newInstancePath -d "oldDataDirectoryPath"
You must quote the data directory for the import to work properly. An
example command is shown below:
nsperl migrateInstance7 -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w secret
-p 389 -o c:/netscape/server611/slapd-phonebook -n
c:/netscape/server70/slapd-phonebook -d
"c:/netscape/server611/migrationData"
Migrating a Multi-Master Scenario
If you are migrating a Directory Server 6.x multi-master replication environment
to Directory Server 7.0, note the following:
88
•
For any old server instance with a changelog, the version number in the
DBVERSION file is incorrrect. To fix the problem, before you migrate, change
the version number from 1.0 to 2.0 in the archived old instance directory.
•
During the migration of the replication agreements, the migration script will
output a non-fatal error that states The filename, directory name, or
volume label syntax is incorrect. Because of this error, all the
replication agreements will have an invalid password configured in them
after migration. To fix the problem, in the Directory Server Console, select the
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replication agreement and use the Connection tab to change the password.
After you change the password, replication will automatically resume with no
need for a reinitialization. The password does not need to be reconfigured in
the Replication Manager entry in dse.ldif.
NOTE
You must import your database LDIF files at the time of migration
using the -d option. If you do not, your creation times for the entries
will hang, and replication will not resume.
To migrate Windows supplier:
1.
Archive the old Directory Server installation.
2.
Create a data directory, and export all data to LDIF files in that directory by
running the db2ldif -r option.
Do this separately for each instance of the old Directory Server. The data
directory should contain one LDIF file for each backend; for example,
userRoot.ldif, exampleRoot.ldif, and so on.
3.
Uninstall the old Directory Server.
4.
If necessary, upgrade the operating system of the machine. For example,
upgrade to Windows 2000, Service Pack 4, from Windows NT.
5.
Install Directory Server 7.0 on a different server root.
Make this your configuration instance since it is not replicated. For the other
suppliers, register against the first supplier’s configuration instance.
6.
Log into the Console, and create a new instance to which you are going to
migrate.
This instance will need to be created to listen on the port to which your
standard access will be (usually 389).
7.
Run the migration script, following the instructions in "Migrating a Single
Instance‚" on page 88.
8.
Once your supplier is migrated, test replication to make sure that it is working
correctly.
9.
After you finish this process for the first supplier, repeat the steps for the other
suppliers.
You may wish to set up multi-master replication for o=NetscapeRoot between
the instances on the suppliers.
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To migrate a Windows hub:
1.
Archive the old Directory Server installation.
2.
Create a data directory, and export all data to LDIF files in that directory by
running the db2ldif -r option.
Do this separately for each instance of the old Directory Server. The data
directory should contain one LDIF file for each backend; for example,
userRoot.ldif, exampleRoot.ldif, and so on.
3.
Uninstall the old Directory Server.
4.
Install Directory Server 7.x, registering against the first supplier’s
configuration instance.
5.
Run the migration script, following the instructions in "Migrating a Single
Instance‚" on page 88.
6.
Once your hub is migrated, test replication to make sure that it is working
correctly.
7.
After you finish this process for the first hub, repeat the steps for any
additional hubs.
To migrate a Windows consumer server:
1.
Archive the old Directory Server installation.
2.
Create a data directory, and export all data to LDIF files in that directory by
running the db2ldif -r option.
Do this separately for each instance of the old Directory Server. The data
directory should contain one LDIF file for each backend; for example,
userRoot.ldif, exampleRoot.ldif, and so on.
90
3.
Uninstall the old Directory Server.
4.
Install Directory Server 7.x, registering against the first supplier’s
configuration instance.
5.
Run the migration script; see "Migrating a Single Instance‚" on page 88.
6.
Once your consumer is migrated, test replication to make sure that it is
working correctly.
7.
After you finish this process for the first consumer, repeat the steps for any
additional consumers.
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Chapter
7
Uninstalling Directory Server
You may need to remove an instance of Netscape Directory Server (Directory
Server) or uninstall the entire server altogether. The Directory Server provides a
utility that enables you to uninstall the software as a whole or to remove selected
components. This chapter explains how to perform these tasks in these sections:
•
Removing a Directory Server Instance (page 91)
•
Uninstalling Directory Server (page 92)
Removing a Directory Server Instance
If you are sure you won’t need a particular instance of the Directory Server
anymore, you can use the Netscape Console to remove the server instance from
your machine. Removing a Directory Server instance is not the same as
uninstalling the Directory Server: when you uninstall the Directory Server, its
program files are deleted from the host machine; when you remove a Directory
Server instance, only the selected instance is removed, leaving behind the
configuration directory and Administration Server because you require these to
administer the remaining server instances installed in the server group.
NOTE
Before removing an instance of Directory Server, verify that the
corresponding configuration directory is running.
To remove a Directory Server instance from your machine:
1.
Log in to Netscape Console.
2.
In the Console tab, select the Directory Server instance you want to remove.
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3.
From the Object menu, select Stop; you can also right-click to choose this
option from the pop-up menu.
4.
When the server has stopped, go to the Object menu, and choose Remove
Server.
You can also right-click to choose this option from the pop-up menu.
5.
When prompted, confirm that you want to remove the server instance.
Uninstalling Directory Server
To uninstall Directory Server from a machine, use the uninstallation utility. To
remove a specific instance of Directory Server, follow the instructions provided in
“Removing a Directory Server Instance,” on page 91.
The sections that follow provide instructions for:
•
Uninstalling the Server on UNIX Systems
•
Uninstalling Directory Server on Windows Systems
CAUTION
You will not receive a warning before proceeding with the
uninstallation of the Directory Server which contains your
configuration information under the o=NetscapeRoot suffix.
The configuration Directory Server containing the o=NetscapeRoot
suffix contains the configuration data for your deployment and,
therefore, should not be uninstalled before dependent Directory
Servers. It is the first Directory Server you install, and we strongly
recommend that it be the last one you uninstall.
Uninstalling the Server on UNIX Systems
To uninstall Directory Server running on a UNIX system:
1.
Log in to your system as super user (root).
2.
Navigate to the directory where Directory Server is installed.
The default path is /usr/netscape/servers.
3.
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Run ./uninstall.
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4.
Select the default, All, to remove all components of Directory Server.
Alternately, you may choose to remove individual components by selecting
them from the list that appears on the screen:
5.
❍
Administration Services
❍
Netscape Directory Suite
❍
Server Core Components
❍
nsPerl
❍
PerLDAP
When prompted, enter the administrator ID and password for the
configuration directory to authorize removal of Directory Server.
The uninstallation utility starts removing files. After the utility has finished
removing files, a message is displayed indicating that some files have not been
removed from your system.
6.
Go to the installation directory, and manually remove any remaining files to
complete the uninstallation process.
Be sure to check the \tmp\install.log file for details about the uninstallation
process.
Uninstalling Directory Server on Windows
Systems
There are two ways in which you can uninstall Directory Server from a Windows
system:
•
Using Directory Server’s Uninstall Utility
•
Using Windows Add/Remove Programs Utility
Using Directory Server’s Uninstall Utility
To uninstall Directory Server from your Windows system using the uninst.exe
utility:
1.
Log in to your system as administrator.
2.
Navigate to the directory where Directory Server is installed.
The default path is c:\netscape\servers.
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7
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3.
Locate and double-click the uninstallation utility, uninst.exe.
The Netscape Uninstall window appears, showing a list of components:
4.
❍
Administration Services
❍
Netscape Directory Suite
❍
Server Core Components
❍
nsPerl
❍
PerLDAP
Select the components you want to remove, and click Uninstall.
To remove specific subcomponents, select the component, and click Sub
Components. This will open a list of subcomponents of the selected
component. Select the desired subcomponents, and click Continue.
Certain components have dependencies on other components and cannot be
removed without selecting both components. If you select a component that
has a dependency on another that was not selected, an error message will
appear instructing you to select that component.
5.
When prompted, enter the configuration administrator ID and password, and
click OK to authorize removal of files.
The uninstallation utility starts removing files. After the utility has finished
removing files, a message is displayed indicating that some files have not
been removed from your system.
6.
Go to the installation directory, and manually remove any remaining files to
complete the uninstallation process.
Be sure to check the c:\temp\Install.log file for details about the
uninstallation process.
Using Windows Add/Remove Programs Utility
To uninstall Directory Server using the Add/Remove Programs utility:
1.
From the Start menu, choose Settings, then Control Panel.
2.
Double-click Add/Remove Programs.
The Add/Remove Programs Properties window opens.
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3.
Locate and select the entry for Netscape Directory Server.
The entry is in the form Netscape Server Products version_number
server_root, where version_number is your Directory Server’s version number
and server_root is your Directory Server’s installation directory.
4.
Click Add/Remove.
The Netscape Uninstall window appears, showing a list of components:
5.
❍
Administration Services
❍
Netscape Directory Suite
❍
Server Core Components
❍
nsPerl
❍
PerLDAP
Select the components you want to remove, and click Uninstall.
To remove specific subcomponents, select the component, and click Sub
Components. This will open a list of subcomponents of the selected
component. Select the desired subcomponents, and click Continue.
Certain components have dependencies on other components and cannot be
removed without selecting both components. If you select a component that
has a dependency on another that was not selected, an error message will
appear instructing you to select that component.
6.
When prompted, enter the configuration administrator ID and password, and
click OK to authorize removal of files.
The uninstallation utility starts removing files. After the utility has finished
removing files, a message is displayed indicating that some files have not been
removed from your system.
7.
Go to the installation directory, and manually remove any remaining files to
complete the uninstallation process.
Be sure to check the c:\temp\Install.log file for details about the
uninstallation process.
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7
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Chapter
8
Troubleshooting
This chapter describes the most common installation problems and how to solve
them. It also provides some tips on checking patch levels and kernel parameter
settings for your system.
This chapter has the following sections:
•
Running dsktune (page 97)
•
Common Installation Problems (page 101)
Running dsktune
The dsktune utility provides an easy and reliable way of checking the patch levels
and kernel parameter settings for your system. You must install the Directory
Server before you can run dsktune. dsktune is not available for Windows
platforms.
On Solaris platform, if you run the dsktune utility, you need to be aware that it will
report as missing any of the patches from the Sun recommended patch list that are
not installed on your system, even if they relate to packages that you have not
installed.
To run dsktune:
1.
Change to the installation directory for your Directory Server.
By default, this directory is /usr/netscape/servers.
2.
Change to the bin/slapd/server subdirectory.
3.
As root, enter the following command:
# ./dsktune
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Running dsktune
The following is an example of output that dsktune generates. dsktune does not
itself make any changes to the system.
Netscape Directory Server system tuning analysis version 15-MAY-2003.
NOTICE : System is usparc-SUNW,Ultra-5_10-solaris5.8_s28s_u7wos_08a (1
processor).
ERROR : Patch 108528-18 is present, but 108528-19 (Feb/21/2003: SunOS 5.8:
kernel update patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 108727-19 is present, but 108727-22 (Feb/21/2003: SunOS 5.8:
/kernel/fs/nfs and /kernel/fs/sparcv9/nfs patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 108827-35 is present, but 108827-40 (Feb/07/2003: SunOS 5.8:
/usr/lib/libthread.so.1 patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 108919-15 is present, but 108919-16 (Jan/31/2003: CDE 1.4:
dtlogin patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 108968-07 is present, but 108968-08 (Jan/22/2003: SunOS 5.8:
vol/vold/rmmount/dev_pcmem.so.1 patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 108993-12 is present, but 108993-13 (Jan/30/2003: SunOS 5.8: nss
and ldap patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 109007-08 is present, but 109007-09 (Jan/27/2003: SunOS 5.8:
at/atrm/batch/cron patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 109318-28 is present, but 109318-31 (Feb/07/2003: SunOS 5.8:
suninstall Patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 109326-09 is present, but 109326-10 (Feb/03/2003: SunOS 5.8:
libresolv.so.2 and in.named patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 109805-14 is present, but 109805-15 (Jan/23/2003: SunOS 5.8:
/usr/lib/security/pam_krb5.so.1 patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 109888-18 is present, but 109888-20 (Feb/21/2003: SunOS 5.8:
platform drivers patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 110453-03 is present, but 110453-04 (Feb/21/2003: SunOS 5.8:
admintool Patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 110842-08 is present, but 110842-10 (Feb/06/2003: SunOS 5.8:
hpc3130 driver patch for SUNW,Sun-Fire-880) is a more recent version.
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Running dsktune
ERROR : Patch 110934-10 is present, but 110934-11 (Feb/20/2003: SunOS 5.8:
pkgtrans, pkgadd, pkgchk and libpkg.a patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 111874-05 is present, but 111874-06 (Jan/23/2003: SunOS 5.8:
usr/bin/mail patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 111879-01 (Aug/27/2001: SunOS 5.8: Solaris Product Registry
patch SUNWwsr) is required but not installed.
ERROR : Patch 112237-06 is present, but 112237-07 (Jan/15/2003: SunOS 5.8:
mech_krb5.so.1 patch) is a more recent version.
ERROR : Patch 113650-01 (Jan/08/2003: SunOS 5.8: /usr/lib/utmp_update patch)
is required but not installed.
NOTICE : Solaris patches can be obtained from http://sunsolve.sun.com or your
Solaris support representative. Solaris patches listed as required by the
JRE are located at http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/jre/download.html or
can be obtained from your Solaris support representative.
WARNING: 384MB of physical memory is available on the system. 1024MB is
recommended for best performance on large production system.
WARNING: This program should be run by the superuser to collect kernel
information on the overriding maximum backlog queue size and IP tuning.
WARNING: The tcp_close_wait_interval is set to 240000 milliseconds
(240 seconds). This value should be reduced to allow for more
simultaneous connections to the server. A line similar to the following
should be added to the /etc/init.d/inetinit file:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_time_wait_interval 30000
NOTICE : The tcp_conn_req_max_q value is currently 128, which will limit the
value of listen backlog which can be configured. It can be raised by adding
to /etc/init.d/inetinit, after any adb command, a line similar to:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_conn_req_max_q 1024
NOTICE : The tcp_keepalive_interval is set to 7200000 milliseconds
(120 minutes). This may cause temporary server congestion from lost
client connections.
NOTICE : The tcp_keepalive_interval can be reduced by adding the following line
to /etc/init.d/inetinit:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_keepalive_interval 600000
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Running dsktune
NOTICE : The NDD tcp_rexmit_interval_initial is currently set to 3000
milliseconds (3 seconds). This may cause packet loss for clients on
Solaris 2.5.1 due to a bug in that version of Solaris. If the clients are not
using Solaris 2.5.1, no problems should occur.
NOTICE : If the directory service is intended only for LAN or private
high-speed WAN environment, this interval can be reduced by adding to
/etc/init.d/inetinit:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_rexmit_interval_initial 500
NOTICE : The NDD tcp_ip_abort_cinterval is currently set to 180000
milliseconds (180 seconds). This may cause long delays in establishing
outgoing connections if the destination server is down.
NOTICE : If the directory service is intended only for LAN or private
high-speed WAN environment, this interval can be reduced by adding to
/etc/init.d/inetinit:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_ip_abort_cinterval 10000
NOTICE : The NDD tcp_ip_abort_interval is currently set to 180000
milliseconds (180 seconds). This may cause long delays in detecting
connection failure if the destination server is down.
NOTICE : If the directory service is intended only for LAN or private
high-speed WAN environment, this interval can be reduced by adding to
/etc/init.d/inetinit:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_ip_abort_interval 60000
NOTICE : The NDD tcp_smallest_anon_port is currently 32768. This allows a
maximum of 32768 simultaneous connections. More ports can be made available by
adding a line to /etc/init.d/inetinit:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_smallest_anon_port 8192
WARNING: tcp_deferred_ack_interval is currently 100 milliseconds. This will
cause Solaris to insert artificial delays in the LDAP protocol. It should
be reduced during load testing.
This line can be added to the /etc/init.d/inetinit file:
ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_deferred_ack_interval 5
WARNING: There are only 1024 file descriptors (hard limit) available, which
limit the number of simultaneous connections. Additional file descriptors,
up to 65536, are available by adding to /etc/system a line like
set rlim_fd_max=4096
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Common Installation Problems
WARNING: There are only 256 file descriptors (soft limit) available, which
limit the number of simultaneous connections. Additional file descriptors,
up to 1024 (hard limit), are available by issuing 'ulimit' ('limit' for tcsh)
command with proper arguments.
ulimit -n 4096
ERROR
: The above errors MUST be corrected before proceeding.
Common Installation Problems
Clients cannot locate the server.
First, try using the host name. If that does not work, use the fully qualified name
(such as www.domain.com), and make sure the server is listed in the DNS. If that
does not work, use the IP address.
If your NIS domain is different from your DNS domain, the fully qualified host and
domain name presented by the installer may be incorrect. These values must be
corrected to use the DNS domain name.
Installation cannot determine the Domain Name for this Host. Your network settings
may not be correct, or your host may be on a DHCP network.
Windows 2000 requires setting of domain names in two places, one is the default
for the whole computer and the other is the one to use for the specific network
connection. If you have not specified the domain name to use for the specific
network connection, when installing Directory Server, you will notice the warning
message shown below:
Setup Warning: Installation cannot determine the Domain Name for
this Host. Your network settings may not be correct, or your host may
be on a DHCP network. If you are using TCP/IP, your Domain Name must
be filed in.
To verify yor Domain Name TCP/IP setting, go to Control Panel
Network Settings, and ensure that your TCP/IP DNS properties have
the Domain Name filled out. Do you want to continue?
To avoid this error message:
1.
On the desktop, right click the icon labeled My Computer.
2.
Click on the Network Identification tab.
3.
Click the Properties box.
4.
In the Identification Changes dialog box, click More.
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Common Installation Problems
5.
Next to the label “Primary DNS Suffix of this computer,” enter the
appropriate domain name.
The port is in use.
You probably did not shut down a server before you upgraded it. Shut down the
old server, then manually start the upgraded one.
Another installed server might be using the port. Make sure the port you have
chosen is not already being used by another server.
LDAP authentication error causes install to fail.
If you are installing Directory Server in a network which uses NIS naming rather
than DNS naming, you may get the following error:
ERROR: Ldap authentication failed for url ldap://incorrect.DNS.address
user id admin (151:Unknown error.)
Fatal Slapd Did not add Directory Server information to
Configuration Server.
ERROR. Failure installing Netscape Directory Server. Do you want to
continue [y/n]?
This error occurs when a machine is not correctly configured to use DNS naming.
The default fully qualified host and domain name presented during installation is
not correct. If you accept the defaults, you receive the LDAP authentication error.
To successfully install, you need to provide a fully qualified domain name that
consists of a local host name along with its domain name. A host name is the
logical name assigned to a computer. For example, mycomputer is a host name
and example.com is a fully qualified domain name.
A fully qualified domain name should be sufficient to determine a unique
Internet address for any host on the Internet. The same naming scheme is also
used for some hosts that are not on the Internet, but share the same namespace for
electronic mail addressing.
“Failure (4322): Configuration initialization failed” error message on Linux.
libjvm.so (from JRE 1.4), which the Administration Server uses to run servlets
requires that the compat-libstdc++-6.2 package (RPM) be installed when
running the server on Redhat Advanced Server.
The RPM may or may not be installed depending on the options that were chosen
when the operating system was installed. If the RPM is not installed, you will get
an error similar to the one shown below.
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Common Installation Problems
[18/Jun/2002:10:56:39] failure ( 4322): Configuration initialization
failed:
Error running init function load-modules: dlopen of
/export/dstest/bin/https/lib/libNSServletPlugin.so failed
(libstdc++-libc6.1-1.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such
file or directory)
For more information on RPM, check the JRE’s release notes at this URL:
http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/install-linux.html
I have forgotten the Directory manager DN and password.
You can find out what the Directory Manager DN is by examining
serverRoot/slapd-serverID/config/dse.ldif and looking for the nsslapd-rootdn
attribute.
If you have forgotten the Directory Manager DN password, you can reset it by
doing the following:
1.
Find the nsslapd-rootpw attribute in slapd.conf. If the attribute value is not
encrypted in any way (that is, it does not start with {SHA} or {CRYPT}) then the
password is exactly what is shown on the parameter.
2.
If the attribute is encrypted, then delete the attribute value and replace it with
some clear text value. For example, if you change the nsslapd-rootpw
attribute so that it is:
nsslapd-rootpw: my_password
then your Directory Manager DN password will be my_password.
3.
Restart your Directory Server.
4.
Once your server has restarted, login as the Directory Manager and change the
password. Make sure you select an encryption scheme when you do so.
For information on changing a Directory Manager password, see the Netscape
Directory Server Administrator’s Guide.
Is there a way to debug Directory Server installation and uninstallation problems?
Some problems may develop when you uninstall Directory Server and then
reinstall. Logging has been enhanced to report setup and uninstall problems with
detailed error messages to provide you with enough information to fix the
problem. The setup log file is located in the following path:
serverRoot/setup/setup.log. The uninstall log file, uninst.log, is stored in the
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Common Installation Problems
system TEMP directory. On UNIX, this directory is usually /tmp or /var/tmp. On
Windows, check the system properties to see the value assigned to the TEMP
environment variable (alternatively, you can open a command window and type
echo %TEMP%).
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Glossary
access control instruction
See ACI.
ACI Also Access Control Instruction. An instruction that grants or denies
permissions to entries in the directory.
access control list
See ACL.
ACL Also Access Control List. The mechanism for controlling access to your
directory.
access rights In the context of access control, specify the level of access granted or
denied. Access rights are related to the type of operation that can be performed on
the directory. The following rights can be granted or denied: read, write, add,
delete, search, compare, selfwrite, proxy and all.
account inactivation Disables a user account, group of accounts, or an entire
domain so that all authentication attempts are automatically rejected.
All IDs Threshold A size limit which is globally applied to every index key
managed by the server. When the size of an individual ID list reaches this limit, the
server replaces that ID list with an All IDs token.
All IDs token A mechanism which causes the server to assume that all directory
entries match the index key. In effect, the All IDs token causes the server to behave
as if no index was available for the search request.
anonymous access When granted, allows anyone to access directory information
without providing credentials, and regardless of the conditions of the bind.
approximate index
Allows for efficient approximate or “sounds-like” searches.
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attribute Holds descriptive information about an entry. Attributes have a label
and a value. Each attribute also follows a standard syntax for the type of
information that can be stored as the attribute value.
attribute list A list of required and optional attributes for a given entry type or
object class.
authenticating directory server In pass-through authentication (PTA), the
authenticating Directory Server is the Directory Server that contains the
authentication credentials of the requesting client. The PTA-enabled host sends
PTA requests it receives from clients to the host.
authentication (1) Process of proving the identity of the client user to the
Directory Server. Users must provide a bind DN and either the corresponding
password or certificate in order to be granted access to the directory. Directory
Server allows the user to perform functions or access files and directories based on
the permissions granted to that user by the directory administrator.
(2) Allows a client to make sure they are connected to a secure server, preventing
another computer from impersonating the server or attempting to appear secure
when it is not.
authentication certificate Digital file that is not transferable and not forgeable
and is issued by a third party. Authentication certificates are sent from server to
client or client to server in order to verify and authenticate the other party.
base DN Base distinguished name. A search operation is performed on the base
DN, the DN of the entry and all entries below it in the directory tree.
base distinguished name
See base DN.
bind DN Distinguished name used to authenticate to Directory Server when
performing an operation.
bind distinguished name
See bind DN.
bind rule In the context of access control, the bind rule specifies the credentials
and conditions that a particular user or client must satisfy in order to get access to
directory information.
branch entry An entry that represents the top of a subtree in the directory.
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browser Software, such as Netscape Navigator, used to request and view World
Wide Web material stored as HTML files. The browser uses the HTTP protocol to
communicate with the host server.
browsing index Also virtual view index. Speeds up the display of entries in the
Directory Server Console. Browsing indexes can be created on any branchpoint in
the directory tree to improve display performance.
CA
See Certificate Authority.
cascading replication In a cascading replication scenario, one server, often called
the hub supplier, acts both as a consumer and a supplier for a particular replica. It
holds a read-only replica and maintains a change log. It receives updates from the
supplier server that holds the master copy of the data and in turn supplies those
updates to the consumer.
certificate A collection of data that associates the public keys of a network user
with their DN in the directory. The certificate is stored in the directory as user
object attributes.
Certificate Authority Company or organization that sells and issues
authentication certificates. You may purchase an authentication certificate from a
Certification Authority that you trust. Also known as a CA.
CGI Common Gateway Interface. An interface for external programs to
communicate with the HTTP server. Programs written to use CGI are called CGI
programs or CGI scripts and can be written in many of the common programming
languages. CGI programs handle forms or perform output parsing that is not done
by the server itself.
chaining A method for relaying requests to another server. Results for the
request are collected, compiled, and then returned to the client.
change log A change log is a record that describes the modifications that have
occurred on a replica. The supplier server then replays these modifications on the
replicas stored on consumer servers or on other masters, in the case of multi-master
replication.
character type Distinguishes alphabetic characters from numeric or other
characters and the mapping of upper-case to lower-case letters.
ciphertext Encrypted information that cannot be read by anyone without the
proper key to decrypt the information.
Glossary
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CIR
See consumer-initiated replication.
class definition Specifies the information needed to create an instance of a
particular object and determines how the object works in relation to other objects
in the directory.
class of service
See CoS.
classic CoS A classic CoS identifies the template entry by both its DN and the
value of one of the target entry’s attributes.
client
See LDAP client.
code page An internal table used by a locale in the context of the
internationalization plug-in that the operating system uses to relate keyboard
keys to character font screen displays.
collation order Provides language and cultural-specific information about how
the characters of a given language are to be sorted. This information might
include the sequence of letters in the alphabet or how to compare letters with
accents to letters without accents.
consumer Server containing replicated directory trees or subtrees from a
supplier server.
consumer-initiated replication Replication configuration where consumer
servers pull directory data from supplier servers.
consumer server In the context of replication, a server that holds a replica that is
copied from a different server is called a consumer for that replica.
CoS A method for sharing attributes between entries in a way that is invisible to
applications.
CoS definition entry Identifies the type of CoS you are using. It is stored as an
LDAP subentry below the branch it affects.
CoS template entry Contains a list of the shared attribute values. Also template
entry.
daemon A background process on a Unix machine that is responsible for a
particular system task. Daemon processes do not need human intervention to
continue functioning.
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DAP Directory Access Protocol. The ISO X.500 standard protocol that provides
client access to the directory.
data master The server that is the master source of a particular piece of data.
database link An implementation of chaining. The database link behaves like a
database but has no persistent storage. Instead, it points to data stored remotely.
default index One of a set of default indexes created per database instance.
Default indexes can be modified, although care should be taken before removing
them, as certain plug-ins may depend on them.
definition entry
See CoS definition entry.
Directory Access Protocol
See DAP.
directory tree The logical representation of the information stored in the
directory. It mirrors the tree model used by most file systems, with the tree’s root
point appearing at the top of the hierarchy. Also known as DIT.
Directory Manager The privileged database administrator, comparable to the
root user in UNIX. Access control does not apply to the Directory Manager.
Directory Server Gateway Also DSGW. A collection of CGI forms that allows a
browser to perform LDAP client functions, such as querying and accessing a
Directory Server, from a web browser.
directory service A database application designed to manage descriptive,
attribute-based information about people and resources within an organization.
distinguished name
LDAP directory.
String representation of an entry’s name and location in an
DIT
See directory tree.
DN
see distinguished name.
DM
See Directory Manager.
DNS Domain Name System. The system used by machines on a network to
associate standard IP addresses (such as 198.93.93.10) with hostnames (such as
www.example.com). Machines normally get the IP address for a hostname from a
DNS server, or they look it up in tables maintained on their systems.
Glossary
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DNS alias A DNS alias is a hostname that the DNS server knows points to a
different host—specifically a DNS CNAME record. Machines always have one
real name, but they can have one or more aliases. For example, an alias such as
www.yourdomain.domain might point to a real machine called
realthing.yourdomain.domain where the server currently exists.
See Directory Server Gateway.
DSGW
entry
A group of lines in the LDIF file that contains information about an object.
entry distribution Method of distributing directory entries across more than
one server in order to scale to support large numbers of entries.
entry ID list Each index that the directory uses is composed of a table of index
keys and matching entry ID lists. The entry ID list is used by the directory to build
a list of candidate entries that may match the client application’s search request.
equality index Allows you to search efficiently for entries containing a specific
attribute value.
file extension The section of a filename after the period or dot (.) that typically
defines the type of file (for example, .GIF and .HTML). In the filename
index.html the file extension is html.
file type The format of a given file. For example, graphics files are often saved
in GIF format, while a text file is usually saved as ASCII text format. File types are
usually identified by the file extension (for example, .GIF or .HTML).
filter A constraint applied to a directory query that restricts the information
returned.
filtered role Allows you to assign entries to the role depending upon the
attribute contained by each entry. You do this by specifying an LDAP filter.
Entries that match the filter are said to possess the role.
gateway
See Directory Server Gateway.
general access When granted, indicates that all authenticated users can access
directory information.
GSS-API Generic Security Services. The generic access protocol that is the native
way for UNIX-based systems to access and authenticate Kerberos services; also
supports session encryption.
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hostname A name for a machine in the form machine.domain.dom, which is
translated into an IP address. For example, www.example.com is the machine www
in the subdomain example and com domain.
HTML Hypertext Markup Language. The formatting language used for documents
on the World Wide Web. HTML files are plain text files with formatting codes that
tell browsers such as the Netscape Navigator how to display text, position
graphics, and form items and to display links to other pages.
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The method for exchanging information
between HTTP servers and clients.
HTTPD An abbreviation for the HTTP daemon or service, a program that serves
information using the HTTP protocol. The daemon or service is often called an
httpd.
HTTP-NG
HTTPS
SSL.
The next generation of Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
A secure version of HTTP, implemented using the Secure Sockets Layer,
hub supplier In the context of replication, a server that holds a replica that is
copied from a different server, and, in turn, replicates it to a third server. See also
cascading replication.
index key Each index that the directory uses is composed of a table of index keys
and matching entry ID lists.
indirect CoS An indirect CoS identifies the template entry using the value of one
of the target entry’s attributes.
international index
directories.
Speeds up searches for information in international
International Standards Organization
See ISO.
IP address Also Internet Protocol address. A set of numbers, separated by dots, that
specifies the actual location of a machine on the Internet (for example,
198.93.93.10).
ISO
International Standards Organization.
Glossary
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knowledge reference
databases.
Pointers to directory information stored in different
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Directory service protocol designed
to run over TCP/IP and across multiple platforms.
LDAPv3 Version 3 of the LDAP protocol, upon which Directory Server bases its
schema format.
LDAP client Software used to request and view LDAP entries from an LDAP
Directory Server. See also browser.
LDAP Data Interchange Format
See LDAP Data Interchange Format.
LDAP URL Provides the means of locating Directory Servers using DNS and
then completing the query via LDAP. A sample LDAP URL is
ldap://ldap.example.com.
LDBM database A high-performance, disk-based database consisting of a set of
large files that contain all of the data assigned to it. The primary data store in
Directory Server.
LDIF LDAP Data Interchange Format. Format used to represent Directory Server
entries in text form.
leaf entry An entry under which there are no other entries. A leaf entry cannot
be a branch point in a directory tree.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
See LDAP.
locale Identifies the collation order, character type, monetary format and time /
date format used to present data for users of a specific region, culture, and/or
custom. This includes information on how data of a given language is interpreted,
stored, or collated. The locale also indicates which code page should be used to
represent a given language.
managed object A standard value which the SNMP agent can access and send
to the NMS. Each managed object is identified with an official name and a
numeric identifier expressed in dot-notation.
managed role
Allows creation of an explicit enumerated list of members.
management information base
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See MIB.
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mapping tree A data structure that associates the names of suffixes (subtrees)
with databases.
master agent
See SNMP master agent.
matching rule Provides guidelines for how the server compares strings during a
search operation. In an international search, the matching rule tells the server what
collation order and operator to use.
MD5 A message digest algorithm by RSA Data Security, Inc., which can be used
to produce a short digest of data that is unique with high probability and is
mathematically extremely hard to produce; a piece of data that will produce the
same message digest.
MD5 signature
A message digest produced by the MD5 algorithm.
MIB Management Information Base. All data, or any portion thereof, associated
with the SNMP network. We can think of the MIB as a database which contains the
definitions of all SNMP managed objects. The MIB has a tree-like hierarchy, where
the top level contains the most general information about the network and lower
levels deal with specific, separate network areas.
MIB namespace Management Information Base namespace. The means for directory
data to be named and referenced. Also called the directory tree.
monetary format Specifies the monetary symbol used by specific region, whether
the symbol goes before or after its value, and how monetary units are represented.
multi-master replication An advanced replication scenario in which two servers
each hold a copy of the same read-write replica. Each server maintains a change log
for the replica. Modifications made on one server are automatically replicated to
the other server. In case of conflict, a time stamp is used to determine which server
holds the most recent version.
multiplexor The server containing the database link that communicates with the
remote server.
n + 1 directory problem The problem of managing multiple instances of the
same information in different directories, resulting in increased hardware and
personnel costs.
name collisions
Multiple entries with the same distinguished name.
Glossary
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nested role
Allows the creation of roles that contain other roles.
network management application Network Management Station component
that graphically displays information about SNMP managed devices (which
device is up or down, which and how many error messages were received, etc.).
network management station
See NMS.
NIS Network Information Service. A system of programs and data files that Unix
machines use to collect, collate, and share specific information about machines,
users, file systems, and network parameters throughout a network of computers.
NMS Also Network Management Station. Powerful workstation with one or more
network management applications installed.
ns-slapd Netscape’s LDAP Directory Server daemon or service that is
responsible for all actions of the Directory Server. See also slapd.
object class Defines an entry type in the directory by defining which attributes
are contained in the entry.
object identifier Also OID. A string, usually of decimal numbers, that uniquely
identifies a schema element, such as an object class or an attribute, in an
object-oriented system. Object identifiers are assigned by ANSI, IETF or similar
organizations.
OID
See object identifier.
operational attribute Contains information used internally by the directory to
keep track of modifications and subtree properties. Operational attributes are not
returned in response to a search unless explicitly requested.
parent access When granted, indicates that users have access to entries below
their own in the directory tree if the bind DN is the parent of the targeted entry.
pass-through authentication
See PTA.
pass-through subtree In pass-through authentication, the PTA directory server
will pass through bind requests to the authenticating directory server from all
clients whose DN is contained in this subtree.
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password file A file on Unix machines that stores Unix user login names,
passwords, and user ID numbers. It is also known as /etc/passwd because of
where it is kept.
A set of rules that governs how passwords are used in a given
password policy
directory.
permission In the context of access control, permission states whether access to
the directory information is granted or denied and the level of access that is
granted or denied. See access rights.
PDU Also Protocol Data Unit. Encoded messages which form the basis of data
exchanges between SNMP devices.
pointer CoS
only.
A pointer CoS identifies the template entry using the template DN
presence index
attribute.
Allows searches for entries that contain a specific indexed
protocol A set of rules that describes how devices on a network exchange
information.
protocol data unit
See PDU.
proxy authentication A special form of authentication where the user requesting
access to the directory does not bind with its own DN but with a proxy DN.
proxy DN Used with proxied authorization. The proxy DN is the DN of an entry
that has access permissions to the target on which the client-application is
attempting to perform an operation.
PTA Also Pass-through authentication. Mechanism by which one Directory Server
consults another to check bind credentials.
PTA directory server In pass-through authentication (PTA), the PTA Directory
Server is the server that sends (passes through) bind requests it receives to the
authenticating directory server.
PTA LDAP URL In pass-through authentication, the URL that defines the
authenticating directory server, pass-through subtree(s), and optional parameters.
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RAM Random access memory. The physical semiconductor-based memory in a
computer. Information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is shut down.
rc.local A file on Unix machines that describes programs that are run when the
machine starts. It is also called /etc/rc.local because of its location.
RDN Also Relative Distinguished Name. The name of the actual entry itself, before
the entry’s ancestors have been appended to the string to form the full
distinguished name.
referential integrity Mechanism that ensures that relationships between related
entries are maintained within the directory.
referral (1) When a server receives a search or update request from an LDAP
client that it cannot process, it usually sends back to the client a pointer to the
LDAP sever that can process the request.
(2) In the context of replication, when a read-only replica receives an update
request, it forwards it to the server that holds the corresponding read-write
replica. This forwarding process is called a referral.
replica
A database that participates in replication.
read-only replica A replica that refers all update operations to read-write
replicas. A server can hold any number of read-only replicas.
read-write replica A replica that contains a master copy of directory
information and can be updated. A server can hold any number of read-write
replicas.
relative distinguished name
See RDN.
replication Act of copying directory trees or subtrees from supplier servers to
consumer servers.
replication agreement Set of configuration parameters that are stored on the
supplier server and identify the databases to replicate, the consumer servers to
which the data is pushed, the times during which replication can occur, the DN
and credentials used by the supplier to bind to the consumer, and how the
connection is secured.
RFC Request for Comments. Procedures or standards documents submitted to the
Internet community. People can send comments on the technologies before they
become accepted standards.
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role An entry grouping mechanism. Each role has members, which are the entries
that possess the role.
role-based attributes Attributes that appear on an entry because it possesses a
particular role within an associated CoS template.
root The most privileged user available on Unix machines. The root user has
complete access privileges to all files on the machine.
root suffix The parent of one or more sub suffixes. A directory tree can contain
more than one root suffix.
SASL Also Simple Authentication and Security Layer. An authentication framework
for clients as they attempt to bind to a directory.
schema Definitions describing what types of information can be stored as entries
in the directory. When information that does not match the schema is stored in the
directory, clients attempting to access the directory may be unable to display the
proper results.
schema checking Ensures that entries added or modified in the directory
conform to the defined schema. Schema checking is on by default, and users will
receive an error if they try to save an entry that does not conform to the schema.
Secure Sockets Layer
See SSL.
self access When granted, indicates that users have access to their own entries if
the bind DN matches the targeted entry.
Server Console Java-based application that allows you to perform administrative
management of your Directory Server from a GUI.
server daemon The server daemon is a process that, once running, listens for and
accepts requests from clients.
server service A process on Windows that, once running, listens for and accepts
requests from clients. It is the SMB server on Windows NT.
server root A directory on the server machine dedicated to holding the server
program and configuration, maintenance, and information files.
Server Selector
browser.
Interface that allows you select and configure servers using a
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service A background process on a Windows machine that is responsible for a
particular system task. Service processes do not need human intervention to
continue functioning.
SIE Server Instance Entry. The ID assigned to an instance of Directory Server
during installation.
Simple Authentication and Security Layer
Simple Network Management Protocol
See SASL.
See SNMP.
single-master replication The most basic replication scenario in which two
servers each hold a copy of the same read-write replicas to consumer servers. In a
single-master replication scenario, the supplier server maintains a change log.
SIR
See supplier-initiated replication.
slapd LDAP Directory Server daemon or service that is responsible for most
functions of a directory except replication. See also ns-slapd.
SNMP Also Simple Network Management Protocol. Used to monitor and manage
application processes running on the servers by exchanging data about network
activity.
SNMP master agent Software that exchanges information between the various
subagents and the NMS.
SNMP subagent Software that gathers information about the managed device
and passes the information to the master agent. Also subagent.
SSL Also Secure Sockets Layer. A software library establishing a secure
connection between two parties (client and server) used to implement HTTPS, the
secure version of HTTP.
standard index
sub suffix
subagent
index maintained by default.
A branch underneath a root suffix.
See SNMP subagent.
substring index Allows for efficient searching against substrings within entries.
Substring indexes are limited to a minimum of two characters for each entry.
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suffix The name of the entry at the top of the directory tree, below which data is
stored. Multiple suffixes are possible within the same directory. Each database only
has one suffix.
superuser The most privileged user available on Unix machines. The superuser
has complete access privileges to all files on the machine. Also called root.
supplier Server containing the master copy of directory trees or subtrees that are
replicated to consumer servers.
supplier server In the context of replication, a server that holds a replica that is
copied to a different server is called a supplier for that replica.
supplier-initiated replication Replication configuration where supplier servers
replicate directory data to consumer servers.
symmetric encryption Encryption that uses the same key for both encrypting
and decrypting. DES is an example of a symmetric encryption algorithm.
Cannot be deleted or modified as it is essential to Directory Server
system index
operations.
target In the context of access control, the target identifies the directory
information to which a particular ACI applies.
target entry
The entries within the scope of a CoS.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The main network protocol
for the Internet and for enterprise (company) networks.
template entry
See CoS template entry.
time / date format
specific region.
Indicates the customary formatting for times and dates in a
TLS Also Transport Layer Security. The new standard for secure socket layers; a
public key based protocol.
topology The way a directory tree is divided among physical servers and how
these servers link with one another.
Transport Layer Security
See TLS.
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uid
A unique number associated with each user on a Unix system.
URL Uniform Resource Locator. The addressing system used by the server and the
client to request documents. It is often called a location. The format of a URL is
protocol://machine:port/document. The port number is necessary only on selected
servers, and it is often assigned by the server, freeing the user of having to place it
in the URL.
virtual list view index Also browsing index. Speeds up the display of entries in
the Directory Server Console. Virtual list view indexes can be created on any
branchpoint in the directory tree to improve display performance.
X.500 standard The set of ISO/ITU-T documents outlining the recommended
information model, object classes and attributes used by directory server
implementation.
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Index
NUMERICS
D
32-bit OS requirements 24
64-bit 23
64-bit OS requirements 25
default server root 13
directory manager 15
directory server 12
directory suffix 16
directory tree
configuring 70
ds_create 66
dsktune utility 28, 38, 97
A
administration domain, defined 18
administration port number 48
administration server 12
administration server user 15
authentication entities 15
E
express install
defined 19
using 43
C
configuration decisions 12
configuration directory administrator 15
configuration directory, defined 16
conventions, in this book 8
creating instances under the same server root 66
creating silent install files 54
custom install, defined 19
F
fonts, in this book 8
H
help
launching 69
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I
O
install.inf 54
installation
components 11
configuration decisions 12
preparing for 11
process overview 19
new installations 19
requirements 23
installation directory, default 14
operating systems 23
L
LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF)
creating databases using 70
LDIF, See LDAP Data Interchange Format
M
migrating
5.x MMR deployment 84
5.x replicated sites 84
standalone server 76
migration 20
defined 73
overview 73
prerequisites 74
procedure 75
N
Netscape Console 11
netscape root directory tree 16
nobody user account 14
NSHOME 13
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P
port numbers
selecting 13
troubleshooting 102
preparing for installation 11
PrePreInstall field 28
prerequisites
migration 74
R
removing the directory server 91
replicated site
migration of 5.x MMR deployment 84
migration of 5.x sites 84
requirements
computer system 23
root DN (directory manager) 15
running server, users and groups 14
S
server root 13
serverID 8
serverRoot 8
setup program, using from command line 54
silent install
creating install files 54
directives 59
admin 63
base 64
nsperl 65
perldap 65
slapd 61
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silent install directives
general 60
silent install files 54
silent install, defined 19
silent install, examples 55
typical install 56
silent install, using 53
styles, in this book 8
supported platforms 23
T
terms, in this book 8
typical install, defined 19
typical install, using
on NT 49
on UNIX 45
U
uninstalling the directory server 91
upgrade 20
defined 73
user and groups to run servers as 14
user directory, defined 17
Index
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